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Title: Engravings of Lions, Tigers, Panthers, Leopards, Dogs, &c.
Author: Landseer, Thomas
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                           Transcriber’s Note

 Obvious typos and missing punctuation corrected.

 Antiquated use of ‘V’ for ‘U’, older spellings (e.g. opake),
   inconsistent spellings (e.g. artist names and work titles), and some
   inconsistencies in formatting of text have been retained.

 Work titles “Tiger Hunt” and “Tiger taking the Water” have been added
   to the captions of Plates XXXVI and XXXVII respectively.

 Small caps in the original are represented by ALL CAPS.

 Italics in the original are represented by underscores surrounding the
   _italic text_.

 Superscripts in the original are represented by a caret ^ preceding the
   raised character.

 The first plate shows a lion’s head breaking through an engraved
   tablet, removing some of the letters in the middle.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 1

           TWENTY  ENGRAVINGS
                  of
            LIONS   TIGERS
           PANTHERS & LEOPARDS
        BY THO              LANDSEER
from ORIGINALS                  by STVBBS
RVBENS                          SPILSBVRY.
REMBRANT                          & EDWIN
REYDINGER                       LANDSEER
with an ESSAY on                   1823
the CARNIVORA
by J. Lan]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               ENGRAVINGS

                                   OF

                             LIONS, TIGERS,
                           PANTHERS, LEOPARDS
                               DOGS, &c.

                      CHIEFLY AFTER THE DESIGNS OF

                          SIR EDWIN LANDSEER,

                            BY HIS BROTHER,

                            THOMAS LANDSEER.

   PRINTED FROM THE ORIGINAL PLATES PUBLISHED BETWEEN 1823 AND 1828.


                                LONDON:
               HENRY G. BOHN, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN.
                               MDCCCLIII.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                            LIST OF PLATES.


                                              DESIGNER       ENGRAVER

  1 Lion couchant, _Frontispiece_           EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

  2 Leopard, after Ridinger                 SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

  3 Lions, after Rubens                     SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

  4 Tiger, from Nature                      SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

  5 Leopards, after Rubens                  SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

  6 Contending Group, from Nature           EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

  7 Lion and Snake, from Nature             SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

  8 Senegal Lion and Lioness, after         SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_
    Ridinger

  9 Lion and Tiger, after Stubbs            SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

 10 Tigress, from Nature                    T. LANDSEER   _T. Landseer_

 11 Lions, after Rubens                     SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

 12 Panthers, after Stubbs                  SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

 13 Panthers, after Stubbs                  SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

 14 Leopards and Panthers, after Stubbs     SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

 15 Lions, after Rubens                     SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

 16 Lions, after Rubens                     SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

 17 Lioness and Bitch, from Cross’s         EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
    Menagerie                               LANDSEER

 18 Lion, after Ridinger                    SPILSBURY     _T. Landseer_

 19 Tiger and Indian Bullock, from Nature   EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

 20 { Senegal Lion, after Ridinger          }
    { Black-maned Lion, after Rembrandt     } SPILSBURY   _T. Landseer_
    { Lioness, after Ridinger               }

 21 Neptune, a Newfoundland Dog             EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

 22 Brutus, a Terrier                       EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

 23 Portrait of a Cross of the Dog and Fox  EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

 24 Dogs setting a Hare                     EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

 25 Vixen, a Scotch Terrier                 EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

 26 Fox Hounds of the Hatfield Hunt         EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

 27 Proctor, Study of a Blood-hound’s Head  EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

 28 Bob, a favourite Terrier                EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

 29 The Poacher, “The Wily Fox”             EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

 30 Alpine Mastiff                          EDWIN         _T. Landseer_
                                            LANDSEER

 31 Old Dog looks like a Picture            EDWIN         _J. Webb_
                                            LANDSEER

 32 Fight between “Jacko Maccacco,”         }
    a celebrated Monkey,                    } T.
    and Mr. Thos. Cribb’s                   } LANDSEER    _T. Landseer_
    well known bitch “Puss”                 }

 33 Little Billy, a celebrated Bull Dog     T. LANDSEER   _T. Landseer_

 34 Black Cap, a Harrier’s head             G. H. LAPORTE _T. Landseer_

 35 Dead Red Deer                           EDWIN         _J. R. Scott_
                                            LANDSEER

 36 Tiger Hunt                              T. LANDSEER   _T. Landseer_

 37 Tiger taking the Water                  SIR C.        _T. Landseer_
                                            D’OYLY, Bart.

 38 Elephants returning from the Hunt       SIR C.        _T. Landseer_
                                            D’OYLY, Bart.

 39 Red Deer                                R. HILLS      _T. Landseer_

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                        CARNIVOROUS QUADRUPEDS.


                       DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES.

That there has hitherto existed no good book of Engravings of the nobler
wild animals, to assist the progress of the student in that department
of Art, is to be regretted. The talents of Mr. JOHN SCOTT, brought into
action by those of GILPIN, COOPER, and the REINAGLES, have presented the
public with excellent representations of the distinguished ornaments of
the turf: the sports of the field, and the habits and manners of the
canine race, were also duly honoured: but of the ferocious TIGER tribe,
and the lordly LION, we have nothing extant that would bear critical
inspection, beyond a few detached prints:—nothing like a collection of
figures, whose justness and accuracy of form, action, character, and
expression, might be relied on.

Does any reader imagine that the various Etchings which have been
performed—chiefly abroad—by Artists of no mean ability, may be
considered as exceptions? They are not exceptions: or at best, the
number which might be so regarded is but small, and those, for the most
part, of dimensions not accommodated to the drawer of the cabinet, or
the shelf of the library.

But they are not objectionable on this ground alone. Speaking of them in
the aggregate, the heavier charge lies against them of being
insufficient to those purposes of taste and information which are the
ends of Art. Even those after TITIAN and after RUBENS (the latter of
whom has perhaps painted a greater number than any other of the old
masters) are far more deficient in form, character, and expression, than
is generally supposed, or than will be easily believed, by those who
have not actually compared them with the Lions, Leopards, and Tigers of
Nature. They have been taken too much on the credit which attaches to
the great names of their authors.—Nor is this intended to impugn the
merits, as historical or poetical painters, of those distinguished
Artists, but simply as an assertion of truth. It is possible, that as a
painter of allegory, RUBENS might consider that strong infusion of
_human_ form, character, and expression, by which his Lions, for
example, are distinguished, as necessary, or conducive, to his
allegorical purposes; or, it is possible that his knowledge of this
animal may not have been thoroughly well-grounded, and that he may have
laboured under early prejudice of mind, or of vision, in this part of
his education as a Painter, and may not have seen Lions as they really
are. This is what the writer is most inclined to believe, (though not to
insist); for even in treating the subject of Daniel in the den of
Lions—the scene of which, by the way, he has not represented as a royal
menagerie, but as a wild, rocky cavern—his animals partake of the
artificial character of which we cannot bring ourselves to approve.

Of this fact, however, we purpose to exhibit proof with our assertion.
Improved versions, to the best abilities of our Artists, of some of
these Lions of RUBENS and the Assyrian king, will here be introduced,
which the reader, who pleases, may compare with the originals. Our
second, third, and fourth Plates are of the number.

The Lions of RUBENS are _humanized_. We do not intend to discuss at
length whether the ideality of allegorical painting required this: we
only state the fact: yet the opinions which we felt at liberty to form
on the subject, we feel at liberty to utter. So much in apology for
using the licence of asserting that the heads of many of the Lions of
RUBENS rather resemble those of frowning old gentlemen decorated with
Ramillies wigs; as if Nature’s journeymen had made _manes_, and not made
them well. There is a profusion of flowing and curling hair, which seems
rather to solicit the unguents of the perfumer, than to have endured the
torrid heats of the desert, or the rough storms of the forest. The shag
of a Lion’s mane is a very different sort of thing.

However such dressed Lions may be thought to accord with Allegory, they
are demonstrably at variance with Nature. To be sure, what might become
a Lion in the procession of the Cardinal Virtues, might be rather
unsuitable in his den, or within the precincts of those wild haunts,
where he is accustomed to roam in his natural state. We have often read
of the fabled Men-bulls, or (Minotaurs,) and we find such on the coinage
of Crete. These allegorical creatures of RUBENS, which, alas! have
sometimes been _quoted_ by Artists without half his genius, and placed
in savage conflicts, or beside their Britannias—are a species of
Men-lions. Placed among the Sabæan sculptures, they might pass for
incarnations of Sol in Leo; but would very ill pass for Leo alone.

Among the observers of this poetic improvement, or this natural and
unpoetical deficiency, on the part of RUBENS, TITIAN, JULIO ROMANO, and
other painters, both ancient and modern; and of the consequent
_desideratum_ on the part of the public, of a cabinet or library
collection of the nobler wild animals in a state of Nature, so as to
answer the purposes of reference, while they conduced to the pleasures
of Taste, were Mr. EDGAR SPILSBURY and Mr. THOMAS LANDSEER. Whether or
not the public “looked up to them for light” on that subject, (to use
the language of STERNE,) they thought the Public “deserved it;” and they
therefore, as the best practical means of eliciting that light, first
copied the general forms and attitudes of most of the wild animals that
appear in this book, from the old masters—generally speaking, from works
that are well known—and then, went to Nature and corrected the details.
They carried with them what, in those ancient masters, was meritorious
in composition, attitude and chiaroscuro, and brought away, to the best
of their ability—superadding it to, and blending it with, the
above—accuracy of detail.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 2

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

LEOPARD after REYDINGER.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Every artist does best, that which he is best qualified and best
disposed to do. In completing the number of plates that has been found
necessary for the Work, Mr. EDWIN LANDSEER has chosen to proceed toward
the same purpose, upon a different principle. He has gone, without any
introductory medium, directly to the living animals, and has exhibited
the savage manners and habits of these quadrupeds, according to his own
ideas and observations.

On the distinction between CHARACTER and EXPRESSION, we shall now
deliver our opinion. By the _Character_ of an animal, we mean those
permanencies of his look and features which he always offers to view
when in a placid, or unimpassioned state: by his _Expression_, the
variations of muscular action superinduced on character, to which he is
liable, as the storms of passion sweep by, and his mind becomes agitated
by external circumstances acting on the ardours of his instinct.

The former, seems to hold its court in the solid and massy parts: the
latter, agitates, ofttimes rebelliously, the nerves and muscles.
Character is ever present, both in the animal countenance, and in the
“human face divine.” The most violent expression does not proscribe, or
obliterate, character. Individuality consists of it, as far as concerns
external appearance; and it forms the system of vowels of the language
of Nature, without which no Expression could be.

Whoever regards the faces of a flock of Sheep, will see in them an
infinite variety of Character, with very little Expression, and that
little without diversity: and if we descend a step lower in the scale of
being, and contemplate the finny tribe, where Character is not wanting,
we find no Expression at all. Even Trees and inanimate objects, possess
Character. We recollect a poetical friend of ours, now in Italy, saying
that every tree and every rock had a _face_—but of this we are not so
certain; though very certain, that there is enough of _Character_ in
rocks and trees, to make a poet think so.

_Character_ and _Expression_, in the carnivorous class of animals, to
which we here solicit attention, are always co-existent—their
proportions varying with the existing occasions—in pictorial exhibitions
of such subjects.


                                No. II.

There is much Character, and little Expression, in the reposing Leopard
with his sheathed claws, which is shewn in the present engraving, copied
by Mr. SPILSBURY from RIDINGER, and corrected from Nature. RIDINGER was
an artist of great power, who studied wild animals in their sequestered
haunts, as is shewn in his grand forest back-grounds; and who, generally
speaking, left little or no room for others to improve, except on some
few of his inferior works. The present is an interesting and beautiful
animal, yet there is a latent capability of mischief characterised in
his countenance, and we might ask, in the language of Job, “Who shall
dare to rouse him up?”


                                No. III.

TWO COUCHANT LIONS, AFTER RUBENS, taken from his celebrated picture
before alluded to, of the Prophet Daniel incarcerated in the den. The
Lions are here supposed to be miraculously held in a state of
tranquillity. Here, too, is not much Expression, but an extraordinary
grandeur of Character, suited to the greatness of an occasion where the
Deity himself especially interferes to seal up the voracious energies of
the most terrible of his creatures, in calm submission. There is a
character of royal dignity mingled with this submission, which is very
impressive, and even sublime.

The writer esteems this to be a successful restoration of the Nature
that was wanting in the prints of this subject, (which has often been
engraved by PICART and others,) after RUBENS. The original picture it
has been our ill-fortune never to have seen. The shaggy manes, and the
latent terror that sits gloomily enthroned in the open eyes of the
superior Lion—suited to the darkness of the den, and the nature of this
animal’s sense of vision,—are as well thought of, as they are executed;
and are varied with much address from the closed eyes of the couching
Lion beyond, of which also the character is most happily marked. A
powerful and divine spell possesses them both.


                                No. IV.

THE TIGER WHICH MARCHES IN OUR PROCESSION, without an object before him
to call forth emotion, possesses a calm character, combined with the
resistless strength of that dreadful quadruped; whose very tranquillity,
in his leisure sauntering, when no excitement is acting on his nerves,
has an appalling effect.—His brow is clouded, though his claws are
sheathed. There is a possibility of a dreadful storm which may not be
far distant, and that is enough to stamp the Tiger’s character. None
shall dare to arouse his energies, nor to encounter them when aroused.


                                 No. V.

THIS GROUP OF PLAYFUL LEOPARDS, AFTER RUBENS, must be supposed to belong
to the jocund train of Bacchus, since they are luxuriating at their
ease, among grapes and vine branches. These Leopards are doubtless
intended to have a degree of playful expression—induced perhaps by the
exhilarating juice of the grape: and we should “guess” (as _Jonathan_
says) that this group was studied from a litter of half-grown kittens.
Few, however, except the sailors who were accustomed to gambol with the
Tiger-cub on board the Pitt East-Indiaman, would like to venture to
frolic _with_ them.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 3

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

LIONS after RUBENS.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 4

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

TIGER after NATURE.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 5

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

LEOPARDS after RUBENS.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 6

_E. Landseer del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

CONTENDING GROUP after NATURE.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                No. VI.

In this GROUP by MR. EDWIN LANDSEER there is much of violent animal
_Expression_, and Character fades before it, or rather, is absorbed in
it. It tells a story of the past as well as the present, and is pregnant
with a catastrophe not difficult to anticipate from the actions and
expressions of the parties engaged. A FAWN has been seized by a LEOPARD,
who has been despoiled of his prey by a more powerful TIGER. The Tiger
in his turn becomes the victim of an enraged LION.

The expression of the wounded Leopard is that of painful suffering
mingled with dread. Together, they amount to agony. He shrieks while he
submits. The Tiger is still enraged and resisting, though astounded with
the power and suddenness of the Lion’s attack. He is losing his energy
of resistance, and is beginning to feel that all resistance is vain. He
roars with anguish; while his expression is that of terror, and
indignation not yet subdued.

The Lion, who has just made his thundering spring, appears conscious of
having fatally seized his adversary, and luxuriates fearlessly in his
victory; and with a powerful and just expression of carnivorous
enjoyment.—Meanwhile the characters of the animals, severally, are
faithfully and specifically represented.

Although our main purpose be to exhibit rather a pictorial than a
physiological view of the subject: having descanted on the word
Character, we shall probably be expected to add, at least a word or two,
on the leading characteristics of the carnivorous class of quadrupeds.

The generic characters of the Feline, or Cat, kind, are easily
enumerated in the concise language of the naturalists. Their heads are
round; their visages short: they have six cutting teeth, and two canine,
in either jaw: their tongues are aculeated, the prickles inclining
backward; their claws sharp, hooked, and retractile; their ears small
and acuminated; they have five toes on each of the fore-feet, and four
only on those behind.

Of this genera of Cats, we here exhibit the four principal species,
Lions, Tigers, Leopards, and Panthers, of which the Lion is justly
placed at the head—at least, the unanimous voice of ages has pronounced
him to be the king of beasts, and we have enthroned him accordingly in
our Title-page, (No. I.) They form a tribe that is especially and
properly _Carnivorous_, being the only class of quadrupeds that are
exclusively _flesh-eaters_. Their jaws are very completely armed for
this purpose; their canine teeth being very long and angular, with the
edges of the angles turned toward the inside of their mouths; so that
when the animal has caused them to meet, or cross each other in the
flesh of its prey, these formidable teeth will cut or tear a way
through, by drawing them back without opening his mouth.

Their claws, and the formation of their feet, too, are eminently
conducive to their predacious and carnivorous habits. They walk on their
toes: yet not so much from that habitual stealthiness of pace, by which
they advance unperceived till within a spring of their prey; as because
it is also the means of that celerity of motion which is necessary to
the very existence of animals that can feed only on flesh.

Their claws are exceedingly powerful; and they are enabled to draw them
up into sheaths between their toes, so as to prevent their points from
touching the ground; whence they are called retractile; and those claws
are, in consequence, always kept sharp, unworn, and ready for active
service.

The eyes of the Feline tribe—of every face in nature a striking and
important feature—vary in the different species, and are capable of much
alteration in the same animal; as instinctive impulse, or internal
emotion, changes the expression of his countenance; and also from the
degrees of light which act upon their pupils. Of Lions the pupils of the
eyes are circular, and not of a yellow colour, as has been stated in the
most diffuse modern dissertations on the Carnivora, but black. It is the
iris of the Lion’s eye that is yellow. They appear to be best suited to
nocturnal, or twilight, vision; and hence the Lion rarely hunts his prey
while the sun is above the horizon—perhaps never, but when pressed by
hunger in an extraordinary degree. The Tiger, on the contrary, will seek
his prey by day as well as by night; and during twilight the colour of
his eyes is that of a blue-green flame. If a stranger passes near a
Tiger in a menagerie, the colour of the animal’s eyes will sometimes
alter suddenly, from yellow-green to blue-green; not from any alteration
in the degree of light acting upon them, but from mental excitement, and
from a certain natural facility of expansion and contraction of the
eye-pupils.

Hence a characteristic difference between the Lion and the Tiger. The
habits of the latter are diurnal, and he disregards night-fires: the
Lion, on the contrary, whose eyes are not calculated for the glare of
day, cannot bear to encounter fire-light at night. Yet these physical
conformations are sometimes overcome by the rage of hunger; and hence,
in MR. EDWIN LANDSEER’S contending group, the Lion is represented as
attacking the Tiger although it be day.

MR. BELL treats learnedly, and we believe with much originality, of the
facial-muscles of this class of quadrupeds, in his “Anatomy of
Expression.”—We shall offer a few extracts, by which the reader will
perceive how limited are their powers of expression of countenance, when
compared with those of human nature, notwithstanding their superiority
over all other quadrupeds.

“The violent passions mark themselves so distinctly on the countenances
both of men and of animals, that we are apt in the first instance to
consider the movements by which they are indicated, as certain signs or
characters provided by Nature, for the express purpose of intimating the
internal emotion; and to suppose that they are interpreted by the
observer in consequence of a peculiar and instinctive faculty. This view
of things, however, so natural at first sight, is not altogether
satisfactory to philosophy; and a more jealous observation of the facts,
seems to suggest an opposite theory, in which instinctive agency is
rejected, and the appearances are explained from a consideration of the
necessities and voluntary exertions of the animal. With regard to the
observer, it has been asserted, that it is by experience alone that he
distinguishes the signs of the passions; that we learn, while infants,
to consider smiles as expressions of kindness, because they are
accompanied by acts of beneficence and by endearments; and frowns as the
contrary, because we find them followed by blows; that the expression of
anger in a brute, is only that which has been observed to precede his
biting; and that of fondness, his fawning and licking of the hand. With
regard to the creature itself, it is said, what has been called the
external signs of passion, are merely the concomitants of those
voluntary movements, which the passions or habits suggest; that the
glare of the Lion’s eye, for example, is the consequence of a voluntary
exertion to see his prey more clearly—his grin, or snarl, the natural
motion of uncasing his fangs before he uses them. This, however, is not
quite true of all animals and of all expression of passion.”

“Attending merely to the evidence furnished by anatomical investigation,
all that I shall venture to affirm is this: that a remarkable difference
is to be found between the anatomy and range of expression, in man and
in animals: that in the former there seems to be a systematic provision
for that mode of communication and that natural language, which is to be
read in the changes of the countenance: that there is no emotion in the
mind of man which has not its appropriate signs; and that there are even
muscles in the human face to which no other use can be assigned than to
serve as the organs of this language: that, on the other hand, there is
in the lower animals no range of expression which is not fairly
referable as a mere accessary to the voluntary or needful actions of the
animal; and that this accessary expression does not appear to be in any
degree commensurate to the variety and extent of the animal’s passions.”

“There appears to me (continues MR. BELL) to be no expression in the
face of any animal lower in the scale of being than quadrupeds; and in
them the strongest and most marked expression is that of rage; the
object of which is opposition, resistance, and defence. But on
examination it will be found (consistently with the position, that this
is merely an accessary of the motions natural to the accomplishment of
the object which the animal has in view) that the strength of the
expression is in exact proportion to the strength of the principal
action in the creature when thus excited.

“The gramnivorous animals, which seek their subsistence, not by preying
upon others, nor by the ferocity, contest, and victory which supply the
carnivorous with food, have in their features no strong expression of
rage. Their expression is chiefly confined indeed to the effect produced
on the general system. Thus the inflamed eye and the breathing nostrils
of the Bull, are induced only by the general excitement. His only proper
expression of rage, is in the position of the head, with the horns
turned obliquely to the ground, ready to strike: and indeed it may be
observed in general that animals which strike with the horns, shew
little indication of fear or rage, except in the position of the head.
In all gramnivorous animals, the skin of the head is closely attached to
the skull, and capable only of very limited motion: the eye is almost
uniformly mild, and the lips unmoved by passion.

“It is in carnivorous animals, with whose habits and manner of life,
ferocity is instinctively connected, as the great means of their
subsistence, that rage is distinguished by the most remarkable strength
of expression. The eye-ball is terrible, and the retraction of the flesh
of the lips indicates the most savage fury. But the first, is merely the
exerted attention of the animal; and the other a preparatory exposure of
the canine teeth. The great animals of prey—the Lion and the Tiger—are
quite incapable of any other expression of feature, than this particular
display of ferociousness. When they fawn upon their keeper, there is no
motion in their features that indicates affection.”

In this assertion, that the countenances of the great animals of prey
are incapable of any other than ferocious expression, we do not quite
coincide with our learned physiologist. When they fawn upon their
keeper, we think that indications of affection are exhibited; and find
ourselves ready to ask what else than kindly expression is that “licking
of the hand” which our author has before mentioned. If, however, we
should grant that they may not be capable of affectionate expression
toward their keeper, we can scarcely doubt that—toward their young—if we
could observe them in their wild state, and in their moments of playful
intercourse and enjoyment among each other—they are: at least, we think
there are motions in their features that indicate affection, as well as
fear, enquiry, surprise, gratitude, pleasurable wantonness, and some
other sentiments, or emotions. This is our conviction: at the same time,
we perceive that the range of their ferocious expression far exceeds the
savage circle of their domestic charities. Are not even the least of
these observable in the habits and manners of the domestic Cat, who
belongs to the Tiger genera? But we have even seen a Tiger in his den,
who looked good-natured enough to be stroked and patted: and of the
Lion, of whom MR. GRIFFITH relates the following anecdote, what can be
said or thought?

“Hearing some noise under his cage, the Lion passed his paw between the
bars, and actually hauled up his keeper who was cleaning beneath; but as
soon as he perceived that he had thus ill used his master, he instantly
lay down upon his back in an attitude of complete submission.”

Or what can be said of the circumstance mentioned by SENECA (of which he
was personally witness), of a Lion, to whom a man, who had formerly been
his keeper, was exposed for destruction in the amphitheatre at Rome; and
who was not only instantly recognised, but defended and protected by the
grateful beast?—Or of the story related by DR. SOUTHEY, of the Lion who
had broken loose, submitting to the Cid, and allowing himself to be led
back peaceably to his place of confinement?

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 7

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

LION & SNAKE after NATURE.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Could any painter of talent proceed to represent either of these
_facts_, without finding in the countenance of the Lion, the muscles and
the means of expressing a corresponding gentleness, or generosity, of
feeling?

What could be said or thought of these things? Why it may be said, and
will be thought, by all those who take both sides of the argument fairly
into the question—that MR. BELL has discovered and declared, that the
muscles of affection, do not exist in the carnivora. Ergo, that the
sentiment which we so translate or acknowledge—the appearances (that is)
with which we may find ourselves affected—can only be expression of a
negative kind; resulting from the relaxation of those muscles whose
tension is necessary to the purposes, or the expression, of ferocity:
that “the force of Nature can no further go;” and that the painter—the
supposed painter, of such subjects, who is appealed to above—in order to
be in any degree successful, must “make a third, by joining the former
two”—that is to say, by mingling a portion of human nature with that of
the animal: which brings us round to the practice and the probable
theory of RUBENS; of which it affords more justification, and of a
higher kind, than superficial reasoners can be aware of.

But, when muscles of affection are mentioned, do we talk of a positive
and acknowledged certainty; or only of a construction that has been put
upon certain muscles of the face, by those who have an hypothesis to
maintain, or who can trace affectionate expression in no other? And, are
we thence to infer the exhaustion of the subject, and non-entity of the
expression?


                                No. VII.

MR. SPILSBURY’S LION, who has turned round his head to look at a Snake,
affords a delineated example in point. Here is no more, we think, than
the latent capability of ferocity: just so much as cannot be separated
from the native character of this noble quadruped.—The eye-ball is here,
not “terrible;” nor is “the most savage fury” indicated by the
retraction of the lips, although the lower canine teeth are exposed.
Here is a general sense of dignity; but the leading, present expression
of the moment, (as it strikes us,) is that of curiosity, or excited
attention; mingled with some degree of surprise that a contemptible
little Snake should presume to roll his puny volumes in the royal
presence. It would appear that the Lion has heard something hiss, and
cares a little, to know what it may be.

Will it be further objected that this is _Art_?—To be sure it is. But we
think that such Lion-looks are to be seen in Nature; and that such were
seen, when the Dog which appealed to, and obtained, the _royal_ pity,
was first thrown into the Lion’s den at the Tower. We believe that this
representation of the Lion and Snake is not taken from any old master,
but is MR. SPILSBURY’S own design.


                               No. VIII.

Neither is there any expression of ferocity, but of home comfort, in
these two maneless Lions—or LION and LIONESS of SENEGAL. That which is
asleep, however, rather illustrates our definition of _Character_, and
is so far out of the question. The Lioness—who is awake, is a kind of
_Belle-Sauvage_. Entirely without ferocity, she has some little
expression of attention gently aroused by some slight cause—less
important, we should think than the distant cry of a Chacal—a noise in
the den, perhaps, not loud enough to make it worth while to wake her
companion in order to see what’s the matter. But her expression of
countenance, is almost as mild as that of a kitten in a chimney
corner.—In fact, they seem—notwithstanding their Herculean strength—a
kind of hearth-rug Lions.[1]

Footnote 1:

  This was written before the beautiful hearth-rug Lion introduced to us
  by Mr. Crosse of Leeds, and which is equal to the finest painting.

After venturing to express this slight difference of opinion (if it
amount to so much) with our distinguished anatomist of Expression, we
return, with becoming respect, to his valuable Treatise: though as we do
not propose to exhibit, like him, an anatomical and comparative view of
the Carnivorous and Gramnivorous genera, we shall confine ourselves to a
short extract or two, relating to the Carnivora alone—

“It is of man alone that we can with strict propriety say the
countenance is an index of the mind, having expression corresponding
with each emotion of the soul. Other animals have no expression but that
which arises by mere accident, the concomitant of the emotions necessary
to the accomplishment of the object of the passions.”—

“I have to remark, as relative to painting, (my original subject of
enquiry) that this remarkable difference between the expression in man,
and animals, naturally leads us to investigate what are the
peculiarities of mere animal expression.

“In order to see distinctly what the peculiarities of mere animal
expression are, it seems proper to reduce the muscles of expression in
animals, to their proper classes. These muscles, as they appear in the
several quadrupeds, may be distinguished into—1. Those which raise the
lips from the teeth: 2. Those which surround the eye-lids: and 3. Those
which move the nostrils.”

He next proceeds to state that “in the Carnivorous animal, the muscles
of the lip are so directed as to raise the lip from the canine
teeth;”—and these he distinguishes by the name of “_Ringentes_, or
snarling muscles.”

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 8

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

SENEGAL LION & LIONESS after REYDINGER.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 9

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

LION & TIGER after STUBBS.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

The snarling muscles take their origin from the margin of the orbit of
the eye, and from the upper jaw, and are inserted into that part of the
upper lip from which the whiskers grow, and which is opposite to the
canine teeth; and although they are assisted in this office by other
muscles, (the masticating and zygomatic muscles,) I have ventured to
distinguish them particularly as the muscles of snarling. This action of
snarling is quite peculiar to the ferocious and carnivorous animals.

“2. Muscles which surround the eye-lid. In man the upper eye-lid is
raised by a muscle coming from the bottom of the orbit. But, besides
this muscle, animals of prey in whom there is that peculiar and
ferocious splendour of the eye, which we distinguish in the Tiger, for
example, or the Lion—have three muscles infixed in the eye-lids, which
drawing the eye-lids backward upon the peculiarly prominent eye-ball,
produce the fixed straining of the eye, and by stretching the coats,
give a greater brilliancy to the reflection. These muscles may be
classed under the term _Scintillantes_.

“3. The muscles of the nostril are not less distinct and peculiar, in
different classes of animals, than those of the eyes and lips. In the
Carnivorous animals, the nose is comparatively insignificant, provision
being made in the open mouth for any occasional increase of respiration
above the uniform play of the lungs.”

Taking respectful, friendly, and reluctant leave of MR. BELL, we trust
that conformity will be found between these pictorial remarks and
anatomical elucidations of his, and our engraved representations of the
Carnivora.


                                No. IX.

The interior of a rocky den, where the LION dares to intrude on the
retired repose of a ROYAL TIGER, copied by MR. SPILSBURY from the
Sketch-book of STUBBS. On the part of the Tiger, there is expressed a
certain half frantic suspension of purpose. His look is fierce, though
apprehensive, and as if his mind was not made up whether to become the
assailant, or stand on the defensive. He is evidently taken by surprise;
and if he does not fear, he is thoroughly conscious (as DR. JOHNSON
said, when he was to meet LORD THURLOW) that “there is something to
_encounter_:” while the Lion, feeling also that he has met with his
match, is arousing his terrible energies. The heroes are threatening:
the storm has gathered: and is about to burst in fury.

With regard to the “ferocious splendour of their eyes,” and the exposure
of their canine teeth by means of the _Ringentes_, the reader will find
here a strict accordance with MR. BELL’S theory.


                                 No. X.

The TIGRESS of BENGAL, which has been designed, as well as etched, by
MR. THOMAS LANDSEER, from that at the Exeter ’Change Menagerie, affords
also a pertinent illustration of the principles which MR. BELL had
derived from combining study with dissection: theory with practice. The
“three muscles infixed in the eye-lids, which, drawing the eye-lids
backward upon the peculiarly prominent eye-ball, produce the fixed
straining of the eye, and by stretching the coats, give a greater
brilliancy to the reflection,” are here brought into action by a violent
and unexpected outrage done to the maternal feelings. Here too is
exemplified the origin, insertion, and physical use, of those snarling
muscles, which are so properly named and defined by our learned
anatomist. We cannot but wish, however, that he had written also of
those of the lower jaw, which so powerfully conduce to this snarling and
dreadful expression.

The mother has arrived at a fortunate conjuncture for her cubs, which
lie sleeping below, in a small den or dark recess of the bank, whither a
Serpent has stolen. Twisted among the jungle, which affords an
advantageous post both of attack and defence for the Serpent—the Tigress
has reason to dread an enemy so powerful and insidious; and, as in the
preceding Engraving, both parties are prepared for the encounter, and
fully aware of the importance of a first blow.


                                No. XI.

THESE RAMPANT LIONS, bear the name of RUBENS as their author. SIR JOHN
SEBRIGHT, we believe, has the original picture. It would neither
deteriorate from its intrinsic merit as a work of art, nor from its
nominal value (we suspect), should it turn out to be from the pencil of
SNYDERS; or a performance of RUBENS and SNYDERS in conjunction. They not
unfrequently painted on the same canvas; but the high reputation and
rank of RUBENS, has in some measure absorbed that of his coadjutor,
except among first-rate connoisseurs—whereas, in all that relates to the
details of Nature, SNYDERS was the superior painter of _animals_: and
our reasons for thinking that he had at least a hand in this picture of
the rampant Lions, are, 1st, The superior attention which is here paid
to the details of Nature. 2ndly, That the action of the nearest of the
two Lions, is precisely that of the same animal, in SNYDERS’ very
capital picture from the fable of the Lion liberated by the Mouse, now
in the Cabinet of THOMAS FRANKLIN, Esq. 3rdly, That the study in oil of
a dead Lion, in the collection of G. WATSON TAYLOR, Esq. also believed
to be from the hand of SNYDERS, bears internal evidence of being
painted, not only from Nature, but from the very same individual Lion,
with the above. They are all portraits of the same animal. It appears as
if SNYDERS, having obtained possession of a dead Lion, after making the
study now belonging to MR. TAYLOR, had put him in this rampant attitude,
and painted from him as long as he lasted. But perhaps RUBENS and
SNYDERS did this in concert: for on the other hand may be recollected a
masterly sketch in oil of the heads only of these rampant Lions, which
was exhibited at the British Gallery two seasons ago, bearing the _name_
of RUBENS. If this name was written by RUBENS himself, the probability
is as above stated, that both artists painted at the same time from the
same model. On this point we do but sum up such evidence as is before
us, leaving the verdict to the reader.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 10

_Tho^s. Landseer del^t. et sculp^t._

TIGRESS after NATURE.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 11

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

LIONS after RUBENS.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

We believe that this subject also, has passed through the medium of an
Etching by BLOTELING, for it differs in some minor respects from the
picture in the gallery of SIR JOHN SEBRIGHT. It however affords further
illustration of the theory of expression laid down by MR. BELL, while it
embodies the Scriptural idea of a “ramping and roaring Lion seeking whom
he may devour.”

We have mentioned above, our having been disposed, on a certain occasion
of visiting a public menagerie, to pat and stroke a Royal Tiger as he
lay in his den with his nose toward the spectator, and whose looks,
though certainly far from angelic, we could almost have called amiable:
yet this is very far from being the character of the Tiger. To stroke,
or pat, or touch them in any way, however, no person should ever
venture, except their keepers; even the tame Tigers, that are sometimes
brought up almost without animal food by the mendicant priests of
Hindostan, are strictly prohibited from being touched—“under the utmost
rigours of religious anathema,” says COL. WILLIAMSON, who relates a
circumstance of his having visited a Faukeer who kept a Tiger of this
kind in the wilds of Colgong.


                                No. XII.

The amiable-looking Tiger of whom we have spoken, lay something in the
attitude and manner of the principal PANTHER, in the present picturesque
group which MR. SPILSBURY copied from the Sketch-book of that admirable
painter and anatomist of animals, STUBBS.

Perhaps this sentiment of ours, may be ascribed—in part at least—to the
undulations of form, glossiness of surface, and brilliancy of colours,
of these interesting creatures, reviving the early mental impressions
which we remember to have received at the sight of shining and speckled
shells, butterflies’ wings, and other objects of pure beauty; and in
part to our having associated ideas of innocence and domesticated habits
and comfort, with the “sympathetic mirth” (as GOLDSMITH’S phrase is) of
sportive kittens.

It may not be unworthy of our best philosophy to pause here, and observe
how Nature contrives to mingle, and seems to insist on mingling,
sentiments and mental impressions, which analysing man is so fond of
reducing to first elements—as he calls them. Surely there is, about
these Carnivorous and terrible creatures, a saving grace—a beauty in
their dreadfulness, which is exceedingly interesting, although it
co-exist with cruelty: for if they are cruel, their cruelty is
involuntary, and not implacable; and therefore, if not pardonable, not
hateful—while the external beauty which they possess, is of a positive
nature.

Reverting here to our own scholastic distinction, we think that Nature
has, in the instance of this species of quadrupeds, mingled with similar
success, energy of character, with a degree of mildness of expression.
The natural character of the Panther is fearfully ferocious, yet a
superinduced kindly expression may be seen in this group from the pencil
of STUBBS—a sworn disciple of Nature—which may shew that in their home
retiredness, they have not been left destitute of the means of letting
each other see that they are sociable, friendly, and not entirely
without the means of expressing the gentler emotions. Men are perhaps
too exclusively disposed to look at the objects around them, as those
objects immediately concern themselves: MR. STUBBS, in composing this
capital group, took a more extensive and genuine view of things; and
notwithstanding the Panther is larger and more formidable than the
Leopard (from which quadruped he is not always easily distinguishable),
has depicted them as scarcely less mild and gentle than the domestic
Cat.

The evidence of facts, however, when set in apposition, affords, in all
probability, the most efficacious and convincing means of manifesting
such principles as we are here submitting, while they exhibit the
_varieties_ of animal expression to the best advantage; and we therefore
introduce another GROUP of PANTHERS, from the same Sketch-book, by
STUBBS, more malignant in their aspects.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 12

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

PANTHERS after STUBBS.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 13

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

PANTHERS after STUBBS.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               No. XIII.

This is what one might call a domestic, or family, group; but they seem
here to be meditating prey, and by no means so good-humoured as in the
former instance, where they might be fancied to be quietly enjoying
themselves after a sufficient repast. The two groups, when viewed
together, seem very much to assist our perceptions of the capability of
this animal of gentle, as well as of savage, expression.—They are
contrasted, indeed, though without the direct opposition of violent
brutal action, to calm repose: the eye being the chief seat of the
difference. But neither the gentle, nor the more ferocious and
malignant-looking, Panthers, or Tigers, will bear any comparison for
commanding majesty of appearance with the regal Lion, whether in a calm
or an excited state—as the vignette of our title-page is ready to bear
witness.

There is good chiaroscuro in both of the above groups; and the scene of
rocky wildness in which the latter are placed, as well as the rich
colouring of the fur of the animals, are ably indicated.

The reader may perhaps not be displeased to attend here for a moment, to
a short epitome of what the Naturalists have said concerning the
distinctive marks of this interesting quadruped, the Panther: nor to be
informed or reminded of the strong resemblance which he bears to the
Leopard.

DR. SHAW observes that LINNÆUS himself has confounded the Panther with
the Leopard; but adds, that “a true distinctive mark between them, is by
no means easy to communicate either by description or even by figure.”
He thinks that the Leopard is the smaller of the two species of animals,
and its colour a paler yellow: and MR. GRIFFITH, in his “Carnivora,”
says, “A very fine animal is now exhibiting at Exeter ’Change under the
name of Leopard, which is much larger as well as brighter than any other
Leopard in that Menagerie, and should, therefore, according to SHAW,
seem to be the Panther. But I am informed that the animal in question
was taken in India, and that all those which come from Asia, are much
brighter in colour than those from Africa, which is confirmed by
inspection of the African specimens there; and that the females have
more white about them than the other sex: and MR. CROSS, who has had
opportunities of inspecting probably some hundreds of specimens, insists
that he has never observed any specific difference between those brought
from Asia and Africa, among themselves, except that the Asiatic are
generally larger and brighter.”

LICHTENSTEIN, in a note communicated to MAJOR SMITH, describes the
Panther as resembling the Jaguar, in having the same number of rows of
spots, but different in having no full spots, on the dorsal line. If
this be correct, then is the existence of the Panther established as
being distinct from the Leopard: but I do not find that full spots on
the dorsal line always make a specific difference of the Jaguar. When,
therefore, it is said, that the Panther much resembles the Jaguar, it is
always strongly to be suspected that the type whence the observations
are taken is an American animal. If the contrary be clearly established,
and the animal be found to have large round or oval open marks of black,
with a central spot on the sides and back, and a tail longer than from
its insertion to the ground, it may be concluded that it is the real
Panther.

Lastly, that indefatigable investigator, CUVIER, says he was long in
doubt whether the Panther and Leopard were distinct: but a comparison of
a great number of skins, as well as observations on the numerous animals
sent to the French Museum, have satisfied him that they are different;
and he accordingly describes the Panther as having six or seven rows of
rose-like spots in transverse lines, the tail longer and the head larger
than the Jaguar, and the ground-colour of the fur paler. The Leopard he
describes as a little less than the Panther, though with the same
proportions; but the spots, as much more numerous, forming ten
transverse lines.

The opinion of CUVIER is certainly deserving of the greatest attention;
but it may be observed that his enumeration of the six or seven rows of
spots in the Panther, and of ten in the Leopard, is not so certainly
intelligible as might be desired, when it is considered that the spots
or marks in question have really little or no parallelism.
Notwithstanding, therefore, this respectable authority, it seems very
probable that the Panther and Leopard are one and the same species,
which branches into two varieties, the Asiatic and the African; the
former of which is brighter in colour, and probably something larger
than the latter; and that the females of both are paler and less than
the other sex. CICERO, in his letters to ATTICUS, speaks of the Panther
of Africa, and the Asiatic Panther; as if they were different.

The ancient naturalists were not a whit more successful in
distinguishing these two quadrupeds, than the moderns, notwithstanding
the opportunities which they possessed of inspecting so many. MR.
GRIFFITH comments on SHAW, LICHTENSTEIN, and CUVIER; so did CICERO and
PLINY, on ARISTOTLE. Hence their _Panthera_, _Pardus_, and the
_Leopardus_ of the later ages of Rome (the last of which plainly
indicates their supposition that a Lion or Lioness had been concerned in
the generation of this spotted animal.)

It is surprising to reflect on the great number of Panthers, which in
those later ages of Rome, were brought from the deserts of Africa for
their public shows. SCAURUS exhibited an hundred and fifty of them at
one time; POMPEY, four hundred and ten; and AUGUSTUS, four hundred and
twenty! They probably thinned the province of Mauritania almost to
extirpation; which may account for the superior abundance of these
quadrupeds, as well as of Lions, at present, in Guinea, and the more
southern parts of Africa.

It would appear, that after all that has been accomplished by the spot
and row-counting philosophers, the distinction between Panthers and
Leopards is by no means made out; and we take it, that whenever Nature
means to mark a distinction of this sort, she always does it with a
firmer hand, and more decisive line.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 14

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

LEOPARD & PANTHER after STUBBS.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                No. XIV.

STUBBS, who had most likely paid sufficient attention to what the
naturalists had previously said on the subject—and whom no naturalist
has exceeded in accuracy of observation—appears to have here sketched
out the differences, and the resemblances, between these two animals—if
two they may be termed. It will be observed that the one which we esteem
to be the LEOPARD—the nearer figure of the two—is somewhat smaller than
the other, and that the dark spots on her body are not clustered in
roselets, or oilettes, as they have sometimes been called; while on the
body of the PANTHER, they are, and indeed everywhere, excepting on his
head and fore-legs. In short, STUBBS’S delineation agrees best with the
definition of CUVIER, whose discernment and philosophical tact are by no
means inferior to that indefatigability for which he is praised by
GRIFFITH.

Of this Leopard and Panther, the actions and expression (although not
the character—their noses and mouths being of longer and larger
proportions) are very much those of the common domestic Cat, when in a
playful mood. Something there is of burlesque clumsiness in their
play—resembling HERCULES with the distaff; and something of that assumed
look which may be observed among Cats while frolicking with their young.
And these kindly and droll expressions of countenance—these “quips and
cranks, and wanton wiles,”—are doubtless very well understood among the
carnivorous comedians, notwithstanding that to some of ourselves, they
may not appear to amount to much: yet the difference of these our
engraved heads of a playful Leopard and Panther, and the ocular
expressions of such animals when raging with hunger, or rendered angry
by opposition, is immense, and could not fail, if presented together, to
be strikingly obvious to those who are in the least studious of the
physiognomical variations of the ferocious tribe. Let the reader compare
them with the threatening LION and defying TIGER among the rocks, after
the same master, which we have numbered 19.

Horse-play is proverbially unwelcome: Panther-play must be worse. We
cannot associate the idea of the endurance of it within reach of man.
But where Cats and Kittens are occasionally permitted in the parlour,
there is comparative harmlessness. And who has not witnessed with
delight, among the rat-catching carnivora in their joyous moments, those
spontaneous and electrical kindlings of various and rapid fun, which
must have made HERACLITUS laugh, could he have seen them, and have been
a lesson to LAVATER.


                                No. XV.

A LION and LIONESS, after RUBENS, where we esteem the execution—more
especially of the parts which are brought into muscular action, and the
rich hairy texture of the fur—to be highly creditable to the artists
concerned. In these respects, it transcends beyond all comparison the
Etching by PICART of the same subject. We were about to say more of
these things, and to request attention more particularly to the hinder
parts of the female, but the knit brow and threatening eye of the Lion
glares upon us with its high claims, and terrible truth, and we cannot
but perceive a broad, pervading, and dextrous display of light, shade,
and expression of texture.—Now, where there is just harmony of parts, it
is the _whole_ which merits praise; and this praise is of a higher kind
than could possibly be bestowed with propriety on any part.

The Expression of the Lion is not here so self-possessed and majestic as
in some of the examples which we have passed. His magnanimity is
exchanged for that dark treachery and cruel-mindedness, which some
modern authors ascribe to him. Nor is the Lioness more amiable: both
seem lurking, malicious, and as if animated by some horrid hope.

RUBENS seems to have let them into his Assyrian den, in order to let the
world see from how dreadful animals Providence was protecting its
favoured minister.


                                No. XVI.

RUBENS has here painted one Lion as scowling, another as if in a sort of
mysterious meditation, and a third yawning with ennui—no doubt to
diversify a composition wherein he was of necessity obliged to introduce
a considerable number of animals of the same kind.

The Lion has been, of all quadrupeds whatever, the most idealised by the
Arts, and the most variously represented. The tide of opinion ran for
centuries in his favour. Kings took their designations from him: amongst
whom have been our first RICHARD; but of late years very reputable
travellers and other authors have appeared, who would bring down the
poetic generosity, the reputation of which the Lion has so long enjoyed,
to the plain prose craft and cruelty of the rest of the feline race.

The noble disdain with which a Lioness, though half famished, and “with
udders all drawn dry,”—scorned to prey on a sleeping man—Must we part
with the sentiment? Must we also disbelieve the story which has been
commemorated by a large French engraving, of a Lion gently taking up in
his mouth a fallen infant, and as gently setting it down again, to the
infinite delight of its terrified mother?—Such anecdotes have pleased
and flattered us; but may possibly have gained undeserved credit because
they pleased, and have pleased because they flattered—_human_ nature.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 15

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

LIONS after RUBENS.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 16

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

LIONS after RUBENS.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 17

_Edwin Landseer delin^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

LIONESS & BITCH from CROSS’S MENAGERIE.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               No. XVII.

Repeated instances of FRIENDSHIPS BETWEEN THE LION AND THE DOG, have
occurred at the Menagerie at the Tower, as well as elsewhere in England:
and we have pleasure in adding a corroborating fact of a novel
character. Mr. EDWIN LANDSEER made it the subject of a Drawing from
Nature, and we here present the public with an Engraving after it,
executed by his brother, and numbered in our collection, 16.

A female whelp was accidentally found, quite young, and even before its
eye-lids were unclosed, in an African forest not far from the sea shore.
It was brought on board ship by some sailors, where a smallish black
bitch, by birth quite an ignoble cur, having recently pupped, the
experiment was successfully made, of ascertaining whether she would
suckle the young Lioness, who was christened _Charlotte_.—_Charlotte_
soon began to thrive, and to play kitten frolics; and continued to be
thus nurtured, till, at no great length of time, she became so much
larger than her foster-parent, and required so much food, as to induce
the necessity of weaning her.

But the two quadrupeds continued, ever after, to live together on the
most friendly and affectionate terms; constantly inhabiting the same
cage, and habitually partaking of the same messes of provision. The
Lioness, though now grown large, having never seen any other mother,
continued through life to shew marks of daughterly obedience, and the
bitch, of maternal regard. Mr. EDWIN LANDSEER, as well as many others,
has frequently seen them caressing each other in their cage at the
Exeter ’Change Menagerie, in the manner which he has represented: the
Drawing, which exhibits portraits both of the LIONESS and BITCH, having
been done some years ago.

And these kitten frolics, or the youthful disposition to indulge in
them, continued on the part of the Lioness, till her older and graver
nurse became tired of the lion-play, and would sometimes snarl and bark
forbiddingly. It was very entertaining, and an interesting chapter in
Natural History, to behold this; for the Bitch ever retained an
ascendancy, and much of the authority, of a parent: so that her
foster-daughter, though so much larger, and so tremendously powerful,
would retire obediently to the farther corner of the cage, waiting a
favourable change of temper, on the part of her senior, before she
renewed her playful familiarities.

On a principle of prudence, however, and because it was judged that if
these inmates of the same refectory, ever quarrelled, it would be at a
meal-time, they were of late separately fed: that is to say, not at
separate times, or tables, but, at opposite corners of the apartment:
but the Bitch has often been known to help herself out of _Charlotte’s_
portion, without fear or ceremony, and her majesty to shew no
resentment, nor any kind of royal displeasure or hurt feeling, at the
indecorum.

We esteem this Engraving to afford a fair example of the positive, or
negative, power of the sovereign of the forest, of physiognomically
expressing the gentler emotions. But it occurs to us here—and we mention
it in reference to an argument maintained in an earlier part of this
dissertation—that perhaps licking with the tongue may belong to the dumb
language of quadrupedal expression of affection. But the Dog, and the
Cat, kind, express themselves in this way; and amongst each other, it
cannot be misunderstood—the affectionate idea being impressed at the
period of their very earliest susceptibilities, and associated—perhaps
as indissolubly as the human endearments of smiles and kissing—with
their youngest, purest, and most permanent recollections.


                               No. XVIII.

In this plate the ideas of expeditious motion, and quest, are admirably
depicted:—kept up from stem to stern; he is evidently bent on
destruction.—This is he that appeared to the terrified imagination of
COLLINS’S Oriental camel-driver, who, in his beautiful Eclogue,
exclaims—

               “What, if the LION _in his rage_ I meet!”

And the determined purpose which pervades the whole frame and the mind
of the sallying hero, is seen in his resolute look, as well as in every
motion of his muscular limbs—aye, to the very tuft at the extremity of
his tail. All is expressive of his plenitude of animation, and prey is
obviously his purpose. None can mistake him.

This will probably be thought another of the instances in which the
present artists have been eminently successful in the execution of their
subject. (For the design they were indebted to the etching-needle of
RIDINGER.) The shag of the mane is characteristically varied from the
short hair which covers the face, body, and limbs; the anatomy is ably
indicated; and the chiaroscuro is vigorous.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 18

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

LION after REYDINGER.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

The hunters say that a dozen or fifteen dogs, trained to the sport, will
overpower a Lion before he can strike many blows: but these are the
limbs which “at every blow destroy an enemy.”

We have next to treat of the ROYAL TIGER OF BENGAL, beautiful, powerful,
fierce, and unrelenting.—Terrible, yet admirable!

Mr. BEWICK says that the Tiger “is the most rapacious and destructive of
all carnivorous animals. Fierce without provocation, and cruel without
necessity, its thirst for blood is insatiable. Though glutted with
slaughter, it continues its carnage; it fears neither the sight nor the
opposition of man, whom it frequently makes its prey; and it is even
said to prefer human flesh to that of any other animal:” a fact which is
confirmed by COLONEL WILLIAMSON, and Mr. PAUL of Daudpore, the latter of
whom has the reputation of having killed as many Tigers as any hundred
other men in India.

The strength of this animal is so great, that when it has killed a Deer,
it carries it off with much ease. WOOD relates a story, on good
authority, of a Buffalo being carried off by one; but it had previously
refreshed itself by sucking the Buffalo’s blood. The latter had been
hampered, and was weakened by its struggles in a quagmire; and the Tiger
let fall its prey, and fled at the approach of some Indian peasants. We
must suppose, too, this Tiger to have been one of the largest, and of
extraordinary power, for COLONEL WILLIAMSON reports that in the public
combats that are sometimes exhibited in India, between Tigers and
Buffaloes, the latter is commonly the victor.

But the eagerness of its voracity is believed to transcend that of any
other creature whatever. If undisturbed at the commencement of its meal,
it plunges its head into the body of its reeking victim, up to the very
eyes, in order to glut itself with the bloody enjoyment. Oysters are not
opened and swallowed with more zest and avidity.


                                No. XIX.

The commencement of such A CARNIVOROUS FEAST, where the TIGER has seized
and slain—not a wild Buffalo, but a BULLOCK, from the tame herds of
Hindostan. As the cattle descend toward the river to drink, their crafty
enemy lies in ambush among the jungle, or creeps along cautiously and
unseen; and, watching a favourable opportunity, makes his murderous
spring.

Although WILLIAMSON corroborates MR. BEWICK’S account of the Tiger’s
fondness of human flesh, he does not agree to that of its fearlessness.
On the contrary, he thinks that on occasions where Tigers have seemed
fearless, momentary anguish or resentment, has been their real stimulus;
and adds, that “the Tiger is, of all beasts of prey, the most cowardly;
its treacherous disposition induces it, almost without exception, to
conceal itself until its prey may arrive within reach of its spring, be
its victim either bulky or diminutive. Size seems to occasion no
deviation in the Tiger’s system of attack, which is founded on the art
of surprising. We find, accordingly, that such as happen to keep the
opposite side of a road, by which they are somewhat beyond the first
spring, often escape injury; the Tiger being unwilling to be seen before
he is felt. Hence it is rarely that a Tiger pursues; but, if the
situation permit, his cunning will not fail to effect his purpose, he
will steal along the road-side among the bushes parallel with the
traveller’s course, until one of the many chances which present
themselves of finding him within reach, induces to the attack. Often,
where the country is rather too open to allow his proceeding in this
manner, the Tiger will take a sweep among underwood or through ravines,
in order to meet the traveller again at a spot whence he may make his
spring.

“Tigers are extremely partial to such sites as command a road, selecting
one rather less frequented, in preference to one that is much in use. In
the former, they are certain of finding as much as will answer their
daily wants. If, however, the haunt be on a public road, it is usually
at some spot abounding with grass or bushes, especially the _prauss_,
and in the vicinity of some ample cover supplied with water, to which
the prey can be dragged. There, in some low, opake spot, the sanguinary
meal is consummated in gloomy silence.

“It should be observed, that for the most part the Tiger chooses his
station on that side of the road which is opposite to his haunt; so
that, when he seizes his prey, he proceeds straight forward, without
having occasion to turn, and thus drags it across mostly at a trot. If
he misses his aim, he will rarely return, unless attacked; but, in a
sullen manner, either skulks through the cover; or, if the country be
not sufficiently close to conceal his motions, he moves on at a canter.”

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 19

_E. Landseer del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._

TIGER & INDIAN BULLOCK after NATURE.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 20

SENEGAL LION after REYDINGER.

BLACK-MANED LION after REMBRANDT.

LIONESS after REYDINGER.

_E. Spilsbury del^t._      _T. Landseer sculp^t._]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Finding the same anecdotes of Lions and Tigers repeated from book to
book, the present writer has in general avoided to reiterate what he
conceived would in most instances prove to have been already read: but
he cannot wholly pass that in which a lady—next to the Royal Tiger
himself—was the principal figure; more especially as it illustrates a
fact of natural history not useless for Oriental travellers to be
acquainted with—namely, the susceptibility of the Tiger of sudden alarm.

Some ladies and gentlemen being on a party of pleasure, under a shade of
trees on the banks of a river in Bengal, were suddenly surprised at
seeing a Tiger ready to make its fatal spring. One of the ladies, with
amazing presence of mind, laid hold of an umbrella, and unfurling it
directly in the animal’s face, it instantly retired.

The following also confirms WILLIAMSON’S account of the Tigers which are
brought up tame by some of the mendicant Indian priests who inhabit the
banks of the Ganges.

A beautiful young male Tiger was brought from China, some twenty years
ago in the Pitt East Indiaman: at the age of ten months it was so far
domesticated, as to admit every kind of familiarity from the people on
board. It seemed to be quite harmless, and was as playful as a kitten.
It frequently slept with the sailors in their hammocks, and would suffer
two or three of them to repose their heads upon its back, as upon a
pillow, whilst it lay stretched out upon the deck. In return for this,
it would, however, now and then steal their meat. Having one day taken a
piece of beef from the carpenter, he followed the animal, took the meat
out of its mouth, and beat it severely for the theft; which punishment
it suffered with all the patience of a dog. It would frequently run out
on the bowsprit; climb about the ship like a cat; and perform a number
of tricks with an agility that was truly astonishing. There was a Dog on
board the ship, with which it would often play in the most diverting
manner. But it ought to be remembered at the time this Tiger was taken
on board the ship, it was only a month or six weeks old; and when
arrived in this country, it had not quite completed a year.


                                No. XX.

THREE small LIONS, on a single Plate; forming a sort of tail-piece, and
bringing up the rear of our carnivorous procession.

This plate exhibits three different VARIETIES. THE LION OF SENEGAL,
nearly in profile, reclined, but under the influence of some slight
degree of irritation; the black-maned LION of AFRICA; and the common
LIONESS of ASIA, regaling herself on a dead bird.

The upper and lower subjects, are after RIDINGER. The African Lion, in
the middle, is originally from REMBRANDT, but has passed through the
medium of an indifferent Etching by PICART; and, like the rest, has
finally been corrected by a reference to Nature.—We believe it was
corrected from the specimen that was some few years ago presented to
LADY CASTLEREAGH; which was exhibited at Exeter ’Change, and of which
MR. EDWIN LANDSEER and MR. THOMAS CHRISTMAS had the _post-obit_
reversion.


            G. NORMAN, PRINTER, MAIDEN LANE, COVENT GARDEN.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                         SUPPLEMENTARY PLATES.


                               PLATE XXI.
       NEPTUNE, PAINTED BY E. LANDSEER, ENGRAVED BY T. LANDSEER.

A beautiful and highly characteristic engraving of a favourite
Newfoundland Dog. It is engraved by Mr. Thomas Landseer from a drawing
by his brother Edwin, and highly admired as a faithful likeness of the
original.


                              PLATE XXII.
        BRUTUS, PAINTED BY E. LANDSEER, ENGRAVED BY T. LANDSEER.

The property of Edwin Landseer, Esq. Good judges may at once perceive in
this portrait the points that constitute a thorough good one of the
breed. Rough, wiry and strong, with eyes almost concealed, Brutus is yet
active, vigilant and courageous, possessing in great perfection the
qualities most desirable in the terrier.


                              PLATE XXIII.
   A CROSS OF THE DOG AND FOX, PAINTED BY E. LANDSEER, ENGRAVED BY T.
                               LANDSEER.

The subject of this fine engraving had occasioned much doubt in the
minds of naturalists, but the question as to its reality was decided, by
the fact of the animal whose portrait we give, having been produced from
a tan terrier bitch and a tame dog fox.


                              PLATE XXIV.
 DOGS SETTING A HARE, PAINTED BY E. LANDSEER, ENGRAVED BY T. LANDSEER.

Two dogs having caught the side wind of a hare are making a highly
characteristic point. Nothing can more forcibly express that mute
animation which gives so highly-toned a finish to the abilities of the
setting dog as this vigorous and faithful delineation of their
countenances. The Pointer is placed in a very interesting attitude
admirably contrasted with the well chosen position of the setter his
companion; while the hare, the object of their attraction, is not only
judiciously placed, but the representation is strikingly true to nature.
This representation of dogs setting a hare displays not only a correct
knowledge of the subject but is one of those faithful delineations that
cannot fail to merit the most unqualified approbation.


                               PLATE XXV.
        VIXEN, PAINTED BY E. LANDSEER, ENGRAVED BY T. LANDSEER.

A thorough-bred Scottish terrier, a favourite portrait by Mr. Edwin
Landseer who has repeated her in several of his pictures.


                              PLATE XXVI.
FOX HOUNDS OF THE HATFIELD HUNT, PAINTED BY E. LANDSEER, ENGRAVED BY T.
                               LANDSEER.

This sketch contains portraits of five of the principal fox hounds
belonging to the above Hunt.


                              PLATE XXVII.
       PROCTOR, PAINTED BY E. LANDSEER, ENGRAVED BY T. LANDSEER.

Study of a head of a Blood-hound. This engraving is of a very celebrated
dog, and the character of its peculiar species is well delineated.


                             PLATE XXVIII.
    BOB, A FAVOURITE TERRIER, PAINTED BY E. LANDSEER, ENGRAVED BY T.
                               LANDSEER.

This engraving represents a fine wire-haired specimen of his race,
engaged in his favourite pursuit in his native wilds.


                              PLATE XXIX.
     THE POACHER, PAINTED BY E. LANDSEER, ENGRAVED BY T. LANDSEER.

Is not one of those who

                    “Take delight of a shiny night,
                    In the season of the year,”

to pop pheasants from their perches with an air gun, or who sets
“springes to catch woodcocks,” but it is he who

                                       “Skulks along
           Sleek at the shepherd’s cost, and plump with meals
           Purloined;”

“The wily Fox,” and a very beautiful animal Mr. Landseer has made of
him. The description we have quoted, finds in the picture an apt
illustration.


                               PLATE XXX.
    ALPINE MASTIFF, PAINTED BY E. LANDSEER, ENGRAVED BY T. LANDSEER.

The drawing from which the present plate was engraved, was made from a
very noble Alpine mastiff, which at that time although not full grown,
was the largest dog in England.


                              PLATE XXXI.
 OLD DOG, LOOKS LIKE A PICTURE, PAINTED BY E. LANDSEER, ENGRAVED BY J.
                                 WEBB.

An expressive picture, which betokens the subject, old in honour and
years, and still following his favourite pursuit.


                              PLATE XXXII.
   FIGHT BETWEEN JACKO AND PUSS, SKETCHED AND ETCHED BY T. LANDSEER.

The animals here so cleverly represented, and at the spot of their
actual and sanguinary contest, were etched by T. Landseer, from a sketch
made at the time by himself.


                             PLATE XXXIII.
            LITTLE BILLY, DRAWN AND ENGRAVED BY T. LANDSEER.

The spirited and faithful style in which Mr. Landseer has executed this
embellishment, presents us a portrait of a species of animal which was a
great favourite with our ancestors, and was as ferocious to an enemy as
faithful to a friend.


                              PLATE XXXIV.
     BLACK CAP, PAINTED BY G. H. LAPORTE, ENGRAVED BY T. LANDSEER.

Is a clever specimen of a perfect Harrier’s head, ably treated.


                              PLATE XXXV.
    DEAD RED DEER, PAINTED BY E. LANDSEER, ENGRAVED BY J. R. SCOTT.

Gives us the spoils of the chase lifeless and rigid; the accessories to
the picture are well told.


                              PLATE XXXVI.
            TIGER HUNT, PAINTED AND ENGRAVED BY T. LANDSEER.

Tigers are hunted in India by Elephants assisted by fleet horses. We
have in this clever picture a Tiger couching amongst the jungle
seemingly undetermined whether to spring or to make off, the horse
scared and frightened evidently has come upon him unexpectedly; an
Elephant at a little distance is hastening towards the spot.


                             PLATE XXXVII.
 TIGER TAKING THE WATER, PAINTED BY SIR CHARLES D’OYLY, ENGRAVED BY T.
                               LANDSEER.

The Tiger having been driven from the jungle and hunted over the plain,
as a last resort takes to the water. He is here represented just after
having entered, his powerful paws half above the water preparing to make
a stroke, whilst his tail stiff and outstretched serves the purpose of a
rudder. The hunters on their elephants from the bank of the river are
taking a deliberate aim at him.


                             PLATE XXXVIII.
   ELEPHANTS RETURNING FROM THE HUNT, PAINTED BY SIR CHARLES D’OYLY,
                        ENGRAVED BY T. LANDSEER.

The Hunter seemingly tired of hunting on horseback has dismounted, and
is climbing up the side of an elephant who kneels, whilst the fruit of
the chase is upon the back of another, and a third is making his way
through the jungle.


                              PLATE XXXIX.
        RED DEER, PAINTED BY R. HILLS, ENGRAVED BY T. LANDSEER.

A very clever work of Art upon which the great and universally
acknowledged taste and talents of Mr. Thomas Landseer have been
carefully bestowed. Both Painter and Engraver have done justice to the
subject; few things can be finer than the stag in the foreground, or
more effective than the brace of Does approaching upwards, as it were,
from a romantic and obscure retirement.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 21

_Engraved by T. Landseer from a Drawing by his Brother Edwin._

_Neptune, the property of W. E. Gosling Esq^r._]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 22

_Painted by E. Landseer & Engraved by T. Landseer._

BRUTUS.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 23

_Engraved by T. Landseer from a Sketch by his brother Edwin._

_Portrait of a Cross of the Dog and Fox, in the possession of Lord
  Cranley._]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 24

_Engraved by T. Landseer from a Drawing by his Brother Edwin._

_Dogs Setting a Hare._]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 25

_Eng^d. by T. Landseer from a Painting by his Brother._

_Vixen, a Thorough bred Scotch Terrier._]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 26

_Elliner_   _Lettager_   _Strider_   _Rachell_   _Adamant_

_Fox Hounds, of the Hatfield Hunt._
_Engraved by Tho^s. Landseer from a Painting by his Brother Edwin._]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 27

_Eng^d. by T. Landseer from a Painting by his Brother Edwin._

PROCTER.
_Study of a Blood hounds Head._]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 28

_Engraved by T. Landseer from a Painting by his Brother Edwin._

_Bob, a favourite Terrier the property of W. E. Gosling Esq^r._]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 29

_Eng^d. by T. Landseer from a Drawing by his Brother Edwin._

_The Poacher._]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 30

_Eng^d. by T. Landseer from a Drawing by his Brother._

_Alpine Mastiff._]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 31

Painted by E. Landseer R. A.      Engraved by J. Webb.

THE OLD DOG LOOKS LIKE A PICTURE.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 32

_Etch’d by T. Landseer, from a sketch made at the time by himself._

_Fight between “Jacko Maccacco,” a celebrated Monkey, and M^r. Tho^s.
  Cribb’s well known bitch “Puss.”_]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 33

_Drawn and Engraved by Thomas Landseer._

LITTLE BILLY, A Celebrated Bull Dog.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 34

_Eng^d. by T. Landseer, from a Painting by G. H. Laporte._

BLACK CAP.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 35

DEAD RED DEER.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 36

TIGER HUNT]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 37

TIGER TAKING THE WATER]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 38

ELEPHANTS RETURNING FROM THE HUNT.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 39

_Engraved by M^r. T. Landseer, from a Painting by M^r. R. Hills._

RED DEER.]





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