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´╗┐Title: Specimens of British Trench Orders
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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  _CONFIDENTIAL!_
  _FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY_

  SPECIMENS OF BRITISH
  TRENCH ORDERS

  ARMY WAR COLLEGE

  1917

  [Illustration]

  WASHINGTON
  GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
  1917



  WAR DEPARTMENT,
  Document No. 590.
  _Office of The Adjutant General._



  WAR DEPARTMENT,
  WASHINGTON, _May 15, 1917_.

The following specimens of British trench orders are published for the
information of all concerned.

(2598135, A. G. O.)

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:

  H. L. SCOTT,
  _Major General, Chief of Staff_.

  OFFICIAL:
  H. P. McCAIN,
  _The Adjutant General_.



  CANADIAN CORPS TRENCH ORDERS.



CONTENTS.


SUBJECT.

                                                            Paragraph.

  Duties                                                         1

  Sentries                                                       2

  Rifles, equipment, and ammunition                              3

  "Stand to"                                                     4

  Bombs and grenades, care of                                    5

  Machine guns                                                   6

  Firing at aeroplanes                                           7

  Trench sides, undercutting of                                  8

  Sanitation                                                     9

  Time-tables and organization of work                          10

  Log books and trench store books                              11

  Communications                                                12

  Alertness                                                     13

  Rum                                                           14

  Arrangements in case of attack                                15

  Working parties on front trench                               16

  Working parties outside the front trench                      17

  Precaution when our mines are exploded                        18

  Ration parties when found from front trenches                 19

  Rations and cooking                                           20

  Vermorel sprayers                                             21

  Reliefs:
      General                                                   22
      Points to be noted by company commanders                  23
      Guides                                                    24
      Smoking and talking                                       25
      Rate of march to trenches                                 26
      Procedure on arrival in trenches                          27
      Engineers                                                 28
      Chilled feet and frostbite, prevention of                 29



CANADIAN CORPS TRENCH ORDERS.


=1. DUTIES.=--(_a_) One officer per company and one N. C. O. per
platoon will always be on duty.

(_b_) By night the officer and N. C. O. on duty will frequently patrol
the trench line to see that the sentries are alert and to inquire
whether they have any information to report about the enemy.[1]

(_c_) The N. C. O. coming on duty will go round and post new sentries
with the N. C. O. coming off duty.

(_d_) The length of each tour of duty will depend on the number of
officers and N. C. O.'s available in the company. _Normally_ each tour
should be, by night 2 hours, by day 4 hours, day commencing at morning
"stand to," and by night commencing at evening "stand to." In inclement
weather it may be advisable to reduce the tour to 1 hour.

(_e_) N. C. O.'s after posting sentries will report "All correct" or
otherwise to the officer on duty.

(_f_) The officer on duty will be responsible for sending in the
reports required by battalion headquarters, unless there is anything
unusual to report, when this duty will be performed by the company
commander.

(_g_) Men will be warned for duty by the platoon N. C. O. on duty. This
will be done at evening "stand to."

(_h_) On being detailed for duty a man will be informed at which hours
he will come on duty.

(_i_) When possible to do so, notice boards will be placed in each
section's trench, on which will be pinned daily all orders regarding
working parties, and a list of the men in the section, giving the times
at which they will come on sentry and other duty.

(_j_) Except under special circumstances, such, for instance, as a
sentry being killed or wounded, no sentry will be relieved by another
man unless the relief is properly carried out in the presence of a N.
C. O.


=2. SENTRIES=--=By night.=--(_a_) Sentries will be posted every 2
hours, except under bad weather conditions, when the length of the tour
of sentry duty may be reduced.

(_b_) From evening "stand to" till morning "stand to" one sentry to
every four men will be posted. If wiring or digging parties are out in
front, or listening posts are numerous, this number may be reduced.

(_c_) The next relief will remain within reach of the sentry.

(_d_) Every sentry is to be regularly posted by a N. C. O., who will
explain to him his duties and the front to be watched, and ascertain
that the sentry and his relief are aware of the position of the section
and platoon commanders, the sentries on either side, and whether there
are any patrols or working parties out in front. Should there be
salients in the line, the sentry will be carefully instructed, so as to
avoid any possibility of him firing toward his own trenches.

(_e_) By night or in places which have the reputation of being
dangerous, _i.e._, where enemy are suspected of mining, advanced
posts, etc., no man should ever be posted alone. There should either
be a double sentry post or the next relief should rest within kicking
distance of the sentry.

=By day.=--(_f_) The number of sentries required depends on the
proximity of the enemy's trench line and whether a good view to the
front can be obtained; normally one to every four days is sufficient.

(_g_) Every sentry will be provided with a periscope.

(_h_) Well-protected "look-out" posts for sentries will be built along
the front trench line.

(_i_) _Sending out of patrols._--Patrols will never be sent out without
definite orders as to what is required of them. Patrols will go out via
a listening post (if such exist). All listening posts will be warned of
the strength of the patrol and the approximate hour of departure and
return. Word will be passed _quietly_ along the line of sentries that a
patrol is out in front.

(_j_) As little challenging as possible will be done by sentries, and
then only in a low tone of voice.


=3. RIFLES, EQUIPMENT, AND AMMUNITION.=--(_a_) _Carrying and wearing
of._--Equipment will always be worn by men in front trenches.

(_b_) Ration and carrying parties, orderlies, etc., will wear
bandoliers and carry rifles.

(_c_) Parties at work between the front-line and reserve trenches may
be permitted to "pile" or "ground" arms. Wiring and digging parties out
in front of the fire trench will sling the rifle.

(_d_) _Loading of rifles._--Except when it is necessary to shoot, a
round will _never_ be kept in the chamber. Cut-offs will always be "in"
and the safety catch "back."

(_e_) The magazine will be kept charged with five rounds.

(_f_) Bayonets will always be fixed in front-line trenches.

(_g_) _Care of rifles._--Rifles and ammunition will be inspected
at morning and evening "stand to," and rapid loading will also be
practiced.

(_h_) Covered rifle racks will be constructed in each bay where rifles
will be kept. Breech covers will be kept on the rifles.

(_i_) In very cold weather sentries will occasionally work the bolt of
the rifle to prevent the striker becoming frozen. For the same reason,
in cold weather men will sleep with their rifles close to the body.

(_j_) All loading will be from pouch or bandolier; no ammunition must
ever be placed on ground or parapet.

(_k_) _Disposal of rifles, equipment, and ammunition._--Wounded and men
going sick will, if able to walk, wear their equipment and carry their
rifles. The rifles and equipment of men unable to carry them and also
those of dead men will be sent back to the dressing station. All other
rifles, however badly damaged, and equipment damaged or not required
will be sent back to the quartermaster. Damaged cartridges and empty
cases will be collected and returned to the quartermaster under company
arrangements.

(_l_) _Ammunition._--Every man will have 170 rounds in his possession.

(_m_) Platoon commanders will report at evening "stand to" whether
their ammunition is correct or otherwise.


=4. "STAND TO."=--"Stand to" will take place 1 hour before daylight and
1 hour before dusk. At this parade every available man will be present.
Rifles, ammunition, equipment, clothing, etc., will be inspected. Rapid
loading will be practiced. The firing position of every man will be
tested, to see whether he can hit the bottom edge of our wire. Gas
helmets and respirators will be inspected in accordance with the orders
in force. Orders will be issued and steps taken to see that the men
understand them. After "stand to" in the morning and before "stand to"
in the evening rifles will be thoroughly cleaned and oiled.


=5. CARE OF BOMBS AND GRENADES.=--(_a_) Only a small percentage of
bombs will be kept in the front trenches. These will be kept in a
well-protected and dry bomb receptacle.

(_b_) Bomb stores will be built in the end of communication trenches in
the support line.

(_c_) Detonators and fuzes, except in the front lines, will normally be
kept in tins and not in the bomb.

(_d_) The battalion grenadier officer will make frequent inspection of
all bombs and grenades.

(_e_) The alarm posts for grenadiers will be close to where the bomb
stores are placed.

(_f_) No one, other than a grenadier, will interfere with the bombs and
grenades.

(_g_) Ammunition boxes in the trenches will be examined frequently to
see if the lids work easily.


=6. MACHINE GUNS.=--(_a_) The concealment and protection of
machine-gun emplacements is important--for this reason, except in
case of emergency, machine guns will not be fired from their regular
emplacements.

(_b_) Unless emplacements are well concealed, guns will not be mounted
except between evening and morning "stand to."

(_c_) Two men per detachment will always be on duty with the gun.

(_d_) Before dusk, while there is still sufficient light, each gun will
be laid on some particular spot either in or behind the enemy's front
line.

(_e_) Range cards will be prepared and kept with each gun.

(_f_) _Machine guns in the front line should be reduced to a minimum
sufficient to cover the front._


=7. FIRING AT AEROPLANES.=--Firing at aeroplanes will not be permitted
except by order of an officer.


=8. UNDERCUTTING TRENCH SIDES.=--(_a_) The undercutting of trench sides
to make shelters is forbidden.

(_b_) When shelters are made the required space from the ground level
downward will be cut out and a roof supported on reliable posts will be
made.


=9. SANITATION.=--(_a_) The importance of strict attention to
sanitation should be impressed on all ranks.

(_b_) Empty tins or other refuse will be collected in receptacles kept
for the purpose in the trenches and buried in a refuse pit.

(_c_) Latrines will be constructed in trenches leading from
communication trenches. Where the bucket system is employed, chloride
of lime or creosol will be freely used. The soil will be removed at
night and buried in a deep pit well away from the trenches; these pits
will be filled in when nearly full and labeled.

(_d_) The commanding officer is responsible for sanitation in his unit
and the medical officer will advise him in sanitary matters, making
daily inspections of latrines, refuse pits, and water arrangements.
Under the medical officer latrines and refuse pits will be attended
to by the regimental sanitary men and water duties by the R. A. M. C.
details attached.


=10. TIME-TABLES AND ORGANIZATION OF WORK.=--(_a_) A time-table will be
drawn up by each company commander. In this time-table he will allot
hours of work, rest, and meals.

(_b_) Working parties will be properly organized. Definite tasks will
be allotted. Each commander of a working party should know what work is
expected from his party before the hour appointed to commence, so that
no time is wasted in getting to work.

(_c_) Unless it can not be avoided, men should never be taken for
sentry duty without having had a reasonable period of rest, and when
this becomes necessary a report should be made to the C. O.


=11. LOG BOOKS AND TRENCH STORE BOOKS.=--(_a_) Each company commander
will keep a log book in which will be entered up daily the work done.
This log book will be handed over from one commander to another on
relief.

(_b_) A trench store book will also be kept in which will be entered
up all trench stores issued to the company. On relief, the incoming
company commander will give a receipt to the outgoing commander for all
trench stores taken over.

(_c_) Commanding officers are personally responsible that no trench
stores, bath mats, etc., are used as firewood.


=12. COMMUNICATIONS.=--(_a_) Artillery lines will be laid on one side
of a trench. Infantry lines on the opposite side.

(_b_) The Infantry brigade signal officer will exercise general
supervision over all lines in the brigade area, and will notify the
orderly officer of the Artillery brigade when any Artillery lines
require attention or relaying. He will assist the Artillery whenever it
may be possible to do so.

(_c_) Lines will be laid as low as possible, preferably not more than
9 inches from the bottom of the trench. They will be picketed into
grooves cut into the side of the trench, the pickets being securely
driven in at every reentrant bend and at every 10 yards along the
straight.

(_d_) Lines will be clearly labeled at every 100 yards and at every
junction with another line.

(_e_) All lines will be carefully patrolled at least once daily.

(_f_) One telephonist will always be on duty.

(_g_) Telephone communication to battalion headquarters and the company
on each flank will be frequently tested.

(_h_) All "dead" lines will be reeled up at once.

(_i_) Every man is to know the position of his platoon commander's
shelter and the company headquarters.

(_j_) At least two men per section of the support and reserve companies
must be able to act as guides to all the company headquarters of the
battalion.

(_k_) All officers must know the shortest route from their own
headquarters to those of the company on their flanks and to their own
battalion headquarters.

(_l_) It is the duty of every officer or man to fasten any loose wire
that he may see which has become temporarily detached.


=13. ALERTNESS.=--Anything seen or heard in connection with the enemy,
such as movements of individuals, transport wagons, troops, working
parties, etc., is to be reported to the nearest officer.


=14. RUM.=--(_a_) Rum will always be kept under the personal charge of
the company commander.

(_b_) The best time for a rum issue is in the early morning.

(_c_) No issue of rum will be made except in the presence of an
officer; any rum left over will be handed back to the charge of the
company commander.

(_d_) Men undergoing punishment for drunkenness will receive no issue
of rum for 14 days after the offense, unless it is necessary for
medical reasons.


=15. ARRANGEMENTS IN CASE OF ATTACK.=--(_a_) Company commanders will
insure that all ranks know what to do in case of bombardment, gas, or
attack by the enemy. They will occasionally test their arrangements by
practicing an alarm.

(_b_) All officers' servants, grenadiers, orderlies, etc., will have
duties allotted to them in case of attack.


=16. WORKING PARTIES.=--(_a_) All work on a fire trench will be carried
out by the garrison of the trench, assisted, if necessary, by the
garrison of the support and reserve trenches.

(_b_) All work in rear of fire trenches will be carried out by the
garrison of the support and reserve trenches.

(_c_) If possible, working parties will consist of complete units,
i.e., section, platoon, or company. Each unit will be commanded by its
own commander.

(_d_) Even when working under engineer supervision, Infantry officers
in charge of working parties will be responsible that the work done
satisfies tactical requirements.


=17. WORKING PARTIES OUTSIDE THE FRONT TRENCH.=--(_a_) A covering party
will always be provided for digging and wiring parties outside the
front trenches.


=18. PRECAUTION WHEN ONE OF OUR MINES IS EXPLODED.=--In the event of
one of our own mines being exploded, a clear space of 5 yards will be
kept on either side of the mouth of the mine shaft.


=19. RATION PARTIES WHEN FOUND FROM FRONT TRENCHES.=--Usually, rations
and stores will be carried up to the trenches by supports and reserves.
If this is not possible and it is necessary that men from the front
trenches have to be employed, not more than 10 per cent of the men in
the firing line are to be away from the trenches at the same time.


=20. RATIONS AND COOKING.=--(_a_) Ration parties from the support and
reserve trenches will be made up in complete units as in 16 (_c_).

(_b_) The company quartermaster sergeant will accompany the ration
parties for his company and report his arrival to the company
commanders.

(_c_) Great care is to be taken that ration and carrying parties make
as little noise as possible.

(_d_) Cooking, if possible, will be done behind the front-line trenches
and should be concentrated by sections or companies. Steps must be
taken to ensure that as little smoke as possible is made by the cooks'
fires.

(_e_) Unused rations will be returned to the quartermaster.

(_f_) Waste in any form will be discouraged.

(_g_) Arrangements should be made to ensure that soup or some hot drink
should be available for the men between midnight and 4 a. m.


=21. VERMOREL SPRAYERS.=--(_a_) Vermorel sprayers form part of trench
stores. They are provided for clearing gas out of trenches and shelters
after an attack, and for respraying helmets if necessary during a
prolonged gas attack.

(_b_) They will be distributed at easily accessible points in the
trenches and protected from shell fire.

(_c_) They must be kept one-third full of water. Six gallons of the
following solution to be used in them must be kept in corked rum jars
close to each sprayer. It must not be kept in the sprayers owing to its
corrosive nature:

  Water, 3 gallons (one large bucket).
  Sodium thiosulphate (hypo), 6 lbs. (two piled mess tins).
  Sodium carbonate (washing soda), 2 lbs. (one mess tin).

(_d_) Each company will have a squad of men in charge of an N. C. O.
trained in the care and use of sprayers.

(_e_) On taking over trenches, the N. C. O. in charge of sprayers will
take over from the outgoing N. C. O. and will see that each is in order
and provided with solution.

(_f_) A man will be told off to each sprayer; he will be responsible
for testing it every day, and in case of a gas attack he will stand by
to use it when ordered.


RELIEFS.


=22. GENERAL.=--(_a_) Prior to taking over a new line of trenches the
commanding officer, adjutant, machine-gun officer, signaling officer,
and company commanders will reconnoiter the trenches.

(_b_) Machine guns will not be relieved at the same time as the
infantry.


=23. POINTS TO BE NOTED BY COMPANY COMMANDERS.=--(_a_) Number of men
holding line to be taken over and distribution.

(_b_) Shelter accommodation.

(_c_) Work being done and proposed. To ensure a continuity of work an
officer of the incoming battalion should go over line in daylight.

(_d_) Condition of the wire and defenses generally.

(_e_) Information as to the enemy, his habits, snipers, the work he is
doing, &c.

(_f_) Water supply.

(_g_) Artillery support.

(_h_) Communications.

(_i_) Dangerous points.

(_j_) Lines of advance to be used in a counter attack.

(_k_) Position of "shell trenches" or "feathers," or other cover from
enemy artillery fire.


=24. GUIDES.=--(_a_) Arrangements will be made between the C. O. of
relieving and about to be relieved battalions as to places where guides
will be provided by the latter to conduct the incoming troops to the
trenches.

(_b_) One guide per platoon, one for each company headquarters, and one
for battalion headquarters will be provided.

These guides must know the exact spot where they will meet the
relieving troops and the best and safest way to the trenches.


=25. SMOKING AND TALKING.=--After leaving the rendezvous there is to be
no smoking or talking till arrival in the trenches.


=26. RATE OF MARCH TO TRENCHES.=--The rate of marching to the trenches
from billets will not exceed 2 miles an hour.


=27. PROCEDURE ON ARRIVAL IN TRENCHES.=--(_a_) The troops being
relieved will not leave the trenches until all trench stores have been
handed over and receipts received, all the relieving troops are in
position, and new sentries have been posted and orders to move have
been received from the company commander.

(_b_) Platoon commanders will at once personally examine all firing
positions and satisfy themselves that each man can fire on the foot of
the nearest part of the wire entanglement.

(_c_) They will examine the ammunition and bomb magazines, vermorel and
other sprayers, and antigas solution vessels.

(_d_) When the relief is completed O. C. companies will report to that
effect to battalion headquarters.

(_e_) Men will not be dismissed till the O. C. company has received
reports from all his platoon commanders that everything is in order.


=28. ENGINEERS.=--(_a_) To insure continuity of work a few sappers
should live permanently in the trenches.

(_b_) Daily requisitions for engineering material required will be
forwarded by company commanders to battalion headquarters.

(_c_) The battalion commander will apply to the field company for the
material required through the brigade headquarters and will arrange for
carrying parties to take it in.


=29. PREVENTION OF CHILLED FEET AND FROSTBITE.=--(_a_) Before marching
to trenches, feet and legs will be washed and rubbed with antifrostbite
grease or whale oil under platoon supervision. Boots should be large
enough for two pairs of socks, and puttees must be put on loosely.

(_b_) The march to the trenches will be in ankle boots, every man will
carry two pairs of spare socks, spare grease, and towel.

(_c_) On arrival at the trenches, take off ankle boots and wet socks,
dry and grease feet, put on dry socks, gum boots (trench stores) or
paper stockings and ankle boots.

(_d_) During the tour in the trenches, circulation must be kept up by
movement; the restriction of the circulation of the lower limbs is the
principal cause of chilled feet.

(_e_) Boots and puttees will be removed at least once in every 24
hours, feet and legs will be dried, rubbed, and greased, and dry socks
put on.

(_f_) Gum boots will be taken off before troops march out on relief and
will be handed over as trench stores to the relieving unit.

(_g_) On arrival in billets, feet will be washed and rubbed; dry socks,
hot drinks, and food will be provided under battalion arrangements.

(_h_) Warming braziers made from 3 and 5 gallon oil drums will be
provided, and a daily allowance of 2 lbs. coke and 1/2 lb. charcoal per
man in the trenches. An extra pea-soup, tea, and sugar ration will also
be issued.

(_i_) C. O.'s are responsible that all trench pumps on charge are kept
in good repair and made use of to the fullest extent. The drier the
trenches are the fewer will be the cases of chilled feet.

  C. H. HARRINGTON,
  _B. G. G. S., Canadian Corps_.

  OCTOBER 21, 1915.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1: The officer should remember that he is in the same
position as is the officer on watch on board a ship.]



SPECIMEN OF BATTALION TRENCH STANDING ORDERS.


1. Trenches are usually divided up into a certain number of bays; the
number of men to defend these bays depends on the length of trench
allotted to each company. Each section is detailed to guard a certain
number of bays.

2. N. C. Os. and men must always wear their equipment by day and night;
a man found not complying with this order commits a "crime."

3. Every company will stand to arms daily half an hour before dawn, and
half an hour before dusk and will remain so till dismissed by O. C.
company.

4. The enemy's trenches are so close that it is very important for the
men to have their rifle sights always at "normal," so that there will
be no necessity to alter the sights in case of alarm.

5. By night all bayonets are to be fixed, and 50 per cent of the men
on duty in the trenches are to be sitting on the firing platform with
their rifles by their sides.

6. In case of an attack, especially at night, it should be impressed on
the men that they should fire low; for one bullet that goes too low, at
least 90 go too high. A bullet that goes too high is wasted, whereas a
bullet that goes too low is a ricochet and is often more dangerous than
any other kind of bullet.

7. Section commanders are responsible that the men under their command
have sufficient standing room for the purpose of firing over the
parapet. It is very important to insure that the men have a clear field
of fire, and are able not only to see the enemy's trenches but also
the ground in the immediate vicinity of their own trench. It is of the
greatest importance to arrange that the men can fire comfortably from
the parapet and that they can get the butt comfortably into the hollow
of the shoulder when the rifle is resting on the parapet.

8. When making new trenches it should be impressed on the men that the
parapet must be at least 5 feet thick at the top in order to be bullet
proof.

9. If any part of the parapet requires repairing or altering, the
matter should be reported at once by the section commander to his
platoon sergeant, who will in turn report the matter to superior
authority.

10. The general work of repairing the trenches, fatigues, etc.,
will be carried out either by day or by night according to company
arrangements. Certain hours will be alloted for these tasks, and no
man in the company is to be employed in any kind of work out of these
hours, unless permission is obtained from O. C. company.

11. No man should ever leave his post in the trenches either by day or
by night, without the permission of the N. C. O. in charge of that post.

12. As a general rule, by night there should be at least one sentry
post to each ten yards of parapet.

13. By night double sentries should always be posted, if possible, and
no sentry should be kept on duty for a longer period than 1 hour at a
time. It should be so arranged that when one of the sentries is doing
his last 1/2 hour on sentry, his comrade will be doing his first 1/2 on
duty.

14. Sentries by night should always have their rifles resting on the
parapet ready to fire at moment's notice.

15. As few sentries as possible should be posted by day, so as to give
as much rest as possible to the remainder of the men.

16. By day any existing loop holes may be used by a sentry for
observation purposes, but this is strictly prohibited at night, =when
the sentry must look over the parapet=.

17. If a sentry is continually fired at, the section commander will
take steps to post him in another position, but not far away from the
original position.

18. By night arrangements must be made in each platoon for a N. C.
O.[2] to be continually on duty for the purpose of visiting the
sentries, etc., etc. He will report to his company officer at odd hours
and to his platoon officer at even hours.

19. Cases have occurred of men going to sleep on sentry duty. This is
the most serious crime a soldier can commit on active service. The G.
O. C. has clearly stated that in future, if any man has been convicted
by court-martial for this offense and sentenced to be shot, he will
confirm the sentence. There is no excuse for a man going to sleep on
sentry duty; if he is feeling too ill to perform this duty he should
report the fact to the N. C. O. on duty of his platoon, who will in his
turn report the matter to superior authority.

20. If an armed party of the enemy approaches the trench under a flag
of truce, they should be ordered to halt at a distance and lay down
their arms, and the matter should be reported at once to the O. C.
company. If the party fails to halt when ordered to do so, or does
not convey a flag of truce, they should immediately be fired upon. An
unarmed party should be halted the same way at a distance, and the
matter be reported to the O. C. company.

21. By night it is not necessary to challenge anyone in advance of the
trenches, but fire should be opened at once. If, however, the company
is sending out listening, working, or covering parties, these orders
should be modified, and special instructions issued to meet the case.

22. Men will be specially picked from the company for listening patrols
and as sharpshooters. These men will be given special privileges and
their work is such that they will be afforded greater opportunities of
being mentioned in dispatches.

23. It is the duty of officers and N. C. Os. to check men talking
loudly during the night, as this practice makes it impossible for the
sentries to hear any movement in front of the trenches. The Germans
take advantage of this talking by the British soldier during the night
to send listening patrols quite near to our trenches, and even build
trenches on clear moonlight nights close to our lines without our
knowledge.

24. All working parties must wear their equipment and carry their
rifles, but when actually working they can lay these on the ground
close to them.

25. All picks and shovels after use will be returned to the company
store.

26. Ration parties and parties carrying material for repairs,
etc., need not wear their equipment or carry rifles, but should be
accompanied by a fully armed N. C. O. as an escort.

27. Not more than twenty men are to be away from the company at the
same time. 1 N. C. O. and 4 men per platoon.

28. Every soldier must remember it is of the utmost importance to keep
his rifle clean and in working order whilst in the trenches. His very
life may depend upon this, as he is liable to be rushed at any moment,
either by day or by night. The dirty rifle means probably a jammed one
after the first round.

29. The first duty of a soldier, therefore, is to clean his rifle every
morning as soon as there is sufficient light to enable him to do so; an
hour will be appointed by O. C. company for this purpose. The platoon
sergeant will be responsible that section commanders superintend this
work, and inspect the rifles of their section. Any man who is found
with a dirty rifle will be made a prisoner.

30. All rifles by day to be in racks, except those used by the
sentries, and arrangements should be made by section commanders to
improvise racks if they are not provided.

31. Great care is to be exercised to keep the trenches clean and in
a sanitary condition. Platoon commanders will be responsible for the
latrines in their section of the trenches. Any man fouling the trenches
will be severely dealt with. No water is to be taken for drinking or
cooking purposes except from the water cart or tanks provided for this
purpose. Disregard of this regulation will probably cause an outbreak
of typhoid or dysentery amongst the men of the company.

32. Stretcher bearers will be stationed at a place appointed by the C.
O. If a man is wounded, information should be sent at once to these
stretcher bearers, whose duty it is to carry wounded to the aid post or
dressing station.

Men should not be taken from the firing line for this purpose.

33. No soldier is to be buried nearer than 300 yards from the trenches.

34. In each platoon a N. C. O. will be detailed for duty by day. This
N. C. O. will do no night duty, but will get a full night's rest.
His duties are to post the day sentries and to see that they are
alert and carrying out their duties correctly. He will be generally
responsible for the cleanliness of his lines and will frequently visit
the latrines. It is part of his duties to see that any loose ammunition
lying about is collected.

35. The platoon sergeant will always send, if possible, a N. C. O.[2]
to draw the rations, and this N. C. O. will be responsible for their
safe delivery. This especially applies to the issue of coke. The C. S.
M. will, prior to his day of relief from the trenches, always collect
the articles of trench equipment supplied for his company and make out
a list of the same. These articles will be handed over to the company
sergeant major of the relieving company.

36. The system of passing down messages by word of mouth, man to man,
must not be used. If an officer or N. C. O. has anything important to
report he should do so in writing. If there is no time to do this,
a special messenger should be intrusted with a verbal message which
should afterwards be confirmed in writing.

37. Special instructions have been issued as to precautions against
gas. These are to be strictly followed.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 2: An acting N. C. O. will not be employed on this duty.]



BRIGADE STANDING ORDERS FOR THE TRENCHES.


=1. RELIEFS.=--(_a_) When a battalion is taking over a new line of
trenches the company commanders will invariably visit the trenches on
the day previous to that on which the relief takes place. They will
gain as much information as possible from the company commanders they
are relieving.

(_b_) An officer of each company should proceed in advance to the
trenches on the day of the relief to take over, during daylight, all
trench stores, ammunition, etc. Mutual receipts for these will be
signed.

(_c_) Machine gunners, bombers, snipers, and signalers will not be
relieved on the same day as companies. They should proceed to the
trenches 24 hours before their battalions, and take over their posts
during daylight.

(_d_) The strictest march discipline will be maintained by all parties
proceeding to or from the trenches. An officer will march in rear of
each company to ensure that it is properly closed up.

(_e_) Reliefs will be carried out as quietly as possible. No smoking
or lights will be allowed after reaching a point to be decided on by
battalion commanders.

(_f_) Guides at the rate of one per platoon, machine gun, or bombing
post will invariably be arranged for by brigade headquarters when
battalions proceed to the trenches. Likewise, when battalions are being
relieved, a similar number of guides will be detailed by them to meet
relieving units.

(_g_) On taking over a line of trenches a company commander will
at once get in touch with the companies on his right and left; he
will ascertain the position of the nearest supporting troops, of the
reserve ammunition, of any machine guns or bombing posts, and of his
battalion headquarters; he will ascertain the best and quickest means
of obtaining artillery support, and he will have all wires, including
the artillery wire, if there is one, tested. When his platoons have
taken over, and he is satisfied that all is correct, he will inform
his commanding officer by telephone that the relief of his company is
complete.

(_h_) The actual relief of trenches should be carried out in the
following manner:

     The platoon being relieved gets on the firing step.

     The relieving platoon files in behind and halts. On the word
     "pass," which will be given quietly, being passed along, the
     relieved and relieving platoons will change places. The company
     commander of the relieving company will then supervise the posting
     of sentries by his platoon commanders. He will satisfy himself
     that each post is properly relieved and that the orders for the
     post are correctly handed over. The greatest care and attention to
     detail are necessary in this.

The exact frontage for which each platoon commander is responsible will
be clearly defined.

Before dismissing his company the company commander will ensure that
each man has an alarm post from which he can use his rifle freely and
fire at the bottom of our own wire entanglements. Each man must also
know the position of company headquarters, the reserve ammunition, and
latrines. Every company commander in the front line will have control
of the grenadiers employed on his front.

(_i_) Within 24 hours of taking over a new line of trenches a company
commander will forward a report on his trenches as follows:

     Garrison of trench.

     Field of fire.

     Distance from enemy's trench.

     General condition of trench.

     Whether every man has a post from which he can fire at the bottom
     of our own wire entanglements.

     Number of efficient loopholes.

     Whether the parapet is bullet proof throughout.

     Whether sufficient traverses.

     State of our wire.

     State of enemy's wire.

     Drainage.

     Number of boxes of reserve ammunition.

     Number of bombing posts and of bombs with each.

     Number of rounds of VERY pistol ammunition.

     Number of VERMOREL sprayers.

     Number of gongs.

A rough sketch showing the position of bombers' posts, machine guns,
grenade stores, and reserve ammunition should accompany the report.

(_j_) Before handing over trenches, officers commanding companies
will draw up a statement containing all available information on the
following points:

     Our own trenches and wire.

     The enemy's trenches and wire.

     Habits of the enemy.

     Any part of trench which receives more than ordinary attention
     from the enemy's guns.

     Number of bombing posts and bombs at each.

     Number of machine guns on company's front.

     Work in hand or contemplated.

     What artillery covers the front, and how it is best and quickest
     obtained.

A list of trench stores, ammunition, etc., will also be drawn up
ready for handing over. All stores should be carefully stacked in a
convenient place. Ammunition, VERY lights, sandbags, etc., sufficient
for at least 24 hours consumption, should invariably be handed over to
the relieving unit.

(_k_) The following constitute trench stores and will be handed over on
relief:

  S. A. A.
  Shovels.
  Picks.
  Loophole plates.
  Balers.
  Fixed rifle batteries.
  Sniperscope rifles.
  Braziers.
  Catapults.
  Grenade throwers.
  Rifle racks.
  Rifle grenade firing stands.
  Hand grenades.
  Rifle grenades.
  VERY pistol cartridges.
  Gongs, bells, and alarms.
  VERMOREL sprayers.
  Pumps.
  Reserve rations.

The following will not be handed over:

  VERY pistols.
  Pistols, illuminating, 1-1/2 inch.
  Telescopic rifles.
  Periscopes.
  Telephones.

Battalion entrenching tools will not be taken to the trenches. Should
the existing tools in the trenches be considered insufficient,
application should be made to brigade headquarters for a further
supply.


=2. SENTRIES.=--As a general rule, the following numbers of sentries
will be posted:

_By day._--One sentry for every 3 bays, exclusive of bombers, snipers,
and machine gunners.

_By night, in a fog or snowstorm._--One double sentry for each bay,
exclusive of bombers and machine gunners.

Sentries will invariably be posted and relieved by a N. C. O. under the
orders of the platoon commander.

It must be recognized that no fixed rules can be laid down as regards
the number of sentries that are necessary and battalion commanders will
use their discretion in the matter. The number required will depend on
the proximity of the enemy, the tactical situation, and, above all, on
the state of our own wire entanglements.


=3. OFFICER AND N. C. Os. OF THE "WATCH."=--In every company in the
firing line the company commander will arrange for his officers to take
it in turns to be on "watch" throughout the twenty-four hours.

Likewise in each platoon the platoon commander will detail a N. C. O.
of the watch.

The officer and N. C. Os. of the watch will visit all sentries, bombing
posts, and machine guns within the area of their command once every
hour by day and by night.

At night the officer of the watch will carry a VERY pistol. VERY lights
should be used sparingly, as they are often difficult to obtain.

The time when lights are most required is when the Germans are not
sending any up.


=4. STANDING TO ARMS.=--Troops will always stand to arms one hour
before daylight and one hour before dark. They will remain under arms
in the first instance until the enemy's lines are visible, and in
the second instance until darkness comes on. At these hours company
commanders will arrange for the inspection of arms, ammunition, and
equipment by platoon commanders. The latter will satisfy themselves
that each man is in possession of two smoke helmets; ammunition will be
made up to 120 rounds per rifle when troops stand to arms.

Whenever men stand to arms company commanders will order the parapet to
be manned to insure that every man has a post from which he can fire at
the bottom of our own wire.

At the inspection of rifles at the hours of standing to arms platoon
commanders will satisfy themselves that the bolt action is working
freely. A thorough inspection of arms will be held at midday, at which
hour men will be washed and shaved.


=5. GAS ATTACKS.=--(i) It is to be impressed on all ranks that the
smoke helmet issued to them affords complete protection against all
forms of gas used by the enemy.

(ii) All ranks will invariably carry on their persons smoke helmets.
Instruction is to be given in the method of adjusting smoke helmets
rapidly, condemned helmets being used for this purpose.

(iii) Smoke helmets will be inspected at morning and evening "stand to."

(iv) The direction of the wind will be studied and special precautions
taken when it favors a gas attack by the enemy.

(v) On the first sign of gas, whether it is detected by sight or smell,
the sentries will sound the alarm gongs and bells which are hung up at
intervals throughout the trenches. On hearing this alarm every officer
and man will at once adjust his smoke helmet and fall in on his alarm
post. Nobody will remain in dugouts. To make certain of the warning
reaching everybody the order "Put on smoke helmets" will be passed from
man to man throughout the trenches held by the ---- division.

(vi) The officers in command of the trenches opposite the section of
the enemy's line from which the gas is proceeding will send the S. O.
S. call to the artillery, and will order rapid fire to be opened on the
enemy trenches. Neighboring sectors of defense will be at once warned.

(vii) When the gas cloud is sufficiently thick to hide the enemy's
front parapets, machine guns and rifles will open fire in short bursts
on fixed lines covering the enemy's trenches, in order to inflict
casualties, pierce gas tubes, and break up the density of the enemy's
gas cloud.

(viii) Garrisons of trenches on the flanks of the front threatened will
be prepared to open a flanking fire on the enemy should he attempt to
advance from his front line.

(ix) As soon as the S. O. S. call has been sent to the artillery,
messages will be sent to brigade H. Q. and the artillery "Gas
trench(es)________________________________."

(x) Rifle bolts and machine-gun crank handles to be worked backwards
and forwards while gas is about, to prevent the gas from impairing the
action.

(xi) Vermorel sprayers to be used in trenches and dugouts in the
affected area as soon as the gas has passed over, in order that gas
helmets may be taken off.

(xii) Measures will be taken to prevent stragglers.


=6. FIXING OF BAYONETS.=--Bayonets will always be fixed during the
hours of darkness, during a snowstorm, or thick mist, or when the
proximity of the enemy renders this course advisable.


=7. COUNTER ATTACKS.=--As soon as possible after taking over a new line
battalion commanders will draw up and submit to brigade headquarters
their scheme for counter attacking the enemy should he gain possession
of any part of their line.

In framing this scheme it must be borne in mind that in every line of
trenches there are certain points which would be of value to the enemy
if captured by him, whereas there are others which would be of little
use to him.

Should the enemy attack and occupy any portion of our trenches he will
be immediately counter attacked and driven out by the nearest body of
troops. All ranks must clearly understand that counter attacks made at
once and without hesitation will usually be sucessful, even if made by
small numbers, but that a counter attack, once the enemy has been given
time to establish himself, is a very difficult and costly operation.


=8. MINES.=--Should the enemy fire a mine in or near our trenches the
crater thus formed will be immediately occupied by the nearest troops.
This order will be made known to all ranks.


=9. FIRING BY DAY AND NIGHT.=--By day men will only fire when a target
offers itself. If the enemy is in the habit of showing himself at any
particular point, the attention of the platoon commander should be
drawn to it. The latter will inform the battalion sniping officer, who
will tell off a sniper's post to watch the spot.

By night all firing must be organized. If the enemy is believed to
be working on his trenches or wire, the company commander will give
directions to his platoon commanders to fire five rounds rapid at
certain stated times. He will first ascertain that no patrols from
neighboring companies will be out at these hours.

A certain number of fixed rifles will be placed in every trench and
fired by the sentries. These rifles will be laid on certain selected
spots.

Indiscriminate firing by day or night is forbidden.

If the enemy attacks, rapid fire will be opened without waiting for
orders.


=10. COMPANY MEETINGS.=--Officers commanding companies will hold
meetings of their platoon commanders and N. C. Os. each evening in the
trenches. Only a few officers and N. C. Os. should be present at each
meeting. At these meetings the following points should be discussed:

     Work required to place our trenches in a better state of defense
     and to improve the comfort of the men.

     Work to be done during the next 24 hours.

     It is essential that all work which has to be carried out at night
     is explained to all noncommissioned officers in daylight.

     Any alterations noticed in the enemy's trenches or wire.

     What steps can be taken to annoy and harass the enemy.

     Action in case of attack.


=11. WORK ON TRENCHES.=--Work on trenches should as far as possible be
carried out during daylight.


=12. GARRISONS OF TRENCHES.=--It is an invariable rule that during
daylight the front-line trenches should be held as lightly as is
compatible with safety. At night the garrison must be strengthened.

The actual strength of garrisons will be governed by the tactical
situation and by the number of support and communicating trenches at
hand.

With proper support and communicating trenches only sentries and
snipers should be in the front-line trenches during daylight. To these
will be added bombers if there are any old communicating trenches
leading to the enemy's lines or if the proximity of the enemy demands
their presence.


=13. DISCIPLINE.=--(_a_) Sleeping in the front line trenches will not
be allowed unless there is an absence of support trenches.

(_b_) No dugouts will be constructed without the permission of the
battalion commander. All dugouts must be made splinter proof. Work on
them will not be commenced until sufficient material is at hand. If it
can be avoided dugouts will not be constructed in the fire trenches.

(_c_) No man will leave the trenches without permission from an
officer. This order will be made known to all ranks.

(_d_) Cooking should not take place in the front-line trenches.
Whenever possible cooking will be done under company arrangements in
order that the men may have their meals at regular hours.

Washing and shaving should be carried out in support trenches when
possible.

(_e_) All parties moving within the trench area will be correctly
marched by an officer or N. C. O.

(_f_) Orderly room should be held daily in the trenches unless
circumstances render this impossible.

(_g_) Sentries are strictly forbidden to wear any covering over the
ears.

(_h_) An officer will always be present when an issue of rum takes
place.

(_i_) Equipment will never be taken off in the front-line trenches
except in the case of working parties, when equipment may be removed by
order of the company commanders. In support trenches equipment may be
removed at the discretion of battalion commanders.

(_j_) Sentries will remain standing at all times unless the height of
the parapet renders this impossible.

(_k_) All parties, with the exception of stretcher bearers, moving
in the trench area will wear their arms and equipment. Orderlies may
be excused wearing their equipment at the discretion of commanding
officers.

(_l_) The wearing of cotton bandoliers by working parties and orderlies
is forbidden, nor are these bandoliers to be hung up in the trenches.

(_m_) Ammunition must be kept in a thoroughly clean state. If the
ammunition is not clean jambs will occur. Ammunition will be frequently
inspected.

(_n_) The "undercutting" of trenches is strictly forbidden. Drains will
always be cut down the center of a trench and not at the sides.

(_o_) When mining is in progress in any of the trenches occupied by the
brigade the sandbags filled with earth from the mine will on no account
be used in the front trenches or other points which are visible to the
enemy.


=14. RECONNAISSANCE AND PATROLLING.=--The best security against attack
is active patrolling and constant observation of the enemy's lines, so
that he can not undertake any new work without steps being taken to
prevent its continuance.

The enemy's wire will be constantly patrolled to insure that he has cut
no gaps in it with a view to launching an attack.

Patrols will also frequently visit our wire to insure that it is
efficient.

The front of our own fire parapet should be examined nightly.


=15. INFORMATION.=--Every effort will be made by means of patrols,
field glasses, etc., to ascertain information about the enemy, his
trenches and wire. Any alterations in the enemy's lines must be
reported, and if any of the enemy are seen a report will be sent in
stating what dress they were wearing. The importance of forwarding all
such information will be impressed on all ranks.


=16. SNIPING.=--In every battalion a sniping section will be formed,
consisting of 1 officer and 25 N. C. O.'s and men. The officer will
carry out the duties of intelligence officer to his battalion. He
will render a daily report to his commanding officer containing the
following information:

     Number of casualties known to have been inflicted on the enemy.

     Number and location of snipers' posts.

     Any alterations in the enemy's trenches or wire.

     Number of telescope rifles in possession.

     Number and location of fixed rifles and rifle batteries in action.

     Any activity by the enemy.

Battalion sniping officers will get into close touch with artillery
observing officers within their sectors, and will give every assistance
to them.


=17. ARTILLERY SUPPORT.=--As a general rule, a forward observing
officer of an 18-pounder battery will be quartered at or near battalion
H. Q.

Requests for retaliation should be made to this officer, and brigade H.
Q. should be warned of the action taken.

Fire from howitzers and heavy batteries can, except in the case of the
S. O. S. signal, only be obtained through brigade H. Q. If retaliatory
fire is required from howitzers, it must be stated on what point it is
wished that the fire should be directed.

Any trench mortaring by the enemy should be immediately reported to the
officer commanding our trench mortars.


=18. "S. O. S." AND "TEST" SIGNALS.=--In the event of an infantry
attack by the enemy, a mine being fired, or other emergency, the S. O.
S. signal will be sent by the quickest route to the Field Artillery
battery covering the trenches concerned.

_The signal will be followed by the number of the trench, e.g., "S. O. S.
B4."_

The signal will be repeated to battalion H. Q., who will transmit it to
brigade H. Q.

On receipt of the S. O. S. signal all batteries covering the trenches
concerned will open a concentrated fire on the enemy's front line.

When necessity for fire no longer exists, a message to this effect will
be sent to the artillery and to brigade H. Q.

In order to test the efficient working of the artillery lines, "test"
messages will frequently be sent from the trenches to the supporting
battery.

The number of the trench will always be sent, e.g., "Test A 6."

The test will consist of one round of shrapnel fired on the "night
line" of the battery. No target will be given by the officer in the
trenches.

The time taken from the handing in of the message until the shell
bursts will be carefully noted and reported to battalion H. Q. The O.
C. battalion will enter the result of all tests in his daily report.
He will give the exact time at which the test was sent and will state
whether it was a "direct" or an "indirect" test. A "direct" test is
from trench to battery. An "indirect" test is from trench via battalion
H. Q. to battery.


=19. VERMOREL SPRAYERS.=--One man will be detailed to look after each
sprayer. A spare tin of solution will be kept with each sprayer.
Medical officers will periodically inspect both sprayers and solution.


=20. HOSTILE ARTILLERY FIRE.=--In reporting activity by the enemy's
artillery it is necessary to state:

     (i) The time at which shelling began and when it ceased.

     (ii) Your own position.

     (iii) Whether howitzer or gun.

     (iv) Direction from which shells arrive. Compass bearing should be
     given if possible.

     (v) Whether shells burst in the air or on "graze."

In reporting results of our own fire, state:

     (i) Your own position.

     (ii) Estimate distances short, over, right, or left, in yards.
     Avoid vague statements.

     (iii) Whether gun or howitzer.

     (iv) Whether shrapnel or high explosive.

If shrapnel bursts in the air, judge whether range is correct by the
splash of the bullets on the ground and not by the burst.


=21. AIRCRAFT.=--On the approach of any of the enemy's aircraft three
blasts will be blown on a whistle. This will be the signal for all
ranks to keep perfectly still.

One blast on a whistle will indicate that the aircraft has moved away.

All aircraft belonging to the enemy will be heavily fired on by machine
guns and rifles as long as they are within range, but no firing will
take place without the order of an officer, who will first satisfy
himself that the aircraft is hostile. Directions should be given to
the men as to how many lengths in front of the aeroplane aim should be
taken. If a "Zeppelin" is sighted, a "priority" message will be sent to
brigade H. Q. reporting the fact and stating approximately where the
"Zeppelin" was seen and in what direction it was proceeding.


=22. MAPS.=--Maps with our own trenches marked on them will not be
taken into the front-line trenches.


=23. TELEPHONE MESSAGES.=--No messages regarding the action of our
own Artillery or other matters of an important nature will be sent by
telephone to the fire trenches. Such messages will be sent by orderly.
This is necessary because it has been found that the enemy has, at
times, read our messages by induction.


=24. SIGNALERS.=--The brigade signaling section is responsible for the
maintenance of communication between brigade H. Q. and battalions.

Battalion signalers are responsible for communications within the
battalion.

All wires must be pinned in to the sides of trenches. Infantry wires on
the S. and E. sides and Artillery wires on the N. and W. sides.

Pins for this purpose can be obtained from brigade headquarters.

All wires will be labeled with the name of the battalion at least every
50 yards.

Officers in charge of battalion signalers are responsible that all
disused or unlabeled wires within their areas are reeled up.

All wires will be patroled at least once every 24 hours.


=25. MEDICAL OFFICERS.=--Medical officers attached to battalions will,
in addition to looking after the sick and wounded, be responsible for
the sanitation of the trenches generally, paying particular attention
to the water supply and latrines. Battalion sanitary sections will work
under the orders of the medical officer.

The medical officer will accompany the commanding officer periodically
on his visits round the trenches.

Stretcher bearers are responsible that the rifles and equipment
(including field glasses, wire cutters, etc.), of all men who are
wounded are taken with them to the dressing station. The medical
officer will instruct the N. C. O. i/c stretcher bearers to see that
this order is carried out.

The arms and equipment of wounded men will be sent to the field
ambulance with them, the ammunition having first been removed from
pouches and magazines. Field glasses, wire cutters, etc., will not be
sent to the field ambulance but will be sent to battalion headquarters.

The arms and equipment of men who are killed will be collected at
battalion headquarters and handed over to the quartermaster for return
to the base.


=26. RATION PARTIES.=--Parties to carry rations, water, and material to
the companies in the front line will be detailed from the companies in
reserve.


=27. EMPTY CARTRIDGE CASES AND RUBBISH.=--At intervals throughout the
trenches sandbags will be hung up as receptacles for empty cartridge
cases and chargers. Others will be hung up for the collection of
rubbish. Sandbags to be labeled accordingly. All empty cases and
chargers thus collected will be sent each evening to battalion H. Q.
for transmission to the base.


=28. DRESS, ETC.=--Men must be properly dressed at all times and as
smart and clean as circumstances will allow.

All men must shave daily.

Discipline as regards saluting, standing to attention, etc., will
receive as much attention in the trenches as in billets.


=29. PRISONERS.=--Should any prisoners be captured they will be
immediately searched, and all documents found on them will be forwarded
to brigade H. Q. without delay. Germans usually carry all documents
in the skirt pockets of their tunics. A telephone message will be
dispatched to brigade H. Q. stating to what regiment the prisoners
belong.

All ranks will be warned that should they find themselves in the hands
of the enemy it is only necessary for them to give their number, name,
and regiment. No other information whatever will be given.


=30. RETURNS.=--The following returns are due at brigade H. Q. daily
when in the trenches:--

  At  5.15 a. m.--Situation and wind                By telephone.
  At 11.00 a. m.--Strength and casualty return           "
                  Daily report on typed form        By orderly.
                  Artillery intelligence report          "
  At  4.00 p. m.--Situation and wind                By telephone.
  At  5.30 p. m.--Intelligence report               By orderly or telephone.
  At  9.00 p. m.--Return of material required for
                    trench construction to be sent
                    up the following evening        By telephone.

Activity by the enemy's aeroplanes will always be reported.

   _______,

  _Brigade Major, ______ Brigade_.



55TH (WEST LANCASHIRE) DIVISION TRENCH ORDERS.

THIS BOOK IS NOT TO BE TAKEN BEYOND THE FRONT TRENCHES.


Every officer, and every noncommissioned officer in command of any body
of troops, is to be in possession of this book and to be thoroughly
conversant with its contents.

  J. K. COCHRANE,
  _Lieut. Colonel, General Staff_,
  _55th (West Lancashire) Division_.

  JANUARY, 1917.



CONTENTS.


                                                                 Section.

  Duties                                                             1

  Sentries                                                           2

  Patrols                                                            3

  Alertness                                                          4

  Stand to                                                           5

  Arrangements in case of attack                                     6

  Machine guns                                                       7

  Cooperation between artillery, etc                                 8

  Method of dealing with crater formed by mine explosion             9

  Reliefs--

    (_a_) Reconnaissance                                            10

    (_b_) Points to be noted by company commander                   10

    (_c_) Guides                                                    10

    (_d_) Smoking and talking                                       10

    (_e_) Rate of march to trenches                                 10

    (_f_) Procedure on arrival in trenches                          10

  Wiring                                                            11

  Organization of work on defenses                                  12

  Log books                                                         13

  Undercutting trench sides                                         14

  Communications                                                    15

  Ration parties from front trenches                                16

  Firing at aeroplanes                                              17

  Rifles, equipment, and ammunition                                 18

  Precautions against gas attacks                                   19

  Action during enemy gas attack                                    20

  Action after enemy gas attack                                     21

  Action during gas shell bombardment                               22

  Discipline with regard to carrying small box respirators          23

  Vermorel sprayers                                                 24

  Sanitation                                                        25

  Rations and cooking                                               26

  Care of grenades                                                  27

  Steel helmets                                                     28

  Issue of rum                                                      29

  Chilled feet and frost bite                                       30



55TH (WEST LANCASHIRE) DIVISION TRENCH ORDERS.


=1. DUTIES.=--(_a_) One officer per company and one N. C. O. per
platoon will always be on duty. During their tour of duty they will not
be in their dugouts. They will frequently visit all trenches occupied
by their units.

Every listening post will be visited, if possible, by an officer once
during his tour of duty.

(_b_) The officer on duty will, when his tour of duty is finished,
inform the officer relieving him and report to him the situation, work
in progress, and any other information of use.

(_c_) By night the officer and N. C. O. on duty will frequently patrol
the trench line, to see that the sentries are alert and to inquire
whether they have any information about the enemy to report.

(_d_) The N. C. O. coming on duty will go around and post new sentries
with the N. C. O. coming off duty.

(_e_) The length of each tour of duty will naturally depend on the
number of officers and N. C. O.'s available in the company. Normally
each tour should be, by night 2 hours, by day 4 hours, day commencing
at morning "stand to" and night commencing at evening "stand to." In
inclement weather the tour of duty must be reduced.

(_f_) N. C. O.'s after posting sentries will report "all correct" or
otherwise to the officer on duty.

(_g_) Men will be warned for duty by the platoon sergeant on duty. This
will be done at evening "stand to."

(_h_) On being detailed for duty a man will be informed at which hours
he will come on duty.

(_i_) Except under special circumstances, such, for instance, as a
sentry being killed or wounded, no sentry will be relieved by another
man unless the relief is properly carried out in the presence of a N.
C. O.

(_j_) When possible to do so, notice boards will be placed in each
sections' trench, on which will be pinned daily all orders regarding
working parties and a list of the men in the section giving the times
at which they will come on sentry and other duties.

(_k_) The company commander will be responsible for sending in the
reports required by battalion H. Q.


=2. SENTRIES.=--(_a_) The number of sentry posts required depends on
the propinquity or otherwise of the enemy, the strength of obstacles,
the ease with which sentry posts can be reinforced, and other local
conditions. There must be sentries enough to insure that the alarm
is given promptly in case of attack, and that local resistance is
sufficient until support can arrive. Brigade commanders are responsible
that these requirements are met.

(_b_) Sentries will be relieved every two hours, except under bad
weather conditions, when the length of a tour of sentry duty will be
reduced.

(_c_) The next relief will remain within arm's length of the sentry.

(_d_) Every sentry is to be regularly posted by a N. C. O., who will
explain to him his duties and ascertain that the sentry and his relief
are aware of the position of the section and platoon commanders, and
of the sentries on either side, and whether there are any patrols or
working parties out in front.

(_e_) In important places, i.e., where enemy are suspected of mining,
advanced posts, etc., no man should be posted alone. There should be a
double sentry.

(_f_) No man who has been on work during the day will be placed
on sentry till he has had at least 4 hours for rest, unless it is
unavoidable.

(_g_) When the line is held by small posts at a considerable distance
apart, a visiting patrol will also be maintained. This patrol will be
responsible for the passing of orders along the line of posts.

(_h_) All orders are to be passed along the line by one platoon N. C.
O. on duty to the next N. C. O. on duty.

(_i_) Every sentry is to report when an officer passes his post "all
correct" or otherwise.

(_j_) During daylight no more sentries should be posted than are
actually necessary to insure that the whole front to be watched is kept
under efficient observation.

(_k_) Every sentry by day will be provided with a periscope.


=3. PATROLS.=--(_a_) It is the duty of troops holding the front line to
establish a command of the ground in front of their parapet up to the
enemy's wire. This can only be done by active and constant patrolling
by night and reconnaissance by day, so that the ground is thoroughly
well known to as large a proportion as possible of officers and other
ranks, and so that no enemy can move or remain in it by day or night
without fear of death.

(_b_) Every patrol must have definite orders as to its mission; broadly
speaking, patrols may be divided into two classes: (1) Reconnoitering
patrols; (2) fighting patrols.

(_c_) The first duty of _reconnoitering patrols_ is to obtain
the information for which they are sent out. They fight only in
self-defense, or if an especially favorable opportunity presents itself
of inflicting loss on the enemy without prejudice to their mission.
They usually consist of from 2 to 6 men under an officer.

(_d_) Fighting patrols are sent out with the express purpose of causing
loss or damage to the enemy by such means as engaging enemy patrols or
working parties, or by raiding saps, listening posts, or trenches. For
identification purposes they should always endeavor to secure at least
one prisoner. Their strength depends on the nature of the resistance
they are likely to meet with.

(_e_) Battalion commanders are responsible for the orders given to
patrols, subject to any instructions which may be issued by higher
authority. They are also responsible that all troops whom it concerns
are warned when and where patrols will be out, and of the point to
which they will return.

(_f_) The information gained by patrols is of little value unless
transmitted quickly to those whom it concerns. Patrol reports will be
made out by the commander of the patrol immediately on his return and
dispatched at once by way of the battalion H. Q. to brigade H. Q.,
unless orders to the contrary have been given.


=4. ALERTNESS.=--Anything seen or heard in connection with the enemy,
such as movements of individuals, transport wagons, troops, working
parties, etc., is to be reported to the nearest officer by anyone who
observes it and at any time.


=5. STAND TO.=--"Stand to" will take place one hour before sunrise and
at sunset. At this parade every available man will be present. Rifles,
ammunition, equipment, clothing, etc., will be inspected. Firing steps
will be tested as soon as it is dusk to see that each man can fire on
the foot of the nearest part of the wire entanglements immediately to
his front. They are not to be tested at "stand to" in the morning.
Rifles, ammunition, and equipment will be inspected after "stand down"
in the morning and at "stand to" at night. Orders will be issued and
steps taken to see that the men understand them. Gas helmets and other
protective appliances will be inspected in accordance with the orders
in force.

The time for "stand to" will be fixed weekly by brigade headquarters.


=6. ARRANGEMENTS IN CASE OF ATTACK.=--(_a_) The action to be taken
in case of attack is laid down in defense schemes, divisional,
brigade, and battalion, with reference to each form of attack which is
considerable probable.

(_b_) In addition, minor defense schemes will be drawn up for each
company front, based on battalion defense schemes, and platoon
commanders also will keep up schemes based on that for the company and
dealing specially with the action of their respective platoons.

(_c_) All the above schemes, divisional, brigade, battalion, company,
and platoon, will be handed over at each relief to the relieving
formation, unit, etc. They will be made out in consultation by the
formations, units, etc., habitually occupying the defenses with which
they deal.

(_d_) The object of defense schemes is to insure that every officer,
N. C. O., and man knows what to do in case of attack, and does it
instinctively and promptly. The minor schemes must therefore be
detailed and exact, and each officer and man must have his duties
thoroughly explained to him by his immediate superior. All defense
schemes will be rehearsed once in each relief.

(_e_) At each relief of a battalion, company, or platoon the commander
of it will report to his immediate commander that he has taken over and
understands the defense schemes for the position he is occupying.

(_f_) All officers' servants, bombers, orderlies, etc., will have
duties allotted to them in case of attack.


=7. MACHINE GUNS.=--(_a_) The concealment of machine-gun emplacements
is important; consequently it is only in case of attack that machine
guns will be fired from their defense emplacements.

(_b_) Unless emplacements are well concealed guns will not be mounted,
except between evening and morning "stand to."

(_c_) The guns and their crews will be tactically under the orders of
the battalion commander in whose subsector they are located, but no
alteration will be made by him in their disposition or arcs of fire; he
will, however, bring before his brigade commander any suggestion for
improvement in the machine-gun dispositions for defense.

(_d_) Two men per gun will always be on duty with the gun.

(_e_) At dusk, but while there is still sufficient light, each gun will
be laid on the center line of the zone alloted to it.

(_f_) Range cards will be prepared and kept with each gun.

(_g_) Officers will live in close proximity to their guns. They will
daily inspect their guns, emplacements, and ammunition. They are
responsible for the cleanliness and maintenance of the emplacements.

(_h_) The machine-gun company commander is responsible that his guns
are always ready for action, that the emplacements are clear of all
material except such as is required for the service of the gun, that
embrasures or loopholes are kept clear of all obstructions which
may interfere with fire or view, and that the ammunition is in good
condition.


=8. COOPERATION BETWEEN ARTILLERY, INFANTRY, MACHINE-GUN COMPANIES, AND
TRENCH MORTAR BATTERIES.=--The defense of any line depends largely on
the cordial cooperation of all officers responsible for the different
means of defense. Every opportunity is to be taken by officers of
artillery, infantry, machine-gun companies, and trench mortar batteries
of becoming personally acquainted with each other and gaining a
knowledge of each other's methods. The Artillery liaison officer with a
battalion is to be looked on as temporarily a member of battalion H. Q.


=9. PRECAUTIONS WHEN ONE OF OUR MINES IS EXPLODED.=--(_a_) In the event
of one of our own mines being exploded, a clear space of 5 yards will
be kept on either side of the mouth of the mine shaft.

(_b_) On any front where enemy mining exists, or is suspected, detailed
schemes of action will be prepared, under the direction of the brigade
commander, to deal with any case of a mine being blown within or
without our trench line; and specially organized parties will be kept
in immediate readiness for prompt occupation of the crater, where this
is advisable (as in the case of a crater within or near our trench
line), or for dealing with enemy action. All stores required for
consolidation will be kept handy at a special dump in instant readiness
and made up into man loads. The orders for action, down to the minutest
detail, will be incorporated in the defense scheme and made known to
every individual who may have to carry them out.


=10. RELIEFS.=--(_a_) =Reconnaissance.=--Prior to taking over a new
line of trenches, the commanding officer, adjutant, and company
commanders of battalions, and the commanders of M. G. Coys. and trench
mortar batteries, will reconnoiter the trenches.

(_b_) =Points to be noted by company commanders.=--_The following,
among others, are points to be specially noted by company commanders
before taking over trenches_:

(i) Number of men holding line to be taken over and distribution.

(ii) Shelter accommodation.

(iii) Work being done and proposed.

(iv) Condition of the wire and defenses generally.

(v) Information as to the enemy, his habits, snipers, the work he is
doing, etc.

(vi) Water supply.

(vii) Artillery support.

(viii) Communications.

(_c_) =Guides.=--(i) Arrangements will be made between the C. O.'s of
incoming and outgoing battalions as to the rendezvous where guides
will be provided by the latter to conduct the incoming troops to the
trenches.

(ii) One guide per platoon, one for each company H. Q., and one for
battalion H. Q. will be provided.

These guides must know the exact spot where they will meet the
relieving troops and the best and safest way to the trenches.

(_d_) =Smoking and talking.=--After leaving the rendezvous there is to
be no smoking or talking till arrival in the trenches.

(_e_) =Rate of march to trenches.=--The rate of marching to the
trenches from billets will not exceed 2 miles an hour.

Strictest march discipline is to be enforced on the way to and from the
trenches.

(_f_) =Procedure on arrival in trenches.=--(i) The troops being
relieved will not leave the trenches until the relieving troops are
in position and new sentries have been posted, all trench stores have
been handed over and receipts received, and orders to move have been
received from the company commander.

(ii) Platoon commanders will at once personally examine all firing
positions and satisfy themselves that each man can fire on the foot of
the nearest part of the wire entanglement.

(iii) They will examine the ammunition and grenade stores, vermorel
sprayers, and antigas solution.

(iv) Battalion H. Q. will report to brigade H. Q. as soon as relief is
completed.

When the relief is completed company commanders will report to that
effect to battalion H. Q.

When shelters are some way behind the fire trench they should not be
used during the first night of relief.

(v) Men will not be dismissed until the company commander has received
reports from all his platoon commanders that everything is in order. On
taking over trenches the garrison will "Stand to" at alarm posts before
being dismissed.

_The following are some of the many questions a platoon commander
should ask himself on taking over a trench and at frequent intervals
afterwards_:

1. I am here for two purposes: To hold this line under all
circumstances and to do as much damage as possible to the enemy. Am
I doing all I can to make this line as strong as possible? Am I as
_offensive_ as I might be with organized snipers, sniperscopes, rifle
grenades, etc., and patrols?

2. Do I connect up all right with the platoons on my right and left? Do
I know the position of my nearest support?

3. Does every man know his firing position, and can he fire from it,
over the parapet, at the foot of the wire?

4. Where are my S. A. A. and bomb stores? Are they under cover from the
weather?

5. Do all my men know their duties in case of attack--bombers
especially?

6. Are all my rifles and ammunition clean and in good order? Have all
the men got rifle covers? Are the magazines kept charged?

7. Is my wire strong enough?

8. Are my parapets and traverses bullet proof everywhere?

9. Where are my sally ports and gaps in my wire?

10. Where are my listening posts? Are my listening patrols properly
detailed?

11. What points in front particularly require patrolling at night?

12. Are my sentries in their right places? Are they properly posted by
N. C. O.'s? Have they received proper instructions?

13. Have I got the S. O. S. message in my pocket, and do I know the
orders regarding its use?

14. Are the trenches as clean and as sanitary as they might be? Are
live rounds and cases properly collected? Are my bags for refuse and
empties in position?

15. Are my trenches as dry as I might make them?

16. Am I doing all I can to prevent my men getting "trench feet"?

17. How can I prevent my parapets and dugouts from falling in?

18. Have I carefully studied the ground in front and noted all places
where Germans expose themselves or are likely to do so? Have I taken
advantage of suitable spots in the ground in front of my parapet or
behind my trenches to make "snipers'" lairs, besides making loopholes
in the parapet?

19. Have my men always got their box respirators on them, and are they
in good order?

20. Are the arrangements, in case of gas attack complete and known to
all ranks?

21. Are the orders as to wearing equipment carried out?

22. Are my men using wood from the defenses as firewood?

23. Are my men drinking water from any but authorized sources? Are the
arrangements for cooking and the care of rations as clean and sanitary
as they can be made? Are dugouts and shelters kept clean and tidy?

24. I am here for two purposes: To hold this line under all
circumstances, and to do as much damage as possible to the enemy. Am
I doing all I can to make this line as strong as possible? Am I as
_offensive_ as I might be with organized snipers, sniperscopes, rifle
grenades, etc., and patrols?


=11. WIRING.=--(_a_) Each company will have a party of 1 N. C. O. and 6
men who will be specially trained in wiring. They will go out nightly
and repair and improve the wire along the company front. The definite
duty allotted to trained wirers will not preclude the use of other men
to increase the amount of wire along the front.

(_b_) The wire defenses of the front must be such as to preclude the
enemy from throwing bombs into our trench from the outer edge of our
wire. The nearest wire to our parapet should be 30 yards from it, and
should be 20 yards at least in depth.


=12. ORGANIZATION OF WORK ON DEFENSES.=--(_a_) The Infantry brigade
commander is responsible for the maintenance of the front line system
of trenches, under direction of the division and with the advice and
assistance of the field company commander.

(_b_) One field company will usually be allotted to each brigade area
for work under the C. R. E.

(_c_) The O. C. field company will act as technical adviser to the
Infantry brigadiers, and with his officers will visit frequently the
front line trenches and other trenches in the area, and be responsible
for the technical quality of the work done in them; if necessary he
will supply R. E. personnel for supervision, but this will be done
sparingly, for the Infantry should be trained to do all ordinary
maintenance and repair work, such as repairing wire, rebuilding of
parapets, fixing U frames and revetment hurdles, construction of
ordinary dugouts, keeping trenches drained, etc., without R. E.
assistance or supervision, leaving the R. E. free for work requiring
technical skill, such as--

  New works.
  Concrete dugouts and machine-gun emplacements.
  Main drainage, etc.

(_d_) The pioneers will be employed under the C. R. E. on special jobs
under their own officers, such as--

  Construction of new trenches.
  Repair of communication trenches.
  Preparation of camps, etc.

(_e_) The battalion commander is responsible for all work done in his
subsector, and is, under the brigade commander, responsible for drawing
up a time-table allotting hours for work, rest, and meals. Time-tables
will be submitted in the first instance to brigade H. Q. for approval,
and will then remain in force till altered, any alteration being
submitted in the same way as the original.

The following table is an example:

     _Instructions for working party._

     [To be used by all officers requiring or detailing a working
     party.]

  Working party from___________________________________________________

  Officers__________________________ O. R.______________________________

  Rendezvous________________________ Time______________________________

  Guide will be furnished by___________________________________________

  Tools_____________________________

       _____________________________ To be drawn from__________________

       _____________________________

  Stores____________________________

        ____________________________ To be drawn from__________________

        ____________________________

  Instructions on the work from________________________________________

  Time party will stop work____________________________________________

  Whether haversack rations are to be brought__________________________

(_f_) All work on the fire trench should be carried out by the garrison
of the trench, assisted, if necessary, by the garrison of the support
and the reserve trenches.

(_g_) All work in rear of the fire trenches will be carried out by the
garrison of the support and reserve trenches.

(_h_) Efficiency of work depends, firstly, on _organization_, and,
secondly, on _supervision_. Without these, effort is wasted and work is
unsatisfactory.

(_i_) _Organization_ demands forethought. Every officer charged with
the execution of any work must--

     (i) Think out beforehand exactly how it is to be performed, and
     how many men are necessary to carry it out, including any carrying
     parties that may be wanted.

     (ii) Appoint a place and time (if this is not already fixed by
     routine) for the assembly of the party.

     (iii) Ensure that the necessary tools are forthcoming, and that
     they are either brought by the party to the place of assembly, or
     are available for them there.

     (iv) Ensure that the necessary materials are at hand or arrange
     for their conveyance to the place of work by the working party
     or by a separate carrying party before the working party arrives
     there.

     (v) Parade the working party at the place of assembly, and tell
     each individual off to his task, or, in the case of larger
     parties, tell off their respective tasks, and appoint a N. C. O.
     or soldier in each squad to be responsible for the work.

(_j_) _Supervision_ demands energy and watchfulness. The officer
charged with the execution of the work will always personally supervise
it. Working parties will, as far as possible, be detailed by companies,
platoons, or sections, and will be accompanied by all officers and
N. C. O.'s belonging to them, who will remain with the party and be
responsible for the continuance and direction of the work of their own
men during its execution.

(_k_) Unless work has to be performed with equipment on, jackets should
be taken off (except in inclement weather) while men are actually
working and put on at once when they stop.

(_l_) The best work is obtained from men when they are given certain
definite tasks, proportionate to the time they are to work, and allowed
to fall out when the task is finished. If this can not be done, a fair
task must be exacted and men who idle given extra tasks after the rest
are dismissed.

(_m_) A working party which is too big for the task in hand is worse
than one which is too small, since one man who has no job generally
makes several others idle.

(_n_) All officers and other ranks must be made to understand that
working is as useful and important as fighting; that good work deserves
as much credit as good fighting, and that bad work brings discredit on
himself and his battalion.

(_o_) A covering party will be provided for digging and wiring parties
outside the front trenches. When such parties are being employed an
adequate garrison will be left in the front trench.

(_p_) The word "fatigue" will never be employed in connection with work
in the trenches or other defences.


=13. LOG BOOKS.=--Each company commander in front line or support
trenches will keep a log book (Army Book 136) in which will be entered--

     (i) Work done;

     (ii) Number of men working;

     (iii) Hours worked;

     (iv) Information obtained from patrols, sentries, or other
     sources, as to the enemy, his habits, and his trenches.

_The above will be entered daily._

     (v) Work projected or ordered, in order of importance;

     (vi) A list of trench stores.

The log book will be inspected daily by the battalion commander and
frequently by the brigade staff.


=14. UNDERCUTTING TRENCH SIDES.=--(_a_) The undercutting of trench
sides to make shelters is forbidden.

(_b_) When shelters are made the required space from the ground level
downwards will be cut out, and a roof, supported on reliable posts,
will be made.


=15. COMMUNICATIONS.=--(_a_) Artillery lines will be laid on the north
and west sides of trenches. Infantry lines on south and east.

(_b_) The Infantry brigade signal officer will exercise general
supervision over all lines in the brigade area, and will notify
Artillery brigades when any Artillery lines require attention or
relaying. He will assist the Artillery whenever it may be possible to
do so.

(_c_) All essential lines should be buried to a depth of at least
6 feet. Lines in the communication trenches should be reduced to a
minimum.

(_d_) Lines will be clearly labeled at every hundred yards and at every
junction with another line.

(_e_) All lines will be carefully patrolled at least once daily.

(_f_) One telephonist will always be on duty.

(_g_) Telephone communication to battalion headquarters and the company
on each flank will be frequently tested.

(_h_) All "dead" lines will be reeled up at once.

(_i_) Every man is to know the position of his platoon commander's
shelter and of the company headquarters.

(_j_) At least two men per section of the support and reserve companies
must be able to act as guides to all the company headquarters of the
battalion.

(_k_) All officers must know the shortest route from their own
headquarters to those of the company on their flanks and to their own
battalion headquarters.

(_l_) It is most important to maintain always visual signaling
communications from the front line as far back as brigade headquarters.
Brigade signal officers will be responsible to brigades that this is
done. One message by day and one by night will be sent daily over each
visual signaling route. These will be checked by the brigade staff at
least once a week to insure that they are transmitted promptly and
accurately.

(_m_) Pigeons when relieved by fresh ones will be flown back, each with
a test message to brigade headquarters. Times taken from battalion
headquarters to brigade headquarters will be checked in each case by
the brigade signal officer, and once a week at least by the brigade
staff.

(_n_) The brigade signal section while with the brigade forms an
integral part of brigade headquarters. The brigade commander is
responsible to higher authority for the communications within his
brigade sector and must have full knowledge of them. He exercises
control over his signals through the brigade signal officer. It is
the duty of the brigade signal officer to bring to the notice of the
brigade commander, as well as of the officer commanding divisional
signal company, any defects which exist or any improvements which can
be made.


=16. RATION PARTIES FOUND FROM FRONT TRENCHES.=--Usually rations and
stores will be carried up to the trenches by supports and reserves.
If this is not possible, and it is necessary that men from the front
trenches have to be employed, not more than 10 per cent of the men in
the firing line are to be away from the trenches at the same time.


=17. FIRING AT AEROPLANES.=--Will not be permitted except by order of
an officer.


=18. RIFLES, EQUIPMENT, AND AMMUNITION (Carrying and wearing
of).=--(_a_) Equipment will always be worn in the front trenches.
Haversacks, water bottles, packs, and entrenching tools need not be
worn. In the support and reserve trenches equipment will be worn at the
discretion of the brigade commander.

(_b_) Ration and carrying parties, orderlies, etc., will wear equipment
and carry rifles unless otherwise ordered in special cases by an
officer. Permission to discard equipment, and particularly to discard
arms, should be sparingly given.

(_c_) _Loading of rifles._--Except when it is necessary to shoot, a
round will _never_ be kept in the chamber. Cut-offs will always be "in"
and the safety catch "back."

(_d_) The magazine will be kept charged with five rounds.

(_e_) In the fire trenches, bayonets will be fixed at night.

(_f_) _Care of rifles._--All rifles and ammunition will be inspected
by an officer at least twice a day, viz, at morning and evening "Stand
to." They must be kept scrupulously clean at _all_ times, and any mud
or grit removed _at once_ without waiting for the next inspection.
Breech covers will always be kept on rifles, and so fixed that they can
be immediately cast loose. Each platoon will have its full complement
of "breech clearers" in charge of men fully instructed in their use.

(_g_) Noncommissioned officers and men in firing line and support
will at all times be in possession of their rifles and bayonets. The
rifles of men in support reserve trenches or dugouts may be placed in
protected racks, so that they can be seized quickly. Not more than six
will be in one rack.

(_h_) In very cold weather sentries will occasionally work the bolt of
the rifle to prevent the striker becoming frozen.

(_i_) On no account is the rifle to be used for the purpose of carrying
camp kettles and other loads.

(_j_) Ammunition boxes in the trenches will be examined frequently to
see if the lids work easily. They will not be needlessly broken into.
Each box will be placed on its side in a recess, protected from the
weather, with the lid facing outwards, and with the broader end of the
wooden lid uppermost.

(_k_) Every man will have 120 rounds in his possession.

(_l_) Platoon commanders will report at "Stand to" whether their
ammunition is correct or otherwise.

(_m_) Except in cases of emergency no bandoliers will be issued to men
in the trenches.

(_n_) _Disposal of rifles, equipment, and ammunition._--Men wounded
and going sick will, if able to walk, wear their equipment and carry
their rifles. The rifles and equipment of men unable to carry them, and
also those of dead men, will be sent back to the dressing station. All
rifles, however, badly damaged, and equipment damaged or not required,
will be sent back to the quartermaster. Damaged cartridges and empty
cases will be collected in sacks hung up in the trenches for the
purpose and returned to the quartermaster.


=19. PRECAUTIONS AGAINST GAS ATTACK.=--When "_Wind dangerous_" is
ordered, the following arrangements will be carried out:

(i) All small box respirators and P. H. helmets will be carefully
inspected; such inspections will be carried out daily during the "_Wind
dangerous_" period.

(ii) Within a mile of the front line the small box respirator will be
worn in the "_Alert_" position on the chest with flap unbuttoned, but
protecting the respirator from the wet.

(_a_) The small box respirator will be worn in the "_Alert_" position
outside all clothing.

(_b_) Nothing will be carried slung across the body in such a way as to
interfere with the adjustment of the box respirator.

(iii) Where for any reason a man is not in possession of a small box
respirator, he will wear his P. H. helmet pinned to the shirt in the
"_Alert_" position.

(iv) The chin strap of the steel helmet will on no account be worn
under the chin to impede the adjustment of the mask.

(v) Detached parties of men moving within a mile of the front line will
strictly observe the precautions laid down in (ii), (iii), and (iv).
Commanding officers will be held responsible that this is done.

(vi) The duties of sentries are:

(_a_) To give warning;

(_b_) To adjust immediately the curtains of gas-proof dugouts.

(vii) All working parties east of the line
POPERINGHE--BAILLEUL--ESTAIRES will have a sentry posted to give
instant warning of a gas attack.

(viii) A sentry will be posted at each Strombos horn or similar alarm
and instructed in its use.

(ix) A sentry will be posted at every tunnel dugout or other dugout
holding more than 10 men.

(x) A sentry will be posted to each group of two or three small dugouts.

(xi) A sentry will be posted on each headquarters, signal office, and
independent body of men east of the line POPERINGHE--BAILLEUL--ESTAIRES.

(xii) Men sleeping in rearward lines, works, or rest billets where they
are allowed to take off their equipment will sleep with their small box
respirators round their necks, and must know exactly where their P. H.
helmet is to be found.

(xiii) Company gas N. C. O.'s will report to company headquarters in
readiness to assist the company commander should a gas attack occur.

(xiv) Medical officers will be responsible that a proper proportion of
the ammonia capsules issued to them are with stretcher bearers in the
front line in readiness for their immediate use after a gas attack.

(xv) Company gas N. C. O.'s will inspect daily all antigas
apparatus--Strombos horns, flapper fans, vacuum bulbs, and stores of
combustibles for clearing dugouts. They will see that gas-proof dugouts
are kept in good order and the curtains sprayed.

(xvi) An officer on duty will be detailed from each company in reserve,
except resting battalions.

(xvii) Commanders of units in billets east of the line
POPERINGHE--BAILLEUL--ESTAIRES will organize a system of giving the
alarm and rousing the men in cellars or houses.


=20. ACTION DURING ENEMY GAS ATTACK.=--In the event of an enemy gas
attack the following action will be taken:

(i) The alarm will at once be given by all means available; by
telephone, gongs, Strombos horns, and, if necessary, by orderly, and in
accordance with paras. (iv) and (v).

(ii) THERE SHOULD BE AS LITTLE MOVEMENT AND TALKING AS POSSIBLE. All
ranks will at once adjust their small box respirators. In front lines,
and wherever the tactical situation demands, they will stand to arms.
In rear lines, where there are large gas-proof dugouts, there is no
objection, provided the tactical situation allows it, to men, with the
exception of sentries and officers and N. C. O.'s on duty, remaining
in the gas-proof dugouts. In any case small box respirators will be
adjusted immediately the alarm is given and before the men leave the
dugout.

(iii) On the alarm being given, all bodies of troops or transport on
the move will halt, and all working parties cease work until the gas
cloud has passed.

(iv) Should the gas cloud be unaccompanied by an infantry attack, the
message "Gas attack, trench ________________," but not the S. O. S.
signal, will be sent.

(v) Should an infantry attack develop, the normal procedure of S. O. S.
will be carried out.

(vi) Troops in the front line not affected by gas must be warned to be
prepared to bring a cross fire to bear on the enemy when he attempts to
advance against a gassed portion of the trench.

(vii) If a relief is in progress, units should stand steady as far as
possible until the gas cloud has passed.

(viii) Supports, and parties bringing up ammunition and grenades, will
only be moved up if the tactical situation demands.

(ix) The blanket doorways of protected dugouts will be properly
adjusted.

(x) Men in charge of combustibles and fans will prepare to use them
as soon as the gas cloud has passed, so as to admit of helmets being
removed.

(xi) Helmets will not be removed after a gas attack until permission
has been given by the company commander, who will ascertain from
officers and N. C. O.'s trained at the divisional gas school that it
is safe to do so. Trenches will be fanned clear of gas with fans and
sandbags.

(xii) In order to guard against the danger of a subsequent gas cloud,
all ranks, as soon as the gas is clear and permission has been received
to remove their masks, will replace them in the "_alert_" position.

A SHARP LOOKOUT WILL BE MAINTAINED AS LONG AS THE WIND CONTINUES IN A
DANGEROUS QUARTER, AND MEN WILL SLEEP ON THE FIRE STEP, WITHIN REACH OF
A SENTRY. A SUBSEQUENT GAS CLOUD IS ALWAYS LIKELY.

(xiii) Dugouts will not be entered for at least four hours after a gas
attack, and should be ventilated freely. Ventilation (natural or by
means of fires and antigas fans) is the only sure method of clearing
a dugout. If dugouts have to be entered owing to heavy shelling, this
should be done with the utmost caution, and gas helmets put on at the
slightest trace of gas. The clearing of dugouts should not be carried
out by men who have been even slightly affected by gas. Dugouts can be
efficiently ventilated by means of a small fire burning in the center
of a dugout or cellar for 20 minutes. This method has been proved by
experiments to be effective, but should be employed with due regard
to the danger of smoke being visible to the enemy. Dry wood or other
combustibles will be kept in readiness for the purpose.

(xiv) Special arrangements will be made by corps for warning the civil
authorities who are responsible for the protection and warning of all
civilians within the corps area.


=21. ACTION AFTER ENEMY GAS ATTACK.=--(i) Smoking will be prohibited
for a period of three hours after the gas has ceased.

(ii) After a gas attack troops in the front trenches will be relieved
of all fatigue and carrying work for 24 hours by sending up working
parties from companies in rear. Horses should not be worked for a
similar period if it can be avoided.

(iii) No man suffering from effects of gas will be permitted to walk to
the dressing station.

(iv) Rifles and machine guns should be cleaned immediately after a gas
attack; oil cleaning will prevent corrosion for 12 hours, but the first
available opportunity should be taken to clean all parts in boiling
water containing a little soda.


=22. ACTION DURING GAS SHELL BOMBARDMENT.=--(i) Small box respirators
will be put on in the shelled area.

(ii) In the event of a sudden and intense bombardment with gas shell
a local alarm will be given in the front-line system of trenches by
orderlies; in reserve trenches and battery positions this local alarm
may be given by French shunters' horns. In order to avoid false alarms
of a gas attack the French shunters' horns should not be used in
Infantry front-line trenches.

(iii) All dugouts in the vicinity will be visited and any sleeping men
aroused.


=23. DISCIPLINE WITH REGARD TO CARRYING SMALL BOX
RESPIRATORS.=--Small box respirators will always be carried
within 2 miles of the front line (_i.e._, in advance of the
line ELVERDINGHE--VLAMERTINGHE--DICKEBUSH--KEMMEL HILL--NEUVE
EGLISE--NIEPPE--LAVENTIE) whatever the direction of the wind is. P. H.
helmets will always be carried in corps areas whatever the direction of
the wind is.

="WIND-DANGEROUS" period.=--Orders as to the position in which the
above are worn in "_wind-dangerous_" period are contained in section
19.

="WIND-SAFE" period.=--When the wind is safe working parties during
work and at the discretion of the officer in command may take off their
box respirators, provided the latter are placed conveniently at hand
for use in case of a sudden gas-shell attack or change of the wind.

The P. H. helmet will always be carried.


=24. VERMOREL SPRAYERS.=--(_a_) Vermorel sprayers form part of trench
stores. They are provided for spraying the blankets of gas-proof
dugouts and shelters.

(_b_) They will be stored in the gas-proof dugout or in a protected
position close at hand.

(_c_) They must be kept one-third full of water. Six gallons of the
solution given below to be used in them must be kept in corked jars or
petrol tins close to each sprayer. It must not be kept in the sprayer
owing to its corrosive nature, and after solution has been used the
sprayer must be washed out with water:

     Water.--3 gallons (one large bucket);

     Sodium thiosulphate (hypo).--1-1/2 lbs. (3/4 mess tin);

     Sodium carbonate (washing soda).--3 lbs. (one piled mess tin).

(_d_) Vermorel sprayers will be in charge of company gas N. C. O.'s,
who will detail and train men in their care and use and superintend all
spraying. The blankets on all gas-protected dugouts will be inspected
and sprayed at the commencement of a wind-dangerous period and as often
as is necessary to keep them in a moist condition during it.

(_e_) Company gas N. C. O.'s will take over Vermorel sprayers from
outgoing N. C. O.'s.

(_f_) Vermorel sprayers in the line will on no account be used for
clearing gas from trenches or dugouts after an attack. Against the
present gas used by the enemy these chemicals have no effect, and
Ayrton fans and fires are the means to be used.

The sprayers at medical aid posts are provided with a chemical solution
which will clear any gas that may have entered their protected posts.


=25. SANITATION.=--(_a_) The importance of strict attention to
sanitation will be impressed on all ranks.

(_b_) The commanding officer is responsible for sanitation in his unit,
and the medical officer will advise him in sanitary matters, making
frequent inspection of cook houses, latrines, refuse pits, and water
arrangements. Under the medical officer latrines and refuse pits will
be attended to by the regimental sanitary men and water duties by the
R. A. M. C. details attached.

(_c_) Latrines will be constructed in trenches leading from
communication trenches. Where the bucket system is employed, chloride
of lime or creosol will be freely used. The soil will be removed at
night and buried in a deep pit at least 100 yards from the trenches;
these pits will be filled in when nearly full and labeled.

(_d_) Empty tins and other refuse will be collected in receptacles kept
for the purpose in the trenches, and returning carrying parties will be
used to carry these back to the incinerators in rear.


=26. RATIONS AND COOKING.=--(_a_) Ration parties from the support and
reserve trenches will be made up in complete units.

(_b_) The company quartermaster sergeant will accompany the ration
parties for his company and report his arrival to the company commander.

(_c_) Great care is to be taken that ration and carrying parties make
as little noise as possible.

(_d_) Where cooking is done individually, definite times should be
allocated for the purpose.

(_e_) Unused rations will be returned to the quartermaster.

(_f_) Waste in any form will be discouraged.

(_g_) Arrangements should be made to insure that soup or some hot drink
is available for the men between midnight and 4 a. m.

(_h_) All cooking places and appliances will be kept scrupulously clean
and inspected daily by an officer.


=27. CARE OF GRENADES.=--(_a_) Grenades in the trenches will be kept in
waterproof boxes placed in recesses in the parapet.

(_b_) The brigade bombing officer will frequently inspect all grenades
and posts, and will see that the proper number of grenades is kept up
in each post and store; that they are protected from weather; that a
sufficient number of bombers are present and understand their duties;
that the grenades are in good condition; and that waistcoats or
carriers are available.


=28. STEEL HELMETS.=--Steel helmets will be worn at all times in the
trenches (including all communicating trenches). In addition, they will
be worn elsewhere than in the trenches as may be ordered from time to
time by divisional or brigade headquarters.


=29. RUM.=--(_a_) Rum will be issued by an officer, who will see that
each individual drinks it in his presence.

(_b_) It is not to be issued in the trenches after "Stand down" in the
evening or before "Stand down" in the morning, except with the special
permission of the battalion commander.

(_c_) Men undergoing punishment for drunkenness will receive no issue
of rum for fourteen days after the offense unless it is necessary for
medical reasons.


=30. CHILLED FEET AND FROSTBITE.=--1. These conditions are caused by--

     (_a_) Prolonged standing in cold water and mud;

     (_b_) The continued wearing of wet socks, boots, and puttees;

     (_c_) Constriction of the lower limbs.

2. They can be prevented or diminished by--

     (_a_) The wearing of long gum boots;

     (_b_) Improvements to trenches and provision of dry standings, and
     warmth;

     (_c_) Reduction of time spent in the trenches as far as the
     military situation permits;

     (_d_) Good battalion arrangements to insure that men enter the
     trenches warmly clad with dry boots, socks, and trousers, and with
     the skin well rubbed with whale oil or antifrostbite grease;

     (_e_) Taking to the trenches a pair of ankle boots, in addition
     to the long gum boots, and changing from one into the other when
     possible, at the same time putting on a pair of dry socks.

     N. B.--The effect from being wet through from perspiration is just
     as bad as that from water. Therefore, change your socks.

     (_f_) Taking exercise. Work is the best specific against trench
     feet. Men who are kept moving are kept warm, with their blood
     circulating properly, and do not get trench feet.

     (_g_) Providing warm food at least once a day in the trenches and
     shelter.

=3. Commanding officers will be held personally responsible that the
following instructions are implicitly carried out under the strictest
supervision by officers=:

(_a_) Previous to a tour of trench duty, men's feet will be well rubbed
with oil or grease and dry socks put on. It is not sufficient to apply
the oil or grease, it must be _thoroughly rubbed in until the skin is
dry_.

(_b_) In addition to those worn, another pair of socks will be carried
by each man and used as directed in section 30, paragraph 2 (_e_).

(_c_) Battalion arrangements will be made for the reissue of one dry
pair of socks to each man daily in the trenches.

(_d_) Puttees are never to be worn with long gum boots. Socks can be
prevented from creeping down under the sole of the foot by fastening
them to the trousers by means of safety pins. On no account will
anything in the form of a garter be worn, as it impedes circulation of
the blood.

(_e_) Hot food will be provided at least once a day for men in
trenches. Hot boxes will be available for carrying this.

(_f_) When the feet are affected on no account is hot water to be used,
nor are they to be put near a fire.

(_g_) Regimental rest posts are to be instituted in close proximity to
the trenches, where attention can properly be given to men who show
signs of exposure.

(_h_) On return from the trenches the long gum boots are to be dried
inside.

=4. Divisional or brigade arrangements for=: (_a_) Provision of the
necessary accommodation for the washing and drying of socks in large
numbers, and their supply, to battalions in the front line, in exchange
for wet ones.

(_b_) Drying and brushing of clothes.

5. Long gum boots are issued solely for the use of men in the trenches,
either in the forward or backward lines. They are not to be issued to
or used by men under any other conditions.


Trancribers note:

The following printers errors have been corrected, otherwise spelling
is as in the original.

  sperior/superior
  certatin/certain
  sumbitted/submitted

Words, letters surrounded by equal signs were bold in the original.





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