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Title: San Xavier Del Bac, Arizona - A Descriptive and Historical Guide
Author: Society, Arizona Pioneers Historical
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  [Illustration: Mission San Xavier Del Bac]

  [Illustration: THE FACADE.]



                                _Mission
                           San Xavier Del Bac
                                Arizona_


                      A Descriptive and Historical
                                 GUIDE

  [Illustration: Front View]

   _Compiled by Workers of the Writers’s Program of the Work Projects
                Administration in the State of Arizona_

                              Sponsored by
                 _Arizona Pioneers’ Historical Society_

                 HASTINGS HOUSE, Publishers    NEW YORK


                     First Published in March 1940

                          FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY
                    John M. Carmody, _Administrator_

                      WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION
                    F. C. Harrington, _Commissioner_
                Florence Kerr, _Assistant Commissioner_
                 W. J. Jamieson, _State Administrator_

       Copyright 1940 by the Arizona Pioneers’ Historical Society
                           Printed in U.S.A.
            All Rights are Reserved, Including the Rights to
            Reproduce This Book or Parts Thereof in Any Form

  [Illustration: FRONT VIEW]

  [Illustration: THERE IS A SPLENDID PANORAMA OF THE VALLEY FROM THIS
  POINT.]



                                Preface


The Mission of San Xavier del Bac, generally conceded to be the greatest
of all the old Spanish missions and the finest example of pure mission
architecture in the United States, has enjoyed a variable and
fascinating development through nearly two and a half centuries. This
descriptive and historical guide to the mission is designed to enable
native Arizonans and tourists the more appreciably to enjoy San Xavier’s
great beauty and significance.

Acknowledgment is due to Dr. Herbert Eugene Bolton, Chairman, Department
of History and Director of the Bancroft Library, University of
California, for his helpful suggestions in connection with the history
of the mission. Dr. Rufus Kay Wyllys, Head, Department of Social
Science, Arizona State Teachers College at Tempe, was also very helpful
in this respect. As to the architectural descriptions, the authority of
Prent Duell, in his publication “Mission Architecture, Exemplified in
San Xavier del Bac” was generously employed.

                                                            The Editors.



                         List of Illustrations


  Mission San Xavier Del Bac—_Norman G. Wallace_              _Endpapers_
  The Facade—_Buehman Studio_                              _Frontispiece_
  Front View—_Buehman Studio_                                _Title Page_
                                                                     PAGE
  Glimpse Through Archway—_Buehman Studio_                              3
  Bells—_Joseph Miller_                                                 4
  Papago Village—_Buehman Studio_                                      37
  Mission Courtyard From Above—_Joseph Miller_                         38
  —And Below—_National Park Service_                                   39
  Detail of Wooden Balcony—_Joseph Miller_                             40
  Papago Indian Children—_Joseph Miller_                               41
  High Altar From Rear of Nave—_Joseph Miller_                         42
  Grotesque Lion—_Joseph Miller_                                       42
  High Altar                                                           43
  High Altar From Choir Loft—_Joseph Miller_                           44
  Hand-Carved Pulpit—_Joseph Miller_                                   44
  Choir Loft From the High Altar                                       45
  Corner of West Transept                                              46
  Gospel Chapel—West Transept                                          47
  East Transept—Epistle Chapel                                         48
  The Statue of Mary—_Joseph Miller_                                   49
  The Mother of Sorrows—_Joseph Miller_                                49
  Baptismal Font—_Joseph Miller_                                       50
  Baptismal Font From Nave—_National Park Service_                     51
  Detail of Baptistry Window—_John P. O’Neill_                         52
  Window Over Entrance Portal—_Joseph Miller_                          52
  The Bells of San Xavier—_Joseph Miller_                              53
  Papago Indian Homes—_Joseph Miller_                                  53
  The Great Dome—_Joseph Miller_                                       54
  Corner of the Garden—_Joseph Miller_                                 55
  Mortuary Chapel and Garden—_Joseph Miller_                           56
  Burial Grounds                                                       57
  Gates of San Xavier                                         _Endpapers_


The mission of San Xavier del Bac is on an elevation facing the Santa
Rita Mountains, nine miles to the south of Tucson, Arizona, and is a
conspicuous monument of the Santa Cruz Valley. An isolated church, white
against the soft shades of the bare desert and the distant colors of the
low-lying mountains, it is visible for miles in every direction.

Prent Duell, who calls San Xavier “the greatest of all missions” in his
book on mission architecture, gives the following description of the
view from the front: “The facade of the church is symmetrical, with two
plain towers on either side of an ornate gabled entrance. Above the
broken pediment of the gable, the noble dome may be seen between the
towers. The windows and doors are symmetrically placed and thrown wholly
in shadow by the heavy walls. Their blackness, contrasted with the
glistening whiteness of the walls, and the reddish ornamentation about
the entrance make a picture against the cloudless sky and endless
desert, not to be forgotten.”

The mission was founded by Eusebio Francisco Kino, picturesque pioneer
missionary of the Jesuit Order, whose purpose was to Christianize the
Indian population. San Xavier is the northernmost of his mission chain,
extending up the West coast from Sinaloa to Pimería Alta. Pimería Alta,
meaning the upper country of the Pima Indians, included all the
territory between the Gila River, in what is now Arizona, on the North
and the Río del Altar in Sonora, Mexico, on the south.

Kino visited the “great ranchería” of Bac on the Santa Cruz River for
the first time in 1692 and later wrote an eloquent report to King Philip
V of Spain describing the beauty and fertility of the valley whose
fields extended as far as the present site of Tucson. It was during this
visit that Kino named the place San Xavier, in honor of his own patron
saint, the great Jesuit “Apostle to the Indies.”

A visit in 1694 to Bac and the nearby ruins of Casa Grande, prehistoric
fortress, convinced him that under proper tutelage the Indians might
erect large and permanent buildings.

In 1697 he drove cattle up from his mission Dolores in Mexico and
established the first stock farm at Bac for the support of the projected
mission.

Construction of the church began in April 1700, and Kino in his
autobiography relates: “On the 28th we began the foundations of a very
large and capacious church of San Xavier del Bac, all the many people
working with much pleasure and zeal, some in digging the foundations,
others in hauling many and very good stones of tezontle from a little
hill about a quarter of a league away. For the mortar for these
foundations it was not necessary to haul water, because by means of
irrigation ditches we very easily conducted the water where we wished.
And that house, with its great court and garden nearby, will be able to
have throughout the year all the water it may need, running to any place
or workroom one may please, and one of the greatest and best fields in
all Nueva Biscaya ... on the 29th we continued laying the foundations of
the church and of the house.” (Note: The site of these foundations is
not where the present mission stands, but at a point some two miles
north.)

Kino died in 1711 and it is uncertain how much of the building had been
completed. In 1751 the generally peaceful Pimas, disturbed by the
inroads being made by Spanish settlers and prospectors, revolted and
plundered the mission. Some of the Indians had been obliged to work in
the mines, practically as slaves for the Spanish colonists, and it is
probable that others found the discipline and regular work of the padres
burdensome. All Pimería was shaken by this great uprising which nearly
wiped out the frontier missions.

The following year a presidio was established at the visita of Tubac, 37
miles to the south, for the protection of San Xavier, its visitas, and
the villages of the Christian Indians. Missionary activities were again
started and many of the Indians who had previously fled, returned.

In 1767, by Royal Order, the Jesuits were expelled from all Spanish
domain. Charles III of Spain, fearing the Jesuits were too persistent in
their quest of new lands, decided to replace them with the Franciscan
Order. San Xavier, like most of the abandoned missions of the region,
was taken over by the Franciscans in 1768. San Xavier came under the
direction of Friar Francisco Garcés and before the year was out, while
he lay sick at a nearby visita, the mission buildings were destroyed by
Apaches.

The padres’ courage and spirit were unshaken however, as we find that
four years later a “fairly large” church was erected. The danger from
Apache raids became increasingly serious and in 1776, a presidio was
established at nearby Tucson for greater protection of San Xavier.

About 1785 two Franciscan friars, successors to Garcés, began work on
the building. This evidently was at the site of the present mission.
What part, if any, of the present structure belongs to the period of
Jesuit occupation is conjectural and there seems to be some confusion at
this period regarding the two sites. However, the cruciform
(cross-shaped) design of the present structure was not used by the
Franciscans for missions and it is reasonable to suppose that the
Jesuits may have laid the foundations for the present church, under
these circumstances. Also, the name of San Xavier, a Jesuit, was
retained, while the Franciscans changed the names of the other Jesuit
missions.

The labor of building went on for more than ten years. Except for part
of one tower, the structure was probably finished in 1797, as an
inscription on the door of the Sacristy indicates: “Pedro Bojs ano
die—1797 (Pedro Bojourques—on a day in the year 1797).” The actual
building of San Xavier was carried on under the direction of Ignacio
Gaona, Spanish architect and master mission builder. Ornaments and
fixtures of the older church were placed in the new building.

After Mexico won independence from Spain in 1822, the friars were
expelled from the country and the missions were confiscated. San Xavier
remained for years without a priest, and the buildings were used for
stables, barns, or barracks. At this time the faithful Indians buried
many of the ornaments and statues to prevent their destruction in Apache
raids.

In 1859, following the Gadsden Purchase, whereby the United States
Government purchased from Mexico a large strip of land, San Xavier was
brought within the boundaries of the United States. The Arizona missions
were put in the diocese of Santa Fe, New Mexico. When the Indians heard
that a priest was returning they brought forth the statues and other
sacred articles, rang the long silent mission bells and brought their
children to be baptized. The church of San Xavier was the only mission
not in complete ruin. Extensive repairs were made on the building.

Although the mission withstood the earthquake of 1887, a period of rainy
weather caused damage to its walls and ceilings. Restoration work, for
the most part by Indian labor, was begun in 1906. Old pictures were
studied in an effort to retain the lines of the mission as faithfully as
possible. The work was so skillfully done that in many instances it is
impossible to distinguish between the old and new construction.

The exteriors of the mission and dependent buildings were newly
plastered and the decorations repaired. Some changes were made in the
walls of the atrium and in the patio, which had been constructed as a
measure of defense against the attacks of Apaches. Additional dormitory
and class rooms were constructed. In 1908 the “Grotto of Lourdes,” a
replica of the shrine at Lourdes, France, was constructed on the “Little
Mountain of the Holy Cross” just east of the mission.

In accordance with the usual custom of the Spanish friars in selecting a
building site for a mission, San Xavier del Bac occupies a position in
the very heart of the desert, slightly elevated above the surrounding
terrain and hemmed in by distant mountains. The majestic mass of the
church with its tiny mortuary chapel to the left, its walled atrium
fronting a spacious plaza, and its L-shaped dormitory and patio
adjoining the church proper at the right, forms an imposing
architectural ensemble. The church faces directly south, contrary to the
general rule that the apse should be to the east.

San Xavier is the best preserved and the only one of the old Spanish
missions still being used. For two centuries and more the Indians have
been coming to this shrine, exemplifying their faith in Christianity as
first introduced by the kindly padre Kino.

No mission excels San Xavier in serious design and pure artistry. It
more completely embodies the elements which enter into mission
architecture, that is, the architecture of the Spanish Renaissance
modified by native influences, than any other, and stands a perfect
example of its type. In reality San Xavier, which cannot be designated
as an example of any one style, is a combination of the many influences
that created the mission architecture of the Southwest. Not the least of
these influences was the scarcity of artisans capable of executing the
elaborate detail of the churches in the homeland and the fantastic
Churrigueresque mode of vice-regal Mexico with which the padres were
familiar. Also the building materials were for the most part confined to
those available at the site. In view of these many limitations it is not
surprising that the structures, executed largely by native workmen,
reflected Indian influences.

About the only materials used in the construction of San Xavier Mission
not native to the site were the iron bells and the hinges on the doors.
The statuary for the most part, and the gilt used on interior decorative
features, were probably brought from Mexico. According to legend, the
clappers of the Arizona mission bells were made from a meteorite that
fell in the Santa Rita Mountains nearby.

The architecture of San Xavier has traces of both Byzantine and Moorish
styles. The lower half of the interior with its many brilliant
decorations, statuettes, frescoes, and glitter of golden tones is
partially Byzantine. The upper part reflects the Moorish style with
stilted arches, domes, and fantastic windows. The distinctive towers and
belfries were developed in Mexico and much of the accented yet
restrained decoration suggests the influence of the Aztec.

The mission, except for the foundation, is constructed entirely of
kiln-baked clay brick, covered with a white lime plaster. The
pendentives and groins—even the roof including the huge dome, and the
choir loft—are carried completely on vaulted arches. The ornamental
features of the facade are of brick and plaster.

The foundation of stones imbedded in mortar, is nearly six feet thick
under the front towers in order to support their great weight. The
massive towers, with their arcaded belfries arranged in two stages, were
of identical design. The one on the right, never having been completed,
lacks the crowning dome and cupola of the one on the left, thereby
destroying the otherwise perfect symmetry of the facade, though not
detracting from the charm of the structure. A number of legends have
arisen to account for the unfinished tower. It is said the King of
Spain, anxious to increase his revenues, ruled that each church upon
completion must pay a tax to the royal treasury. The astute padres left
the church in a state that could not be considered completed. Another
version relates that Ignacio Gaona, the mission builder, with but a few
months of labor left, sustained a fatal injury in a fall off the
unfinished tower which may account for its not being completed, as well
as for the fact that the name of his assistant was inscribed on the
Sacristy door, viz. “Pedro Bojourquez, 1797.”

The imposing silhouette of the towers is greatly enhanced by the flowing
lines of their flying buttresses at each corner. These corner buttresses
are arched across to the base of the upper belfry in the form of
graceful scrolls. The platform around the lower stage of the belfry is
protected by a balustrade of finely turned balusters.

The most decorative feature of the facade is the gabled entrance
pavilion which, with its curvilinear silhouette and baroque detail,
exemplifies the excesses of the late Spanish Renaissance and recalls the
Churrigueresque embellishments of the Mexican cathedrals. The original
ornamentations—arabesques, shells, niched figures, and swirling volutes
in both low and high relief—appear in soft shades of red, the faded
residue of the original vermilion paint.

The deeply recessed entrance portal is framed with a low unstilted
classic arch. Its aged wooden doors are hewn from solid mesquite, swung
on original hand-made hinges, and fastened with locks and bolts of the
same period. The spandrels of the portal arch are adorned with rich
floral arabesques. The portal is flanked by double columns, elaborately
molded and decorated, and engaged to the face of broad pilasters. These
columns are repeated in a superimposed ordinance flanking a central
window. The window, admitting light to the choir loft within, has a
delicate wooden balcony which casts a deep shadow over the entrance
portal below. It is crowned with a large shell motif, symbolic of
pilgrimage or baptism. Two other balconies of similar design accent the
base of each tower at the same level. Decorative niched figures are
placed between the columns. The upper figure on the left, with crown and
royal robes, is variously described as representing either King Charles
III of Spain or Saint Catherine. The black-robed figure below, though
nearly effaced, is judged to be that of a lady saint. The upper figure
on the right, with tambourine, is a representation of Saint Cecelia; the
figure below, often blackened by the grease dripping from the candles of
pious Indians who affirm that the saint cures their sore eyes, is
thought to be an image of Saint Lucy. The gable of the entrance
pavilion, in the form of a broken scroll pediment, is adorned with the
arms of the Franciscan order, executed in high relief. The coat of arms
consists of an escutcheon with a white ground against which are
displayed a twisted cord, part of the Franciscan dress, and a cross
bearing one arm of Jesus and one of Saint Francis. To the right of the
escutcheon is the monogram of Jesus and to the left that of the Virgin.
In the decoration above are two small Lions of Castile, and bunches of
grapes signifying fertility. A broken bust of Saint Francis of Assisi
surmounts the pediment.

Regarding the facade as a whole one is impressed with the striking
contrast between the blank surfaces of the smooth outer walls and
towers, and the concentrated decoration of the few wall openings. Over
each of the lower windows in the towers is a delicate relief almost
monastic in its simplicity. These windows are grilled with slender
wooden spindles in the traditional Spanish manner.

Inside to the left of the nave is the Baptistry and over head the choir
loft from which the best view of the interior is obtained. The plan of
the vaulted interior is a perfect Latin cross with transepts, apse and
nave. The right and left transepts are treated as chapels. At the north
end is the chancel with its high altar. Over the crossing of transept
and nave, the lofty dome rises over an octagonal drum supported on the
arches and pendentives, while to the left and right are richly appointed
transept chapels each containing two altars. Light streaming through the
high windows in the clearstory and the four medallion windows in the
drum of the dome is refracted from wall to wall in soft bluish tones.

The walls of the interior are richly adorned with frescoes and gilded
ornament. The interior decorations of San Xavier, though somewhat faded
in color are perhaps richer than those of other missions—the elaborate
detail of its gilded altars, the bizarre painted statues, the spindled
altar rails and wine glass pulpit, are in keeping with the rich
traditions of Spain and Mexico.

The sides of the vaulted nave, adorned with frescoes, a painted dado and
cornice, are lined with heavily capped pilasters. Frescoes, painted in
bold reds, yellows, blues, and browns and outlined in orange and black,
recall at once the work of early Spanish painters, the eastern heritage
of early Christian art, and at the same time, the hand of a native race
attuned to brilliant color. The large frescoes, _The Last Supper_ and
_The Holy Ghost Descending Upon The Disciples_, to the left and right
respectively, are said to be the work of a monk from the college of
Queretaro. The dadoes painted in imitation of tiles have almost
disappeared. Below the molded brick cornice is a colorful frieze
decorated with the cord and hem of the Franciscan vestments and the
traditional fringe of bell and pomegranate.

The pilasters flanking the nave are adorned with niched figures of
saints. On the left (front and rear) are St. Mathew, St. Bartholomew and
St. Philip, on the right St. Simon and St. Thaddeus. These apostolic
figures and many others set into the high altar and transept chapels are
painted and modeled with charming naivete of form and expression. As
Duell has suggested, “They were intended for the Indian, and his first
lessons in Christianity were through art.”

The frescoes on the pendentives and on the drum and dome over the
crossing are especially decorative in that they are painted on the white
ceiling in vignette. Here again are figures of various saints. Those
decorating the pendentives represent St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Augustine,
St. Jerome and St. Ambrose.

In the Gospel Chapel formed by the left transept are two richly carved
and gilded altars. The larger one at the end, somewhat resembling the
high altar, is dedicated to the Passion of Our Lord, the other, on the
right, to St. Joseph. The frescoes on the left wall of this chapel
symbolize _The Presentation of Our Lord in the Temple_ (upper) and _Our
Lady of the Pillar_ (lower). Here also is the confessional.

The apse, containing the elaborately encrusted high altar, is framed by
a wide and stilted chancel arch. On the piers of the arch (left and
right) are figures of St. James, St. John, St. Thomas and St. Ignatius
Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus. On the corners of the piers are
hung the figures of angels, life-size, said to be the likenesses of the
two daughters of the artist who decorated the interior. The apse is
separated from the rest of the church by a low spindled chancel rail.
The central gate of the hand-carved railing is flanked by two grotesque
carvings of lions on the escutcheon of Castile and Leon. In their paws
were candlesticks—long since carried away by vandals.

The high altar is dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. A figure of the saint
occupies a central niche above the altar table. Around it are carved
cherubs and arabesques. Still higher is a brilliantly painted figure of
the Holy Virgin. On each side of this central motif the corners of the
octagonal apse are lined with elaborately carved and gilded columns and
between them the niched figures of St. Peter and St. Paul. Surmounting
the altar is the figure of God the Creator. The domed ceiling of the
apse is embellished with a shell—a motif frequently used in the
decoration of the church. The side walls of the apse are painted with
colorful frescoes: _The Adoration of the Wise Men_ and _The Flight Into
Egypt_ (right wall) and the _Adoration of the Shepherds_ and the
_Annunciation_ (left wall).

A small door in the right wall of the apse leads into the Sacristy, a
high square domical chamber containing the sacred vessels and
reliquaries. The delicate floral decorations on the sacristy ceiling are
especially notable. On the north wall is the _Crucifixion_, the largest
and best preserved of any of the frescoes in the church. A small door in
the east wall gives access to the arched cloisters of the patio.

In the east transept is the Epistle Chapel containing, like the Gospel
Chapel on the left, two altars—the large altar at the end, dedicated to
the Mother of Sorrows, containing a statue of Mary, clothed in a bridal
gown donated by an Indian girl in appreciation of an answered prayer.
Imbedded in the wall above is an antique wooden cross which formerly
bore a “life-size” statue of the crucifixion, though nothing remains now
but one arm. It is thought the statue was carried away by vandals. The
altar at the left is dedicated to the Immaculate Conception.

A high canopied hand-carved pulpit of rich dark pine, fastened with
wooden pegs, stands against the transept pier at the right of the
Epistle Chapel. Octagonal in shape and raised on a slender shaft-like
pedestal, it is a notable example of skillful craftsmanship in
woodcarving. The pulpit platform is approached by a narrow railed flight
of steps.

Entrance to the finished tower is through the Baptistry. This room is
groin-vaulted and handsomely ornamented. A fresco of the _Baptism of
Christ_ completely covers one of the walls. The baptismal font in the
center of the room with its hand-hammered copper bowl, bears the
inscription “IHS,” three letters of the name Jesus in the Greek
language. This is one of the sacred fixtures that was taken from the
original Kino church and placed in the present building.

A narrow stairway built into the thick walls leads to the choir vestry.
The choir loft is adjacent. The walls of the choir loft are covered with
frescoes of the _Holy Family_, the _Home at Nazareth_, _St. Francis in a
Heavenly Chariot_, and _St. Dominic Receiving the Rosary from the Holy
Virgin_. A door opposite that of the choir vestry gives access to the
other tower. The old doors in the church still have their original heavy
iron hinges, locks and latches. They are designed with heavy stiles and
rails, enclosing small panels, and are relatively low and narrow.

The belfry of the finished tower, reached through a tunnel-like stairway
from the choir vestry, is enclosed by a parapet with molded balustrades.
Only three of the original four bells remain. It is thought that one of
the three, accounted the best, is the “lost chime” from the San Juan
Bautista mission of California, which was cast by a Peruvian who died
without divulging the secret of his process. The inscription: “S. Jvan
Bavtjsta,” is quite clear. Just how it came to be lost by the California
mission however, if it came from there, remains a mystery.

Flights of stairs lead on upward to the cupola, which culminates in a
domical vault. There is a splendid panorama of the valley from this
point. In earlier days the cupola was perhaps used as a lookout to warn
against Apache attacks. Here one may look down upon the domed surface of
the roof which was painted in imitation of tile, and examine the detail
of the elaborate roof parapet with its slender posts and finials and
graceful wall curved in scalloped loops between them. The finials are
flanked by carved Castilian lion heads.

The dormitory wing constructed of adobe has been greatly altered. Early
drawings indicated that the windows and doors were originally arched.
Especially notable is the roof over the dormitory and adjoining loggia.
Except for the outer covering of tile its structure has never been
disturbed. It is supported on heavy beams of mesquite timber and, as was
the general custom, the beams were covered with stalks of ocotillo,
leaves and reeds, the cracks then filled with soft adobe, the whole
finally forming a solidly reinforced roof. The north wing of the
dormitory, although entirely new, harmonizes with the earlier structure.

Engineers are working to bring back into line the massive walls of the
mission and plan to reinforce the dome and portions of the fine facade
which have recently fallen away.

Secret processes used in painting the murals are being utilized in
restoring the walls of the structure. This process, recently discovered
through research at the Smithsonian Institution, solves a problem
artists have been attempting for years to achieve through the use of oil
paint. The root of the ocotillo plant supplies the red. The pulpy sap of
the saguaro (giant) cactus gives the blue. Brown and yellow are made
from the first layer of skin under the bark of the palo verde tree, and
green comes from sage leaves while mesquite beans make the thick black.
The degree of boiling gives the shades desired.

The preservation of San Xavier del Bac is a worthy gesture in enabling
increasing thousands to see intact this magnificent example of early
mission architecture.



                              Bibliography


  Bancroft, Hubert Howe. _History of Arizona and New Mexico._ San
  Francisco, The History Company, 1889. Vol. 17 of his _History of the
  Pacific States of North America_.

  Bolton, Herbert Eugene. _Kino’s Historical Memoir of Pimería Alta._
  Cleveland, Arthur H. Clark Company, 1919. 2 v.

  ——, _Rim of Christendom_. New York, Macmillan, 1936.

  ——, _Padre on Horseback_. San Francisco, Sonora Press, 1932.

  Bonaventure, Father, O.F.M. _Mission San Xavier del Bac._ Topawa,
  Ariz., Franciscan Fathers of Arizona, San Solano Missions.

  Duell, Prent. _Mission Architecture Exemplified in San Xavier del
  Bac._ Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society, 1919.

  Engelhardt, Father Zephyrin. _The Franciscans in Arizona._ Harbor
  Springs, Mich., Holy Childhood Indian School, 1899.

  Hallenbeck, Cleve. _Spanish Missions of the Old Southwest._ New York,
  Doubleday, Page & Company, 1926.

  Hinton, R. J. _Handbook to Arizona._ New York, Payot, Upham & Company,
  1878.

  Lockwood, Frank C. _With Padre Kino on the Trail._ Tucson, University
  of Arizona, 1934.

  Lummis, Charles F. _The Spanish Pioneers._ Chicago, A. C. McClurg &
  Company, 1914.

  Lutrell, Estelle. _The Mission of San Xavier del Bac._ Tucson, Acme
  Press, 1934.

  Newcomb, Rexford. _Spanish-Colonial Architecture in the United
  States._ New York, J. J. Augustin, 1937.

  Willys, Rufus Kay. _Pioneer Padre._ Dallas, Southwest Press, 1935.



                             Illustrations


  [Illustration: MISSION of SAN XAVIER DEL BAC · 1700-1797]
    KEY
  A Nave
  B Provision Room
  C Epistle Chapel
  D Sacristy
  E Apse
  F Gospel Chapel
  G Crossing
  H Baptistry
  I Narthex
  J Cloister
  K Dormitory Wing

  [Illustration: THE MISSION OF SAN XAVIER DEL BAC. PAPAGO VILLAGE IN
  FOREGROUND.]

  [Illustration: MISSION COURTYARD FROM ABOVE....]

  [Illustration: ... AND BELOW.]

  [Illustration: THE ENTRANCE PORTAL HAS A DELICATE WOODEN BALCONY
  ABOVE, CROWNED WITH A LARGE SHELL MOTIF.]

  [Illustration: PAPAGO INDIAN CHILDREN RECESSING AT THE MISSION SCHOOL.]

  [Illustration: HIGH ALTAR FROM REAR OF NAVE.]

  [Illustration: ONE OF TWO GROTESQUE CARVINGS OF LIONS.]

  [Illustration: HIGH ALTAR.]

  [Illustration: HIGH ALTAR FROM CHOIR LOFT.]

  [Illustration: A HIGH CANOPIED HAND-CARVED PULPIT OF RICH DARK PINE.]

  [Illustration: CHOIR LOFT FROM THE HIGH ALTAR.]

  [Illustration: LOOKING TOWARD ONE CORNER OF THE WEST TRANSEPT.]

  [Illustration: GOSPEL CHAPEL—WEST TRANSEPT.]

  [Illustration: EAST TRANSEPT—EPISTLE CHAPEL.]

  [Illustration: THE STATUE OF MARY CLOTHED IN A BRIDAL GOWN DONATED BY
  AN INDIAN WOMAN.]

  [Illustration: ALTAR DEDICATED TO THE MOTHER OF SORROWS.]

  [Illustration: BAPTISMAL FONT IN CENTER OF BAPTISTRY. PEDESTAL AND
  BOWL OF BAKED BRICK WHICH INCLOSES A COPPER BOWL ENGRAVED ON TOP WITH
  MONOGRAM I. H. S.]

  [Illustration: THE BAPTISMAL FONT SEEN FROM THE NAVE.]

  [Illustration: DETAIL OF BAPTISTRY WINDOW.]

  [Illustration: WINDOW OVER ENTRANCE PORTAL.]

  [Illustration: THE BELLS OF SAN XAVIER.]

  [Illustration: PAPAGO INDIAN HOMES.]

  [Illustration: THE GREAT DOME, THE DOMED ROOF, AND THE FINIALS FLANKED
  WITH CARVED CASTILIAN LION HEADS.]

  [Illustration: PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN A CORNER OF THE GARDEN.]

  [Illustration: MORTUARY CHAPEL AND GARDEN.]

  [Illustration: MEXICAN AND INDIAN BURIAL GROUNDS JUST WEST OF THE
  MISSION.]

  [Illustration: Gates of San Xavier]



                          Transcriber’s Notes


--Copyright notice provided as in the original—this e-text is public
  domain in the country of publication.

--Silently corrected palpable typos; left non-standard spellings and
  dialect unchanged.

--Moved some captions closer to the corresponding pictures, removing
  extraneous spatial references like “(next page)”.

--In the text versions, delimited italicized text by _underscores_.





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