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Title: The Antiquities of Constantinople - With a Description of Its Situation, the Conveniencies of Its Port, Its Publick Buildings, the Statuary, Sculpture, Architecture, and Other Curiosities of That City
Author: Gilles, Pierre
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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CONSTANTINOPLE***


available by Internet Archive (https://archive.org); frontispiece
generously made available by the Google Books Library Project
(http://books.google.com)



      Images of the original pages are available through
      Internet Archive. See
      https://archive.org/details/antiquitiesofcon00gill


Transcriber’s note:

      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

      Text enclosed by equal signs is in blackletter
      (=blackletter=).

      See additional notes at the end of the book.



[Illustration: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG

FUNDAVIT CONSTANTINOP.

ANNO CCCXXX.

  _From Angeloni._  _J. Tinney Sculp._]



THE

=Antiquities=

OF

CONSTANTINOPLE.

  With a DESCRIPTION of its _SITUATION_,
  the Conveniencies of its PORT,
  its _PUBLICK BUILDINGS_,
  the Statuary, Sculpture, Architecture, _and other_
  _CURIOSITIES_ of that CITY.
  With CUTS explaining the Chief of them.

=In Four Books.=

_Written Originally in_ Latin _by_

PETRUS GYLLIUS _A BYZANTINE HISTORIAN_.

Now Translated into _English_, and Enlarged with an Ancient
_Description_ of the WARDS of that CITY, as they stood in the Reigns
of _Arcadius_ and _Honorius_.

With _Pancirolus’s NOTES_ thereupon.

  _To which is added
  A large Explanatory INDEX._

By JOHN BALL, formerly of _C. C. C. Oxon._

  ——_Res Antiquæ laudis, et artis
  Ingredior._——  Vir. Geo. 2.


LONDON.

Printed for the Benefit of the Translator, 1729.

_J. Tinney Sculp._



[Illustration: Page Header Decoration]

TO

RICHARD BANNER, Esq;

OF

_PERRY-HALL_,

IN THE

County of _STAFFORD_.


SIR,

No sooner had my Inclinations prevail’d upon me to publish this Author,
but my Gratitude directed me where I should make the Dedication.
These Labours are yours by many Obligations. Your Services to me
demand them, you have express’d a particular Esteem for Pieces of
this Kind, you have assisted me with a valuable Collection of Books
in the Translation of them, and you have encourag’d the Performance
by the Interest of your Friends; so that if there be any Merit in the
Publication of it, ’tis you who are entitled to it.

The Knowledge of _Antiquity_ was always look’d upon as a Study worthy
the Entertainment of a Gentleman, and was never in higher Estimation
among the Nobility and Gentry of _Great Britain_ than it is now.
And this Regard which the present Age pays to it, proceeds from a
wise Discernment, and a proportionable Value of Things. For we never
entertain our Curiosity with more Pleasure, and to better Purposes,
than by looking into the Art, and Improvement, and Industry of antient
Times, and by observing how they excited their Heroes and great Men to
virtuous and honourable Actions by the Memorials of _Statuary_ and
_Sculpture_; the silent Records of their Greatness, and the lasting
History of their Glory.

The great Discoveries made of late, and publish’d by a [A]Society
of Gentlemen, united in the Search of _Antiquity_, will be lasting
Monuments of their Fame in future Times, and will be look’d upon as
Arguments of an ingenious Curiosity, in looking into the delectable
Situations of Places, in preserving the beautiful Ruines of Antient
Buildings, and in setting Chronology in a truer Light, by the Knowledge
of Coins and Medals.

But, Sir, what I principally intend in this Dedication, is to do
Justice to Merit, and to acquaint the World, That you never look’d upon
Licentiousness, and Infidelity, to be any Part of the Character of a
fine Gentleman, That Virtue does not sit odly upon Men of a superior
Station, and That in you we have an Example of one, who has Prudence
enough to temper the innocent Freedoms of Life with the Strictnesses
of Duty, and Conduct enough to be Merry, and not Licentious, to be
Sociable, and not Austere; a Deportment this, which sets off your
Character beyond the most elaborate Expressions of Art, and is not to
be describ’d by the most curious Statue, or the most durable Marble. I
am, Sir, with very great Regard,

_Your most Oblig’d_,

_And most Obedient Servant_,

JOHN BALL.

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[A] The Society of _Antiquaries_ in _London_.



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THE

PREFACE

OF THE

TRANSLATOR.


_It is customary upon a Translation to give some Account both of the
Author, and his Writings. The Author_ Petrus Gyllius, _as he stands
enroll’d among the Men of Eminency, and Figure in polite Learning, I
find to be a Native of_ Albi, _in_ France. _He was in great Reputation
in the sixteenth Century, and was look’d upon as a Writer of so good a
Taste, and so comprehensive a_ Genius, _that there was scarce any thing
in the polite Languages, which had escap’d him. As he had a particular
Regard for Men of distinguished Learning, so was he equally honour’d,
and esteem’d by them._ Francis _the First, King of_ France, _the great
Patron of Literature, and who was also a good Judge of his Abilities,
sent him into_ Italy, _and_ Greece, _to make a Collection of all the
choice Manuscripts which had never been printed, but in his Passage it
was his Misfortune to be taken by the_ Corsairs. _Some Time after, by
the Application and Generosity of Cardinal_ d’Armanac, _he was redeem’d
from Slavery. The just Sense this munificent Patron had of his Merit,
incited him, when my Author had finish’d more than fourty Years Travels
over all_ Greece, Asia, _and the greatest Part of_ Africa, _in the
Search of Antiquity, to receive him into his Friendship, and Family;
where, while he was digesting, and methodizing his Labours for the
Service of the Publick, he dy’d in the Year 1555, and in the_ 65ᵗʰ
_Year of his Age_.

_Although it was his Intention to have published all the Learned
Observations he had made in his Travels, yet he liv’d to give us only
a Description of the_ Bosporus, Thrace, _and_ Constantinople, _with an
Account of the_ Antiquities _of each of those Places. In his Search of
what was curious he was indefatigable, and had a perfect Knowledge of
it in all its Parts. He had also translated into_ Latin Theodore_’s
Commentaries on the_ Minor Prophets, _and sixteen Books of_ Ælian_’s_
History of Animals. Petrus Belonius _is highly reflected upon, in that
being his Domestick, and a Companion with him in his Travels, he took
the Freedom to publish several of his Works under his own Name: And
indeed such a flagrant Dishonesty in acting the Plagiary in so gross a
manner, was justly punish’d with the most severe Censures; since it
had been Merit enough to have deserv’d the Praises of the Learned World
for Publishing such valuable Pieces, with an honourable Acknowledgment
of the Author of them_.

_I have no Occasion to vindicate the Worth and Credit of my Author,
whose Fame will live, and flourish, while the Characters given him by_
Gronovius, Thuanus, Morreri, Tournefort, _and_ Montfaucon _are of any
Weight. These Great Men have recorded him to future Times, for his deep
Insight into_ Natural _Knowledge, his unweary’d Application to the
Study of_ Antiquity, _and his great Accuracy and Exactness in Writing_.

_In the following Treatise, the Reader has before him a full and lively
View of one of the most magnificent Cities in the Universe; stately,
and beautiful in its Natural Situation, improv’d with all the Art and
Advantages of fine Architecture, and furnished with the most costly
Remains of Antiquity; so that_ New Rome, _in many Instances of that
Kind, may seem to excell the_ Old.

_I hope my Author will not be thought too particular and exact in
describing the several Hills and Vales, upon which_ Constantinople
_stands, when it is consider’d, that he is delineating_ the Finest
Situation in the World.

_The Manner in which he treats on this Subject is very entertaining;
and his Descriptions, though with the greatest Regard to Truth, are
embellish’d with a Grace and Beauty, almost Poetical. This, I look upon
it, was occasion’d by the agreeable Variety of delightful Prospects and
Situations, which the Subject naturally led him to describe._

_The present State of_ Constantinople, _I mean as to the Meanness and
Poverty of its Buildings, is attested by all those, who have either
seen, or wrote concerning it; so that ’tis not_ Now _to be compar’d
with it self, as it stood in its Antient Glory. The_ Turks _have such
an Aversion to all that is curious in Learning, or magnificent in
Architecture, or valuable in Antiquity, that they have made it a Piece
of Merit, for above 200 Years, to demolish, and efface every thing
of that Kind; so that this Account of the_ Antiquities _of that City
given us by_ Gyllius, _is not only the_ Best, _but indeed the_ Only
_collective History of them_.

_In tracing out the Buildings of Old_ Byzantium, _the antient_ Greek
_Historians, which he perfectly understood, were of great Service to
him; this, with his own personal Observations, as residing for some
Years at_ Constantinople, _furnish’d him with Materials sufficient for
the present History_.

_The Curious, who have always admir’d the Accuracy of this Work of_
Gyllius, _have yet been highly concern’d, that it wanted the Advantage
of Cuts, by which the Reader might have the agreeable Pleasure of
surveying with the Eye, what my Author has so exactly describ’d with
the Pen_.

_I have therefore endeavour’d to supply this Defect, by presenting
to the View of the Reader a Collection of Figures, which do not only
refer to such Curiosities as be will find mention’d in the several
Parts of my Author, but such as have been describ’d by other later
Travellers; and by this Means I hope I have given a compleat View of
whatsoever is most remarkable in the_ Antiquities of Constantinople.
_The Catalogue and Order of the Cuts is as follows_;

I. _The_ Thracian Bosporus, _with the Situation of_ Constantinople, _as
antiently divided into_ Wards; _from_ Du Fresne.

II. _A Delineation of that City, as it stood in the Year 1422, before
it was taken by the_ Turks; _from the same_.

III. _The Ichnography, or Plan of the Church of_ Sancta Sophia; _from
the same_.

IV. _The whole View of the Church of_ Sancta Sophia; _from the same_.

V. _The outside Prospect of that Church; from the same._

VI. _The inside View of it; from the same._

VII. _The Plan of the Church of the Apostles; from Sir_ George Wheler.

VIII. _The antient_ Hippodrom, _with the_ Thebæan Obelisk, _and the
Engines by which it was erected; from_ Spon _and_ Wheler.

IX. _The Three Pillars_, viz. _the Serpentine and Porphyry Pillars,
standing in the_ Hippodrom, _as described by_ Gyllius, _with the Pillar
of the Emperor_ Marcian, _since discover’d by_ Spon _and_ Wheler _in a
private Garden; from_ B. Randolph.

X. _The Historical Pillar, described by_ Gyllius, _and since by_
Tournefort; _from_ Du Fresne.

XI. _A View of the Seraglio Point, with a Representation of the present
Imperial Palace, and the Church of_ Sancta Sophia; _from_ B.
Randolph.

_When this Impression was almost finished, a learned Gentleman of
the University of_ Oxon, _to whom my best Acknowledgments are due,
communicated to me a valuable Passage, relating to the Statues of_
Constantinople, _demolished by the_ Romans, _which he transcribed from
the Second Book of_ Nicetas Choniat, _a_ MS. _in the_ Bodl. Lib. _I
have added a Translation of it by way of_ Appendix; _and I presume
that the Reader will look upon it as a curious and an agreeable
Entertainment_.


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CONTENTS.


  _The Preface of the Author, describing the Situation of_
  Constantinople, _the Conveniencies of its Port, and the
  Commodities in which it abounds_,                            Page 1

[Illustration: Page Decoration]


BOOK I.

  CHAP. I. _Of the Founders of_ Byzantium, _and the
  different Successes and Revolutions of that City_,          Page 13

  II. _Of the Extent of Old_ Byzantium,                         p. 20

  III. _Of the Rebuilding it by_ Constantine _the_ Great,
  _and the Largeness of it in his Time_,                        p. 21

  IV. _Of the present Figure, Compass, Length, and Breadth
  of_ Constantinople,                                           p. 29

  V. _A General Description of_ Constantinople,                 p. 32

  VI. _The Situation of all the Parts of the City describ’d_,   p. 35

  VII. _Of the First Hill, the Palace of the Grand_ Seignor,
  _the Church of St._ Sophia, _and the_ Hippodrom,              p. 36

  VIII. _Of the First Valley_,                                  p. 43

  IX. _Of the Second Hill_,                                     p. 44

  X. _Of the Second Valley, which divides the Second from
  the Third Hill_,                                              p. 48

  XI. _Of the Third Hill_,                                      p. 50

  XII. _Of the Third Valley_,                                   p. 54

  XIII. _Of the Fourth Hill_,                                   p. 55

  XIV. _Of the Fifth Hill_,                                     p. 59

  XV. _Of the Fifth Valley_,                                    p. 61

  XVI. _Of the Sixth Hill_,                                     p. 62

  XVII. _Of the Valley which divides the_ Promontory _of
  the Sixth Hill from the Seventh Hill_,                        p. 64

  XVIII. _Of the Seventh Hill_,                                 p. 65

  XIX. _Of the Walls of the City_,                              p. 67

  XX. _Of the Gates of_ Constantinople, _and the Seven
  Towers of Old_ Byzantium,                                     p. 70

  XXI. _Of the long Walls_,                                     p. 72

[Illustration: Page Decoration]


BOOK II.

  CHAP. I. _Of the Buildings and Monuments of Old_ Byzantium
  _and_ Constantinople,                                         p. 73

  II. _Of the Antient Monuments of the First Hill, and of
  the First_ Ward _of the City_,                                p. 75

  III. _Of the Church of St._ Sophia,                           p. 82

  IV. _A Description of the Church of St._ Sophia, _as it
  now appears_,                                                 p. 87

  V. _Of the Statues found on one Side of that Church_,         p. 95

  VI. _Of the_ Pharo _on the_ Promontory _of_ Ceras, _and
  the_ Mangana,                                                 p. 96

  VII. _Of the_ Bagnio’s _of_ Zeuxippus, _and its Statues_,     p. 97

  VIII. _Of the Hospitals of_ Sampson, _and_ Eubulus,          p. 100

  IX. _Of the Statue of_ Eudocia Augusta, _for which
  St._ Chrysostom _was sent into Banishment_,                  p. 101

  X. _Of those Parts of the City which are contain’d in
  the Third_ Ward,                                             p. 102

  XI. _Of the_ Hippodrom, _its_ Obelisk, _its_ Statues,
  _and_ Columns,                                               p. 103

  XII. _Of the_ Colossus,                                      p. 108

  XIII. _Of some other_ Columns _in the_ Hippodrom,            p. 110

  XIV. _Of the Church of_ Bacchus, _of the Court of_ Hormisda,
  _and the House of_ Justinian,                                p. 117

  XV. _Of the Port of_ Julian _and_ Sophia; _of the_ Portico
  _nam’d_ Sigma, _and the Palace of St._ Sophia,               p. 120

  XVI. _Of the Fourth_ Ward,                                   p. 126

  XVII. _Of the_ Forum _called_ Augusteum, _the Pillar of_
  Theodosius, _and_ Justinian, _also of the_ Senate-house,     p. 127

  XVIII. _Of the Imperial Palace, and the_ Basilica, _as also
  of the Palace of_ Constantine, _and of the House of Entrance
  nam’d_ Chalca,                                               p. 133

  XIX. _Of the_ Basilica, _and the Imperial Walks_,            p. 140

  XX. _Of the Imperial Library and_ Portico, _and also of the
  Imperial_ Cistern,                                           p. 143

  XXI. _Of the_ Chalcopratia,                                  p. 148

  XXII. _Of the_ Portico’s _situate between the Palace, and
  the_ Forum _of_ Constantine,                                 p. 150

  XXIII. _Of the_ Miliarium Aureum, _and its Statues; of_
  Fortune, _the Goddess of the City, and her Statue_,          p. 152

  XXIV. _Of the Temple of_ Neptune, _and the Church of
  St._ Mina _or_ Menna, _of the_ Stadia, _and_ Stairs _of_
  Timasius,                                                    p. 157

  XXV. _Of the_ Lausus, _and its Statues_; viz. _a_ Venus _of_
  Cnidos, _a_ Juno _of_ Samos, _a_ Minerva _of_ Lindia, _a
  winged_ Cupid, _a_ Jupiter Olympius, _a_ Saturn, Unicorns,
  Tygers, Vultures, Beasts _that are half Camels and half
  Panthers; of the Cistern, in an Hospital, which was call’d_
  Philoxenos, _and a_ Chrysotriclinium,                        p. 159

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BOOK III.

  CHAP. I. _Of several Places in the Fifth_ Ward, _and the
  Second Hill; of the_ Neorium, _of the Port nam’d the_
  Bosporium, _of the_ Strategium, _and the_ Forum _of_
  Theodosius,                                                  p. 164

  II. _Of the Sixth_ Ward, _and the remaining antient
  Buildings of the Second Hill_,                               p. 171

  III. _Of the_ Porphyry _Pillar, the_ Forum _of_ Constantine,
  _and the_ Palladium,                                         p. 172

  IV. _Of the Senate House, the_ Nympheum, _and the Statues
  in the_ Forum _of_ Constantine, _of the_ Labarum _and_
  Supparum, _of the_ Philadelphium, _of the Death of_ Arius,
  _and of the Temples of_ Tellus, Ceres, Persephone, Juno,
  _and_ Pluto,                                                 p. 181

  V. _Of the Seventh Ward_,                                    p. 190

  VI. _Of the Street call’d_ Taurus, _of the_ Forum, _and
  Pillar of_ Theodosius, _which had winding Stairs within it;
  of the_ Tetrapylum, _the_ Pyramidical _Engine of the Winds,
  of the Statues of_ Arcadius, _and_ Honorius, _the Churches
  of_ Hirena, _and_ Anastasia, _and the Rocks called_
  Scyronides,                                                  p. 193

  VII. _Of the Eighth_ Ward, _and the Back-part of the
  Third Hill_,                                                 p. 202

  VIII. _Of the Ninth_ Ward, _of the Temple of_ Concord,
  _of the Granaries of_ Alexandria _and_ Theodosius, _of
  the Baths of_ Anastasia, _of the House of_ Craterus, _of
  the_ Modius, _and the Temple of the_ Sun _and_ Moon,         p. 205

  IX. _Of the Third Valley and the Tenth_ Ward, _of the
  House, and Palace of_ Placidia, _of the_ Aqueducts of
  Valentinian, _the Baths of_ Constantius, _and the_
  Nympheum,                                                    p. 209

[Illustration: Page Decoration]


BOOK IV.

  CHAP. I. _Of the Eleventh_ Ward, _and of the Fourth and
  Fifth Hill_,                                                 p. 217

  II. _Of the Church of the_ Apostles, _of the Sepulchre
  of_ Constantine _the_ Great, _of the Cisterns of_
  Arcadius, _and_ Modestus, _of the Palace of_ Placilla,
  _and the_ Brazen Bull,                                       p. 221

  III. _Of the Sixth Hill, and the Fourteenth_ Ward,           p. 236

  IV. _Of the_ Hepdomum, _a Part of the Suburbs, of
  the_ Triclinium _of_ Magnaura, _of the Palace called_
  Cyclobion, _of the Statue of_ Mauritius, _and his
  Arsenal, and also of the Place called the_ Cynegium,         p. 238

  V. _Of the_ Blachernæ, _the_ Triclinium _of the_
  Blachernæ, _of the Palace, the_ Aqueduct, _and many other
  Places of Antiquity_,                                        p. 244

  VI. _Of the Bridge near the Church of St._ Mamas, _of
  the_ Hippodrom, _of the_ Brazen Lyon, _and the Tomb of
  the Emperor_ Mauritius,                                      p. 248

  VII. _Of the Seventh Hill, the Twelfth_ Ward, _and of the
  Pillar of_ Arcadius,                                         p. 250

  VIII. _Of the Statues, and the ancient_ Tripos _of_
  Apollo _plac’d in the_ Xerolophon,                           p. 255

  IX. _Of the_ Columns _now remaining on the Seventh Hill_,    p. 261

  X. _Of the Thirteenth_ Ward _of the City, called the_
  Sycene Ward, _of the Town of_ Galata, _sometimes called_
  Pera,                                                        p. 264

  XI. _A Description of_ Galata, _of the Temples of_
  Amphiaraus, _of_ Diana, _and_ Venus, _of its_ Theatre
  _and the_ Forum _of_ Honorius,                               p. 270

  _An Appendix, taken out of a_ MS. _in the_ Bodleian
  _Library of the University of_ Oxon, _relating to the
  antient Statues of_ Constantinople, _demolish’d by the_
  Latins, _when they took the City_,                           p. 285

[Illustration: Page Decoration]

  A DESCRIPTION Of the CITY of CONSTANTINOPLE, As it stood
    in the REIGNS of ARCADIUS and HONORIUS.

  A DESCRIPTION Of the WARDS of CONSTANTINOPLE.

    The first _Region_, or _Ward_.                              p.  3

    The Second _Ward_.                                          p. 14

    The Third _Ward_.                                           p. 18

    The Fourth _Ward_.                                          p. 19

    The Fifth _Ward_.                                           p. 27

    The Sixth _Ward_.                                           p. 31

    The Seventh _Ward_.                                         p. 35

    The Eighth _Ward_.                                          p. 38

    The Ninth _Ward_.                                           p. 39

    The Tenth _Ward_.                                           p. 42

    The Eleventh _Ward_.                                        p. 44

    The Twelfth _Ward_.                                         p. 46

    The Thirteenth _Ward_.                                      p. 48

    The Fourteenth _Ward_.                                      p. 51

    _A Summary View of the whole City._                         p. 53

    _Some Account of the_ Suburbs _as they are mention’d in
      the_ Codes  _and_ Law-Books.                              p. 59

    _Of the present Buildings of_ Constantinople.               p. 62

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THE PREFACE OF THE AUTHOR,

  Describing the Situation of _Constantinople_, the Conveniences of its
  Port, and the Commodities in which it abounds.


Constantinople is situated after such a Manner in a _Peninsula_, that
’tis scarce bounded by the Continent; for on three Sides ’tis inclosed
by the Sea. Nor is it only well fortified by its natural Situation, but
’tis also well guarded by Forts, erected in large Fields, extending
from the City at least a two Day’s Journey, and more than twenty Miles
in Length. The Seas that bound the _Peninsula_ are _Pontus_, or the
_Black Sea_, the _Bosporus_, and the _Propontis_. The City is inclosed
by a Wall formerly built by _Anastasius_. ’Tis upon this Account that
being secured as it were by a double _Peninsula_, she entitles her self
the Fortress of all _Europe_, and claims the Preheminence over all
the Cities of the World, as hanging over the Straits both of _Europe_
and _Asia_. For besides other immense Advantages peculiar to it, this
is look’d upon as a principal Convenience of its Situation, that ’tis
encompassed by a Sea abounding with the finest Harbours for Ships;
on the South by the _Propontis_, on the East by the _Bosporus_, and
on the North by a Bay full of Ports, which can not only be secured
by a Boom, but even without such a Security, can greatly annoy the
Enemy. For the Walls of _Constantinople_ and _Galata_ straitning its
Latitude into less than half a Mile over, it has often destroy’d the
Enemies Ships by liquid Fire, and other Instruments of War. I would
remark farther, that were it secured according to the Improvements
of modern Fortification, it would be the strongest Fortress in the
World; _viz._ if the four ancient Ports, formerly inclosed within
its Walls by Booms, were rebuilt; two of which (being not only the
Ornament, but the Defence of old _Byzantium_) held out a Siege
against _Severus_ for the Space of three Years; nor could it ever be
obliged to a Surrender, but by Famine only. For besides the Profits
and Advantages it receives from the _Propontis_ and _Ægean_ Sea,
it holds an absolute Dominion over the _Black Sea_; and by one Door
only, namely by the _Bosporus_, shuts up its Communication with any
other part of the World; for no Ship can pass this Sea, if the Port
thinks fit to dispute their Passage. By which means it falls out,
that all the Riches of the _Black Sea_, whether exported or imported,
are at her Command. And indeed such considerable Exportations are
made from hence of Hydes of all Kinds, of Honey, of Wax, of Slaves,
and other Commodities, as supply a great Part of _Europe_, _Asia_
and _Africa_; and on the other hand, there are imported from those
Places such extraordinary Quantities of Wine, Oil, Corn, and other
Goods without Number, that _Mysia_, _Dacia_, _Pannonia_, _Sarmatia_,
_Mæotis_, _Colchis_, _Spain_, _Albania_, _Cappadocia_, _Armenia_,
_Media_, _Parthia_, and both Parts of _Scythia_, share in the great
Abundance. ’Tis for this Reason, that not only all foreign Nations, if
they would entitle themselves to any Property in the immense Wealth of
the _Black Sea_, but also all Sea Port and Island Towns are obliged
to court the Friendship of this City. Besides, ’tis impossible for
any Ships to pass or repass, either from _Asia_ or _Europe_, but at
her Pleasure, she being as it were the Bridge and Port of both those
Worlds; nay, I might call her the Continent that joins them, did
not the _Hellespont_ divide them. But this Sea is thought, in many
Respects, to be inferior to that of _Constantinople_; first, as it is
much larger, and then, as not having a Bay as that has, by which its
City might be made a _Peninsula_, and a commodious Port for Ships:
And indeed if it had such a Bay, yet could it reap no Advantage of
Commerce from the _Black Sea_, but by the Permission of the People of
_Constantinople_. _Constantine_ at first began to build a City upon
_Sigeum_, a Promontory hanging over the Straits of the _Hellespont_;
but quitting that Situation, he afterwards pitch’d upon a Promontory
of _Byzantium_. _Troy_, I acknowledge, is a magnificent City, but they
were blind, who could not discover the Situation of _Byzantium_; all
stark blind, who founded Cities within View of it, either on the Coast
of the _Hellespont_, or the _Propontis_; which though they maintain’d
their Grandeur for some Time, yet at present are quite in Ruins, or
have only a few Streets remaining, and which, if they were all rebuilt,
must be in Subjection to _Constantinople_, as being superior in Power
to all of them. Wherefore we may justly entitle her the Key, not only
of the _Black Sea_, but also of the _Propontis_ and the _Mediterranean
Sea_. _Cyzicus_ (now called _Chazico_) is highly in Esteem, for that
it joins by two Bridges the Island to the Continent, and unites two
opposite Bays, and is, as _Aristides_ informs us, the Bond of the
_Black_, and the _Mediterranean Sea_; but any Man, who has his Eyes
in his Head, may see, that ’tis but a very weak one. The _Propontis_
flows in a broad Sea, between _Cyzicus_ and _Europe_; by which Means
as a Passage is open into both Seas, though the People of _Cyzicus_
should pretend to dispute it; so they on the other hand, should the
People of _Hellespont_ or _Constantinople_ contest it with them, could
have no Advantage of the Commerce of either of those Seas. I shall say
nothing at present of _Heraclea_, _Selymbria_, and _Chalcedon_, seated
on the Coast of the _Propontis_, anciently Cities of Renown, both
for the Industry of their Inhabitants, and the Agreeableness of their
Situation; but they could never share in the principal Commodities
of other Towns of Traffick, in the Neighbourhood of the Port of
_Constantinople_, which was always look’d upon as impregnable. The
Harbours of those Cities have lain for a considerable time all under
Water, so that they were not of sufficient Force to sail the _Bosporus_
and the _Hellespont_, without the Permission of the Inhabitants of
those Places: But the _Byzantians_ rode Masters of the _Black Sea_,
in Defiance of them all. _Byzantium_ therefore seems alone exempted
from those Inconveniencies and Incapacities which have happen’d to her
Neighbours, and to many other potent and flourishing Cities, which for
several Years having lain in their own Ruins, are either not rebuilt
with their ancient Grandeur, or have changed their former Situation.
All its neighbouring Towns are yet lost: There is only the Name of
_Memphis_ remaining. Whereas _Babylon_, seated in its Neighbourhood,
from a small Fort, is become a large and populous City; and yet neither
of them is so commodious as _Constantinople_. I shall take no Notice
of _Babylon_ in _Assyria_, who, when she was in her most flourishing
State, had the Mortification to see a City built near her, equal in
Largeness to her self: Why is not _Alexandria_ rebuilt, but because
she must support her self more by the Industry of her People, than the
Agreeableness of her Situation? ’Twas the Sanctity of St. _Peter_,
and the Grandeur of the _Roman_ Name, that contributed more to the
rebuilding old _Rome_, than the natural Situation of the Place itself,
as having no Convenience for Ships and Harbours. I pass by in Silence
_Athens_ and _Lacedæmon_, which were more remarkable for the Learning
and resolute Bravery of their People, than the Situation of their
City. I omit the two Eyes of the Sea Coast, _Corinth_ and _Carthage_,
both which falling into Ruins at the same Time, were first repaired by
_Julius Cæsar_; afterwards, when they fell entirely to decay, nobody
rebuilt them: And though _Carthage_ is seated in a _Peninsula_ with
several Havens about it, yet in no part of it are there two Seas which
fall into each other: For though _Corinth_ may be said to lie between
two Seas, and is call’d the Fort of _Peloponnesus_, the Key and Door
of _Greece_; yet is it so far from uniting in one Chanel two Seas, or
two Bays adjoining to the _Peninsula_, that she was never able to make
Head against the _Macedonians_ or _Romans_, as _Cyzico_ and _Negropont_
did; the one by its well built Forts and other War-like Means, and the
other by the Strength of its natural Situation. But _Constantinople_
is the Key both of the _Mediterranean_ and _Black Sea_, which alone,
by the best Skill in Navigation, nay though you were to make a Voyage
round the World, you will find to meet only in one Point, and that is,
the Mouth of the Port. I shall say nothing of _Venice_, which does
not so much enclose the Sea for proper Harbours, as ’tis enclosed by
it, and labours under greater Difficulties to keep off the Swellings
and Inundations of the Seas, than unite them together. I pass by the
Situations of the whole Universe, wherever there are, have, or shall
be Cities; in none of them shall you find a Port abounding with so
many and so great Conveniencies, both for the Maintenance of its
Dominion over the Seas, and the Support of Life, as in this City. It
is furnish’d with Plenty of all manner of Provisions, being supply’d
with Corn by a very large Field of _Thrace_, extending itself, in some
Parts of it, a Length of seven Days, and in others, of a more than
twenty Days Journey. I shall say nothing of _Asia_ adjoining to it,
abounding with the greatest Fruitfulness both of Corn and Pasture, and
the best Conveniencies for their Importation from both Seas. And as to
the immense Quantity of its Wines, besides what is the Product of its
own Soil, it is furnish’d with that Commodity from all the Coasts of
the _Bosporus_, the _Propontis_, and the _Hellespont_, which are all
well stock’d with Vineyards; and without the Danger of a long Voyage,
_Constantinople_ can, at her Pleasure, import the choicest Wines of
all Kinds, and whatever else may contribute to her own Gratification
and Delight. ’Tis for this Reason that _Theopompus_ gives her this
Character, That ever since she became a Mart-Town, her People were
wholly taken up, either in the Market, in the Port, or at Taverns,
giving themselves up entirely to Wine. _Menander_, in his Comedy
_Auletris_, tells us, that _Constantinople_ makes all her Merchants
Sots. _I bouze it_, says one of his Actors, _all Night; and upon my
waking after the Dose, I fancy I have no less than four Heads upon
my Shoulders_. The Comedians play handsomely upon them, in giving
us an Account, that when their City was besieged, their General had
no other Way to keep his Soldiers from deferring, but by building
Taverns within the Walls; which, tho’ a Fault proceeding from their
popular Form of Government, yet at the same time denotes to us the
great Fruitfulness of their Soil, and the great Plenty they have of
Wine. They who have been Eye-witnesses can best attest, how well they
are provided with Flesh, with Venison and Fowls, which they might
share more abundantly, but that they are but indifferent Sportsmen.
Their Markets are always stored with the richest Fruits of all Kinds.
If any Objection be made to this, I would have it consider’d, what
Quantities the _Turks_ use, after hard Drinking, to allay their
Thirst. And as to Timber, _Constantinople_ is so plentifully supply’d
with that, both from _Europe_ and _Asia_, and will in all probability
continue to be so, that she can be under no Apprehensions of a Scarcity
that way, as long as she continues a City. Woods of an unmeasurable
Length, extending themselves from the _Propontis_ beyond _Colchis_,
a more than forty Days Journey, contribute to her Stores so that she
does not only supply the neighbouring Parts with Timber for building
Ships and Houses, but even _Ægypt_, _Arabia_ and _Africa_, partake
in the inexhaustible Abundance; while she, of all the Cities in the
World, cannot lie under the want of Wood of any Kind, under which,
even in our Time, we have observed the most flourishing Cities, both
of _Europe_ and _Asia_, sometimes to have fallen. _Marseilles_,
_Venice_, _Taranto_, are all famous for Fish; yet _Constantinople_
exceeds them all in its Abundance of this Kind. The Port is supply’d
with vast Quantities from both Seas; nor do they swim only in thick
Shoals through the _Bosporus_, but also from _Chalcedon_ to this Port.
Insomuch that twenty Fish-Boats have been laden with one Net; and
indeed they are so numberless, that oftentimes from the Continent you
may take them out of the Sea with your Hands. Nay, when in the Spring,
they swim up into the _Black Sea_, you may kill them with Stones.
The Women, with Osier Baskets ty’d to a Rope, angle for them out of
the Windows, and the Fishermen with bare Hooks take a sort of Fish
of the _Tunny_ Kind, in such Quantities, as are a competent Supply
to all _Greece_, and a great part of _Asia_ and _Europe_. But not to
recount the different Kinds of Fish they are stock’d with, they catch
such Multitudes of Oysters, and other Shell Fish, that you may see
in the Fish Market every Day, so many Boats full of them, as are a
Sufficiency to the _Grecians_, all their Fast-Days, when they abstain
from all sorts of Fish which have Blood in them. If there was not so
considerable a Plenty of Flesh at _Constantinople_, if the People took
any Pleasure in eating Fish, and their Fishermen were as industrious as
those of _Venice_ and _Marseilles_, and were also allow’d a Freedom in
their Fishery, they would have it in their Power, not only to pay as
a Tribute a third part of their Fish at least to the Grand _Seignor_,
but also to supply all the lesser Towns in her Neighbourhood. If we
consider the Temperature of the Climate of New _Rome_, it must be
allow’d by proper Judges, that it far excels that of _Pontus_. For my
own part, I have often experienced it to be a more healthy Air than
that of Old _Rome_; and for many Years past, I have scarce observed
above a Winter or two to have been very cold, and that the Summer Heats
have been allay’d by the northern Breezes, which generally clear the
Air for the whole Season. In the Winter, ’tis a little warm’d by the
southern Winds, which have the same Effect. When the Wind is at North,
they have generally Rain, though ’tis quite otherwise in _Italy_ and
_France_. As to the Plague, ’tis less raging, less mortal, and no more
rife among them, than it is, commonly speaking, in great Cities; and
which indeed would be less rife, were it not for the Multitudes of
the common People, and the foul Way of Feeding among their Slaves.
But that I may not seem to flourish too largely in the Praise of this
City, never to be defamed by the most sour _Cynick_, I must confess
that there is one great Inconvenience it labours under, which is,
that ’tis more frequently inhabited by a savage, than a genteel and
civiliz’d People; not but that she is capable of refining the Manners
of the most rude and unpolish’d; but because her Inhabitants, by their
luxurious way of living, emasculate themselves, and for that Reason
are wholly incapable of making any Resistance against those barbarous
People, by whom, to a vast Distance, they are encompass’d on all
Sides. From hence it is, that although _Constantinople_ seems as it
were by Nature form’d for Government, yet her People are neither under
the Decencies of Education, nor any Strictness of Discipline. Their
Affluence makes them slothful, and their Pride renders them averse to
an open Familiarity, and a generous Conversation; so that they avoid
all Opportunities of being thrust out of Company for their Insolence,
or falling into Dissensions amongst themselves, by which means the
Christian Inhabitants of the Place, formerly lost both their City and
Government. But let their Quarrels and Divisions run never so high,
and throw the whole City into a Flame, as they have many times done,
nay tho’ they should rase her even with the Ground, yet she would
soon rise again out of her own Ruins, by reason of the Pleasantness
of her Situation, without which the _Black Sea_ could not so properly
be called the _Euxine_, as the _Axine_ Sea, (the Inhabitants of whose
Coast used to kill all Strangers that fell into their Hands) by reason
of the great Numbers of barbarous People who dwell round the _Black
Sea_. It would be dangerous venturing on the Coasts of the _Black
Sea_, either by Land or Water, which are full of Pyrates and Robbers,
unless they were kept in a tolerable Order by the Government of the
Port. There would be no passing the Straits of the _Bosporus_ which
is inhabited on both Shores by a barbarous People, but for the same
Reason. And though a Man was never so secure of a safe Passage, yet he
might mistake his Road at the Mouth of the _Bosporus_, being misguided
by the false Lights, which the _Thracians_, who inhabit the Coasts of
the _Black Sea_, formerly used to hang out, instead of a _Pharos_. ’Tis
therefore not only in the Power of _Constantinople_, to prevent any
Foreigners sailing the _Black Sea_; but in reality no Powers can sail
it, without some Assistance from her. Since therefore _Constantinople_
is the Fortress of all _Europe_, both against the Pyrates of _Pontus_,
and the Savages of _Asia_, was the never so effectually demolish’d,
as to all Appearance, yet would she rise again out of her Ruins to her
former Grandeur and Magnificence. With what Fury did _Severus_ pursue
this City, even to an entire Subversion? And yet when he cool’d in his
Resentments against these People, he recollected with himself, that
he had destroy’d a City which had been the common Benefactress of the
Universe, and the grand Bulwark of the Eastern Empire. In a little time
after he began to rebuild her, and order’d her, in Honour of his Son,
to be call’d _Antonina_. I shall end with this Reflection; That though
all other Cities have their Periods of Government, and are subject to
the Decays of Time, _Constantinople_ alone seems to claim to herself a
kind of Immortality, and will continue a City, as long as the Race of
Mankind shall live either to inhabit or rebuild her.

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THE ANTIQUITIES OF CONSTANTINOPLE.

BOOK I.



CHAP. I.

  _Of the Founders of_ Byzantium, _and the different Successes and
  Revolutions of that City_.


It is recorded by _Stephanus_ and _Pausanias_, that _Byzantium_, now
call’d _Constantinople_, was first founded by _Byzas_ the Son of
_Neptune_ and _Ceroessa_, or by a Person named _Byzes_, Admiral of the
Fleet of the _Megarians_, who transplanted a Colony thither. I am of
Opinion, that this was the same Person with _Byzas_. For had it taken
its Name from _Byzes_, this City had more properly been call’d _Byzeum_
than _Byzantium_. _Philostratus_, in the Life of _Marcus_ a Sophist of
_Byzantium_, calls the Admiral of that Fleet by the Name of _Byzas_,
when he informs us, that _Marcus_ (whom he would have descended from
the ancient Family of _Byzas_) made a Voyage to _Megara_, and was
exceedingly in Favour with the People there, who had formerly sent
over a Colony to _Byzantium_. This People, when they had consulted
_Apollo_ where they should found a City, received in Answer from the
Oracle, _That they should seek out a Situation opposite to the Land
of the Blind_. The People of _Chalcedon_ were given to understand by
this mystical Answer, that tho’ they had made a Landing there before,
and had an Opportunity of viewing the commodious Situation of that and
other Places adjacent, yet at last had pitch’d upon the most improper
Place of all. As to what is mention’d by _Justin_, that _Byzantium_
was first founded by _Pausanias_ a _Spartan_, I take it to import no
more than this; that they who affirm that _Syca_, at present call’d
_Galata_, was first founded by the _Genoese_, as was _Constantinople_
by _Constantine_, their Meaning was, that they either rebuilt or
enlarged those Places, and not that they were the first Founders
of them. For when I find it in _Herodotus_, that upon the Invasion
of _Thrace_ by _Darius_, the People of _Byzantium_ and _Chalcedon_
were not in the least Expectation of the Arrival of the _Phœnician_
Fleet, that having quitted their Cities, they retired into the Inland
Shores of the _Black Sea_, and there founded _Mesembria_, and that
the _Phœnicians_ burnt _Byzantium_, and _Chalcedon_; I am of Opinion,
that the _Lacedæmonians_, under the Command of _Pausanias_, sent a
Colony thither, and rebuilt _Byzantium_, which was before either a
Colony of the _Megarians_, or the Seat of the Subjects of _Byzas_
the Son of _Neptune_, its first Founder. _Eustathius_ assures us,
that it was anciently called _Antonina_ from _Antoninus Bassianus_,
the Son of _Severus Cæsar_, but that it passed under that Name no
longer than his Father liv’d, and that many Years after it was call’d
_New Rome_, and _Constantinople_, and _Anthusa_, or _Florentia_, by
_Constantine the Great_; upon which Account it is call’d by _Priscian_
_New Constantinopolitan Rome_. It was foretold by the Oracle, that
its Inhabitants should be a successful and flourishing People, but
a constant Course of Prosperity did not always attend them. ’Twas
with great Difficulty that this City first began to make a Figure
in the World, in the Struggles it underwent with the _Thracians_,
_Bithynians_, and _Gallogrecians_, and in paying a yearly Tribute of
eighty Talents to the _Gauls_ who govern’d _Asia_. ’Twas with greater
Contests that it rose to higher Degrees of Eminency, being frequently
harass’d, not only with foreign, but domestick Enemies. Mighty Changes
it underwent, being sometimes under the popular, sometimes under the
aristocratical Form of Government, widely extending its Conquests in
_Europe_ and _Asia_, but especially in _Bithynia_. For _Philarcus_
observes in the sixth Book of his _History_, that the _Byzantians_ had
the same Power over the _Bithynians_, as the _Lacedæmonians_ had over
their _Helotæ_. This Commonwealth had so great a Veneration for the
_Ptolemæi_ Kings of _Ægypt_, that to one of them nam’d _Philadelphus_,
they pay’d divine Honours, and erected a Temple to him, in the Sight
of their City; and so great a Regard had they for the _Roman_ Name,
that they assisted them against the King of _Macedon_, to whom,
as degenerating from his Predecessors, they gave the nickname of
_Pseudo-Philippus_. I need not mention the powerful Succours they sent
against _Antiochus_, _Perseus_, _Aristonicus_, and the Assistance
they gave _Antonius_, when engaged in a War against the Pyrates. This
City alone stood the Brunt of _Mithridates_’s whole Army landed in
their Territories, and at last, though with great Difficulty, bravely
repell’d the Invader. It assisted at once _Sylla_, _Lucullus_ and
_Pompey_, when they lay’d Siege to any Town or Fortification, which
might be a Security to their auxiliary Forces in their Passage,
either by Sea or Land, or might prove a convenient Port, either for
Exportation or Importation of Provision. Joining its Forces at last
with _Niger_ against _Severus_, it became subject to the _Perinthians_,
and was despoil’d of all the Honours of its Government. All its stately
Bagnio’s and Theatres, its strong and lofty Walls, (built of square
Stone, much of the same Hardness with that of a Grindstone, not brought
from _Miletus_, as _Politianus_ fancies) with which it was fortify’d,
were entirely ruin’d. I say, that this Stone was cut out of no Quarry,
either of ancient _Miletus_, or _Miletopolis_; because _Miletus_ lies
at too great a Distance from it, and _Miletopolis_, which is seated
near the River _Rhyndacus_, is no ways famous for Quarries. I saw,
by the By, this last City, adjoining to the Lake of _Apolloniatus_,
entirely demolish’d, retaining at present its Name only. The Walls
of _Byzantium_, as _Herodian_ relates, were cemented with so thin a
Mortar, that you would by no means think them a conjointed Building,
but one entire Stone. They who saw them in Ruins in _Herodian_’s Time,
were equally surpriz’d at those who built, and those who defaced them.
_Dion_, whom _Zonaras_ quotes, reports, that the Walls of _Byzantium_
were exceeding strong, the Copings of which were built with Stones
three Foot thick, cramp’d together with Links of Brass; and that it
was so firmly compacted inwardly, that the whole Building seem’d to be
one solid Wall. It is adorn’d with numerous and large Towers, having
Gates in them placed one above another. The Walls on the side of the
Continent are very lofty; towards the Sea, not quite so high. It had
two Ports within the Walls, secured with Booms, as was their Entrance
by two high Forts. I had then no Opportunity of consulting _Xenophon_
in the Original; however I was of Opinion from the _Latin_ Translation,
that a Passage in that Author, which is as follows, has a Relation to
one of those Ports: _When the Soldiers_, says he, _had passed over
from_ Chrysopolis _to_ Byzantium, _and were deny’d Entrance into the
City, they threaten’d to force the Gates, unless the Inhabitants open’d
them of their own Accord; and immediately hastening to the Sea, they
scaled the Walls, and leap’d into the Town, hard by the Sides of the
Port, which the_ Greeks _call_ χηλαὶ, that is by the Piles; because
they jet out into the Sea, winding into the Figure of a Crab’s Claw.
But afterwards meeting with that Author in _Greek_, I found no Mention
there of the Port, but only τὴν χηλὴν τοῦ τείχους, that is, near _the
Copings of the Wall_, or rather the Buttresses that support it. Had it
been in the Original χηλὴ τοῦ λιμένος, it ought rather to have been
translated the _Leg_, or the _Arm_. _Dionysius_ a _Byzantian_ mentions,
that the first Winding of the _Bosporus_ contains three Ports. The
_Byzantians_ in their time had five hundred Ships, some of which were
two-oar’d Galleys; some had Rudders both at Stem and Stern, and had
also their Pilates at each, and two Sets of Hands aboard, so that
either in an Engagement, or upon a Retreat, there was no Necessity for
them to tack about. The _Byzantians_, both in the Life-time and after
the Death of _Niger_, when besieged for the Space of three Years, acted
Wonders; for they not only took the Enemies Ships as they sail’d by
them, but dragg’d their three-oar’d Galleys from their Moorings; for
diving under Water they cut their Anchors, and by fastening small Ropes
from the Stern round their Ancles, they hall’d off their Ships, which
seem’d to swim merely by the natural Tyde of the Sea. Nor were the
_Byzantians_ the first who practis’d this Stratagem, but the _Tyrians_
frequently, under a Pretence of gathering Shell-Fish, would play the
same Trick; which _Alexander_ had no sooner discover’d, than he gave
Orders that the Anchors of his whole Fleet, instead of Cables, should
be fasten’d to Iron Chains. In this Siege the _Byzantians_ being
reduced to great Straits, still refused to surrender, making the best
Defence they could with Timber taken from their Houses. They also
breeded Cables for their Ships out of their Womens Hair; nay sometimes
they threw down Statues and Horses upon the Heads of their Enemies.
At last their Provision being entirely spent, they took up with Hydes
soften’d in Water; and these being gone, they were brought to the
extreme Necessity of eating one another: At last, being wholly reduced
by Famine, they were forced to a Surrender. The _Romans_ gave no
Quarter to the Soldiers, nor the principal Men of the City. The whole
Town, with all its stately Walls in which it glory’d, was levelled with
the Ground; and all its _Theatres_ and _Bagnio’s_ were demolish’d even
to the small Compass of a single Street. _Severus_ was highly pleased
with so noble a Conquest. He took away the Freedom of the City, and
having deprived it of the Dignity of a Commonwealth, he confiscated
the Goods of the Inhabitants; and afterwards making it tributary, he
gave it, with all the neighbouring Countrey, into the Hands of the
_Perinthians_. Entering the City afterwards, and seeing the Inhabitants
coming to meet him, with Olive-branches in their Hands begging Quarter,
and excusing themselves for making so long a Defence, he forbore the
Slaughter; yet left the _Perinthians_ in the Possession of the Town,
allowing them nevertheless a Theatre, gave Orders for building them a
_Portico_ for Hunting, and a _Hippodrom_, to which he adjoin’d some
_Bagnio’s_, which he built near the Temple of _Jupiter_, who was called
_Zeuxippus_. He also rebuilt the _Strategium_; and all the Works that
were begun by _Severus_ in his Life-time, were finish’d by his Son
_Antoninus_.



CHAP. II.

_Of the Extent of Old_ Byzantium.


The present Inhabitants of _Constantinople_ tell you, that Old
_Byzantium_ stood within the Compass of the first Hill in the Imperial
Precinct, where the _Grand Seignor’s Seraglio_ now stands: but I
am of Opinion, from what follows it will appear, that it was of a
larger Extent. Our modern Writers describe its Situation thus; that
it began at the Wall of the Citadel, stretched itself to the Tower of
_Eugenius_, and that it rose gradually up to the _Strategium_, the
_Bagnio_ of _Achilles_, and the _Urbicion_. From thence it pass’d on
to the _Chalcopratia_, and the _Miliarium Aureum_, where there was
another _Urbicion_ of the _Byzantians_: Thence it lengthen’d to the
Pillars of _Zonarius_, from whence, after a gentle Descent, it winded
round by the _Manganæ_ and the _Bagnio’s_ of _Arcadius_, up to the
_Acropolis_. I am inclinable to credit all these Writers, excepting
only _Eustathius_, who tells us, that the _Athenians_ made use of
_Byzantium_, a small City, to keep their Treasure in. But _Zosimus_, a
more ancient Historian, describes _Byzantium_ after this Manner: _It
was seated_, says he, _on a Hill, which took up part of the_ Isthmus,
_and was bounded by a Bay called_ Cheras, _and the_ Propontis. _At
the End of the_ Portico’s _built by_ Severus _the Emperor, it had a
Gate set up, upon his Reconciliation with the Inhabitants, for giving
Protection to_ Niger _his Enemy. The Wall of_ Byzantium _extended
itself from the Eastern Part of the City to the Temple of_ Venus, _and
the Sea over-against_ Chrysopolis: _from the North it descended to
the Dock, and so onward to the Sea, which faces the_ Black Sea, _and
through which you sail into it_. This, says he, was the ancient Extent
of the City; but _Dionysius_, a more ancient Writer than _Zosimus_, as
appears by his Account, which was written before its Destruction by
_Severus_, tells us, that _Byzantium_ contain’d in Compass at least
forty Furlongs, which is a much greater Extent than the preceding
Writers reported it. _Herodian_ informs us, that _Byzantium_, in the
Time of _Severus_, was the greatest City in all _Thrace_.



CHAP. III.

  _Of the Rebuilding of_ Byzantium _by_ Constantine the Great, _and the
  Largeness of it in his Time_.


It is recorded by _Zonaras_, that _Constantine_ being inclinable
to build a City, and to give it his own Name, at first pitch’d
upon _Sardicus_ a Field of _Asia_; afterwards, upon the Promontory
_Sigeum_, and last of all upon _Chalcedon_ and _Byzantium_, for that
Purpose. _Georgius Cedrinus_ is of Opinion, that he first pitch’d
upon _Thessalonica_, and after he had lived there two Years, being
wonderfully taken with the Delightfulness of the Place, he built
the most magnificent Temples, _Bagnio’s_ and _Aqueducts_; but being
interrupted in his great Designs by the Plague which raged there, he
was obliged to leave it, and passing away for _Chalcedon_, (formerly
overthrown by the _Persians_, but then upon rebuilding) he was directed
by the Eagles frequently carrying the small Stones of the Workmen
from thence to _Byzantium_, where _Constantinople_ ought to be built.
_Zonaras_ is of the same Opinion; and only differs as to the Story
of the Stones, and says, that they were small Ropes which they used
in Building. But this seems to be a Fable taken out of _Dionysius_ a
_Byzantian_ Writer, who tells us, that _Byzas_ had been the Founder of
_Byzantium_, in a Place call’d _Semystra_, seated at the Mouth of the
Rivers _Cydarus_ and _Barbysa_, had not a Crow, by snatching a Piece
of the Sacrifice out of the Flames, and carrying it to a Promontory of
the _Bosporus_, directed _Byzas_ to found _Byzantium_ in that Place.
But _Constantine_ does not seem to me to have been so oversighted as
were the ancient _Chalcedonians_, for which they stand recorded in
the Histories of all Ages. Nay, ’tis distinguishable by any Man of
a tolerable Judgment, that _Byzantium_ was a much more commodious
Situation for the _Roman_ Empire than that of _Chalcedon_. The far
more ancient Historians, among whom are _Sozomen_ of _Salamis_ and
_Zosimus_, who wrote in the Reign of _Theodosius the Less_, judged
more rationally on this Occasion. They tell us, without taking any
Notice of _Sardica_, _Thessalonica_ or _Chalcedon_, that _Constantine_
debating with himself, where he might build a City, and call it by
his own Name, equal in Glory and Magnificence to that of _Rome_, had
found out a convenient Situation for that Purpose, between old _Troy_
and the _Hellespont_; that he had lay’d the Foundations, and raised
part of the Wall to a considerable Height, which is to be seen at this
Day on the Promontory _Sigeum_, which _Pliny_ calls _Ajantium_; because
the Sepulchre of _Ajax_, which was in that Place, hung over the Chops
of the _Hellespont_: They tell you farther, that anciently some Ships
were station’d there, and that the _Grecians_, when at War with the
_Trojans_, pitch’d their Tents in that Place: That _Constantine_
afterwards came into an Opinion, that _Byzantium_ was a properer
Situation; that three hundred and sixty two Years after the Reign of
_Augustus_, he rebuilt, enlarged and fortified it with great and strong
Walls, and by an Edict engraven on a Stone Pillar, and publickly fix’d
up in the _Strategium_, near his own _Equestrian_ Statue, order’d it
to be called _Nova Roma Constantinopolitana_. Upon a Computation made,
that the Natives were not a sufficient Number to people the City, he
built several fine Houses in and about the _Forums_, of which he made a
Present to the Senators and other Men of Quality, which he brought with
him from _Rome_ and other Nations. He built also several _Forums_, some
as an Ornament, others for the Service of the City. The _Hippodrom_ he
beautify’d with Temples, Fountains, _Portico’s_, and a Senate-House,
and allow’d its Members equal Honours and Privileges with those of
_Rome_. He also built himself a Palace, little inferior to the Royal
one at _Rome_. In short, he was so ambitious to make it rival _Rome_
itself in all its Grandeur and Magnificence, that at length, as
_Sozomen_ assures us, it far surpassed it, both in the Number of its
Inhabitants, and its Affluence of all Kinds. _Eunapius_ a _Sardian_, no
mean Writer, nay though an Enemy to _Constantine_, describes the vast
Extent of _Constantinople_, in these Words: _Constantinople_, says he,
_formerly called_ Byzantium, _allow’d the ancient_ Athenians _a Liberty
of importing Corn in great Quantities; but at present not all the Ships
of Burthen from_ Ægypt, Asia, Syria, Phœnicia, _and many other Nations,
can import a Quantity sufficient for the Support of those People, whom_
Constantine, _by unpeopling other Cities, has transported thither_.
_Zosimus_ also, though otherwise no very good Friend to _Constantine_
on the score of his Religion, yet frankly owns, that he wonderfully
enlarged it; and that the _Isthmus_ was enclosed by a Wall from Sea
to Sea, to the Distance of fifteen Furlongs beyond the Walls of old
_Byzantium_. But to what Extent soever _Constantine_ might enlarge its
Bounds, yet the Emperors who succeeded him have extended them farther,
and have enclosed the City with much wider Walls than those built by
_Constantine_, and permitted them to build so closely one House to
another, and that even in their Market Places, that they could not
walk the Streets without Danger, they were so crowded with Men and
Cattle. Upon this Account it was, that a great part of the Sea which
runs round the City was in some Places dry’d up, where by fixing Posts
in a circular Manner, and building Houses upon them, they made their
City large enough for the Reception of an infinite Multitude of People.
Thus does _Zosimus_ express himself as to the vast Extent of this
City, as it stood in the Time either of _Arcadius_ or _Theodosius_.
_Agathius_ says, that in the Time of _Justinian_ the Buildings were
so close and crowded together, that it was very difficult to see the
Sky by looking through the Tops of them. The large Compass of this
City before _Justinian_’s Time, we may in some measure collect from
an _ancient Description of the City_, by an unknown but seemingly a
very faithful Writer. He assures us, that the Length of the City from
the _Porta Aurea_ to the Sea Shore in a direct Line, was fourteen
thousand and seventy five Feet, and that it was six thousand one
hundred and fifty Feet in Breadth. And yet we cannot collect plainly
from _Procopius_, that in the Reign of _Justinian_ the _Blachernæ_
were enclosed within the Walls, although before his Time the City was
enlarged by _Theodosius the Less_, who as _Zonaras_ and others write,
gave Orders to _Cyrus_ the Governour of the City for that Purpose. This
Man, with great Diligence and wonderful Dispatch, built a Wall over the
Continent from Sea to Sea, in sixty Days. The Inhabitants astonish’d
that so immense a Work should be finish’d in so small a Time, cry’d out
in a publick manner in the Theatre, in the Presence of _Theodosius_ the
Emperor, _Constantine built this City, but_ Cyrus _rebuilt it_. This
drew on him the Envy of his Prince, and render’d him suspected; so that
being shaved by the Command of _Theodosius_, against his Inclinations,
he was constituted Bishop of _Smyrna_. The following Inscriptions
made to _Constantinus_, and carv’d over the Gate of _Xylocerum_ and
_Rhegium_, take Notice of him in these Verses.

Over the Gate of _Xylocerum_ (_Xylocercum_ or _Xylocricum_) in
_Byzantium_, thus:

  _These Walls by_ Theodosius’ _Royal Will,
  And_ Constantinus _Prefect of the East,
  In sixty Days, surprizing Speed! were built_.

Over the Gate of _Rhegium_ is this Inscription:

  _Great_ Constantinus, _Prefect of the East,
  In sixty Days this stately Building finish’d_.

The Reason why _Constantine_ order’d _Byzantium_ to be call’d _New
Rome_, or _Queen_ of the _Roman Empire_, is mention’d by _Sozomen_
and others; namely, that God appear’d by Night to _Constantine_, and
advised him to build a City at _Byzantium_ worthy his own Name. Some
say, that as _Julius Cæsar_, upon a Plot form’d against him, judg’d it
necessary to remove to _Alexandria_ or _Troy_, stripping _Italy_ at
the same time of every thing that was valuable, and carrying off all
the Riches of the _Roman_ Empire, leaving the Administration in the
Hands of his Friends; so it is said of _Constantine_, that perceiving
himself to be obnoxious to the People of _Rome_, having drain’d the
City of all its Wealth, went over at first to _Troy_, and afterwards
to _Byzantium_. _Zosimus_, an implacable Enemy to the Christian Name,
alledges an execrable Piece of Villany, as the Cause of his Removal.
_Constantine_, says he, _when he had murder’d_ Crispus, _and had
been guilty of other flagrant Crimes, desiring of the Priests an
Expiation for them, their Answer was, That his Offences were so many
and enormous, that they knew not which way to atone for them; telling
him at the same time, that there was a certain_ Ægyptian _who came
from_ Spain _to_ Rome; _who, if he had an Opportunity of speaking to
him, could procure him an Expiation, if he would establish in his
Dominions this Belief of the_ Christians, _namely, That Men of the
most profligate Lives, immediately upon their Repentance, obtain’d
Remission of Sins_. Constantine _readily closed with this Offer, and
his Sins were pardon’d. At the Approach of the Festival, on which it
was usual with him and his Army to go up to the Capitol, to perform
the customary Rites of their Religion_; Constantine _fearful to be
present at that Solemnity, as being warn’d to the contrary by a Dream,
which was sent him from the_ Ægyptian, _and not attending the holy
Sacrifice, highly disgusted the Senate, and the whole Body of the
People of_ Rome. _But unable to bear the Curses and Scandal they threw
upon him on that Account, he went in Search of some Place or other
equally famous with_ Rome, _where he might build him a Palace, and
which he might make the Seat of the_ Roman _Empire, and that at last he
had discovered a Place between_ Troas _and Old_ Ilium, _fit for that
Purpose; and that there he built him a Palace, laid the Foundations of
a City, and raised part of a Wall for its Defence: But that afterwards
disapproving the Situation, he left his Works unfinish’d, and settled
at_ Byzantium; _and being wonderfully taken with the Agreeableness of
the Place, he judged it in all respects to be very commodious for
an Imperial Seat_. Thus far _Zosimus_, a great Favourite of _Julian_
the Apostate, and an inveterate Enemy to _Constantine_ on the account
of his Religion; to whose Sentiments I have so perfect an Aversion,
that I cannot give the least Credit to those Enormities he charges
him with, and of which he had the greatest Abhorrence, as being a
Prince of remarkable Clemency and Goodness, which I am capable of
proving abundantly, but that it would prove too great a Digression
in the present History. The Truth of it is, that _Sozomen_ and
_Evagrius_ both have sufficiently refuted these malicious Reflections.
In these Calumnies, I say, I entirely differ from _Zosimus_, yet in
his Description of the Extent, and Compass of the City, I am wholly
in his Opinion; who, though an Enemy to _Constantine_, yet is forced
to acknowledge him to have built so large, so noble, so magnificent
a City. I am the more induced to give Credit to his History in this
Respect, because he lived many Ages nearer to the Time of _Constantine_
than our modern _Monks_, who, in the Books they have written of
_Constantinople_, give the following Account of it; namely, that
_Constantine_ built a Wall from the Tower of _Eugenius_ (which was the
Boundary of old _Byzantium_) to St. _Anthony_’s Church, and the Church
of the _Blessed Virgin_, call’d _Rabdon_, quite up to the _Exacionion_;
and that at a Mile’s Distance, it passed on to the old Gates of the
Church of St. _John_ the _Baptist_, stretching itself farther to the
Cistern of _Bonus_, from whence it extended itself to the _Armation_,
and so winded round to St. _Anthony_’s Church again. I should give my
self the Trouble to examine this Account, but that I know the Authors
are so fabulous, that they are no ways to be depended upon. But this I
look upon to be an intolerable Blunder, that they place the Church of
St. _John Baptist_ within the Walls built by _Constantine_, whereas for
many Years after his Death it continued without the City: Of which, and
many other Errors, I shall take Notice in the following History.



CHAP. IV.

  _Of the present Figure, Compass, Length and Breadth of_
  Constantinople.


The Figure of _Constantinople_ is triangular, the Base of which is
that Part of it which lies Westward: The top Angle points to the East,
where the _Peninsula_ begins. But both the Sides of this Triangle are
not equal; for that Side which lies westward winds round the Angle
of the Bay in the Figure of a Half-Moon. At a great Distance from
thence, it winds about again from North to South. But the South Side
of this Triangle veers about to such a Breadth, that if you should
draw a strait Line from one Angle of it to the other, it would cut off
a Creek, which, in the Middle of it, is at least a quarter of a Mile
over. But that Side which faces the North, and is call’d _Ceras_, the
Bay or Horn, should you draw a strait Line over it from one Angle to
another, it would cut off not only the whole Bay, but also a part of
_Galata_. For this Side inflects inwards in such a manner, that from
each Point it circulates in the Form of a Bow, having two smaller
Windings of the same Figure in the Middle of it, but lies inwardly into
the Continent so far, that the two Horns or Ends of the Bow, which
includes them, no ways intercept the Prospect of the Angles of the
larger Arch. ’Tis upon this Account that _Constantinople_ may rather
seem to be of a triarcular, than a triangular Figure. For right Angles
never project beyond their Sides, nor do they inflect inwards. But all
semicircular Figures are in a manner both convex and concave also. So
that if these three Angles, so far as they project beyond the main
Body of the City, were divided from it, _Constantinople_ would form a
square oblong Figure, little more than a Mile broad, and almost three
times as long. But be that as it will, all are of Opinion, that this
City ought to be look’d upon to be of a triangular Figure, because
it has three Sides; one of which that faces the _Propontis_, and the
other on the side of the _Thracian_ Continent, are of an equal Length;
the third, adjoining to the Bay, is about a Mile shorter than the
other two. This City is computed to be near thirteen Miles in Compass,
although _Laonicus Chalcondylus_, in his History of the _Ottomans_,
assures us, that _Constantinople_ contain’d in Compass an hundred and
eleven Furlongs; the Length of it, extending itself over the Promontory
with six Hills, is no more than thirty Furlongs; but if the Figure
of it was an equilateral Triangle, it would not be much above nine
Miles in Circumference; and could we suppose its hilly Situation to
be widen’d into one large Plain, yet then it would not be so large
in Compass as the Inhabitants generally reckon it, _viz._ eighteen
Miles. It is observable, that _Constantinople_ does not contain more
Bays of Building, as it is situate upon Hills, than it would if it
were built upon a Plain; because you cannot so conveniently build upon
a Declivity, as you can upon a Level. Nor does the Reason equally
hold good, as to the Number of its Houses, and the Number of its
Inhabitants. For _Constantinople_ can contain more Men as it is seated
upon Hills, than it could if it were seated on a Plain. The Breadth of
this City varies in several Places. From the East to the Middle of it,
’tis at least a Mile in Breadth, but in no Place broader than a Mile
and a half. It divides itself afterwards into two Branches, where ’tis
almost as broad as ’tis long. I can compare it, as to its Figure, to
nothing more properly than to an Eagle stretching out his Wings, and
looking obliquely to the left, upon whose Beak stands the first Hill,
where is the _Grand Seignor’s_ Palace. In his Eye stands the Church of
St. _Sophia_; on the lower part of the Head is the _Hippodrom_; upon
his Neck are the second and third Hills, and the remaining part of the
City fill up his Wings, and his whole Body.



CHAP. V.

  _A general Description of_ Constantinople.


Constantinople takes up in Compass the whole _Peninsula_, which
contains seven Hills, of which the eastern Angle of the City
includes one, having its Rise at the Promontory, which _Pliny_ calls
_Chrysoceras_, and _Dionysius_ a _Byzantian_, _Bosporium_. The first
Hill is divided from the second by a broad Valley; the Promontory of
_Bosporium_ contains the other six, extending itself from the Entrance
of the _Peninsula_ on the East, full West with a continued Ridge, but
somewhat convex’d, and hangs over the Bay. Six Hills and five Valleys
shoot from the right Side of it, and ’tis divided only by the third and
fifth Valleys on the left Side of it, which is all upon the Descent,
and has only some small Hills and Vales, which are more steep than
the Hills themselves. It has also two Windings which take their Rise
from the Top of the first Hill, from whence it ascends by Degrees
almost to another Winding, which begins from the Top of the third
Hill, where sinking into a gentle Descent, it admits the Valley, which
lies between the third and the fourth Hill. From thence it rises again
with a moderate Ascent, and continues upon a Level westward almost
to the _Urbicion_, where it rises again. The Plains adjoining to the
Promontory differ as to their Level. Those that divide the Promontory
at the Top, and those at the Foot of it, are very uneven in many
Places. The Plain at the Top of the first Hill is seven hundred Paces
in Length, and two hundred in Breadth. Shooting hence, it rises almost
insensibly to the Top of the second Hill, where ’tis five hundred
Paces in Breadth, and is all upon the Descent to the Top of that Hill,
where the second Valley, which is also shelving and very narrow, takes
its Rise. On the third Hill the Plain is above six hundred Paces in
Breadth, but somewhat more upon the Level at the Entrance of the third
Valley, which is six hundred Paces broad. From hence you rise by a
gentle Ascent to the Plain on the Top of the fourth Hill, which is not
above two hundred Paces wide. On the fifth Hill it dilates itself to
the Breadth of seven hundred Paces. On the Hill, from whence the fifth
Valley takes its Rise, ’tis more narrow; and on the sixth Hill ’tis a
little upon the Ascent again. As to the Plain, which extends itself
between the Sea and the Bottom of the _Promontory_, that also is not so
even in some Places as it is in others; for it is narrower under the
Hills, in the Vales ’tis half as wide again. For winding itself from
the _Promontory_, where it begins, over three Valleys, it is widen’d
at that Distance into the Breadth of a thousand Paces, though at the
Foot of the Hills it is not above an Acre, or a hundred and twenty Foot
in Breadth, except at the Bottom of the third and fifth Hills, where
’tis very narrow, but extends itself over the fourth Valley both in
Length and Breadth to a great Degree. At the Foot of the sixth Hill
it contracts itself again, except at the Foot of two lesser Hills,
situated behind the first and second Hills; one of which projects
almost to the Sea, the other is at no great Distance from it. But to
describe _Constantinople_ in a more easy and comprehensive Manner, I
will give the Reader a particular Account of all its Hills and Vales,
which indeed make a very lovely and agreeable Prospect. For the six
Hills which shoot from the _Promontory_, (and which for their Likeness
you might call Brothers) stand in so regular an Order, that neither
of them intercepts the Prospect of the other; so that as you sail up
the Bay, you see them all hanging over it in such a manner, that quite
round the City you see before you both Sides of every one of them. The
first of these Hills jets out to the East, and bounds the Bay; the
second and third lie more inward to the South; the others lie more open
to the North, so that at one View you have a full Prospect of them.
The first lies lower than the second; the second than the third; the
fourth, fifth and sixth are in some Places higher, in others somewhat
lower than the third, which you may discover by the Level of the
Aqueduct. That the first Hill is lower than the third and fourth, may
be discover’d by the Tower which supports the Aqueduct, by which the
Water is raised into the Air above fifty Foot high. To make this more
intelligible, I will divide the City, as to the Length of it, from the
Land’s Point on the Shore of the _Bosporus_, to the Walls on the Neck
of the _Isthmus_, and consider the Breadth of it, as it widens from
the _Propontis_ to the Bay called _Ceras_. The Reason why I divide the
City, as to its Breadth, into six Parts, is the natural Situation of
the _Promontory_, which itself is divided into six Hills, with Valleys
running between them. It was no great Difficulty to distinguish the
_Roman_ Hills, because they were entirely disjoin’d by Valleys; but
’tis not so easy to distinguish those of _Constantinople_, because they
are conjoin’d at Top; and besides, the Backs of them do not project
in so mountainous a manner as they do in the Front; so that I cannot
better describe them, than by calling them a continued Ridge of Hills,
divided each of them with Valleys. And therefore to proceed regularly,
I shall first give the Reader a Description of the right Side of the
_Promontory_, with its Hills and Vales, and then take Notice of the
left Side of it, which stands behind them.



CHAP. VI.

  _Of the Situation of all the Parts of the City describ’d._


The first Part of the Breadth of the _Promontory_ is the Front of it,
which opening to the Distance of a thousand Paces Eastwards adjoins to
the Chaps of the _Bosporus_. For this Sea winds round the Back of the
_Promontory_ in such a Manner, that from the Point where the _Bosporus_
is divided, to the Bay called _Ceras_, and the Land’s Point of that
Sea, it extends itself from North to South to the Distance of fourteen
Furlongs; and from thence to a farther Distance of four Furlongs, it
winds round from the South-east to the South-South-west, even to the
Mouth of the _Propontis_, which joining with the _Bosporus_, winds
round the City to South-west, to the Distance of two Miles more. This
Side of the Hill is bounded at the Bottom of it with a Plain of the
same Breadth with itself, which is two hundred Paces. There rise upon
the Plain some lesser Hills, which are not above four hundred Paces
in Height. On the Top of the left Side of these Hills stands the
_Hippodrom_; on the right Side, which faces the South-west, is the
Palace of the _Grand Seignor_. I might not improperly call it the Front
of the _Promontory_, as being almost of an equal Ascent in all its
Parts, having a Plain running along it, of an equal Length with itself;
besides, it adjoins to the first Hill: I say, for these Reasons I might
call it a part of the first Hill; but to understand it more distinctly,
I shall treat of it by itself.



CHAP. VII.

  _Of the first Hill, of the Palace of the Grand Seignor, of the Church
  of St._ Sophia, _and the_ Hippodrom.

The first Hill, extending itself from the South-east to the South-west,
opens at the Entrance of it to the Breadth of thirty Paces; from
thence it widens gradually, and so on, till at last ’tis almost as
broad as ’tis long. It rises at the Nook of the _Isthmus_, which joins
the _Peninsula_ to the Continent. It projects itself in the Form of
a Cymetar, or a Hawk’s Beak, and almost divides the Straits of the
_Bosporus_, and the Bay called _Ceras_. The whole Hill projects beyond
the others almost to the Mouth of the Bay. ’Tis all upon a Descent,
except the Top of it, where there’s a Plain which joins to the Plain
of the _Promontory_. The lesser Eminences which stand upon it, and
which face the East and the North, have a moderate Descent, others of
them are more steep, so that in some Places you are obliged to climb
them by Steps, but the tallest of them is not above four hundred Paces
high. The Plain, at the Foot of this Hill, is very different. The
Eastern Part of it is much widen’d by the Sea Shore, which jets out
in a semicircular Manner. The Breadth of the South-east and northern
Part of it is encreased by the Valley, which divides the first from the
second Hill. The Plain on the Top of the Hill is about seven hundred
Paces in Length. This Hill is not only fortified by Nature, as being
encompassed on the East by the _Bosporus_, on the North by the Bay
of _Ceras_, and on the West by a cool Valley; but ’tis also inclosed
within the Walls of the _Seraglio_, which are guarded with numberless
Ramparts and Towers, which are equal in Strength to the Walls of the
City. Towards the Foot of the Hill, and the Plain near the Sea, lie
the Gardens of the _Grand Seignor_. The Imperial Palace, which is
partly situate on the Top of the Hill, and partly on the Eminences
below it, affords almost an unmeasurable Prospect, both by Sea and
Land. In this Plain there are two Imperial _Areas_ or Courts; the first
of these Courts is seven hundred Paces long, and two hundred broad.
You pass through this into another inner Court, which is a Quadrangle
two hundred Paces long, and has round it a magnificent _Portico_,
supported with a Multitude of fine Marble Pillars curiously variegated.
In the Middle of the Court there’s a fine shady Walk of _Plane_ and
_Cypress-Trees_ for the Lawyers, and in the North Angle of the City
is the _Forum Judiciale_, which the _Ottomans_ call their _Divan_.
On the South-east Side of a large Court stands the magnificent and
stately Palace of the _Grand Seignor_, on the North Side of which are
built many Imperial _Bagnio’s_, and Kitchens with eight arch’d Roofs,
rising like a _Cupola_, in an hemispherical Manner; each of these
_Cupola’s_ representing the Figure of a little House, is nothing else
but a Chimney with Windows, light at Top, made in the Likeness of a
Lantern. There is a two-leav’d Iron Gate which lets you into the first
Court, the Leaves of it, when opened, stand at twenty Paces Distance.
The Porters or _Capoochees_ stand always upon Duty at these Gates.
Just above them the Hill rises up to a smooth Level with the Ridge of
the _Promontory_. The Porch or Gate-house is lined on each Side with
glittering Armour, and shines, as do also the Jambs of the Gate with
rich Marble. Over the Porch there rises a square Building cover’d
with Lead, as are all the other Edifices of the Palace. There’s a
Passage out of the first Court through another two-leav’d Gate into the
second inner Court. This is the Station of the _Drudging Porters_. The
Gate-house here also blazes with refulgent Arms. This Gate, without
side of it, has nothing like a Porch, though within side it has. ’Tis
supported with ten Pillars of different Kinds of Marble; the Roof of it
proudly glitters with Gold, and is beautify’d with the most rich and
lively Colours of _Persian_ Work. At the third Gate, where the Entrance
opens into the _Seraglio_, there are other Porters or _Capoochees_
attending. These are under the Command of the _Capoochee-Basha_, or
Captain of the Porters, who is also Chamberlain to the _Grand Seignor_.
No body is suffer’d to enter the Palace without his Permission, but the
Servants and Officers of the Houshold, unless it be his Noblemen, who
while he is sitting near the Door of the _Seraglio_, may freely enter
to pay their Homage to him. All Ambassadors, when introduced into his
Presence, are allow’d to kiss his Hand, who receives them sitting upon
a low Couch, but curiously embroider’d, in a little Apartment built
with Marble, adorn’d with Gold and Silver, and sparkling with Diamonds
and precious Stones. This Room of State is incircled with a _Portico_,
which is supported with Pillars of the finest Marble, the Capitals and
Pedestals of which are all gilded. Besides these I have mention’d,
there are many other Gates round the _Seraglio_, through which none
are admitted, but such as are in the highest Favour with the Emperour.
If I mistake not, I counted twelve, which were all Iron-work; seven of
them were near the City; two of them, through which they carried their
Hay to the _Seraglio_, were near the Sea; on the Sea Side there were
five more: The first of these stands to the North of the _Seraglio_,
towards the Bay; the second stands upon the Ridge of a Hill: ’Tis
very large, has a Porch with an arch’d Roof before it, is gilded, and
adorn’d in a surprizing manner with _Persian_ Paintings, supported with
Pillars of _Ophitick_ Marble, and looks into the _Bosporus_. At some
Distance Eastward there is another Gate facing _Chalcedon_. Just before
it the Vessels are moor’d, in which the _Grand Seignor_ sails to some
distant Shore, when he goes a hunting, or is inclined to divert himself
in his Gardens. The fourth Gate stands South-east near the Ruins of
a _Christian_ Church, some Tokens of which are still remaining in a
Wall, to which the _Greeks_ to this Day, by their frequent Visits,
continue to pay a kind of devotional Reverence. Beyond this there is a
fifth Port or Gate, where is built a Room, though it is only rafter’d,
whence you may have the Diversion of seeing the Fish catch’d; as it
is also a kind of Repository, where the _Grand Seignor’s_ Fishermen
lay up their Tackle. I would observe by the By, that though all the
Hills of _Constantinople_ afford a very pleasing Prospect, yet there is
none which entertains you with such peculiar Delectation as the first
Hill, where the _Sultan_ lives in a licentious and luxurious manner.
He has before him, whether he is walking in his Gardens, or in his
Chambers of the _Seraglio_, a full View of the _Bosporus_ and both its
Shores, which are green, and flourishing with Woods belonging to the
neighbouring Farms. On the right Hand he beholds a spacious Field of
_Chalcedon_, cover’d with his own Gardens; he sees the _Propontis_,
Islands without Number, and the woody Mountains of _Asia_. If he looks
at an immense Distance, behind him he beholds the _Olympus_ always
cloath’d in Snow. If he takes a shorter Prospect, he views before
him the Wonders of his own City, the Church of St. _Sophia_ and the
_Hippodrom_. If he casts his Eyes to the left Hand, he beholds the
seven Hills on which the City is seated, and more remotely, he looks
round the unmeasurable spacious Fields of _Thracia_. If he extends
his Prospect over the Seas, he views a moving Scene of Ships passing
and repassing before him; some sailing from the _Hellespont_, or the
_Black Sea_, others again coming into his Port from all the Coasts
of the _Propontis_, while other Vessels at the same time are sailing
up and down the Bay of _Ceras_, where there are also abundance of
Wherries and small Boats always oaring from Side to Side. And if he
looks below him, he has the agreeable Pleasure of beholding the three
Sides of the first Hill, dressed with Trees, Flowers and Plants of
all Kinds. But he has not only a fine Prospect from the Palace, but
is entertain’d with several delightful _Visto’s_ from the Top of the
Gardens rising on the Hills. If he has an Inclination to take a View
of his _Seraglio_, from that Point of Land which projects so far into
the Sea, and which, as I observ’d, divided the _Bosporus_; here he
beholds it in all its Glory, strengthen’d with large Pillars of Marble,
and fann’d with gentle refreshing Breezes, where he often sits with
small Osier Lattices before him; so that, like another _Gyges_, he
discerns all that sail near him, though he himself is visible to none:
And if at any time he is weary of the Company of his Domesticks, he
can divert himself with the ridiculous Drollery of the Watermen, when
fixing their Oars and Boat-poles to the Shore, they tug against the
violent Stream of the _Bosporus_, which is much more rapid than the
_Rhone_. Without the _Seraglio_ stands the Church of St. _Sophia_,
which is about seventy Paces distant from the Gate of the first Court.
’Tis situate on the Brow of the first Hill, upon an Eminence that
hangs over the Garden of the first Valley: From thence you ascend
by Stone Steps to the Gate of the _Seraglio_, and the Church of St.
_Sophia_, which from the South-east falls with so easy a Descent, that
it almost imperceptibly terminates on a Plain both above and below it.
In short, all the Descents from the Imperial Palace to the _Hippodrom_,
are moderate and gentle. South-west of the Church of St. _Sophia_, a
Plain extends itself to the End of the _Hippodrom_, which is above
seven hundred Paces long. The _Hippodrom_ is more than two Furlongs in
Length, and one Furlong in Breadth. It stands upon a perfect Level; but
this is more to be ascribed to Industry, than its natural Situation.
The Middle Part of it, stretching as far as the _Propontis_, on three
Sides of it, is a shelving Ground. On the East it falls with a small
Declivity, on the West ’tis more upon the Descent, on the Side of the
_Propontis_ ’tis directly perpendicular to the Depth, more or less, of
fifty Foot. The whole Front of the _Hippodrom_ is built upon Arches,
(which makes it stand upon a Level) and entertains the Spectator with a
very delectable Prospect of the _Propontis_, so that you may not only
see Men sailing to and fro before you, but may also see the Dolphins
frequently tumbling about the Waters. The Steps on the North Side of
the _Hippodrom_, which remained there but a few Years since, were
demolished by _Abraham_ the _Bassa_, and were used in building his own
House. Between the _Hippodrom_ and the _Propontis_ there stretches a
Plain, which widens to the Breadth of four hundred Paces, where the
Churches of _Bacchus_ and _Sergius_ anciently stood; of both which I
shall take Notice in the following History. Below the _Hippodrom_, to
the South, is the Gate call’d _Porta Leonis_, which is situate without
the City, upon the Ruins of the Palace of _Leo Macellus_; the Windows
of which, of antique Workmanship, are still remaining in the Walls. The
Palace was built upon a Hill adjoining to the Sea, which was about a
hundred Paces high.



CHAP. VIII.

  _Of the first Valley._


From the uppermost Plain of the _Promontory_, on which, as I observed,
stood the Church of St. _Sophia_ and the _Hippodrom_, by an easy Ascent
of a thousand Paces, you climb the Ridge of the second Hill up to the
_Porphyry_ Pillar, erected on the Top of the second Hill, which is
bounded on the East by the first Valley, which divides the first from
the second Hill. It rises at the Plain of St. _Sophia_, and extends
itself from South to North. This Valley represents exactly the Figure
of the Letter V; one of whose Sides extends itself full East, the other
North. Thro’ the Middle of it runs the Wall, which divides the _Grand
Seignor_’s Palace from the rest of the City. The lowermost Plain of
the _Promontory_ extends itself in Length and Breadth so far into this
Valley, that from the Bay to the Church of St. _Sophia_, you may walk
a thousand Paces almost upon the Level. From the Entrance of it on the
Sea Side, ’tis all a plain Ground to the Length of five hundred Paces;
afterwards winding itself into this Vale, it rises with a small Ascent,
which is more easily perceivable by a gentle Fall of the Water, than by
the Eye or Foot. At the Beginning of it ’tis somewhat wide, afterwards
’tis narrower, and at the End of it ’tis straighten’d into two lesser
Valleys; one of which, near to the Church of St. _Sophia_, is four
hundred Paces long. It rises gradually, and is so very narrow, that the
publick Way takes up the whole Breadth of it.



CHAP. IX.

  _Of the second Hill._


The Ridge of the _Promontory_ rising a little higher, and the two
Valleys adjoining to it, make the second Hill. The first Valley
divides, at East, the first from the second Hill; the other Valley,
Westward, divides the second from the third. On the North ’tis bounded
by a Plain on the Sea Shore. The Ridge of the _Promontory_ extends from
South to North to the Distance of one thousand Paces in Length, and
four hundred in Breadth. The different Breadth of the Vales varies
the Breadth of the whole Hill. For where the Valleys which bound the
Sides of it at the Top are more contracted, the Hill widens, and at
the Foot of the Hill, where they are much wider, the Hill is less.
The lesser Hills which stand upon it, extend its Length, two of which
hang over the Bay. Its Height varies according to the different Height
of the three Clifts, or small Hills which rise upon it. For the Clift
lying to the South-east, rises moderately, from the lowest part of the
Valley to the Top of the Hill, to the Height of about a thousand Paces;
afterwards, as the Valley widens, it grows less, and is rendered more
steep by two small Valleys (branching out of the great Valley) which
indeed are somewhat upon the Descent, but not above a hundred Paces
high. The different Heights of the Clifts which hang over the Bay, may
be best discover’d by considering the different Heights of the five
_publick Ways_, which reach from the Ridge to the Foot of the Hill.
The first of these Ways rises to the Height of five hundred Paces, two
hundred of which from the Foot of the Hill are very easy of Ascent, the
other three hundred are very steep. The second _Road_ is six hundred
Paces high, a hundred of which rise through the lowest of the small
Valleys by a gentle Ascent, the next hundred are almost perpendicular,
so that you must climb them by Steps; the other four hundred rise
gradually to the Top of the Hill, which is sixty Paces in Breadth. This
Hill, on the Ridge of it, shoots Southward to the Distance of a hundred
and fifty Paces, quite from the Church of St. _Sophia_ to the _Porphyry
Pillar_. The other three _publick Ways_, from the Bottom of the Hill,
are for the first hundred Paces upon a gentle Rise, the next two
hundred are a mighty Declivity, so that you are obliged to ascend them
by Windings and Turnings; the remaining five hundred, up to the Plain
upon the Hill, rise moderately. I would observe farther, that on the
Side of the Clifts which project over the Bay, two small Hills jetted
out, one to the North, and the other to the East; both which uniting
form a little Valley, which is bounded on the East by a Hill which
rises eighty Paces in Height, and has in some Places very agreeable
Descents. This is the Reason that most part of the lesser Clifts, which
bear upon this Hill, stand to the East, and that the Side of the Hill
which looks Westward, is in some Parts of it more shelving than in
other: For its Eminencies falling into the lowest Plain in the Valley,
to the Length of three hundred Paces, from the Foot of the Hill up to
the Middle of it, are almost perpendicular, and from the Middle to the
Top they slope but little. As for those Hills which project over the
Head of the Valley, they are not above two hundred Paces high, often
of a different Ascent: For as the Valley rises, the Clifts seem lower.
Indeed all the lesser Clifts of this Hill have a double Descent; one
length-ways, and the other broad-ways: For those of them which stand
East and West are seated in such a manner, that they also lye to the
North. In short, all the Sides of this Hill, in the most steep Ascents
of them, are not above a Furlong in Height; in other Places they fall
into a moderate Declivity, and at the Bottom of them they gradually
enlarge themselves into a Plain. The upper Clifts at the Top of them
are half shelving, and half upon the Plain. The Plain adjoining to the
Sea, and dividing the Hill from the Bay, spreads itself into a Latitude
of three hundred Paces, but immediately widens again into a Breadth
of five hundred Paces, and so visibly enlarges itself, the farther it
extends itself into the Valleys.

And thus having given the Reader some Account of the Front or fore-part
of the _Promontory_, I shall now give him a short Description of the
back-side of it, which faces the Sea. Behind the second and third Hills
there are two lesser Hills, which hang over the _Propontis_. Between
these Hills descends a hollow Valley. These Hills stand in the Middle
of the Valley. That which lies Eastward, as well as that which lies to
the West, exalts itself to the Height of more than two hundred Paces.
At the End of the Valley, between these Hills, is a well built Harbour
enclosed with a Wall. ’Tis seated upon the Plain on the Shore, near
that part of the Sea which runs up to the Front of the _Hippodrom_.
The Mouth of this Harbour is three hundred Paces in Breadth. From the
Bay call’d _Cornu_, the Breadth crossing the Hill to the _Propontis_,
widens to the Distance of two Miles.



CHAP. X.

  _Of the second Valley, which divides the second from the third Hill._


That Valley which divides the second from the third Hill, begins at
the _Promontory_, and ends in the Plain adjoining to the Sea. It
contains in it the Fish-Market and the Ferry, whence you cross the
Water to _Syca_. From hence to the Entrance of the Valley, a Plain
expands itself to the Breadth of four hundred Paces so much upon the
Level, that the Water falls from thence into the Bay with almost an
imperceptible Descent. When it has contracted itself into the narrow
Compass of two hundred Paces in Breadth, it gradually straightens
itself into a less, even to the Middle of the Valley, where ’tis but
fifty Paces in Breadth, and afterwards is no broader than the _common
Way_. ’Tis above six hundred Paces in Length, three hundred of which
are almost upon a Level, the other three hundred upon the Descent. It
rises easily to that part of the _Promontory_, where the second and
third Hills join. In the lowermost part of the Valley runs the _broad
Way_ that faces _Galata_. This Way, on both Sides of it, is full of
Merchants Houses, cover’d with a kind of transparent Slat, which have
here and there a small Casement. The Merchants of _Galata_ frequent
the grand _Bezestan_, or Place of _Exchange_. ’Tis situate partly on
the Head of the Valley, and partly on an Eminence of the third Hill.
In the Year of our Lord 1546 it was wholly burnt to the Ground, except
two _Basilica’s_ roof’d with Brick-work, which were lock’d up every
Night, and their Windows secured by Iron Bars, when the Fire was over.
I was allowed after the Fire to view their grand _Forum_. I found it
lie so much upon the Level, that it had but a small Ascent either from
the West to the East, or from the South to the North. I observed that
it stood upon more than five Furlongs of Ground; on the highest part
of it, which lies to the East, I was permitted to see a _Nymphæum_,
adorn’d with five and forty Marble Pillars, which supported a Brick
Roof. The old _Basilica_, of which I could have no Prospect before, by
reason of the Shops and publick Houses, the Fire had lain open to my
View. I observed farther, that it had two additional Buildings like
Wings, joining to the main Building, each of which was divided into
sixty Apartments, which were all arched, and over the Roof cover’d
with Lead, as their Shops and Places of publick Entertainment are. The
inward Chambers of these Apartments, for Privacy, are always lock’d,
and are secured by an Iron Door. The _Basilica_ itself consists of
fifteen large Apartments, in the Figure of a _Dome_, has four Doors,
and is supported by eight Pillars; the Roof is Brick-work, and leaded
at Top. The new _Basilica_ is supported with twelve Pillars built of a
square Stone; four Arches bear upon these Pillars, which support twenty
small Roofs, built in the Form of a _Dome_. There stand round about
sixty Merchants Warehouses, or Shops with arch’d Roofs. Within the
_Basilica_ there are two hundred and twenty more of these Warehouses,
which are made after the following Manner. Round the Walls of the
_Basilica_ are built abundance of very broad Pews, where the Merchants
expose their Goods to Sale, which they take out of Presses, (when they
would shew them to their Chapmen) which have Boxes of Drawers in them,
the Masters always sitting before them. These Presses are fasten’d to
the Wall, have two Folding Doors, and are removable at Pleasure.



CHAP. XI.

  _Of the third Hill._


The third Hill is bounded on each Side by two Valleys: That which
lies to the East, divides it from the second Hill, the Western Valley
divides it from the fourth. The Ridge of this Hill is above a thousand
Paces in Length. It shoots from the Top of the _Promontory_ Southward,
Northward to the Bay of _Ceras_, almost in an equal Height. The second
Hill on the contrary falls with a surprizing Descent, from the utmost
Height of the _Promontory_, to the lowest Plain on the Bay Shore. The
third Hill, at the Top of it is a Level of a great Length. It extends
itself at the Foot of it, more by three hundred Paces to the North,
than the Foot of the second Hill. It is not in all Places of an
equal Breadth; at the Top of the _Promontory_ itself ’tis every way
about eight hundred Paces. Here ’tis that the _Seraglio_ stands. On
that part of the Plain which lies to the East, stands the Merchants
_Forum_, a _Caravansera_, and the Sepulchre of _Bajazet_ the Emperor.
On the South Side of it is an open _Area_, round which stand the
Booksellers Shops. On that part of it which lies Northward, stand the
Works which the Emperour _Solyman_ is now building, namely his Tomb, a
_Caravansera_, and a magnificent and expensive Mosque. They are built
not only upon the natural Situation of the Ground there, but also upon
artificial Foundations. This Hill, on three Sides of it, descends
upon three lesser Hills. For on that Side of it which lies Eastward,
where stands the Tower of _Hirena_, a small Hill jets out into the
second Valley. The long Projecture of this Hill, on the Ridge of it
towards the Bay, makes another small Hill which lies Northward, and
from that Side of it which points Westward, where stands the Church
of St. _Theodore_, there shoots another little Hill out of the Middle
of it, to the Plain which lies on the Sea Shore. Two Sides of this
Hill descend in a double Declivity, one in a strait, and the other
in an oblique Line. The Eastern Side of the third Hill, after it has
extended itself to thirteen hundred Paces Distance, abates somewhat of
its winding Descent, but the nearer you descend to the Plain, it falls
with a more direct and confined Declivity. The Descents falling from
the Ridge of the Hill to the Valley differ very much, the uppermost
of them hanging over a very deep Valley, rise to the Height of five
hundred Paces, the lowest three hundred of which are very steep, the
three hundred Paces above them are scarce half of that Steepness. The
other Descents of this Hill are not so shelving, where the Valley rises
higher. The Western Side of the Hill, as to its Declivities, is like
the Eastern. The Northern Side of it has several Descents: For a lesser
Hill, shooting from the Ridge of this Hill, is five hundred Paces high,
the lower most three hundred of which fall so precipitately, that
the Buildings which stand upon them, are all under-propp’d, the two
hundred Paces above them fall with an easy Descent. The Descents on
this Side of the Hill, the farther they lie from the Plain on the Sea
Shore, the more are they lengthen’d by a sideling Fall, which rises on
the Eastern Side of the Hill. The Plain on the Shore, as discontinued
by the Inlet of the Bay, is not above two hundred Paces in Breadth,
but at the Foot of the Hill, in other Parts of it, it sensibly widens
up to the Entrance of the Valleys. The _Grand Seraglio_, seated on
the Side of this Hill, when I first arrived at _Constantinople_, was
little less than six thousand Paces in Compass, but is at present more
closely straiten’d, since the _Caravansera’s_ have been built there by
the Sultan _Solyman_, and the burying Place for the Women (which is
at least half the Ground) has been taken out of it and enclosed. The
left Side of the _Promontory_, which lies behind the third Hill to the
South, jets out with two lesser Hills; from one of which that shoots
Eastward, the Side of the _Promontory_ which winds round Westward
to the other Hill, which is seated a little above the Foot of the
Promontory; and at the Bottom of this Hill, the _Promontory_ admits
the third Valley, which lies behind it, and from thence stretches full
North. The left Side therefore of the third Hill hath a double Descent;
the one towards the South, which is six hundred Paces high, another
extending itself South South-west, seven hundred Paces high; but at
full West it falls very short of that Height. The Plain that lies
between the back Southern Parts of the third Hill, and the Shore of the
_Propontis_, is in no part of it less than three hundred Paces broad,
nor above seven hundred Paces long. The Plain of the Valley which
encloses the Foot of the Hill Westward, and which divides the seventh
Hill from the _Promontory_, reaching from the Shore of the _Propontis_,
where the Walls are not encompassed by the Sea, is almost upon a Level,
and is in every part of it five hundred Paces in Breadth. The three
Hills I have mention’d, may very properly be called the _Promontory_
of the _Bosporus_; for they hang over the Sea in such a manner, that
whether you sail to _Constantinople_ out of the _Black Sea_, or the
_Propontis_, you may see them at a great Distance, prominent over the
Chaps of the _Bosporus_. The third Valley seems to separate the other
three Hills, which lie farther into the Continent from these. The
Reason why I place six Hills in the _Promontory_ of the _Bosporus_ is,
because these latter Hills all stand in a Row near the Bay, and are
join’d together both at the Top and the Sides of them. The Plain which
unfolds itself on the Ridge of the third Hill, descends gently into a
Plain which hangs over the third Valley, and is six hundred and twenty
Paces in Length, and as many in Breadth.



CHAP. XII.

  _Of the third Valley._


The third Valley, which lies between the third and the fourth Hill,
seems to be a double Valley; for in the Middle of it, it rises high,
which makes it doubtful whether it be a part of the Valley, or the
_Promontory_. That the Height of it is a part of the Valley, seems
plain from the Height of the Arches, which reach from one Side of the
Valley to the other; and it may be look’d upon to be the Ridge of the
_Promontory_, from the Descent of the extreme Parts of it falling to
the right and left, on each Side of the _Promontory_. On the right
Side of which, it descends into a very low Plain, which, at its first
Entrance, is three hundred Paces broad, and continues on upon a Level
to the Length of five hundred Paces more; and though it sinks at Bottom
into an equal Depth, yet the Pitches or Sides of it, in some Places,
are higher than in others. For where the Plain is most hollow, there
one of the Sides of it is three times higher than the other. From
this Plain you ascend by easy Steps to the Top of the Middle of the
Valley, which is six hundred Paces wide, except that small part of it
in the Middle, where it is not above four hundred Paces in Breadth.
Through the Top of this Valley, or _Promontory_, run the Arches of an
_Aqueduct_ from the fourth to the third Hill, of the same Height,
at the Top of them, with the Hills themselves. The Altitude of these
Arches discovers how great the Descent is from them. For though they
are alike equal in Height at the Top of them, yet this Height is very
different, according to the Difference of their Situations. For they
are very high at the Top of the Valley, which is a plain level Ground,
but upon the Descent of the Hills not near so high, and continue to the
Length of eight hundred Paces in the same Height, though the higher
they stand upon these Hills, they are less tall. The Top of this Valley
or _Promontory_, descends with a gentle Fall of seven hundred Paces
into a Plain, which divides the _Promontory_ from the seventh Hill, and
from thence extends itself to the _Propontis_. The City from the Bay
to the _Propontis_, passing thro’ the third Valley, is more than ten
Furlongs in Breadth.



CHAP. XIII.

  _Of the fourth Hill._


The fourth Hill is enclosed with two Valleys, the Ridge of the
_Promontory_, and the Shore of the Bay. Upon the Side of it stands the
Tomb of _Mahomet_, (who took _Constantinople_) several _Caravansera’s_
and _Bagnio’s_. It is above three thousand six hundred Paces in
Compass. The Length, from the Ridge of it to the Bay, is a thousand
Paces; the Breadth of it, from East to West, is at least eight hundred.
As you take a View of it from the Top, stretching in a Square towards
the Bay, you perceive it to end in two Windings, though very different
from each other. For that which points Northward stretches on in a
continued Ridge, and has its Descents on both Sides, whereas that
which shoots Eastward lies so low, that it seems to be only an Ascent
to the other. At the End of it it winds Westward, where it forms a
little Valley. This Hill Eastward is bounded by a Valley, and is parted
from the third Hill; on the North by the Plain on the Shore, on the
East partly by a Valley, which divides it from the fifth Hill, and
partly by the winding of the _Promontory_, which rises in so gradual
and delectable a manner, from the Top of the fourth to the Top of the
fifth Hill, that you discover the Ridge of it to be uneven, more by
a nice Discernment of the Eye, than by any Difficulty in walking it.
For these Hills are join’d together in such a manner, that they seem
to lie upon a Level. They are both of them one Plain, which, covering
the Top of the fourth Hill, is not above four hundred Paces in Length,
nor more than two hundred in Breadth, tho’ afterwards, when continu’d
to the fifth Hill, it widens into the Breadth of five hundred Paces.
The fourth Hill, tho’ it is equal in Height to any of the other six,
yet its Ascents, whether they lie in a strait Line, or more obliquely,
are more moderate, by reason it is a long Tract of Ground with three
Declivities. The first of which, thro’ the Length of the whole,
descends from the Southwest full North more than a thousand Paces; two
hundred of which rising from the Sea Shore are a more easy Ascent, the
rest rise so very gently that you can scarce perceive them, although
the uppermost hundred of them, which reach to the Top of the Hill, are
very steep. The cross Descent which runs athwart the Breadth of the
Hill is double, one of which falls Westward; the other, which shelves
Eastward, rises from the Valley, which divides the third and fourth
Hill. From the highest part of this Valley you climb an Ascent two
hundred Paces in Height. Below the Top of it is another Ascent, which
is five hundred Paces high, one hundred of which rising from the Bottom
are very steep. The Height of the rest, which are an easy Ascent, you
discover by the Level of the _Aqueduct_. From the Bottom of the Valley
you ascend four hundred Paces, the first hundred and eighty of which
are very steep, after which you may walk two hundred more almost upon
a Level. From hence you rise to the Middle of it, which is higher,
and is a hundred Paces in Breadth. It is also elevated eight hundred
Paces in Length, from the Top of it to the Bottom. From hence you
descend two hundred Paces Westward to the lowest Part of the Valley,
which divides the fourth and the fifth Hill, which is all a narrow
Piece of Ground, and about four hundred Paces in Length. The first
two hundred Paces upon the Shore of the Bay are all upon a Level; but
it is an Uncertainty whether they are a part of the Valley, or the
Sea Shore. For this Valley is enclosed in such a manner by these two
Hills, as the fourth is bounded by the Plain upon the Shore, which is
two hundred Paces broad, whereas the fifth does scarce descend so far.
The following eight hundred Paces are much upon the same Level, the
last four hundred of which, stretching to the Top of the _Promontory_,
are very steep. The Plain upon the Shore, passing between the Bay and
the fourth Hill, is of a different Breadth. For that part of it which
extends itself to the South-western Point of the Hill, is four hundred
Paces broad, whereas that part of it which extends itself to the
Northern Point, is no more in Breadth than two hundred Paces. In short,
such is the Situation of the fourth Hill, that when you sail along the
Bay, you would take it to be an advanced part of the third Valley.
For the Top of this Hill runs so far Southward, that its Descents,
shelving very moderately, seem almost upon a Level; whereas the Top of
the fifth Hill, which is of the same Height, projects beyond the fourth
directly Northward. The Descents on the Back of the third Hill, which
lie Southward, are very easy and agreeable, till you come to the Plain
of the Vale, which divides the _Promontory_ from the seventh Hill; so
that the back part of this Hill shoots Southward, and is not bounded
on either Side of it by the third Valley. This Southern Part of it is
somewhat narrow, just beyond a little Hill of the third Valley, near
a _Caravansera_, built by the _Sultan Mahomet_; but behind the fifth
Hill, below the _Columna Virginea_, ’tis straitned much more.



CHAP. XIV.

  _Of the Fifth Hill._


The Bottom of the fifth Hill, on the Top of which stands the Tomb of
_Selymus_ the Emperor, as bounded partly by the Bay, and partly by an
Eastern and Western Valley, is four thousand Paces in Compass. The
Pitch of this Hill hangs so far over the Bay Northward, and the Pitch
of the fourth Hill lies so low towards the same Point, that the fourth
Hill seems to be a kind of Valley, situate between the third, and the
fifth Hill. For the fifth Hill does not join at Top, and continue the
Ridge of the _Promontory_ as other Hills do, but being of an equal
Heighth with it, shoots to a great Distance beyond it running as far
Northward, as does the Foot of the fourth Hill. It has a Descent on
three Sides of it; one to the North, the Steepness of which the Reader
may learn from hence, that altho’ it is very near the Heighth of the
fourth Hill, which is above a thousand Paces high, yet the highest
Ascent of this Hill comes nearer upon the Line, than that of any other
Hill, to the lowest Ascent from the Bottom; for you ascend thro’ a
little Valley, no more than three hundred Paces high to the Top of it.
This Valley is form’d by two small Hills adjoining to the Shore of the
Bay, upon which, at about four hundred Paces distance, you discover
some Stone Steps, belonging to a Foundation of a _Caravansera_, built
by the Emperor _Selymus_. This Northern Side of the Hill has four
small Hills jetting out of it, three small Valleys running between
them, which rise from the Top of the Hill, and are situate at such a
Distance from the Plain upon the Shore, that two of them touch the Wall
which stands upon it; the other two are a hundred Paces from it. The
Plain upon the Shore is in no Part of it narrower than it is at the
Foot of this Hill; for to the Distance of a thousand Paces, it does
not exceed a hundred Paces in Breadth, and in some Places not fifty.
Two of these Hills are very steep, so that the Buildings you see upon
them, as tho’ they were in danger of falling, are all underpropp’d,
and the Inhabitants have been oblig’d to cut Windings in the Rocks to
moderate the Descent. The other two are less Precipitate, the Valleys
which enclose them not lying so deep. The Side of the Hill which shoots
Eastward is one thousand four hundred Paces in Length, and two hundred
in Breadth, and its Altitude two hundred Paces upon the Perpendicular.
The Height of the Side of it, which falls Westward, shelves into a
different Depth, according as the Valley sinks. Where it descends into
a Level Plain, it advances its Top to the Height of five hundred Paces.
In other Places it rises no higher than three hundred, with a very
moderate Ascent. The Side of the _Promontory_ which points Southward,
situate behind the fifth Hill, ends in the Plain of the Valley, which
divides the _Promontory_ from the seventh Hill. In other Places it
falls with a more confined, and sometimes with a more expanded
Descent, upon a small thick Hill, which hangs over the fifth Valley;
as also over that Valley which parts the _Promontory_ from the seventh
Hill. The back Part of the fifth Hill does also wind it self into a
small Valley, which rises at the Brow of the _Promontory_, where not
long since was remaining the _Columna Virginea_. From hence the Ridge
of the _Promontory_ somewhat bends over the Top of the Plain of the
fifth Hill, which in some Places is six hundred, and in others seven
hundred Paces broad. But beyond the Ridge of this Hill it widens to a
great Distance, as far as the Plain of the fourth Hill, and shoots on
with the Plain of the _Promontory_, and falls down to the Neck of the
_Isthmus_, and so extending it self still on, is at least two thousand
Paces in Length.



CHAP. XV.

  _Of the Fifth Valley._


The fifth Valley, which divides the fifth from the sixth Hill, winding
from North to South, is as long as the _Promontory_ is broad; that
is, about twelve hundred Paces; the first eight hundred of which have
no Ascent. The Valley, at the first Entrance into it, is at least
four hundred Paces broad, but is afterwards straitned into half that
Breadth; and yet to the Length of six hundred Paces, ’tis in no Place
less than two hundred Paces broad. Farther, ’tis at least five hundred
Paces wide. Above this, is the Top of the Valley, or the Ridge of the
_Promontory_, opening upon a Level Breadth of two hundred Paces. From
the Top of this _Promontory_, to the left Side of it, there falls a
Valley with a gentle Descent, to the Distance of five hundred Paces,
where it descends into another Valley, which divides the _Promontory_
from the seventh Hill. The fifth Valley seems to cut through the Ridge
of the _Promontory_. This may easily be discerned by the right and left
Descent of the two Hills which lie nearest to it; for there is a very
easy Ascent from the Height of this Valley, to the Top of either Hill.



CHAP. XVI.


The sixth Hill is just as long as the _Promontory_ is broad, which is
widen’d upon this Hill to the Breadth of two thousand four hundred
Paces. The City Walls shoot over the Ridge, and the North Side of it
down to the Sea Shore. You descend gradually from the Top of it within
the Walls; without the Walls it lies upon a Level, and is join’d to the
Continent by a Field in the Suburbs. The broadest part of it is not
above eight hundred Paces, the narrowest but four hundred. It descends
with a treble Declivity; one on the left Hand of the _Promontory_, with
an easy Descent at South-east; another on the right falling to the Bay
Northward, which extends itself to the Distance of fifteen hundred
Paces. There are two lesser Hills, separated by a small Valley, which
run between them. At the Foot of that lesser Hill which stands nearest
to the City Wall, there is an _Aqueduct_. Between this Hill and the
Bay, there formerly stood the Church of the _Blachernæ_, which has
been recorded in the Writings of many Historians. The Foundation of
this Church was remaining, when I first arrived at _Constantinople_.
From the Foot of this Hill, which stands above the Church I have
mention’d, there rises a Spring, whose Waters are convey’d thro’ arch’d
subterraneous Passages into the City, where, appearing above Ground,
they flow constantly into a Marble Cistern. That Side of the sixth Hill
which lies Eastward, is as long as the Hill itself; but does not, in
all parts of it, fall with the same Descent. For the Descent varies,
according as the Valley adjoining lies higher or lower. Where the
Valley lies upon the Level, the Pitch of the Hill rises to the Height
of six hundred Paces; where it does not lie so low, ’tis not above five
hundred Paces high; where it rises higher, not above four hundred. Nor
does this Side of the Hill shoot only Eastward, but does also, on the
right Side of it, project Northward, and on the left Side of it extend
itself full South-west. The Plain on the Shore, which lies between the
Foot of the Hill and the Bay, in the narrow part of it, is not above
eight hundred Paces broad, I mean in that Place where the Church of the
_Blachernæ_ stood formerly, as did also a _Triclinium_; but farther on
it winds round into the third Valley, and widens much more.



CHAP. XVII.

  _Of the Valley which divides the_ Promontory _from the seventh Hill_.


The Valley which divides the seventh from the six Hills of the
_Promontory_, is an easy Descent. It extends itself in Length to the
Distance of four thousand Paces, if you take in the Plain on the Sea
Shore. If you exclude that, and take your Dimensions from the winding
of the seventh Hill, ’tis not above three thousand three hundred
Paces long. It lies so much upon a Level, that you cannot perceive by
walking it, that it has the least Ascent; yet you may discover by the
Discernment of the Eye that it sensibly lengthens and widens itself
into a greater Breadth. It bounds the Sides of the third and the fifth
Valley, and the lowest Eminences of the fifth and sixth Hills. It is
full of Gardens and pleasant Meadows. Here the Soldiers sometimes act
their Mock-Fights. There’s a Rivulet which runs through the Middle of
it, which is often dry in Summer Time.



CHAP. XVIII.

  _Of the seventh Hill._


The seventh Hill is called the _Xerolophos_, on which stands the Pillar
of _Arcadius_. This Hill is little less than twelve thousand Paces in
Circumference, and contains more than a third Part of the City. The
other two Parts are comprehended in the Compass of the _Promontory_,
which is above twenty thousand Paces in Circumference. By _Paces_, I
would here be thought to mean the ordinary Steps we take in Walking,
which I cannot exactly reduce to a just Mensuration with the _Roman
Pace_, by reason of the Turnings and Windings of the Ways, and the
Differences of Paces, which are longer or shorter, according to the
different Ascents and Descents of the Ground we walk. This Hill makes
the third Angle of the City, from whence _Constantinople_ is look’d
upon to be of a triangular Figure. It lies shelving with a very
moderate Descent, and has a double Declivity; one of which falls gently
into the Valley, which divides the seventh Hill from the _Promontory_,
and is of an equal Length with the Valley itself. The other Descent,
which partly lies to the South-east, and partly to the South, falls
into the _Propontis_, and is in some Places five hundred Paces steep,
in others four hundred, three hundred, a hundred, nay even fifty,
till it comes to the Point of the third Angle of the City, whence a
large Plain shoots out towards the Sea, which, in different Places,
is of a different Breadth. The Entrance of this Plain, at the Angle
of the City just mention’d, is very narrow; it afterwards widens,
which is occasioned by the Winding of one of its Sides, from whence
it gently rises to the Foot of a small Hill, where ’tis four hundred
Paces broad; onwards it is straiten’d into fifty, and afterwards is
widen’d into a Breadth of a hundred Paces only. The End of this Plain,
to the Distance of a thousand Paces, is more than four hundred Paces
broad. On the Ridge of this Hill, there is a Plain of some Length and
Breadth; the Hill itself is bounded by the Land Wall, and on the Top of
it is a Cistern which is call’d _Mocisia_, which is wholly unroof’d,
and stripp’d of its Pillars. This Cistern is nine hundred and seventy
Paces in Circumference. The Walls of it, which are made of squared
Free-stone, are still remaining; and the Ground where it stands, is now
turn’d into a Garden.

Thus is it that I have laid before the Reader a _Plan_ or _Description_
of the Situation of the City of _Constantinople_, by which means the
Situation of the _Wards_ of that City will be more easily discovered.
I hope I shall not be thought to have dwelt too long on this Subject,
since a verbal Delineation of it is the most concise way of coming to
the Knowledge of it. For although _Constantinople_, by reason of the
Eminency of its Situation, affords a most agreeable Prospect at the
remotest Distance, yet thus to particularize the several Parts of the
City, leads the Reader into a more exact and more expeditious Insight
into it, than any other Method of Information whatsoever.



CHAP. XIX.

  _Of the Walls of the City._


The Walls of _Constantinople_, in some Places, are built with squared
Free-stone, in others with rough Stone, and in many Places with an
Intermixture of Brick and Stone together. The Walls on the Land Side
are double, secured with a large Ditch five and twenty Paces broad. One
of the Walls is carry’d somewhat farther than the Length of the Ditch,
and is very strongly fortified. These Walls stand at eighteen Foot
Distance from each other. The inward Wall is very lofty, and more than
twenty Foot in Thickness, upon which are built two hundred and fifty
Towers with Steps, facing the Continent. The outward Wall is not above
half as big, but has the same Number of Towers. As to the Nature of its
Fortification, the Ground that takes up the Distance between the Ditch
and the outward Wall, is higher than the adjoining Side of the Ditch,
and the Ground between the two Walls is higher than that. The Countrey
opening without the Walls is not incumber’d with Buildings, and is
partly hilly, and partly upon the Level, but chiefly upon the latter,
so that you have a delightful Prospect over the Fields before you, and
a very extensive View all about you: And there is no Doubt to be made,
but that _Constantinople_ might be made a terrible strong Place. The
Walls which run round the Sea, are not so high as the Land Walls; they
are a plain Building, but very thick, and well guarded with Towers. On
the Side of the Bay _Ceras_, they are about fifty Paces distant from
the Shore. On the Side of the _Bosporus_ and the _Propontis_, they are
built upon the Shore, except where they are discontinu’d by some Port
or Landing-place. _Zonaras_ relates, that _Theophilus_ the Emperor
not only repaired, but raised these Walls higher, after they had been
much impair’d by Time, and the Dashings of the Sea. This is also
confirm’d to us down even to the present Age; for in many Places of
them, I observ’d the Name of _Theophilus_ the Emperor was cut in very
large Characters. The Emperor _Nicephorus_ was hated by his People for
levying a Tax upon them, which was call’d _Diceraton_, for repairing
these Walls. I learn from the _Constitutions_ of _Justinian_, that in
his Time the Walls were commonly call’d the _old_ and the _new_ Walls,
where he decrees, _That a larger Fee shall be paid the Bearers, and
those who attend a Corpse beyond the_ new _Walls of the City_. What I
would observe from hence is, that the old Walls which were built by
_Constantine_, and that the new Walls which were built by _Theodosius
the Less_, were both standing in the Reign of _Justinian_. The Walls
of old _Byzantium_ I have described in the Beginning of this Book; and
as to the Condition they were in formerly, we may learn more fully
from _Herodian_, who writes, that _Byzantium_ was inclosed with a very
large and a very strong Wall, made of square Stones of a great Size,
so artfully cemented, that it was look’d upon as one compacted Piece
of Work. This is also confirm’d by the Authority of _Pausanias_, who
tells us, _That he never saw the Walls of_ Babylon, _or of_ Memnon,
_nor ever heard of any Person who had seen them: But the Walls of_
Byzantium _and_ Rhodes, says he, _are accounted exceeding strong; and
yet the Walls which inclose_ Messene _are stronger than these_. ’Tis
recorded by some Historians, that the _Athenians_ kept their Treasury
at _Byzantium_, because it was a well fortify’d Place. Whether those
Walls which the Author of the _Ancient Description of the Wards_ calls
the double Walls are the same which we see at _Constantinople_ at
present, or whether they were built by _Theodosius_, I leave it to the
Judgment of the Reader. Thus far I shall give my Opinion, _viz._ That
they do not seem to me to be entirely the same Walls which that Author
describes. For he places the Church of the _Apostles_ in a _Ward_
which is near to the Walls of the City, and places the fourteenth
_Ward_ without the Walls of the City, which at present, if not all of
it, at least the best part of it, is within the Walls. I would add,
that _Theodosius the Less_, who reign’d before _Justinian_, does not
place the _Blachernæ_ within the Walls of the City, and yet I have
the Authority of _Procopius_, that these were apart of the Suburbs in
the Time of _Justinian_, tho’ at present they are enclosed within the
Walls, as were also the seven Towers, and the Church which was built by
_Stadius_, (or rather _Studius_) who was afterwards _Consul_.



CHAP. XX.

  _Of the Gates of_ Constantinople, _and the seven Towers of Old_
  Byzantium.


The Walls on the Side of the Continent have six Gates; one within the
Palace of _Constantine_, another, which is call’d the _Adrianopolitan_
Gate, and a third on the Brow of the seventh Hill. Besides these,
there is the _Porta Aurea_ or _Gilded Gate_, the Gate of _Selymbria_
or _Rhegium_, and the Gate of the seven Towers. On the Side of the Bay
_Ceras_ is the Gate of the _Blachernæ_, at present call’d _Xyloporta_,
seated near the third Angle of the City. There are also the Gates
call’d _Cynigos_, or _Porta Palatina_, _Phanaria_, _Agia_, _Porta
Jubalica_, _Farinaria_, _Lignaria_, _Seminaria_, _Piscaria_, the Gate
of the _Neorium_, and the Gate of _Demetrius_, which stands on the
Ridge of the first Hill. On the Side of the _Propontis_ there are
about five; every one of which has _Stairs_, or a _Landing-place_,
and a Haven for Ships, besides the Gates of the Imperial Palace.
There is also the _Porta Stercoraria_, _Leonina_, _Condescala_, two
of which stand at the Foot of the seventh Hill. Those which have been
principally taken Notice of by Historians, are the Gates of _Cynigos_,
_Rhegium_ and _Xylocerum_, also the Gate of _Eugenius_, the _Porta
Aurea_, that call’d _Myriandros_, the _Porta Condescala_, and _Porta
Carsiana_. In old _Byzantium_ there was the _Thracian Gate_. For we
are told by _Dion_, that the seven Towers reach’d from the _Thracian_
Gate to the Sea, which _Cedrinus_ tells us was the Bay _Ceras_. If
any one spoke any thing in the first of these Towers, it immediately
flew to the second, and so through all the rest, so that you might
hear the Voice distinctly repeated in every one of them. _Pliny_ tells
the very same Story of _Cyzicus_. In that City, says he, near the
_Thracian_ Gate there are seven Towers, which multiply the Voice by
Repetition, or Reiteration, more than seven times. This, he adds, was
look’d upon by the _Grecians_ as somewhat miraculous, and was call’d
the _Echo_. I never found any Mention made of the _Thracian_ Gates in
any Historian but in _Pliny_, though it is not altogether improbable,
that there were such Gates there; for _Apollonius_, in the _first Book_
of his _Argonauticks_, mentions the _Thracian_ Haven in _Cyzicus_; and
_Plutarch_ is very express, that near this City there was a Street
call’d the _Thracian Street_. This is also attested not only by some
more modern Writers of _Constantinople_, but also by _Dion_ and
_Xenophon_; the latter of whom writes, That when _Alcibiades_ appear’d
before the Town, the _Byzantians_ open’d the _Thracian_ Gates to him of
their own Accord.



CHAP. XXI.

  _Of the long Walls._


The Suburbs and Fields adjoining were inclosed with Walls of such an
immoderate Length, that they extended themselves from the City to the
Distance of a two Days Journey. They were built by _Anastasius_ the
Emperor to prevent the Incursions of the _Scythians_ and _Bulgarians_,
reach’d from the _Black Sea_ to the _Propontis_, were forty thousand
Paces remote from the City, and twenty _Roman_ Foot in Breadth. These
Walls were often taken and batter’d by the barbarous Nations, but
repair’d by _Justinian_; and that the Soldiers garrisoned there might
defend them to the best Advantage, he order’d the Passages of one Tower
to another to be stopp’d up, no Entrance being allow’d, but the Door
at the Bottom of the Steps, by which it was ascended; so that by this
means it was sufficiently guarded, though the Enemies Forces were in
the Heart of the City. _Evagrius_ the sacred Historian tells us, that
_Anastasius_ built the long Wall, which was two hundred and eighty
Furlongs distant from the City, that it reach’d from Sea to Sea, was
four hundred Furlongs in Length, that it was a good Security to those
who sail’d out of the _Black Sea_ to the _Propontis_, and that it put a
Stop to the Excursions of the barbarous Nations.


_The End of the First Book._



[Illustration: Page Header Decoration]

THE ANTIQUITIES OF CONSTANTINOPLE.

BOOK II.



CHAP. I.

  _Of the Buildings and Monuments of Old_ Byzantium _and_
  Constantinople, _called_ New Rome.


Having describ’d the Figure and Extent of the City, and having
particularized the Situation of the _seven Hills_, I shall proceed
to consider what Buildings and Monuments _Constantinople_ anciently
had, or now has, and into how many _Wards_ it was divided. For when
I accidentally fell upon this Division of the City into _Wards_, in
an ancient _Manuscript_ written above one thousand Years ago, by a
Gentleman more noble by his Birth than his Writings, I was in hopes,
with some Ease, to have traced out the ancient City; but the barbarous
_Mahometans_ have either so demolish’d those venerable and truly
heroick Ornaments which distinguish’d it, to adorn their own paultry
Houses, or entirely buried them in their own Ruins, that in very few
Places you shall see any Remains of an old Foundation. I omit to
mention the Fires and other Devastations, committed not only by the
Savages of other Countries, but the great Havock lately made by the
_Turks_ themselves, who for the last hundred Years have incessantly
endeavour’d entirely to deface and destroy it, by building upon it in
so different a Manner, that those who have formerly seen some parts of
it, scarce know its ancient Situation. Consider farther the profound
Ignorance of the _Greeks_ at present. There is scarce a Man of them who
either knows, or has so much as an Inclination to know, where their
_Antiquities_ are. Nay, their Priests are so heedless and negligent
in this Respect, that they will not make the least Enquiry themselves
about those Places, where but a few Years since very magnificent
Temples were standing, and so very censorious are they, as to condemn
those that do. However, that I might not pass away my Time uselessly,
while I was in Expectation of Remittances from my Royal Master, for
purchasing all the ancient _Manuscripts_ I could meet with, I made it
my Business, by all the Marks of Antiquity I was capable of observing,
to make what Discoveries I could. In my Description of the ancient
Monuments, I shall observe the same Method I did in the Description of
the Hills. I shall consider them in the Order the Hills stand, or as I
find them in the different _Wards_ of the City; which, like _Old Rome_,
was divided into fourteen _Wards_.



CHAP. II.

  _Of the Ancient Monuments of the first_ Hill, _and of the first_ Ward
  _of the City_.


The first Hill, which _Pliny_ sometimes calls _Chrysoceras_, and
sometimes _Auri Cornu_, (though this was a Mistake, as appears from
what I have wrote concerning the _Thracian Bosporus_) _Dionysius_
a _Byzantian_ calls the _Promontory_ of the _Bosporus_. _There are
two Reasons assigned_, says he, _why ’tis call’d the_ Promontory _of
the_ Bosporus; _the one is, as some say, because a Cow stung with
a Gad-Bee forded over it. Others more fabulously report, that_ Io,
_the Daughter of_ Inachus, _being changed into a Cow, swam across
it, when she went into_ Asia. The same Author, speaking of a Place
call’d _Semystra_, tells us, that _Byzantium_ had been founded there,
had not a Raven snatched a Part of the Sacrifice, they offer’d upon
their landing, out of the Fire, and carry’d it to the _Promontory_
of the _Bosporus_. This they look’d upon as a Token from the Gods,
that they should found their City there. The same Writer, speaking in
another Place of a _Promontory_ call’d _Metopum_, opposite to the
first Hill of _Constantinople_, this _Promontory_, he adds, faces the
City, and lies directly against the _Promontory_ of the _Bosporus_;
and the same Author informs us, that a little above the _Promontory_
of the _Bosporus_, there was an Altar erected to _Minerva_, who was
call’d _Ecbasia_, or _Egressoria_, because those who transplanted the
Colony hither, sally’d out from thence, with a Bravery equal to those,
who fight for their Countrey. We might also call her _Ecbateria_,
under which Name, as _Hesychius_ reports, _Diana_ was worshipped in
_Siphnus_. He adds farther, that upon the same _Promontory_ stood
the old Temple of _Neptune_, and below it, upon the Plain, that the
_Byzantian_ Youth exercised themselves in Horse-racing, driving the
Chariot, Wrestling, and other Martial Sports; and lastly, that at the
Foot of the _Promontory_ stood a Bay call’d _Ceras_, which had three
Havens, fortify’d with three Cittadels, and high Sand-banks, upon it
stood the Castle of _Byzantium_, of which _Xenophon_ takes Notice,
when he tells us, that the Men under his Command, having forc’d their
Way into the Town, the Inhabitants fearing they should be put to the
Sword if their City was taken, some fled to the adjoining _Promontory_,
others to the Sea, and that some of them steering about a long time in
a Fisher-boat, made at last a landing, got into a Tower, from thence
made Signals of Distress, and were assisted at last by the People of
_Chalcedon_. And not only the Castle of old _Byzantium_ was built
upon the first Hill, but Historians assure us, that the Emperours of
_Constantinople_ likewise continu’d a Fortress there, when they tell
us, that to keep off the Enemy from entring the Port, they laid a Boom
across the River, from the Cittadel to the Castle of _Galata_: Nay,
even at this Day, the _Grand Seignor_ has a Cittadel there, fortify’d
with thick Walls, which enclose his spacious Gardens on all sides. In
old _Byzantium_ there was a Place call’d the _Thracian_ Field, lying
upon a Level, and not incumber’d with Houses. It was upon this Plain
that _Xenophon_ drew up in Military Order the _Grecian_ Army. He
informs us, in his Book of his _Hellenici_, that this Field was near
the _Thracian_ Gate; they open’d, says he, the Gates adjoining the
_Thracian_ Field: And in the 7ᵗʰ Book of the _Expedition of Cyrus_,
speaking of a Place, seated near the Walls of _Byzantium_, where
he ranged his Army in order of Battle, he tells us, that the most
convenient Place to draw up, or muster an Army is, the _Thracian_
Field; because, as he goes on, ’tis free of Houses, and upon a Plain.
I observ’d before, that the seven Towers of _Byzantium_ reach’d from
the _Thracian_ Gate to the Sea; _Georgius Cedrinus_ asserts, that
they reach’d to the Northern-Sea, that is, to the Bay call’d _Ceras_.
_Herodotus_ attests, that in old _Byzantium_ stood an Altar erected
to _Diana Orthosia_, and a Temple dedicated to _Bacchus_. _Darius_,
says he, _upon viewing the Black Sea, came back to the Bridge, and
erected upon the_ Bosporus _two Stone Columns, on which he order’d to
be engraven the_ Assyrian _and_ Greek _Alphabets. The_ Byzantians
_afterwards removed them into the City, near to the Altar of_ Diana
Orthosia. _The_ Greek _Alphabet was what they retain’d, and made use
of. The Column with the_ Assyrian _Characters they left remaining
near the Temple of_ Bacchus, _where they had fix’d it_. _Laurentius_
translates the _Greek_ Word _Orthosia_, _Erecta_, but he had translated
it more properly, had he call’d her _Erectoria_, or _Erectrix_, because
as being the Goddess of Child-birth she _raises up_, or _recovers_
Women in Labour. This I collect to be the true Sense of the Word,
not only from several Authors, but from _Plutarch_, who in his Book
of _Rivers_, has this Story: _Proud_ Teuthras, _King of_ Mysia, says
he, _with his Retinue of Spearmen chas’d a Boar, which fled into the
Temple of_ Diana Orthosia _to implore her Assistance. As they were
all driving furiously into the Temple, the Boar cry’d out with an
audible human Voice_, Let your Compassion, Royal Sir, be shewn to
one whom _Diana_ brought into the World. Teuthras _enraged at this,
slew the Creature_. Diana _resenting the Affront, threw the King into
a Phrenzy, and punished him with ulcerous Sores. He could not bear
the Indignity of his Punishment, and so retired to the Mountains.
His Mother_ Lysippa, _immediately, with the Prophet_ Polyidius, _who
inform’d her of the Occasion of her Son’s Sufferings, hastens in Search
of him, and by sacrificing to_ Diana _some Oxen, reconciles her to
him. When she perceiv’d her Son return’d to his Senses, she erected an
Altar to_ Diana Orthosia, _and near it placed a Golden Boar, with a
Man’s Head upon his Shoulders_. Before the Destruction of _Byzantium_
by _Severus_, both the Altar and the Boar were standing, in the first
Valley of the first Hill. Since _Constantine_ rebuilt the City, the
first Hill included in it the first _Ward_, which contain’d the House
of _Placidia Augusta_, that also of the most noble _Marina_, and
the Baths of _Arcadius_. I learn this from the ancient Division of
the City into _Wards_, though I must confess myself at a Loss, to
know in what Part of the City the first _Ward_ began, nor can I make
any such Discovery from the Remains of any ancient Buildings, which
are now entirely destroy’d. However, thus much may be inferr’d from
_Procopius_, who has it upon Record, that when you sail from the
_Propontis_ to the Eastern Part of the City, there stand the publick
Baths, built by _Arcadius_. In this Place, says he, _Justinian_ built a
Court, which was encompassed with so calm a Sea, that when you walk’d
in the Galleries, you might discourse audibly with the Sailors. It made
a very beautiful, a very delightful, and most magnificent Prospect:
It was fann’d with gentle Breezes, supported with lofty Columns, and
laid with the most curious Marble, which like the Sun, reflected a
most amazing Lustre: It was also adorn’d with abundance of Marble and
brazen Statues, finish’d to the nicest Perfection; a lovely Scene to
the Spectators! The Reader, had he seen it, would have taken it to
have been the Work of _Phidias_, _Lysippus_, or _Praxiteles_. Upon a
high Pillar of _Porphyry_ Marble, in the same Place, stood the Statue
of the Empress _Theodora_, addressing herself, as it were, to him for
building so noble a Structure. The Beauty of the Column is exceedingly
surprising, yet does it by no means come up to that inconceivable
inexpressible Gracefulness and Dignity you see in the Statue. From
these Words of _Procopius_, as I would observe by the By, that that
Pillar now landing upon a Descent, lying Eastward of the _Grand
Seignor_’s Palace, is not the same with that upon which _Theodora_
was erected, as some are of Opinion it is; because it is neither of a
_Porphyry_ Colour, and is at too remote a Distance form the Court; so
would I have the Reader understand, that the first _Ward_ contain’d in
it the Length of the first Hill, which is bounded on three Sides by the
Sea. I find not only in many _Historians_, but also in _Suidas_ the
_Grammarian_, that the Statue of _Arcadia_, the second Wife of _Zeno_,
stood in the _Arcadian_ Baths, near the Places call’d the _Bathra_,
from the Stairs by which you ascend them. I find also in that Place two
Statues of _Verina_, the Wife of _Leo Magnus_, one in the Northern Part
of the City, near the Church of St. _Agathonicus_ beyond the _Bathra_,
the other on that Side of the City where stands the Church of St.
_Barbara_: The first was erected by _Leo_ in his Life-time, the second
since his Death; when upon the Flight of _Zeno_, his Son in Law, his
Brother _Basiliscus_ was crown’d Emperor in his stead. I have reason
to believe, when I consider the natural Situation and Order in which
the _Wards_ stand, that Part of the second _Ward_ was inclos’d in the
Palace: For this _Ward_, according to the ancient Description of it,
at its first Entrance stood upon a Level; at some Distance it rose by
a gentle Ascent, and at last, with very deep Precipices, fell into the
Sea. I am of Opinion, that these Precipices descended on that Spot
of Ground where the Kitchens, and _Bagnio’s_ of the _Grand Seignor_
stand at present. But where-ever they might stand in ancient Times,
all the steep Places that were formerly enclosed within the _Palace_
are now levell’d, where now there stands an old Church commonly call’d
_Sophia the Less_. Some of the most ancient Inhabitants affirm it to
be the Church of St. _Irene_, which _Socrates_ tells us was built by
_Constantine the Great_. I take it to be the same Church which the
People of the second _Ward_ call the _Old Church_. I have Reason also
to believe, that the other Part of the second _Ward_ stood without
the _Palace_, from the Situation of the _Churches_ and _Bagnio’s_,
which the second _Ward_ encloses. For _Zonaras_ and other Historians
assert, that the Church, which formerly went by the Name of the _Great
Church_, was afterwards call’d the Church of St. _Sophia_, which every
body knows stood without the Enclosure of the Palace. I have reason to
conjecture also, that the Palace of _Maximinus_ formerly stood within
the Verge of the Court, from the following Inscription made in its
Commendation by _Cyrus_, once a _Consul_ and Nobleman of _Rome_.

  _Great_ Maximinus _rais’d this noble Pile;
  From hence to Lengths unmeasurable I view
  Unbounded Prospects; for behind me stand
  The City, and_ Bithynia’s _beauteous Towns.
  The swelling Ocean rolls its Waves before me;
  When near my Doors, it moves but slowly on,
  Delighted to behold the lovely Landscape
  Of blooming Trees, gay Seats, and floating Ships,
  The City’s rising Towers, and pleasing Site._



CHAP. III.

  _Of the Church of St._ Sophia.


The modern Writers among the _Greeks_ will have it, that the Church of
St. _Sophia_ was first built by the Emperor _Constantius_, the Son of
_Constantine the Great_, and arch’d at Top, not with Brick-work, but
a wooden Roof. In the Time of _Theodosius_, when the second _Synod_
was held there, the _Arians_ rising in Sedition, burnt it. It was
after rebuilt by _Theodosius the Great_, and beautified with Arches
of a cylindrick Form. The same _Writer_ tells us, that it was burnt
a second time in the Reign of _Justinian_; but _Sozomen_, an ancient
and creditable Author, records it, that in the Time of _Theodosius
the Less_, when there were warm Debates in the _great Church_, about
expelling St. _Chrysostom_ the _Synod_, it was all on a sudden in
a Blaze, those who adhered to him throwing Fire into it, with an
Intention to burn down the Church, and to destroy all that were in
it. _Procopius_ will have it, that it was first burnt down in the
Reign of _Justinian_, who rebuilt it in the same Figure it stands at
present; but he does not tell us, whether it stands on the same Spot
of Ground or not; so that it remains doubtful from this Author, who
is not so much to be depended upon, though he has a Catalogue of the
Names of the Persons of whom _Justinian_ purchas’d the Houses where it
stood before the Fire. An _Ancient Description of the City_, wrote
before _Justinian_’s Time, seems to fix it in another Place; for the
_great Church_ and the _old Church_, the Author places in the second
_Ward_, the _Forum_ of _Augustus_ in the fourth, which I shall make
appear stood near the Church of St. _Sophia_. _Zonaras_ says, that
_Justinian_ built it much larger from the old Foundation; but ’tis
much to be question’d, whether _Justinian_ purchas’d the neighbouring
Houses for its Enlargement. As to the _Forum_ of _Augustus_, and the
_great Church’s_ being placed in different _Wards_, we cannot from
hence conclude, that they did not stand near one another. So that when
_Justinian_ had enlarged and beautify’d it, and adorned it with a great
Variety of Metal-work, when he had built the Walls and Roof with Brick,
and to strengthen them the more, had cramp’d them in many Places with
Iron-work, using no Rafters in the whole Fabrick for fear of Fire;
although it has hitherto escaped the Flames, yet has it been often
damaged and endanger’d by several Accidents, even from the Time of its
Rebuilding. For the Eastern Arch before it was finish’d, bore with its
Weight so hard upon the Pillars, that in all Probability it had fell,
had not the Architect been very expeditious in finishing it; when
bearing upon its own _Curvature_, it laid less heavy upon the Pillars
which supported it. The two Northern and Southern _Arches_ bore so hard
upon the Pillars and Foundation, that the Tops of the _Pillars_ began
to fly; and had sunk, if the Workmen had not with the greatest Skill
taken them down, and afterwards replaced them, when the Greenness and
Moisture of the Building was somewhat abated. The Church however, at
the Emperor’s great Expence, and by the indefatigable Industry of the
Workmen, was at last finish’d; yet in his own Time it was grievously
shock’d by an Earthquake, by which, as _Agathius_ writes, the Tower
above the Roof was much shatter’d in the Middle of it; so that the
Emperor was obliged to repair and strengthen it, raising it much
higher than it was before. This was done when _Anthemius_ the first
Architect was dead. However young _Isidorus_, and some other Architects
who succeeded him, notwithstanding the Errors committed in the former
Building, did not judge it necessary to take down the Eastern or
Western Arches, but widen’d the North and South Arches, and so visibly
enlarged them, that the whole Building seem’d more regular and uniform;
so that it was evident to the Eye of the Spectator, that the Sides of
the Church, which terminated with their Arches in the Roof, were of
an equal Dimension; and that the Architects had with so much Skill
contracted the vast Vacuity of the Body of the Church into so narrow a
Compass at the Top, that the whole Structure seem’d very proportionate
and agreeable. Above the Arches, in the Middle of the Church, they
raised a _Dome_ or _Cupola_ to a very great Height, which was regular,
and not so round at Top as usual, but more spiked, and better contrived
for the Security of the Building. _Zonaras_ writes, That the _great
Church_ being finished and consecrated; it happen’d that the Eastern
Arch was thrown down by an Earthquake, which broke the Pulpit and the
Communion-Table, but was afterwards rebuilt by _Justinian_, who raised
it twenty five Foot higher than it was before. The same Report, almost
Word for Word, is given by _Cedrinus_. He also built other Pillars
proportionable to the Weight of the Arch which bore upon them. On
the Outside of the Church he built a Pair of Winding-steps against
the Pillars, near to the Church, which rising from the Ground to the
Roof of it, support the Pillars, and the Arches. Other Writers, but
of less Note, will have it, that by the Earth-quake above-mention’d
the Roof of the Church was thrown down, but that the Arches stood
secure, that the Emperor rebuilt the Roof, but lower than before by
twenty five Foot. I could, for my own part, bear with this Relation, if
these Historians would agree with me, that the Church was afterwards
shock’d with other Earth-quakes, and then built lower than it stood
before. For when _Evagrius_ tells us that _Justinian_ raised it to
such an Height, that within side of it you could scarce see the Top,
and that the Descent was so deep, that it was dangerous to look from
the Height of it downwards, it is very probable, that _Justinian_ only
raised it to its former Height. _Cedrinus_ relates, that _Basilius_
the Emperor gave Orders for repairing, and strengthening the great
Western Arch, which was very much shatter’d by an Earth-quake, and
likely to fall. _Nicephorus_ inveighs bitterly against the Empress
_Anna_, who in the Reign of _Catacosmus_, sacrilegiously robb’d the
Church of all its Furniture and Ornaments, and exclaims heavily, that
the Tyranny, Oppression, and the different Sects and Opinions of those
Times, were the chief Occasion of the Destruction of this Church: For,
as he subjoins, one Midnight when the Sky was very clear, one of the
Eastern Arches fell to the Ground, and brought that Part of the Roof,
which it supported, after it, which broke down the Pulpit, the Images
which adorn’d it, and demolished the middle Galleries. He adds farther,
that it was the Opinion of many in those Times, that if _Andronicus_
the Emperor had not built Buttresses on the East-side of the Church,
it had wholly sunk into Ruines. _Evagrius_ determines the Length of
the Church in the following manner: From the Arch, where the bloodless
Sacrifice is offer’d, to the Gate opposite to it, it is an hundred
and ninety Foot long; from North to South it is a hundred and fifteen
Foot broad; and from the Pavement to the Center of the Roof, it is a
hundred and eighty Foot high. It was dangerous for me to measure its
Length from East to West, so that I was obliged to have the Dimensions
of it taken for me by a _Turk_, who made his Report, that the Church
was two hundred and thirteen Foot in Breadth, two hundred and forty in
Length, and from the Pavement to the highest Curvature of the Arches,
a hundred and forty two Foot in Height. The Fellow never measured the
Roof; If he had taken the Height of it true, he had found but a small
Difference between his own Account and that of _Evagrius_. Should the
Reader desire to be inform’d more at large of the Dimensions, and the
Architecture of this Church, as it stood in former Times, let him
consult _Procopius_, _Agathius_, _Paulus Florus_, and _Evagrius_. What
the Architecture and Dimensions of it are at present, I shall, as far
as my Observations have reach’d, describe more fully in the following
Chapter.



CHAP. IV.

  _A Description of the Church of St._ Sophia, _as it now appears_.


The Walls and Roof of this Church are built with Brick. The Inside of
the Walls of the Church are incrusted with elegant Marble of several
Kinds. All its Materials are the most valuable Productions of Nature,
so that the Prospect of it employs the Thoughts of the Spectator with
Delight and Admiration. The Roof of it is a surprizing Piece of gilded
_Mosaick_ Work, which reflects such a Lustre upon the Eye, that even
the _Barbarians_ who behold it, are wonderfully taken with the Sight
of it. This Roof is supported with eight Pillars, four of the largest
and tallest of which bear up the four Arches which support the Roof.
Two of these Arches, _viz._ the Northern and Southern, bear at the
Bottom of their Curvature upon a thin Wall full of Windows, which Wall
is strengthen’d by two Ranges of Pillars standing one above another.
In the lower Range stand eight Pillars, which rise from the Pavement,
the six above them support the thin Wall. The Eastern and Western
Arches have neither a Wall nor a Pillar to support them, but are so
open, that they make the Body of the Church appear more large. For
these Arches projecting beyond the former, bear upon four other Arches,
which are supported by two small and two large Pillars: For the four
large Pillars do not only bear up the four great Arches, but every
one of them does also support two small Arches, one of which extends
itself length-ways, the other cross-ways of the Church; by which
means the Church is lengthen’d and widen’d to a great Distance; for
on the East and West Side of it there are two _Semi-domes_ which are
join’d to the _Cupola_ in such a Manner, that they have the same Roof
within the Church, though without it the Roofs seem to be distinct.
These _Semi-domes_ are a great Ornament to the _Cupola_, which rises
very highly above them. The Breadth of the Church is widen’d beyond
the _Dome_ with Arches and Pillars, and the Northern and Southern
Wall, which form the three upper and three lower Galleries, which are
incrusted with elegant Marble of different Kinds, the Roof of them
being cover’d with _Moresco Mosaick_ Work, finely gilded. Every Arch
which lies across the Church bears only upon one Pillar, for one End
of their Curvatures is supported by the outward Wall of the Church,
which bears upon large Pillars, from whence there rise four Arches,
which on both Sides of the Church are supported by the Wall. Two of
these Arches bear up the Roof of the three lower Galleries, and the
other two support the Roof of the three upper Galleries, the Sides of
which bear upon Walls, and Arches, and Pillars. Hence it is, that if
we consider the Inside of the Church by itself, as enclosed by its
Pillars and Columns, we discover it to be of an oval Figure; whereas if
we view the whole Space of it without these Pillars, it is a perfect
Square. For the upper and the lower Galleries, which are the Wings of
the Church, adjoin to it in such a Manner, that if we measure it from
the Pavement to the Bottom of the Curvature of the upper Galleries,
’tis of a square Figure, but as contracted within the Enclosure of
the four large and the four smaller Pillars, as far as the Curvature
of the four Arches of the _Dome_, it is entirely of an oval Form. The
Form of the Galleries is as follows: On three Sides of them they are
built in a square Manner: The fourth Side of them, which looks into
the Church, is of an oval Figure, as is the Church itself. The Roofs
of these Galleries are supported with Arches and Columns. I shall
give the Reader a Description of three of them, by which means he may
easily form a Judgment of the rest, for they are all of one Form.
Those I shall take Notice of, are the three upper Galleries on the
North Side of the Church. The first of these Galleries has two Fronts,
and looks both Eastward and Northward. The two Sides of this Gallery
rise from the Wall of the Church, and end in an Arch. In the Middle
of each Side of it there are three square Columns five Foot and nine
Inches in Circumference, which are made the Jambs of the Windows. These
Pillars support three other square Pillars, which are all made of
blue and white Marble. The Side which faces the Body of the Church is
adorn’d with six Pillars of green Marble, standing below the Arch which
supports an Eastern _Semi-dome_, whose Shafts at the Bottom of them
are seven Foot and eight Digits in Compass. The _Intercolumniations_
of these Pillars being little less than seven Foot and eleven Digits
wide, are strengthen’d with Marble _Closures_ which are four Foot
high, so that those who lean upon them, have a full View of all the
upper and lower Part of the Church. That Side which parts the first
and second Gallery, reaching from the outward Wall Northward, to the
great Pillar which supports the _Dome_, is forty four Foot in Length,
part of which is adorn’d with Pillars, and an Arch which supports the
_Dome_. You pass through this into the second Gallery, the Breadth of
which is twenty four Foot, and it is made up of the Arch of a Pillar,
and a Wall which is a part of one of the Wings of the Church, and
extends itself as far as the Roof of the _Dome_. This Gallery, at both
Ends of it, is born up by Arches and Walls. In the Middle of it, it
is supported by four white Pillars speckled with blue, the Shafts of
which are seven Foot in Compass. ’Tis of a square Figure, and, as I
observ’d, bears upon Arches and Walls. These Arches, at one End of
them, rise behind two of the large Pillars which support the _Dome_;
at the other End they bear upon Pillars which rise within Side of the
Walls, and support the four large Pillars. The outer Side of this
Gallery is supported with eight square Pillars, which are six Foot in
Compass. There rises in the Middle of them a Pillar of a larger Size.
These Pillars are instead of Jambs for the Windows; and above them
there are other Pillars, which are also Jambs to other Windows. These
Windows, which below and above are sixteen in Number, do very much
enlighten this second or Middle Gallery. The Front of this Gallery,
facing the Church, is beautified with six Pillars of green Marble. The
_Intercolumniations_ of them, like those of the first Gallery, have
their Marble _Closures_ at Bottom. From this middle Gallery you pass
through an Arch into the third Gallery, which is much like the first
in its Length, Windows, Jambs and Pillars. The Roof of it is supported
with four Pillars, and the Side of it towards the Church with six green
Pillars. There are also four green Marble Pillars which support one
of the Western _Semi-domes_ which stands between two other Pillars.
These Pillars stand two and two together, and between them are rais’d
two lesser Pillars, made after the _Ionic_ Order. At the Western Door
of the Church there are instead of a _Vestibulum_, two _Portico’s_,
the lower of which lies upon a Level with the Church itself. The upper
leads to the Womens Galleries. Both of them in Length the Wideness of
the Church, and twenty eight Foot in Breadth. The _Portico_ over it is
situate between the Pillars which support the Western _Semi-dome_ and
the Windows. For both in the Inside and Outside of it, ’tis supported
with eight Pillars, between which, the Windows both in the upper and
lower Galleries, cast a great Light into the Church. There is nothing
parts this _Portico_ and the Womens Galleries, but the Pillars which
bear up the Roof of the _Portico_; for the Pavement of the _Portico_
lies upon the same Level with the Pavement of the Galleries. The Inside
of the lower _Portico_ is enclosed with Walls, which are lined with
a delectable Variety of Marble, and is cover’d at Top with curious
_Moresco Mosaick_ Work, very beautifully gilded. On the East Side
the _Portico_ are Doors which open into the Church; on the West End
of it you go out at five Brass folding Doors into a _Portico_ that
stands without the Church, and from thence you pass into a Court,
where there are several Springs constantly running, to which there is
a very deep Descent by many Steps. At the Ends of these _Portico’s_
there are two Places of Entrance into the Church, one on the Northern
Side of it, and another with six folding Doors on the South. These
Doors formerly were all of Brass, at present three only of them are
so, but curiously wrought. The Church has also two folding Doors on
the East Side of it. There are also some Doors in the Sides of it,
which were formerly open’d, but are now kept shut. The Inside of the
Church is very light, by reason of the Multitude of Windows about it.
The high Wall, which between the great Arches and the _Cupola_ is of
a circular Figure, let in the Light at forty Windows. The Walls under
the Arches are enlighten’d with twenty six Windows, the Middle of the
Galleries with thirty two, and the Ends of them with more than twenty.
I shall take no Notice of the Lights of the two Western and the four
lower Galleries, nor those of the two _Semi-domes_, nor those of the
_Sanctum Sanctorum_, and the upper _Portico_, which I omitted to count,
by reason of the great Number of them. The largest Entrance into this
Church is on the West Side of it, where you do not ascend the Pavement
as formerly, and as the _Romans_ did their _Pantheon_, nor do you
descend into it by five Steps. You go up to the Top of the Church by
four Pair of winding Stairs, not winding round in the Manner of a
Cockle-shell, as _Cedrinus_ reports, but turning more upon the Square,
and work’d by the Line. These Stairs rise with a very easy Ascent,
and are cut out of large Marble Tables. Every Turning of these Stairs
is nineteen Foot and a half high, and five Foot broad. Above these
there is another Pair of winding Stairs which reach to the Top of the
Church. You must ascend these when you go to the upper Galleries, and
_Portico’s_. If the Reader will give himself the Trouble to compare
what I have said of the Church of St. _Sophia_, with what has been
written by _Procopius_ and _Agathius_ upon that Subject, he may easily
discover, that the Ruins of what was built by _Justinian_ have not been
so great as the _Turks_ pretend, who tell you, that the Church was
formerly much larger, and that several Parts of it have been pull’d
down by the _Barbarians_, and that there is scarce a tenth Part of it
remaining at this Day. This Story would carry a Face of Probability
in it, if they meant, that the Palaces, the Houses of the Priests and
the Noblemen, which were built about it, had been demolish’d by Fire,
and the Ravage of those People, otherwise I am convinc’d ’tis a gross
Mistake; for I saw every Part of the old Church standing, mention’d
by _Procopius_, except one _Portico_. For whereas _Procopius_ writes,
that the Church had two _Portico’s_ at each End of it, there is
none, remaining at present, but only that at the West End. ’Tis very
probable that the other was thrown down by an Earthquake, and that in
the Room of it, the Inhabitants erected a large Lump of Building of
square Stone, which is now standing, to support the East end of the
Church. This Lump of Stone you would take to be a Piece of a craggy
Rock, though it does not seem, by reason of the Earthquakes, to be of
the same Height as it was when it was first built, yet is it as near
as high, as _Evagrius_ mentions it to be. Since which, to fortify the
labouring Pillars, it is lengthen’d with four Walls. These Walls are
more than twenty Foot long and eight Foot broad, rising to the Height
of the great Pillars, and seem, to speak in the Terms of Architecture,
to be Wings to the Church, or rather Buttresses, by which the North
and South Side of it are strengthen’d and supported. Both Ends of the
Church, which project beyond the eight Pillars, extending themselves
each into a _Semi-dome_, and rising at Top into an arched Form, are
yet remaining. The same lower Galleries for the Men, and the same
upper Galleries for the Women, the whole Roof, the same Walls and
Pillars, the same Dimensions of the Church, as originally beautify’d
and adorn’d, are still in Being. There are indeed some Flaws in the
Building, occasion’d by those who opposed the setting up of Images in
the Church. In short, the whole, and every part of it, is to be seen
at present; and it is despoiled of nothing, except a little of the
Metal-work, which shews itself in great abundance through the whole
Church. The _Sanctum Sanctorum_, formerly holy and unpolluted, into
which the Priests only were suffer’d to enter, is yet standing, though
there is nothing remaining of the Jewels and precious Stones which
adorn’d it, as having been plunder’d by its sacrilegious Enemies. That
inimitable Table, given to the Church by its Founder _Justinian_,
made of the different Materials of Gold, Silver, all Kinds of Wood,
costly Stones, which either the Sea or the whole World could produce,
and which was embellish’d and enrich’d with infinite Offerings of
Emperors, Popes, Princes, and Ladies of the first Quality; among whom
was _Pulcheria_, the Daughter of _Arcadius_, and Sister of _Theodosius
the Less_, is at present despoil’d of all its fine Decorations.
_Sozomen_ tells us, that this Table was a very beautiful and surprizing
Ornament to the Church, which was endow’d with very ample Donations,
the _Mahometan_ Priests being now in Possession of them. They have
eleven hundred Shops and publick Houses, situate in the best Markets
of the City, which pay them a constant Revenue or Rent, without any
Deductions, for their Maintenance and Support.



CHAP. V.

  _Of the Statues discover’d on one Side of the Church of St._ Sophia.


On the Side of the Church of St. _Sophia_, says _Suidas_, were
discovered more than seventy Statues of the _Grecian_ Deities, the
Figures of the twelve Signs of the _Zodiack_, and no less than eighty
Statues of Christian Princes and Emperors, which, when _Justinian_
had commanded to be placed in several Parts of the City, he built
the great Church. I could give the Reader an Account of the Names of
these Deities from an unknown Author, who has wrote a Treatise of
_Constantinople_, and the adjacent Countrey; but I have found him
faulty in so many of his Narrations, that I cannot depend upon his
Authority.



CHAP. VI.

  _Of the_ Pharo _on the Promontory_ Ceras, _and the_ Mangana.


_Ammianus Marcellinus_ writes, that there was built near the Promontory
_Ceras_, a high Watch-Tower, which was call’d _Pharos_, and was a Guide
to the Ships at a great Distance. The Situation of this _Pharos_, in
all Probability, was near the Church of St. _Sophia_. For from what
Part of the City could it spread a more convenient and diffusive
Light to those who sail’d out of the _Bosporus_ and the _Propontis_?
_Dionysius_ calls it the _Bosporian Promontory_, and tells us, that
_Io_, the Daughter of _Inachus_, provoked by _Juno_’s Resentment
against her, passed over from thence into _Asia_. The Place call’d the
_Mangana_ was their Armoury, where they kept their Ordnance. It stood
in the Imperial Precinct, or by it, near the Chops of the _Bosporus_.
The Emperor _Constantine_, Surnamed _Monomachus_, built a handsome and
large Monastery, which is also call’d _Mangana_, in Honour of the noble
_Martyr_ St. _George_. _Alexius Comnenus_, when he was ill of the Gout,
was carry’d to the great Palace, which stands in the Eastern part of
the City; but when his Physicians judg’d it not to be so wholsome an
Air, he was removed into the Palace of the _Mangana_.



CHAP. VII.

  _Of the_ Bagnio’s _of_ Zeuxippus _and its Statues_.


These _Bagnio’s_ were so call’d, as _Cedrinus_ relates, because they
were built in a Place, where formerly had stood the Temple of _Jupiter
Zeuxippus_. This is said of them by _Eusebius_, who writes, _That there
are some of Opinion, that the fine Bathing-place at_ Constantinople
_took its Name from the famous Painter_ Zeuxes, _whose Pieces adorn’d
it_. I collect that it stood near the Church of St. _Sophia_, not only
from the _Treatise_ of the _ancient Description_ of the City, which
places them both in the same _Ward_, but also from the Fire which
happen’d in the Reign of _Justinian_, and burnt down, as _Procopius_
observes, the Church of St. _Sophia_, and the adjacent Buildings, as
the _Bagnio_ of _Zeuxippus_, and the House of Entrance before the
Palace; and _Zonaras_ writes, that _Severus_ the Emperor join’d it
to the _Hippodrom_, and built it on the same Spot of Ground, where
formerly had stood the Temple of _Jupiter_. _Leontius_, a more ancient
and judicious Historian, does not join it to the _Hippodrom_, but makes
it to stand near it, as appears by his Verses inscrib’d over a Door of
a House, situate between the _Zeuxippum_ and the _Hippodrom_.

An Inscription of _Leontius_ upon a House call’d the _Zeuxippum_ and
the _Hippodrom_.

  _Between_ Zeuxippus’ _cool refreshing Baths,
  And the fam’d_ Hippodrom_’s swift Course I stand.
  Let the Spectator, when he baths himself,
  Or sees the struggling Steed panting for Breath,
  Pay a kind Visit, to enhanse his Pleasures;
  He’ll find a hearty Wellcome at my Table.
  Or if more manly Sports his Mind affects,
  Practise the rough Diversions of the_ Stadia.

_Cedrinus_ relates, that in this _Bagnio_ there was a pleasant Variety
of Prospects of surprizing Art, both in Marble and Stone-work, in
Statues of Brass, and Figures of Persons of Antiquity, who seem’d
to want nothing but a Soul to animate and enliven them. Among these
celebrated Pieces of the most exquisite Workmanship, was the Statue of
old _Homer_, in a thoughtful Posture, just as he was, his Hands folded
in his Breast, his Beard carelessly hanging down, his Hair very thin
before, his Face wrinkled with Age, and the Cares of the World; his
Nose well proportion’d, his Eyes fix’d in their Sockets, as is usual
with blind Persons, which he was generally look’d upon to be. Over his
close Coat hung a loose Garment, and under his Feet, upon the Pedestal
of the Pillar, was a Bridle in Brass. This Place was also beautify’d
with the brazen Statues of all those renown’d Personages who had
been famous for Wisdom, Poetry, Oratory or Courage, throughout the
World, but were all destroy’d by Fire. Among these were the Statues
of _Deiphobus_, _Æschines_, _Demosthenes_, _Aristotle_, _Euripides_,
_Hesiod_, _Theocritus_, _Simonides_, _Anaximenes_, _Calchas_,
_Pyrrhus_, _Amymone_; of _Sappho_, _Apollo_, _Venus_, _Chrysa_, _Julius
Cæsar_, _Plato_, _Hermaphroditus_, _Herinna_, _Terpander_, _Pericles_,
_Pythagoras_, _Stesichorus_, _Democritus_; of _Hercules_, _Aurora_,
_Æneas_, _Creusa_, _Helenus_, _Andromachus_, _Menelaus_, _Helena_,
_Ulysses_, _Hecuba_, _Cassandra_, _Polyxena_, _Ajax_, _Paris_, and his
_Oenone_; of _Milo_, _Dares_ and _Entellus_, _Charidemus_, _Melampus_,
_Panthous_, _Demogeron_, _Isocrates_, _Amphiaraus_, _Sarpedon_,
_Achilles_, _Mercury_, _Apuleius_, _Diana_, _Pherecydes_, _Heraclitus_,
_Cratinus_, _Menander_, _Amphitryon_, _Thucydides_, _Herodotus_,
_Pindar_, _Xenophon_, _Alcmæon_, _Pompey_ and _Virgil_. There were also
many other Statues which have been describ’d in Verse by _Christodorus_
a Poet of _Thebes_, or, as others report, a Native of _Coptos_ in
_Ægypt_, which, were it not a Work of Prolixity, I would explain to the
Reader. There stood near the _Bagnio_ call’d _Zeuxippum_, a small Bath,
taken Notice of by _Leontius_ in the following Lines:

  _Let not thy stately Walls, O proud_ Zeuxippum,
  _Resent the Meanness of this little Bath.
  In Heaven’s high Tower, near the Constellation
  Of_ Ursa Major _shines the_ Polar _Star_.

There is nothing of the _Zeuxippum_ remaining at present, nor of many
other fine _Bagnio’s_, although we have many Inscriptions relating to
them; as of that famous one celebrated by _Agathius_, in which _Venus_
is said to have bathed her self; also of another call’d _Didymum_,
in which both Sexes used to wash, describ’d in Verse by _Paulus
Silentiarius_, and a third made memorable by an Inscription of the
learned _Leontius_. Besides these, there was another named _Cupido_,
describ’d by the ingenious _Marianus_; yet are all of them either
entirely ruin’d, or so defaced by the _Mahometans_, that you cannot
discover who built them, or to whom they belong’d.



CHAP. VIII.

  _Of the Hospitals of_ Sampson _and_ Eubulus.


_There was built_, as _Procopius_ says, _a Hospital for the Relief of
poor and sick People. It was founded in ancient Times by a holy Man,
whose Name was_ Sampson. _But it did not escape the Flames, occasion’d
by a riotous Mob, which burnt down that and the Church of St._ Sophia.
_It was rebuilt by_ Julian, _who beautify’d and enlarged it with a
Multitude of small handsome Apartments, and afterwards endow’d it with
a yearly Stipend, for the Support and Comfort of the miserable and
distressed. But the good Emperor not being content with this Oblation
he had made to God, with the Co-assistance of his Imperial Consort_
Theodora, _built over-against it two other Hospitals on the same
Ground, where formerly stood the Houses of_ Isidorus _and_ Arcadius.
Thus far _Procopius_. From whence I would observe, that the Hospital
of _Sampson_ was not far from the Church of St. _Sophia_, and have
read in the History of an unknown Author, that it stood over-against
it. I am confirm’d in this Opinion by the Authority of _Zonaras_, who
tells us in the like Manner, that there was a Fire occasion’d by a
Faction, which burnt down the _great Church_, that of St. _Irene_, the
Hospital of _Eubulus_, the _Chalca_, the _Bagnio_ of _Severus_, call’d
the _Zeuxippum_, and many other Buildings. This is farther attested
by _Cedrinus_, who speaking of the same Fire, tells us, _That a great
Part of the City, the Churches of St._ Sophia _and St._ Irene, _the
Hospitals of_ Sampson _and_ Eubulus, _with the sick People inhabiting
them, as also the_ Augustean _Gate-house of the_ Basilica, _the_
Chalca, _the two_ Portico’s, _as far as the_ Forum, _the_ Octogon _and
the_ Bagnio _of_ Zeuxippus, _were destroy’d by Fire_. After I had made
the former Quotation from the printed Works of _Procopius_, I lighted
by chance upon a Manuscript of him, wherein I was inform’d, that the
Hospital of _Sampson_ stood between the two Churches of St. _Sophia_
and St. _Irene_.



CHAP. IX.

  _Of the Statue of_ Eudoxia Augusta, _for which St._ Chrysostom _was
  sent into Banishment_.


SOCRATES and _Sozomen_, Writers of sacred History, tells us, that
a Silver Statue of _Eudoxia Augusta_ was erected upon a _Porphyry_
Pillar on the South Side of the Church of St. _Sophia_, though at
some Distance from it, near the _Senate-House_. The People commonly
paid their Homage and Acclamations to this Statue. There were publick
Entertainments of Dancing, and other mimical Gestures acted before it,
according to a Custom which had long prevail’d, of paying Adoration to
the Images of Princes. St. _Chrysostom_ reflecting upon this Practice,
as contrary to the Precepts of the Christian Religion, publickly
condemn’d it in a _Sermon_. _Eudoxia_ believing her self to be closely
struck at in that Discourse, banish’d him. I should here take Notice
of the _Miliarium_ and the _Basilica_, as being near the Church of St.
_Sophia_, but then I shall invert the Method I proposed to observe.



CHAP. X.

  _Of those Parts of the City which are contain’d in the third_ Ward.


The third _Ward_ is discover’d to have been that Space of Ground upon
which stood the _Hippodrom_, the House of _Abraham Bassa_, the Gate of
_Leo_, and the Haven which the Inhabitants call the _Caterga Limena_,
where the Three-oar’d Galleys used to anchor, and so on to the Top of
the second Hill, as far as the _Forum_ of _Constantine_. I made this
Observation, not only from the Order the _Wards_ stand in, but also
from the Treatise of the _Description of the Wards_, which says, that
the third _Ward_, at the Entrance of it, is a Level Ground, but in the
most remote Part of it, it descends with too great a Declivity into
the Sea, and contains the Tribunal of the _Forum_ of _Constantine_,
the _Circus Maximus_, the House of _Pulcheria Augusta_, the new Port,
and the semicircular _Portico_, made after the Figure of an old _Greek
Sigma_.



CHAP. XI.

  _Of the_ Hippodrom, _its_ Obelisk, _its_ Statues, _and_ Columns.


Modern Historians, as _Zonaras_ and others, write, that the _Hippodrom_
was built by _Severus_ upon his Reconciliation with the _Byzantians_.
_Zosimus_, a more ancient Writer tells us, that it was built, and
curiously beautified by _Constantine the Great_, part of which he
made the Temple of _Castor_ and _Pollux_, whose Images remain’d in
the _Portico’s_ of the _Hippodrom_ down to his Time; that is, ’till
the Reign of _Theodosius_ the _Less_. In the middle of the _Circo_,
which the _Greeks_ call the _Hippodrom_, there stood an _Obelisk_
made of _Thebaick_ Stone; but as the _ancient Description of the
Wards_ takes no Notice of it, tho’ it does of the Square _Thebaick
Obelisk_ in the fifth _Ward_, I should be inclin’d to believe, that
the _Obelisk_, I am speaking of, was overturn’d by an Earth-quake, and
remov’d by _Theodosius_ into the _Hippodrom_, after that Treatise was
wrote, if the Author had not taken notice of many of _Theodosius_’s
Works, and omitted some Things in the _Wards_, which he afterwards
mention’d in his _General View of the City_. ’Tis very probable, that
_Constantinople_ had more _Obelisks_ than one. As to that taken notice
of in the fifth _Ward_, it is not now remaining. When first I arriv’d
at _Constantinople_ I saw two of them, one in the _Circus Maximus_,
another in the Imperial Precinct, standing on the North-side of the
first Hill. This last was of a square Figure, and was erected near the
Houses of the _Grand Seignor_’s Glaziers. A little time after I saw
it lying prostrate without the Precinct, and found it to be thirty
five Foot in Length. Each of its Sides, if I mistake not, was six Foot
broad, and the whole was eight Yards in Compass. It was purchased by
_Antonius Priolus_, a Nobleman of _Venice_, who sent it thither, and
placed it in St. _Stephen_’s Market. The other is standing in the
_Hippodrom_ to this Day. ’Tis supported by four square broad Pieces of
Brass, each a Foot and a half high, with a Base and a Pedestal of the
same Height. From the Ground there rise two Steps against the Pedestal,
the lowermost of which is a Foot high, and of the same Breadth: The
upper Step is two Foot high, and projects four Foot and four Fingers
Breadth beyond the Pedestal. The Steps are not laid within the
Pedestal, but are join’d to it withoutside, as appears by the Cement.
Upon the Steps stands the Pedestal, which is every way twelve Foot
broad, four Foot eight Digits in Height and projects beyond the Base a
Foot and a half: Somewhat above a Foot higher it is more contracted,
and does not project beyond its Base; for from the Top of the Pedestal
there’s a Fluting on the four Sides of the _Obelisk_ which is cut out
of the same Stone of which the Pedestal is made, and is a Foot and
thirteen Digits high. The Corners of the Top of the Pedestal are worn,
and defac’d, but are repair’d by four Stones of _Thebaick Porphyry_
Marble, each of them a Foot and a half high; for all the fluted Part
of the Pedestal that lies between these four angular Stones, together
with the upper Part of it, support the Base, which is seven Foot and
thirteen Digits high, and projects a Foot and a half beyond the Bottom
of the Shaft of the _Obelisk_, to the Breadth of nine Foot, and as
many Digits: ’Tis carv’d on all Sides, as is also the Pedestal, which
is covered with curious Statues cut in _Basso Relievo_. The Sculptures
on the North-side of it, stand in two Ranges, the lowermost of which
contains eighteen Statues, and two Cap-stands, which are turn’d round
with Iron Crows by four Men, and wind the Ropes, which are drawn
through Pullies, round the Cap-stand, and so draw the _Obelisk_ along
the Ground. In the same Range is engraved the _Obelisk_ in an upright
Posture, as it now stands, with three Statues, one of which, as the
Inhabitants tell you, represents the Master, and the other the Servant,
whom he design’d to correct, if a third Person had not interposed,
because he had erected the _Obelisk_ in his Absence. In the upper Range
there are also the Figures of two Cap-stands, with the same Number of
Men working them, and labouring with those below them, to drag the
_Obelisk_. The Wreaths of the Ropes in particular, are very nicely
cut. If the Reader could apprehend the manner in which this cumbersome
Pillar was erected, I believe he would judge it was done the way, as
_Marcellinus_ describes. There was nothing wanting, says he, but the
Erection of the _Obelisk_, the Accomplishment of which, without the
greatest Danger, could scarcely be conceiv’d. You might see, says he, a
vast Wood of Scaffolding made of tall Beams: At the Top of these were
fix’d large, and long Ropes, after the manner of Threads in a Weaver’s
Loom; which by their Thickness and Closeness to one another, darkned
the Air. These Ropes at the Bottom were fastned round the _Obelisk_,
which being leisurely drawn into the Air, many thousands working at the
Cap-stands, was at last fix’d upon its _Basis_. I believe there are at
present Engineers at _Constantinople_, who could do the same thing. I
am induc’d to think so, by what I observ’d of a Pillar on the Side of
the fifth Hill, which was almost equal in Magnitude to this _Obelisk_.
I saw this Pillar taken off its _Basis_, and laid upon the Ground in
the following manner. Round the Pillar, though at some Distance from
it, they fix’d in the Ground near to one another large Poles, much
taller than the Pillar, at an equal Distance from each other. At the
Top of these Poles, they laid others across them, which were fasten’d
to them in the strongest manner, and to which were fix’d the Pullies,
through which the Ropes slipp’d, which reach’d from the Bottom of the
Shaft of the Pillar to the Top, and were fasten’d to it: The Ropes were
so thick, both length-ways and cross-ways, that at some Distance the
Scaffolding look’d like a square Tower. There were many Cap-stands on
all Sides fix’d in the Ground, which were turn’d by infinite Numbers
of the strongest Youth, till they had mov’d it from its _Basis_, and
laid it prostrate with the Earth. They afterwards laid it upon strong
Carriages, the Wheels of which were bound with thick Iron, and brought
it safe to the third Hill, and set it up as an Ornament to the _Mosque_
of _Solyman_ the Emperor. But to return to the _Obelisk_; on the
West-side of the Pedestal was the following Inscription in _Greek_:

  _To raise this Four-square Pillar to its Height,
  And fix it steddy on its solid Base,
  Great_ Theodosius _try’d, but try’d d in vain.
  In two and thirty Days, by_ Proclus’ _Skill,
  The toilsome Work, with great Applause, was finish’d_.

And on the other Side was this Inscription in _Latin_,
which was somewhat defac’d, but I could
read it, and is as follows:

  _Difficilis quondam dominis parere serenis
  Jussus, & extinctis palmam portare Tyrannis.
  Omnia_ Theodosio _cedunt, sobolique perenni:
  Ter denis sic victus, duobusque diebus,
  Judice sub_ Proclo, _sublime elatus ad auras_.

On the South Side of it there are two Ranges of Statues, the lowermost
of which has engrav’d upon it four Chariots, two of which are drawn by
a Pair, and the other by four Horses, with a Driver to each of them.
In the upper Range are two _Equestrian_ Statues, three Footmen, three
_Togati_, two _Obelisks_, and four square Pillars. On the North Side
of the _Basis_ are engrav’d four Ranges of Figures, which contain
thirty five Statues in Gowns. On the West Side there are two Ranges,
the lowest of which has nine Statues in a suppliant Posture, making
Presents to the Emperor, who stands in the upper Range, with sixteen
Statues about him. The South Side has two Ranges; upon the lowest are
cut ten Statues in Gowns, in a petitioning manner; the upper contains
twenty Statues, all in Gowns, except four in a fighting Posture, arm’d
with Bucklers. The East Side, on the lowest part of it, has three
Ranges; the lowest Range contains sixteen Statues of Men and Women,
dancing and playing upon Instruments of Musick; above which are two
Ranges more, in which appear little more than the Heads, which I look
upon to be the Spectators. The highest Range has twenty Statues, six
of which are divided from the rest by Pillars. The middle Figure
holds a Crown in his Hand. Upon the _Basis_ are four square Pieces
of Brass carv’d, which being plac’d in a quadrilateral Figure, the
whole _Obelisk_ bears upon them. ’Tis engrav’d from Top to Bottom with
_Ægyptian_ Characters.



CHAP. XII.

  _Of the_ Colossus.


There is yet standing, in the Middle of the _Hippodrom_, a _Colossus_
made of square Stones, which was formerly (as an injudicious Author
writes) incrusted with Marble; but, as appears by an Inscription carv’d
upon its _Basis_, ’twas cover’d with Plates of Brass, cramp’d together
with Iron, as appears not only by the Holes made in the Shaft, but
by those which still remain in the _Base_; where the Iron Pins were
fasten’d, and strengthen’d with melted Lead. ’Tis now despoil’d of its
outward beauteous Appearance; and discovers only the Workmanship of its
Inside, as having felt the Effects of the Avarice and Rapine of the
_Barbarians_. This was also the Fate of the _Colossus_ at _Rhodes_,
which was demolish’d by the _Hagarens_ in the Reign of _Constans_,
Nephew of _Heraclius_, thirteen hundred Years after it was erected.
’Twas purchas’d afterwards by one _Emesenus_ a _Jew_, and the Brass,
when strip’d off, was of so considerable a Weight, that it was carried
off by Nine hundred Camels. Upon the _Base_ of the _Colossus_ at
_Constantinople_, are inscrib’d the following Verses;

  _Fam’d_ Constantine, Romanus’ _Princely Son,
  (Who wore with Honour the Imperial Crown)
  This lofty Pile, by Time decay’d, repair’d;
  And join’d fresh Beauty to her Builder’s Art_.

This _Colossus_ at the _Base_ of it, has three Steps. The lowest is
two Foot high, the next a Foot and two Digits, and the uppermost of
the same Height. The _Basis_ is a square Marble, seven Foot and three
Digits high, each Side of which is ten Foot and nine Inches broad. This
_Colossus_ is taller than the _Obelisk_. One Day, being the _Festival_
of the Circumcision of the Prince of _Boldania_, I saw an ingenious
Fellow of a Mountebank climb to the Top of it, and come down safe.
The same Attempt was immediately made by another, who made a Shift
to reach the Top of it, but the Height so dazzled and confounded him,
that, despairing of getting down without Hurt, he threw himself, with
all his Might, as far as he could from the _Colossus_, to avoid the
Danger of being dash’d to pieces upon the Foundation; so that falling
down right upon his Feet, he stuck deep in the Earth, and dy’d upon the
Spot.



CHAP. XIII.

  _Of some other Columns in the_ Hippodrom.


About the Middle of the _Hippodrom_, among a strait Range of small
_Obelisks_, there stand seven Pillars. One of which, made of _Arabian_
Marble, is seventeen Foot and eight Digits in Circumference. There
was erected upon the Top of it, by one _Abraham_ a Basha, the Statue
of _Hercules_. It was cast in Brass, and made of the Spoils which he
had taken in _Hungary_; but upon the Death of _Abraham_, _Hercules_,
who was reported to have travell’d so many Countries, and tam’d so
many Monsters, was at last forced to submit, and be torn to pieces by
the _Turks_, the most inveterate Enemies to _Statuary_, and the whole
_Vitruvian_ Art; so that they treated him in as barbarous a manner as
he was by _Diagoras_, who going into an Inn, and wanting Wood to boil
his Lentils, finding a wooden Statue of _Hercules_, well-finish’d,
cut it to pieces, and threw it into the Fire, saying these Words;
_O Hercules, who hast pass’d with so much Courage through thy twelve
Labours, try how thou canst struggle with the thirteenth_.

In the same Range of _Obelisks_ there stands another Pillar. ’Tis made
of Brass, but not fluted, but wreath’d round with the Foldings of
three Serpents, like those we see in great Ropes. The Heads of these
Serpents are placed in a triangular Form, and rise very high upon the
Shaft of the Pillar. There are many fabulous and trifling Reports
among the Inhabitants, concerning the Erection of this Pillar, which
is occasion’d by their Ignorance of the History of their Ancestors.
_Zosimus_, among other Historians, writes, that _Constantine_ the
_Great_ plac’d in the _Hippodrom_ the _Tripos_ of _Apollo_, which was
brought from _Delphos_, and which had on it the Image of that God.
_Sozomen_ tells us, that _Constantine_ did not only place the _Delphick
Tripos_ in the _Hippodrom_, but also that celebrated _Tripos_, which
_Pausanias_ the _Lacedæmonian_ General, and the Cities of _Greece_,
upon the Conclusion of the War with the _Medes_, consecrated to
_Apollo_. _Eusebius_ is more clear upon this Occasion, and says,
that _Constantine_, in some part of _Constantinople_, see up the
Image of _Sminthius Apollo_, which was a Title given to him; but that
in the _Hippodrom_ he placed the _Pythian Tripos_, round which was
wreathed the Figure of the Serpent _Python_; so that it seems to me
very probable, that this was the same _Tripos_ which was plac’d upon
the brazen Pillar I am speaking of at _Constantinople_. _Herodotus_
writes, that the golden _Tripos_ which was at _Delphos_, was made
out of a tenth Part of the Spoils taken from the _Persians_, and
erected upon this Pillar; and adds farther, that when the _Persians_
were routed at the Battle of _Platææ_, there was found a golden
_Tripos_, which was restor’d to _Apollo_, and set upon a brazen
Pillar, encircled with three Serpents entwin’d, near an Altar. ’Tis a
Mistake in those who imagine, that this Pillar was formerly overlaid
with Gold, but was plunder’d of it by the _Turks_; since _Pausanias_
makes it appear, that it was stripp’d of its Gold long before the
_Turks_ took _Constantinople_. _After the Battle of Platææ_, says
he, _the_ Greeks _made a common Offering to_ Apollo, _which was a
golden_ Tripos, _supported by a brazen Serpent_. The Brass, he tells
us, remain’d whole in his Time, but the Gold was carry’d off by the
_Phocean_ Generals. There are five other Pillars in the same Range.
In the Front of the _Hippodrom_, facing the _Propontis_, there was
a Range of seventeen Pillars of white Marble standing, when first I
came to _Constantinople_. They stood on the South-west Side of the
_Hippodrom_. The _Pedestal_ of each of them is two Foot and ten Digits
high, and are all of them supported by arch’d Foundations, which lye
Level with the Plain of the _Hippodrom_, but rise above Ground to the
Height of fifty Foot. They are all placed upon a little Wall, which
projects two Steps, or square Plinths, the lowermost of which is a
Foot and a Digit high; the upper is a Foot and six Digits high, and
projects beyond the Pedestal eight Digits. The Pedestals of them are
every way five Feet, and seven Inches broad. The lowest Projectures
of them, which are placed there for _Tores_ and other _Modules_, are
six Digits and a half high, the upper Projectures of the same Height;
the _Plinth_ of the _Cornice_ is eleven Digits in Thickness; the lower
_Tore_ seven Digits and a half; the _Scotia_ four Digits; the upper
_Tore_ six Digits; the Stone which supports the Shaft is five Digits
high, and the Shafts themselves three Foot five Digits in Diameter,
and twenty eight Foot in Height. These Pillars were lately taken down,
and the _Bases_ of them removed by Order of _Solyman_ the Emperor,
to build an Hospital. I was concern’d to see them thus demolish’d,
not so much for the Use they were intended, but that some of them
were squared out for paving a _Bagnio_, and that the _Capitals_,
made after the most exact Plans of ancient _Architecture_, were cut
into Rude and ill-shapen Models for covering a Bake-house, and that
the _Pedestals_, and all the _Entablature_ were hewn out, it may be
only to build a Wall. The _Shafts_ of the Pillars stood at eleven
Foot Distance. I observ’d the _Capitals_ were impair’d by reason of
the great Space of Intercolumniation. The _Capitals_ were finish’d
after the _Corinthian_ Order, and the _Trabeation_ was beautifully
wrought, but was not adorn’d with an _Ovolo_. There were Iron Rings
fix’d to the _Architraves_, upon which were hung Curtains. Beyond
this was another Range of Pillars, which were remaining some time
after the Taking of the City by the _Turks_. Before it was taken
by the _Gauls_ and the _Venetians_, there were in the _Hippodrom_
abundance of Figures of Horses, both in Stone and Brass. There were
four in particular of surprizing Skill, which were gilded, equal in
Beauty and Workmanship to those which now stand before the Church
of St. _Marcian_ at _Venice_, which, some say, were brought thither
from _Constantinople_. I shall omit the Statues of great Numbers of
Emperors and Princes, which were set up in the _Circo_. Among these
stood the Statue of the Emperor _Justinian_, which has been celebrated
in Verse. There were also the Statutes of some Eunuchs, who were most
in the Interest and Favour with their Masters. Among others, there was
the Statue of _Plato_ the Eunuch, the Emperor’s Chamberlain, who was
burnt to Death in the Reign of _Basiliscus_. There was an Inscription,
according to _Suidas_, fix’d upon the Breast of this Statue, which
ran thus; _Whosoever shall remove this Statue into another Place, let
him be hang’d_. Yet was it taken out of the Church of _Procopius_,
and carry’d into the _Hippodrom_. I have not time to take Notice of
the numberless Statues of all the Combatants, Wrestlers, Charioteers,
formerly placed in the _Hippodrom_; of which, though there is nothing
remaining at present, yet the Memory of them is still preserved in a
small Poem of three hundred Verses, in which some Chariot-Racers are
mention’d with particular Honours, though no Notice be there taken
of a Person named _Thomas_, a Man of surprizing Agility and Speed,
in that kind of Exercise. I have seen the Fragment of a Stone at
_Constantinople_ with this Inscription, Θομᾶ Ἡνιόχου. This probably is
the same Person mention’d by the Emperor _Theodoric_, in a Letter to
_Faustus_ a _Roman Prætor_, in the following Words: _Of our Imperial
Bounty and Consideration we have given and granted to_ Thomas, _the
famous Chariot-Racer, a present Stipend to be continued to him, till
we have farther experienced, and been fully satisfied of his wonderful
Skill in that Exercise; but having now received ample Testimony of his
Superiority in that Performance, and that having left his Countrey, he
hath chosen voluntarily to settle himself within our Dominions, we, out
of our Imperial Munificence, have encouraged him by a monthly Salary
to continue among us. He has, by his frequent Successes, received the
repeated Applauses, and stood high in the Favour of the People, whom he
has sometimes, though unfortunately, vindicated, and at other times has
eminently distinguish’d himself in the Race of the Chariot. Victory so
often attended him, that he was look’d upon as a Sorcerer by a Set of
People, who would have accounted it the highest Commendation to have
been thought so themselves, for the same Reasons. And ’tis no Wonder
that Men should ascribe those Excellencies to the Power of Sorcery
and Enchantment, which they cannot arrive to themselves, the Sight
of a Chariot-Race, in ancient Times, was had in the highest Honour
and Esteem, though at present ’tis little better than the Occasion
of Buffoonry, an Incentive to trifling Disputes, an Encouragement to
Roguery and Sharping, and the constant Source of Broils and Quarrels._
Thus far the Emperor: From whose Words I would observe, that the
Chariot-Racer here mention’d, who had left _Constantinople_, probably
upon some Party Quarrels among the Chariot-Racers (who were therefore
call’d _Factions_) was also in Danger at _Rome_, upon the like
Account. The Commonwealth both of _Rome_ and _Constantinople_ have
not only been often harrass’d with such Commotions, but the Emperors
themselves have often fallen into the greatest Danger of losing their
Government by them. But all the Diversions of the _Circo_ are now
ceased. I was concern’d to see it despoil’d of all its Ornaments,
though the _Turks_ of late have begun to build there again. I was
the more concern’d, because, by looking casually upon a Medal I had
then in my Hand, it put me in mind of _Belisarius_ triumphing in the
_Hippodrom_, after his Victory over the King of the _Vandals_, as also
of the Disgrace and Poverty, notwithstanding his Bravery and Courage,
he afterwards fell into by the Jealousy of the Emperor. On one Side of
it was stamp’d the triumphant Reception of _Belisarius_, and on the
other this Image, with this Inscription, _Gloria Romanorum Belisarius_.
_Procopius_ writes, That there was a Gate in the _Hippodrom_ call’d
the _Cochlia_, because it had winding Stairs within it. There was also
a Passage, through which they went to their Burial-Ground. The same
Writer tells us, that in the same Place there was a _Portico_ call’d
_Venetia_, from the _Companies_ or _Factions_ of Chariot-Racers who
used to assemble there, and who distinguish’d themselves from other
_Factions_ or _Companies_, by a _Sky-colour’d_ Garment, which was
called so from the _Venetians_, a People that particularly affected
that Colour. ’Tis very probable, that the _Prasin Faction_ had also
a _Portico_ here. These were another Company of Charioteers, and
distinguish’d themselves by a _green_ Livery. The Word _Prasina_ being
derived from πράσον in the _Greek_, which signifies a _Leek_. Nor is
it unlikely, that there were other Companies with Liveries of other
Colours, who were not promiscuously crowded together, but seated in
their own Apartments in the _Portico’s_, to see the Races.



CHAP. XIV.

  _Of the Church of_ Bacchus, _the Court of_ Hormisda, _and the House
  of_ Justinian.


It is observable from the Situation of the Church of _Bacchus_ and
_Sergius_, now standing on the Plain between the _Propontis_ and the
_Hippodrom_, that the Imperial Palace, and the House _Justinian_ lived
in, before he was Emperor, stood near it. _Procopius_ writes, that
_Justinian_ built a Church, and dedicated it to St. _Peter_ and St.
_Paul_. It stood near the Imperial Court, where formerly had stood a
Palace built by _Hormisda_. This, _Justinian_ made a Mansion-house
for himself, that the Beauty and Elegancy of its Building might be an
Ornament to the Palace.

After he had arrived to the Imperial Dignity, he built other fine
Palaces about it, and near it built another Church in honour of two
illustrious Saints, _Sergius_ and _Bacchus_. These Churches which are
both of them equally beautiful, stood on the same Compass of Ground,
nor is there any material Difference between them. They shine alike
with the most glossy Marble; both are curiously gilded, and adorn’d
with the richest Offerings, nor is there any thing wherein they do not
resemble each other, but that one is built lengthways, and the other
in a semicircular manner. They are both wonderful in their kind, and
are a great Ornament not only to the Palace, but to the whole City:
_Procopius_ adds a little farther, that _Justinian_ chang’d the House,
which was call’d the House of _Hormisda_, into a more magnificent
Figure, and join’d it to the Palace. I am of Opinion, that this
_Hormisda_, whom he dignifies with the Title of Prince, was the Son
of a King of _Persia_, who, as _Marcellinus_ reports, when _Constans_
the Son of _Constantine_ came to _Rome_, and glorying how far he would
transcend _Hormisda_ in his immoderate Schemes of Building, being
unable to accomplish his Designs, he was content, he said, in an
humble manner, only to have such another Horse made as stood in the
_Forum_ of _Trajan_. The Story coming afterwards to _Hormisda_’s Ear,
he reply’d in a jocular manner, _Let him try first, if he can build a
Stable for him_. _Cedrinus_ explains more at large how near the House
of _Justinian_ was to the Church of _Bacchus_: _Justinian_, says he,
_built the Church of_ Sergius _and_ Bacchus, _which on the Sea-side of
it, is near the Palace, and built also another Church by it, on the
same piece of Ground, on which had stood his own House: In building
these two Churches, and in founding a Monastery, which he fill’d with
Men of sound Learning, and exemplary Conversation, he laid out his
whole Estate, and all he was worth, till he arrived to the Imperial
Dignity_. There is nothing remaining at present of the Church of St.
_Peter_ and St. _Paul_, but the Church of _Sergius_ and _Bacchus_ are
yet standing. It goes still under its ancient Name, though the _Turks_
have changed it into a Mosque. ’Tis covered at top with a Brick Roof,
and bears upon eight Pilasters; between the Pilasters there are two
Ranges of Pillars of the _Ionick Order_. In the lowest Range, there are
sixteen Pillars which bear upon the Pavement: Six of these Pillars are
of Green Marble, and ten of white streak’d with Red Veins. The upper
Range consists of eighteen Pillars, eight of which are Green, ten White
Marble, and are vein’d as the other. The _Capitals_ of the lower are
adorn’d with _Ovolo’s_ at the Bottom of them. The upper part of them is
cover’d with a _Foliage_. The _Volutæ_ of the upper Range of Pillars
project from the four Angles of the _Capitals_, but the _Ovolo’s_
project from the Sides of them, which are also cover’d with a _Foliage_
of fine Workmanship. The _Architraves_ over the _Capitals_ of the
lower Range are finished with the nicest Art. There is a noble Piece
of Sculpture in this Church. ’Twas done by _Zoophorus_, who has carved
round the Church some _Greek_ Verses, in the largest Characters. The
Tops of the _Pilasters_ are shaded with a _Vineal Foliage_, intermixed
with cluster’d Grapes, which denote, that the Church was dedicated to
_Bacchus_.



CHAP. XV.

  _Of the Port of_ Julian, _and_ Sophia; _of the_ Portico _nam’d_
  Sigma, _and the Palace of_ Sophia.


Near the Church of _Bacchus_, stood the Port of _Julian_. This is plain
from the Account we have of the Fire, which happen’d in the Reign of
_Leo_ the _Great_, and as _Evagrius_ tells us, began on the North-side
of the City, and destroy’d all before it, from the _Bosporian_ Port,
to the old Temple of _Apollo_; and that on the South-side of the City,
it made the same Havock from the Port of _Julian_, to the Houses near
the Temple of _Concord_. _Zonaras_ writes, who has described the
Devastations of that Fire, that it burnt with great Fury from the
_Bosporium_ to the Church of St. _John_ the _Calybite_, and on the
South from the Church of St. _Thomas_ to the Church of the renowned
Martyrs, _Sergius_ and _Bacchus_. The Church of St. _Thomas_ stood near
the Temple of _Concord_. The Account which _Cedrinus_ gives of this
Fire is, that it took its Course round the City quite from the Northern
to the Southern Shore, as far as the Church of _Sergius_ and _Bacchus_.
The Emperor _Anastasius_ fortified the Port of _Julian_, and secured
it by a strong Wall. It was afterwards called the Port of _Sophia_,
according to _Cedrinus_, who writes, _That_ Justin _the Nephew of_
Justinian, _built a Palace in the Port of_ Julian, _which he ordered
to be cleansed, and that he commanded his own, and the Statue of_
Sophia _his Consort to be erected there, and from thence gave it the
Name of the Port_ of Sophia. The Inscription on the Statue of _Justin_
placed here is as follows:

  _I_ Theodorus, _Prefect of the City,
  Here, on the Shore, erect this lofty Statue;
  It represents the Emperor_ Justinus.
  _May his kind Presence guard, and ever shed
  Its peaceful Influence o’er the neighbouring Ports._

_Procopius_ writes, that the Church of the Martyr _Thecla_ stood near
this Port. Some modern Historians tell us, that _Belisarius_ set
Sail from this Port, when he went to Battel against the _Vandals_.
But I cannot conceive what Reason they have for that Opinion, unless
it be from some Words of _Procopius_, who says, that _Justinian_
commanded the Ship, in which the General sail’d, to be brought near
the Palace, and that there _Epiphanius_ Bishop of _Constantinople_, as
was customary upon such Occasions, put up a Prayer for his Success,
and that then _Belisarius_ went off with his Wife _Antonina_. There
were indeed some Palaces near this Port, but there were also other
Palaces near the Bay, which was full of Havens, from whence, at a
little Distance, stood the House of _Belisarius_. _Suidas_ confirms
it, that _Anastasius_ fortify’d this Harbour, and made a Pier there;
and _Zonaras_ attests, that _Justin_ built there some Palaces, and
call’d them the Palaces of _Sophia_, from the Name of his Consort, whom
he passionately loved. Many _Historians_ are of Opinion, that these
Palaces stood near the Port of _Sophia_; but I am induced to think,
both from Reason and the Authority of learned Men, that it was not so.
For _Zonaras_, among others, writes, that _Justin_ built these Palaces
against the City, and _Agathius_, a much ancienter Writer, and who was
living at the Time they were built, wrote the following Inscription,
which was fix’d upon them. From whence the Reader may observe, that
they were not seated near the _Propontis_, adjoining to which was the
Port of _Sophia_, but opposite to the City, near the Shore of the
_Bosporus_, where the Continent is divided into two Parts.

_Agathius Scholasticus_ upon the Palaces of SOPHIA.

  _Where the streight Sea divides the Continents,
  These gilded Palaces the Emperor built
  For his dear Consort, fair_ Sophia_’s Use.
  The Wonders of thy Beauty, potent_ Rome,
  Europe, _and_ Asia, _half th’ extended World
  With Pleasure view, and silently admire_.

The Word which in the Original Inscription is wrote δέρκεαι, _Zonaras_
writes δέρκεται. ’Tis easy to discover from these Verses, that the
Palace of _Sophia_ was not seated near the _Bosporus_, but without
the Walls of the City, waich is attested by _Cedrinus_, and many
other Historians, in their Descriptions of the _hard Frost_, which
happen’d in the Reign of _Leo Copronymus_, by which the _Bosporus_
was frozen so hard, that whosoever had a mind to pass over from the
Palace of _Sophia_ to the City, or from _Chrysopolis_ to the Church of
St. _Mamas_, or repass to _Galata_ on the Shore of the _Bosporus_,
might cross over the Ice without the least Danger. The Port of
_Sophia_, before it was call’d the Port of _Julian_, seems to me to
be the same, which was formerly called the _Neorium_, and which the
_ancient Description of the Wards_ places in the same _Ward_ with the
_Hippodrom_; but whether it be one, or either of these, it is now
fill’d up; or if it was that Port which stands West of the Church
of _Bacchus_, ’tis now almost demolish’d, and enclosed with a Wall.
There is only a small Part of it remaining, which is a standing Water,
where the Women wash their Linnen. The People tell you, that they have
seen some Three-Oar’d Gallies which have been sunk there. ’Tis call’d
at present by the Inhabitants _Caterga limena_, or the Port of the
Three-Oar’d Gallies; whether it be the same Port, which is standing on
the East of the Church of _Bacchus_, near the Gate of the City call’d
_Porta Leonis_, which Name it took either from a Lion near it, which
was carved in Stone, or from the Emperor _Leo_, who, they tell you,
had a Palace there, I shall not determine. _Nicephorus_, an Historian
of modern Date, tells us, that an Emperor of _Constantinople_, when
besieged by the People of _Italy_, summoned a Multitude of Smiths into
the _Morion_, which ran round the _Hippodrom_. I could never discover
at _Constantinople_ the Place which was called the _Pyctacia_; yet I
cannot but take Notice from _Cedrinus_, and other modern Historians,
that in the Place which they called the _Pyctacia_, there was a
Pillar which supported the Statue of _Leo_ the Emperor, the Consort
of _Verina_. This Statue, as some write, was erected by his Sister
_Euphemia_, a Lady of great Wisdom and Continency, near her own
House, where _Leo_ every Week, used to pay her a Visit. All Persons
who laboured under Afflictions of any Kind, laid their Petitions to
the Emperor, upon the Steps of this Pillar. The Apparitors took them
up, and when the Emperor waited upon his Sister, they presented them
to him. _Budæus_ says, that the _Pyctacia_, or as he calls them, the
_Pystacia_, were Briefs; though I see no Reason why they may not also
be called Petitions. For as _Pyctium_ signifies a Book, I do not see
why _Pyctacium_ may not signify any smaller Writing. The _Greeks_ at
present generally call their Letters _Pyctacia_. In an History written
by an unknown Author, I have read, that _Eudoxia_ had set up her own
Statue, made of massy Silver, in a Place called the _Pyctacium_. If
the Author be not mistaken, I should take this to be the same Statue
which stood near the Church of St. _Sophia_, by which, as I have shewn
before, stood the Statue of _Eudoxia_. I have seen a small _Treatise_
of _Constantinople_, which says, that _Constantine_ the _Great_ built
a Church to St. _Euphemia_, near the _Hippodrom_, which was afterwards
turned into an Armory by _Constantine_, surnamed _Copronymus_, a
professed Adversary to Images in Churches, and who cast the Reliques
of St. _Euphemia_ into the Sea. _Suidas_ writes, that the Statue of
_Euphemia_ (the Consort of the Emperor _Justin_, who was a _Thracian_)
was placed in the Church of St. _Euphemia_, which she her self had
built. Some modern Writers say, that in the Time of _Basilius_ the
Emperor, there was a great Earthquake which overturned the Church of
St. _Polyclete_, and killed all that were in it; and that from that
Time it was called _Sigma_. I am more inclined to believe, that it took
its Name from a _Portico_ so called, many Ages before this Earthquake,
because it was built after the Similitude of the Letter _Sigma_, and
is placed in the _antient Description_ of _Constantinople_, in the
same _Ward_ with the _Hippodrom_. _Cedrinus_ seems to take Notice
of this Place. _They dragged_, says he, Michael _the Emperor in his
Monks Habit, by the Heels, out of the Monastery of_ Studius, _through
the Market, and leading him beyond the Monastery called_ Periblepton,
_in a Place called_ Sigma, _they put out both his Eyes_. The same
Author tells us, that _Basilius_ the Emperor, a Native of _Macedon_,
rebuilt from the Foundations, a Church to the Honour of the _Blessed
Virgin_, which was called _Sigma_. _Chrysaphius Zomas_, an Eunuch, set
up the Statue of _Theodosius_ the _Less_, in a Place called _Sigma_.
Some Writers affirm, that _Constantine_ the _Great_ built a Church to
St. _Stephen_, in a Place called _Sigma_. The _Sigma_ therefore here
intended, must needs be another Place in the City, distinct from that
which I observed was in the third _Ward_, and ought to be written with
the Letter _e_, as _Segma_; by Reason, as I hinted just now, that the
Fall of the Church of St. _Polyclete_ by an Earthquake, crushed to
Death all that were in it.



CHAP. XVI.

  _Of the Fourth_ Ward.


If the _Miliarium Aureum_ had been now in Being, or the People of
_Constantinople_ had preserved the Memory of its Situation, we might
easily discover, from the _antient Description of the Wards_, (which
tells us, that the fourth _Ward_ extended it self, the Hills rising
on the Right and Left, from the _Miliarium Aureum_ to a plain level
Ground) that it was in the first Valley, or on the Ridge of the Hill
that arises just above it. Nor could we have failed to make the like
Discovery from the Remains of the _Augustæum_, the _Basilica_, the
_Nymphæum_, and other fine Buildings, had they not been entirely buried
in their own Ruins. But since no Observations at present can be made
that Way, I was in Suspense, whether or no the Valley, where the fourth
_Ward_ stood, was not the same Valley which I had described at the
first; because it is common to other Vales, to have Hills rising on the
right and left. And when I had sufficiently instructed my self from the
Writings and Histories of learned Men, what Monuments of Antiquity had
formerly been in the fourth _Ward_, and where they had stood, I was
soon sensible that the fourth _Ward_ stood in the first Valley, and on
the Sides of it, and on the Hill near to the Church of St. _Sophia_, as
the Reader will perceive from the following History.



CHAP. XVII.

  _Of the_ Forum _called the_ Augustæum, _of the Pillar of_ Theodosius,
  _and_ Justinian, _and the_ Senate-House.


_Procopius_ writes, that the _Forum_ which was formerly called the
_Augustæum_, was surrounded with Pillars, and was situate before the
Imperial Palace. Not only the _Forum_ is at present quite defaced,
but the very Name of it is lost, and the whole Ground where it stood
is built upon. The Palace is entirely in Ruines, yet I collect from
the _Pedestal_ of a Pillar of _Justinian_ lately standing, but now
removed by the _Turks_, which _Procopius_ says was built by _Justinian_
in the _Augustæum_, and _Zonaras_ in the Court before the Church of
_Sophia_, that the _Augustæum_ stood where there is now a Fountain,
at the West End of the Church of St. _Sophia_. _Suidas_ says, that
_Justinian_, after he had built the Church of St. _Sophia_, cleansed
the Court, and paved it with Marble, and that it was formerly called
the _Forum Augustæum_; and adds, that he erected his own Statue there.
_Procopius_ writes, _That there was a certain_ Forum _facing the
Senate House, which was called by the Citizens the_ Augustæum; _where
are seven Stones, so cemented together in a quadrangular Manner,
and are so contracted one within another the upper within the lower
Stone, that a Man may conveniently sit down upon every Projecture of
them_. I was more induced to give this Account from _Procopius_, of
the Pedestal, because I do not find it in his _printed Works_. Upon
the Top of it, says he, there’s erected a large Pillar, composed of
many Stones covered with Brass, which did at once both strengthen and
adorn them. The Plates of Brass did not reflect so strong a Lustre
as pure Gold, yet was it, in Value, little inferior to Silver. On
the Top of the Statue was set a large Horse in Brass, facing the
East, which indeed afforded a noble Prospect. He seemed to be in a
marching Posture, and struggling for Speed. His near Foot before was
curvated, as though he would paw the Ground; his off Foot was fixed
to the _Pedestal_, and his hind Feet were so contracted, as though he
was prepared to be gone. Upon the Horse was placed the Statue of the
Emperor. ’Twas made of Brass, large like a _Colossus_, dress’d in a
warlike Habit like _Achilles_, with Sandals on his Feet, and armed
with a Coat of Mail, and a shining Helmet. He looked Eastward, and
seemed to be marching against the _Persians_. In his left Hand he bore
a Globe, devised to signify his universal Power over the whole World.
On the Top of it was fixed a Cross, to which he attributed all his
Successes in War, and his Accession to the Imperial Dignity. His right
Hand was stretched to the East, and by pointing with his Fingers, he
seemed to forbid the barbarous Nations to approach nearer, but to stand
off at their Peril. _Tzetzes_, in his _Various History_, describes
what kind of Helmet he had upon his Head. _The_ Persians, says he,
_generally wore a Turbant upon the Head. When the_ Romans _obtained
any Victory over them, they plundered them of these Turbants, which
they placed upon their own Heads. They are_, says he, _of the same
Shape with that, with which the Statue of_ Justinian, _erected upon a
large Pillar, is crowned_. _Cedrinus_ relates, that _Justinian_ held
the Globe in his Silver Hand. _Zonaras_ writes, that _Justinian_, in
the seventeenth Year of his Reign, set up this Pillar, in the same
Place, where formerly had stood another Pillar of _Theodosius_ the
_Great_, bearing his Statue in Silver, made at the Expence of his Son
_Arcadius_, which weighed seven Thousand four Hundred Pounds. When
_Justinian_ had demolished the Statue and the Pillar, he stripped it of
a vast Quantity of Lead, of which he made Pipes for _Aqueducts_, which
brought the Water into the City. This ill Treatment of _Theodosius_
by _Justinian_, was revenged upon him by the _Barbarians_; for they
used his Pillar in the same Manner, and stripped it of the Statue, the
Horse, and the Brass wherewith it was covered, so that it was only a
bare Column for some Years. About thirty Years ago the whole _Shaft_
was taken down to the _Pedestal_, and that, about a Year since, was
demolished down to the _Basis_, from whence I observed a Spring to
spout up with Pipes, into a large Cistern. At present there stands in
the same Place a Water-House, and the Pipes are enlarged. I lately
saw the _Equestrian_ Statue of _Justinian_, erected upon the Pillar
which stood here, and which had been preserved a long Time in the
Imperial Precinct, carried into the melting Houses, where they cast
their Ordnance. Among the Fragments were the Leg of _Justinian_, which
exceeded my Height, and his Nose, which was above nine Inches long.
I dared not publickly measure the Horse’s Legs, as they lay upon the
Ground, but privately measured one of the Hoofs, and found it to be
nine Inches in Height. _Suidas_, and some modern Historians allure us,
that it was called the _Forum Augustæum_, because the _Curatores_,
and _Sebastophori_, on the fifteenth Day of _October_, used to dance
in the Market Place there, in Honour of _Augustus_; or because the
Statues of _Constantine_, and his Mother _Helena_, were set up in an
arched Gallery which stood here. _Zosimus_, a more antient Historian
than _Procopius_, asserts, that _Constantine_ built a round Market,
with four _Portico_’s, two in a Row, above each other; and that he
roofed two of them with _Proconnesian_ Marble, that you might pass from
them unto the Portico of _Severus_, and from thence beyond the Bounds
of the antient City; and adds, that this Market stood in a Place, to
which there was a Passage thro’ a Landgate adjacent. This is the same
Market which is intended by the _unknown Author_ of the _History of
Constantinople_, where he tells us, that _Constantine_ built a Market
in a circular Manner. The same Author tells us in another Place, that
when he was at _Constantinople_, _Constantine_ had surrounded the great
_Forum_ with four _Portico_’s and placed at both Ends of one of them,
which you ascend by many Steps, two Statues: At one End was placed
the Statue of _Rhea_, the Mother of the Gods, (the same Statue, which
those who sailed with _Jason_, placed on Mount _Dindymus_) rising above
the City of _Cyzicus_. They tell you, that for her Neglect in paying
divine Worship to the Gods, the Statue was defaced; and that her Hands,
which before held the Reins of two Lyons which stood before her, were
changed into a petitioning Posture. This Statue at the same Time faced
and adorned the City. At the other End of the _Portico_ he placed the
_Fortune_ of the City, though _Suidas_ relates, that the _Fortune_
of the City stood in a Nich of the _Miliarium_. If this Statue was
set up here by _Constantine_, I should think, that both the Markets
mentioned by _Zosimus_ are one and the same. But to me they seem to be
different; because _Zosimus_ tells us in one Place, that _Constantine_
built a Market with two _Portico’s_ round it, and afterwards, that
he built a Market with four _Portico_’s round it; unless he reckons
in the Account, the _Portico’s_ of _Severus_ and _Constantine_, from
whence there was a free Entrance into other _Portico’s_. On the East
Side of the _Forum Augusteum_, _Procopius_ writes, that _Justinian_
built a large Court, where the Senate used to assemble, and celebrate
an Anniversary Festival every new Year. Before the Senate-House stand
six Columns, two of which support the Western Wall, in the Middle of
it. The other four stand at a little Distance from it. These Pillars
are all of white Marble, and I look upon them to be the largest in
the World. The other six support a _Portico_, which runs round the
Top of a large Building. The upper Part of the _Portico_ is adorned
with Marble elegantly variegated, and equal to that of the Columns,
and is furnished with an infinite Variety of curious Statues. I am
of Opinion, that _Justinian_ did not build this _Senate-House_, but
that he rebuilt the old _Senate-House_, which was burnt down by the
Fire, which consumed the Church of St. _Sophia_, and the Baths of
_Zeuxippus_. For _Sozomen_ writes, that _Constantine_ the _Great_
built the Great Council-Hall, which was called the _Senate-House_, and
ordered it to be held in equal Dignity, and honoured it with the same
publick Celebration of the Feast of the _Calends_, with that of antient
_Rome_. He tells us where this great Court stood, when he writes, that
the silver Statue of _Eudoxia Augusta_ was placed upon a _Porphyry_
Pillar, on the South Side of the Church of St. _Sophia_, beyond the
high Pulpit, which faces the _Senate-House_. _Socrates_ tells us, that
it was neither erected near, nor at any considerable Distance from the
Church of St. _Sophia_; but beyond the broad Way, as _Suidas_ observes,
which runs between them both. _In the Tribunal of the Palace_, says he,
_stood the Pillar of_ Eudoxia, _the Wife of_ Theodosius. The Treatise
_of the antient Description of the Wards_ places the Senate-House,
the _Tribunal_ with _Porphyry_ Steps, and the _Basilica_, all in
the same _Ward_. _Sozomen_ clearly points out the Situation of the
_Senate-House_, where he says, that when a Tumult arose concerning the
Expulsion of St. _Chrysostom_, the great Church was all on a sudden in
a Blaze, which burnt down the Buildings upon the Walks, and the Great
_Senate-House_, lying to the South of them. There are some Remains of
the Walls of the _Senate-House_ still standing, southerly of the Church
of St. _Sophia_, beyond the Way that leads from the Imperial Gate to
the _Forum_ of _Constantine_.



CHAP. XVIII.

  _Of the Imperial Palace, the_ Basilica; _of the Palace of_
  Constantine, _and the House of Entrance nam’d_ Chalca.


Not far from the _Forum Augusteum_, as _Procopius_ writes, stood a
Palace, the Statelyness and Magnificence of which the Reader may
easily guess at from the Description he gives of the _Vestibulum_,
or the House of Entrance into it. This _Vestibulum_ is call’d the
_Chalca_, which is made after this Manner. There are four strait Walls
carried up to a great Height in a quadrangular Figure, from each
Angle of which there projects a Stone Building curiously finish’d,
which rises with the Wall from Top to Bottom, no ways intercepting
the beauteous Prospect before you, but seeming rather to add to the
Pleasure and Agreeableness of it. Above this Building are raised
eight Arches, supporting the Roof, which rises into a globular Height
most beautifully adorn’d. The Roof of it is not furnish’d with fine
Paintings, but shines with _Mosaick_ Work of all sorts of Colours,
in the several Figures of Men, and other Kinds of Creatures. The
Historian at large has explain’d the Designs, which are the Scenes
of War, of Battles, and the Surrender of many Towns, both in _Africa_
and _Italy_. Among other Curiosities are describ’d the Victories of
_Justinian_ under his General _Belisarius_, and his triumphant Return
to the Emperor. The Courage and Chearfulness of his Army is expressed
in a lively Manner. The General is figured in an humble Posture, as
making an Offering to him of all the Kings, the Kingdoms, and other
rich Spoils he had taken from the Enemy. In the Middle of the Work
is represented the Emperor and his Empress _Theodora_ in a pleasant
gay Humour, celebrating a Festival in Honour of his Victory over
the _Goths_ and _Vandals_, and bringing great Numbers of Captives
before him. The whole Senate is described round them, joining in the
Celebration. They all look chearful and merry, smiling, and highly
pleased with the Honour they have to attend the Emperor on so important
an Occasion. I would here observe, that as _Papinius_ in his _Sylvæ_
calls the _Basilica_ of _Paulus_, the Palace of _Paulus_, so the
House, which _Procopius_ calls Βασιλεῖον went by the Name both of
the _Basilica_ and the Palace. And I am confirm’d in this Opinion
from _Cedrinus_, who says, That the Fire which happen’d in the Reign
of _Justinian_, burnt down the Porch, or House of Entrance into the
_Basilica_, the _Basilica_ itself, and the brazen Covering of the
Palace of _Constantine the Great_, which from that Time to this Day,
is call’d the _Chalca_, because it is cover’d with Plates of Brass
gilded. What _Cedrinus_ calls the _Basilica_, _Procopius_, in his Book
_De Ædif. Justiniani_, calls τὰ Βασιλεῖα, when speaking of the Fire
above-mention’d, he tells us, That it consumed the Gate-houses τῶν
Βασιλείων, and that in particular which was call’d _Chalca_: The same
Writer adds a little lower, that the Emperor commanded _Belisarius_
to go to the _Chalca_, and the other Houses of Entrance seated by it.
From which Words it is observable, that _Procopius_ seems to believe,
that there were other Houses of Entrance into the Palace, though in
the Beginning of this Chapter he mentions only the _Chalca_. It is
my Opinion, that the House where the Emperor dwelt was first call’d
the _Basilica_; that afterwards, when the great Houses, where the
Merchants assembled for Trade and Commerce, were call’d _Basilica_,
the Emperor’s House was call’d Βασιλεῖον; and, at last, the Palace.
If there was any Difference between the _Basilica_ and the Palace,
yet the _Basilica_ was either a part of the Palace, or built near to
it, as the Reader may see in the _Ancient Description of the Wards_,
which places the _Augusteum_ and the _Basilica_ in the same _Ward_.
As this _Treatise_ takes no Notice in this _Ward_ either of a Palace
or a Court, but only of a _Basilica_, it seems to intimate, that the
_Basilica_ was the Palace itself. But whether the _Basilica_ was within
or without the Palace, it is certain it was near it, because they were
both destroy’d by Fire, by reason of their Vicinity to one another; and
the Rules of _Architecture_ prescribe, that it be built near a Market,
which is always near the Palace; and that it be built warm, that the
Merchants may manage their Business there in Winter Time, without any
Molestation from the Severity of the Weather. _Julius Pollux_ is of
the same Opinion, who says, That the _Stadia_, the _Hippodrom_, the
_Senate-House_, the _Forum_, the Court, the Imperial _Portico_, and the
_Tribunal_, ought to stand near the Theatre. _Cedrinus_ writes, that
the beautiful Structure of the _Chalca_ was built by one _Ætherius_ a
famous Architect, by the Command of the wife of Emperor _Anastasius_,
as appears from a _Greek_ Inscription upon it, which runs thus:

Upon a Building in the Palace, call’d _Chalca_.

  _I am the Palace of fam’d_ Anastasius
  _The Scourge of Tyrants; none surpasses me,
  In Beauty, and in wonderful Contrivance.
  When the Surveyors view’d my mighty Bulk,
  My Height, my Length, and my extensive Breadth;
  ’Twas thought beyond the Reach of human Power
  To roof at Top my widely gaping Walls.
  But young_ Ætherius, _ancient in his Art,
  This Building finish’d, and an Offering made
  To our good Emperor.
  Not_ Italy, _with all its Glory shews
  A Structure so magnificent and great;
  Not the proud_ Capitol _of ancient_ Rome
  _With all its gilded Roofs can rival me.
  The costly Galleries of_ Pergamus,
  Ruffinus’ _Walks, and stately_ Portico’s
  _Crowded with Art, and marbled Images
  Submit to my superior Workmanship.
  Not the fam’d Temple, which at_ Cyzico,
  _By_ Adrian _built, stands on a lofty Rock,
  Nor_ Ægypt’s _costly_ Pyramids, _nor at_ Rhodes
  _The mighty_ Colosse _equal me in Greatness.
  When my good Emperor, in hostile Manner,
  Quell’d the_ Isaurian _Faction, thus he rais’d me
  In Honour of_ Aurora, _and the Winds_.

Some modern Historians will have it, that _Constantine the Great_ first
built the Palace of _Chalca_. I should be inclinable to disbelieve
them, but that I am induced to think it was so, when I observ’d the
brazen Tyles gilded with Gold, resembling those of the _Capitol_,
and a _Forum_ of _Old Rome_, whose Buildings _Constantine_ was proud
to imitate, as near as he could. I could never learn, who it was who
remov’d the Tyles of the _Chalca_; though it is not improbable, but
that they were spoiled by the Fire. ’Tis related by _Procopius_, that
_Genseric_ plunder’d half the _Roman_ Capitol of the gilded Plates of
Brass that cover’d it, and that _Constantine_ the _Third_, the Nephew
of _Heraclius_, carry’d off the Silver Plates which were laid over the
_Pantheon_. At a small Distance (on the South-west Side of the Church
of St. _Sophia_) from the Water-Pipes of an _Aqueduct_ running from a
Conduit situate in the _Forum Augusteum_, where was erected the Pillar
of _Justinian_, are still remaining seven _Corinthian_ Pillars, on the
_Shaft_ of one of which is cut the Name of _Constantine_, with the
_Signal_ of the Cross he saw in the Heavens, with this Inscription,
ἐν τούτῳ νίκα. The _Basis_ and _Shaft_ of these Pillars are buried,
at the Bottom of them, under Ground, to the Depth of six Foot, which
I discover’d, when I casually fell into the Foundation of the Walls,
which were built between them. I could not see the _Plinth_ of the
_Base_ of any of them, because it was cover’d with Earth; yet I
perceiv’d the lowermost _Tore_, which was eight Digits in Thickness,
and seven in Height. The Stone at the Bottom of the _Shaft_ was nine
Inches broad. Every Pillar is thirty Foot and six Digits high: In
short, the whole _Pillar_, _Capital_ and _Pedestal_, is about forty six
Foot and a half in Height. The Bottom of the _Shaft_, which I measured
just above the Stone it bears upon, is eighteen Foot in Circumference.
The Pillars stand at the Distance of twenty Foot and ten Digits from
each other. The Inhabitants say, that these Pillars stood within the
Palace of _Constantine_; others say, that they formerly supported a
Bridge, over which you passed, as you went from the Palace to the
Church of St. _Sophia_. But there is nothing of Truth in either of
these Opinions; for ’tis plain from what I observed before, that they
stood in the _Forum Augusteum_. So that I am inclined to believe, that
they supported the Arches of the _Portico’s_, in which the Statues of
_Constantine the Great_, his Mother _Helena_, and other Statues were
placed. From what I have said, the Reader may trace the Beauty and
Grandeur of the Palaces at _Constantinople_, as well as from _Zosimus_,
who says, that _Constantine_ built some Palaces at _Constantinople_,
little inferior to those of _Rome_. _Eusebius_ reports, that he
illustrated and adorn’d _New Rome_, and the Imperial Palace, in other
respects, besides those I have mention’d, but that in the finest
Buildings of his Palace, and in the Middle of all his gilded Roofs, he
fix’d a Cross set with several Kinds of the richest Jewels, shining
with massy Gold; intimating thereby, that he look’d upon the Cross as
the Defence and Bulwark of his Government. St. _Jerome_ tells us, _That
he stripp’d almost every City of its Curiosities and Ornaments,
to adorn his New_ Rome. _Eusebius_ also mentions the Statues of the
_Muses_, which he caused to be fix’d up in his Palace. _Sozomen_
writes, that by the Command of _Constantine_, all that was valuable in
the Temples of the Ancients under his Government, and all the brazen
Statues of the nicest Workmanship were brought to _Constantinople_, to
beautify the City; which, he tells us, remain’d in the publick _Ways_,
in the _Hippodrom_, and in the Palace, down to his Time. But not only
_Constantine the Great_, but many other Emperors of _Constantinople_
ravaged the whole World for the Decoration of this City. Among these
was _Constantine the Third_, the Nephew of _Heraclius_, who plunder’d
_ancient Rome_ of all its brazen and Marble Statues, ship’d off all
the costly Furniture of their Temples, and made more Havock there in
the Space of seven Days, than the _barbarous_ Nations did in the Space
of two hundred and fifty Years; for so many Years was the _Roman_
Empire in its Declension before that general Pillage. _Iornandes_, no
indifferent Writer of the _Getick_ History, reports, That _Theodorick
Prefect_ of _Constantinople_ was adopted, and made Consul by the
Emperor _Zeno_, who honour’d him with an _Equestrian_ Statue, which was
erected before the Palace. _Tzetzes_, in his _various History_, tells
us, that even in his Time, the Head of _Apollo_, made by _Phidias_ in
the Likeness of the Sun, remain’d in the Palace. _Suidas_ relates, that
the Statue of _Pulcheria_, the Daughter of _Arcadius_, was placed in
the _Chalca_, near the Walks of _Ariadne_ the first Wife of _Zeno_,
and that the Statues of _Zeno_ himself were set up in the Imperial
Gate-house of _Chalca_; as were also two other Statues on foot, erected
upon a small Pillar, with Elegies inscrib’d upon them, composed by
_Secundus_ the Philosopher. I have seen in the History of no creditable
Author, tho’ well known to the People of _Constantinople_, that
_Justinian_ erected on the left Side of the _Chalca_, seven Statues in
Honour of his Relations, some of Brass, and some of Marble, and that
he had also set up two Horses in the Nich before the _Chalca_, as also
some gilded Heads of Women, in the frightful Likeness of _Medusa_; I
could mention others, but that I do not much depend upon the Authority
of the History. _Suidas_ says, that in the _Tribunal_ of the Palace
stood the Statues of _Eudoxia_, and her Emperor _Theodosius_; of
_Marcian_ and _Constantine_, till the Time of _Heraclius_.



CHAP. XIX.

  _Of the_ Basilica, _and the Imperial Walks_.


The _Basilica_, which, as I observed before, stood in the _Forum
Augusteum_, had four Arches, as appears from the ancient following
Inscriptions on them.

Upon an Arch in the _Basilica_ of _Byzantium_.

  _Great_ Theodore, _who beautify’d the City
  With four extensive Arches, highly merits
  The Government of four Imperial Cities_.

And on another Part of the same Arch:

  _You_, Theodorus, _with surprizing Art,
  Once_ Consul, _and thrice_ Prefect _of the City,
  Adorn’d this shining Fane with lofty Pillars,
  Sacred to_ Fortune, _Goddess of the City_.

_Calliades_, General of the _Byzantian_ Army, plac’d the Statues of
_Byzas_ and _Phidalia_ in the _Basilica_, with this Inscription upon
them:

  Calliades _erected here the Statues
  Of_ Byzas, _and his lov’d_ Phidalia.

And on the Statue of _Phidalia_:

  _This is the Statue of the fair_ Phidalia
  _Young_ Byzas’ _Wife, the Work of_ Bupalus.

_Pliny_, among other Statuaries, mentions _Anthermus_ of _Chios_,
and his Sons _Biopalus_ and _Anthermus_. _Dionysius_, a Native of
_Byzantium_ writes, that _Byzas_, from whom _Byzantium_ took its Name,
was the Husband of _Phidalia_, from whom the Port of the _Bosporus_
took the Name of the Port of _Phidalia_, of which I have wrote more
largely in my _Treatise of the Bosporus_. _Suidas_, and some modern
Writers say, that in the _Basilica_, behind the _Miliarium Aureum_,
there was a gilded Statue in the Likeness of a Man, where was also the
_Exammon_ of _Heraclius_, and the Statue of _Justin_ the Emperor in
a kneeling Posture. _Terbelis_ is said to have preached in the same
Place. Here was also placed by the Order of _Severus_, the Figure
of a large Elephant, upon the following Occasion: That an Elephant
being stabled near it, and the House of a Silver-Smith, who worked
in Plate, being robbed, he suspecting the Keeper of the Elephant to
be the Thief, threatned him with Death, unless he would move his
Station; and the Fellow bidding him Defiance, he slew him, and threw
him to the Elephant, at which the Beast being enraged, killed his
Keeper’s Murderer. _Severus_ being acquainted with the Fact, offered
Sacrifices to the Elephant, commanded him and his Keeper to be cast
in Brass, and set up here; where also, as _Suidas_ relates, was the
Statue of _Hercules_, to which the _Byzantians_ paid divine Adoration,
and offered Sacrifice. Afterwards, in the _Consulship_ of _Julian_,
it was moved into the _Hippodrom_; but was originally, with ten other
Statues, brought from _Old Rome_, partly by Sea, and partly by Land
Carriage. Thus it was that _Hercules_, living and dead, travelled the
greatest Part of the World. _Suidas_ writes, that in the Imperial
Walks were placed the _Equestrian_ Statues of _Trajan_, _Theodosius_,
_Valentinian_, _Gibbus_, and _Firmillianus_ the Buffoon. There were
many other Statues of Emperors and Eunuchs set up in this Place, the
most famous of which was the Statue of _Eutropius_, who was Chamberlain
to the Emperor _Arcadius_. The Honour and Opulency of this Eunuch
appeared in numberless gilded Statues, erected to him in every Part
of the City, and the Magnificence and Superiority of the Houses he
built, almost in every Street. This so far encouraged and increased the
Number of the Eunuchs, that even the Boys affected to be so, that they
might become as rich and as honourable as _Eutropius_. The _Basilica_
was so near to the _Miliarium_, and the _Augusteum_, that the Clock
made by the Command of the Emperor _Justin_, _Cedrinus_ places in
the _Miliarium_, others in the _Forum Augusteum_, and others in the
_Basilica_, as is evident from the following Inscription.

On the _Basis_ of the Dial over the Arch in the _Basilica_.

  _This Dial was erected at the Cost
  Of Prince_ Justinus, _and the fair_ Sophia.
  _The Scourge of execrable Tyrants he,
  She the bright Patroness of Liberty.
  Behold the_ Gnomon _cast in shining Brass,
  The certain_ Index _of the flying Hours.
  This was the Invention of the learned_ Julian
  _An honest, upright, and impartial Lawyer_.



CHAP. XX.

  _Of the Imperial Library, and_ Portico; _as also of the Imperial_
  Cistern.


The Imperial Palace, says _Zonaras_, stood near the _Basilica_,
hard by the Brasiers Shops. The _Basilica_ was furnished with many
Volumes, both of human and divine Learning. It was anciently the
Mansion House of some Person of distinguished Knowledge, whom they
called the President or Master. He had under him twelve Assistants,
excellently well skilled in the Art of Reasoning, who were maintained
at the publick Charge. They had each of them several Pupils under
them, who were instructed in the Methods of Argumentation, and were
had in such high Estimation, that upon all important Affairs of State,
the Emperors summoned them to Council. In the Reign of _Basilicus_,
there happened at _Constantinople_ a great Fire, which begun at, and
consumed the Brasiers Shops, with all the adjacent Buildings, burnt
down whole Streets; and among other fine Edifices, destroyed the famous
_Basilica_, which contained a Library of six hundred thousand Volumes.
Among other Curiosities of this Place, was the Gut of a Dragon, a
hundred and twenty Foot long, on which were inscribed in Golden
Characters the _Iliads_ and _Odysses_ of _Homer_. _Malchus_, a learned
_Byzantian_, wrote the History of _Constantinople_, which he brought
down from the Reign of _Constantine_, to the Time of _Anastasius_
the Emperor, in which he very passionately laments the burning of
the publick Library, and the Statues of the _Forum Augusteum_.
_Cedrinus_ speaking of the same Library, gives the same Account of it
with _Zonaras_, almost word for word, and adds, _That this Library
contain’d the Histories of the Atchievements of the greatest Heroes, in
the several Ages of the World_. Many Years after this _Basilica_ was
burn’d down, the Emperor _Leo Conon_, the Students vigorously opposing
his Heresy, order’d the Palace to be fired, and burnt them, and the
Library; which was afterwards rebuilt, and furnished with a most
curious Collection of the best Authors. The _Basilicæ_ at _Old Rome_,
were the Places where they used to plead, to hold their Councils and
_Senates_, and to carry on the Business of Merchandize and Commerce: At
_Constantinople_ they were used as Libraries and Schools of Learning,
as appears by what I have already observ’d, as also from the following
Inscription.

Upon the publick School in _Byzantium_.

  _This Place was built for all th’ unletter’d Youth
  Whose_ Genius _leads ’em to the_ Roman _Law.
  In Pleading skill’d, and fraught with Eloquence,
  They leave these Walls, and plead their Countrey’s Cause._

Modern Writers tell us, that the Place where the Library stood was of
an Octogonal Figure, where there were arch’d _Portico’s_, and a large
Room, where the head Master used to converse with his Assistants.
_Cedrinus_ affirms, that the great Church, the Hospital of _Sampson_,
the Gate-house of the _Basilica_, the _Augusteum_, the _Chalca_, the
two long _Portico’s_, as far as the _Forum_ of _Constantine_, the
_Octogon_, and the _Bagnio’s_ of _Zeuxippus_, were destroy’d by a
Fire, which happen’d in the Reign of _Justinian_. I would observe
from this Passage, that there must of Necessity be two _Octogons_
near one another. For if the _Octogon_, as _Cedrinus_ reports, had
been the same with that where the Library stood, he would not have
omitted to take Notice that the Library was burnt down also in the
Reign of _Justinian_. It is my Opinion, that the Place where the
Library stood, was of a quadrangular Figure, and seems to be the
same Building which _Procopius_ says was encompassed with Pillars
erected in a square Manner. _Zonaras_ mentions nothing of the Form of
the _Basilica_, which contain’d the Library, but only says, that it
adjoin’d to the _Chalcopratia_, or Braziers Shops. _Cedrinus_ calls
the _Basilica_, _Cisterna_, which some Writers erroneously tell us,
was built by _Constantine the Great_. I am confirm’d in this Opinion
from _Procopius_, who says, that near the Imperial _Portico_, where
the Lawyers used to plead, there was a spacious Building of a great
Length and Breadth, encompassed with Pillars in a quadrangular Manner,
situate on a rocky Ground, which was built by _Justinian_ to a great
Height, for preserving the Water in Summer, which was brought into it
by subterraneous Pipes, and in the Winter from the _Aqueducts_, for
the Use of the Poor. _Menander_, surnam’d the _Protector_, says of
himself, that it was once against his Inclinations to enter into the
Litigations of the Law in the Imperial _Portico_, and by the Force of
Pleading, to attempt to reconcile the Jarrings and Contentions of Men.
_Agathius_ plays handsomly upon one _Uranius_ a Native of _Syria_,
who set up for a Physician, although he was entirely ignorant of the
_Aristotelian_ Discipline. This Fellow was blustering, noisy, an
impudent Pretender to infallible Cures, and very talkative, among other
Places, in the Imperial _Portico_; and speaking of himself, he tells
us, that he has often from Morning to Night read over many Law Books,
and Discourses of Trade and Commerce in the Imperial _Portico_’s. From
these Passages it is observable, that the Imperial _Portico_, and the
Imperial _Cistern_, stood in the same Place. The Imperial _Portico_
is not to be seen, though the _Cistern_ is still remaining. Through
the Carelesness and Contempt of every thing that is curious in the
Inhabitants, it was never discover’d, but by me, who was a Stranger
among them, after a long and diligent Search after it. The whole Ground
was built upon, which made it less suspected there was a _Cistern_
there. The People had not the least Suspicion of it, although they
daily drew their Water out of the Wells which were sunk into it. I went
by Chance into a House, where there was a Descent into it, and went
aboard a little Skiff. The Master of the House, after having lighted
some Torches, rowing me here and there across, through the Pillars,
which lay very deep in Water, I made a Discovery of it. He was very
intent upon catching his Fish, with which the _Cistern_ abounds, and
spear’d some of them by the Light of the Torches. There is also a small
Light which descends from the Mouth of the Well, and reflects upon the
Water, where the Fish usually come for Air. This _Cistern_ is three
hundred and thirty six Foot long, a hundred and eighty two Foot broad,
and two hundred and twenty four _Roman_ Paces in Compass. The Roof, and
Arches, and Sides, are all Brick-work, and cover’d with Terrass, which
is not the least impair’d by Time. The Roof is supported with three
hundred and thirty six Marble Pillars. The Space of _Intercolumniation_
is twelve Foot. Each Pillar is above forty Foot nine Inches high.
They stand lengthways in twelve Ranges, broad-ways in twenty eight.
The _Capitals_ of them are partly finish’d after the _Corinthian_
Model, and part of them not finish’d. Over the _Abacus_ of every Pillar
is placed a large Stone, which seems to be another _Abacus_, and
supports four Arches. There are abundance of Wells which fall into the
_Cistern_. I have seen, when it was filling in the Winter-time, a large
Stream of Water falling from a great Pipe with a mighty Noise, till the
Pillars, up to the Middle of the _Capitals_, have been cover’d with
Water. This _Cistern_ stands Westward of the Church of St. _Sophia_, at
the Distance of eighty _Roman_ Paces from it.



CHAP. XXI.

  _Of the_ Chalcopratia.


It is plain from what has been observed, that the _Chalcopratia_,
or Places where they work’d their Brass, stood near the _Basilica_.
_Cedrinus_ reports, That _Theodosius the Less_ built the Church of the
_Chalcopratia_, and dedicated it to the Virgin _Mary_. Others say,
that the _Jews_, who had lived there from the Time of _Constantine the
Great_, had obliged _Theodosius the Less_ to retire from thence, and
built that Church; and that afterwards, when it had been shatter’d by
an Earthquake, it was rebuilt by _Justin Curopalatos_, tho’ _Zonaras_
is of another Opinion. _Theodosius the Great_, says he, _marching into
the Western Parts, the_ Jews _took the Opportunity, and made_ Honoratus
_the Prefect of the City, their Friend, and obtain’d of him the
Freedom to build a Synagogue in the_ Chalcopratia: _The People being
enraged at this, set it on fire, and burnt it down. When_ Theodosius
_was made acquainted with the Fact, he lay’d a Fine upon those who were
concern’d in it, and gave them a fresh Licence to build another. St._
Ambrose, _who was then Bishop of_ Milan, _being inform’d of the Matter,
lay’d before_ Theodosius _the Greatness of the Crime, in suffering the_
Jews _to build a Synagogue in the very Centre of the Queen of Cities,
upon which he remitted the Fine, and stopp’d their Proceedings_.
There are no Braziers Shops in this Place at present, they being
removed into another part of the City, tho’ I was inform’d by some
of the Inhabitants, that not many Years since they follow’d their
Trade near the _Chalcopratia_. The _unknown Author_ of the History of
_Constantinople_, describing the Boundaries of _Old Byzantium_, tells
us, _That the_ Chalcopratia _were not far from the_ Miliarium. Others
say, that they were near the Church of St. _Sophia_. _Strabo_ speaking
of the Palace of _Alexandria_, relates, that in Conformity to this at
_Constantinople_, it had a Library, a _Portico_, a Convocation-House,
or Place of Assembly upon publick Affairs, and a large publick
Foundation for the Encouragement of Persons of Literature and Science.



CHAP. XXII.

  _Of the_ Portico’s _situate between the Palace, and the_ Forum _of_
  Constantine.


Besides the Imperial _Portico_, which stood near the Library, there
were also other _Portico’s_ at a little Distance from it, which reach’d
from the Palace to the _Forum_ of _Constantine_. The first Fire, which
happen’d in the Reign of _Justinian_, consumed the Palace and the
Church of St. _Sophia_, both the long _Portico_’s, as far as the _Forum
of Constantine_. _Cedrinus_ says, that besides these, it destroy’d also
the _Chalca_ and the _Augusteum_. The Fire that happen’d afterwards
in the Reign of _Basiliscus_, began at the _Chalcopratia_, burnt down
the two adjoining _Portico’s_, all the neighbouring Buildings, the
_Basilica_, in which was the Library, two _Portico’s_ which stood
between the Palaces, and all the fine Ornaments of the _Lausus_. These
_Portico’s_ have been often burnt, and as often rebuilt; first of
all by _Justinian_, then by others, and last by _Domninus_, which is
confirm’d by a modern Historian, who says, That when _Constantinople_
was taken by the _Gauls_ and the _Venetians_, the cover’d _Portico_’s
of _Domninus_ reaching on both Sides of the Way, from the _Miliarium_
to the Forum of _Constantine_, were burnt to the Ground. Some say,
That in the Time of _Constantine the Great_, _Eubulus_ built four
double _Portico’s_, which were arch’d at Top, and reach’d from the
Palace to the Land Wall of the City; one of which stretch’d as far
as the Church of St. _Anthony_, at the End of the City, another from
the Port of _Sophia_, to the Church named _Rabdon_; the other two
extended themselves from the _Chalca_, and the _Miliarium_ to the
_Forum_ of _Constantine_, the Street call’d _Taurus_, and the _Brazen
Bull_. All of them were paved with square Marble, and adorn’d with
infinite Numbers of Statues. These Relations, though they come from
unknown Authors, who, as I have sometimes observed, have not so
strictly adhered to Truth, yet seem to carry with them a good Face of
Probability, since it is evident from Historians of more Veracity, how
industrious _Constantine_ was in adorning the City; and ’tis no less
evident from the _Treatise of the ancient Description of the Wards_,
that _Constantinople_, in the Reigns of _Arcadius_ and _Honorius_,
had no less than fifty two publick _Portico’s_, five of which the
Author places in the fourth _Ward_, in which stood the _Basilica_,
the Imperial _Portico_, and the _Portico_ of _Fannio_; besides which,
he places four large _Portico’s_ in the sixth _Ward_. In the same
_Ward_ he places another large _Portico_. He adds, that the seventh
_Ward_ abounds with _Portico’s_, and that the eighth _Ward_ had six
_Portico’s_ more. In the ninth _Ward_ were two large _Portico’s_. The
tenth had six, the eleventh four. From which it is credible, that the
_Portico’s_ stood very thick from the _Chalca_ to the Land Wall, but I
cannot say they were contiguous beyond the _Taurus_.



CHAP. XXIII.

  _Of the_ Miliarium Aureum _and its Statues, and of the_ Fortune _of
  the City, and her Statue_.


The _Miliarium Aureum_ was a gilded Pillar, from whence they used
to adjust the Mensuration of their Miles, and the Distances from
the City. _Pliny_ tells us, that it was set up at _Rome_ in the
highest Ground of the publick _Forum_; but whether the _Miliarium_ at
_Constantinople_ was like that of _Rome_, the _Greek_ Historians have
been so far from declaring their Opinions concerning it, that in all
their Writings they have not so much as mention’d the Name of it. Yet
it seems very probable to me, that it was like it, and was also seated
in the _Forum_, or near it. For the _Ancient Description of the Wards_
places it in the _Ward_ where the _Forum Augusteum_ and the _Basilica_
stood, to which it adjoin’d. They who have written the History of
the Atchievements of _Alexius Comnenus_ the Emperor, tell us, that
at Break of Day, the Forces of _Alexius_, marching out of the great
Palace, under the Command of _Sabatius_ their General, enter’d the
Church of St. _John_ the _Divine_, and when they had got to the Top of
the Church, they express’d themselves in a provoking manner, so that a
Battle began about three in the Morning, and that many People in the
_Forum_ were wounded, who fought from the Roof of the _Miliarium_, and
the Top of St. _John_’s Church. The Inhabitants say, that this was the
Church where the Elephants of the _Grand Seignor_ are now stabled. ’Tis
near the _Hippodrom_, and the _Forum Cupedinis_, famous for Niceties,
situate near the Church of St. _Sophia_, and was formerly called the
_Forum Augusteum_. But to come closer to the Point: _Suidas_ says,
_That in the_ Basilica, _behind the_ Miliarium, _were placed a gilded
Statue of a Man, as also of an Elephant and his Keeper_; others, with
more Probability, say, that these Statues were erected behind the
_Basilica_, near the _Miliarium_. _Suidas_ adds, that the Statue of
_Theodosius_ was placed in the _Miliarium_, and that upon the setting
it up, he distributed large Donations of Corn among the People. Upon
the _Equestrian_ Statue of _Theodosius_, not remaining at present, were
inscrib’d these Verses.

  _Not the bright Sun, which gilds the Eastern Sky,
  With greater Lustre shines, than_ Theodosius.
  _See how he sits aloft in radiant Arms,
  And with mild Aspect views his loving People!
  The fiery Steed, pleas’d with the Royal Burthen,
  In warlike Posture seems to move, and live._

_Suidas_ proceeds farther, and tells us, that the Statues of _Sophia_,
the Consort of _Justin_ the _Thracian_, of his Daughter _Arabia_, and
his Niece _Helena_; as also the _Equestrian_ Statues of _Arcadius_ and
_Theodosius_ his Son, were placed in the _Miliarium_, near the Statue
of _Theodosius_ the _Great_. _Cedrinus_ writes, that there stood two
Statues above the Nich of the _Miliarium_, one of _Constantine_ the
_Great_, the other of his Mother _Helena_, with a Cross between them:
Behind them was placed the Statue of _Trajan_ on Horse-back, and that
near him was placed the Statue of _Ælius Hadrianus_. _Suidas_ adds,
that the Cross which was placed between _Constantine_ and _Helena_, had
this Inscription; _una sancta, & duo celeres Cursores_. From whence it
is evident, that the _Forum_, the _Miliarium_, and the _Basilica_ stood
so near together, that they are not only placed by different Authors
in different Places, but sometimes by one and the same Historian.
The same Writer says, that there was also in the _Miliarium_ a great
Piece of Antiquity, which was a Chariot drawn by four Fallow Horses,
supported by two square Pillars, in the Place where _Constantine_
was received by his Army with joyful Congratulations, after he had
conquered _Azotium_; but originally, because _Byzas_, the Founder of
_Byzantium_, had there been highly applauded by the People. The Chariot
of the Sun was carried into the _Hippodrom_, in which was seated a
small Statue, made by the Order of _Constantine_. This Statue was the
_Fortune_ of the City, which on great Festivals, and the Day of the
Celebration of the Foundation of the City, was set up with a Cross on
her Head, in the _Senate-House_. _Julian_ the Apostate demolished it
in the same Place, where _Arius_ died in a miserable Manner, which
was at a small Distance from the _Senate-House_. In the same Place,
the pious Emperor _Theodosius_ had ordered the Statues of _Arius_,
_Macedonius_, _Sabellius_, and _Eunomius_, which were cut in Marble,
to be placed in a sitting Posture on the Ground, to be polluted with
the Excrements, and receive the Curses of the People, in Token of
their flagrant Perfidiousness. Other Historians say, that the Statue
of the _Fortune_ of the City was brought from _Rome_ by _Constantine_
the _Great_, and placed in a Nich in the Palace. _Zosimus_ writes, that
_Constantine_ placed the _Fortune_ of _Rome_, on the Side of one of the
four _Portico’s_ that surrounded the great _Forum_. ’Tis very probable,
that the People of _Constantinople_ celebrated a Festival in Honour of
her, as was customary at _Old Rome_, both by Natives and Foreigners,
the same Day, in which the _Palilia_, (the Festivals of _Pales_) were
celebrated. _Socrates_ tells us, that _Julian_, when he was publickly
sacrificing to the _Fortune_ of _Constantinople_, in the _Basilica_,
where her Statue was set up; _Mares_, the Bishop of _Chalcedon_, being
led thither by the Hand, for he was blind with Age, sharply reprimanded
him, and called him an Apostate from the Christian Religion. _Julian_
in Return, called him a blind old Fellow, adding sarcastically this
Question; _Is your God, the Galilean, able to cure you?_ For thus, by
Way of Contempt, he used to call our Saviour. Upon which the good old
Bishop replied, _I thank my God, who has taken my Sight from me, so
that I cannot behold the Man who is fallen into so great an Apostacy_;
upon which _Julian_ was silent. _Zonaras_, and some Historians who
lived before him, have recorded, That in the Time of _Anastasius_, the
Statue of _Fortune_, made in Brass, stood with one Foot in a brazen
Ship, and was placed in some Part of the City; but that when this Ship
began to decay with Age, or some Parts of it were stolen, or shattered
by Treachery, it happened, that no Ships of Burthen came into the
Port of _Constantinople_, but that upon their Arrival near the City,
a Storm prevented their coming into Harbour; and if their Cargo was
taken aboard the Long-boats, and brought into the City, they tell you
it was soon consumed, by Reason of the Scarcity, which then prevailed.
Upon this, the _Curatores_ of the City were obliged to enquire into
the Reason of it. When the Magistrates of the City, upon Information,
began to suspect the Cause, they found, upon Enquiry, the Fragments
of the Ship, which were fitted to their proper Places, when on a
sudden, Navigation was open and free, and the Sea was constantly full
of Vessels sailing into the Port. And that they might fully discover
the real Cause of this Calamity, they repeated the Experiment, by
stripping the Ship again of some Pieces of it, and the Ships coming
into Harbour, were prevented as before; so they repaired the brazen
Vessel she stood in, and took a particular Care of it. _Eunapius_, who
wrote the _History of the Lives of the Philosophers and wise Men_,
says, that in the Reign of _Constantine_, the Inhabitants attributed
this Difficulty of coming into Harbour to another Cause. _There was no
entring the Port at_ Constantinople, says he, _unless the Wind stood
full South. When this had frequently happened, the People, oppressed
with Famine, assembled in the Theatre, enraged at_ Constantine. _The
Chief of the Courtiers having conceived a Resentment against_ Sopatrus
_the Philosopher, brought him before the Emperor, and impeached him
in the following Manner: This_ Sopatrus, _Sir, who is so high in your
Favour, has by his excessive Wisdom chained up the Winds, for which
you so far admire him, as to admit him too near your Imperial Person_.
_Constantine_, believing the Allegations, ordered him to be beheaded.



CHAP. XXIV.

  _Of the Temple of_ Neptune, _of the Church of St._ Mina, (_or_ Menna)
  _of the_ Stadia, _and the Stairs of_ Timasius.


I cannot omit taking Notice of the Church of St. _Mina_, because it
shews in what Part of the City the fourth _Ward_ stood, which contained
the _Basilica_, the _Augusteum_, and the Church of St. _Mina_. The
History of an unknown Author reports, that _Byzas_ formerly built a
Temple to _Neptune_, near the _Acropolis_, by the Sea, where, he says,
that in his Time stood the Church of St. _Mina_ the Martyr; though he
seems to contradict himself, where he says, that the Church of St.
_Mina_ was formerly the Temple of _Jupiter_, and that the Roof of it,
which was arched with Marble, was supported with two large Pillars.
So that I can conclude nothing from the Uncertainty of this Writer,
but that it seems more probable to me, that the Church of St. _Mina_
stood in those Parts of the _Acropolis_, in which formerly stood the
Temple of _Neptune_, as appears from _Dionysius_ an antient Writer of
_Byzantium_, who says, that a little above the _Promontory_ of the
_Bosporus_, was erected an Altar to _Minerva Egressoria_, and the
Temple of _Neptune_; and that below the Temple of _Neptune_ were the
_Stadia_, and the _Gymnasia_, where they diverted themselves with
martial Sports and Exercises, as I have shewn more at large in my
Treatise of the _Bosporus_. I am confirmed in this Opinion from the
Information of some of the Inhabitants now living, who told me, that
within the Imperial Precinct, formerly called the _Acropolis_, stood
the Church of St. _Mina_. The _Antient Description of the Wards of the
City_ tells us, that the Church of St. _Mina_ stood in the same Ward
with the _Stadia_, and the Stairs of _Timasius_. _Procopius_ writes,
_That at the Place called the_ Stadium, _near the Sea, where they
exercised themselves in martial Sports, the Emperor_ Justinian, _and
his Empress_ Theodora, _built some large Inns for the Entertainment of
Strangers_.



CHAP. XXV.

  _Of the_ Lausus, _and its Statues; namely, a_ Venus _of_ Cnidos,
  _a_ Juno _of_ Samos, _a_ Minerva _of_ Lindia, _a winged_ Cupid, _a_
  Jupiter Olympius, _a_ Saturn, _Unicorns, Tygers, Vultures, Beasts
  that are half Camels, and half Panthers; of the_ Cistern _of the
  Hospital called_ Philoxenos, _and the_ Chrysotriclinium.


The _Lausus_ is a Place celebrated in the Writings of many Historians,
some of whom write, that it was the House of _Lausus_ a Patrician, who
bore many Offices in the Reign of _Arcadius_, the Son of _Theodosius_
the _Great_, and that he adorned his House with many famous Monuments
of Antiquity. There is a Book still extant, under the Title of
_Lausaicus_, which was wrote by _Heraclidas_, Bishop of _Cappadocia_,
and inscribed to _Lausus_. In what Part of the City this Place was,
no Authors mention; but ’tis very probable that it was between the
Palace, and the _Forum_ of _Constantine_, from the Authorities both of
_Zonaras_, and _Cedrinus_; who having described the Ruines of the Fire,
which happened in the Reign of _Leo_, both on the North, and South Side
of the City tell us, that in the Middle of the City, it burnt from
the _Lausus_, to the Street called _Taurus_. And _Evagrius_, speaking
of the same Fire, says, that it destroyed all the Buildings from the
_Forum_ of _Constantine_ to the _Taurus_. The Reader may observe from
hence, that the _Lausus_ was not far from the _Forum_ of _Constantine_.
_Cedrinus_ also in his Description of that Fire which happened in the
Reign of _Basiliscus_, makes it plain, that it stood Eastward, between
the Palace, and the _Forum_ of _Constantine_. This Fire, says he,
consumed the _Chalcopratia_, the most beautiful Part of the City, the
_Basilica_, with its eminent Library, and all the surprizing Ornaments
of the _Lausus_, to the _Forum_ of _Constantine_. There was in the
_Lausus_, continues our Historian, an infinite Number of Statues, the
most remarkable of which was, the Statue of _Minerva_ of _Lindia_,
which was four Cubits long, and made of an _Emerald_ Stone. ’Twas cut
by _Scyllis_ and _Dipœnus_, two eminent Statuaries, and presented by
_Sesostris_ King of _Egypt_, to _Cleobulus_ King of _Lindia_, a Prince
of incomparable Wisdom. From hence it is probable the Place is called
_Laousos_; for _Minerva_ sometimes goes under the Name of _Laossos_.
_Theophrastus_ writes, that the _Egyptian_ Commentators mention, that
the King of _Babylon_ made a Present to their King of an _Emerald_,
which was four Cubits long, and three in Breadth. If _Sesostris_,
_Scyllis_, and _Dipœnus_ were living at the same Time, _Pliny_ should
rather have called it the _Emerald_ of _Minerva_. But these were no
less antient, than eminent Statuaries, born in the Island of _Crete_,
when under the Government of the _Medes_, before _Cyrus_ was King of
_Persia_, that is, about the fifteenth _Olympiad_. They carved the
Statues of _Apollo_, _Diana_, _Hercules_, as also of _Minerva_, which
was blasted with Lightning. _Pliny_ takes Notice, that _Ambracia_,
_Argos_, and _Cleone_ were full of Statues made by _Dipœnus_, tho’
he says nothing of the Statue of _Minerva_ of _Lindia_. _Cedrinus_
adds, that there was placed in the _Lausus_, the Statue of _Venus_ of
_Cnidos_, which was looked upon every where as a celebrated Piece of
Sculpture. It was finished by _Praxiteles_, is made of white Marble,
and appears in a naked Posture. There is also a _Juno_ of _Samos_, the
Workmanship of _Lysippus_ and _Bupalus_, and a winged _Cupid_, with
his Quiver. This Statue was brought from _Myndus_. There was also a
_Jupiter_ riding upon an Elephant, which was carved by _Phidias_, and
placed in his Temple by _Pericles_. There was also another Statue made
by _Lysippus_, which was bald behind, tho’ not before, which was taken
for the Statue of _Saturn_. There were also erected here many Statues
of Unicorns, Tygers, Beasts that were half Camels, and half Panthers;
others that were half Bulls, and half Harts, besides several Statues
of Vultures. The unknown Author of the History of _Constantinople_
says, That in his Time there were standing in the _Lausus_ some Eagles
that were cut in Stone. I am induced to think, that there were some
Figures of Birds standing there at that Time, but believe them to be
the Vultures mentioned by _Cedrinus_. This Author tells us, that there
stood in the _Lausus_ several fine Buildings, some Hospitals, a Place
for the Entertainment of Strangers, which had very good Spring-water,
and was call’d _Philoxenon_. Some Writers affirm, that the
_Philoxenon_ was a _Cistern_, built by one of that Name. I look upon it
to be the same _Cistern_, which was situate between the _Triclinium_
and the _Lausiacum_, and was filled up by the Order of _Heraclius_.
_Menander_, surnamed the Protector, tells us, That _Philip_ of
_Macedon_ cleansed most of the _Cisterns_ of the City, which
_Heraclius_ commanded to be replenished with Earth. If that Prince
gave Orders for the cleansing of that _Cistern_, among others, ’tis
the same which lies under Ground, on the North Side of _Abraham_ the
_Basha_’s House, between the _Lausiacum_, and the _Triclinium_; whose
Roof is supported with four Hundred and twenty four marble Pillars,
two hundred and twelve supporting the same Number of Pillars above
them. I measured one of them, for they all seem to be of a Bigness,
and I found it to be six Foot and nine Inches in Circumference. There
is another _Cistern_ on the West Side of the same House, whose Arches
are supported with thirty two _Corinthian_ Pillars, standing in four
Ranges, each Range consisting of eight Pillars, whose _Shafts_ are
nine Foot in Compass. As to the _Triclinium_, between which and the
_Lausus_ was built the _Philoxenon_; I suppose it to be the same which
_Justinian_ the _Third_ built near the Palace, and called it after his
own Name, the _Triclinium_ of _Justinian_. ’Tis reported by _Cedrinus_,
that this _Triclinium_ was finely beautified by the Emperor _Tiberius_.
The Western Gate of this _Triclinium_ is taken Notice of by _Leo_ the
_Fifth_, when he foretold that the Head of the Man which should be cut
off in the _Hippodrom_ for his Tyranny, should be brought before him
through the Western Gate of the _Triclinium_. Frequent Mention is made
of this _Chrysotriclinium_ by Historians, who wrote just before the
taking of _Constantinople_ by the _Turks_, and all the Inhabitants both
knew the Name, and the Place where it stood. But the People are since
fallen into such an Aversion to Learning, and a Disrelish of what is
ingenious and Polite, that they rather chuse to embrace a voluntary
Ignorance, and treat every Thing that is curious with Indignity and
Contempt.


_The End of the Second Book._

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THE ANTIQUITIES OF CONSTANTINOPLE.

BOOK III.



CHAP. I.

  _Of several Places in the fifth Ward, and the second Hill; of the_
  Neorium; _of the Port nam’d the_ Bosporium; _of the_ Strategium, _and
  the_ Forum _of_ Theodosius.


It was impossible for me to discover from the _Ancient Description
of the Wards_, that the fifth _Ward_ stood on the North Side of the
second Hill, and in a Plain at the Bottom of it, and that it descended
jointly with the fourth Ward from the Ridge of the _Promontory_ to
the Bay call’d _Ceras_, although the Author takes Notice that a great
part of it fell down in winding Descents into the Bosom of a Plain.
For this Description of it is no less agreeable to other Wards. Nor
could I find out its Situation from any Buildings remaining in it, or
from the Information of the most ancient Inhabitants. All the Light
I could get was from the Situation of the _Phosphorian_ or, as some
call it, the _Bosphorian_ Port, and the _Stairs_ of _Chalcedon_, which
do not take that Name, because they are built in the Eastern Part of
the City facing _Chalcedon_, for they stand full North; and so it is
call’d the _Bosphorian_ Port, not from the Sea of _Bosporus_, but
from a depraved Custom of the People, who pronounce it so; whereas,
according to the Authorities of _Stephanus_ and _Eustathius_, they
ought to call it the _Phosphorian_ Port. For these Writers assert, that
it took its Name from hence; _viz._ that when _Philip_ of _Macedon_
besieged _Byzantium_, and his Soldiers were digging a Passage under
Ground into the Town, the Moon, which is call’d _Phosphora_, shone
out in its full Brightness, and discover’d the Stratagem; so that the
_Byzantians_, the Siege being raised, call’d it the _Phosphorium_. But
as they give some Reason why it may be thought the same Haven, though
under different Names, yet are they silent as to its Situation, whether
it stood on the Eastern, Northern, or Southern Side of the City; though
it is reasonable to believe, if we consider the Situation of the Stairs
of _Chalcedon_, which the _Ancient Description of the Wards_ places
in the same _Ward_ with the _Bosphorian_ Haven, that it stood on the
South Side of the City, and not on the East Side, although it directly
faces _Chalcedon_. For the Force and Rapidity of the _Bosporus_ makes
it very difficult to sail from _Chalcedon_ to the Eastern and Southern
Parts of _Constantinople_; but ’tis an easy Passage to those who sail
between that and _Chalcedon_, to go in or out of Port on the North Side
of the City. It is observable farther, that the _Ancient Description of
the Wards_ mentions no _Stairs_ which lie over-against _Chalcedon_; or
if the Author had taken Notice of any, he had placed them in the first
or second _Wards_, opposite to _Chalcedon_, or in the third _Ward_,
which stands Southward, where the _Neorium_ or the new Dock stood, as I
observ’d before. But it would be of little Significancy to enlarge on
this Matter, since I shall be very particular in naming and producing
such Authorities, as will make it evident, that the _Bosphorian_
Port, and the _Stairs_ of _Chalcedon_ were not only situate on the
North Side of the City, but shall mention the very Place where they
stood. The first Historian I shall quote is _Dionysius_, a Native
of the City, who places, just without the Walls of Old _Byzantium_,
the Temple of _Tellus_ upon the Bay of the _Bosporus_, and a little
below it the Temple of _Ceres_ and _Proserpina_, whom he does not call
_Proserpina_, but only κόρη the _Virgin_; yet by the Situation of
the Place we may easily understand that Virgin to be _Hecate_, whose
_Tripos_ _Cedrinus_ mentions to have been in the _Strategium_, where,
or at least not far from it, as appears from the same Author, stood
the Temple of _Proserpina_: But _Evagrius_ is more clear upon this
Occasion, who tells us, that in the Reign of _Leo_ there happen’d
a great Fire on the North Side of the City, where the Dock stood,
which consumed all before it, from the _Bosphorian_ Haven, to the old
Temple of _Apollo_; on the South Side, from the Port of _Julian_ to
the Temple of _Concord_, in the Middle of the City, from the _Forum_
of _Constantine_, to the _Taurus_; and _Zonaras_ adds, that the same
Fire destroy’d all the Buildings between the North and the South Sea.
_Cedrinus_ reports, that the same Fire began at the Dock, and burnt
down all before it, as far as the Church of St. _John_; from whence
I observe, that the _Bosphorian_ Port and the Dock were near to one
another, although the Author of the _Description of the Wards_, places
the former in the fifth, and the latter in the sixth _Ward_. For since
both these _Wards_ join’d together, and descended from the Ridge of
the _Promontory_ down to the Sea, it is not possible that they should
stand at any great Distance from one another. _Zosimus_, an ancient
Historian, points out the very Place where the Dock was built in his
_Description_ of Old _Byzantium_. He tells us, that ’twas situate upon
a Hill, which made part of the _Isthmus_, which was enclosed by the
_Propontis_, and the Bay call’d _Ceras_; and adds, that the Wall of
_Byzantium_ stretch’d it self over a Hill, from the Western Side of
the City to the Temple of _Venus_, and the Sea facing _Chrysopolis_;
and that it descended on the North Side of the City to the _Neorion_,
or _New Haven_, which I take to stand near the Gate which the _Greeks_
call Ὡραῖα, and since by a Corruption of Language _Porta Neoria_, or at
least not far from it. There is at present between the Seas and the
_Porta Neoria_, a broad Space of Land, a Market of Merchandize and
Sea Goods, which the _Turks_ call _Siphont_, or _Tsiphont_, because
the _Jews_ inhabit it. It adjoins to the _Stairs_ or _Landing-place_
of _Chalcedon_, from whence they daily sail to _Scutarieum_, or
_Scutaricum_, anciently call’d _Chrysopolis_, a Mart-Town, and a Port
of _Chalcedon_. Near the _Stairs_ of _Chalcedon_ is the _Ferry_, whence
you cross the Water to _Galata_. It was formerly called the _Sycæne
Ferry_, and is placed in the _Description of the Wards_, near the
_Bosphorian Haven_, or _Dock_. But the Situation of these Places seems
to be somewhat chang’d, by reason of some Granaries built there, (which
are removed farther into the City) or for the greater Enlargement of
the Precinct of the _Seraglio_, or because they are fallen to Decay,
and filled up with Earth. For at that Time, when _Philip_ of _Macedon_
undermin’d the Town, ’tis very probable that there was no Port built
in that Place, which by the _Byzantians_ was afterwards call’d the
_Phosphorion_. There was no building a Haven there, because of the
Rising of the Springs, but the _Bosphorian_ Haven was built afterwards
in another Place. And this is no more than what is said of the Dock,
or the _Neorium_, which they tell you was enclosed by _Constans_, and
was made a Market of Merchandize, and other naval Affairs. This Market
was afterwards kept near the Port of _Julian_. Some Historians write,
that _Leontius_ the Emperor, who reign’d after _Justin_, order’d the
Dock to be cleansed. Others write, that there was erected, at the
_Neorium_, the Figure of a large Ox in Brass, which much resembled
the _Brazen Bull_. This Figure was set up in the eleventh _Ward_,
which, as some modern Writers would persuade you, bellow’d once a Year,
which portended great Mischief and Detriment to the City. But this I
look upon to be a Fable taken out of _Callimachus_ and _Pindar_, who
tell you, that upon the Mountain of _Artabyris_ in _Rhodes_, there
are brazen Bulls that used to bellow upon any Calamity impending the
City. There is nothing remaining of this Haven, where the Dock was
at present. I gather from the Situation of the _Bosphorian_ Port,
and the Stairs of _Chalcedon_, that the fifth _Ward_ stood on the
Side of the second Hill, and in a Plain below it; where were also
the _Bagnio’s_ of _Honorius_, the _Prytaneum_, the _Bagnio’s_ of
_Eudoxia_, the Granaries of _Valentinian_ and _Constantius_, the
_Thebean_ Obelisk, the _Bosphorian_ Port, the Stairs of _Chalcedon_,
the Cistern of _Theodosius_, and the _Strategium_, in which was the
_Forum_ of _Theodosius_. _Justinian_ in his _Constitutions_ takes
Notice of the _Bagnio_ of _Achilles_ in a Letter, thus: _Our Imperial
Will and Pleasure is, that the leaden Pipes, conducting the Water to
the_ Achillean _Bagnio’s, contrived by your Wisdom, and purchased by
your Munificence, be under the same Regulation and Management, as has
been appointed by_ Theodosius _and_ Valentinian _in the like Case; and
that the said Pipes shall only supply such_ Bagnio’s _and_ Nymphæa, _as
your Excellency shall think fit, allowing at the same time full Power,
Licence and Authority to the Apparitors of your Excellency, to enter
without Fear or Molestation, such Houses and_ Bagnio’s _in the Suburbs,
as they shall judge convenient, to enquire into all Evasions of this
Order, and to prevent the Stoppage of the Water to the Detriment
of the publick_. The Law by which _Constantine_ the _Great_ enacts,
that _Constantinople_ shall be call’d _New Rome_, is inscrib’d upon a
publick Pillar, near his own _Equestrian_ Statue in the _Strategium_.
I find in the _Ancient Description of the Wards_, that there were
three _Fora’s_ in the City, which took their Name from _Theodosius_.
One was in the fifth _Ward_, and stood, as I just observ’d, in the
_Strategium_; another stood in the sixth Ward, and a third in the
twelfth. The two last of them were Markets for Provision, the first
was the _Forum Prætorianum_, a Court of publick Justice, where the
_Prætors_ presided, and this I gather from the _Treatise_ just
mention’d, and which was call’d, both by the _Latins_ and _Greeks_,
_Prætorium_. I am not certain, though it seems very probable to me,
that this great _Prætorium_ was beautifully finish’d at the Expence
and Care of the Emperor _Justin_ and _Domninus_, as will appear from
the following Verses of _Paulus Silentiarius_. I shall subjoin them in
order to prove, that the Word _Prætorium_ was used by the _Greeks_, as
were also very many other _Latin_ Words.

Some Verses of _Paulus Silentiarius_, upon beautifying the great
_Prætorium_.

  _When great_ Justinus _had reform’d the World,
  This noble Structure consecrate to_ Themis
  _He then repair’d with fresh Increase of Beauty;
  And yet some share of Praise to thee is due_,
  Domninus, _skilful Architect, whose Head
  Long labour’d nightly in the great Design_.



CHAP. II.

  _Of the sixth Ward, and the remaining ancient Buildings of the second
  Hill._


It had been very difficult to have discover’d, either from the
Situation of the _Forum_ of _Constantine_, or the Pillar of
_Constantine_ still standing at _Constantinople_, or the _Description
of the Wards_ (although it takes Notice of the Pillar of _Constantine_,
and tells us, that the sixth Ward enters upon a short Plain, and
that ’tis afterwards lengthen’d by a long Descent) whether the sixth
_Ward_ had been on the North or the South Side of the City, unless the
Author had added, that it reach’d from the _Forum_ of _Constantine_
down to Stairs from whence you sail over the _Sycæne_ Ferry. It was
originally call’d the _Sycæne_ Ferry from _Syca_, but is now call’d
_Galata_, or _Pera_, as will appear more fully, when I come to speak
of it in the thirteenth _Ward_. That the fifth and sixth _Wards_
join’d together, I observ’d before from the Vicinity of the Dock, the
Stairs of _Chalcedon_, the _Sycæne_ Stairs, and the _Bosphorian_ Port
to each other. Having therefore discover’d the Situation of _Syca_,
I take it for granted, that the Dock stood near a Plain on the Sea
Shore, which was below the Foot of the second Hill, and that the Ferry
Place from whence you passed over to _Syca_, is the same with that
from whence you sail at present to _Galata_, and that the _Porphyry_
Pillar now standing, is the same with that mention’d by the Author of
the _Description_, &c. and placed by him in the sixth _Ward_; though
he takes no Notice in his Description of the sixth _Ward_, where he
places the Senate-House, how near it stood to the _Forum_ or Pillar
of _Constantine_. But I shall make it plain to the Reader from other
Historians, in what follows, that the Senate-House stood on the North
Side of the _Forum_ of _Constantine_, and that this _Ward_ stood
partly on the Ridge of the second Hill, where the _Porphyry_ Pillar
is now standing, as is also the Poultry Market, which the _Turks_
call _Taubasor_, or _Taouck Baser_, the Dyers Shops, the House of
_Ænobarbus_, a _Turkish_ Admiral, and the Mosque of _Hali-Bassa_. Part
of it spreads itself also over the right Side of the second Valley, and
part of it covers a Plain near the Sea, below the Valley, and the Foot
of the second Hill, which is much inhabited by the _Jews_.



CHAP. III.

  _Of the_ Porphyry _Pillar, the_ Forum _of_ Constantine, _and the_
  Palladium.


Those Historians who have treated of the Actions of _Constantine the
Great_, report, that he brought the round _Porphyry_ Pillar from
_Rome_. This Pillar was bound, at the Joints, with circular Wreaths
of Laurel made of Brass, and was placed in the _Forum_, call’d the
_Placoton_, because it was paved with smooth broad Stones, which
the _Greeks_ call _Placæ_. They add farther, that there was erected
upon this Pillar a curious Statue of Brass, surprizing both for its
Workmanship and Size. ’Twas an ancient Piece of Statuary, exquisitely
finish’d, even to the Life. They tell you that ’twas originally the
Image of _Apollo_ of _Troy_, that the Emperor gave it his own Name,
and commanded to be fix’d in the Head of it, some of those Nails
which fasten’d our Saviour to the Cross. Upon the Statue was cut the
following Inscription:

  _To thee, O Saviour, Lord of th’ Universe,
  Who rulest the unmeasurable Globe
  With deepest Knowledge, I this People offer.
  May they be thine, I conquer’d them for thee.
  I lay m’ Imperial Sceptre at thy Feet,
  With all th’ united Force, and Power of_ Rome.
  _Let thy good Providence, with watchful Eye,
  Look down, and guard the City from all Ills._

_Cedrinus_ relates, that at the Bottom of the Pillar were carved the
twelve Baskets, full of the Fragments which were left, after the
Miracle of the _Loaves_ and _Fishes_. This Pillar has no Winding
Stairs, but is all solid Marble, and therefore _Fulvius_, otherwise a
good _Antiquary_, is visibly in an Error, when he tells us, that it had
an ascent within it. _Zonaras_ says, that the Statue of _Constantine_
was standing upon the Pillar in his Time, and that in the Spring
Time, in the Reign of _Alexius Comnenus_, among many other Buildings
which were thrown down by a violent Storm of Wind, the Statue of
_Constantine_ the _Great_ was blown down and demolished, and that by
the Fall of it, several People who were passing by, were dashed to
Pieces. The Author who has wrote the History of _Alexius Comnenus_,
tells us, that not only the Statue was struck down with Lightning, but
also that three of the _Tores_, or round Circles of the Pillar, were
also removed. The Pillar is still standing on the Top of the second
Hill; ’tis somewhat impair’d, not so much by Time, altho’ it is very
ancient, as by Fires and Earthquakes, and Tempests. The Statue and the
three upper Wreaths are gone, and in the Room of them there’s a plain
round Superstructure, almost of the same Thickness and Size with the
other Part of the Shaft. The Pedestal of it is made of squar’d Marble,
and is, every Way, eleven Foot nine Inches broad, and eighteen Foot
high. Upon this is placed a Cornice, but after the _Doric_ Manner,
consisting of a _Plinth_, an upper and a lower _Tore_, and a _Scotia_
between them. Upon the _Cornice_ stands the _Shaft_ of the Pillar,
which is about eleven Yards in Circumference. It consists of eight
large Pieces of Marble; each of which is encircled at the Joints, with
a Wreath of Laurel-Work, which covers the Cement of the _Fissures_. And
if it had not been injured by Time, it would look like one entire Stone
of Marble, and has therefore been thought so by some _Historians_, who
have handed it down to Posterity, that it consisted only of one Piece
of Marble, and ridicule the Ignorance and Injudiciousness of those,
who, they tell you, have been imposed upon by the Wreaths of Brass,
which were only added for the sake of Ornament. There’s nothing of
these brazen Wreaths or _Tores_ to be seen at present, the Pillar, to
prevent its falling to pieces, being bound round with Iron Hoops. At
the Top of the Pillar is carv’d the Name of the Emperor, who after
the Statue was thrown down, lay’d the uppermost Stone of it. This
Pillar bore some Resemblance to those mention’d by _Athenæus_, who
writes, that there were some tall round Pillars erected in _Ægypt_,
made after the same Manner. They were cover’d at the _Fissures_ with
circular Wreaths, alternately white and black, one below another.
Their _Capitals_ were also round, about which was a fine Sculpture of
Roses just opening. There were no _Flutings_ in these Pillars, nor any
coarse _Foliage_ (according to the _Grecian_ Model) which enfolded it;
but it was adorn’d with _Dates_, and the Fruit of young _Lote Trees_,
and a Sculpture of all kind of Flowers. Below these, is an Expression
of _Ægyptian_ Beans, intermix’d with Flowers, and a _Foliage_ which
projects beyond the _Fissure_ of the _Capital_. Thus it is that the
_Ægyptians_ make and adorn their Pillars; and in building their Walls,
it is their constant Practice to lay alternately a Row of white over
a Row of black Bricks. I have seen the same Method in building their
Walls among the _Persians_ and _Syrians_; the finest of which they
built with Bricks, or Stones naturally variegated, the meaner sort they
colour’d several ways with Paintings, and other Inventions of Art. The
Wreaths or _Tores_ beforemention’d, which were fix’d to the Pillar of
_Constantine_, were carv’d, as some Writers tell us, to presignify
the many Years _Constantine_ should live, and the many Victories he
should obtain over his Enemies. I believe the Design of the Sculptor
was only to express, that the Laurel was sacred to _Apollo_, and that
this ancient Pillar supported the Image of him made in a stupendous
Size. However that may be, it is certain that _Constantine_ order’d
it to be call’d his own Statue, whether on the account of his many
Victories, or whether he was better pleased with the _Heathen_ Notion
of that God than any other, so that when he demolish’d other _Heathen_
Idols, he commanded the Statue of a _Delphick Apollo_, and his _Tripos_
to be set up in the _Hippodrom_, as is observ’d by a _German_ Orator,
who address’d himself in a _Panegyrick_ to _Constantine_, after the
following Manner: _When your Imperial Majesty turn’d down to the Temple
of_ Apollo, _the most stately, the most beautiful Building in the
World, you saw your favourite God offering to you his Crowns, a happy
Presage of Length of Days, and a Life extended beyond that of_ Nestor.
_You saw him, you gazed on his Features, and beheld your own Likeness
in him; who, as the ancient Poets have sung, deserv’d the Empire of
the World. That auspicious Period of Time seems to be now come, since
you, like that God, are gay and youthful; like him salutary; like him a
personable and a beautiful Prince._

If the _Turk_, whom I employ’d to climb the Pedestal, had follow’d my
Directions, (while I was obliged to appear a mere accidental Spectator)
and held his Pearch true, I had discover’d the lowest Stone of the
_Shaft_, from a Notch he had cut in it, to have been nine Foot and four
Digits high; and the _Tore_, which projected six Digits beyond it, to
have been a Foot and a half broad, I mean the _Tore_ at the Foot of the
_Shaft_, so that every Stone was ten Foot nine Inches high. The Height
therefore of all the eight Stones was about eighty six Foot and nine
Inches. The whole Pillar was lengthen’d besides with an _Abacus_ placed
on the uppermost Stone, and below with a _Pedestal_ and its _Cornice_,
and four Marble Steps at the Bottom. The lowermost of these Steps is
a Foot and six Digits high; the second of the same Height; the third
and fourth, each of them a Foot and a half. There is no Discovery can
be made, from what has been said, where this prodigious Column, or
rather where this _Colossus_ stood. For since neither _Procopius_, nor
any other Historian of those Times, takes any Notice of the _Forum_
call’d Πλακότον, where _Zonaras_, and other modern Writers say it was
erected, I was in some Suspence, whether or no this was not the same
with the _Forum_ of _Constantine_. For it seem’d very probable to me,
that _Constantine_ had herein follow’d the Example of _Trajan_, in
setting up his Statue in the _Forum_, which went by his own Name. But
I was soon clear’d of this Difficulty, by the Authority of _Socrates_,
(the Author _of the Dissensions among Christians_,) who writes, that
they are one and the same Place; and that _Arius_, when he came near
where the _Forum_ of _Constantine_ stood, expired with the falling of
the Guts. But this is no less evident, if it be consider’d where the
_Palladium_ of _Minerva_ stood; which, as _Zonaras_ says, was convey’d
by the Command of _Constantine_ from _Troy_ to the _Placotum_, and as
_Procopius_ adds, into the _Forum_ of _Constantine_. _The_ Hirpines,
says he, _report, that_ Diomedes _met_ Æneas _coming out of_ Troy,
_and that in Conformity to the Answer of the Oracle, he gave him the
Image of_ Minerva, _which he, with the Assistance of_ Ulysses, _had
formerly brought from_ Troy, _when they went thither to consult the
Oracle, how_ Troy _might be taken. They add farther, that_ Diomedes
_being indisposed, and consulting the Oracle concerning his Recovery,
it was foretold by it, that he would never be well, till he had given
that Image to_ Æneas. The _Romans_ pretend that they know nothing of
this Image at present, yet they shew you an Image cut in Stone, which
to this Day stands in the Eastern Part of the Temple of _Fortune_,
before the Statue of _Minerva_. The Statue is carv’d in a War-like
Posture, brandishing, as in Battle, a Spear, dress’d in a long Garment,
not representing the Statue of _Minerva_, as she is figured by the
_Greeks_, but as described by the _Ægyptians_. The Inhabitants tell
you, that _Constantine_ order’d this Statue, which was placed in
the _Forum_, call’d by his own Name, to be bury’d under Ground. The
Authorities that the _Placoton_ and the _Forum_ of _Constantine_ are
the same Place ought to be regarded, because it is impossible to come
to the Knowledge of four of the _Wards_ without them; for the third
_Ward_ contains the Tribunal of the _Forum_ of _Constantine_; the
sixth reaches from the _Forum_ of _Constantine_, to the Stairs against
_Sycæ_, where is erected the Pillar of _Constantine_. The seventh
extends itself with continual _Portico’s_ from the Right Hand Side of
the Pillar of _Constantine_ to the _Forum_ of _Theodosius_, and the
eighth contains part of the _Forum_ of _Constantine_. When I was ask’d
by some Gentlemen who were curious that way, how _Constantine_ came by
that _Palladium_, I answer’d, that I was at an Uncertainty as to that.
For _Zonaras_’s Opinion of its being brought from _Troy_ did not look
very probable, since _Troy_ was destroy’d so many Ages before it; and
_Strabo_ is hard put to it to trace out the Place of its Situation. The
Story of its being brought from ancient _Rome_ seems very improbable,
since it was often destroy’d by Fire, and the Inhabitants were entirely
ignorant where it originally stood. Yet the _Latin_ Historians tell
us, that _Diomedes_ presented it to _Æneas_, that it was kept for some
time at _Lavinium_, and that it was afterwards removed to _Rome_, and
set up in the Temple of _Vesta_. The _Greek_ Historians are of another
Opinion. Among these, _Pausanias_, who wrote in the Time of _Adrian_,
tells us, that it was held the most sacred of any Thing in _Athens_,
that it fell down from Heaven, that it was consecrated by the Advice
of all the Senators, and placed in the Citadel of _Athens_. There has
been some Dispute, whether it was made of Wood or Brass, and whether it
was a Figure or a Shield. Some say, that it was a sacred Shield, such
as they had at _Rome_. _Dion_ and _Diodorus_ think otherwise, and tell
us, that it was an Image made of Wood, three Cubits high, that it fell
from Heaven into _Pessinus_, a City of _Phrygia_, holding in her right
Hand a Spear, in her left a Spindle and a Distaff. To me it seems to
have been the Image of _Pallas_, whose Statue, whenever it was placed,
was call’d the _Palladium_. _Procopius_ asserts, that the Statue which
the _Romans_ shew in the Temple of _Minerva_, is not cut after the
_Grecian_ Manner. For they carve her, as was mention’d before, in a
fighting Posture, with a Spear in her Hand, denoting by the Spear,
her Courage; by her Shield, her Wisdom, which repels all Attacks: She
is cover’d with a Helmet, to intimate, that the Height of Wisdom is
not to be seen and discover’d: She bears an Olive-Tree as affording
Matter of Light; and upon her Breast is cut a _Medusa_, to illustrate
the Quickness of Thought, and the surprizing Agility of the Mind. She
had also a Breast-Plate, on which was the Figure of a Night-Owl and
a _Gorgon_. The Night-Owl was an Emblem of the Depth of Prudence and
Conduct; for Wisdom dives into the Secrets and Darknesses of Nature. I
wish the divine _Palladium_ may guard all those, who shall in future
Times attempt the same Travels as I have done, and pray that they may
be defended, as I have been, by that good Providence, and that heavenly
Wisdom, the Wisdom of the _Father_, which amidst all the Treacheries
and Insults of a barbarous People, and the almost incredible Dangers of
a long Voyage, did not only support and strengthen, but did animate,
enliven, and refresh me.



CHAP. IV.

  _Of the Senate-House; the_ Nympheum; _the Statues of the_ Forum _of_
  Constantine; _of the_ Philadelphium; _the_ Musæum; _the_ Labarum
  _and_ Syparum; _of the Death of_ Arius; _of the Temples of_ Tellus,
  Ceres, Persephone; _of_ Juno _and_ Pluto.


The _Porphyry_ Pillar, and the Senate-House, is placed by the Author
of the _Ancient Description of the Wards_, in the sixth _Ward_, and
the _Nympheum_ in the fifth; but he does not tell us, how near they
stood to one another. That they stood at a very little Distance, is
evident both from _Zonaras_ and _Cedrinus_, who write, that the Fire
which happen’d in the Reign of _Leo_, burnt down the Senate-House on
the North Side of the _Forum_ of _Constantine_, which was adorn’d
with Statues of Brass and _Porphyry_ Marble, in which was placed the
_Porta_ of _Diana_ of the _Ephesians_, a Present of _Trajan_, taken
from the _Scythians_, containing a Description of the Wars of the
Giants, a _Jupiter_ arm’d with Thunder, _Neptune_ with his Trident,
_Apollo_ with his Darts and Quiver. In the lower Part of the _Porta_
were figured the Giants attacking the Dragons, tossing large Clods
of Earth, and looking in a fierce and a stern Manner. Hither it was
that the principal Men of the City usually convened freely to debate
of the important Affairs of the Government, whither also the Emperor
himself came in Procession, when he receiv’d the _Consular_ Robes. It
was a very noble and magnificent Building. The same Authors mention
another spacious Edifice situate against it, which was consumed by
the same Fire, and was call’d the _Nympheum_, because the Marriage
Rites were perform’d in this Place, as being capacious enough to hold
the numerous Assemblies which attended those Solemnities. They add
farther, that on the West Side of the same _Forum_ was placed a Statue
of _Minerva_ of _Lyndus_. She had a Helmet on her Head, and a Shield in
her Hand, on which was figured _Medusa_ with Snakes and Adders entwin’d
round her Neck; for in this Manner the ancient Statuaries usually
carv’d _Minerva_. On the East Side of it was placed the Statue of an
_Amphitrite_, one of the _Syrens_, having her Temples encircled with
Crabs Claws. The _unknown_ Author of the History of _Constantinople_
says, that on the same Side of the _Forum_ were placed the Statues of
several _Syrens_, which were call’d by some Sea-Horses; three of which,
he tells you, were remaining in his Time, at a Place in the Suburbs
call’d St. _Mamas_. On the North Side of the _Forum_ was erected upon
a lofty Pillar a Figure of that Cross which _Constantine_ saw in the
Heavens. This is confirm’d by the Authority of most Historians, but
principally by _Eusebius_, who although he is not express as to his
setting it up in the _Forum_ of _Constantine_, yet as his Authority is
not to be disputed, when he asserts, that he set it up in _Old Rome_
in the Heart of the City, ’tis reasonable to believe that he did so at
_Constantinople_, since the same Writer assures us, that he set up a
true Representation of the same Cross in all his finest buildings, and
in the most remarkable Places of _Constantinople_. In Memory of which,
as _Sozomen_ writes, _Constantine_ chang’d the most famous and most
honourable War-like Standard among the _Romans_, which was always bore
before their Princes, and to which the Soldiers were obliged by Law to
pay divine Adoration, into the Ensign of the Cross, to bring them off
from their heathenish Rites, and idolatrous Worship. _Prudentius_, upon
this Occasion, has the following Lines:

  Christ_’s radiant Form upon the Standard rose,
  Emboss’d with sparkling Gems, and burnish’d Gold,
  Which o’er the Purple Ground-work cast a Light.
  No dreadful Shields hung on the blazon’d Flag_;
  Christ_’s awful Name alone was there inscrib’d.
  While on its Top, sure Sign of Victory,
  The Cross triumphant blaz’d in costly Stones._

_Eusebius_ writes, that he saw the same Expression of the _Christian_
Standard in his Time. _There was_, says he, _a tall Spear which was
transvers’d near the Top with a short piece of Wood, in the Figure of
a Cross at the Top of which was a Crown made of precious Stones, and
curiously wrought with Gold, in the Middle of which were embroider’d
the two initial Letters of_ Jesus Christ, _with the_ Greek _Letter_
X, _in the Form of a Cross. The Ensign or Standard was fix’d to the
transverse Part of the Spear._ From this Description of _Eusebius_,
the Difference between what was then called the _Labarum_ and
_Syparum_ seems to be this; that the _Labarum_ signifies only a
longer Piece of Wood transversed near the Top with a short Piece, and
that the _Syparum_ is the Veil, or Flag, which falls down from the
transverse Part. The Religion of the old _Romans_ was purely military,
they worshipp’d their Standards, and swore by them; which Custom was
abolish’d, upon the introducing the Christian Standard.

I hope the Reader will pardon me, if I here go a little out of my way,
to vindicate the Story of _Constantine_’s seeing the Cross in the
Heavens, from the Charge of Fiction and Imposture. There is scarce any
Miracle, in my Opinion, which seems to be better attested than this,
or which is capable of being confirm’d by more Eye-witnesses; for
_Eusebius_, who lived in those Times, writes, that it was not only seen
by _Constantine_ himself, but also by his whole Army, and that too in
the Middle of the Day; and adds, that the Truth of the Fact was not
only believed by the _Christians_, but by those who were Enemies to the
Cross of _Christ_. So prevalent was the Report of this Miracle, that
the Inhabitants testify in the triumphal Arch, which they dedicated
to _Constantine_, that he conquer’d _Maxentius_ by the immediate
Direction and Assistance of the Divinity, although but a little before
many of them were of _Maxentius_’s Party, and Enemies to the Christian
Name: So that they did not, in that triumphal Arch, made in Honour of
_Constantine_, change the Form of the Cross into that of our Saviour’s,
but order’d it to be figur’d with such Sculptures and Expressions, as
were carv’d on the Arches of _Trajan_, _Severus_, and other _Roman_
Emperors, as appears by some such Monuments of _Antiquity_ as are at
present to be seen at _Rome_. I cannot conclude with so much Certainty,
that _Nazarius_ was a Christian, because his Daughter _Euphemia_ was
such, as I can, from his panegyrical Address to _Constantine_. _’Tis
the general Discourse among the_ Gauls, says he, _that there was an
Angelick Host seen in the Air, and that they were sent by God; and
although Things of a celestial Nature are imperceptible by human Sight,
because a simple and incompounded Substance is not properly the Object
of our Senses; yet_, as he proceeds, _these your auxiliary Forces
of Heaven, who are cloath’d with visible Appearances, attended upon
you, as Witnesses of your great Merits, and then withdrew into their
etherial Mansions. But of what Species of the Creation were these
exalted Spirits? Of what Firmness and Vigour of Body; of what Largeness
of Limbs? Their glittering Shields blaz’d in an awful Manner, and the
Splendour of their celestial Armour was terrible: They march’d in such
formidable Array, that they seem’d to wait on you as your Guards. This
was the Language which was heard among them: We are flying to the
Assistance of_ Constantine. _Beings of a heavenly Nature may be allow’d
to triumph, and there’s an Ambition which becomes them. This noble Army
of Spirits who descended from above, were sent down by Omnipotence
itself, and gloried that they fought for you._ But I shall add nothing
farther of our Author, and shall only observe, that some Historians
take Notice, that this large Cross was plac’d upon a gilded Column
in the _Philadelphium_, which was the _Poets College_, and, as the
following Inscription shews, was built near the _Porphyry_ Pillar.

Upon the _Porphyry_ Pillar in the _Philadelphium_.

  Muselius’ _publick Acts aloud proclaim,
  A firm Attachment to the Emperor’s Service.
  This fam’d_ Museum, _sacred Seat of Learning
  He rais’d, and plac’d his Prince’s Picture here._

And another thus.

  _This Building is an Honour to the Learn’d,
  One of the City’s brightest Ornaments,
  A Spur to laudable and virtuous Actions,
  A great Encouragement to virtuous Men._

And again.

  _The good_ Muselius, _steddily believing
  The heavenly_ λόγος _to be truly God,
  This Structure made an Off’ring to his Service._

_Julian_, the _Prefect_ of the City, set up a gilded Statue of
_Anastasius_ before the _College_ of the Poets, on which was inscribed
a Couple of elegant Verses; yet no Mention is made in them, in what
Part of the City this College was built. When a Report was made to
_Manuel_ the Emperor, that from antient Times, on the West Side of the
_Forum_ of _Constantine_, there had stood in the Nich of the Wall two
female Statues made of Brass, one a _Roman_, the other an _Hungarian_
Woman; and that the Statue of the _Roman_ Woman projected, by Reason of
its Craziness, beyond its Base, and the Statue of the _Hungarian_ Woman
stood fixed in its Station; he sent some Workmen to erect the _Roman_,
and demolish the _Hungarian_ Statue, thinking by this Means, that the
Affairs of _New-Rome_ would take a new Turn of Prosperity and Success.
In the same _Forum_, among other elegant Statues of famous Men, was the
Statue of _Longinus_, who had been _Prefect_ of the City, on which was
cut the following Inscription, made by _Arabius_.

  Iberia, Persis, _and the distant_ Nile,
  _The_ Solymæans, Indians, _and_ Armenians,
  _With all th’ extended Regions of the West,
  The_ Colchi, _bordering near to_ Caucasus,
  _Which hides its tow’ring Head amongst the Clouds,
  And all the flow’ry Plains of fair_ Arabia,
  Longinus’ _Expedition can attest;
  With what Dispatch he flew to treat of Peace,
  And with what Speed successfully return’d_.

I shall take no Notice of the Statue of _Themistius_ the Philosopher,
plac’d near the _Forum_ of _Constantine_, whom _Valentinian_ had
dignified with the Title of _Prefect_ of the City, and to whom the
Emperor _Valens_ had done more Honour by his Writings, than any
Statue or high Station whatsoever. _Socrates_ gives us the following
Account of the Death of _Arius_, the Ring-leader of the Sect of the
_Arians_. _Arius_, says he, when he had made his Appearance before
_Constantine the Great_, at his coming out of the Palace, attended
by the Life-Guards, of which _Eusebius_ was Commander, and passing
thro’ the City, gaz’d at by Crowds of People; when he came near the
_Porphyry_ Pillar in the _Forum_ of _Constantine_, and being informed
upon Enquiry, where there was a Privy, he repairs thither under a
strange Terror and Despondency of Mind, where being oppressed with an
uncommon falling of the Bowels, his strait Gut fell from him, which
was followed by a large Effusion of Blood, which brought away his
small Guts, his Liver, and his Spleen, so that he died instantly. The
same Author adds, that this Privy was standing in his Time. There is
nothing however remaining at present in the _Forum_ of _Constantine_,
but the _Porphyry_ Pillar, for the Ground of it is wholly rebuilt
upon. Near the Pillar there stands a _Caravansera_, or a Place built
for the Entertainment of Strangers; and near that, a _Turkish_ Mosque,
built by _Hali Bassa_, the _Vestibule_ or Porch of which is large,
made of Marble, and adorned with six shining Pillars, four of white,
and two of _Thebaick_ Marble; the Shafts of which measure at the
bottom of them seven Foot and four Digits in Circumference. These,
tho’ they are very tall Columns, have each of them, according to the
_Turkish_ Manner, two _Bases_; the lowermost of which was Marble, and
the other Brass. This Way of Building they learned from the _Greeks_,
who generally raised their _Pedestals_ with a very high _Cornice_.
Not far from this Mosque there stands a School, or College, inhabited
by the Professors of the _Mahometan_ Divinity. There’s a quadrangular
_Portico_ runs round it, which is supported with eighteen Pillars,
Part of which consist of green, and Part of white Marble. A little
below that of _Ali-Bassa_ stands another Mosque. ’Tis seated on the
highest Eminence of the second Valley, and has a Marble _Vestibule_,
adorned with six Columns; two of which are made of _Porphyry_ Marble
variegated, two of white Marble with Sky coloured Streaks, and two of
a dark green Marble stained with White. From some Things, which, as I
remarked before, stood on the second Hill, you discover the Situation
of Part of the third _Ward_, (in which was built the Tribunal of the
_Forum_ of _Constantine_) and almost all the fifth and sixth _Ward_. I
would observe also in this Place, that _Dionysius_ places the Temples
of _Tellus_, _Ceres_, _Proserpina_, _Juno_ and _Pluto_, partly on
the Eminencies of the second Hill, and partly on the Plain on the
Sea-Shore below it. He places the Temple of _Tellus_ in particular
beyond the Bay, without the Walls of _Old Byzantium_. He tells us,
_That this Temple is open at Top, to shew the Freedom of the Earth in
her Productions, and that the Walls of it are built of a fine polished
Stone_. He adds farther, _That above the Temple of_ Tellus, _stood
the Temples of_ Ceres _and_ Proserpina, _which were beautified with a
large Collection of fine Paintings, the curious Reliques of preceding
Times, and with Statues no Ways inferior to them, finished in the most
elaborate Manner. The Temples of_ Juno _and_ Pluto, he tells us, _were
situate where the Sea winds off from the Continent; and that nothing
was remaining of them in his Time, but the Names of them only_. He
continues, _That_ Cyrus _in his Expedition against the_ Scythians, _in
Return of the Preparations made against him by the_ Byzantians, _burnt
down the Temple of_ Juno; _and that_ Philip _of_ Macedon, _when he was
carrying on the Siege of_ Byzantium, _and wanted some Materials for
that Purpose, demolished the Temple of_ Pluto; _and that the Names
of each of these Temples still continued: For the Temple of_ Pluto
_was called_ Acra Plutonis, _as was the Temple of_ Juno _called_ Acra
Heræa; _and lastly, that in these Temples, the Youth constantly at
the Beginning and End of the Year, offered their Sacrifices_. It will
appear more probable, that these _Acræ_ were seated on some Eminencies
of the second Hill, rather than in the Plain below it, because there is
not the least Appearance of either of them in that Place: So that when
_Dionysius_ records it, that these _Acræ_ of _Pluto_ and _Juno_, were
situate very near the Sea-Shore, he must intend only that they were
only the _Points_ of some Dock, or Haven. If this be not his Meaning,
the _Acræ_ here mentioned ought to be interpreted the _Sea-Shores_;
but I have enlarged more fully on this Matter in my _Treatise of the_
Bosporus.



CHAP. V.

  _Of the Seventh_ Ward.


The _Antient Description of the Wards_ tells us, that the Situation
of the seventh _Ward_, in Comparison with the sixth, is more upon the
Level, altho’ at the Extremity of one of its Sides, it falls with a
greater Declivity into the Sea; and from hence I concluded, that there
could be little Difficulty in discovering where this _Ward_ stood. But
this Description of it is not peculiar to it, but common also to other
_Wards_. For as to what the Author adds, that this _Ward_ stretches it
self with very long _Portico’s_ from the _Right Hand_ of the Pillar of
_Constantine_, to the _Forum_ of _Theodosius_; as it does also on the
other Side of it down to the Sea-Shore, extended in the same Manner: I
could make no more Observations from this Account of it, than I could
from the Buildings which are mentioned to be contained in it, since
the very Remembrance of them is entirely lost. I therefore considered
with my self, what the Author might probably be understood to mean by
the _Right Hand_ of the Pillar of _Constantine_. In this Difficulty
I had Recourse to _Livy_, who says, that _Romulus_ has determined
all the _Wards_, which reach from East to West, to be the Right Hand
_Wards_, and all the _Wards_ which extended from South to North to be
Left Hand _Wards_. But I could not explain the Difficulty this Way;
for by this Means I had made this _Ward_ to stretch it self Southward;
whereas I shall shew plainly in another Place, that it extended it self
to the North. Nor could the _Geographical_ Method give me any Light
into this Matter; for when these Gentlemen take the Altitude of the
Pole, they look full North, so that the East lies directly on their
Right Hand. _Varro_, who has defined to an Exactness the four Parts of
the Heavens, following the _Astrological Scheme_, has given me some
Insight into this Matter: He tells us, that the South lies directly
before us, and the North behind us, so that the East lies to the left
Hand, and the West to the Right. I judged by this Division of the
Heavens into four Parts, that the seventh _Ward_ was situate Westward
of the Pillar of _Constantine_; and yet was in Suspence, whether the
Author _of the Description_ followed the Division of _Romulus_, or
that of the _Astrologers_. I was therefore under greater Hesitation
than I was before, till after a diligent Enquiry I made a Discovery
where the Column of _Theodosius_ stood, and of some Footsteps of the
Churches of _Anastasia_ and _Hirena_, by which I perceived that the
seventh _Ward_ descended from the Top of the _Promontory_ down to the
Bay, and that this Author had described its Situation more distinctly,
had he told us, that as you go from East to West, the seventh _Ward_
extends it self on the right Hand, from the Pillar of _Constantine_,
to the _Forum_ of _Theodosius_. In this _Ward_ antiently were erected
several fine Buildings, which stood on the same Ground where the
most famous Place of Merchandize in the City, by the _Turks_ called
_Bezestan_, or their _Exchange_, stands at present, and where the most
valuable Goods of all Kinds are kept, as they were in the Reigns of the
_Christian_ Emperors, in the Building called the _Lampterum_, which
I believe formerly stood in another Place. I am prevailed upon to be
of this Opinion, when I consider the Ruines occasioned by the Fire,
which happened in the Reign of _Justinian_; and which, as _Cedrinus_
relates, destroyed, among other Edifices, the Church of St. _Sophia_,
the Place where they kept the _Records_ of it, the _Octogon_, the Baths
of _Zeuxippus_, and the famous Structure of the _Lampterum_, so called,
by reason of the _Lights_ burning there every Night. This Building was
roofed with Wood, where the most costly Commodities, such as Silks,
Velvets, and the richest _Brocades_ were reposited. In short, this
Fire consumed every Thing, which the former Fire had spar’d. I might
not improperly have called it λαμπτῆρες, which in _Latin_ signifies
_Lucernæ_, as ’tis confirmed by the Authorities of _Livy_ and _Pliny_.



CHAP. VI.

  _Of the Street called_ Taurus, _the_ Forum _of_ Theodosius, _the
  Pillar of_ Theodosius _with Winding Stairs, of the_ Tetrapylum, _the_
  Pyramidical _Engine of the Winds, the Statues of_ Arcadius _and_
  Honorius, _of the Churches of_ Hirena _and_ Anastasia, _and the Rocks
  called_ Scyronides.


When I was quite out of Heart as to Discovery of the seventh _Ward_,
and the _Taurus_, without which no Discovery could be made of the
eighth _Ward_, I made the best Enquiry I could after some other
Buildings, which might lead me into the Knowledge of them. And after
I had searched for the Situation of the Pillar of _Theodosius_ for a
considerable Time, I was informed by some antient Persons, that it
stood on the Top of the _Promontory_, where the Plain of the third Hill
extends it self, which is near the New _Bagnio_ built by _Bajazet_
the Emperor, who had demolished that Pillar above forty Years before
I came to _Byzantium_, that he might build his _Bagnio_ with more
Convenience. Beyond that Bath, Northward, there is a broad Way, where
there are three Booksellers Shops, and an antient Cistern; more towards
the South is the _Seraglio_. This broad Way widens Eastward into a
large _Area_, at the farther End of which is the Sepulchre of _Bajazet_
the Emperor, with a Mosque, and a _Caravansera_. _Cedrinus_ relates,
that this Pillar of _Theodosius_ is, in all Parts, like that which was
erected by _Arcadius_, and is still standing in the _Xerolophum_, which
I shall have Occasion to describe hereafter. _Zonaras_ writes, that
the Pillar in the _Taurus_, erected at the Expence of _Theodosius_,
whereon were expressed the Trophies he took, and his well-fought
Battles with the _Scythians_, and barbarous Nations, with his own
Statue at the Top of it, was thrown down by an Earthquake, the same
Year that _Old Rome_ was taken. _Anastasius_ the Emperor ordered many
curious Pieces of Brass Workmanship to be demolished, and new cast into
his own Statue. Among these was a famous Statue of _Constantine the
Great_, which, with other Statues, made a large _Equestrian_ Statue,
which was gilded, dignified with his own Name and Title, and placed on
the same Pillar, where before had stood the Statue of _Theodosius_.
I would observe here by the By, that the Street called the _Taurus_
was the same Place, where the Pillar of _Theodosius_ stood; and from
hence I would observe farther, that the seventh _Ward_ stood on the
Top and Sides of the third Hill. And although the seventh _Ward_ does
not contain the _Forum_ of _Theodosius_, yet it is not improbable
that it was but at a small Distance from it, not only if we consider
how exactly _Constantinople_ emulated _Old Rome_; but also, if any
Dependence may be had on the Authority of _Evagrius_, who asserts,
that the Fire which happened in the Reign of _Leo_, burnt down all
the Edifices from the _Forum_ of _Constantine_, to the _Forum_ of
_Taurus_. _An antient Native of_ Constantinople _informed me, that in
his Time the_ Forum _of_ Taurus, _and the Pillar of_ Theodosius _stood
in the same Place, and that it was like the_ Hippodrom, _full of wild
and uncultivated Trees. And because it was only a Shelter for Thieves
and Robbers, the Emperor_ Mahomet, _who took the City, voluntarily
bestowed the Ground on those who would build upon it_. That the _Forum
Pistorium_, or Bread-market, stood on Part of the Ground of the _Forum_
of _Theodosius_, or at least was very near to it, I conjecture from
_Zonaras_, who says, that as the Emperor _Nicephorus Phocas_ was
coming out of his Palace, situate at the _Golden Fountain_, and near
the _Porta Aurea_, the People pursued him grievously with Railery
and Invective from the _Forum Pistorium_, as far as the Pillar of
_Constantine_. The _unknown Author_ of the History of _Constantinople_
is of the same Opinion, as to the Situation of the _Taurus_, and the
Pillar, and tells us, _That the Pillar stood in a paved Court, near
the_ Forum Pistorium; and adds, _that in the same Place there was
a square Building, with four Gates, and four_ Portico’s _round it,
which he calls the_ Tetrapylum, _which before was called_ Quatrivium.
_Cedrinus_ places the _Tetrapylum_ not far from the _Forum_ of
_Taurus_, when he tells us, that the Fire in _Leo_’s Time, destroyed
two large Churches, adorned with all Kinds of curious Stones; one
not far from the _Tetrapylum_, the other adjoining to the _Forum_ of
_Taurus_. The same Author, speaking of another Fire, which happened in
the same Emperor’s Reign, writes, that it consumed all the Buildings
from the _Tetrapylum_, covered with Plates of Brass, to the Church.
The Author of the _Description of the Wards_ writes, that there was
in _Constantinople_ one gilded _Tetrapylum_, but does not mention in
what _Ward_ it stood. _Johannes_ the _Rhetorician_ (as he is cited by
_Evagrius_) tells us, that in the Reign of _Zeno_ the Emperor, one
_Mamianus_, an eminent Senator, built at _Constantinople_ some handsome
_Portico’s_, and that between two of them he built a _Tetrapylum_, as
a Boundary to both, which he splendidly adorned with Brass and Marble
Pillars; and adds, that in his Time the _Portico’s_ bore the Name of
some Emperor, and that large Stones of _Proconnesian_ Marble, the
Reliques of their antient Beauty and Magnificence, lay on the Ground,
but that there was not the least Sign of the _Tetrapylum_ remaining.
The _unknown_ Author abovementioned says, that in this _Tetrapylum_,
over the Pillars, there was a Chamber, where the Empress, and the
Relations of the Emperor deceased, received the News of his Death; and
having their Faces veiled, bewailed his Departure till six o’ Clock in
the Evening, when meeting the Corpse passing by, they attended it to
the Church of the _Apostles_, where they usually buried their Emperors.
The _Tetrapylum_ seems to me to have formerly been the Temple of
_Janus Quadrifrons_, and stood near the _Capitol_. It had, like that
of _Old Rome_, four Doors, denoting the four Seasons of the Year. For
_Janus_ takes his Name _ab eundo_, and therefore all _Passages_ are
said to be sacred to him, and the Doors of all Temples are called
_Januæ_. Some Authors tell us, that in the _Forum Pistorium_ there
was a quadrilateral _Pyramid_. _Cedrinus_ defines this _Tetrasceles_
to be a quadrilateral Engine, invented to shew in what Point of the
Compass the Wind stood, and adds, that _Theodosius the Great_ erected
a Machine in the Form of a _Pyramid_, adorned with several Figures of
Animals, of Plants, of Fruits, of gilded Bunches of Pomegranates, and
naked _Cupids_, in _Basso Relievo_. Some of these _Cupids_ were cut in
a gay smiling Humour, some of the Uppermost were wantoning, and playing
their little Tricks with those who were below them, while others were
dancing. There was carved upon it a Set of young Fellows playing upon
brazen Pipes. On the Top of the _Pyramid_ was a Vane, or Weathercock,
which shewed in what Corner the Wind sat. The Statues of _Arcadius_ and
_Honorius_ were placed near the Statue of _Theodosius_ their Father;
that of _Arcadius_ in an Eastern, and that of _Honorius_ in a Western
Nich. _Socrates_, who has wrote the _History of the Christians_, tells
us, that _Valens_ the Emperor built out of the Ruines of _Chalcedon_,
a large _Aqueduct_, which he brought into the City, and which supplied
a very capacious Cistern, built by _Clearchus_, who was _Prefect_ of
_Constantinople_, and which, in his Time, was called the _Cistern_, or,
as the original Word in _Socrates_ seems more properly to signifie,
the _Lake_ of _Theodosius_. _Zonaras_ and _Cedrinus_ call this Lake a
_Nympheum_, and add to the Authority of _Socrates_, that the _Prefect_
of the City celebrated there a great Festival, and very splendidly
entertained all the People. I would remark from these Citations,
that the Place which _Socrates_ calls the _Forum_ of _Theodosius_,
is called by _Zonaras_ and _Cedrinus_, the _Taurus_, and that they
are both the same _Forum_, and that the _Nympheum_ here mentioned is
different from the _Nympheum_ which is situate near the _Forum_ of
_Constantine_, over against the Senate-House, and where they usually
solemnized their Weddings, as has been observed before. The Author of
the _Antient Description, &c._ writes, that the _Carosian Bagnio’s_
were so called from _Carosia_, the Daughter of the Emperor _Valens_;
but he does not tell us in what Part of the third Hill they stood,
nor could I discover when I was at _Constantinople_, whether they are
entirely in Ruines, and others built in the Room of them, (as there
are very large ones at present on the Top and the Sides of the third
Hill, which the _Turks_ have built) or not. The same Author places the
Churches of St. _Hirena_ and _Anastasia_ in the seventh _Ward_, but
does not mention in what Part of it. Nor is it possible to find out
their Situation, but from the Historical Accounts we have received of
it, which say, that when the City was taken by the _Franks_ and the
_Venetians_, a Fire began at the Synagogue of the _Saracens_, in that
Part of the City which declines towards the Sea Northward, very near to
the Church of St. _Hirena_. That this Church stood within the Precinct
of the _Seraglio_, I was first informed by some antient People of the
City; I afterwards took Notice of a lofty Tower which stood without
the Precinct of the _Seraglio_, which was situate on the East Side
of the third Hill. It was a square Building, and is still called by
the Vulgar _Hirene_; but whether it was the Church of St. _Hirene_,
or the Empress _Hirena_, I cannot tell. I find among the Monuments of
antient Learning, that there were three Churches at _Constantinople_
dedicated to St. _Hirena_. The first was called the Old Church of St.
_Hirena_, which, as _Socrates_ writes, was built by _Constantine the
Great_, and stood near the Church of St. _Sophia_. The second, I am now
speaking of, stood on the third Hill; and the third, as _Procopius_
says, was built by _Justinian_, at the Mouth of the Bay called _Ceras_,
or _Cornu_, and was called the Church of St. _Hirena_ the Martyr. Some
Authors write, that the Church of _Anastasia_ was built in that Place,
where the new _Bezestan_, or new _Basilica_ now stands: Others that
it was situate near the Cistern, supported with Abundance of Marble
Pillars, and stands between the _Basilica’s_ of the _Forum_, and the
Tomb, and _Caravansera_ of _Bajazet_ the Emperor. _Sozomen_ writes,
that when St. _Gregory_ went from _Nazianzum_ to _Constantinople_, he
preached in a small Church built by his Auditors, which was afterwards
very much enlarged by succeeding Emperors, and was also beautified and
adorned in the most expensive Manner, and was called the Church of
St. _Anastasia_. Whether it was so called, because St. _Gregory_ by
his Sermons preached in this Church had revived the _Constitutions_
and _Decrees_ of the Council of _Nice_; or whether, as he adds, it
went by that Name, because a Woman big with Child, falling from the
upper Gallery, and dying upon the Spot, was restored to Life again
by the joint Prayers of the Congregation then present, I shall not
determine. However ’tis plain from this Passage of _Sozomen_, that
those Historians are grievously in the wrong, who say, that this Church
was built in Memory of St. _Anastasia_, a _Roman_ Saint. In my Treatise
of the _Thracian Bosporus_, I have shewn, that on the North Side of
the third Hill there rise some Rocks from the lowermost Eminencies of
it, which were call’d _Scironides_, by those who first transplanted a
Colony from _Megara_ and _Corinth_, to _Byzantium_. These Rocks were so
call’d, because of the Resemblance they bear to the _Scironides_, which
grow between _Corinth_ and _Megara_. I shall take the Freedom here just
to mention what’s worth observing on the third Hill. On the Top of it
stands the Tomb of _Bajazet_ the Emperor, near a _Caravansera_, and a
large Mosque which was built by him, after the Likeness of the Church
of St. _Sophia_, which is roof’d with Brick-work, and cover’d with
Lead. It has a large Porch or _Vestibule_, pav’d with white Marble, and
is surrounded with four _Portico’s_, which are supported with Columns
of the choicest Marble. In the Middle of it is a fine Fountain, which
falls into a large Bason, which emits the falling Water through several
little Cocks. The Mosque and _Vestibule_ is surrounded on three Sides
with a large _Area_, which is enclosed partly with Walls, and partly
with a _Caravansera_; and on the fourth Side ’tis encompass’d with a
Garden adjoining, in the Middle of which is the Tomb of _Bajazet_, in
a small Edifice built in a cylindrick Form. On the Top of the third
Hill stands the _Seraglio_, where the Emperor’s Concubines constantly
reside; ’tis enclos’d with a high Wall, which, at my first Arrival
at _Constantinople_, was more than two Miles in Compass. The present
Emperor _Solyman_ has taken up a Place in the Middle of this Precinct,
where he is laying a Foundation for a _Caravansera_, and his future
Sepulchre, which are now building with the most elegant Marble, brought
from several Parts of the _Turkish_ Dominions, so that you may see
infinite Kinds of it lying about the Building, not lately dug out of
the Quarry, but such as for many Ages has been used in the Palaces
of several Princes and Emperors, not only at _Byzantium_, but in
_Greece_, and all _Ægypt_. In the seventh _Ward_ I saw three ancient
Cisterns, not taken Notice of in the _Description of the Wards_; one
in the _Forum_ of _Taurus_, another between the Tomb of _Bajazet_ and
the _Bezestan_, both of which are supported with Marble Pillars. The
third was built on a Clift of the third Hill, which faced the North,
of which there are yet remaining six _Corinthian_ Pillars, very large
and tall, made of _Arabian_ Marble, and curiously wrought. Below the
_Base_ of the _Pedestal_ was lay’d an Earthen Pipe which convey’d Water
into a Cistern made of Brick, whose Roof also, which is Brick-work, is
supported with twenty square Brick Pillars. A little above the Cistern
there was formerly a Court belonging to a _Christian Church_, which the
_Turks_ demolish’d, to repair and beautify their own Houses. On that
Side of the Hill which extends itself Westward, there stands a Mosque,
whose _Vestibule_ is supported with twelve Pillars, six of which are
of _Arabian_ Marble. Above this Mosque there stands another, which is
also supported with Pillars, and was formerly a Church dedicated to
St. _Theodorus_. This however is not the same Church which _Procopius_
says _Justinian_ built in a Place call’d _Rhessium_. There is another
Christian Church, now a Mosque, standing between the _Seraglio_, and
the Tomb which the Emperor _Solyman_ built for his Son _Mahomet_, which
is incrusted with several Kinds of Marble, curiously variegated.



CHAP. VII.

  _Of the eighth_ Ward, _and the Hind-part of the third Hill_.


I cannot find by the _Ancient Description of the Wards_, that the
eighth _Ward_ was situate on the South Side of the third Hill, though
it says, that the eighth _Ward_, on the Side of the _Taurus_, is not
bounded by the Sea, and may be look’d upon to be rather a narrow
than a broad Piece of Ground, though this Defect is sufficiently
amended by its great Length. For by this Description of it, I am left
altogether in Suspence, whether it lye North or South. But I discover
the Situation of the eighth _Ward_ from hence, that the Author _of
the Description_ tells us, that it contained part of the _Forum_ of
_Constantine_, and a _Portico_ on the left Side of it, as far as the
_Taurus_, and that the seventh _Ward_ stretch’d itself from the right
Hand of the Pillar of _Constantine_, to the _Forum_ of _Theodosius_. I
observe from these Authorities, that part of the _Promontory_, which
reaches from Sea to Sea, situate between the _Porphyry_ Pillar and
the _Taurus_, was divided into the North and South Side, and that
the _Portico’s_ on the right and left extending themselves from the
Pillar of _Constantine_ to the _Taurus_, parted the seventh and eighth
_Ward_, the former of which contain’d the right Hand _Portico’s_, and
the latter, the left. There’s nothing to be seen of these _Portico’s_
at present, but only the broad Way which runs from the Church of St.
_Sophia_ to the Land-Wall. This _Ward_ contains also the _Capitol_,
and the _Basilica_ of _Theodosius_ both of which, ’tis very probable,
stood near the Pillar and _Forum_ of _Theodosius_. It is no less
evident from _Zonaras_ and _Cedrinus_, that the Fire in _Leo_’s Time
consumed the Senate-House, built for the Dispatch of publick Business
by the great Council of the Empire, and for the Conveniency of the
Emperor, when _Consul_, to preside over them. This Senate-House, as
the same Authors add, had twelve Pillars curiously variegated, made of
_Trojan_ Marble, which were twenty five Foot high, the Roof of it being
supported with four Arches. This House, according to these Writers,
was about two hundred and forty Foot long, and a hundred and fifty
Foot broad. I am inclin’d to believe, from what I have mention’d upon
this Occasion, that it was either the _Capitol_, or the _Basilica_ of
_Theodosius_. For it is plain from modern _Historians_, that these
two Structures, by whomsoever they were rebuilt after the Fire, lost
their Names, and they tell us, that in the _Taurus_ there was a Palace,
and a Place for the Entertainment of Strangers. And these Authorities
are strengthen’d by some ancient People of _Constantinople_, who
attest, that in their Remembrance, near the _Mint-House_, where they
now coin their Money, there stood a spacious Palace, inhabited, as
some say, by _Mahomet_ who took the City, before he built the great
enclosed Palace which stands upon the first Hill, and that some of the
_Sultans_ have since beautified their Palaces out of the Ruins of the
former. The Place of Entertainment, or rather the Church, which stood
to the South-west of the _Taurus_, I saw entirely demolish’d, and the
Pillars of it carried off, to build a _Caravansera_, which the Emperor
_Solyman_ erected in Memory of his Son, whom he dearly lov’d. I leave
it to the _Greek_ Priests to make the Enquiry, whether this was not the
same with the Church of St. _Paul_, which stood in the seventh _Ward_,
though I could never yet meet with one of them, who could give me
Insight into this Matter.



CHAP. VIII.

  _Of the ninth Ward; of the Temple of_ Concord; _of the Granaries of_
  Alexandria _and_ Theodosius; _of the Baths of_ Anastasia, _of the
  House of_ Craterus; _of the_ Modius, _and the Temple of the_ Sun
  _and_ Moon.


That the ninth _Ward_ was situate behind the third Hill, partly on
the Clifts which lye under the Ridge of it, and partly on those which
lye at the Bottom of it, and partly on the Shore of the _Propontis_,
extending itself as far as the Gardens call’d _Blanchæ_; I am
convinced, among other Authorities, principally by the Author _of the
Description_, &c. who says, that the ninth _Ward_ is all a Declivity,
and bounded by the Sea, as also from the Account he gives of the eighth
_Ward_, which as it is not terminated on the Side of the _Taurus_,
by any Part of the Sea, I have Reason to believe, took up the Plain
on the Top of the third Hill, but not the Descents below it, and
that the ninth _Ward_ lies partly under the eighth, on that Side of
it, which extends from the _Taurus_ Southward towards the Sea of the
_Propontis_, and was partly situate also on the two Declivities; one of
which descends from the _Taurus_ to South, South-west, the other from
the Houses of the _Janizaries_ to the South. You may also discover
by the Situation of the Temple of _Concord_, where the ninth _Ward_
stood, which though it be not expressly declared by the Author _of the
Description_; yet Reason, and the Authority of other Writers, will
lead us into that Discovery. For _Evagrius_, describing the Fire which
happen’d in _Leo_’s Time, says, that it raged in a frightful Manner
on the North Side of the City, from the _Bosphorian_ Haven to the old
Temple of _Apollo_; on the South, from the Port of _Julian_, to the
Houses seated at a small Distance from the Temple of _Concord_; and
in the Middle Part of the City, from the _Forum_ of _Constantine_ to
the _Taurus_; and farther, that it extended itself in Length to the
Distance of five Furlongs. From hence it is discoverable, that the
Fire destroy’d all that Part of the ninth _Ward_, through which you
may draw a strait Line from the _Taurus_ to the _Propontis_. And this
would evidently appear to any one, who would walk the five Furlongs
from the _Forum_ of _Constantine_ to the _Forum_ of _Taurus_, and
there fix a Mark, and should afterwards walk Westward from the Port of
_Julian_, through the Plain on the Sea Shore, to the Distance of five
Furlongs more, and should there fix another Mark, and should compare
that Mark with another fix’d at the _Taurus_, he would vary very little
as to the Situation of the Temple of _Concord_. But that, and the
Church of St. _Thomas_ the _Apostle_ are now entirely in Ruins. If we
consider the Rules generally observed in Architecture, ’tis reasonable
to believe, that the Granaries of _Theodosius_ stood near the Port of
_Theodosius_, which was situate in the Gardens now call’d _Blanchæ_.
There was no Port either in the eighth or ninth _Ward_, but in that
Part of the twelfth _Ward_ which adjoins to the ninth, is the Port of
_Theodosius_, of which I shall speak more largely hereafter. Above the
_Blanchæ_ to the North, there stands a Temple upon an Eminence, call’d
_Myreleos_; in the Inside of which was a Cistern, the Roof of which is
supported with about sixty Marble Pillars. In the Place of this Cistern
there was formerly a Granary, which _Suidas_, though very improperly,
calls _Horeium_. The Statue of _Maimus_, says he, who march’d his Army
against the _Scythians_, stood in the _Horeium_, (which was before
the House of _Craterus_, now of _Myreleus_) near the _Modius_, and
the Brazen Hands. This _Modius_, or Bushel, was a settled Measure,
or Standard, according to which they bought and sold their Corn. The
Emperor _Valentinian_ made a Law, that twelve Bushels should be sold
at such a Sum; a certain Sea-faring Man, acting in Violation of this
Law, forfeited his right Hand. This, they tell you, was the Reason why
_Valentinian_ order’d two brazen Hands to be set up in a Nich of some
Place in the _Amastrianum_, and the brazen Bushel to be placed between
them. Others say, that _Valentinian_ commanded, that this Bushel should
not be sold by the Strike, but in full Measure; and that a certain
Offender lost both his Hands, for not observing this Order. _Cedrinus_
writes, that some Places here were call’d the _Amastrianum_, from a
sorry abandon’d Fellow, a Native of _Amastrum_, who laying under the
deepest Scandal for cursing the _Paphlagonians_, and to escape the
Punishment of Homicide, fled for Shelter to _Constantinople_. The
same Author writes, that in the same Place there was a very large
Temple of the _Sun_ and _Moon_, where were carved, at the Charge of
_Phidalia_, the _Sun_ riding in a white Chariot, and the _Moon_ as his
Spouse sitting by him. Below these Figures, near the Ground, was cut a
powerful Prince, prescribing the Rules of Obedience to his People. Near
his Throne was carv’d a _Jupiter_, in a recumbent Posture, which was
the Work of _Phidias_. If the House before mention’d was the House of
the learned _Craterus_ a Sophist, there was erected his _Suggestum_, or
Desk, which has been celebrated in Verse by _Julian_ the _Ægyptian_.
Besides the Curiosities, the ninth _Ward_ also contain’d the famous
Baths of _Anastasia_, which took their Name, as _Marcellinus_ says,
from _Anastasia_ the Sister of _Constantine_. _Sozomen_ writes, that
_Marcian_ the _Grammarian_ was Tutor to the two Daughters of the
Emperor _Valens_, _Anastasia_ and _Carosia_; and that the Baths which
went by their Names, were standing in _Constantinople_ in his Time.



CHAP. IX.

  _Of the third Valley, and the tenth_ Ward; _of the House of_
  Placidia, _and her Palace; of the_ Aqueduct _of_ Valentinian, _the_
  Bagnio’s _of_ Constantine, _and the_ Nympheum.


That the tenth _Ward_ extended itself towards the North, and that it
was situate in the third Valley, and on the East Side of it; as also on
the Top of the _Promontory_, rising above the third Valley, is evident
from the Author of the _Description of the Wards_, who writes, that
the tenth _Ward_ is divided from the ninth by a broad Way; that it
lies much more upon the Level; that ’tis in no part of it uneven, but
near the Sea Shore; that ’tis of a proportionable Length and Breadth;
and that it contains the Church of St. _Achatius_, the _Bagnio’s_ of
_Constantine_, the House of _Placidia Augusta_, and many other fine
Buildings. But I could not find, after the utmost Search and Enquiry,
the Situation of any of them; so that I was obliged to have Recourse
to the Authority of Historians who had wrote of these Matters; and in
consulting them, I could not but take Notice of a Mistake in the Author
_of the Description_, &c. who says, that this _Ward_ contain’d the
_Bagnio’s_ of _Constantine_, whereas I cannot find, that _Constantine_
ever had any _Bagnio’s_ at _Constantinople_, but that _Constantius_
had. For _Sozomen_, speaking of those Persons, who, favouring St.
_Chrysostom_ and his Doctrine, were expelled the City, says, _That
perceiving the People to be furiously enraged against them, they did
not assemble the next Day in the great Church, but celebrated the Holy
Communion in a_ Bagnio, _which was called the_ Bagnio _of_ Constantius.
Suidas _reports, that_ Elladius Alexandrinus _wrote a Description of
the_ Bagnio’s _of_ Constantius, _in the Time of_ Theodosius _the_
Less. Socrates _relates, that_ Valens _the Emperor commanded the Walls
of_ Chalcedon _to be taken down, and the Stones to be carried to_
Constantinople _to build a_ Bagnio, _which was to be called the_ Bagnio
_of_ Constantius; and adds, _That in one of these Stones was cut a
Prophecy, which had been hid for many Ages, but was then explained_,
viz. _That when the City abounded with Water, a Wall would be of some
Service to a_ Bagnio, _and that numberless Nations of the_ Barbarians,
_should invade the Territories of the_ Romans, _make great Devastations
there, but at last should be overcome_. The Prophecy, as described by
_Socrates_, is as follows:

  _When tender Virgins shall in Circles dance
  Around the publick Cistern, and with Flowers
  Dress the capacious Vessel, when the Streets
  Shall be with fragrant Sweets, and Garlands crown’d,
  When rising Waters shall o’reflow its Top,
  And a Stone-Bason made to catch them in;
  A mighty Host, in shining Armour clad,
  A wild and warlike Race, shall come from far,
  And pass the rapid_ Danube’s _silver Streams_:

  Scythia, _and_ Mæsia’s _Lands unmeasurable
  Shall be despoiled by their All-conquering Sword:
  All_ Thrace _shall fear, the fatal Period’s come_.

_Zonaras_ and _Cedrinus_ write this Prophecy the same Way, but differ
in the _Greek_ from _Socrates_, and put for δροσερὴν, ἱερὴν, for
λουτροῖο, λουτροῖσι, for ἄγρια μαρμαίροντα, ἄγρα μαργαίνοντα, for
καλιρόοιο, κιμμερίοιο. This Prophecy is thus interpreted by _Socrates_,
who tells us, that it was fully accomplished, when _Valens_ built an
_Aqueduct_, which supplied the City with Plenty of Water, when the
_Barbarous_ Nations invaded the Territories of _New Rome_. However,
it is capable of being interpreted in another Manner. For after
_Valens_ had brought the _Aqueduct_ into _Constantinople_, _Clearchus_,
the _Prefect_ of the City, built a large Cistern in the _Forum_ of
_Theodosius_, into which the _Aqueduct_ emptied it self, and the People
were there entertained at a jovial Feast, and that therefore it was
called the _plentiful Cistern_, which they tell you, was foretold
by the Prophecy in the Lines abovementioned. But some Part of this
Prophecy was not fulfilled till some Time after, when the Wall of
_Chalcedon_ was pulling down by the Order of _Valens_. At this Time
the People of _Nicomedia_, of _Nice_, and _Bithynia_, petitioned the
Emperor against it, who being highly displeased with them for it, could
hardly be prevailed upon to comply with their Petition; and therefore
to disengage himself from an Oath he had made to demolish the Wall,
he ordered other Stones to be placed in their Room, as fast as the
old ones were taken down. So that you may see at present, what a
mean Superstructure is railed upon the Remains of the old Wall, which
consisted of Stones of the largest, and most wonderful Size. _Zonaras_
and _Cedrinus_ record it also, that _Valens_ to express his Resentment
against the People of _Chalcedon_, for giving Protection to his Enemy
_Procopius_, commanded the Walls of their City to be demolished, and
an _Aqueduct_ to be made of their Stones, which the former Historian
sometimes calls the _Aqueduct_ of _Valens_, and the latter sometimes
the _Aqueduct_ of _Valentinian_; and adds, among other Passages of
the History before mentioned, that according to the Prophecy, the
_Barbarous_ Nations made their Incursions into _Thrace_, but were
afterwards defeated. The _Aqueduct_ of _Valentinian_, which is highly
arched, passing thro’ the tenth Ward, reaches from the Sides of the
fourth, to the Side of the third Hill. I should be much surprized, that
the Author _of the Description of the Wards_, who has taken Notice of
the Granaries of _Valentinian_, has not mentioned it; but that I am
sensible he has omitted many other Monuments of _Antiquity_, which were
in Being in his Time. In the Reign of _Constantine_, the Son of _Leo_
the Emperor (who was a declared Enemy to Images in Churches) and in the
Year of our Lord 759, there was so great a Drought at _Constantinople_,
that the Dew ceas’d to fall from Heaven, and all the Cisterns,
_Bagnio’s_, and Fountains of the City were dry’d up; which the Emperor
observing, he began to repair the _Aqueduct_ of _Valentinian_, which
continued in good Order, till the Reign of _Heraclius_, when it was
demolished by the _Avares_. Upon this he sent for Workmen from many
Places to rebuild it; from _Asia_ and _Pontus_ he had a Thousand
Builders, and two hundred White-washers; from _Greece_ five hundred
Brick-makers, and from _Thrace_ a Thousand Day-labourers, over whom
there presided a Nobleman, and some of the principal Men of the City,
as Surveyors of the Works. When the _Aqueduct_ was finished, the City
was again supplied with Water, which was conveyed into the Town through
a Passage lying between the ninth and the tenth Ward. There are many
subterraneous _Aqueducts_ which run through six of the Hills, but the
_Aqueduct_ of _Valentinian_ has its Course above Ground, which the
Historians, who have wrote of the _Actions_ of _Andronicus_ tell you,
passed through the Great _Forum_, that the Water of it was clear and
pleasant, that it was repaired and enlarged by _Andronicus_ himself,
and that he encreased its Current by the River _Hydrales_. At the
Spring-head, from whence this _Aqueduct_ arose, he built a Tower and a
Palace, where he used to divert himself in the Summer. He also brought
the Water from the same River into the _Blachernæ_, which is a Part of
the _Suburbs_. The Tower was ruined by _Isacius_ his Successor, in pure
Resentment to his Memory. We are told by _Procopius_, that _Justinian_
repaired the Church of _Achatius_, when injured by Time; that he placed
white Marble Pillars round it, and that he paved and incrusted the
Sides of it with the same kind of Marble, so that the whole Building
was beautifully white. There were two _Portico’s_ adjoyning to the
Church, one which opening to the _Forum_, is encompassed with Pillars.
This Passage is not inserted in the printed Edition of _Procopius_,
which induced me the more to take Notice of it here. _Cedrinus_
writes, that the Church of St. _Achatius_ stood in a Place called the
_Heptascalum_; others say, that it stood in the _Scala_; but no body
at present knows where that Place was. However, if any one hereafter
should have the Curiosity to enquire where this Church stood, I
would advise him to take along with him the following Direction. Let
him enquire where the great House stands, which Historians call the
_Carya_, because there stands in the _Area_ of it a Nut Tree, upon
which, they tell you, that _Achatius_ was put to Death, and upon
that Occasion, that a Church was built in Memory of him, which some
think, was situate in the _Neorium_, because they have seen it in some
Authors, that the Image of St. _Achatius_, made with Glass Stones, and
inlay’d with Gold, was placed in the Church of the _Neorium_. But the
Person of whom this is spoke was another _Achatius_, who, not only, as
many Historians, but as _Suidas_ the Grammarian tells us, was Bishop of
_Constantinople_ in the Time of _Leo Marcellus_, but a Man of so proud
and haughty a Spirit, that he commanded many of his Pictures to be
placed in Churches, while he was yet alive, from whence he was called
_Doxomanes_. The House of _Placidia_, I have observed before, stood in
the first _Ward_, so that it may be questioned, whether it ought to
be read _Domus Placidiæ_, or _Placillæ_, or _Placidæ_; for _Agathius_
takes Notice of the Palaces of _Placidæ_ or _Placidi_, in the following
Inscription.

  The learned _Agathius_ upon a Picture in the Palace of _Placidia_,
  set up by the Gentlemen of the LONG ROBE, or new _Chancery_.

  _The learned Sages of the Law have plac’d
  At their Expence, great_ Thomas’ _Picture here,
  Near that which represents his Royal Mistress.
  This mighty Honour he’s entitl’d to,
  In that he serv’d his Prince with Faithfulness,
  And was the constant Guardian of his Throne:
  His Prudence fill’d the Royal Treasury,
  And rais’d th’ Imperial Family, yet higher.
  To celebrate his Worth, for Times to come,
  His Picture shines amongst our Emperors._

Beyond the Rocks called _Scironides_, _Dionysius_ mentions a long Shore
in a Plain of the third Valley, and the fourth Hill, which is looked
upon as a remarkable Place for Fishing; for ’tis a very deep and a very
still Water, which was antiently call’d _Cycla_, because the _Greeks_
had formerly hemm’d in there the _Barbarians_. There is also in the
same Place, an Altar dedicated to _Minerva Dissipatoria_, which was
erected in Memory of that Action. Beyond _Cycla_ is a Creek called
_Melias_, another famous Place for Fishing, which is enclosed with
several Rocks, and a Ridge of the _Promontory_ hanging over the Sea.
There is no Creek in this Valley at present. Time has filled it up, as
we learn from _Strabo_, who writes, that this Creek was called _Ceras_,
because it had many Inlets into the Shore in the Form of a Deer’s Horn,
but there’s scarce any Appearance of them at present. _Zosimus_, who
wrote his History in the Reign of _Arcadius_ and _Honorius_, tells us,
that _Constantinople_ was then so crowded with Inhabitants, that the
Emperors did not only enlarge the Walls beyond those of _Constantine_,
but that they built upon Timber Foundations over the Sea. This Method
of Building, ’tis probable, very much contributed in Time to incumber
and stop up these Inlets of the Creek. At the End of the Creek called
_Melias_, is a Place which goes by the Name of Κῆπος, because ’tis very
good Garden Ground. Beyond the Garden is a Place named _Aspasius_; but
of this I have spoken in my _Treatise_ of the _Bosporus_.


_The End of the Third Book._

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THE ANTIQUITIES OF CONSTANTINOPLE.

BOOK IV.



CHAP. I.

  _Of the Eleventh Ward, and of the Fourth and Fifth Hills._


I had been at a Loss to discover the eleventh _Ward_, (which, tho’
the _ancient Description_ of the _Wards_ mentions to have been wider
in Compass than the Tenth, and in no Part of it bounded by the Sea;
as also that it partly consisted of a Level, and partly of a rising
Ground) unless the Author had subjoin’d, that it contain’d also
the Church of the _Apostles_, And tho’ at present there’s nothing
remaining of that Church, yet I was inform’d by some ancient People of
_Constantinople_, who told me, that they remembred it stood upon the
Back of the fourth Hill; which fell upon a Hill of the third Valley,
near the _Sadlers Shops_, and the Sepulchre of _Mahomet_ the Emperor.
I observe from hence, that the eleventh _Ward_ was Part on the Top of
the same Hill, and Part on the North Side of it. I shall shew by what
follows, that this _Ward_ reach’d to the _Land-Wall_ of the City, which
divided the Eleventh, from the fourteenth _Ward_, and which was also
itself divided from the City by an intermediate Space of Land. I shall
convince the Reader presently, that this _Ward_ was situate on the
sixth Hill, without the Walls of the City, and was afterwards wall’d
round by _Theodosius_ the _Less_. The Walls built by _Constantine_
are said to have reach’d as far as the Churches of St. _Anthony_, and
St. _Mary_, who was call’d _Rabdos_, and from thence to have risen to
a _Land-Wall_ call’d _Exacionion_, which took its Name from hence,
_viz._ That without the _Land-Wall_ there stood a Pillar, on which was
erected the Statue of _Constantine_ the _Great_. Some modern Writers
will have it, that he built a Church which he dedicated to the _Holy
Trinity_ in a Place call’d the _Exacionion_, now call’d the Church of
the _Apostles_; for, if I am not mistaken, the Walls of _Constantine_
were built upon the Borders of the fourth and fifth Hill, near the
_Exacionion_, _Cedrinus_ writes, that the Walls of the City, the
beautiful Churches, the fine Houses seated in the _Exacionion_ were
thrown down by a dreadful Earthquake. They tell us in other Places,
tho’ not consistently with themselves, that there were _Portico’s_
which reach’d from the _Miliarium_ to the Street call’d _Taurus_, and
to the Gates of St. _John_ the _Baptist’s_ Church near the _Hippodrom_,
which are more than a thousand _Roman_ Paces distant from the Church of
the _Apostles_, and as far from the Walls of the City which were built
by _Constantine_, as may be gather’d from the following Passage of
_Sozomen_. _Theodosius_, says this Author, _leading his Army against_
Eugenius, _went a Mile out of the City to the Church of St._ John,
_which he had built in the_ Hepdomum. This _Hepdomum_ was a Part of
the Suburbs of the City, but is now enclos’d within the Walls, as
will appear when I come to speak of it. If the Pillar from whence the
_Exacionion_ took its Name, was the same with that high Pillar which
stood on the Top of the fifth Hill, and was seen not long since at a
great Distance from the City, above all the Houses, we might easily
discover, that the Walls built by _Constantine_ did not reach beyond
this Pillar, which stood about half a Mile’s distance from the _Church_
of the _Apostles_. I saw this Pillar took to Pieces, and remov’d for
building a Mosque, by Order of _Solyman_ the Emperor. The _Base_,
the _Pedestal_ and the Foundation of it were of white Marble. The
Foundation-Stone alone was so high, that I could not climb it without
a Ladder. The _Pedestal_ was four Foot and nine Digits high, and the
_Plinth_ one Foot, and six Digits. The _Greeks_ and the _Turks_, each
in their Dialect, call’d it the _Pillar_ of the _Virgin_, which I
take to be that celebrated by our modern Writers, which they say was
erected upon a Hill, and supported the Statue of _Venus_, carv’d in
Stone. When the _Ancient Description of the Wards_ tells us, that the
eleventh _Ward_ is no Ways bounded by the Sea, it must be so understood
as to mean, that the Plain situated between the Bay of _Ceras_, and
the Foot of the fourth Hill, was not within the Walls, since the same
_Treatise_ mentions, that the City was six thousand one hundred and
fifty Foot broad; that is, a Mile and two hundred and thirty Paces; for
the Latitude of the _Isthmus_, which stretches itself over the fourth
and seventh Hill, thro’ which the old Wall extended itself, exceeds the
Breadth abovemention’d. But _Zosimus_, an ancient Historian, says, that
_Constantine_ the _Great_ so wholly surrounded the City with a Wall,
that it cut off the _Isthmus_ from Sea to Sea. So that upon the whole,
there is a Necessity to place the Plain, situate between the Bay, and
the Bottom of the fourth Hill, in the tenth _Ward_.



CHAP. II.

  _Of the Church of the Apostles, the Sepulchre of_ Constantine _the
  Great, the Cistern of_ Arcadius _and_ Modestus, _of the Palace of_
  Placilla, _and the_ Brazen Bull.


’Tis attested by _Eusebius_, That _Constantine_ the _Great_ built the
Church of the _Apostles_ to a great Heighth, that he incrusted it with
all Sorts of variegated Marble, which cast a beautiful Lustre from Top
to Bottom; that he adorn’d it with small gilded Roofs, and cover’d
it with Plates of Brass deeply gilt, which cast a blazing Reflexion
to a great Distance. The upper Part of this venerable Structure, was
curiously wrought all round it with Brass and Gold, and was enlightned
with Abundance of Lattices and Windows. Round the Church there was
a fine Court lying open to the Air. The _Portico’s_ which enclos’d
it, stood in a Quadrangular Manner. Near the _Portico’s_ stood the
Palace, the _Bagnio’s_, the Cloysters, and many other Houses and
Buildings belonging to the Ecclesiasticks, and other Ministers of the
Church. These bountiful Benefactions has the pious Emperor handed
down to Posterity in Memory of the _Apostles_ of the blessed Saviour
of Mankind, to whom also he consecrated twelve Purses of Gold. The
Coffin in which he intended to be buried after he was dead, was
plac’d by his Order in the Body of the Church, and guarded with the
twelve _Apostles_ in Effigy. ’Tis added by _Socrates_, that the Body
of _Constantine_ lying in a golden Coffin, was brought into the City
by his intimate Friends, and buried in the Church of the _Apostles_.
I am inclin’d to believe, that _Zonaras_ never read _Eusebius_, when
he tells us, that ’twas buried in the Cloyster of the Church of
the _Apostles_, which, he says, was built by _Constantius_ for the
Interrment of his Father. Near the broad Way which stretches itself
along the Top of the _Promontory_, from the Church of St. _Sophia_,
to the Gate of _Adrianople_, (hard by the Place where stood the
Church of the _Apostles_,) there is shewn to this Day, a Coffin made
of _Porphyry_ Marble, empty; and without a Cover, ten Foot long, and
five Foot and a half broad, which the _Greeks_ and _Turks_ say, was
the Coffin of _Constantine_ the _Great_; but I cannot vouch for the
Truth of it: Yet the Authorities of _Socrates_ and _Eusebius_ seem
to be somewhat doubtful, who tell us, that he was buried in a golden
Coffin, unless perhaps the golden Coffin was inclos’d in that of the
_Porphyry_ Marble. _Zonaras_ is of Opinion, that _Theodora_, the Wife
of _Justinian_, built the Church of the _Apostles_; and adds, that
there was anciently in the same Place a _Church_ of the _Apostles_,
but much Inferior in Beauty and Magnificence to that which stands at
present, on the same Ground. _Procopius_ says, that there had been
for some Ages, a Church at _Constantinople_ which was much impair’d
by Time, and likely to fall, which _Justinian_ order’d to be taken
down, rebuilt, and enlarg’d, and made in the Figure of a Cross, the
Body of the Church pointing East, and West, and the Part crossing it,
North, and South. This Church is well wall’d, and adorn’d within with
Ranges of Pillars standing one above another: _Evagrius_ therefore
seems to be mistaken, in attributing the Building of this Church to
_Justinian_, when it is evident it was built by _Constantine_ the
_Great_; and _Procopius_ too grosly flatters _Justinian_ in ascribing
to him the Building of many fine Structures, whereas, in reality, he
only repair’d them when they were old, or rebuilt them when fall’n too
much to decay, or destroy’d by Fire. There’s nothing remaining of this
Church at present, no, not even of its Foundation. You see only the
Ruines of an old _Cistern_, which supply’d the Church, and the Clergy
with Water. There are now standing upon the same Spot of Ground about
two hundred _Sadlers Shops_, and _Work-houses_, where they make and
sell not only all kinds of Horse-Geer, but also Leathern Bucketts,
Quivers, and Trunks. A little above this _Cistern_, stands a Mosque,
with a _Caravansera_ adjoining to it, situate on a Plain, which was
built with square Stone, after the Form of the Church of St. _Sophia_,
out of the Ruins and Sacrilege of the Church of the _Apostles_, and
other Christian Churches by _Mahomet_, who took the City. The Roof is
of a Semicircular Figure, made of Brick-Work, and cover’d with Lead,
as are all the publick Buildings of the _Turks_. ’Tis beautify’d with
a very elegant square Porch as broad as the Church itself, pav’d with
the finest Marble, and adorn’d with square _Portico’s_. The Arches of
them, which bear up the Roof, are supported with very large Pillars of
Marble, curiously variegated. In the Middle of it is a Fountain with
nine Pipes, whose Waters fall into a great Bason. Round the Mosque is
a spacious Court, Part of which is enclos’d with Walls, and Part with
long kind of Houses, some of which are inhabited by their Priests, and
School-Masters. In the Eastern Part of this Court there’s a Garden,
in the Middle of which stands the Sepulchre of _Mahomet_, built in a
Cylindric Form of the whitest Marble. ’Tis covered with Lead, lighted
with Windows, and has a Door of Entrance into it. In the Middle of
this Structure is the Coffin of _Mahomet_, cover’d with Velvet, placed
on the Ground on a rich Carpet. The Ground is wholly covered with the
most costly Carpets, where the Priests continually sit, and guard
the Body Night and Day. A little without the Court are several large
_Caravansera’s_, built also with square Stone, which have Court-yards
in the Middle of them, and _Portico’s_ surrounded with Marble Pillars.
These _Caravansera’s_ have large Gardens adjoyning to them. In short,
this Mosque, with the adjacent Buildings round the Court, with the
_Caravansera’s_ and Gardens, take up a Space of Ground six Furlongs
in Compass. _Mahomet_, the same Emperor, built in this Place, where
had formerly been the Old _Cistern_ of _Arcadius_, or _Modestus_, the
largest _Bagnio’s_ in all the City. These Baths were of two Kinds,
some for Men, and some for Women. They adjoin to each other, but have
different Entries without any Passage out of one into the other. I
shall only describe the Mens Baths; because the Womens are like them.
The first Place you enter is the Room where they undress. From hence
you pass into the hot, and from thence into the cold Bath. They all
stand in one Range, and are only separated by Walls from each other.
The Room where they undress is a square Structure, built of square
Stone up to the Roof, which is arch’d and built with Brick; the Inside
of which, measuring two hundred and fifty eight Foot in compass, is
surrounded with an Ascent of Stone, above six Foot broad, and three
Foot high. The Wall of this Room, from the Pavement to the Bottom of
the arch’d Roof is thirty seven Foot high. In the Middle of the Floor,
which is pav’d with Marble, there’s a large Marble Bason, which is
thirty seven Foot in compass, and three Foot deep, which is always
supply’d from a Fountain of Spring Water. There are two Doors out of
the stripping Room into the hot Bath. This Apartment is a hundred Foot
in compass in the Inside of it, and is supported with four Arches,
which bear up a _Dome_ at the Top. It contains eight _Cells_ or bathing
Rooms; one of which, not above half so large as the rest, has some
Privies behind it, which are cleans’d by an Efflux of all the Waters
which are turn’d out of the Bath. Six of these _Cells_ have, each of
them, a bathing Cistern, and are built in such a Manner, that two of
these Arches hang each of them over one bathing Room; from whence you
may pass, on the Right and on the Left, into another. The _Cells_ under
the other two Arches are so form’d, that that Arch which is nearest
the Doors which lead out of the stripping Room into the hot Bath, hangs
over a very large bathing Room. ’Tis pav’d with Marble, and the _Turks_
wash their Linen in this Place. A plain Wall arch’d at top parts the
hot from the cold Bath. In the Middle of the hot Bath there is a Bason
with a Fountain playing. There is but one Door which leads out of the
hot into the cold Bath. This Apartment has eight Arches which support
its _Dome_, and contains eight bathing Places, which project beyond the
Sphere of its _Dome_, and encircle the whole _Bagnio_, which is about
ninety Foot in compass. The whole Pavement of it is lay’d with Marble,
and in the Middle of it is built an Ascent in the Form of an _Octagon_,
which is fifty seven Foot, and nine Inches in Circumference, and two
Foot and four Digits high. Round the _Octagon_ there runs a Channel of
Water, which is of the same Depth with the Height of the _Octagon_.
The four inward bathing Rooms are situate in four Angles, and are each
of them every Way eleven Foot and three Digits broad, and these are
call’d the _Hot-Houses_ or _Sweating-Bagnio’s_. The Dimension of the
two Bathing Rooms, which are situate without the two Arches, is the
same. The other six Bathing Rooms are of a Semicircular Figure, and
stand under six Arches within the Circle of the _Dome_ of the hot Bath.
At the Bottom of the Pillars which support the Arches, they are eleven
Foot in length, and five Foot nine Inches in breadth. Every one of
these Bathing Rooms has a Marble _Cistern_ wherein they bath; and in
one of them above the rest, there is erected a stately Marble Throne.
There are no Lights in the Walls either of the hot or cold Baths, tho’
the _Domes_ of them are wholly illuminated with Glass-Windows. The
_Stoke-Hole_, which is two Foot and a half in compass, and of the same
height, is built without the Baths. They keep a constant Fire in it,
which heats a Brazen Vessel, whence it emits its warm Steams thro’
Pipes laid in a strait, and an oblique Manner, by that means heating
the Bottom of the _Cisterns_ in which they bath. There is a Rivulet
in a Field of the Suburbs, about six Foot in breadth, which runs near
the _Stoke-Hole_. There are Pipes laid in this Brook, which convey the
Water thro’ the Walls of these Baths into all Parts of them. One of
these Pipes which passes thro’ a heated Earthen Vessel, upon turning
a Cock, supplies the _Cisterns_ with hot Water; the other Pipe which
rises higher, upon the turning of an other Cock, tempers the hot Water
according to the Pleasure of the Person who baths in it. But I shall
treat of the Use of Bathing, and the Way of building _Bagnio’s_ among
the _Turks_ in another Place. I return now to the eleventh _Ward_,
which _Procopius_ takes Notice of, when he tells us, that _Theodora_
the Consort of _Justinian_ address’d herself to him in the following
Manner: _We have, may it please your Imperial Majesty, other Palaces
still remaining, which are call’d the Palaces of_ Helena, _as we have
also those of_ Placilla, _the Wife of_ Theodosius _the Great. For as_
Justinus _honour’d his Empress with several noble Palaces, which,
after her own Name, were call’d the Palaces of_ Sophia, _so it is
highly probable that_ Theodosius _did_ Placilla _the same Honour in
building a Palace for her, which was call’d the Palace of_ Placilla.
_I am induc’d to believe this, because he passionately lov’d her, and
by Reason of that strong Resentment he bore to the People of_ Antioch,
_whom he subjected to the Dominion of the_ Laodenses, _for demolishing
the Statues of_ Placilla, _plac’d in his own_ Forum, _because he lay’d
an additional Tribute upon them_. This Palace may not improperly be
call’d also the Palace of _Flacilla_, of whom _Claudian_ speaks in the
following Lines:

  _’Tis_ Spain _alone, subject to potent_ Rome,
  _Which pays her Tribute in her Emperours.
  Provision, Taxes, and Confederate Bands_
  Rome _by her Arms in ev’ry Nation raises,
  Which bows its Head to her superiour Greatness_.
  Spain _only furnishes a Race of Princes,
  Wise, Bold, and Warlike, form’d for Empire,
  And fit to rule the Mistress of the World.
  Nor pleas’d alone to send her valiant Sons,
  Unless a second Offering she made,
  Of princely Mothers, noble Empresses_,
  Flacilla, Maria, _pious, humble, good;
  And fair_ Serena, _full of blooming Charms_.

The _Brazen Bull_ was plac’d in the eleventh _Ward_. In what Part of
that _Ward_ it was plac’d might easily be conjectur’d from a large
_Cistern_, which, the modern Historians write, was built near it by
_Nicetas_ an Eunuch, in the Reign of the Emperor _Theophilus_, if that
_Cistern_ was now in being. If the _Bull_ itself was remaining, or the
_Forum_ where it stood, I had heard something of it. _Tzetzes_ in his
History writes, that the _Forum Bovis_ was so call’d from the _Brazen
Bull_. This _Bull_ is more particularly describ’d by _Zonaras_, who
says, _that the Body of the unhappy Tyrant_ Phocas _was burnt at a
Place call’d_ Bos, _where there was a Stove, or Fire-Place set up in
the Form of a Bull, which was brought from_ Troy. _Cedrinus_ relates,
that _Antypas_ the _Martyr_ was burnt to Death in this _Bull_. It is a
plain Instance of the Cruelty and Tyranny of some of the Emperors of
_Constantinople_, that they us’d to punish Malefactors with a Death
so tormenting. The like Example of Barbarity we have in _Perillus_,
or rather _Perilaus_, a Brazier of _Attica_, who made a _Brazen Bull_
for the Execution of _Phalaris_, but first suffer’d in it himself.
This Piece of Workmanship, says _Pliny_, was preserv’d a long Time,
that those, who saw it, might curse the Hand that made it. I am more
inclin’d to believe, that this _Bull_ was brought from _Sicily_, or
_Italy_. I enquir’d after it, but could hear nothing of it, altho’ the
Inhabitants are not ignorant, that there was formerly such a _Bull_ at
_Constantinople_, and are us’d to boast of a Prophecy, which has been
handed down to them from their Ancestors, concerning such a _Bull_,
and lastly, altho’ they believe their own Interpretation of it to
be more agreeable to Truth than that of _Tzetzes_, who explain’d it
above three hundred and seventy Years ago in the following Manner.
There was a mighty Talk of a Prophecy at _Constantinople_ some Time
ago, which run in these Words: Βοῦς βοήσει τε, καὶ Ταῦρος δὲ θρηνήσει,
_Bos mugiet, Taurus lugebit_. The People conjectur’d from hence, says
he, that great Calamities should befall the City, that they should be
perplex’d with amazing Fears, that an innumerable Army of _Germans_,
and other Nations, should come against the Town; and that they should
be all terrify’d and affrighted with strange Dreams, by Reason of the
Plundering and Destruction of their City. Upon which, the Wife of
the _Grand Hetæriarch_ being in great Consternation, and her Fears
and Fancies being encreas’d by some fabulous Verses made upon the
Occasion, she imagin’d she dream’d of all that had been the Town-Talk
for some Time before. She dream’d that _Constantinople_ was wall’d
round with Brick, that near the _Forum Bovis_, or the Place call’d
_Bos_, she saw infinite Numbers of arm’d Forces drawn up in Battle
array, and that hard by the Street call’d _Taurus_, she saw a Man in
a melancholly Posture expressing his Grief in a mournful Tone, and
beating his Breast. The credulous Woman believing the Destruction of
the City was at hand, told her Dream to _Tzetzes_, who thus interpreted
it: _The Brick Walls_, says he, _which you saw denote great Plenty of
Provision to_ Constantinople. _You are sensible, Gentlemen_, says he,
(speaking to those who stood by him) _how wonderfully that Part of
the Prophecy was accomplish’d at that Time. As to that Clause of it,
which mentions that abundance of armed Forces shall stand round the_
Bull, _and that a Man in a disconsolate and forlorn Condition shall
sit down by the_ Bull, _which is principally intended by the Prophecy,
tho’ not yet fulfill’d; this may prove beneficial, and advantageous
to every Citizen of us. Therefore hear, O_ Constantinople, _and tell
it to others, that this is the Interpretation of_ Tzetzes. _The same
Word, which among us_ Greeks _signifies a Bull, signifies also a Cow,
and sometimes a Heifer, and by the Word_ Taurus _or_ Bull, _the_ Latins
_call the_ Italian _Bull. Our Cow therefore, which is the famous
City of_ Constantine, _and which was built by the_ Roman _Bulls of_
Italy, _full of Arms, abounding with Forces, and Plenty of Provision,
shall sound an Alarm against our Enemies; and the_ Italian _Bull,
which is the Army of the_ Latins, _shall look Pale with Fear, and
mourn_. _Tzetzes_, without Question, was a very learned Man, and this
Interpretation of the Prophecy was cunning enough; besides that it was
a fine Compliment to the Empress, and at the same Time the Historian
pleas’d his own Humour in it, in interpreting the Prophecy according
to his own Wishes. See how ingenious is the Weakness of Man to impose
upon himself! But at that Time there was another Interpretation of this
Prophecy, which, in the Event, was much more agreeable to Truth, tho’
_Tzetzes_ took a great deal of Pains to confute, and expose it; and it
was the general Opinion of the People of _Constantinople_, that the
Army of the _Latins_ would besiege their City, as it happen’d a little
Time after, ravaging, burning, destroying every where; throwing some of
the Ring-leaders of an arbitrary Party from the Top of _Theodosius_’s
Pillar into the Street call’d _Taurus_, and burning others to Death
in the _Brazen Bull_. The same Author is no less mistaken in the
Interpretation of another Prophecy, which is as follows: _Wo be to
thee, O_ Constantinople, _seated on seven Hills, thou shalt not
continue a thousand Years_. His Explanation of it is this: _Altho’ it
be not thy Fate, O_ Constantinople, _to endure a thousand Years, but
to be totally demolish’d, yet this ought to be no Occasion of Grief to
thee, but the Cause of Joy; for thou shalt rise again from thy Ruines
more beautiful, and more enlarg’d. For thou shalt be destroyed, ev’n
to the Advantage of those who shall destroy thee._ This Interpretation
is a downright Flattery of the principal Leaders of the several
_Factions_ (or Companies of Charioteers) when they were struggling
for the Government. But take this Interpretation which Way you will,
it seems to be a very wild one. For whether the City was demolish’d
by its own Inhabitants, or any foreign Power, it could neither Way be
any reasonable Cause of Joy to them. This Prediction of the Oracle
was seconded by another Prediction of the _Astronomers_ to the same
Purpose. Some Historians have attested, as ’tis confirm’d by _Suidas_,
that _Constantine_ the _Great_, after he had finish’d the City, sent
for one _Valens_ an _Astronomer_ of great Skill, and commanded him to
enquire what Star had the _Ascendant_ at the Birth of the City, and by
that means inform him of the Duration of it. _Valens_ predicted that
the City would continue six hundred and ninety Years; but that Time is
past and gone. Therefore, says _Zonaras_, I must conclude, that this
Prophecy of _Valens_ was erroneous, and that there’s little Dependance
to be had upon the Rules of _Astronomy_, or otherwise that _Valens_
only meant the Time of her Prosperity, when the Laws of Polity were
strictly obey’d, when the publick Peace was preserv’d, when their
_Senate_ was in high Estimation among the People, when the Empire
flourish’d and was under a regular Administration, and there was no
such Thing as Tyranny, and Arbitrary Power among them. But to finish
the Oracular Predictions concerning this City, I come now to _Zosimus_,
a very ancient Historian, if compar’d with _Tzetzes_, and _Zonaras_.
This Author writes, that _Constantinople_ was arriv’d to such a State
of Grandeur, and Magnificence, that no City in the World was to be
compar’d with it, in point of Greatness, or Prosperity. _And yet_, as
he proceeds, _when after a long Search I could find no divine Oracle,
or Prophecy presignifying any Increase of Happiness to_ Constantinople,
_I at last accidentally, having read many Historians, and other Authors
for that Purpose, met with an Oracular Prediction of a Sibyl, nam’d_
Erythræa Phaelles, _or_ Phaenno _of_ Epirus. _This Woman, they tell
you, being inspir’d, utter’d Oracles, to which_ Nicomedes, _the Son of_
Prussias, _conforming himself, especially in such Predictions as might
be some Advantage to himself, enter’d into a War with his Father_. The
Oracle runs thus:

  _Attend, great King of_ Thrace, _and learn thy Doom;
  Thy stately City soon thou must depart,
  And thy defenceless Sheep shall follow thee;
  The Savage Lion’s irresistless Power
  Shall plunder thee, and ravage all thy Stores.
  Thou from thy princely Grandeur soon shalt fall;
  The Dogs which now in State stand round thy Throne
  Shall rouze the sleepy Wolf, bold to assert
  His Liberty, nor drag thy servile Chain._
  Bithynia’s _Realm shall then become a Prey
  To fierce devouring Wolves, and_ Jove’s _Decree
  Transfer thy Empire hence to fair_ Byzantium.
  _Happy, thrice happy Monarch would’st thou be,
  Could’st thou repel with Force the rav’nous Wolf,
  Thus timely warn’d by me: For I am forc’d
  To speak, and tell the Will of Heav’n to Man.
  Wide Desolation now attends thee_, Thrace;
  _A heavy Vengeance waits; long hast thou try’d,
  And daringly provok’d the Neighbouring States;
  And now a Cloud of Woe hangs o’re thy Head,
  Which daily swelling to a larger Size,
  Shall burst in Blood, and ruine all about thee_.

This Oracle or Prophecy, says _Zosimus_, truly fore-tells, tho’ in
an Ænigmatical Manner, all the Calamities which would befall the
_Bythinians_, by Reason of an excessive Tribute which had been demanded
of them, and presignifies also their speedy Subjection to the Empire of
_Constantinople_. And tho’ this did not happen till a long Time after,
yet let no Man from thence infer, that the Time of the Accomplishment
of the Prediction was expired before it came to pass. For all Time is
but for a Moment with God, who is eternal. _This Interpretation of the
Oracle_, says the Historian, _I observed to be true, by comparing the
Event of Things with the Words of the Prophecy_; and adds, _that if
any other Interpretation seems more agreeable, any one is at his own
Liberty to follow it_. And to confirm the more this Explication of it,
he tells us, how _Constantine_ the _Great_ and his Sons, oppress’d not
only _Bithynia_, but the whole World with severe Exactions, so that
whole Cities, unable to pay the Levies, remained desolate. The learned
_Tzetzes_ before-mentioned, explains this Oracle in another Manner,
and says, that it was delivered by _Phaenno_. _This Sybil_, says he,
_was long ago famous for her Oracles, and foretold same Things many
Ages since, which were accomplished but a little before the Times we
live in; as the Conquest of_ Persia _over the Empire, the Slavery and
Subjection of the Emperor to them, his Dethronement by his People and
Nobles, the Wars of the_ Scythians _with the Eastern Empire, by whom
she seems to mean the_ Turks. Thus far _Zosimus_. This Oracle, tho’ it
be very antient, yet, amidst the present Ruins of _Constantinople_, it
never appeared so manifest as now.

But to proceed in my Narration of other Monuments of Antiquity; On
the Brow of the fourth Hill, which lies Eastward, you see a Church
built to the Honour of Almighty God, which has been much celebrated
in the Writings of modern Historians. The Walls of it within side
are incrusted with several Kinds of Marble: It has two Porches or
_Vestibules_, many lesser _Cupola’s_ covered with Lead, the largest of
which is supported with four Pillars of red Marble variegated, each of
which Pillars measures seven Foot in Circumference. There’s another
_Cupola_ which bears upon four Arches, which are supported with four
Pillars of _Thebaic_ Marble. On the South Side of the fourth Hill there
is erected a Pillar, which nearly resembles that, which was lately,
as I observed, standing in the _Exacionion_, but is now removed into
the Precinct of the _Seraglio_. Round the _Basis_ of it there runs a
Wreath of Laurel-work, and the Standard of the Cross, curiously cut in
_Basso Relievo_. At the Foot of the fifth Hill is a double Wall, which
encloses a Street now called _Phanarium_, because as the Inhabitants
tell you, when the City was formerly besieged, it was built in the
Space of one Night by Candle-light. I am induced from the Authority
of _Dionysius_ to believe, that _Mellacopsas_ stood near this Street;
the Reason why it was so called I have shewn in my _Treatise of the
Bosporus_. On the Top of the fifth Hill stands the Palace of _Selimus_
the _Grand Signor_, with a _Caravansera_, and his Tomb. Near it is a
very large _Cistern_, in a pleasant Meadow, which is despoiled of its
Roof and Pillars.



CHAP. III.

  _Of the Sixth Hill, and the Fourteenth_ Ward.


The Author _of the Description of the Wards_ relates, that the
fourteenth _Ward_, though it is looked upon as a Part of the City,
yet because it is divided from the other _Wards_ by an intermediate
Space of Land, and enclosed with its own Walls, makes the Figure of a
small City by it self; and adds, among other Particularities, that the
Entrance of it, at the Gate, is somewhat upon the Level; but the right
Side of it, rising into an Ascent, almost to the Middle of the broad
Way, falls into a deep Ascent, and contains a Church, the Palace, _&c._
It is very probable, one would think, or at least it looks to be so,
that any one who had never seen _Constantinople_, could learn from this
Description in what Part of the City stood the fourteenth _Ward_. But
since, nothing of the antient Buildings are remaining there at present,
no not so much as the Bridge, or the very Channel of the River; there
is some Room for Enquiry, where was the Place of its Situation. For
I am entirely ignorant of the Gate whence its Entrance begins, which
is somewhat upon the Level. It is possible that I might also discover
the Situation of it, if I knew where the right Side of the _Ward_ was,
which rose into an Ascent. ’Tis plain that this _Ward_ did not stand
on the fifth Hill from hence, that the Author tells us, that it was
divided from other _Wards_ by some intermediate Space. Had this _Ward_
been divided from other _Wards_ by a small Tract of Land only, it had
been very injudicious in the Inhabitants to have enclosed it with a
Wall by it self, when it stood so near the Walls of the City. I would
observe farther, that ’tis inconceivable that there could be any Bridge
on the fifth, sixth, or seventh Hills of the City, or without the Walls
of the City; nor is there any Valley running between the fifth or the
third Hill, where there’s any Bridge, or any Water, unless it can be
imagined that it had any small Creek, which is now filled up, with
a Bridge over it. If it could be supposed that there formerly stood
any Bridge beyond the sixth Hill, in the Street called _Avasarius_,
we could conclude it to be no other than what was built over the Bay
of _Ceras_, near which are still seen the Piles of a Bridge. And in
all Probability the sixth Hill was wholly inhabited, by Reason of the
Nearness and Goodness of its Roads from _Thrace_. This is the more
probable, if it be considered, that the Suburbs called the _Hepdomum_,
were seated on the sixth Hill, which excited _Theodosius_ the _Less_,
by Reason of its Nearness to _Constantinople_ to enlarge the Walls of
the City.



CHAP. IV.

  _Of the_ Hepdomum, _a Part of the Suburbs; of the_ Triclinium _of_
  Magnaura; _of the_ Cyclobion; _of the Statue of_ Mauritius, _and his
  Armory; and of the Place called the_ Cynegium.


The Suburbs, call’d the _Hepdomum_, stood upon the third Hill, which
is now enclosed within the Walls of the City. This is plain from the
Situation of the Church of St. _John Baptist_, whom, even at this Time,
the _Greeks_ call the Πρόδρομος, or _Fore-runner_ of our Saviour.
This Church is seated on the Eastern Side of the City. ’Tis almost
entirely demolished by the _Mahometans_, and nothing of it remains but
a few Marble Pillars, expecting the last Effort of their Sacrilege.
This was a costly and magnificent Building, as appears, among other
Tokens, from the _Cistern_ of _Bonus_, which was built by a Nobleman
of that Name, and seated a little above it. It was three hundred Paces
long; its Roof and Columns are entirely ruined, and its Situation at
present is turned into a Garden. _Sozomen_ says, that _Theodosius_ the
_Great_ brought over the Head of St. _John Baptist_, from a Village
call’d _Coslaus_, near _Pantichium_, in _Chalcedon_, and placed it
before _Constantinople_ in the _Hepdomum_, and there built a large and
handsome Church to the Honour of God. The same Author attests, that
_Theodosius_, when he marched his Army against _Eugenius_, as soon
as he came out of the City, offered his Prayers to God, in St. _John
Baptist_’s Church, which he had built in the _Hepdomum_. _Procopius_
pays too great a Compliment to _Justinian_, when he reports him to have
built this Church in the forementioned Suburbs. _Zonaras_ tells us,
that in the Reign of _Constantine_ surnamed _Pogonatus_, the _Hagarens_
besieged the City with a numerous Fleet, which extended itself from
the _Promontory_ situated in the _Hepdomum_ Westward, as far as the
_Cyclobion_. Other _Historians_ mention the same Thing; namely, that
they had their Station from the said _Promontory_, or the _Triclinium_
of _Magnaura_, as far Easterly as the Palace call’d _Cyclobion_. From
which Passage I would observe by the By, that _Magnaura_ was a Place in
the _Hepdomum_. _Cedrinus_ asserts, that _Philip_ of _Macedon_, built
there a round Solar, and placed in the Court of it his own Statue,
and built an Armory there. Others write, that _Mauritius_ the Emperor
built the _Triclinium_ of _Magnaura_, and that he erected his Statue,
and built the Armory there. Over the _Triclinium_ are inscribed these
Verses;

Upon the _Triclinium_ of _Magnaura_.

  Heraclius _and his Son_ Constantine,
  _With Conquest crown’d, and loaden with Success,
  Under th’ auspicious Influence of the_ Cross,
  _Built, with surprizing Speed, this beauteous Structure._

The _Cistern_ of _Magnaura_, which stood near the Palace, was
demolished by _Heraclius_; and, as _Cedrinus_ relates, was afterwards
cleansed, and rebuilt by Order of _Philip_, King of _Macedon_. Some
attest, if not consistently with Truth, yet more appositely, that
the Emperor _Anastasius_, when he was expiring at that Place, by a
terrible Storm of Wind, Lightning and Thunder, cried out with a loud
Voice; _Magnâ perimus aurâ_. _Pulcheria_ the Sister of _Theodosius_
the _Less_, being removed from the Administration of the Government,
retired into the _Hepdomum_, and lived privately. _Zonaras_ relates,
that _Nicephorus_ the Emperor, surnamed _Phocas_, as he came near
to the City, was received by the _Prasine_ Faction, with great
Acclamations, and that he was crowned Emperor in the _Hepdomum_ by
the _Patriarch_ of _Constantinople_. The Reason why those Suburbs are
called the _Hepdomum_, is taken from the Number _Seven_, which was
formerly the Number of them. They retained their antient Names, even
after they were inclosed within the City. _Procopius_ has it, that
_Justinian_, in that _Ward_, which ought to be called the Second,
built a Church to St. _Anne_. An unknown Writer of the Empire of
_Constantinople_ gives a Reason why it may be called the Second. _In
the Place_, says he, _called the_ Second, _there stood the Statue
of_ Justinian Rhinometus. Bardus Cæsar Michael, _the Grandfather
of_ Theophilus, _demolished and broke it to Pieces_. This Place is
called the Second, because when _Justinian_ was banished by _Leo_ the
_Patrician_ to _Cherso_, after he had continued there ten Years, he
applied himself to _Terbelus_, King of the _Bulgarians_, whose Daughter
_Theodora_ he married. The King gave him an Army, which he marched
against _Constantinople_ to recover his Empire. But the Inhabitants
denying him Entrance, he privately stole into the City through the
Passage of an _Aqueduct_ to a Place where was still remaining the
Foundation of a Pillar he had set up, and which his Adversary had
destroyed. Having recovered his Dominions a second Time, he erected
there a second Pillar, and built in the same Place a Church, which
was dedicated to St. _Anne_. But, as I observed a little before,
_Procopius_ relates, that _Justinian_ built this Church in the second
_Ward_, where, I am of Opinion, before the Reign of _Theodosius_
the _Less_, who built the Walls of the City, stood the Suburbs of
the seventh Hill, that is, according to _Cedrinus_ and others, in
the twelfth _Ward_. There were, say these Writers, most dreadful
Earthquakes, which overturned the Wall of the City in the _Exacionion_,
and levell’d many beautiful Houses and magnificent Churches in the
_Porta Aurea_ of the City; and add that in the second _Ward_, the Shock
was felt as far as St. _Anne_’s Church. I mentioned this Observation
to many of mine Acquaintance, lest any one should imagine that the
δεύτερον χώριον was one of the fourteen _Wards_ mentioned in the
_Treatise_, entitled, an _Antient Description of_ Constantinople. I
am surprized that _Procopius_, who was so exact in describing so many
Buildings of the City, never mentions them, since they are taken Notice
of by _Justinian_ in his _Constitutions_. There’s a Church situate
on the seventh Hill, between the Palace of _Constantine_, and the
_Adrianopolitan Gate_, which though for many Ages it stood within the
Walls, yet on three Sides of it, it formerly stood without the Walls of
the City, as it was customary to build the _Greek_ Churches. There’s
a _Portico_ runs round it. The Walls of it within are incrusted with
square Pieces of several Kinds of Marble, the _Fissures_ of which are
covered from Top to Bottom with _Modules_ of _Astragals_, some of which
are adorned with Berries, and others are work’d round without them.
Above these _Incrustations_ rise three _Fasciæ_, and three Ornaments
resembling an _Astragal_, two of which are round, and the uppermost of
them is of a square Figure. Higher yet are three _Fasciæ_, above these
are the _Dentils_, and over the _Dentils_, a _Corinthian Foliage_.
It will evidently appear from what I shall mention hereafter, that
the Suburbs called the _Hepdomum_, were in the fourteenth _Ward_ of
the City, where also stood a Palace. There remains at present, out
of many antient Palaces, not so much as the Name of one of them,
except that seated on the seventh Hill, which is called the Palace of
_Constantine_, besides a few Pillars, and a _Cistern_ in which the
Grand _Signor_’s Elephants are stabled. In the Plain upon the Shore,
situate at the Foot of the sixth Hill Eastward, is the _Palatine_ Gate
called _Cynegion_. Without the Gate is a fine Growth of Plane-Trees.
Near the Gate, within the Wall, were formerly three large Arches, now
fill’d up, through which the Inhabitants used to sail their Three-oar’d
Galleys, into a Creek built within the City for the Conveniency of the
neighbouring Palace. This Creek is now entirely ruin’d, and turn’d into
a Garden. The _Cynegion_, according to modern Writers, is a Place of
some Note, so that even _Suidas_ himself thought it not impertinent
to insert in his _Lexicon_ the following Story. _Criminals_, says he,
_condemned to dye were thrown into the_ Cynegion, _which was adorned
with some Statues_. Theodorus, _the Town-Clerk, going thither with_
Imerius _Keeper of the Records, saw a short, but a very thick Statue.
Look upon the Man, says_ Imerius, _meaning himself, who built the_
Cynegion. _I returned in Answer, that_ Maximinus _built it, and that_
Aristides _measured out the Ground; when immediately one of its Pillars
fell, which crushed_ Imerius _to Pieces, so that he died on the Spot.
Being terrified at the Sight, I hastened to the Church, where I told
what had happened. I attested the Fact with an Oath to those who
questioned the Relation. Some of the Emperor’s Domesticks and Servants,
when their Attendance was over, walked with me to the Place. Being
surprized at the Death of_ Imerius, _and the Fall of the Pillar, a
certain Philosopher named_ Johannes, _told ’em, that he had discovered
from a small Animal, that a Man of some Note should dye_. Philip
_of_ Macedon _believing him, ordered the little Creature to be bury’d
in the Place, where this Accident happened_. _Justinus_ the _Third_
commanded _Tiberius_ and _Leontius_, after they had reign’d three
Years, to have their Chains taken off, ty’d Body to Body, dragged thro’
the _Forum_ and the _Theatre_ by Horses; and after he had trampled upon
the Necks of them, he ordered them to be slain in the _Cynegion_, in
the Sight of the People. I look upon this _Theatre_ to be that which
was called _Theatrum Venatorium_. For as there was such a _Theatre_
at _Rome_, so there was at _Constantinople_. For _Procopius_ reports,
that the _Theatres_, _Hippodroms_, and the _Cynegia_, were greatly
neglected, and fell to Ruine, thro’ the Avarice of _Justinian_.



CHAP. V.

  _Of the_ Blachernæ, _the_ Triclinium _of the_ Blachernæ, _the_
  Palace, _the_ Aqueduct _and many other Places of Antiquity_.


The Author of the Book entitled, _The antient Description of the_
Wards attests, that there stood in the fourteenth _Ward_, a Church, but
does not name it; nor does he take Notice of the _Blachernæ_, although
it was called so before the taking of _Constantinople_ by _Severus_,
as I shall immediately make appear. The _Blachernæ_ stood without the
Walls, not only in the Time when that Book was wrote, but even in the
Reign of _Justinian_, who, as _Procopius_ writes, built a Church, which
he dedicated to the _Virgin Mary_, before the Walls of the City, in a
Place called the _Blachernæ_. _The Spectator_, says he, _when he enters
this Church, will admire its large and bulky Building, yet secure
from the Danger of falling by the Strength of its Foundation. You may
behold in it_, adds he, _a stately Magnificence, without any Mixture of
Gaiety, and too much Embellishment_. ’Tis my Opinion, that _Justinian_
only repaired this Church: For _Zonaras_ reports, that _Pulcheria_, the
Wife of _Marcian_, built a Church in the _Blachernæ_, and dedicated
it to the _Virgin Mary_. _Pomponius Lætus_ tells us, that this Church
was built by _Theodosius_. _Cedrinus_ writes, that _Justin_ the Nephew
of _Justinian_, added two Arches to the Church in the _Blachernæ_. So
that ’tis plain from what _Procopius_ has wrote upon this Occasion,
that the _Blachernæ_ stood without the Walls of the City, as it is no
less evident from the Testimony of _Agathius_. _When the barbarous
Nations_, says he, _approached_ Constantinople, _by the Permission
of_ Justinian, _all the Churches situate without the Walls, from the_
Blachernæ _to the Black-Sea, were stripp’d of their Armaments, which
were kept within the City_. There is at present to be seen, near the
Gate called _Xylon_, and the Western Angle of the City, between the
Foot of the sixth Hill, and the turning of a Mosque, situate within
the City, (which the People say was dedicated to the _Virgin Mary_) a
Spring now running, which the _Greeks_ tell us was consecrated to her.
The Place, where the Spring is, is call’d the _Blachernæ_. Upon my
first coming to _Constantinople_, some Remains of it were to be seen,
but now there nothing appears even of its Ruines. From the Bottom of
the sixth Hill, which rises above the Church in the _Blachernæ_, there
shoots an _Aqueduct_ with two Pipes; one of which is stopp’d with a
Cock, and the other flows in a constant Stream. I took Notice before,
that _Andronicus_ the Emperor brought this _Aqueduct_ from the River
_Hydrales_, into the _Ward_ of the _Blachernæ_, where there was no
River Water till his Time. The Emperor _Anastasius_ built the great
_Triclinium_ in the _Blachernæ_, which went under his Name, even in the
Time of _Suidas_. _Zonaras_, and others assure us, that the Emperor
_Tiberius_ built the publick Bath in the _Blachernæ_. ’Tis certain
from some modern Histories, that there was in the Time of _Zonaras_,
even down to the Reign of _Manuel_ the Emperor, an Imperial Palace in
that Place. The Reason why ’tis called the _Blachernæ_, is mentioned
by _Dionysius_ a _Byzantian_, in his _Navigation of the Bosporus_,
from whom I shall just touch upon some Places described by him, which
reach from the Foot of the fifth Hill, to the furthermost Angle of the
City, and the sixth Hill. _Beyond Mellacopsas_, says he, (this, I took
Notice of before, was at the Foot of the fifth Hill) _there are two
Places which afford good Sport in Fishing, all the Year. One upon the
Shallows under the Promontories, the other under the deep hollow Shores
which are never ruffled by the Wind. The first of these is called_
Indigenas, _from some great Man who was a Native there; the other_
Pyracius, _from_ Pyræus, _a Port of_ Athens; _or as some believe, from
some antient Inhabitant. There’s a Place between them called_ Cittos,
_from the great Plenty of Ivy it produces._ There is also a steep Place
called _Camara_, which adjoins that of _Pyracius_. ’Tis much exposed to
the Wind, and therefore often feels the Roughness of the Sea. Thence,
up higher, stands _Thalassa_, which is the Boundary of the _Ceratine
Bay_, where the Rivers begin to flow into it. ’Tis thus called, either
by Reason of their Nearness to the Sea, whose Salt Waters they mingle
with their Freshness, or because it stands steddy, and more out of
the Wind; or rather, because the constant Influx of the Rivers into
it, brings down daily a muddy Substance into the Sea, which very much
thickens it; though it serves for Nourishment to the Multitudes of Fish
with which it abounds. The first Place that stands upon this calm Sea
is called _Polyrrhetius_, from a Man named _Polyrrhetus_: The next is
_Vateiascopia_, so called from the deep Sea that is about it; a third
is the _Blachernæ_, which is a barbarous Word; and the last Place is
the Marshes.



CHAP. VI.

  _Of the Bridge near the Church of St._ Mamas; _of his_ Hippodrom; _of
  the Brazen Lyon, and the Sepulchre of the Emperor_ Mauritius.


Not only some Historians, but also _Suidas_ the Grammarian, have
handed it down to us, that near the Church of St. _Mamas_, there stood
a Bridge, which had twelve Arches; for there was a great Floud of
Waters at that Place. There was also set up at the same Place a brazen
Dragon; because ’twas reported that a Serpent had some Time liv’d
there, which had deflour’d many Virgins. This Story was occasion’d by
the Name of a Man, who was call’d _Basiliscus_, one of _Numerianus
Cæsar_’s Life-Guard, who liv’d there, and built a Church, which _Zeno_
afterwards pull’d down. _Constantine_, call’d _Iconomachus_, because
he was a profess’d Enemy to Images, order’d one _Andreas_ a Statuary,
a Man of some Note in the _Blachernæ_, to be whipt to Death in the
_Hippodrom_ of St. _Mamas_. _Zonaras_ tells us, that _Mauritius_ the
Emperor was buried in the Church of St. _Mamas_, which was built
by _Pharasmenes_, an Eunuch, and Gentleman of the Bed-chamber to
_Justinian_. _Cedrinus_ writes, that the Church of St. _Mamas_ stood
near the Gate call’d _Xylocercon_. Others report, That _Crunna_, King
of the _Bulgarians_, surrounded _Constantinople_ with an Army from
the _Blachernæ_ to the _Porta Aurea_, and distrusting the Strength of
his Forces to take the Town, he hasten’d to this Church, set Fire to
a Palace that was near it, and that upon his Retreat, he carry’d off
a Brazen Lyon plac’d in the _Hippodrom_, a Bear, a Dragon, and some
curious Pieces of Marble. _Sozomen_ speaking of those Persons who were
banish’d on St. _Chrysostom_’s Account, says, that when they were got
without the Walls they met in a Place situate before the City, which
_Constantine_ order’d to be cleans’d, to be pal’d round, and made it
into a _Hippodrom_. This, I take it, was the Place which was afterwards
call’d the _Hippodrom_ of St. _Mamas_. _Zonaras_ adds upon this
Occasion, that _Leo_ the Emperor, scar’d by a Fire, which then rag’d
in the City, flew to the Church of St. _Mamas_, and continu’d there
for some Time. _Cedrinus_ mentions, that the Emperor diverted himself
with Horse-racing, near the Church of St. _Mamas_ the Martyr, situate
in the _Stenon_. ’Tis plain from the Authorities abovemention’d,
that this Church was seated in the _Blachernæ_, and that there was a
Bridge there, as is farther confirm’d by _Johannes Tzetzes_ in his
_Variâ Historiâ_, where he says, that the Sea extending itself from
the Streights of _Abydus_, to the Bridge of the _Blachernæ_, is call’d
the _Hellespont_. ’Tis also evident, that this Bridge stood, where
the Stone Piles of the old Bridge (when the Water is low, as ’tis in
Summer) are seen at present, and stand between the Suburbs call’d the
_Blachernæ_, and the Suburbs, which the _Turks_ call the _Aibasarium_.
This, I am confident, is the same Bridge which the ancient Treatise
_of the Wards of the City_, calls the Wooden Bridge, and places it in
the fourteenth _Ward_, in which, as I observ’d, was the Suburbs call’d
the _Hepdomum_. I desire the Reader to remark one Thing from _Suidas_,
that St. _Mamas_ Bridge had either twelve Stone Arches, or else, that
he was writing of another Church of St. _Mamas_, situate in another
Place.



CHAP. VII.

  _Of the seventh Hill, the twelfth Ward, and of the Pillar of_
  Arcadius.


I take it for granted, from the Situation of the Pillar of _Arcadius_,
now standing on the seventh Hill, call’d the _Xerolophon_, (which
is divided from the other six Hills by a broad Valley,) that That
is the twelfth _Ward_, which lies a great Way upon the Level, from
the Entrance of the City at the _Porta Aurea_, and is lengthen’d, on
the Left Side of it, by a gentle Descent, and bounded by the Sea. It
contain’d the _Porta Aurea_, the _Trojan Portico’s_, the _Forum_, and
Haven of _Theodosius_, and a Pillar with winding Steps in the Inside,
built in the _Xerolophon_ by _Arcadius_. The Hill still preserves
the same Name. Upon this Pillar the Emperor plac’d his Statue, which
was thrown down, in the Reign of _Leo Conon_ by an Earthquake, which
shook the whole City, overturn’d many Churches and Houses, and buried
Multitudes of People under it. _Cedrinus_ assures us, that this
Pillar was in all respects like that of _Theodosius_ erected in the
_Taurus_. It has a _Base_, a _Pedestal_, and a _Capital_. The _Shaft_
of the Pillar, with its _Pedestal_ and _Capital_, consists of twenty
one Stones. Above the _Capital_ are two Stones. The _Pedestal_ alone
is built with five Stones, so closely cemented together, that if the
Pillar had never felt the Shocks of an Earth-quake, or the Decays of
Time, it had appear’d to have been one entire Stone. These Stones are
plac’d one above another, and are hollow in the Inside. Each of them
is the whole Compass of the Pillar, out of which are cut the Steps and
Windows which beautify and enlighten it. I took upon me to measure the
Compass of the _Shaft_ from the Stone which covers it at Top, down to
the lowest Step of the _Pedestal_. This Stone therefore, thro’ which
there is cut a Door, by which you ascend above the _Abacus_ of the
_Capital_, is about thirteen Foot nine Inches high, and is itself the
Roof and Arch of the whole Pillar. The Door is six Foot two Digits
high, and three Foot nine Inches broad. The second Stone is six Foot
high, in which is cut the uppermost Step above the _Abacus_ of the
_Capital_. The third is five Foot and four Digits high, and contains
the _Abacus_ and the whole _Capital_. The fifth is five Foot in
height, wanting two Digits. The Sixth is four Foot nine Inches high.
The Seventh five Foot and two Digits. The Eighth four Foot and four
Digits. The Ninth is six Foot high. The Tenth five Foot. The Eleventh
four Foot and fourteen Digits. The Twelfth four Foot nine Inches.
The Thirteenth five Foot. The Fourteenth five Foot two Digits. The
fifteenth five Foot and a half. The Sixteenth the same. The Seventeenth
five Foot and ten Digits. The eighteenth six Foot and a half. The
Nineteenth five Foot and four Digits. The Twentieth six Foot and a
half. The Twenty first, where the _Shaft_ of the Pillar begins, six
Foot and four Digits high. The _Pedestal_ consists of six Stones. The
uppermost of which is four Foot nine Inches high. The Second is the
same height. The Third four Foot. The Fourth four Foot six Inches. The
Fifth the same. The Sixth and last is four Foot high. It has in all
fifty six Windows, and two hundred thirty three Steps of two kinds.
For some rise in square, others in circular Windings, after the Manner
of some Shell-Fish. You ascend the _Pedestal_ by five square Winding
Steps. Every Winding has at the Top of it a small Floor, which leads
you from one Winding to another. The first and second Windings have
six Steps each; the third eight; the fourth and fifth, nine each; the
lowest of them all, which lies level with the Threshold of the Door,
is ten Digits high, twelve Inches broad, and two Foot nine Inches
long. The other square Windings are like this, and the Floor at the
Top of each of them is two Foot nine Inches square. Upon the fifth
Winding stands the _Shaft_ of the Pillar, the first Steps of which are
ten Digits high; near the Wall they are a Foot broad, in the Middle a
Foot and nine Inches, and in Length they are two Foot nine Inches. The
Steps above them, are all of them, nine Digits high. The Inside of
the _Shaft_ of the Pillar measures twenty eight Foot in Circumference.
The Wall which encloses the Steps, in the lowest Part of it, is two
Foot and three Digits, in the highest, ’tis one Foot nine Inches thick.
If I should be thought too curious, in taking the Dimensions of every
Stone, this Character with more Justice belongs to that Man, (and yet
_Thucydides_ highly commends him for it) who by counting the Rows of
Bricks of which they were built, took the height of the Enemies Walls.
I was under some Apprehensions from the Savageness of the Inhabitants,
lest they should catch me dropping my Line, had I measur’d it without,
so that I lay under a Necessity of taking the Dimensions within; and by
joining the height of one Stone to the height of another, I discover’d
its Altitude. There are two Steps consisting of many Stones, which
first shew themselves from the Surface of the Earth. Above them is the
third Step, which is cut out of a Stone three Foot and four Digits
high, and thirty three Foot and a half in Circumference. Upon the Stone
which makes the third Step, stands the _Pedestal_. The first of the
five Stones of which it consists, from the Threshold of the Door, is
five Foot and a half high. Its Ornaments are a plain _Plinth_ three
Foot five Digits high, a small _Tore_ five Digits high, an _Apophyge_
with a _Reglet_ nine Inches, another _Reglet_ above it two Digits,
and a _Cornice_ engrav’d, which is nine Inches high. The _Frieze_, on
three Sides, is curiously engrav’d with Trophies; the Northern Side of
it, where the Door is, is not engrav’d at all. The _Cornice_ of the
Pedestal bends downwards. At the bottom of it is a _Reglet_, above that
an _Astragal_, adorn’d with Berries; then an _Ovolo_, and above that
an _Astragal_ wreath’d like a Rope. Higher yet is a _Folial_ Bandage.
There projects beyond the _Pedestal_ a kind of _Abacus_; on each side
of which there are two _Fasces_ of Laurel-work, the largest of which
is incurvated even to the bottom of the _Abacus_. On the Sides of this
_Abacus_ there is a Sculpture of seven naked Boys, holding each of them
in his Hand a Laureated _Fascis_. At every Angle of this _Abacus_ there
stands an Eagle, and above it is the _Plinth_ of the Pillar, adorn’d
with a _Foliage_, which projects very little. Above the _Plinth_ is
a _Tore_, adorn’d with Laurel-work, which is filletted with a spiral
Bandage. Above the _Tore_ there rises an _Apophyge_, upon which Stands
the Shaft of the Pillar, which is carv’d with the Scenes of War, and
of Battles. The Sculpture is much like that which adorns the Pillar of
_Trajan_ in Old _Rome_. The _Trachelium_, or Top of the _Shaft_, is
fluted perpendicularly. The lower part of its _Capital_ is adorn’d with
_Apophyges_, an _Ovolo_, and an _Abacus_, which projects beyond the
_Shaft_ two Foot and fourteen Digits. The _Abacus_, on all sides of it,
is seventeen Foot, and nine Inches round. Above the _Abacus_ there is a
Door, above which the Pillar rises in the Form of a _Cone_, where there
is another Door above ten Foot high. We may look upon this Pillar to be
of the _Tuscan_ Order, because both the _Base_, and the _Capital_ of
it, are finished after the _Tuscan_ manner.



CHAP. VIII.

  _Of the Statues, and the antient_ Tripos _of_ Apollo, _standing in
  the_ Xerolophon.


_Suidas_ writes, that the _Xerolophon_ was formerly call’d _Thema_,
because it was a kind of Repository, and contained in it fifteen
winding Apartments, the Statue of _Diana_, and _Severus_, who built
it; besides a _Thermation_, a _Tripos_ from whence many Oracles were
deliver’d. In this Place, the Founder of it us’d to offer Sacrifices;
and among others he sacrificed a Virgin. _Priscian_, whom I find
mention’d by _Benedictus Ægius_, indefatigably curious in his Search
of Antiquity, observes, That the _Azoles_ sometimes inserted in a Word
the Letter Ϝ, as I have taken Notice of in some Inscriptions of a very
antient _Tripos_ of _Apollo_, still remaining in the _Xerolophon_; the
Words of which are written after this Manner; Δημοφάϝων, Λαϝονάϝων.
He tells us, that ’tis customary in another Place, meaning among the
_Æolians_, to place an Ϝ between two Vowels of the same Word; as in
ὄϝις, _ovis_, Δάϝος, _Davus_, ὦϝον, _ovum_. I have seen, says he,
the same in some old Inscriptions, in very antient Characters, on
some _Tripos’s_, especially on the _Tripos_ of _Apollo_, which is at
_Constantinople_; as Δημοφόϝων for Δημοφόων, Λαϝοκόϝων for Λαοκόων.
Others add, that there were the like Insertions in the _Xerolophon_, a
little above the _Basis_ of the Pillars of _Marcian_, _Valentinian_,
and _Theodosius_ the _Less_. _Zonaras_ tells us, that _Simeon_, a
Prince of the _Bulgarians_, a Man of a cruel and turbulent Spirit,
march’d an Army against the _Chrobatians_; when he was conquer’d, and
lost his Army, partly by the Badness of the Roads, some Body inform’d
the Emperor that the Statue plac’d above the Arch in the _Xerolophon_,
looking Westward, was carv’d for the Statue of _Simeon_ of _Bulgaria_,
and that if any one cut off the Head of the Statue, _Simeon_ should
immediately die. The Emperor commands the Head of the Statue to be
chopt off, and soon received the News that _Simeon_ was dead of a
violent Pain of the Stomach. For he watch’d to a Minute the Time
of his Death. As to the Port of _Theodosius_, that was in the same
Place where the Gardens, which are now call’d the _Blancha_, stand at
present. These Gardens are enclos’d with a Wall, and are seated in a
Plain, adjoyning to the Shore of the _Propontis_, at the Foot of the
sixth Hill. The Mouth of the Port stood Eastward, from whence the Pier
extended it self Westward, in a direct Line, where at present stand
the Walls of the City. The Pier was twelve Foot in Thickness; and, as
I found by walking it, ’twas six Hundred of my Paces in length. ’Tis
now entirely ruin’d. The Gardens, which are very spacious, abound with
Sallets and Potherbs, but have very few Fruit-Trees. These Gardens
are water’d with Pools, which they have within them, and which are
the Remains of the old Port. I discover’d by the Pier, and Situation
of the Place, that ’twas above a Mile in compass. In the Mouth of the
Port, not altogether unfit for Ships at present, without the City
Wall, you still see a Fortress in its Ruins, surrounded by the Sea.
The unknown Writer of _the Empire_ of _Constantinople_ asserts, That
it was first called _Thema_, afterwards the _Forum_ of _Theodosius_;
tho’ it seems to me rather to be the _Forum_ of _Arcadius_, by Reason
the Pillar of _Arcadius_ joyns to it. For the _Forum_ of _Theodosius_,
in all Probability, stood near the Port of _Theodosius_. This is no
more than what is conformable to the Rules of Architecture, which
prescribe, that a Market should be built near a Port. I am of Opinion,
that it was formerly call’d the Port of _Eleutherius_, if we may credit
those Writers who affirm, That _Constantine_ the _Great_ built a Wall
from the Ridge of the first Hill to the Port of _Sophia_, and the
Port of _Eleutherius_, built by _Constantine_ the _Great_, to prevent
the Inundations of the Sea. ’Tis called the Port of _Eleutherius_,
because, when ’twas built, he was Surveyor of the Works. It was for
this Reason, that there was a Marble Statue erected to him in that
Port, bearing on his Shoulders a Basket of Marble, and holding in
his Hand a Marble Spade. They add further, that _Irena_, and her Son
_Constantine_, built him a noble Seat; and that from that Seat, as
far as the _Amastrianum_, reach’d the _Hippodrom_, which was built by
_Theodosius_ the _Great_, and was demolish’d by _Irena_. _Zonaras_
writes, that _Irena_, after she was remov’d from the Government by
_Constantine_ her Son, liv’d in a House which she built in the Port
of _Eleutherius_. The _Portico’s_, which the _ancient Description
of the Wards of the City_ names with the Epithet _Troadeæ_, others
mention with that of _Troadesiæ_, and tell us, that _Constantine_
the _Great_ built the Walls of the City as far as the _Portico’s_
call’d _Porticus Troadesiæ_ (that is, the _Trojan Portico’s_) and the
_Porta Aurea_, which stood in the twelfth _Ward_. I am of Opinion,
that they were call’d the _Trojan Portico’s_, because they contain’d
some Things of the like Kind with that which was called the _Porticus
Varia_. ’Tis reported, says he, that in the _Portico_, formerly call’d
_Plesiactia_, and now _Pæcilla_, or _Porticus Varia_, a celebrated
Painter drew the Face of _Laodice_, on the Picture of _Elpinica_. I
had not known it by the Name it goes at present, had it not been for
a Spring near it which they call Χρυσοπηγὴ, as deriving its Name from
the _Porta Aurea_. This Spring, to this Day, constantly flows, and is
drank with great Devotion by the _Greeks_, who hold all Springs, near
their Churches, to be sacred. There’s nothing of the Church remaining
at present, tho’ _Procopius_ takes Notice of it. _Justinian_, says
he, _built two Churches to the_ Virgin Mary, _before the Walls of the
City one in the_ Blachernæ, _the other in a Place call’d_ Πηγὴ, _where
there is a large Wood of Cypresses, a verdant Meadow, and a delightful
Garden, which produces a great Store of fine Fruit, and where there
is also a gentle Spring, which affords very good drinking Water. One
of the Churches stood near the Sea-shore, the other near the_ Porta
Aurea. _Both of them_, he adds, _were near the end of the City Walls,
and were upon Occasion impregnable Fortresses to it_. From hence I
would remark, that in the Time of _Justinian_, the Angle of the City,
which they call the Angle of the seven Towers, was not within the City;
but that the Land-wall from the _Porta Aurea_, straitned the Angle of
the City into a more narrow Compass, as appears from the Situation of
the Monastery of _Studius_, which stood upon a piece of Ground, which
was formerly look’d upon to be in the Suburbs, but now stands further
within the Walls, than the Angle of the seven Towers. He proceeds,
and tells us, that _Justinian_, at a vast Expence, upon the Entrance
of the _Porta Aurea_ on the right Hand, rebuilt the Temple of _Ja_,
(which Time had wholly defac’d) for the Service of the True GOD. The
Observation I would make from hence is, that the _Porta Aurea_ stood
near the seventh Hill, call’d the _Xerolophon_, which is also confirm’d
by _Zonaras_, who writes, That in the Time of _Leo_, many Churches
and Houses, the Statue of _Arcadius_, plac’d upon a Pillar in the
_Xerolophon_, and the Statue of _Theodosius_ the _Great_, placed upon
the _Porta Aurea_, as also the City Walls, reaching to the Continent on
the Field side, were overthrown by an Earthquake. _Cedrinus_ asserts,
that the Statue of _Victory_, near the _Porta Aurea_, was overturn’d
by the same Earthquake. Other Historians mention, that by the same
Earthquake, which happen’d the Vᵗʰ of the _Calends_ of _November_,
many sacred Buildings, and many others of common Use, with Multitudes
of People, were destroy’d; and that the Statue of _Constantine_ the
_Great_, which stood upon the Gate of _Attalus_, with the Gate it self,
was demolish’d by it. It is therefore a great Mistake in those, who
take the _Porta Aurea_ to be the same Gate which is now call’d _Oria_,
and is seated in the Northern Part of the City, which, as I observ’d
before, was called the Port of _Neorius_, since ’tis plain from what
I have mentioned, that the _Porta Aurea_ was in the Western Part of
the City. This is also evident from the _antient Description_ of the
_Wards_ of _Constantinople_, which tells us, that the Length of the
City, from the _Porta Aurea_ to the Sea-shore, in a direct Line, is
fourteen Thousand and seventy five Feet. _Cedrinus_ takes Notice, that
the Elephants stabled in the _Porta Aurea_, were much of that Kind,
with which _Theodosius_ made his publick Entry into the City. ’Tis
said that _Theodosius_ the _Less_ who built the Walls of the City
as far as the _Blachernæ_, brought the Statues of those Elephants,
which are plac’d upon the _Porta Aurea_, from the Temple of _Mars_ at
_Athens_. _Cedrinus_ asserts, that _Philip_ King of _Macedon_ built
the great Church of _Mocius_ the Martyr, and a Church to St. _Anne_ in
a Place call’d _Secundus_. _Procopius_ says, that both these Churches
were built by _Justinian_. I have seen some Remains of the Church of
_Mocius_, near a large _Cistern_, built by _Justinian_, on the Top of
the seventh Hill. All its Pillars are standing, and it goes still under
the Name of _Mocius_. Some Historians, and _Suidas_ the _Grammarian_
say, that this _Cistern_ was built by _Anastasius Dicorus_. It may be
worth Enquiry, whether the _Moneta_, which the _antient Description
of the Wards_ places in this Ward, was the Temple of _Juno Moneta_,
or the Treasury. For the _Grand Seignor_, to this Day, makes use of
the Castle with seven Towers for a Treasury. _Suidas_ writes, that the
Statue of _Juno_ was supported by a Brazen Arch, made somewhat in Form
of a Pair of Barbers Scissars, but takes no Notice where it stood; so
that I desire the Reader would lay no great Stress upon what I have
said of the _Moneta_.



CHAP. IX.

  _Of the Columns now remaining on the Seventh Hill._


The Church standing here is called _Studios_, because it was built by
one _Studius_ an eminent Citizen of _Constantinople_. It was he, says
_Suidas_, who built this Church with a handsome Monastery. _Justinian_,
in his _Constitutions_, takes Notice of him, when he says, That there
were two Biers plac’d in the sacred Treasury; one to the Memory of
the Famous _Studius_, and the other to the Memory of the Magnificent
_Stephanus_. The Monastery built by _Studius_ was call’d _Studium_,
which is entirely demolish’d. The Church remains, tho’ converted
into a Mosque. In its Porch are four Pillars with a _Trabeation_
curiously finish’d. In the Inside of the Mosque, there are on each
side seven green Pillars, streak’d with black Veins, and look as if
they were inlay’d with Pieces of Stone of another kind. Each of them
measures in Circumference six Foot and six Digits. Their _Capitals_,
and _Architraves_, are finish’d after the _Corinthian_ Manner, as
are those which stand in the _Vestibule_. In the upper Part of it
stands another Order of six Pillars. In the Courts of the Mosque is a
_Cistern_; the Roof of it, which is Brick-work, is supported by twenty
three lofty _Corinthian_ Pillars. The Monastery of _Studius_ is now
within the Walls of the City, tho’ it formerly stood without it, near
the way you go from the Pillar of _Arcadius_ to the Gate of the seven
Towers. The Passage of this Gate is at present fill’d up; the Jambs
of it are two _Corinthian_ Pillars of spotted Marble, streak’d with
green Veins, which sustain eight smaller Pillars, which support three
Arches above. On the left Side of the Gate are six Marble Tables, all
of which are enclos’d, some with round, some with square Pilasters,
upon which are carv’d many fine Statues. They are all of them Naked,
of exquisite Workmanship, in a fighting Posture, with Clubs in their
Hands, the tallest of which have engrav’d over them winged _Cupids_.
On the right Side of the Gate are six more Tables, enclos’d as the
former. Upon the lowest of these there lies a young Man, with his
Face upwards, and his Legs folded, holding a musical Instrument in
his Hand. There hangs over him a little Figure, in the Likeness of a
_Cupid_, and above the _Cupid_ there rises a Woman. Upon the highest
Table there’s carved a naked Statue, with a Club in his Hand; his
right Arm is cover’d with a Lyon’s Skin, and with his left Hand he is
leading Dogs. Above him is the Statue of a Lyoness with full Dugs.
Upon another Table are carv’d two Husbandmen carrying Baskets full of
Grapes; and upon another is the Statue of a flying Horse. The Bridle is
held by a Woman, behind whom stand two Women more: At the Top of the
Table there’s another Woman in a recumbent Posture, and opposite to
her a young Man lying on the Ground. I took particular Notice of these
Figures, by Reason of the Antiquity, and the admirable Sculpture of
them. I saw also upon the seventh Hill, among others, four Mosques of
curious Workmanship. Their _Vestibules_ and Pillars were all of Marble.
Three of them stood on the Eastern Side of the Hill, two of whose
_Vestibules_ were adorn’d with six lofty and large Pillars; two of
which were of _Thebean_ Marble, and the other four of different kinds
of Marble, vein’d with a dark green. The other stands near the Pillar
of _Arcadius_, lately built by the Consort of _Solyman_ the _Grand
Seignor_, (with a handsome _Caravansera_, and a College, where the
_Turkish_ and _Arabian_ Learning is profess’d) in which I counted more
than sixty Pillars of different kinds. On the Top of the Hill there are
two other Mosques, one of which has _Bagnio’s_, and Colleges joyning to
it. The _Vestibule_ of it is beautify’d with six Pillars of _Thebean_
Marble, which measure each six Foot in Circumference. Their _Bases_ and
_Capitals_ are finish’d after the _Turkish_ Manner. The _Shafts_ of
the Pillars are very ancient, especially of those two which face the
Door of the Mosque, whose _Hypotrachelions_ at Top are more slender
than the _Shafts_, tho’ in the lower Parts of them, they are equal to
them, as a Man’s Neck is less in Circumference near the Head, than the
Shoulders. ’Tis adorn’d with one _Annulet_, which rises in the manner
of a Ring. Above it there’s another _Annulet_, which is broad and flat.
I saw no _Hypotrachelion_, all the Time I was at _Constantinople_,
which came so near the Model of _Vitruvius_, as this; who delivers it
as his Judgment, that the _Hypotrachelion_ ought to be contracted in
the upper Part of it, as you may see in his third Book _de Ionicis_.
There’s another Mosque on the same Hill, the _Vestibule_ of which is
beautify’d with six very lofty Pillars; in the College Court there are
fourteen, and as many in a _Portico_ adjoyning to it.



CHAP. X.

  _Of the Thirteenth_ Ward _of the City, call’d the_ Sycene Ward, _of
  the Town of_ Galata, _sometimes nam’d_ Pera.


The _Antient Description of the Wards of the City_ takes Notice, that
_Galata_ was formerly a Part of the City. The Thirteenth _Ward_ of _New
Rome_, says the Author, is the _Sycene Ward_, which is divided from it
by a narrow Bay, and preserves an Intercourse with it, by Boats and
Shipping. It is seated on the Side of a Hill, except a broad Tract
of Land at the Foot of it, which lies upon the Level. _Stephanus_
says, that the Town of _Sycæ_ was situated against _New Rome_, and
that it was call’d in his Time _Sycæ Justinianæ_, but does not give
the Reason why it was call’d so. Probably it was, because _Justinian_
either repair’d or rebuilt it; for which Reasons principally Cities
frequently change their Names. I wonder that _Procopius_ never took
Notice of this Place, since he has given us an exact Description of all
the Edifices of the Bay, call’d the _Chrysoceras_, which were either
built or repair’d by him; unless perhaps the Mistake be in _Procopius_,
by inserting the Word _Jucundianæ_ instead of _Justinianæ_, when he
tells us, that _Justinian_ rebuilt the Palaces of the Suburbs in the
_Chalcopratia_, as also in the Place call’d _Sycæ Jucundianæ_. If
the Fault be not in _Procopius_, ’tis an Errour of _Stephanus_, who
writes _Justinianæ_ for _Jucundianæ_. But ’tis plain, that _Stephanus_
wrote long before the Time of _Justinian_; so that if there be any
Blunder, ’tis none of _Stephanus_, but _Hermolaus_, a Grammarian of
_Constantinople_, who abridg’d the Commentaries of _Stephanus_, and
dedicated them to _Justinian_. If I might give my Opinion, I should
rather call it _Sycæ Justinianæ_, than _Jucundianæ_, because it
appears to me it should be so, not only by comparing some Books of
_Procopius_ and _Justinian_ which have been publish’d, but also by the
Authorities of several MSS. _Justinian_ asserts in his _Constitutions_,
_That ’tis agreeable to Equity, if a Corpse be carried to the Grave
to a great Distance, that the Deacons attending it, should have some
Acknowledgment_. He subjoyns a little after, _That he is of the same
Opinion, if the Corpse be bury’d within the new Walls of the City
or this Side of the_ Sycæ Justinianæ. This is but a small Procession,
and it requires not much Time or Pains to walk thither; _but_, says
he, _if the Body be carried beyond the Walls of this flourishing City,
or beyond any other Stairs, than those which lead to_ Sycæ——There’s
no Occasion to add what follows. I would only have the Reader observe,
that the Word πέρασμα which the _Latins_ interpret _Terminus_, or a
Boundary, signifies properly _Trajectus_, a Ferry, or the _Stairs_ from
whence you sail from one Place to another. ’Tis evident, from what
I have quoted, that the Town call’d _Sycæ_ is on the other side of
the Bay facing _Constantinople_, altho’ _Stephanus_ has not declar’d
against what Part of the City it lies. I observe notwithstanding from
the _Treatise_ above mention’d, that the sixth _Ward_ reach’d from
the _Forum_ of _Constantine_ to the Ferry against _Sycæ_, which is
now call’d the Ferry of _Pera_, or _Galata_. As I would pay a just
Regard to the Authorities of some more modern Historians, I hall
produce several Testimonies from them. They assert, that _Absimarus_,
the Commander in Chief of the Forces which besieg’d _Constantinople_,
harbour’d in the Port of _Sycæ_ against the City. _Evagrius_ writes,
that the Heads of _Longinus_, and _Theodorus_, stuck upon Poles,
were sent to _Constantinople_ by _Johannes_ a _Scythian_, and by the
Emperor’s Command were fix’d upon the Shore of _Sycæ_, opposite to
_Constantinople_; a pleasant Spectacle to the Inhabitants of the City!
He adds further, That _Vitalianus_ made an Incursion as far as _Sycæ_,
and that when he came to an Anchor there, the Emperor _Anastasius_
sent _Marinus_ an _Assyrian_ Admiral to fight him. Both Fleets prepare
for the Engagement; the one facing _Constantinople_, the other _Sycæ_.
For some Time they kept their Stations; after some small Skirmishes,
and Attacks on both Sides, the Fight began near the Places call’d the
_Vitharia_. _Vitalianus_ having lost most of his Men, was forced to
bear off, so that there was not the least Appearance of an Enemy in all
the _Bosporus_. Nor am I induc’d to change my Opinion by the Authority
of _Strabo_, who seems to place _Sycæ_ at some Distance from the Bay.
_The_ Bosporus, says he, _straitning it self from the Promontory into
the Measure of five_ Stadia, _or Furlongs, widens at the Harbour plac’d
below_ Sycæ _into thirty Furlongs, and from_ Sycæ _to the_ Chrysoceras
_it contracts it self again into five Furlongs_. Nor would this Opinion
any ways contradict what I have said before, if my Author had meant by
the _Ceras_ of the _Byzantians_, what _Pliny_ ’tis plain did, _viz._
the _Bosporian Promontory_ where _Byzantium_ stood. But _Strabo_
immediately subjoins, that the _Ceras_ was a Bay which was sixty
Furlongs in length; and therefore it appears to me, that the Mistake
lies either in _Cod. Strabon._ or in the Historian himself, as is fully
evident from the Authority of _Dionysius_, a very ancient Writer of the
History of _Constantinople_, which was his Native Place. This Author
has recorded it, that _Sycodes_, or _Sycæ_, is the same Place near the
Bay call’d _Ceras_, where _Galata_ stands at present, as I have more
evidently shewn in my _Treatise of the Bosporus_. The People of _Pera_
therefore are grosly in the wrong, when they tell us, that _Pera_ was
first built by the _Genoese_; when it is plain that _Pera_ was built
long before they were suppos’d either to have purchas’d the Town,
or to have receiv’d it as a Reward of their Sea-Services, from some
Emperor of _Constantinople_; since _Justinian_ places _Sycæ_ within
the Walls of the City, and _Agathius_ assures us, it was enclosed with
Walls, when he writes, that the People of _Constantinople_ were in
such a Consternation upon the Approach of the Enemy, that the Forces
of _Justinian_ were obliged to climb the Walls of _Sycæ_, to make a
more vigorous Defence. _Sycæ_, by _Stephanus_, is call’d a City, as it
is also by some modern Writers; but more antient Authors, who liv’d
before _Galata_ was taken by the _Genoese_, call it the Cittadel of
_Galata_. They tell us farther, that a Fleet of the _Saracens_ was
station’d from the _Magnaura_ to the _Cyclobion_; and that after it had
continu’d two Days in that Station, Part of it was driven by a Storm to
the Cittadel of _Galata_, as far as the _Clydion_, where the Emperor
of _Constantinople_ destroy’d it, from _Acropolis_, with liquid Fire.
_Zonaras_ writes, that when _Michael_ the Emperor was besieged both by
Sea and Land, he was so terribly distrest, that he was forc’d to lay a
Boom across the Sea from _Acropolis_, to a small Town on the opposite
Shore. There is at this Day a Gate at _Galata_, which is call’d the
_Boom-Gate_. ’Tis however beyond Dispute, that _Galata_ was more than
once enlarg’d by the _Genoese_: This appears from the Walls, which at
several Times they have built about it, being fortified on the East by
Double, and on the West by Treble Walls, denoting the gradual Increase
of the Town. You may see at present the antient _Sycæ_, enclos’d in the
middle of _Galata_, situate against the sixth _Ward_, and the _Sycene_
Ferry, all built on the Side of a Hill, just as ’tis represented in
the _Antient Description_ of the _Wards_, except one broad Piece of
Ground, which lies upon a Level on the Shore at the Foot of the Hill.
This Tract of Land was at least a hundred _Roman_ Paces broad. For at
present, between the Hill and the Bay, there is a Plain to be seen of
an equal, if not of a larger Breadth; because, in such a Length of
Time, it is widen’d, as may be observ’d daily, by the Abundance of
Filth and Nastiness, which is cast about it. To make it subside at the
Bottom, the Inhabitants have fix’d wooden Troughs upon Piles, which
they drive into the Earth by an Engine, much like a Rammer. By this
Means the Plain upon the Shore is enlarg’d, and made more commodious
for Havens. But that the Reader may understand more perfectly where
the _Sycene Ward_ stood formerly, I will describe the Situation of
_Galata_, as it stands at present.



CHAP. XI.

  _A Description of_ Galata; _of the Temples of_ Amphiaraus, Diana,
  _and_ Venus; _of the Theatre of_ Sycæ, _and the_ Forum _of_ Honorius.


The _Sycene Ward_, which is commonly called _Galata_, or _Pera_,
ought more properly to be called the _Peræan Ward_. Thus it is that
_Josephus_ calls _Judæa_, because it lay on the _other Side_ of the
River _Jordan_: And thus it is, that _Strabo_ calls that Part of the
Countrey which lies on the _other Side_ of _Euphrates_. The Reason
alledg’d by the Inhabitants, why ’tis call’d _Galata_, is, as they
tell you, (being impos’d upon by the Allusion of the Name) that _Milk_
was formerly sold there: And I make no Question of it, did they but
know, that _Galata_ was formerly call’d _Sycæ_, they would derive its
Name from the Word _Fig_; and pretend to justify their Mistake from
the Authority of _Dionysius_ their Countryman, who says, that it was
originally call’d _Sycæ_, from the Fairness and Abundance of that
Fruit which grew there. But their Conjectures had been grounded upon a
better Foundation, if they had deriv’d the Name of _Galata_ from the
_Galatæ_, back’d by the Authority of _Johannes Tzetzes_ (a Citizen of
_Constantinople_, and a very industrious Grammarian) in his _Var.
Hist._ written above four hundred Years ago. This Author tells us,
that _Brenus_ a _Gaul_, and Commander in Chief of the _Gauls_, whom
the _Greeks_ call Γαλάται, _pass’d over the Sea_ from thence to a
Place of _Byzantium_, and that this Place for this Reason was call’d
_Pera_, which was after their Arrival call’d _Galata_. This Place is
seated partly on a Hill, and partly on a Plain at the Foot of it. This
Hill is enclosed on the East and West by two Valleys, each of which
is about a Mile in length. The Ridge of the Hill shoots from North to
South, and is in no Part of it less than two hundred Paces broad, and
of equal Length with the Valleys that enclose it, and joins to the
Plain upon the Continent. The South Side of this Hill, and the Plain
below it, is bounded by the Bay of _Ceras_, which makes it almost a
_Peninsula_ of a semicircular Figure, in the Form of a drawn Bow,
with this Difference only, that the Western Point of it is larger by
half; and not quite so long as the Eastern. _Galata_, as ’tis enclos’d
with a Wall, is four Thousand and four Hundred Paces in Compass. It
varies, in many Places, as to its Breadth. In the middle of the Town
’tis six hundred Paces broad. The Bay and the Walls stand at twenty
Paces Distance. The Plain that runs between the Bay and the Hill, is a
hundred and eighty, and the Hill it self four hundred Paces broad. The
Eastern Side of _Galata_, at the first Entrance of it, is four hundred
Paces in breadth; after which it contracts it self into the Breadth
of two hundred and sixty Paces only. The Western Side of it, which
stands without Old _Galata_, rises upon a moderate Ascent, which winds
Southward, and adjoyns to a small Descent, which terminates Westward
near the Walls of Old _Galata_. The Town therefore of _Galata_ stands
upon a Treble Descent; one of which winds from North to South, another
falls Easterly, and another at West. The Declivity which crosses the
Breadth of it, stretches from North to South; and is so steep, that in
many Places you are forced to climb it by Steps; so that you ascend
the first Floor of the Houses, which stands upon a Level, by Ladders.
The Eastern and Western Side of _Galata_ have a double Declivity; one
from North to South, the other to East and West; so that not only those
Parts of it which lie in a strait Line, but those Ways also which are
winding, or lie Cross-ways, have their Descents; but the Eastern Side
of the Town is more upon the Declivity than the Western Side of it. To
be short, _Galata_ is of such a Steepness, that if all the Houses were
of an equal Height, the upper Rooms would have a full View of the Sea,
and of all the Ships sailing up and down in it. And not only _Galata_,
but almost the whole City of _Constantinople_ would have the same
Privilege, if that Law, which was first made by _Zeno_, and afterwards
ratify’d by _Justinian_, was in full Force. This Law expressly forbids
any Man to hinder or obstruct an open and entire View of the Sea, or
indeed a Side Prospect of it, and enjoyns the Inhabitants to build at
least at a hundred Paces Distance from it. The Level Part of the Town,
which runs between the Bottom of the Hill and Bay, is, in no Place of
it, less than two hundred Paces broad. Towards the Ends of it ’tis
much broader; and, in some Places, it widens to the Length of five
hundred Paces. The Town is thrice as long as it is broad. It extends
it self in Breadth from North to South, in Length from East to West.
The Western Side of it is broader than the Eastern, and almost of an
equal Breadth with the middle of the City. For in a Length of five
hundred Paces, ’tis no less than five hundred Paces broad. The Eastern
Side of _Galata_ is more narrow, where it is no more than two hundred
and sixty Paces broad. The Shore round the Town is full of Havens.
Between the Walls and the Bay is a Piece of Ground, where are Abundance
of _Taverns_, _Shops_, _Victualing-houses_, besides several _Wharfs_,
where they unlade their Shipping. It has six Gates, at three of which
there are _Stairs_, from whence you sail over to _Constantinople_.
_Galata_ is so situate to the North of _Constantinople_, that it faces
the first, second, and third Hills, and the first and second Valley of
that City; having in Front the Bay of _Ceras_, and _Constantinople_,
and behind it some Buildings of the Suburbs. For many of these
Buildings stand partly on the Top of the Hill, and partly on the Sides
of it. The Town, it self does not rise to the Ridge of the Hill. Where
_Galata_ rises highest, there is yet standing a very lofty Tower, where
there is an Ascent of about three hundred Paces, full of Buildings,
and beyond that is the Ridge of the Hill upon a Level, about two
hundred Paces broad, and two thousand Paces long. Thro’ the middle of
it runs a broad Way full of Houses, Gardens, and Vineyards. This is
the most pleasant Part of the Town; from hence, and from the Sides of
the Hill, you have a full View of the Bay of _Ceras_, the _Bosporus_,
the _Propontis_, the seven Hills of _Constantinople_, the Countrey of
_Bithynia_, and the Mountain _Olympus_, always cover’d with Snow. And
besides these, there are many other additional Buildings, which adorn
the Hills, and Vales adjoining to this Town. It has the same Number of
Hills and Vales as _Constantinople_ it self; so that the Inhabitants,
whenever they please, can make the Town one third larger than it is
at present; and if the Grandeur of the _Byzantian Empire_ continues a
hundred Years longer, _Galata_, it is not improbable, may seem to rival
_Constantinople_ it self. They who write that _Byzas_, the Founder of
_Byzantium_, built the Temple of _Amphiaraus_ in _Sycæ_, are somewhat
in the wrong, tho’ not grosly mistaken. For _Dionysius_ a _Byzantian_
tells us, that behind _Sycæ_ stood the Temple of _Amphiaraus_, which
was built by those who transplanted a Colony to _Constantinople_, under
the Command of _Byzas_. Both the _Grecians_, and the _Megarians_,
honour’d _Amphiaraus_ as a God. But altho’ the Temple of _Amphiaraus_
did not stand in the Place which _Dionysius_ calls _Sycæ_; yet the
Word _Sycæ_ signified a larger Tract of Ground, after it was made a
City; so that the Temples of _Amphiaraus_, of _Diana Lucifera_, and of
_Venus Placida_, all stood within the Limits of it, as I have fully
made it appear in my _Treatise_ of the _Bosporus_. But there are no
Remains of these Buildings at present, nor of those Edifices, which,
the _Antient Description of the City_ tells you, were in the _Sycene
Ward_. The oldest Man now living cannot so much as tell where those
Temples antiently stood, nor ever read or heard, whether there was
ever such a Place as the _Sycene Ward_. Thus far only we can guess
from the Rules and Usuage of _Architecture_, that the _Theatre_, and
_Forum_ of _Honorius_, stood at the Bottom of the Hill upon a Plain,
where _Theatres_ are generally built, as I frequently observ’d in
my Travels thro’ _Greece_. There was standing a _Forum_, in a Level
Ground, (near to the Haven, where is now built a _Caravansera_, in
the Ruines of a Church dedicated to St. _Michael_) when first I came
to _Constantinople_. This _Forum_ was well supply’d with Water by an
ancient subterraneous _Aqueduct_. In short, there is nothing to be seen
at present of old _Sycæ_. Those antient Pillars we see in some Mosques
at _Galata_, are said to have been imported by the _Genoese_: Some of
them are of very antient Workmanship, and well finish’d. The _Cistern_
of St. _Benedict_, now despoil’d of its Roof, and three hundred
Pillars, which supported it, (now turn’d into a _Cistern_ for watering
the Priest’s Gardens) shews it to be a very antique and expensive Work.

From what has been wrote upon this Subject, the Reader may learn how
renown’d _Constantinople_ has been for its Monuments of Antiquity. It
would take up another Volume, to enlarge upon the Publick Buildings
of the _Mahometans_ at present, and to explain for what Uses they
were intended. I shall just touch upon a few Things, which are the
most remarkable. The City, as it now stands, contains more than
three hundred Mosques, the most magnificent of which were built by
their Emperors and _Basha’s_, and are all cover’d at Top with Lead
and Marble, adorn’d with Marble Columns, the Plunder and Sacrilege of
Christian Churches, as these were before beautify’d with the Spoils
of the Heathen Temples. It has above a hundred publick and private
_Bagnio’s_, fifty of which are very spatious, and of two Lengths, much
like those I have describ’d, built by their Emperour _Mahomet_. Their
_Caravansera’s_, and publick Inns, are much above a Hundred; the most
famous of which, in the Middle of their Court-yard, are furnish’d
with Fountains of Water, brought from the Fields adjoyning to the
City. Their Emperors have peculiarly distinguish’d themselves in this
Respect. Thus does _Eusebius_ enlarge in the Praise of _Constantine_:
In the middle of their _Fora_, says he, you may see their Fountains
adorn’d with the Emblems of a good _Pastor_, well known to those who
understand the Sacred Writings; namely, the History of _Daniel_ and the
_Lyons_ figur’d in Brass, and shining with Plates of Gold. _Valens_,
and _Andronicus_, at a vast Expence made Rivers, at a remote Distance,
tributary to the Town; partly by directing their Courses under Arches,
at this Time appearing above Ground, and partly by Channels dug
under it. Several other Emperors, with no less Cost, made themselves
Fish-ponds, and subterraneous Lakes, by after Ages call’d _Cisterns_,
in every Ward of the City, and that principally to supply them with
Water in Case of a Siege. But the Enemies of _Constantinople_ lie at
present at such a Distance from them, that they have either entirely
ruin’d their _Cisterns_, or converted them to another Use. I shall take
no Notice of the stately Houses of their Noblemen and _Basha’s_, nor
of the Grand _Signor_’s Palace, which spreading it self all over old
_Byzantium_, is constantly supply’d with Rivers, which flow in upon
it, from distant Parts of the Neighbouring Countrey. I pass by their
Lakes and Conduits, seated in every Part of the City, which serve them
not only with Water to drink, but likewise carry off the Filth of it
into the Sea, and wash away those Impurities of the Town, which clog
and encumber the Air, and for which great Cities are generally look’d
upon as unwholsome. I shall not mention at present, that almost all
the Buildings of _Constantinople_ are low, and made out of the Ruines,
which the Fire and Earthquakes had spar’d; that many of them are not
two Story high, rebuilt with rough Stones, or with burnt, and sometimes
unburnt Bricks. I omit also the Houses of _Galata_, built by the
_Genoese_. The _Greeks_ who profess Christianity, have lost their six
hundred Churches, and have not one left, of any Note, except the Church
belonging to the Monastery, where their _Patriarch_ dwells. The rest
are either entirely ruin’d, or prostituted to the _Mahometan_ Worship.
The _Francks_ have about Ten, the _Armenians_ only Seven. The _Jews_
have upwards of Thirty Synagogues, which are scarce sufficient to hold
the numerous Congregations of that populous Nation. The Reader will
view in a better Light the antient _Monuments_ of _Constantinople_,
when he shall peruse the _Antient Description of the Wards of the
City_, finished before the Time of _Justinian_, and annex’d at the End
of this Book. When this _Treatise_ was first wrote, _Constantinople_
was so fully peopled, that those who inhabited the _Fora_, and the
broad Ways were very straitly pent up; nay, their Buildings were so
closely joyn’d to one another, that the Sky, at the Tops of them,
was scarce discernible. And as to the Buildings in the Suburbs, they
were very thickly crowded together, as far as _Selymbria_, and the
_Black Sea_; and indeed some Part even of the neighbouring Sea, was
cover’d with Houses supported by Props under them. For these, and
many other _Monuments_, was _Constantinople_ antiently renown’d; none
of which are remaining at present, except the _Porphyry_ Pillar of
_Constantine_, the Pillar of _Arcadius_, the Church of St. _Sophia_,
the _Hippodrom_ now in Ruines, and a few _Cisterns_. No Historian has
recorded the _Antiquities_ of Old _Byzantium_, before it was destroy’d
by _Severus_; altho’ it is reasonable to believe, there were very
many of them, especially if it be consider’d, that it long flourish’d
in those Times of _Heroism_, when Art and Ingenuity were in high
Estimation, and when _Rhodes_, no ways preferable to _Byzantium_, was
beautify’d with no less than three thousand _Monuments_. ’Tis easy
to form a Judgment, from the Strength and Proportion of its outside
Walls, what beauteous Scenes of Cost, and Workmanship were contain’d
within. This we know however for a Certainty, that _Darius_, _Philip_
of _Macedon_, and _Severus_, demolish’d many of their _Antiquities_,
and when they had ravag’d the whole City, that the _Byzantians_ made
a noble Stand against the Forces of _Severus_, with Statues, and
other Materials, which were Part of the Ruines of the City. I have
already in Part accounted for the Ruines of these _Curiosities_; I
shall at present briefly mention some other Causes which contributed
thereto; the Principal of which was the Division of their Emperors
amongst themselves; frequent Fires, sometimes accidentally, sometimes
designedly occasion’d, not only by their Enemies from abroad, but by
their own Factions, and civil Dissensions among themselves; some of
which burnt with a constant Flame three or four Days together. These
Fires were so raging and terrible, that they did not only consume what
was purely combustible, but they wasted the Marble Statues and Images,
and Buildings made of the most tough and solid Materials whatsoever;
nay, so fierce were they, that they devour’d their own Ruines, and
laid the most mountainous Heaps of Rubbish even with the Ground. Nor
were the antient _Monuments_ of Old _Byzantium_ demolish’d only by
their Enemies, but even by those Emperors who had the greatest Regard
and Affection for the City; the Chief of whom was _Constantine_ the
_Great_, who, as _Eusebius_ reports, spoil’d the Temples of the Heathen
Gods, laid waste their fine Porches, entirely unroofed them, and took
away their Statues of Brass, of Gold and Silver, in which they glory’d
for many Ages. And to add to the Infamy, that he expos’d them by way
of Mockery and Ridicule, in all the most publick Places of the City.
To disgrace them the more, he tells us, that he fill’d it with his
own Statues of Brass, exquisitely finish’d; and then concludes, that
he was so far incensed against the _Heathen Monuments_, that he made
a Law for the utter Abolishment of them, and the entire Destruction
of their Temples. How far _Eusebius_ himself, and other _Christian_
Authors were provoked against them, is plainly discernible in their
Writings; namely, that they inveigh’d with the same Severity against
the Images of their Gods, as they do at present against our Statues.
The Emperors _Basilius_ and _Gregorius_, were bitterly enrag’d not only
against the Images themselves, but against those who wrote too freely
in Justification of them. I shall not mention many other Emperors,
Successors of _Constantine_, who were so much exasperated even with
the Images of the _Christians_, that they not only destroy’d them, but
proceeded with such Rigour against those who devis’d, or painted, or
engrav’d them, that they were entitled the _Iconomachi_, or Champions
that fought against them. I shall say nothing of the Earthquakes,
mention’d in History, which happen’d in the Reigns of _Zeno_,
_Justinian_, _Leo Conon_, _Alexius Comnenus_, whereby not only the most
considerable Buildings of _Constantinople_, but almost the whole City
with its Walls were demolish’d, so that they could scarce discover
its antient Foundation, had it not been for the _Bosporus_, and
_Propontis_, the eternal Boundaries of _Constantinople_, which enclose
it. I pass by the large _Wards_ of the City, which through the Poverty
of the Inhabitants, after frequent Fires, and the Ravage of War, lay
a long Time in Ruins, but were at last rebuilt; tho’ the Streets are
promiscuously huddled up without Regularity, or Order. These were the
Causes, as _Livy_ relates of Old _Rome_, after it was burnt down, that
not only the antient common Shores, but the _Aquæducts_ and _Cisterns_,
formerly running in the open Streets, now have their Courses under
private Houses, and the City looks rather like one solid Lump of
Building, than divided into Streets and Lanes. I shall not mention how
the large Palaces of their Emperors, seated in the middle of the City,
nor the Seats of the Nobility enclosing great Tracts of Land, nor how
the old Foundations still appearing above Ground, nor the Remains of
Buildings, discover’d by the nicest Discernment under it, are almost
entirely defac’d. Had I not seen, the Time I liv’d at _Constantinople_,
so many ruinated Churches and Palaces, and their Foundations, since
fill’d with _Mahometan_ Buildings, so that I could hardly discover
their former Situation, I had not so easily conjectured, what
Destruction the _Turks_ had made, since they took the City. And tho’
they are always contriving to beautify it with publick Buildings, yet
at present it looks more obscurely in the Day, than it did formerly in
the Night; when, as _Marcellinus_ tells us, the Brightness of their
Lights, resembling a Meridian Sun-shine, reflected a Lustre from their
Houses. The Clearness of the Day now only serves to shew the Meanness
and Poverty of their Buildings; so that was _Constantine_ himself
alive, who rebuilt and beautify’d it, or others who enlarg’d it, they
could not discover the Situation of their antient Structures. The
Difficulties I labour’d under in the Search of Antiquity here were very
great. I was a Stranger in the Countrey, had very little Assistance
from any Inscriptions, none from Coins, none from the People of the
Place. They, as having a natural Aversion to any thing that’s valuable
in Antiquity, did rather prevent me in my Enquiries, so that I scarce
dar’d to take the Dimensions of any Thing, being menac’d, and curs’d
if I did, by the _Greeks_ themselves. A Foreigner has no way to allay
the Heat and Fury of these People, but by a large Dose of Wine. If
you don’t often invite them, and tell them _you’ll be as drunk_ as
a _Greek_, they’ll use you in a very coarse manner. Their whole
Conversation is frothy and insipid, as retaining no Custom of the old
_Byzantians_, but a Habit of fuddling. It is not the least, among these
Inconveniencies, that I could not have Recourse to so many Authors in
describing _Constantinople_, as a Writer may have in describing Old
_Rome_. They are so fond of Change and Novelty, that any Thing may be
called _Antique_ among them, which is beyond the Memory of them, or
was transacted in the first Stages of Humane Life. And not only the
magnificent Structures of antient Times have been demolish’d by them,
but the very Names of them are quite lost, and a more than _Scythian_
Barbarity prevails among them. The _Turks_ are so tenacious of their
own Language, that they give a new Name to all Places, which are
forc’d to submit to their Power, tho’ it be never so impertinent and
improper. They have such an Abhorrence of _Greek_ and _Latin_, that
they look upon both these Tongues to be Sorcery and Witchcraft. All the
Assistance I had was my own Observation, the Memory, and Recollection
of others, and some Insight into antient History. By these Assistances
principally I discovered the Situation of the fourteen _Wards_ of the
City. The Inhabitants are daily demolishing, effacing, and utterly
destroying the small Remains of Antiquity; so that whosoever shall
engage himself in the same Enquiries after me, though they may far
exceed me in Industry and Application, yet they will not be able to
make any farther Discoveries of the _Monuments_ of the fourteen Wards.
But it is not my Intention to prefer my self above other Writers; if I
can any way be assistant to future Times, my End is answered. I hope I
need make no Apology for recording in History such _Monuments_ as are
falling into Ruines; and if my Stay at _Constantinople_ was somewhat
longer than I intended, I hope it will not be any Imputation upon me,
as it was occasioned by the Death of my Royal Master. It was by his
Command that I travelled into _Greece_, not with any Design of staying
long at _Constantinople_, but to make a Collection of the antient
_Greek_ MSS. Not with any Intention of describing only that City; but
as a farther Improvement of Human Knowledge, that I might delineate
the Situation of several other Places and Cities. Upon the Death of my
King, (not having Remittances sufficient) I was forc’d, with a small
Competency, to travel thro’ _Asia_, and _Greece_, to this Purpose; and
I can assure the Reader, that I did not undertake this Voyage upon
any Prospect of sensual Pleasure, any View of worldly Interest, or any
Affectation of popular Applause; no, I could have liv’d in Ease, more
to my own Advantage; and in a much better State of Health, as to all
Appearance, in my own Countrey. Not all the Dangers and Inconveniencies
of a long and a laborious Voyage could ever move me to a speedy Return.
How I came to engage my self in such unfortunate Travels I know not.
I was very apprehensive of the Troubles and Dangers, which I must
necessarily undergo, and which indeed have befallen me, before I
ventur’d upon such an Undertaking; yet I would willingly persuade my
self, that my Resolutions herein were Good, and my Design Honourable;
being confirm’d in the Opinion of the _Platonists_, That _we ought to
be indefatigable in the Search of Truth_; and, _That ’tis beneath a Man
to give over, when his Enquiries are Useful, and Becoming_.

[Illustration: Page Decoration]

[Illustration: _The_ Thracian Bosporus _with_ Constantinople _divided
into Wards_.]

[Illustration: CONSTANTINOPOLIS

_The_ DELINEATION _of_ CONSTANTINOPLE _as it stood in the Year 1422
before it fell under the Dominion of the Turks_

_From Du Fresne Lib. 1. p. 1._

  1. _Ecclesia Apostolorum._
  2. _Ecclesia Sanctæ Sophiæ._
  3. _S. Joh. de Studio._
  4. _Portus Palatii._
  5. _Hodegetria._
  6. _S. Demetrius._
  7. _Porta Iudæa._
  8. _Porta Piscaria._
  9. _Contoscalium._

_J. Tinney Sculp._]

[Illustration: _The Ichnography or Groundplot of the Church of_ Sancta
Sophia _from Du Fresne_.

  1 _The outward Porch._
  2 _The inward Porch._
  3 _The 2 Doors of the outward Porch._
  4 _The 5 Doors of the inward Porch._
  5 _The 8 principal Pillars._
  6 _The Centre._
  7 _The Holy Doors._
  8 _The Holy Table._]

[Illustration: _The whole view of the Church of_ Sancta Sophia _from Du
Fresne Lib. 3. Pag. 5_.

_J. Tinney Sculp._]

[Illustration: _The outside Prospect of the Church of_ Sancta Sophia
_from Du Fresne Lib. 3. Pag. 1_.

_J. Tinney Sculp._]

[Illustration: _The inside Prospect of the Church of_ Sancta Sophia
_from Du Fresne Lib. 3. Pag. 1_.

_J. Tinney Sculp._]

[Illustration: _The Plan of the Church of the Apostles. Lib. 4. Cap. 2._

  _aa. Propilæum or Church porch._
  _b. The Nave, or body of the Church._
  _cccc. The circuit of the Chancel._
  _d. The holy Table._
  _e. The holy Chair._]

[Illustration: _The_ Hippodrom _with the_ Thebean Obelisk _and_ Engines
_by which it was erected_.

_From Sʳ. G. Wheler._]

[Illustration: _The Serpentine Pillar.

Lib. 2. Cap. 13._

_The Porphyry Pillar.

Lib. 3. Cap. 3._

_The Pillar of the Empʳ._ Marcian.

_Lib. 4. Cap. 8_.

_From Sʳ. G. Wheler._]

[Illustration: THE HISTORICAL PILLAR

_from Du Fresne Lib. 1 Pag. 79._

_J. Tinney Sculp._]

[Illustration: _The SERRAGLIO POINT of_ CONSTANTINOPLE.

  A _The Entrance into yᵉ. Serraglio from yᵉ. City._
  B _Lodging for the Guards._
  C _The great Hall for publick Audience._
  D _The Grand Signors Lodgings._
  E _The Womens Lodgings._
  F _Pleasure Houses._
  G _The Grand Signors Barge-houses._
  H _Part of Constantinople called Balat._
  I _The Entrance into the Serraglio from Sea._
  K _Sancta Sophia now yᵉ. Grand Signors Mosque._
  L _Part of Asia Shoar._
  M _The Bosporus wᶜʰ. divides Europe from Asia._

_From B. Randolph._]



[Illustration: Page Header Decoration]

_APPENDIX._


_The following Piece was communicated to me by a Gentleman of the
University of_ Oxford, _who had copy’d it from the latter End of
the Second Book of_ Nicetas Choniat, Concerning the Destruction of
Constantinople. _I had no sooner perus’d it, but I found it so curious
in it self, and so well suited to the Subject of my Author, that I
perceiv’d the Obligations I was under for that Favour; and judg’d it
worthy of a Translation. I would only farther advertise the Reader,
that the following Passage is not to be met with in any of the Printed
Copies of_ Choniat, _but is a Transcript from him in that Part of his
Book, where he writes, concerning the Statues of_ Constantinople,
_which the_ Romans, _when they took that City, caused to be melted
down, and coyn’d. The Passage may be found in a_ MS. Cod. Bodl. fol.
447. _l._ 25. _and runs thus_:

       *       *       *       *       *

The _Roman_ Conquerours, who were of an with avaritious Temper, even
to a Proverb, practis’d a new Method of Rapine and Plunder, entirely
unknown to those who had taken the City before them. For breaking open
by Night the Royal Sepulchres in the great Grove of the _Heroum_, they
sacrilegiously rifled the Corps of those Blessed Disciples of _Jesus
Christ_, and carry’d off whatsoever was valuable in Gold, Rings, and
Jewels, which they could find in these Repositories of the Dead. But
coming to the Body of the Emperor _Justinian_, and finding his Coffin
untouch’d, tho’ it was publickly known for some Years that it was nobly
enrich’d, aw’d with in Fear and Admiration, they forbore to disturb the
Imperial Ashes. And as they express’d no Reverence and Regard to the
Dead, so were they equally Savage and Inhuman in their Treatment of
the Living; even to those who were their own Countreymen. They spar’d
neither the House of GOD, nor his Ministers, but stripped the great
Church (_Sancta Sophia_) of all its fine Ornaments and Hangings, made
of the richest Brocades, of inestimable Value: But still continuing
unsatiable in their Avarice, they no sooner cast their Eyes upon the
brazen Statues, than they order’d them to be melted down. The fine
_Statue of Juno in Brass_, which stood in the _Forum_ of _Constantine_,
they chopt in Pieces, and threw it into the Forge. The Head of this
Statue was so large, that four Yoke of Oxen could scarce drag it into
the Palace. Upon the _Base_ of it was cut, in _Basso Relievo_, the
Figure of _Paris_, _Venus_ standing by him, presenting her with the
Apple of Discord. The noble _Quadrilateral Pillar_, supported with
several Ranges of Pillars, and which by its Height overlook’d the
whole City, and was both the Wonder and the Delight of the curious
Spectator, shared the same Fate. This lofty Column was adorn’d with
rural Representations of all kinds of singing Birds, Folds of Cattle,
milking Pails, of Sheep bleating, and of Lambs frisking and playing,
_&c._ There was also engrav’d upon it a View of the Sea and Sea-Gods;
some of whom were catching Fish with their Hands; others ordering
their Nets, then diving to the Bottom; whilst some in a wanton
Manner, were throwing Balls at one another. This Pillar supported a
_Pyramid_ at the Top of it, upon which was plac’d the _Statue of a
Woman_, which turn’d about with the Wind, and was therefore called
_Anemodes_. This excellent Piece was also melted down for Coinage, as
was also an _Equestrian_ Statue, fixed upon a Quadrilateral _Pedestal_
in the _Taurus_. This was a bold Figure, of an heroic Countenance,
and surprizing Stature. It was reported by some, that he was one
of the Spies, who was sent by _Joshua_ the Son of _Nun_. With one
Hand he pointed Eastward, with the other to the West, and the Coast
of _Gabeon_. But this Statue was generally believed to represent
_Bellerophon_, (born and brought up at _Peloponnesus_) sitting upon
_Pegasus_; for the Horse was without a Bridle, as _Pegasus_ is mostly
figur’d, scouring the Plain, despising a Rider, flying and driving
about in a headstrong manner. There is an old Report, which at this
Day is in every Body’s Mouth, that there was stampt in the Breast-Plate
of this Horse, with great Skill, the Figure of a Man, which appear’d
outwardly; this Image was either one of the _Venetici_, the
_Epizophurii_, or the _Bulgari_, who were not, at that Time, conquer’d
by the _Romans_. This Horse and his Rider were also melted down. In the
Accoutrements of this Horse was likewise found a small brazen Image,
wrapp’d up as it were in Wool, which the _Romans_ look’d upon to be
of little or no Value, and therefore threw that also into the Fire.
Neither did the Resentment of the barbarous and unpolite Soldiers stop
here, but they expressed the utmost Fury against the finest Statues,
and most curious Pieces of Workmanship in the _Hippocum_, cutting
the largest of them, which cost immense Sums, into small Coins of
little Value. The great Statue of _Hesperian Hercules_, fix’d upon a
magnificent _Pedestal_, clothed in a Lyon’s Skin, which seem’d to live,
and affright the Spectators with his tremendous Voice, felt the Marks
of military Power. He was not here arm’d with his Quiver, his Bow, or
his Club, but stretching out his right Leg and Arm, he kneeled upon
his left Knee, and leaning upon his left Elbow, with his Hand open, he
supported his Head in a thoughtful Manner, and seem’d to lament his
Misfortunes; uneasy above all at those which _Eurystheus_ out of mere
Envy had impos’d upon him. This Figure was broad-chested, the Shoulders
were large, his Hair long, curl’d, and reaching to his Waste; his Arms
were brawny, and as long as those of the Original made by _Lysimachus_,
which was the first and last Master-piece of his Skill. In short, of
such a stupendous Size was this Statue, that his Wrist was as thick as
a Man’s Body, and the Length of his Leg equal in height to that of any
ordinary Person. This noble Statue, I say, did not escape the Rage of
these mighty Pretenders to native Virtue and Honour: Beside this, they
also carry’d away the _Image of the Loaded Ass_ and his _Driver_. These
Figures were set up originally by _Augustus Cæsar_ at _Actium_, of
whom the Fable goes, that when he went out privately in the Night Time
to take a View of _Anthony_’s Army, he met a Man driving an Ass; and
asking him “_Who he was_, and _whither he was going_? He answered, _my
Name is_ Nichon, _and my Ass’s_ Nichander, _and I am going to Cæsar’s
Army_”. The _Statues_ also of the _Hyæna_, and the _Wolf_ which suckled
_Romulus_ and _Remus_, underwent the same Fate, and were coyn’d into
little brazen _Staters_. The _several Statues_ also of a _Man_ fighting
with a _Lyon_, of the Horse _Neilôus_, cover’d with Scales behind, of
an _Elephant_ with a moving _Proboscis_, of the _Sphinx’s_, beautiful
as Women, and terrible as Beasts; which can occasionally walk, or fly
in the Air, to fight with Birds of Prey. There was also the _Statue_
of a _wild Horse_, pricking up his Ears, snorting, curvetting, and
prancing; this, and _old Scylla_ were served in the same injurious
Manner. She was figur’d like a Woman to the Waste, with a grim
frightful Look, just as she appear’d, when she sent her Dogs to destroy
_Ulysses_. There was also plac’d in the _Hippocum_ a _brazen Eagle_,
which was the Invention of _Apollonius Tyanæus_, and a celebrated
_Monument_ of his Sorcery. This Impostor, when he was once requested
by the _Byzantians_, to heal them of the Bitings of Serpents, which
was then a common Malady among them, immediately using some diabolical
Charms, and heathenish Ceremonies, he plac’d this Eagle upon a Pillar;
it was a pleasant Sight enough, and deserv’d the Curiosity of being
more narrowly inspected; for it made an agreeable Harmony, and less
dangerous than that of the _Syrens_. Its Wings were stretch’d out, as
ready for Flight, and it was trampling upon a _Serpent_, wreathing it
self about him. The Serpent seem’d to make the utmost Effort to bite
the Eagle, but its Venom had no Power to hurt him. The Eagle seem’d
to gripe him so hard in his Talons, that he was forced to hang down
his Head quietly, and seem’d either to be unwilling, or unable to spit
his Venom at him. The _Eagle_, on the other Hand, look’d brisk and
sprightly, and having obtain’d the Victory, seem’d to be in Haste, to
bear him through the Air in Triumph, denoting by the Sprightliness
of his Look, and the Feebleness of the Serpent, that the Serpents,
that tormented the _Byzantians_, would hurt them no more, but suffer
themselves even to be handled and strok’d by them. But these were not
the only Curiosities observable in this _Aquiline_ Statue. It was also
very remarkable, that the _twelve Hours_ were engraven under its
Wings, under each Wing six, which shew’d the Hour of the Day, by the
Rays of the Sun darting thro’ a Hole in each Wing, artificially made
for that Purpose. But what shall I now say of the fine Proportions
of _Helen_, who engag’d all _Greece_ in her Quarrel, and for whose
Sake _Troy_ itself was laid in Ruines? No Wonder that when living
she could charm the most stubborn, and soften the most impenetrable
Heart, when in breathing Brass she captivated all that saw her. Her
Habit sat loose upon her, which discover’d too great an Inclination
for Gallantry. Her Hair, which seem’d to wave in the Wind, was long
and delicate, braided with Gold and Jewels. Her Robe was girt about
her, falling down to the Knee. Her Lips seem’d like the opening Roses,
you would fancy they mov’d, and such an agreeable Smile brightned her
Countenance, as entertain’d the Eye of the Spectator with Pleasure. It
is impossible for me to describe the Sweetness and Chearfulness of her
Looks, the Arches of her Eyes, and the perfect Symmetry of the whole
Statue. Take it therefore as it is given us by Poets and Historians.
_Helen_ the Daughter of _Tyndarus_ was the Perfection of Beauty, the
Child of Love, the Pride, and the Care of _Venus_; the Master-piece of
Nature, the great Prize of the _Grecians_ and _Trojans_. Where is now
your _Nepenthe_, the secret Charm to guard you from all Evils? Where
are your irresistible _Philtrums_? Why did you not use them against
these barbarous Invaders, with the same Success as you did formerly?
But I suppose it was determined by the Fates, that you should fall
by the Force of Fire, who have rais’d such Flames in the Breasts of
those who came to behold you; or perhaps these our new Conquerours,
who pretend to be descended from the _Trojans_, threw your Statue into
the Fire, to revenge the burning of that City, of which you was only
the innocent Cause. But I can neither think nor speak with Patience of
these avaritious Monsters, who have demolish’d the most valuable, the
most curious, the most costly Statues in the whole World; Fellows, who
would have sold their Wives for Money; who behav’d themselves rather
like Birds of Prey, than a regular well-disciplin’d Army; only with
this Difference, that they spent their Prey as loosely, as they got
it ingloriously, and would willingly venture their Lives to support
their Extravagance. Hear these Verses of _Homer_, who is well known
to the _Greeks_ and the _Barbarians_; to the Learned, and Unlearned,
concerning _Helen_.

  —_No Wonder such Celestial Charms,
  For ten long Years should hold the World in Arms._

    Pope.

Pardon this Digression:—There was also plac’d upon a Pillar a more
_modern Statue_ of a _Woman_, which was very curious and agreeable. Her
Hair hung down behind, combed close down from the Forehead backwards,
not breaded up, but bending to the Hand of the Spectator. Upon the
right Hand of this Statue stood the _Equestrian Statue_ of a _Man_.
The Horse stood upon one Leg, the other bore a Cup with a mix’d Potion.
The Rider was of a large Size, his Body compleatly arm’d, his Legs
and his Feet were cover’d with Greaves, his Air was manly, rough, and
warlike. The Horse was mettlesome, and high courag’d, pricking up
his Ears, as tho’ he heard the Trumpet. His Neck was high, his Look
fierce, his Eyes sparkling, as eager for the Battle; he rear’d up
his Fore-feet, and pranced like a War-Horse. Near this Statue, hard
by the Eastern Goal, call’d _Rusius_, were a Range of _Statues_ of
_Charioteers_, dextrous in driving the Chariot, and turning the Goal.
They were very busy in managing their Bridles, and smacking their
Whips, and directing their Horses, with their Eyes fix’d steddily upon
the Goal. In short, there seem’d to be describ’d in these _Figures_
all the Tumult and Fury of a Chariot Race, with the most vigorous
Struggle for Victory and Success. This Description of these Statues
may seem imperfect; for it never was my Intention to describe them
all. But what gave me the most agreeable Pleasure, and seem’d to me
the most admirable Piece of Workmanship, was a large _Pedestal_, upon
which was plac’d _an Animal cast in Brass_, as large as an Ox, having
a short Tail, and a moderate Dewlap, something like the _Ægyptian_
Cattle. It had no Hoofs; but held in its Teeth, ready to strangle it,
another _Animal_, cloth’d all over with Scales, almost impenetrable. It
seem’d to be a _Basilisk_, and had a Mouth somewhat like a Serpent’s.
It was taken by many to be an Ox of the _Nile_, and by some to be a
_Crocodile_. But I forbear to give the several Conjectures upon it.
These Figures however seem’d to represent an odd Sort of Fight, each
of them furiously striving for Victory. The Creature which seem’d to
be the _Basilisk_ was in Colour like a Frog, and was all over bloated
from Head to Foot. He was casting out his Venom upon his Antagonist,
with an Intent to destroy him. This _Animal_ was carv’d as bearing upon
one Knee, and in a languishing Condition. This Observation gave the
Spectators occasion to believe it fallen dead backward, if the _Base_
where he stood had not supported him. There was also the _Figure_ of
another _Animal_, in whose Jaws was represented a Smaller Creature,
whose Mouth was open as almost choak’d by the Teeth which held him,
struggling to get loose, but to no Purpose. His Tail, which was very
Short, seem’d to tremble; his Shoulders, his fore Feet, and the hinder
Part of his Body, were hid in the Mouth of his Enemy, and mash’d by
his Jaws. These _Animals_ also mutually kill’d each other. Thus we
may observe, that these Poisonous Creatures, so destructive to Man,
are no less noxious to each other. And this, many Times, is the Case
of Nations, and Kingdoms, as was exemplify’d in the _Romans_, when
they made War upon us; killing, and destroying one another, through
the Power of _Christ_, who rejoyceth not in Blood, and disperseth the
Nations that delight in War; who maketh the Just to walk upon the
Adder, and the Basilisk, and treadeth the Lyon and Dragon under his
Feet.

       *       *       *       *       *

_In the Beginning of this_ MS _upon a large Folio Page, are inscrib’d
the following Words, in the Benefactor’s own Hand_. “_Sir_ John
Roe, _Bart. Ambassador from His Majesty of_ Great Brittain _to the_
Grand Seignior, _as a perpetual Testimony of his Gratitude to the
University_, (Oxon) _gave this Book, which he met with in his Travels,
to the Publick Library_, 1628.”

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AN EXPLANATORY INDEX.


A.

  ABACUS from ἄβαξ, which signifies a square Trencher. It is the four
    square Table, that makes the Capital on the Top of a
    Column, _p._ 148

  ACROPOLIS, is that Point of Land where Old _Byzantium_ stood, 157

  ÆGYPTIANS, how they adorn their Pillars, 175

  ALPHABETS, _Assyrian_ and _Greek_, 77

  ANNULETS, are little square Parts turn’d round in the _Corinthian_
    Capitals, 264

  ANTIQUITY, a famous Piece of it, 154

  APOPHYGE, it comes from the _Greek_ Word ἀποφυγὴ, and signifies that
    Part of a Column, where it seems to _fly_ out of its _Base_, 253

  AQUEDUCT of _Valens_, 197
    Of _Valentinian_, 212
    Other _Aqueducts_, 213

  ARCHITRAVE, this Word is a Compound of two Languages, ἀρχὴ and
    _Trabs_, and denotes the first Member of the _Entablature_, 113

  ARIUS, his miserable Death, 177

  ARMATION, a Place of Arms, 28

  ASTRAGAL, is deriv’d from the _Greek_ Word Ἀστράγαλος, and signifies
    the little Joynts in the Neck. It is a Member of Architecture
    joyn’d to _Bases_, _Cornices_, and _Architraves_, 242

  AVASARIUS, a Street in _Constantinople_, 238


B.

  BAGNIO’S, of _Achilles_, 20
    Of _Arcadius_, 79
    Of _Anastasia_, 208
    Of _Bajazet_, 193
    Of _Carosia_, 198
    Of _Constantius_, 210
    Of _Honorius_, and _Eudocia_, 169
    Of _Zeuxippus_, 97

  BASE. This signifies the Foot of a Pillar, which supports it; as
    also that Part, upon which the Shaft of the Pillar bears, 109

  BASILICA, is derived from Βασιλεὺς, a King, and was a large
    Building, made at first for Kings and Princes; afterwards
    they were turn’d into Courts of Justice, and sometimes into
    Churches. _In Constantinople_ it contain’d the Imperial Library,
    consisting of six hundred Thousand Volumes; was also a Seat of
    Learning, and a Place of Traffick, 145

  BEZESTAN, in the _Ottoman_ Language, is their Grand Exchange, 48

  BLACHERNÆ, a Part of the Suburbs, 63

  BRAZEN-BULL, 228

  BYZANTIUM, founded by _Byzas_, 13
    The _Megarians_ its first Inhabitants, 14
    Rebuilt by the _Lacedæmonians_, 15
    Afterwards call’d _Antonina_, ibid.
    After that _New Rome_, _Constantinople_, and _Anthusa_, or
      _Florentia_ by _Constantine_, ibid.
    Its Revolutions, _ibid._
    Its Walls, Towers, Gates, Ports, 17
    Taken by the _Romans_, 19
    Its Antient Situation and Extent, 20
    The greatest City in all _Thrace_, 21
    Rebuilt by _Constantine_, 23
    Its seven Towers, 71
    Its Old Castle where built, 76


C.

  CAPITAL, the Top of a Pillar, 113

  CAPITOL; This was a large Temple, where they celebrated their
    Festivals and Triumphs, and to which they repair’d upon publick
    Occasions, 203

  CAPOCHEE’S, the drudging Porters among the _Turks_, 38

  CHALCA, a Description of it, 134

  CHALCOPRATIA, the Places where they worked their Brass, 148

  CARAVANSERA, a Place built like an Inn for the Reception of Strangers
    and Travellers, 52

  CERAS, or CHERAS, a Bay which divides _Galata_ from the City, and is
    so called, because it winds round like a _Horn_, 20

  CHRYSOSTOM St., banish’d, 102

  CHURCH of St. _Anthony_, _Blessed Virgin_, St. _John Baptist_, 28
    Of _Anastasia_ and _Hirena_, 192
    Of St. _Agathonicus_, 80
    Of the _Apostles_, 221
    Of the _Blachernæ_, 63
    Of _Bacchus_, and _Sergius_, 117
    Of St. _Euphemia_, 124
    Of St. _Irene_, 101
    Of St. _Marcian_, 114
    Of St. _Mina_, of _Mocius_ and St. _Anne_, 260
    Of St. _Peter_ and St. _Paul_, 117
    Of St. _Paul_, 204
    Of St. _Polyclete_, 124
    Of _Procopius_, of the Martyr _Theca_, 121
    Of St. _Theodore_, 202
    And of St. _Thomas_, 120

  CHURCH, without the Walls of the City. This Church was called
    Χριστὸς χώρας, that is, a Church sacred to _Christ_, in a
    Monastery call’d _Chora_; because when first built it stood in
    the Suburbs, 242
    See _Cantacuzenus_.

  CHURCH of St. _Sophia_, situate in the Imperial Precinct, 81
    By whom built, 82
    By what Architects, 84
    Its Length, Breadth, and Height, 86
    Incrusted with elegant Marble of all Kinds, 87
    Its Roof, Pillars, and Arches, _ibid._
    The whole Architecture of it describ’d from _Page_ 87, to 95

  CIRCUS MAXIMUS, a Place of a large oblong Figure, built for the
    Exercise of Martial Sports, with Seats for the Spectators, 103

  CISTERN, of _Bonus_, 28
    Of _Mocisia_, 66
    Imperial Cistern, whose Roof is supported with 336 Marble
      Pillars, discovered by the Author, 147
    More Cisterns, 162
    Cistern of _Theodosius_, 169
    Of _Arcadius_ and _Modestus_, 124
    Of _Justinian_, 260
    Of St. _Benedict_, 275

  COCHLIA, This was a Gate of the City, and so call’d, as I conceive,
    because it had winding Stairs within it, 116

  COLOSSUS, Its Description and Size, 108, 109

  COLUMNA VIRGINEA, 58

  CONSTANTINE. An Account of his fine Buildings, 23, 24
    A Prince of Remarkable Clemency and Goodness, 28
    His Military Standard, 183
    The Story of his seeing the Cross in the Heavens vindicated, 84
    His Coffin, 222

  CONSTANTINOPLE, its delightful Situation, 1
    Its Strength, 2
    Its Commodities, 3
    Conveniencies of its Port, 5
    Is the Key of the _Mediterranean_ and _Black Sea_, 6
    Its choice Wines, 7
    Its Timber, 8
    Its Fish, 9
    Temperature of its Climate, _ibid._
    The Disposition of its Inhabitants, 10
    The Fortress of all _Europe_, 11
    Its Magnificence and vast Extent, 24, 25
    Its Figure, 29
    Its Compass and Length, 30
    Its Breadth, 31
    Strength, and Stateliness of its Walls, 67
    By whom built and repair’d, 68
    Its several Gates, 70
    The long Walls of it by whom built, 72
    Divided into 14 Wards, 73

  CORNICE; this signifies the third, and highest Part of the
    _Entablature_, 113

  CYCLOBION; this was a round Castle in the City, and some time a
    Palace, 239

  CYNEGION; this was the same Kind of Building with the _Theatrum
    Venatorium_ in antient _Rome_, 244


D.

  DELPHIC TRIPOS, 111

  DENTILS, is a Member of the _Ionic Cornice_, Square, and cut out at
    proper Distances, which gives it the Form of a Set of Teeth, 242

  DICERATON; a Tax laid upon the People for Repairing the Walls of the
    City, 68

  DIGIT; this is a Measure somewhat short of an Inch, 104

  DIVAN, it signifies the _Forum Judiciale_ of the _Turks_, 38


E.

  EMERALD, of a large Size, 160

  ENTABLATURE; this Word denotes the three Members of Architecture,
    _viz._ the _Architrave_, _Frieze_, and _Cornice_, 113

  EXACIONION; this was a Place, thro’ which there ran the Land-Wall of
    the City, 218

  EXAMMON _of_ HERACLIUS, or Ἐξάμον. This is a Word which is
    _Greeciz’d_ from the Latin _Examen_, and signifies a Standard
    Measure appointed by that Emperour, 141


F.

  FACTIONS. These were Company of Chariot-racers. There were four
    Companies of them at Old _Rome_. At _Constantinople_, (as far
    as I have observ’d, or at least not mention’d by _Gyllius_) but
    only One, which was called the _Prasine Faction_, because they
    wore a _Green_ Livery. The Word _Prasine_ is deriv’d from Πράσον,
    a _Leek_, 116, 117

  FASCIAE. These are three _Bands_ in Architecture, of which the
    _Architrave_ is compos’d, 242

  FRIEZE. The round Part of the _Entablature_, which is between the
    _Architrave_, and the _Cornice_, 253

  Forum of _Arcadius_, 257
    Of _Augustus_, 83
    Of _Constantine_, 171
    _Cupedinis_, 153
    Of _Honorius_, 275
    _Forum Pistorium_, 195
    _Forum Prætorianum_, or the Court of Publick Justice, 170
    _Forum_ in the _Taurus_, and the _Forum_ of _Theodosius_, 169


G.

  GALATA, now called _Sycæ_ and _Pera_, its Situation, 264

  GATES, of _Constantinople_, 70

  GRAND-HETAERIARCH, Commander of the prime Auxiliary Band; for there
    were two such Bands under the _Greek_ Emperors, the One called the
    ἡ μεγάλη, the other ἡ μικρὰ ἑταιρεία i. e. the Greater and Lesser
    Band of Auxiliaries. The Commander of the former was ὁ μεγάλης
    ἑταιρείας Ἄρχων, or sometimes in one Word Μεγαλεταιρειάρχης, 230

    See _Codinus_.

  GYMNASIA, Places where they exercis’d themselves in Martial
    Sports, 158


H.

  HIPPOCUM, 290. This I take to be the same with the _Hyppodrom_.

  HIPPODROM, the Place where they perform’d their Races of all
    Kinds, 103

  HOMER, his _Iliads_ and _Odysses_ inscrib’d, in Golden Characters, on
    the Gut of a Dragon, 144

  HOSPITAL of _Sampson_, and _Eubulus_, 100

  HYPOTRACHELION, this is the most slender Part, or _Neck_ of the
    Pillar, which touches the _Capital_, 263


I.

  INTERCOLUMNIATION, the Distance of one Pillar from another, 147


L.

  LABARUM, this Word signifies a longer piece of Wood, transvers’d near
    the Top with a short Piece, upon which hangs the military Flag, 184

  LAMPTERUM, a place in _Constantinople_ so called, because it was
    Nightly Illuminated, 192


M.

  MAGNAURA, a place in the Suburbs, 239

  MAHOMET, took the City, 195

  MANGANA, a Place of Arms; also a Monastery of that Name, 96

  MEDAL, of _Belisarius_, 116

  MILIARIUM AUREUM, this was a gilded Pillar, from whence they us’d to
    adjust the Distances of Places from the City, 152

  MODIUS, this generally signifies a Bushel according to English
    Measure; but I am sensible, I had translated it more properly,
    had I made it to signify no more than a Peck wanting half a Pint;
    which is the _Grecian Modius_, 107

  MODULES, these are certain Measures invented to regulate the whole
    Building, 113

  MONASTERY, of _Studius_, 259

  MORION, a place so call’d, which ran round the _Hippodrom_, 123

  MOSAIC WORK, A curious Piece of it, 87


O.

  OBELISK, built of _Thebaic_ Marble, 103
    Two more _Obelisks_, 104

  OVOLO, or Egg, is that Member of Architecture, which is first plac’d
    on the Top of _Ionic Capitals_, 113


P.

  PACES, by this, the Author means the Ordinary Steps a Man takes in
    Walking, which cannot be exactly reduced to the _Roman Pace_,
    because they vary according to the different Ascents and Descents
    of the Ground he walks, 65

  PALACE of _Constantine_, 134
    of the Grand _Seignor_, 37
    of _Justinus_, 120
    Other Palaces built by him, 121
    Palace of _Maximinus_, 81
    Palaces of _Sophia_, 121

  PALLADIUM of _Minerva_, 117
    Describ’d, 179
    How Figur’d, 180

  PEDESTAL; this is that Member of Architecture, that supports a
    Column, having a Base and Cornice different, according to the
    Difference of the several Orders of Building, 113

  PHANARIUM, a Street in _Constantinople_, 236

  PHARO, a Watch-Tower; set up as a Guide to Ships at a Distance, 96

  PHILOXENON; this Word, by its Derivation from the _Greek_, signifies
    a publick Place of Entertainment for Travellers, and Strangers.
    The _Turks_ at present call these Places _Caravansera’s_, 161

  PILLAR of _Arcadius_; this is the same Pillar, which is called the
    Historical Pillar; and which is Represented among the Cuts which
    I have added to this Book: It is therefore called the Historical
    Pillar; because it Represents the Actions and Triumphs of that
    Emperor. It is a plain Marble Column, 147 Foot in Height; work’d
    in _Basso Relievo_, 250
    See _Tournefort_.

  PILLAR of MARCIAN; this Pillar is only mention’d by my Author;
    but since his Time has been discover’d in a private Garden at
    _Constantinople_, by Sir _G. Wheler_. The Pillar is made of
    _Granate_, and is thought to have been the Urn, where that
    Emperor’s Heart was buried, 256
    See the same Author.

  PILLARS; Of _Constantine_, 156
    _Corinthian_, very large, 137
    Pillars in the _Hippodrom_, 110, 111, 112
    Of _Justinian_, 129
    _Porphyry_ Pillar, 172
    See also the Cuts.
    Pillars in the _Senate-House_, 131
    Of _Sophia_, 120
    Of _Theodosius_, 129
    Of _Valentinian_, 256

  PLINTH; in Architecture it is taken for that square Member, which
    makes the Foundation of the Base of the Pillar, 113

  PORTICO’S; these were Buildings of curious work, added to publick
    Structures whether Sacred or Civil.

  PORTICO, Of the Church of the Apostles, 221
    Imperial _Portico_, where sealed, 150
    Other _Portico’s_, full of Statues, 151
    _Portico_, called _Sigma_, 221

  PRYTANEUM; this was a stately Building, where those who had deserv’d
    well of the Government, were handsomely maintain’d at the publick
    Charge. There was such a Structure at _Athens_, for the same
    purpose, 169

  PYRAMIDICAL Engine; its Use and Contrivance, 197


S.

  SCOTIA; this is a Member of Architecture hollow’d, or fluted as a
    Demi-Channel. It is particularly us’d in the _Bases_, where it is
    plac’d between the _Tore_, and the _Astragals_, 113

  SENATE-HOUSE; built by _Constantine_, 132
    How adorn’d, 182

  SERAGLIO, or the Imperial Palace; a Description of it, 37, 38, 39,
    40, 41
    Where situate, 51
    Its Extent, 52

  SHAFT of a Pillar is the Body of it, 111

  STADIA; these were Places, in the Form of _Circo’s_, for running of
    Men and Horses, 136

  STATUES; Of _Apollo_, 176
    Of _Arcadia_, and _Verina_, 79
    Of _Arcadius_ and _Honorius_, 197
    Of _Ariadne_, 139
    Of _Arius_ and others, 154
    Of _Byzas_ and _Phidalia_, 141
    Of _Constantine_ the _Great_, 170
    A Silver Statue of _Eudoxia Augusta_, 101
    Two _Female Statues_, 186
    Of the _Fortune_ of the City, 154
    A gilded _Statue_, and that of _Justinian_, 141
    Of _Helena_ and others, 138
    Of _Hercules_, 142
    _Statues_ in the _Hippodrom_, 108, 109, 110, 111
    _Statue_ of old _Homer_ very fine, 78
    Of _Justinian_, 127
    _Statues_ in the _Lausus_, 159
    Of _Leo_ the Emperour, 123
    Of _Longinus_, 187
    Of the _Muses_, 139
    Of Princes, Poets, Historians, and Orators, 99
    Of _Pulcheria_, 139
    Of _Rhea_, 131
    Of _Theodora_, 79
    Of _Theodosius_, 125, 129
    Of _Trajan_, _Theodosius_, _Valentinian_, _Gibbus_,
      _Firmillianus_, and _Eutropius_, 142
    Of _Zeno_, _Statues_ in the _Bagnio’s_ of _Zeuxippus_, 98

  STATUES (mention’d in the _Appendix_) demolish’d by the _Romans_.
    _Anemodes_, a _Woman_ plac’d on a _Pyramid_, and turning with the
    Wind, 287
    _Animals_; two large ones represented in Brass, 293
    _Animals_; two less, 294
    An _Ass_ and his _Driver_, 289
    _Charioteers_; a Range of them, 293
    An _Eagle_ in Brass, entwin’d by a _Serpent_, 290
    An _Elephant_, 289
    An _Equestrian Statue_ of a Man, 293
    An _Equestrian Statue_ in the _Taurus_, 287
    A _Helen_ very fine, 291
    An _Hesperian Hercules_, 288
    A _Horse_ wild, 289
    A _Hyæna_, and a _Wolf_, _ibid._
    A _Juno_ in Brass, 288
    A _Man_ fighting with a _Lyon_, 289
    _Neilôus_, a _Horse_, _ib._
    Old _Scylla_, ibid.
    _Sphinx’s_, ibid.
    a _Woman_, a more modern _Statue_, 293

  STRATEGIUM, a kind of a Parade, or Place where the Generals usually
    pitched their Tents, and exercis’d their Men, 23

  SYPARUM; the Flag of a Military Standard, 184


T.

  TAURUS; a Street in _Constantinople_, 193

  TEMPLES;
    Of _Amphiaraus_, 274
    Of _Apollo_, 120
    Of _Bacchus_, 77
    Of _Ceres_, 166
    Of _Concord_, 120
    Of _Diana Lucifera_, 274
    Of _Ja_, 259
    Of _Juno_, 190
    Of _Jupiter_, 97
    Of _Neptune_, 76
    Of _Pluto_, 190
    Of _Proserpina_, 166
    Of the Sun and Moon, 208
    Of _Tellus_, 166
    Of _Venus Placida_, 274

  TETRAPYLUM; a Description of it, 196

  THEBAIC OBELISK, where fix’d, 103
    Its Length, with a Description of it, 104, 105
    Manner of Raising it, (See the Cuts) 106

  THERMATION; a Place of Bathing, 255

  TOMB of _Bajazet_, 194
    describ’d, 200
    _Tomb_ of _Constantine_, 221
    Of _Mahomet_, 55
    Of _Mahomet_, _Solyman_’s Son, 202
    Of _Mauritius_, 248
    Of _Selymus_, 59

  TORE; this is the third Member of Architecture in the _Base_ of the
    Column, which turns round it like a Ring, 113

  TRABEATION, 113
    See _Entablature_.

  TRICLINIUM; this was a place of Publick Entertainment, and was many
    Times a very sumptuous Building most beautifully adorn’d, 162
    The great _Triclinium_ built by _Anastasius_, 246
    The _Triclinium_ of _Magnaura_, 239

  TRIPOS of _Apollo_; this _Tripos_ was set upon a brazen Pillar made
    of three Serpents entwin’d, which was about fifteen Foot high,
    according to _Tournefort_. See the Cut of the _Serpentine_
    Pillar, 112

  TURKS; their Way of building Pillars, 188


V.

  VESTIBULE, or VESTIBULUM; a House of Entrance into a Church, or any
    great Building, 133

  VOLUTÆ. The Word signifies _wreath’d_, and is that Part of the
    _Capitals_, of the _Ionic_, _Corinthian_, and _Composite_ Orders,
    which is suppos’d to represent the Bark of Trees twisted, 119


W.

  WALLS of _Constantinople_, 72

  WALKS Imperial, 142


X.

  XEROLOPHON; this Word signifies a _dry Unction_, and the Place was
    call’d so, because whoever was anointed there never us’d to
    bath, 259


_FINIS._

[Illustration: Page Decoration]



  A
  DESCRIPTION
  Of the CITY of
  CONSTANTINOPLE,
  As it stood in the REIGNS of
  ARCADIUS and HONORIUS.

  Published from the
  _Notitia Utriusque Imperii_.

  WITH
  PANCIROLUS’_s_ NOTES.

  ——_Vestigia retrò
  Observata sequor._——

  VIR. ÆN. II.

[Illustration: Page Decoration]

  _LONDON_:
  Printed in the Year MDCCXXIX.



[Illustration: Page Header Decoration]

  A
  DESCRIPTION
  Of the WARDS of
  CONSTANTINOPLE.



  The first _Region_, or _Ward_.


_The first_ Ward _contains in it, the House of_ Placidia Augusta;
_the House of the most illustrious_ Marina; _the_ Bagnio’s _of_
Arcadius; _twenty nine Streets; an Hundred and eighteen large Houses;
two_ Portico’s _of a great Length; fifteen private_ Bagnio’s; _four
publick, and fifteen private Mills; and four_ Gradus. _It was governed
by one_ Curator, _who had under his Charge, the whole_ Ward. _There
was also one_ Vernaculus, _who was Messenger of the_ Ward, _was also
Assistant to him, and entirely at his Command. It had also twenty five_
Collegiati, _chosen out of the several Bodies of Tradesmen, whose
Office it was to direct and assist in Cases of Fire. There were also
five_ Vico-Magistri, _whose Business it was to watch the City by Night_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Thus far my Author. I shall here add a Remark made by _Gyllius_, it
not being foreign to our Purpose, _viz._ That those whom _P. Victor_
and _S. Rufus_, believed to have been called the _Denunciatores_ in
antient _Rome_, here in new _Rome_, he calls _Vernaculi_. Neither of
them mention the _Collegiati_, tho’ all Historians take Notice of the
_Vico-Magistri_, who with more Propriety of the _Latin_ Tongue, should
rather have been called _Vicorum Magistri_, as appears, he tells us, by
an Inscription yet remaining in the Capitol of _Old Rome_, which is as
follows.

  IMP. CAESARI DIVI.
  TRAIANI PARTHICI FIL.
  DIVI NERVAE NEPOTI.
  TRAIANO HADRIANO.
  AVG. PONTIF. MAXIMO.
  TRIBVNIC. POTESTAT. XX.
  IMP. II. CON. III. P.
  MAGISTRI VICORVM XIIII.


NOTES.

_The first Ward._] ’Tis evident from _Pliny_, and also from _Tacitus_,
in that Part of his History, where he mentions the Burning of the City
by _Nero_, that antient _Rome_ was divided into fourteen _Regions_, or
_Wards_. _Sex. Rufus_, and _P. Victor_, who had pass’d the _Consular_
Dignity, have given us some short Descriptions of them. As to the
_Wards_ of _New Rome_, they are here described as I found them placed
before the _Notitia Utriusque Imperii_. _Constantinople_, which
was a kind of Representation of _Old Rome_, was likewise after her
Example, as _Justinian_ observes in his 43ᵈ _Novel_, divided into
fourteen _Wards_; and he calls them _Regions_ or _Wards_. There were
many Monuments of Antiquity carried thither from _Old Rome_, and
many new ones made there, which I could by no Means pass by, as the
Accounts of them may be necessary to the Knowledge of both Places. And
therefore to explain and illustrate them the more, I have subjoined
some _Annotations_ of my own; and have also taken Notice, as they
fell in my Way, of some Observations made in my _Comments_ on the
_Notitia_, _&c._ The Author of the _Description_ observes this Method.
The Churches, and other Matters which are most Material, he treats of
in the first Place, then he mentions what is less Important, in the
same Order, in every _Ward_; as the Streets, Houses, _Bagnio’s_, Mills,
the _Gradus_, then the _Curator_, _Vernaculus_, the _Collegiati_, and
last of all, the _Vico-Magistri_. In the thirteenth _Ward_, through
a Mistake, the Streets are omitted, which Error I have taken Care to
correct, as I have also another in the fourteenth _Ward_, where he has
left out the _Curator_, the _Vernaculus_, the _Collegiati_, and the
_Vico-Magistri_. He mentions only fourteen Churches, in seven _Wards_;
whereas at _Rome_, there was not a Street without some Temple or other,
and some had two. I shall make my _Annotations_ upon every Monument of
Antiquity, in the same _Ward_, and in the same Place, that I find it.

_The House of_ Placidia Augusta.] This Lady was the Daughter of
_Theodosius_ the _Great_, and Sister of _Arcadius_ and _Honorius_. When
_New Rome_ was taken by _Alaric_, King of the _Goths_ and _Vandals_,
he carried her away into Captivity, who afterward married his Kinsman
and Successor _Athaulfus_. Upon his Death, she was restored to her
Countrey, and being married again to _Constantius_, she had by him
two Sons, _Valentinian_ and _Honoriades_; as _Eutropius_, _Zonaras_,
_Cedrinus_, and other Historians tell us.

_The House of the most illustrious_ Marina.] _Marina_ was the Daughter
of _Arcadius_, who being honoured with the Title of the _Most
Illustrious_, as _Cedrinus_ writes, continued a Virgin. The Title of
the _Most Illustrious_, is discovered by an antient Inscription to
have been first given to _Valerianus_ the Younger, about the Year of
our Lord 260. Afterwards it was given to _Severinus_, and _Maximinus
Cæsar_, and at Length it was ascribed to Ladies of the highest
Birth. This sometimes entitled them to a Share in the Government;
for whosoever was dignified with this Character, was allowed to
wear a Purple Habit, laced round with Gold, and took Place of the
_Præfecti_, (the Mayors or Chief Magistrates of the City) as _Zosimus_
observes, who will have it, that this Honour was first instituted by
_Constantine_; tho’ ’tis very evident, that this Dignity was conferred
long before his Time.

_The Bagnio’s of_ Arcadius.] They were so called, because they were
built by him, as _Procopius_ writes in his 1st _Orat._ concerning
the Buildings of _Justinian_. As you sail, says he, out of the
_Propontis_, to the Eastern Coast, you see a Publick _Bagnio_, call’d
the _Arcadian Bagnio_, which is a great Ornament to the City. In this
Place _Justinian_ built a Court, which lies before the City, so near
to the Sea, that they who walk upon the Shore, may hold a Discourse
with any of the Ships Crew, as they sail by them. The Account I shall
give of the Curiosities of this Court, is as follows. The Court
it self is a very beautiful Building, and is fann’d with gentle
Breezes. ’Tis paved with delicate Marble, and adorned with stately
Pillars, which afford a delectable Prospect, even to a Brightness,
which seems to rival a Meridian Sun-shine. There are also many other
Curiosities which adorn this Court, some of which are Pieces of most
elegant Workmanship, both in Brass and Stone. Thus far _Procopius_.
The _Bagnio’s_ here mentioned are probably the same with those which
are called the _Xerolophus_, which _Cedrinus_ tells us were built by
_Arcadius_. The _Xerolophus_, says he, was built by _Arcadius_, the
Pillars of which are all like that Pillar, which _Theodosius_ erected
in the _Taurus_. _Socrates_ in his _Seventh_ Book, _Chap._ 1. attests,
that this Building stood in the _Forum_ of _Arcadius_. For speaking
of one _Sabbatius_ a Heretick, he says, that the People rais’d a Tax
to oppose _Sesonnicus_ their Bishop, in a Place of the City which
is called Ξηρόλοφος, in the _Forum_ of _Arcadius_. Thus _Socrates_.
This was certainly a Building which consisted of several Apartments,
which induces me to believe it was the _Bagnio’s_ here mentioned. For
_Nicephorus Gregoras_, in his _Seventh Book_, _Chap._ 1. writes, That
_Athanasius_, Patriarch of _Constantinople_, resided some Time in the
Apartments of the _Xerolophus_. The Word _Xerolophus_, says _Suidas_,
signifies a _Dry Unction_, and the Place was called so, because, when
any Body was anointed there, they never used to bath, and adds; That
this Place was formerly famous for Oracles, and that answers were given
to Enquiries there made, from a _Tripos_. There were also in the same
Place sixteen private Apartments, with Winding-Stairs. I have seen it
in an antient _Greek_ Author, that there were here twelve Buildings
with Winding-Stairs, as also the Columns of _Diana_, _Severus_,
_Marcianus_, and the Statues of _Valentinian_, and _Theodosius_ the
_Less_. _Justinian_ also quotes an Inscription there, taken out of
the _Fifth Book_ of _Xenophon_’s _Anabasis_. _Zonaras_ also writes,
that when _Leo Isaurus_ was Emperor of _Constantinople_, the Statue of
_Arcadius_, placed upon a Pillar in the _Xerolophus_, was thrown down
by an Earthquake. The _Bagnio’s_ here mentioned were called Publick, or
Imperial _Bagnio’s_; whereas those which were built by private Persons
were called _Thermæ_, or _Baths_.

_A Hundred and eighteen Houses._] I take the Word _Houses_ in this
Place, to signifie the Dwelling Houses of some of the principal Men
of the City, as the Great Mens Houses at _Rome_ were distinguished by
standing by themselves, and having no other Houses adjoining to them.

_Two_ Portico’s _of a great Length_.] These _Portico’s_, as at present,
were not joined to Houses, so as to seem a Part of them, but were
built separate from them, contrived for the Pleasure of Walking, and
refreshing the Mind. Hence it is, that _Strabo_, _Lib._ V. _de Geogra._
where he is describing the Parts of _Rome_, calls the _Portico_ of
_Livia_ the περίπατον, or Walk. _Pliny_ is of the same Opinion in his
_Fourth Book_, _Chap._ 1. _Strabo_ tells us in another Place, that the
_Cumani_ of _Æolis_ borrowed Money to build a _Portico_, and that when
they failed, as to the Time of Payment, the Person, who gave them
Credit, laid them under a Prohibition not to walk in it, but only
when it rained; and when the Cryer called aloud to them to enter the
_Portico_, it passed into a Proverb, _That the Cumani_ dared not to
enter their _Portico_ without the Leave of the Cryer. These are the
same Kind of _Portico’s_ which _Ulpian_ means, where he mentions the
_Portico’s_, which had no Houses adjoining to them. _Tacitus_, _Lib._
XV. speaking of the Burning of _Rome_ by _Nero_, takes Notice of these
Ambulatory _Portico’s_, when he tells us, that the _Portico’s_ which
were dedicated to Pleasure, were most of them destroyed by Fire. There
was a _Portico_ of this Sort at _Athens_, Part of which, as _Pliny_
records, _Lib._ XXXV. _Cap._ 3. was painted by _Myco_, who was paid
for it; and the other Part was finished _gratis_ by _Polygnotus_, an
eminent Painter. It was for this Reason, that ’twas call’d _Porticus
varia_, or ποικίλη. This is the same _Portico_ in which _Zeno_ taught,
and for which he was called the Father of the _Stoicks_. _Suidas_
says, that it was customary to adorn such _Portico’s_ with Silver and
Marble Statues, as appears by a Will mentioned by _Marcellus_, which
runs thus, _My Will and Pleasure is, that my Heir, at his own Expence,
build in my native Countrey a Publick_ Portico, _in which, I desire
my Silver and Marble Statues may be reposited_. I believe my Author
understands in this Clause of the Will, the same Kind of _Portico’s_
with those I now comment upon, which were of so considerable a
Length, that they reached from the Imperial Palace, to the _Forum_ of
_Constantine_. For _Procopius_ writes, in his _First Orat. de Ædif.
Justin._ That in the Reign of _Justinian_, the Church of St. _Sophia_,
and both the long _Portico’s_, stretching themselves as far as the
_Forum_ of _Constantine_, were burnt down. The same Fact is testified
by _Cedrinus_, who says, that both these _Portico’s_ were consumed by
Fire, in the Reign of _Basiliscus_, altho’ after these Casualities,
they were always rebuilt. I would observe, that every _Ward_ at
_Constantinople_ had in it some _Portico’s_, though some _Wards_ at
Rome had none.

_Four Gradus._] The Word, which is here called _Gradus_, signifies a
Tribunal, which was ascended by Marble Steps, to receive the Bread
which was to be distributed among the common People, and which, was
therefore called, _Panis Gradilis_. _Valentinian_ tells us, that the
carrying the _Panis Gradilis_ from one Tribunal to another, is
strictly forbidden. He also commands in _Cod. Theod._ that every one
receive the _Panis Gradilis_ from the Tribunal. From which Passages
it is plain, that this _Gradus_ was a famous Tribunal, from whence
they used to distribute Bread. For _Constantine_, as _Metaphrastes_
writes, bestowed every Day upon the Poor, eighty Thousand Loaves.
_Socrates_, _Lib._ II. _Cap._ 13. says expressly, that he gave Daily
eighty Thousand Bushels of Corn to the Poor; besides, as _Suidas_ adds,
Wine, and Flesh, and Oil. These were therefore _Gradus_, or Tribunals,
erected in this _Ward_ for that Purpose.

_It was governed by one_ Curator, _who had under his Charge the whole_
Ward.] The _Curators_ (who seem something like our Aldermen) were first
instituted by _Augustus_, and by _Suetonius_, _Cap._ XXX. are called
_Magistratus_. He divided, says he, meaning _Augustus_, the City into
Streets and _Wards_, and commanded that the _Wards_ should be governed
by a Magistrate, chosen by Lot yearly, and that the Streets should be
governed by a Master elected out of the common People. Afterwards, in
the Room of these, _Alexander Augustus_ appointed fourteen _Curators_.
_Lampridius_ tells us, that _Rome_ chose fourteen _Curators_, out of
the most eminent Citizens, and obliged them to assist the _Prefect_ of
the City, so that all, or most of them attended, when any Thing was
transacted for the good of the Publick. It was a principal Part of
their Business to decide Causes, and to take Care of Orphans, and the
Poor.

_There was also one_ Vernaculus _who was Messenger of the_ Ward, _he
assisted the_ Curator, _and was entirely at his Command_.] The
Business of this Officer was to be subservient to the _Curator_, and
give Notice to, and summon the Citizens to meet in all Matters, which
more immediately related to the _Ward_. Their Office was the same,
mentioned by _S. Rufus_, and _P. Victor_, who give them at _Old Rome_,
the Name of _Denunciatores_. Two of which were appointed to assist in
every _Ward_.

_It had also twenty five_ Collegiati, _chosen out of the several Bodies
of Tradesmen, whose Business it was, to direct and assist in Cases of
Fire_.] At _Rome_ the _Præfectus Vigilum_ commanded in Chief the seven
Companies of Freemen appointed for a constant Watch to the City. This
Office was instituted by _Augustus_, who placed a single Company over
two _Wards_, as is observed by _Suetonius_, and _Dion._ _Lib._ LV.
and by _Paullus_, _Lib. de Offi. præ. Vigil._ These Men were chosen
out of the several Bodies of the Tradesmen, whose Business was the
same with those at _Rome_; and were called _Collegiati._ The Number
of them was always stated, and unalterable so that when one of them
died, the _Prefect_ of the City filled up the Vacancy with one of his
own Body. _Honorius_ and _Theodosius_, in their _Letters Mandatory_
to _Æstius Prefect_ of the City, will and command, _That the Number
of five hundred sixty three be the standing Number of them, and that
no Person presume by any Authority whatsoever, to alter that Number;
so that it shall be lawful to you only, in the Presence of the Body
Corporate, when any Person is deceased, or otherways removed, to elect,
and nominate one to succeed him out of the same Body Corporate of
which he was a Member_: These _Collegiati_ are chosen out of thirty
five Corporations of Tradesmen, which are particularly specified in
a Letter sent by _Constantine_ to _Maximus_, and are discharged upon
their Election from all other Offices whatsoever. In this first _Ward_,
there were only twenty five of them, in others more or less, who made
up the Number a Hundred and sixty, or a Hundred and sixty three. To
complete the Number of which, as appears from the first Book of _Zeno
de Collegiat._ Thirty seven or forty, are wanting in the last _Ward_.
The Word _Collegiati_, in other Places, sometimes signifies the
_Deacons_ who buried the Dead; and sometimes it is taken for _Freemen_,
as in _Lib._ XLI. _Co. Theod. de Op. Pub._

_There were also five_ Vico-Magistri, _whose Business it was to watch
the City by Night_.] These were originally instituted by _Augustus_.
_Suetonius_, in the Life of _Augustus_, _Chap._ XXX. writes, that the
City was divided into Streets and _Wards_, and adds, that _Augustus_
commanded, that the Magistrates of the _Wards_ should be annually
chosen by Lot. The Streets were governed by the _Vico-Magistri_, who
were elected out of the Commons, in the Neighbourhood of the Streets,
over which they presided; so that as those who governed the _Wards_
were called _Curatores_, so they who governed the Streets were called
_Vico-Magistri_. ’Tis very probable, that these Magistrates had some
Soldiers under their Command to prevent Robberies, and other Outrages
committed in the Night, as _Old Rome_ had its _Vigils_, or Watchmen,
who were all Soldiers. There were two, three, or four _Vico-Magistri_
appointed over every Street at _Rome_: At _Constantinople_ every _Ward_
had but five, so that the whole Number of them is Seventy; although
my Author in his _Summary View of the City_, which follows hereafter,
reckons no more than sixty five.



The Second _Ward_.


_The second_ Ward, _after an easy, and almost imperceptible Ascent
above its Level from the lesser Theatre, falls with a deep Precipice
down to the Sea. This_ Ward _contains in it, the Great Church of St._
Sophia; _the Old Church; the Senate-House; a Tribunal with_ Porphyry
_Steps; the_ Bagnio’s _of_ Zeuxippus; _a Theatre; an Amphitheatre;
thirty four Streets; ninety eight large Houses; four great_ Portico’s;
_thirteen private Baths; four private Mills, and four_ Gradus. _It has
also one_ Curator, _one_ Vernaculus, _thirty five_ Collegiati, _and
five_ Vico-Magistri.


NOTES.

_The great Church of St._ Sophia.] This Church, some say, was built by
_Constantine_, others by _Constantius_. It was afterwards burnt down,
and rebuilt by _Justinian_, and was then look’d upon as the finest and
most beautiful Church in the whole World. _Periander_, and others,
whose Works are still extant, have described at large the Delicacy
and Magnificence of this wonderful Piece of Architecture. _Evagrius_
writes, that this Church measured in Length a Hundred and ninety Foot,
in Breadth a Hundred and fifteen; and that from the Pavement to the Top
of the _Cupola_, it was an Hundred and eighty Foot high.

_The Old Church._] I suppose the Author here means one of those
Churches which were built by _Constantine_, some of which are mentioned
by _Procopius_, in _Lib. de Ædif. Justinian._

_The Senate-House._] In this Place they held their Senate, which, as
_Sozomen_ affirms, was built by _Constantine_ the _Great_, where he
commanded the same yearly Solemnity to be celebrated on the _Calends_
of _Jan._ as was done at _Rome_. It was burnt down, upon a Sedition
occasioned by an Attempt to banish St. _Chrysostom_ out of the City,
and was rebuilt, as _Procopius_ tells us, with greater Splendor.

_A Tribunal with_ Porphyry _Steps_.] This Tribunal was made of
_Porphyry_ Marble, which Word in _Latin_, signifies _Purple_, because
_Porphyry_ Marble is of a _Purple_ Colour.

_The_ Bagnio’s _of_ Zeuxippus.] These _Bagnio’s_ were famous for a
_Portico_, which run round the Houses and Shops adjoining to them.
There was a yearly Revenue assigned for lighting the Lamps of this
_Bagnio_, and repairing them. _Theodosius_ in _Lib. de Op. Pub._
writes thus; _Because there are many Houses and Shops adjoining the_
Portico’s _of_ Zeuxippus, _we will and command, that the yearly
Income of the said Houses and Shops, without any Pretence or Excuse
to the contrary, be paid into our Imperial_ Bagnio, _for purchasing
Lights, and for the Repairs of the said_ Bagnio’s. This Passage is
part of a Letter which he wrote to _Severinus_, _Prefect_ of the
City, (not _Prætor_) as it stands in the _Codex Theodos. de Op. Pub._
These _Bagnio’s_ formerly stood near the Imperial Palace, and were
afterwards called the _Bagnio’s_ of the _Numeri_, as _Nicephorus_
writes, _Lib._ IX. _Cap._ 9. _Sozomen_ and _Socrates_ take Notice of
the same _Bagnio’s_. I believe they were first built by _Zeuxippus_,
who persecuted the _Christians_ at _Byzantium_, much about the
Time of _Nero_; and who among other of his Severities, forced St.
_Andrew_ to fly to _Argyropolis_. If I mistake not, he was at that
Time Lieutenant of _Macedonia_ and _Thrace_. These _Bagnio’s_ were
enlarged and beautified by _Severus_ the Emperor, for which Reason
they were afterwards called the _Bagnio’s_ of _Severus_. After this
they were called _Balnea Numerorum_, because great Numbers of Soldiers
use to bath there. _Zosimus_, in his second Book writes, that these
_Bagnio’s_ formerly stood in a _Peninsula_. In antient Times, says
he, _Constantinople_ had a Port at the End of the _Bagnio’s_, which
were built by _Severus_ the Emperor, when he was reconciled to the
_Byzantians_, for opening the Gates of the City to _Niger_, his Enemy.
_Suidas_ says, that a Poet named _Christodorus_, celebrated the
Statues and Images of _Zeuxippus_ in Verse, among which he is very
particular in the Praises of the Statue of _Hesiod_. _Procopius_, in
his First Book, _de Ædif. Justinian._ tells us, that these _Bagnio’s_
were rebuilt by _Justinian_, but were called the _Zeuxippum_, because
in this Place they used to run their _Horses in Pairs_, as the Word
_Zeuxippus_ signifies in the _Greek_. St. _Gregory Nazianzen_ takes
Notice of them in his Oration to the _Arians_, and in another which
he made _concerning himself_. I am not, says he, taking a Journey to a
new _Jerusalem_, that is to the _Zeuxippum_; for that Place was laid
in Ashes in the Reign of _Justinian_. The _Bagnio’s_ of _Severus_, as
_Cedrinus_ relates, which were call’d the _Zeuxippum_, were consumed
by Fire. In this Place was a very delightful Variety of Prospects. All
the ingenious Contrivances of Art were here expressed in Marble and
Stone, and the most elaborate Workmanship of Antiquity. In short, the
Designs here were so matchless and inimitable, that they seemed to want
nothing but a Soul to animate, and inform them. Among other surprizing
Pieces of antient Skill, was the Statue of old _Homer_. The Figure was
finished very naturally, and in his Looks might be observed a great
Thoughtfulness, with a Mixture of much Uneasiness and Trouble. This
Place was also beautified with brazen Pillars, which had been here set
up in Honour of those great Personages, who had been renowned for their
Learning or Virtue, through the whole World.

_An Amphitheatre._] This stands near the Sea Shore. You must pass by
it, as you go to the Imperial Palace, and the Port of _Julian_, between
which Places there were formerly Lime Kilns, which were commanded to be
filled up by _Theodosius_ the _Less_, as the Reader may see in _Lib.
ult. Cod. Theod._ _We will and command_, says he, _that all Lime-kilns,
standing on any Ground, between the Sea Shore, the Amphitheatre, and
the Port of St._ Julian, _be entirely demolished, for the Benefit and
Health of our most great and magnificent City_, and _by Reason of the
Nearness they stand to our Imperial Palace; and we do hereby prohibit
all Persons whatsoever for the future, to burn any Lime in those
Places_.



The Third _Ward_.


_The third_ Ward, _at the Entrance of it, is a Level Ground, and
stands, in Part, where the_ Circus _is built; but descends, at the
End of it, with a very great Declivity down to the Sea, and contains,
the same_ Circus Maximus; _the House of_ Pulcheria Augusta; _the new
Port; a_ Portico _of a Semi-circular Figure, made after the Likeness
of the_ Greek _Letter_ Sigma, _which was formerly wrote thus_, C; _the
Tribunal of the_ Forum _of_ Constantine; _seven Streets; ninety four
great Houses; five large_ Portico’s; _eleven private_ Bagnio’s; _and
nine private Mills. It had one_ Curator, _one_ Vernaculus, _twenty one_
Collegiati, _and five_ Vico-Magistri.


NOTES.

_The House of_ Pulcheria Augusta.] This Lady was the Sister of
_Theodosius_ the _Less_, who continued for some Time unmarried. When
her Brother was dead, she married _Martian_, and made him Emperor.
_Zonaras_, _Cedrinus_, _Zosimus_, _Nicephorus_, and other Historians
have mentioned many Things of her. She had also another House in the
eleventh _Ward_.

_The New Port._] This probably is the same Port that was built by
_Julian_ the Apostate. There was another Port in the sixth _Ward_
called _Portus Neorius_, because there was a Dock there for building
Ships.

_A_ Portico _of a Semi-circular Figure_.] The _Greek_ Letter Σ, as ’tis
now wrote, was formerly wrote C. _Zonaras_ and _Cedrinus_ often take
Notice of this _Portico_.



The Fourth _Ward_.


_The fourth_ Ward _extends itself in a long Vale, the Hills rising
on the Right and Left from the_ Miliarium Aureum _through a Vale,
to a plain level Ground. It contains, the_ Miliarium Aureum; _the_
Augusteum; _a_ Basilica; _a_ Nympheum; _the_ Portico _of_ Phanio; _a
Marble Galley, the Monument of a naval Victory; the Church of St._
Menna; _a_ Stadium; _The Stairs of_ Timasius; _thirty two Streets;
three hundred and seventy five great Houses; four large_ Portico’s;
_seven private Baths; five private Mills; and seven_ Gradus. _It
is presided by one_ Curator, _assisted by one_ Vernaculus, _forty_
Collegiati, _and five_ Vico-Magistri.


NOTES.

_The_ Miliarium Aureum.] _Cedrinus_, speaking of the _Miliarium
Aureum_, writes thus: Under the Roof of the _Miliarium Aureum_ were
placed the Statues of _Constantine_ the _Great_, and his Mother, with
a Cross between them. Behind him stands _Trajan_, and near his Mother
is the Statue of _Ælius Hadrianus_ on Horseback. There is a Clock
here, which was set up by _Justinian_. There was also a _Miliarium
Aureum_ at _Rome_, erected in the _Forum_ by _Augustus_, from whence
they used to adjust the Distances of Places, and the Mensuration
of Miles, all the Roads of _Italy_ meeting at the Foot of it, as
’tis observed by _Plutarch_, _Dion_, _P. Victor_, and others. Yet
_Æmilius Macer_ is of another Opinion. A Mile, says he, is not to be
computed from the _Miliarium_, but from the Houses, upon the Skirts
of the City, to the Place to which you measure. As then there was a
_Miliarium Aureum_ at _Rome_, so there was at _Constantinople_, which
imitated _Old Rome_ as near as it could; tho’ at _Rome_ it was built
in the Figure of a Pillar, at _Constantinople_ it was another kind of
Building, as is evident from what is above-mentioned by _Cedrinus_;
and is also attested by _Suidas_, who writes, that under the Roof of
the _Miliarium_, stood the Cross, the Figures of _Constantine_ and
_Helena_, the Image of _Fortune_, and many other Statues. He calls it
not the _Miliarium_, but the _Milium_.

_The_ Augusteum.] This was a large Pillar of Brass, erected by
_Justinian_, as _Cedrinus_ relates, who tells us, that in the fifteenth
Year of the Reign of _Justinian_, was finished the great brazen
Pillar, which is called the _Augusteum_. Upon it was placed the Statue
of _Justinian_ on Horseback, holding in his Right Hand an Apple, in
Imitation of a Globe, to signify that the whole World was subject to
his Government. He sat with his Right Hand stretched out, pointing to
the _Persians_ to stand off, and not to approach his Dominions. All the
Coverings of the Passage of Entrance into the Imperial Palace, were
made of gilded Brass. This is still called the Brazen Passage, as the
Pillar is call’d the _Augusteum_. _Procopius_ speaks largely of it in
his Oration _de Ædif. Justin._ where he writes, that not the Pillar,
but the Place where the Pillar stood, was called the _Augusteum_, as
it was also the _Macellum_. The principal Pillar, says he, is to be
admired for its Size, yet is it no regular and uniform Structure, but
made of Stones of a vast Compass. The Pedestal and Top of it is covered
with the most refined Brass, which by cramping its Stones together,
does at the same Time both strengthen and adorn it. The Brass, as to
its Lustre, is not much inferior to pure Gold, and at least of equal
Worth and Beauty with the finest Silver. At the Top of this Pillar was
placed a very large Horse cast in Brass, facing the East, wonderful
in his Kind, in a walking Posture, with his Head bending downwards,
lifting up his near Fore-Foot, as though he would paw the Ground.
His Off-Foot is fixed to the Pedestal, on which he stands; and his
Hind-Feet are so closely contracted, as if he was rising upon his
Speed. Upon him sits the Statue of the Emperor in Brass, whom they call
_Achilles_, because he is somewhat like him. He has no Boots, but his
Feet are bound round with a kind of Sandals. He is armed with a radiant
Breast-plate and Head-piece, and looks, you would fancy, as if he were
marching, in a war-like Posture, against the _Persians_. In his left
Hand he bears a Globe, by which ’tis signified, that the Earth and the
Sea is subject to his Power. He is not equipped either with Sword nor
Spear. There’s a Cross fixed upon the Globe, intimating, that under its
auspicious Influence, he arrived to the Imperial Dignity; and that all
Success in War is to be attributed to the Omnipotency of the Saviour
of Mankind. His Right Hand, which is open, is stretched Eastward, and
seems to forbid the barbarous Nations to approach his Territories.
Below this Place, stands the _Forum_ called _Augustum_. This _Forum_
stands before the Imperial Palace; ’tis surrounded with Pillars, and
the Inhabitants call it _Augustum_. Eastward from hence stands the
_Curia_, or _Prætorium_, which was built by _Justinian_, where the
old _Romans_, in the Beginning of the new Year used, as _Suidas_
observes, to perform a solemn Festival. _Phavorinus_ relates, that the
Flesh-Market was the same with the _Augusteum_. It was so called, says
_Suidas_, because the _Curatores_, and _Senastophori_ of the _Wards_,
used every Year, on the _Ides_ of _October_, to dance in Honour of
_Augustus_, or because the Statues of _Constantine_, and _Helena_ his
Mother, were erected there.

_A_ Basilica.] This was one of the most magnificent _Basilica’s_ in
the World, which _Cedrinus_ takes Notice of, when he tells us, that a
Fire began at the Middle of the _Chalcopratia_, which consumed both
the _Portico’s_ before mentioned, all the neighbouring Buildings, and
the _Basilica_, which contained a Collection of a Hundred and twenty
Thousand Books. There was a Curiosity very particular in this Library,
which was the Gut of a Dragon, on which were inscribed in Golden
Characters, the _Iliads_ and _Odysses_ of _Homer_, with the _History_
of the Atchievements of other _Heroes_. The Roof of this _Basilica_ was
supported with many Ranges of Pillars, as we see at present in some
Churches, which are many of them built after the same Manner with the
_Basilica’s_. One of these _Basilica’s_ is described by _Virgil_, in
his seventh _Æneid_.

  _A stately Palace in the City’s Height,
  Sublime upon a hundred Pillars stood,
  With gloomy Groves, religiously obscure_,
  Laurentian Picus’ _Palace; where the Kings,
  The first Inauguration of their Sway,
  The Sceptres, and the regal_ Fasces _took_.

    TRAPP’S Virg.

In these _Basilica’s_ they used to plead, and admit to Audience publick
Ambassadors; and, indeed, most of the publick Affairs were transacted
here. This I am speaking of was finely gilded, and made of a delicate
Marble. _Theodosius_, in his Letters Mandatory to _Cyrus_, _Prefect_
of the City, means this _Basilica_, in the following Words: _We will
and command, that the_ Basilica _gilt with Gold, and shining with
Marble, be no Ways shaded or darkened with Statues, or Pictures placed
before it_. I believe _Zonaras_ understands the same Building in his
_Leo Magnus_, where he says, that the Building called the _Domus
Maxima_, in which the Senate, and some of the principal Citizens met
to deliberate upon publick Affairs, was burnt down; nay, that the
Emperor himself came thither in solemn Pomp, when he entered upon his
Consular Dignity. It was a Work of surprising Beauty and Splendor.
_Justinian_ tells us in his 81st _Novel_, that the inferior Judges used
to sit there in small Apartments. _Suidas_ writes, that this _Basilica_
stood behind the _Miliarium_, and that there was placed in it, amidst
several others, a golden Statue. Among other Curiosities here, there
is an Elephant, cast at the Expence of _Severus_, on the Account of a
certain Banker, who killed his Keeper, and gave his Body to be devoured
by a wild Beast; which the Elephant seeing, in a Rage slew the Banker.
_Severus_, to preserve the Memory of the Fact, ordered the Elephant and
his Keeper to be cast in Brass, and both the Figures, in the Consulship
of _Julian_, were carried to _Constantinople_, and placed in the
_Basilica_.

_A_ Nympheum.] This, as _Zonaras_ and _Cedrinus_ tell us, was a
spacious Building, in which they used to celebrate Marriage, when they
had not Houses large enough for that Purpose. _Suidas_ mentions, that
in the _Forum_ of this _Ward_, there was a Spring continually running,
which filled the _Bagnio_ of the _Nympheum_. _Theodosius_, in another
Letter to _Cyrus_ above-mentioned, writes thus. _I command you, by
Virtue of your prefectorial Authority, to appoint, as you shall judge
convenient, what Share of Water be allotted to our Imperial_ Bagnio’s,
_and what Quantity may be sufficient for the_ Bagnio’s _of the_
Nympheum.

_The_ Portico _of_ Phanio.] _Suidas_ tells us, that _Phanio_ is a
Place where they carried the Filth of the City. This, probably, is
the same _Portico_, which the Emperor _Zeno_ tells us, reached from
the _Miliarium_, as far as the _Capitol_, and is supported with four
Ranges of Pillars, between which he allows, in his _Cod. de Priv.
Ædif._ a Privilege to build little Shops.

_A Marble Galley._] This was set up in Memory of a Victory, which
_Zosimus_, in his fifth Book tells us, _Trajutus_, Admiral of
_Arcadius_’s Fleet, obtain’d over _Gaina_, near _Chersonesus_.

_The Church of St._ Menna.] This Person was an _Egyptian Soldier_, who
suffer’d Martyrdom under _Dioclesian_, in _Phrygia_: This Church was
built by _Constantine_, who, as _Eusebius_ reports in _his Life, Book_
III. _Chap._ 4. built also other Churches in honour of the _Martyrs_.

_A_ Stadium.] This was a square _Area_, design’d, as _Suidas_
observes, for Martial Exercises. The _Grecians_ generally made them
two hundred Foot long, and sometimes more. This _Area_ was surrounded
with a _Portico_, and Pillars. The _Grecians_ used them sometimes in
Merriment, and Dancing, and sometimes in more manly Diversions, as
Wrestling, fighting at Gauntlets, _&c._ The _Portico_, on the South
Side of it, was double Wall’d, to secure it from the Violence of the
Northern Storms. In the _Stadium_, stood an _Ephebeum_, with Seats all
round it, where they held publick Disputations in Philosophy, and where
Youth was train’d up in Literature, and Science. In ancient Times, when
Books were scarce, they used to improve themselves by Dispute, and
Argumentation. On each Side of the _Ephebeum_, there were _Bagnio’s_,
in which the Combatants anointed themselves, before they enter’d the
Lifts. The _Stadium_ fac’d the Sea, as _Procopius_ observes in his
Book _de Ædif Justin._ In a Place, says he, near the Sea, at present
call’d the _Stadium_, (a Place formerly appropriated to Games, and
Martial Exercises) _Justinian_, and his Consort _Theodora_, built some
large Hospitals.

_The Stairs of_ Timasius.] These were three Steps, at the Foot of a
Hill, leading down to the Sea, which were built by _Timasius_. ’Tis
very probable, that they were made of Marble, and were something
remarkable, because my Author takes Notice of them. There was Custom
paid at these Stairs, for the Repairs of the City _Aqueduct_; as
appears from the _Cod. Theod. Aquæduc._ _We will_, says he, _that all
the Customs, which are, or may be collected at the Stairs of this our
City of_ Constantinople, _be expended in the Repairs of the common
Aque-duct_. I am of Opinion, that this Custom was payable by such Ships
as unladed their Freight there. _Justinian_ in his 159ᵗʰ _Novel_ takes
notice of a Clause in the Codicil of the Will of _Hierius_, where he
bequeaths to his Kinsman _Hierius_ the Suburbs _Coparium_, with all
the Stairs thereunto belonging. _Cedrinus_ writes, That in the Reign
of _Copronymus_ the Emperor, the Sea was froze by the Severity of the
Weather, and that upon a sudden Thaw, a large Cake of Ice bore against,
and demolish’d the Stairs of the Imperial Palace at _Constantinople_.
_Timasius_, who built these Stairs, was General of the Infantry to
_Theodosius_ the _Great_, and was train’d up in the Art of War from the
Time of _Valens_ the Emperor. At last being falsely, and injuriously
accused by _Eutropius_, the Chamberlain of _Arcadius_, he was banish’d
into _Oasis_. _Zosimus_, speaking of him in his _fifth Book_, says,
that he was the Father of _Syagrius_, who was entitled _Pater Patriæ_.



The Fifth _Ward_.


_The fifth_ Ward, _a great Part of it is full of Windings, and
Turnings, and is lengthen’d by an adjoining Plain. There are many
useful Buildings in this_ Ward, _which contains the_ Bagnio’s _of_
Honorius; _the Cistern of_ Theodosius; _the_ Prytaneum; _the_ Bagnio’s
_of_ Eudocia; _the_ Strategium, _in which stands the_ Forum _of_
Theodosius, _and the_ Thebean Obelisk; _the Store-houses for Oil; a_
Nympheum; _the Granaries of_ Troas; _the Granaries of_ Valens, _and_
Constantius: _It contains also the_ Prosphorian _Port; the_ Stairs
_of_ Chalcedon; _twenty three Streets; a hundred and eighty four
great Houses; seven large_ Portico’s; _eleven private Baths; seven
publick, and two private Mills; nine_ Gradus, _and two Flesh-Markets:
It had one_ Curator, _one_ Vernaculus, _forty_ Collegiati, _and five_
Vice-Magistri.


NOTES.

_The Cistern of_ Theodosius.] This Cistern was a subterraneous Cavern,
arched at top, which was supply’d, not with Spring, but with Rain Water
only. _Petrus Gyllius_ in his _Antiquities_ of _Constantinople_, tells
us, that when he resided at that City, he discover’d a subterraneous
Cistern there; which he shewed to the Proprietors of the Land where it
was, who, before, were intirely ignorant of it. It was, says he, 336
Foot in length, 182 Foot broad, and 224 in compass. The Roof of it was
supported with Marble Pillars, placed at twelve Foot distance from each
other. Every Pillar was near nine Foot high. They stand, lengthways,
in twelve Ranges; broad-ways, in twenty eight. In Winter-time, when
the _Aque-duct_ pours itself with more Violence into it, it fills up
to the Middle of the Capitals of the Columns. It has sometimes Fish in
it, which the Master, who overlooks it, skiffing about in a small Boat,
kills with a Spear.

_A_ Prytaneum.] There was at _Athens_ a Tower call’d the _Prytaneum_,
where their Senators, and wise Men met upon publick Affairs, and where
Persons, who deserv’d well of the Commonwealth, were maintain’d at the
Publick Charge, as ’tis observ’d by _Cicero_, _Lib. primo de Orat._ In
Conformity to _Athens_, there was also at _Constantinople_ a spacious
Building, near the Imperial Cistern, where a Person, eminent in Wisdom
and Learning, instructed twelve young Men in such Arts and Sciences,
as might qualify them to be serviceable to the Publick. _Cedrinus_ in
his History of _Leo Isaurus_, writes, that, near the Royal Cistern,
there was a venerable Pyle of Building, over which there presided
a Master, who had under him, according to ancient Custom, twelve
Scholars, of sober Life, and a good Share of Learning. These, when
they had run through the whole Compass of human Literature, apply’d
themselves very diligently to the Study of Divinity, and were had in
so high Estimation, that the Emperors themselves look’d upon it as an
Injury to their Character, to transact any thing of Importance, without
their Advice. This Institution was afterwards suppress’d by _Leo_.
_Zonaras_ is more express, and large upon this Occasion; there was,
says he, a House in the _Basilica_, near the _Forum Ærarium_, large
enough for a Palace, in which were reported many ancient _Manuscripts_
of Human, and Divine Learning, and where a sufficient Maintenance was
allow’d for a Person of distinguish’d Knowledge whom they call’d the
_Oecumenical Doctor_. He had under him twelve _Fellows_, who lived at
the publick Cost, and instructed such as desired to be their Pupils.
The Emperors also, concludes he, consulted them in the most arduous
Affairs of State. But _Leo_ the Emperor, when he could not prevail
with them to declare themselves the same profess’d Enemies to Images,
in Church-worship, with himself, destroy’d them, and their Library,
in the Night by Fire. As therefore it was customary in other Nations
to maintain at the common Charge Persons who might prove useful to
the Publick, so was it here; and therefore, I conceive, that as the
_Prytaneum_ at _Constantinople_ took its Name from that of _Athens_, so
was it originally instituted for Purposes, much of the same Nature.

_The_ Bagnio’s _of_ Eudocia.] These _Bagnio’s_ were so call’d, because
they were built by _Eudocia_ the Wife of _Theodosius_ the _Less_.
Before she was converted to the Christian Faith, she was called
_Athenais_. _Zonaras_, _Nicephorus_, and others have wrote much
concerning her. She had some Houses in the tenth _Ward_; where I shall
speak more of her.

_The_ Strategium.] This, I look upon, to be the Place, where the
General’s Troops liv’d, and pitch’d their Tents. Here was the _Forum_
of _Theodosius_, and the _Thebean Obelisk_ which was brought from
_Thebes_ in _Ægypt_ to _Constantinople_, and there squat’d.

_The Granaries of_ Troas.] These Granaries contain’d the Corn, and
other Commodities which were brought from _Troas_; as those Granaries
were call’d the Granaries of _Alexandria_, in which the Corn was laid
up, that was brought from _Alexandria_. _Troas_ is a Countrey of
_Phrygia_, situate near the _Hellespont_, not far from _Constantinople_.

_The Granary of_ Valens.] This was built by _Valens_. It is probably
the same Granary, in which was placed the Statue of _Manaim_, who
march’d his Army against the _Scythians_. There was kept here a brazen
Bushel, which was the common Standard, by which Corn was bought, and
sold. _Valens_ commanded that twelve Bushels of Wheat should be sold at
the Price of an _Aureus_, (in _English_ Coin 17_s._ 1_d._ _ob. qua._)
and commanded a Sailor’s Hand to be cut off, who had eluded the Force
of that Law by Tricks, and Evasions, and in Memory of the Fact, order’d
a Brazen Hand to be hung up in the Granary.

They had also at _Constantinople_ Store-houses where they reposited
their Gold, and Silver, and Jewels. For _Paulus_ a Lawyer informs us,
that ’twas customary to lay up in Store-houses the most valuable Part
of their Estates. _Lampridius_ also mentions some Store-houses built
by _Alexander_, where private Persons, who had no Conveniency in their
own Houses, used to lay up their Gold, their Silver, their Jewels, and
their Corn, and that the Masters of the Store-houses were obliged to
keep them safe at their Peril.

_The_ Prosphorian _Port_.] Here they used to unlade all kinds of
Provisions; for the Word προσφορὸν in the _Greek_ signifies any thing
that is brought to Market.

_The Stairs of_ Chalcedon.] These were a convenient Descent by Steps,
where they went on Board, when they sail’d for _Chalcedon_, which lay
over against _Constantinople_.

_Two Flesh-Markets._] All kind of Provisions were sold here.



The Sixth _Ward_.


_The sixth_ Ward, _upon the Entrance of it, is a short Piece of level
Ground, all the rest is upon the Descent; for it extends itself
from the_ Forum _of_ Constantine _to the Stairs, where you ferry over
to_ Sycæna. _It contains the_ Porphyry _Pillar of_ Constantine; _the
Senate-house in the same Place; the_ Neorian _Port; the Stairs of_
Sycæna; _twenty two Streets; four hundred and eighty four great Houses;
one large_ Portico; _nine private Baths; one publick, and seventeen
private Mills; it has also one_ Curator, _one_ Vernaculus; _forty nine_
Collegiati, _and five_ Vico-Magistri.


NOTES.

_The_ Porphyry _Pillar of_ Constantine.] This Pillar stood in the
_Forum_ of _Constantine_, which was pav’d with square Stones.
_Zonaras_, speaking of _Nicephorus Phocas_ the Emperor, has this
Passage: The People curse _Nicephorus_ even to the pav’d _Forum_, in
which is erected the round _Porphyry_ Pillar. _Cedrinus_ in his History
tells us, that _Constantine_ in the twenty fourth Year of his Reign,
built a _Forum_ with two _Rostrums_, or Pleading Desks made in the
form of Pulpits, and that he plac’d in the _Forum_, a Pillar which
he brought from _Rome_. It was one solid Piece of _Porphyry_ Marble,
and was bound with three _Fasciæ_, or Wreaths of Brass round it, with
Inscriptions upon them. On the Top of it he erected his own Statue,
with this Inscription, _CONSTANTINUS_. It blazed like the Sun, was
made by the famous _Phidias_, and was brought from _Athens_. Upon the
Pedestal of the Pillar were carved in _Basso Relievo_, the seven and
twelve Baskets of Fragments, which were taken up in the Miracles of the
_Loaves_ and _Fishes_, and beneath were inscribed the following Verses.

  _To thee, O Saviour, Lord of th’ Universe,
  Who rulest the unmeasurable Globe
  With deepest Knowledge, I this People offer;
  May they be thine; I conquer’d them for thee.
  I lay m’ Imperial Sceptre at thy Feet,
  With all the mighty Force and Pow’r of_ Rome.
  _Let thy good Providence with watchful Eye
  Look down, and guard the City from all Ills._

_Zonaras_ mentions the same Thing, tho’ in different Words. He placed,
says he, meaning _Constantine_, the round _Porphyry_ Pillar which he
brought from _Rome_, in the _Forum_, paved with square Stones. For
this Reason it was called by the _Greeks_ Πλακότον. At the Top of the
Pillar he placed his own Statue in Brass, which for its Largeness,
and the Exquisiteness of its Work, was scarce to be matched in the
whole World, as being finished to the Life, by an antient and eminent
Statuary. It was thought that it was originally designed for _Apollo_,
and brought from _Troy_; but _Constantine_ gave it his own Name,
making some Alteration by fattening some of those Nails in the Head of
it, with which the _Jews_ crucified the _Lord of Life_. This Statue
continued standing upon the Pillar till very lately, when in the Reign
of _Alexius Comnenus_, it was thrown down by an Earthquake, and crushed
some People to Death. _Nicephorus_ in the Fourth Book, _Chap._ 8. of
his _Eccles. Hist._ gives a better Description of it. He built, says
he, a large _Porphyry_ Pillar, upon which he placed his own Statue,
holding in his right Hand a Globe, with a Cross fixed upon it. By this
Symbol he intimated, that by Virtue of that invincible Trophy the
Cross, the whole Earth and Sea was subject to his Power. _Gyllius_
writes, that this Pillar was made of eight Stones, and that at the
Joints of it, it was covered round with Wreathed Laurels made of Brass,
so that you could not perceive where it was cemented; but that upon
the Removal of the Brass-work, you might easily discern that it was a
jointed Structure, and that the Number of the Stones might be plainly
seen. This Pillar is eighty six Foot high, besides the _Basis_, the
Steps, and the Pedestal.

_The Senate-House, in the same Place._] This Building stood on the
North Side of the _Forum_ of _Constantine_. The Senators and principal
Men of the City used to assemble here upon publick Affairs, and
the Emperor took upon him in this Place the Consular Habit. It was
curiously beautified with Brass, and _Porphyry_ Marble. _Zonaras_, and
_Cedrinus_ tell us, that in the Reign of _Leo_ the _Great_, it was
destroyed by Fire.

_The_ Neorian _Port_.] This was the Haven, or Dock, where they built
their shipping, from whence the Gate, which hands near it, is called
by some Writers, the Gate of the _Neorium_; but by _Zonaras_, and
_Cedrinus_, as will appear in my Notes upon the twelfth _Ward_, it was
called _Porta Aurea_, the gilded or beautiful Gate. Some have given it
the Name of the Imperial Gate, because it joins to the Palace.

_The Stairs_ of Sycæna.] These are the Stairs upon the Shore, from
whence you go off to a neighbouring Island called _Sycæna_ but which at
present is called _Pera_. In the Creek here, there are many Thousand
small Boats, more in Number than at _Venice_. They are generally called
Ferry-boats, because they _carry_ their Fare to and fro’ across the
River.

_One large_ Portico.] This _Portico_ reached as far as the _Forum_ of
_Constantine_, and was burnt down in a tumultuous Manner, in the Reign
of _Justinian_.



The Seventh _Ward_.


_The seventh_ Ward, _if compared with the former, lies more upon the
Level, although at the Extremity on one Side of it, it falls with a
greater Declivity into the Sea. It stretches its self with very long_
Portico’s, _from the right Hand of the Pillar of_ Constantine, _to the_
Forum _of_ Theodosius; _as it does also on another Side of it as far
as the Sea, by_ Portico’s _extended in the same Manner. It contains
in it three Churches, that of St._ Irene; _St._ Anastasia, _and St._
Paul; _the Pillar of_ Theodosius, _which you ascend on the Inside by
Winding Stairs; two large Equestrian Statues; Part of the_ Forum _of_
Theodosius; _the_ Bagnio’s _of_ Corosia; _eighty five Streets; seven
hundred and eleven great Houses; six large_ Portico’s; _eleven private
Baths; twelve private Mills; and sixteen_ Gradus. _It is governed by
one_ Curator, _has one_ Vernaculus, _eighty_ Collegiati, _and five_
Vico-Magistri.


NOTES.

_The Church of St._ Irene.] This Church stood in a Street of this
_Ward_, which was called _Taurus_. It was called the Church of St.
_Irene_, _i. e._ of Peace; and which, as _Socrates_ and _Cedrinus_
inform us, was built by _Constantine_ the _Great_, and burnt down in
the Reign of _Justinian_.

_The Church of St._ Anastasia.] The Reliques of St. _Anastasia_, in
the first Year of _Leo_ the _Great_, were brought from _Syrmium_ to
_Constantinople_, and reposited in this Church which was built by the
Catholicks, because St. _Gregory Nazianzen_ had there revived the
Doctrine of the _Holy Trinity_, or as _Sozomen_ reports, because a
Woman big with Child falling from a Gallery over the Church-porch died
upon the Spot, and revived by the Prevalency of the Prayers of the
Congregation.

But it seems to me more agreeable to Truth, that there were at
_Constantinople_ two Churches which went under this Name: One was the
Church of the _Novatians_, which was pull’d down by the _Arians_, and
which was afterwards rebuilt by them, as _Sozomen_ observes, _Lib._ IV.
_Cap._ 19, and was therefore call’d the Church of St. _Anastasia_. The
other was so call’d, from the Revival of the Doctrine of the Trinity,
just mentioned. The Church here meant was anciently the House of
_Nicobulus_, where St. _Gregory Nazianzen_ was hospitably entertained
by him, as appears in his Oration to the Hundred and fifty Bishops.
This House was afterwards made a Church, and became a most magnificent
_Basilica_. But _Sozomen_ tells us, _Lib._ V. _Cap._ 5. That the Church
was so called for the Reason above-mentioned. _Martian_, one of the
Principal, and most wealthy Citizens, built there a large and beautiful
Church. The Reliques of _Anastasia_, were reposited there, because the
Church bore her Name.

_The Pillar of_ Theodosius, _which is ascended on the Inside by Winding
Stairs_.] _Zonaras_, in his Life of _Justinian_, writes concerning this
Pillar as follows: In the seventeenth Year of his Reign, says he, the
great Pillar placed before the Porch of the great Church was finished,
upon which he placed his own Statue on Horseback. In the same Place had
stood formerly the Pillar of _Theodosius_, supporting a silver Statue,
made at the Cost of his Son _Arcadius_. This Statue was seven Thousand
four hundred Pound in Weight. _Justinian_ took down the Statue, and
demolished the Pillar, and laid them both up; so that the Statue,
with the Stones of the Pillar, is to be seen at this Day. As the
Treatise, I am, upon was wrote when this Pillar was standing, it must
of Consequence be wrote before the Time of _Justinian_. _Cedrinus_, in
his Life of _Zeno_, speaks of this Pillar in another Manner, or else
he is speaking of another Pillar. In the Street called _Taurus_, says
he, _Theodosius_ the _Great_ erected a Pillar, on which was carved
the History of his Battles with the _Scythians_, and the Trophies of
his Success. This Pillar, continues he, has Winding-Stairs within it.
At the Top of it, in a Place where two Ways meet, sat _Theodosius_ on
Horseback, with his right Hand stretched towards the City, and pointing
downwards to the Trophies carved upon it. This Pillar, with the Statue,
was thrown down by an Earthquake in the fourth Year of the Reign of
_Zeno_ the Emperor. The same Historian, speaking of _Anastasius_,
says, that he ordered to be melted down many of the Statues, and other
Curiosities set up by _Constantine_ the _Great_, out of which his own
Statue was made, which he placed upon the Pillar in the _Taurus_. For
before the Statue of _Theodosius_ the _Great_ was placed there, the
Pillar of _Anastasius_ was thrown down, and dashed to Pieces by an
Earthquake.

_Two large Equestrian Statues._] One of these was the Statue of
_Theodosius_ the _Great_. The other is unknown.

_The_ Bagnio’s _of_ Corosia.] These Bagnio’s took their Name from
_Corosia_, the Daughter of _Valens_ the Emperor, as _Sozomen_ observes
in the Ninth Chapter of his Sixth Book. _Martian_, says he, a Man of
consummate Learning, and great Austerity of Life, who had formerly
been one of the Emperor’s Life-Guard, but at that Time a Priest, was
a _Novatian_, and Tutor to _Anastasius_ and _Corosia_, the Son and
Daughter of _Valens_, in the Rudiments of Grammar. He adds, that there
were some _Bagnio’s_ at _Constantinople_ that were named from them.



The Eighth _Ward_.


_The eighth_ Ward, _on the Side of the_ Taurus, _is not bounded by
the Sea, and may be looked upon to be rather a narrow, than a broad
Piece of Ground; yet is this Defect sufficiently amended by its great
Length. It contains part of the_ Forum _of_ Constantine, _a_ Portico
_on the left Side of it, reaching as far as the_ Taurus; _the_ Basilica
_of_ Theodosius; _the_ Capitol; _twenty two Streets; a hundred and
eight spacious Houses; five large_ Portico’s; _fifteen private Baths;
five private Mills; five_ Gradus, _and two Flesh Markets. It has
one_ Curator, _one_ Vernaculus, _seventeen_ Collegiati, _and five_
Vico-Magistri.


NOTES.

This _Ward_ is wholly encompassed by the Land, and contains part of
the _Taurus_, which was a Street of _Constantinople_. _Zonaras_ in his
Life of _Nicephorus Botoniates_, takes Notice of it, and tells us, that
it contained Part of the _Forum_ of _Constantine_, a _Portico_ on the
left Side of it, reaching as far as the _Taurus_, the _Basilica_ of
_Theodosius_, and the _Capitol_: In such magnificent Buildings, more
especially, did _Constantinople_ much resemble _Old Rome_.



The Ninth _Ward_.


_The ninth_ Ward _is all a Declivity, and bounded by the Sea. It
contains the two Churches of_ Cænopolis, _and_ Omonæa; _the Granaries
of_ Alexandria; _the House of the most illustrious_ Arcadia; _the_
Bagnio’s _of_ Anastasia; _the Granaries of_ Theodosius; _sixteen
Streets; a hundred and sixteen great Houses; two large_ Portico’s;
_fifteen private Baths; fifteen private, and four publick Mills. ’Tis
governed by one_ Curator, _one_ Vernaculus, _thirty eight_ Collegiati,
_and five_ Vico-Magistri.


NOTES.

_The two Churches of_ Cænopolis, _and_ Omonæa.] I am of Opinion, that
the first of these Churches took its Name from some Place in the City.
Perhaps it was call’d so from a Spring without the _Porta Aurea_,
which had made the Ground foul, and oozy. _Leo_, before he came to
the Government, as the Story goes, anointed the Eyes of a blind Man
with the Dirt of that Place, and he recover’d his Sight. When he
arriv’d afterwards to the Imperial Dignity, he dedicated a Church
to the _Virgin Mary_, who foretold his Accession to the Government.
_Nicephorus_, in _Lib._ XV. _Cap._ 25. _Hist. Ecclesiast._ (and
_Procopius_ confirms it) says, that in the Suburbs, which was called
_Fons_, or the Spring, _Justinian_ repair’d the Church of the _Blessed
Virgin_. The other Church is call’d Ὁμόνοια, or the Church of Concord;
because, probably in the Times of Heathenism, the Temple of _Concord_
stood there; as there were no less than three such Temples at _Rome_.
One of which was dedicated to her by _M. Furius Camillus_, upon a
Suppression of a Military Tumult; the second by _M. Manlius Prætor_,
upon quelling such another Tumult in _Gaul_; and the third in the
_Forum Romanum_, near the _Græcostasis_, by _L. Opimius_ the _Consul_,
upon the Defeat of _Gracchus_ and his Party, in Opposition to the
strongest Resentments of the People; so that the Inscription over this
Temple was _Opus Vecordiæ_, and not _Concordiæ_. There was also another
Temple dedicated to _Concord_, which was either built, or repair’d by
_Livia Augusta_, as is observed by St. _Austin._ _Lib._ III. _Cap._
2. _de Civit. Dei._ One of these Temples was repaired by _Constantine_
for Christian Worship, as is evident from an antient Inscription in the
_Lateran_.

_The Granaries_ of Alexandria.] There were yearly carried from
_Alexandria_ to _Constantinople_, eight Millions of _Medimni_ of Wheat,
(each _Medimnus_ of _Attick_ Measure consisted of six Bushels) for
which the Masters of the Ships by an Edict of _Justinian_, received
the Sum of ninety Thousand _Aurei_. There was antiently rais’d by
Order of the Senate, and the principal Inhabitants, the Sum of six
hundred and eleven Pounds in Gold, which was lodged in the Hands of the
_Prefect_ of the City, for purchasing Provision; to which the Emperor
added another Import, for purchasing Corn from _Alexandria_, _Lib._
III. _Cod. Theod. de Frumen. Urb. Constan._ This Corn, when brought to
_Constantinople_, was laid up in Granaries, which were therefore called
the Granaries of _Alexandria_.

_The House of the most illustrious_ Arcadia.] This Lady, as _Cedrinus_
relates, was the Daughter of _Arcadius_. She had another House in the
tenth _Ward_. _Arcadius_ had by the Empress _Eudocia_, three Daughters,
_Pulcheria_, _Marina_, and _Arcadia_, who all lived in a State of
Celibacy.

_The_ Bagnio’s _of_ Anastasia.] These _Bagnio’s_ were so call’d from
_Anastasia_, the Daughter of _Valens_, as others were from her Sister
_Carosia_ abovementioned. _Marcellinus_, in his _Seventeenth Book_
observes, that these _Bagnio’s_ took their Name from _Anastasia_.
_Paulas Diaconus_ tells us in his _Thirteenth Book_, that there’s a
very large House in _Constantinople_ called _Carya_, which signifies
a Nut: For, says he, there stands in the Porch of this House a
Nut-tree, on which, as the Report goes, St. _Achatius_ suffered
Martyrdom. Upon this Account, there is also an Oratory built in the
same Place. _Procopius_ also mentions a Man, who went to the _Bagnio’s_
of _Anastasia_, which took their Name, says he, from the Sister of
_Constantine_.



The Tenth _Ward_.


_The tenth_ Ward, _on the other Side of the City, is divided from the
ninth by a broad Way, yet is it much more upon the Level; nor is it, in
any Part of it uneven, but near the Sea Shore. ’Tis of a proportionable
Length and Breadth, and contains in it; the Church of St._ Achatius;
_the_ Bagnio’s _of Constantine; the House of_ Augusta Placidia; _the
House of_ Augusta Eudocia; _the House of the most illustrious_ Arcadia;
_a large_ Nympheum; _twenty Streets; six hundred and thirty six great
Houses; six large_ Portico’s; _twenty two private Baths; two publick,
and sixteen private Mills; and twelve_ Gradus. _It has one_ Curator,
_one_ Vernaculus, _ninety_ Collegiati, _and five_ Vico-Magistri.


NOTES.

_The Church of St._ Achatius.] This good Man suffered Death at
_Constantinople_, as I just observed, upon a Nut-tree, which
_Nicephorus_ says, remained in the Middle of the Church, sacred to his
Memory in the Reign of _Arcadius_, though he was martyr’d in the Time
of _Dioclesian_ an hundred Years before. For, speaking of _Procopius_
the Tyrant, The Church, says he, which was demolished with Age, was
rebuilt, and beautified by _Justinian_. And _Procopius_ the Historian
tells us in _Lib. de Ædif Just._ That _Justinian_ rebuilt it from the
Ground, and that it cast such a Lustre, that it struck the Spectators
with Admiration, its Marble being very glossy, and white as Snow.
He adds farther, that this Church was called the _Martyrdom_ of St.
_Achatius_, because he was buried there, which happened on the sixth of
_May_.

_The_ Bagnio’s _of_ Constantine.] _Gyllius_ says they were the
_Bagnio’s_ of _Constantius_, and which, indeed, are often mentioned
by _Sozomen_, _Socrates_, and _Suidas_; but ’tis more probable that
these _Bagnio’s_ were built by _Constantine_, who was indefatigable in
beautifying the City with many Decorations.

_The House of_ Placidia Augusta.] This Lady was the Daughter of
_Theodosius_ the _Less_, who afterwards resided in _Italy_, with her
Brother _Honorius_.

_The House of_ Augusta Eudocia.] She was the most learned Woman of
her Age, and wrote the Life of _Christ_ in _Greek Hexameters_, after
the Manner of _Homer_. At last being suspected by her Husband of
Adultery, and divorc’d, she went to _Jerusalem_, but upon the Death of
_Theodosius_, as _Zonaras_ and _Nicephorus_ write, returned again to
_Constantinople_.



The Eleventh _Ward_.


_The eleventh_ Ward, _much wider in Compass than the former, is,
in no part of it, bounded by the Sea. The whole of it, level and
rising Ground, contains, the Church of the_ Apostles; _the Palace of_
Flacilla; _the House of_ Augusta Pulcheria; _the Brazen Bull; the
Cistern of_ Arcadius; _the Cistern of_ Modestus; _five hundred and
three great Houses; four large_ Portico’s; _fourteen private Baths;
one publick, and three private Mills; and seven_ Gradus. _It has one_
Curator; _one_ Vernaculus; _thirty seven_ Collegiati, _and five_
Vico-Magistri.


NOTES.

_The Church of the_ Apostles.] _Cedrinus_ and _Eusebius_ write, that
this Church was rebuilt by _Constantine_. _Eusebius_, _Lib._ IV.
_Cap._ 58. _de Vita Const._ says, that to perpetuate the Memory of
the _Apostles_, he began to build a Church, in the City called after
his own Name. When he had built the Church to a very great Height, he
beautify’d it with Stones of all Kinds, and inlay’d it with Variety of
the most delicate Marble, from the Pavement to the Top of the Church;
and having closed the Roof with Arches of the best Workmanship, he
gilded it over. The Top of the Church, on the Outside of it, was
cover’d with Brass, to secure it from the Violence of the Weather,
part of which was also gilded; so that the amazing Splendour of it,
reflected the Rays of the Sun to a very great Distance. The inward
part of the Church he cover’d with Net-work, which was artificially
made of Brass and Gold. Thus beautifully was the Church adorn’d by the
great Care and Application of the Emperor. Before it stood a spacious
Court, with an open Gallery round it. The Church and the Gallery were
wholly surrounded with _Portico’s_. The Palace, the _Bagnio’s_, the
Walks, and many Houses built for the Accommodation of those who look’d
after them, had all of them the Conveniency of some _Portico_. In
this Church was laid the Body of _Constantine_, in a golden Chest,
the twelve _Apostles_ standing round his Tomb. This is attested by
_Socrates_. This Church was afterwards rebeautified by _Justinian_. For
_Procopius_, _Lib. de Ædif. Just._ speaks of it thus: There was, says
he, an ancient Church at _Constantinople_, just sinking with Age. This
Church, for the Reverence he bore to it, was repair’d by _Justinian_,
where the Masons and Workmen found three wooden Chests or Coffins,
which proved by their Inscriptions, that the Bodies of St. _Luke_, St.
_Andrew_ and _Timothy_, were interr’d there, and which were viewed by
_Justinian_, and the _Christians_ of those Times, with the greatest
Admiration.

_The Palace of_ Flacilla.] If we read it _Falcilla_, it is meant of
another Daughter of _Arcadius_; if _Placilla_, she was the Wife of
_Theodosius the Great_, whom _Paulus Diaconus_ calls _Flacilla_.

_The Brazen Bull._] This Bull, _Cedrinus_ writes, was brought from
_Troy_. There was, says he, a Stove in which St. _Antipas_ the Martyr
was burnt to Death. Some are of Opinion, that this Stove was the
_Brazen Bull_ here mention’d, which was invented by _Perillus_, who
was forced to undergo the same Torment by _Phalaris_, a cruel Tyrant
of _Agrigentum_. _Zonaras_ relates, that _Phocas_ the Tyrant was burnt
in a Bull, _i. e._ in a brazen Stove made in the Shape of a Bull,
brought from _Pergamus_, which Place gave its Name to a Place near
_Constantinople_.

_The Cistern of_ Modestus.] _Modestus_ was first chief Governour of
the East, and was afterwards, _Præfectus Prætorio_, or General of
the Life-Guard to _Valens_. As he was an _Arian_, he persecuted the
Catholicks. Afterwards he was recovered from a dangerous Illness by the
Prayers of St. _Basil_, as ’tis recorded by _Gregory Nazianzen_ in his
Funeral Oration upon him. I take this to be the same Person who built
the Cistern here mention’d.



The Twelfth _Ward_.


_The twelfth_ Ward, _from the Entrance of the City at the_ Porta Aurea,
_is a long way upon the Level. ’Tis extended on the left Side of it
by a gentle Descent, and is bounded by the Sea. This_ Ward _is better
guarded, and more handsomly beautified than any other, the Walls rising
higher here than in any other part of the City. It contains the_ Porta
Aurea; _the_ Portico’s _of_ Troas; _the_ Forum _of_ Theodosius; _A
Column with winding Stairs in its Inside; the Mint, or Treasury; the
Port of_ Theodosius; _eleven Streets; three hundred and sixty three
great Houses; three large_ Portico’s; _five private Baths; five private
Mills, and nine_ Gradus. _It has one_ Curator, _one_ Vernaculus,
_thirty four_ Collegiati, _and five_ Vico-Magistri.


NOTES.

_The_ Porta Aurea.] The _Greeks_ call it ὡραία both on the account
of its own Beautifulness, and that of the neighbouring Buildings; so
that it is a palpable Mistake in those who call it _Porta Neoria_ from
the Dock, which is near to it. I take this to be the same Gate which
_Zonaras_ mentions in his Life of _Leo_ the Philosopher. He calls it
the Western Gate of the Golden _Triclinium_, from whence it is call’d
the _Porta Aurea_, as is observ’d by _Nicetas_ in his Life of _Alexius
Ducas, Marzulfus_, and in the _History_ of their Atchievements, after
they had taken the City; as also by _Nicephorus Gregoras_, in his
_Treatise_ entituled, _The Entry of_ Michael Palæologus _into the
City_. In this Gate it is reported, the Elephants were stabled, which
were much like those with which _Theodosius_ made his publick Entry
into _Constantinople_, as ’tis mention’d by _Cedrinus_. Some Historians
tell us, that they were transported to _Constantinople_ from the Temple
of _Mars Atheniensis_. This Gate stood Easterly, facing the Sea, and
as _Nicephorus_ observes, overlook’d the Imperial Citadel through the
City to a great Distance, and that from thence you might look very far
backwards into the Inland Countries. This Gate, in a direct Line, was
distant from the Sea-shore fourteen thousand and seventy five Feet, so
that the City was about three Miles in Length.

_The_ Portico’s _of_ Troas.] I believe these _Portico’s_ took their
Name either from the People of _Troas_, who, while they continued
there, built them; or from some Part of the City so call’d, or because
some Goods and Merchandize were imported thither from _Troas_, as I
observed before of the Granaries of _Troas_.

_A Column with winding Stairs on its Inside._] Upon this Pillar was
erected the Statue of _Theodosius_, which, as _Zonaras_ writes, was
near the _Porta Aurea_, and fell down in the Reign of _Leo Isaurus_.
_Gyllius_ is of Opinion, that this was the Statue of _Arcadius_, that
the Shaft of it, with the Pedestal and Capital, consisted of twenty one
Stones; and adds, that the Battels of _Theodosius_ were carv’d upon it.



The Thirteenth _Ward_.


_The thirteenth_ Ward _is call’d the_ Sycæne Ward, _which is divided
from the City by a narrow Bay of the Sea, and maintains an Intercourse
with it by Boats, and small Vessels. It stands wholly upon the Side
of it, except a broad Tract of Land, which lies Level, at the Foot of
it, near the Sea-shore. It contains one Church, the_ Bagnio’s _and_
Forum _of_ Honorius; _A Theatre; A Dock for Ship-building; four
hundred and thirty one great Houses; one large_ Portico; _five private_
Bagnio’s; _one publick, and four private Mills; with eight_ Gradus.
_It has one_ Curator, _one_ Vernaculus, _thirty four_ Collegiati, _and
five_ Vico-Magistri.


NOTES.

_The_ Sycene Ward.] This _Ward_ is a _Peninsula_ divided from
_Constantinople_ by a small Bay of the City. ’Tis at present call’d
_Galata_, or _Pera_. _Stephanus_ (_de Urbibus_) tells us, that _Sycæ_
is a small City over against New _Rome_, which in his Time was called
_Justiniana_. But _Justinian_ himself, _Novel._ 59. _Cap._ 5. places
it so far within the new Walls of the City, that, as he says, it
ought to be looked upon as a Part of it. It was named by the _Greeks_
_Sycæna_, from the great Produce it bears of the best _Figs_, as
is observed by _Cedrinus_ and _Dionysius_ a _Byzantian_. ’Tis not
inhabited at present by the _Franks_, for so the _Greeks_ call the
_Latines_. _Gyllius_ is of Opinion that it was called _Galata_, because
_Brennus_, Captain General of the _Gauls_, whom the _Greeks_ call
Γαλάται marched thither with his Army. It was also called _Pera_,
that is, the _Ferry_, or _Peræa_, and stood on the other Side of the
Water; as _Josephus_ relates, that _Judæa_ was on the other Side of
_Jordan_; and as _Strabo_ mentions a Place, which he says was on the
other Side of _Euphrates_. _Anastasius_ in his _Constitutions_ calls
it _Sycæ_, or the _Ferry_ of _Sycæ_, where he commands the Dead to be
bury’d without Fee, or Reward. ’Tis divided by a Hill that runs from
North to South, and is bounded on each Side by two Vales, of a Mile in
Length. Its Walls are four Thousand four Hundred Paces in Compass. Near
to it, _Justinian_ in his 159ᵗʰ _Nov._ seems to fix the Suburbs called
_Coparium_: And _Socrates_ in his 30ᵗʰ _Chap._ of his _Eccles. Hist._
tells us, that there’s a Place just against the City, which is called
_Sycæ_. The Church of the _Novatians_ was translated hither in the
Reign of _Constantine_.

_It maintained an Intercourse with_ Constantinople, _by Boats and
small Vessels_.] There were in the Bay here many Thousands of small
Boats, far exceeding the Number of those which are at _Venice_ to carry
Passengers from one Shore to the other, so that this _Peninsula_ might
reasonably be looked upon as a Part of the City. ’Tis almost surrounded
with Mountains, at the Foot of which, towards the Sea, it lies all upon
a Level to the opposite Shore. It contained a Church, the _Forum_,
and Theatre of _Honorius_, and many other Ornaments and Curiosities
in common with other _Wards_. There stood here a magnificent Church
dedicated to St. _Irene_, which was built by _Pertinax_, who had pass’d
the Consular Dignity, and was then _Patriarch_ of _Constantinople_:
And _Constantine_, when he had beautified the _Ward_ with many stately
Buildings, enclosed it with a Wall, as ’tis recorded by _Cardinal
Baronius_ in his _Annals_ of the Year 314.

_The Dock._] There was also a Place in this _Ward_ where they built
their Ships.

The Author has taken no Notice of two Streets which belonged to this
_Ward_, and which would complete the Number of three hundred and twenty
two Streets, mentioned in the Conclusion of his _Treatise_; but without
the Addition of them, we can reckon them three hundred and twenty and
no more.



The Fourteenth _Ward_.


_Although this_ Ward _is look’d upon to be a fourteenth Part of
the City, yet because it is divided from the other_ Wards _by an
intermediate Space of Land, and enclosed within its own Walls, it
makes the Figure of a small City by it self. The Entrance of it at the
Gate is somewhat upon the Level; but the right Side of it, rising into
an Ascent, almost to the Middle of the broad Way, falls into a deep
Descent, and ends afterwards near the Sea in a Plain. It contains a
Church; the Palace; a_ Nympheum; _some Baths; a Theatre; a_ Lusorium;
_a Wooden Bridge; eleven Streets; a hundred and sixty seven great
Houses; two large_ Portico’s; _five private Baths; one publick, and one
private Mill; with five_ Gradus.


NOTES.

_The fourteenth_ Ward, _which is enclosed within its own Walls, makes
the Figure of a kind of small City by it self_.] It was antiently
looked upon to be a small City, because one of the Emperors had built
there an Imperial Citadel. ’Tis very mountainous about it, and it
descends towards the Sea, into the Bosom of a Plain. The Name of the
Church in this _Ward_ is not known at present.

_A Palace._] This is the Place of Imperial Residence, which was
antiently called _Palatium_, because _Augustus_ dwelt in Mount
_Palatine_ at _Rome_. The Dwelling-House of _Romulus_ was also called
by the same Name. Wherefore, says _Dion_, speaking of _Augustus_, let
the Emperor be where he pleases, yet the Place where he constantly
dwells, is always called his Palace.

_A_ Lusorium.] This probably was the same Place with the _Ludus
Venatorius_, in which the Combatants exercised themselves before
they engaged with wild Beasts; yet is it more probable, that it was
so called from the _Naves Lusoriæ_, which were built there, of which
_Marcellinus_ takes Notice in his _sixth Book_, as also the _Code_ of
_Theodosius de Lusoriis Danubii_.

_A Wooden Bridge._] _Suidas_ writes, that near the Church of St.
_Mamas_, there was a Bridge which consisted of twelve Arches, for there
was a great Flood of Waters there. I believe this was after chang’d
into a Stone Bridge.

_Five_ Gradus, _or Stairs_.] At the End of this _Ward_, after the five
_Gradus_, I would correct the Omission of my Author, by comparing this
with the other _Wards_, and adding one _Curator_, one _Vernaculus_,
thirty seven _Collegiati_, and five _Vico-Magistri_.

The Author, in his following summary View of the City, mentions five
hundred and sixty _Collegiati_, but to complete the Number of them,
there are wanting seven. _Theodosius_ the _Less_ has added three in
_Lib. de Commer. & Mercat._ and makes the Number of them to be five
hundred and sixty three.



_A Summary View of the whole City._


_Having taken a particular View of the City, as divided into_ Wards,
_I shall now_, continues my Author, _give the Reader a more large and
general Description of it, to shew that its Beauty and Magnificence is
not only to be ascribed to Art and good Workmanship, but that Nature
herself by the Mediation of the Elements, has happily contributed
to its Security and Defence. The divine Providence has with so much
Wisdom consulted the Preservation of its Inhabitants, even to future
Ages, that a long Tract of Land, in the Nature of a_ Promontory,
_full of Windings and Harbours in its Sides, facing the Chaps of the_
Black-Sea, _narrow in Breadth, is strongly fortified by the Sea. The_
Isthmus, _the only Part of the City not bounded by the Sea, is at the
same Time strengthened with a double Wall with numerous Towers on its
Ramparts. The City thus enclosed and defended, contains in the Whole
the following Buildings. Five Palaces; fourteen Churches; five divine
Houses of the_ Augustæ; _three of the most illustrious Ladies_;
_eight_ Bagnio’s; _two_ Basilica’s; _four_ Fora’s; _two Senate-Houses;
five Granaries, or Store-Houses; two Theatres; two_ Lusoria; _four
Havens; one_ Circo; _four Cisterns; four_ Nymphea; _three hundred
and twenty two Streets; four Thousand three hundred and eight large
Houses; fifty two_ Portico’s; _a hundred and fifty three private Baths;
twenty publick, and a hundred and twenty private Mills; a hundred and
seventeen_ Gradus; _five Flesh Markets; one_ Porphyry _Pillar; two
Pillars with winding Stairs; one_ Colossus; _one Golden_ Tetrapylum;
_the_ Forum _of_ Augustus; _the Capitol; the Mint, or Treasury; and
three_ Gradus _by the Sea-Shore. It was under the Care and Government
of fourteen_ Curators, _fourteen_ Vernaculi, _five hundred and sixty_
Collegiati, _and sixty five_ Vico-Magistri. _The Length of the City
from the_ Porta Aurea _in a direct Line to the Sea-Shore, is fourteen
Thousand and seventy five Feet; the Breadth of it, six Thousand one
Hundred and fifty_. Thus concludes the Author of the Description, I
shall now go on with my


NOTES.

_It has five Palaces._] Old _Rome_, instead of these, has one Thousand
one hundred and eighty Houses.

_Fourteen Churches._] _Rome_ had four Hundred and twenty four Temples.

_Five divine Houses of the_ Augustæ, _and of those who bore the Title
of the Most Illustrious three_.] The Houses of those Ladies, who bore
the Title of _Augustæ_ were called Divine. They had also other Marks
of Imperiality and Honour conferr’d upon them. By the Mistake of the
Writer these Houses were reckoned six, though they were no more in
Number than five only, _viz._ two of _Placidia_, two of _Pulcheria_,
and one of _Eudocia_, the Wife of _Theodosius_. As to the Houses
belonging to the Ladies, entitled the _Most Illustrious_, one of them
belonged to _Marina_, and the other two to _Arcadia_, and bore the same
Title with themselves.

_Eight_ Bagnio’s.] _Victor_ writes, that at _Rome_ there were eleven.

_Two_ Basilica’s.] There were ten of them at _Rome_.

_Four_ Fora’s.] At _Rome_ there were eleven; _Victor_ says nineteen.

_Two Senate-Houses._] At _Rome_, as _Victor_ says, there were three;
one stood between the _Capitol_, and the _Forum Romanum_, where was the
Temple of _Concord_; another by the _Porta Capena_, and a third in the
Temple of _Bellona_, which stood in the _Circo_ of _Flaminius_, where
the Foreign Ambassadors resided, because they would not allow them
Admittance into the City.

_Five Granaries._] At _Rome_ there were two hundred and ninety two.

_Two Theatres._] At _Rome_ there were three.

_Two_ Lusoria.] At _Rome_, according to _Victor_, there were sixteen.

_Four Havens._] At _Rome_ there was but one.

_One_ Circo.] At _Rome_ there were two.

_Four Cisterns._] At _Rome_ there were none.

_Four_ Nymphea.] At _Rome_ there were fifteen.

_Three hundred and twenty two Streets._] At _Rome_ four Hundred and
twenty four.

_Four Thousand three hundred and eighteen large Houses._] At _Rome_
there were forty six Thousand six hundred and two _Insulæ_, and one
Thousand seven hundred and eighty large Houses. The Houses here
mentioned were large roof’d Buildings, tyl’d at Top four Ways; the
_Insulæ_ were roof’d Buildings, tyl’d only before and behind.

_Forty two_ Portico’s.] At _Rome_ there were six only.

_A hundred and fifty three private Baths._] At _Rome_ there were eight
hundred and fifty six.

_Twenty publick, and a hundred and twenty private Mills._] At _Rome_
two hundred and fifty four.

_A hundred and seventeen_ Gradus.] At _Rome_ none.

_Five Flesh-Markets._] At _Rome_ two only.

_Five hundred and sixty_ Collegiati.] It is apparent that thirty seven
of them are omitted in the last _Ward_. There was no such Office at
_Rome_, yet there were, instead of them, Watchmen divided into seven
Companies, whose Business, according to _Dion_ and _Suetonius_, was
much the same with that of the _Collegiati_.

_Sixty five_ Vico-magistri.] It should be read seventy; for five
of them are omitted in the last _Ward_. At _Rome_ the Number of
_Collegiati_ was six hundred and seventy two.

_A Porphyry Pillar._] There was no such Pillar, as _Cedrinus_ says,
at _Rome_, tho’ this was brought from thence. _Gyllius_ writes, that
this Pillar was made of square marble Stones, and that it stood in the
_Hippodrom_.

_Two Pillars with Winding-Stairs in the Inside of them._] There was the
same Number at _Rome_.

_One_ Colossus.] At _Rome_ there were two. ’Tis omitted in the
_Description of the Wards_, as many other Things of Note are.

_The Golden_ Tetrapylum.] _Gyllius_ quotes an unknown Author who will
have this _Tetrapylum_ to have been a Quadrangle with _Portico’s_
round it, having Four Gates, and was formerly call’d _Quadrivium_. The
_Latines_ call it a _Stadium_. But there’s no such Place to be found
in the _Wards_ of the City, unless it be the _Stadium_ in the Fourth
_Ward_, which is omitted in the _Summary View_ of the City. _Cedrinus_,
in his Life of _Leo Magnus_, mentions this _Tetrapylum_. _Evagrius_
in the _twenty eighth Chapter_ of his _third Book_ tells us, that
it was built by the Senator _Mammianus_, in the Reign of _Zeno_. He
built, says he, two stately _Portico’s_ of exquisite Workmanship, and
beautify’d them with a neat glossy Marble. As to the _Tetrapylum_ built
by _Mammianus_, there are not, as _Gyllius_ tells us, the least Remains
of it. _Victor_ writes, that there was a _Pentapylum_ in the tenth
_Ward_ of _Rome_.

_The_ Augusteum.] This was the _Forum_ of _Augustus_.

_The Capitol._] At _Rome_, as _Victor_ writes, there were two; the old
and the new _Capitol_.

_The Mint, or Treasury._] There was no such Place at _Rome_.

_Three_ Gradus _by the Sea-Shore_.] There were no such _Stairs_ at
_Rome_, yet they had their _Lakes_, their _Naval Fights_, &c.

The City is reported to have had twenty three Gates. _Laonicus
Chalcondylus_, in his History of the _Ottomans_, tells us, that
_Constantinople_ contains in compass a hundred and eleven Furlongs,
which is more than thirteen _Italian_ Miles. ’Tis generally thought
to be eighteen Miles in Circumference. Besides the foremention’d
Curiosities, _Constantinople_ has been famous for the _Aqueduct_
of _Hadrian_, which furnish’d the Palace, the _Nymphea_, and the
_Bagnio’s_ with a Sufficiency of Waters, as _Theodosius_ mentions in a
Letter to _Cyrus_, _Prefect_ of the City. The _Bagnio’s_ of _Achilles_
are also mention’d by him, where he says, that these _Bagnio’s_ were
supply’d with Water convey’d into them from the said _Aqueduct_ by
leaden Pipes. _Cedrinus_ says, that these _Bagnio’s_ were built
near the _Strategium_, and took their Name from an Altar, which was
dedicated to _Ajax_ and _Achilles:_ And _Cassiodorus_ relates, that the
Fire, which happen’d in the Reign of _Constantine_ the _Great_, burnt
down the City, as far as the _Bagnio’s_ of _Achilles_.



  _Some Account of the_ Suburbs _as they are mention’d in the_ Codes
  _and_ Law-Books.


_Procopius_ tells us, in his first Book _de Ædif. Justin._ that
the _Hepdomum_ was one Part of the Suburbs of _Constantinople_.
_Justinian_, says he, built another Church dedicate to St. _Theodora_
in a Place call’d the _Hepdomum_, which in the _Greek_ signifies the
_Seventh_. _Zonaras_, in the Life of _Phocas_, mentions the same
Thing, as does also _Cedrinus_ in the Life of _Arcadius_ and _Justin_,
with many others. In this Place were many Laws enacted; and _Zonaras_
writes, that _Theodosius_ the _Great_ built a Church there, in Honour
of St. _John Baptist_. _Gyllius_ says, that ’tis at present enclos’d
within the Walls of the City, that it stands upon the sixth Hill, and
that ’tis call’d _Hepdomum_, or _Seventh_, as denoting the Number of
the Suburbs of the City.

_The_ Blachernæ.] This is another Part of the Suburbs, mention’d
by _Justinian_ in his 151ˢᵗ _Nov._ where he says, that _Hierius_
bequeath’d by Will to his Son _Anthemius_ the Suburbs in the
_Blachernæ_. _Zonaras_ writes, that _Pulcheria_, the Sister of
_Theodosius_ the _Less_, built a Church to the _Blessed Virgin_ in this
Place, which, as _Procopius_ tells us, was repair’d by _Justinian_.
_Cedrinus_ observes, that the Emperor _Justin_, Nephew of _Justinian_,
enlarg’d it with two Arches. _Suidas_ reports, that _Anastasius_ the
Emperor built there a large _Triclinium_ and _Tiberius_ a _Bagnio_, as
_Zonaras_ writes. It took its Name of the _Blachernæ_, as _Gyllius_
believes, upon the Authority of _Dionysius_ a _Byzantian_ Writer, from
some Person, who was formerly a kind of a petty King there. It was
situate near the Sea, in the Place, as _Nicephorus_ observes in his
15ᵗʰ _Book_ _Chap._ 25ᵗʰ _of his Eccl. Hist._ where _Leo_ the _Great_
built a Church to the Virgin _Mary_.

The _Monastery_ of _Studius_ was another Part of the Suburbs of
_Constantinople_, in which, as _Justinian_ observes, in his 6ᵗʰ
_Chap._ _Novel_ 59ᵗʰ. was kept a large Bier, for the Burial of the
Dead. The following Account is given of _Studius_ by _Nicephorus_,
in his 15ᵗʰ _Book_, _Chap._ 25ᵗʰ _of his Eccles. Hist._ An eminent
Citizen of _Rome_, says he, nam’d _Studius_, came from thence to
_Constantinople_, where he built a Church to the Memory of St. _John
Baptist_, and that divine Service might be celebrated there with more
Decency and Solemnity, he took some Monks out of the Monastery of
the Ἀκοίμητοι, who were so call’d, because some of them were always
_waking_ to attend divine Worship. The heavenly-minded _Marcellinus_
built them a Monastery, in which they continually sang Hymns to God,
their Society being divided into three Tribes for that Purpose. Thus
far _Nicephorus_. Upon this Occasion _Studius_ was made _Consul_, as
appears by an Inscription over the Gate of his own Monastery, which
runs thus:

  _This Pyle was rais’d by_ Studius’ _bounteous Hand:
  Great Actions greatest Honours should command.
  In just Acknowledgment, the grateful Town,
  Repay’d the Founder with a_ Consul’s _Gown_.

This happen’d in the Reign of _Leo_ the Emperor.

The _Coparia_, as is plain from the 159ᵗʰ _Nov. of Justinian_, was
another Part of the Suburbs, and was bequeath’d, as appears by the
Codicil of _Hierius_’s Will to his Niece.

There was also another Part of the Suburbs in the _Promontory_ of
the Creek of _Sosthenium_, which was formerly in the Possession of
_Ardaburus_, General of the Army to _Theodosius_ the _Less_. The Right
of it afterwards came to _Hierius_, who was _Præfectus Prætorio_, or
General of the Life-Guard to the Emperor _Zeno_. _Nicephorus_ in the
50ᵗʰ _Chap. of his_ 7ᵗʰ _Book of Eccl. Hist._ gives this Reason why it
was call’d _Sosthenium_, ’Tis recorded, says he, that the _Argonauts_
of _Greece_, when they arriv’d here, began to plunder the Countrey,
but were defeated by _Amycus_, who was then Governor of the Place,
and being dispers’d, they wander’d about till they came to a woody
unhospitable Place, where they took shelter in a large Thicket of
Trees; that in this Calamity _Virtue_ came down to them from Heaven in
a human Shape, having Wings like an Eagle, and by her Oracle foretold,
that if they would venture another Battle, they should conquer
_Amycus_. Directed by this Advice, they engag’d them again, obtain’d
an entire Victory over them, slew him, and all his Forces; and that
to express their Gratitude to the _Vision_, they built a Temple, and
erected a Statue to her, in the Shape she appear’d to them, which gave
the Place the Name of _Sosthenium_, because they _secur’d_ themselves
by the second Battle.

Bytharium, _or_ Philotheum.] This was also another Part of the
_Suburbs_, and is mention’d as such in 159ᵗʰ _Nov. of Justinian_.

The _Porta Veneta_ is mentioned by _Procopius_ in his _History of the_
Persian _War_; who, speaking of some military Officer, tells us, that
when he came to the _Porta Veneta_, which stands on the Right Hand of
the Palace, he halted and determin’d to march to _Hypalium_. This Gate
seems to take its Name from the _Suburbs_ call’d _in Venetis_, probably
because the _Venetian Faction_, a Company of Chariot-Racers dress’d in
_Sky-colour’d_ Cloths, dwelt there.

_Procopius_ also takes Notice of the _Pontichium_ by the Ferry, and
also of the _Rusiniana_, as two other Parts of the _Suburbs_. These
Places he mentions in his 1ˢᵗ _Book of the_ Persian _War_; as does also
_Sozomen_ in the 21ˢᵗ _Chap._ _Book_ the 8ᵗʰ.



  _Of the present Buildings of_ Constantinople.


_Gyllius_ assures us, that the whole City, at present, is under a
visible Decay, as to its Buildings; that the Houses are low and mean,
and that there’s little or nothing to be seen of its ancient Beauty
and Magnificence, except in a few of their _Basha’s_ Houses, their
_Mosques_, their _Bagnio’s_, and their _Caravansera’s_, which are all
very noble Buildings, and are as follows.

There are at least three hundred _Mosques_ built with Marble, cover’d
with Lead, and shining with glossy marble Pillars.

There are above a hundred publick _Bagnio’s_, both for Men and Women,
which are very spacious.

There are also about the same Number of _Caravansera’s_; the most
eminent of which are adorn’d with Fountains, which are constantly
supply’d with Water from the Fields adjoining the _Suburbs_, and which
also supply the whole City.

[Illustration: BYZANTIΩN

BYZANTIΩN

B Y]



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber’s note:

The original spelling, hyphenation, punctuation has been retained
except for apparent typographical errors.

The chapter headings and page numbers have been added to the CONTENTS,
by the transcriber, for the following:

  A DESCRIPTION
  Of the CITY of CONSTANTINOPLE,
  As it stood in the REIGNS of
  ARCADIUS and HONORIUS.

In the Preface of the Translator the author’s birthplace is given as
“Abi”. This has been corrected to read “Albi” (in South-West France).





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