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Title: Complete Treatise on the mare and foal at the time of delivery, with illustrations. - Also on cows and calves, with stallion and mare, when - diseased by Gonorrhea (clap) or Pox, also Diarrhea and - Costiveness in Colts.
Author: Mitchell, Conrad
Language: English
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                           COMPLETE TREATISE
                                ON THE
                            MARE AND FOAL,
                       AT THE TIME OF DELIVERY,


                                ALSO ON
                           COWS AND CALVES,
                          STALLION AND MARE,
                           WHEN DISEASED BY
                       Gonorrhea (clap) or Pox.

                  Diarrhea and Costiveness in Colts.

                           CONRAD MITCHELL.

                           Volksfreund Print
                            Middleburg. PA.

               Entered according to an Act of Congress,
                         in the year 1869, by

                           CONRAD MITCHELL,

              in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court
                 of the United States for the Western
                       District of Pennsylvania.


Of all the beasts of the field, which we are told, the Lord formed out
of the earth, and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call
them, none has more engaged the attention of the historian and the
philosopher--none has figured more in poetry, in war and in love, than
the horse.

None of the writing, to which we could point the reader, contains more
frequent mention, or more glowing descriptions of the power and beauty
of the horse, than the great Book of Books.

The Bible teaches us, that from whatever land this animal may have
been originally brought into Egypt, that country had already become
a great horse market, even before horses were known in Arabia, the
country with which we are apt to associate all that is most interesting
of this noble beast. Geological researches, however, have discovered
fossil remains of the horse in almost ever part of the world--from
the tropical plains of India, to the frozen regions of Siberia--from
the northern extremities of the new world, to the southern point of
America. But among the Hebrews, horses were rare previous to the
days of Solomon, who had horses brought out of Egypt, after his
marriage with the daughter of Pharaoh, and so rapidly did he multiply
them by purchase and by breeding, that those kept for his own use
required, as it is written, “four thousand stables, and forty thousand
stalls.” Hence, when honored by a visit from the beautiful queen of
Sheba, bringing with her, camels bearing spices, and very much gold
and precious stones, it was doubtless in the contemplation of his
magnificent stud of horses and chariots, kept for the amusement of his
wives and concubines, as well as for his other vast displays of power
and magnificence, that her majesty exclaimed, in the fulness of her
admiration: “Howbeit, I believed not the words, until I came and mine
eyes had seen it, and behold the half was not told unto me.”

Veterinary science has also made great progress from that time down
to the present, and in particular, in the last half century, the
structure of the horse--injuries and diseases to which he is subject,
and the treatment of these, have been investigated, in this country
and abroad, with much diligence and success, both in colleges and in
societies devoted to the cultivation of veterinary knowledge, and by
practitioners, whose education and experience render their observations
worthy of great respect; but notwithstanding all this, there has always
been, to the present time, one point overlooked, which is of greater
importance, than any one that has ever been investigated. I refer here
to a complete treatise on the Mare and Foal at the time of delivery.
This has long been felt as a real want. Not a single engraving,
illustrating this subject has ever been handed to the public, and very
little has been written on the treatment of the mare and the foal at
the time of delivery. When the best authors come to this point, they
say, “call in a veterinary Surgeon.” But, I would ask, where is the
veterinary Surgeon to obtain his information? And yet, not only the
surgeon, but every farmer and breeder should possess a full knowledge
of it.

The man that first enters the stable should be able to administer to
the wants of the mare and the foal. There is no time to be lost--no
time now to obtain information, or to proceed four or five miles for
a surgeon. If all is right, in five minutes all will be well, but if
a false position is presented, the first person that approaches the
animal should be able to administer to the wants of the mare and foal.
If not, there is much danger for the life of the foal, and in a few
hours much danger is to be feared for the safety of the mare.

I have had a very extensive practice in the veterinary business for
more than nineteen years, and found it almost universally to be the
case, that in the event of mal-presentation, the foal had suffocated
before I could reach the spot, although I was but a very few miles
distant. If the foal is raised from its locality, it must be exposed
to the free atmosphere in twenty minutes or it will suffocate, and the
life of the mare will be much in danger. Often, after I had extracted
the foal, I could have obtained twenty dollars for restoring its life.

I have frequently been urged by farmers and breeders, to give them full
instructions on this subject, and especially, at such times, when a
difficult case presented itself, but I always found it impracticable,
as verbal instruction would soon be forgotten, and as no work,
illustrating this subject was in existence. I was induced, therefore,
in order to benefit the farmer and breeder, to publish a complete
treatise on the mare and foal, at the time of delivery, illustrated
by engravings. I had made an effort about seven years ago, but that
little instrument, the “pen,” in my hand, is what the yoke is to the
ox, and so I abandoned it for that time. The cart-whip in my hand is
a fine instrument, but the pen is my abhorrence. Notwithstanding, at
the earnest request of numerous dealers in horses, I was induced in the
Spring of 1869, to offer this work to the public, for the benefit of
the farmer and breeder, and in mercy to the mare and foal.

This work, as the reader will discover, embraces every particular
connected with the subject upon which it treats, with ample engravings,
illustrating the different positions in which a foal is presented--its
natural delivery--false presentations, etc., with lucid explanations
and instructions.


New Berlin, Pa., July, 1869.

[Illustration: PLATE I.]

The above Engraving represents the Foal, as it is folded up in the womb
of the Mare when fully developed, in the right flank of the animal, the
chest of the Foal toward the tail of the Mare, the front legs turned
backwards, and the hind legs turned forward under the body of the
Foal, the head and neck turned back in its left side, so that the head
will rest on the first false ribs. From the time of covering the Mare,
to the time of foaling, generally requires a period of three hundred
and thirty days. A few instances, however, came under my observation,
in which fine, full-grown, and healthy colts were delivered in three
hundred and twelve days, while others delayed their appearance for a
period of three hundred and ninety days, before the owner could rejoice
in the valuable prize brought to his stable. The full chested, round
trunked mare will develope a foal much sooner than the flat-sided, lean
and camel-backed one.

In nine days after the covering of the mare, the womb will begin to
close about fifteen inches from the entrance; at the same time, the
fecund seed of the horse will change into bloody streaks, and the
balance becomes like cream on curdled milk about six hours after it is
strained, and in from forty to fifty days, the foal will be regularly
shaped, and about the size of a small rat. At the same time a membrane
or skin will spread around the entrance inside of the womb, from which
a number of small cords branch out, uniting together as they run along,
until they form one cord, extending to the navel of the foal, through
which the blood of the mare circulates in the foal, in order to give it
nourishment. At the same time another membrane or skin is formed around
the foal, in which are contained from four to six, and even eight
quarts of yellowish fluid, which answers a twofold purpose: first, it
prevents all friction between the foal and membrane, and secondly, it
assists in raising the foal from its locality. At the first throes of
the mare, the action of the womb will cause the membrane or skin to
protrude through the entrance of the womb, and the fluid will be forced
into it, and the weight will assist in raising the foal, until it will
be presented when the skin will break and the channel will be opened
for the foal to breath.

[Illustration: PLATE II.]

The above Engraving presents the natural position of the foal in
delivery. The two front feet will be presented first, and the muzzle
or the nostrils will rest on the top of the legs, and the membrane
or skin around the foal, spoken of in Plate I, will already protrude
about two feet. The hind legs will sink down more and more, until they
will be stretched out behind horizontally. Sometimes one foot will
raise up too high and be forced against the inside of the entrance.
The hand should be introduced and the foot pushed back a few inches
and then brought back into the channel. Sometimes the forehead will
project against the upper part of the entrance, when the hand should be
introduced, and hold should be taken back of the poll, with a downward
pressure, the other hand to the muzzle to raise it up, and a gentle
pull should be made, when all will be right in a few minutes. The cord
running to the navel of the colt should be tied about one inch from the
surface of the skin, then cut off about one inch from the string, or if
no string is at hand, the cord should be pressed very tightly between
the thumb and the two first fingers of the hand for a few minutes, then
cut off, and it will bleed no more. The colt should be drawn away a
few feet, but not toward the mare, as she should not be disturbed.
The mare will lie down flat, apparently dead, and will remain in this
situation, five, ten, and even sometimes thirty minutes, according to
the severity of the operation she has undergone. Suddenly she will
raise her head, look about the stable, lie down again, and roll three
or four times on her back, but never over her back, which is done for
the purpose of loosening the membrane or lining of the womb spoken of
in Plate I, when she will rise up, go after her offspring, lick and dry
it, after which the membrane and the afterbirth will be discharged.
When the colt is dry, it should be assisted to its mother to obtain

Sometimes the membrane attached to the womb will remain fast, and in
this manner retain the afterbirth. In this case, bleeding from three
to four quarts, and giving following dose of medicine in one pint of
flaxseed tea is recommended, viz:

    1 oz. Laudanum,
    1 oz. sweet Spirits of Niter.

This will correct everything in a few hours. In some extreme cases,
the membrane, the afterbirth and the fluid contained with the foal
remained in the womb after a complete separation from the womb, causing
such a strong inflammation, that some parts had began to mortify.
I have bled copiously, and given one large tablespoonful of fever
medicine, composed of

    4 oz. of Nitre,
    ½  ”  ”  Digitalis,
    ½  ”  ”  Tartar Emetic,

in one pint of Linseed tea, every three hours, and by means of a
syringe, or bladder, with a clean piece of elder tied in the neck, I
have injected into the womb from four to six quarts of Linseed tea,
which caused a copious discharge of bloody matter from the womb,
amounting sometimes to a bucket full. In extraordinary cases, the
purifying organs were overpowered and the mortified blood was carried
through the whole system, and even then the mare recovered to a certain
degree, until in about a week afterwards her hoofs came off, caused by
the mortified blood, and she was accordingly destroyed.

[Illustration: PLATE III.]

The above Engraving represents a false presentation. The two fore feet
are presented, and the head remains behind in the right flank of the
mare. The operator will be able to tell whether they are the front
or hind feet, by examining the knee joints. Now, a bowl containing
two or three quarts of very warm water, with a large tablespoonful of
very fine lard or linseed oil on the surface of the water, should be
at hand. Under no circumstances should a hand or arm be introduced to
the mare, unless first thoroughly warmed and greased, otherwise they
are rank poison to the mare. After the arm is prepared, the fingers
and thumb should be brought to a point, and should be introduced,
following the channel, until the neck of the foal is reached at Fig.
1, when the full right hand should grasp the neck, the left hand being
supported against the mare, when the operator should pull with all his
strength, in order to draw the neck further up, when the hand should
pass down along the neck, still drawing as it passes along, until
reaching Fig. 2, the ear, when he can make good progress, until he
can insert the middle finger in the eye, at which point he is able to
raise the muzzle, Fig. 3, so far, that he may close his hand over it,
and in a minute, all will be right in the operation. But let no one
suppose, that this is accomplished in ten or fifteen minutes. Sometimes
it may, but in many instances, I have labored for an hour, and even
two and a half hours. In some cases, the severe exertion, and the heat
of the mare, caused my arterial circulation to force so powerfully in
my arm, that I was often afraid my veins would burst; in this case I
would withdraw my arm for a minute or two, and then go to work again.
In my entire practice, I have failed but in three cases, that of two
mares and one cow, to accomplish my object. I was often called, where
two, three, and even four men had been summoned before me, owing to the
distance I lived away, and succeeded in every instance where others
failed. I resolved not to fail in any case, but this determination
proved disastrous to myself, inasmuch, as I became subject to
palpitation of the heart, so that I could not follow my business for
more than twelve years.

[Illustration: PLATE IV.]

Of the cases represented in Plate III, I had a large number; of such as
are presented in Plate IV, only a few, of which I will describe only
one. On the 13th of June, 1854, I was called to the premises of Mr.
George Braucher, in Hartley township, Union county.

In this case the hand and arm must be prepared, as already described,
and inserted to the elbow, Fig. 1. A great amount of force is required
to raise the leg, until the knee joint is brought up. The left hand
should then be warmed and greased by an assistant, and introduced,
placing it on the knee-joint; the right hand should then be passed
down, grasp the foot, and turn it backwards, when the left hand
should press inward with great force, and with the right hand bring
up the foot, keeping it turned backwards. When the foot is brought
up, a rope should be attached to the lower jaw of the foal, when an
assistant should take hold of the rope and pull in a slightly downward
direction; in this way the foal will be delivered with the greatest
ease. Sometimes one shoulder will present itself, and the other will
incline a little to the rear. Under such circumstances, too much force
should not be employed; the foal should be turned sometimes from right
to left, and then again from left to right, frequently introducing the
hand, and moving it around the foal. In all cases the membrane or skin
should be kept in its proper position around the foal, as this will
greatly assist the work, and make it one of comparative ease.

In the above case, the foal presented itself in the afternoon of the
12th, and all the knowing men of the neighborhood were summoned, and
all of them labored until night, when they were obliged to give it up
and pronounce it a failure.--The next morning a messenger was sent for
me. I arrived at the spot at half past ten o’clock, in the morning, and
at twelve o’clock noon, I had the object accomplished, and we sat down
to a hearty dinner. In December 1868, the mare was still alive.

[Illustration: PLATE V.]

On the 30th day of April, 1855, when about ready to retire to bed after
a hard day’s drive, two messengers, Mr. B. Cramer, from Middlecreek,
and Mr. Uriah Berger, from Centre township, arrived at my house
together. After some consideration, I concluded to accompany Mr.
Berger, and on arriving, I found a foal, having presented itself as
represented in the preceding Engraving. Before my arrival, three men
had exerted all their strength for an hour or more, to extract it, but
having failed, they left before my arrival.

In this case, the mare is very restless, repeatedly rising up and lying
down again. It will require one man to attend to the head of the mare,
and two men must take hold of the foal, raise it up toward the tail of
the mare, and bear inwards with all their strength, when the operator
must put all his force to one of the hind feet, and push that in at
full arm’s length; the other side must be treated in the same manner.
But let each one bear in mind, when the foal is moved inward, the mare
will have pain and that she will bear towards you, so that sometimes
but little is accomplished.

We labored faithfully from eleven o’clock until one, when I took a
midnight meal and departed for Middlecreek township.

In some cases of the above kind, however, I had accomplished my object
in much less time, than in this one.

[Illustration: PLATE VI.]

On the 5th of May, 1855, I was called to the premises of John Deabler,
in Beaver township, Snyder county, where I found a foal presenting the
tail, as represented in Plate VI. Presentations of this kind occur
but rarely. In this case the operator must prepare his hand and arm as
before stated, and introduce it, taking hold over the stifle-joint at
Fig. 1, then, by a strong effort, pull upward slipping his hand down to
Fig. 2, when he must draw up the knee-joint as far as possible; then
place the left hand on the knee joint, and pass the right hand down to
Fig. 3, the foot, grasp it firmly, and bend it backward, at the same
time pulling upward, and with left the hand bearing inward, when the
foot will yield in a moment. The other side must be dealt with in the
same manner.

[Illustration: PLATE VII.]

The above Engraving represents the foal with the hind feet foremost.
They will generally be projected against the upper part of the
entrance. It is best to extract them in this position, as turning
them is almost impossible. The head will remain so far behind, that it
cannot be reached. By keeping the membrane or skin properly over the
foal, there will be but little difficulty experienced in extracting
it. The foal should sometimes be drawn downward toward the feet of the
mare, and then upwards towards the tail, frequently turning it half way
round, and then back again. The foal will necessarily be dead.

Many cases of this kind will occur in a neighborhood in the course of
twenty years.

[Illustration: PLATE VIII.]

The above Engraving represents a foal which has died from some cause
or other about nine days ago, the mare wanting the proper pains to
deliver it. The foal is now bloated to such an extent, that it is in
a condition to rupture the womb, and the hand can not be passed around
the foal. It is an utter impossibility to extract it in the usual way.
The operator must procure a knife, very straight in the blade, from
twelve to fifteen inches in length, wrap the whole blade in a piece
of muslin, take the point of the knife in his left hand, turning the
edge downward, put his hand in the entrance of the womb and run it
down until he reaches the chest of the foal. He must then introduce
the right hand, grasp the handle, and hold it firm; then with the left
hand he will slip the muslin from the blade, and with the first finger
of the left hand find the spot where the windpipe comes out of the
chest. After the point of the knife is set, the right hand must force
the blade, to its full length if possible, through the Diaphragm, and
then withdraw it. The left hand must retain its hold upon the muslin
during the entire operation, and as the blade is withdrawn from the
foal, it must again be carefully wrapped around the knife, the left
hand seizing the point in the same manner as when it was introduced.
After the arm holding the knife is withdrawn, a very nauseous gas
will escape, and in a short time the front feet may be reached, then
the head, after which the operation will proceed as described in the
foregoing pages.

[Illustration: PLATE IX.]

On the 20th day of May, 1854, I was called to the field of Mr. Sem
Schoch, of New Berlin, Union county, Pa., where I found a mare in the
act of foaling, in which the foal presented the four feet at once.
These cases are of rare occurrence, and it is well for the veterinary
Surgeon, or his life would be a brief one. I never injured myself at
any work to a greater extent, than I did in treating these cases.

Sometimes the hoofs will only protrude from the entrance, leaving the
whole body of the foal in a curved position the head being turned
backward, as described in the foregoing Engraving. The head should be
brought forward, but I always found it impossible in every case of this
description, to accomplish this. A cord must be looped around the hind
legs, to avoid losing them; then the four legs must be put back again
as far as possible, and the foal must be turned, in order to get the
head down and the back up.

If an effort was made to extract the foal as it is presented, the back
would come in below, and the operation would be impossible; but if it
is properly turned, it may be extracted in the same manner, as those
which present only the hind feet, as already described. These cases
require more aid than any others that I have ever treated. Two or three
men should take hold of the mare’s head and neck, to keep her down,
otherwise she will plunge about fearfully. One or two men should assist
the Surgeon, as the effort required for this operation is so great that
one man is soon exhausted.

Two and three hours are often required to accomplish the object in
these cases, but I have succeeded in every one of them in preserving
the mare alive.



The average period of gestation in the cow is 270 days; the shortest
120 days, and the longest 313 days. The calf is placed in the same
position, and in the same side of the cow, as is the foal in the mare.
Mal-presentations of calves are treated in the same manner as those of
the foal, with this advantage, that calves will live much longer than
the foal. I have had cases, where I extracted the calf twenty-four
hours after they were raised, and delivered them alive and sound.

About two weeks before calving, the cow should have, in addition to
her ordinary food, a half pint of rye, evening and morning, as that is
a sure means of taking the cleaning right after the delivery of the
calf. Should this be neglected, she should be slopped with two quarts
of wheat bran and half a teacupful of flaxseed, twice a day. If the
cleaning does not come off on the third day, it should be twisted back
of the cow’s shape, until it becomes a solid cord, when a small knife
enclosed in the hand should be introduced into the womb, and the cord
cut off about fifteen inches from the entrance. This is about all that
will incommode the cow; the other will pass off about the ninth day,
and the cow will be all right. Should the cow have inflammation in the
udder, or any other place, she should be drenched with one lb. of Epsom
Salts. The horns should be examined, and if they are sometimes warm and
then cold again, a hole should be bored through them, about two inches
from the head, and the back of the cow should be fomented with very
strong salt-water; the tail should be slit on both sides about an inch
and a half. In extreme cases a charge should be boiled, and spread on
the loins, consisting of

    1 pint of tar,
    2 oz. Rosin,
    2 oz. Beeswax.

After the charge is spread on, it should be covered with tow or wool.

Calves will sometimes, on account of the cow’s milk being burned, have
a severe Diarrhea. When this is the case they should be drenched with
milk from the cow, containing one large tablespoonful of wheat flour,
and half a teaspoonful of ginger. Should this not be sufficient, opium
may be added to it the size of two grains of wheat.



On the 7th day of June, 1853, a Stallion was brought under my
observation, owned by Christian Kerr, of Centre township, then
Union county, which had ten distinct ulcers on his penis, varying
in size from a pea to a dime. These ulcers were accompanied with a
discharge, sometimes bloody, emitting a very disagreeable odor, that
was perceptible at a distance of three or four rods. The attendant of
this horse, noticed these ulcers about five days previous to the time
I was consulted, when the marks were very small. He remarked to me,
that “people declined to allow his horse to cover their mares, stating,
that he was diseased with the pox.” And I actually found this to be the
case. I dressed the horse, and sent him away.

That night I examined all the works veterinary Science that I could
command, and found but a single one that made the least mention of the
disease, but giving neither the cause or treatment of it.

In less than a week, I had over twenty mares to attend, that were
affected by the horse.

I treated the horse and mares according to the best of my judgment,
having first obtained the advice of an eminent human Physician, and I
soon became perfect master of the disease, and saved all but two mares
that were placed under my care. I found, that where the disease had
taken deep root and entered the system, every effort to save the animal
was in vain, and hence, I am satisfied, that where the disease has
been suffered to go unchecked, until it became so deeply rooted as to
vitiate the whole system, it is incurable.


Mares will sometime get in season early in the spring, when they will
discharge a thin, whitish fluid, resembling bluish milk, of a glutinous
nature, but very clean. If the mare does not become pregnant until the
latter part of May or the beginning of June, this fluid will change
into a mattery state, and will affect the parts in the region of the
womb to such an extent as to cause rawness and inflammation.

A mare, that is in a condition as described above, is very apt to
communicate to the horse covering her, the disease of Gonorrhœa, or
Clap, especially if such horse be permitted to cover from five, twelve
and fifteen mares a day, where another horse, covering only once every
few days will escape unharmed. The reason of this is evident; the penis
of the one covering so many mares, becomes very tender and almost
transparent, so as almost to cause the blood to shine through it.

Another instance in which a horse is apt to become diseased, is, when
he is suffered to cover a mare on the ninth day after she has undergone
the process of foaling. At this period there is still a discharge of
bloody matter, which is very apt to generate clap in an animal of the
opposite sex.


Sometimes there will appear on the penis of the Stallion, small white
blotches, on the surface of the skin, from the size of a pin’s head to
that of a grain of wheat, which, on the following day will be double
in size. On the third or fourth day, a pea might be set in the ulcers,
which will emit an offensive odor, and which will spread with great

In the mare blotches will appear on the shape, of a deep red color,
apparently eaten through the surface of the skin, which will enlarge
very rapidly. In a day or two, small tumors will appear, extending from
the shape in a downward direction to the hams. These tumors are of
different sizes, varying from that of a pea to that of a half gallon
crock. They are of a very virulent nature, very often causing a painful
rawness in the entrance to the womb, and extending from one to one and
a half inches.


The Stallion should be brought out to a fence, and a mare should be
placed on the other side of the fence, distant about one rod. This will
cause the Stallion to present his penis. A clean crock should be in
readiness, containing two ounces of chloride of lime, and two quarts
of lukewarm water. There should also be on hand a teacup, containing a
stem of nitrate of silver one fourth of an inch in length, which should
be pulverized and dissolved in tablespoonful of water. Another teacup
should be at hand, containing one teaspoonful of tincture of myrrh.

In the crock there should be a sponge the size of an ordinary apple,
with a small stick tied to it. Each of the cups should be provided with
a small pencil, made of soft muslin, about the size of a quill.

The operator should now draw on a pair of leather gloves, and seize the
penis at the point with the left hand, and with the right hand, take
the sponge and wash off the whole penis, from one end to the other.
Then stir up the cup containing the nitrate of silver, take the pencil
and anoint all the spots or marks on the penis; then follow with the
tincture of myrrh.

This operation should be accomplished in less than fifteen minutes, and
the application should be made twice a day.

The mare should be brought out with a blind bridle and collar on, and
tied with the head to a post. The tail should be doubled up and a rope
looped around it, and it should be drawn on the back and the rope tied
to the collar. Then the whole shape should be washed off with the
solution of chloride of lime; then anoint the marks with the nitrate of
silver, and also with the tincture of myrrh. At each operation these
preparations should be introduced about one and half inches within the

Should any tumors have made their appearance, they must be dressed in
the same manner. If they are large and soft, they should be cut open
and then dressed in the same way.

The foregoing disease has sometimes reappeared in other animals for
four years following my treatment of the above cases but by always
bringing them promptly to my notice, I succeeded invariably in checking
it, so that it never came to the same state as before.


Sometimes colts which are foaled early in the Spring, owing to the dry
food of the mare, will become so costive, that they will inevitably
die, if not relieved. As a general thing, this costiveness is confined
to the rectum.

To relieve the colt, it should be drenched with half a teacupful of
milk from the mare, which should contain Barbadoes Aloes, the size
of a grain of corn, pulverized, and about an equal amount of ginger,
every six hours; at the same time an injection should be prepared, as
follows: take one quart of wheat bran, and pour on it three quarts of
boiling water. When cold draw off the liquid, add one teacupful of
sweet milk, half a teacupful of molasses. Then by means of a syringe
inject this composition into the rectum. Or, if a syringe cannot be
procured, a bladder with a clean piece of elder tied in the neck of
it may be introduced into the rectum. In a few minutes after, a finger
should be inserted in the rectum, when a small ball of excrement may
be taken out, about the size of a hickory-nut. I have often taken out
twelve and fourteen such balls in the course of twenty minutes. After
this no more medicine is needed.


Sometimes, the mare being fed too strong on rye chop feed, corn, or
mow-burned oats, or being overworked, the milk gets too strong, causing
a very severe diarrhœa in the colt. This will so much exhaust the colt,
that it will die in a week or two.

TREATMENT.--If occasioned by feeding rye chop, or any of the above
named causes, discontinue the use of them, and substitute good oats and
hay, and give the colt, in half a teacupful of milk from the mare:

    One tablespoonful of wheat flour,
    Opium, the size of two grains of wheat,
    Ginger, half a teaspoonful,

every six hours, until it will sere. Should the colt have pain, which
will be exhibited by lying down and attempting to roll on its back, and
groaning incessantly, the treatment should be changed. Take half a
teacupful of milk from the mare,

    One large teaspoonful of laudanum,
     ”    ”        ”      sweet spirits nitre,
     ”    ”        ”      spirits turpentine,

every three hours, until relief is obtained.

Or, boil very strong mint tea, and give two large tablespoonfuls every
hour until relieved.


Sometimes colts are very feeble when foaled. The cause may be
attributed to the atmosphere, or rather to an epidemic peculiar to some
localities. Many are brought forth so weak, that they are not able to
rise without assistance. A constant dropping of water from the navel
may be perceivable, and the colt becomes so much enfeebled that death
will shortly ensue.


Sometimes after death, on examination, the liver was found to be
decayed; at other times the kidneys. Sometimes a blister will be found
on one side of the lungs, the size of a hen’s egg, and as clear as
crystal, and filled with a fluid. At other times it is nothing but a
general debility of the system.


The colt should be drenched with half a teacupful of milk from the
mare, which should contain,

    ½ teaspoonful of Ginger,
    1 tablespoonful of the best grape wine.

A charge should be spread on the loins which should consist of

    ½ lb. of Tar,
    1 oz. of Rosin,
    1 oz. of Beeswax,

boiled into pitch, the whole covered with tow or wool, and the colt
should be well attended to. They will sometimes recover in a few days.

One came under my observation, that recovered after five weeks, and was
sold for an extra price four years afterwards.


Horses are sometimes exposed to much danger, and will sometimes receive
the most extraordinary wounds. For the last ten years I have used very
little else, than a solution of the chloride of Lime. It is a sure
means of keeping out cold and inflammation.

First clean the wound from all filthy matter, and bring it into a
healthy state, and in this manner nature will heal it as soon as the
best ointment in the world.

Take chloride of Lime, 2 oz., dissolve it in 2 quarts of lukewarm
water. Then wash out the wound once a day. If it is deep and runs, a
syringe should be at hand in order to force the composition to every
part of it in the inside. Should proud flesh spring up at the entrance
of the wound, pulverized blue vitriol should be applied. In twenty-four
hours after the application, you can rub off from one fourth to one
half inch. Apply it again, until it gets below the surface of the
skin, then apply a little tincture of myrrh.


Give your hogs an abundance of charcoal. If any should be foundered,
take 2 ounces of Nitre, (salt-peter,) 1 ounce of Barbadoes Aloes,
pulverize it very fine, and give the one fourth part of it every six


Keep your sheep out of clover pasture. Scant blue grass is the pasture
for sheep. Salt once a week. Raise the floor of your fold from four to
six feet above the ground, board it only on three sides, and simply
lath it on the south side, and your sheep will be healthy and without

       *       *       *       *       *

ERRATA.--On page eleven, in the fifth line, instead of “entrance,” read


*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Complete Treatise on the mare and foal at the time of delivery, with illustrations. - Also on cows and calves, with stallion and mare, when - diseased by Gonorrhea (clap) or Pox, also Diarrhea and - Costiveness in Colts." ***

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