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Title: Primitive & Mediaeval Japanese Texts - Transliterated into Roman with introductions, notes and glossaries
Author: Various
Language: English
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Transcriber’s Note: Some of the kanji characters in this book appear
to have no modern equivalent and a close but not identical character--a
“best guess”--has been substituted. These are shown e.g. {蹄}.
Illustrations of the characters are included in the HTML version.

The author’s list of emendations has not been addressed: it seems more
useful to the reader left as it is.

                         PRIMITIVE & MEDIAEVAL
                            JAPANESE TEXTS

                         NOTES AND GLOSSARIES


                    FREDERICK VICTOR DICKINS, C.B.


                             MENCIUS 也約說

                        AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

                          HENRY FROWDE, M.A.
                           LONDON, EDINBURGH
                         NEW YORK AND TORONTO

                         THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

                      SIR ERNEST SATOW, G.C.M.G.

                           MINISTER TO CHINA
                      SOMETIME MINISTER TO JAPAN

                            HI NI MUKAHI
                          HI NO DE NO HIKARI
                            HI NO IRI NO
                          HINA NI I-WATASHITE
                          HIZHIRI SHIRUSERI

                        KASANE-GOHI [五ひ] KA MO


The following texts are exact transliterations of the _Kana yomi_ of
the Manyôshiu, and of the _yomi_ of the mixed Japanese script of the
Taketori Monogatari, the Preface to the Kokinwakashiu, and Takasago,
according to the system devised by Sir Ernest Satow and adopted by
Professor Chamberlain.

The translations of the texts are given in a companion volume, where
full explanatory introductions and notes will be found.

The following abbreviations are employed: (K.) Professor Chamberlain’s
translation of the Kojiki; (N.) Dr. Aston’s translation of the Nihongi;
(Fl.) Professor Florenz’s part translation of the Nihongi; (Br.)
Captain Brinkley’s Japanese-English Dictionary; (I.) Kotoba no Izumi;
(T.A.S.J.) Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan.

The texts contained in the present volume are:--

1. The _nagauta_ or _chôka_ (long lays) of the Manyôshiu, the earliest
of the Japanese Anthologies, compiled about 760 A.D., with their
_kaheshi uta_ or _hanka_ (envoys). The text used is that of Kamochi
Masazumi in his magnificent edition, Manyôshiu Kogi, the Ancient
Meaning of the Manyôshiu, written during the first half of the
nineteenth century but published in 1879.

2. The Taketori Monogatari, Story of the Old Wicker-worker. The text
used is that of Tanaka Daishiu, published about 1838.

3. The Preface of Ki no Tsurayuki to his famous Anthology--the second
of the old anthologies--known as Kokinwakashiu--Anthology of Japanese
Verse Old and New--written about 922 A.D. The text is that of Kaneko
Genshin in his edition of 1903.

4. The _utahi_ of Takasago, perhaps the earliest of the medieval
miracle-plays (Nô), composed in the fifteenth century. The text used is
that of the Yôkyoku Tsûge, edited by Ohowada Kenjiu, and published by
the Hakubunkwan in 22 Meiji (1889).

Appended to 1. are some _tanka_ from the Kokinshiu and the Hyakunin
Isshiu (1214 A.D.), and in the volume of translations examples of
_hokku_ or the half-stanza, the so-called Japanese epigram, are given
with their translations.

A careful perusal, twice or thrice repeated, of the short grammar
and the following section on the Language of the Manyôshiu comprised
in the Introduction, with the aid of the List of Makura Kotoba, the
Glossary, and the companion volume of translations, will meet nearly
all the difficulties of the _romanized_ texts, and enable the reader to
appreciate sufficiently the charm of these ancient lays, of which the
more unique elements escape translation.



    PREFACE                                                              v

    EMENDATIONS                                                       viii

    INTRODUCTION (Short Grammar, Language, Script)                      ix

    SPECIMEN OF SCRIPT                                                xxxv

      (By kind permission of Professor Chamberlain, from his
      translation of the Kozhiki, being the Supplement to vol.
      x of the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan.)


    MANYÔSHIU                                                            1

    KOZHIKI UTA                                                        194

    NIHONGI UTA                                                        194

    KOKINSHIU UTA                                                      195

    HIYAKUNIN UTA                                                      196

    INTRODUCTION TO TAKETORI                                           198

    TAKETORI                                                           200

    KOKINSHIU ZHIYO                                                    240

    TAKASAGO                                                           246

    MAKURA KOTOBA                                                      257

    GLOSSARY                                                           279

    APPENDIX I.                                                        333

      ”      II. ADDENDA TO MAKURA KOTOBA                              334

      ”      III. ADDENDA TO GLOSSARY                                  337


For the necessity of these emendations I am wholly responsible.

In a few of the earlier lays the lines are not properly indented.
In one or two cases the category is wrongly printed as part of the
_dai_--as under Lay 1.

In a very few instances a capital letter is mistakenly used--thus
_Tsuma_ for _tsuma_.

In the following instances it is better to print place-names with
initial capital--Kashihara, Ohotsu, Shirokane, Chitose, Kagu, Katsu,
Tagi, Kamu, Yuki.

Where _eta_ is found it should be read _eba_.

Some few cases of _u_ for _a_, _u_ for _n_, _u_ for _i_, _a_ for
_o_, _e_ for _i_, or the reverse, occur--they are quite obvious.
Occasionally words are joined which on the whole are better separated,
as _Kata nashi_, or the reverse.


Lay 20, 4, _omi_, dele _o_.

24, 62 n., for _yum ino_ read _yumi no_.

26, 65, for _wo_ read _mo_.

27, 52, for _imo gara_ read _imo ga na_.

28, 56, for _no_ read _ni_.

29, n. 3, dele (hauka I).

36, 6, for _Fugi_ read _Fuji_.

69, 20, for _kaha_ read _kuha_.

100 (_dai_), read _i tsu tose_.

104, 29, read _taharete_.

105, 41, read _haha_.

107 (_dai_), read _Naniha_.

113, 8, read _kagahi_.

123, 16, for _momo_ read _onomo_.

124, 11, for _hitase_ read _hitasa_.

124, 20, for _skikame_ read _shikame_.

126, 12, for _aho_ read _ahi_.

165, 7, for _afuteshi_, read _afubeshi_.

166, 10, for _kimi_ read _kuni_.

195, 4, for _mi_ read _nu_.

  196, 33, } for _nakazu_ read _nakayu_.
  180, 8,  }

Page 147 above 212 insert--MAKI XVII, KAMI. Same heading to pp. 149, 151.

Lay 221, 28, for _no_ read _mo_.

223, 51, for _yoki_ read _yohi_.

230, 17, for _hashike_ read _hashiki_.

263, 53 n., for ‘lightly’ read ‘gravely, seriously’.

Page 194, l. 5, for _no_ read _ni_.

200, l. 7, for _to_ read _wo_.

201, last line, for oha read oho.

205, l. 13, read _notamahamu_.

206, l. 5, read _nagareki_.

207, l. 9, for _mi_ read _no_.

224, n. 3, for ‘right’ read ‘night’.

237, bottom line, read _Hitori_.

238, l. 8, _mono hito goto_ is better.

239, l. 8 (from bottom), read _gushite_.

245, l. 6, for _niho_ read _nihohi_.



The pronunciation of Old Japanese follows a very simple scheme. There
are the five vowels, _a_, _e_, _i_, _o_, _u_, and no diphthongs, and
the following consonants and digraphs _b_, _ch_, _d_, _dz_, _f_, _g_,
_h_, _j_, _k_, _m_, _n_, _r_, _s_, _sh_, _t_, _ts_, _w_, _y_, _z_,
_zh_. The syllables are all open, and consist of

(1) The five vowels.

(2) _b_, _k_, _m_, _n_, _r_, followed by all the vowels.

(3) _s_, _y_, _z_, followed by _a_, _e_, _o_, _u_.

(4) _h_, _w_, followed by _a_, _e_, _i_, _o_.

(5) _d_, _t_, followed by _a_, _e_, _o_.

(6) _f_, followed by _i_, _u_.

(7) _ch_, _j_, _sh_, _zh_, followed by _i_.

(8) _ts_, _dz_, followed by _u_.

Sixty-four open syllables in all, out of 105 possible ones, of which
and their various agglutinations the whole language is made up.

The vowels are pronounced as in Italian, _a_ being the accented _a_,
_e_ and _o_ the open sounds. The vowel _u_ is English _u_ in _put_,
never as in _rut_ or _lute_. The vowels _a_, _e_, _o_ are half-long,
_i_ and _u_ are shorter, and _u_ shortest of all. Value is given
to each syllable, subject as above, with scarcely any ictus (as in
French), but the last syllable of a word, especially in _u_, is always
weakest, and the penultimate rather the strongest.

The consonants are pronounced as in English, _h_ well aspirated, but
rather forward, even between vowels, _z_ as in _zany_, _zh_ as the _s_
in _pleasure_, _f_ may have descended from an original _p_, with _h_
and _w_.

The scheme, according to that of the _Oxford Dictionary_, would be--

    a   a
    e   e
    i   i
    o   o
    u   u
    b   b
    ch  tʃ
    d   d
    dz  dz
    f   f
    g   g
    h   h
    j   dʒ
    k   k
    m   m
    n   n
    r   r
    s   s
    sh  ʃ
    t   t
    ts  ts
    w   w
    y   y
    z   z
    zh  ʒ

The Chinese and Japanese languages differ from Aryan and Semitic forms
of speech in the total absence of all concords dependent upon number,
person, case, and gender, in the like default of relative words, and
(from Aryan speech) in the absence of _narratio obliqua_. They further
differ in the almost complete absence of any morphological moods or
tenses. Chinese has, broadly speaking, no accidence at all; the grammar
is a syntax teaching the right order and use of vocables (used as
words), double vocables (constituting words), and the few form-words
(empty words the Chinese call them) which serve as variously connective
particles. In Japanese there is a very scanty accidence of the few
adjectives the language possesses, and a more complete one of the verb;
but the verbal forms are all (with an exception or two) resolvable
into locutions, more or less agglutinated, scarcely constituting true
inflexions. Hence, morphologically, even in Japanese there is neither
mood nor tense, but there is an approach to both of the highest value
to the language, giving it, in conjunction with a goodly number of
particles, an articulation and plasticity wanting to Chinese. From the
above considerations it will be readily understood that the power of
expression even in Japanese is far inferior to that of Western speech.
The imagery is, of necessity, extremely limited in range and flat in
tone. It seems to me, however, of greater range and higher quality than
in Chinese. But neither Chinese nor Japanese possesses a tithe of the
capacity of Aryan and Semitic languages to express human thought and
feeling, and describe the works of man or the appearances of nature.

Ὦ δῖος αἰθήρ, &c., thought and words, are absolutely unintelligible to
the whole Far East.

Nevertheless the poetry of the two great Far Eastern languages has its
charm, especially the early poetry of Japan, but that charm, depending
as it does largely upon suggestiveness rather than definite statement,
and upon characteristic form and decoration rather than content, can
only be felt by those who are able to read the texts. The Japanese
texts, apart from the labour of decipherment, in themselves present no
difficulty, once their simple grammar and construction understood, and
in their romanized dress, with the brief grammar that is now subjoined,
and the other aids offered in the present volume and its accompanying
volume of translations are, it is hoped, made accessible to the
English reader who cannot give several years to the acquisition of
the complicated scripts which Dai Nippon has taken over, by necessity
rather than choice, from the Middle Kingdom.

The following sketch of the grammar of Old Japanese is intended merely
to elucidate the texts, principally those of the Manyôshiu and the
Taketori.[1] By Old Japanese is meant the unsinicized language of the
Kojiki and Nihongi (as read _japonicé_) and particularly of the _uta_
quoted in those works, of the _norito_ or rituals, and of the texts
above mentioned. There are no texts illustrating earlier stages of the
language, and all etymologies are doubtful, both on that account and
because the elements of Old Japanese are mere agglutinations (more or
less contracted) of only sixty-four open syllables.

Japanese (by which expression Old Japanese is here always intended)
has no affinity with Chinese, a language consisting of disconnected
elements (simple or compound), for in it agglutination has to some
extent contracted into inflexion or quasi-inflexion, and it possesses
in addition a large number of particles which give it a plasticity
not found in Chinese. In my opinion, had the development of Japanese
not been arrested by Chinese influences about the middle of the first
millennium, it might have won a far higher place than it occupies in
the hierarchy of human speech.

This agglutinative inflexion is practically confined to the verb,
and--to a slight extent--to nouns adjective, simple or verbalized. What
may be called the stem of the verb shows a pure vocalic inflexion in
_a_, _e_, _i_, _o_ or _u_. The stem in _u_ is the form usually found in
native and foreign dictionaries--in Lemaréchal’s it is the stem in _e_
or _i_. To the stem the various locutions are suffixed to construct the
forms representing, logically, moods and tenses as well as negative,
causative, and potential-passive ‘voices’.

The stems in _e_, _i_ and _o_ are used as imperatives; _koge_, row!,
_mi_, look!, _ko_ come!, often with addition of the vocative particle
_yo_ (or _ro_)--_miyo_, _koyo_. They are also used as ‘indefinite’
(Chamberlain) forms, mood and tense being determined by that of the
principal verb in the sentence. Before proceeding further it is well
to state that in the regular Japanese sentence the principal verb is
always at the end, the object (if expressed) in the middle, and the
subject (if expressed) at the beginning of the sentence, while words
of qualification precede the words qualified. In poetry however,
especially in the Manyôshiu, inversions are common.

All syllables in Japanese are open, and the terminal syllables of the
stems are the consonants _b_, _f_, _g_, _k_, _m_, _n_, _r_, _s_, the
digraph _ts_, _w_, _y_, and _z_ followed by the vowels _a_, _e_, _i_,
_o_, _u_ (also _u_ without consonant as in _suu_, _e_ stem _suwe_,
to place). Before _i_ _ts_ becomes _ch_, and before _e_ and _a_ _t_,
before _i_ _s_ becomes _sh_ and _z_ _zh_; before every vowel except _u_
_f_ becomes _h_. All verbs have the stem in _u_, most verbs have also
the stem in _a_ and _i_, some have also the stem in _e_ only, some in
_i_ only. There are a very few irregular verbs. The following list of
verbs and their stems will illustrate the above remarks:--

    _yerabu_, _yerabi_, _yerabe_, _yeraba_      choose
    _omofu_, _omohi_, _omohe_, _omoha_          think
    _kogu_, _kogi_, _koge_, _koga_              row
    _sugu_, _sugi_                              pass
    _fuku_, _fuki_, _fuke_, _fuka_              blow
    _tomu_, _tome_                              stop
    _tsukanu_, _tsukane_                        bind
    _toru_, _tori_, _tore_, _tora_              take
    _watasu_, _watashi_, _watase_, _watasa_     pass over
    _tatsu_, _tachi_, _tate_, _tata_            stand
    _su[w]u_, _suwe_                            place
    _suyu_, _suye_                              be rancid
    _sufu_, _suhe_                              suck
    _mazu_, _mazhi_, _maze_, _maza_             mix
    _miru_, _mi_ (_mire_)                       see
    _suru_, _shi_, _se_ (_sure_)                do
    _kuru_, _ki_, _ko_, _kure_, _ke_, _kere_    come
    [_wu_] _woru_, _wi_, _wiru_, _wore_, _wora_ be in, at

The Japanese verb has neither number nor person, the forms that follow
therefore are indefinite as to number and person. The locutions--or
more strictly the complements that with the stem make up the
locution--are given below as suffixed to the stem.

Two moods may be distinguished. One I call Independent, in which form
the verb is unconnected with any other verb, the other Dependent, in
which the verb is connected with some verb in the Independent mood.[2]
Mr. Chamberlain calls them Indicative and Oblique respectively.

There are in each mood three forms or quasi-tenses--a present,
temporally indefinite; a past denoting action or state completed at or
before the present or some indicated past time; and a future denoting
action, &c., that may or will be completed at a future (or past-future)
time. Each of these tenses in the Independent mood has a predicative
or simpler form and a relative form--as relating to some noun. It is
the simpler form, identical with the stem in _u_, which is found in the
dictionaries (in Lemaréchal’s the stem in _a_, _i_, or _e_ is found).
The relative form ends in _uru_ (modern _iru_ or _eru_). Thus _toki
sugu_, time passes; _suguru toki_, tempus quod fugit (some verbs in
_uru_ are transitive as _tatsu_, stand, _tatsuru_, make stand, set
up). Only those verbs which have _e_ or _i_ stems throughout appear to
possess this relative form;[3] in verbs with _i_ and _a_ stems this
morphological distinction does not exist.

The Past has four forms, each double (P. predicative, R. relative).

(1) P. _ki_, R. _-shi_.

(2) P. _tari_ (_te-ari_), R. _-taru_ (_te-aru_).

(3) P. _-tariki_, R. _-tarishi_ (composed of (2) and (1)).

(4) P. _-nu_, R. _-nuru_.

[_ki_ (_kuru_) = come (cp. Ital. _vien fatto_); _shi_ (_suru_) = do;
_te_ = stem of _tsu_, _tsuru_, continue; _ari_ is an irr. P. form of
_aru_, be; _nu_ is an old verb = be.] In _i a_ verbs there is a past in
P. _-eri_, R. _-eru_ (see below).

The Future is formed by suffixing _mu_ (or _namu_) to stem or _naramu_
(_ni [nu] aramu [aru]_) to R. form if any.


    _kogu_, row (with oars or sculls).

    Stems.      Present.          Past.               Future.
    _kogu_     _kogu_, P. & R.   _kogiki_, P.        _kogamu_, P.
    _kogi_                       _kogishi_, R.      (_koginamu_)
    _koga_                       _kogitari_, P.      _kogu naramu_
                                 _kogitaru_, R.     [_tomuru naramu_, R.]
                                 _kogitariki_, P.
                                 _kogitarishi_, R.
                                 _koginu_, P.
                                 _koginuru_, R.
                                 _kogeri_, P.
                                 _kogeru_, R.

_tomu_, stop, and _sugu_, pass, are conjugated like _kogu_, except that
_tomu_ replaces _i_ and _a_ of _kogu_ forms by _e_, and _sugu_ by _i_.

In the Dependent mood the forms are constructed with the help of _-ba_
(the particle _ha_, voiced). _Shikaba_ (etym. of _shika_?), _tareba_,
_taraba_ (_te areba_, _-araba_), _naba_ (_nu_) and _naraba_ (_ni


    _kogeba_,                            as, since, when, &c., row.

    _kogaba_, _koginaba_, _koginaraba_,  if row.

    _kogishikaba_, _kogitareba_,         as, since, when &c., rowed.

    _kogitaraba_, _kogishi naraba_,      if rowed.

Of _tomu_, _sugu_, the Dependent Mood is similarly conjugated
preserving the _e_ and _i_ vowels, and for _tomeba_ using _tomureba_
for _tomaba_ _tomeba_, for _sugiba_ _sugureba_, for _sugaba_ _sugiba_.

The negative voice (there are no negative words = not, no, none). The
Present Independent is formed by changing the _-mu_ of future into
_-zu_ or _-zaru_ (_zu aru_), P. and _-nu_, R. Thus _kogu_ (_kogamu_),
_kogazu_, _kogazaru_, _koganu_; _sugu_, _sugimu_, _sugizu_, &c.

In the past _-zu_ becomes _zariki_, P., and _-zarishi_, R.; in the
future _-zaramu_ or _-zhi_, P. and R. (_kogazaramu_, _kogazhi_).

There is a second future with sense of obligation exemplified as
follows:--_kogu_ (not _koga_) _-mazhiku_ (indefinite), _-mazhi_, P.,
_-mazhiki_, R., _-mazhikariki_, P., past fut. _-mazhikarishi_, R.,
past fut. _-mazhikereba_, conditional, when as, &c., and _-mazhikuba_,
hypothetical, if, &c.

In the Dependent Mood we have:--

    _koganeba_, _kogazareba_,              as, when, &c., not-row.

    _kogazuba_,                            if not-row.

    _kogazarishikaba_,                     as, when, &c., not-rowed.

    _kogazariseba_, _kogazarishi naraba_,  if not-rowed.

The Imperatives are:--

_Kogazare_ (_kogazu are_); _kogu nakare_ (_naku are_); _koguna_, _kogu
koto nakare_ (row-thing do-not), _na kogi so_, _yume kogu na_ (emphatic
imperative). But _na_ with _i_ or _e_ stem is an affirmative imperative
_kogi na_, do row!

There is another past in _tsu_[4], _tsuru_ as _kogitsu_, _kogitsuru_,
and a continuative form in _tsutsu_, _kogitsutsu_, while rowing.
Also a form in _-keri_, P. and _-keru_, R. with a dependent _-kereba_
as _kogikeru_, _kogikereba_. This _keri_ form seems equivalent to a
perfect definite, have rowed. Its etymology must be _ki -ari_; of _tsu_
the stem would be _te_, which added to stem in _i_ or _e_ makes forms
such as _kogite_, _tomete_, which are continuative indefinites almost
equal to ‘whilst’, _kogite_, _yuku_, whilst-row-go, i.e. row to (a

The negative form of _-te_ is _-de_, _kogade_, or _-zu_, _-zu ni_, _-zu
shite_, as _kogazu_, not-row, _kogazu ni_, in, or by not-row, _kogazu
shite_, not-row-do, all meaning essentially whilst-not-row.

The particles _mo_, too, _to mo_, that too (with variant _domo_)
_keredomo_ (_ki-ari-to-mo_), following or suffixed to verb-forms, give
a concessive force, although, even though, &c., _beku_, with sense of
must, can, will, ought, is suffixed to the _u_ stem, thus _kogubeku_ is
must, or ought to row, or will row--the forms of _beku_ are _beshi_,
P.; _beki_, R.; _bemi_, _bekariki_, P.; _-shi_, R.; _bekereba_,
_bekuba_, _bekarazu_, &c.; _beku mazhiku_ almost = _bekarazu_.

Causative verbs (often used as transitives or as honour-forms) are
easily recognized. Thus _nageku_, sigh, lament, _nagekasu_; or forms
derived from _su_ (_suru_), do, are added--_shimuru_, _seshimuru_,
_sasuru_. Thus _yaku_, burn, _yakasu_, _yakashimuru_; _suru_ (_se_),
do, _sesasuru_, make-do.

_Nu_ (_ni_) is an old verb ‘be’. _Ni_ + _aru_ = _naru_, become, be
at, of, in. The future _namu_ is a common auxiliary suffix. _Namu_
may become _namashi_, by composition with _mashi_, more, a suffixed
optative particle. Another optative is formed by adding the slight
interrogative particle _ya_ to the form in _-aba_ as _yukabaya_, should
like to go; sometimes the future form is in _-ramu_ (_aramu_?) added
to the _u_-stem, as _aruramu_ for _aramu_, _kofuramu_ for _kohamu_
(_kohimu_), will love. _Aru_, be, is peculiar in that its P.-form is
_ari_ not _aru_.

The verb _miru_, see, keeps the _mi_ throughout, _miru_, _miki_,
_mishi_, _mimu_, _miba_, _mitsu_ (past), _mizu_, _minu_, _mizhi_,
_mide_, &c.; but _mireba_, _miredomo_, _miru_ or _miheku_, &c. So
_hi(ru)_, dry, _i(ru)_, shoot, _(w)i(ru)_, be in or at, _ki(ru)_, wear
_ni(ru)_, be like, _ni(ru)_, boil. See Chamberlain, p. 66. By adding
_u_, _uru_ (get) with or without _aru_ (be) verbs passive and potential
are obtained. Thus _yaku_ (burn) + _ari_ + _uru_ = _yakaruru_, so
we have _homeraruru_ (_homu_, praise), _sugiraruru_ (_sugu_, pass),
_miraruru_ (_miru_, see). Or we have _miyuru_, see-get = seem, so
_omoyuru_, _omoheru_ (from _omofu_, think), or _omoharuru_ (see
Glossary, _omofu_, &c.), _iheru_ (_ihi-uru_), is said, &c. From _aru_
(be) lengthened to _arafu_, we get _araharu_, _araharuru_, _arahaseru_,
be manifest or make manifest.

Other passive-like forms are _iyu_ (_i_), shot, _oyu_ (_oi_), grown
old, _omohoyu_ (_omofu_), thought. There is a form in _-aku_, thus
_ifu_, say, _ihaku_--even the future has it, _kakemu_, will utter,
_kakemaku_, and the past _omoheraku_, the morphological origin of which
is unknown. It seems to give a substantival character to the verb;
_ihaku_, the saying (is); _omoheraku_, what was thought (is): also a
frequentative (rare) in _mi_, _wemi-mi, wemazu mo_, smiling and not

Under _koso_ will be found the verbal forms used with that particle.

Of the verb _su_ _suru_, do, the principal forms are:--

Independent Mood.

    _shi_, _su_, _suru_, (_koso_) _sure_.
    _seri_, _seru_ (_koso_), _sere_.
    _shiki_, _seshi_ (_koso_), _seshika_.
    _shitari_, &c., _shitariki_, &c.
    _shitsu_, _shitsuru_ (_koso_), _shitsure_.
    _semu_, _suramu_ (_koso_), _-e_, _-e_.
    _shitaramu_, _shitsuramu_, &c.

Dependent Mood.

    _sureba_, _seshikaba_, _shitareba_.
    _seba_, _senaba_, _shitaraba_.
    _suredo_ (_mo_).
    _suru mo_, _shite mo_.
    _seshikado_, _shitaredo_, _seshi_ (_mo_).
    _shitsutsu_, &c.

Negative Voice.

    _sezu_, _senu_ (_koso_) _sene_.
    _sezhi_, _sezaru_, and derived forms.
    _sezuba_, _senedo_.
    _sezare_, _suna_, _na se so_, &c.

Of the verb _ku_ _kuru_, come, the principal forms are:--

Independent Mood.

    _ki_, _ku_, _kuru_, _kure_.
    _kishi_, _koshi_ (_kiki_ not found), _kishika_, _koshika_.
    _kitari_, &c., _kitariki_, &c.
    _kinu_, _kinuru_, &c., _kitsu_, _kitsuru_, &c.
    _komu_, _kuramu_, _kinamu_, &c.

Dependent Mood.

    _kureba_, _kishikaba_, &c.
    _koba_, _kinaba_.
    _kuredo_ (_mo_), &c.

Negative Voice.

    _kozu_, _konu_, &c.
    _na ko so_.

The other forms of _kuru_ are easily formed from those of _suru_,
replacing _se_ and _su_ by _ko_ and _ku_.

There are not many true adjectives. Such have a sort of positional
inflexion--a predicative form in _-shi_, _akashi_, be red, a form used
chiefly with verbs (but also indefinitely) in _-ku_, _akaku naru_,
become red, and a form in _-ki_, used mainly with nouns, _akaki mono_,
red thing. There is also a form in _-mu_, _-mi_, which has a verbal
force denoting a state or condition.

Adjectives may also be verbalized by the addition of _aru_, be, and
many of its forms with obvious contractions.

Lastly, adjectival expressions are formed by adding _naru_, be or
become, to adjectival stems _yaharaka_, _yaharaka-naru_, soft, gentle.

Nouns substantive (and pronouns) are absolutely devoid of gender or
case, and only occasionally have a plural suffix _ra_ or _tachi_ or
_nodo_ or _domo_.

Pronouns are few, and--the personal pronouns especially--are little
used, the subject of the verb being generally unexpressed and left to
be gathered from the context.

    First person  _a_, _wa_, _are_, _ware_, _waga_, _wago-_, _wagi-_.

    Second person _na_, _namuji_, _nase_, _imashi_, _imo_.

    Third person  _a_, _are_, _kare_ (_is_, _ille_, Aston).
                  _so_, _sore_       (_iste_, Aston).
                  _ko_, _kore_       (_hic_, Aston).

Interrogative Pronouns.

    _Ta_, _tare_,     who?
    _na_, _nani_,     what?
    _izure_, _izu_,   which, what?
    _ika_,            what manner? ποῖος.
    _iku_,            what number? &c., πόσος.

Other pronouns are _shi_, _onore_, _mi_, self, _onore_ and _mi_, often
I _myself_, or I, _ono-ono_, every, _mina_, all. Other pronominal
forms, chiefly indefinite, are explained in the glossary.

Only the principal particles need here be noticed. Others are explained
in the glossary. The following are of special importance, and are found
mainly in connexion with nouns as postpositions. They are _wa_ (_ha_),
_ga_, _no_, _ni_, _he_ (_e_, _ye_) and _wo_.

_ha_ (_wa_, _ba_) isolates and emphasizes the noun rather as apart
from the verb--_chichi haha ha, uwe-samukaramu_, father and mother,
_they_ will be hungry and cold; _kono toki ha, ika ni shitsutsuka_,
this time _then_ while doing what. This emphatic force explains its
occurrence after verbs and sentences or clauses--_ihazu-ba_, not say
indeed = should we not say …; _Yamato ni ha_, it is in Yamato that …;
_yuki furu yo ha_, a night indeed on which snow falls: _a wo koso se to
ha_, it is I indeed whom (you should call) husband.

_ga_ is a possessive particle, _wa-ga (warega) ohokimi_, my great
lord; _Wazami ga hara_, plain of Wazami. It may be used before verbs,
_tori ga naku_, the bird cries; or after, _nabiku ga gotoku_, like
bending before. Sometimes it resembles _ha_ _kimi ga agari-ki-masamu_,
my lord, he will embark.

_tsu_ is possessive, _amatsu kami_, gods of heaven, _kuni tsu kami_,
gods of the land. It seems to follow names of things only.

_no_ (originally _nu_, be?) is used as a genitive particle, like ‘of’.
It is more general than _ga_, which is special; _no_ sometimes almost
equals _ha_ (_wa_). _Mi-torashi no adzusa no yumi no hazu no oto_,
sound of the notch of the bow of whitewood of his royal grasp; _Uchi
no ohonu_, the great moor of _Uchi_. This particle may connect other
words than nouns, _ari no kotogoto_, all one has, or, there is (_ari_);
_miru no goto_, like _miru_ (seaweed); _ame tsuchi no wakareshi
toki_, heaven--earth’s separated time (time of separation of heaven
and earth). This connexion by _no_ of parts of a sentence--often wide
apart--other than nouns must be carefully kept in mind. Thus read _hito
no [mono wo omofu]_, a man’s thinking of things (regretfully): not
_[hito no mono] wo omofu_, to think of a man-thing (or man’s things,

_ni_ (perhaps a stem of _nu_, be) = in, to, at, for, with, by, on,
near; _Yamato ni_, in Yamato; _toki ni_, at time = when; _miya ni
amori_, descend from heaven to the palace; _te ni tori_, take in the
hand; _ashita ni_, on the morrow; _asagari ni tatasu_, start for
morning-hunt; _tokoro ni yuku_, go to a place; also adverbially,
_yasukaranaku ni_, in a not-restful way; _aya ni_, strangely;
_kogi-yuku ni_, in or while rowing on; _tokoshihe ni_, everlastingly.
_Ni_ sometimes transfers the action of a causative or transitive verb
to the noun it follows.

_wo_, after a noun indicates it as object of action or, sometimes, as
subject of state or condition; _unasaka wo sugite_, passing beyond
bounds of ocean; _miyako wo tohomi_, _miyako_ (as to), be distant
(Aston); _mikado wo sadame_, settle on a site for a palace; _kuni wo
sadame_, terram debellare. In this sense _wo_ is often omitted, _oi
mo sezu_, old-age even not-doing = never growing old. It may follow
a verb as an emphatic particle, or even a noun as such, but in these
cases there is probably an ellipsis of _suru_ (do) _omofu_, (think) or
the like, or again it may follow a particle, _to bakari_, &c. (Aston).
Where it appears to have an adversative force there is probably
ellipsis of _omoheba_, _omohite_, &c. _Wo ba_ = _wo ha_, and singles
out the noun as specially emphasized. _Wo_ sometimes almost equals _ni_.

_he_ (lit. quarter, direction, locality, tract in space or time) =
towards (_ni_ = to). Rare in the texts in this volume, _yori_ (lit.
approach, or be close to, or stop at), shortened often to _yo_, _yu_,
means by extension ‘from’--in later language also ‘than’.

_ya_, _yo_, is a vocative or exclamative interjection.

_to_, that, is a connective particle = and, also after a phrase marks
it as quotative; _toko miya to sadame_, establish as an everlasting
shrine (or palace), _sugimu to omoheba_, thinking (intending) that it
should outlast. _Hikohoshi ha Tanabata tsu me to_, Hikohoshi and the
Weaving Woman; _se to ha norame_ (see under _ha_); _kamusabu to_, in
a divinely awful manner; _hito wo yahase to … kuni wo osame to …
makitamaheba_, as he was charged to subdue the people and pacify the
land (people subdue that … land pacify that--as he was charged with).
The different uses of _to_ can always be made out by taking it as

Other particles are:--

_ya_, slight dubitative and interrogative, also exclamative. With
negative it gives an affirmative sense.

_ka_, stronger than _ya_.

_ya_ _ka_ with _ha_ (_yaha_ _kaha_) imply a certainty.

_ka mo_, final interjectional expression = is it not even so? i.e.
emphatically or admiringly, it is so!

_kana_ (_gana_, _mo gana_), final interjection of emotion suited to
what precedes.

_mo_, also, too, even; _mo … mo_, both … and.

_so_ (_zo_) perhaps, _sore_, this! emphasizes the preceding word.

_koso_ (_ko[re], so[re]_) this-that (Aston), more emphatic than _so_
(_zo_), commonly precedes the verb, expressed or understood. There is a
quasi-conjugation with _koso_--

_koso koge_;

_koso kogere_;

_koso kogishika_,--_kogitare_,--_kogitarishika_,--_koginure_,--
_kogitsure_,--_kogame_,--_koginame_,--_kogurame,_ &c.

_a wo koso se to ha norame_--in prose, _a wo se to ha koso norame_,
_do_ call me husband!

_namu_ (_nan_) is very like _koso_, but less emphatic.

_goto_ = _gotoku_, like also sometimes _kotogotoku_, generally, all;
_goto ni_ (after the noun), every, each.

_dani_, even, at all events; _sura_, even (unexpected); _sahe_, even

_shi_, _nomi_, _bakari_, just, only, precisely--in ascending degree
of certainty. All of these, especially _shi_, are often not more than
slightly emphatic expletives.

_made_, up to; _gari_, direction of; _kara_, from; _kara_ (_gara_) =
_nagara_ (_naru karada_ or _naru kara_), just as (applied to preceding
noun); after verbs, whilst, although.

_kaku_, thus, _to mo kaku mo_, that way and this way, anyhow, somehow.

_kashi_, be it thus, so be it, may it be so! (Aston).

_mashi_ (_mase_, &c.), _mahoshiki_, verbal terminations expressing
desire or contingency.

_meru_, verbal termination (derived from fut. in _mu_, _mu_ or _mi
aru_?), indicates some degree of likelihood.

_ramu_, for _aramu_, _hana chiruramu_ = _hana chiru aramu_ = _hana
chiramu_, the flowers will, wilt.

_rashi_ = _ramu_, nearly; _natsu kitarurashi_, seemeth the summer to
have come (Aston). There is an adjectival ending, _rashiki_, of similar

Of the syntax of Old Japanese little need be said. It is simple owing
to the absence of almost the whole apparatus of Western grammar. The
order of words has already been mentioned, and in prose is rigid--in
poetry inversions are common. In large measure it is the opposite of
English order, and this fact, together with the relegation of the verb
to the end of the sentence, and the absence of expressed subject,
constitutes the initial and principal difficulty of Japanese, apart
from that of the vocabulary, the elements of which have usually a
connotation different from that of their nearest representatives in
any Western language. The absence of relatives and paucity of pronouns
are additional difficulties, and the reader has to grow familiar by
practice with the modes in which the more definite thought of the West
is represented in the vaguer and looser language of Old Japan, where
the visual aids of later Sinico-Japanese are not present. Nevertheless
if the real meanings of the words be attained, the logical subject
kept in mind as gathered from the context, the relations of words and
phrases in apposition rather than in accidental or strict syntactical
connexion be observed, the influence of the particles in edifying the
sentence into a construction understood, and some facility gained in
keeping the mind in suspense until the principal verb--read with the
relations to it of the subordinate verbs--be reached, there is no great
difficulty, apart from the inevitable one of difference of circumstance
and allusion, in arriving at a comprehension of the texts. And these
will be found, especially the Lays, to have preserved a peculiar beauty
and charm, if not of the highest order, of their own, which no version
can hope to convey.

The opening of the first lay sufficiently exemplifies the reversed
order of the Japanese sentence:--

        Ko mo yo
      mi ko mochi
    fukushi mo yo

    fukushi mochi
      kono woka ni
    na tsumasu ko--

Read almost directly backwards, we get:--

_Ko_ (maid) _tsumasu_ ([who] plucks) _na_ (salads) _ni_ (on) _kono
woka_ (this knoll), _mochi_ (holding) _fukushi_ (truel), _yo mo_ (oh
the) _fukushi_ (truel), _mochi_ (holding) _mi ko_ (fair basket), _mo
yo_ (oh the) _ko_ (basket).

Maid who pluckest salads on this knoll holding a truel--oh the
truel!--holding a fair basket--oh the basket!… _a wo se to norame_, me
for thy husband name!

But even rendered almost in Japanese order, the lay is quite
intelligible, and perhaps better to be appreciated than in any
imitative version:--

    Basket O! | fine basket bearing | truel O | fine truel bearing
    | this knoll upon | herb-plucking maid! | your home-place tell
    me | your name too tell me; | Yamato’s land | everywhere | I
    hold rule over, | all where | I hold rule over, | me in sooth |
    as husband call me | your homeplace too, your name too, tell me!

In dealing with the less easy texts of the Manyôshiu the following
considerations must be kept in mind:--

The honour-forms (see below) indicate a (logical) second or third
person, or something connected with such a person, directly or

The particle _wo_ may often be rendered as if _ni_, or as an
exclamation, or as if followed by some form of _omofu_. I do not regard
it as in itself a quasi-conjunction. The various functions of _no_ must
be kept in mind.

The frequency of inversion in order of words must not be forgotten.
The _makura kotoba_ may be ruled out, as well as prefaces, exordiums,
introductions, and the like--thus the kernel of meaning may be got at,
and the decoration then added.

It must be recollected that of the elements of the vocabulary very few
can be exactly rendered by a single English word, their connotation
for the most part is more or less different from that of any possible
English equivalent. In the Glossary an exhaustive definition of
the meaning is not attempted, enough only is given to suggest the
translation of the sentence in which the word appears. Hence since
meanings came to change in the course of time, those given being
only what are required for these texts sometimes differ from the
meanings found in the foreign dictionaries, all of which are very
imperfect--very seldom, however, from those offered by that excellent
native dictionary the _Kotoba no Izumi_.


I found the following remarks upon the somewhat lengthy, and--to
me--not always very clear, observations of Masazumi concerning
the language of the Manyôshiu contained in his _sôron_ or General

PHONETIC CONTRACTIONS. These are not uncommon, and are principally
vocalic. Such are _wagimo_ (my sister) for _waga imo_; _ariso_ (wild
shore) for _ara iso_; _kafuchi_ (within the rivers) for _kaha uchi_;
_amori_ (descent from heaven) for _ame ori_; _kurenawi_ (a shade of
red) _kure no awi_, lit. an indigo (i.e. a dye) brought from China;
_konure_ (tree-top) _ko no ure_; _ke_ (come, pass) _ki he_--_ke nagaku
kohishi_, long time loved; _ke no kono goro ha_, a time lately gone by;
_arumi_ (wild sea) _ara umi_; _futsuma_ (stout horse) _futo uma_. The
above are substantival, others are adjectival or verbal, as:--

_naru_ (be in, at, of), _ni aru_, as in _Yamato naru_, _ihe naru_, &c.

_nari_--_ni ari_, as _oto su nari_ = _oto suru de ari_.

_naru_--_no aru_, as _hana naru toki_ = _hana no aru toki_.

_sareba_--_shi areba_, as _haru sareba_.

_chifu_--_to ifu_ (they call, ’tis called).

_ku_, _ki-yu_; _ke_, _ki-he_; _mesage_, _meshiage_; _kakage_, _kaki
age_; _motage_, _mote age_, &c.


_nagaru_--_nagarafu_, _nagarahi_, flow, flow in quantity, &c.

_yobu_--_yobafu_, _yobahi_, call, invite, pay court to (girl).

_nageku_--_nagekafu_, _nagekahi_, draw deep breath, lament, &c.

So causative forms exist used as honour-forms, _nagekasu_ for _nageku_,
and a termination in _aku_ as _nagekaku_, _kakemaku_, _ihaku_, for
_nageku_, _kakemu_, _ifu_ used substantively. _Ihafu_, bless, is
perhaps an extension of _ifu_, speak, say.

Of _yobahi_ (_yobu_ extended) a humorous explanation is sometimes
given, _yo_ (by night) _hahi_ (creep), visit stealthily by night.
Etymology of this kind is extremely easy in Japanese.

AUXILIARY PARTICLES (_tasuke kotoba_):--

Such are _shi_ (emphatic), _kami-yo shi omohoyu_, _ihe shi shinubayu_.

_wo_ (emphatic), as in _yatsu yo ni wo_, _tanushiku wo arana(mu)_,
but in phrases like _mitsutsu yukamu wo_, _wo_ = _mono wo_.

_ya_, _ame shiru ya_, _ama tobu ya_, _kashikoki ya_, _Afumi no
ya_, _naku ya uguhisu_, &c.; but in _kimi ya komu_, _ya_ is
dubitative--interrogative. In _kakusafubeshi ya_, _sugi nikerazu ya_,
_ya_ = _ya ha_ = Lat. _num_.

_nane_, term of address and endearment, must not be confused with
_nane_ of _imonane_, _senane_, which are terms of relationship.

_i_ suffixed as in _sekimori-i_, _Unahi-wotoki-i_ may be regarded as
emphatic, or isolative (like _ha_, according to Chamberlain), or as
etymologically = the Korean postposition _i_ (Aston).

_we_, a terminal interjection as _are ha sabushi we_.

_ro ka mo_, _tafutoki ro ka mo_, here _ro ka mo_ = is it not so even!
_ro_, according to Mr. Chamberlain, is a post-position equivalent to
_te_ or _nite_.

_mo_, _mo yo_, _mo ya_, _shi mo_, _ya shi_, _yo shi_, are all
interjectional expressions, not mere fill-gaps, variously emphasizing
or calling attention to the meaning of the words, &c., they are
attached to.

HONOUR-WORDS. Such are _ohomi_ (exalted, grand), as _ohomi kami_,
_ohomi uta_, _ohomi ma_; _mi_, as _mikokoro_, _miko_, _mi-hakashi_,
_mi-keshi_, _mi-nemasu_ (His godship the God, His Majesty’s song, His
Majesty’s horse, my lord’s meaning, my lord the Son (Prince), girt by
my lord, my lord’s garments, my lord sleeps).

Other honour- (or praise-) words are:--

_oho_ (great), _futo_ (stout), _toyo_ (rich), _o_ (for _oho_) as in
_obito_, _omi_ (court officials); _mi_, _ma_, _mo_, _sa_, _oho_ also
denote excellence (εὐ), _wo_ may be antithetic to _oho_, or it may be a
term of intimacy, a sort of diminutive of endearment.

The following honour-verbs should be here noted. _Tamafu_, _tamaheru_,
_tamahari_, _oboshimesu_, _kikoshimesu_, _shiroshimesu_, _takashiru_,
_owasu_, _owashimasu_, _masu_, _mimakareru_; verbs in causative form,
_-asu_, _-saseru_, _-seshimu_; verbs in quasi-passive or potential,
_-uru_, _-ruru_, _raruru_.

Other laudatory expressions are _tama_ (precious), _uma_ (delicious,
fine), _midzu_ (brilliant, fine), _umashi_ (_uma_), _kuhashi_ (lovely).
A curious gradation of honour-forms is seen in the following: _mi
yomimaseru ohomi uta_ (where the lay is attributed to a mikado), _ohomi
uta_, _mi uta_, _yomitamaheru uta_, _yomeru uta_ (when the author is
_miko_, _ason_, or official of lower rank).

Among terms of affection may be noted:--

_waga_ (mine) or _wago ohokimi_, _waga kimi_, _waga kuni_, _waga se_,
_wagimo_, _a oto_, _ago_, _na_, _se na_, _na se nane_, _nanimo_, _imo
nane_ (my great lord, my lord, our land, my husband, my younger sister
(wife or mistress), my brother, my child, thou, thou elder brother,
elder brother thou, thou elder sister, thou younger sister, &c.).

Words of exclamation, hope, entreaty, wonder, &c.:--

_Ana_, _ana ni_ (_ni_ is not a particle), _ya_ (= _yo!_), _ka_ (= ?),
_kana_, _gana_, _mo gana_, _kamo_, _mo ga mo_, _moga_, _ga mo na_, _ya
mo_, _shika_, _sane_, _ne_, _kose_, _kosene_, _na-so na-yume_, _ari
kosenu ka mo_ (_ari-koso-ne_). These are explained in the notes to the
text or in the glossary--their meaning is obvious for the most part.

Repetitive or cumulative expressions (_kasane kotoba_) are common
in the Manyôshiu and contain, mostly, a quibble in meaning or rhyme
in sound. Such are _chichi no mi no chichi_ (father = _chichi_ =
maiden-hair tree--the quibble is on the two _chichi_, and the double
meaning of _mi_, fruit and person). _Hahasoba no haha_, mother
(_haha_), as of the oak (_hahaso_ = Quercus dentata), &c. _Shiga
no karasaki sakiku araba_ (here the rhyme is _Karasaki_ (Cape Kara
in Shiga) and _sakiku araba_ (if flourish)). Such expressions are
explained in the notes or glossary.

Other repetitive expressions are simply emphatic or poetic: _Tsudohi
tsudohi imashite_, they (the gods) assembling, _kamu hafuri hafuri_,
burying--burying him (a mikado or miko) as a god; _ake no sohobune
sohobune_, a red red-stained red-stained-ship, &c.

WORDS RELATING TO THE SOVRAN. _Sumeramikoto_ (Supreme Majesty) is
found only in the _dai_ (arguments), not in the _uta_. The commonest
term in the latter is _Ohokimi_ (great Lord, grand seigneur), but this
expression is not confined to the Sovran. Other terms are _sumeragi_
(_sumerogi_, _suberogi_) and _sumerami_; _-gi_ = prince, _mi_ =
princess (conf. Izanagi and Izanami, Inviting Male and Inviting Female
(K.)); but see Aston, _Shintô_. What _sume_ means is uncertain, it
may be connected with _sube_ (_shiru_), universally know, i.e. govern
the land. Other expressions are _kamuro kamu subera_ or _sumera_ or
_sumero_, _kamu_ adding the notion of ‘divine’. _Ohokimi_, ‘chief’, I
take to be the oldest; the other forms smack of China. As to ‘ro’, see
above remarks on the particle ‘ro’. In the Kogi etymology _ro_ = the
_re o_ of _are oya_ in _kamu are oya_ = god-born ancestry.

_Mikado_ means grand gate or palace, and by metonymy came to signify
its lord, just as at the present day _miya_ (grand mansion) denotes
an imperial prince. _Mikado_ also means ‘sovran dominion’ as in
_toho-mikado_, distant palace, that is, wide dominion, sometimes
applied specially to the Tsukushi government, to Korea, or even to
China, as on the confines of, but still within, the authority of the
_Ohokimi_ of Japan. The following phrases may be here noticed--_mikoto
kashikomi_, dread majesty, _Ohokimi no make_ (or _hiki_) _no manimani_,
in obeisance to the _Ohokimi’s_ will or appointment.

_Mi_ has several meanings which must be distinguished. They are (1) an
honour-prefix, grand, great; (2) prefix of praise, εὐ = _ma_, true,
real; (3) self; (4) body, person; (5) a stem of _miru_, see (6) root
of _midzu_; (7) fruit of tree or herb; (8) the numeral three; (9) as
a termination _se wo hayami_, swift the stream; _hiromi_, broad-like;
_fukami_, deep.

Of the intensive prefixes _i_, _ka_, and _ta_, no explanation has yet
been given. They resemble Greek ζα. Examples are _i-yuki_, _ka-guroki_,

For the purposes of the present work, Dr. Aston’s grammar of the
written language (third edition) is much the most useful.


The Lays are written wholly in Chinese characters. But these are
employed in several very peculiar ways, and the texts as they stand
are completely unintelligible to a Chinese, even to a Japanese,
who has not specially studied them. In all the editions, however,
except the Riyakuge, the columns of text are accompanied by a _kana_
transliteration--in the Riyakuge the _kana_ (_hira_) transliteration is
given separately from the text.

At the date of the compilation of the Anthology--the middle of the
eighth century--neither of the existing Japanese syllabaries had been
invented. Their creation is ascribed to the learned priest _Kûkai_
(_Kôbô Daishi_), the Doctor Promulgator of the Law of Buddha, who died
in 834, nearly a hundred years later than the date of the final _tanka_
of the Manyôshiu. The Chinese character had therefore, perforce, to
be employed in writing down the lays collected in the manner set
forth in the volume of translations. The ideographs were used in part
phonetically, in part lexicographically, as they had already been used
in writing the Kojiki and the poems cited in that history, and in the
almost contemporaneous but very different Nihongi.

The ideographs used phonetically were not, however, always employed in
the same way. The forty-seven sounds of the syllabary--

    _a_      _i_      _u_          _e (ye)_   _o_
    _ka_     _ki_     _ku_         _ke_       _ko_
    _sa_     _shi_    _su_         _se_       _so_
    _ta_     _chi_    _tsu_        _te_       _to_
    _na_     _ni_     _nu_         _ne_       _no_
    _ha_     _hi_     _f(h.w.)u_   _he_       _ho_
    _ma_     _mi_     _mu_         _me_       _mo_
    _ya_              _yu_                    _yo_
    _ra_     _ri_     _ru_         _re_       _ro_
    _wa_     _wi_                  _we_       _wo_

--were already recognized, and were represented by a sort of alphabet
composed of several hundreds of Chinese ideographs, each pronounced
exactly or approximately _sinice_--that is _japonico-sinice_, or
according to _on_ or Chinese sound. Thus a was represented by two
ideographs, 阿 (_a_ in Chinese) and 安 (_an_ in Chinese), _shi_ by
twenty-five characters, such as 志 (_chih_ in Chinese), 思 (_ssu_ in
Chinese), &c. The other sounds were represented by varying numbers of
characters. According to this system, _ame_ (heaven or rain) would
or might be written 安米, _tsuchi_ (soil) 都知 and so forth. A complete
list of these Chinese phonetic ideographs is given in the _Sôron_
(Introductory) volume of the Kogi.

A second method of using the ideographs was to employ them according to
their _kun_ (reading i.e. in pure Japanese), thus _utate_ (extremely)
was represented by 得田手, _chihahi_ (for _sachihafi_, bless) by 千羽日.
Sometimes two characters represented one sound, thus 嗚呼 for _a_, 五十
(_isozhi_) for _i_, 牛鳴, _ushi no naku_, ‘moo’ of cow, for _mu_. Some
sounds (_ku_, _ri_, _ru_, _ro_, _wa_) are not found thus symbolized,
that is, _japonicé_. A curious double character is 石花 for _se_, another
is 羊{蹄} (_hitsuzhi no ashi_) for _shi_. A third and very confused
script is exemplified in 還金 _kaherikomu_ (return), where _kaheri_ is
_kun_ and _komu_ (kon) is _on_, and 知三 _shirasamu_ (shall know), where
_shira_ is _kun_ modified grammatically, and _samu_ (_san_ = three) is
_on_ representing the inflexion.

Still more confusingly, an ideograph may be used with an _on_ (Chinese)
sound resembling a _kun_ (native) word, and the _kun_ word may be
employed, not in its natural sense, but as it were punningly, though
more often no quibble is intended. Thus 兼 of which the _on_ is _ken_,
may be used for the verbal termination _kemu_, as in 茢兼 (_karikemu_,
will have reaped), where 茢 is employed lexicographically as _kemu_, as
just explained. So 不有君 does not mean _kimi arazu_ (lord is not) but
_ari nakuni_, as there is not. Similar examples are _kaherikomu_ and
_shirasamu_ cited above. So 難 _nan_ (difficult) for _nani_, what?, {點}
_ten_ for _-temu_; 徳 _toku_ for _toko_, and so forth.

Or the Japanese reading of a character may be taken, but in a
signification different from its true meaning, thus 庭 _niha_, a court
or yard, for the particles _ni ha_, 玉 _tama_, jewel or pearl, for
_tamashii_, soul, or even 湯龜 _yu-game_ = water-tortoise for _yukame_ =
will go, or the combination 石二 = stone-two, which puzzled Shitagau so
sorely, and finally turned out to mean _made_ = until, to which may be
added the commonest of all 鴨 = _kamo_, a wild duck, used for _ka mo_,
an expression of mingled entreaty and doubt.

The above devices were no doubt resorted to partly to supply the place
of a syllabary, partly for purposes of abbreviation, the full writing
of long Japanese words with a Chinese character for each syllable being
found too laborious.

But characters are often also used in a punning or humorous way. Thus
二二 = 2 × 2 are employed to represent the syllable _shi_ (which means
4 in Japano-Chinese), but here is used phonetically to represent the
emphatic particle _shi_ or the syllable _shi_ merely. So 山上復有山 =
mountain 山 upon mountain to represent 出 _idzuru_, go forth, out, &c.,
三伏一向衣 = three-prostrations-one-regard-night, i.e. a moonlight night
(when one salutes the moon), 八十一 (81) as equivalent to _ku ku_, nine
times nine, part of the word _kukumeru_ (= _fukumeru_, hold in mouth,
imply), and so forth. Characters used otherwise than to express their
true meaning are called _kariji_, borrow-characters, i.e. characters
borrowed to signify some other meaning than their own. Characters used
in the orthodox manner are called _manaji_--true characters.

There are also _guji_, 具字 double characters used, where one would
suffice, thus 何物 for 何 _nani_. This is probably a mere embellishment.

Contracted script is not uncommon; thus we find 山下 for 山下出風 = _arashi_,
a violent wind (rushing down from the mountains).

Lastly, there are abbreviated characters--a full list of which is given
in the Kogi, together with a few characters peculiar to the Anthology
and contracted expressions such as _amori_ for _ame ori_, _Yamato naru_
for _Y. ni aru_, _haru sareba_ for _haru shi areba_, _chifu_ for _to
ifu_ (modern _tefu_ = _chō_ of Kyôto), and so forth.

The above system of scripts is known as Manyôgaki and is sometimes
imitated in modern productions as in a recently published play now
before me.

Texts preserved in such scripts could not fail to be corrupt or obscure
in parts. Not only from the difficulty of reading the ideographs when
these came to be translated into _kana_, but from the fact that the
manuscripts were often in _cursive_ character, easily misread and
miswritten by the copyists. The text of the Manyôshiu I have used is
throughout that of the Kogi, but I have not omitted in the notes to
the translations to give some attention to the various readings cited
in that work. By far the best discussion of these seems to be that
of Keichiu which with the Kogi is much superior in my opinion to the
commentary of either Mabuchi or Motowori[6]--the latter especially
appears to be lacking in critical acumen.

The following additional remarks on the script are important. According
to Amano Nobukage (died 1734), in the Manyô script the Chinese
characters are read _japonicé_ in four ways:--

1. _mana_, as 心 _kokoro_ (heart, mind, &c.), where single characters
are read as true Japanese words.

2. Where combined characters are read true, as 春霞 _harukasumi_
(spring-mist); 秋風 _aki-kaze_ (autumn-wind).

3. Where combined characters are read in full, but the meaning of
the whole is not the sum of the meanings of the parts, as 垣津{旗}
_kakitsubata_ (Iris laevigata)--the characters separately mean--_kaki_
(fence), _tsu_ (place), _hata_ (flag).

4. Where combined characters are read together as a whole, as 春鳥
_uguhisu_ (Cettia cantans), lit. spring-bird; 三五夜 _mochidzuki_
(full-moon), lit. three-five-night = fifteenth night of a lunar month,
when the moon is full.

To these categories must be added that of humorous combinations, thus
十六 (sixteen) = _shi shi_ (4 × 4), and is used for _shishi_ (flesh);
靑頭鷄 _kamo_ (wild-duck), lit. green-head-fowl.

In the Kogi text the characters are used in the following modes, all of
which are fully illustrated by examples in a section of the _sōron_ or
General Introduction to the Edition.

A. According to the _on_ or Chinese sound (Japano-Chinese).

    1. Full, as 阿 _a_, 伊 _i_; so in Chinese.

    2. Contracted, as 安 _a_, 印 _i_; in Chinese _an_, _in_.

B. According to the _kun_ (_yomi_) or Japanese reading.

    1. 天 _ame_ (heaven), 地 _tsuchi_ (earth), 大地 _ohotokoro_ (great
    place). Each character is here read with one of its ordinary
    Japanese pronunciations and meanings.

    2. Combined characters of similar meaning read as one word
    (Japanese)--明淸 _akirakeku_ (bright).

    3. Combined characters of different meaning read as one
    word--海士 _ama_ (fisherman), 蜻蛉 _akitsu_ [or _seirei_]

    4. The characters are read as = a Chinese translation of the
    Japanese word--行知所 _shiroshimeshi_ (govern).

    5. The character or combination is read according to an ancient
    meaning--不知 _isa_ (no, not so), 服 _hada_ (naked skin).

    6. The character is read specially--縵 _kadzura_ (chaplet), 棟
    _kura_ (saddle).

    7. The character is abbreviated--建 for 健, 已 for 起.

In addition the Kogi gives the following categories:--

_gikun_, combinations not literally translated into Japanese--玄{黄}
_ametsuchi_ (heaven and earth), lit. dark-blue (of sky) and
yellow-brown (of earth), 親親 _chichi-haha_ (parents, father and mother),
lit. love-love. A great many of these are given; many would scarcely
suggest the meaning of the combination; sometimes, as when 蓋 _futa_
(lid), is used to express 二 _futa_ (two), a word-play is involved.

_kariji_ or borrowed characters which have been already
exemplified. But one curious expression may be added, {喚}犬{追}馬鏡
_masokagami_ (true-pure-mirror), the characters mean call (or
bark?)-dog-follow-horse (_ma_) mirror; call-dog-follow is a humorous
(?) description of _ma_, meaning horse, but here used for the homophon
_ma_, true, εὐ, part of _ma so_, which has the same meaning.

Subjoined is the script of the text of Lay 118 which well exemplifies
the peculiarities of Manyôgaki. The columnar transliteration represents
the similar transliteration into syllabic _kana_ in the usual editions
inclusive of the Kogi.


[1] For a more complete account the grammars of Aston and Chamberlain
must be consulted.

[2] For the purposes of Old Japanese the grammatical nomenclature of
Aryan grammar seems to me misleading and I use it therefore as little
as possible.

[3] See _miru_ below.

[4] _tsu_ is usually taken as = complete, finished, but it may be =
_nu_ (be). Like _nu_ (_no_) it is used as a genitive postposition or
particle. See _infra_.

[5] So in _Sasagani no (koromo ni kakari, ware wo) tanomuru_
(Aston) the sentence is read, _S. ha waga koromo ni kakarite ware wo

[6] In the volume of translations the texts of the Manyôshiu and
Taketori are further considered and some account given of the various
editions of them published by the principal commentators.


     1. UTSU SEMI no. 虛蟬乃。
     2. YO [NO] HITO NAREBA. 世人有者。
     3. OHO KIMI no. 大王之。
     4. MI KOTO KASHIKOmi. 御命恐彌。
     5. shiki SHIMAno. 礒城島能。
     6. YAMATO [NO] KUNI no. 日本國乃。
     7. ISO[NO]KAMI. 石上。
     8. _Furu_ [NO] SATO ni. 振里爾。
     9. HIMO TOKAZU. 紐不解。
    10. MARONE WO SUREBA. 丸寐乎爲者。
    11. AGA KESERU. 吾衣有。
    12. KOROMO HA narenu. 服者奈禮奴。
    13. MIRUGOTO [NI]. 毎見。
    14. KOHI HA MASAREDO. 戀者雖益。
    15. IRO ni =ideba=. 色二山上復有山者。
    16. =hito= SHIRINUBEMI. 一可知美。
    17. FUYU [_no_] YO (NO). 各夜之。
    18. AKE _mo_ KANE_tsutsu_. 明毛不得呼鷄。
    19. =i mo= NEZU ni. 五十毋不宿二。
    20. ARE _ha_ so KOFUru. 吾齒曾戀流。
    21. IMO GA =tadaka= ni. 妹之直香仁。

Roman = Chinese phonetic.

Italic = Japanese phonetic.

=Clarendon= = _Kariji_ or rebus characters.

Small capitals = Japanese translation of characters.]

[Illustration: THE WORLD as known to the JAPANESE OF THE MYTHICAL ERA

(i.e. previous to the end of the 4th century after Christ. CHINA was
heard of towards the end of the mythical era under the name of GO.)]

[Illustration: kikedo akanu

shizen onkyô





Kusagusa no uta. Hatsuse no Asakura no miya ni amenoshita
shiroshimeshishi Sumeramikoto no mi-yo.


        Ko mo yo             1
      mi ko mochi
    fukushi mo yo
      fukushi mochi
        kono woka ni         5
      na tsumasu ko
        ihe norase
      na norasane
    Yamato no kuni ha       10
    are koso wore
    are koso mase
        a wo koso           15
    se to ha norame
    ihe wo mo na wo mo!

1 _mo yo_, interjectional phrase of mingled admiration and entreaty.

6 _na_, herbs. _ko_, girl, _ko_ in 1, 2 = basket or satchel.

7 _norase_, honour-causative imperative.

8 _norasane_, hortative form of honour-causative with particle _ne_; it
implies some degree of respect.

9 A _makura kotoba_ (m. k.) applied to _yama_ (Yamato).

12 _are_ = _ware_; _koso wore_, emphatic declarative of _woru_, be, be
in, at, &c.

13 Almost equivalent to 11 _oshinabete_ = _oshi nabikasete_, causing
all to acknowledge my power and protection.

16 _se_ = brother, husband, lover.

17 _na_ here and in 8 = name.

vv. 1-6 lead up to _ko_ the first climax; 7-14 to the second climax;
15-17 to the final climax. 1-6 furnish a good instance of the reversed
order of words in the Japanese sentence.

For _soramitsu_ see List m. k.

Takechi no Woka no miya ni amenoshita shiroshimeshishi Sumera mikoto no
mi yo.


Sumera mikoto no Kagu yama ni noborimashite kunimi shitamaheru toki mi
yomimaseru ohomi uta.

    Yamato ni ha             1
      mura yama aredo
    nobori-tachi             5
      kuni-mi wo sureba
      kuni hara ha
    keburi tachi-tatsu
      unabara ha
    kamome tachi-tatsu      10
      umashi kuni so
    Yamato no kuni ha!

6 The logical subject is, I the Mikado.

11 _so_ is, perhaps, oftener written _zo_.

For _Akitsushima_ see List m. k.


Sumeramikoto no Uchi no nu mi kari shitamaheru toki Nakachi Himemiko no
Hashihito no Muraji Oyu wo shite tatematsurase tamafu uta.

    Yasumishishi             1
      waga ohokimi no
    ashita ni ha
    yufube ni ha             5
    mi torashi no
      adzusa no yumi no
    nari hazu no
    oto su nari             10
    asa-kari ni
      ima tatasurashi
    yufu-kari ni
      ima tatasurashi
    mi torashi no           15
      adzusa no yumi no
    nari hazu no
    oto su nari!

      Tamakiharu             1
    Uchi no ohonu ni
      uma namete
    asa fumasuramu
    sono fukakusa nu.        5

6 _i_, a prefix of which the value is lost.

9 _nari_ here means sound, twang.

12 _tatasurashi_ = _tatsuramu_.

2 _Uchi_ may = _utsutsu_, or possibly _ude_, arm.

For _yasumishishi_, _mi torashi no_, _adzusa no yumi_ and _tamakiharu_
see List of m. k. The m. k. it must be remembered are epithets, or
expressions in the nature of epithets, only. Thus 7, 8 and 15, 16 are
simply double m. k. of _nari_, indeed _nari hazu no_ is almost another
m. k. of _oto_.

4 _fumasuramu_ = _fumamu_.


Sanuki no kuni Aya no kohori ni idemaseru toki Ikusa no Ohokimi no yama
wo mite yomitamaheru uta.

      Kasumitatsu            1
    nagaki haru hi no
      kure ni keru
    wadzuki mo shirazu
      murakimono             5
    kokoro wo itami
      nuye no tori
    uranage woreba
    kake no yoroshiku       10
      tohotsu kami
    waga ohokimi no
      idemashi no
    yama koshi no kaze no
      hitori woru           15
    waga koromode ni
      asa yohi ni
      masurawo to
    omoheru are mo          20
    tabi nishi areba
    tadzuki wo shirani
      Tsunu no ura no       25
    ama wotomera ga
      yakushiho no
    omohi so yakuru
    aga shita-gokoro.

    Yama koshi ni            1
    kaze wo tokizhi ni
      nuru yo ochizu
    ihe naru imo wo
    kakete shinubitsu.       5

In the _dai_ the _no_ after _Ohokimi_ is read with _yomi … uta_. In 3
and 22 _ni_ is rather a verbal form (_nu_) than a postposition.

8 _uranage_ = _uchi ni nageki_, inwardly, profoundly, lamenting.

10 _kake_ (_kakuru_) a verb of wide connotation, fundamentally, hang on
or over, suspend, put to, forth or on, _[kotoba wo] kake_, utter, as

18 _kaherahinureba_ = _kaherinureba_.

19 _masurawo_ is said to be _ma-ara shi-wo_, right-bold-man, or better
(more grammatically) _masa_ (or _masu_)_-ara-wo_, which has the same

22 _shi_ is a particle of emphasis.

23 _omohi-yaru_, thought-send-away, get rid of (unpleasing) thoughts;
_omohi_, common throughout the Lays, means think, think affectionately
or regretfully of, &c.

3 _nuru yo ochizu_, without missing a sleeping night.

5 _kakete_ = _kokoro ni kakete_, bearing in mind. _shinubu_ is to love,
yearn for, regret. _omohi_ is the more general term, _shinubu_ more
special, _shitahi_, affection, _kofuru_, _kohi_, &c., love of men and
women. But these connotations are not strictly adhered to.


Nakachi no Ohoye no [Afumi no miya ni shiroshimeshishi Sumera mikoto]
Mitsu yama no mi uta.

      Takayama ha            1
    Unebi wo yeshi to
      Miminashi to
      kamiyo yori            5
    kaku narurashi
      inishihe mo
    shika nare koso
      utsusemi mo
    Tsuma wo                10

    Takayama to              1
    Miminashi yama to
      ahishi toki
    tachite mi ni koshi
    Inami kuni hara.         5

In the _dai_ _… meshishi_ is the participial past form of _mesu_.
Care must be taken to distinguish between this _shi_ and such a
terminational _shi_ as _narurashi_ (6), _koshi_ (4).

1 Read _Kaguyama ha Unebi wo yeshi to_ (_te_) _Miminashi to ahi

4 Observe the past form in _ki_.

6 _narurashi_ = _naramu_, nearly.

7 _inishi-he_ = passed away period, i.e. ancient.

10 A three-syllable verse.

11 supply _mono nari_.

1 A mistake in the script, it should be _Kaguyama_.

4 _mi_, see.

Afumi no Ohotsu no miya ni amenoshita shiroshimeshishi Sumera mikoto no
mi yo.


Sumera mikoto uchi no ohomahetsu kimi Fujihara no Asomi ni
mikotonori shite haru yama no hana no iro aki yama no momichi no
nihohi wo arasohashimetamafu toki Nukata no Ohokimi no uta mochite
kotowaritamaheru sono uta.

      Fuyukomori             1
    haru sarikureba
    tori mo ki-nakinu
      sakazarishi            5
    hana mo sakeredo
      yama mo shimi
    irite mo [kikazu]
      kusa fukami
    torite mo mizu          10
      aki yama no
    ko no ha wo mite ha
      momitsu wo ba
    torite so shinubu
      awoki wo ba           15
    okite so nageku
      soko shi tanushi
    aki yama are ha!

4 _ki-nakinu_, come-sing-finished, the past in _nu_.

6, 7 Read as if _hana mo sake yama mo shigedo_.

10 _toramu to mo mizu_.

12 _ko_ = _ki_, tree.

13 _momitsu_, _momi_, is red.

16 _nageku_, _naga-iki_, sigh, with pleasure or pain.

17 _tanushi_, _tanoshiki_.

18 _are_, _ware_.

For _fuyukomori_ see List m. k.


Nukata no Ohokimi no Afumi no kuni ni kudaritamaheru toki yomitamaheru

    Miwa no yama
    Nara no yama no
      yama no ma yu          5
    i-kakuru made
      michi no kuma
    i-tsumoru made ni
      tsubaraka ni
    mitsutsu yukamu wo      10
      shibashiba mo
    misakamu yama wo
      kokoro naku
        kumo no
    kakusafubeshi ya.       15

6 _kakuru_, to be hidden.

10 _yukamu [mono] wo [omohite]_.

15 _kakusubeshi_.

For _umasake_ and _awoniyoshi_ see List m. k.


Asuka no Kiyomihara no miya ni amenoshita shiroshimeshishi Sumera
mikoto no mi-yo.


Sumera mikoto no mi-yomimaseru ohomi uta.

      Mi-Yoshinu no          1
    Mikane no take ni
      tokinaku so
    yuki ha furikeru
      ma naku so             5
    ame ha furikeru
      sono yuki no
    tokinaki ga goto
      sono ame no
    ma naki ga goto         10
      kuma mo ochizu
    omohitsutsu so kuru
    sono yama michi wo.

1 _mi_ = _ma_, true, excellent, almost Greek εὐ-.

13 Read _michi wo_ with _kuru_.

Fujihara no miya ni amenoshita shiroshimeshishi Sumera mikoto no mi-yo.


Afumi no aretaru miyako wo yuku Kakinomoto no Asomi Hitomaro ga yomeru

      Tamatasuki             1
    Unebi no yama no
      kashihara no
    hizhiri no mi-yo yo
      aremashishi            5
    kami no kotogoto
    iya tsugitsugi ni
    shiroshimeshishi wo     10
    Yamato wo okite
    Nara yama koyete
      ikasama ni            15
    omohoshikeme ka
    hina ni ha aranedo
    Afumi no kuni no        20
      sasanami no
    ohotsu no miya ni
      Sumerogi no           25
    kami no mikoto no
      ohomiya ha
    koko to kikedomo
      ohotono ha
    kaku to ihedomo         30
    haru hi ka kireru
      natsu kusa ka
    shigeru narinuru
      momoshiki no          35
    ohomiya tokoro
    mireba kanashi mo.

      Sasanami no            1
    Shiga no Karasaki
      sakiku aredo
    ohomiya hito no
      fune machikanetsu.     5

      Sasanami no            1
    Shiga no Ohowada
      yodomu tomo
    mukashi no hito ni
    mata mo ahame ya mo.     5

See vol. of translations.

The m. k. apply to the words following them, but (1) to _Une[bi]_, (19)
to _aha_ of _Afumi_.

For _tamatasuki_, _tsuganokino_, _soramitsu_, _awoniyoshi_,
_amazakaru_, _ihabashiru_, _sasanami_, _kasumitatsu_, _momoshiki_ see
List m. k.

2 Note the jingle _Karasaki_ | _sakiku_.


Yoshinu no miya ni idemaseru toki Hitomaro ga yomeru uta (futatsu)
kaheshi uta (hitotsu).

      Yasumishishi           1
    waga ohokimi no
    amenoshita ni
      kuni ha shimo          5
    saha ni aredomo
      yama kaha no
    kiyoki Kafuchi to
    Yoshinu no kuni no      10
      hana chirafu
    Akidzu no nu he ni
      miya hashira
      momoshikino           15
    ohomiya hito ha
      fune namete
    asa kaha watari
      fune kihohi
    yufu kaha watari        20
      kono kaha no
    tayuru koto naku
      kono yama no
    iya takakarashi
      ochi-tagitsu          25
    taki no miyako ha
    miredo akanu ka mo.

      miredo akanu           1
    Yoshinu no kaha no
      toko name no
    tayurukoto naku
    mata kaherimimu.         5

3 _kikoshiwosu_; _wosu_ is to eat; _kikoshi_, honour-causative
intensitive of _kiku_, hear, have sensation of, taste, judge, &c.; the
whole = _kikoshimesu_, to be supreme over, govern. The idea, perhaps,
was that of the chief having complete control of all the wealth of the
tribe originally for the subsistence of himself and his _gesyth_.

5 _shi mo_, a pair of emphatic particles. _Shi_ perhaps was originally
this or that, or this or that self (or it may be root of _suru_, to do,
act); _mo_ is merely, also, too. _Shi mo_ almost = _naho_.

6 _saha_, abundant. The homonym _saha_ also means a marshy
valley-bottom, in Japano-Chinese _taku_. Hence by a rebus-wise use of
the Chinese character _taku_ continued with _san_ mountain (_yama_)
came to be _takusan_, a common word for much, many.

11 For _hana-chiru_.

19 _kihohi_ = _kisohi_ (_gihohi_).

26 _taki_ or _tagi_ = cascade, rapids, descriptive of neighbourhood of
the _miyako_.

27 _ka mo_, an elliptical expression, _omofu_ being understood, almost
= _mo gana_.

For _yasumishishi_, _mikokorowo_, _momoshikino_ see List m. k.


      Yasumishishi           1
    Waga ohokimi
      kamu nagara
    kamusabisesu to
      Yoshinu-gaha           5
    tagitsu Kafuchi ni
      takatono wo
    kunimi wo sureba        10
    awokaki yama
      yamatsumi no
    matsuru mitsugi to
      haru he ha            15
    hana kazashi mochi
      aki tateba
    momichi-ba kazashi
      Yufu-gaha no
        kami mo             20
      ohomike ni
    tsukahematsuru to
      kamitsu se ni
    u-kaha wo tate
      shimotsu se ni        25
    sade sashiwatashi
      yama kaha mo
    yorite tsukafuru
    kami no mi-yo ka mo.

      Yama kaha mo           1
    yorite tsukafuru
        kamu nagara
      tagitsu Kafuchi ni
      funade sesu ka mo!     5

3 _kamu_ = _kami_.

4 _kamu sabi sesu_, _sabi_ is viewed in the Kogi as contraction of
_shika-buri_. More likely _sabi_ is connected with _sabu_ (_shiki_) and

8 _takashiri …_, to exercise high rule.

13 _yamatsumi_, compare _watatsumi_ (_yama-wata-tsu [ka] mi_), mountain
gods. I prefer this to Dr. Florenz’s etymology (F. I. 39).

16 _kazashi_ = _kami-sashi_, stick in, or wear on, the hair.

24 to set up a cormorant-stream, i.e. provide cormorants and their

5 _desesu_ = _idasu_, i.e. _funade wo seshimu_.

The m. k. (11) applies rather to _yama_.

For _yasumishishi_ and _tatanadzuku_ see List m. k.


Karu no miko no Aki no nu ni yadorimaseru toki Hitomaro ga yomeru uta.

      Yasumishishi           1
    waga ohokimi
      hi no miko
      kamu nagara            5
    kamusabisesu to
    miyako wo okite
    Hatsuse no yama ha      10
    arayama michi wo
      iha ga ne no
    shimoto oshinabe
      sakatorino            15
    asa koyemashite
    yufu sarikureba
      mi-yaki furu
    Aki no ohonu ni         20
    shinu ni oshinabe
    inishihe ’mohoshite.    25

1, 2, 3 are introductory to _hi no miko_.

12 Supply _yukuni_ after _wo_.

14 _shimoto_, brushwood, bushes.

14, 22 _oshinabe_ = _oshinabikasu_, push-bend-down. _shinu_ =
_shinaheru_, intensifies the meaning; _shinu_, _shinubu_, _shinaheru_,
_shinahi_, _shinadaru_ are all etymologically and logically connected.

19 _mi_ = _utsukushii_.

21 A tall full-spiked grass, probably an Arundo or Miscanthus.

22 _shita ni oshi-fuse-nabikasu sama_, _shinu_ connected with
_shinahe_, _shinubu._

25 _omohoshite._

The m. k. (9) applies to _Hatsuse no yama_.

For _yasumishishi_, _takahikaru_, _komorikuno_, _makitatsu_,
_sakatorino_, _kagirohino_, _kusamakura_ see List m. k.



Fujihara no miya tsukuri ni tateru tami no yomeru uta.

      Yasumishishi           1
    waga ohokimi
      hi no miko
    arataheno                5
    Fujihara ga uhe ni
      wosu kuni wo
    meshitamahamu to
      ohomiya ha
    takashirasamu to        10
      kamu nagara
    omohosu nabe ni
      ame tsuchi mo
    yorite are koso
      ihabashiru            15
    Afumi no kuni no
    Tanakami yama
    hi no tsumade wo        20
    yaso Uji-kaha ni
    ukabe nagasere
      so wo toru to         25
    sawaku mi-tami mo
      ihe wasure
    mi wo tanashirani
      kamo zhi mono
    midzu ni uki-wite       30
      aga tsukuru
    hi no mikado ni
      shiranu kuni
    yori Kose-ji yori
      waga kuni ha          35
    tokoyo ni naramu
      fumi oheru
    ayashiki kame mo
      arata yo to
    Idzumi no kaha ha       40
      mochi koseru
    maki no tsumade wo
    ikada ni tsukuri
      nobosuramu            45
    isohaku mireba
    kamu nagara narashi.

8 _meshi_, _mishi_ (_miru_).

8, 10 Supply _omote_ after _to_.

10 Equivalent to _shiroshimesu_ = here, to give high command for.

12 _omohosu nabe_; _nabe_ has force of _tsurete_ (together with).

12, 13, 14 to be read together.

14 _are_ = _areba_.

25 _so_ = _sore_ (_tsumade_).

26 Or _sawagu_.

31 _aga_ = _tami_.

34 The meaning is made clear by passing to v. 40, and reading the
intervening verses as a parenthesis.

47 _narashi_, I take = _naramu_, nearly.

The m. k. (5) applies to _Fuji[hara]_, (17) to _Ta[nakami]_, (43) to
_i[kada]_; _i_ = 50.

For _yasumishishi_, _takahikaru,_ _arataheno_, _ihabashiru_,
_koromodeno_, _makisaku_, _mononofuno_, _tamamonasu_, _momotarazu_ see
List m. k.


Fujihara no miya no mi-wi no uta.

      Yasumishishi           1
    waga ohokimi
      hi no miko
      arataheno              5
    Fujiwi ga hara ni
      Haniyasu no
    tsutsumi no uhe ni      10
      Yamato no
    awokagu yama ha
      hi no tate no         15
    ohomikado ni
      awoyama to
    shimi sabitateni
      Unebi no
    kono midzu yama ha      20
      hi no yoko no
    ohomikado ni
      midzu yama to
    yama sabi-imasu
      Miminashi no          25
    awosuga yama ha
      sotomo no
    ohomikado ni
      yoroshi nabe
    kamusabitateru          30
    Yoshinu no yama ha
      kagetomo ni
    ohomikado yo
      kumowi ni so          35
    tohoku arikeru
      takashiru ya
    ame no mi kage
    hi no mi kage no        40
      midzu koso ha
    tokiha ni arame
    mi-wi no mashi midzu.

      Fujihara no            1
    ohomiya tsukahe
      aretsugu ya
    wotome ga tomo ha
    tomoshiki ro ka mo.      5

4 _hi no miko_ is the Queen-Regnant Jito, the subject of all the verbs
down to _tamaheba_ (v. 12).

15 _hi no tate_ must here mean the East, and _hi no yoko_ (21), lit.
the noon-sun direction, must mean the West.

27 _sotomo_, hinder, shady, or north face.

33 _kagetomo_, light or south face. The exact distribution, however,
of the meaning of these terms is not quite clear; _hinotate_, _hi no
yoke_, _sotomo_, _kagetomo_.

37, 39 I take the _ya_ as interjectional.

39 _ame-shiru_, heaven-rule.

40 I take the _no_ as connecting 37-40 with _midzu_ in 41. The text
is not easy, and the Kogi seems to me rather to shirk the main

3 _are-tsugu_ = _arahare-tsugu_, be manifest, i.e. follow in succession.

For _yasumishishi_, _takahikaru_, _arataheno_, _ameshiruya_ see List m.

[Nara no miya ni amenoshita shiroshimeshishi Sumera mikoto no mi-yo.]


[Aru hon] Fujihara no miyako yori Nara no miya ni utsurimaseru toki no

      Ohokimi no             1
    mikoto kashikomi
      ihe wo oki
      komorikuno             5
    Hatsuse no kaha ni
      fune ukete
    aga yuku kaha no
      kaha kuma no
    yaso kuma ochizu        10
      yorodzu tabi
    michi yuki-kurashi
      awoniyoshi            15
    Nara no miyako no
      Saho-gaha ni
    i-yuki itarite
      aga netaru
    koromo no uhe yo        20
      asadzuku yo
    sayaka ni mireba
      tahe no ho ni
    yoru no shimo furi
      ihatoko to            25
    kaha no hikohori
      sayuru yo wo
    yasumu koto naku
    tsukureru ihe ni        30
      chi yo made ni
    imasamu kimi to
    are mo kayohamu.

      Awoniyoshi             1
    Nara no ihe ni ha
      yorodzu yo ni
    are mo kayohamu
      wasuru to ’mofu na.    5

32 _kimi_ is the friend who has removed to the new capital.

5 _omofu_.

For _komorikuno_, _tamahokono_, _awoniyoshi_ see List m. k.


Shitashimi uta. Asuka no Kiyomihara no miya ni amenoshita
shiroshimeshishi Sumera mikoto no mi-yo.

16, 17

Hitomaro ga Ihami no kuni yori me ni wakarete mawinoboru toki uta


      Ihami no mi            1
    Tsunu no ura-mi wo
      ura nashi to
    hito koso mirame
      katanashi to           5
    hito koso mirame
    ura ha naku tomo
    kata ha naku tomo       10
    umi he wo sashite
      Watadzu no
    ariso no uhe ni
      ka-awo naru           15
    tamamo okitsu mo
      asa ha furu
    kaze koso ki-yose
      yufu ha furu
    nami koso ki-yose       20
      nami no muta
    ka yori kaku yoru
    yori-neshi imo wo
      tsuyushimono          25
    okite shi kureba
      kono michi no
    yasokuma goto ni
      yorodzu tabi
    kaherimi suredo         30
      iya toho ni
    sato ha sakarinu
      iya taka ni
    yama wa koyekinu
      natsukusano           35
    omohishi nayete
    imo ga kado mimu
    nabike kono yama.

      Ihami no ya            1
    Takatsunu yama no
      ko no ma yori
    aga furu sode wo
    imo mitsuramu ka.        5

      Sasa ga ha ha          1
    mi-yama mo saya ni
    are ha imo omofu
      wakare kinureba.       5

1 _mi_, _umi_, sea.

2 _mi_, neighbourhood, tract.

5 _kata_, land dry at low tide.

21 with the motion of the waves.

28 _yaso_, lit. 80 = many, all.

35 Read with _nayete_.

39 _nabike_, has imperative meaning.

3 _ko_ is tree.

5 _mitsuramu_ = shall have seen?

2 _mi-yama_ = great hills. _saya ni_, murmurously.

5 Read before 4. The m. k. (35) applies to _nayete_.

For _isanatori_, _tamamonasu_, _tsuyushimono_, _natsukusano_ see List
m. k.


    Tsunusahafu              1
    Ihami no umi no
    Kara no saki naru
      ikuri ni so            5
    fukamiru ofuru
      ariso ni so
    tamamo ha ofuru
    nabiki-neshi ko wo      10
    fukamete ’mohedo
      sa-neshi yo ha
    ikuda mo arazu
      hafu-tsuta no         15
    wakareshi kureba
    kokoro wo itami
    kaherimi suredo         20
    Watari no yama no
      momiji-ba no
    chiri no midari ni
      imo ga sode           25
    saya ni mo miyezu
    Yakami no yama no
      kumo ma yori
    watarafu tsuki no       30
    kakurohi kitsutsu
    irihi sashinure
      masurawo to           35
    omoheru are no
    koromo no sode ha
    tohorite nurenu.

      Awo koma ga            1
    agaki wo hayami
      kumowi ni so
    imo ga atari wo
    sugite ki ni keru.       5

      Akiyama ni             1
    chirafu momiji-ba
      shimashiku ha
    na chiri-midari so
    imo ga atari mimu.       5

1 ivy-grown.

3 to utter words indistinctly. There is a word-fancy here, Kara being
the name of a division of Korea. At this period of Japanese history
Korean immigrations were frequent. See Aston’s _Nihongi_.

5 _ikuri_ = black mud at bottom of sea or pool. (K. 285, LXXIV, N. 269,
where it is translated ‘rocks’.)

6 _fukamiru_ = deep-sea _miru_ (a kind of sea-weed).

11, 12 A word-fancy on _fukamiru_ and _fukamete_.

15 Parting is likened to stripping ivy from its rock.

16, 17 A combination of heart and liver to express mind and feeling.

27 The m. k. _tsumagomoru_ (wife-secluding) applied to the homophon
_ya_ (house) of Yakami cannot be rendered.

31 Must be read parenthetically.

The m. k. (1) is applied to _Iha[mi]_, of (33) to _hi_.

For _tsunusahafu_, _kotosaheku_, _tamamonasu_, _fukamiruno_,
_kimomukafu_, _ohobuneno_, _amatsutafu_, _shikitaheno_ see List m. k.


Afumi no Ohotsu no miya ni amenoshita shiroshimeshishi Sumera mikoto no


Sumera mikoto kamuagarimaseru toki wominame ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Utsusemi shi           1
    kami ni taheneba
    asa nageku kimi
      hanare-wite            5
    aga kofuru kimi
      tama naraba
    te ni maki-mochite
      kinu naraba
    nuku toki mo naku       10
      aga kohimu
    kimi so kiso no yo
    ime ni miyetsuru.

There are no m. k.

1 _shi_ is the usual emphatic or slightly illative form-word.
_Utsusemi_, _utsusomi_ = _utsutsu_ or _wotsutsu mi_.

2 _taheneba_, _taheru_, be able to, capable of, &c.

4 For _asa_, _mawi_ may be read.

13 Observe force of _tsuru_ implying that the vision is still in part
existent, unforgotten.

12 _kiso_ = _kisu_ = _sakujitsu_.

For _utsusemi_ see List m. k.


Sumera mikoto no oho-araki no toki no uta yotsu [sono uchi] Ohokisaki
no mi-uta hitotsu.

      Isanatori              1
    Afumi no umi wo
      oki sakete
    kogi-kuru fune
      he tsukite             5
    kogi-kuru fune
      okitsu kai
    itaku na hane so
      hetsu kai
    itaku na hane so        10
    tsuma no mikoto no
    omofu tori tatsu.

12 _tsuma_ = _otto_.

1-5 are introductory, 6-10 hortatory, 11-13 give the motive, 13 being
the climax.

For _isanatori_ and _wakakusano_ see List m. k.


Yamashina no mi-sasagi yori agareru toki Nukata no Ohokimi yomitamaheru
uta hitotsu.

      Yasumishishi           1
    wago ohokimi no
      kashikoki ya
    omi-haka tsukafuru
      Yamashina              5
    Kagami no yama ni
      yoru ha mo
    yo no kotogoto
      hiru ha mo
    hi no kotogoto          10
      ne nomi wo
    nakitsutsu arite ya
      momoshiki no
    ohomiya hito ha
    yuki wakarenamu.        15

2 _wago_ = _waga_.

3 _ya_ = _yo_.

4 Read this line in connexion with 13, 14, 15.

For _yasumishishi_ and _momoshiki_ see List m. k.

Asuka no Kiyomihara no miya ni amenoshita shiroshimeshishi Sumera
mikoto no mi-yo.


Sumera mikoto no kamuagarimaseru toki Ohokisaki no yomimaseru mi-uta

      Yasumishishi           1
    waga ohokimi no
      yufu sareba
      akekureba              5
      Kamiwoka no
    yama no momichi wo
      kefu mo ka mo
    tohitamahamashi         10
      asu mo ka mo
      sono yama wo
    furisake mitsutsu
      yufu sareba           15
    aya ni kanashimi
    urasabi kurashi
    koromo no sode ha       20
    hiru toki mo nashi.

There are pauses after each of the forms in _rashi_ and _mashi_.

4 _meshi_ = _mishi_, hon. caus.

1-12 form an introduction to 13 ff.

For _yasumishishi_ and _arataheno_ see List m. k.

Fujihara no miya ni amenoshita shiroshimeshishi Sumera mikoto no mi-yo.


Hinami no miko no mikoto no araki no miya no toki Hitomaro ga yomeru
uta hitotsu.

      Ame tsuchi no          1
    hazhime no toki shi
    ama no kahara ni
      yahoyorodzu            5
    chi yorodzu kami no
    tsudohi imashite
      kamu agachi
    agachi shi toki ni      10
    Hirume no mikoto
      ame wo ba
    shiroshimesu to
      Ashihara no           15
    Midzuho no kuni wo
      ame tsuchi no
    yori-ahi no kihami
    kami no mikoto to       20
    ya he kaki wakete
      kami kudari
    imase matsurishi
      takahikaru            25
    hi no miko ha
      Asuka no
    Kiyomi no miya ni
      kamu nagara
    futoshikimashite        30
      Sumerogi no
    shikimasu kuni to
      ama no hara
    ihato wo hiraki
      kamu nobori           35
    nobori imashinu
      waga ohokimi
    miko no mikoto no
    shiroshimeshiseba       40
      haru hana no
    tafutokaramu to
      mochi-tsuki no
    tatahashikemu to
      amenoshita            45
    yomo no hito no
    omohi tanomite
    afugite matsu ni        50
      ikasama ni
    omohoshimese ka
    Mayumi no woka ni
      miya hashira          55
    futoshiki imashi
      mi araka no
      asa goto ni
    mi koto tohasazu        60
      tsuki-hi no
    maneku narinure
      soko yuwe ni
    miko no miyabito
    yuku-he shirazu mo!     65

5 _yaho_, eight hundred, i.e. countless.

9 _agachi_ = _wakachi_ (_tsu_).

18 _kihami_, in sense of _kagiri_, extent.

46 _yomo_, the four quarters, in or from every quarter.

53 _tsuremonaki_, alone, unattended.

57 _mi araka_ seems to mean here a new royal palace.

60 _mi koto_, royal words or commands. _tohasazu_; _tohasu_ = _tofu_,
converse, speak with.

62 _maneku_ = many.

Line 23 refers to _Ninigi no mikoto_, line 30 to _Temmu tennô_, 37
_ohokimi_ is _Hinami no miko_ (see XIX, notes).

For _hisakata_, _amakumono_, _takahikaru_, _ohobuneno_, _amatsumidzu_
see List m. k.


[Kahashima no miko no araki no miya no toki] Hitomaro ga Hatsusebe no
hime miko to [Osakabe no miko] tatematsureru uta hitotsu.

      Tobutorino             1
    Asuka no kaha no
      kamitsu se ni
    ofuru tamamo ha
      shimotsu se ni         5
    ka yori kaku yori
    tsuma no mikoto no      10
    niki-hada sura wo
    mi ni sohe-neneba
      nubatamano            15
    yo toko mo aruramu
      soko yuwe ni
      kedashiku mo
    afu ya to ’mohoshite    20
    Wochi no ohonu no
      asa tsuyu ni
    tamamo ha hidzuchi
      yufu-giri ni          25
    koromo ha nurete
    tabi-ne ka mo suru
    ahanu kimi yuwe.

6 _furafu_ = _furu_.

9 = _nabiku_.

10 _tsuma_, karizhi for _otto_.

11 _nikihada_ = _nikoyaka_, _yaharaku naru hada_.

16 _aruramu_ = _areru_, to waste, desolate.

19 _kedashiku_ = _moshi_.

For _tobutorino_, _tamamonasu_, _tatanadzuku_, _tsurugitachi_,
_nubatamano_, _tamatareno_, _kusamakura_ see List m. k.


Takechi no miko no mikoto no Kinohe no araki no miya no toki Hitomaro
ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Kakemaku mo            1
    yuyushiki ka mo
      ihamaku mo
    aya ni kashikoki
      Asuka no             5
    Makami no hara ni
    amatsu mikado wo
      kashikoku mo
    sadame-tamahite         10
      kamusabu to
    iha kakurimasu
    waga ohokimi no
      kikoshimesu           15
    sotomo no kuni no
    Fuhayama koyete
    Wazami ga hara no       20
      kari-miya ni
    amori imashite
      wosu-kuni wo          25
    sadame-tamafu to
    Adzuma no kuni no
      mi ikusa wo
    meshitamahite           30
    hito wo yahase to
    kuni wo osame to
      miko nagara           35
      ohomi mi ni
    tachi tori-obashi
      ohomi te ni
    yumi tori-motashite     40
      mi ikusa wo
    tsutsumi no oto ha
      ikatsuchi no          45
    kowe wo kiku made
    kuda no oto mo
    tora ka hoyuru to       50
      moro hito no
    obiyuru made ni
    hata no nabiki ha
      fuyukomori            55
    haru sarikureba
      nu goto ni
    tsukite aru hi no
      kaze no muta
    nabiku ga gotoku        60
    yu hazu no sawaki
      mi yuki
    fuyu no hayashi ni      65
      tsumushi ka mo
    i-maki wataru to
      omofu made
    kiki no kashikoku
      hiki-hanatsu          70
    ya no shigekeku
      ohoyuki no
    midarete kitare
    tachi-mukahishi mo      75
      tsuyu shimo no
    kenaba kesubeku
      yukutori no
    arasofu hashi ni
      Watarahi no           80
    ihahi no miya yu
      kamu kaze ni
      amakumo wo
    hinomemomisezu          85
      tokoyami ni
    Midzuho no kuni wo
      kamu nagara           90
    futoshiki imashi[te]
    waga ohokimi no
    mawoshi tamaheba        95
      yorodzu yo ni
    shikashi mo aramu to
    sakayuru toki ni
      waga ohokimi         100
    miko no mikado wo
      kamu miya ni
    yosohi matsurite
    mikado no hito mo      105
    asa koromo kite
      Haniyasu no
    mikado no hara ni
      akanesasu            110
    hi no kotogoto
      shishi zhi mono
    ihahi fushitsutsu
    yufuhe ni nareba       115
      ohotono wo
    furisake mitsutsu
    ihahi motohori
      samorahedo           120
    samorahi kanete
      nageki mo
    imada suginu ni        125
      omohi mo
    imada tsukineba
    Kudara no hara yu
      kamu hafuri          130
    hafuri-i mashite
    Kinohe no miya wo
      toko miya to
    sadame-matsurite       135
      kamu nagara
    waga ohokimi no
      yorodzu yo to        140
    Kagu yama no miya
      yorodzu yo ni
    sugimu to ’mohe ya     145
      ame no goto
    furisake mitsutsu
    kakete shinubamu
    kashikokaredomo!       150

      Hisakata no            1
    ame shirashinuru
      kimi yuwe ni
    tsuki hi mo shirani
    kohi-wataru ka mo!       5

      Haniyasu no            1
    ike no tsutsumi no
      komorinu no
    yukuhe wo shirani
    toneri ha madofu!        5

1 _kakemaku_ = _kakemu_ (_koto_), about to utter.

5 _ihamaku_ = _ihemu_ (_koto_), about to say.

8 _amatsu mikado_, heavenly palace, tomb or mortuary chapel or barrow
of Temmu at Ohouchi (N. II. 387).

14 _ohokimi_ = Temmu.

16 _sotomo_, outer or back face, i.e. north (Mino).

19 _komatsurugi_ is m. k. of Wa(zami).

22 _amori_, _ama ori_, descend from heaven.

27 The m. k. applies to A(dzuma).

35 The _miko_ is Takechi.

36 _maki_ = _makase_, charge with.

37 _ohomi mi_, great self.

42 Pause at end of this line.

59 under force of the wind.

60 Another pause.

62 _yumi no hadzu_.

66 _ka_ = _kaze_.

69 Another pause.

73 Pause.

84 Read this line after 86.

88 Pause, but taken as a sort of pivot, may be connected with _Midzuho
no kuni_ in the next line.

90 A god, as god.

93 _ohokimi_ is Jitô.

95 The indirect object of _mawoshi …_ is not expressed, it is Jitô (A.D.

98 A quibble is seen by some commentators in _yufu_ (_ifu_).

101 _miko no mikado_, the mortuary chapel of Takechi.

102 _kamu miya_, as a god-shrine.

105 the watchers.

108-9 The _hara_ before the _Kagu yama no miya_ (143).

116 _ohotono_, the _mikado_ already mentioned.

129 _yu_ = _yori_.

130 _hafuri_, officials at funerals and interments; _hafuru_, to
conduct obsequies.

132 m. k. of Ki[nohe].

137 pause.

139 _ohokimi_ must be Takechi.

142 _tsukurishi_.

145 would outlast, they think belike.

149 _[kokoro ni] kakete._

150 Read before 148.

The syntax of this lay is not always clear. The _Kogi_ in its explanation
does not refer to Jitô, and almost seems to regard the _mawoshi_ of 95 as
addressed to Temmu.

For _hisakatano_, _yasumishishi_, _komatsurugi_, _toriganaku_,
_chihayaburu_, _fuyukomori_, _tsuyushimono_, _yukatorino_, _yufuhanano_,
_shirotaheno_, _akanesasu_, _nubatamano_, _udzuranasu_, _harutorino_,
_kotosaheku_, _asamoyoshi_, _tamatasuki_ see List m. k.



Yuge no miko no sugimaseru toki Okisome no Adzuma-hito ga yomeru uta

    Yasumishishi             1
      waga ohokimi
      hi no miko
      hisakatano             5
    ama tsu miya ni
      kamu nagara
    kami to imaseba,
      soko wo shi mo
    aya ni kashikomi        10
      hiru ha mo
      hi no kotogoto
        yoru ha mo
      yo no kotogoto
    fushi-wi nagekedo       15
    aki-taranu ka mo!

    ohokimi ha               1
    kami nishimaseba
    iho he ga shita ni
    kakuri-tamahinu!         5

4 _iho he_, 500 folds, countless folds or layers; _shita_ = _ura_, within
or behind.

For _yasumishishi_, _takahikaru_, _hisakatano_, _amakumono_ see List m. k.


Asuka no himemiko no Kinohe no araki no miya no toki Hitomaro ga yomeru
uta hitotsu.

    Tobutorino               1
    Asuka no kaha no
      kamitsu se ni
    iha-hashi watari
      shimotsu se ni         5
    uchi-hashi watasu
      ihahashi ni
      tamamo mo so
    tayureba ofuru          10
      uchi-hashi ni
      kahamo mo so
    karureba hayaru
      nani shi ka mo        15
    waga ohokimi no
    tamamo no gotoku
    kahamo no gotoku        20
    yoroshiki kimi ga
      asa miya wo
    wasuretamafu ya
      yufu miya wo          25
    somukitamafu ya
      utsusomi to
    omohishi toki ni
      haru he ha
    hana wori-kazashi       30
      aki tateba
    momiji-ba kazashi
    sode tadzusahari
      kagaminasu            35
    miredomo akani
      mochi-dzuki no
    iya medzurashimi
    kimi to tokidoki        40
    Kinohe no miya wo
      toko miya to          45
    me koto mo tahenu
      soko wo shi mo
    aya ni kanashimi        50
      nuyetori no
    kayohasu kimi ga
      natsukusano           55
    omohishi nayete
    ka yuki kaku yuki
    tayutafu mireba         60
    kokoro mo arazu
      soko yuwe ni
    semusube shirani
      oto nomi wo           65
    na nomi mo tayezu
      ame tsuchi no
    iya tohonagaku
      shinubi yukamu
    mi-na ni kakaseru       70
    yorodzu yo made ni
    waga ohokimi no
    katami ni koko wo.      75

vv. 1-14 compare the Princess with the _mo_ and hint at her death, the
water-weeds will be renewed in due course, but she will not come back
to life; 15 is best understood by being read in connexion with 24;
16-21 describe the grace of the Princess; 22-26 suggest the fault of
the Prince which interrupted the relations of the pair; 27-42 describe
the happiness of the pair during the Princess’ life; 43-60 picture the
grief of the Prince at her loss, and 61 to end add the reflections of
the poet.

The m. k. (1) applies to Asu[ka], of (43) to Ki[nohe], of (47) to
_me_ (taken as contraction of _mure_), of (55) to _nayete_.

For _tobutorino_, _utsusomi_, _shikitaheno_, _kagaminasu_, _mikemukafu_,
_ajisahafu_, _asatorino_, _natsukusano_, _yufudzudzuno_, _ohobuneno_
see List m. k.


Hitomaro ga me no mi-makarishi nochi kanashimi yomeru uta futatsu.

      Amatobuya              1
    Karu no michi ha
      wagimoko ga
    sato ni shi areba
      nemokoro ni            5
      yamazu yukaba
    hito me wo ohomi
      maneku yukaba
    hito shirinubemi        10
    nochi wo ahamu to
    omohi tanomite
      kagirohi no           15
    ihakaki fuchi no
      komori nomi
    kohitsutsu aru ni
      wataru hi no
    kure yuku ga goto       20
      teru tsuki no
    kumo kakuru goto
      okitsu mo no
    nabikishi imo ha
      momiji-ba no          25
    sugite inishi to
    tsukahi no iheba
    oto nomi wo kikite      30
      ihamu sube
      oto nomi wo
    kikite ariyeneba
      waga kofuru           35
    chihe no hitohe mo
    kokoro mo ari ya to
      wagimoko ga
    yamazu idemishi         40
      Karu no ichi ni
    waga tachi-kikeba
    Unebi no yama ni
      nakutorino            45
    kowe mo kikoye
    michi yuku hito mo
      hitori dani
    niteshi yukaneba        50
      sube wo nami
    imo-gara yobite
    sode so furitsutsu.

      Akiyama no             1
    momiji wo shigemi
    imo mo motomemu
    yama-ji shirazu mo.      5

      Momiji-ba no           1
    chirinuru nabe ni
    tsukahi wo mireba
    ahishi hi omohoyu.       5

1 _ya_ = _yo_.

3 _waga imoko_.

6 _miru koto wo hoshiku omohedo_.

8 = _hito me ga ohoki_, _wo_ often thus used with forms in _mi_.

9 _tabitabi yukaba_.

13, 14 A word-quibble may, possibly, be intended, _omohi omoki_.

15, 16 These form a sort of m. k. of _komori_.

26 has passed away (died).

36 _chihe no hitohe_, one plait of a thousand plaits (or layers or
parts) = one thousandth.

40 _imo ga kimi wo yamazu idemishi_ Kami, &c.

51 _sube wo nami_, cp. 8, _hito me wo ohomi_.

2 (second _hanka_) _nabe_ has force of together with, upon.

For _amatobuya_, _sanekadzura_, _ohobuneno_, _tamadzusano_,
_tamatasuki_, _nakutorino_, _tamahokono_ see List m. k.


      Utsusemi to            1
    omohishi toki ni
    aga futari mishi
      washiri-de no          5
    tsutsumi ni tateru
      tsuki no ki no
    kochi-gochi no ye no
      haru no ha no
    shigeki ga gotoku       10
    imo ni ha aredo
    kora ni ha aredo
      yo no naka wo         15
    somukishi yeneba
    moyuru ara-nu ni
      shirotahe no
    amahire kakuri          20
      tori zhi mono
    asa tachi-i-mashite
    kakuri ni shikaba
      wagimoko ga           25
    katami ni okeru
      wakaki ko no
    kohi-naku goto ni
      tori atafu
    mono shi nakereba       30
      wotoko mono zhi
    waki hasami mochi
      wagimoko to
    futari aga neshi
      makuradzuku           35
    tsumaya no uchi ni
      hiru ha mo
    urasabi kurashi
      yoru ha mo
    iki-dzuki akashi        40
    semu subeshirami
    afu yoshi wo nami
      ohotori no            45
    Hakahi no yama ni
      aga kofuru
    imo ha imasu to
      hito no iheba
    ihane sakumite          50
      nadzumi koshi
    yokeku mo so naki
      utsusemi to
    omohishi imo ga
      kagirohino            55
    honoka no dani mo
    miyenu omoheba.

    Kozo miteshi             1
    aki no tsukuyo ha
    ahimishi imo ha
    iya toshi sakaru.        5

    Ihe ni kite              1
    tsumaya wo mireba
    to ni mukahikeri
    imo ga ko-makura.        5

vv. 1-11 are introductory to _imo_; 12-16 declare impossibility of
escaping the fate of all mankind; 17-20 refer to the funeral of the
_imo_; 21-24 to her burial; 25-32 to the father’s endeavour to comfort
the child; 33-42 to the desolation of his home; 43 to end to the ascent
of the hill of interment in the vain hope of seeing her spirit.

2 _omohishi_, here, as often, is little more than _narishi_.

22 _i-mashite_, _i_ is here merely a prefix.

30 _shi_ is an emphatic particle.

31 _zhi_ = _nasu_ (so in 21).

34 A past of _neru_.

42 A common phrase = _shikata ga nai_.

52 = _yoki, koto naki_.

55 Note the application of the m. k. to _ho_(_noka_). Read the latter
verses as _honoka ni sahe mo imo ga miyenu wo omoheba kurushiku
hatarakite koshi kahi mo naku yoki koto so naki_.

5 Written wooden (_ko_) pillow--I venture to read it as (_ko_) little

For _utsusemi_, _kagirohino_, _shirotaheno_, _irihinasu_,
_makuradzuku_, _ohotorino_, _tamahokono_ see List m. k.


Shinatsu no unebe ga mi-makareru toki Hitomaro ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Akiyama no             1
    shitaberu imo
    towoyoru kora ha
      ikasama ni             5
    omohimase ka
    nagaki inochi wo
      tsuyu koso ha
    ashita ni okite         10
      yufube ha
      kenu to ihe
      kiri koso ha
    yufube ni tachite
      ashita ha             15
      usu to ihe
    oto kiku are mo
      oho ni mishi
    koto kuyashiki wo       20
    ta-makura makite
    mi ni sohenekemu
      wakakusano            25
    sono tsuma no ko ha
      sabushimi ka
    omohite nuramu
      kuyashimi ka
    omohikofuramu           30
      toki narazu
    suginishi kora ga
    asa tsuyu no goto
    yufu giri no goto.

      Sasanamino             1
    Shigatsu no kora ga
      makari nishi
    kaha se no michi wo
    mireba sabushi mo.       5

vv. 1-6 introduction; 7-16 impermanence of life; 17-20 regret of
poet at news of death (hinted at rather than directly stated) of the
_uneme_; 21 to end climatic lament over an untimely death.

2 _shitaberu_ = wilt, wither, droop; _akiyama no shitaberu imo_,
drooping as the flaccid leafage in autumn on the hills: but see

1, 2 and 3, 4 are parallelisms reminding one of Hebrew and Chinese
poetry, there are several other examples in this _uta_.

4 _kora_ seems to be a plural form of honour.

8 The _wo_ at the end, which has a stray look, may be understood here
(as often elsewhere in the Anthology) by supplying _omoheba_ or some
form of the verb _omofu_. The various _ha_ in this _uta_ exemplify the
effect of the particle as suggesting a predicate of the isolated word
or expression.

18 The news has come to me who only slightly knew her by sight yet am
full of regret.…

22 making mutually pillows of each other’s arms.

26 _tsuma_ = _otto_; _ko_ is honour-title.

31 _toki narazu_, untimely.

1 _Sasanami_ involves the homophonous m. k. _sasanami_.

3 (_hanka_ I) _makari nishi_ = _makari-inishi_, gone away, died.

For _nayotakeno_, _takunahano_, _adzusayumi_, _shikitaheno_,
_tsurugitachi_, _wakakusano_ see List m. k.


Sanuki no [kuni] ni Samine no shima nite isobe no shinihito wo mite
Hitomaro ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Tamamoyoshi            1
    Sanuki no kuni ha
      kuni kara ka
    miredomo akanu
      kami kara ka           5
    kokoda tafutoki
      ame tsuchi
    hi tsuki to tomo ni
    kami no mi omo to       10
      ihi tsugeru
    Naka no minato yu
      fune ukete
    aga kogi kureba
      tokitsu kaze          15
    kumowi ni fuku ni
      oki mireba
    shiki nami tachi
      he mireba
    shiranami sawaku        20
    umi wo kashikomi
      yukufune no
    kaji hiki orite
      wochikochi no         25
    shima ha ohokedo
    Samine no shima no
      ariso mi ni
    ihorite mireba          30
      nami no ’to no
    shigeki hama he wo
    makura ni nashite
      aratoko ni            35
    korofusu kimi ga
      ihe shiraba
    yukite mo tsugemu
      tsuma shiraba
    ki mo tohamashi wo      40
    michi dani shirazu
    machi ka kofuramu
    hashiki tsumara ha.     45

    Tsuma mo araba           1
    tsumite tagemashi
      Samine yama
    nu no he no uhagi
    suginikerazuya!          5

      Okitsu nami            1
    ki-yoru ariso wo
    makura to makite
    naseru kimi kamo!        5

vv. 3, 5 _kara_ must be so read, not _gara_--it is perhaps a form of

9 _tari-yukamu_, be perfect; read this line after next.

11 Read with Naka.

15 lit. time-wind or seasonable or fair wind, but probably also seaward
and landward winds more or less accompanying morning and evening tides.

24 _hiki-ori_ = draw-break, i.e. by moving the steering oar right or
left break the straight course of the vessel.

30 _ihori_, _iho-wori_.

31 _’to_ for _oto_.

40 may be read as = _kimashi mo taha-mashi_ (_koto wo omohite_).

43 gloomily, wretchedly.

45 Plural of _tsuma_ (used as honour-plural?).

2 _tagemashi_ = _tabe mashi_, goes with _uhagi_.

5 Equivalent to _sugi nikeri_, affirmatively.

5 _naseru_ is read assumptively with _kimi_.

For _tamamoyoshi_, _isanatori_, _shikitaheno_, _tamahokono_ see List m.

Nara no miya ni [amenoshita] shiroshimeshishi Sumera mikoto no mi-yo.


Riyauki hazhime no toshi ki no to no u nagatsuki Shiki no miko no
sugimaseru toki yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Adzusayumi             1
    te ni tori-mochite
      masurawo ga
    satsu-ya da-hasami
      tachimukafu            5
    Takamado yama ni
      haru nu yaku
    nu hi to miru made
      moyuru hi wo
    ika ni to to eba        10
    michi kuru hito no
      naku namida
    hisame ni fureba
      shirotaheno           15
    koromo hidzuchite
    are ni kataraku
      nani shi ka mo
    motona iheru            20
    ne nomi shi nakayu
    kokoro so itami
      Sumerogi no           25
    kami no miko no
      idemashi no
    ta-hi no hikari so
    kokoda teritaru.

10 _toheba_, subject is _are_ of 18.

18 _kataraku_, subject is _hito_ of 12; so of _katareba_ 23.

20 _iheru_ refers to _toheba_ of 10.

For _adzusayumi_, _tamahokono_, _shirotaheno_ see List m. k.


Kusagusa no uta.


Naga no miko no Kariji nu ni mikari shitamaheru toki Hitomaro ga yomeru
uta hitotsu.

      Yasumishishi           1
    waga ohokimi
    waga hi no miko no
      uma namete             5
    mi kari tataseru
      wakakomo no
    Kariji no wo-nu ni
      shishi koso ha
    i-hahi worogame         10
      udzura koso
    i-hahi motohori
      shishi zhi mono
    i-hahi worogame
      udzura nasu           15
    i-hahi motohori
      kashikomi to
      hisakata no
    ame miru gotoku         20
    afugite miredo
      haru kusa no
    iya medzurashiki
    waga ohokimi ka mo.     25

      Hisakata no            1
    ame yuku tsuki no
      tsuna ni sashi
    waga ohokimi ha
    kinugasa ni seri.        5

7 A m. k. applied to Kari[ji] as = _kari_, mow, reap.

For _yasumishishi_, _takahikaru_, _wakakomono_, _hisakatano_,
_masokagami_ see List m. k.


Kamo no Kimitari-hito ga Kaguyama no uta hitotsu.

      Amoritsuku             1
    Ame no kaguyama
    haru ni itareba
      matsu kaze ni          5
    ike nami tachite
      sakura hana
    ko no kure shigemi
      okibe ni ha
    kamo tsuma yobahi       10
      hetsu he ni
    aji mura sawaki
    ohomiya hito no
      makari-dete           15
    asobu fune ni ha
      kaji sawo mo
    nakute sabushi mo
    kogu hito nashi ni.

      Hito kogazu            1
    araku mo shirushi
      kadzuki suru
    woshi to takabe to
    fune no he ni sumu.      5

      Itsu ma mo             1
    kami sabigeru ka
      Kagu yama no
    hokosugi nomoto ni
    koke musu made ni.       5

11 _he_ seems here to be simply apocopated _uhe_.

2 _araku_ is verbal subst. of _aru_.

For _amoritsuku_, _kasumitatsu_, _momoshiki_ see List m. k.


Hitomaro ga Nihitabe no miko ni tatematsureru uta hitotsu.

    Yasumishishi             1
    waga ohokimi
      hi no miko
      shikimasu              5
    ohotono no he ni
      yuki zhi mono
    yuki kayohitsutsu       10
    iya shiki imase!

      Yatsuri yama           1
    ko-tachi mo miyezu
    yuki ni sawakite
    mawiraku yoshi mo.       5

9 Here _yuki_ is ‘snow,’ as in 4; in 10 it is ‘go, come.’

For _yasumishishi_, _takahikaru_, _hisakatano_ see List m. k.


Yayohi bakari Yoshinu no totsu-miya ni idemaseru toki naka no
mono-mawosu tsukasa Ohotomo no mahetsukimi (Ohotomo no kiyau)
mikotonori wo uketamaharite yomitamaheru uta hitotsu.

      Mi Yoshinu no          1
    Yoshinu no miya ha
      yama kara shi
    tafutoku arashi
      kaha kara shi          5
    sayakeku arashi
      ame tsuchi to
    nagaku hisashiku
      yorodzu yo ni
    kaharadzu aramu         10
    idemashi no miya!

      Mukashi mishi          1
    Kisa no wo-gaha wo
      ima mireba
    iyo-iyo sayakeku
    nari nikeru ka mo!       5

5 _kara_, cp. _nagara_; also _kare_, reason, cause.

6 _arashi_ = _arurashi_.


Yamabe no Sukune Akahito ga Fujinoyama wo mite [yomeru] uta hitotsu.

      Ame tsuchi no          1
    wakareshi toki yu
    takaku tafutoki
      Suruga naru            5
    Fugi no takane wo
      ama no hara
    furisake mireba
      wataru hi no
    kage mo kakurohi        10
      teru tsuki no
    hikari mo miyezu
      shirakumo mo
    i-yuki habakari
      tokizhiku             15
    yuki ha furikeru
    ihi-tsugi yukamu
    Fuji no takane ha!

      Tago no ura yu         1
    uchi-dete mireba
      ma-shiroku so
    Fuji no takane ni
    yuki ha furikeru!        5


Fuji no yama wo yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Namayomino             1
    Kahi no kuni
    Suruga no kuni to
      kochigochi ni          5
    kuni no mi naka yu
    Fuji no takane ha
    i-yuki habakari         10
      tobutori mo
    tobi mo nobarazu
      moyuru hi wo
    yuki mochi-kechi
      furu yuki wo          15
    hi mochi-kechitsutsu
      ihi mo kane
    nadzuke mo shirani
      kusushiku mo
    imasu kami ka mo        20
      Se no umi to
    nadzukete aru mo
      sono yama no
    tsutsumeru umi so
      Fuji kaha to          25
    hito no wataru mo
      sono yama no
    midzu no tagichi so
      Hinomoto no
    Yamato no kuni no       30
      shidzume to mo
    imasu kami ka mo
      takara to mo
    nareru yama ka mo
      Suruga naru           35
    Fuji no takane ha
      miredo akanu ka mo.

      Fuji no ne ni          1
    furi-okeru yuki ha
      minadzuki no
    mochi ni kenureba
    sono yo furikeri.        5

18 lit. one can give no adequate name to Fuji.

21 Read with 24.

For _namayomino_, _amakumono_ see List m. k.


Akahito ga Iyo no yu ni yukite yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Sumerogi no            1
    Kami no mikoto no
    kuni no kotogoto
      yu ha shi mo           5
    saha ni aredomo
      shima yama no
    yoroshiki kuni to
      kogoshi ka mo
    Iyo no takane no        10
      Izaniha no
    woka ni tatashite
      uta omohi
    koto omohashishi
      mi yu no he no        15
    ko-mura wo mireba
      Omi no ki mo
    ohi-tsugi ni keri
      naku tori no
    kowe mo kaharazu        20
      tohoki yo ni
    kamusabi yukamu
    idemashi tokoro.

1-14 refer to _Uhe no miya_ (Shôtoku Taishi).

4 All the provinces or lands.

9 _kogoshi_ applies to _Iyo no takane_.


Kamiwoka ni noborite Akahito ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Mimoro no              1
    Kaminabi yama ni
      iho ye sashi
    shizhi ni ohitaru
      tsuganokino            5
    iya tsugitsugi ni
    tayuru koto naku
      aritsutsu mo
    yamazu kayohamu         10
      Asuka no
    furuki miyako ha
      yama takami
    kaha tohoshiroshi
      haru no hi ha         15
    yama shi migahoshi
      aki no yo ha
    kaha shi sayakeshi
      asa-kumo ni
    tadzu ha midare         20
      yufu-giri ni
    kahadzu ha sawaku
      miru goto ni
    ne nomi shi nakayu
    inishihe omoheba.       25

      Asuka-gaha             1
    kaha yodo sarazu
    kohi ni aranaku ni.      5

1-10 are introductory to _Asuka no furuki miyako_.

13-22 describe the _miyako_.

23-25 express the poet’s regret.

1-3 are introductory to 4.

5 lit. there is no _kohi_ (affection) from which may be chased thoughts
(of the past).

For _tsuganokino_, _tamakadzura_, _tatsukirino_ see List m. k.



Tsunuga no tsu nite fune ni noreru toki Kasa no Asomi Kanamura ga
yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Koshi no umi no        1
    Tsunuga no hama yu
      ohobune ni
    ma kaji nuki-oroshi
      isanatori              5
    umiji ni idete
    waga kogi-yukeba
    Tayuhi ga ura ni        10
      ama wotome
    shiho yaku keburi
    tabi nishi areba
      hitori shite          15
    miru shiru shi nami
      watatsumi no
    te ni makashitaru
    kakete shinubitsu       20
    Yamato shima-ne wo.

12 After _keburi_ supply _areba_.

16 _nami_ is _nashi_, not--_miru_-(_koto_) _shiru_ (_koto_) _shi
nashi_. Another reading, however, is possible.

17-19 are introductory to _kakete_ (20), as the arm-bands are set to
the arms of the sea-god (or arm-bands to those who serve the god?), to
my heart is set regret for Yamato. The m. k. (9) applies to Ta(yuhi);
17, 18 are epithetical of _tama_, part of the m. k. _tamatasuki_
applied to _kakete_ (20).

21 _shimane_ is a designation of Yamato.

For _isanatori_, _masurawono_, _kusamakura_, and _tamatasuki_ see List
m. k.


Akahito ga Kasuga nu ni noborite yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Haruhiwo               1
    Kasuka no yama no
    Mikasa no yama ni
      asa sarazu             5
    kumowi tanabiku
      kaho tori no
    ma naku shiba naku
    kokoro isayohi          10
      sono tori no
    kata-kohi nomi ni
      hiru ha mo
    hi no kotogoto
      yoru ha mo            15
    yo no kotogoto
      tachite wite
    omohi so aga suru
    ahanu ko yuwe ni.

1 See N. i. 402, the second lay. Perhaps _wo_ should be, as there, _no_.

5 not missing a morning.

17 standing or lying down, i.e. continually. The m. k. (3) applies to
Mi[kasa] taken as _mi_, person.

For _haruhiwo_, _takakurano_, _kumowinasu_ see List m. k.


Ohotomo no Sakanohe no Iratsume ga kami matsuri no uta hitotsu.

      Hisakatano             1
    ama no hara yori
      are koshi
    kami no mikoto
      okuyama no             5
    sakaki no yeda ni
      shiraga tsuku
    yufu tori-tsukete
      ihahi-he wo
    ihahi hori suwe         10
      takatama wo
    shizhi ni nukitari
      shishi zhi mono
    hiza ori-fuse
      tawayame no           15
    osuhi tori-kake
      kaku dani mo
    are ha kohinamu
    kimi ni ahanu ka mo.

3 _are_, _arahare_, _koshi_ past of _ki_(_kuru_).

6 Cleyera japonica.

7 _shiraga_ (_shirage_) might mean white, or pure tresses.

18 _are_, _ware_.

For _hisakata_ see List m. k.


Tsukubane ni noborite Tajihi no Mabito Kunihito ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Tori ga naku           1
    Adzuma no kuni ni
      takayama ha
    saha ni aredomo
      Futakami no            5
    tafutoki yama no
      nami-tachi no
    migahoshi yama to
      kami-yo yori
    hito no ihi-tsugi       10
      kuni-mi suru
    Tsukuba no yama wo
    haru sari-kuredo
      shira-yuki no         15
    tokizhiku toki to
      mizute yukaba
    mashite kohishimi
      yuki-ke suru
    yama michi sura wo      20
    nadzumi are koshi.

1-11 are introductory to 12, after _wo_ supply _omohite_ or _omoheba_.

7 double-peaked.

14, 15 are interpolations of Keichiu.

16 Explained by Kogi as = _toki naranu toki tote_--the snow is lasting
later than usual down to the second month where the ascent is made.

For _toriganaku_, _fuyukomori_ see List m. k.


Tabi no uta hitotsu.

      Watatsumi ha           1
    ayashiki mono ka
      Ahaji shima
    naka ni tate-okite
      shiranami no           5
    Iyo ni motohoshi
    Akashi no to yu ha
      yufu sareba
    shiho ni mitashime      10
      ake sareba
    shiho wo hishimu
      shiwo sawi no
    nami wo kashikomi
      Ahaji shima           15
      itsushika mo
    kono yo no akemu
      to samorafu ni
    i no ne kateneba        20
      Tagi no he no
    Asanu no kigishi
      akenu to shi
      iza kodomo            25
    ahete kogidemu
    niha mo shidzukeshi.

      Shima-dzutahi          1
    Minume no saki wo
    Yamato kohoshiku
    tadzu saha ni naku.      5

7 See notes translation.

13 _shiho-sawi_, _shiho-saki_, flood-tide.

19 _samorafu_ (_saburafu_) here means _haberu_.

22 _kigishi [ha yo] akenu_ (past of _akuru_).

4 _kohoshiku_, _kohishiku_.

5 _saha ni_, in flocks or flights, numerous.

For _wimachitsuki_ see List m. k.


Kanashimi uta.


Ihata no Ohokimi usetamaheru toki Nifu no Ohokimi no yomitamaheru uta

      Nayutakeno             1
    towoyoru miko
    waga ohokimi ha
      komorikuno             5
    Hatsuse no yama ni
    itsuki imasu to
    hito so ihitsuru        10
      oyodzure ka
    waga kikitsuru
      tahagoto ka
    waga kikitsuru mo
      ame tsuchi ni         15
    kuyashiki koto no
      yo no naka no
    kuyashiki koto ha
    sokuhe no kihami        20
      ame tsuchi no
    itareru made ni
      tsuwe tsuki mo
    tsukazu mo yukite
      yufuke tohi           25
    ishi-ura mochite
      waga yado ni
    mi moro wo tatete
      makura he ni
    ihahihe wo suwe         30
      takatama wo
    shizhi ni nukitari
      yufu tasuki
    kahina ni kakete
      ame naru              35
    Sasara no wo-nu no
      ihahi suge
    te ni tori-mochite
    ame no kahara ni        40
    misogite mashi wo
      Takayama no
    ihaho no uhe ni
    imasetsuru ka mo!       45

      Oyodzure no            1
    tahagoto to ka mo
      Takayama no
    Ihaho no uhe ni
    kimi ga koyaseru.        5

      Isonokami              1
    Furu no yama naru
      sugimura no
    omohi sugubeku
    kimi ni aranaku ni.      5

1 _oyodzure_ and _tahagoto_ seem nearly synonymous, the former rather
‘false’, the latter ‘vain’ news.

For _nayutakeno_, _sanidzurafu_, _komorikuno_, _tamadzusano_,
_amakumono_, _hisakatano_, _Isonokami_ see List m. k.


Oyazhi [Ihata no Ohokimi use-tamaheru] toki Yamakuma no Ohokimi
kanashimi yomimaseru uta hitotsu.

      Tsunusahafu            1
    Ihare no michi wo
      asa sarazu
    yukikemu hito no
      omohitsutsu            5
    kayohikemaku ha
    ki naku sa-tsuki ha
    hana tachibana wo       10
      tama ni nuki
    kadzura ni semu to
      naga tsuki no
    shigure no toki ha
      momichi ba wo         15
    ori-kazasamu to
    iya toho-nagaku
      yorodzu yo ni
    tayezhi to omohite      20
    kimi wo asu yo ha
    yoso ni ka mo mimu.

[In _dai_] _oyazhi_ = _onazhi_.

4 _hito_ is Ihata.

6 The subject is the poet.

For _tsunusahafu_ (m. k. of _iha_ in Ihare) _hafukudzuno_ see List m.


Katsushika no Mama wotome ga haka wo tohoreru toki Akahito ga yomeru
uta hitotsu.

      Inishihe ni            1
    arikemu hito no
      shidzuhata no
    obi toki-kahete
      fuseya tate            5
    tsuma-dohi shikemu
      katsushika no
    Mama no tekona ga
      okutsuki wo
    koko to ha kikedo       10
      maki no ha ya
    tohoku hisashiki
      koto nomi mo          15
    na nomi mo ware ha
    wasuraye naku ni.

      Katsushika no          1
    Mama no iriye ni
      uchi nabiku
    tamamo karikemu
    tekona shi omohoyu.      5

2 _hito_ = a suitor.

5 The translation is based on the Kogi explanation.

For _matsuganeno_ see List m. k.


Temuhiyau (Tempyô) hazhime no toshi tsuchi no to mi Tsu no kuni no
Agachi-da no Fumihito Hasetsukabe no Tatsumaro ga wanakishi toki
matsurigoto hito (Hanguwan) Ohotomo no Sukune Minaka ga yomeru uta

      Amakumono              1
    muka-fusu kuni no
      masurawo to
    ihayeshi hito ha
      Sumerogi no            5
    kami no mikado ni
      to no he ni
      uchi no he ni
    tsukahe matsuri         10
    iya toho-nagaku
      oya no na mo
    tsugi-yuku mono to
      omo chichi ni         15
    tsuma ni kodomo ni
    tachi nishi hi yori
    haha no mikoto ha       20
      ihahi-he wo
    mahe ni suwe-okite
      hito te ni ha
    yufu tori-mochi
      hito te ni ha         25
    nikitahe matsuri
    masakiku mase to
      ame tsuchi no
    kami ni kohi nomi       30
      ikani aramu
    toshi tsuki hi ni ka
    nihoheru kimi ga
      nihodorino            35
    nadzusahi komu to
      tachite wite
    machikemu hito ha
    mikoto kashikomi        40
    Naniha no kuni ni
    toshi furu made ni
      shirotahe no          45
    koromode hosazu
      asa yohi ni
    aritsuru kimi ha
      ikasama ni
    omohi-mase ka           50
    woshiki kono yo wo
    okite inikemu
    toki-narazu shite!      55

      Kinofu koso            1
    kimi ha arishi ka
      omohanu ni
    hama-matsu no he no
    kumo ni tanabiku.        5

4 _hito_ = Tatsumaro.

7 _to_, _soto_.

28 _mase_, _koso mase_.

38 _hito_, household of Tatsumaro.

48 _aritsuru_, goes on or went on being.

50 = _omohimaseba_.

51 m. k. of _yo_.

52 m. k. of _okite_.

For _amakumono_, _tamakadzura_, _tarachineno_, _tsutsuzhihana_,
_nihodorino_, _ohokimino_, _oshiteru_, _aratamano_, _shirotaheno_,
_tsuyushimono_ see List m. k.


[Temuhiyau (Tempyô)] nana tose to ifu toshi kinoto no wi Ohotomo no
Sakanohe no Iratsume ga ama no Riguwamu (Rigwan) no mi-makareru wo
kanashimi yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Takutsunu no           1
    Shiraki no kuni yu
      hito goto wo
    yoshi to kikashite
      tohi-sakuru            5
    ugara haragara
      naki kuni ni
      ohokimi no
    shikimasu kuni ni       10
    Miyako shimimi ni
      sato ihe ha
    saha ni aredomo
      ikasama ni            15
    omohikeme ka mo
      tsure mo naki
    Saho no yama he ni
    shitahi kimashite       20
    ihe wo mo tsukuri
    toshi no wo nagaku
      sumahitsutsu          25
    imashishi mono wo
    shinu chifu koto ni
    mono ni shi areba       30
    hito no kotogoto
    tabi naru hodoni
      Saho kaha wo          35
    asa kaha watari
      Kasuga nu wo
    so-gahi ni mitsutsu
    yamabe wo sashite       40
      kura-yami to
    kakuri mashinure
      ihamu sube
      tamotohori            45
    tada hitori shite
    koromo-de hosazu
    aga naku namida         50
      Arima yama
    kumo wi tanabiku
    ame ni furiki ya!

5 Converse, utter, talk with.

8 The subject is Rigwan, also of verbs in 25, 26.

26 After _mono_ supply _omohite_ or _omoheba_.

34 _hodoni_ = whilst.

36 sqq. The subject of the verbs is the party of mourners who accompany
the corpse of Rigwan.

44 Subject of _tamotohori_ (go up and down, to and fro) is Sakanohe.

For _takutsunu_, _uchihisasu_, _nakukonasu_, _shikitaheno_,
_aratamano_, _kusamakura_, _ashihikino_ see List m. k.


Mata Yakamochi ga yomeru uta hitotsu mata mizhika uta.

      Waga yado ni           1
    hana so sakitaru
      so wo miredo
    kokoro mo yukazu
      hashikiyashi           5
    imo ga ariseba
    futari narabi-wi
      taworite mo
    misemashi mono wo       10
    kareru mi nareba
    kesuru ga gotoku
      ashihikino            15
    yamaji wo sashite
    kakuri ni shikaba
      soko ’mofu ni
    mune koso itame         20
      ihi mo kane
    nadzuke mo shirani
    yo no naka nareba
    semu sube mo nashi.     25

      Toki ha shimo          1
    itsu mo aramu wo
      kokoro itaku
    i-yuku wagimo ka
    wakaki ko wo ’kite.      5

      Ide-yukasu             1
    michi shiramaseba
    imo wo todomemu
    seki wo okamashi wo.     5

      Imo ga mishi           1
    yado ni hana saku
      toki ha henu
    aga naku namida
    imada hi naku ni.        5

3 _so_ = _sore_.

10 Supply _omohite_ (_oheba_).

4 _i_ is prefix.

5 _’kite_ = _okite_.

1 Read _mishi_ with _hana_.

For _mikamonasu_, _utsusemino_, _tsuyushimono_, _ashihikino_,
_irihinasu_, _atomonaki_ see List m. k.


(Oyazhi) to tose amari mu tose to ifu toshi kinoye saru kisaragi Asaka
no miko no sugitamaheru toki uchi-toneri Ohotomo no Sukune Yakamochi
yomeru uta mutsu.

      Kakemaku mo
    aya ni kashikoshi
      ihamaku mo
    yuyushiki ka mo
      waga ohokimi           5
    miko no mikoto
      yorodzu yo ni
    Kuni no miyako ha       10
    haru sarinareba
      yama he ni ha
    hana-saki wowori
      kaha se ni ha         15
    ayu-ko sa-hashiri
      iya hi ke ni
    sakayuru toki ni
      oyodzure no
    tawagoto to ka mo       20
      shirotahe ni
    toneri yosohite
      Wadzuka yama
    mi koshi tatashite
      hisakatano            25
    ame shirashinure
    hidzuchi nakedomo
    semu sube mo nashi.

      Waga ohokimi           1
    ame shirasamu to
    oho ni so mikeru
    Wadzuka soma yama.       5

      Ashihikino             1
    yama sahe hikari
      saku hana no
    chirinuru gotoki
    waga ohokimi ka mo.      5

24 _koshi_, coffin.

For _uchinabiku_, _hisakatano_, _ashihikino_ see List m. k.


      Kakemaku mo            1
    aya ni kashikoshi
      waga ohokimi
    miko no mikoto
      mononofuno             5
    yaso tomo no wo wo
      asa-kari ni
    shishi fumi-okoshi      10
      yufu-kari ni
    tori fumi-tate
      oho mi ma no
    kuchi osahe-tome
      mi kokoro wo          15
    meshi akirameshi
      Ikuji yama
    ko-dachi no shizhi ni
      saku hana mo
    utsurohi ni keri        20
      yo no naka ha
    kaku nomi narashi
    kokoro furi-okoshi
      tsurugitachi          25
    koshi ni tori-haki
    yuki tori-ohite
      ame tsuchi to
    iya tohonaga ni         30
      yorodzu yo ni
    kaku shi mo ka mo to
    Miko no Mikado no
      sabahenasu            35
    sawaku toneri ha
      shirotahe ni
    koromo tori-kite
      tsune narishi
    wemahi furumahi         40
      iya hi ke ni
    kaharafu mireba
    kanashiki ro ka mo.

For _mononofuno_, _masurawono_, _tsurugitachi_, _sabahenasu_,
_shirotaheni_ (equiv. _shirotaheno_) see List m. k.


Usetaru me wo kanashimi Takahashi no Asomi ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Shirotaheno            1
    sode sashi-kahete
    waga kurokami no
      ma-shiraga ni          5
    kaharamu kihami
      arata yo ni
    tomo ni aramu to
    tayezhi i-imo to        10
    koto ha hatasazu
    kokoro ha togedzu
      shirotaheno           15
    tamoto wo wakare
      nikibi ni shi
    ihe yu mo idete
      midori-ko no
    naku wo mo okite        20
      asa-kiri no
    oho ni naritsutsu
      Yamashiro no
    Sagaraka yama no
      yama no ma yu         25
      ihamu sube
      wagimoko to
    sa-neshi tsuma-ya ni    30
      asa niha ni
    ide-tachi shinubi
      yufube ni ha
    iri-wi nagekahi
      waki-hasamu           35
    ko no naku goto ni
      wotoko-zhi mono
    ohi-mi udaki-mi
    ne nomi naki-tsutsu     40
    shirushi wo nami to
      koto tohanu
    mono ni ha aredo
      wagimoko ga           45
    iri ni shi yama wo
    yosuka to so ’mofu.

47 _yosuka_ is better than _yosuga_.

For _shirotaheno_, _tamanowono_ see List m. k.


Shitashimi uta.


Wokamoto no Sumera mikoto no mi-yomimaseru [ohomi] uta hitotsu.

      Kami-yo yori           1
    are tsugitareba
      hito saha ni
    kuni ni ha michite
      ajimurano              5
    sawaki ha yukedo
      aga kofuru
    kimi nishi araneba
      hiru ha
    hi no kururu made       10
      yoru ha
    yo no akuru kihami
    ine kate ni nomi
    akashitsuraku mo        15
    nagaki kono yo wo

    Yama no ha ni            1
    ajimura sawaki
      yuku naredo
    are ha sabushi we
    kimi ni shi araneba.     5

      Afumi-ji no            1
    Toko no yama naru
      Isaya kaha
    ke no kono goro ha
    kohitsutsu mo aramu.     5

2 _are_ = _arahare_.

15 _akashitsuru_.

4 _we_, an exclamation of pain or regret.

For _ajimurano_ see List m. k.


Tajihi no Mabito Kasamaro ga Tsukushi no kuni ni kudaru toki yomeru uta

      Omi no me no           1
    kushige ni itsuku
    Mitsu no hamabe ni
      sanidzurafu            5
    himo toki-sakezu
      wagimoko ni
    kohitsutsu woreba
      ake-gure no
    asa-kiri kakuri         10
    ne nomi shi nakayu
      aga kofuru
    chihe no hitohe mo
      nagusamuru            15
    kohoro mo are ya to
      ihe no atari
    aga tachi-mireba
    Kadzura-ki yama ni      20
    shira-kumo kakuri
    hina no kuni-he ni
      tada-mukafu           25
    Ahaji wo sugi
      Ahashima wo
    sogahi ni mitsutsu
      asa nagi ni
    kako no kowe yobi       30
      yufu nagi ni
    kaji no ’to shitsutsu
      nami no he wo
    i-yuki sa-gukumi
      iha no ma wo          35
    i-yuki motohori
    ura mi wo sugite
      tori zhi mono
    nadzusahi yukeba        40
      Ihe no shima
    ariso no uhe ni
    shizhi ni ohitaru
      nanori-so no          45
    nado ka mo imo ni
    norazu ki ni kemu.

      Shirotahe no           1
    sode toki-kahete
    tsuki hi wo yomite
    yukite komashi wo.       5

1-3 are introductory to _mi_ (Mitsu).

45 _nanori-so_ involves a word-play with _norazu_ (47).

For _kagaminasu_, _sanidzurafu_, _nakutadzuno_, _awohatano_,
_amazakaru_, _shirotahe_ see List m. k.


Aki no Obokimi no uta hitotsu.

      Toho-dzuma no          1
    koko ni araneba
    michi wo tadohomi
      omofu sora             5
    yasukaranaku ni
      nageku sora
    yasukaranu mono wo
      mi-sora yuku
    kumo ni mo ga mo        10
    tori ni mo ga mo
      asu yukite
    imo ni kototohi
      aga tame ni           15
    imo mo kotonaku
      imo ga tame
    are mo kotonaku
    ima mo mishi goto
    taguhite mo ga mo.      20

5-7 _sora_, metaphorical for state, condition.

9 _sora_, atmosphere, what exists between heaven and earth.

19 _ima_ = _tadaima_ (nuper).

20 _mo ga mo_ = _mo gana_?

For _tamahokono_ see List m. k.


Zhimuki (Jinki) hazhime no toshi kinoye ne kaminadzuki Ki no kuni ni
idemaseru toki mi-tomo no hito ni okuramu tame wotome ni atsuraherayete
Kasa no Asomi Kanamura ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Ohokimi no             1
    idemashi no ma ni
    yaso tomo no wo to
      ide-yukishi            5
    utsukushi tsuma ha
    Karu no michi yori
    Unebi wo mitsutsu       10
    Ki-ji ni iritachi
      Matsuchi yama
    koyuramu kimi ha
      momiji-ba no          15
    chiri-tobu mitsutsu
    a wo ba omohazu
    tabi wo yoroshi to      20
    kimi ha aramu to
      asoso ni ha
    katsu ha shiredomo
      shikasu ga ni         25
    moda mo ye araneba
      aga ’seko ga
    yuki no ma ni ma ni
      ohamu to ha
    chi tabi omohedomo      30
      tawayame no
    aga mi ni shi areba
      michi-mori no
    tohamu kotahe wo
      ihi-yaramu            35
    sube wo shirani to
    tachite tsumadzuku!

12 _Ki-ji_ = _Kii no michi_.

17, 18 Read _a wo ba shitashikeku omohazu_.

23 _asoso_ or _azoso_ = _usu-usu_ = _wadzukani_--_asoso ni ha shire …
katsu ha_ … but the text here appears corrupt.

For _mononofuno_, _amatobuya_, _tamatasuki_, _asamoyoshi_, _kusamakura_
see List m. k.


Futatose to ifu toshi (Zhimuki = Jinki) kinoto no ushi yayohi Mika no
hara no totsumiya idemaseru toki wotome wo yete Kanamura ga yomeru uta

      Mika no hara           1
    tabi no yadori ni
    michi no yukiahi ni
      amakumono              5
    yoso nomi mitsutsu
    yoshi no nakereba
      kokoro nomi
    muse-tsutsu aru ni      10
      ame tsuchi no
    kami koto-yosete
    koromo-de kahete
      ono tsuma to          15
    tanomeru ko-yohi
      aki no yo no
    momo yo no nagaku
    arikosenu ka mo.

      Amakumo no             1
    yoso ni mishi yori
      wagimoko ni
    kokoro mo mi sahe
    yori nishi mono wo.      5

12 _kotoyoseru_ strictly means to pretend, but I take it as involving a
committal (of the lover’s fortunes) to the gods.

19 _ari koso ne_ (_kibô no kotoba_), Oh, that it might or may be so!

For _tamahokono_, _amakumono_, _shikitaheno_ see List m. k.


Sakanohe no Iratsume ga urami no uta hitotsu.

      Oshiteru               1
    Naniha no suge no
      nemokoro ni
    kimi ga kikoshite
      toshi fukaku           5
    nagaku shi iheba
    togishi kokoro wo
    sono hi no kihami       10
      nami no muta
    nabiku tamamo no
      ka ni kaku ni
    kokoro ha motazu
      ohobuneno             15
    tanomeru toki ni
    kami ya sakekemu
    hito ka safuramu        20
    kimi mo kimasazu
    tsukahi mo miyezu
      narinureba            25
    ita mo sube nami
    yoru ha sugara ni
    hi mo kururu made       30
    shirushi wo nami
    ta-dzuki wo shirani
      tawayame to           35
    ihaku mo shiruku
    ne nomi nakitsutsu
    kimi ga tsukahi wo      40
    machi ya kanetemu.

1, 2 Introductory to _nemokoro_.

4 _kikoshite_ = _notamahite_.

12 This line serves as m. k. to the next.

13 swerving neither this nor that way.

29 _akarabiku_, the _ra_ is of unknown value, perhaps = _akarashiki wo
hiku_, lead in earliest dawn.

For _oshiteru_, _masokagami_, _ohobuneno_, _chihayaburu_, _utsusemino_,
_tamadzusano_, _nubatamano_, _akarabiku_, _tawarahano_ see List m. k.



Sakanohe no Iratsume ga Tomi no todokoro yori ihe ni todomareru musume
no Oho Iratsume ni okureru uta hitotsu mata mizhika uta.

      Toko-yo ni to          1
    aga yukanaku ni
      wo-kanato ni
    mono kanashirani
      omoherishi             5
    aga ko no tozhi wo
    yoru hiru to ihazu
      omofu nishi
    aga mi ha yasenu        10
      nageku nishi
    sode sahe nurenu
      kaku bakari
    motona shi kohiba
      furu sato ni          15
    kono tsuki-goro mo
    ari katemashi wo.

      Asakamino              1
    omohi midarete
      kaku bakari
    nane ga kofure so
    ime ni miyekeru.         5

1 though ’tis not as though I went to the Eternal Land, yet on parting
with thee at the door overcome with grief was I, &c.

14 as ’tis of no avail to love thee.

17 _ari katemashi wo_ = _ari-katai koto kana!_

4 _nane_ = _nanzhi ane_, a term of endearment and respect.

5 Read _kofureba so nane ga_ &c.

For _nubatamano_, _asakamino_ see List m. k.



Kanashimi no Yamato-uta hitotsu.

      Ohokimi no             1
    toho no Mikado to
    Tsukushi no kuni ni
      nakukonasu             5
    shitahi kimashite
      iki dani mo
    imada yasumezu
      toshi tsuki mo
    ikuda mo araneba        10
      kokoro yu mo
    omohanu ahida ni
      ihamu sube            15
    semu sube shirani
      iha ki wo mo
    tohi-sake shirazu
      ihe naraba
    katachi ha aramu wo     20
    imo no mikoto no
      are wo ba mo
    ika ni seyo to ka
      nihotorino            25
    futari narabi-wi
    kokoro somukite
    ihe-zakari imasu.

For _shiranuhi_, _nakukonasu_, _nihotorino_ see List m. k.


Madoheru kokoro wo kahesashimuru uta hitotsu mata mizhika uta.

      Chichi haha wo         1
    mireba tafutoshi
      me ko mireba
    megushi utsukushi
      nogaroyenu             5
    haakara ukara
    oimi itokemi
      tomo kaki mo
    koto-tohi kahasu        10
      yo no naka ha
    kaku so kotowari
    kakarahashi mo yo
      [haya kaha no         15
    yuku he shiraneba]
      uke-gutsu wo
    nukitsuru gotoku
    yuku chifu hito ha      20
      iha ki yori
    nariteshi hito ka
    na ga na norasane
    ame he yukaba
    na ga ma ni ma ni       25
      tsuchi nareba
    ohokimi imasu
      kono terasu
    hi tsuki no shita ha
      amakumono             30
    mukafusu kihami
      taniguku no
    sa-wataru kihami
    kuni no mahora so       35
      kani kaku ni
    hoshiki ma ni ma ni
    shika ni ha arazhi ka.

      Hisakatano             1
    ama-ji ha tohoshi
      naho naho ni
    ihe ni kaherite
    nari wo shimasani.       5

5 Supply _koto_, must not be avoided or shirked.

6, 8, 9, 10 The relations indicated are meant.

15 A sort of proverb.

19 i.e. trampling on the ethical rules (of Confucianism).

22, 23 are heptasyllabic, they conclude the first part of the lay.

23 _nanji ga na wo na-norasane_.

25 _na_ = _nanji_.

35 _mahora, kuni no_ is an emphatic expression for _kuni_, land;
_mahora_ seems to mean mountain-secluded, central, or recessed portion
of land.

5 _nari_, occupation, duty in life; _shimasani_ = _shimasane_.

For _mochitorino_, _amakumono_, _hisakatano_ see List m. k.


Kora wo shinubu uta hitotsu.

      Urihameba              1
    kodomo omohoyu
      kuri hameba
    mashite shinubayu
      idzuku yori            5
    kitarishi mono
      manakahi ni
    motona kakarite
    yasu-i shi nasanu.

      shirokane mo           1
    kugane mo tama mo
      nani semu ni
    masareru takara
    ko ni shikame ya mo.     5

7 _manakahi_ = _ma na kahi_ = _me no ahida ni sono omokage no musamusa
to kakarite_.


Yo no naka no todomarigataki wo kanashimeru uta hitotsu mata mizhika

      Yo no naka no          1
    sube naki mono ha
      toshi tsuki ha
    nagaruru gotoshi
      tori-tsudzuki          5
    ohi-kuru mono ha
      wotomera ga
    wotome sabi su to       10
      Kara tama wo
    tamoto ni makashi
    sode furi-kahashi
      kurenawino            15
    aka mo susobiki
      yochi kora to
    te tadzusaharite
    toki no sakari wo       20
      todomi kane
    ka-guroki kami ni
      itsu no ma ka         25
    shimo no furikemu
      ni no ho nasu
        omote no
          uhe ni
      idzuku yu ka          30
    shiha kakitarishi
    wotoko sabi su to
    koshi ni tori-haki      35
      satsu yumi wo
    ta-nigiri mochite
      aka koma ni
    shitsu kura uchi-oki
      hahi-norite           40
    asobi arukishi
      yo no naka ga
    tsune ni arikeru
      wotomera ga
    sa nasu itato wo        45
    i-tadori yorite
    tama-de sashikahe
      sa neshi yo no        50
    ikuda mo araneba
    koshi ni taganete
    hito ni itohaye         55
      kaku yukeba
    hito ni nikumaye
      oyoshiwo ha
    kaku nomi narishi
      tamakiharu            60
    inochi woshikedo
    semu sube mo nashi.

      Tokihanasu             1
    kaku shi mo ka mo
    yo no koto nareba
    todomi-kanetsu mo.       5

8 _seme_.

10 _sabi_, _shika buri_, wont, wonted art or fashion.

14 _furi-kahashi_, flutter their sleeves together.

17 _yochi_, of like age.

22 pass away.

24 _ka_ is intensitive prefix.

25 at some time or other.

27 _ni no ho_, ruddy-ear (of grain) like.

39 _shitsu kura_, saddle of patterned &c. Japanese stuff.

40 mount and ride.

45 close-shut wooden doors.

47 grope.

49 _tama-de_, fine arms.

52 hand-supporting-staff.

58 = _oyoso_.

1-8 this fleeting world.

9-31 passing character of woman’s charms.

32-62 impermanence of man’s strength and joys.

For _momokusani_, _shirotaheno_, _kurenawino_, _minanowata_,
_masurawono_, _matamadeno_, _tamakiharu_, _tokihanasu_, see List m. k.


Yamanohe no Omi Okura ga Chinkwai-seki wo yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Kakemaku ha            1
    aya ni kashikoshi
      Tarashi hime
    kami no mikoto
      Karakuni wo            5
      mi-kokoro wo
    shidzume-tamafu to
    ihahi-tamahishi         10
      ma-tama nasu
    futatsu no ishi wo
      yo no hito ni
      yorodzu yo ni         15
    ihi-tsugu to gane
    oki tsu no Fukaye no
      unakami no
    Kofu no hara ni         20
      mi tetsukara
    okashi tamahite
      kamu nagara
    kamu sabi imasu
      kushi mitama          25
    ima no otsutsu ni
    tafutoki ro ka mo!

16 _gane_ = _gani_ = _yô_.

17, 18 Epithetical of _Fuka_(_ye_).

19 _umi no kami_ = _umibe_.

21 her own royal hand.

22 = _oku_.

25 _kushi_, wondrous; _mitama_, _matama_, right precious jewels, or

27 _ro_, see grammar.

For _watanosoko_ see List m. k.



Tsukushi no michi no kuchi (Chikuzen) no mikoto mochi no kami Yamanohe
no Okura ga Kumagori ni kaharite sono kokorozashi wo noburu uta ni
tsutsushimite nazorafuru uta mutsu mata zho.

      Uchihisasu             1
    Miya he noboru to
    haha ga te hanare
      tsune shiranu          5
    kuni no oku-ka wo
      momo he yama
    koyete sugi-yuki
    miyako wo mimu to       10
    katarahi woredo
      ono ga mi shi
      tamahokono            15
    michi no kuma mi ni
      kusa ta-wori
    shiba tori-shikite
      toko-zhi mono
    uchi-koi-fushite        20
      kuni ni araba
    chichi tori-mimashi
      ihe ni araba          25
    haha tori-mimashi
      yo no naka ha
    kaku nomi narashi
      inu zhi mono
    michi ni fushite ya     30
    inochi suginamu.

      Hito yo ni ha          1
    futatabi miyenu
      chichi haha wo
    okite ya nagaku
    aga wakarenamu!          5

16 _mi_ = _mahari_, or tract, vicinity.

For _uchihisasu_, _tarachishino_, _tamahokono_ see List m. k.


Hinkiu mondou no uta.

      Kaze mazhiri           1
    ame furu yo no
      ame mazhiri
    yuki furu yo ha
      sube mo naku           5
    samuku shi areba
      kata shiho wo
      kasu-yu sake
    uchi-susurohite         10
    hana bishi bishi ni
      shikato aranu
    hige kaki-nadete
      are wo okite          15
    hito ha arazhi to
    samuku shi areba
      asa fusuma
    hiki kagafuri           20
      nuno katakinu
    ari no kotogoto
    samuki yo sura wo
      ware yori mo          25
    madzushiki hito no
      chichi haha ha
      me kodomo ha
    kohite nakuramu         30
      kono toki ha
    ika ni shitsutsu ka
    na ga yo ha wataru
      ametsuchi ha
    hiroshi to ihedo        35
      aga tame ha
    saku ya narinuru
      hi-tsuki ha
    akashi to ihedo
      aga tame ha           40
    teri ya tamahanu
      hito mina ka
    a nomi ya shikaru
      wakuraba ni
    hito to ha aru wo       45
      hitonami ni
    are mo tsukuru wo
      wata mo naki
    nuno katakinu no
      miru no goto          50
    wawake sagareru
      kakafu nomi
    kata ni uchi-kake
      fuse-iho no
    mage iho no uchi ni     55
      hita tsuchi ni
    wara toki-shikite
      chichi haha ha
    makura no kata ni
      me kodomo ha          60
    ato no kata ni
    urehi samayohi
      kamado ni ha
    keburi fuki-tatezu      65
      koshiki ni ha
    kumo no su kakite
    koto mo wasurete
      nuye tori no          70
    nodo yobi woru ni
    mizhikaki monowo
      hashikiru to
    iheru ga goto ku        75
      shimoto toru
    sato wosa ga kowe ha
      neya-do made
    ki tachi yobahinu
      kaku bakari           80
    subenaki mono ka
    yo no naka no michi.


Yamanohe no Okura tonzhiu tsutsushimite tatematsuru [kô-kyo-kôrai] no
uta hitotsu.

      Kamiyo yori            1
    Yamato no kuni ha
      sume kami no           5
    itsukushiki kuni
      kototama no
    sakihafu kuni to
    ihitsukahikeri          10
      ima no yo no
    hito mo kotogoto
      me no mahe ni
    mitari shiritari
      hito saha ni          15
    michite ha aredomo
      hi no mikado
      kamu nagara
    mede no sakari ni       20
      ame no shita
      ihe no koto
      ohomikoto             25
    itadaki mochite
      Morokoshi no
    tohoki sakahi ni
    makari-imase            30
      unahara no
    he ni mo oki ni mo
      kamu tsumari
    ushi-haki imasu
      moromoro no           35
    ohomi kami-tachi
      funa no he ni
    michibiki mawoshi
      ametsuchi no
    ohomi kami-tachi        40
      Yamato no
    ohokuni mitama
    ama no mi sora yu
      ama kakeri            45
      koto wohari
    kaheramu hi ni ha
      mata sara ni
    ohomi kami-tachi        50
      funa no he ni
    mi-te uchi kakete
      sumi-naha wo
    hahetaru gotoku
      [ajinosumu]           55
    Chika no saki yori
      ohotomo no
    Mitsu no hamabi ni
      tada hate ni
    mi fune ha hatemu       60
      tsutsumi naku
    sakiku imashite
    haya kaherimase!

7 the spirit or genius of language.

22 _mawoshi_, govern, administer.

23 Cp. the Spanish _hidalgo_.

34 _ushi-haki_ (_nushi-haki_) = girt with dominion.

61 = _tsutsuganaku_, free from trouble or anxiety.

For _soramitsu_, _takahikaru_, _hisakatano_, _ajinosumu_ see List m. k.


(Rōshin jiubyô) toshi wo hete kurushimi mata kora wo omofu uta itsutsu
(nagauta hitotsu).

      Tamakiharu             1
    uchi no kagiri ha
    yasuku mo aramu wo
      koto mo naku           5
    mo naku mo aramu wo
      yo no naka no
    ukeku tsurakeku
    itaki kidzu ni ha       10
      karashiho wo
    sosogu chifu gotoku
      masumasu mo
    omoki umani ni
      uhani utsu to         15
      ifu koto no goto
      oi nite aru
    aga mi no uhe ni
      yamahi wo ra
    kahahete shi areba      20
      hiru ha mo
    nagekahi kurashi
      yoru ha mo
    ikidzuki akashi
      toshi nagaku          25
    ya mishi watareba
      tsuki kasane
    urehi samayohi
      kotogoto ha
    shinana to ’mohedo      30
    sawaku kodomo wo
      utsutete ha
    shini ha shirazu
      mitsutsu areba        35
    kokoro ha moyenu
      ka ni kaku ni
    ne nomi shi nakayu!

5 _mo_ here is mourning.

9 = _itodoshiku_.

19 _ra_, a separated plural affix (rare).

26 _ya_ = _yoru_.

30 _shinamu_.

33 _sutsuru_.

For _tamakiharu_, _sabahenasu_ see List m. k.


Furuhi wo kofuru uta mitsu (naga uta hitotsu mizhika-uta futatsu).

      Yo no hito no          1
    tafuto mi negafu
      nanakusa no
    takara mo areba
      nani semu ni           5
    negahi-hori semu
      waga naka no
    umare idetaru
    waga ko Furuhi ha       10
      aka-hoshi no
    akuru ashita ha
    toko no be sarazu
      tateredomo            15
    woredomo tomo ni
    koto-tohi tahare
      yufu-dzudzu no
    yufube ni nareba        20
      iza neyo to
    te wo tadzusahari
      chichi haha mo
    uhe ha na sakari
      sakikusano            25
    naka ni wo nemu to
    shiga kataraheba
      itsushika mo
    hito to nari idete      30
      ashikeku mo
    yokeku mo mimu to
    omohi-tanomu ni
      omohanu ni            35
    yokoshima kaze no
      nihaka ni mo
    ohohi kitareba
      semu sube no
    tadoki wo shirani       40
    tasuki wo kake
    te ni torimochite
      amatsukami            45
    afugi kohi nomi
    fushite nukadzuki
      kakarazu mo
    kakari mo yoshiwe       50
      ame tsuchi no
    kami no mani-mani to
    waga kohi-nomedo
      shimashiku mo         55
    yokeku ha nashi ni
      yauyau ni
    katachi tsukuhori
    ifukoto yami            60
    inochi tahenure
    ashi suri sakebi
      fushi afugi           65
    mune uchinageki
      te ni motaru
    aga ko tobashitsu
      yo no naka no michi.

48 _nuka_ = _hitai_.

53 _tachi-azari_, wander about distractedly.

55 = _shibashiku_.

57 An old form of _ya-ya_.

65 to lie supine.

68 = _tobitsu_. Here read _’aga ko … michi wo tobashitsu_.

vv. 1-10 are introductory to Furuhi--they form a pre-adjunct.

11-28 _shiga_--describes Furuhi’s manner--the words _iza neyo … nemu_
being his; 28-34 the father’s hopes; 35-40 suggest the boy’s illness;
41-54 the prayers and despair of the father; 55-62 the gradual decline
and death of Furuhi; 63 to end, the father’s grief at his loss.

This lay repays close study as an example of the language of the

For _shiratamano_, _shikitaheno_, _sakikusano_, _ohobuneno_,
_shirotaheno_, _tamakiharu_ see List m. k.


Kusagusa no uta.


Rauyau (Rôyô) nanatose to ifu toshi midzunoto wi satsuki Yoshinu no
totsumiya ni idemaseru toki Kanamura ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Tagi no he no          1
    Mifune no yama ni
      midzu-ye sashi
    shizhi ni ohitaru
      tsuganokino            5
    iya tsugitsugi ni
      yorodzu yo ni
    kaku shi shirasamu
      Mi-Yoshinu no
    Akidzu no miya ha       10
      kami kara ka
      kuni kara ka
      yama kaha wo          15
      ohomiya to
    ube shi kami-yo yu
    sadamekerashi mo.

      Yama takami            1
    shira-yufu hana ni
    tagi no kafuchi ha
    miredo akanu ka mo.      5

1-9 lead up to 10.

For _tsuganokino_, _ochitagitsu_ see List m. k.


Kuramochi no Asomi Chitose ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Umakori                1
    aya ni tomoshiki
    oto nomi kikishi
      Mi-Yoshinu no          5
    maki tatsu yama yu
    kaha no se goto ni
    asa-giri tachi          10
      yufu sareba
    kahadzu naku nari
      himo tokanu
    tabi ni shi areba
      a nomi shite          15
    kiyoki kahara wo
    miraku shi woshi mo.

1 _umakori_ = _umaki ori_, pretty-woven.

1-5 introductory to Yoshinu; 6-12 descriptive; 13 to end, the poet’s

For _umakori_, _narukamino_ see List m. k.


Zhimuki (Jinki) hazhime toshi kinoye ne kaminadzuki itsuka no hi Ki no
kuni ni idemaseru toki Akahito ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Yasumishishi           1
    wago ohokimi no
      totsu-miya to
      Sahika nu yu           5
    so-gahi ni miyuru
      oki tsu shima
    kiyoki nagisa ni
      kaze fukeba
    shiranami sawaki        10
      shiho hireba
    tamamo karitsutsu
      kami yo yori
    shika so tafutoki
    Tamatsushima yama.      15


(Jinki) futatose satsuki Yoshinu no totsu miya ni idemaseru toki Kasa
no Asomi Kanamura ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Ashihikino             1
    mi yama mo saya ni
      ochi tagitsu
    Yoshinu no kaha no
      kaha no se no          5
    kiyoki wo mireba
      kami-he ni ha
    chidori shiba-naki
      shimo-he ni ha
    kahadzu tsumayobu       10
    oho-miya hito mo
      wochi-kochi ni
    shizhi ni shi areba
      miru goto ni          15
    aya ni tomoshimi
    tayuru koto naku
      yorodzu yo ni
    kaku shi mo ga mo to    20
      ame-tsuchi no
    kami wo so inoru

For _ashihikino_, _momoshikino_, _tamakadzura_ see List m. k.


Yamabe no Sukune Akahito ga yomeru uta.

      Yasumishishi           1
    wago ohokimi no
    Yoshinu no miya ha
      tatanadzuku            5
      kaha nami no
    kiyoki Kafuchi so
      haru he ha
    hana saki wowori        10
      aki sareba
    kiri tachi-wataru
      sono yama no
    iya masu-masu ni
      kono kaha no          15
    tayuru koto naku
    ohomiya hito ha
    tsune ni kayohamu.

For _yasumishishi_, _tatanadzuku_, _momoshikino_ see List m. k.


      Yasumishishi           1
    waga ohokimi ha
      Mi-Yoshinu no
    Akidzu no wo-nu no
      nu no he ni ha         5
    tomi suwe-okite
      nu yama ni ha
    i-me tate-watashi
      asa-gari ni
    shishi fumi-okoshi      10
      yufu-gari ni
    tori fumi-tate
      uma namete
    mi-kari so tatasu
    haru no shige nu ni.    15


[Jinki futatose] kaminadzuki Naniha no miya ni idemaseru toki Kanamura
ga yomeru uta.

      Oshiteru               1
    Naniha no kuni ha
    furinishi sato to
      hito mina no           5
      tsure mo naku
    arishi ahida ni
    Nagara no miya ni       10
    futo taka shikite
      wosu kuni wo
      okitsutori            15
    Ajifu no hara ni
    yaso tomo no wo ha
      ihori shite
    miyako to nareri        20
    tabi ni ha aredomo.

1-7 introductory to 8.

9-14 erection of country-palace.

15 to end, the _yasotomono wo_ build their abodes round about the
palace, and so a City-Royal is established.

For _oshiteru_, _ashikakino_, _umiwonasu_, _okitsutori_, _mononofuno_
see List m. k.


Kuramochi no Asomi chitose ga yomeru uta.

      Isanatori              1
    hama he wo kiyomi
    ofuru tamamo ni
      asa-nagi ni            5
    chihe nami yori
      yufu-nagi ni
    ihohe nami yoru
      oki tsu nami
    iya masu-masu ni        10
      he tsu nami no
    iya shiku-shiku ni
      tsuki ni ke ni
    hihi ni migahoshi
      ima nomi ni           15
    aki-darame ya mo
      shiranami no
    Suminoye no hama.

16 _aki-darame_: _aki_ is written ‘autumn’, but the homophon meaning
‘satiety’ is intended.

For _isanatori_ see List m. k.


Akahito ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Ame tsuchi no          1
    tohoki ga gotoku
      hi tsuki no
    nagaki ga gotoku
      oshiteru               5
    Naniha no miya ni
      wago ohokimi
    kuni shirasurashi
      mi-ke tsu kuni
    hi-hi no mi-tsuki to    10
      Ahaji no
    Nushima no ama no
    okitsu ikuri ni
      ahabi tama            15
    saha ni kadzuki-de
      fune namete
    tsukahematsuru ka
    tafutoshi mireba.

16 _kadzuki_ (_kami tsuku_), dive.

19 Read _mireba tafutoshi_.

For _oshiteru_, _watanosoko_ see List m. k.


[Jinki] mitose to ifu toshi hinoye tora nagatsuki towoka mari itsuka
no hi Harima no kuni Inami-nu ni idemaseru toki Kanamura ga yomeru uta

      Nakisumi no            1
    Funase yu miyuru
      Ahaji shima
    Matsuho no ura ni
      asanagi ni             5
    tamamo karitsutsu
      yufunagi ni
    mo shiho-yakitsutsu
      ama wotome
    ari to ha kikedo        10
      mi ni yukamu
    yoshi no nakereba
    kokoro ha nashi ni
      tawayame no           15
    are haso kofuru
    fune kaji wo nami.

For _masurawono_ see List m. k.


Akahito ga yomeru uta hitotsu [migi ni onazhi miyuki no toki].

      Yasumishishi           1
    waga ohokimi no
      kamu nagara
      Inami-nu no            5
    Oho-umi no hara no
    Fujiye no ura ni
      shibi tsuru to
    ama-bune sawaki         10
      shiho-yaku to
    hito so saha naru
      ura wo yomi
    ube mo tsuri ha su
      hama wo yomi          15
    ube mo shiho yaku
    mesaku mo shirushi
    kiyoki shirahama.

      Inami-nu no            1
    asaji oshi-nabe
      sanuru yo no
    ke nagashiku areba
    ihe shi shinubayu.       5

17-19 Read _arigayohi mishitamafu mo ichishiruku kiyokute omoshiroki
shirahama zo to nari_.

3 _sanuru_ = _yadori suru_.

4 _ke_ = _ki-he_.

5 _shinubayeru_.

For _yasumishishi_, _arataheno_ see List m. k.


Karani no shima wo suguru toki Akahito ga yomeru uta.

      Umasahafu              1
    imo ga mekarete
    makura mo akazu [makazu]
      kaniha maki            5
    tsukureru fune ni
      ma kaji nuki
    aga kogi-kureba
      Ahaji no
    Nushima wo sugi         10
    Karani no shima no
      shima no ma yu
    wagihe wo mireba
      awoyama no            15
    soko to mo miyezu
      shirakumo mo
    chihe ni narikinu
    ura no kotogoto         20
    shima no saki-zaki
      kuma mo okazu
    omohi so aga kuru
    tabi no ke nagake!      25

      Tamamokaru             1
    Karani no shima ni
      shima mi suru
    u ni shi mo are ya
    ihe ’mohazaramu!         5

2 _imo ga mekarete_ = _me hanuru_, the eye (features, i.e. person)
being separated from me.

4 _akazu_ probably should be _makazu_.

5 _kaniha_ = _kaba_, birch.

7 _nuki_, place oars in position, on thole or between rowlocks.

11 _Inamitsuma_, of _tsuma_, the meaning is uncertain, perhaps tract or
neighbourhood; _tsuma_, border.

19 _tamuru_, a weak form of _tamotohoru_.

22 cape after cape: see K. 80. 345, _shima no sakizaki_.

23 _kuma mo okazu_ = _kuma (sumi) mo ochizu_, a not infrequent
expression in the Manyôshiu.

24 _omohite so aga kuru tabi ga ki-he nagashi_.

25 _ke_ = _ki-he_ (_kuru-henuru_).

1, 2 _karu_ _kara_, probably a designed jingle.

4, 5 would I were but a cormorant, then I should be free from

As to the m. k. _shikitahe_ and _umasahafu_: _shikitahe_, spread-cloth,
seems originally to have meant a garment worn to sleep in, or a
coverlet. It is applied to night, sleeping, night garments, pillows, &c.

_Umasahafu_ is the reading preferred by the Kogi to that in the text,
_ajisahafu_. Of neither can any certain explanation be given. On the
whole I am inclined to prefer the one suggested of _umasahafu_ under
that word in the Kogi’s list of _makura kotoba_.--_umashi-aha-fu_,
field of sweet millet; _ahafu_ = millet-field in K. 143, n. 2, _fu_
is perhaps an original form of _hafu_ or _hae_. The ancient Japanese
_f_ (perhaps derived from a lost _p_) was something like the Highland
‘fwh’ in ‘fwhat’ of which the different elements were prominent in
connexion with particular vowel sounds. As significant of numerousness,
it is applied to _mure_ (flock, crowd) contracted into _me_ (to which
through a homophon meaning ‘woman’ it is applied in the text) as well
as sometimes to _yoru_, night (homophon of _yoru_, gather together,
collect). There are parallel etymologies quoted by the Kogi, but
it is needless to detail them here. _Umashiahafu_ would contract
into _umasahafu_; _umashi_ may be written with a character _aji_,
meaning taste, savour--hence _ajisahafu_, and of this the _aji_ might
be confounded with its homonym _aji_ (a kind of teal or widgeon),
explaining a common way of writing the expression--teal-marsh-abundant.

For _umasahafu_, _shikitaheno_ see List m. k.


Minume no ura wo suguru toki Akahito ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Mikemukafu             1
    Ahaji no shima ni
      tada mukafu
    Minume no ura no
      oki he ni ha           5
    fukamiru tsumi
      urami ni ha
    nanori-so kari
    mimaku hoshikedo        10
    onoga na woshimi
      ma tsukahi mo
    yarazute are ha
    ikeru to mo nashi.      15

      Suma no ama no         1
    shiho-yaki kinu no
      narenaba ka
    hito hi mo kimi wo
    wasurete omohamu.        5

For _mikemukafu_, _fukamiruno_, _nanorisono_ see List m. k.


(Jinki) yotose to ifu toshi hinoto no u mutsuki ohokimitachi omitachi
ni mikotonori shite Jintôryô ni hanachi imashime tamaheru toki ni
yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Makuzuhafu             1
    Kasuka no yama ha
    haru sari yuku to
      yama no he ni          5
    kasumi tachibiki
      Takamato ni
    uguisu nakinu
    yaso tomo no wo ha      10
      karigane no
    ki-tsugi konogoro
      kaku tsukite
    tsune ni ariseba
      tomo namete           15
    asobamu mono wo
      uma namete
    yukamashi sato wo
      machi-kate ni
    aga seshi haru wo       20
      kakemaku mo
    aya ni kashikoshi
      ihamaku mo
    yuyushikaramu to
      arakazhime            25
    kanete shiriseba
      chidori naku
    sono Saho-gaha ni
      iso ni ofuru
    suga no ne torite       30
    harahite mashi wo
      yuku midzu ni
    misogite mashi wo
      ohokimino             35
    mikoto kashikomi
    ohomiya hito no
    michi ni mo idezu       40
    kofuru kono goro.

10-14 the Kogi text is followed.

11 a species of wild goose; also _kari ga ne_, the scream of the wild

19-20 the spring we have made vain to wait for.

40-41 _sankin ni ahite midari ni michi ni idzuru koto dani yezushite_.

For _makuzuhafu_, _uchinabiku_, _mononofuno_, _momoshikino_,
_ohokimino_, _tamahokono_ see List m. k.

Of the above lay the text is more or less uncertain, the syntax is
confused, and the meaning in part obscure.


(Tempyô) futatose shimotsuki Sakanohe no Iratsume ga Kami no ihe
yori michi-dachi shite Tsukushi no michi no kuchi no kuni (Chikuzen)
Munakata no kohori Nagoyama wo koyuru toki yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Ohonamuji              1
    Sukunabikona no
      kami koso ha
    nadzuke somekeme
      na nomi wo             5
    Nagoyama to ohite
      aga kohi no
    chihe no hito he mo
    nagusame naku ni.

7 _kohi_ = _[miyako wo] kohishiku omofu_.


(Tempyô) yotose to ifu toshi midzunoye saru Fujihara no Umakahi no
mahetsukimi nishi no umi tsu ji no setsudoshi ni tsukahasaruru toki
Takahashi no Murazhi Mushimaro ga yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Shirakumono            1
    Tatsuta no yama no
      tsuyu shimo ni
    iro-dzuku toki ni
      uchi-koyete            5
    tabi-yuku kimi ha
      ihohe yama
    i-yuki sakumi
    Tsukushi ni itari       10
      yama no soki
    nu no soki mesedo
      tomo no be wo
    agachi tsukahashi
      yamabikoni            15
    kotahemu kihami
      taniguku no
    sa wataru kihami
      kuni-gata wo
    meshi-tamahite          20
    haru sari-yukaba
    haya kaheri-kone
      Tatsuta-ji no         25
    Wokabe no michi ni
      ni-tsutsuzhi no
    nihohamu toki no
    sakinamu toki ni        30
    mukahe-mawi demu
    kimi ga kimasaba.

      Chiyorodzu no          1
    ikusa naritomo
      koto agesezu
    torite kinubeki
    wotoko to so ’mofu.      5

3 _tsuyu shimo ni_, by the rime and dew (which cause the ruddy leafage
of autumn). But see Glossary. Other explanations are possible, but the
above seems most suitable.

3 _koto agesezu_ = _ihitatsuru koto naku_.

For _shirakumono_, _yamabikoni_, _fuyukomori_, _tobutorino_,
_yamatadzuno_ (not rendered in the translation) see List m. k.


Sumera mikoto no setsudoshi no mahetsukimitachi ni ohomiki tamaheru
ohomi-uta hitotsu.

      Wosukuni no            1
    toho no mikado ni
      imashira shi
    kaku makarinaba
      tahirakeku             5
    are ha asobamu
      te udakite
    are ha imasamu
      sumera waga
    udzu no mite mochi      10
      kaki-nade so
      uchi-nade so
      kaheri-komu hi        15
    ahi nomamu ki so
    kono toyomiki ha

10 _udzu_, precious or sacred; _mi-te_ = _mi tahe_.

11, 13 _kaki_ and _uchi_ are prefix verbs having an emphatic value;
_nade_ = propitiate, _negi_ (_negafu_), intreat.



(Tempyô) yatose to ifu toshi hinoye ne minadzuki Yoshinu no totsumiya
ni idemaseru toki Akahito ga mikotonori wo uketamaharite yomeru uta

      Yasumishishi           1
    waga ohokimi no
    Yoshinu no miya ha
      yama-takami            5
    kumo so tanabiku
      kaha hayami
    se no to so kiyoki
    mireba tafutoku         10
      yoroshi nabe
    mireba sayakeshi
      konoyama no
    tsukiba nomi koso
      kono kaha no          15
    tayeba nomi koso
    ohomiya tokoro
    yamu toki mo arame!

3 _meshi_ = _mishi_.

11 _yoroshi nabe_, and likewise excellent.

14 _tsukiba_ and 16 _tayeba_ have much the same value.

16 _nomi koso_, the _koso_ emphasizes the two _nomi_.

89, 90, 91

Isonokami no Otomaro no mahetsukimi (kyô) Tosa no kuni ni hanatayeshi
toki uta mitsu.


      Isonokami              1
    Furu no mikoto ha
      tawayame no
    sadohi ni yorite
      uma-zhi mono           5
    naha tori-tsuke
      shishi zhi mono
    yumi-ya kakumite
      ohokimi no
    mikoto kashikomi        10
    hina he ni makaru
    Matsuchi no yama yu
    kaheri-konu ka mo.      15

For _amazakaru_, _furukoromo_ see List m. k.


      Ohokimi no             1
    mikoto kashikomi
    kuni ni idemasu
      hashikiyashi           5
    waga se no kimi wo
      kakemaku mo
    yuyushiki kashikoshi
      Suminoye no
    ara hito kami           10
      funa no he ni
    shima no saki-zaki
      yori tamahamu         15
    iso no saki-zaki
      araki nami
    kaze ni ahasezu
      tsutsumi naku
    mi yamahi arazu         20
    moto no kuni he ni.

3-4 perhaps should run _sashinamino_ | _Tosa no kuni ni_ | _idemasu ya_.

10 _ara_ = _arahareru_--but see Aston, _Shintô_.

12 _ushi_ = _mushi_ (_ni shite hakasu_).

13, 15 _tsuki_ rather refers to direction, _yori_ to approach.

19 = _tsutsuga naku_, untroubled.

21 = _sumiyaka ni_. Motowori says _sumu_ = _susumu_.

For _sashinamino_ see List m. k.


      Chichi kimi ni         1
    are ha manago so
      omo tozhi ni
    are ha manago so
      mawi-nobori            5
    yaso uji hito no
      tamuke suru
    Kashiko no saka ni
      nusa matsuri
    are ha so makaru        10
    tohoki Tosa-ji wo.

5, 6, 7 introduce _kashiko_ (Kashiko). Motowori considers the subject
of 5 to be Isonokami.


Nara no miyako no aretaru wo kanashimi yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Yasumishishi           1
    waga ohokimi no
    Yamato kuni ha
      sumerogi no            5
    kami no mi yo yori
    kuni nishi areba
    miko no tsugi tsugi     10
    shiroshimesamu to
      ya ho yorodzu
    chi-tose wo kanete
      sadamekemu            15
    Nara no miyako ha
    haru nishi areba
      Kasuga yama
    Mikasa no nu-he ni      20
      sakura hana
    ko no kure-gakure
      kaho-tori ha
    ma naku shiba naku
      tsuyushimono          25
    aki sari-kureba
      Hakahi yama
    Tobuhi ga take ni
      hagi no ye wo
    shigarami chirashi      30
      sawoshika ha
    tsuma yobi-toyome
      yama mireba
    yama mo migahoshi
      sato mireba           35
    sato mo sumiyoshi
    yaso tomo no wo no
    sato namishikeba        40
      ametsuchi no
    yori-ahi no kihami
      yorodzu no yo ni
    sakaye yukamu to
      omohi nishi           45
    ohomiya sura wo
    Nara no miyako wo
      arata yo no
    koto nishi areba        50
      ohokimi no
    hiki no manimani
    utsurohi kahari
      muratorino            55
    asa tachi yukeba
    ohomiya hito no
      fumi narashi
    kayohishi michi ha      60
      uma mo yukazu
    hito mo yukaneba
    are ni keru ka mo!

3 _takashikasu_ = _takashirasu_.

9 _araharemasamu_.

24 The first _naku_ = not-be, the second, cry, sing.

39 _uchi-hahete_, _hafu_, extend.

41-42 set forth men’s hopes. Nara would long endure--a sort of common
form in lays of this character. 53 to end describe the impermanence of
things and the desolation of the abandoned Capital.

For _yasumishishi_, _kagirohino_, _tsuyushimono_, _mononofuno_,
_haruhanano_, _muratorino_, _sasudakeno_ see List m. k. Most of these
can only be rendered indirectly.

93, 94

Kuni no nihimiyako wo tatafuru uta futatsu.


      Akitsukami             1
    waga ohokimi no
      ame no shita
    Yashima no uchi ni
      kuni ha shi mo         5
    ohoku aredomo
      sato ha shi mo
    saha ni aredomo
      yama nami no
    yoroshiki kuni to       10
      kaha nami no
    tachi-afu sato to
      Yamashiro no
    Kase-yama no ma ni
      miya-hashira          15
    futoshiki matsuri
    Futagi no miya ha
      kaha chikami
    se no to so kiyoki      20
      yama chikami
    tori ga ne-doyomu
      aki sareba
    yama mo todoro ni
      sawoshika ha          25
    tsuma yobi-doyome
      haru sareba
    woka be no shizhi ni
      ihaho ni ha
    hana saki-wowori        30
      ana omoshiro
    Futagi no hara
      ito tafuto
    ohomiya tokoro
      ubeshi koso           35
    waga ohokimi ha
      kimi no mani
    ohomiya koko to         40
    sadamekerashi mo.

For _akitsukami_, _sasudakeno_ see List m. k.


      Waga ohokimi           1
    kami no mikoto no
    Futagi no miya ha
      momo ki moru           5
    yama ha ko-dakashi
    se no ’to mo kiyoshi
      uguhisu no
    ki naku haru he ha      10
      ihaho ni ha
    yama shita-hikari
      nishiki nasu
    hana saki wowori
      sawoshika no          15
    tsuma yobu aki ha
    shigure wo itami
    momichi chiritsutsu     20
      yachi tose ni
    are tsukashitsutsu
      ame no shita
    shiroshimesamu to
      momo yo ni mo         25
    ohomiya tokoro.

      Wotomera ga            1
    umi wo kaku chifu
      Kase no yama
    toki shi yukereba
    miyako to narinu.        5

5 The meaning of _moru_ is disputed. The Kogi follows Motowori, taking
_moru_ as equivalent to _shigeru_.

22 = _chôtei ni tsukahematsuru wo_. _are_ = _arahare_.

3 _kase_, homophon of _Kase_, means skein or spool.

For _sanidzurafu_, see List m. k.


Haru no koro Mika no hara no miyako no aretaru wo kanashimi yomeru uta

      Mika no hara           1
    Kuni no miyako ha
      yama takami
    kaha no se kiyomi
      ari yoshi to           5
    hito ha ihedomo
      sumi yoshi to
    are ha omohedo
      furi nishi
    sato nishi areba        10
      kuni miredo
    hito mo kayohazu
      sato mireba
    ihe no aretari
      hashikeyashi          15
    kaku arikeru ka
      mi moro tsuku
    Kase yama no ma ni
      saku hana ni
    iro medzurashiku        20
    kowe natsukashiki
    sumi yoki sato no
    aruraku woshi mo!       25

2 _Kuni_, is City-Royal; in 11 _kuni_ is ‘land’ or ‘country.’

15 must be read, though indirectly, with 18, 16 being parenthetical.

17 Motowori prefers _umi wo kaku_ (see 94).

_tsuku_ = _tsukuru_.

25 _aruraku_ = _aruru_, lie desolate, waste.

For _momotorino_ see List m. k.


Naniha no miya nite yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Yasumishishi           1
    waga ohokimi no
    Naniha no miya ha
      isanatori              5
    umi katatsukite
      tama hirifu
    hama he wo chikami
      asa ha furu
    nami no ’to sawaki      10
      yufu nagi ni
    kaji no ’to kikoyu
      akatoki no
    ne-same ni kikeba
      umi chikami           15
    shihohi no muta
      urasu ni ha
    chidori tsuma yobi
      ashi-he ni ha
    tadzu ga ne-doyomu      20
      miru hito no
    katari ni sureba
      kiku hito no
    mimakuhori suru
      mikemukafu            25
    Ajifu no miya ha
    miredo akanu ka wo.

16 _muta_ = _tomo ni_.

22 _ni_ = _wo_.

24 _migahoshiku_.

27 _akanu_, unwearied of.

For _yasumishishi_, _isanatori_, _mikemukafu_ see List m. k.


Minume no ura wo suguru toki yomeru uta hitotsu.

      Yachihokono            1
    kami no mi yo yori
    hatsuru tomari to
      Yashima kuni           5
    momo funa hito no
    Minume no ura ha
      asa kaze ni
    ura nami sawaki         10
      yufu nami ni
    tamamo ha ki-yoru
      shira manago
    kiyoki hama-he ha
      yuki kaheri           15
    miredomo akazu
      ubeshi koso
    miru hito goto ni
    shinubikerashiki        20
      momoyo hete
    shinubaye yukamu
    kiyoki shira hama.

1-7 introductory to 8. 9 to end descriptive and eulogistic.

13 _manago_ = _masago_, sand, pebbles.

For _yachihokono_, _momofuneno_ see List m. k.


Haru no kusagusa no uta.


Kusaka yama no uta.

      Oshiteru               1
    Naniha wo sugite
      uchi nabiku
    Kusaka no yama wo
      yufu-gure ni           5
    aga koye-kureba
      yama mo se ni
    sakeru ashibi no
    kimi wo itsushika       10
    yukite haya mimu.

7 _se ni_, crowdedly, thickly.

8, 9 sound-quibble, _ashibi_ and _ashikaranu_.

10, 11 There is inversion here.

For _oshiteru_ and _uchinabiku_ see List m. k.


Sakura no hana no uta.

      Wotomera ga            1
    kazashi no tame ni
      miyabi-wo no
    katsura no tame to
      shikimaseru            5
    kuni no hatate ni
      saki nikeru
    sakura no hana no
    nihohi ha mo ana ni!

Haru no shitashimi uta.


(Tempyô) itsutose to ifu toshi midzunoto tori nochi no yayohi Kanamura
ga Morokoshi ni tsukahasu tsukahi ni okureru uta.

      Tamatasuki             1
    kakenu toki naku
      iki no wo ni
    aga ’mofu kimi ha
      utsusemino             5
    [yo no hito nareba
      ohokimi no]
    mikoto kashikomi
      yufu sareba
    tadzu ga tsuma yobu     10
    Mitsu no saki yori
      ohobune ni
    ma kaji shizhi nuki
      shira-nami no         15
    takaki arumi wo
    i-wakare yukeba
    are ha nusa tori        20
    kimi wo ba matamu
    haya kaherimase!

1-8 are a preface.

2 without breach of truce.

3 _iki no wo_, thread of life.

6, 7 Interpolated on the authority of Keichiu.

16 _arumi_ = _aruru umi_.

For _tamatasuki_, _utsusemino_ see List m. k.

Natsu no shitashimi uta.


Ohotomo no Yakamochi ga tachibana wo yojite Sakanohe no Oho-Iratsume ni
okureru uta.

      Itsushika to           1
    matsu waga yado ni
    ofuru tachibana
      tama ni nuku           5
    sa-tsuki wo chikami
      ayenu gani
    hana saki ni keri
      asa ni ke ni
    ide-miru goto ni        10
      iki no wo ni
    aga ’mofu imo ni
    kiyoki tsuki-yo ni
      tada hito me          15
    misemu made ni ha
      chiri-kosu na
    yume to ihitsutsu
      kokodaku mo
    aga moru mono wo        20
      uretaki ya
    shiko hototogisu
      akatoki no
    urakanashiki ni
      ohedo ohedo           25
    naho shi ki-nakite
      itadzura ni
    tsuchi ni chiraseba
      sube wo nami
    yojite ta-woritsu       30
    mimase wagimoko!

      Mochi kudachi          1
    kiyoki tsuku yo ni
      wagimoko ni
    misemu to ’mohishi
    yado no tachibana!       5

7 _ayenu_ = _ayenuru_, ready to set for fruit?

_gani_ = _yô_, _sama_.

19 _kokodaku_ = _ikubaku_.

1 _mochi kudachi_ = _michikudari_ = full and on the turn.

For _masokagami_ see List m. k.


Aki no kusagusa no uta.


Yamanohe no Omi Okura ya nanuka no yo [Tanabata] no uta towo amari
futatsu (naga-uta hitotsu).


      Hisakatano             1
    ama no kaha se ni
      fune ukete
    koyohi ka kimi ga
    agari ki-masamu.         5


      Hiko-hoshi ha          1
    Tanabata tsu me to
      ame tsuchi no
    wakareshi toki yu
      inamushiro             5
    kaha ni mukitachi
      omofu sora
    yasukaranaku ni
      nageku sora
    yasukaranaku ni         10
      awo nami ni
    nozomi ha tayenu
      shira kumo ni
    namida ha tsukinu
      kaku nomi ya          15
    ikidzuke woramu
      kaku nomi ya
    kohitsutsu aramu
      sa ni-nuri no
    wo bune mo ga mo        20
      tama-maki no
    ma kai mo ga mo
      asa nagi ni
      yufu shiho ni         25
    ama no kahara ni
    hire katashiki          30
    tama-de sashikahe
      amata tabi
    imo neteshi ka mo
    aki ni arazu to mo!     35

3 _ukete_, float, launch.

6 _muki-tachi_, stand by.

8, 10 _ni_ is adverbial, in 11, 13 postpositional.

13 Supply _furisake mireba_.

15, 17 _ya_ is dubitative, with a tinge of regret.

24 beat (the water with oar or scull) and cross.

24, 26 _i_ is a prefix of which the original value is lost.

30 _katashiki_, spread out to one side.

For _hisakatano_, _inamushiro_, _amatobuya_, _matamadeno_ see List m. k.

Aki no shitashimi uta.


Yakamochi ga Sakanohe no Oho-Iratsume ni okureru uta.

      Nemokoro ni            1
    mono wo omoheba
      ihamu sube
    semu sube mo nashi
      imo to aga             5
    te tadzusaharite
      ashita ni ha
    niha ni idetachi
      yufuhe ni ha
    toko uchi-harahi        10
    sode sashikahete
      sa-neshi yo ya
    tsune ni arikeru
      ashihikino            15
    yamadori koso ha
      wo mukahi ni
    tsuma-dohi su to ihe
    hito naru are ya        20
      nani su to ka
    hito hi hito yo mo
    nageki kofuramu
      koko ’moheba          25
    mune koso itame
      soko yuwe ni
    kokoro nagu ya to
      Takamato no
    yama ni mo nu ni mo     30
    asobi arukedo
      hana nomi shi
    nihohite areba
      miru goto ni          35
    mashite shinubayu
      ika ni shite
    wasuremu mono so
    kohi chifu mono wo.

17 _wo mukahi_, over the hills.

28 _nagu_ = _nagusamuru_.

3-9 inversion.

For _shirotaheno_, _ashihikino_, _utsusemino_ see List m. k.


Kusagusa no uta.


Kamitsufusa (Kadzusa) Suwe no Tamana no wotome wo yomeru uta
hitotsu-mata mizhika uta.

      Shinagatori            1
    Aha ni tsukitaru
    Suwe no Tamana ha
      muna wake no           5
    hirokeki wagimo
      koshi hoso no
    sugaru wotome no
      sono kaho no
    kirakirashiki ni        10
      hana no goto
    wemite tatereba
    michi yuku hito ha
      ono ga yuku           15
    michi ha yukazute
      yobanaku ni
    kado ni itarinu
    tonari no kimi ha       20
      tachimachi ni
    ono tsuma ’karete
      kohanaku ni
    kagi sahe matsuru
      hito no mina          25
    kaku madohereba
    yorite so imo ha
    tahasete arikeru.

      Kanado ni shi          1
    hito no ki-tateba
      yo naka ni mo
    mi ha tanashirazu
    idete so ahikeru.        5

22 _’karete_ = _wakarete_.

24 _kagi_, for the treasure it locks up.

27 seems to be equivalent to _tori-yosofu_ or _katachi tsukurofu_.

The m. k. (1) applies to A[ha], (3) to Suwe (read homophonously as

For _shinagatori_, _adzusayumi_, _tamahokono_ see List m. k.


Midzunoye no Urashima no ko wo yomeru uta.

      Haru no hi no          1
    kasumetaru toki ni
      Suminoye no
    kishi ni idekite
      tsuri-bune no          5
    tayutafu mireba
      inishihe no
    koto so omohoyu
      Midzunoye no
    Urashima no ko ga       10
      katsuwo tsuri
    tahi tsuri hokori
      nanuka made
    ihe ni mo kozute
      unasaka wo            15
    sugite kogi-yuku ni
      watatsumi no
    kami no wotome ni
      tamasaka ni
    i-kogi mukahi           20
    koto narishikaba
    toko yo ni itari
      watatsumi no          25
    kami no miya no
      uchi no he no
    tahenaru tono ni
    futari iri-wite         30
      oi mo sezu
    shini mo sezushite
      tokoshihe ni
    arikeru mono wo
      yo no naka no         35
    katakuna hito no
      wagimoko ni
    norite kataraku
      shimashiku ha
    ihe ni kaherite         40
      chichi haba ni
    koto wo mo norahi
      asu no goto
    are ha kinamu to
      ihikereba             45
    imo ga iheraku
      tokoyo he ni
    mata kaheri-kite
      ima no goto
    ahamu to naraba         50
      kono kushige
    hiraku na yume to
      sokoraku ni
    katameshi koto wo
      Suminoye ni           55
      ihe miredo
    ihe mo mi-kanete
      sato miredo
    sato mo mi-kanete       60
      ayashimi to
    soko ni omohaku
      ihe yo dete
    mi tose no hodo ni
      kaki mo naku          65
    ihe useme ya mo
      kono hako wo
    hirakite miteba
      moto no goto
    ihe ha aramu to         70
      tama kushige
    sukoshi hiraku ni
      shirakumo no
    hako yori idete
      tokoyo he ni          75
    sakebi sode furi
    ashi-zuri shitsutsu     80
      tachimachi ni
    kokoro ke usenu
    hada wo shihaminu
      kurokarishi           85
    kami mo shirakenu
      yuri-yuri ha
    iki sahe tayete
      nochi tsuhi ni
    inochi shini keru       90
      Midzunoye no
    Urashima no ko ga
    ihe tokoro miyu.

      Tokoyo he ni           1
    sumubeki mono wo
    shi ga kokoro-gara
    oso ya kono kimi.        5

5 _oso_ = _orosoka_.

The m. k. (3) is applied to _shi_ = _sono_.

For _tsurugitachi_ see List m. k.


Kafuchi no Ohohashi wo hitori yuku wotome wo mite [yomeru] uta.

      Shinateru              1
    Kata-asuha kaha no
      sa-ni nuri no
    ohohashi no he yo
      kurenawino             5
    aka mo suso-biki
      yama-wi mochi
    sureru kinu kite
      tada hitori
    i-watarasu ko ha        10
    tsuma ka aruramu
    hitori ka nuramu
      tohamaku no           15
    hoshiki wagimo ga
    ihe no shiranaku.

1 Epithet of _kata_ (Kata-asuha).

3 fine red-stained.

7, 8 rubbed, i.e. dyed with the _yama-wi_ (Polygonum tinctorium).

12 _tsuma_ here = _otto_.

13, 14 Confer translation.

For _shinateru_, _kurenawino_, _wakakusano_, _kashinomino_ see List m.


(Kyôun) mitose to ifu toshi hinoye uma yayohi moromoro no
mahetsukimitachi Namiha ni kudareru toki no uta futatsu.

      Shirakumono            1
    Tatsuta no yama no
      Tagi no he no
    Wokura no mine ni
      saki-woworu            5
    sakura no hana ha
      yama takami
    kaze no yamaneba
      haru-same no
    tsugite furereba        10
      ho tsu ye ha
    chiri sugite keri
      shi tsu ye ni
    nokoreru hana ha
      shimashiku ha         15
    chiri na midari so
    tabi yuku kimi ga
    kaheri-komu made.

5 blossoming in falling masses, festoons of flowers.

11 _ho_ is upper part--13 _shi_ is lower part of the tree-mass.

For _shirakumono_, _kusamakura_ see List m. k.


      Shirakumono            1
    Tatsuta no yama wo
      yufu-gure ni
    uchi-koye yukeba
      Tagi no he no          5
    sakura no hana ha
      sakitaru ha
    chiri sugi ni keri
      fukumeru ha
    saki tsuginubeshi       10
      kochi-gochi no
    hana no sakari ni
      misezu tomo
      ka ni kaku ni
    kimi no mi yuki ha      15
    ima ni shi arubeshi.

13 After this line the Kogi would interpolate--_chiri na midari so_.

14 may = whenever it may be, sooner or later.

15 _ima_, presently, ere long.

For _shirakumono_ see List m. k.


Naniha ni yadorite akuru hi kaheru toki no uta.

      Shima yama wo          1
    i-yuki motohoru
      kaha sohi no
    woka he no michi yo
      kinofu koso            5
    aga koye-koshi ka
      hito yo nomi
    netarishi kara ni
      wo no uhe no
    sakura no hana ha       10
      tagi no se yo
    tagi-chite nagaru
      kimi ga mimu
    sono hi made ni ha
      arashi no             15
    kaze na fuki so to
    na ni oheru mori ni

4 _yo_ = _yori_, so in 11 where it is to be understood as _ni_.

8 _kara_ = _nagara_ (?).

9 _wo_, summit or ridge.

19 = _kaze [no kami wo] matsurisemu (matsuramu)_.



Kemuzeishi (kenzeishi) Ohotomo no mahetsukimi no Tsukuba yama ni
noboritamaheru toki no uta.

      Koromode               1
    Hitachi no kuni
    Tsukuba no yama wo
      mimakuhori             5
    kimi kimaseri to
      atsukeku ni
    ase-kaki-nage [ki]
      ko no ne tori
    uso-muki nobori         10
      wo no uhe wo
    kimi ni misureba
      wo no kami mo
      me no kami mo         15
      toki to naku
    kumo-wi ame furu
      Tsukubane wo
    saya ni terashite       20
    kuni no mabora wo
      tsubaraka ni
      ureshimi to           25
    himo no wo tokite
      ihe no goto
    tokete so asobu
    haru mimashi yo ha      30
      natsu kusa no
    shigeku ha aredo
    kefu no tanushisa.

6 sweating and panting.

17 suddenly, unexpectedly, untimely.

30 Or _mimaku_--_yo_ = _yori_.

For _koromode_, _uchinabiku_ see List m. k.


Hototogisu wo yomeru uta.

      Uguhisu no             1
    kahi-ko no naka ni
    hitori umarete
      shi ga chichi ni       5
    nite ha nakazu
      shiga haha ni
    nite wa nakazu
      u no hana no
    sakitaru nu he yo       10
      tobi kakeri
    ki naki toyomoshi
      tachibana no
    hana wo wi-chirashi
      hinemosu ni           15
    nakedo kiki yoshi
      mahi ha semu
    tohoku na yuki so
      waga yado no
    hana tachibana ni       20
    sumi watari nake.

5 _sore ga_.

6, 8 _nite_, like, resembling.

11 fly high.


Tsukuba yama ni noboru uta.

      Kusamakura             1
    tabi no ukeku wo
    koto mo are ya to
      Tsukuba ne ni          5
    noborite mireba
      wobana chiru
    Shidzuku no ta-wi ni
      karigane mo
    samuku ki-nakinu        10
      Nihibari no
    Toba no afumi mo
      aki kaze ni
    shira-nami tachinu
      Tsukuba ne no         15
    yokeku wo mireba
      nagaki ke ni
    omohi tsumi-koshi
    ukeku ha yaminu.

7 _wobana_ is Miscanthus sinensis.

8 _ta-wi_ = _ta-winaka_ or _inaka_.

9 Either _karigane_ or _kari-ga-ne_, a sort of quibble.

17 _nagaki kihe_.

18 _koshi_, a past of _kuru_, here auxiliary, read with _ukeku_.
_omohi-tsumi_, piled up thoughts (i.e. sorrows of travel).

For _kusamakura_ see List m. k.


Tsukubane ni noborite kagahi suru toki yomeru uta hitotsu mata mizhika

      Washinosumu            1
    Tsukuba no yama no
      Mohakitsu no
    sono tsu no uhe ni
      adomohite              5
    wotome wotoko no
      yuki tsudohi
    kagafu kagaki ni
      hito-dzuma ni
    are mo ahamu            10
      aga tsuma ni
    hito mo koto-tohe
      kono yama wo
    ushi-haku kami no
      inishihe yo           15
    isamenu waza zo
      kefu nomi ha
    megushi mo nami so
    koto mo togamuna

      Wo no kami ni          1
    kumo tachi nobori
      shigure furi
    nure-tohoru tomo
    are kaherame ya.         5

18 Either _me-gurushiku na mi so_ or _megushi nami so_--the sense is
much the same.

19 _koto togame wo mo suna_.

For _washinosumu_ see List m. k.


Shika wo yomeru uta hitotsu mata mizhika uta.

      Mimoro no              1
    Kamunabi yama ni
    Mikaki no yama ni
      aki-hagi no            5
    tsuma wo makamu to
    akemaku woshimu
      ashihiki no
    yamabiko-doyome         10
    yobitate naku mo.


Nanuka no yo no uta hitotsu mata mizhika uta.

      Hisakatano             1
    ama no kahara ni
      kamitsu se ni
    tama-hashi watashi
      shimotsu se ni         5
    fune ukesuwe
      ame furite
    kaze ha fuku to mo
      kaze fukite
    ame ha furu to mo       10
      mo nurasazu
    yamazu kimase to
    tama-hashi watasu.

11 _mo_ = skirt, dress.

For _hisakatano_ see List m. k.


Kashima no kohori Karunu no hashi nite Ohotomo no mahetsukimi ni
wakaruru uta hitotsu mata mizkiha uta.

      Kotohiushi             1
    Miyake no ura ni
    Kashima no saki ni
      sa ni-nuri no          5
    wobune wo make
      tama maki no
    wo-kaji shizhi nuki
      yufu shiho no
    michi no todomi ni      10
      mi funa ko wo
    adomohi tatete
    mi fune idenaba
      hama mo se ni         15
    okure nami wite
    kohi ka mo woramu
    ne nomi ya nakamu       20
      Unakami no
    sono tsu wo sashite
    kimi ga kogi-yukeba.

6 _make_ = _môke_.

15 _se ni_ = _semaki hodo ni_.

The m. k. (1) applies to Miyake (= _miyake_, a government granary or
grange), see translation.

For _kotohiushi_ see List m. k.


Zhimuki (Jinki) itsutose to ifu toshi tsuchinoye tatsu hatsu tsuki ni
[yomeru] uta hitotsu mata mizhika.

      Hito to naru           1
    koto ha kataki wo
      wakuraba ni
    nareru aga mi ha
      shinu mo iki mo        5
    kimi ga ma ni ma to
    arishi ahida ni
    yo no hito nareba       10
    mikoto kashikomu
    hina wosame ni to
      asatorino             15
    asa tatashitsutsu
    mure tachi-yukeba
    are ha kohimu na        20
    mizu hisa naraba.

      Mi Koshi ji no         1
    yuki furu yama wo
      koyemu hi ha
    tomareru are wo
    kakete shinubase.        5

19 I read--_are ha tomari wite_, &c.

For _utsusemino_, _ohokimino_, _amazakaru_, _muratorino_ see List m. k.


Tempyô hazhime no toshi … shihasu ni yomeru uta hitotsu mata mizhika
uta futatsu.

      Utsusemino             1
    yo no hito nareba
      ohokimi no
    mikoto kashikomi
      Shikishimano           5
    Yamato no kuni no
      Iso no kami
    Furu no sato ni
      himo tokazu
    maro-ne wo sureba       10
      aga keseru
    koromo ha narenu
      miru goto ni
    kohi ha masaredo
      iro ni ideba          15
    hito shirisubemi
      fuyu no yo no
    ake mo kanetsutsu
      i mo nezu ni
    are ha so kofuru        20
    imo ga tadaka ni.

10 A quasi m. k. of _maro-ne_, round-sleep, that is sleeping alone or
taking a careless or hasty sleep in one’s ordinary clothes.

12 _narenu_ is a past, not negative form; the meaning is soiled,
tumbled, disordered, according to Keichiu.

For _utsusemino_, _shikishimano_ see List m. k.


[Tempyô] itsutose to ifu toshi … Morokoshi ni tsukahasu tsukahi no fune
Naniha yori idzuru toki haha ga ko ni okureru uta hitotsu mata mizhika

      Akihagiwo              1
    tsuma-tofu ga koso
      hitori ko wo
    motari to ihe
      kako-zhi mono          5
    aga hitori ko mo
    tabi nishi yukeba
      takatama wo
    shizhi ni nukitari      10
      ihahihe ni
    yufu torishidete
    aga omofu ago
    masakiku ari koso.      15

3 I have followed the Kogi reading of the curiously involved script of
this passage, _hitori ko [ni ko] wo_ = _hitori ko [wo ko] wo_.

4 _ihe_ written _i-ho-he_ (500 houses) for _ihe_ (_iheru_).

11 _ihahihe_ is here a jar, not _he_ a place, _ni_ = together with.

12 _[tori] shidete_ = _shidare_, hang down.

For _akihagiwo_, _kusamakura_ see List m. k.


Wotome wo shinubite yomeru uta hitotsu mata mizhika uta (futatsu).

      Shiratamano            1
    hito no sono na wo
      nakanaka ni
    koto no wo hayezu
      ahanu hi no            5
    maneku sugureba
      kofuru hi no
    kasanari yukeba
    tadoki wo shirani       10
    kokoro kudakete
    kakenu toki naku
      kuchi yamazu          15
    aga kofuru ko wo
    te ni maki-mochite
    tada me ni mineba       20
      Shitahi yama
    shita yuku midzu no
      uhe ni idezu
    aga ’mohi kokoro
    yasukaranu ka mo.       25

      Kakihonasu             1
    hito no yokokoto
      shigemi ka mo
    ahanu hi maneku
    tsuki no henuramu.       5

3 _nakanaka ni_, probably = _namanaka_.

4 _hayezu_, not extend thread of language--give utterance to one’s

The m. k. (19) applies to _me_ (20).

For _shiratamano_, _kimomukafu_, _tamatasuki_, _tamakushiro_,
_masokagami_, _kakihonasu_ see List m. k.


Ashigara no saka wo suguru toki mi-makareru hito wo mite yomeru uta.

      Wokaki tsu no          1
    asa wo hiki hoshi
      imo nane ga
    tsukuri kisekemu
      shirotaheno            5
    himo wo mo tokazu
      hito-he yufu
    obi wo mi-he yuhi
      kurushiki ni
    tsukahematsurite        10
      ima dani mo
    kuni ni makarite
      chichi haha mo
    tsuma wo mo mimu to
      omohitsutsu           15
    yukikemu kimi ha
    Adzuma no kuni no
      kashikoki ya
    Kami no mi saka ni      20
      nigitahe no
    koromo samura ni
    kami ha midarete
      kuni tohedo           25
    kuni wo mo norazu
      ihe tohedo
    ihe wo mo ihazu
    yuki no susumi ni       30
    koko ni koyaseru.

1, 2 form a preface applying to _imo_, (17) to A[dzuma], (29) to _yuki_
or perhaps the whole of 30.

1 _wo_ is not exactly = small, it is a diminutive prefix of intimacy or
endearment; _wokaki tsu_ = _wokaki no uchi_.

3 _nane_ = term of endearment or respect; _na-se_ = _na[-n-imo]
se[-na]_, &c.

25-30 may be regarded as parenthetic.

For _shirotaheno_, _toriganaku_, _nubatamano_, _masurawono_ see List m.


Ashiya wotome ga haka wo suguru toki yomeru uta.

      Inishihe no            1
    masurawo no ko no
    tsuma-dohi shikemu
      Ashinoya no            5
    Unahi wotome no
      okutsuki wo
    aga tachi-mireba
      nagaki yo no
    katari ni shitsutsu     10
      nochi hito no
    shinubi ni semu to
    michi no-he chikaku
      iha-kamahe            15
    tsukureru haka wo
    soku he no kagiri
      kono michi wo
    yuku hito goto ni       20
    i-tachi nagekahi
      sato-hito ha
    ne ni mo nakitsutsu
      katari-tsugi          25
    shinubi tsugi koshi
      wotomera ga
    okutsuki tokoro
      are sahe ni
    mireba kanashi mo       30
    inishihe omoheba!

1-12 introductory, 10 being continuative with 11 … 13-26 declare the
lasting sadness attaching to grave and story. 27 to end, the feelings
of the poet on hearing the story.

7 _okutsuki_, secluded-mound tomb, or grave-place.

For _tamahokono_, _amakumono_ see List m. k.


Oto no mimakareru wo kanashimite yomeru uta.

      Chichihaha ga          1
    nashi no manimani
    oto no mikoto ha
      asatsuyuno             5
    ke-yasuki inochi
      kami no muta
    arasohi kanete
      Ashihara no
    Midzuho no kuni ni      10
      ihe nami ya
    mata kaheri-konu
      tohotsu kuni
    yomi no sakahi ni
      hafutsutano           15
    momo ono mo
    wakareshi yuketa
    omohi madohahi          20
    kokoro wo itami
    omohi midarete
      haru tori no          25
    ne nomi nakitsutsu
    [me goto no tayete
    yoru hiru to ihazu
    kokoro moyetsutsu       30
    nageki so aga suru!

The m. k. are: _hashi-mukafu_ (of _oto_), lit. as like as the members
of a pair of chop-sticks = fraternal relation (of affection);
_asa-tsuyuno_ (of _ke-_ or _kihe-yasuki_), [evanescent as] morning dew;
_hafu-tsutano_ (cling-ivy--of _wakareshi_), parted as reluctantly as
ivy parts from its stem; _amakumono_ (also of _wakareshi_); _yami-yo
nasu_ (of _omohi madohahi_); _iyushishino_ (wounded deer) of _kokoro_;
_ashikakino_ (reed-fence) of _midarete_; _haru-torino_ (of _ne_);
_umasahafu_ (see List m. k.).

2 _nashi_ = bring up.

6 _ke_ = _kihe_.

11 _ihe_ means a place of residence. _nami_ is _nasa_, not-being-ness.

21 _iyu_ = passive of _i_, aim at, shoot; like _miyu_ from _mi_, see;
_kikoyu_ from _kiku_, hear.

27 The Kogi interpolates the verses _me goto mo tayete_ | _nubatama
no_--_nubatama_ being itself a m. k. _Kagirohino_ is a m. k. of
_moyetsuru_, see List m. k., also K. 288.

The construction of the _uta_ offers no particular difficulty.

For _hashimukafu_, _hafutsutano_, _amakumono_, _yamiyonasu_,
_ashikakino_, _umasahafu_, _nubatamano_, _kagirohino_ see List m. k.


Katsushika no Mama no wotome wo yomeru uta.

      Toriganaku             1
    Adzuma no kuni ni
      inishihe ni
    arikeru koto to
      ima made ni            5
    tayezu ihitaru
      Katsushika no
    Mama no tekona ga
      asakinu ni
    awoyeri tsuke           10
      hitase-wo wo
    mo ni ha orikite
      kami dani mo
    kaki ha kedzurazu
      katsu wo dani         15
    hakazu arukedo
      nishiki aya no
    naka ni kukumeru
      ihahi ko mo
    imo ni shikame ya       20
      mochi-tsuki no
    tareru omowa ni
      hana no goto
    wemite tatareba
      natsu mushi no        25
    hi ni iru ga goto
      minato iri ni
    fune kogu gotoku
    hito no tofu toki       30
      ikubaku mo
    ikerazhi mono wo
      nani su to ka
    mi wo tanashirite
      nami no ’to mo        35
    sawaku minato no
      okutsuki ni
    imo ga koyaseru
      tohoki yo ni
    arikeru koto wo         40
      kinofu shi mo
    mikemu ga goto mo
    omohoyuru ka mo!

      Katsushika no          1
    Mama no wi mireba
      tachi narashi
    midzu kumashikeru
    tekona shi omohoyu.      5

23 This reading differs from Motowori’s, which is _yori-kagure_, _yuki_
= _yuki-kaheri_, involving frequency of the action denoted by _kagahi_
= _kake-ahi_, i.e. the meeting of both sexes.

33, 34 are more intelligible if _ka_ is read after _tanashirite_.

3 to stand treading on the ground, stand awhile there--or to stand as
usual there or stand often there?

For _toriganaku_ see List m. k.


Unahi wotome ga haka wo mite [yomeru].

      Ashinoya no            1
    Unahi wotome no
      ya tose ko mo
    kata-ohi no toki yo
      wo-hanari ni           5
    kami taku made ni
      narabi woru
    ihe ni mo miyezu
    komorite maseba         10
    ifusemi toki no
    hito no tofu toki
      Chinu wotoko          15
    Unahi wotoko no
    susushiki kihohi
    shikeru toki ni         20
      yaki-tachi no
    takami oshineri
      shira mayumi
    yuki tori ohite
      midzu ni iri          25
    hi ni mo iramu to
    kihoheru toki ni
      wagimoko ga
    haha ni kataraku        30
      shidzu ta-maki
    iyashiki a ga yuwe
    arasofu mireba
      ikeritomo             35
    afubeku arame ya
    yomi ni matamu to
    shitabahe okite         40
      uchi nageki
    imo ga yukereba
      Chinu wotoko
    sono yo ime ni mi
      tori tsudzuki         45
    ohi yukereba
    Unahi wotoko-i
      ame afugi
    sakebi orabi            50
      tsuchi ni fushi
    kikamu takebite
      mokoro wo ni
    makete ha arazhi to
      kakihaki no           55
    wo-tachi tori-haki
    tadzune yukereba
      ya gara dochi
    i-yuki tsudohi          60
      nagaki yo ni
    shirushi ni semu to
      to hoki yo ni
    katari tsugamu to
      wotome haka           65
    naka ni tsukuri oki
      wotoko haka
    konata kanata ni
      tsukuri okeru
    yuweyoshi kikite        70
    nihi mo no goto mo
    ne nakitsuru ka mo!

      Haka no ’he no         1
    ko no ye nabikeri
      kikishi goto
    Chinu wotoko ni shi
      yori ni kerashi mo.    5

2 _Unahi_ is in Musashi.

5 _wo-hanari_, little (term of endearment) parted [locks].

12 _ifusemi_, _ibusemi_, here = anxious, impatient.

15 _Chinu_ is in Idzumi, mentioned both in K. and N.

23 _mayumi_, Euonymus Hamiltoniana, Max.

24 _yuki_, quiver (_yumi-oki_?).

29 _wagimoko_ = _waga imoho_, here means _their_ mistress, i.e. _Unahi
no wotome_.

40 _shitabahe_ = undercreep--_okite_, secretly.

47 _okuretaru_, being behind, the Unahi wotoko was jealous of his rival
being the first to follow their mistress in death.

48 _wotoko-i_. Dr. Aston thinks this _i_ may be the Korean particle.

53 _mokoro wo ni_--_hito no gotoku ni_.

56 _wo-tachi_, small sword, dagger.

59 _ya gara dochi_ = _shinzoku_.

For _utsuyufuno_, _kakihonasu_, _fuseyataki_, _masurawono_,
_shishikushiro_, _komorinuno_, _tokorotsura_ see List m. k.


Natsu no kusagusa no uta.


Tori wo yomeru.

      Masurawono             1
    idetachi mukafu
      Furuzato no
    Kaminabi yama ni
      akekureba              5
    tsumi no sayeda ni
      yufu sareba
    ko-matsu ga ure ni
      sato-bito no
    kaki-kofuru made        10
      yama-biko no
    aho-toyomu made
    tsuma kohisurashi
    sayo naka ni naku!      15

For _masurawono_ see List m. k.



      Ame tsuchi no          1
    hazhime no toki yo
      ama no kaha
    i-mukahi worite
      hito tose ni           5
    futa tabi ahanu
      tsuma-kohi ni
    mono omofu hito
      Ama no kaha
    Yasu no kahara no       10
    toshi no watari ni
      ohobune no
    tomo ni mo he ni mo
      funa-yosohi           15
    ma kaji shizhi nuki
    [ura]ba mo soyo ni
      aki-kaze no
    fukitaru yohi ni        20
      Ama no kaha
    shiranami shinugi
    hayase watarite
      wakakusano            25
    tsuma wo makamu to
    omohi tanomite
      kogi kuramu
    sono tsuma no ko ga     30
    toshi no wo nagaku
    kohi tsukusuramu
      fumi tsuki no         35
    nanuka no yohi ha
    are mo kanashi mo!

4 _i-mukahi_, _i_ is a prefix: see grammar.

32 _toshi no wo_, thread (line, course) of years.

35 _fumi_ = _[ho wo] fufumi_, full of [rice-]ears, an old name of the
seventh month, ending about the middle of August.

For _wakakusano_, _ohobuneno_, _aratamano_ see List m. k.


      Ame tsuchi to          1
    wakareshi toki yo
    amatsu shirushi to
      sadameteshi            5
    ama no kahara ni
    tsuki wo kasanete
      imo ni afu
    toki samorafu to        10
      tachi-matsu ni
    aga koromo-de ni
      aki-kaze no
    fukishi kahereba
      tachite wiru          15
    tadoki wo shirani
    kokoro i[sa] yo[hi]
    omohi midarete          20
      itsushika to
    aga matsu ko-yohi
      kono kaha no
    yuku-se mo nagaku,
      ari[kose] nu ka mo! 25

10 _sôrô_ (mod. Jap.).

14 blow and blow.

25 _ari koso ne[gafu] ka mo_.

For _hisakatano_, _aratamano_, _murakimono_, _tokikinuno_ see List m. k.



      Fuyukomori             1
    haru sari-kureba
      ashita ni ha
    shira-tsuyu oki
      yufu ni ha             5
    kasumi tanabiku
      Hatsuse no ya
    konure ga shita ni
      uguisu naku mo.

7 This is the Kogi reading. Other readings are _kaze no fuku_, _ame no

8 _konure_ = _ko_ (_ki_) _no ure_.

For _fuyukomori_ see List m. k.


      Mimoro ha              1
    hito no moru yama
      moto he ha
    ashibi hana saki
      suwe he ha             5
    tsubaki hana saku
    uraguhashi yama so
    naku ko moru yama.

2 _moru_ = _mamoru_, guard, watch (allusion originally, perhaps, to
watchmen in charge of mountain beacons).

6, 7, 8 All heptasyllabic.

8 what weeping children regard (with delight that soothes their grief).


      Ama-girahi             1
    wataru hi kakushi
      nagatsuki no
    shigure no fureba
      kari ga ne mo          5
    tomoshiku ki-naku
      Kamunabi no
    kiyoki mi ta ya no
      kaki tsu ta no
    ike no tsutsumi no      10
    i tsuki ga yeda ni
      midzu ye sasu
    aki no momiji-ba
      maki-motaru           15
    wo-suzu mo yura ni
      tawayame ni
    are ha aredomo
    yeda mo towowo ni       20
    a ha mochite yuku
    kimi ga kazashi ni.

5 Or _karigane_.

6 _tomoshiku_, deficient, hence rare, hence fine.

9 m. k. of _i_.

12 _i_ = 50.

13 _midzu_, shining, fine.

15, 16 are epithetical of _ta_ in _tawayame_.

22, 23 Here we have inversion.

For _momotarazu_ see List m. k.


      Amakumono              1
    kage sahe miyuru
    Hatsuse no kaha ha
      ura nami ka            5
    fune no yori-konu
      iso nami ka
    ama no tsuri senu
    ura ha naku tomo        10
    iso ha nakutomo
      okitsu nami
    kihohi kogiri-ko
    ama no tsuribune!       15

2 may mean reflecting the brightness of the clouds.

5, 6 also 7, 8 may be read transposed.

9 may be rendered ‘howbeit’.

14 _kogi iri ko_--_ko_ is imperative of _kuru_.

For _amakumono_, _komorikuno_ see List m. k.


      Ashiharano             1
    Midzuho no kuni no
      tamuke su to
      iho-yorodzu            5
    chi-yorodzu kami no
      kami-yo yori
      Kamunabi no
    Mimoro no yama ha       10
      haru sareba
    haru kasumi tachi
      aki yukeba
    kurenawi nihofu
      Kamunabi no           15
    Mimoro no kami no
      obi ni seru
    Asuka no kaha no
      mi wo hayami
    mushi-tame-gataki       20
      iha ga ne ni
    koke masu made ni
      arata yo no
    sakiku kayohamu
      koto hakari           25
    ime ni mise koso
    kami nishi maseba.

1-7 are introductory to 8.

14 _nihofu_ may be an intensitive of _nihi_, be fresh, &c.; its
root-meaning seems to be rather a state of vigour than of mere

19 _mi wo_ = watercourse.

20 = _musubi-tame-gataki_, hard for anything to grow and endure upon;
applied to _iha ga ne_.

22 A common, almost proverbial phrase.

23 = nights to come; read with _ime ni_, &c.

25 = _shimichi_, _shikata_, ‘do-way, do-method’, settled or regular
order or sequence of affairs, conduct, &c.


      Nusa matsuri           1
    Nara yori idete
    Hodzumi ni itari
      tonamiharu             5
    Sakate wo sugi
    Kaminabi yama ni
      asa miya ni
    tsukahematsurite        10
      Yoshinu he to
    irimasu mireba
    inishihe omohoyu.

      Tsuki hi ha            1
      hisa ni furu
    Mimoro no yama no
    totsu-miya tokoro.       5

1 Epithet of Nara. Another reading is _mitegura mote_--_Nara yori

For _midzutade_, _tonamiharu_, _ihabashiru_ see List m. k.


      Wono torite            1
    Nifu no hi yama no
      ki-kori kite
    ikada ni tsukuri
      ma kaji nuki           5
    iso kogi tami-tsutsu
    miredomo akazu
      Yoshinu no
    tagi mo todoro ni       10
    otsuru shiranami.

      Mi Yoshinu no          1
    tagi mo todoro ni
    otsuru shiranami
      todome ni shi
    imo ni misemaku          5
    hoshiki shiranami.


      Yasumishishi           1
    wago ohokimi
    hi no miko no
      kikoshi-wosu           5
    miko tsu kuni
      kamu kaze no
    Ise no kuni ha
      yama mireba
    takaku tafutoshi        10
      kaha mireba
    sayakeku kiyoshi
    umi wo hiroshi
      mi-watasu             15
    shima mo takashi
      [soko wo shi mo
    uraguhashimi ka]
      koko wo shi mo
    maguhashimi ka mo       20
      kakemaku mo
    aya ni kashikoki
      Yamabe no
    Ishi no hara ni
      uchihisasu            25
    ohomiya tsukahe
      asahi nasu
    maguhashi mo
      yufu-hi nasu
    uraguwashi mo           30
      haru yama no
      aki yama no
    iro natsukashiki
      momoshikino           35
    ohomiya hito ha
      ame tsuchi to
    hi tsuki to tomo ni
    yorodzu yo ni mo ka!

15 _mi-watasu_, an assumptive phrase to be read with _shima_.

17, 18 introduced by the Kogi to replace a supposed lost passage.

18 _ura-_ explained as = _kokoro_, inner, deeper.

21, 22 refer to _ohomiya_ (26).

25 _uchi_ = _utsukushiki_ (?).

1-7 epithetical of _Ise no kuni_; 7-20 describe the beauty of the Land
of Ise; 21-34 the delightfulness of the Palace and its situation; 35 to
end, the usual hope for the endurance of the happy state described.

For _yasumishishi_, _takahikaru_, _minatonasu_, _uchihisasu_,
_momoshikino_ see List m. k.


      Soramitsu              1
    Yamato no kuni
    Na[ra] yama koyete
      Yamashiro no           5
    Tsutsuki no hara
    Uji no watari
      Taginoya no
    Agone no hara wo        10
      chi tose ni
    kakuru koto naku
      yorodzu yo ni
    ari-kayohamu to
      Yamashina no          15
    Ihata no mori no
      sume kami ni
    nusa tori mukete
    are ha koye-yuku
    Afusakayama wo.         20

5-14 to be read as parenthetical between _koyete_ and _Yamashina no_.

12 _kakuru_, be defective, be a break in.


      Awoniyoshi             1
    Nara yama sugite
    Ujikaha watari
      wotomerani             5
    Afusaka yama ni
    nusa tori okite
    Afumi no umi no         10
      okitsu nami
    ki-yosu hamabe wo
      kure-kure to
    hitori so aga koshi
    imo ga me wo hori.      15

15 = (_koshi_) _imo wo ahi-mimahoshiku_.

For _awoniyoshi_, _mononofuno_, _wotomerani_, _wagimokoni_ see List m.


      Afumi no ’mi           1
    tomari a-so ari
    shima no saki-zaki
      ari-tateru             5
    hana tachibana wo
      hotsuye ni
    mochi hiki-kake
      nakatsuye ni
    ikaruga kake            10
      shidzu ye ni
    shime wo kake
      shi ga haha wo
    toraku wo shirani
      shi ga chichi wo      15
    toraku wo shirani
      i-sobahi woru yo
        ikaruga to
        shime to.

2 _a-so_ = _yaso_, eighty, i.e. indefinite number.

17 May be an error for _asobahi_. There is, however, a word _sobafu_,
trifle, play.

For _yasoshimano_ see List m. k.


      Ohokimi no             1
    mikoto kashikomi
      miredo akanu
    Nara yama koyete
      maki tsumu             5
    Idzumi no kaha no
      hayaki se ni
    sawo sashi-watari
    Uji no watari no        10
      tagi tsu se wo
    mi-tsutsu watarite
      Afumi-ji no
    Afusaka yama ni
      tamuke shite          15
    aga koye yukeba
    Shiga no Karasaki
      sakiku araba
    mata kaheri-mimu        20
      michi no kuma
    yaso kuma goto ni
    aga sugi yukeba
      iya toho ni           25
    sato sakari-kinu
      iya taka ni
    yama mo koye-kinu
    saya yu nuki-dete       30
      Ikako yama
    ikaga aga semu
    yuku he shirazute.

      Ame tsuchi wo          1
    nageki kohi nomi
      sakiku araba
    mata kaherimimu
    Shiga no Karasaki.       5

18, 19 Note the jingle _Karasaki sakiku_.

29, 30 Epithetical of Ikako--by a word-jingle connected with _i-kaku_
(_kaku_, to attack).

1 i.e. _ame tsuchi no kami_.

2 _nageki kohi_, sigh and implore.

For _chihayaburu_, _sasanamino_ see List m. k.


      Momodzutafu            1
    Minu no kuni no
      Takakita no
    Kukuri no miya ni
      tsuki ni hi ni         5
    yukamashi sato wo
      ari to kikite
    waga kayohi-ji no
      Okiso yama
    Minu no yama            10
      nabike to
    hito ha fumedomo
      kaku yore to
    hito ha tsukedomo
      kokoro naki           15
        yama no
      Okiso yama
      Minu no yama.

1-7 introductory.

6 _yukamashi_, desirable to visit, not in itself but because a fair
maid dwells there.

8-14 declare difficulty of traffic with his love; 15 to end, complain
of the hills that bar his way to her; 11, 12 and 13, 14 reverse the
order of these couplets, _hito ha fumedomo nabike to (itte) …_ and
they are more intelligible.

For _momodzutafu_ see List m. k.


      Wotomera ga            1
    woke ni taretaru
    Nagato no ura ni
      asa nagi ni            5
    michi kuru shiho no
      yufu nagi ni
    yose kuru nami no
      sono shiho no
    iya masumasu ni         10
      sono nami no
    iya shikushiku ni
      wagimoko ni
    kohitsutsu kureta
      Ago no umi no         15
    ariso no uhe ni
      hamana tsumu
    ama wotome domo
    hire mo teru-gani       20
      te ni makeru
    tama mo yurara ni
      shirotahe no
    sode furu miye tsu
    ahi ’mofurashi mo!      25

1-3 form a sort of m. k. to _naga_ (Nagato); _naga_ means long, and
the m. k. implies ‘long as the thread of the ball of yarn in a girl’s

20 _gani_ = _sama_, _yô_.

For _umiwonasu_ see List m. k.


      Ama hashi no           1
    nagaku mo ga mo
      takayama mo
    takaku mo ga mo
      Tsukuyomi no           5
    motaru wochi-midzu
    kimi ni matsurite
    wochi yeshimu mono

6 _wochi_ seems to mean renovating. There is a word-play on this
_wochi_ and the homophon in the preceding line. It is explained in (I.)
as _hazhime ni modoru, moto ni kaheru_.


      Nunakaha no            1
    soko naru tama
    yeshi tama ka mo
      hirihite               5
    yeshi tama ka mo
      kimi ga
    oyuraku woshi mo!

7 _atarashiki_, here not ‘new’ but = _oshimubeshi_, what is prized,
loved, regretted. See N. 362, where Dr. Aston so translates _atarashiki
Winabe no takumi_, the much-to-be-regretted carpenter. But the epithet
here may refer to _wi_ (well), part of the name Winabe, and probably
means fresh. _Takumi_, however, is more than ‘carpenter’, rather
‘builder’ or ‘architect’.

9 _oyuraku_ = _oyu koto_, fact of being or growing old.


      Shikishima no          1
    Yamato no kuni ni
      hito saha ni
    michite aredomo
      fujinami no            5
    omohi matsuharu
    omohi tsuki ni shi
      kimi ga me ni
    kohi ya akasamu         10
    nagaki kono yo wo!

9 _me_ almost = person.

10 Read _akasamu_ with _yo wo_.

The m. k. _wakakusano_ (7) applies to _kimi_ (9).


      Akitsushima            1
    Yamato no kuni ha
      kami kara to
    kotoage senu kuni
      shikaredomo            5
    a ha kotoage su
      ame tsuchi no
    kami mo hanahada
      waga omofu
    kokoro shirazu ya       10
      [yuku kage no]
    tsuki mo he-yukeba
    hi mo kasanarite
      omohe ka mo           15
    mune yasukaranu
      kofure ka mo
    kokoro no itaki
      suwe tsuhi ni
    kimi ni ahazuba         20
      waga inochi no
    ikeramu kihami
      kohitsutsu mo
    are ha wataramu
      masokagami            25
    tada-me kimi wo
      ahi miteba koso
    aga kohi yamame.

      Ohobuneno              1
      kimi yuwe ni
    tsukusu kokoro ha
      woshikeku mo nashi!    5

5 i.e. _kami no kuni_.

4 _kotoage_, declare, announce--perhaps with neg. sense of

8 Read _waga hanahada omofu_.

15, 17 _ka mo_ almost = _mo gana_.

24 _wataramu_, pass one’s days.

28 _yamame_ (_yamamu_--_yamu_), cease, stop.

5 _nashi_, written with the character, read homophonally _nashi_
(pear), is here the negative copula.

For _akitsushima_, _tamakagiru_, _ohobuneno_ see List m. k.


      Ashiharano             1
    Midzuho no kuni ha
      kamu nagara
    kotoage senu kuni
      shikaredomo            5
    kotoage so aga suru
      koto sakiku
    ma sakiku mase to
      tsutsumi naku
    sakiku imasaba          10
      ariso nami
    arite mo mimu to
      i-ho-he nami
    chihe nami shiki ni
    kotoage so aga suru!    15

4, 6 _koto_ (_koto-age_) is here words, language, in 7, thing, affair.
_Koto-age_ is explained (I) as _toku ni toritate ifu_, make special

11 _ariso nami_ is a word-play connected with _ari_(_te_).


      Inishihe no            1
    ihitsugi kuraku
      kohi sureba
    yasukaranu mono to
      tamanowono             5
    tsugite ha ihedo
      wotomera ga
    kokoro wo shirani
      soko shiramu
    yoshi mo nakereba       10
    kokoro mo shinu ni
      hito shirezu          15
    motona so kofuru
    iki no wo ni shite!

2 _kuraku_ = _karu_.

11 _natsusobiku_ (a m. k.) is perhaps a word-jingle with _nadzu[mi]_;
some lines are lost here.

13 _komo_ is Zizania aquatica.

16, 17 Syntactically the order of these two lines may be reversed.

For _tamanowono_, _natsusobiku_, _karikomono_ see List m. k.


      Aratamano              1
    toshi ha ki-sarite
    tsukahi no koneba
      kasumitatsu            5
    nagaki haru hi wo
      ame tsuchi ni
    haha no kafu ko no      10
      mayo komori
    iki-dzuki watari
      waga kofuru
    kokoro no uchi wo
      hito ni ihamu         15
    mono ni shi araneba
      matsu ga ne no
    matsu koto tohomi
    hi no kurenureba        20
    waga koromode mo
      tohorite nurenu.

      Kaku nomi shi          1
    ahi ’mohazaba
    yoso ni so kimi ha
      arubeku arikeru.       5

17, 18 Note the word-play on the two _matsu_. _Ne_ is here rather trunk
than root.

For _aratamano_, _tamadzusano_, _kasumitatsu_, _tarachineno_,
_amadzutafu_, _shirotaheno_, _amakumono_ see List m. k.


      Wohari-ta no           1
    Ayuchi no midzu wo
      ma-naku so
    hito ha kumu chifu
      tokizhiku so           5
    hito ha nomu chifu
      kumu hito no
    ma-naki ga goto
      nomu hito no
    tokizhiku ga goto       10
      wagimoko ni
    aga kofuraku ha
    yamu toki mo nashi.


      Komorikuno             1
    Hatsuse no kaha no
      kami-tsu-se ni
    i-kuhi wo uchi
      shimo-tsu-se ni        5
    ma-kuhi wo uchi
      i-kuhi ni ha
    kagami wo kake
      ma-kuhi ni ha
    ma-tama wo kake         10
      ma-tama nasu
    aga ’mofu imo mo
    aga ’mofu imo mo
        ari to              15
      ihaba koso
      kuni ni mo
    ihe ni mo yukame
    taga yuwe ka yukamu.

      Yo no naka wo          1
    ushi to omohite
      ihe-de seru
    wara ya nani ni ka
      kaherite naramu.       5

      Toshi wataru           1
    made ni mo hito ha
      ari chifu wo
    itsu no ahida so mo
    are kohi ni keru.        5

1-11 is an introduction verbal not real to 12.

16 Note construction _ihaba koso yukame_, read _koso_ with _yukame_.

The first envoy seems distinctly of a Buddhistic cast.

For _komorikuno_, _kagaminasu_ see List m. k.


      Haru sareba            1
    hana saki wowori
    ni no ho ni momitsu
      uma-sake wo            5
    kamunabi yama no
      obi ni seru
    Asuka no kaha no
      hayaki se ni
    ofuru tama-mo no        10
    kokoro ha yorite
      asa tsuyu no
    kenaba kenubeku
      kofuraku mo           15
    shiruku mo aheru
    komori-dzuma ka mo.

1-10 introductory to 11.

11 the heart inclining towards, leaning on, trusting to. The syntax is
here imperfect, as is often the case in the Anthology.


      Mimoro no              1
    Kamunabi yama yu
    ame ha furi-kinu
      ame-girahi             5
    kaze sahe fukinu
    Makami no hara yu
    kaheri nishi hito       10
    ihe ni itariki ya.

      Kaheri nishi           1
    hito wo omofu to
    sono yo ha are mo
    i mo ne kanete ki.       5

3 _tonogumori_ = _tanagumori_.

1 The _nishi_ may be taken = (_i_)_nishi_.

5 = _nezariki_.

For _tonogumori_, _ohokuchino_, _nubatamano_ see List m. k.


      Sashi-yakamu           1
    wo-ya no shiki-ya ni
    yare komo wo shikite
      uchi-woramu            5
    shiko no shiki-te wo
    nuramu kimi yuwe
    hiru ha shimirani       10
    yoru ha sugara ni
      kono toko no
    hishi to naru made
    nageki-tsuru ka mo.     15

2, 6 _shiki_, _shiko_, common, mean.

3 _utemu_, _utsuru_, _sutsuru_ = throw away, cast off.

4 _yare_ = _yabure_.

5 read with _shiko_.

For _akanesasu_, _nubatamano_ see List m. k.


      Uchihahete             1
    omohishi wo-nu ha
    sono sato-hito no
      shime yufu to          5
    kikiteshi hi yori
      tatamaku no
    tadzuki mo shirazu
      woramaku no
    okuka mo shirazu        10
      nikibi nishi
    waga ihe sura wo
    tabi-ne no gotoku
      omofu sora            15
    yasukaranu mono wo
      nageku sora
    sugushi yenu mono wo
    yukura yukura ni        20
      midare wo no
    woke wo nomi to
      aga kofuru            25
    chihe no hitohe mo
      hito shirezu
    motona ya kohimu
    iki no wo ni shite.

1, 2 _uchi-hahete omohishi_, sending forth one’s thoughts [of love].

7-10 are parenthetical.

12 Connected with _omofu_ (15).

13, 14 qualifying _omofu_.

27 _hito_ seems to point to the girl symbolized in (2) as _wo-nu_.
There is some syntactic obscurity in the text.

For _kusamakura_, _amakumono_, _ashikakino_ see List m. k.


      [Semu sube no          1
    tadoki wo shirani
      iha ga ne no
    kogoshiki michi no
      iha-toko no            5
    ne haheru kado ni
      ashita ni ha
    ide-wite nageki
      yufu-he ni ha
    iri-wi kohitsutsu]      10
    waga koromo-de wo
    hitori shi nureba
      [nubatamano           15
    kuro kami shikite
      hito no nuru
    uma i ha nezute
    yukura yukurani         20
    waga nuru yora wo
      yomi wo ahemu ka mo].

The bracketed portions are contained in other lays.

For _shirotaheno_, _nubatamano_, _ohobuneno_ see List m. k.


      Ashihikino             1
    Yamada no michi wo
    utsukushi tsuma to
      mono ihazu             5
    wakareshi kureba
    yukuhe mo shirazu
    kaheru mo shirani       10
      uma-zhi mono
    tachite tsumadzuki!

For _ashihikino_, _shikitaheno_, _hayakahano_, _koromodeno_ see List m.


      Semu sube no           1
    tadzuki wo shirani
    yaso no kokoro wo
      ame tsuchi ni          5
    omohi tarahashi
      tama ahaba
    kimi kimasu ya to
      waga nageku
    ya saka no nageki       10
    michi kuru hito no
    ika ni to tohaba
      ihi-yaramu            15
    tadzuki wo shirani
    kimi ga na ihaba
      iro ni dete
    hito shirinu-bemi       20
    yama yori idzuru
      tsuki matsu to
    hito ni ha ihite
    kimi matsu ware wo.     25

      I-wo-mo nezu           1
    aga ’mofu kimi ha
      idzuku he ni
    ko yohi imase ka
    matedo kimasanu.         5

For _mononofuno_, _tamahokono_, _sanidzurafu_, _ashihikino_ see List m.


      Akakoma no             1
    umaya tate
      kurokoma no
    umaya tatete
      so wo kahi             5
    aga yuku gotoku
      omohi tsuma
    kokoroni norite
      Takayama no
    mine no tawori ni       10
      i-me tatete
    shishi matsu gotoku
      tokoshiku ni
    aga matsu kimi wo
    inu na hoye so ne!      15

5 _so_ = _sore_, _kahi_, feed.

10 _tawori_ seems to mean here a recess or hollow place.


      Waga seko ha           1
    matedo kimasazu
      ama no hara
    furisake mireba
      nubatamano             5
    yo mo fuke ni keri
      sayo fukete
    arashi no fukeba
      tachi-matsu ni
    waga koromo-de ni       10
      furu yuki ha
    kohori watarinu
      ima sara ni
    kimi ki-masame ya
      sanakadzura           15
    nochi mo ahamu to
    kokoro wo mochite
      mi sode mochi
    toko uchi-harahi        20
      utsutsu ni ha
    kimi ni ha ahazhi
      ime ni dani
    afu to miye koso
    ama no tariyo ni.       25

12 _watarinu_, pass from one place or state to another--here almost

25 night as complete as the sky, i.e. the whole night.

For _nubatamano_, _sanakadzura_ see List m. k.


      Waga seko ha           1
    matedo kimasazu
      karigane mo
    toyomite samushi
      nubatamano             5
    yo mo fuke ni keri
      sayo fuku to
    arashi no fukeba
      tachi-matsu ni
    waga koromo-de ni       10
      oku shimo mo
    hi ni saye watari
      furu yuki mo
    kohori watarinu
      ima sara ni           15
    kimi kimasame ya
    nochi mo ahamu to
    omohi-tanomedo          20
      utsutsu ni ha
    kimi ni ha ahazhi
      ime ni dani
    afu to miye koso
    ama no tari yo ni.      25

8 _arashi_, storm.

12 _hi_, ice.

13 _yuki_, snow.

For _nubatamano_, _sanakadzura_, _ohobuneno_ see List m. k.


      Suganoneno             1
    nemokorogoro ni
      aga ’moheru
    imo ni yoriteba
      koto no imi mo         5
    naku ari koso to
      ihahi-he wo
    ihahi hori-suwe
      taka-dama wo
    ma naku nuki-tari       10
      ame tsuchi no
    kami wo so aga nomu
    ita mo sube nami.

      Tarachineno            1
    haha ni mo norazu
    kokoro ha yoshiwe
    kimi ga manimani.        5

5 _koto no imi_, prohibition of speech.

For _suganoneno_, _tarachineno_ see List m. k.


      Tamatasuki             1
    kakenu toki naku
      aga ’moheru
    kimi ni yoriteba
      shidzu nusa we         5
    te ni tori-mochite
      takadama wo
    shizhi ni nuki-tari
      ame tsuchi no
    kami wo so aga kofu     10
    ita mo sube nami.

For _tamatasuki_ see List m. k.


      Ohobuneno              1
      matsu kane no
    iya toho-nagaku
      aga ’moheru            5
    kimi ni yoriteba
      koto no yuwe mo
    naku ari koso to
      yufu tasuki
    kata ni tori-kake       10
      ihahi-he wo
    ihahi hori-suwe
      ame tsuchi no
    kami ni so aga nomu
    ita mo sube nami.       15

For _ohobuneno_ see List m. k.



      Mihakashi wo           1
    Tsurugi no ike no
      hachisu ha ni
    tamareru midzu no
      yukuhe naku            5
    aga seshi toki ni
      afuteshi to
    uraheru kimi wo
      na ine so to
    haha kikosedomo         10
      waga kokoro
    Kiyosumi no ike no
      ike no soko
    are ha wasurezhi
    tada ni afu made.       15

      Inishihe no            1
    kami no toki yori
    ima kokoro ni mo
      tsune wasurayezu!      5

1-4 are introductory to _yukuhe naku_--there are several
interpretations of the whole passage.

1 _wo_ must be taken as equivalent to _no_.

6 _seshi toki_, made, that is, appointed time.

8 _uraheru_--the meaning of this word is obscure. It is written (in
script) as _ahi aru_ or _aheru_, nearly equal to _aru_; _uraheru_ is
Motowori’s reading.

10 _kikosedomo_ = _notamahedomo_.

14 _are_ = _ware_.


      Mi Yoshinu no          1
    maki-tatsu yama ni
      shizhi ni ofuru
    yama suga no ne no
      nemokoro ni            5
    waga ’mofu kimi ha
      ohokimi no
    make no manimani
    kimi wosame ni to       10
    asa tachi-yukeba
    are ka kohinamu
      tabi nareba           15
    kimi ka shinubamu
      ihamu sube
    semu sube shirani
    yama no konure ni       20
    wakare no amata
    woshiku mo aru ka mo.

For _suganoneno_, _muratorino_, _ashihikino_, _hafutsutano_ see List m.


      Mi Yoshinu no          1
    Mikane no take ni
      ma naku so
    ame ha furu chifu
      tokizhiku so           5
    yuki ha furu chifu
      sono ame no
    ma naki ga goto
      sono yuki no
    tokizhiku ga goto       10
      ma mo ochizu
    are ha so kofuru
    imo ga tadaka ni.


      Uchihisatsu            1
    Miyake no hara ni
      hita tsuchi ni
    ashi fumi tsurane
      natsukusa wo           5
    koshi ni nadzumi
      ikanaru ya
    hito no ko yuwe so
    kayohasu mo ago
      ubena ubena           10
      haha ha shirazu
      ubena ubena
      chichi ha shirazu
    kaguroki kami ni        15
      ma yufu mochi
    azane yuhitari
      Yamato no
    tsuge no wo-gushi
      osahe sasu            20
    shikitahe no ko ha
    sore so aga tsuma!

9 _ago_, my prince.

17 Various explanations are given of this word--Keichiu gives _asasa_,
like (_asasa_ is a sp. of Limnanthemum); Okabe reads _kazashi_,
adorn; Motowori suggests the meaning adopted by the Kogi, and in my
translation, i.e. _asane no kami_ = _nekutare-gami_. _Azane_, however,
may be perhaps better connected with _azanafu_, to bind up.

For _uchihisatsu_, _minanowata_ see List m. k.


      Tamatasuki             1
    kakenu toki naku
      aga ’moheru
    imo ni shi ahaneba
      akanesasu              5
    hiru shimirani
    yoru ha sugara ni
      i mo nezu ni
    imo ni kofuru ni        10
    ikeru subenashi.

9, 10 _imo_, _i mo_.

For _tamatasuki_, _akanesasu_, _nubatamano_ see List m. k.


      Mi-watashi ni          1
    imora ha tatashi
      kono kata ni
    are ha tachite
      omufu sora             5
    yasukaranaku ni
      nageku sora
    yasukaranaku ni
      saninuri no
    wo-bune mo ga mo        10
      tama-maki no
      wo-kaji mo ga mo
    kogi-wataritsutsu mo
    katarahamashi wo.

In one edition the lay begins with the fourth verse; in another the
opening is--_Komoriku no_ | _Hatsuse no kaha no_ | _wochi kata ni_ |
_imora ha tatashi_--representing the girl (_imora_) as standing on the
further (distant) bank (_wochi-kata_) of the rapid stream of Hatsusè.


      Oshiteru               1
    Naniha no saki ni
    ake no sohobune
      sohobune ni            5
    tsuna torikake
    ari nami suredo
    ari nami yezu
    ihare nishi agami.      10

The text is obscure.

4 _ake_, red. _soho bune_ is red ship.

8 _ari nami_ = _ari nabiki_. There is a play upon this _ari nami_ and
the same expression in 9.

7 Lengthened form of _hikotsuru_, go on hauling. So _ihidzurahi_ =
_ihitsuru_ (K. 343).

9 _ari nami_ is explained (Motowori) as = _inamu_, refuse, object;
_ihare nishi agami_ = such is what I bid you.


      Kamukazeno             1
    Ise no umi no
      asa nagi ni
    ki-yoru fukamiru
      yufu nagi ni           5
    ki-yoru matamiru
    fukameshi are wo
    mata yuki-kaheri        10
      tsuma to
    ihazhi to ka mo
    omohoseru kimi.

10 _yuki-kaheri_, the coming and passing (of months and days, i.e. of

11, 13 _tsuma_ and _kimi_ are not the same person.

For _kamukazeno_, _fukamiruno_, _matamiruno_ see List, m. k.


      Ki no kuni no          1
    Muro no ye no be ni
      chi tose ni
    tsutsumu koto naku
      yorodzu yo ni          5
    kaku shi mo aramu to
      ide-tachi no
    kiyoki nagisa ni        10
      asa nagi ni
    ki-yoru fukamiru
      yufu nagi ni
    ki-yoru naha-nori
      fukamiruno            15
    fukameshi kora
    hikaba tayu to ya
      sado-hito no
    yuki no tsudohi ni      20
    yuki tori-saguri
    yuhara furi-okoshi
      shishiki ya wo        25
    futatsu tabasami
    hito shi kuyashi mo
    kofuraku ’moheba!

1-6 express the situation of the lover; 12-18 describe the sea-weeds on
the names of which the thought of the lay is made to turn.

17 is m. k. of _hikaba_, which refers to the breaking of the connexion.

20 _yuki_ is connected with _tsudohi_, assemble = _yukite tsudohite_.

21 is m. k. of 22.

21-26 is a prefatial m. k. of _hanachikemu_.

22 _yuki_ I take to be quiver, but having as homophon (_yuki_, go,
prefix to _tori saguri_, search, look for) the epithet _nakuko
nasu_--the idea being that of a child crying because it cannot find
some treasure it has lost.

23 is m. k. of _yu[hara]_ = _yumi no suwe_.

25 _shishiki ya_ is taken as = _shishi-ya_, game-arrow, hunter’s arrow.

26 _futatsu_ refers to _shishi ya_. _tabasami_ is to take in the hand.

27 _hanachikemu_, to let fly.

28 _hito_ is error for _ware_.

23-26 seem to be a preface to _hanachikemu_.

For _ohobuneno_, _fukamiruno_, _nahanorino_, _nakukonasu_, _adzusayumi_
see List m. k. Of course the above explanations are more or less
conjectural. The lay is a poor affair enough, but the text is
interesting on account of its complications.


      Sado-hito no           1
    are ni tsuguraku
      na ga kofuru
    utsukushi tsuma ha
      momichibano            5
      Kamunabi no
    sono yama-he kara
    kuro-ma ni norite       10
      kaha no se wo
    nana se watarite
    tsuma ha kaheri to
    hito so tsugetsuru.     15

13 Despondently.

14 _kaheri_, i.e. to City-Royal.

For _momichibano_, _nubatamano_ see List m. k.


Tohikotahe no uta.

      Mono ’mohazu           1
    michi yukinamu mo
      haru-yama wo
    furi-sake mireba
      tsutsuzhihana          5
    nihohi wotome
    sakaye wotome
      na wo so mo
    a ni yosu chifu         10
      a wo so mo
    na ni yosu chifu
      ara-yama mo
    hito shi yosureba
    yosoru to so ifu        15
    na ga kokoro yume!

9 _na_, thou, thee, so in 12.

13, 14, 15 are proverbial ‘_hito ha yama wo yosureba yosoru zo_’ _to
ifu_--‘Faith will move mountains.’

For _tsutsuzhihana_ see List m. k.


Tatohe uta.

      Shikare koso           1
    toshi no ya tose wo
      kiru kami no
    aga kata wo sugi
      tachibana no           5
    hotsuye wo sugite
      kono kaha no
    shita ni mo nagaku
    na ga kokoro mate.

This lay is defective, or perhaps is an answer to 175.

7, 8 i. e, _kokoro no ura mo_, be thy inmost heart patient to wait even
as long as this stream shall continue to flow?


      Mono ’mohazu           1
    michi yukinamu mo
      haru yama wo
    furi-sake mireba
      tsutsuzhihana          5
    nihoye wotome
    sakaye wotome
      na wo so mo
    a ni yosu chifu         10
      a wo so mo
    na ni yosu chifu
    na ha ika ni ’mofu ya--
      omohe koso
    toshi no ya tose wo     15
      kiru kami no
    aga kata wo sugi
      tachibana no
    hotsuye wo suguri
      kono kaha no          20
    shita ni mo nagaku
    na ga kokoro made.

This lay is a combination of 175 and 176.


      Komorikuno             1
    Hatsuse no kuni ni
      sa-yobahi ni
    aga kureba
      tana-kumori            5
    yuki ha furikinu
    ame ha furikinu
      nu tsu tori
    kigishi ha toyomu       10
      kake mo naku
      sayo ha ake
    kono yo ha akenu
    irite aga nemu          15
    kono to hirakase.

9-12 verbally almost identical with part of the second lay in K. (p.

10 _kigishi_ = _kizhi_, green pheasant.


      Komorikuno             1
    Hatsuse wo-kuni ni
      yobahi sesu
    aga se no kimi yo
      oku toko ni            5
    haha ha netari
      to toko ni
    chichi ha netari
    haha shirinubeshi       10
    chichi shirinubeshi
    yo ha ake-yukinu
      kokodaku mo           15
    omohanu gotoku
    shinubu tsuma ka mo!

2 _wo_ is diminutive of endearment, &c.

15 Read _kokodaku mo_ with _shinubu_.

17 _tsuma_ = _otto_.

For _komorikuno_, _nubatamano_ see List m. k.


      Tsuginefu              1
    Yamashiro-ji wo
      hito tsuma no
    uma-yori yuku ni
      ono tsuma no           5
    kachi-yori yukeba
      miru goto ni
    ne nomi shi nakazu
      soko ’mofu ni
    kokoro shi itashi       10
    haha ga katami to
      aga motaru
    maso mi kagami ni
      akitsu hire           15
    ohi name mochite
    uma kahe waga se!

1 _tsuginefu_, a m. k. of _yama_; _tsugi-ne-fu_, peak on peak or range
upon range, or _tsugi-ki-no-ne-fu_, abundance of trees (as m. k. of
_shiro_). There is little doubt the former meaning is nearest the
truth. But see K. App. LVII.

16 _ohi name_, carry and put with, take away together.

For _tsuginefu_, _tarachineno_ see List m. k.


      Ki no kuni no          1
    hama ni yoru chifu
      ahabi tama
    hirihamu to ihite
      Imo no yama            5
    Se no yama koyete
      yukishi kimi
    itsu kimasamu to
    michi ni ide-tachi      10
      yufu ura wo
    aga tohishikaba
      yufu ura no
    are ni noraku
      wagimoko ya           15
    na ga matsu kimi ha
      okitsu nami
    ki-yosu shira-tama
      hetsu nami no
    yosuru shira-tama       20
      motomu to so
    kimi ga kimasanu
      hirifu to so
    kimi ha kimasanu
      hisa naraba           25
    ima nanuka bakari
    ima futsuka bakari
      aramu to so
    kimi ha kikoshishi      30
    na kohi so wagimo!

5, 6 Note the word-play _Imo_ and _Se_ (_imose_)--see the translation.

31 _wagimo_ here means ‘my lady’.

For _tamahokono_ see List m. k.


      Shinatatsu             1
    Tsukuma Sanukata
      Okinaga no
    Wochi no ko suge
      amanaku ni             5
    i-kari mochi-ki
      shikanaku ni
    i-kari mochi-kite
    are wo shinubasu        10
      Okinaga no
    Wochi no ko-suge!

1 _shinatatsu_ is not to be confounded with the m. k. _shinateru_.

5 _amanaku_ = _amanu_ (neg. of _amu_, weave, plait).

7 _shikanaku_ = _shikanu_ (neg. of _shiku_, spread).


      Kakemaku mo            1
    aya ni kashikoshi
      Fujihara no
    Miyako shimimi ni
      hito ha shi mo         5
    michite aredomo
      kimi ha shi mo
    ohoku imasedo
      yuki kaharu
    toshi no wo nagaku      10
    kimi no mikado wo
      ame no goto
    afugite mitsutsu
      kashikokedo           15
    omohi tanomite
      itsushika mo
    [waga ohokimi no
      ame no shita]
    shiroshi-imashite       20
    tatahashikemu to
      waga ’moheru
    miko no mikoto ha
      haru sareba           25
    Uwetsuki ga uhe no
    matsu no shita ji yu
    kuni mi asobashi        30
      nagatsuki no
    shigure no aki ha
      ohotono no
    migiri shimimi ni
      tsuyu ohite           35
    nabikeru hagi wo
    kakete shinubashi
      mi yuki furu
    fuyu no ashita ha       40
    ne-bari adzusa wo
      ohomi te ni
    torashi tamahite
      asobashishi           45
    waga ohokimi wo
      keburi tatsu
    haru no hi kurashi
    miredo akaneba          50
      yorodzu yo ni
    kaku shi mo ga mo to
    tanomeru toki ni
      aga namida            55
    me ka mo madohasu
      ohotono wo
    furi-sake mireba
    kazari-matsurite        60
    miya no toneri ha
      tahe no ho no
    asa kinu keru ha
      ime ka mo             65
    utsutsu ka mo to
    madoheru hodo ni
    Kinohe michi yu         70
    Ihare wo mitsutsu
      kamu hafuri
      yuku michi no         75
    tadzuki wo shirani
    shirushi wo nami
    okuka wo nami           80
      mi sode mochi
    furiteshi matsu wo
      koto tohanu
    ki ni ha aredomo
      aratamano             85
    tatsu tsuki goto ni
      ama no hara
    furi-sake mitsutsu
    kakete shinubana        90

      Tsunusahafu            1
    Ihare no yama ni
    kakareru kumo ha
    ohokimi ro ka mo!        5

4 _shimimi_ = _shimi shimi_, abounding, flourishing.

11 _koshi_ is quasi auxiliary (_kuru_).

28 _matsu_ by homophonal word-play means here, pine-tree.

38 i.e. _kokoro ni kakete mede-utsukushimi_, &c.

41 A m. k. = planted willow--applies to next line.

47 _keburi_ is here, mist.

50 _akaneba_--_aku_, grow tired of.

55 In the text the character _gen_ meaning _kotoba_ (speech) is
curiously used for _aga_, mine.

57 lit. a two-storied palace or pavilion. Here the shrine is meant,
sometimes a palace or pavilion was built.

67 _kumoriyo_, cloud-darkened night.

69 The m. k. _asamoyoshi_ really applies to _ki_ only of _Kinohe_
(_ki_, to put on; _asamo_, hempen robe).

80 _okuka_, lit. inmost place, end, term, &c.--the meaning is, no limit
to my tears.

86 lit. with each new month, but undefined time is intended.

90 _shinubana_ = _shinubu namu_, _shinubamu_.

2 _Ihare_ = _iha mure_, piled rocks.

For _mochitsukino_, _tohotsuhito_, _tamatasuki_, _sashiyanagi_,
_masokagami_, _ohobuneno_, _shirotaheni_, _uchihisasu_, _kumoriyono_,
_asamoyoshi_, _aratamano_, _tamatasuki_ see List m. k.


      Shikishimano           1
    Yamato no kuni ni
      ikasama ni
    omohoshimese ka
      tsure mo naki          5
    Kinohe no miya ni
      ohotono wo
    komori imaseba          10
      ashita ni ha
      yufu-he ni ha
      tsukahashishi         15
    toneri no kora ha
    murete samorahi
    meshitamahaneba         20
    togishi kokoro wo
      koi-marobi            25
    hidzuchi nakedomo
    aki-daranu ka mo.

1-10 suggest the death of the Miko (Takechi?); 11-18 the faithful
service of his retainers; 19 to end, their inconsolable grief.

3, 4 This common phrase seems to mean ‘for some reason or other’, an
expression used to signify dubiety of cause, real or respectful.

24 _omohi-hafuru_ = _omohi-hanachi-chirasu_.

For _shikishimano_, _yukutorino_, _tsurugitachi_ see List m. k.
_tonogomori_ and _amakumoni_ are quasi m. k.


      Momoshinuno            1
    Minu no ohokimi
      nishi no umaya
    tatete kafu koma
      himukashi no umaya     5
    tatete kafu koma
      kusa koso ha
    torite kahi-name
      midzu koso ha
    kumite kahi-name        10
      nani shi ka mo
    ashige no uma no
    ibaye tachitsuru.

12 _ashige_, reed-like in colour, grey; _ashigebuchi_, dappled grey.
The envoy is--_Koromode wo_ | _ashige no uma no_ | _ibayu kowe_ |
_kokoro are ka mo_ | _tsune yu ke ni naku_. Here the m. k. _koromode_,
vestment-sleeve, is curiously applied to _ashige_ as similar in sound
to _osoki_ = _uhagi_ = outer or over-garment. The meaning of _ke ni_
(異) is, differently, strangely, specially.

For _momoshinuno_ see List m. k.


      Shirakumono            1
    tanabiku kuni no
    muka-busu kuni no
      amakumono              5
    shita naru hito ha
      a nomi ka mo
    kimi ni kofuramu
      are nomi shi
    kimi ni kofureba.       10

1-6 indicate all men under heaven.

1 _shirakumono_ applies to clouds on which the sun is shining,
_awokumo_ to clouds unsunned.

For _shirakumono_, _awokumono_, _amakumono_, see List m. k. The Kogi
separates this lay from the next to which, in some editions, it serves
as an introduction.


      Ame tsuchi ni          1
      kofuru ka mo
    mune no yameru
      omohe ka mo            5
    kokoro no itaki
      aga kohi so
    hi ni ke ni masaru
      itsu ha shi mo
    kohinu toki to ha       10
    kono nagatsuki wo
      waga seko ga
    shinubi ni seyo to
      chi yo ni mo          15
    shinubi wataredo
      yorodzu yo ni
    katari to tsugahe
      hazhimete shi
    kono nagatsuki no       20
      sugimaku wo
    ita mo sube nami
    tsuki no kahareba
      semu sube no          25
    tadoki wo shirani
      iha ga ne no
    kogoshiki michi no
      iha-toko no
    ne-haheru kado ni       30
      ashita ni ha
    ide-wite nageki
      yufu-he ni ha
    iri-wi kohitsutsu.

8 Read as _ini-kihenuru ni masaru_.

10 _kohinu_ is negative.

14 _seyo_, perhaps a sort of (logical) 1st pers. imperative.

30 _ne-haheru_, _nehafu_, or _nebafu_, apparently means extended
entrance, referring to gallery approaching tomb-chamber.

31 _ashita_ is here ‘morning’, not merely ‘morrow’.

For _aratamano_ see List m. k.


      Nubatamano             1
    kuro kami shikite
      hito no nuru
    uma-i ha nezu ni
      ohobuneno              5
    yukura yukura ni
    aga nuru yora ha
    yomi mo ahenu ka mo.

9 _yomi_, here ‘count’.

For _nubatamano_, _ohobuneno_ see List m. k.


      Komorikuno             1
    Hatsuse no kaha no
      kamitsu se ni
    u wo yatsu kadzuke
      shimotsu se ni         5
    u wo yatsu kadzuke
      kamitsu se no
    ayu wo kuhashime
      shimotsu se no
    ayu wo kuhashime        10
      kuhashi imo ni
    taguhite mashi wo
      naguru-sa no
    tohozakari wite
      omofu sora            15
    yasukaranaku ni
      nageku sora
    yasukaranaku ni
      kinu koso ha
    sore yarenureba         20
      nuhitsutsu mo
    mata mo afu to ihe
      tama koso ha
    wo no tayenureba
      kukuritsutsu          25
    mata mo afu to ihe
      mata mo
    ahanu mono ha
    imo ni shi arikeri.

1-10 introductory to _kuhashi imo_. In the use of _kuhashime_ there
is an imitation or a reminiscence of the Kojiki lay (K. App. LXXVI)
translated in the notes to 177. _kuhashime_ = here, make-swallow,
afterwards to disgorge.

13 _nagarusa_, as far as an arrow can be shot.

25 Note the curious script for _kuku_ (_kukuri_) the figures 81 are
used, 81 = 9 x 9 = _ku ku_.

For _komorikuno_ see List m. k.


      Komorikuno             1
    Hatsuse no yama
    Osaka no yama ha
      washiri-de no          5
    yoroshiki yama no
      ide-tachi no
    kuhashiki yama so
      yama no               10
    aremakurashi wo.

5 _washiri-de_ = _hashiri-de_, run out, tower, rise high.

9 _atarashiki_, not here ‘new’ but _oshimubeshi_ = what may be prized,
valued, regretted, excellent.

For _komorikuno_, _awohatano_ see List m. k.


      Taka yama to           1
    umi koso ha
      yama nagara
    kaku mo utsushiku
      umi nagara             5
    shika mo tada narame
      hito ha
    hana mono so
      yo hito.              10

2, 6 _koso_ to be read with _narame_.

3, 5 _nagara_ is, just as, exactly as = _na[ru] kara[da]_.

4 _utsushiku_ here means real, actual.

For _utsusemino_ see List m. k.


      Ohokimi no             1
    mikoto kashikomi
    Yamato wo sugite
      Ohotomo no             5
    Mitsu no hama-he yu
      ohobune ni
    ma-kaji shizhi nuki
      asa nagi ni
    kako no kowe yobi       10
      yufu nagi ni
    kaji no ’to shitsutsu
      yukishi kimi
    itsu ki-masamu to
      nusa okite            15
    ihahi-wataru ni
      taha-koto ya
    hito no ihitsuru
      waga kokoro
    Tsukushi no yama no     20
    chiri-sugi nishi to
    kimi ga tadaka wo.

      Taha-koto ya           1
    hito no ihitsuru
    nagaku to kimi ha
    iiteshi mono wo.         5

15 Motowori reads _mitegura_, Okabe _yufu ke okite_. The Kogi reading,
here adopted, seems simpler and sufficient.

19 _waga kokoro_, is here an exclamation.

21 _momiji-ba_ is to be read with _chiri-_ of _chirisugi_ (22), and
this with the last line.

For _momijibano_, _tamanowono_ see List m. k.


      Tamahokono             1
    michi yuku hito ha
    yama yuki nu yuki
      tada watari            5
    kaha yuki-watari
    umi-ji ni idete
      kashikoki ya
    Kami no watari ha       10
      fuku kaze mo
    nodo ni ha fukazu
      tatsu nami mo
    oho ni ha tatazu
      shiki nami no         15
    tachi-safu michi wo
      taga kokoro
    itohoshi to ka mo
    tada watarikemu.

5-19 _tada watari_, _tadachi suguni_--is taken as involving the meaning
of _kachi watari_, to cross on foot, walk across. This sense, however,
is not altogether admissible.

17 to end: read as if _[kono hito] ha tare no kokoro wo itohoshite ka
mo kachi-watarikemu_.

For _tamahokono_, _isanatori_ see List m. k.


      Tori-ga-ne mo          1
    kikoyenu umi ni
      takayama wo
    hedate ni nashite
      okitsu mo wo           5
    makura ni nashite
      akitsu ha no
    kinu dani kizu ni
    umi no hama-be ni       10
      ura mo naku
    inetaru hito ha
      omo chichi ni
    manago ni ka aramu
      wakakusano            15
    tsuma ka aruramu
    koto tsutemu ya to
      ihe toheba
    ihe wo mo norazu        20
      na wo tohedo
    na dani mo norazu
    koto dani tohazu
      omohedomo             25
    kanashiki mono ha
    yo no naka ni ari.

1-4 The full sense of these lines it is not easy to make out.

7, 8 A very obscure passage. Some commentators suppose a silken
garment, the produce of an insect (_yamamai_, wild silkworm), to
be intended. The explanation most in accordance with the text (as
emended in the Kogi) is to take _akidzu ha_ as meaning the wing of
a dragon-fly. The passage would then be interpreted as it is in the
translation q. v.

11 _ura mo naku_, without heart, feeling, dead to external impressions.

17 = _omohoshiki_ (_omohashiki_) _koto_, something thought of, thought
of with regret, love, &c.: _omohi_ = be in a state of intellectual or
emotional consciousness.

23, 24 unable to speak, like a puling infant.

For _isanatori_, _wakakusano_, _nakukonasu_ see List m. k.


      Tamahokono             1
    michi ni idetachi
      ashihiki no
    mi yuki yama yuki
      tada watari            5
    kaha yuki watari
    umi ji ni idete
      fuku kaze mo
    oho ni ha fukazu        10
      tatsu nami mo
    nodo ni ha tatazu
      kashikoki ya
    Kami no watari no
      shiki nami no         15
    yosuru hama he ni
      taka yama wo
    hedate ni okite
      urasu wo
    makura ni makite        20
      ura mo naku
    koyaseru kimi ha
      omo chichi no
    manago ni mo aramu
      wakakusano            25
    tsuma mo aramu to
      ihe tohedo
    ihe ji mo ihazu
      na wo tohedo
    na dani mo norazu       30
      taga koto wo
    itohoshimi ka mo
      shiki nami no
    kashikoki umi wo
    tada watarikemu.        35


      Ihe hito no            1
    matsuramu mono wo
      tsure mo naki
    ariso wo makite
    fuseru kimi ka mo.       5


      urasu ni               1
    koyaseru kimi wo
      kefu kefu to
    komu to matsuramu
    tsuma shi kanashi mo.    5

For _tamahokono_, _isanatori_, _wakakusano_ see List m. k.


      Kono tsuki ha          1
    kimi kimasamu to
    omohi tanomite
      itsushika to           5
    aga machi woreba
      momichi-ba no
    sugite yukinu to
    tsukahi no iheba        10
    honoka ni kikite
      ame tsuchi wo
    kohi nomi nageki
      tachite wite          15
    yukuhe mo shirani
      asa-giri no
    ya-saka no nageki       20
    shirushi wo nami to
      idzuku ni ka
    kimi ga masamu to
      amakumono             25
    yuki no manimani
      iyu shishi no
    yuki mo shinamu to
    michi shi shiraneba     30
      hitori wite
    kimi ni kofuru ni
    ne nomi shi nakuzu.

      Ashi he yuku           1
    kari no tsubasa wo
      miru goto ni
    kimi ga obashishi
    nagu ya shi omohoyu.     5

19, 20 sigh deep as eight (not ten) feet--a conceit of a kind common in
Japanese poetry, which can scarcely be translated.

For _ohobuneno_, _tamadzusano_, _hotarunasu_, _tsuwetarazu_,
_amakumono_ see List m. k.


      Misakureba             1
    kumowi ni miyuru
    Toba no matsubara
      waraha domo            5
    iza wa ide-mimu
      koto sakaba
    kuni ni sakanamu
      koto sakaba
    ihe ni sakanamu         10
      ame tsuchi no
    kami shi urameshi
    kono tabi no ke ni
    tsuma sakubeshi ya.     15

7, 9 _koto sakaba_ = _kaku no gotoku hanareba_.

14 _ke_ = _ki-he_, pass on, elapse, proceed.

For _kusamakura_ see List m. k.


      Yufu sareba            1
    ashi he ni sawaki
    oki ni nadzusafu
      kamo sura mo           5
    tsuma to taguhite
      waga wo ni ha
    shimo na furi so to
    hane sashi-kahete       10
    sanu tofu mono wo
    kaheranu gotoku
      fuku kaze no          15
    miyenu ga gotoku
      ato mo naki
    yo no hito ni shite
      wakare nishi
    imo ga kiseteshi        20
    sode katashikite
    hitori ka mo nemu!

7 _wo_, tail.

12 _sanu_, _sa-nuru_. _tofu_, _to ifu_.

20 _kiseteshi nare_, put on and use to wear.

22 _katashiki_, side-spread, i.e. one side only, spreading out sleeves
on one side only, i.e. sleeping alone.

For _shirotaheno_, _yukimidzuno_ see List m. k.


Mono ni tsukite omohi wo noburu uta.

      Asa sareba             1
    imo ga te ni maku
    Mitsu no hama-bi ni
      ohobune ni             5
    ma kaji shizhi nuki
      Kara kuni ni
    watari yukamu to
    Minume wo sashite       10
      shiho machite
    mi-wo-biki yukeba
      oki-he ni ha
    shiranami takami
      ura-mi yori           15
    kogite watareba
    Ahade no shima ha
      yufu sareba
    kumo-wi kakurinu        20
      sayo fukete
    yuku-he wo shirani
    Akashi no ura ni
      fune tomete           25
    ukine wo shitsutsu
      watatsumi no
    oki-he wo mireba
      izari suru
    ama no wotome ha        30
      wo-bune nori
    tsurara ni ukeri
      akatoki no
    shiho michi kureba
      ashi-he ni ha         35
    tadzu naki wataru
      asa nagi ni
    funa-de wo semu to
      funa-bito mo
    kako mo kowe yobi       40
      niho-dori no
    nadzusahi yukeba
      Iheshima ha
    kumo-wi ni miyenu
      aga ’moheru           45
    kokoro nagu ya to
      hayaku kite
    mimu to omohite
      ohobune wo
    waga kogi yukeba        50
      okitsu nami
    takaku tachikinu
      yoso nomi ni
    mitsutsu sugi-yuki
      Tama no ura ni        55
    fune wo todomete
      hamabi yori
    ura iso wo mitsutsu
    ne nomi shi nakayu      60
      watatsumi no
    ta-maki no tama wo
      ihe tsuto ni
    imo ni yaramu to
      hirihi-tori           65
    sode ni hairete
    tsukahi nakereba
    shirushi wo nami to     70
    mata okitsuru ka mo.

In the script of this lay, as in that of the last and of many
succeeding lays, the ideograms are entirely phonetic, or nearly so.

70 Observe use of _wo_, not here objectively.

The m. k. (3) applies to _Mi[tsu]_, (9) to Mi(nume), (23) to Akashi ( =
_akashi_, bright, be clear).

For _kagaminasu_, _tadamukafu_, _wagimokoni_, _agakokoro_, _nakukonasu_
see List m. k.



Yuki no shima ni itarite Yuki no Murazhi Yakamori ga tachimachi ye-yami
nite mi makareru toki yomeru uta.

      Sumerogi no            1
    toho no Mikado to
      Kara kuni ni
    wataru waga se ha
      ihe-bito no            5
    ihahi matane ka
      tatami ka mo
    ayamachi shikemu
      aki saraba
    kaheri-masamu to        10
    haha ni mawoshite
      toki mo sugi
    tsuki mo henureba
      kefu ka komu          15
    asu ka mo komu to
      ihebito ha
    machi kofuramu ni
      toho no kuni
    imada mo tsukazu        20
      Yamato wo mo
    tohoku sakarite
      iha ga ne no
    araki shima-ne
    yadori sura kimi!       25

      Ihata-nu ni            1
    yadori suru kimi
      ihebito no
    idzura to ware wo
    tohaba ikani ihamu!      5

6 _ihahi matane [ba] ka_, is it they do not go on honouring…?

For _tarachineno_ see List m. k.


      Ame tsuchi to          1
    tomo ni mo ga mo to
    arikemu mono wo
      hashikeyashi           5
    ihe wo hanarete
      nami no uhe yu
    nadzusahiki nite
    tsuki hi mo ki-henu     10
      karigane mo
    tsugite ki-nakereba
    haha mo tsumara mo
      asa tsuyu ni          15
    mo no suso hidzuchi
      yufu giri ni
    koromo-de nurete
      sakiku shi mo
    aruramu gotoku          20
      ide mitsutsu
    matsuramu mono wo
      yo no naka no
    hito no nageki ha
      ahi-omohanu           25
    kimi ni are ya mo
    chiraheru nu he no
      hatsu wo-bana
    kari-ho ni fukite       30
    tohoki kuni he no
      tsuyu shimo no
    samuki yama he ni
    yadori seruramu.        35


      Hashikeyashi           1
    tsuma mo kodomo mo
      taka taka ni
    matsuramu kimi ya
    shima-gakurenuru.        5


      Momijibano             1
    chirinamu yama ni
    kimi wo matsuramu
    hito shi kanashi mo.     5

14 _tsumara_, an honour plural?

24, 25 Read _hito_ with _ahi-omohanu_ (will not meet again).

31 _kumo-banare_, see also K. App. LV.

For _aratamano_, _tarachineno_, _akihagino_ see List m. k.


      Watatsumi no           1
    kashikoki michi wo
      yasukeku mo
    naku nayami-kite
      ima dani mo            5
    mo naku yukamu to
      yuki no ama no
    hotsu-te no urahe wo
      kata yakite
    yukamu to suru ni       10
      ime no goto
    michi no sora-ji ni
    wakare suru kimi.

4 _kite_ is quasi-auxiliary.

6 _mo naku_, without ill luck or hap.

8 _hotsu-te_ explained as = _hote_, chief.

11 _ime_ here = _yume_, dream.



      Midori ko no           1
    waku-go ga mi ni ha
    haha ni udakaye
      suki-kakuru            5
    hafu ko ga mi ni ha
      yufu kata-kinu
    hitsura ni-nuhi ki
      kubi tsuki no
    waraha ga mi ni ha      10
      yuhi-hata no
    sode tsuke koromo
      kishi ware wo
    a ni yoru kora ga
      yochi ni ha           15
    kaguroshi kami wo
      ma kushi mochi
    kata ni kakitari
      tori-tagane           20
    agete mo makimi
      toki midashi
    waraha ni nashimi
    ni-tsukafu iro ni       25
      murasaki no
    oho-aya no koromo
      Suminoye no
    Wori no wo-nu no        30
      ma hari mochi
    nihoshishi kinu ni
      Koma nishiki
    himo ni-nuhi-tsuke
    sasahe kasanahe         35
    nami kasane ki
      womi no kora
    takara no kora ga       40
    hahete oru nuno
      hi sarashi no
    asa tedzukuri wo
      shikimonasu           45
    shiki ni tori-shiki
    inaki wotome ga
      tsuma tofu no
    a ni so tabarishi       50
      uki kata no
    futaya shitakutsu
    Asuka wotoko ga
      nagame imi            55
    nukishi kuri-kutsu
      sashi hakite
      niha ni tachi
    yuki motohoreba
      omo tozhi no          60
    morasu wotome ga
      hono kikite
    a ni so tabarishi
      mi hanada no
    kinu no obi wo          65
      hikobi nasu
    karobi ni torashi
      watatsumi no
    tono no iraka ni
      tobi-kakeru           70
    sugaru no gotoku
      koshi hoso ni
    tori kazarahi
    tori name kakete        75
      ono ga kaho
    kaherahi mitsutsu
      haru sarite
    nu he wo megureba
      omoshiromi            80
    are wo omohe ka
      sa-nu tsu tori
    ki naki kakerafu
      aki sarite
    yama he wo yukeba       85
      natsukashi to
    are wo omohe ka
    i-yuki tanabiki
      kaheri tachi          90
    ohochi wo kereba
      miya womina
    toneri wotoko mo        95
    kaherahi mitsutsu
      taga koso to ya
    omoharete aru
    kaku so shi koshi      100
      inishihe no
    sasakishi are ya
    kefu ya mo kora ni
      isa ni to ya         105
    omoharete aru
    kaku so shi koshi
      inishihe no
    sakashiki hito mo
      nochi no yo no       110
    kagami ni semu to
      oi-hito wo
    okurishi kuruma
    mochi kaherikoshi.

The metre of this uta is irregular and the style is not good. Of many
of the words the sense is obscure.

1 _midori ko_, green, i.e. very young child.

2 _waku-go_ = _wakaki ko_.

5 = _kakuru_.

8 _hitsura_, perhaps _hitaura_, apparently plain-lined.

11 _yuhi-hata_ (_yuhata_), spotted by tying up portions and then dyeing
the piece.

15 _yochi_, of like age.

17 Or _kaguro shi_.

21 _makimi_, the _mi_ is a suffix denoting manner, quality, quantity
(I.), &c.

32 _nihoshishi_, dyed.

35 _sashi-kasane_.

37 A m. k. of _wo_ taken as _wo_, hemp-yarn--apparently fine and
supple, prepared by beating, well beetled (_utsu_).

39 _arikinuno_, a m. k. of _takara_, fair or rich robe.

41 _utsutahe_, see 37; _tahe_ is fine stuff.

44 _tedzukuri_, hand made, home made?

45 _shikimo_ means vestments worn one over the other; _nasu_ = manner,

46 = _shiki_, put on over.

47 Lengthened form of _hokoru_, be proud, &c.

48 _inaki_, village headman.

50 = _tamahari hi tamaharishi_, read with 51; with _a_ read _tsumatofu_
(_tsumadohi suru_) _no_.

51 = _uki katachi_ = _ukimori_, a fabric with raised pattern woven on

52 _futaya_, pattern of two colours.

55 _nagame_, _naga ame_, long rains. _imi_, keep out, ward off.

56 _kuri-kutsu_, black boots.

60 _omo tozhi_, lady mother.

62 _hono_ _honoka_.

71 _sugaru_, a kind of sand-wasp.

73 _kazarahi_ = _kazaru_.

74 Not a m. k. here.

91 _ohomichi_ (_miyako he_) _wo kureba_.

100 _kaku no gotoku so shite kitarishi_.

102 = _sasameku_, I who was rumoured about of old as a handsome fellow.…

105 _isa-iza_, _ideya_. I am now pointed at by the girls saying--Oh,
look at that old fellow!

109 _sakashiki_, sage, wise.

112 _oi-hito_, _Genkoku_, confer translation.

For _tarachishi_, _minanowata_, _kurenawino_, _utsusoyashi_,
_arikinuno_, _shikimonasu_, _tobutorino_, _amakumono_, _uchihisasu_,
_sasudakeno_ see List m. k.


[Wotome ga] se no kimi wo kofuru uta.

      Sanidzurafu            1
    kimi ga mi koto to
    tsukahi mo koneba
      omohi-yamu             5
    aga mi hitotsu so
    kami ni mo na ohose
      urabe mase
    kame mo na yaki so      10
      kohoshiku ni
    itaki aga mi so
    mi ni shimi-tohori
      murakimono            15
    kokoro kudakete
      shinamu inochi
    nihaka ni narinu
      imasara ni
    kimi ka a wo yobu       20
    haha no mikoto ka
    yaso no chimata ni
      yufu-ke ni mo         25
    ura ni mo so tofu
    shinubeki a ga yuwe.

      Urabe wo mo            1
    yaso no chimata mo
      ura tohedo
    kimi wo ahimimu
    tadoki shirazu mo.       5

2 _chimata_, the road-forks, crossways--there more wayfarers would be

6 _hitotsu_ = _hitori_, alone, lonely.

8, 10 _na_ is neg. imperative particle.

9, 10 to be read together.

11 _kohoshiku_ = _kohishiku_.

14 _shimi-tohori_ = _some-tohori_, dye through, penetrate deeply.

For _sanidzurafu_, _tamadzusano_, _chihayaburu_, _murakimono_,
_tarachineno_, _momotarazu_ see List m. k.



Se no kimi wo kofuru uta.

      Ihi-hamedo             1
    umaku mo arazu
    yasuku mo arazu
      akanesasu              5
    kimi ga kokoro shi
    wasure kanetsu mo.

For _akanesasu_ see List m. k.


      Umasakewo              1
    Oshitaru wo-nu yu
      idzuru midzu
    nuruku ha idezu
      mashimidzuno           5
    kokoro mo keya ni
    oto no sukunaki
    michi ni ahanu ka mo
      sukunaki yo           10
    michi ni ahasaba
      iro keseru
    suga kasa wo-kasa
      waga unageru
    tama no nanatsu wo      15
      tori-kahe mo
    mawosamu mono wo
      sukunaki [yo]
    michi ni ahanu ka mo.

1 _umasake_, sweet, pure (sweet or delicious _sake_).

2 _Oshitaru_, _oshi-shitaru_, written as fall or flow down, but here a

4 _nuruku_ here = gentle.

6 _kokoro mo keya ni_ = _kokoro mo isagiyoku oboyuru kiyoki midzu_.

10 _sukunaki_, _oto no sukunaki yoshi_.

12 _iro_ is the _iro_ of _irose_, _irodo_--also _ira_, _iri_, a word of
endearment and respect.

15 _nanatsu wo_, seven, i.e. many beads.

17 _mawosamu_ = _mairasemu_, a woman’s word.

1-7 are an introduction to _oto_.

For _umasakewo_, _mashimidzuno_ see List m. k.


Noto no kuni no uta.

      Hashitate no           1
    Kumaki no yara ni
      Shiraki wono
    otoshi-ire wa shi
      kakete kakete          5
    na nakashi so ne
    uki-idzuru ya to
      mimu wa shi.

4 _wa shi_, an exclamation common in _saibara_ plays. According to
Keichiu it means here _nanji_, thou. The Kogi takes it as _yo shi_.


Noto no kuni no uta.

      Hashitate no           1
    Kumaki saka-ya ni
    yatsuko wa shi
      sasuhi tate            5
    wite ki-namashi wo
    yatsuko wa shi.

3 _ma-nuraru_ = _ma noraru_; _noru_ means revile, abuse (_nonoshiru_).

5 _sasuhi tate_ = _sasohi_ (_sasofu_), invite--_tate_ has the usual

6 _ki-namashi_, _namashi_ has an optative meaning.


      Kashima ne no          1
    Tsukuwe no shima no
      shitatami wo
    i-hirihi mote-kite
      ishi mochi             5
    tsutsuki hafuri
      haya kaha ni
    arahi susuki
      kara shiho ni
    koko to momi            10
    takatsuki ni mori
      tsukuwe ni tatete
    haha ni matsuritsu ya
      metsuko no tozhi
    chichi ni matsuritsu ya 15
    mi metsuko no tozhi.

2 _Tsukuwe_, word-play with _tsukuwe_ (12)?.

6 scoop out (the flesh).

10 _koko_, the noise of pounding.

11 _mori_ must here mean pile up, heap up.

13 _tatematsuri_, offer, present.

14 _metsuko_. How to render this word is not clear. It may be a title
only, 女津子. But (I.) gives it as = _utsukushimu ko_.


Shika no tame ni omohi wo nobete yomeru uta.

      Itoko                  1
    nase no kimi
      wori wori te
    mono ni i-yuku to
      Kara kuni no           5
    tora tofu kami wo
      ike-tori ni
    ya tsu tori mochi-ki
      sono kaha wo
    tatami ni sashi         10
      yahe tatami
    Heguri no yama ni
      u-tsuki to
    sa-tsuki no hodo ni
      kusuri-gari           15
    tsukafuru toki ni
    kono kata-yama ni
      futatsu tatsu
    ichihi ga moto ni       20
    yatsu tabasami
      hime kabura
    yatsu tabasami
      shishi matsu to       25
    aga woru toki ni
      sawo-shika no
    ki-tachi nagekaku
      tachimachi ni
    are ha shinubeshi       30
      ohokimi ni
    are ha tsukahemu
      aga tsunu ha
    mi kasa no hayashi
      aga mimi ha           35
    mi sumi no tsubo
      aga mera ha
    ma sumi no kagami
      aga tsume ha
    mi yumi no yubazu       40
      aga kera ha
    mi fude no hayashi
      aga kaha ha
    mi hako no kaha ni
      aga shishi ha         45
    mi namasu hayashi
      aga kimo mo
    mi namasu hayashi
      aga migi ha
    mi shiho no hayashi     50
    waga mi hitotsu ni
    nana-he hana saku
    ya-he hana saku to
    mawoshi-hayasane        55

1-10 make a phrasal m. k. to 11, 12.

1, 2 _itoko nase_, terms of endearment (_itohoshi ko nanji no se_?).

3 _wori-worite_ implies long union of husband and wife.

4 _mono ni i-yuku_; an exclamatory phrase denoting an intention or wish
to go somewhere or do something.

8 _ya tsu_, eight head of, i.e. many-head of.

17 _ashihiki_ = m. k.

18 _kata-yama_, out of the way, remote mountain, i.e. from City-Royal.
But Heguri is in Yamato.

34 _hayashi_, to complete, adorn, make flourish, finish off.

38 _ma sumi_, right clear, the script is _kariji_.

41 _kera_, ‘hairs’, like _mera_ above, ‘eyes’.

46, 48, 50 _hayashi_, chop, mince.

55 _hayasane_ or _hayazane_, precative imperative; _hayasu_, to praise.

For _ashihikino_, _adzusayumi_, see List m. k.


Kani no tane ni omohi wo nobete yomeru uta.

      Oshiteruya             1
    Naniha no Woye ni
      iho tsukuri
    namarite woru
      ashi kani wo           5
    ohokimi mesu to
      nani semu ni
    a wo mesurame ya
    a ha shiru koto wo      10
      utahito to
    wa wo mesurame ya
      fuye-fuki to
    wa wo mesurame ya
      koto-hiki to          15
    wa wo mesurame ya
      ka mo kaku mo
    mi koto ukemu to
      kefu kefu to
    Asuka ni itari          20
    Okina ni itari
    Tsukunu ni itari
      himukashi no          25
    naka no mikado yu
    mi koto ukureba
      uma ni koso
    fumodashi kaku mono     30
      ushi ni koso
    hana naha hakure
    kono kata yama no
      momu nire wo          35
    iho ye hagitari
      ama-teru ya
    hi no ke ni hoshi
      sahidzuru ya
    Kara usu ni tsuki       40
      niha ni tatsu
    suri usu ni tsuki
    Naniha no Woye no
      hatsu-tare wo         45
    karaku-tari kite
      suwe hito no
    tsukureru kame wo
      kefu yukite
    asu tori-mochi-ki       50
      waga mera ni
    shiho nuritamahi
    mochi-hayasu mo
    mochi-hayasu mo.

      Hito-tama no           1
    sawo naru kimi ga
      tada hitori
    aherishi ama yo [ha
    hisashiku omohoyu].      5

4 _namarite_, an old word, obscure, retired, remote (_namari_, dialect,
and _namari_, lead (the metal) are probably the same word--something
far away [from City-Royal]).

22 _oki_, rise, stand up.

30 _fumodashi_ (_fumi wo hodashi_).

32 _hakure_, _haku_, string a bow.

34 _kata yama_, see 210.

35 _momu_ = _momo_.

39 _sahidzuru_ = _koto sahegu_.

45 _hatsu-tare_ = _hazhime-taretaru_.

5 The part in [] is probably corrupt.

For _oshiteruya_, _ashihikino_ see List m. k.


[Tempyô] 13 nen 2 gwatsu Mika no hara no nihi miyako wo homuru uta.

      Yamashiro no           1
    Kuni no miyako ha
      haru sareba
    hana saki wowori
      aki sareba             5
    momichi-ba nihohi
    Idzumi no kaha no
      kami tsu se ni
    uchi hashi watashi      10
      yodo se ni ha
    uki-hashi watashi
    yorodzu yo made ni.     15

10 _uchi-hashi_ (I), rough or temporary bridge; so too Motowori.

12 _uki-hashi_, floating bridge, hanging bridge, boat-bridge.


Mimakareru oto wo kanashimu uta.

      Amazakaru              1
    hina wosame ni
      ohokimi no
    make no manimani
      idete koshi            5
    ware wo okuru to
    Nara yama sugite
      Idzumi kaha
    kiyoki kahara ni        10
      uma todome
    wakareshi toki ni
    are kaheri komu
      tahirakeku            15
    ihahite mate to
    koshi hi no kihami
    michi wo ta-tohomi      20
      yama kaha no
    he narite areba
    ke nagaki mono wo
      mimakuhori            25
    omofu ahida ni
    tsukahi no kereba
      ureshimi to
    aga machi tofu ni       30
      oyodzure no
    tahagoto to ka mo
    na oto no mikoto
      nani shika mo         35
    toki shi ha aramu
    ho ni ’dzuru aki no
      hagi no hana
    nihoheru yado wo        40
      asa niha ni
    idetachi narashi
      yufu niha ni
      Saho no uchi no       45
    sato wo yuki-sugi
    yama no konure ni
      shirakumo ni
    tachi-tanabiku to       50
    are ni tsugetsuru!

18 _koshi hi_ = _wakareshi hi yore_.

20 _ta-tohomi_, _ta_ is an intensitive prefix.

22 _he_, short for _hedate_.

24 _ke nagaki_ = _ki-he nagaki_.

33 _hashikiyashi_ (_hashi-ke ya-shi_--_ya_ = _yo_).

34 _na_ is the _na_ (_nanji_?) of _na se_, _na imo_, &c.

42-4 The negative of _tahiragezu_ is implied also in _narashi_.

For _amazakaru_, _awoniyoshi_, _tamahokono_, _tamadzusano_,
_ashihikino_ see List m. k.


[Tempyô] 19 nen Kisaragi no tsuki hatsuka no hi tachimachi yamahi ni
shidzumi hotohoto mi-usenamu to su kare uta wo yomite kanashimi wo
noburu hito uta.

      Ohokimi no             1
    make no manimani
    kokoro furi-okoshi
      ashihikino             5
    yama saka koyete
    hina ni kudariki
      iki dani mo
    imada yasumezu          10
      toshi tsuki mo
    ikura mo aranu ni
    yo no hito nareba
      uchi-nabiki           15
    toko ni koi-fushi
      itakeku shi
    hi ni ke ni masaru
    haha no mikoto no       20
    yukura yukura ni
      shita-gohi ni
    itsu ka mo komu to
      matasuramu            25
    kokoro sabushiku
    tsuma no mikoto mo
    kado ni yori-tachi      30
      yufu sareba
    toko uchi-harahi
      nubatamano            35
    kurokami shikite
      itsushika to
    nagekasuramu so
      imo mo se mo
    wakaki kodomo ha        40
      wochi-kochi ni
    sawaki nakuramu
    michi wo ta-dohomi
      ma-tsukahi mo         45
    yaru yoshi mo nashi
    koto tsute yarazu
      kofuru nishi
    kokoro ha moyenu        50
    inochi woshikedo
      semu sube no
    tadoki wo shirani
      kaku shite ya         55
    arashi-wo sura ni
    nageki fuseramu.

15 That is, _yamahi ni_.

18 = _ki-he ni-masaru_ = pass on--increase.

23 _shita-gohi_ = inner or deep, desire, love or yearning.

28 _mikoto_ = here a title of respect applied to the wife.

38 _nagekasuramu_, honour-causative. Compare with the ordinary form
below, _nakuramu_.

45 _ma-tsukahi mo nashi_, no messenger one way or the other.

56 = _masurawo_.

57 _ya_ being removed to a position after _fuseramu_, makes the sense

vv. 6-20 relate to the poet’s illness.

For _masurawono_, _ashihikino_, _amazakaru_, _utsusemino_,
_tarachineno_, _ohobuneno_, _koromodewo_, _nubatamano_, _tamahokono_,
_tamakiharu_ see List m. k.


Yakamochi (mizhika uta).

      Haru no hana           1
    ima ha sakari ni
    worite kazasamu
    ta-jikara mo ga mo!      5

      Uguhisu no             1
    naki chirasamu
      haru no hana
    itsushika kimi to
    wori kazasamu!           5

Ikenushi (mizhika uta).

      Yama-gahi ni           1
    sakeru sakura wo
      tada hito me
    kimi ni miseteba
    nani wo ka omohamu!      5

      Uguhisu no             1
    ki naku yamabuki
      utakata mo
    kimi ga te furezu
    hana chirame ya mo!      5

Yakamochi’s mizhika, 4, 5 _wori_, break.

Ikenushi’s mizhika, 3 _utakata_ = _shibaraku_--_utakata_ is foam; the
expression is probably a metaphor.

215 (naga-uta)

20 Tempyô 3 guwatsu mi ka no hi Yakamochi ga uta.

      Ohokimi no             1
    make no manimani
    Koshi wo wosame ni
      idetekoshi             5
    masurahare sura
      yo no naka no
    tsune shinakereba
      uchi nabiki
    toko ni koi-fushi       10
      itakeku no
    hi no ke ni maseba
    koko ni omohi-de
      iranakeku             15
    soko ni omohi-de
      nageku sora
    yasukeku naku ni
      omofu sora
    kurushiki monowo        20
    yama kihe narite
    michi ni tohokeba
      ma-tsukahi mo         25
    yaru yoshi mo nami
    koto mo kayohazu
    inochi woshikedo        30
      semu sube no
    tadoki mo shirani
    omohi nagekahi
      nagusamuru            35
    kokoro ha nashi ni
      haru hana no
    sakeru sakaru ni
      omofu dochi
    tawori kazasazu         40
      haru no nu no
    shigemi tobikuku
      uguhisu no
    kowe dani kikazu
      wotomera ga           45
    haru na tsumasu to
    akamo no suso no
      harusame ni
    nihohi hidzuchite       50
    toki no sakari wo
      itadzura ni
    sugushi yaritsure
      shinubaseru           55
    kimi ga kokoro wo
    kono yo sugara ni
      i mo nezu ni
    kefu mo shimirani       60
    kohitsutsu so woru.

6 _masurawo ware_.

14, 16 _koko_, _soko_, here and there, variously.

15 _iranakeku_ = _irairashi_, vexed, sad.

16 _omohi-de_, thought-go-forth, think of, dwell upon.

22 Read as if _yama mawiri hedatari_.

42 fly in and out in crowds.

55 Hon. caus.

56 _kimi_ is Ikenushi; _kokoro_, that is, of his letter, &c.

60 = _owarazu_.

1-6 Exordium.

9-12 are copied from 214.

9-20 Yakamochi’s illness.

21-36 His regrets.

37-54 Regrets he cannot enjoy the spring.

55 to end, addressed to Ikenushi.

13, 14, 15, 16 are found thus arranged (15, 16, 13, 14) in K. App. LI.

56 _kimi_ is Ikenushi.

For _shinazakaru_, _ashihikino_, _tamahokono_, _tamakiharu_ see List m.




      Ohokimi no             1
    Mikoto kashikomi
    yama nu saharazu
      amazakaru              5
    hina mo osamuru
    nani ka mono ’mofu
    Nara ji ki-kayofu       10
    tsukahi tayeme ya
      komori kohi
    iki-dzuki watari
      shita ’mohi ni        15
    nagekefu waga se
      inishihe yu
    ihi-tsugi kuraku
      yo no naka ha
    kazu naki mono so       20
    koto no aramu to
      sato-bito no
    are ni tsugeraku
      yamabi ni ha          25
    sakurabana chiri
      kaho-tori no
    ma-naku shiba-naku
      haru no nu ni
    sumire wo tsumu to      30
    sode wori-kaheshi
    aka-mo suso-biki
      wotome ha             35
      kimi matsu to
    ura-gohi su nari
    iza mi ni yukana        40
    koto ha tanashire!

1-12 For the comfort of Yakamochi; 13-20 Ikenushi’s sympathy; 21-38
sympathy of the sato-hito; 39 to end, Ikenushi’s sick friend shall
still enjoy the beauties of spring.

16 _waga se_ is Yakamochi, so too _kimi_ in 37.

39 _kokoro-gushi_ is not here _kokoro-kurushi_, but = _kokoro ni
natsukashimaruru_, thou art heart-beloved.…

For _ashihikino_, _amazakaru_, _masurawoya_, _awoniyoshi_,
_tamadzusano_, _shirotaheno_, _kurenawino_ see List m. k.

The value of some only of these m. k. is incorporated in the



      Imo mo are mo          1
    kokoro ha oyaji
    iya natsukashiku
      ahi-mireba             5
    toko hatsu hana ni
    megushi mo nashi ni
    aga oku tsuma           10
      ohokimi no
    mikoto kashikomi
    yama koye nu yuki
      amazakaru             15
    hina wosame ni to
      wakare koshi
    sono hi no kihami
    toshi yuki-kaheri       20
      hana haru no
    utsurofu made ni
    ita mo subenami
      shikitaheno           25
    sode kaheshitsutsu
      nuru yo ochizu
    ime ni ha miredo
      utsutsu ni shi
    tada ni araneba         30
    chihe ni tsumorinu
      chikaku araba
    kaheri ni dani mo
      uchi-yukite           35
    imo ga ta-makura
    nete mo komashi wo
    michi ha shi tohoku     40
      seki sahe ni
    he narite are koso
    yoshi ha aramu so
      hototogisu            45
    ki-nakamu tsuki ni
      itsushika mo
    hayaku narinamu
      u no hana no
    nihoheru yama wo        50
      yoso nomi mo
    furi-sake mitsutsu
      Afumi ji ni
    i-yuki nori-tachi
      awoniyoshi            55
    Nara no wagihe hi
      nuye tori no
    ura nageshitsutsu
      shita-kohi ni
    omohi urabure           60
      kado ni tachi
    yufu ke tohitsutsu
      a wo matsu to
    nasuramu imo wo
    ahite haya mimu.        65

7 _gushi_ = _natsukashi_.

8 _nashi_ (_nasu_) = _gotoku_.

10 _oku_, here respectful for ‘my wife’.

23 _ahi-mineba_: the object is _aga oku tsuma_, v. 10.

30 _tada ni_, really, verily, actually.

38 _komashi_, from _kuru_.

43 _yoshiweyashi_ = _yoshiya_.

51 _yoso_ = _hoka_, _soto ni_.

54 _tachi_ gives force of ‘get on board’, &c.

58 _ura_, inward, i.e. deeply.

For _ashihikino_, _amazakaru_, _aratamano_, _shikitakeno_,
_tamahokono_, _awoniyoshi_ see List m. k.



Futagami yama no uta.

      Imidzu kaha            1
    i-yuki megureru
    Futagami yama ha
      haruhanano             5
    sakeru sakari ni
      aki no ha no
    nihoheru toki ni
    furi-sake mireba        10
      kamu kara ya
    sokoba tafutoki
      yama kara ya
      sume kami no          15
    suso mi no yama no
      Shibutani no
    saki no ariso ni
      asa nagi ni
    yosuru shiranami        20
      yufu nagi ni
    michi kuru shiho no
      iya mashi ni
    tayuru koto naku
      inishihe yu           25
    ima no wotsutsu ni
      kaku shi koso
    miru hito goto ni
    kakete shinubame!

3 m. k. of Futa (gami) as homophon of _futa_, lid.

11, 13 _kara_ = _gara_.

12 _sokoba_ = _sokobaku_.

15 _sume kami_ = _Futa kami_, _kami_ being taken as ‘god’.

16 _mi_ = neighbourhood.

26 _wotsutsu_ = _utsutsu_.

For _tamakushige_, _haruhanano_ see List m. k.


U-tsuki no towoka ’mari muka no hi no yo haruka ni hototogisu no kowe
wo kikite omohi wo noburu uta hitotsu.

Migi Yakamochi ga kore wo yomeru.

Ohoki fumihito Hada no Imiki Yachishima no tachi nite Yakamochi wo
umanohanamuke suru utage no uta futatsu.

Migi no Yakamochi ga Shôzeichô wo mochite miyako ni mawiramu to su kare
kono uta wo yomite wakare no nageki wo noburu.

Fuse no midzu-umi asoberu uta hitotsu mata mizhika uta hitotsu.


      Mononofuno             1
    yaso tomo no wo no
      omofu dochi
    kokoro yaramu to
      uma namete             5
    uchi-kuchi-buri no
      shiranami no
    ariso ni yosuru
      Shibutani no
    saki tamotohori         10
      Matsudaye no
    naga-hama sugite
      Unahi gaha
    kiyoki se goto ni
      u kaha tachi          15
    ka yuki kaku yuki
    soko mo akani to
      Fuse no umi ni
    fune uke-suwete         20
      oki-he kogi
    he ni kogi mireba
      nagisa ni ha
    ajimura sawaki
      shima-mi ni ha        25
    konure hana saki
      kokobaku mo
    mi no sayakeki ka
    Futa-gami yama ni       30
    yuki ha wakarezu
    iya-toshi no ha ni
      omofu dochi           35
    kaku shi asobamu
    ima mo miru goto.

3 _dochi_ = _tomo_, comrade, friend.

4 _kokoro yaramu_, give one’s heart, abandon oneself to enjoyment.

6 _uchi-kuchi-buri_ = _wochi-kochi_.

15 set up a cormorant fishery.

25 about the islands.

28 _mi_ = miru.

34 _toshi no ha_ (_shi_) to end of a year, or years.

For _mononofuno_, _tamakushige_, _hafutsutano_ see List m. k.



Fuse no midzu-umi no uta ni kotahe-mawosu uta.

      Fujinami ha            1
    sakite chiri niki
      u no hana ha
    ima so sakari to
      ashihikino             5
    yama ni mo nu ni mo
    naki shi toyomeba
    kokoro mo shinu ni      10
      soko wo shi mo
    ura-kohishimi to
      omofu dochi
    uma uchi-murete
      tadzusahari           15
    ide-tachi mireba
      Imidzu kaha
    minato no su-dori
      asa nagi ni
    kata ni asarishi        20
      shiho miteba
    tsuma yobi kahasu
      tomoshiki ni
    mitsutsu sugi-yuki
      Shibutani no          25
    ariso no saki ni
      okitsu nami
    yose-kuru tamamo
      katayori ni
    katsura ni tsukuri      30
      imo ga tame
    te ni maki-mochite
    Fuse no midzu-umi ni
      ama-bune ni           35
    ma-kaji kai nuki
    sode furi kaheshi
    waga kogi yukeba        40
      Wofu no saki
    hana chiri magahi
      nagisa ni ha
    ashi-gamo sawaki
      sazare nami           45
    tachite mo wite mo
      kogi meguri
    miredomo akazu
      aki saraba
    momiji no toki ni       50
      haru saraba
    hana no sakari ni
      ka mo kaku mo
    kimi ga manimani
      kaku shi koso         55
    mi mo akirameme
    tayuru hi arame ya.

2 _niki_ = _iniki_, has gone.

27 Read _okitsu nami no kata yori ni yosekuru sono tamamo_, the seaweed
that the ocean waves fling shorewards.

38 making our sleeves flutter as we ply the sculls.

51 when spring comes forth.

For _ashihikino_, _shirotaheno_ see List m. k.



Tachiyama no uta hitotsu [kono yama ha Arakaha no kohori ni ari].

      Amazakaru              1
    hina ni na kakasu
      Koshi no naka
    kunuchi kotogoto
      yama ha shi mo         5
    shizhi ni aredomo
      kaha ha shi mo
    saha ni yukedomo
      sume kami no
    ushi-haki imasu         10
      Nihi kaha no
    sono Tachi yama ni
      tokonatsu ni
    yuki furi shikite
      obaseru               15
    Katakahi kaha no
      kiyoki se ni
    asa yohi goto ni
      tatsu kiri no
    omohi sugime ya         20
    iya toshi no ha ni
      yoso nomi mo
    furi-sake mitsutsu
      yorodzu yo no         25
    katarahi-gusa to
      imada minu
    hito ni no tsugemu
      oto nomi mo
    na nomi mo kikite       30

2 _na kakasu Koshi_--_Koshi_, that answers to its name; _koshi_ =
_kosu_, to cross (the hills)--referring to the situation of the
province with regard to City-Royal.

4 _kunuchi_, _kuni uchi_.

13 _tokonatsu_ = _hisashiku nodoka_ (Keichiu).

22 as years run on.

26 = _katarahi-tane_, ‘seed’, or subject, or matter of discourse,
narrative, &c.

31 = _urayamashigaru tame ni_.

For _amazakaru_ see List m. k.



Tachiyama no uta ni kotahe-mawosu uta.

      Asahisashi             1
    so-gahi ni miyuru
      kamu nagara
    mi na ni ohaseru
      shirakumono            5
    chihe wo oshiwake
      ama sosori
    takaki Tachi yama
      fuyu natsu to
    waku koto mo naku       10
    yuki ha furi-okite
      inishihe yu
    ari-ki nikereba
      kogoshi ka mo         15
    iha no kamusabi
    iku yo he nikemu
      tachite wite
    miredomo ayashi         20
    tani wo fukami to
    kiyoki kafuchi ni
      asa sarazu            25
    kiri tachi-watari
      yufu sareba
    kumo wi-tanabiki
    kokoro mo shinu ni      30
    omohi sugusazu
      yuku midzu no
    oto mo sayakeku
      yorodzu yo ni         35
    ihi-tsugi yukamu
    kaha shi tayezuba.

1-14 description of Tachi-yama; 15-28 its beauty and majesty; 29 to end
its effect upon the beholder.

1 m. k. of _sogahi_ (see glossary)--_so-gahi ni miyuru_, seen from back
(of house or _tachi_ of Ikenushi?). The m. k. is used in reference to
the dazzling brightness of the morning sun necessitating one’s turning
(_kahi_) one’s back (_so_) to it. I am not, however, satisfied with
this explanation.

For _asahisashi_, _shirakumono_, _tamakiharu_, _kumowinasu_,
_tatsukirino_ see List m. k.



Miyako ni yaya chikaku mawiramu koto kanashimi no kokoro
harahi-gatakute omohi wo noburu uta.

      Kakikazofu             1
    Futagami yama ni
    tateru tsuga no ki
      moto mo ye mo          5
    oyazhi tokiha ni
    waga se no kimi wo
      asa sarazu
    ahite koto-dohi         10
      yufu sareba
    te tadzusaharite
      Imidzu kaha
    kiyoki kafuchi ni
      ide-tachite           15
    waga tachi-mireba
      ayu no kaze
    itaku shi fukeba
      minato ni ha
    shiranami takami        20
      tsuma yobu to
    su-dori ha sawaku
      ashi-karu to
    ama no wobune ha
      iri ye kogu           25
    kaji no oto takashi
      soko wo shi mo
    aya ni tomoshimi
    asobu sakari wo         30
      Sumerogi no
    wosu kuni nareba
      mikoto mochi
    tachi-wakare nareba
      okuretaru             35
    kimi ha aredomo
    michi-yuku ware ha
    tanabiku yama wo        40
      iha-ne fumi
    koye henarinaba
    ke no nagakemu so
      soko ’moheba          45
    kokoro shi itashi
    kowe ni ahe-nuku
      tama ni mo ga
    te ni maki-mochite      50
      asa yoki ni
    mitsutsu yukamu wo
    okite ikaba woshi.

8 _waga se_ is Ikenushi.

17 east wind, a local term.

23 _ashi wo karu_, gather reeds.

36 _kimi_, Ikenushi.

48, 49 The making of the _kusudama_ at the time of the cuckoo’s song
being heard.

53 I read this as = _[kusu] tama wo nokoshite okite yukaba oshikaramu_,
it would be regrettable to leave behind (or put aside or neglect) the

For _kakikazofu_, _tamahokono_, _shirakumono_ see List m. k.



Tachimachi miyako mawiramu omohi wo noburu no yomeru wo mite iki-nagara
wakarura kanashimitari danchô mankwai yenketsu wo nozoki-gatashi
isasaka shoshin wo sôsu uta.

      Awoniyoshi             1
    Nara wo ki-hanare
    hina ni ha aredo
      waga seko wo           5
    mitsutsu shi woreba
    koto mo arishi wo
      ohokimi no
    mikoto kashikomi        10
      wosu kuni no
    koto tori-mochite
    ayuhi ta-dzukuri
      muratorino            15
    asa-dachi inaba
    are ya kanashiki
      tabi ni yuku
    kimi ka mo kohimu       20
      omofu sora
    yasuku araneba
      nagekaku wo
    todome mo kanete
      mi-wataseba           25
    u no hana yama no
    ne nomi shi nakayu
    midaruru kokoro         30
      koto ni idete
    ihaba yuyushimi
      Tonami yama
    ta-muke no kami ni
      nusa matsuri          35
    aga kohi-nomaku
    kimi ga tadaka wo
      ma sakiku mo
    ari-tamotohori          40
      tsuki tateba
    toki mo kahasazu
      nadeshiko ga
    hana no sakari ni
      ahi-mishime to so!    45

      Urakohishi             1
    waga se no kimi ha
      nadeshiko ga
    hana ni mo ga mo na
    asanasa ni mimu.         5

5 _seko_ is Yakamochi.

14 _ta-dzukuri_ = _tabi-dsukuri_.

31, 32 to express myself in words were a dread thing = _kakemaku mo_,

34 _ta-muke no kami_, the god to whom offerings are made. The shrine
would be at the top of a pass, hence _ta-muke_ also signified the
summit of a pass or hill.

2 _waga se_ is Yakamochi.

5 _asanasa_ = _asa ni asa ni_.

For _awoniyoshi_, _amazakaru_, _wakakusano_, _muratorino_, _asagirino_
see List m. k.


Soraseru taka wo shinubi ime ni mite yorokobi yomeru uta.

      Ohokimi no             1
    toho no mikado to
      mi yuki furu
    Koshi to na ni oheru
      amazakaru              5
    hina nishi areba
    kaha tohoshiroshi
      nu wo hiromi
    kusa koso shigeshi      10
      ayu hashiru
    natsu no sakari to
      shima tsu tori
    u-kahi ga tomo ha
      yuku kaha no          15
    kiyoki se goto ni
      kagari sashi
    nadzusahi noboru
      tsuyu shimo no
    aki ni itareba          20
      nu mo saha ni
    tori sudakeri to
    tomo izanahite
      taka ha shi mo        25
    amata aredomo
      yakata-wo no
    aga ohokuro ni
      shira-nuri no
    suzu tori-tsukete       30
      asa-gari ni
    iho tsu tori tate
      yufu-gari ni
    chidori fumitate
      ofu goto ni           35
    yusuru koto naku
      ta-banare mo
    wochi mo kayasuki
      kore wo okite
    mata ha ari-gatashi     40
    taka ha nakemu to
      kokoro ni ha
    omohi hokorite
      wemahitsutsu          45
    wataru ahida ni
    shiko tsu okina no
      koto dani mo
    are ni ha tsugezu       50
    ame no furu hi wo
      to-gari su to
    na nomi wo norite
      Mishima-nu wo         55
    sogahi ni mitsutsu
      Futa-kami no
    yama tobi-koyete
    kakeri iniki to         60
    shiha-bure tsugure
      woku yoshi no
    soko ni nakereba
      ifu sube no           65
    tadoki wo shirani
      kokoro ni ha
    hi sahe moyetsutsu
      omohi kohi
    iki-dzuki amari         70
      kedashiku mo
    afu koto ari ya to
    wote-mo kono-mo ni
      to-nami hari          75
    moribe wo suwete
    kami no yashiro ni
      teru kagami
    shitsu ni tori-sohe     80
    aga matsu toki ni
      wotomera ga
    ime ni tsuguraku
      naga kofuru           85
    sono hotsu taka ha
      Matsudaye no
    hama yuki-gurashi
      tsunashi toru
    Himi no ye sugite       90
      Tako no shima
      ashi-gamo no
    sudaku Furuye ni
      wototsu hi mo         95
    kinofu mo aritsu
      chikaku araba
    ima futsuka dami
      tohoku araba
    nanuka no uchi ha      100
      sugime ya mo
    kinamu waga seko
      nemokoro ni
    na kohi so yo to so
    ime ni tsugetsuru.     105

The glossary and notes to the translation sufficiently explain the text
of this lay.

98 _dami_ seems to = _bakari_.

For _amazakaru_, _masurawono_, _ashihikino_, _chihayaburu_ see List m.



Agehari no uchi ni hitori wite hototogisu no ne wo kikite yomeru uta.

      Takamikura             1
    ama no hitsugi to
      Sumerogi no
    ami no mikoto no
      kikoshiwosu            5
    kuni no mahora ni
      yama wo shi mo
    saha ni ohomi to
      momo tori no
    ki-wite naku koye        10
      haru sareba
    kiki no kanashi mo
      idzure wo ka
    wakite shinubamu
      u no hana no           15
    saku tsuki tateba
    naku hototogisu
    tama nuku made ni        20
      hiru kurashi
    yo watashi kikedo
      kiku goto ni
    kokoro ugokite
      uchi nageki            25
    ahare no tori to
    ihanu toki nashi.


      Hototogisu             1
    ito netakeku ha
      tachibana no
    hana chiru toki ni
    ki-naki toyomuru.        5

1 A sort of m. k. of _ama no hitsugi_.

13, 14 of all the birds the most delightsome.

For _takamikura_ see List m. k.


Michinoku no kuni yori kugane wo idaseru mikotonori wo kotohoku uta.

      Ashihara no            1
    Midzuho no kuni wo
      ama kudari
      sumerogi no            5
    kami no mikoto no
      mi yo kasane
    ama no hitsugi to
    kimi no miyo miyo       10
    yo mo no kuni ni ha
      yama kaha wo
    hiromi atsumi to
      tatematsuru           15
    mi tsuki takara ha
    tsukushi mo kanetsu
    waga ohokimi no         20
      moro hito wo
    izanahi tamahi
      yoki koto wo
    hazhime tamahite
      kukane ka mo          25
    tanoshikeku aramu
      to omohoshite
    shita nayamasu ni
    Adzuma no kuni no so    30
      Michinoku no
    Woda naru yama ni
      kugane ari
    to maushitamahere
      mi kokoro wo          35
    akirame tamahi
      ame tsuchi no
    kami ahi-udzunahi
      sumerogi no
    mi tama tasukete        40
      tohoki yo ni
    nakarishi koto wo
      waga mi yo ni
    arahashite areba
      wosu kuni ha          45
    sakayemu mono to
      kamu nagara
    ya so tomo no wo wo     50
      matsurobe no
    muke no manimani
      oi-hito mo
    me no waraha ko mo
      shi ga negafu         55
    kokoro-darahi ni
      koko wo shi mo
    aya ni tafutomi         60
    iyo-yo omohite
      Ohotomo no
    tohotsu kamu oya no
      sono na wo ba         65
    Ohokume nushi to
    tsukaheshi tsukasa
      umi yukaba
    midzuku kabane          70
      yama yukaba
    kusamusu kabane
      ohokimi no
    he ni koso shiname
      kaheri-mi ha          75
    sezhi to kotodate
    kiyoki sono na wo
      inishihe no
    ima no wotsutsu ni      80
    oya no kodomo so
      Ohotomo no
    Saheki no uji ha
      hito no ’ya no        85
    tatsuru kotodate
      hito no ko ha
    oya no na tatazu
      ohokimi ni
    matsurofu mono to       90
    koto no tsukasa so
      adzusa yumi
    te ni tori-mochite
      tsurugi tachi         95
    koshi ni tori-haki
      asa mamori
    yufu no mamori ni
      ohokimi no
    Mikado no mamori       100
      ware wo okite
    mata hito ha arazhi
      to iya-tate
    omohishi masaru
      ohokimi no           105
    mikoto no saki no
    kikeba tafutomi.

vv. 1-18 describe Yamato, its line of rulers, its features and wealth;
18-28 the object of the Mikado’s desire for gold; _yoki koto_,
desirable thing; 21-24 see below; 29-50 his gratitude on hearing of the
discovery of gold in Michinoku; 51 to end, the panegyric by Yakamochi
of the Otomo clan to which he belongs. 101 and 102 are plagiarized from
Lay 67.

52 = _iyo-yo_ = _iyo-iyo_.

103 _to iya-tate_, so, more and more raise (_kotodate_).

107 Read _kikeba_ after _tafutomi_.

For _kazoheyezu_, _toriganaku_, _mononofuno_, _masurawono_ see List m.



Yoshino no totsumiya ni idemasamu toki no tame ni arakazhime yomeru uta.

      Takamikura             1
    ama no hitsugi to
      ame no shita
      sumerogi no            5
    kami no mikoto no
      kashikoku mo
    hazhime tamahite
      tafutoku mo
    sadametamaheru          10
      Mi Yoshinu no
    kono ohomiya ni
      mononofuno            15
    yasotomo no wo mo
      ono ga oheru
    ono ga na [ohi] na ohi
      ohokimi no
    make no manimani        20
      kono kaha no
    tayuru koto naku
      kono yama no
    iya tsugi-tsugi ni
      kaku shi koso         25
    iya toho naga ni.

5 _sumerogi_ is the Mikado Ojin (270-310).

13, 14 refer to the reigning Mikado Shômu (724-48).

20 Read in connexion with 26.

For _takamikura_, _mononofuno_ see List m. k.


Miyako no ihe ni okuramu ga tame ni shiratama wo horisuru uta.

      Susu no ama no         1
    okitsu mi kami ni
    kadzuki tori to ifu
      ahabi tama             5
    ihochi mo ga mo
    tsuma no mikoto no
    wakareshi toki yo       10
    yo toko kata sari
    kaki mo kedzurazu
      idete koshi           15
    tsuki-hi yomitsutsu
    kokoro nagusa ni
    ki naku sa-tsuki no     20
    hana tachibana ni
      nuki mazhihe
    kadzura ni seyo to
    tsutsumite yaramu.      25

2 _mi kami_, great god, here = wilds of ocean (great sea-god’s realm).

6 _i-ho-chi_ = _i ho tsu_, compare _hatachi_.

10 _yo_ = _yori_.

12 _yo_ = _yoru_, night; _kata sari_, where one has gone and left the
other of a pair.

13 _asa ne kami_, hair disordered in morning on awaking from sleep.

14 _kakazu mo_, _kedzurazu mo_.

19 _hototogisu ki naku_ is epithetical of _sa-tsuki_ (fifth month).


Fumibito Wohari no Woguhi wo satosu uta.

      Ohonamuji              1
    Sukunabikona no
      kami-yo yori
      chichi haha wo         5
    mireba tafutoku
      me ko mireba
    kanashiku megushi
    yo no kotowari to       10
      kaku sama ni
    ihikeru mono wo
      yo no hito no
    tatsuru koto-date
      chisa no hana         15
    sakeru sakari ni
    sono tsuma no ko to
      asa yohi ni
    yemimi yemazu mo        20
    katarikemaku ha
      tokoshihe ni
    kaku shi mo arame ya
      ame tsuchi no         25
    kami kotoyosete
    sakari mo aramu to
    toki no sakari wo       30
    nagekasu to imo ga
      itsushika mo
    tsukahi mo komu to
      matasuramu            35
    kokoro sabushiku
      minami fuki
    yuki ke hafurite
      Imidzu kaha
    ukabu mi nawa mo        40
      yoru he nami
    Saburu sono ko ni
      himo no wo no
    i-tsugari ahite
      nihodori no           45
    futari narabi-wi
      Nago no umi no
    oki wo fukamete
    kimi ga kokoro wo       50
    sube mo subenasa!

4 = _ihitsugikeru_.

6, 8 To _tafutoku_ and _kanashiku_ (also to _sabushiku_, v. 36), add

15 _chisa_ = _chisha_, lettuce. Wild salads of all kinds were much
esteemed in ancient Japan.

15-36 describe the anxiety of the wife.

18 _ko_ = lady.

20 smiling or not, in all moods.

25, 26 her reliance on the gods.

31 This line is doubtful--sense is possible only by reading _sakari_ as
= _hanare_ or _hanachi_.

37 _minami [kaze]_.

37-41 introductory to Saburu.

38 _yuki_, snow. _ke_ = _kihe_, disappear, melt.

44 _i-tsugari_ = _tsunagu_, _tsunagaru_.

For _utsusemino_, _haruhanano_ see List m. k.


      Kakemaku mo            1
    aya ni kashikoshi
      sumerogi no
    kami no oho mi yo ni
      Tazhima Mori           5
    Tokoyo ni watari
      ya hoko mochi
    mawide koshi tofu
      tokizhiku no
    kagu no ko no mi wo     10
      kashikoku mo
      kuni mo se ni
    ohi-tachi sakaye
      haru sareba           15
    hikoye moitsutsu
    naku sa-tsuki ni ha
      hatsu hana wo
    yeda ni taworite        20
      wotomera ni
    tsuto ni mo yarimi
    sode ni mo kokire
      ka-guhashimi          25
    okite karashimi
      ayuru mi ha
    tama ni nukitsutsu
      te ni makite
    miredomo akazu          30
    shigure no amefuri
    yama no konure ha
      kurenawi ni           35
    nihohi chiredomo
      tachibana no
    nareru sono mi ha
      hitateri ni
    iya migahoshiku         40
      mi yuki furu
    fuyu ni itareba
      shimo okedomo
    sono ha mo karezu
      tokihanasu            45
    iya sakahaye ni
      shikare koso
    kami no mi yo yori
    kono tachibana wo       50
      tokizhiku no
    kaku no ko no mi to
    nadzukekerashi mo!

8 _mawide_ = _mawiri-ide_. _koshi_ is past of _kuru_ used as auxiliary.

13 _se_ = _semaku_. _se ni_, closely = abundantly.

6 _hiko-ye_, twigs, lit. descendant-branches.

22 _tsuto_, _tsutsumi to_, bound or arranged as a gift.

24 _kokire_, _koki-ire_, lit. strip-put-in. The value here is somewhat
uncertain, perhaps to strip off the flowers and set them on the sleeve
in some way.

26 _karashi_, caus. of _karu_ wither. _mi_ here, as in 22, has an
iterative force.

39 _hita-teri_, right dazzling.

52 _kaku_, thus, i.e. weathering all the seasons, but _kaku_ may be
read _kagu_, fragrant, i.e. pleasing all the year through, hence by a
word-play the appropriateness of the term _ka-guhashimi_ (25).

For _shirotaheno_, _ashihikino_, _tokihanasu_ see List m. k.


Niha no hana wo mite yomeru uta.

      Ohokimi no             1
    toho no Mikado to
    tsukasa no manima
      mi yuki furu           5
    Koshi ni kudariki
    toshi no itsu tose
    ta-makura makazu        10
      himo tokazu
    marone wo sureba
      ifusemi to
    kokoro nagusa ni
      nadeshiko wo          15
    yado ni maki-ohoshi
      natsu no no no
    sa-yuri hiki uwete
      saku hana wo
    idemiru goto ni         20
      nadeshiko ga
    sono hana-dzuma ni
      sa yuri-bana
    yuri mo ahamu to
      nagusamura            25
    kokoro shinakuba
    hina ni hito hi mo
    arubeku mo aru ya!

      Nadeshiko ga           1
    hana miru goto ni
      wotomera ga
    yemahi no nihohi
    omohoyuru ka mo?         5

2 _to_ = _nite_.

3, 4 in execution of service imposed upon me.

8 _tose_ = _toshi he_, passage of years.

9 must be read as m. k. of _makura_.

2 _maro-ne_ = _hitori-ne_.

13 _to_, supply _naru_.

14 _nagusamu_.

16 _maki-ohoshi_ = sow or plant, let grow.

17 _no no no_, the second _no_ = _nu_, moor.

18 _sa-yuri_, the _sa_ of _sa tsuki_--vigorously growing (_sa nahe_),
lily of the fifth month.

24 Here _yuri_ = _yori_ = _nochi_.

For _aratamano_, _shikitaheno_, _amazakaru_ see List m. k.


      Ohokimi no             1
    maki no manimani
    tsukafuru kuni no
      toshi no uchi no       5
    koto katane mochi
    michi ni ide-tachi
      ihane fumi
    yama koye nu yuki       10
      miyako he
    mawishi waga se wo
    toshi yuki-kaheri
      tsuki kasane          15
    minu hi sa-manemi
      kofuru sora
    yasuku shi araneba
    ki naku sa-dzuki no     20
    yomogi kadzura ki
      saka mi-dzuki
    asobi naguredo
      Imidzu kaha           25
    yuki ke afurite
      yuku midzu no
    iya mashi ni nomi
      tadzu ga naku
    Nagoye no suge no       30
      nemokoro ni
    omohi musuhore
      nageki tsutsu
    aga matsu kimi ga
      koto wohari           35
    kaheri makarite
      natsu no nu no
    sa yuri no hana no
      hana wemi ni
    nifubu ni wemite        40
    kefu wo hazhimete
    kaku shi tsune mimu
    omokaharisezu.          45

6 _katane_, _katanu_ is to settle, arrange, conclude, &c.

10 The syntax here is obscure.

13, 14, 15 lit. fresh years came and went--the months summed up.…

19 _hototogisu ki naku_ is epithetical of _sa-tsuki_.

22 Error for _yanagi_?

25-30 are introductory to _nemokoro_.

41 = _ahi-tamahi_.

44 _kaku shi tsune_ = just as now so always.

45 _omokahari sezu_, without change of face, i.e. keeping health and

For _tamahokono_, _aratamano_, _kagaminasu_ see List m. k.


Amage no kumo wo mite yomeru uta.

      Sumerogi no            1
    shikimasu kuni no
      ame no shita
    yo mo no michi ni ha
      uma no tsume           5
    i-tsukusu kihami
      funa no he no
    i-hatsuru made ni
      inishihe yo
    ima no wotsutsu ni      10
      yorodzu tsuki
    matsuru tsukasa to
    sono nari-hahi wo
      ame furazu            15
    hi no kasanareba
      uwe shita mo
    makishi hatake mo
      asa goto ni
    shibomi kare-yuku       20
      so wo mireba
    kokoro wo itami
      midori-ko no
    chi kofu ga gotoku
      amatsumidzu           25
    afugite so matsu
    yama no tawori ni
      kono miyuru
    ama no shira kumo       30
      watatsumi no
    okitsu miya he ni
    tonogumori ahite
    ame mo tamahane.        35

4 _yo mo_, four faces or quarters, everywhere.

10 _wotsutsu_ = _utsutsu_.

11 _tsuki_ = tribute, tax.

28 _tawori_, summit.

For _amatsumidzu_ (used here in double sense), _ashihikino_ see List m.


Tanabata no uta.

      Amaterasu              1
    kami no mi yo yori
      Yasu no kaha
    naga ni hedatete
      shika hitachi          5
    sode furi kahashi
      iki no wo ni
    nagekasu kora
      watari mori
    fune mo maukezu         10
      hashi dani mo
    watashite araba
      sono he yu mo
    i-yuki watarashi
      tadzusahari           15
    koto mo katarahi
    kokoro ha aramu wo      20
      nani shi ka mo
    aki nishi araneba
      kototohi no
      utsusemi no           25
    yo no hito ware mo
      koko wo shi mo
    aya ni kusushimi
      yuki kaharu
    toshi no ha goto ni     30
      ama no hara
    furi-sake mitsutsu
    ihi-tsugi ni sure.

8 _kora_ is an honour-plural, the Webster woman.

13 _sono he yu_ = _sono uhe yori_, here = from that side, the other
side where the Herdman is.

26 I take _ware_ to refer to Yakamochi.

33 _sure_ for _koso sure_.



Ma-shirafu no taka wo yomeru uta.

      Ashihikino             1
    yama saka koyete
      yuki kaharu
    toshi no wo nagaku
      shinazakaru            5
    Koshi ni shi sumeba
      ohokimi no
    shikimasu kuni ha
      miyako wo mo
    koko mo oyazhi to       10
      kokoro ni ha
    omofu mono kara
    misakuru hito me
      tomoshimi to          15
    omohi shi shigeshi
      soko yuwe ni
    kokoro nagu ya to
    hagi saki-nihofu        20
      Ihase nu ni
    uma tagi-yukite
      wochi kochi ni
    tori fumi-tate
      shiranuri no          25
    wo-suzu mo yura ni
    furi-sake mitsutsu
    kokoro no uchi wo       30
    ureshibi nagara
    tsuma ya no uchi ni
      to-gura yuhi          35
    suwete so aga kafu
    mashirafu no taka!

13 _katari-sake_, utter, give expression to conversation; _misake_,
send forth glance, i.e. look at, perceive.

22 _uma tagi-yukite_, _tagu_ (_taguru_) is to draw (rope, cord, &c.).

27 _ahase-yari_ is taken as referring to _wo-suzu_.

29 See N. I. 241, the _uta_.

37 _ma-shirafu_, shining, white-mottled.

For _makuradzuku_ see List m. k.


U tsu kafu uta.

      Aratamano              1
    toshi yuki kahari
      haru sareba
    hana saki nihofu
      ashihikino             5
    yama shita doyomi
      ochi tagichi
    nagaru Sakita no
      kaha no se ni
    ayu ko sa-bashiri       10
      shima tsu tori
    u-kahi tomo nabe
      kagari sashi
    nadzusahi yukeba
      wagimoko ga           15
    katami gatera to
      kurenawi no
    ya shiho ni somete
    koromo no suso mo       20
    tohorite nurenu.

13 _kagari sashi_, place torch-holders = prepare or light decoy-flares.

14 _nami-tsu[mori]-safu_.

16 _gatera to_ = here, by way of parting gift or souvenir.

For _aratamano_, _ashihikino_ see List m. k.


Yo no tsune no naki koto no uta.

      Ame tsuchi no          1
    tohoki hazhime yo
      yo no naka ha
    tsune naki mono to
      katari tsuki           5
    nagarahe kitari
      ama no hara
    furi-sake mireba
      teru tsuki mo
    michi kakeshikeri       10
    yama no konure mo
      haru sareba
    hana saki nihohi
      aki tsukeba           15
    tsuyu shimo ohite
      kaze mazhiri
    momiji chirikeri
      utsusemi mo
    kaku nomi narashi       20
      kurenawi no
    iro mo utsurohi
    kuro kami kahari
      asa no wemi           25
    yufube kaharahi
      fuku kaze no
    miyenu ga gotoku
      yuku midzu no
    tomaranu gotoku         30
      tsune mo naku
    utsurofu mireba
    nagaruru namida
    todome kanetsu mo.      35

16 _ohite_ = be or lie on.

31 impermanent.

For _ashihikino_, _nubatamano_ see List m. k.


Masurawo no na wo furufu wo shitafu uta.

      Chichinomino           1
    chichi no mikoto
    haha no mikoto
      ohoroka ni             5
    kokoro tsukushite
    sono ko nare ya mo
      masurawo ya
    munashiku arubeki       10
      adzusa yumi
      nagu ya mochi
    chi hiro i-watashi
      tsurugi-tachi         15
    koshi ni tori-haki
    yatsuwo fumi-koye
      sashi makuru
    kokoro sayarazu         20
      nochi no yo no
    na wo tatsubeshi mo.

_furufu_, lit. to brandish, here to display.

1 The line is a sort of phonetic m. k. of _chichi_, father; _chichi
no mi_ is the fruit of Ginkgo biloba (the maiden-hair tree). So
_hahaso-ba_ (leaf of Quercus dentata) is a phonetic m. k. of _haha_.

8 _nare_ = _koso nare_, _ya_ = _ya ha_ (= Lat. _num_).

10 Read as _munaskiku arubeki ya_.

19 = _ninzeraruru_.

20 _sayarazu_ = _sawarazu_ (not stopped from executing duty).

For _ashihikino_ see List m. k.


Hototogisu mata toki no hana wo yomeru uta.

      Toki goto ni           1
    iya medzurashiku
      yachi kusa ni
    kusa ki hana saki
      naku tori no           5
    kowe mo kaharafu
      mimi ni kiki
    me ni miru goto ni
    shinaye urabure         10
    arikuru hashi ni
      ko no kure no
    u tsuki shi tateba
      yo-gomori ni          15
    naku hototogisu
      inishihe yo
    katari tsugitsuru
      uguhisu no
    utsushi ma-ko ka mo     20
    hana tachibana wo
      wotomera ga
    tama nuku made ni
      akanesasu             25
    hiru ha shimerani
    yatsu wo tobikoye
    yoru ha sugara ni       30
      akatoki no
    tsuki ni mukahite
    naki toyomuredo
    ikade akitaramu!        35

3 _ya chi_, 8,000--i.e. all kinds of.

9, 10, 11, 12 … seem to mean sighing, yielding, reflecting (or
melancholy), and pensive while vying … but I prefer the whole sense as
given in my translation--reading _arisofu_ for _arikuru_, of which I
can make nothing.

20 _ma-ko_, true child, progeny; or _mi-ko_, fair progeny.

28 _yatsu wo_, see 239.

31 _akatoki_ = _akatsuki_.

For _akanesasu_, _ashihikino_, _nubatamano_ see List m. k.


Me ga Miyako ni imasu haha no mikoto ni okuramu tame ni atsuraherayete
yomeru uta.

      Hototogisu             1
    ki-naku sa-tsuki ni
    hana tachibana no
      ka-guhashiki           5
    oya no mikoto
      asa yohi ni
    kikanu hi maneku
    hina ni shi woreba      10
    yama no tawori ni
      tatsu kumo wo
    yoso nomi mitsutsu
      nageku sora           15
    yasukeku naku ni
      omofu sora
    kurushiki mono wo
      Nago no ama no
    kadzukitoru chifu       20
    migahoshi mi omowa
      tada mukahi
    mimu toki made ha
      matsu kahe no         25
    sakaye imasane
    tafutoki aga kimi.

1-4 are epithetical of 5.

25 _kahe_, an old word for a species of live oak, some say Japanese
yew, Torreya nucifera.

For _amazakaru_, _ashihikino_, _shiratamano_ see List m. k.


U tsuki no mika no hi Yechizen Hangwan Ohotomo no Sukune Ikenushi ni
okureru hototogisu no uta kankyu no omohi ni tahezute omohi wo noburu
hito uta.

      Waga seko to           1
    te tadzusaharite
      ake kureba
    ide tachi mukahi
      yufu sareba            5
    furi sake mitsutsu
    mi-nagishi yama
      yatsu wo ni ha
    kasumi tanabiki         10
      tani he ni ha
    tsubaki hana saki
    haru no sugureba
      hototogisu            15
    iya shiki nakinu
      hitori nomi
    kikeba sabushi mo
      kimi to are
    hedatete kofuru         20
      Tonami yama
    tobi koye-yukite
      ake tataba
    matsu no sayeda ni
      yufu saraba           25
    tsuki ni mukahite
    tama nuku made ni
    yasu-i shi nasazu       30
    kimi wo nayamase.

1 _seko_ is Ikenushi.

8 = _mi nagusamishi_.

18 _ura-kanashi_, deeply _kanashi_, i.e. deeply moved here to joy, not

19 _kimi_ is Ikenushi.

20 The sentence ends with _kofuru_. The next sentence ends with
_nayamase_ (31), of which the logical subject is, _hototogisu_,


Hototogisu wo yomeru uta.

      Haru sugite            1
    natsu ki-mukaheba
    yama yobi-doyome
      sayo naka ni           5
    naku hototogisu
      hatsu kowe wo
    kikeba natsukashi
    hana tachibana wo       10
      nuki mazhihe
    kadzuraku made ni
    naho shi shinubayu.     15

15 _shinubayu_ = _shinubayuru_.


Yamabuki wo yomeru uta.

      Utsusemi ha            1
    kohi wo shigemi to
      haru makete
      hiki-yojite            5
    wori mo worazu mo
      miru goto ni
    kokoro nagimu to
      shige yama no
    tani he ni ofuru        10
      yamabuki wo
    yado ni hiki-uwete
      asa tsuyu ni
    nihoheru hana wo
      miru goto ni          15
    omohi ha yamazu
    kohi shi shigeshi mo.

8 _nagimu_ (_nagu_) = _nagusamamu_.

16 [love] thoughts.


Fuse no midzu-umi ni asobite yomeru uta.

      Omofu dochi            1
    masurawo no ko no
    shigeki omohi wo
      mi akirame             5
    kokoro yaramu to
      Fuse no umi ni
    wo-bune tsuraname
      ma-kai kake
    i-yuki megureba         10
      Wofu no ura ni
    kasumi tanabiki
      Taruhime ni
    fujinami sakite
      hama kiyoku           15
    shiranami sawaki
      shikushiku ni
    kohi ha masaredo
      kefu nomi ni
    akitarame ya mo         20
      kaku shi koso
    iya toshi no ha ni
    shigeki sakari ni
      aki no ha no          25
    nihoheru toki ni
    mitsutsu shinubame
    kono Fuse no umi wo.

8 Epithetical of _shigeki_.

28 _shinubame_, we will surely take pleasure in, supply _koso_.

For _konokureno_, _haruhanano_ see List m. k.


Yechizen Hanguwan … Ikenushi ni u wo okureru uta.

      Amazakaru              1
    hina to shi areba
      soko koko mo
    oyazhi kokoro so
      ihezakari              5
    toshi no henureba
      utsusemi ha
    mono ’mohi shigeshi
      soko yuwe ni.
    kokoro nagusa ni        10
    naku hatsu kowe wo
      tachibana no
    tama ni ahenuki
      kadsurakite           15
    asobaku yoshi mo
      masurawo wo
    tomonahe tachite
      Shikura kaha
    nadzusahi nobori        20
      hirase ni ha
    sade sashi-watashi
      hayase ni ha
    u wo kadzuketsutsu
      tsuki ni hi ni        25
    shika shi asobane
    hashiki waga seko.

3 _soko koko_, there or here, everywhere.

17 to end refer more particularly to Ikenushi.

26 Note the precative _ne_.

27 _waga seko_ is Ikenushi.

For _amazakaru_ see List m. k.


Hototogisu mata fuji no hana wo yomeru uta.

      Momo no hana           1
    kurenawi iro ni
    omowa no uchi ni
      awo-yagi no            5
    kuhashi mayone wo
      wemi magari
    asa kage mitsutsu
      wotomera ga
    te ni tori-motaru       10
    Futagami yama ni
    shigeki tani he wo
      yobi-toyome           15
    asa tobi-watari
      yufu dzuku-yo
    kasokeki nu he ni
      harobaro ni
    naku hototogisu         20
      tachi-kuku to
    ha furi ni chirasu
      fujinami no
    hana natsukashimi
      hiki yojite           25
    sode ni kokiretsu
    shimaba shimu to mo.

1 _momo_, peach.

1-11 are introductory to _futa_ of Futakami. From _futa_ backwards to
_momo_ a literal translation would be good English--a capital instance
of the way in which the order of words in Japanese permits of a telling

5 _awo yanagi_.

6 _mayone_ = _mayu_, eyebrow.

7 _wemi magari_, smile-arch, smile-curve.

13 _ko_ is _ki_, tree, bush; _kure_, shadow or gloom.

17 _yufudzuku-yo_, evening-moonlight-night.

18 _kasokeki_, shadowy, dim.

19 _harobaro_, at a distance, far.

21 _tachi-kuku_, dart in and out.

22 _ha furi_, wing-shake.

26 _kokire_ = _mushiri-ire_, take off (the blossoms) and put in.

27 _shimaba shimu_ = _somaba somu_.


Hironaha ni okureru hototogisu no urami no uta.

      Koko ni shite          1
    sogahi ni miyuru
      waga seko ga
    kaki tsu no tani ni
      ake sareba             5
    hari no sa-yeda ni
      yufu sareba
    fuji no shigemi ni
      harobaro ni
    naku hototogisu         10
      waga yado no
    uwe ki tachibana
      hana ni chiru
    toki wo matashimi
      ki nakanaku           15
    soko ha uramizu
    tani kata-dzukite
    kimi ga kikitsutsu      20
    tsuge naku mo ushi!

14 I read _matashimi_ as = _imadashi_.

21 _tsuge_ I take as referring to the cuckoo who does not with his song
herald the approach of summer for the poet.


Hototogisu wo yomeru uta.

      Tani chikaku           1
    ihe ha woredomo
    sato ha aredomo
      hototogisu             5
    imada ki nakazu
      naku kowe wo
    kikamakuhori to
      ashita ni ha
    kado ni idetachi        10
      yufube ni ha
    tani wo mi-watashi
    hito kowe dani mo
    imada kikoyezu.         15



Wotome haka no uta ni ohite nazorafu uta.

      Inishihe no            1
    arikeru waza wo
    koto to ihitsugu
      Chinu wotoko           5
    Unahi wotoko no
    na wo arasofu to
    inochi wo sutete        10
      ahi tomo ni
    tsuma-dohi shikeru
      wotomera ga
    kikeba kanashisa
      haruhanano            15
    nihohe sakayete
    nihohi ni tereru
      atara mi no
    sakari wo sura ni       20
      masurawo no
    koto itohoshimi
      chichi haha ni
    mawoshi wakarete
      ihe-zakari            25
    umi he ni detachi
      asa yohi ni
    michi kuru shiho no
      yahe nami ni
    nabiku tamamo no        30
      fushi no ma no
    woshiki inochi wo
    sugimashi ni kere
      okutsuki wo           35
    koko to sadamete
      nochi no yo no
    kiki tsugu hito mo
      iya toho ni
    shinubi ni seyo to      40
      tsuge wo-kushi
    shi ga sashikerashi
    ohite nabikeru.

3 _kusuhashiki_ = _kusushi_.

1-12 relate to the wooers; 13, 14 are interjectional, expressing pity
for the girl’s fate.

13, 14 _wotomera ga [koto wo] kikeba_.

15-20 describe her beauty, &c. 19, 20 though in the flower of her age;
21-34 her despair and death; 35 to end, her choice of a tomb-place, and
the miraculous growth from the comb wherewith she marked the spot, that
her memory might endure.

For _utsusemino_, _tamakiharu_, _haruhanano_, _akinohano_,
_tsuyushimono_ see List m. k.


Kanashimi uta.

      Ametsuchi no           1
    hazhime no toki yo
    yaso tomo no wo ha
      ohokimi ni             5
    matsurofu mono to
    tsukasa nishi areba
      ohokimi no
    mikoto kashikomi        10
    kuni wo osamu to
    yama kaha henari
      kaze kumo ni          15
    koto ha kayohedo
      tada ni ahanu
    hi no kasanareba
      omohi kohi
    ikidzuki woru ni        20
    michi kuru hito no
      tsute koto ni
    are ni kataraku
      hashikiyoshi          25
    kimi ha konogoro
    nagekahi imasu
      yo no naka no
    ukeku tsurakeku         30
      saku hana mo
    toki ni utsurofu
      utsusemi mo
    tsune naku arikeri
      tarachineno           35
    mi haha no mikoto
      nani shi ka mo
    toki shi ha aramu wo
    miredomo akazu          40
    woshiki sakari ni
    usenuru gotoku
      tamamonasu            45
    nabiki koi-fushi
      yuku midzu no
    todome kaneki to
      taha-koto ya
    hito no ihitsuru        50
      oyodzure ka
    hito no tsugetsuru
    tsuma[biku] yo ’to
      toho ’to ni mo        55
    kikeba kanashimi
      niha tadzumi
    nagaruru namida
    todome kanetsu mo!

      Yo no naka no          1
    tsune naki koto ha
      shiruramu wo
    kokoro tsukusuna
    masurawo ni shite!       5

1-10 in praise of the Mikado; 11-24 the poet’s seclusion in his
frontier government.

15 _kaze kumo_, wind and clouds, regarded as bearers of tidings.

25-43 the tidings from City-Royal; 39, 40 see note 2, translation; 49
to end, his grief. The envoy is an exhortation to bear the ills of this
fleeting world as a leal man should.

For _utsusomino_, _ashihikino_, _tamahokono_, _tarachineno_,
_masokagami_, _tamanowono_, _tatsukirino_, _tamamonasu_ see List m. k.


Miyako yori okoseru uta.

      Hatatsumi no           1
    kami no mikoto no
      mi kushige ni
    takuhahi okite
      itsuku tofu            5
    tama ni masarite
    aga ko ni ha aredo
    yo no kotowari to       10
    hiki no manimani
    Koshi ji wo sashite
      hafutsutano           15
    wakare nishi yori
    towomu mayo-biki
    yukura yukura ni        20
      omokage ni
    motona miyetsutsu
      kaku kohiba
    oi-dzuku aga mi
    kedashi ahemu ka mo!    25

17-20 must be read with _omokage_, somewhat thus--_ohobune no_ |
_yukura yukura ni_ | _okitsu nami_ | _towomu mayobiki_ | _omokage ni_
|--the syntax is loose: _towomu_ = _tawamu_, the m. k. _okitsunami_
applies to _towomu_.

25 _kedashi_ is here almost ‘doubtfully’; _ahemu_ = _tahemu_.

For _utsusemino_, _shinazakaru_, _okitsunami_, _ohobuneno_ see List m.


      Ametsuchi no           1
    kami ha nakare ya
    aga tsuma sakaru
      hikaru-kami            5
    Narihata wotome
      te tadzusahi
    tomo ni aramu to
      omohishi ni
    kokoro tagahinu         10
      ihamu sube
    semu sube shirani
      yufu tasuki
    kata ni tori-kake
      shitsu nusa wo        15
    te ni tori-mochite
      na sake so to
    ware ha nomeredo
      makite neshi
    imo ga tamoto ha        20
    kumo ni tanabiku.

2 _nakare_, supply _koso_ (_naku are_).

5 m. k. of _nari_ (Narihata).

9 _omohishi_: here, as often, the relative form is used instead of the

18 _nomeredo_ = _nomedo_ (_inoru_).


Tempyô itsutose to ifu toshi Morokoshi ni tsukahasu tsukahi ni okureru

      Soramitsu              1
    Yamato no kuni
    Nara no miyako yu
      oshiteru               5
    Naniha ni kudari
      Suminoye no
    mi tsu ni funa nori
      tada watari
    hi no iru kuni ni       10
    waga se no kimi wo
      kakemaku no
    yuyushiki kashikoki
      Suminoye no           15
    aga oho mi kami
      funa no he ni
    ushi-haki imashi
      funa domo ni
    mi tatashi-mashite      20
    iso no saki-zaki
    tomari tomari ni
      araki kaze            25
    nami ni ahasezu
    wite kaherimase
    moto no mikado ni.

For _soramitsu_, _awoniyoshi_, _oshiteru_ see List m. k.


Miyako ni mawi-noboru michi nite koto ni tsuke arakazhime yomeru toyo
no agari ni haberite mikotonorite uketamaharu uta.

      Akitsushima            1
    Yamato no kuni wo
      ama kumo ni
    iha fune ukabe
      tomo ni he ni          5
    ma-kai shizhi nuki
    kuni-mi shi seshite
    harahi tahirage         10
      chiyo kasane
    iya tsugitsugi ni
    ama no hitsugi to
      kamu nagara           15
    waga ohokimi no
      ame no shita
    wosame tamaheba
    yaso tomo no wo wo      20
      wosu kuni no
    yomo no hito wo mo
      abusahazu             25
      inishihe yo
    nakarishi shirushi
      tabi maneku
    mawoshi-tamahinu        30
      te udakite
    kotonaki mi yo to
    tsuki to tomo ni
      yorodzu yo ni         35
    shirushi tsukamu so
    waga ohokimi
      aki no hana
    shi ga iroiro ni        40
      saka mi-dzuki
    sakayeru kefu no
    aya ni tafutosa.        45

39 I take _aki no hana_ to refer to the season merely.

For _akitsushima_, _mononofuno_, _yasumishishi_ see List m. k.



Hiroki yotsu no kurawi kamitsu shina (jiushii jô) Koma no Asomi
Fukushima ni mikotonorishite Naniha ni tsukahashi ohomiki sakana
wo Morokoshi ni tsukahasu tsukahi Fujihara no Asomi Kiyokaha-ra ni
tamaheru ohomi-uta.

      Soramitsu              1
    Yamato no kuni ha
      midzu no he ha
    tsuchi yuku gotoku
      funa no he ha          5
    toko ni woru goto
      ohokami no
    ihaheru kuni so
      yotsu no fune
    funa no he narabe       10
    haya watarite kite
      kaheri koto
    mawosamu hi ni
    ahi nomamu ki so
    kono toyomiki ha.       15

3 _midzu no he_, _midzu no uhe_, i.e. on the sea.

5 _funa no he_, _funa no uhe_, i.e. on shipboard.

10 _funa no he_, prow.

15 _toyo-mi-ki_ = rich-royal-_sakè_.

For _soramitsu_ see List m. k.


Mikotonori wo uketamaharu ga tame ni arakazhime yomeru uta.

      Ashihikino             1
    yatsuwo no uhe no
    iya tsugitsugi ni
      matsuganeno            5
    tayuru koto naku
    Nara no miyako ni
      yorodzu yo ni
    kuni shirasamu to       10
    waga ohokimi no
      kamu nagara
      toyo no agari         15
    mesu kefu no hi ha
    yasotomo no wo no
      Shima yama ni
    akaru tachibana         20
      udzu ni sashi
    himo toki sakete
      chitose hoki
      werawera ni           25
    tsukahematsuru wo
    miru ga tafutosa.

1-13 Praise of the Mikado. 14 to end, appeal to the loyalty of those
invited to the Presence.

23, 24 _hoki_, _hosaki_ (_hogi_, _hosagi_) = _ihafu_.

For _ashihikino_, _tsuganokino_, _matsuganeno_, _awoniyoshi_,
_yasumishishi_, _mononofuno_ see List m. k.



[Tempyô shôhô shichi nen] kisaragi nanuka no hi Sagamu no kuni no
Sakimori Kotori tsukahi kami hiroki itsutsu no kurawi no shimotsu shina
Fujihara no Asomi Sukunamaro ga tatematsureru uta no kadzu yatsu tada
tsutanaki uta itsutsu ha kore wo agezu.

Sakimori no wakare no kokoro wo itamite yomeru uta.

      Sumerogi no            1
    toho no mikado to
    Tsukushi no kuni ha
      ata mamoru             5
    osahe no ki so to
    yomo no kuni ni ha
      hito saha ni
    michi ni ha aredo       10
    Adzuma wonoko ha
      ide mukahi
      isamitaru             15
    takeki ikusa to
    make no manimani
    haha ga mekarete        20
    tsuma wo makazu
    tsuki hi yomitsutsu
      ashigachiru           25
    Naniha no mi tsu ni
      ohobune ni
    ma-kai shizhi nuki
      asa nagi ni
    kako totonohe           30
      yufu shiho ni
    kaji hiki wori
    kogi yuku kimi ha
      nami no ma wo         35
    i-yuki sa-kukumi
      masakiku mo
    hayaku itarite
      ohokimi no
    mikoto no manima        40
    kokoro wo mochite
    koto shi woharaba
      tsutsumahazu          45
    kaheri-kimasu to
      ihahihe wo
    toko he ni suwete
    sode wori-kaheshi       50
    kurokami shikite
      nagaki ke wo
    machi ka mo kohimu
    hashiki tsumara ha.     55

Argument (_dai_), _sakamori_ (_sakahi mamori_), garrison soldier or
warrior, frontier defence.

6 _osahe no ki_, defensive fort = garrison, military post.

13 go forth to meet, i.e. the enemy.

17 _negi_ = _negirafu_, seems to mean to thank, recompense, reward.

25 A sort of m. k. of Naniha.

53 _nagaki ki-he_.

For _toriganaku_, _tarachineno_, _wakakusano_, _aratamano_,
_ashigachiru_, _masurawono_, _shirotaheno_, _nubatamano_ see List m. k.


Omohi wo noburu uta.

      Sumerogi no            1
    tohoki mi yo ni mo
    Naniha no kuni ni
      ame no shita           5
    shirashimeshiki to
      ima no yo ni
    tayezu ihitsutsu
      kakemaku mo
    aya ni kashikoshi       10
      kamu nagara
    wago ohokimi no
    haru no hazhime ha
      yachi kusa ni         15
    hana saki nihohi
      yama mireba
    mi no tomoshiku
      kaha mireba
    mi no sayakeku          20
      mono goto ni
    sakayuru toki to
      meshi tamahi
      shikimaseru           25
    Naniha no miya ha
    yomo no kuni yori
    mi-tsuki no fune ha     30
      Horiye yori
    miwo-biki shi-tsutsu
      asa nagi ni
    kaji hiki nobori
      yufu shiho ni         35
    sawo sashi-kudari
      ajimura no
    sawaki kihohite
      hama ni idete
    una-hara mireba         40
      shiranami no
    yahe woru ga uhe ni
      ama wo-bune
    harara ni ukite
      oho-mi-ke             45
    tsukahematsuru to
      wochi-kochi ni
      sokidaku mo
    ogironaki ka mo         50
      kokibaku mo
    yutakeki ka mo
      koko mireba
    ubeshi kami yo yu
    hazhimekerashi wo.      55

50 _ogironaki_, a doubtful word--vast, boundless.

52 _yutakeki_, abundant, prosperous.

For _oshiteru_ see List m. k.


      Ashigara no            1
    mi saka tamahari
    are ha kuye-yuku
      arashi-wo mo           5
    tashi ya habakaru
      Fuha no seki
    kuyete wa ha yuku
      muma no tsume
    Tsukushi no saki ni     10
      chimari wite
    are ha ihahamu
      moromoro ha
    sakeku to mawosu
    kaheri-ku made ni.      15

2 _ta-mahari_, _ta_ is intensitive (as in _ta-motohori_). This lay is
in the dialect affected by officials in the Adzuma (Eastland).

4 _kuye_ = _koye_.

5 _arashi-wo_, vir ferox, fortis (_masurawo_).

5, 6 Descriptive of Fuha no seki.

8 = _tachi yo_, &c.

10 This line is epithetical of _tsuku_ (stamp, as hoofs do); part of
place-name, Tsukushi.

11 _chimari_ = _tomari_.



Sakimori no kokoro ni narite omohi wo nobite yomeru uta.

      Ohokimi no             1
    mikoto kashikomi
      tsuma wakare
    kanashiku ha aredo
      masurawono             5
    kokoro furi-okoshi
    kado-de ha sureba
    haha ha kaki-nade       10
    tsuma ha tori-tsuki
    ware ha ihahamu
      masakikute            15
    haya kaheri-ko to
      ma-sode mochi
    namida wo nogohi
    koto-dohi sureba        20
    ide-tachi-kate ni
      iya toho ni           25
    kuni wo ki-hanare
      iya taka ni
    yama wo koye-sugi
    Naniha ni ki-wite       30
      yufu shiho ni
    fune wo ukesuwe
      asa-nagi ni
    he muke kogamu to
      samorafu              35
    waga woru toki ni
      haru kasumi
    shima-mi ni tachite
    kanashiku nakeba        40
      haro-baro ni
    ihe wo omohi-de
      ohi so-ya no
    soyo to naru made
    nageki tsuru ga mo.     45

18 _nogohi_ = _nuguhi_.

43 _so-ya_, war-arrows, as distinct from hunting-arrows.

44 _soyo_, noise of rustling--is there a quibble here?--_soya_, _soyo_,
one fears there is.

For _masurawono_, _tarachineno_, _wakakusano_, _muratorino_,
_ashigachiru_, _tadzuganeno_ see List m. k.


Sakimori no wakare no kokoro wo noburu uta.

      Ohokimi no             1
    make no manimani
      saki-mori ni
    waga tachi-kureba
      hahasobano             5
    haha no mikoto ha
      mi mo no suso
    tsumi-age kaki-nade
    chichi no mikoto ha     10
    shirahige no uhe yu
      namida tari
    nageki notabaku
      kako zhi mono         15
    tada hitori shite
      asa-to-de no
    kanashiki aga ko
    toshi no wo nagaku      20
      ahi-mizu ha
    kohishiku arubeshi
      kefu dani mo
    koto-tohi semu to
      woshimitsutsu         25
    kanashibi imase
    tsuma mo kodomo mo
      wochi kochi ni
    saha ni kakumi wi       30
    kowe no samayohi
    sode naki nurashi
      tadzusahari           35
    wakare kate ni to
    shitahishi mono wo
    mikoto kashikomi        40
    michi ni ide-tachi
      woka no saki
    i-tamuru goto ni
      yorodzu tabi          45
    kaheri-mi shitsutsu
      harobaro ni
    wakare shi kureba
      omofu sora
    yasuku mo arazu         50
      kofuru sora
    kurushiki mono wo
    yo no hito nareba
      tamakiharu            55
    inochi mo shirazu
      unahara no
    kashikoki michi wo
    i-kogi watarite         60
    waga kuru made ni
    oya ha imasane
      tsutsumi-naku         65
    tsuma ha matase to
      Suminoye no
    aga sume kami ni
      nusa matsuri
    inori maushite          70
      Naniha tsu ni
    fune wo ukesuwe
      yaso ka nuki
    kako totonohete
      asabiraki             75
    wa ha kogi-denu to
    ihe ni tsuge koso.

5, 6 sound-play, _hahaso-ba_, _haha_. _hahaso_ = Quercus dentata.

9, 10 sound-play, _chichi no mi_, _chichi no mi[koto]_. _chichi no ki_
= _ichô_ = Ginkgo biloba (maiden-hair tree).

11 _takudzunu_ is m. k. of _shira[hige]_.

15 _kako_ = _shika_ (_no_) _ko_.

44 _i-tamuru_ = _i-tamotohoru_.

73 _ka_ = _kaji_.

For _chichinomino_, _takudzununo_, _aratamano_, _wakakusano_,
_harutorino_, _shirotaheno_, _ohokimino_, _tamahokono_, _utsusemino_,
_tamakiharu_ see List m. k.



Yagara wo satosu uta.

      Hisakatano             1
    ama no to hiraki;
      Takachiho no
    take ni amorishi
      Sumerogi no            5
    kami no mi yo yori
      hazhi-yumi wo
    tanigiri motashi
      makagoya wo
    tabasami sohete         10
      Ohokume no
    masuratake-wo wo
      saki ni tate
    yuki tori-ohose
      yama kaha wo          15
    iha-ne sakumite
      fumi tohori
    kuni-magi shitsutsu
    kami wo kotomuke        20
    hito wo mo yahashi
      Akitsushima           25
    Yamato no kuni no
      Kashibara no
    Unebi no miya ni
    futoshiritatete         30
      ame no shita
      Sumerogi no
    ama no hitsugi to
      tsugite kuru          35
    kimi no miyo miyo
    akaki kokoro wo
      sumera he ni
    kihame tsukushite       40
    oya no tsukasa to
      umi no ko no          45
    iya tsugitsugi ni
      miru hito no
    katari tsugitete
      kiku hito no
    kagami ni semu wo       50
    kiyoki sono na so
      ohoroka ni
    kokoro omohite
      muna koto no          55
    oya no na tatsuna
      Ohotomo no
    uji to na ni oheru
    masurawo no tomo.

8 _ta-nigiri_, _ta_ is emphatic.

18 _kuni-magi_ appears to mean, opening the country.

20 _kotomuke_.

22 _yahashi_, quell.

39 _he_ = _kata_.

45 _umi no ko_, progeny, descendants.

48 Note the rare form _tsugitete_ (_tsugitsutsu_).

53 Seems to = _ohohoshiku_, with _omofu_, treat lightly.

55 _muna koto_ = _munashiki kotoba_.

56 _oya no na wo tatsuna_ = expose not the family name.

For _hisakatano_, _chihayaburu_, _Akitsushima_ see List m. k.


Mi tose to ifu toshi mutsuki no tsukitachi no hi Inaba no kuni no
matsurigoto-tono nite tsukasa hitora wo ahesuru no utage no uta hitotsu
ohari no mizhika uta.

      Aratashiki             1
    toshi no hazhime no
      hatsu haru no
    kefu furu yuki no
    iya shige yogoto.        5

Kozhiki uta hitotsu (K. App. VI)

      Yachihoko no           1
    kami no mikoto ya
      a ga ohokuni
      nushi koso ha
    wo no imaseba            5
    shima no sakizaki
    iso no saki ochizu
      wakakusano            10
    tsuma motaserame
      a ha mo yo
    me nishi areba
      na okite
      wa ha nashi           15
      na okite
      tsuma ha nashi
      ayakaki no
    fuhaya ga shita ni
      mushibusuma           20
    nikoya ga shita ni
    sayagu ga shita ni
      awayuki no
    wakayaru mune wo        25
      takudzunu no
    shiroki tadamuki
    tataki managari
      matamade              30
    tamada sashimake
      momonaga ni
    i wo shi nase
    tatematourase.          35

18 _karuku_, _nikoyaka ni_.

19 A warm _fusuma_--bed-cover or wadded bed-gown.

21 = _nagoyaka_ (_naru mono no_) _shita ni_, under something soft.

22 = _fusuma_ made of _taku_ (Broussonetia) cloth.

23 _sayagu_, rustle, like leaves in the wind.

24 foam-snow, soft snow that falls in spring.

25 _wakayaru_, perhaps = young.

27 _tadamuki_ = _ude_, arm.

29 _managari_, interlacingly.

33 _i_, sleep.

Nihongi uta hitotsu (under year A.D. 513 ed. Ihida)

      Yashima kuni           1
    tsuma maki-kanete
    Kasuga no kuni ni
      kuhashi me wo          5
    ari to kikite
      yoroshi me wo
    ari to kikite
    hi no itato wo          10
    ware irimashi
      ato tori
    tsuma tori shite
      makura tori           15
    tsuma tori shite
      imo ga te wo
    ware ni makishi me
      waga te wo ba
    imo ni makishi me       20
      masaki tsura
    tataki asahari
    umahi ne shi to ni
      nihatsutori           25
    kake ha naku nari
    kigishi ha toyomu
      hashikeku mo
    imada ihazute           30
    aki ni keri wagimo!

13 on the heels of.

22 _asahari_ = _azanahari_, enlace or be enlaced with. _tataki_ = pat,
beat softly and repeatedly.

29 _hashikeku_ seems to be connected with _hashi_, end.



      Iso no kami
    furuki miyako no
    kowe bakari koso
    mukashi narikeri.


      Hana no chiru
    koto ya wabishiki
    Tatsuta no yama no
    uguhisu no kowe.


      Yuki no uchi ni
    haru ha ki nikeri
      uguhisu no
    kohoreru namida
    ima ya tokuramu.


      Yo no naka ni
    tayete sakura no
    haru no kokoro ha


    yo ni mo nitaru ka
    saku to mishi ma ni
    katsu chiri nikeri.


      Momijiba wo
    kaze ni makasete
      miru yori mo
    hakanaki mono ha
    inochi narikeri.


      Hana chirasu
    kaze no yadori ha
      tare ka shiru
    ware ni oshiheyo
    yukite uramimu.


      Harusame no
    furu ha namida ka
    chiru wo woshimanu
    hito shi nakereba.


      Haru kasumi
    tatsu wo misutete
      yuku kari ha
    hana naki sato ni
    sumi ya narayeru.



      Kasasagi no
    wataseru hashi ni
      oku shimo no
    shiroki wo mireba
    yo so fuke nikeru.


      Kimi ga tame
    haru no no ni idete
      wakana tsumu
    waga koromo-de ni
    yuki ha furitsutsu.


      Hana sasofu
    arashi no niha no
      yuki narade
    furi-yuku mono ha
    wagami narikeri.


    ima hata onazhi
      Naniha naru
    mi wo tsukushite mo
    awamu to so omofu.


      Haru no yo no
    yume bakari naru
      tamakura ni
    kahi naku tatamu
    na koso woshikere.


      Aki kaze ni
    tanabiku kumo no
      tahema yori
    more-idzuru tsuki no
    kage no sayakesa.


      Aki no ta no
    kari ho no iho no
      toma wo arami
    waga koromo-de ha
    tsuyu ni nuretsutsu.


      Haru sugite
    natsu ki nikerashi
    koromo hosu chifu
    Ama no Kaguyama.


    yamadori no wo no
      shidari wo no
    naganagashi yo wo
    hitori ka mo nemu.


      Tago no ura ni
    uchi-idete mireba
    Fuji no takane ni
    yuki ha furitsutsu.


      Okuyama ni
    momiji fumi-wake
      naku shika no
    kowe kiku toki so
    aki ha kanashiki.


      Ama no hara
    furisake mireba
      Kasuga naru
    Mikasa no yama ni
    ideshi tsuki ka mo.


      Hana no iro ha
    utsuri nikerina
      itadzura ni
    wagami yo ni furu
    nagameseshi ma ni.


      Tsukubane no
    mine yori otsuru
      Mina no kaha
    kohi so tsumorite
    fuchi to narinuru.




Only three editions of the Taketori--apart from recent reprints--are
known to me: one in two thin volumes, quaintly illustrated,
block-printed in _hiragana_ with occasional _ji_ in cursive, probably
an eighteenth-, possibly a seventeenth-century production; another,
also in two volumes, _Taketori m. g. shô_ (notes), 1785, with
commentary by Koyama no Tadashi; and lastly the elaborate edition of
Tanaka Daishiu (died 1853), in six volumes[7], on which the present
translation and most of the notes thereto are based.

The text, no doubt, is more or less corrupt, and this circumstance, in
part, explains the occasional roughness of style and the absence of
proper articulation at the _juncturae_. The story of the Mikado’s suit
and of the ascension to the moon is fairly free from these defects, and
so also is the fictitious narrative, related by the sham hero of the
second Quest, of his voyage to Hôrai. Up to the seventeenth century
almost all books in Japan, with the exception of Buddhist and Chinese
reprints, were manuscripts[8], and it is possible that the Taketori,
like the Manyôshiu, was written in Chinese script[9], used more or
less phonetically. The reading of this would often be traditional,
and copyist errors would be frequent, especially in regard to cursive
forms, a combination of sources of confusion that could not but be
fruitful in corruptions, as has already been remarked in the case of
the Manyôshiu.


[7] In which not only Koyama’s work is made use of but also the
notes of Keichiu (d. 1701) in his _Kasha_, and the suggestions of
Daishiu’s master, Motowori, the Venerable of Suzu no ya--the House of
the Horsebell--as he is termed in Daishiu’s preface and introductory
letter. An estimate of Daishiu’s work will be found _infra_.

[8] See Satow’s ‘Hist. of Printing’, _T. A. S. J._, vol. x.

[9] According to Lange (_Einf. in d. Jap. Schrift_) the _Katakana_
syllabary did not come into use till towards the close of the eighth
century, and the cursive syllabary (_hiragana_) was first used by
Tsurayuki in his preface to the Kokinshiu (see below), in the beginning
of the tenth century, the approximate date of the Taketori itself.




Ima ha mukashi Taketori no Okina to ifu[11] mono arikeri. No yama ni
mazhirite take wo toritsutsu yorodzu no koto[12] ni tsukahikeri[13].
Na wo ba Sanugi no Miyatsuko Maro to namu ihikeru. Sono take no naka
ni moto[14] hikaru take hito suji arikeri. Ayashigarite yorite miru ni
tsutsu no naka hikaritari. Sore to mireba san sun bakari naru hito ito
utsukushiute itari. Okina ifu yau--

‘Ware asa goto yufu goto ni miru tokoro no naka ni ohasuru nite shirinu
ko ni nari-tamafubeki hito nameri’ tote, te ni uchi-irete ihe ni[15]
mochite kinu. Me no ouna ni adzukete yashinahasu. Utsukushiki koto
kagiri naku ito wosanakereba ko ni irete yashinafu.

Taketori no Okina take wo toru koto[16] kono ko wo mitsukete nochi
ni take wo toru ni fushi wo hedatete yo goto ni kogane aru take wo
mitsukuru koto kasanarinu. Kakute Okina yauyau yutaka ni nariyuku.

Kono chigo yashinafu hodo ni sugusugu to ohoki ni narimasaru. Mi tsuki
bakari ni naru hodo[17] ni yoki hodo naru hito ni narinureba kami-age
nado sadashite[18] kami-age-sesase mo gisu. Chiyau[19] no uchi yori
mo idasazu itsuki kashidzuki yashinafu hodo ni kono chigo no katachi
keura[20] naru koto yo ni naku ya no uchi ha kuraki tokoro naku hikari
michitari. Okina kokochi ashiku kurushiki toki mo kono ko wo mireba
kurushiki koto mo yaminu haradatashiki koto mo nagusamikeri.

Okina take wo toru koto hisashiku narinu[21]. Ikihohi-mau no mono ni

Kono ko ito ohoki ni narinureba na wo ba Mimuroto no Imube no Akita wo
yobite tsukesasu. Akita Nayotake no Kaguyahime to tsuketsu. Konohodo mi
ka uchi uchi-age-asobu yorodzu no asobi wo zo shikeru. Wotoko wouna[22]
kirahazu yobitsudohete[23] ito kashikoku asobu.



Sekai no wonoko atenaru mo iyashiki mo ikade kono Kaguyahime wo yeteshi
gana miteshi gana to oto ni kikimedete madofu. Sono atari no kaki ni mo
ihe no to ni mo woru hito dani tahayasaku mirumazhiki mono wo yaru ha
yasuki imonezu yami no yo ni [idete] mo [ana wo kuzhiri] koko kashiko
yori nozoki kaimami madohi aheri. Saru toki yori namu yobahi to ha

Hito no monoshi[24] mo senu tokoro madohi arikedomo nani no shirushi
arubeku mo miyezu ihe no hitodomo ni ihamu tote ihikakaredomo
kotahe[25] mo sezu. Atari wo hanarenu kindachi yo wo akashi hi wo
kurasu hito ohakari. Orokanaru[26] hito ha yaunaki[27] ariki ha
yoshi nakarikeri tote kozu nari ni keri. Sono naka ni naho ihikeru
ha irogonomi to iharuru kagiri go nin omohi yamu toki naku yoru hiru

Sono na hitori ha Ishidzukuri no miko hitori ha Kuramochi no miko
hitori ha Sadaizhin Abe no Miushi hitori ha Dainagon Ohotomo no Miyuki
hitori ha Chiunagon Iso no kami no Marotada kono hitobito narikeri.

Yo no naka ni ohokaru hito wo dani sukoshi mo katachi yoshi to kikite
ha mirumahoshiusuru hitobito[28] nareba Kaguyahime wo mimahoshiushite
mono mo kuhazu omohitsutsu kano ihe ni yukite tatadzumi arikikeredomo
kahi arubeku mo arazu fumi wo kakite yaredomo kaheri koto mo sezu
wabi-uta naho kakite yaredomo[29] [kaheshi mo sezu].

Kahi nashi to omohedomo shimotsuki shihasu no furi-kohori minadzuki no
teri-hatataku ni mo saharazu kikeri.

Kono hitobito aru toki ha Taketori wo yobi-idete[30] ‘musume wo ware
ni tabe’ to fushi-wogami te wo suri notamaheba[31] ‘ono ga nasanu ko
nareba kokoro ni mo shitagahazu[32] namu aru’ to ihite, tsuki hi wo

Kakareba kono hitobito ihe ni kaherite mono wo omohi inori wo shi guwan
wo tate omohi [yamemu to suredomo] yamubeku mo arazu. Saritomo tsuhi
ni wotoko ahasezaramu ya ha to omohite tanomi wo kaketari anagachi ni
kokorozashi wo miye ariku.

Kore wo mitsukete Okina Kaguyahime ni ifu yau,

‘Waga ko no hotoke henguye no hito to maushi nagara warawa ohokisa made
yashinahitatematsuru kokorozashi orokanarazu okina no mausamu koto
kikitamahiten ya’, to iheba, Kaguyahime--

‘Nani-goto wo ka notomahamu koto wo uketamaharazaramu henguye no mono
nite haberikemu mi to mo shirazu oya to koso omohitatematsure’ to
iheba, Okina--

‘Ureshiku notamafu gana!’ to ifu,

‘Okina toshi nanasoji ni amarinu kefu to mo asu to mo shirazu kono yo
no hito ha wotoko ha wouna ni afu koto wo su [wouna ha wotoko ni afu
koto wo su] kore namu kado mo hiroku nari haberu ikade[ka] saru koto
nakute[ha] ohashimasamu[34].’

Kaguyahime no ihaku--

‘Nadefu saru koto ka shihaberamu’ to iheba,

‘Henguye no hito to ifu to mo wouna no mi mochi tamaheri okina no
aramu kagiri ha kaute mo imazukari[35] namu kashi kono hitobito no
toshi tsuki wo hete kau nomi imashitsutsu notamafu koto omohi sadamete
hitoribitori ni ahitatematsuritamahine[36]’ to iheba, Kaguyahime ihaku--

‘Yoku mo aranu katachi wo fukaki kokoro mo shirade ada kokoro tsukinaba
nochi kuyashiki koto mo arubeki wo to omofu bakari nari yo no kashikoki
hito naritomo fukaki kokorozashi wo shirade ha ahigatashi to namu
omofu’ to ifu, Okina ihaku--

‘Omofu no gotoku mo notamafu gana! Somosomo ika yau naru kokorozashi
aramu hito ni ka ahamu to obosu kabakari kokorozashi orokanaranu
hitobito ni koso anmere’ Kaguyahime no ihaku--

‘Nani bakari no fukaki wo ka mimu to ihamu isasaka no koto nari.
Hito no kokorozashi hitoshi kannari. Ikadeka naka ni otori masari ha
shiramu. Go nin no hito no naka ni yukashiki mono misetamaheramu ni on
kokorozashi masaritari tote tsukaumatsuramu to sono ohasuramu hitobito
ni maushitamahe’ to ifu,

‘yoki koto nari’ to uketsu.

Hi kururu hodo rei no atsumarinu hitobito aruhiha fuye wo fuki aruhiha
uta wo utahi aruhiha shiyauga wo shi aruhiha uso wo fuki afugi wo
narashi nado suru ni okina idete ihaku--

‘Katazhikenaku [mo] kitanagenaru tokoro ni toshi tsuki wo hete mono
shitamafu koto kihamaritaru kashikomari-to mausu--okina no inochi kefu
asu to mo shiranu wo kaku notamafu kimidachi ni mo yoku omohi sadamete
tsukaumatsure--to mauseba--fukaki mi kokoro wo shirade ha to namu
mausu sa mausu mo kotowari nari idzure otori masari ohashimasaneba
yukashiki mono misetamaheramu ni on kokorozashi no hodo ha miyubeshi
tsukaumatsuramu koto ha sore ni namu sadamubeki to maushihaberu--kore
yoki koto nari hito no urami mo arumazhi’[37] to iheba, go nin no
hitobito mo--

‘yoki koto nari’ to notamaheba, Okina irite ifu--

‘Kaguyahime Ishidzukuri no miko ni ha Temujiku ni Hotoke no ohon ishi
no hachi to ifu mono ari sore wo torite tamahe, to ifu--Kuramochi
no miko ni ha himukashi no umi ni Hourai to ifu yama annari sore ni
shirokane wo ne to shi kogane wo kuki to shi shiratama wo mi to shite
tateru ki ari sore hito yeda worite tamahamu, to ifu--ima hitori ni ha
Morokoshi ni aru hinezumi no kahagoromo wo tamahe--Ohotomo no Dainagon
ni ha tetsu no kubi ni go shiki ni hikaru tama ari sore wo torite
tamahe--Iso no Chiunagon ni ha tsubakurame no motaru koyasugahi hitotsu
torite tamahe to ifu.’


‘Kataki kotodomo ni koso anmere kono kuni ni aru mono ni mo arazu kaku
kataki koto wo ba ika ni mausan’ to ifu, Kaguyahime--

‘nahika katakaramu’ to iheba, Okina tomare kakumare mausamu tote idete,

‘kaku namu kikoyuru yau ni misetamahe’, to iheba,

Mikodachi Kamudachibe kikite,

‘Oiraka ni atari yori dani na ariki so to ya ha notamahanui’, to ihite
unzhite mina kaherinu.



Naho kono wouna mide ha yo ni arumazhiki kokochi no shikereba Temujiku
ni aru mono mo mote konu mono ka ha to omohi-megurashite Ishidzukuri no
miko ha kokoro no shitakumi[38] aru hito nite Temujiku ni futatsu to
naki hachi wo hiyaku-sen-man ri no hodo ikitari tomo ikadeka torubeki
to omohite Kaguya-hime no moto ni ha kefu namu Temujiku he ishi no
hachi tori ni makaru to kikasete mi tose bakari hete Yamato no kuni
Tohochi no kohori ni aru yama-dera ni Bindzuru no mahe naru hachi no
hitakuro ni susudzukitaru[39] wo torite nishiki no fukuro ni irite,
tsukuri-hana no eda ni tsukete Kaguyahime no ihe ni mote kite[40]
misekereba Kaguyahime ayashigarite miru ni hachi no naka ni fumi ari.
Hirogete mireba--

      Umi yama no
    michi ni kokoro wo
    mi ishi[42] no hachi[43] no
    namida nagare ha!

Kaguya-hime hikari ya aru to miru ni[44] hotaru bakari no hikari dani

      Oku tsuyu no[45]
    hikari wo dani zo[46]
    Wogura[48] no yama nite
    nani motomekemu.

tote kaheshi-idasu wo[49] hachi wo kado ni sutete kono uta no kaheshi
wo su,

      Shirayama ni
    aheba[50] hikari no
      usuru ka to
    hachi[51] wo sutete mo
    tanomaruru kana!

to yomite iretari. Kaguya-hime kaheshi mo sezu narinu. Mimi ni mo
kiki-irezarikereba ihi-wadzurahite[52] kaherinu. Kano hachi wo sutete
mata ihikeru yori zo omonaki koto wo ba haji wo sutsu to ha ihikeru.



Kuramochi no miko ha kokoro tabakari aru hito nite ohoyake ni ha
Tsukushi no kuni ni yu-ami ni makaramu tote itoma mafushite Kaguyahime
no ihe ni ha tama no yeda tori ni namu makaru to ihasete kudari-tamafu
ni tsukaumatsurubeki hitobito mina Naniha made okurishikeri. Miko
ito shinobite to notamahasete hito mo amata wite ohashimasezu
chikaku tsukaumatsuru kagiri shite idetamahinu mi okuri mi hitobito
mi-tatematsuru okurite kaherinu. Ohashimashinu[53] to hito ni ha
mihetamahite mi ka bakari arite kogi kaheritamahinu. Kanete koto mina
ohosetarikereba sono toki ichi no takumi[54] narikeru Uchimaro-ra[55]
roku nin wo meshitorite tayasuku hito yorikumazhiki ihe wo tsukurite
kamahe[56] wo mi he ni shikomete takumira wo ire-tamahitsutsu. Miko mo
onazhi tokoro ni komoritamahite shirasetamahitaru kagiri zhiuroku so
kami ni kudo[57] wo akete tama no yeda wo tsukuritamafu.

Kaguyahime notamafu yau ni tagahazu tsukuri idetsu[58]. Ito kashikoku
tabakarite Naniha ni misoka[59] ni mote-idenu. Fune ni norite kaheri
ki ni keri to tono ni tsuge-yarite, ito itaku kurushige-naru[60] sama
shite wi-tamaheri. Mukahe ni hito ohoku mawiritari tama no yeda wo
ba naga-hitsu ni irete mono ohohite mochite mawiru. ‘Itsuka kikemu!
Kuramochi no miko ha Udomuguwe no hana mochite nobori tamaheri’
to nonoshirikeri. Sore wo Kaguyahime kikite ‘ware wa kono miko ni
makenubeshi’ to mune tsuburete omohikeri.

Kakaru hodo ni kado wo tatakite, ‘Kuramochi no miko ohashimashitari’ to

‘Tabi no mi sugata nagara ohashimashitari’ to iheba ahitatematsuru miko
notamahaku ‘Inochi wo sutete kono tama no yeda mochite kitari tote
Kaguya-hime ni misetate matsuritamahe’ to notamaheba, okina mochite

Kono tama no yeda ni fumi wo zo tsuketarikeru[61].

      Itadzura ni,
    mi ha nashitsu to mo,
      tama no ye wo
    taworade sara ni

Kore wo mo ahare to mite woru ni Taketori no Okina hashiri irite ihaku--

‘Kono miko ni maushitamahishi Hourai no tama no yeda wo hitotsu no
tokoro mo ayashiki tokoro naku ayamatazu mote[62] ohashimaseri. Nani wo
mochite[63] ka tokaku mausubeki ni arazu[64]. Tabi no mi sugata nagara
waga ohon[65] ihe he mo yori-tamahazu shite ohashimashitari. Haya kono
miko ni ahitsukaumatsuritamahe’ to ifu ni mono wo ihazu tsuradzuwe wo
tsukite imizhiu nagekashige ni omohitari.

Kono miko ima sara[66] nanika to ifubekarazu to ifu mama ni yen ni
hahi-nobori tamahinu. Okina kotohari ni omofu--

‘Kono kuni ni mihenu tama no yeda nari. Kono tabi ha ikadeka inami
mausamu hito-zama mo yoki hito ni ohasu’ nado to ihi-itari.

Kaguyahime no ifu yau--

‘Oya no notamafu koto wo hitaburu ni inami mausamu koto no itohoshisa
ni ye-gataki mono wo yukashi to ha maushitsuru[67] wo kaku asamashiku
mote kuru koto wo namu netaku omohi haberu’,

to ihedo, naho[68] Okina ha neya no uchi shitsurahi nado su.

Okina miko ni mausu yau--

‘Ikanaru tokoro ni ka kono ki ha safurahikemu. Ayashiku uruhashiku
medetaki mono ni mo’

to mausu.

Miko kotahete notamahaku--

‘Saototoshi[69] no kisaragi no towo ka goro ni Naniha yori fune ni
norite umi naka ni idete yukamu kata mo shirazu oboheshikado omofu koto
narade ha[70] yo no naka ni ikite nani ka semu to omohishikaba tada
munashiki kaze ni makasete ariku. Inochi shinaba ikaga ha semu ikite
aramu kagiri ha[71] kaku arikite Hourai to ifuramu yama ni afu ya to
nami[72] ni tadayohi kogi arikite waga kuni no uchi wo hanarete ariki
maharishi[73] ni aru toki ha nami aretsutsu umi no soko ni mo irinubeku
arutoki ni[74] ha[75] kaze ni tsukete shiranu kuni ni fuki yoserarete
oni no yau naru mono idekite korosamu to shiki[76] aru toki ni ha koshi
kata yuku suwe mo shirazu[77] umi ni magiremu to shiki aru toki ni ha
kate tsukite kusa no ne wo kuhi mono to shiki aru toki ni ha ihamu kata
naku mukutsuge[78] naru mono kite kuhi kakaramu to shiki aru toki ni ha
umi no kai wo torite inochi wo tsugu. Tabi no sora ni tasukubeki[79]
hito mo naki tokoro ni iro-iro no yamahi wo shite yuku he[80] sora[81]
mo obohezu fune no yuku ni makasete umi ni tadayohite i-ho ka to ifu
tatsu no toki bakari ni umi no naka ni wadzuka[82] ni yama miyu fune no
uchi wo[83] namu semete miru umi no uhe ni tadayoheru yama ito ohoki
nite ari. Sono yama no sama takaku uruwashi. Kore ya waga motomuru
yama naramu to omohedo[84] sasuga ni osoroshiku oboyete yama no meguri
wo sashimegurashite futsuka mika bakari mi-ariku ni amabito no yosohi
shitaru wouna yama no naka yori idekite shirokane no kanamari wo
mochite midzu wo kumi ariku. Kore wo mite fune yori orite kono yama no
na wo nan to ka mausu to tofu ni wouna kotahete ihaku[85]--

‘Kore ha Hourai no yama nari to kotafu. Kore wo kiku ni ureshiku koto
kagiri nashi. Kono wouna ni kaku notamafu ha “taso” to tofu “Waga na ha
Houkamururi” to ihite futo yama no naka ni irinu.

‘Sono yama wo miru ni sara ni noborubeki yau nashi. Sono yama no
sobatsura[86] wo megureba yo no naka ni naki hana no kidomo tateri
kogane shirogane ruri iro no midzu nagare idetari. Sore ni ha iroiro
no tama no hashi wataseri. Sono atari ni teri-kagayaku kidomo tateri
sono naka ni kono[87] torite mochite maude[88] kitarishi ha ito
warokarishikadomo notamahishi ni tagahamashikaba tote kono hana wo
worite maude kitaru nari. Kore ha kagiri naku omoshiroshi[89] yo
ni tatofubeki ni arazarishikado kono yeda wo woriteshikaba sara
ni kokoromoto nakute fune ni norite ohi-kaze fukite shi hiyaku yo
nichi[90] ni namu maude ki nishi.’

‘Daikuwan no chikara ni ya Naniha yori kinofu namu Miyako ni maude
kitsuru sara ni shiho ni nuretaru kinu wo dani nugi-kahenade--namu
kochi[91] maude kitsuru’

to notamaheba, Okina kikite uchinagekite yomeru--

      Kure-take[92] no
    yoyo no take toru
      no yama ni mo
    sa ya ha wabishiki
    fushi wo nomi mishi[93].

Kore wo Miko kikite kokora no hi-goro omohi-wabi-haberi-tsuru kokoro ha
kefu namu ochi-winuru to notamahite kaheshi--

      Waga tamoto
    kefu kawakereba,
      wabishisa no
    chigusa no kazu mo

to notamafu. Kakaru hodo ni wotokodomo[94] roku nin tsuranete niha ni
idekitari[95]. Ichinin no wotoko fumi-hasami[96] ni fumi wo hasamite

‘Tsukumo dokoro[97] no tsukasa no takumi Ayabe no Uchimaro
mausaku--Tama no ki wo tsukurite tsukaumatsurishi koto kokoro no
kudakite[98] sen yo nichi ni chikara wo tsukushitaru koto sukunakarazu
shikaru ni roku imada tamaharazu kore wo tamaharite[99] wakachite[100]
kego ni tamahasemu’ to ihite sasagetari.

Taketori no Okina kono takumira ga mausu koto ha nani-goto zo to
katabuki wori. Miko ha ware ni mo aranu keshiki nite kimo[101]
kihenubeki kokochi shite wi-tamaheri.

Kore wo Kaguyahime kikite--

‘Kono tatematsuru fumi wo tore’

to ihite, mireba fumi ni moshikeru yau--

‘Miko no kimi sen yo nichi iyashiki takumira to morotomo ni[102]
onazhi tokoro ni kakure wi-tamahite kashikoki tama no yeda wo
tsukurase-tamahite tsukasa mo tamahamu[103] ohose-tamahiki. Kore wo
kono goro anzuru ni mi tsukahi to ohashimasubeki Kaguyahime no yeuzhi
tamafubeki narikeri to uketamaharite kono miya yoritamaharamu to
maushite tamaharubeki ni nari.’

To ifu wo kikite, Kaguya-hime[104] kururu mama ni omohi wabitsuru
kokochi wemi[105]-sakahete Okina wo yobi-torite ifu yau--

‘Makoto ni Hourai no ki ka to koso omohitsure kaku asamashiki sora goto
nite arikereba haya tote[106] kaheshi-tamahe’ to iheba, Okina kotafu--

‘Sadaka ni tsukurasetaru mono to kikitsureba kahesamu koto ito
yasushi,’ to unadzuki wori[107].

Kaguya-hime no kokoro yukihatete aritsuru uta no kaheshi--

      Makoto ka to
    kikite mitsureba
      koto no ha wo
    kazareru tama no
    yeda ni zo arikeru!

to ihite, tama no yeda wo kaheshitsu.

Taketori no Okina sabakari katarahitsuru ga sasuga ni oboyete
neburi-wori. Miko ha tatsu mo hashita wiru mo hashita nite wi-tamaheri.
Hi no kurenureba suberi idetamahinu[108].

Kano ureheseshi takumira wo ba Kaguya-hime yobi-suwete--

‘Ureshiki hito-domo nari[109]’

to ihite, roku ito ohoku torasetamafu. Takumira imizhiku yorokobite
‘omohitsuru yau ni mo aru kana!’ to ihite, kaheru.

Michi nite Kuramochi no miko chi no nagaruru made chiyouzesase[110]
tamafu roku yeshi kahi mo naku mina tori-sutesase tamahite kereba
nige-use nikeri.

Kakute kono Miko isseu no haji kore ni suguru ha arazhi wouna wo
yezu narinuru nomi ni arazu ame no shita no hito no mi-omohamu koto
no hadzukashiki koto to notamahite tada hito tokoro fukaki yama he

Miya tsukasa safurafu hitobito mina te wo wakachite,
motome-tatematsuredomo shini mo ya shitamahikemu
ye-mi-tsuke-tatematsurazu narinu. Miko ha mi tomo ni dani kakushi
tamahamu tote toshi goro mihetamahazarikeru narikeri. Kore wo namu
‘tamazakaru’ to ha ihihazhimetaru.



Udaijin Abe no Miushi[111] ha takara yutaka ni ihe hiroki hito ni
zo[112] ohashikeru. Sono toshi watarikeru Morokoshi fune no Waukei
to ifu mono no moto ni fumi wo kakite hi-nedzumi no kahagoromo to
ifu naru mono kahite okoseyo tote tsukafu tatematsuru hito no naka ni
kokoro tashikanaru wo yerabite Onono Fusamori to ifu hito wo tsukete

Mote itarite kano ura[113] ni woru Waukei ni kogane[114] wo torasu.
Waukei fumi wo hirogete mite kaheri-goto kaku, ‘Hi-nedzumi no
kahagoromo waga kuni ni naki mono nari. Oto ni ha kikedomo imada minu
mono nari. Yo ni aru mono naraba kono kuni ni mo mote maude kinamashi.
Ita kataki akinahi nari. Shikaredomo moshi Tenjiku ni tamasaka ni mote
watarinaba moshi chiyauzhiya no atari ni toburahi motomemu ni naki mono
naraba tsukahi ni sohete kogane wo ba kaheshi tatematsuramu’ to iheri.

Kano Morokoshi fune kikeri. Onono Fusamori maude kite mau noboru to ifu
koto wo kikite ayumi tou suru uma wo mochite hashirase mukahesasetamafu
toki ni uma ni norite Tsukushi yori tada nanuka ni nobori[115] maude

Fumi wo mira ni ihaku--

‘Hi-nedzumi no kahagoromo karauzhite hito wo idashite motomete
tatematsuru. Ima no yo ni mo mukashi no yo ni mo[116] kono kaha ha
tahayasuku naki mono narikeri. Mukashi kashikoki Tenjiku no hizhiri
kono kuni ni mote watarite tsukamatsurikeri. Nishi no yama-dera ni ari
to kiki-oyobite ohoyake ni maushite karaushite kahi-torite tatematsuru.
Atahi no kane sukunashi to kokushi tsukahi ni maushikaba Waukei ga
mono kuhahete kahitari. Ima kogane gozhiu riyau tamaharubeshi. Fune
no kaheramu ni tsukete tabi-okure moshi kogane tamahanu mono naraba
kahagoromo no shichi kaheshi tabe[117]’ to iheru koto wo mite,

‘Nani obosu ima kogane sukoshi no koto[118] ni koso anare[119]!
[4]kanarazu okurubeki mono ni koso anare[120] ureshiku shite[121]
okosetaru kana!’

tote, Morokoshi no kata ni mukahite fushi ogami-tamafu.

Kono kahagoromo iretaru hako wo mireba kusagusa no uruhashiki ruri
wo irohete tsukureri. Kahagoromo wo mireba, konzhiyau no iro nari
ke no suwe ni ha kogane no hikari kagayakitari ge ni takara to mihe
uruhashiki koto narabubeki mono nashi. Hi ni yakenu koto yori mo keura
naru koto narabu[122] nashi.

‘Ube Kaguya-hime no konomoshikari-tamafu ni koso arikere!’

To notamahite ‘ana kashiko’! tote, hako ni ire-tamahite mono no yeda
ni tsukete mi mi no kesau ito itakushite yagate tomari namu mono zo to
oboshite uta yomi kuhahete mochite imashitari.

Sono uta ha--

      Kagiri naki
    omohi ni yakenu
    tamoto kawakite
    kefu koso ha mime!

to iheri.

Ihe no kado ni mote itarite tateri. Taketori ide kite tori-irete
Kaguya-hime ni misu. Kaguya-hime kano kahagoromo wo mite ihaku--

‘Uruhashiki kaha nameri wakite makoto no kaha naramu to mo shirazu.’

Taketori kotahete ihaku--

‘Tomare kakumare[123] madzu shiyauzhi ire-tatematsuramu yo no naka
ni mihenu kahagoromo no sama nareba kore wo makoto to omohi-tamahine
hito na itaku wabi-sase-tatematsurase-tamahi so’ to ihite

Kaku yobi-suwete kono tabi ha kanarazu ahamu to ouna no kokoro ni mo
omohi wori. Kono Okina ha Kaguya-hime no yamome naru wo nagekashikereba
yoki hito ni ahasemu to omohi hakaredomo sechi ni ina to ifu koto
nareba yeshihinu ha kotowari nari.

Kaguya-hime Okina ni ihaku--

‘Kono kahagoromo ha hi ni yakamu ni yakezuba koso makoto naramu to
omohite hito no ifu koto ni mo makenu yo ni naki mono nareba sore wo
makoto to utagahi naku omohamu to notamahe naho kore wo yakite mimu’

to ifu.

Okina ‘sore sa mo iharetari’ to ihite otodo[124] ni kaku namu mausu to

Otodo kotahete ihaku--

‘Kono kaha ha Morokoshi ni mo nakarikeru[125] wo karanjite
motome-tadzune yetaru nari nani no utagahi ka aramu sa ha mausu to mo
haya yakite mi-tamabe’

to iheba, hi no naka ni uchi-kubete yakase-tamafu ni meramera to
yakenu. Sareba koso kotomono no kaha narikeri to ifu.

Otodo kore wo mi-tamahite mi kaho ha kusa no ha no iro shite
wi-tamaheri. Kaguya-hime ha ‘Ana ureshi!’ to yorokobite itari. Kano
yomi-tamahikeru uta no kaheshi hako ni irete kahesu

      Nagori naku
    moyu to shiriseba
    omohi no hoka ni
    okite namashi wo!

to zo arikeru. Sareba kaheri imashi ni keri.

Yo no hitobito ‘Abe no Otodo ha hinedzumi no kahagoromo wo mote
imashite Kaguya-hime ni sumi-tamafu to na koko ni ya imasu’ nado tofu
aru hito no ihaku, ‘Kahagoromo ha hi ni kubete yakitarishikaba meramera
to yakenishikaba Kaguya-hime ahi-tamahazu’ to ihikereba kore wo kikite
zo togenaki mono wo ba ‘abenashi’ to ha ihikeru.



Ohotomo no Miyuki no Dainagon ha waga ihe ni ari to aru hito wo
meshi-atsumete, notamahaku--

‘Tatsu no kubi ni go shiki no hikari aru tama anari sore wo torite
tatematsuramu hito ni ha negahamu koto wo kanahemu’

to notamafu.

Wonokodomo ohose no koto wo uketamaharite mausaku--

‘Ohose no koto ha ito mo tafutoshi tadashi kono tama tahayasuku
yetorazhi wo ihamu ya! tatsu no kubi no tama ha ikaga toramu’ to maushi

Dainagon notamafu--

‘Kimi no tsukahi to ihamu mono ha inochi wo sutete mo ono ga kimi no
ohose-goto wo ba kanahemu to koso omofubekere[126]! Kono kuni ni naki
Temujiku Morokoshi no mono ni mo arazu kono kuni no umi yama yori tatsu
ha ori noboru mono nari ikani omohite ka namuzhira kataki mono to

Wonokodomo mausu yau--

‘Saraba ikaga ha semu kataki mono naritomo ohose-goto ni shitagahite
motome ni makaramu’ to mausu.

Dainagon mi-warahite--Namuzhira kimi[127] no tsukahi to na wo
nagashitsu kimi no ohose-goto wo ba ikaga ha somukubeki

to notamahite, tatsu no kubi no tama tori ni tote ideshi-tate-tamafu.

Kono hitobito no michi no kate kuhi mono ni tono no uchi no kinu
wata zeni nado aru kagiri tori idete sohete tsukahasu. ‘Kono
hitobito-domo[128] kaheru made imo-wi wo shite ware ha woramu kono tama
toriyede ha ihe ni kaheri kuna’

to notamahasekeri[129].

Ono-ono ohose uketamaharite makari-idenu.

‘Tatsu no kubi no tama toriyezuba kaheri-kuna’ to notamaheba, idzuchi
mo idzuchi mo ashi no mukitaramu kata he inamu[130] to su. Kakaru
suki-goto wo shitamafu koto to soshiri aheri tamahasetaru[131] mono ha
ono-ono waketsutsu tori aruhiha ono ga ihe ni komori-wi aruhiha ono ga
yukamahoshiki tokoro he winu.

Oya kimi to mausu to mo kaku tsukinaki koto wo ohosetamafu koto to koto
yukanu mono yuwe, Dainagon wo soshiri ahitari.

Kaguya-hime suwemu ni ha rei no yau ni ha mi-nikushi to notamahite
uruhashiki ya wo tsukuritamahite urushi wo nuri makiwe wo shi iroheshi
tamahite ya no uhe ni ha ito wo somete iroiro ni fukasete uchi-uchi
no shitsurahi ni ha ifubeku mo aranu aya orimono ni we wo kakite
ma-goto[132] ni haritari.

Moto no medomo ha mina[2] ohi-harahite[133] Kaguya-hime wo kanarazu
ahamu maukeshite hitori akashite kurashite tamafu.

Tsukahashishi hito ha yoru hiru machi-tamafu ni toshi koyuru made
oto mo sezu kokoromoto nagarite ito shinobite tada toneri futari
meshi-tsugi to shite yatsuretamahite Naniha ni ohashimashite
tohi-tamafu koto ha--

‘Dainagon no hito ya fune ni norite tatsu koroshite so ga kubi no tama
toreru to ya kiku’

to tohasuru ni funabito kotahete ihaku ‘Ayashiki koto kana’

to warahite,

‘saru waza suru fune mo nashi’--to kotafuru ni ‘wojinaki koto suru
funabito ni mo aru kana! Yeshirade kaku ifu to ohoshite waga yumi no
chikara ha tatsu araba futo i-koroshite kubi no tama ha toritemu osoku
kuru yatsubara wo matazhi’

to notamahite, fune ni norite umi goto ni ariki-tamafu ni ito tohokute
Tsukushi no kata no umi ni kogi ide-tamahinu.

Ikaga shikemu hayaki kaze fukite[134] sekai kuragarite fune wo
fuki mote ariku. Idzure no kata to mo shirazu fune wo umi naka ni
makari-idenubeku[135] fuki mahashite nami ha fune ni uchi-kaketsutsu
maki-ire[136] kami ha ochi-kakaru yau ni hirameki kakaru ni Dainagon ha
madohite ‘mada kakaru wabishikime ha mizu ika naramu to suru zo’--to

Kajitori kotahete mausu--

‘Kokora fune ni norite, makari-ariku ni mada kaku wabishikime wo mizu.
Mi fune umi no soko ni irazuba kami ochikakarinubeshi moshi saihahi
ni[137] kami no tasuke araba nankai ni fukare-ohashinubeshi utate
aru nushi no mi moto ni tsukahematsurite suzuro[138] naru shini wo
subekameru’ tote kajitori naku.

Dainagon kore wo kikite notamahaku--‘Fune ni norite ha kajitori no
mausu koto wo koso takaki yama to mo tanome nado kaku tanomoshige-naki
koto wo mausu zo’--to awohedo wo tsukite notamafu.

Kajitori kotahete mausu--‘Kami naraneba nani waza wo ka tsukaumatsuramu
kaze fuki nami hageshikeredomo kami sahe itadaki ni ochikakaru yau
naru ha tatsu wo korosamu to motometamahi. Safuraheba kaku annari[139]
hayate mo tatsu no fukaseru nari haya kami ni inori-tamahe’

to iheba,

‘Yoki koto nari’--tote--‘kajitori no mikami kikoshimese wojinaku[140]
kokoro wosanaku tatsu wo korosamu to omohikeri ima yori nochi ha ke no
suwe hito[5] suji[141] wo dani ugokashi-tatematsurazhi’ to yogoto[142]
wo hanachite tachi-wi naku-naku yobahi-tamafu koto chi tabi bakari
maushi-tamafu. Ge ni ya aramu! yauyau kaminari yaminu sukoshi akarite
kaze ha naho hayaku fuku.

Kajitori no ihaku[143]--‘Kore ha tatsu no shiwaza ni koso arikere
kono fuku kaze ha yoki kata no kaze nari ashiki kata no kaze ni ha
arazu yoki kata ni omomukite fuku nari’ to ihedomo Dainagon ha kore wo

Mi ka yo ka fukite fuki-kaheshi yosetari. Hama wo mireba Harima no
Akashi no hama narikeri. Dainagon nankai no hama ni fuki-yoseraretaru
ni ya aramu to omohite iki-tsuki fushi-tamaheri. Fune ni aru
wonoko-domo kuni ni tsugetareba kuni no tsukasa maude-toburafu ni mo
ye-oki-agari-tamahade funa-zoko ni fushi-tamaheri.

Matsu hara ni mushiro shikite oroshi-tatematsuru. Sono toki ni zo
nankai ni arazarikeri to omohite karauzhite oki-agari-tamaheru wo
mireba kaze ito omoki hito nite hara ito fukure konata kanata no me ni
ha sumomo wo futatsu tsuketaru yau naru. Kore wo mitatematsurite, kuni
no tsukasa mo-hoho-yemitaru.

Kuni ni ohose-tamahite tagoshi tsukurase-tamahite niyofu-niyofu
ni naharete ihe ni ire-tamahinuru wo ikadeka kikemu tsukahashishi
wono-ko-domo mawirite mausu yau,--‘Tatsu no kubi no tama
woye-torazarishikaba namu tono he mo ye-mawirazarishi tama no
tori-katakarishi koto wo shiri-tamahereba namu kamudau arazhi tote
mawiritsuru’ to mausu.

Dainagon oki-idete notamahaku--

‘Namuzhira yoku mote kozu narinu tatsu ha naru kami no ruwi[144] nite
koso arikere sore ga tama wo torase-tote sokora[145] no hitobito no
gai serare namu to shikeri mashite tatsu wo torahetaramashikaba mata
koto mo naku ware ha gai serarenamashi, yoku torahezu nari nikeri.
Kaguya-hime tefu oho nusubito no yatsu ga hito wo korosamu to suru
narikeri ihe no atari dani ima ha tohorazhi wonoko-domo na ariki so’

tote, ihe ni sukoshi nokoritarikeru monodomo ha tatsu no tama toranu
monodomo ni tabitsu.

Kore wo kikite hanare-tamahishi moto no uhe ha hara wo kirite[146]
warahi-tamafu ito wo fukasete tsukurishi ya ha tobi karasu no su ni
mina kubi mote inikeri.

Sekai no hito no ihikeru ha ‘Ohotomo no Dainagon ha tatsu no kubi no
tama ya torite ohashitaru’; ‘ina! sa mo arazu mi manako futatsu ni
sumomo no yau naru tama wo zo sohete i-mashitaru’ to ihikereba, ‘Ana
tahegata’ to ihikeru yori zo yo ni ahanu koto wa ba--Ana tahegata! to
ha ihi-hazhimekeru.



Chiunagon Isonokami no Marotada[147] ha ihe ni tsukaharuru[148]
wonoko-domo moto ni ‘Tsubakurame no su kuhitaraba tsugeyo’ to notamafu
wo uketamaharite, ‘Nani no reu[149] ni ka aramu’ to mausu kotahete
notamafu yau ‘tsubakurame no motaru koyasugahi toramu reu nari’ to

Wonoko-domo kotahete mausu ‘Tsubakurame wo amata koroshite miru ni dani
mo hara ni nakimono nari. Tadashi ko umu toki namu ikadeka idasuran
hara-hara to mausu[150] hito dani mireba usenu’ to mausu.

Mata hito no mausu yau ‘Ohowidzukasa no ihi kashiku ya no mune no
tsuku[151] no ana goto ni tsubakurame ha su kuhihaberi sore ni mame
naramu wonoko-domo wo wite makarite agura wo yuhite agete ukagahasemu
ni sokora no tsubakurame ko umazaramu ya ha? sate! koso torashime
tamahame’--to mausu.

Chiunagon yorokobi-tamahite ‘Wokashiki koto ni mo aru kana?
mottomo yeshirazarikeri kiyou aru koto maushitari’ to notamahite
mame naru wonoko-domo nizhifu nin bakari tsukahashite ananahi ni

Tono yori tsukahi hima naku tamahasete koyasugahi toritaru ka--to
tohase-tamafu. Tsubakurame mo hito no amata nobori-witaru ni ojite su
ni nobori kozu.

Kakaru yoshi no mi kaheri-goto wo maushikereba kikitamahite ikaga
subeki to oboshimeshi wadzurafu ni kano tsukasa no kwan-nin Kuratsu
Maro to mausu okina mausu yau ‘Koyasu-gahi toramu to oboshimesaba
tabakari mausamu’ tote, ommahe ni mawiritareba Chiunagon hitahi wo
ahasete mukahi-tamaheri.

Kuratsu Maro ga mausu yau ‘Kono tsukubakurame no koyasu-gahi ha ashiku
tabakarite torase tamafu nari. Sate ha, yetorase-tamahazhi ananahi ni
odoro-odoroshiku mizhifu nin no hito no noborite habereba arete[152]
yori-maude kozu namu. Sesase-tamafubeki yau ha kono ananahi wo
kobochite hito mina shirizokite mame naramu hito hitori[153] wo arako
ni nose-suwete tsuna wo kamahete tori no ko umamu ahida[154] ni tsuna
wo tsuri[155]-age-sasete futo koyasu-gahi wo torase-tamahamu[156] namu
yokarubeki’ to mausu.

Chiunagon notamafu yau ‘Ito yoki koto nari’, tote, ananahi wo kobochite
hito mina kaheri-maude kinu.

Chiunagon Kuratsu Maro ni notamahaku--‘Tsubakurame ha ika naru toki ni
ka ko wo umu to shirite, hito wo ba agurubeki’ to notamafu[157].

Kuratsu Maro mausu yau ‘Tsubakurame ha ko umamu to suru toki ha wo
wo sasagete[158] nana tabi megurite namu umi-otosumeru sate nana tabi
meguramu wori hiki-agete sono wori koyasu-gahi ha torase-tamahe’
to mausu yau. Chiunagon yorokobi-tamahite yorodzu no hito ni mo
shirase-tamahade misoka ni tsukasa ni imashite wonoko-domo no naka ni
mazhirite[159] yoru wo hiru ni nashite torashime-tamafu.

Kuratsu Maro kaku mausu wo ito itaku yorokobi-tamahite notamafu--‘Koko
ni tsukaharuru hito ni mo naki ni negahi wo kanafuru koto no ureshisa’
to ihite mi[160] zo nugite kadzuke-tamahitsu--‘sara ni yosari[161]
kono[162] tsukasa[163] ni maude-ko’--to notamahite tsukahashitsu.

Hi kurenureba kano tsukasa ni ohashite mi-tamafu ni makoto ni
tsubakurame su tsukureri. Kuratsu Maro ga mausu yau ni wo wo sasagete
meguru ni arako ni hito wo nosete[164] tsuri-agesasete tsubakurame no
su ni te wo sashi-ire sasete[165] saguru ni ‘mono mo nashi’--to mausu
ni Chiunagon ‘ashiku sagureba naki nari’--to haradachite ‘tare bakari
oboyemu ni tote ware noborite saguramu’--to notamahite ko ni norite
tsurare-noborite ukagahi-tamaheru ni tsubakurame wo wo sasagete itaku
meguru ni ahasete te wo sasagete saguri-tamafu ni te ni hirameru[166]
mono saharu toki ni ‘Ware mono nigiritari--ima ha oroshite yo okina
shiyetari’ to notamahite atsumarite tote orosamu tote tsuna wo hiki
sugushite tsuna tayuru Sunahachi[167] Yashima no kanahe no uhe ni
nokesama ni ochitamaheri.

Hitobito asamashigarite yorite kakahe-tatematsureri mi me ha shirame
nite fushi-tamaheri. Hitobito mi kuchi ni[168] midzu wo sukuhi
ire-tatematsuru karauzhite iki-ide-tamaheru ni mata kanahe no uhe
yori te tori ashitori shite sage-oroshi-tatematsuru. Karauzhite ‘mi
kokochi ha ikaga obosaruru’ to toheba iki no shita nite mono ha
sukoshi oboyuredo koshi namu ugokarenu. Saredo koyasu-gahi wo futo
nigiri-mo-tareba ureshiku oboyuru nari.

‘Madzu shisokusashite ko kono gahi kaho mimu’ to mi kushi motagete
mi te wo hiroge-tamaheru ni tsubakurame no mari-okeru furu kuso wo
nigori-tamaheru narikeri.

Sore wo mi-tamahite ‘Ana! kahina no waza ya!’ to notamahikeru yori zo
omofu ni tagafu koto wo ba ‘kahinashi’ to ha ihikeru.

Kahi ni mo aradzu to mi-tamahikeru ni mi kokochi mo tagahite karabitsu
no futa ni[169] irase[170] tamafubeku mo aradzu. Mi koshi ha ore ni
keri. Chiunagon ha ihaketaru waza shite yamu koto wo hito ni kikasezhi
to shitamahikeredo, sore wo yamahi nite ito yowaku nari-tamahi-nikeri.
Kahi wo yetorazu nari nikeru yori mo hito no kiki-warahamu koto wo hi
ni sohete omohi-tamahikereba tada ni yami-shinuru yori mo hitogiki
hadzukashiku oboye-tamafu narikeri[171].

Kore wo Kaguyahime kikite tofurahi ni tsukahashikeru uta--

      Toshi wo hete
    nami tachi-yoranu
      Sumiyoshi no
    matsu kahi nashi
    kiku ha makoto ka?

to aru wo yonde kikasu.

Ito yowaki kokochi ni kashira wo motagete hito ni kami wo motasete
kurushiki kokochi ni karauzhite kaki-tamafu--

      Kahi ha kaku
    arikeru mono wo
      wabi hatete
    shinuru inochi wo
    sukuhi ya ha senu!

to kaki-hatsuru to tahe-iritamahinu.

Kore wo kikite Kaguhahime sukoshi ahare to oboshikeri. Sore yori namu
sukoshi ureshiki koto wo ba kahi ari! to ha ihikeru.



Sate Kaguyahime katachi yo ni mizu medetaki koto wo Mikado
kikoshimeshite naishi Nakatomi no Fusako ni notamafu--

‘Ohoku no hito no mi wo itadzura ni nashite ahazanaru Kaguyahime ha ika
bakari no wouna zo to makarite mite mawire’ to notamafu.

Fusako uke-tamaharite makareri. Taketori no Okina no ihe ni
kashikomarite shiyauzhi[172] irete aheri. Wouna ni naishi notamafu--

‘Ohose-goto ni Kaguyahime no katachi iu ni ohasu to nari yoku-mite
mawirubeki yoshi notamahasetsuru ni namu mawiritsuru’ to iheba, ‘kaku
to maushi haberamu’ to ihite, irinu.

Kaguyahime ni ‘Haya kano ohon tsukahi ni taimen shi-tamahe’ to iheba,
Kaguyahime ‘yoki katachi ni mo arazu ikadeka miyubeki’ to iheba ‘utate
mo notamafu kana! Mikado no ohon tsukahi wo ba ikadeka oroka ni semu?’
to iheba, Kaguyahime kotafuru yau ‘Mikado no meshite notamahamu koto
kashikoshi to mo omohazu’ to ihite, sara ni miyubeki mo arazu. Umeru
ko no yau ni ha aredo ito kokoro-hazukashige ni orosoka-naru yau ni
ihikereba kokoro no mama ni mo yesemezu.

Wouna naishi no moto ni kaheri-idete ‘kuchioshiku kono osanaki mono ha
kohaku haberu mono nite taimen sumazhiki’ to mausu. Naishi ‘kanarazu
mi-tatematsurite mawire to ohose-goto aritsuru mono mitatematsurade
ha ikadeka kaheri-mawiramu--kokuwô no ohose-goto wo masa ni yo ni
sumi-tamahamu hito no uketamahari-tamahade ha arinamu ya! iharenu koto
na shi-tamahi so’ to kotoba hajishiku ihikereba, kore wo kikite mashite
Kaguyahime kikubeku mo arazu ‘Koku-wô no ohose-goto wo somukaba haya
koroshi-tamahite yokashi’.

Kono naishi kaheri-mawirite kono yoshi wo sousu. Mikado kikoshimeshite
‘ohoku no hito wo koroshite-keru[173] kokoro zo kashi’ to notamahite,
yami nikeredo naho oboshimeshi[2] ohashimashite[174] kono wouna no
tabakari ni ya makemu to oboshimeshite Taketori no Okina wo meshite
ohose-tamafu ‘Nanzhi ga mochite haberu Kaguyahime tatematsure kaho
katachi yoshi to kikoshimeshite mi tsukahi wo tabishikado kahinaku
mihezu nari nikeri. Kaku taidaishiku ya ha narahasubeki’ to ohoseraru.

Okina kashikomarite ohon kaheshi-goto[175] mausu yau ‘kono me ha
waraha ha tahete miyadzukahe tsukaumatsurubeku mo arazu haberu wo mote
wadzurahi-haberi saritomo makarite ohosetamahamu[176]’ to sousu.

Kore wo kikoshimeshite ohosetamafu yau ‘Nado ka Okina no te
ni ohoshitatetaramu mono wo kokoro ni makasezaramu kono wouna
moshi tatematsuritaru mono naraba Okina ni kaufuru wo nado ka

Okina yorokobite ihe ni kaherite Kaguyabime ni katarafu yau ‘kaku namu
Mikado no ohose-tamaheru naho ya ha tsukaumatsuri-tamahane’ to iheba,
Kaguyahime kotahete ihaku ‘mohara sayau miyadzukahe tsukaumatsurazhi to
omofu wo shihite tsukaumatsurase-tamahaba kiye-usenamu zo mi tsukasa
kaufuri tsukaumatsurite shinu bakari nari’.

Okina irafuru yau ‘Na shi-tamahi so tsukasa[178] kaufuri mo waga
ko wo mi-tatematsurade ha nani ni ka ha semu sa ha aritomo nado ka
miyudzukahe shitamahazaramu shini-tamafu-beki[179] yau ya ha arubeki’
to ifu.

‘Naho soragoto ka to tsukaumatsurasete shinazu ya aru to mi-tamahe
amata no hito no kokorozashi oroka narazarishi wo munashiku nashite
shi koso are kinofu kefu Mikado no notamahamu koto ni tsukamu hitogiki
yasashi’ to iheba, Okina kotahete ihaku--

‘Ame no shita no koto to aritomo kakaritomo on inochi no ayafusa koso
ohoki naru sahari nare naho tsukaumatsurumazhiki koto wo mawirite
mausamu’ tote, mawirite mausu yau--

‘Ohose no[180] koto kashikosa ni kano waraha wo mawirasemu tote
tsukaumatsureba miyadzukahe ni idashitatenaba shinubeshi to mausu.
Miyatsuko Maro ga te ni umasetaru ko nite mo[181] arazu mukashi yama
nite mi-tsuketaru kakareba kokoro-base mo yo no hito ni nizu zo haberu’
to sousesasu.

Mikado ohose-tamahaku--

‘Miyatsuko Maro ga ihe yama moto chikakanari[182]. Mikari no miyuki
shi-tamahamu yau nite mitemu ya’ to notamahasu. Miyatsuko Maro ga
mausu yau ‘ito yoki koto nari. Nanika kokoro mo nakute haberamu ni
futo miyuki shite goranzerarenamu’ to sousureba, Mikado nihaka ni hi
wo sadamete mikari ni idetamahite Kaguyahime no ihe ni iri-tamahite
mi-tamafu ni hikari michite keura nite witari hito ari ‘Kore naramu!’
to oboshite, chikaku yorase tamafu ni[183] nigete iru. Sode wo
torahe-tamaheba omote wo futagite safurahedo hazhime yoku goranzhi
tsureba taguhi naku medetaku oboyesase-tamahite yurusazhi to su
tote wite-ohashimasamu to suru ni Kaguyahime kotahete sousu ‘Ono
ga mi ha, kono kuni ni umarete haberaba koso tsukai-tamahame ito
wite-ohashigataku ya haberamu’ to sousu.

Mikado nado ka sa aramu naho ite-ohashimasemu tote ohon koshi wo
yose-tamafu ni kono Kaguyahime kito kage ni narinu. Hakanaku kuchiwoshi
to oboshite ge ni tada-bito ni ha arazarikeri to oboshite--

‘Saraba on moto[184] ni ha wite-ikazhi moto no on katachi to
nari-tamahine sore wo mite dani kaheri-namu’ to ohoserarureba
Kaguyahime moto no katachi narinu.

Mikado naho medetaku oboshimesaruru koto seki-tome-gatashi kaku
misetsuru Miyatsuko Maro wo yorokobi-tamafu. Sate tsukaumatsuru
hiyakukuwan no hitobito ni aruzhi ikameshiu tsukaumatsuru.

Mikado Kaguya-hime wo todomete kaheri-tamahamu koto wo akazu
kuchiwoshiku oboshikeredo tamashihi wo todometaru kokochi shite namu
kaherase-tamahikeru ohomi koshi ni tatematsurite nochi ni Kaguyahime

      Kaherusa no
    miyuki mono uku
    somukite tomaru
    Kaguyahime yuwe!

on kabeshi-goto--

      Mugura hafu
    shita ni mo toshi ha
      henuru mi no
    nanika ha tama no
    utena wo no mimu!

Kore wo Mikado goranjite itodo kaheri-tamahamu sora mo naku obosaru mi
kokoro ha sara ni tachi-kaherubeku mo obosarezarikeredo saritote yo wo
akashi-tamafubeki ni mo araneba kaherase-tamahinu.

Tsune ni tsukaumatsuru hito wo mi-tamafu ni Kaguyahime no kataharani
yorubeku dani arazarikeri. Koto hito yori ha keura nari to oboshikeru
no kare ni oboshi-ahasureba[185] hito ni mo arazu Kaguyahime nomi ohon
kokoro ni kakarite tada hitori sugushitamafu yoshi nakute on katagata
ni mo watari-tamahazu.

Kaguyahime no on moto ni zo ohon fumi wo kakite kayohasase-tamafu on
kaheshi-goto sasuga ni nikukarazu kikohe-kahashi-tamahite omoshiroki ki
kusa ni tsukete mo on uta wo yomite tsukahasu.



Kayau nite ohon kokoro wo tagahi ni nagusametamafu hodo ni mi-tose
bakari arite haru no hazhime yori Kaguyahime tsuki no omoshirou
idetaru[186] wo mite tsune yori mo mono-omohitaru sama nari. Aru[187]
hito no tsuki no kaho miru ha imu koto sei[188] shikeredomo tomo[189]
sureba hito ma[190] ni ha tsuki wo mite imizhiku naki-tamafu.

Futsuki no mochi no tsuki ni ide-wite sechi[191] ni mono-omoheru
keshiki ari.

Chikaku tsukaharuru hito-bito Taketori no Okina ni tsugete ihaku--

‘Kaguyahime rei[192] mo tsuki wo aharegari tamahikeredomo[193] kono
goro to narite ha tada koto ni mo haberazameri imizhiku oboshi-nageku
koto arubeshi yoku yoku mi-tatematsurase[194]-tamahe’ to ifu wo kikite
Kaguyahime ni ifu yau ‘Nadefu[195] kokochi sureba kaku mono wo omohi
taru sama nite tsuki wo mi-tamafu zo umashiki yo ni’ to ifu.

Kaguyahime ‘tsuki wo[196] mireba yo no naka kokorobosoku ahare ni
haberi nadefu mono wo ka nageki haberubeki’ to ifu.

Kaguyahime no aru tokoro ni itarite mireba naho mono-omoheru keshiki
nari. Kore wo mite--

‘Aga hotoke! nanigoto wo omohi-tamafu zo obosuramu koto nanigoto zo’ to

‘Omofu koto mo nashi mono namu kokorobosoku oboyuru’ to iheba,

Okina ‘Tsuki na mi-tamahi so kore wo mi-tamaheba mono-obosu keshiki ha
aru zo’ to iheba,

‘Ikade tsuki wo mizute ha aramu’ tote, naho tsuki idzureba
ide-wi-tsutsu nageki-omoheri. Yufu-yami ni ha mono-omohanu keshiki
nari. Tsuki no hodo ni narinareba naho toki-doki ha uchi-nageki-naki
nado su. Kore wo tsukafu mono-domo naho mono-obosu koto arubeshi to
sasayakedo oya wo hazhimete nani-goto to mo shirazu.

Hatsuki no mochi bakari no tsuki ni ide-wite, Kaguyahime ito itaku
naki-tamafu hito me mo ima ha tsutsumi-tamahazu naki-tamafu. Kore wo
mite oya-domo mo nanigoto zo to tohi-sawagu.

Kaguyahime naku-naku ifu ‘saki-zaki mo mausamu omohishikadomo
kanarazu kokoro madohashi tamahamu mono zo to omohite ima made
sugushi-haberi-tsuru nari. Sa nomi ya ha tote uchi-ide-haberinuru zo
ono ga mi ha kono kuni no hito ni mo arazu tsuki no miyako no hito
nari. Sore wo mukashi no chigiri arikeru ni yorite namu kono sekai ni
ha maudekitarikeru ima ha kaherubeki ni nari nikereba kono tsuki no
mochi ni kano moto no kuni yori mukahe ni hitobito maude komu zu sarazu
makarinubekereba oboshi nagekamu ga kanashiki koto wo kono haru yori
omohi-nageki-haberu nari’ to ihite, imizhiu naku.

Okina ‘koha nadefu koto wo notamafu zo. Take no naka yori
mi-tsuke-kikohetarishikado[197] na tane no ohokisa ohaseshi wo waga
tachi-dake narabu made yashinahi-tatematsuritaru waga ko wo nani-bito
ka mukahe-kikohemu masa ni yurusamu ya’ to ihite, ‘ware koso shiname’
tote, naki-nonoshiru koto tahegatage nari.

Kaguyahime no ihaku ‘Tsuki no miyako no hito nite chichi haha ari
kata toki no ma tote kano kuni yori maude-koshikadomo kaku kono kuni
ni ha amata no toshi wo henuru ni namu arikeru. Kano kuni no chichi
haha no koto mo obohezu koko ni ha kaku hisashiku asobi-kikohete
narahi-tatematsureri imizhikaramu kokochi mo sezu kanashiku nomi
namu aru. Saredo ono ga kokoro narazu makarinamu to suru’ to ihite,
morotomo ni imizhiu naku. Tsukaharuru hito-bito mo toshi-goro
narahite tachi-wakarenamu koto wo[198] kokorobahe nado ateyaka ni
utsukushikaritsuru koto wo mi-narahite kohishikamu koto no tahegataku
yumizu mo nomasezu onazhi kokoro ni nagekashigarikeri.

Kono koto wo Mikado kikoshimeshite Taketori ga ihe ni ohon tsukahi
tsukahasase-tamafu. Mi tsukahi ni Taketori ide-ahite naku koto kagiri
nashi. Kono koto wo nageku ni hige mo shiroku koshi mo kagamari me mo
tadare nikeri. Okina kotoshi ha isozhi bakari narikeredomo mono-omohi
ni ha kata-toki ni namu oi ni nari nikeri to miyu.

Mi tsukahi ohose-goto tote Okina ni ihaku ‘Ito kokoro-gurushiku
mono-omofu naru ha makoto ni ka’ to ohose-tamafu.

Taketori naku-naku mausu--

‘Kono mochi-hi namu tsuki no miyako yori Kaguyahime no mukahe ni
maude-ku naru. Tafutoku tohasetamafu[199] kono mochi ni ha hito-bito
tamaharite tsuki no miyako no hito maude-koba torahesasemu’ to mausu.

Mi tsukahi kaheri-mawirite Okina no arisama maushite soushitsuru.
Koto-domo mausu wo kikoshimeshite notamafu ‘Hito me[200] mi-tamahishi
mi kokoro ni dani wasuretamahanu ni ake kure mi-naretaru Kaguyahime wo
yarite ha ikaga omofubeki!’

Kano mochi no hi tsukasa-dzukasa ni ohosete chiyokushi ni ha[201] tou
no chiu [seu] shiyou Takano no Ohokuni to ifu hito wo sashite roku we
no tsukasa ahasete ni sen nin no hito wo Taketori ga ihe ni tsukahasu.

Ihe ni makarite tsuihiji[202] no uhe ni sen nin ya no uhe ni sen nin
ihe no hitobito ito ohokarikeru ni awasete akeru hima mo naku mamorasu.
Kono mamoru hitobito mo yumi-ya wo tai shite wori moya no uchi ni
ha wouna domo wo ban ni suwete mamorasu. Wouna nuri-gome no uchi ni
Kaguyahime wo idakahete wori Okina mo nuri-gome no to wo sashite
to-guchi ni wori.

Okina no ihaku--

‘Kabakari mamoru tokoro ni ame no hito ni mo makemu ya!’

to ihite, ya no uhe ni woru hitobito ni ihaku--

‘Tsuyu mo mono sora ni kudaraba futo i-koroshite tamahe’

Mamoru hitobito no ihaku--

‘Kabakari shite mamoru tokoro ni kahahori hitotsu dani araba madzu
i-koroshite to[203] ni sarasamu to omohihaberu’--to ifu.

Okina kore wo kikite tanomoshigari wori. Kore wo kikite Kaguyahime ha
‘Sashi-komete mamori tatakafubeki shitakumi wo shitari to mo ano kuni
no hito wo ye-tatakahanu nari. Yumi-ya shite irasezhi kaku sashi-komete
aritomo kano kuni no hito koba mina akinan to su ai-tatakahamu to su to
mo kano kuni no hito kinaba takeki kokoro tsukafu hito yo mo arazhi’.

Okina no ifu yau--

‘On mukahe ni komu hito wo ba nagaki tsume shite manako wo tsukami
tsutsusamu saga[204] kami wo torite kanaguri otosan saga shiri wo
kaki-idete kokora no ohoyake hito ni misete haji misen’ to haradachi

Kaguyahime ihaku--

‘Kowadaka ni na notamahi so ya no uhe ni woru hitodomo no kiku ni
ito masa-nashi. Imazukaritsuru kokorozashidomo[205] wo omohi mo
shirade makarinamuzuru koto no kuchioshiu habekeru nagaki chigiri no
nakarikereba hodonaku makarinubeki nameri to omofu ga kanashiku haberu
nari. Oya-tachi no kaheri-miwo isasaka dani tsukaumatsurade makaramu
michi mo yasuku mo arumazhiki ni tsuki-goro[206] mo ide-wite kotoshi
bakari no itoma wo maushitsuredo sara ni yurusarenu ni yorite namu
kaku omohi-nageki-haberu on kokoro wo nomi madohashite sarinamu koto
no kanashiku tahegataku haberu nari. Kano miyako no hito ha ito keura
nite oi mo sezu namu omofu koto mo naku haberu nari. Saru tokoro he
makaramuzuru mo[207] imizhiku mo haberazu oi-otorohe-tamaheru sama wo
mi-tatematsurazaramu koso kohishikarami’ to ihite naku.

Okina mune itaki ‘koto na shi-tamahi so, uruhashiki sugata shitaru
tsukahi ni mo saharazhi’ to netami wori.

Kakaru hodo ni yohi uchisugite ne no toki bakari ni ihe no atari hiru
no akasa ni mo sugite hikaritari mochidzuki no akasa wo towo ahasetaru
bakari nite aru hito no ke no ana sahe miyuru hodonari.

Ohosora yori hito kumo ni norite ori-kite tsuchi yori go shaku bakari
agaritaru hodo ni tachi-tsuranetari.

Kore wo mite uchi-to[208] naru hito no kokoro-domo mono ni osoharuru
yau nite ahi-tatahamu kokoro mo nakarikeri karauzhite omohi-okoshite
yumi-ya toritatemu to suredomo te ni chikara mo nakunarite
nahekagamaritaru naka ni kokoro-sakashiki mono nemuzhite imu to
suredomo hoka-zama he ikikereba are mo tatakahade kokochi tada shire ni
shirete mamori-aheri.

Tateru hito-domo ha sauzoku no kiyora naru koto mono ni mo nizu tobu
kuruma hitotsu gushitari rakai sashitari sono naka ni wau to oboshiki
hito ihe ni ‘Miyatsuko Maro maude-ko’ to ifu ni takeku omohitsuru
Miyatsuko Maro mo mono ni wehitaru kokochi shite utsubushi fuseri.


‘Nanzhi wosanaki hito isasaka-naru kudoku wo Okina tsukurikeru ni
yorite namuzhi go tasuke ni tote kata-toki no hodo nite kudashishi wo
sokora no toshigoro sokora no kogane tamahite mi wo kahetaru ga gotoku
nari nitari. Kaguyahime ha tsumi wo tsukuritamaherikereba kaku iyashiki
onore ga moto ni shibashi ohoshitsuru nari tsumino kagiri hatenureba
kaku mukafuru wo Okina ha naki-nageku atahanu koto nari haya kaheshi
tatematsure!’ to ifu.

Okina kotahete mausu--

‘Kaguyahime wo yashinahi-tatematsuru koto hata tose amari ni narinu
kata-toki to notamafu ni ayashiku nari-haberinu. Mata koto tokoro ni
Kaguyahime to mausu hito zo ohashimasuramu to ifu koko ni ohasuru
Kaguyahime ha omohi yamahi wo shi-tamaheba ye-ide-ohashi-masumazhi’

to mauseba, sono kaheri-goto ha nakute ya no uhe ni tobu kuruma wo

‘Iza Kaguyahime kitanaki tokoro ni ikade hisashiku ohasemu’ to ifu.

Tatekometaru tokoro no to sunahachi tada aki ni akinu kaushidomo mo
hito ha nakushite akinu wouna idakite witaru Kaguyahime to ni idenu
ye-todomu-mazhikereba tada sashi-afugite naki-wori.

Taketori kokoro madohite naki-fuseru tokoro ni yorite Kaguyahime
‘koko ni mo kokoro ni mo arade kaku makaru ni noboramu wo dani

to ihedomo,

‘Nani shi ni kanashiki ni mi-okuri-tatematsuramu ware wo ba ika ni seyo
tote sutete ha nobori-tamafu zo gushite wite ohasene’

to nakite fusereba, ‘on kokoro madohinu’[209] fumi wo kaki-okite
‘makaramu kohishikaramu wori-wori tori-idete mi-tamahe’ tote,
uchi-nakite kaku koto ha--

‘Kono kuni ni umarenuru to naraba nagekase-tatematsuranu hodo made
haberubeki wo haberade[210] sugi wakarenuru koto kahesugahesu ho-i-naku
koto oboye-habere nugi-oku kinu katami to mi-tamahe tsuki no idetaramu
yo ha mi-okose-tamahe mi-sute-tatematsurite makaru sora yori ochinubeki
kokochi su--’ to kaki-oku.

Amabito no naka ni motasetaru hako ari. Ama no ha-goromo ireri. Mata
aru ha fushi no kusuri ireri. Hitoro no amabito ifu--

‘Tsubo naru mi kusuri tatematsure kitanaki tokoro no mono
kikoshimeshitareba on kokochi ashikaramu mono zo’--tote,
mote-yoritareba isasaka nametamahite sukoshi katami tote nugi-oku kinu
ni tsutsumamu to sureba aru amabito ‘tsutsumasezu’ on zo wo tori-idete
kisen to su. Sono toki ni Kaguyahime ‘shibashi mate’ to ihite[211]
‘kinu kitsuru[212] hito ha kokoro koto[213] ni naru nari’ to ifu[214]
‘mono no hito-goto koto ihi-okubeki koto ari’ to ihite, fumi kaku.

Amabito ‘ososhi to kokoro-moto nagari-tamafu’ Kaguyahime ‘mono shiranu
koto na shi-tamahi so’ tote, imizhiku shidzuka ni ohoyake ni on fumi
tatematsuritamafu awatenu sama nari.

‘Kaku amata no hito wo tamahite, todome-sase-tamahedo yurusanu.
Mukahe maude kite tori-wite makarinureba kuchiwoshiku kanashiki
koto miyadzukahe tsukaumatsurazu narinuru mo kaku wadzurahashiki
mi nite habereba kokoroyezu oboshimeshi tsuramedomo kokoro tsuyoku
uketamaharazu nari nishi koto namege-naru mono ni oboshimeshi
todomerarenuru namu kokoro ni tomari-haberinuru’ tote,

      Ima ha tote
    Ama no hagoromo
      kiru wori zo,
    kimi wo ahare to

tote, tsubo no kusuri sohete tou no chiushiyau wo yobi-yosete

Chiushiyau ni amabito torite tsutafu. Chiushiyau toritsureba futo ama
no hagoromo uchi-kise-tatematsuritsureba Okina wo itohoshi kanashi to
oboshi-tsuru koto mo usenu kono kinu kitsuru hito ha mono-omohi mo
nakunari nikereba kuruma ni norite hiyaku nin bakari amabito gushite

Sono nochi Okina wouna chi no namida wo nagashite madohedo kahi nashi.
Ano kaki-okishi fumi wo yomite kikasekeredo nani sen ni ka inochi mo
oshikaramu taga tame ni ka nanigoto mo yau mo nashi tote kusuri mo
kuhazu yagate oki mo agarazu yami fuseri.

Chiushiyau hitobito wo hiki-gushite kaheri-mawirite Kaguyahime wo
ye-tatakahi-tomezu narinuru koto wo komagoma to sousu.

Kusuri no tsubo ni mi fumi sohete mawirasu. Hirogete goranzhite ito
itaku aharegarase-tamahite mono mo kikoshimesezu mi asobi nado mo

Daizhin kandachibe wo meshite ‘idzure no yama ka ame ni chikaki’ to
tohase-tamafu ni aru hito sousu--

‘Suruga no kuni ni aru yama namu kono Miyako mo chikaku ame no chikaku

to sousu.

Kore wo kikase-tamahite--

      Afu koto mo
    namida ni ukabu
      wagami ni ha
    shinanu kusuri mo
    nani ni ka ha semu!

Kano tatematsuru shinanu no kusuri no tsubo ni mi fumi gushita mi
tsukahi ni tamahasu. Chiyokushi ni ha Tsuki no Iwagasa to ifu hito wo
meshite ‘Suruga no kuni ni anaru yama no itadaki ni mote yukubeki’
yoshi ohose-tamafu.

Mine nite subeki yau woshihesasetamafu ‘mi fumi fushi no kusuri no
tsubo narabete hi wo tsukete moyasubeki’ yoshi ohosetamafu.

Sono yoshi uke-tamaharite tsuhamonodomo amata gushite yama he
noborikeru yori namu. Sono yama wo ba Fuzhi no yama to ha nadzukeru.

Sono keburi imada kumo no naka de tachi-noburu to zo ihi-tsutahetaru.


[10] The footnotes chiefly indicate textual variations.

[11] _iheru_.

[12] _no koto_ often omitted.

[13] From _yorodzu_ sometimes omitted.

[14] Add _no_.

[15] _he_.

[16] Or _toru ni_.

[17] Add _no uchi ni_.

[18] _saushite_, _soushite_, _sousoku shite_, &c.

[19] _kichiyau_.

[20] _kesau_.

[21] _sakaye ni nari_.

[22] _uke_.

[23] _hodohete_.

[24] _monoto_.

[25] _kototo_.

[26] _ohoroka_, _orosoka_.

[27] = _yakunaki_ or _yeki-_--useless, vain.

[28] _hitodomo_, _hitotachi_.

[29] _tsukahasuredomo_.

[30] _idashite_.

[31] _notamahedo_?

[32] _shitagahezu_.

[33] _okuru_.

[34] _ohasamu_.

[35] _imasogaru_, _imasokaru_, _imasekashi_.

[36] _tamahe_.

[37] There are various readings of this complicated sentence, which
has, doubtless, been much manipulated.

[38] There are various readings of _shitakumi_, none of which appears
to be worth noting.

[39] _sumitsuke taru_.

[40] _mochite kite_.

[41] This may also read as = beyond Tsukushi (the utmost western limit
of Japan).

[42] _na ishi_, _o ishi_.

[43] Read also _mi ishi no ha chi_ (blood) _no_.

[44] _mireba_.

[45] A sort of _makura kotoba_.

[46] _dani mo_.

[47] would that it held.

[48] Little Grange Hill, but by word-play, dim or dark hill.

[49] Omitted in some texts; _wo_ adversative = _wo mite_.

[50] The subject is Ishidzukuri.

[51] word-play--_haji_, shame.

[52] As (Ishidzukuri) could get nothing to her ear he grew sick of the

[53] _owashinu_.

[54] _hitotsu no takara_.

[55] _Uchitakumi_, also _Kachitakumi_.

[56] _kamado_.

[57] _kura_.

[58] _idzu_.

[59] _hisoka_.

[60] _kurushigaritaru_.

[61] The less honorific _ohashitari_.

[62] _mochite_.

[63] _mote_.

[64] _ni arazu_, omitted in some texts.

[65] _mi_.

[66] _tada_.

[67] _yukashi … maushitsuru_, omitted in many texts.

[68] _haberu … naho_, omitted in some texts.

[69] _saitsutoshi_.

[70] Omitted in some texts.

[71] Omitted in some texts.

[72] Or _umi_.

[73] Or _makarishi_.

[74] In some texts omitted.

[75] In some texts omitted and so throughout the sentence.

[76] In some texts _su_ and so throughout the sentence.

[77] Or _shirade_.

[78] Or _mukutsukege_.

[79] Or _tasuketamafubeki_.

[80] Or _kata_.

[81] Or _sura_--a better reading.

[82] Or _nihaka_.

[83] _yori_.

[84] Or _omohite_.

[85] _ifu_.

[86] Or _sobadzura_.

[87] Or _kore_.

[88] Some texts omit this.

[89] Or _omoshiroku_.

[90] Or _yohoka amari_, perhaps a better reading.

[91] Or _tachi_.

[92] A _makura kotoba_ of _yo_.

[93] Or _mizhi_.

[94] Or _domo_ omitted.

[95] Or _tari_ omitted.

[96] Or _fubasami_ (_hasami_).

[97] Or _tsukumodokoro-kumo-mu-tsukasa no takumi_ or

[98] _ko koku wo tachite_.

[99] _tamahite_.

[100] _waroki_, or omitted.

[101] In some texts, _kihe wi-tamaheri_, the intervening words being

[102] Omitted in some texts.

[103] Or _tamaharamu_.

[104] _no_ inserted in some texts.

[105] Or _warahi_.

[106] Sometimes omitted.

[107] Or _unadzukite_.

[108] The whole of this sentence is omitted in some texts.

[109] Omitted in some texts.

[110] Or _totonohe sase_.

[111] _Mimuraji_.

[112] Or _te_.

[113] Or _Kara_.

[114] Or _kane_.

[115] Omitted in some texts.

[116] _mukashi_, &c., omitted in some texts.

[117] Or _tabi_.

[118] Or _sukoshi nite_.

[119] Or _amere_.

[120] In some texts these words are omitted.

[121] Or _ureshikute_.

[122] Or _kajori_.

[123] Or _to mo are kaku mo are_.

[124] Or _daijin_, or _oho-omi_.

[125] Omitted in some texts.

[126] Or _omobahe_.

[127] Or _ware_.

[128] Or _hitodomo_.

[129] _notamahasetari_.

[130] Or _yukamu_.

[131] Or _tamaharasetaru_.

[132] Or _mahari_.

[133] Omitted in some texts.

[134] _te_ omitted in some texts.

[135] Or _beshi_.

[136] roll over and tumble in.

[137] unexpected.

[138] _sozoro susuro_.

[139] Or _arunari_.

[140] Or _otonaku_, _omonaku_.

[141] Sometimes omitted.

[142] Words of praise.

[143] Or _ifu_.

[144] Or _taguhi_.

[145] Or _sokobaku_.

[146] Or _katahara itaku_.

[147] Or _Morotari_.

[148] Or _tsukafuru_.

[149] Or _yau_.

[150] Or _tsubakurame to mausu mono ha_--probably a more correct

[151] Or _tsutsu_.

[152] being wild will not come near.

[153] Sometimes omitted.

[154] Or _ma_.

[155] Or _kuri_.

[156] Or _tamahinaba_, omitting _namu_.

[157] Or _tohase-tamafu_.

[158] _sagete_.

[159] Or _ohashimashite_.

[160] Or _on_, or _omu_.

[161] right time.

[162] Or _kano_.

[163] Here = a place.

[164] Or _nobosete_.

[165] Some texts omit _tsubakurame … sasete_.

[166] Or _saharikeru_.

[167] Or _toki ni_.

[168] _mi kuchi ni_ omitted in some texts.

[169] Some texts add _dani_.

[170] Or _irare_.

[171] Some texts omit _yori … keri_.

[172] 請.

[173] Or _geru_.

[174] Or omit _meshi_, _mashi_.

[175] Or _go henji_.

[176] That is, _ohosetama hamu yau ni maushi haberamu_.

[177] Or _tamahasezaramu_.

[178] Sometimes omitted.

[179] Sometimes omitted.

[180] Sometimes omitted.

[181] Some texts omit _te mo_.

[182] Or _chikaku nari_.

[183] Some texts omit _chikaku … ni_.

[184] Or _on tomo_.

[185] This seems a corrupt passage.

[186] Or _idzuru_.

[187] i.e. _chikaku aru_.

[188] 制.

[189] _to mo kaku mo_.

[190] 人間, where men are not, i.e. solitary place, or simply 一間.

[191] 切.

[192] Or _tsune_.

[193] Or _tamahedomo_.

[194] Or _tatematsure_.

[195] _najô_ = _naze_.

[196] Or _Kaguyahime_, included in the speech, and _tsuki wo_ omitted.

[197] Or _toki ni_.

[198] Or add _to_.

[199] _koto kana!_ seems to have dropped out.

[200] 目.

[201] Or _ni ha_ omitted.

[202] Or _tsuiji_.

[203] 外.

[204] _sore ga_.

[205] Some texts omit _domo_.

[206] Or _hi-goro_.

[207] In some texts _zuru_ (_zo aru_?) _mo_ omitted.

[208] 内外.

[209] Words of Kaguya.

[210] This seems the best of several obscure readings.

[211] Or _ifu_.

[212] Or _kisetsuru_.

[213] 異.

[214] Or _chiyufu_.



Yamato uta ha hito no kokoro wo tane to shite yorodzu no koto no ha to
so narerikeru.

Yo no naka ni aru hito kotowaza shigeki mono nareba kokoro ni omofu
koto miru mono kiku mono ni tsukite ihi-idaseru nari. Hana ni naku
uguhisu midzu ni sumu kahadzu no kowe wo kikeba iki to shi ikeru mono
idzure ka uta wo yomimazarikeru.

Chikara wo mo irezu shite ame tsuchi wo ugokashi me ni miyenu oni
kami wo mo ahare to omohase wotoko ouna no naka wo mo yaharage takeki
mononofu no kokoro wo mo nagusamu kono uta ame tsuchi no hirake
hazhimarikeru toki yori ide ki ni keri shika aredomo yo ni tsutaharu
koto ha hisakata no[216] ame ni shite ha Shitateruhime ni hazhimari
araganeno[217] tsuchi ni shite ha Susa no wo no mikoto yori zo

[Chihayaburu[218] kami yo ni ha uta no mozhi mo sadamarazu sunaho ni
shite koto no kokoro waki-katakarikerashi hito no yo to narite Susanowo
no mikoto yori zo miso mozhi amari hito mozhi ha yomikeru]

Kakute zo hana wo mede tori wo urayami[219] kasumi wo aharebi tsuyu wo
kanashibu kokoro kotoba ohoku samazama ni nari ni keru.

Tohoki tokoro mo ide-tatsu ashi moto yori hazhimarite toshi tsuki wo
watari takaki yama mo fumoto no chirihiji yori narite ama kumo tanabiku
made ohi-noboreru ga gotoku ni kono uta mo kaku no gotoku narubeshi.
Naniha tsu no uta ha mikado no on hazhime nari. Asaka yama no koto no
ha ha uneme no tahamure yori yomite kono futa uta ha uta no chichi haha
no yô (yau) nite zo te-narafu hito no hazhime ni mo shikeru.

Somosomo uta no sama mutsu nari. Kara no uta ni mo kaku zo arubeki.
Sono mu kusa no hitotsu ni ha sohe uta futatsu ni ha kazoye uta mitsu
ni ha nazurahe uta yotsu ni ha tatohe uta itsutsu ni ha tadagoto uta
mutsu ni ha ihahi uta nari.

Ima no yo no naka iro ni tsuki hito no kokoro hana ni nari ni keru
yori ada naru uta hakanaki koto nomi ide-kureba iro konomi no ihe
ni umore-gi no hito shirenu koto to narite mame naru tokoro ni ha
hana-susuki ho ni idasubeki koto ni mo arazu nari ni keri[220].

Sono hazhime wo omoheba kakarubeku namu aranu.

Inishihe no yoyo no mikado haru no hana no ashita aki no tsuki no
yo goto ni saburafu hitobito wo meshite koto ni tsuketsutsu uta
wo tatematsurashimetamafu. Aruha hana wo sofu [moteasobu] tote
tayori naki tokoro ni madohi aruha tsuki wo omofu tote shirube naki
kuraki ni tadoreru kokorogokoro wo mitamahite sakashi oroka nari to
shiroshimeshikemu[221]. Shika aru nominarazu sazare ishi ni tatohe
Tsukuba yama ni kakete kimi wo negahi yorokobi mi ni sugi tanoshimi
kokoro ni amari Fuji no kemuri ni yosohete hito wo tanoshibi matsu
mushi no oto ni tomo wo shinobi Takasago Suminoye no matsu mo ahiohi
no yau ni oboye Wotokoyama no mukashi wo omohi-ide wominameshi no
hito-doki wo kuneru ni mo uta wo ihite zo nagusamekeru.

Mata haru no ashita ni hana no chiru wo mi aki no yufugure ni ki no
ha no otsuru wo kiki aruha toshigoto ni kagami no kage ni miyuru yuki
to nami to wo nageki kusa no tsuyu midzu no aha wo mite waga mi wo
odoroki aruha ki [kinofu] no ha sakaye ogorite kefu ha toki wo ushinahi
yo ni wabi shitashikarishi utoshiku nari. Aruha matsuyama no nami wo
kake no naka no midzu wo kumi aki hagi no ochiba wo nagame akadzuki no
shige no hanekaki wo kazoye aruha kuretake no ukifushi wo hito ni ihi
Yoshinogaha wo hikite yo no naka wo urami kitsuru ni ima ha Fuji no
yama no kemuri mo tatazu nari Nagara no hashi mo tsukuru nari to kiku
hito ha uta ni nomi zo kokoro wo nagusamekeru.

Inishihe yori kaku tsutaharu uchi ni mo Nara no mi toki
yori zo hiromari ni keru. [Kano ohon yo ha uta no kokoro wo
shiroshimeshitarikemu.] Kano mi toki ni [Ohokimi tsu no kurai]
Kakinomoto no Hitomaro namu uta no hizhiri narikeru [kore ha kimi mo
hito mo mi wo ahasetari to ifu narubeshi. Aki no yufube Tatsutagaha ni
nagaruru momiji wo ba mikado no ohon me ni ha nishiki to mitamahi haru
no ashita Yoshino no yama no sakura ha Hitomaro ga kokoro ni ha yuki
ka to nomi namu oboyekeru].

Mata Yamanohe no Akahito to ifu hito ari uta ni ayashiku tahenarikeri.
Hitomaro ha Akahito ga uhe ni tatamu koto kataku Akahito ha Hitomaro ga
shita ni tatamu koto kataku namu arikeru. Kono hitobito wo okite mata
suguretaru hito mo kuretake[222] no yoyo ni kikoye kata-ito[223] no
yoriyori ni tayezu zo arikeru. Kore yori saki no uta wo atsumete namu
Manyefushiu to nadzukeraretarikeru. Kano mi toki yori toshi ha momo
tose ni amari yo ha to tsugi ni namu nari ni keru. Koko ni inishihi no
koto wo mo uta no kokoro wo mo shireru hito yomu hito ohokarazu wadzuka
ni hitori futari nariki. Shika aredo kore kare yetaru tokoro yenu
tokoro tagahi ni namu aru.

Ima kono koto wo ifu ni tsukasa kurai takaki hito wo ba tayasuki[224]
yau nareba irezu sono hoka ni chikaki yo ni sono na kikoyetaru hito
ha sunahachi Sôjô Henjô ha uta no sama ha yetaredomo makoto sukunashi
tatoheba ye ni kakeru onna wo mite itadzura ni kokoro wo ugokasu ga
gotoshi Arihara Narihira ha sono kokoro amarite kotoba tarazu ihaba
shibomeru hana no iro nakute niho-nokoreru ga gotoshi Bunya no Yasuhide
ha kotoba ha takumi nite sono sama mi ni ohazu ihaba aki-hito no yoki
kinu kitaramu ga gotoshi. Ujiyama no sou Kisen ha kotoba kasuka ni
shite hazhime wohari tashika narazu ihaba aki no tsuki wo miru ni
akadzuki no kumo ni aheru ga gotoshi.

[yomeru uta ohoku kikoyeneba kore kare wo kayohashite yoku shirazu.]

Wononokomachi ha [inishihe no Sotohori hime no nagare[225] nari]
ahare naru yau nite tsuyokarazu ihaba yoki ouna no nayameru tokoro aru
ni nitari [tsuyokaranu ha ouna no uta nareba narubeshi]. Ohotomo no
Kuronushi ha kokoro ha wokashikute sono sama iyashi ihaba takigi oheru
yamabito no hana no kage ni yasumeru ga gotoshi.

Kono hoka no hitobito sono na kikoyuru no-be ni ofuru katsura no
hahi-hirogori hayashi ni shigeki ki no ha no gotoku ohokaredo uta
to nomi omohite sono sama shiranu narubeshi. Kakaru ni ima suberagi
no amenoshita shiroshimesu koto yotsu no toki kokono kaheri ni namu
narinuru amaneki ohon utsukushimi no nami Yashima no hoka made nagare
hiroki no ohon megumi no kage Tsukubayama no fumoto yori mo shigeku
ohashimashite yorodzu no matsurigoto wo kikoshimesu itoma moromoro
no koto wo sutetamahanu amari ni inishihe no koto wo mo wasurezhi
furinishi koto wo mo okoshi tamafu tote ima mo mi sonahashi nochi no yo
ni mo tsutahare tote Yengi 5 nen 4 guwatsu 18 nichi ni Dainagon Kino
Tomonori mi kaki no tokoro no adzukari Ki no Tsurayuki Saki no Kahi no
Soukwan Ofushi Kafuchi no Mitsune Uyeimon no Fushô Mifu no Tadamine
ra ni ohoserarete Manyefushiu ni iranu furuki uta midzu kara no wo mo
tatematsurashimetamahite namu.

Sore ga naka ni ume wo kazasu yori hazhimete hototogisu wo kiki momiji
wo wori yuki wo miru ni itaru made mata tsuru kame ni tsukete kimi
wo omohi hito wo mo ihahi aki hagi natsu kusa wo mite tsuma wo kohi
Afusakayama ni itarite Tamuke wo inori aruha haru natsu aki fuyu ni mo
iranu kusagusa no uta wo namu yerabasetamahikeru. Subete chi uta hata
ken nadzukete Kokinwakashiu to ifu.

Kaku kono tabi atsume-yerabarete yama shita midzu mo tayezu hama no
masago kazu ohoku tsumorinureba ima ha Asukagaha no se ni naru urami mo
kikoyezu sazare ishi no iha hodo naru no yorokobi nomi zo arubeki.

Sore makura[226] kotoba ha haru no hana niho sukunaku shite munashiki
na nomi aki no yo no nagaki wo kakotereba katsu ha hito no mimi ni
osori katsu ha uta no kokoro ni haji omohedo tanabiku kumo no tachi-wi
naku shika no oki fushi ha Tsurayukira ga kono yo ni umarete kono koto
no toki ni aheru wo namu yorokobinuru.

Hitomaro nakunaritaredo uta no koto todomareru kana. Tatohi toki utsuri
koto sari tanoshibi kanashimi yukikafu to mo kono uta no mozhi ara wo
ya! Awonagi no ito tayezu matsu no ha no chiriushinahi sezushite masaki
no kadzura nagaku tsutahari tori no ato hisashiku todomareraba kono uta
no sama wo mo shiri koto no kokoro wo mo yetaramu hito ha ohosora no
tsuki wo miru ga gotoku ni inishihe wo afugite ima wo kohizarame ka mo.

_Zhiyo (jo) no ohari._


[215] The text is that of the modern edition of the ‘Kokin’ by Kaneko
Genshin. The bracketed portions are said to be interpolations. See
volume of Translations.

[216] _hisakata no_--a _makura kotoba_ of _ame_.

[217] _araganeno_--m. k. of _tsuchi_.

[218] _chihayaburu_--m. k. of _kami_.

[219] _urayamu_ (_ura-nayamu_) here = admire, wonder at.

[220] As to the whole of this sentence see the translation, which is as
close as possible to the primary meaning of the passage--a secondary
meaning of a moral character may also have been intended. _Iro_,
colour, may signify poetic decoration; _hana_, flower, evanescence or

[221] judge, determine--past quasi-future or dubitative.

[222] _kuretake no_, m. k. of _yo_.

[223] _kata-ito no_, m. k. of _yori_.

[224] _tayasuki_ = _karugarushiki_ = lightly, inconsiderately.

[225] _nagare_ = _ryu_, style, school.

[226] _makura_ seems to be a mistake for _warera_ (= we).



TAKASAGO _furuna_ AHIOHI[227].

    SHITE (_protagonist_), Okina (Spirit of the Pine of Sumiyoshi).

    TSURE (_companion protagonist_), Uba (Spirit of the Pine of

    ATO SHITE (_deuteragonist_), God of Sumiyoshi.

    WAKI (_tritagonist_), Aso no Kannushi.

    JI (_chorus_).

    TOKORO (_scene_), Harima.

(_tsugi shidai_)[228]--

    Ima wo hazhime no
    hi mo yuku suwe mo


Somosomo kore ha Kishiu Higo no kuni Aso no miya no kannushi Tomonari
to ha aga koto nari. Ware imada miyako wo mizu safurafu hodo ni kono
tabi omohitachi miyako ni nobori-safurafu mata yoki tsuide nareba
Banshiu Takasago no ura wo mo ikken sebaya to zonzhi-safurafu.


    suwe harubaru no
      miyakoji wo
    kefu omohitatsu--
      ura no nami
    funaji nodokeki
      haru kaze mo
    iku ka kinuran
      ato suwe mo
    iza shirakumo no
      harubaru to
    sashi mo omohishi
    Takasago no ura ni
      tsuki ni keri
      tsuki ni keri.

_Shite tsure_ (_hito kowe_)--

      Takasago no
    matsu no haru kaze
    Wonohe no kane mo
      hibiku nari.


    nami ha kasumi no


    oto koso shiho no
      michi hi nare.


      Tare wo ka mo
    shiruhito ni semu
      Takasago no
    matsu mo mukashi no
      tomo narade
    sugikoshi yoyo ha
      shirayuki no
    tsumori tsumorite[231]
      oi no tsuru no
    negura ni nokoru
      ariake no
    haru no shimo yo no
      oki-wi ni mo
    matsu kaze wo nomi
    kokoro wo tomo to
      sugamushiro no
    omohi wo noburu
      bakari nari.

(_futari utafu_)--

      otodzure ha
    matsu ni kototofu
      urakaze no
    ochiba-goromo no
      sode sohete
    kokage no chiri wo
      kakau yo
      kakau yo
    tokoro ha Takasago no
    Wonohe no matsu mo
      toshi furite
    oi no nami mo
      yorikuru ya
    ko no shita kage no
      ochiba kaku
    naru made inochi
    naho itsu made ka
      iki no matsu
    sore mo hisashiki
      meisho kana
      meisho kana!

_Waki_ (_kotoba_)--

Satobito wo ahimatsu tokoro ni rauzhin fuufu kitareri ika ni koko naru
rauzhin ni tadzunubeki koto no safurafu.

_Shite_ (_kotoba_)--

Konata no koto nite safurafu ka nanikoto nite safurafu zo.


Takasago no matsu to ha idzure no ki wo maushi safurafu zo.


Tadaima kokage wo kiyome safurafu koso Takasago no matsu nite safurahe.


Takasago Suminoye no matsu ni ahiohi no na ari tausho to Sumiyoshi to
ha kuni wo hedateru ni nani tote ahiohi no matsu to ha maushi safurafu


Ohose no gotoku Kokin no zhiyo ni Takasago Suminoye no matsu mo ahiohi
no yau ni oboye to ari. Sarinagara kono zheu ha Tsu no kuni Sumiyoshi
no mono kore naru uba koso tausho no hito nare shiru koto araba mausase


Fushigi ya mireba rauzhin no fuufu issho ni ari nagara tohoki Suminoye
Takasago no ura yama kuni wo hedatete sumu to ifu ha ika naru koto


Utate no ohose safurafu ya sansenbanri wo hedatsuredomo tagahi ni
kayofu kokorodzukahi no imose no michi ha tohokarazu.


Madzu anzhite mo goran-zeyo!

_Shite tsure_--

Takasago Suminoye no matsu ha hizhiyau no mono dani mo ahiohi no na ha
aru zo kashi mashite ya shiyau aru hito to shite toshi hisashiku mo
Sumiyoshi yori kayohinaretaru zheu to uba ha matsu morotomo ni kono
toshi made ahiohi no fuufu to naru mono wo!


Ihare wo kikeba omoshiroya. Sate sate saki ni kikoyetsuru ahiohi no
matsu no monogatari wo tokoro ni ihioku ihare ha naku ka?


Mukashi no hito no maushishi ha kore ha medetaki yo no tameshi nari.


Takasago to ifu ha zhiyaudai no Manyefushiu no inishihe no gi--


Sumiyoshi to mausu ha ima kono miyo ni sumi-tamafu Yengi no ohon koto--


matsu to ha tsukinu koto no ha no--


sakaye ha kokon ahionazhi to--

_Shite tsure_--

miyo wo agamuru tatohe nari.


Yoku yoku kikeba arigataya ima koso fushin haru no hi no.


hikari yaharagu nishi no umi no--


kashiko ha Suminoye--


koko ha Takasago--


matsu mo irosohi--


haru mo--


nodoka ni--


    shikai nami
      shidzuka nite
    kuni mo osamaru
      tokitsu kaze
    yeda wo narasanu
      mi yo nare ya
    ahi ni ohiohi no
      matsu koso
    ge ni ya afugite mo
    koto mo oroka ya
      kakaru yo ni
    sumeru tami tote
      yutaka naru
    kimi no megumi

_Waki_ (_kotoba_)--

Nahonaho Takasago no matsu no medetaki ihare kuhashiku on monogatari


Sore saumoku kokoronashi to ha mausedomo kuwazhitsu no toki wo tagahezu
yaushyau no toku wo sonahete nanshi hana hazhimete hiraku.

_Shite_ (_sashi_)--

Saredomo kono matsu ha sono keshiki tokoshinahe ni shite kuwayefu toki
wo wakazu.


Yotsu no toki itarite mo issen nen no iro yuki no uchi ni fukaku mata
ha shiyoukuwa no iro to kaheri to mo iheri.


Kakaru tayori wo matsu ga ye no--


koto no ha gusa no tsuyu no tama kokoro wo migaku tane to narite---


iki to shi ikeru mono goto ni--


Shikishima no kaze ni yoru to ka ya.


Shikaru ni Chiyaunou ga kotoba ni mo uzhiyau hizhiyau no sono kowe
mina uta ni mo moruru koto nashi. Saumoku dosha fuusei suwion made
bambutsu no komoru kokoro ari. Haru no hayashi no toufuu ni ugoki aki
no mushi no hokuro ni naku mo mina waka no sugata narazuya. Naka ni
mo kono matsu ha bammoku ni sugurete zhiyu hachi kou no yosohohi sen
shiu no midori wo nashite kokon no iro mo mizu Shikwau no on shaku
adzukaru hodo no ki nari tote ikoku ni mo honchiyau ni mo bammin kore
wo shiyaukwansu.


      Takasago no
    Wonohe no kane no
      oto su nari!


      Ake kakete
    shimo ha okedomo
      matsu ga ye no
    ha iro ha onazhi
    tachi-yoru kage no
      asa yufu ni
    kakedomo ochiba no
      tsukisenu ha
    makoto nari
      matsu no ha mo
    chiri usezu shite
      iro ha naho
    masaki no kadzura
      nagaki yo no
    tatohe narikeru
      tokiha-gi no
    naka ni mo na ha
      Takasago no
    matsudai no tameshi
        ni mo
    ahiohi no matsu zo

(_rongi_) _Ji_--

    Ge ni na wo yetaru matsu ga ye no
    oi-ki no mukashi arahashite
    sono na wo nanori tamahe ya!

_Shite tsure_--

Ima ha nani wo ka tsutsumubeki kore ha Takasago Suminoye no ahiohi no
matsu no sei,


Me oto genzhi kitarikeri.


Fushigi ya sate ha nadokoro no matsu no kidoku wo arahashite.

_Shite tsure_--

saumoku kokoro nakeredomo--


kashikoki yo tote--

_Shite tsure_--

kusa mo ki mo--


    Waga ohokimi no
      kuni nareba
    itsumade kimi ga
      yo ni Sumiyoshi ni
    madzu yukite are nite
      machi mausan to
    yufu nami no
      migiha naru
      ama no wobune
      ni uchi norite
      ohi kaze ni
      makase tsutsu
    oki no kata ni
    ide ni keri ya
      oki no kata ni
      ide ni keri.

_Waki_ (_utafu_)--

      Takasago ya
    kono ura fune ni
      ho wo agete
    tsuki morotomo ni
      ide shiho no
    nami no Ahaji no
      shima kage ya
    tohoku Naruwo
      oki sugite
    haya Suminoye ni
      tsuki ni keri
      tsuki ni keri.

(_ato_) _Shite_--

      Ware mite mo
    hisashiku narinu
      Sumiyoshi no
    kishi no himematsu
      iku yo henuran
      mutsumashi to
    kimi ha shirazu ya
      mizugaki no
    hisashiki yoyo no
      kami kagura
    yoru no tsudzumi no
    hiyaushi wo sorohete
    suzushime tamahe


      Nishi no umi
    Awoki ga hara no
      nami ma yori--


    arahare ideshi
      kami matsu no
      haru nare ya
    nokon no yuki no


      Tamamo karu
    naru kishi kage no--


      shiyaukon ni yorite
    koshi wo sureba--


      sennen no midori
    te ni michiteri--


      baikwa wo otte
    kaube ni saseba--


      zhi getsu no yuki
    koromo ni ochitsu.

(_rongi_) _Ji_--

Arigata no yekau ya tsuki Sumiyoshi no Kami asobi mi kage wo wogamu
arata sa yo.


Ge ni samazama no mahi-hime no kowe mo sumu nari Suminoye no matsukage
mo utsuru naru seigaiha to ha kore naran.


Kami to kimi to no michi sugu ni Miyako no haru ni yukubeku ha.


Sore zo genzhiyauraku no mahi--


sate banzei no--




sasu kahi ni ha akuma wo harahi wosamuru te ni ha zhiyufuku wo idaki
senshiu raku ha tami wo nade manzai raku ni ha inochi wo nobu ahiohi no
matsu kaze satsusatsu no kowe zo tanoshimu.[234]

_Takasago no ohari._


[227] The text is that of the Yôkyoku Tsûge. The old name, _furuna_,
was Ahiohi (grow old together).

[228] A stage direction, it seems to mean, entry in order of actors and
songmen (_utahigata_).

[229] Prose recitation.

[230] Description of the Journey, by a member of the chorus? The syntax
of this passage and of similar passages that follow is irregular, there
is much ellipsis and some inversion. Most probably too the text--if
there ever was a settled text--is more or less corrupt. Though the
syntax and phrasing is of a rather fragmentary and disjointed character
the meaning is not usually hard to get at, if somewhat vague.

[231] This passage, like some others, must be understood metaphorically
as well as literally--here, in reference to the age of the tree and
that of the speaker. The _sashi_ of _shitesashi_ seems to indicate a
coming forward or interruption by the protagonist. _Rongi-ji_ is a sort
of dialogal chorus, and _kuse_, a statement of the precept or argument
of the _utahi_, made by one of the chorus.

[232] Chorus again.

[233] From this point the verse is irregular.

[234] Poetized prose.


A list of all the Makura kotoba contained in the Manyôshiu.

Brief explanations only are given, sufficient to suggest the meaning
which can never be strictly defined.

In the companion volume of Translations a short essay on the Makura
kotoba will be found, and in the notes to the Translations some of the
more difficult or interesting examples are discussed.

The figures denote some of the long lays in which the m. k. to
which they are attached are employed. The literal renderings are of
the characters, read _mana_, with which the m. k. are more often
written--but not so in all cases. Of many of the m. k. the meanings
are, and must remain conjectural.

Place-names are thus indicated (pl. n.).

=adzusayumi=, bow of white-wood (Catalpa, Prunus?); applied to _hiki_
(draw); compounds of _hiki_; _-- hiki-toyokuni_ = _hiki-toyomu-kuni_
(resounding land); _-- Yora no yama he_, _Yora_ hill, _yora_ resembling
_yoru_ (night-time when twang of bow more distinct); _-- suwe ha
yorinemu_ (at the end will rest--end = bow-end); _-- suwe_ (end);
_-- haru_ (stretch or bend, as bow); _-- oto_ sound (as twang of bow),
3, 29, 31, 104.

=agakokoro=, my heart or feelings; used with following place-names,
Kiyosumi no ike, Akashi no ura, Tsukushi no yama. The application is
obvious, 199.

=Ahajishima=, Awaji island; applied by sound-quibble to _ahare_, alas!

=Ahashimano=, millet-island; applied to _awazhi mono_, one who is not
met--_zh_ is _sh_ voiced.

=ajimurano=, like flock of teal (Anas formosa); _-- sawaku_, make noise
like flock of teal, 54.

=ajinosumu=, where teal resort; _-- Susa no irije_ (creek); _ajisahafu_,
where teal are abundant, 26; with _mure_ (crowd) or _me_ (contraction
of _mure_) confer _umasahafu_, 68.

=akahoshi=, red-star, Venus, bright-star; _-- akuru ashita_,

=akanesasu=, red-wort-dyed, madder-red or ruddy, comely; _-- hi_
(sun),--_hiru_ (noon); _-- tereru tsukuyo_ (bright moonlight
night); _-- murasaki_ (purple); _-- kimi_ (lord), 24, 154, 240.

=akarabiku= (_aka wo hiku_), ruddy, rosy; with _hi_ (sun); _shikitahe
no ko_ (pretty young girl); _kimi_ (lord); _hada_ (naked skin), 59--in
this and preceding m. k. _ra_ and _ne_ may have same value.

=akihagino=, like autumnal bush-clover (Lespedeza), 119, 201;
_shinahite aramu_, bending like --.

=akikashiha=, like autumn oak; or ‘vendible oak’ (_aki_); applied to
_uru_, sell, of Uruha River.

=akikazeno=, like autumn wind; _-- Yamabuki no se_, course of the
Yamabuki river; applies to _buki_ (_fuki_, blow) of _yamabuki_ (Kerria
Japonica); _-- chiye no ura_--(_chi_ taken as = _shi_, breath, _kaze_
being _kami shi_, God’s breath).

=akikusano=, like autumn grass; _-- musubishi himo_, knotted girdle, but
_musubi_ also means produce, as a plant produces fruit.

=akinohano=, like autumn leafery; _-- nihohi ni tereru_ (--abundantly
shine), 250.

=akitsushima=, Island of Ripe Ears _or_ Dragonfly-shaped
Island;--Yamato, 2, 141.

=akiyamano=, like autumnal hills; _-- shitaberu imo_ (little
sister delicate as fading sprays on an autumn hill-side); _-- iro
natsukashiku_, play on _iro_, colour (of autumn), and _iro_, term of
endearment, added to _natsukashiku_, lovely.

=amadzutafu=, sky-climb; _-- hi_ (sun); _-- irihi_ (setting sun);
_Higasano ura_, 17.

=amagomori=, rain-hidden; applied to Mikasa Hill (Cloud- or Mist-capped

=amakazofu=, meaning not clear, perhaps sky-fathoming; used with _oho_,
great, vast, or _ohoyoso_, universal?

=amakumono=, like sky-cloud; used with _tayutafu_ (drift); _yukura
yukura_, _yuki no manimani_, _yukikaheri_, all involving idea of motion
to and fro, driftingly, &c. Also to _okuka mo shirazu_, unknowing term
or end; _tadoki mo shirazu_, helpless; _yoso_, any- or somewhere else;
_wakareshi yuku_, depart and go, 22, 25, 37, 45, 48, 57, 58, 62.

=Amanohara=, the sky-plain; _-- Fujiye_, _Fuji-san_, as piercing the

=amateruya=, heaven-shine-Oh! applied to _hi_ (sun).

=amatobuya=, sky fly-Oh!; used with _karu_ (mallard?), 27.

=amatsumidzu=, sky-water, i.e. rain; used with _afugite matsu_, looking
up to the sky as when hoping for rain, 22, 234.

=amazakaru=, heaven-distant; applied to _hina_, frontier-land, 9, 55,

=amenimasu=, seated in heaven; used with _tsukuyomi wotoko_, God of the

=amoritsuku=, descend-from-heaven-upon; used with _Ame-_ or _Kami-no
Kaguyama_ (Mt. Kagu), 33.

=arahikinu=, cleansed vestment; used with name, Torikahi River;
_torikahi_ = change (clean for soiled garment).

=arakakino=, rough fence; used with _yoso_, elsewhere, without.

=ararenasu=, hail-like; used with _sochi yori kureba_, as if the hail
came from _sochi_, there--a curiously far-fetched application.

=arareutsu=, hail-beaten; used with Arare, place-name.

=arataheno=, coarse or unprepared stuff; used with Fuji (Wistaria,
fibres of which made a coarse cloth) as part of place-names, Fujiwi,
Fujiye, &c., 13, 14, 21.

=aratamano=, afresh, anew, future?; applied to _toshi_ (years), _tsuki_
(months), _ki-he_, pass on, pass, elapse, 48, 49.

=Arichigata=, place-name; used as sound-quibble with _ari_.

=arikinuno=, fresh or fine garment; used by sound quibble with
_arite arite nochi ni mo ahazarame ya mo_; here _arite_ = _ari-ari_
= real existence; with Mihe (place-name, lit. threefold), according
to Motowori the ‘three’ refer to outer, inner, and middle garment;
with _sawi-sawi_ (_shidzumi_), rustling (of dress against dress),
tranquillity; _sawe sawe_, similar sense; with _takara_, treasure, K.

=Arimasuge=, Arima sedge; sound-quibble with _ari_.

=arisomatsu=, shore pine; used with the homophon _matsu_ (wait), as in
_arisomatsu a wo matsu kora_, Oh, the pine by the shore! there the maid
pines for me!

=arisonami=, shore-waves; by sound-quibble used with _arite_ for

=asagirino=, like morning mist; _-- ohi ni ahimishi_, indistinctly seen
as in morning mist. So with _omohi-madohite_, _midaruru kokoro_, heart
disordered and distracted with love, 224.

=asahinasu=, like morning sun; _-- maguhashi mo_, as morning sun so
bright and lovely.

=asahisashi=, direction towards morning sun; _-- magirahashi mo na_
(confused, dazzled as by rays of morning sun); _-- so-gai ni miyuru_,
seen where back turned on rays of morning sun, 222, see Gloss. _sogahi_.

=asahisasu=, morning-sun-impinge; _-- kasuga_ (spring day brilliant as

=asajihara=, reed plain--with _tsubara, tsubara_ (minutely) because of
identity in sound (_hara-bara_); with _wonu_, little moor, because of
signification; and with _chifu_, place where _chi_ reeds grow, because
of identity of _ji_ and _chi_ (voiced).

=asakahono=, like the morning-glory; _-- ho ni ha sakidenu_, burst out
in bloom like the m. g.

=asakami no=, morning-hair; _-- omohi-midarete_, thoughts as tangled as
morning-hair (after sleep), 60.

=asakasumi=, mist of dawn; _-- yahe yama_, many-fold (as of mists)
hills; _-- kabi_ (fire to decoy deer or chase mosquitoes as seen on
misty mornings); _-- honoka_, dimly as in mist (or _kabi_ (_kahi_) may
= _kirahi_, be misty).

=asamoyoshi=, like hempen vestment, smock; _-- ki_ (homophon of _ki_,
put on, don), 24, 57, 183, 213.

=asashimono=, like morning hoar frost; _-- kenaba kenu gani_; _--
ke yasuki inochi_; _kenubeku no miya_, as passing, evanescent, as

=asatorino=, morning birds; _-- kayohasu kimi_, my lord passing early
as morning birds fly; _-- ne nomi nakitsutu_, while filling the air
with cries like morning birds.

=asatsuyuno=, like morning dew; used as _asashimono_.

=ashibinasu=, like _ashibi_, flowerage; _-- sakayeshi kimi_ (my lord
brilliant as bloom of Ashibi, Andromeda sp.).

=ashigachiru=, reed-scatter; applied to Naniha as a reedy place.

=ashiharano=, reed-plain, used with Yamato or Midzuho no kuni, 133,
147, 227.

=ashihikino=, a difficult word, one meaning assigned is _ashi-hiki_,
foot-dragging (wearisome), another is _ashi-hiki-ki_, an enclosure
(defence work), reached with toil (steep, &c.), another _ikashi-hi-ki_,
flourishing _hi_ (Chamaecyparis) trees--the Kogi seems to accept the
last. Applied to _yama_ (hill), _wonohe_ (top of a hill), _yatsuwo_
(_yama tsu wo_, hill-top), _ko no ma_ (clump of trees), _ihane_ (rocky
peak), _arashi_ (mountain wind), _wotemokonomo_ (this and that hill
slope), 49, 50.

=Ashihoyama=, name of a hill in Hitachi; applied by sound-quibble to
_ashigaru_, reed-_karu_ (sort of mallard?).

=ashikabino=, plumy-reed-top-like; _-- a nayamu_ or _ana yamu_,
bending, or feeble, like reed-top.

=ashikakino=, reed-hedge or fence; _-- furinishi sato_, (ancient home);
_-- omohi-midare_ (thoughts tangled as reeds in hedge); _-- hoka_
(outside), the fence being limit between interior and exterior of the
compound, 123, 155, 240.

=ashinoneno=, like root of reed; applied by sound-quibble to
_nemokoro_, earnest, _ne_, as homophon, meaning root.

=ashinoure= = _ashikabi no_.

=ashitadzuno=, like reed-birds; _-- ne nomi shi nakayu_ (screaming like
reed-birds); _-- ana tadzutadzushi_, oh how uncertain (is this road--as
in the dark), here as sound-quibble.

=atekawoshi= (_ajikawoshi_ = _ajikayoshi_, the meaning of _ajika_
unknown); by sound-quibble applied to Chika no saki (place-name).

=awayukino=, like foam and snow; used with _kihe_ (_ke_), pass away,
vanish, or with words connoting evanescence.

=awohatano=, like a green banner; perhaps a corruption of _aya hata_,
pattern-stuff banner; used with Kadzuraki (place-name); _-- kadzura_,
chaplet,--and with Osaka (little pass), name of a hill, _osaka_ being
compared with _osoki_ (_osohi-ki_), outer vestment (_uhagi_), 55, 190.

=awokumono=, like dark cloud or clouds, regarded as made up of piled
_white_ clouds; hence used with _shiro_ white, also with _ideko_, come
forth (as a cloud does); _-- ideko_, 186; _wagimo_, come forth as the
piled clouds; come forth, my love!

=awomidzura=, a much disputed word; _midzura_ may be _kami tsura_,
parted hair, and _awo midzura_, a chaplet of green spray (Kadzura, &c).
It is used with the place-name Yosami no hara (probably Plain of cold
nights), _yosami_ being taken as _yose-ami_, woven together (as the
chaplet would be).

=awoniyoshi= (a much disputed word), used only with Nara--_yoshi_ is
exclamative, _yo shi_. The characters employed mean ‘green earth’--(or
‘fine earth’?).--Nara is connected with _narasu_, to make level, so
_awoniyoshi Nara no miyako_ might mean the Capital (or Palace), erected
on well-levelled fine ground, _-- narasu_ or _fumi-narasu_, trample
level; see also K. lviii, 7, 9, 15, 24, 137. Nara also means ‘oak-tree’
and the m. k. might refer to its greenery.

=awoyagino=, like green willow sprays; used with place-name Kadzuraki
(Kadzura = Chaplet); also with Hararo (name of river), by sound-quibble
with _haru_, stretch up (as the young willow shoot does rapidly); also
with _mayone_, as in _-- kuhashi mayone_, eyebrows (of girl), beautiful
as the bending willow spray. It is also used with _ito_, thread, with
allusion to the slender drooping branches.

=chichinomino=, like the fruit of the maidenhair tree; used by
sound-quibble with _chichi_ (father), 262.

=chidorinaku=, where dotterels cry; used as descriptive m. k. _of_
rivers, as Saho and Yoshinu.

=chihayaburu=, thousand-rock-smashing, or thousand-swift-brandishing;
with _Kami_ (god); Uji (name of ferry--the application is obscure,
possibly through _uji_, clan or family); Kane (name of headland), as a
place where the waves beat roughly on the rocks, 24, 59, 204, 225, 263;
_chi_ may also = _te_, handle, hilt.

=chihayahito=, much the same application as _chihayaburu_, q.v.

=chirihijino=, like dust and dirt; m. k. of _kadzu ni mo aranu_, of no
account, i.e. mankind.

=fujikoromo=, vestment made of cloth of Wistaria fibre; m. k. of _ma_,
_tohoku_ (here used as = coarse-meshed, coarse-woven); of _naru_ =
_nareru_, be accustomed to (wear).

=fujinamino=, a wave or festoon of Wistaria blossom; m. k. of _omohi
matsuhari_, love-enveloped as by a mass of Wistaria flowers.

=fukamiruno=, like deep-sea weed (Codium sp.?); m. k. by sound-quibble
with _fuka_ (deep); with _mi_, _miru_ (see), in compounds chiefly, 17,
172, 173.

=funehatsuru=, where a ship ends voyage at; m. k. of Tsushima in Korean

=furukoromo=, old soiled garment; after cleansing it was beaten (_mata
uchi_); hence used as m. k. of Matsuchi (hill-name); also of _utsu_ in
_utsuteshi_ (_uchi-suteshi_), 89.

=furuyukino=, like falling snow; m. k. of _ke_ (pass away, vanish); of
_shirokami_ (white hairs); by sound-quibble of _yuki_ (go); of _ke_,
_kihe_ (elapse); _shiki_ (spread); _ichishiroku_ (conspicuous).

=fuseyataki=, burning down a hut; m. k. of _susushi_, sooty, 125.

=fusumachiwo=, draw a coverlet or rug over one?; hence m. k. of _hiku_
(draw); in Hikite (hill-name), _chi_, perhaps = _te_.

=fuyukomori=, winter-prisoned; m. k. of _haru_, spring, 6, 24, 43.

=hafukuzuno=, like creeping _kuzu_ (Pueraria); applied to what is
interminable, indefinitely long, 46.

=hafutsutano=, like creeping ivy; hard to strip off, so applied to
_wakaru_, separate, part (one from another), 123, 166.

=hahasobano=, lit. like _hahaso_, oak (or leaf thereof). _Hahaso_ is
Quercus dentata. But by sound-quibble it is used as m. k. of _haha_,
mother (or _haha-soba_, mother’s side).

=hahomameno=, like _hahomame_ (?); used with _karamuru kimi_, my lord
whom I embrace (_hahomame_ must be a leguminous? creeper of some sort,
as its name indicates).

=hamahisaki=, lit. shore Catalpa, but not identified. There is a
_hamahisakaki_ (Eurya chinensis). Used, by sound-quibble, with
_hisashiku_, for a long time.

=hamasudori=, shore-birds, wild duck, goose, &c., which waddle about
as though lame; hence used with _ana yumu_ = _ana yamu_ = foot-waddle
(_ashi nayamu_?).

=hanachirafu= (_hanachiru_), scattering and falling of blossoms; used
with _aki_ (autumn); with _kono_ (_ko_ taken as = _ki_, tree), _muka
tsu wo_, these ridges opposite (where the tree blossoms are falling?);
reference to a peak in Ômi called Wonanowo.

=hanaguhashi=, florescence-fine; m. k. of _ashi_ in _ashigaki_,

=hanakatsumi=, like victorious flower, a kind of iris (_Kamayama
ayame_?); used with _katsute mo shiranu_, never known before, beyond
anything known.

=hanezuirono=, like _hanezu_ colour (red); m. k. of _utsurofu_, change,

=haruhanano=, spring blossoms; m. k. of _tafutoki_ (splendid),
_utsurohi_ (fade, change), _iya medzurashi_ (more and more beautiful),
_nihohe_ (flourish), _sakari_ (blossom).

=haruhiwo=, a spring day (or sun); used with _kasuga_, a spring day
(_kasumi ka_, misty day), 41, 92.

=harukasumi=, spring mist; m. k. of _kasuga_ (spring day); used with
_wi_ (well), as homophon of _wi_, rest, hover (as mists do); with _obo
ni shi ’mohaba_, if I think indistinctly.

=harukazeno=, like winds in spring; with _oto_ (murmur of the winds).

=harukusano=, like spring plants; m. k. of _medzurashi_ (beautiful);
_shigeki_ (abundant).

=harukusawo=, spring grass; used with _uma kahi_, horse-feed.

=harutorino=, like birds in spring; used with _samayohi_ (wander hither
and thither); _kowe no samayohi_ (cry heard in all directions); _-- ne
naki_ (cry and scream), 24.

=haruyamano=, like hills of spring; in which the leaves of the trees in
spring being young droop; m. k. of _shinahi_ (bend, droop); of _obo_,
indistinct, alluding to thick foliage and mists of spring.

=haruyanagi=, spring-willow; applied to _kadzura_, which is compared
with the long drooping thready willow-spray showing its florescence in

=hashimukafu=, vis-a-vis, like chopsticks; so brothers may be said to
stand; or mutually affectionate (_hashi_), as brothers ought to be; m.
k. of _oto_, younger brother, 123.

=hashitateno=, like a ladder, m. k. of _kura_ (storehouse), in
composition or simply as sound-quibble; of _kumaki_ for _kumiki_,
timber put together for house-building (some say _kumaki_ is
bear-palisade (to keep out bears)); of _sakashiki_ (steep).

=hatsuhanano=, like opening first blossom; used with _haru_ (spring);
_chiru_ (wither and fall).

=hatasusuki=, a tall plumy swaying reed, Miscanthus sinensis; applied
to things conspicuous, as blossoming, blooming, flourishing, or to a
top or upper bloom (_ura_, _ure_), or to words containing above by
composition, quibble-wise, or otherwise.

=hayakahano=, like swift stream; used with _yukuhe mo shirazu_
(unknowing future course), 157.

=hikarukami= (written dazzling god), lightning; used by word-quibble
with _Narihata wotome_, the girl Narihata (_nari_ = thunder,--_nari
hatataku_, roll of thunder).

=hikuamino=, like drawing-net; also error for _nihotori_; used with
_nadzusahi komu_ (will come swimming or floating).

=himokagami=, m. k. of Notoka (hill-name). The explanation given is
that _himo_ is the cord by which the _kagami_ (mirror) was hung up, and
_notoka_, a corruption of _na toki_, do not unfasten (because my lover
is coming), _kimi kimaseru ni himo akezu namu_.

=himonowono=, the cord or girdle that ties a vestment; as a m. k. of
_kokoro_, the allusion is to the tying of knots in such fastenings by
lovers to mark fidelity; of _itsugari-ahite_, as meaning leading in the
bonds of love.

=hinakumori=, either _hi no kumori_ (clouded sun) or _hita kugumoru_,
quite overclouded; the light then becomes _usui_ (thin or dim)--to
_usui_ the m. k. is applied.

=hinomotono=, sun-source; m. k. of Yamato. [Is this m. k. a translation
of _Nihon_ or the reverse?]

=hisakatano=. A difficult word, variously written. It may mean
a long time or long ago, sunshine-source (Br.), gourd-shaped
(inversely-concave, _hisaokata_). A m. k. of _ame_ (heaven); _ame_
(rain), _tsuki_ (moon); Miyako (City-Royal--the heavenly place, as
residence of Mikado). See 22, 24, 25, 32, 34, 42, 45, 51, 62, 68.

=hotarunasu=, like firefly; m. k. of _honoka_, dim (fireflies being
visible enough, but in their quick motion indistinct), 196.

=hototogisu=, cuckoo-bird; m. k. of Tobata (name of a bay), _tobu
hata_ (fly-flag); of _hotohoto_ (noise of knocking--at door by or of
mistress), as sound-quibble.

=ihabashino=, stepping-stones-like; used with _chikaki_ (near--as
stepping-stones are close together); also _tohoki naku_, not distant,
or rocks connected by slight bridges.

=ihabashiru=, swirl among rocks; used with Tarumi, place-name
(descending water); _tagi_ (cascade or rapids); Afumi (_aha-umi_,
foam-water), or Lake Ômi (Biwa); Kamunabi (_kami-nari-buri_), thunder =
noise of falling water, 9, 13, 134.

=ihafuchino=, like pool (of river), rock-enclosed; used with _komori_,
seclude, enclose.

=ihahonasu=, rock- or cliff-like; used with _tokiha_, everlasting,
comp. everlasting hills.

=ihahosuge=, rock-growing sedge; used with _ne_ (root), of _nemokoro_
(earnestly), a word-play.

=ihakuyeno=, rock-crumbling; through similarity of sound with _kuyu_
(_koyu_), cross.

=ihatsutano=, rock-rope (= _ihatsuta_, rock-creeping ivy); ivy grows
quickly where stripped off, hence used with phrases like _mata wochi
kaheri_ (_waka-kaheri_), become young again.

=ihawitsura= (_suberi-hiyu_), Portulaca oleracea, L.; used with _hikaba
nurunuru_ or _nuretsutsu_, implying sense of gently, smoothly, or

=ihetsutori=, house bird: used with _kake_ (lit. crow), cock.

=ihohenami=, 500, i.e. countless waves; applied to _tachi-wi_, rise and
fall, or rise and rest as the waves are eternally doing.

=imehitono=, archer-men; with _Fushimi_ (pl. n.), _fushi_ = crouch to
watch for game.

=imetachite=, where archers stand; used with Tomi no Woka (place-name);
_tomi_ = trail-trackers.

=imogahimo=, my love’s girdle or cord; with _yufu_, tie up; _toku_,
untie; _musubu_, fasten.

=imogaihe= (=ni=), to my love’s home; used with _iku_ (_yuku_), to go,
of Ikuri no mori (Shrine of Ikuri).

=imogakado=, my love’s doorway or home; with _iri_, enter, _idzu_, go
forth from, or their combinations.

=imogakami=, my love’s hair; with _age_, lift up (to knot), in
Agesasabanu, Moor of Agesasaba.

=imogakeru=, by my love worn; to _mikasa_ (fine hat), of Mikasa Hill
(pl. n.).

=imogamewo=, my love’s eye; with _mi-somu_, fall in love; Tomi no saki
(Cape Tomi, _mi_ = see); Mimakuhoriye (pl. n.), _mimakuhori_, desire to
see and love.

=imogarito=, or _imoragari_ (_imo ga ari_), towards where my love
is; with _ima_ (now, or place where), as in Imaki (Peak); with Ikoma
(Hill)--Ikoma = _yuku_ (_iku_) _koma_.

=imogasode=, my love’s sleeve; with _maki_, roll up, of Makimuku Hill.

=imogatewo=, my love’s hand; with _tori_ (take), _toru_ or _toro_;
Toroshi no ike, Pool of Toroshi.

=inamushiro=, rice-straw matting; used as _kaha_ (skin employed also as
mat); with _kake_ and _shiku_, apply, spread, by quibble with _kaha_,
stream, 102.

=inanomeno=, the word means daybreak (not-sleep-eye); applied to
_ake_, open, break as dawn; another explanation is, _ina no me_
(_ina_--rice-plant--_no mure_) _no_, _ake_ is then confounded with _aku
akaramu_, grow ruddy, ripe, and an involved word-play results.

=inuzhimono=, dog-like; _-- michi ni fushite_, lying down (dying), like a
dog by the roadside.

=irihinasu=, like the setting sun; with _kakuru_, hide, withdraw, 28,

=isanatori=, whale-catching; used with _umi_ (sea) _hama_ (shore);
_nada_--open sea--Hijiki no nada; Afumi no umi (Lake Ômi or Biwa) by
extension, 16, 19, 30, 40, 78, 193.

=Isayagaha=, a river-name; used with reference to the interjection

=isokahino=, like shore-shells; used with _kata_ (unpaired as in _kata
kohi_, solitary love, because one of the pair parted from the other);
probably the shell meant was a bivalve, one valve = _kata_. The simile
is found in English poetry.

=isomatsu= (Statice arbuscula, Max.); used with _tsune_ (always),
_matsu_ (pine) indicating length of time.

=Isonokami=, a tract in Yamato where a place existed named Furu, which
may mean, old, or to pour down (as rain); hence Isonokami is used as a
m. k. of _furu_, 45.

=iyukiahino=, where men climb and meet from either side; as a hill-pass.

=iyushishino=, arrow-shot or wounded deer; with _kokoro wo itami_,
grieve my heart; _-- yuki mo shinamu_, like stricken hart go on to die.

=kadzunokino= (_kaji noki_, Broussonetia papyrifera); applied with
sound-quibble to _wa wo kadzusane_ = _ware wo kadohashi wite yukane_
(_kadohashi-gataku_); _kadohashi_ = _kadowakashi_, abduct, kidnap.

=kadzuragake= = _hikage_ (Lycopodium clavatum)--club-moss (used in
ritual?), hence a praise-word applied to _kimi_ (lord), _kuhashi_

=kahadzunaku=, frog-croak; used with waters, _idzumi_ (source), _kaha_

=kahayagino= (_kahayanagi_), river-willow; used with _ne_ (homophonous
with _ne_, root) of _nemokoro_ (_nengoro_), earnestly.

=kagaminasu=, mirror-like; applied to _miru_ (see) and _mi_ in
compounds and place-names; to _imo_ (my love), to _tsuma_ (spouse)--in
both cases = precious, a mirror being regarded as a treasure; to the
phrase _kaku shi tsune mimu_, thus ever indeed to see, with allusion to
the mirror constantly kept (_kaku_) by the bed-place, 26, 55.

=kagirohino= (_kagerohi_?), a difficult word. Often written as
if meaning _seirei_ or _tombo_ (dragon-fly), it is probably a
lengthened form of _kageru_, shine, glitter. Used with _yufu_
(evening--the glow at and after sunset?); _iha_, rock which sparkles
when struck; _honoka_, dim, by reference probably to _ho_, flame;
_haru_, spring--when the air is fresh, clear and glittering; _kokoro
moyetsutsu_, glow of heart; _hi_, flame, sun; _tada hito me_ (just a
glance, here the m. k. may have reference to what is seen dimly?), 12,
28, 92, 123.

=kajinootono=, sound or splash of oar: used with _tsubaratsubara ni_,
clearly, distinctly.

=kakihonasu=; see 120, 125--fence-like, not in Kogi list.

=kakikazofu=, count over as 1, 2, 3, &c.; used with _futa_, two, in
Futakami yama, Twain-gods (or Twain Peak) Hill, 223.

=kakikoyuru=, cross over or through the house-fence; used with _inu_,
dog, a somewhat meaningless m. k.

=kakitsubata=, camellia; used with _nidzurafu_, be ruddy, _saku_, bloom.

=kakozhimono=, deer’s-young-like; used with _hitori_, one, unique, 119.

=kamozhimono=, wild-duck-like; applied to _uki_, float.

=kamukaze=, god-wind; used with Ise where the chief gods have their
seat, 172.

=karakaji=, this may be Chinese or Korean _kaji_, oar, scull or
steer-oar, used with _oto takashi mo na_, loud is the sound (i.e. as
that made by the splash of the scull or creak of oar).

=karakoromo=, Kara (China or Korea), garment, robe; used with _ki_
(put on) in Kinara, _tatsu_ (cut out clothes) in Tatsuta, _suso_ (hem)
combined with _ahazu_--not meeting (as parts of vestment). The use may
be by way of quibble.

=kariganeno= (_kari_?), white-fronted wild-goose, also cry of same. Its
application to _kitsugi_ (84) is not quite clear, perhaps it refers
to the regularity of going to see the cherry blossoms with one’s
comrades being like the regularity with which the wild-geese return in

=karikomono=, like cut rushes; used with _midaru_, confused,
disordered; with _shinu_ as in _kokoro mo shinu_, the heart yields,
becomes weak, &c.

=kashinomino=, like acorn which is single always, never double or
triple as chestnut; applied to _hitori_, one, unique, 106.

=kasumitatsu=, mist-rising; applied to Kasuga (pl. n.), which however
is written _haru no hi_, spring day, 4, 9, 33.

=katamohino=, like lidless bowl; love deep as the bowl or jar.

=kazenotono=, wind-sound; as heard from afar; applied to my love far
from me.

=kekoromono=, fur or feather vestment; used with _haru_ (spring). Such
vestments were worn when hunting, &c., used as m. k. of _asu_, morrow,
morning, _kefukefu to_, to-day to-day.

=kimigaiheni=, in my lord’s house; _-- aga sumi-saka no_, where _sumi_
written ‘black’, but homophonously to be understood as ‘dwell’, is
introduced by a kind of prefatial quibble--wherein I dwell, as in my
lord’s house.

=kimigakeru=, what my lord wears; used with Mikasa yama (hill-name),
like _kimi ga sasu_ in the _Kokinshiu_; _mikasa_ means my lord’s
hat--so written, in the hill-name it has, probably, a different meaning.

=kimomukafu=, opposite liver or bowels; used with _kokoro_, heart, as
chief of the inner organs. Perhaps simply in front of the inner organs,
17, 120.

=komatsurugi=, Koma or straight sword; Koma was one of the four Korean
kingdoms. The sword had a ring, _wa_, at the end of the hilt, hence the
application of the m. k. to _wa_, in Wazami no hara, Wazami Moor; to
_wa ga kokoro_ (my heart) as sound-quibble, 24.

=komomakura=, _komo_ is a kind of rush (also sea-grass, Zostera), a
pillow made of such. Used with _ahimakishi_ (rolled up); with _taka_
confused with _taku_ = _maki-tsukanu_.

=komorikuno=, enclosed (by hills)--applied to Hatsuse (pl. n.), 12, 15,
45, 179.

=komorinuno= (_numa_), a pond or marsh enclosed and hidden (by reeds);
used with _shita_, under, lower; with _mizu_, not-see, 125.

=komotatami=, _komo_, (rush) matting; applied to Heguri (pl. n.), _he_
taken as = fold or thickness. _Heguri no aso_ in the Manyôshiu seems to
mean a fish, _tachi-uwo_ (Trichiurus lepturus?).

=konokureno=, tree-dark, as when foliage becomes abundant in fourth
month, _u no tsuki_, hence used with _u_ (_tsuki_), also with
_shigeki_, crowded abundant; _-- shigeki omohi_, crowded thoughts, 245.

=koragatewo=, a girl’s hand, or arm, or sleeve; applied to Makimuku
(hill-name), _maki_ read as = hold, enfold.

=koromote=, sleeve of a garment; used with Hitachi (province), _hita_
or _hida_ being the folds of a sleeve. Other applications exist, but
their value is uncertain. Such are Tanaga (hill-name), _ta_ = arm;
_nagi_, cast away, or mow (the arm being used)?

=koromotewo=, sleeve of a dress; used with Takaya (pl. n.), from
similarity of _taka_ with _taguru_, to haul, pull with arm; with
_wori-tamu_ (_wori-tamotohoru_, wander about), _wori-tamoto_ = roll
back sleeve; with _ashige no uma_, reed-grey horse, the peculiar
etymology of which is that _ashige_ may be read as a corruption of
_osoki_ = _uhagi_ = outer dress, which of course would have a sleeve!
110, 157.

=kotohiushino= (_kotohi_), a great bull; used with Miyake no ura (Bay
of M.); _miya_ = _mika_ = _mi_ (or _ma_) _ya_, thus _miyake_ = _mika
ke_, abundance of hair, as a bull is supposed to have (a Chinese idea;
comp. ‘one hair of nine bulls’ as an infinitesimal proportion), 116.
But, perhaps, the m. k. only = grand, and _kotohi_, a sacred bull.

=kotosaheku=, mumble, stammer (as a foreigner); applied to _Kara_,
_Kudara_, 17, 24.

=kumoriyono=, cloudy or dark night; with _tadoki mo shirazu_ (know not
what to do); _madoheru_ (distracted); _shitabahe_ (crouch and creep),

=kumowinasu=, like a cloud; used with _tohoku_ (distant); with
_isayohi_ (hesitating, like cloud uncertain which way it will
drift); _-- kokoro mo shinu ni_ (the heart yielding as a cloud drifts),
41, 222.

=kurenawino=, red, a deep red; used with _iro_ (colour); _-- utsushi
kokoro_, show feeling by change of colour? 64, 106, 216.

=kusakageno=, grass-shade; applied to Arawi Cape, but the use here is
not understood. Ara-wi is raw rush of some sort. Its use with _anu_
is equally unclear. (In I. an explanation is given connected with the
withering (_aru_) of vegetation under the shadow of tall grasses or

=kusamakura=, grass pillow, pillow of herbs, while on a journey often
the only available one; used with _tabi_, journey, also with _tago_ for
_hatago_, a basket to hold food for a journey, 1, 4, 12, 23, 40, 49.

=kushiromaku=, armlet-wind; used with Tafushi (hill-name)--_ta_ read
homophonously as arm.

=kuzunoneno=, root of Pueraria; with _naga_, long.

=makanamochi= (=te=), with a true _kana_ (shaping or scraping-tool); m.
k. of _yuge nokahara_, _yuge_ = _yumi kedzuru_, shape or scrape into
bow-shape, scrape bow.

=makanefuku=, true metal (iron) smelt; descriptive epithet of Nifu (pl.

=makibashira=, pillars of _maki_ (right-word, _hi no ki_, Chamaecyparis
obtusa?); applied to _futoki_ (stout), _futoki kokoro_, stout heart.

=makinotatsu=, see makitatsu.

=makisaku=, split _maki_ into planks for building; applied to _hi [no
tsumade]_ Chamaecyparis timber, 13.

=makitatsu=, where _maki_ trees grow; epithet of _arayama_, wild hills,

=makitsumu=, heaping _maki_ timber; as to float down Idzumi River,
hence m. k. of that river.

=makomokaru=, fine-komo (rush)-reap; epithet of Ohonu River.

=makuradzuku=, put pillows close together; epithet of _tsumaya_,
spousal pavilion, 28, 236.

=makusakaru=, where-fine-grass-cut; the fine-grass is _susuki_,
Miscanthus sinensis; epithet of Aranu (name of a moor--wild-moor).

=makuzuhafu=, where-fine-_kuzu_-creeps--_kusu_ is Pueraria
Thunbergiana, Benth., a leguminous trailing plant; descriptive epithet
of Kasuga Hill and Wonu Moor, 84.

=managotsuchi.= There is a place called Manago ura. The m. k. is
written ‘beloved-child’, and is used by sound-quibble in _Managotsuchi
manaho ni shite_, where _manaho_, &c. = right, truly, just. In
_managotsuchi manaku tokinashi aga kofuraku ha_, _manago_ may be =
_masago_, and the whole mean, my love is so unceasing, that not even
the interval of a grain of sand is to be found in its continuity.
Probably _managotsuchi_ = simply sandy soil.

=mashimidzuno=, pure cold water; applied to _kokoro mo keya ni_,
unsullied the heart.

=masokagami=, perfect-mirror, i.e. perfectly polished, used with words
of seeing, shining, polishing, hanging up, &c., 32, 59.

=masugeyoshi=, where-right-sedge-good; epithet of Soga no kahara (dry
part of a river-bed).

=masurawono= (_ma-arashi-wo_), [or _ma-so-_], right-fierce-man,
warrior; applied to Tayuhi ga ura (Bay of Tayuhi)--_ta_ is written,
hand or arm, the m. k. implies strength, 40, 52, 64, 216.

=matamadeno=, a sort of m. k., like fine arms; see 102.

=matamadzura=, fine-creeper, i.e. _sanekadzura_ (Kadzura japonica);
conf. _sanekadzura_, applied to what is not likely to end, as _tayemu
no kokoro aga ’mohanaku ni_ = will my heart cease to love--no!

=matamanasu=, like true-jewel; applied to _aga ’mofu imo_, my mistress
whom I love.

=matamiruno=, a sort of sea-weed (Codium?); chiefly used by
sound-quibble--as with _mata yukikaheri_ again go and come. _Mata_
means ‘forked’, also ‘again’, 172.

=matorisumu=, where the true-bird dwelleth, i.e. _washi_, the eagle;
used with Unade no mori (the grove of Unade)--_Unade_ is written
cloud-ladder which may give a clue to the meaning of the m. k. The Kogi
rather applies it to _mori_ (_mamori_).

=Matsuchiyama=, a hill-name; it seems to involve merely a sound-quibble
with _moto tsu hito_ (written, men of old) and _matsuramu imo_ (my love
who will await me, or whom I await).

=matsugaheri=, a difficult word of which several more or less futile
explanations are given. Here is one more. The m. k. is used with
_shihite_, compellingly, &c., may it not mean, as certainly as come
round the cycles of the everlasting pine-tree!

=matsuganeno=, pine-tree-root; used with words denoting length of time
or space; also endlessness, as with _tayuru koto naku_, ceasing is-not.
The use of the m. k. with _kimi ga kokoro_ is not explained--is it with
_kokoro_ as = _ki_(_ko_) _koru_, fell timber, 47, 257.

=matsukaheno=, like pine and yew (Torreya nucifera, S. et Z.), or,
oak, sp.; epithet applied to words of enduring and flourishing, as to
_sakaye_ (bloom).

=mayobikino=, like (my love’s) painted eyebrows (or the false ones
on forehead above the true ones shaved off?); applied to Yokoyama
(hill-name) by the poet who sees the mountain’s regular form in the

=mawogomono=, true-small-rush-like; applied to _fu nomi chikakute_ in
a _tanka_ where the sense seems to be ‘as close as the rushes in fence
wattled with them’.

=midzukakino=, written water-fence, but the meaning is shining,
i.e. fine fence; used with _hisashiki_, ‘for a long time’, because
in Midzukaki no Miya dwelt the Mikado Suzhin, and it was hoped the
_miya_ might long endure--that is the reign, the two being regarded as

=midzukukino=, like shining stem; applied to _woka_ (knoll), _woka_
being taken as a corruption of _waka_, young; and by sound-quibble to
Midzuki (pl. n.).

=midzutade=, water-pepper = _tade_, perhaps _midzu_ = here fine bright,
not water; m. k. of Hodzumi (pl. n.), written, ear (in grain) pluck,
fruit-pluck. Midzutade is Polygonum flaccidum, Roxb.--the growing fruit
was--perhaps is--eaten.

=midzutamaru=, water-collect; epithet of _ike_ (pool);--Ikeda (pl. n.),

=midzutorino=, water-fowl; m. k. of _kamo_ (wild duck), &c., also of
_ukine_ (sleep afloat like water-fowl); of _awoha_ (grey wings), part
of Awoha no yama; of _tatsu_ (rise, start in flight).

=midzutsutafu=, skirt the water; epithet of shore, beach, _iso_.

=mihakashiwo=, what the sovran girds on; as a _tsurugi_ (straight
Chinese sword), so used with Tsurugi no Ike (name of a pool).

=mikamononasu=, like water wildfowl; applied to _futari-narabi-wi_ (two
being together, as two lovers), like water-fowl (pairing), 50.

=mikemukafu=, offering sovran’s food; m. k. of _ki_ (_saké_), homophon
of _ki_ (tree, or more probably ‘fort’) in Kinohe (or _kinohe_ = a cup
of _saké_); so of _aha_, millet (Ahaji island), _aji_ (wild-fowl),
_mina_, shellfish (Minafuchi--more correctly = _midzu no fuchi_), or
_mi_ (flesh), 26, 83.

=mikokorowo=, the sovran’s heart; m. k. of Yoshinu, _mi kokoro wo
yoshi_ = delighteth the sovran’s heart (soul), 10.

=mikomokaru= (_mi_ = _ma_), right-sedge-cut; m. k. of Shinano province.
The Kogi imagines a connexion by reading Shinano, _shina nu[ma]_,
explaining _shina_ as _ura_, within, interior or back of--i.e. land
with (sedgy) lakes in its interior.

=mikushigeno=, like the fine comb-box; applied to Futakami Hill;
_futa_, lid, is homophon of Futa [kami], twain gods.

=mimorotsuku=, _mimoro_ may mean sacred dwelling or shrine (on Kase
Hill), or may be written erroneously for _umi wo_, spool of hemp-yarn;
_kase_ being a spindle. The m. k. is used with _Kaseyama_. _Tsuku_
would be _tsukuru_, construct, or _tsuku_, employ (the spindle); other
explanations exist. To Miwa it is applied, taking Miwa as _miwaku_, a
boiling spring, and therefore as sacred.

=minahanasu=, like foam of water; m. k. of _moroki inochi_ (brittle,
i.e. impermanent life of men).

=minanowata=, pulp of Mina shell (Melania sp.); because of its
blackness used as m. k. of _ka-guroki-kami_, jetty tresses, 64, 168.

=minasegaha=, _mi-na(ki)-se-kaha_, waterless stream; _kohi ni mo so
hito ha shinisuru minasegaha shita yu are yasu tsuki ni hi ni keni_, I
die of love, as a stream without water I pass on and perish month by
month, day by day (as the stream with too little water from its source

=minashigaha=; see above.

=mirunogoto=, like _miru_, seaweed; m. k. of _wawake_, rags, tatters.

=misagowiru=, where fine-sand is; m. k. of _iso_ (beach), _su_ (shoal
or sandy shore), _ariso_ (wild-beach).

=misorayuku=, fine-air-traverse; m. k. of _tsuki_ (moon); _kumo_

=mitorashino=, what the sovran taketh hold of; m. k. of _adzusa yami_,
white-wood bow, 3.

=mitsugurino=, like three chestnuts (in one shell); used with reference
to _naka_, middle--middle as centre chestnut.

=mitsumitsushi=, brilliant, glorious, m. k. applied to _kume no
wakugo_, young lord of _kume_, more properly to _kume_, warrior, host
of warriors, army (a word of Chinese origin?). The Ohotomo ancestor was
an Ohokume (ccxxvii).

=miwotsukushi=, mi-wo-tsu-kushi = _midzu oru no shirushi_, marks to
show a fairway. Used, by a quibble, with _tsukushi_, in such a phrase
as _kokoro wo tsukushi_, to the very bottom of my heart.

=miyakehiku=, float down timber for palace; m. k. of Idzumi, river.

=miyukifuru=, falling of snow; m. k. of Koshi (one of the north-west
provinces very cold in winter), and _fuyu_, winter.

=mochidzukino=, like full-moon; m. k. of _tatahashi_ (complete,
perfect, &c.); of _omowa_ (face, visage); of _medzurashi_ (lovely).

=mochitori=, limed bird; m. k. of _kakarahashi_, be concerned, involved
in, entangled (as lover is), 62, 183.

=modamoarazu=, not-silent; m. k. of Ihoshirowoda (pl. n.); _iho_ taken
as = _ifu_ (_f_ and _h_ were nearly like-sounded), say, speak.

=momichibano=, russet leaves of autumn; with _chiri_, _sugi_, _utsuri_,
fall, pass, fade, 174, 192.

=momodzutafu=, hundred-wise thread or coast, i.e. as applied to _yaso
no shima_, make one’s way among all the islands; to Minu (as _mi nu_,
fair moors, coasting along hundreds of fair moors); Minu of course is
merely a place-name, and the application of the m. k. is a quibble.

=momofuneno=, hundreds of ships, i.e. all ships; used with _hatsuru
shima_, island where ships anchor, Tsushima, 97.

=momoshikino=, written as a hundred stone-forts (i.e. countless --);
_shiki_ seems to have been an earthwork strengthened with stone,
_momoshiki no miya_, a palace built with stones enough for countless
_shiki_, 33, 74, 75.

=momoshinuno=, hundreds (crowds) of _shinu_ (small bamboo); used with
Minu (regarded as _mi nu_ = _ma nu_, true, fine moor), 185.

=momotarazu=, not a hundred--m. k. of _yaso_ (eighty); of _ikada_
(raft--_ika_, how many?); of _i_ fifty (_i tsuki no yeda_--branches of
fifty _tsuki_, trees), 13, 131, 204.

=momoyogusa=, a plant said to resemble an aster or pyrethrum; by
sound-quibble with _momo yo idemase_--a hundred nights went forth.

=mononofuno=, weapon-wight, armed retainer, guard; m. k. of _yaso_
(eighty, i.e. all the _uji_ or _tomo_, guilds, military families, &c.);
of _uji_ (family); of _Ihase no mori_ (Shrine of Ihase), because the
_mononofu_ crowded (_ihamu_) the camp, 13, 52, 59, 77, 92.

=murakimono=, the inner organs taken together; used with _kokoro_,
heart, as one of them, 4, 128.

=murasakino=, purple colour; used with Kokata (pl. n.), from
resemblance of _kokata_ to _koki_, deepen colour or dye deep shade of
colour; on account of the fragrance of the flower so-called, a species
of Lithospermum, used with _nihoeru_, as in--_nihoeru imo_, my love,
fragrant as _murasaki_ bloom.

=muratamano=, like a lot of pearls; m. k. of _kuru_, wind, thread or
turn round &c.? with _kuru ni kugi sashi_ = pivot of door, turning
round like stringed pearls. Some equate the m. k. with _nubatama_, q. v.

=muratorino=, flocking birds; with _mure_ (assemble); _asatachi_
(morning flight); _idetachi_, start and rise (of birds), 92, 117, 166.

=nabikimono=, what bends, yields; with _yorineshi_, sleep close by.

=naguhashi= (--ki), name or fame-fine; descriptive m. k. of Yoshinu,
Samine no shima, Inami, &c.

=nagurusano=, a bow-shot distance; m. k. of _tohoki_, &c.

=nahanorino=, like rope-seaweed; with _hiku_ (draw, haul), 173; also
with phrase _na ha katsute norazhi_ (name not yet told).

=nakukonasu=, like weeping child; m. k. of _shitafu_ (to love, as child
crying for its mother); _koto dani tohazu_ (infans); _ne nomi shi
nakayu_ (sound of weeping and wailing); _yuki-tori-saguri_ (cry for
things as children do), 49, 61, 173.

=nakutadzuno=, screaming crane; used with _ne nomi shi nakayu_ (see
_nakukonasu_), 55.

=nakutorino=, like screaming birds; with _ma naku toki nashi_
(continuously); here the m. k. is used as sound- and sense-quibble.

=namayomino= (_nama yo mi no_), fresh sweet flesh (of shell-fish;
applied by quibble to Kahi, name of province); _-- kahi_ = shell, 37.

=naminohono=, like crest of wave; m. k. of _itaburashi_ (_itodo furu_),
heave wildly.

=nanorisono=, like _nanori_ (_naminori_ = wave-ride), a seaweed,
Sargassum sp.?; a quibbling m. k. of _na_, name, _nanori_, tell name,
_noru_, tell, _na nori so_, do not tell.

=narashibano=, apparently oak-faggots; used, by sound-quibble with

=narukamino=, like thunder-god; m. k. of _oto_, sound, noise, 72.

=natsukusano=, like summer herbs; m. k. of Nu (pl. n.) = _no_, moor,
or _nayu_, grow, flourish--_nayu_ contracted into _nu_; of _nayete_
(_nayu_), in _omohishinayete_ (think inclinedly of, love), here rather
to _shinayete_, 16, 26.

=natsusobiku=, written summer-hemp-draw, is explained as _na tsuri sawo
hiku_, fish-angling-rod-haul; m. k. of _umi_, sea, as in Unakami (pl.
n.) = _umi no kami_, of _Unahi_ = _umi na hi_ (_umi no ahi_)? Another
explanation is more literal--the hemp gathered in summer from the _une_
or furrows, 148.

=nayotakeno=, like bending bamboo, m. k. of _towoyoru_; _towo_ = _tawa_
(of _tauamu_), flexuous, gracefully pliant, delicate, 29, 45.

=nihanitatsu=, plant within forecourt, here, i.e. garden; m. k. of
_asa_, in _asate kobusuma_ (hempen coverlet or rug or night-garment).

=nihatadzumi=, form pool; said of the flow of tears (_nagaruru namida_).

=nihatsutori=, forecourt-bird; the cock.

=nihimurono=, like new dwelling, it ought to be _nihimuro wo
fumi-shidzumi_, tread level the earth-floor or platform of a new
dwelling, and the whole phrase applied by pivot-word (_fumi-shidzumi_),
to Shidzu no ko, the girl Shidzu (Miss Gentle).

=nihotorino=, like grebe or water-fowl pairing together (like
turtle-doves emblematic of spousal love); this m. k. used generally
with words of affection, _futari narabi_ (passing life together),
_nadzusahi_ (floating together), &c., also with _kadzuki_ (dive), _ashi
nure_ (wet-foot), _oki naga_, for _iki naga_ (long-breath--as after
diving), 48, 61.

=nikogusano=, like _niko_ (?) flower; m. k. of _hanatsuma_ (woman
finely dressed? Cf. _hana yome_ = bride); also, by sound-quibble, of

=nochiseyama=, Nochise-hill, by sound-quibble used with _nochi_, after.

=notogahano=, Noto river, used as if, _noto_ = _nochi_, cf. Nochiseyama.

=nubatamano= (there exists a good deal of learning on this word). It
may be taken as = black berries of Pardanthus sinensis, and applicable
to things black or dark--night, dream, moon, &c., 23, 24, 59, 60, 153,
154, 240.

=nutsutorino=, moor-bird; i.e. _kingishi_ (_kizhi_), pheasant.

=nuyetorino= (nuyekotori), like _nuye_-bird, whose cry is like that of
lamentation--perhaps a sort of owl; a m. k. of _uranage_ (lamentation);
also of _katakohi_ (solitary love--as when lovers parted); of
_nodoyobi_ (throaty, hoarse-voiced).

=ochitagitsu=, the fall and roar of rapids, cascades, &c.; applications
obvious, 71.

=ohobuneno=, like great ship; applied to Katori no umi (pl. n.); to
_kaji-tori_, steersman; other applications are obvious, one is to
_tanomu_, rely on, trust to (as a sailor to his tall ship), 17, 22, 26,
27, 59, 70.

=ohokimino=, great lord; applications obvious, e.g. to Mikasa yama
(hill-name), 47.

=ohokuchino=, great-jaws; used with Makami no hara, see 153; allusion,
perhaps, to _ôkami_, wolf.

=Ohotomono=, used with Mitsu and Takashi (pl. n.); the reference is to
the history of the Ohotomo clan. Cf. the Manyô lays on this clan.

=ohotorino=, great-bird, a name given to several large birds, swan,
crane, fêng-bird, &c.; applications obvious.

=ohowigusa=, Scirpus lacustris, L. (Japanese variety); this seems to be
used with _yoso_ (elsewhere, anywhere), by sound-quibble as if _yoso_,
were _ohoyoso_ (oyoso), everywhere, generally.

=ohoyukino=, great snow-storm; used with _midare_, confusion.

=okinisumu=, mid-sea-dwelling; applications obvious.

=okitsumono= (_oki tsu mo no_), mid-sea sea-weed; used with Nabari no
yama (hill-name),--_nabaru_ = _kakaru_ and _nabiku_, yield, bend.

=okitsunami=, deep-sea waves; applications are obvious when they occur,
to wave-motion, wave-restlessness, wave-heaving, &c., 252.

=okitsutori=, mid-sea-birds; applications obvious.

=okuyamano=, inner mountains, that is away from coast, recesses of the
hills; applications obvious.

=oshiteru= (--_ya_), probably _oshitateru_, surging, toppling; applied
to Naniha (_nami-haya_, swift waves). Some prefer to read the m. k. as
sparkling, shining, 48, 77, 79, 259. 261.

=sabahenasu=, buzz like flies in _sa_ (5th) month; used with _sawaku_,
make a noise or commotion (as a crowd does), 52, 69.

=Sadanourano=, place-name; by sound-quibble applied to _konosada_
(_wori_) _sugite_, the time having passed.

=sadzuhitono=, like hunters or fishers (wild boar or whale, &c.)--used
with Yutsuki (hill-name), _yu_ = _yumi_, bow.

=sagoromono=, outer garment; used with _wo_, cord, with which it was
fastened (sound-quibble in Wotsukubanero)--_wo_ is here a prefix,
perhaps of praise, sort of diminutive.

=sahidzuruyo=; see kotosaheku.

=sakatorino=, birds (that fly) about the pass; used with _asa koye_,
morning or early crossing of a pass, 12.

=sakidakeno=, like split bamboo; used with phrase _sogahi ni neshi_,
sleep like halves of split bamboo, back to back.

=sakikusano= (Habenaria radiata, Thun.); a three-stemmed plant, name of
which is thus used, with reference to the middle stem, with _naka ni
nemu_, sleep between (as child between parents), 70.

=sakuhanano=, blooming blossom; used with _utsurofu_, change, fade.

=sakurabana=, cherry-blossom; used with _sakaye wotome_, blooming maid.

=sanakadzura= (_sanekadzura_), 160.

=sanekadzura= (see _sana k--_), Kadzura japonica, L.; a long-coiling
creeper, hence used with phrases and words involving reference to time,
_nochi_ (after), _ahamu_ (will meet), _tayuru_ (cease), 27, 161.

=sanekayano=, seems = _sanekadzura_; (also _kaya_ with strong
close roots); used with reference to _makoto nagoya_ = sane, true,
real--yielding, soft.

=sanidzurafu=, truly red-like, ruddy; used with _ohokimi_, _kimi_,
_imo_, _wotome_, _iro_ (colour, complexion), _momichi_ (red of autumn),
_himo_ (cord, girdle), 45, 55, 94.

=sashinamino=, be on level, in row with; used with _tonari_,
neighbouring (buildings, houses, &c.), 90.

=sashinoboru=, ascend up towards heaven; said of Hirume no mikoto.

=sashisusumu=, a difficult word, as written = stick out; read with
_kuru_ (_kuri_), chestnut with the spines on, by sound-quibble as m. k.
of _Kurusu_ (name of a moor).

=sasudakeno=, sprouting bamboo; bamboo shooting from the ground, a
rapid process denoting vigour, &c.--hence used with words meaning lord,
prince, &c. also with phrase _ha komorite_ (_ha_) = leaf-hidden, 92, 93.

=sasuyanagi=, planted willow; slip of planted willow quickly roots,
hence m. k. used with _ne haru_ said of _adzusa_ (white-wood,
bow-wood), root-spread.

=sawoshikano=, like hart or buck; used with Iri (name of a moor), _iri_
read as _iru_, be in, i.e. where deer are.

=sayuribana=, lily-flower; m. k. of _yuri_, lily.

=sazarenami=, ripples; with _iso_, shore; _shikite_ repeatedly; _yamu
toki mo nashi_, without ceasing; _tachete mo wite mo_, continually.

=shidzutamaki=, armlet of mean person; with _kazu ni mo aranu_ (of no
account), _iyashiki_, mean.

=shihobuneno=, ships in port with or waiting the tide; used with
_narabu_, arrange in row; with _okareba kanashi_ the m. k. is obscure,
probably the reference is to ships left in harbour as one spouse is
_left_ when other away.

=shikishimano=, an epithet of Yamato as = Japan. A difficult m. k. It
is sometimes written ‘spread-out islands’, sometimes ‘stone-work or
fort-tract, or island’, the site of an ancient capital.

=shikitaheno=, spread out _tahe_, cloth made of mulberry-bark fibre; or
spread-out and fine, used with words meaning dress, pillow, bed-place,
dwelling, sleeve, 17, 26, 29, 30, 49, 58, 70, 82.

=shimadzutafu=, threading or coasting islands; m. k. of _fune_, ship,

=Shimanonuno=, Moor of Shima; used, by sound-quibble, with _shibashiba_
(often), _shiba_ and _shima_ being related in sound.

=shimatsutori=, island birds (cormorants); used with _ukabu_, swim,

=shinaderu= = shinatsu, steepwise as the rise of a hill; used with
_kata_, as meaning hill-slope or shoulder (in compounds), 106. Meaning

=shinagatori=, either tail (rump)-long bird, or breath-long bird;
_nihotori_ (grebe), used with Wina (pl. n.); _wi_ = be with (here =
pair, as _nihotori_ do), also with _aha_, perhaps for _uhaha_, upper
feathers--but this use is obscure, 104.

=shinahinebu=, bend-_nebu_-tree; Albizzia Julibrissin?--used, by
sound-quibble, with _a ha shinubi yezu_, I cannot conceal or endure.

=shinazakaru=, _shina-saka-aru_, having steep passes; applied to
Koshi, 214, 252.

=shinunomeno=, shoot of _shino_ or _shinu_ (a small bamboo): used with
_shinubu_, by sound-quibble.

=shirakumono=, white cloud; emblem of impermanence, hence used with
_sugu_ (pass); with _tatsu_ (rise) in Tatsuta-hill (written with
_tatsu_, dragon); also with _taye_ (cease, end), 86, 107.

=shiramanago=, white sand; with words denoting brilliance, clearness,

=shiramayumi=, Euonymus Europoea, L.? the ‘yumi’ (bow) applies to
_haru_ (stretch); _i_ (shoot); _hi_ of Hida, as if of _hiku_ (draw).

=shiranamino=, white waves; _to hama_ (shore); _to ichishiroku_
(conspicuous? perhaps referring to beacons on hills); _to omoshiru
kimi_, my lord whom I recognize clearly.

=shiranuhino=, of unknown fires; used with Tsukushi, where strange
flames are supposed to have been seen by a Mikado. Probably they were
watch-fires or beacons, but see lay 61.

=shiranukuni=, ignorant, i.e. foreign land; used with _yori koseji_
(Kosè road), _yorikose_ being understood as involving a reference to
bringing a foreign land under the beneficent rule of the Mikado.

=shirasugeno=, white (or shining) sedge; with Manu (name of a place
famous for its sedges); also, sound-quibble, _shiraretaru_, known.

=shiratamano=, like white jewel, precious, lovely, &c., 120.

=shiratohoru=, a very difficult word, used with Wonihita
(hill-name)--the suggestion has been made, _shira to horu_, where men
dig out white (fine) grindstones!

=shiratorino=, white bird; used with _sagi_, stork (Sagisaka, pl. n.);
with Tobayama (_tobu_ = fly); also, obscurely, with _ma nu_.

=shiratsutsuzhi=, white azalea; used, by sound-quibble, with _shiranu_
(_koto mochi_), not-know.

=shiratsuyuno=, white dew; with _ke_, vanish.

=shirayukino=, white snow; with _ichishiroku_, conspicuous.

=shirikusano=, a plant (unknown); used, by sound-quibble, with the
phrase _hito mina shirinu aga_; I whom all knew.

=shirotaheno=, white _tahe_-cloth or white and dazzling; with _koromo_
(dress); _sode_ (sleeve); _tasuki_ (shoulder-bands); _hire_ (wimple);
_himo_ (girdle or cord); _obi_ (girdle), 24 and _passim_, see 28, 31,

=shishizhimono=, like deer; with _ihahi-fushi_, kneel invoking;
_hizawori-fushi_, kneel; these uses refer to deer’s mode of
kneeling;--with _yumiya kakumite_, surrounded (as prisoner) by archers
as deer are when hunted; also with _midzukuhegomoru_, water-immersed,
referring to deer standing in pools for refreshment, &c. (comp. Lamb’s
‘Yon tall and elegant stag, | who paints a dancing shadow of his horns
| in the water where he drinks).

=shitabimono= (_shitamono no himo_), string of a petticoat: used,
by sound-quibble (partly with meaning), with _shitayu kofuru_, love

=shizhikushiro=, written to signify ‘abundant armlets’ but more
probably meaning ‘abundant sake’. The m. k. is used as a praise-epithet
of _yomi_, Hades, 125.

=sudzukaneno=, like horse-bells; m. k. of _hayuma_, swift horse,
government messenger’s horse.

=suganoneno=, rush-root; epithet of _naga_ (long); cf. _omohimidare_
(thought- or love-disturbed); _[ne] mokoro_; _tayuru_ (cease, end).

=sugimurano=, cryptomeria grove; by sound-quibble with _sugi_, pass,
pass beyond.

=Sukanoyama=, Suka-hill; by sound-quibble applied to _sukanaku_,
unloving or unloved (_sugenaku_).

=soramitsu= (a difficult word), written, sky-seen-station; the usual
explanation of its application to Yamato is that it was Yamato that the
God Nigihayabi made his goal when he descended from Heaven (see N. I.
111). More probably the m. k. means sky-shine, sky-bright, and should
be applied to _yama_ (hill), part of the name Yamato; or it may mean
sky-seen, seen high against the sky, 1, 9, 68, 254, 256.

=tachibanano=, like orange-tree; applied to Miyeri (pl. n.); _-- mi_
(fruit of orange), assimilated to Mi.

=tachibanawo=, the orange-tree; used with _mori_, watchman (to prevent
theft of fruit), homophonous with Mori[be no sato], a village-name.

=tachikomono=, _komo_ is an Eastland form of _kamo_, wild duck; used
with _tachi no sawaki_, the din of rising wild duck as they leave the
water with a whirr.

=tachinoshiri=, sword-point; _tachi no shiri saya ni_ Irinu,
sword-point has entered scabbard (Irinu = moor of Iri, also _irinu_,
has entered); with _tama maku tawi_ (a field sown with rice-seed), the
reference is to the jewelled (_tama mahu_), point of the scabbard.

=tadawatari=, cross simply, not in a boat but by wading (as when
in a hurry); with _kaha yuki-watari_ (cross stream); with Anashi
(river-name), _anashi_ = _ana ashi_ = alas for one’s feet! or Oh one’s

=tadzuganaku=, where the cranes scream; said of Nagoye (creek-name),
and _ashihe_, reedy place.

=tahamidzura=, name of a _tsura_, creeping plant, it may =
_tamakadzura_; used with _hiku_, draw, pull upon.

=takahikaru=, high-shine, as the sun in heaven; used with Hino miko,
Hino mikado; _hi_ denoting sun-descent, 12, 13, 14, 22, 25, 32, 34, 68.

=takakurano=, high-throned; used with Mikasa (hill-name), by reference
to _mi kasa_ Sovran’s canopy.

=takamikura=, high-grand-throned; used with _Ama no hi tsugi_, descent
from Heaven’s sun, 228.

=takigikoru=, cut faggots; used with _kama_, bill, homophonous with
Kama (kura), hill-name.

=takubusuma=, a quilt or sleeping-dress made of _taku_ (white
mulberry-bark cloth); hence applied to _shira_, white, in names and

=takudzununo=, a rope made of mulberry-fibre; used with words of
whiteness and of length as _shirahige_ (white hair); Shiraki (a Korean
province); _nagaki inochi_, long life, 49, 262.

=takuhireno=, wimple or _hire_ made of mulberry cloth; used with
Shirahama (white sands); Sagi [saka], Stork Pass; _kake_, put on.

=takunahano=, cord of mulberry-fibre; used with _chihiro_, a thousand
fathoms [long], 29.

=tamadzusa=, precious white-wood (Catalpa); used with _tsukahi_,
messenger. Motowori thinks they carried a jewelled wand of _adzusa_
as a badge. Others say _tamadzusa_ were exchanged between men and
women, as a keepsake or souvenir in Michinoku, made of paper variously
arranged to give different meanings; in Sanuki, a lover’s offering made
of straw. It may have been a spray of Catalpa (or cherry?) to which a
gift or writing was attached. Now it means simply a letter. Used with
_imo_ (my love), it is sometimes merely a praise-epithet (like a kind
of Trichosanthes tamadzusa flower), 27, 45, 59.

=tamahayasu=, jewel-like-brilliant; used with _muko_, suitor,

=tamahokono=, a difficult word, jewelled-spear or precious spear; it is
used with _mi chi_ (road). Motowori says _mi chi_ originally meant haft
of a spear, and thus explained the use with _mi chi_, road. Another
account makes it illustrative of the straightness of a good road. Dr.
Aston sees in it a phallic sense. The m. k. is found also with _sato_,
village (_sato_ = _mato_ = _michi_?), 15, 27, 28, 30, 31, &c.

=tamajihafu=, blessing man’s spirit; _jihafu_ = _sachihafau_ = saiwai;
used with _kami_, deity.

=tamakadzura=, false hair, a chaplet; used with _kage_ (for _omokage_?
face-form, features); with _kake_, put on, 39, 48.

=tamakadzura=, the Kadzura creeper; used with _tayuru toki naku_ (never
ending), and _iya tohoku nagaku_, further and longer in space or time,

=tamakagiru=, said to be error for _kagirohi_, 146.

=tamakatsuma=, _katsuma_ = lidded wicker-work receptacle or basket,
pannier?; used with _afu_, meet, fit (as lid does body of basket); also
with _abeshi_ (_afu_), and Shimakuma (hill-name); latter use obscure,

=tamakiharu=, this may be = _tamaki haku_, draw on armlet, used with
_uchi_ for _ude_ (arm); or limit (_kiha [ma]ru_), length of life
(_tama_ = _tamashii_), so used with _inochi_, life, _yo_, period, age.
The m. k. is variously written, 3, 64, 69, 70, 136.

=tamakushige=, precious comb-box, toilet-box; used with _ake_ (open),
with Mimuro (hill-name), _mi_ = body of comb-box; Futagami (hill-name),
the homophon _futa_ = lid; with _ashi_ (reed), as = _asa[ke]_, shallow

=tamakushino=, like precious comb; (or rather, like _gohei_,
offerings), used with many words.

=tamakushiro=, bead or pearl armlet; applied to _te_ (arm), to _maki_
(wind round), as in _maki-neshi_, sleep-entwining-arms, 120.

=tamamokaru=, reap fine seaweed; chiefly a descriptive epithet.

=tamamonasu=, like fine seaweed (or riverweed); used with _ukabe_
(float), _yorineshi_ (nestle close by in sleep), _nabikineshi_,
clinging-sleeping, _nabiku_, bend, yield, 13, 16, 17, 23.

=tamamoyoshi=, when fine seaweed is plenteous; an epithet of the land
of Sanuki, 30.

=tamanowono=, precious thread, thread or yarn rolled up in a ball; used
with words denoting length or shortness (time), or custom, or disorder;
_nagaki_, _tayu_, _midaru_, _ahida_, _tsugite_, 53, 148, 192, 251.

=tamatareno=, like bead-lace hanging down; m. k. of _wochi_ (fall,
descend); _wosu_ (small bamboo-blind, for door or window), 23.

=tamatasuki=, shoulder-bands or cords to hold the sleeve back, or,
according to some, to help the hands and attached to wrists (also
_tabatasuki_);--m. k. of _kaku_ (throw on or over), and _unebi_ (--_una
ne musubi_, lie on, or round root of neck?), 4, 9, 24, 27, 40, 57.

=tamotohori=, walk, wander about; used with Yukimi (village-name),
_yuki_ = go.

=tamukegusa=, offerings to the gods; used with _nusa tori okite_, take
and offer pieces of cloth (to a god).

=tarachineno=, like one who suckles; m. k. of _haha_ (mother),
connected with _taru_, drop, _chichi_, milk, _ne_ root = source, 48, 66.

=tarachishino= = _tarachineno_.

=tatamikeme= (_tatamikomo_?), _keme_, is Eastland for _komo_, used with
Murazhi (pl. n.), _murazhi_ regarded as = _muro shiki_, spread within
the dwelling, i.e. the _komo_ (rush), matting (_tatami_).

=tatanadzuku= (_tatanaharinadzuku_); fold up, be in foldings; applied
to _yama_ (hills), as many ridged or rising in successive ridges; to
_yaharaka_, soft, as easily folded, so to _nikihada_, skin-surface of
body, as soft and pliable, 11, 13, 23.

=tatanamete=, written, shield-arranging; (as wall to shoot over), used
with _idzumi_, as connected, once identical, in sound with _idomu_, to
challenge (enemy).

=tatanedomo=, although-not-rise-start; used with phrase, _Okina ni
itari_ (arrive at Okina--_oki_, rise erect being included in meaning of
_tata_ (_tatsu_)). Perhaps _okanedomo_ would be a better reading.

=tatsukirino=, like rising mist; used with _sugu_, pass away; with
_ichishiroku_, conspicuous, as the mists along marshy tracts are, 39,
222, 251.

=tatsunamino=, like rising waves; used with _shibashiba wabishi_, my
regrets as countless as the waves that rise and fall.

=Tatsutayama=, a hill-name; by sound-quibble applied to the phrase
_tachite mo wite mo_.

=tatsutorino=, rising-birds (as in the morning by the hills);--applied
to _me_ (eye), regarded as contraction of _mure_, flock (i.e. of the
birds), in the phrase _me yu ka na wo miru_ (_yu_ = _ni_), with my
eyes do I not see you!

=tawarahano=, like child in hand; with _ne_, _naku_, cry, to scream,
weep, 59.

=tawayameno=, like woman yielding, weak, &c.; with _omohitawa-yamu_, be
weak, feeble, yielding in spirit, thought, intention.

=terutsuki=, shining moon; what one is never tired of (_akanu_) seeing.

=tobusatate=, a difficult word. Kogi explains it as = _tomosatate_ or
_tadzukitate_, that is, ply a sort of woodman’s axe; this would explain
the use of the m. k. in the phrase _yama ni funaki-kiri_, fell timber
for ships in the hill forests. _Tobusa_ according to (I.) means an
offering of tree-tops by woodmen to the hill-gods.

=tobutadzuno=, flying crane; sound-quibble, m. k. of _tadzutadzushi_.

=tobutorino=, like a flying bird; used with Asuka (pl. n.), often
written _tobushima_. Another explanation is that Asuka = _ashika[ru]_,
light of foot = rapid, and birds are both rapid and light-footed, 23,
26, 86.

=tohotsuhito=, people far away, as travellers; hence used with _matsu_
(wait, expect), as in Matsura (_matsu no ura_ = pine-fringed bay);
_matsu no shita ji yu_ (from the road under the pine-trees); with
_kariji_ (there is a quibble with _kari_, wild geese, regarded as far
travellers (on account of their migrations)), 183.

=tohotsukami=, far-off, i.e. far above me--God = Most High Divine
Majesty. A m. k. of _ohokimi_, great-lord--His Majesty, 4.

=tohotsukuni=, far-off land; m. k. of _yomi_, Hades.

=tokikinuno=, like dress unfastened; m. k. with words denoting
confusion, disorder (_omohi-kohi-midarete_, disordered with grief or
love), 128.

=tokitsukaze=, time, i.e. tidal winds; used with _fuku_, blow (Fukehi,
name of a strand).

=tokorodzura=, (tokoro), a sp. of Dioscorea (wild yam), a trailing
plant; used on m. k. of words of seeking, seeking and not finding end
of; (_iya tokoshiku ni_, more and more perpetually), _tadzune-yuku_, go
on seeking, 125.

=tokoyomono=, a thing of the Eternal Land; applied to _tachibana_,
orange-bush, fruit brought by Tazhima-mori from Tokoyo, western land
(China or Korea).

=tokozhimono=, like one lying in bed-place; used with phrase
_uchi-koi-fushite_, lying prostrate.

=tomoshihino=, as a lit beacon; used with _akashi_, bright, illumed, in
Akashi no Ohoto, great gate or passage, of Akashi (pl. n.).

=tonamiharu= (_tori no ami wo haru_--spread fowler’s net); applied to
_saka_, hill-pass, part of pl. n. Sakate--birds being found in numbers
in such places, 134.

=tonogumori= (_tana gumori_), spreading of clouds; used with pl. n.
Amefuru River; _-- ame furu_ = rain-pour, 153.

=toriganaku=, cock-crowing; traditional m. k. of Adzuma, Eastland, 24,
43, 124, 258.

=torizhimono=, like birds; used with _tachi_ (rise up); _nadzusahi_,
swim in water; _uki_, float.

=tsubasanasu=, like the wings of a bird; used with _arigayohitsutsu_,
going to and fro; according to Kogi refers to flying through the air of
a man’s soul when he dies.

=tsuganokino=, like _tsuga_, tree (_abies tsuga_); used, by
sound-quibble with _tsugitsugi_ (in succession), 9, 39, 71.

=tsuginefu=, _tsugi-mine-fu_, where serried peaks are abundant;,
descriptive m. k. of Yamashiro. But the _ne_ may refer to forest-trees,

=tsukanedomo=, though-not-bind; used, by sound-quibble with Tsukunu
(pl. n.).

=tsukikusano=, like _tsuki_-blossom, of which the colour is easily
transferred--hence used with words denoting change, impermanence, &c.

=tsumagomoru=, spouse-secluding used with _ya_, house (in composition),
as Yakami (hill-name), here _ya_ probably means eight, i.e. many gods;
another meaning is, held within the (_tsuma_) edge of the hand as _ya_,
arrow, anciently _sa_. Hence other uses of the m. k.

=tsunadehiku=, where boats are hand-drawn by ropes attached; used with
_umi_, sea, lake.

=tsunashitoru=, where _tsunashi_ (herrings) are caught; descriptive m.
k. of Himi (name of a creek).

=tsuneshiranu=, not-known, strange; used with Hitokuni (hill-name),
_hito-kuni_ = another or foreign province or land.

=tsunusahafu= (_tsutasahafu_), where ivy flourishes; used with _iha_
(rock)--in composition, &c., by meaning or sound on Ihami, Ihare
(pond-name), 17, 46.

=tsurugitachi=, straight-bladed (Chinese or Korean) sword; m. k. of
_mi_ (body, on which it is girded); _na_ (thou, who wearest a sword);
_togishi_ (sharp, bright); _kokoro_ (heart--free from fleck as a bright
sword-blade); _saya_, scabbard, in a curious prefatial phrase applying
by a quibble to Ikako (hill-name), 23, 29, 105.

=tsutsuzhihana=, azalea-like, 48, 175.

=tsuwetarazu=, short of a _tsuwe_ (ten feet) in length, as Yasaka
(hill-name), _yasaka_ = eight feet, i.e. eight which is less than ten
…, 196.

=tsuyushimono=, like dew and rime, that _lie_ on objects; hence m.
k. of _oku_, place, lay; that soon vanish, hence used with words of
passing away, also with _aki_, autumn, when dew and rime are frequent,
16, 24, 48, 50, 92.

=uchiaguru=, _uchi noboru_, rise, raise, elevate, scarcely a m. k.;
used with Saho no kahara, bed of Saho river, with reference, perhaps,
to _ho_ = ear of corn, spike. Saho seems to be written also _maho_, the
character for _ho_ meaning sail, which would point to sails being known
in the eighth century.

=udzuranaku=, quail-cry; used with _furu_, old, and
compounds--signifying where now quail cry (i.e. deserted).

=udzuranasu=, quail-like, with _ihahi motohori_, wander around calling
upon a dead lord with crouch and cry like quails, 24.

=uchihisasu= (_uchihisatsu_), sunny, sunshiny; used with _miya_,
palace, and its compounds, 49, 66, 136, 168.

=uchinabiku=, bend, droop; with _haru_, spring (when young plants
droop); _kusa_ (herbs), as in Kusaka Hill; _kurokami_, jetty tresses,
disordered hair of girl waiting for her lover, 51, 110.

=uchitawori=, used with Tamu no yama (Tamu hill); the meaning would
be ‘where the path or track winds down’; _Tamu_ is contraction of
_tamotohoru_, wander around, &c., _ta_ is intensive prefix.

=uchiyosuru= (_-- yesuru_), come, be close to; sound-quibble with
Suruga (province of).

=uguhisuno=, the Japanese nightingale (Cettia cantans), used with
_haru_, spring.

=ukanerafu= (_ukagahi-nerafu_), track trail of; Tomi Hill--_tomi_ =

=ukikusano=, floating plants or weeds; used with _uki_, float, drift.

=umakori=, written quibble-wise for _umaki ori_, pretty-woven; used
with _aya ni tomoshiki_, strangely rare, precious, _aya ayashi_, also
written quibble-wise as _aya_, pattern, design, 72.

=umanotsume=, horse-hoof; with _tsuku_ of Tsukushi (_no saki_),
allusion to the pounding of the road by the hoofs of a horse.

=umasahafu= (compare _ajisahafu_) = _umashi-ahafu_, abundance of
delicious _millet_, applied to _me_ as contraction of _mure_, crowd,
multitude. As to its use with _yoru hiru_ (night and day), see under
lay 82.

=umasake= (_-wo-no_), sweet or delicious _saké_ (rice-beer); applied to
Miwa (pl. n.), because _mi wa_ = _saké_ offered to a god; _mi_, seems
to be contraction of _kami_ (sacred) _saké_, hence application of m. k.
to Mimoro. Its use with Kamunabi is explained under 7, 206.

=umashimono=, written strangely quibble-wise ‘horse-under,’ but
meaning delicious (_umashi_), or delightful thing, applied to a kind of

=umazhimono=, like a horse or packhorse; used with _naka toritsuke_
(lead, as prisoner, by rope or halter), and _tachite tsumadzuki_, rise
or start and stumble (as a packhorse would).

=umiwonasu=, like spooled (hemp) yarn; used with _naga_ (long), in
Nagara, Nagato (pl. nn.), 77, 142.

=umorekino=, like buried log or fossil wood; applied to what is not
manifest, to _araharumazhiki_, or to _shita_, under, beneath, what is
deep, hidden or unknown.

=unohanano=, harebush blossom (Deutzia scabra); applied to _satsuki_
(5th month, when it blooms); to _uki_, evil, by sound-quibble (_u_); to
_saku_, bloom.

=usurabino=, like thin ice, sound-quibble with _usuki_, thin.

=utsusegahi=, an empty acorn-shell; with _minaki_, fleshless,
fruitless, selfless.

=utsusemino=, probably _utsutsu mi_, real living personality, written
quibble-wise _utsu_ (hollow), _semi_, cicada, i.e. cast off moult of
a cicada. Thus the reality of life is bracketed so to speak with its
empty vanity. Used with _inochi_ (life), _hito_ (man), _yo_ (world),
_mi_ (personality), 18, 26, 28, 50, 191.

=utsusomino=, 251 = _utsusemino_, q. v.

=utsusowo=, _utsusoyashi_, hemp-fibre beaten soft for spinning;
(_yashi_ = _yo shi_, exclamatives), used with _womi_ (lord), as
homophonous with _womi_, _wo-umi_, spin (yarn).

=utsuyufuno=, a difficult word; it may mean the hollow centre
of a spool of Broussonetia fibre, a narrow confined space; or
_utsu-mayu-fu_, the hollow of a wild silk-worm (_yamamai_) cocoon;
or simply beaten or inner (_uchi_) pulp of _yufu_ (Broussonetia
papyrifera), out of which a cloth was made. It is used with _komoru_
(seclude, confine); also with _semaki_ (narrow, scanty), 125.

=wagainochi=, my life; used with _naga_ (long) as though it were [may
my life be] long--in the pl. n. Nagato no shima.

=wagasekowo=, my spouse! _waga seko wo!_ _Nakose no yama_, My spouse!
_Nakose yama!_ cross it not (_na kose_), i.e. return not, remain with
me or return to me. So with Idekoseyama, also with _aga matsu_ (whom I
expect); _kose_ = _seko_, reversed.

=wagatatami=, my mat; used with _he_, read as fold or thickness, of
Mihe no kahara.

=wagimokoni=, to my love; with _afu_, meet, and compounds as _afuchi no
hana_ (Melia japonica?), 137, 199.

=wagimokowo=, my love! used with Izami (hill name), _iza_, _mimu_ =
I would fain see! with _hayami hama kaze_, which may be interpreted
giving value for the double sense of _hayami_ (_haya mi_), I would fain
see (her) as quickly as the wind bloweth; in the phrase _wagimokowo
Kikitsuga nu_ (moor of Kikitsuga) = prefatially, as if … _kikitsugi_ …
my love whose beauty fame telleth.

=wakahisaki= (_hisa-ki_, long-life tree = _matsu_, pine-tree), young
pine; by sound-quibble (partly) used in _waga hisa naraba_, should I
live long.

=wakakikono=, like a young child; m. k. of _hahitamotohori_ (creep

=wakakomono=, young rush; m. k. of _kari_, reap; -- Kariji no wonu--the
little moor of Kariji, 33.

=wakakusano=, like young plants; tender, delicate--m. k. of _tsuma_
(spouse); of _nihi tamakura_, fresh, i.e. young, arm (of mistress),
used as pillow; of _omohitsuki nishi kimi_ (my lord whom I love); of
_waka-kahe_ (while young); of _ayuhi_ (_ashi yuhi_), leggings of young
reeds for travellers, 19, 29, 106.

=washinosumu=, where the eagle dwells; m. k. of Tsukubane yama, 113.

=wasuregahi=, oblivion shell; m. k. of _wasure_ (forget)--it is said to
be a kind of clam.

=watanosoko=, sea-floor, sea-bottom; used with _oki_ (deep sea), 65,

=wimachitsuki= (be-at-rest-wait-moon), the moon of the 18th day (of the
lunar month); the 17th was called _tachi machi_ (be-up-wait-moon); and
the 19th _nemachi_ (sleep-wait-moon); the m. k. is used with _akashi_,
in the pl. n. Akashi no to. _Akashi_ = cause to open, or open, or
become open and visible under light, 44 (_tachi_, refers to moonrise
after full about 8.30 p.m., _wi_, to moonrise next day about 9.50 p.m.,
_ne_ (after bedtime), to moonrise about 11 p.m.)

=wominaheshi=, the Patrinia scabiosaefolia, Link (a Valerianaceous
plant); this may have been used as a salad in ancient days. It is used
with _saku_ (blow, bloom).

=woshitorino=, like mandarin duck (Anas galericulata); used, by
sound-quibble, with _woshiki aga mi_, ha! (O miserable me!).

=wotomeraka=, is it a maid? m. k. of _sode furu_, sleeve-waving, in the
pl. n. Sodefuru hill.

=wotomerani=, with the maid--m. k. of _afu_ (meet) in Afusaka hill, 137.

=wotomerawo=, O the maid! see _wotomeraka_.

=yachihoko=, eight or many spears, 97.

=yahetatami=, eightfold matting, thick matting. See _komotatanu_.

=yahotadewo=, eight (many) spiked _tade_. See _midzutade_.

=yakitachino=, forged sword; with _to-kokoro_ (ready heart); with _he
tsukafu_ (gird on warrior’s side).

=yakumosasu=, pierce eight clouds, i.e. many clouds; an epithet of
Idzumo--_idzu_ = go forth.

=yakushihono=, like fire under salt-pans; epithet of _kohi_, love.

=yamabukino=, like the Yamabuki blossom (Kerria japonica); m. k. of
_nihoeru imo_ (my love, fragrant or blooming as the Kerria).

=yamagahano=, mountain-stream; applied to _tagitsu_, foam, swirl, roar.

=yamakirino=, mountain-mist-like; m. k. of _ibuseki_ (gloomy).

=yamanomayu=, from amid the hills; m. k. of Idzumo in the phrase
_Idzumo no kora_ (the maid of Idzumo). _Idzu_ = come forth from.

=yamanowino=, like mountain-well; used with _asaki_, shallow (_asaki

=yamashitano=, see _akiyama_; _akiyama no shitabi_, fading to red of
autumn woods--hence applied to _ake no soho fune_, red-stained ship.

=yamasugeno=, like wild or mountain sedge, Carex gaudichaudiana; used
with _mi_ (fruit) and various homophons.

=yamatadzuno=, m. k. of _mukahe_, opposite, face; _yamatadzu_ is
said to be a woodman’s axe carried always with the edge towards the
bearer to avoid injury and offence. No other explanation has been
offered. Except a vague reference to the homophon _yamatadzu_ (Sambucus
racemosa) which is opposite-leaved. The word might, however, in some
cases be an error for _yama tadzune_.

=yamiyonasu=, like a dark night; m. k. of _omohi-madohahi_, disordered,
distracted in thought (i.e. with love), 123.

=yaminoyono=, like a dark night; applied to _yuku saki_, the way in
front (_yuku saki shirazu_, not knowing the way before one--one’s
future course).

=yasakatori=, eight-foot-bird; one drawing a long breath, so _ya saka_
(eight feet deep); used therefore with _ikitsuku_, catch breath, gasp.

=Yasugahano=, like the River Yasu; used, mainly by sound-quibble, with
_yasu i mo nezu_, not to sleep well.

=yasumishishi=, there are two explanations. One depends on the written
form _ya sumi shishi_, know (govern) eight corners, all corners, the
whole empire; the other in the verb _yasumu_, to rest, or _yasumi
suru_, _yasundzuru_, to make rest, pacify, debellare. The latter seems
the most reasonable; but that does not make it the real explanation. It
is always a m. k. of _waga ohokimi_, my great-lord, usually (but not
invariably) used in reference to the Sovran.

=Yoshikigaha=, the River Yoshiki, used with _yoshi_ (good, excellent).

=yufudzutsuno= (_dzudzu_), the evening star; m. k. of _yufube_
(evening); of _ka yuki kaku yuki_, hither, thither pass, with reference
to the appearance of the planet (Venus) now as an evening, now as a
morning star, 26.

=yufuhanano=, like blossom of Broussonetia; m. k. of _sakayuru_, bloom,
flourish, 24.

=yufutatami=, a cloth of Broussonetia, folded up to present to a god;
m. k. of _tamuke_ (offering), Tamuke no yama (hill-name); of Tanakami
yama by sound-quibble reading for _tatami tatana (haru)_, a variant
of _tatamaru_.

=yukizhimono=, like snow; applied to _yuki kayohi_, go and come; the m.
k. is simply a sound-quibble.

=yukufuneno=, passage of a ship; m. k. of the passing of time.

=yukukageno=, in the phrase _yukukage no tsuki mo he-yukeba_, as the
moon with its passing light follows its course. Motowori thinks the
text is corrupt, and proposes _aratama_.

=yukukahano=, like the flowing river; applied to _sugi nishi hito_ (one
who has passed beyond--passed away, died).

=yukumidzuno=, running water; with _sugi_ (pass on, beyond); with _oto
mo sayakeku_ (distinct as the sound of running water); with _tayuru
naku_ (without cease); _todome-kane_ (not-delay), 198.

=yukutorino=, like birds taking flight; with _arasofu_ (struggle,
dispute, vie); with _murete samorahi_ (throng to render due service,
crowd), 24, 184.

=yutanemaki=, sow preparatory rice plants, a sound-quibble m. k.
applied to _yuyushiki_, manly, heroic.


The following marks denote: ✱ a Japano-chinese-word; T. a word found in
Taketori only; Ta. a word found in Takasago only; Ts. a word found in
Tsurayuki’s Preface only. The figures refer to the Lays. Only the bare
literal meanings are given, sufficient for the purposes of the texts;
m. k. = _makura kotoba_, pl. n. = place-name.

=a= (_are_, _ware_), _I_, _me_, &c., _-aga_ = _warega_, 125, 167.

_aga-mi_, myself, 69, 171, 252.

_a-gari_ = _waga moto_, compare _imo-kimi-gari_; _gari_ = _ga ari_,
place where one is, dwells, &c., 102.

_ago_ = _waga ko_, my child, my prince, 160, 168.

=abeki= (_ahegi_), pant, 40.

=abenashi= (_ahenashi_), T.

=abusahazu= = _habukarazu_, not omitting; _abusu_ = _nokoru_,
_abusahazu_, neg. of lengthened form _abusafu_, 255.

=ada=, vain, worthless, T.; trivial, Ts.

=adomohite= (_ato-_), _hikiiru_, _tomonafu_, lead, accompany, 24, 52,
113, 220, 258.

=adzukaru=, accept charge of, be charged with, receive.

=adzuma=, Eastland, 121.

=adzusa=, white-wood, Catalpa Kaempferi, S. & Z., or possibly an old
name of Prunus Cerasus, 3, 27, 29, 104.

=adzusa-yumi=, bow of white-wood, 29.

=afu= (_au_, _ô_), meet, &c. _-- beku_, passim, can-meet.

=afugi= (_ôgi_), look up to, 22, 70. _-- kohi_, look-up-to-intreat, 70.
_-- te_.

=afumi= (_aha-umi_?), piece of water, lake.

=Afumi= (_Ômi_), Lake Biwa, 112.

=afurite= (_afuru_ = _afureru_), overflow, 233.

=aga=: see =a=, 4, 67.

=agachi=, _-agatsu_ (_wakatsu_), divide, apportion, 86, 22. _--
tsukahashi_, distribute, send.

=agaki=, paw ground (horse), 17.

=aga-mi=: see =a=.

=agamuru=, extol, exalt, Ta.

=a-gari=: see =a=.

=agari= (_agaru_), mount, ascend, accept drink (_toyo-agari_ = feast,
banquet, 257). _-- ki_, mount, embark, come, 102.

=agehari= (_agemaku_), curtain, 226.

=agesezu=, not-do-raise, not raise; _koto --_ = _toku ni toritate
ihazu_, 86.

=age-suwe=, raise-place, T.

=agura= (_ashi-kura_), a sort of foot-stool or (_age-kura_?), a raised
platform or seat, T.

=ahaba= (_afu_, q. v.), 158.

=ahabi=, Venus’ ear, Haliotis, 79, 181, 229.

=ahade=, neg., _afu_ (in 199 error for _Ahaji_).

=ahame= (_afu_), with _ya mo_, in sense _awazhi_, 9.

=ahamu= (_afu_), 27, 105.

=ahanu= (_afu_), 23, 206, 251.

=ahare=, excl. of grief, wonder, 226.

=aharebi= (_-u_, _-mu_), be sad for, Ts.

=ahasaba= (_afu_), hon. caus.

=ahase= (_afu_), hon. caus. _-- yari_, clash together, 236.

=ahasezu= (_afu_), hon. caus. neg.

=ahashitaru= (_afu_).

=ahazanaru=, =ahazaru= (_afu_), T.

=ahazhi= (_afu_), 161.

=ahe= (_afu_), emphatic with _koso_, T.

=aheba= (_afu_), T.

=ahemu= (_afu_), shall meet, be equal, able to.

_-- ka mo_, Oh, might I be able, equal to, 156, 252.

=ahenu=, not-meet, not-can, 188.

=ahe-nuki= (_tomo ni tsuranuku_), thread, string together =
_ahase-nuki_, 211, 214.

=aheri= (_afu_), T.

=aherishi=, _ahi-arishi_ = _arishi_, 211, 214.

=aheru= (_ahi-aru_) 相有 be, is, 152.

=ahete=, for =abete= (_abekite_ = _ahegite_), panting, 44.

=ahi=, a common prefix to verbs, mutually, reciprocally; often of
little meaning.

=ahi-arasohiki= (_ahi-arisofu_), rival, dispute, vie, 5.

=ahida=, interval (space, time, circumstance), while, &c., 61.

=ahi-katarahi=, devise together, 105.

=ahikerashi= (_afu_), 165.

=ahi-keru= (_afu_), 104, 合相.

=ahi-kihohi= (_ahi-arisafu_), 122.

=ahi-matsu= (_matsu_), Ta.

=ahi-mimu= (_mimu_), 204; v. _miru_.

=ahi-mineba=, 217; v. _miru_.

=ahi-mireba=, 217; v. _miru_.

=ahi-mishi= (_mishi_), 28; v. _miru_.

=ahi-mishime=, caus. of _miru_, 224.

=ahi-miteba=, 146; v. _miru_.

=ahi-nomamu= = _nomamu_, 87; v. _nomu_.

=ahi-omohanu= (_omohanu_), 201.

=ahishi= (_afu_).

=ahi-tatakafu=, fight together, or simply fight, T.

=ahite= (_afu_), 217.

=ahi-tomo ni= (_tomo-ni_), together, in company, 250.

=ahi-uzunahi= = _tagahi ni ubenafu_, relates to acquiescence of god in
prayer offered, 227.

=ahi-yobahi= (_yobu_), written as equivalent to night-creep, but merely
a strong form of _yobu_, call, invite, court, 125.

=aji=, spectacled teal (_anas formosa_).

_-- mura_, flock of _aji_.

=ajisahafu=, m. k.

=aka=, red.

=aka-hoshi= (_boshi_), red, bright star, Venus, 70.

=akaki=, red, fresh, honest, i.e. loyal, 263.

=aka-koma=, bay horse, 159.

=aka-mo=, red skirt, 64, 159.

=akanesasu=, m. k.

=akani= (_aku_) = _akazu_ (_itohazu_), not tired of or satiate with,

=akanu= = _akani_, _akazu_.

=akarabiku=, lead in redness, light, dawn as source or cause thereof,

=akaru= (_i_), grow light, grow ruddy, become clear, T.

=akasa=, redness, brightness, T.

=akashi= (_akasu_), brighten, make light, 28, 67, 69; _yo wo akasu_,
night-brighten, i.e. become dawn.

=akashi-kurasu= (_shi_), pass dawns and dusks, pass time.

=akashi-tsuraku= (_akashitsuru_), v. _akashi_, grow light, grow
dark--passage of time, day, &c., 54.

=akatoki=, bright time, ruddy time, dawn, 96, 199.

=akatsuki=, redness, brightness, dawn, 240.

=akazu=, error for =makazu=, 82.

=akazu= = _akanu_, 97.

=ake=, red, 171.

=ake-kakete=, breaking of dawn, Ta.

=ake-kure=, morn and night; but _ake-gure_, dusk before dawn, day-break
twilight, 55.

=akekureba=, as day breaks, lit. as night brightens into day, 21, 72.

=akemaku= = _akemu_, 114.

=akemu= (_akuru_), 44.

=ake-yukinu= (_ake-yuku_), brighten-proceed, change of night into dawn,

=aki=, autumn, _passim_ (originally had reference to filling up of
ripening grain).

=akidzu=, dragon-fly, 194, notes.

_-- no ha_, wing of dragon-fly.

=aki-hagi=, autumn bush clover (Lespedeza), 114.

=aki-kaze=, autumn wind.

=akinahi=, trade, T.

=akinamu= (_aku_, open), T.

=aki ni akinu= = _akinu_ (_aku_, open), T.

=akirakeku=, brightly, clearly, freshly, 211.

=akirameme= (_akiramu_), clear mind, &c., of doubt or grief, 220, 227,

=akitarame= (_-mu_), will satiate, 240.

=akitaranu= (_akitaru_, _aki_), unsatiate, not-replete, 25.

=akitsu= (_akidzu_), 180.

_-- hire_, dragon-fly-wing-scarf. _hire_ q. v.

=akitsukami=, manifestation of a god, a title of the Mikado, 93.

=akitsushima=, Island[s] of Full Ripe Grain-ears, a title of Japan, 2.

=akiyama=, autumnal hills, 6.

=aku=, open.

=aku=, brighten, grow light.

=aku=, be satiate, loathe.

=aku-ma=, demons, evil spirits, Ta.

=akuru=, grow open, dawn; _ashita_, opening morrow, i.e. to-morrow, 54,

=ama=, heaven, sky.

=ama=, fisherman.

=ama-bito=, heaven-being, angel, T.

=amabune=, fishing-boat.

=amadzutahi=, sky-traverse, 34.

=amagirafu=, sky-grow-misty, 94, 131, see note text.

=amahashi=, ladder bridge of heaven (connecting heaven and earth),
conf. Amanohashidate (place-name).

=ama-hire=, heaven-veils, banners (or screens of white cloth?) carried
around coffins at funerals, 28.

=ama-ji=, heaven-road, firmament or atmosphere as tract between heaven
and earth, _ohosora_, 62.

=amakumo=, m. k.

_-- no yoso minu_. See note, 149.

=amanaku= (_amu_, _amanu_, not-knit--as in making nets), 182.

=amaneku=, general, universal, Ts.

=ama no hara=, plain of heaven, sky-vault or expanse, 36.

=amarinu= (_amaru_), be too much, in excess.

=ama sosori=, sky-climb.

=amata=, much, many, 102.

=amaterasu=, =amateru=, sky-shine, (_terasu_ is hon. caus.), 22.

=amatobuya=, m. k.

=ama tsu midzu=, waters of heaven, rain, 22.

=amatsu mikado=, heaven-palace (of dead Mikado who returns to heaven),

=amatsukami=, sky-gods.

=amatsumiya=, sky-palace (_amatsumikado_), 25.

=amata=, many, T.

=ama-wotome=, fisher-maid, 40, 80.

=ama-yo=, rainy night, 211.

=ama-zakaru=, heaven-far, far off as heaven, 9, 55, 89, 241.

=ame=, rain, 8, 67.

=ame=, heaven (see =ama=).

=ame-he=, heaven-quarter, sky, 62.

=ame-mazhiri=, rain-commingled, driving rain, 67.

=Ame no kagu yama=, hill-name, also hill counterpart or hill high in
heaven? see text and notes, 10, 24, 229.

=ame no shita= (= _tenka_), under-heaven, the realm, the world, 24, 102.

=amere=, _aramu-are_, T.

=ame-shiru=, heaven-know, divinely rule, 14.

=ame tsuchi=, sky and glebe, heaven and earth, 22.

=amori= (_ama-wori_), descend from sky, 24, 133, 255, 263.

=amori-tsuku=, descend from sky and alight (on earth), 33.

=ana=, hole, T.

=ana=, exclamation of surprise, joy, &c.

=anagachi ni=, by force or necessity, T.

=ananahi= = _ashizhiro_, a sort of step-ladder or platform, T.

=anare= = _ari-nare_ = _ari ni are_, T.

=anaru= = _arinaru_, T.

=anata= = _anokata_, there.

=ani= = Lat. num, T.

=annari= = _ari-nari_, T.

=anzhite=, considering, T.

=anzuru=, consider, T.

=aohedo=, green, bilious vomit, T.

=ara=, coarse, waste, wild. _-- yama_, wild hills; _-- nu_, wild moor.

=ara= (_arahareru_), manifest.

=arahashite= (_arahasu_), become or make manifest, 227.

=arahi= (_arafu_), wash, 209.

=araka=, dwelling, mortuary shrine, usually with _mi_, the meaning of
_ara_ is not known; the Kogi proposes _aretsugu_, come successively
into existence (a word found in the Manyôshiu). But it may be
_ari_ (exist), _ara_ (new), or _ara_ (rough-built), 22; _-- ka_ = place.

=arakami=, visible God, Presence (or rough-punishing-god Aston,

=arakazhime=, previously beforehand, 50, 84.

=araki=, violent, wild.

=araki=, rough unbarked tree-trunks, or _ara ki_, rough stone-fence, or
work, or castle, grave-enclosure, mortuary-enclosure, 90, 200, 254.

=arako=, a sort of skip, or coarse-meshed basket, or pannier, T.

=araku= (_aru_), 33.

=arame= (_aru_), 14; _-- ya_, 88, 125.

=aramu= (_aru_), 24, 102.

=aranaku= (_aranu_), 39, 45.

=araneba= (_aru_), 54.

=ara-no=, wild moor, 28.

=aranu= (_aru_), 67.

=ara-nu= (_ara-no_), 28.

=arashi=, storm, 108.

=arashi= (_arasu_), caus. of _aru_, be, 35, or _arurashi_.

=arashi-wo=, fierce, brave man = _masurawo_, 214, 260.

=arasofu=, dispute, vie, 24, 123.

_-- rashiki_.

=arasohi= (_arasofu_).

=arata=, new, fresh, future, 13, 53, 92.

=aratahe=, coarse, unbleachen (opp. to _nikitahe_), 21.

=aratama= (_aratamaru_) = _arata_.

=aratama no=, m. k.: see K. 216.

=aratoko=, rough couch, 30.

=arayama=, wild hills, 175.

=arazarishi= (_aru_), T.

=arazhi= (_aru_), _arazu_.

=arazu=, not-be, be-not, 17.

=are= (_ware_), 1, 4, 6, 17, 29, 67, 206.

=are=, waste, uncultivated, 92.

=are=, be rough, stormy, T.

=are= (_aru_), emphatic form with _koso_, T.

=aredo= (_aru_).

=aremakurashi= (_aremu_).

=aremasamu= (_are-tsugi-masamu_), appear (_arahare_), in succession, 92.

=aremashishi= (_araharemashishi_), was-made-manifest, 9.

=aremu= (_are_ = waste), 190.

=are nikeru= (_are_ = waste), 92.

=aretari= (_are_ = waste), 95.

=aretsugitareba= (_arahare_), be, be manifest, appear, be born in
succession, 54.

=aretsukashitsu= (_arahare-tsukurasu_), 94.

=are tsuku=: see 14.

=are ya= (_koso are yo_), certainly be, exist, 55.

=ari=, be--continuative, frequentative, or emphatic prefix as
_ari-gayofu_, 91, often written with character 蟻 _ari_ = ant.

=ari=, be (-at, in), _ari no kotogoto_ (_aru-dake-hodo_), as much as.

=ari-ake=, moonlit dawn, Ta.

=ari-dake= (_ari_), as much as, 67.

=ari-gahoshi=, desirable to be, 95.

=arigataki=, grateful, Ta.

=arigataya=, how grateful, Ta.

=ari-kayohamu= (_ari-k(g)ayofu_), pass to and fro, go and come, go, 137.

=ari-katemashi= (_ari-gatashi_), would be hard or difficult, 60.

=arikemu= (_ari_), 47, 95.

=ariki= (_ariku aruku_ = walk).

=ari-ki-nikereba= (_arikereba_), since it was, has been, 222.

=arikinu no=, m. k.

=arikosenu= (_ari-koso-ne_), Oh, be it so! 58, 128.

=ari koso= (_ari_), 119.

=arikuru= (_ari-kureru_?).

=arikuru= (explained by Keichiu as = _arisofu_; by Motowori as = come
again, and again in due season), 240.

=ari-matedo= (_matsu_) = _ari-ari-tayezu-matedo_, 184.

=ari-meguri= (_meguru_), go round, 258.

=arinami= (_inamu_), refuse? 171.

=ari no kotogoto=: see aridake.

=arinureba= (_aru_), 59.

=arisama=, condition, T.

=ariseba= (_ari_) = _areba_, cp. _shiriseba_, 50, 84.

=arishi= (_ari_), 48, 77.

=ariso= (_ara-iso_), rough-rock, wild shore.

=ari-tamotohori= (_tamotohori_), doubly frequentative or intensive of
_motohori_ = _mahari_, go about or up and down, 224.

=ari-tatashi= (_tatsu_, _tateru_), be erect, standing up, 14, 139.

=ari-tateru= (_ari-tatashi_).

=arite ya= = _arite namu ya_, 20.

=aritsuru= (_ari_), 48.

=aritsutsu= (_ari_), 39.

=ari-yeneba= = _ye-tahe araneba_, intolerable, unsupportable, 24, 67.

=aru=, be, exist, be at or in, 24, 67.

=aruhiha=, or, and again, T.

=arukedo= (_aruku_, walk), 205.

=arukishi= (_aruku_), 64.

=arumi= (_aruru-umi_), waste sea, 100.

=aruraku= (_aruru_), 23, 95.

=aruramu= (_aruru_), 106.

=aruru= (be waste, uncultivated, desolate), 190.

=aruzhi= (_aru-nushi_), lord, house master, T.

=asa=, morning, 3, 4, 10, 12, 117.

=asa=, hemp, 24.

=asa-biraku=, morn-open, dawn, 262.

=asadachi no=, m. k.

=asa-dzukuyo=, morning moonlight, 114.

=asa-fusuma=, hempen plaid, coverlet, sleeping-dress, 67.

=asa-gari=, morning hunt, 3.

=asa-giri=, morning mist, 224.

=asa-hi-nasu=, morning sun-like, 136.

=asahisashi=, m. k.

=asa-kami=, morning (disordered) hair, 60.

=asa-kaze=, morning wind, 97.

=asa-kinu=, hempen vestment, mantle, 124.

=asamashigari=, _asamashiku_, idea of alarm, struck with wonder, fear,
&c., or broken-down, pusillanimous (with fear, wonder, hardship, &c.)
(_akereru_, _ozomashi_), T.

=asamoyoshi=, m. k.

=asa-nagi=, morning calm, 80.

=asanasana= (_asana-asana_), morning after morning, 70.

=asarishi= (_asaru_), pick up food (as birds, &c.), 220, 226.

=asasarazu= (_-- hanarazu_), every morning, 223.

=asa-tedzukuri=, hempen hand-made, home-made, 203: see notes (_te sei_,
_te ori_, _ono ga te no tsukuri_, tribute cloth (hand-end)).

=asa-tori=, morning birds, 20.

=asa-tsuyu=, morning dew, 123.

=asa-yohi=, morn and even, 48.

=asa-yufu=, morn and even, Ta.

=ase=, sweat.

=ase-kake=, break out in sweat, 110.

=ashi= (_yoshi_), reed, Phragmites communis, 70, 198.

=ashi=, foot, Ta, _ashi moto_, where the feet are, Ts.

=ashi-he= (_he_), reedy place, marsh, 96.

=ashibi= (_asebi_), Andromeda jap^a., 98.

=ashibiki= (_ashihiki_) =no=, m. k.

=ashi-gamo=, reed-duck, 225.

=ashige=, reed colour, grey, 185.

=ashihara=, reed-plain, 22.

=ashi-he= (_ashi-be_).

=ashi-kaki=, reed-fence, 123, 155.

=ashikaranu=, not bad, not uncomely, 98.

=ashikaru=, reed-reap, 223.

=ashikeku=, bad, unworthy, 70.

=ashiki= (_-ku-karamu_), evil, bad, T.

=ashita=, morrow, 3, 29, 70.

=ashi-tori=, pull out by feet, T.

=ashi-zuri=, shuffle feet (sign of agitation), 105, 116.

=aso= = _yaso_, 80; i.e. very many, all, 139.

=asobaku= (_asobu_), 246.

=asobamu= (_asobu_), 84.

=asobane= (_asobu_), precative imperative, 246.

=asobashishi= (_asobu_), past hon. caus., 183.

=asobi= (_asobu_), 21.

=asobikemu= (_asobu_), 64.

=asobishi= (_asobu_), 84.

=asobu=, do, be pleased, deign to do, be diverted, amused, go or travel
for one’s own pleasure, more or less hon. quasi-auxil., vb., 33.

=asoso= (_wadzuka ni_), somewhat, slightly, 57 (note).

=asu=, to-morrow, 21, 105.

=ata= (_ada_) _mamoru_, foe-ward, observe, guard against enemy, 86, 258.

=atahi=, price (_atafu_, _atahanu_ = be equivalent, equal to--as in
combat &c.).

=atamitaru=, hostile, fierce, 24.

=atara=, excellent, precious, valuable, 250 (note).

=atara-mi= (_atara_).

=atara-shiki= (_atara_), 144, 190 (the mod. _atarashiki_ = new, fresh,

=atari=, neighbourhood, locality, 17, 55.

=atenaru=, of gentle, or noble birth, _ate_ said to be _uhate_, upper
hand, or government, T.--perhaps an Ainu word, comp. _Atahe_, name of
a rank.

=ateyaka ni=, gracefully, nobly, T.

=ato=, trace, step, 50, 198, in 67 _ato no katu_, foot of (bed).

=atomohi= (_atomofu_, _adomofu_) = _tomonafu_, _hikiiru_, conduct,
lead, invite, 113.

=atosuwe=, course, or track, Ta.

=atsukeku=, warm, 110.

=atsumari= (_-u-inu_), assemble, T.

=atsumi=, crowded, 71, 227, in last refers to mountains, as _hiromi_,
wide-spaced, widespread (or numerous?) to rivers.

=atsumuru=, gather, collect (persons &c.), T.

=awatenu=, composed, not agitated (_awate awatsu_), T.

=awo=, blue-green, green, blue, sort of grey (with _koma_ 17, _nami_
102, _hata_ 55), _awoma_, however, seems = clear-coloured, i.e. white

=awohata no=, m. k.

=awokaki=, green bush-fence, 11.

=awoki= (_awo_).

=awo-kumo=, blue clouds (apparently cumulus clouds are meant), 186.

=awokumo no= (_awogumo no_), m. k., _shirakumo_, white clouds, would be

=awoniyoshi=, m. k.

=awosuga=, green rush, 14.

=awoyari= (_yanagi_), green willow, 247.

=awoyama=, green hill, 14.

=awoyeri=, green collar, or border, 124.

=aya=, pattern, design, also a fine stuff, or fabric (silk?),
_nishiki-aya_, coloured, or brocaded fabric, 124.

=ayafusa=, danger, T.

=ayamachi=, offence, error, 200.

=ayamatazu= (_ayamatsu-chi_), not be wrong, not in error.

=ayame-kusa= (_gusa_), sweet-flag Acorus calamus, 224, 226 (_ayame_),
however, is Iris sibirica.

=aya ni=, strange, extraordinary, extremely, 21, 24, 25, 72, 131.

=ayashigari= (_ayashiki_), T.

=ayashiki=, strange, 13, 44.

=ayashimi= (_ayashiki_).

=ayenu=, be quite full-blown, ripe--_ayuru-mi_, ripe fruit.

=ayu=, trout, 189.

=ayu=, east-wind (Echizen dialect), soft wind, 223.

=ayuhi=, traveller’s leggings, 224.

=ayuko=, troutlet, 51.

=ayumi= (_u_), go on foot, walk, T.

=ayuru=, be full-blown, ripe, 231.

=azane-yuhi=, bind up, knot up (hair &c.), 168.

=ba= for _ha_ = _wo ba_, 6.

✱=baikuwa=, plum-flowers, Ta.

=bakari= (_hakari_), just, only, 67.

✱=bambutsu=, all things, nature, Ta.

✱=bammin=, all people, the whole people, Ta.

✱=bammoku=, all trees, Ta.

✱=ban=, watch, guard, T.

✱=banzei=, a myriad years, Ta.

=be=, a collective word = _kamidachibe_, T.; perhaps = _mure_, guild,

=chi=, milk (human), 204.

=chi=, a thousand, 15.

_-- he_, a thousandfold.

_-- yo_, a thousand ages or reigns.

=chichi=, father.

_-- haha_, father and mother, parents, 48, 62, 67.

=chichi=, maiden-hair tree (Ginkgo biloba), 262; _chichi no mi_,
quibbling epithet of _chichi_, father.

=chidori=, dotterel, sanderling, 74, 84, 96.

=chifu= = _to ifu_ (that-say) = is called, known as, 49, 51, 62, 94,

=chigiri=, blood-cut, hence oath, promise, T.

=chigo=, child (at breast), T.

=chigusa=, 1,000 herbs, all sorts, T.

=chihahi= (_sachihahi_, _saihai_), blessing, gracious acceptance by a
god of prayer, offering, &c., 110.

=chihayaburu=, m. k.

=chihe= (_chi_), _no hito he_, a thousandth, 27, 55, 85, 155.

=chikami= (_-ki_), near, 93, 96.

=chikara=, strength, T.

=chimari= = _tomari_, 260.

=chimata=, road, path, 204.

=chirafu= (_chiru_), 17.

=chiraheru= (_chirafu_, _chiru_), 201.

=chirasu= (_chiru_), 92, 101.

=chiri=, dust.

=chirihiji=, dust and dirt, Ts.

=chiri-kosu=, scatter away, 101.

=chiri-midari=, disperse-confusedly.

=chirinamu= (_chiru_).

=chirinuru= (_chiru_).

=chiri-sugi=, scatter, scatter and pass away, 192.

=chiru=, fall and scatter (leaves, flowers, &c.).

=chisa=, a lettuce (_chisha_), Lactuca scariola, L., 230.

=chi-tabi=, 1,000, very many, times, T.

=chi-tose=, a thousand years, 92.

✱=chiu-na-gon=, a councillor of state, T.

✱=chiyau= (_cho_), a curtain, T.

=chiyauzhiya= (_chôja_), rich or elder, chief merchant.

=chi-yorodzu=, a thousand myriads, 86, 133.

✱=chiyou-sesase= (_chôsesase_), punish, T.

✱=chiyufu-shiyau= (_chushô_ or _-jô_), lieutenant-general, T.

✱=chokushi=, royal order; ukase, T.

=da-basami= (_ta-hasamu_), hold under arm, or by side, 31.

=dachi= = _tachi_, plur. suffix, T.

✱=dai=, great; _-- kuwan_, great petition or desire; _-- zhin_
(_otodo_), _-- nagon_, great councillor, T.

=dani=, even, &c., _dani mo_, 249; with neg. not at all, 27, 30.

=dashi=, caus. of _idzuru_, T.

=de=, =idzuru=.

=desesu= (_funa wo_), float forth, launch boat, 11.

=detachi=, set out, depart, start, 250.

=dete=, go out or forth, start (_idzuru_), 105.

=dochi=, companion, mate, comrade, comp. _dachi_ in _tomodachi_, 27,
215, 219, 245.

=domo=, plural suffix; _kodomo_, children, 197.

=domo=, concessive particle; see gramm.

✱=do sha=, soil and sand, Ta.

=doyomu= (_toyomu_), resound, re-echo, 111, 161.

=dzutahi= (_tsutafu_), pass by or over (_amadzutahi_, _shima --_, 44).

=fu-basami= (_fumi-basami_), bamboo cleft to hold petition

=fuchi=, pool, deep still water (river, &c.), 27.

=fude= (_fumi-te_, writing-thing), pen-brush, 210.

=fukaku= (=-i=), deep, 59.

=fukami=, =fukameshi=, =fukamete=, deep-be, deep-like, 17.

=fuka-midori=, deep green, Ta.

=fukamiru=, deep-seaweed, _miru_ is Codium tomentosum, 17, 83, 172.

=fukare= (_fuku_), T.

=fukase= (_fuku_), T.

=fukeru=, grow late, 161.

=fuki-kayeshi=, blow-back, T.

=fuki-kurete=, Ta., darkening under (pine) wind.

=fuki-mahasu= (_shi_), blow round, about, T.

=fukinaseru=, blow-resound, = _fuki-naraseru_ (_fuki-narasu_), 24.

=fukishi kahereba= = _fuki kaherishi areba_, blow and blow, not =
_fuki-kahesu_, 128.

=fuki-tatezu=, blow-rise-not (smoke, &c.), 67.

=fuki-yoserare=, get blown, be blown towards, on, T.

=fuku=, blow (wind), 161.

=fukumeru=, contain (as bud the flower, &c.), 108.

=fukure= (_-ru_), be swollen, T.

=fukuro=, bag, T.

=fukushi= (_fugushi_), a sort of spade or trowel, 1.

=fumasuramu= (_fumu_).

=fumedomo= (_fumu_) (Chinese _wen_).

=fumi=, a writing, 13.

=fumi-narashi=, tread level, 92.

=fumi-nuku=, tread-pierce, trample on and discard, 62.

=fumi-okoshi=, trample-rouse, beat (deer, &c.), 52.

=fumi tahiragezu=, not trample level, not much more than ‘pace about

=fumi-tate=, trample-start, beat (game, as birds, &c.), 52.

=fumi-tsuki= (_hofufumi --_), ear-ripen month, seventh month, 127.

=fumi-tsurane=, make way through on foot, 168.

=fumodashi= (_fumi wo hodashi_), foot-fetter, halter, &c., 211.

=fumoto=, base of mountain, Ts.

=fumu= (_fumi_), trample, tread on.

=funa= (_fune_), boat, ship, 68.

=funa-bito=, sailor, T.

=funa-de=, boat-start, 199.

=funa-ji=, ship-track, Ta.

=funa-ko=, boatman, sailor, 116.

=funa-yosohi=, preparation of boat for departure, equip, &c.

=funa-zoko=, bottom of boat, T.

=fune= (_funa_), boat, &c.

=furafu= (_furu_), 23.

=fureba= (_furu_).

=furezu= (_furu_).

=furi= (_furu_), shower down.

=furi-kahashi=, flutter together, reciprocally, 64.

=furi-kaheshi=, flutter (of sleeves so as to show inside in motion of
rowing or sculling), 220.

=furikemu= (_furu_).

=furiki= (_furu_).

=furikinu= (_furu_).

=furi-midari=, shower down confusedly, 34.

=furinishi=, old, become old, 77, 95.

_-- furu_, to pass.

=furi-okeru=, be showered down and lie on, 37.

=furi-okoshi=, shake, arouse, excite, 214, 261.

=furisake-miru=, contemplate, gaze at, 21, 236.

=furite= (_furu_), pass, elapse; _toshi furu_, grow old, Ta.

=furiteshi= (_furu_, touch), 183.

=furi-tsutsu= (_furu_).

=furu=, fall (snow, rain, &c.), 8.

=furu=, shake, brandish, flutter, 142.

=furuki=, old, not new, 39.

=furukoromo=, old vestment, 89.

=furumahi= (_furumafu_), feast, banquet, 52.

=furu-sato= (one’s old village, home), 60.

=fuse-iho=, mean cabin, tumble-down hut, 67.

=fuseraku= (_fuseru_), lie prostrate, 66.

=fuseru= (see _fuseraku_), 195, 214.

=fuseya=, lean-against-hut, bridal-hut, 47. See note translation.

=fuseya-taki=, m. k.

=fushi=, internode of bamboo, tract or space (time or length), 250.

=fushi= (_fusu_), lie prostrate, 24.

=fushi-afugi=, lie prostrate and look up, 70.

✱=fushigi=, strange, wondrous, Ta.

✱=fushin=, strange, Ta.

=fushi-wi=, lie-be-prostrate, 25.

=fushi-wogami= (_u_), prostrate in prayer, T.

=fusuma=, coverlet, or wadded sleeping-garment, 67.

=futa= (_tsu_), two, 66.

=futa=, lid, 219.

=futa-bito=, two persons, T.

=futagi= (_w_), cover, shut (lid), T.

=futari=, two persons, 50.

=futa-tabi=, twice, 127.

=futatsu=, two, T.

=futatsu tatsu=, stand two together, 210.

=futaya= (_futa-aya_), two-coloured pattern, 203.

=futo=, suddenly, T.

=futoshiki=, _futoshikasu_, stout, massive, make, build, or be --.

=futoshiritate=, vast-know-set-up, i.e. govern, reign majestically, 262.

=futsu=, two, T.

=futsuka=, two days, 181.

=fu-tsuki= (_fumi_, or perhaps _fufumi-tsuki_), [fullest moon (lunar)
month i.e.] seventh lunar month, Aug.-Sept., month of harvest moon.

✱=fuufu=, man and wife, Ta.

✱=fuusei=, sound, voice of wind, Ta.

=fuye=, flute.

=fuye-fuki=, play flute, 211.

=fuyu=, winter.

=fuyu-komori=, m. k.

=fuyu-kumoriku= = _fuyukumori_.

=fuzhi=, Wistaria.

=ga=, gramm. part.

✱=gai=, injury, T.

=ga mo=, gramm. part.

=gana= = _kana_.

=gane=, =gani= (_nasu_), like, 65, 101.

=gara= (_karada_?), kind of affix signifying sort, class, quality, &c.;
_ya gara dochi_, members of a family.

=garu= (_i_) = _ge aru_; affix signifying condition, state, T.

=gata= (_kata_).

=gatera=, while, at same time as, with verbs, almost = _nagara_.

=ge ni=, verily, T.

✱=genzhiyau-raku=, name of a musical piece, =Joyeuse-Rentrée=, Ta.

✱=gi=, thing, matter, Ta.

=giri= = _kiri_, mist.

=gisu= = _ki su_, T.

✱=go=, five, T.

✱=go ran=, pray look, see, T.

=goro= (_koro_), period, time.

=goto= = _gotoku_.

=gotoku=, like, similar.

=goto ni=, after nouns = each, every time.

✱=gushi= (_su_), accompany, T.

✱=guwan=, desire, petition, T.

=ha=, gramm. part.

=ha=, leaf.

=ha=, eight, T.

=haakara= (_hahakarada_), uterine brethren?

=habakari= (_u_), spread over (_amakumo_), 36.

=habakari= (_u_), fear, hesitate, 260.

=haberazameri= (_haberi-aru_ = _haberu_), neg. fut., T.

=haberi=, serve, attend on (a superior), be, is, &c. (_-- ru_, _--
ranu_, _-- rikemu_, _ritsuru_), T.

=hachi=, bowl, T.

=hachisu= (_hasu_), Lotus lily, Nelumbo nucifera, Gaert.

=hada=, bare skin, body surface, 105.

=hadzu=, bow-end, notch.

=hadzukashi= (_-ku_, &c.), feeling ashamed, T.

=hafu=, extend, _hahe_.

=hafu=, creep, 17, 46, 219.

=hafu=, gable-end, roof, T.

=hafuri=, _miya_ attendants, lower _shinto_ priests, 24, 182.

=hafuri= (_u_), bury.

=ha-furi= (_u_), wing-shake, 247.

=hafu-tsuta=, creeping ivy.

=hagami= (_u_), gnash teeth.

=hageshi=, violent, T.

=hagi=, bush clover, Lespedeza.

=hagitari= (_hagu_), strip (bark), 211.

=hagoromo=, feather robe, T.

=haha=, mother.

=hahaso=, Quercus dentata, 239.

=hahasobano=, quibbling m. k. of _haha_, mother, 262.

=hahete=, =haheru= (1) look fine; (2) grow, flourish.

=hahezu= = _hayezu_.

=hahi= (_hafu_), creep.

=hahi-hirogori= (_u_), creep and spread widely, Ts.

=hahi-nobori=, creep up, T.

=hahi-norite= (_noru_), climb up on and ride (horse), 67.

=hairete= (_hairu_), put in, 199.

=haji=, shame, T.; _-- mise_, show up to shame, T.

=hajishiku=, ashamed, T.

=haka=, tomb.

=hakanaki=, fugitive, passing, impermanent, uncertain, Ts., T.

=hakari= (_u_), consider, weigh.

=hakashi= (_hakasu_), gird on, 105.

=hakazu= (_haku_), not draw on (boots, &c.), 124.

=haki-kiyome=, sweep-out and make tidy.

=hako=, box, coffer, 105, 210, T.

=hakure=, reeve (rope through bull’s nostrils), 211.

=hama=, shore, 40.

=hamabe=, shore and vicinity, shore.

=hamamatsu=, Suaeda glauca, Bge.

=hamana=, Tetragonia expansa, a seaweed thrown up on shore is meant in

=hameba= (_hamu_), chew, eat, 63.

=hamedo= (_hamu_), 205.

=hana=, flower, blossom.

=hanabishi bishi to= = _hanabishi hanabishi_, snuffle, snort, 67.

=hanachi= (_tsu_), let go, let loose, T.

=hanachikemu= (_hanatsu_), let go, let fly.

=hanada=, deep blue.

=hana-dzuma= (flower-spouse), one of a pair of flowers, 232.

=hanahada=, very.

=hanare=, be apart, far parted from, 66.

=hanare-wite=, being apart from, 18.

=hanari=, parted, as hair falling down to either shoulder
(_furi-wake-gami_), 125.

=hanasusuki= (_obana_), Miscanthus sinensis, Ts.

=hanatachibana= (_natsumikan_) = Citrus bigaradia.

=hanatsu= (_hanachikemu_), 173.

=hana-wemi=, flower-smile.

=hane= (_ru_), beat water with scull.

=hanekaki=, flap wings, Ts.

=hara=, plain, waste, moor.

=hara=, belly, T.

=harafu=, clear away.

=haragara=, uterine brethren, 49.

=harahite= (_harafu_), 84.

=hara-kiri-warahi=, cut-belly-laugh, i.e. laugh to split sides, T.

=harara ni=, in a scattered way, 259.

=haratatashiki= (_d_), angry, lit. belly-up, T.

=hari=, alder (Alnus jap^a.), 203, 248.

=hari= (_haru_), T.

=harobaro= (_harubaru_), far, far away, 247, 261.

=haru=, stretch, spread-out, hang, T.

=haru=, spring-time.

=harubaru= (_harobaro_).

=haru-hana=, spring-blossoms (plum and cherry).

=harusame= (_haru-tsu-ame_?), spring showers, 108, 215.

=haru-tori=, spring birds.

=hasamu=, grasp, clasp.

=hashi=, margin, border, limit, extreme, 24, 239.

=hashi=, bridge, ladder.

=hashi= (as in _hashikiyoshi_), fine, beautiful (_Hashiudo_, pr. name =
fair person, that is, fair woman).

=hashikiru=, cut-end-off, 67.

=hashikiyashi= (_yo shi_), fine, beautiful, 30, 246.

=hashimukafu=, m. k.

=hashiri= (_u_), run = _washiri_, T.

=hashita=, small fragment, partly--_tatsu mo iru mo --_ = half inclined
to depart, half to enter, T.

=hashitate=, erect ladder, ladder.

=hata=, twenty, Ts.

=hata=, flag, banner.

=hatake=, cultivated (not paddy) land, 234.

=hatasazu= (_hatasu_), not achieve, accomplish.

=hatasusuki= (_ôbana_), apparently = _hanasusuki_ (Kogi), 127, 213.

=hatate= (_hate_), end, 99.

=hata-tose=, twenty years, T.

=hate=, _hatemu_, come to end of (as voyage), 68.

=hatsu=, opening, earliest (bloom, &c.), _-- hana_ (231); _-- kowe_
(242); _-- tare_ (211).

=hatsuki=, eighth (lunar) month, Sept.-Oct.

=hatsuru= (_hate_), to end, 234.

✱=hau= (_hô_) = _kata_, T.

=haya=, soon, quickly, 98.

=hayakaha=, swift stream, 62.

=hayakareba= (_hayaku-aru_).

=hayaku=, swift, early.

=hayami= (_hayaku_); _mi_, see gramm.

=hayasane= (_hayasu_), prec. imperat.

=hayashi=, grove, wood.

=hayashi= (_hayasu_), praise, 210.

=hayate=, squall, sudden storm of wind, T.

=hayezu= (_haeru-noberu_), not extend, draw out.

=hayuru=, flourish, 26.

=hazhime=, begin, 14, 127.

=hazhi-yumi=, bow of _hazhi_; see note, 263.

=hazu= (see _hadzu_), bow-end, notch.

=he= (_hedateru_), 213.

=he=, place, quarter, _nu he_, _no he_, _umi he_.

=he=, littoral, as opposed, _oki_, deep, waters, 68.

=he= (_uhe_), 33.

=he= (_heru_, _hete_, _furu_), pass on, elapse, T.

=hedate= (_ru_), interval, space, distance between, be parted from by,

=hehi= (_hibi_), day by day, 79.

✱=henguye= (_henge_), transformation, metamorphosis, T.

=henu= (_heru_, _henurau_), pass, elapse, Ta., 50.

=henu= = _furu_.

=henureba= (_heru_).

✱=henzhi= (_henji_), answer, T.

=he tsu kai=, shallows’ scull, also starboard, 19 (see note); confer K.
App. V. _Hetsukai_ is opposed to _okitsukai_.

=he-yukeba= (_heru_), pass on, 146.

=hi=, sun, day, flame, fire.

=hi= (_hiru_), dry, 50.

=hi no ki=, Chamaecyparis obtusa, 13, 135.

=hibiku=, echo, resound, Ta.

=hidzuchi= (_hidzutsu_, _hidzu_), be drenched, wet through, 23, 184.

=higashi= (_himukashi_), towards sun, East, T.

=hige=, beard, face-hair, 67, 262.

=higoro=, some days ago, some time, T.

=higoto=, day-by-day, 221.

=higure=, dusk of day, T.

=hikari=, (_u_), light, glow, blaze, 31, 233.

=hikari-michi=, be full of glow, radiance, T.

=hi ke ni=, _hi kihe ni_, as days pass on.

=hiki= (_u_), pull, draw, lead, 92; in composition, rather indicates
commencement or particularity of action.

=hiki-age=, draw, lift up, T.

=hiki= ✱=gushi=, bring along, ‘emmener’, T.

=hiki-hanatsu=, draw-let-go (bow-string), 24.

=hiki-kake= = _kake_.

=hiki-noboru= (_noboru_).

=hiki-ori=; pull-break, i.e. break, (make deviate, alter course).

=hiki-sugi= (_u_), bring, lead, pass, beyond, T.

=hiki-uwe=, take and plant, 244.

=hiki-yojite= (_yojiru_).

=hikobi=, a sort of _obi_ (girdle).

=hikodzurahi= (_hiko-tsuru_), draw, haul, 171.

=hi-kohori=, ice-frozen, 15.

=hiko-ye=, latter, smaller twigs, 231.

=hi-kurashi=, till day darkens, all day, 183.

=hima=, small space, or interval, crevice [leisure], T.

=hime=, princess, lady.

=hime-kabura=, a kind of drumming arrow, 210.

=hime-matsu=, lady-Pine (of Suminoye), Ta.

=himo=, fastening cord, girdle, &c.

=himukashi= (_higashi_), East, 189.

=hina=, wild country, frontier.

=hi-naku=, _hi_ = _hiru_, dry, 50.

=hinazakaru=, frontier-distant.

=hinemosu=, all day, 111.

=hinezumi=, fire-rat, salamander, T.

=hi-no miko=, sun-prince.

=hi-no-tate=, probably East.

=hi-no-yoko=, probably West.

=hirakase=, open, 178.

=hiraki= (_u_), be open, open.

=hirame= (_uru_), flatten, T.

=hirameki=, flash, glitter (float, flutter, wave about), T.

=hira-se=, watery expanse, or pool, 246.

=hire=, scarf, veil, wimple, κρήδεμνον, rica.

=hireba= (_hiru_, dry).

=hirifu= (_hirofu_), pick up, gather, 181.

=hirihamu= (_hirifu_).

=hirihi-tori=, pick up, 199, 144.

=hiro=, fathom, 239.

=hiroge=, open, unroll, T.

=hirokeki= (_hiroshi_), spacious.

=hiroki= (_hiroshi_).

=hiromari=, extend, spread, Ts.

=hiromi= (_hiroshi_).

=hiroshi=, wide, spacious, 136.

=hiru=, day-time.

=hiru=, dry, be dry, 21, 73.

=hisakatano=, m. k.

=hi sa-manemi= (_manemi_ = _maneshi_, numerous, &c.), very many days.

=hisame= = _hitaame_, shower (rain), (_hisame_ is also hail), 30.

=hisa ni= (_hisashiku_), long time, 181.

=hi-sarashi=, sun-blanch, 203.

=hisashiku= (_hisa ni_), long (time), 35.

=hishimu=, ebb, 44.

=hita=, simple, plain.

=hitaburu ni= (_hitasura_), earnestly, T.

=hitachi= (_hitatsuchi_).

=hitahi=, forehead, T.

=hitakuro=, quite black, all black, T.

=hitasa-wo=, plain (unbleachen?) yarn, 124.

=hitateri=, shining, dazzling, 231.

=hitatsuchi=, plain, bare ground, 67, 168.

=hito=, one, _hitohe_, one-fold, simple.

=hito=, one man; another, other, 231, 180, 113.

=hitobito=, men, persons, T.

=hito-dzuma=, another man’s wife.

=hito-giki=, men-hear, rumour, T.

=hito-goto= (_hito no uwasa_), men’s report, 49.

=hitohe= (_hito_).

=hitoma=, while or where no man present, T.; or, some place, a place

=hitome=, one glance, 101, 215.

=hitome=, man’s eyes, sight of men.

=hitonami=, as usual, ordinary, 67.

=hitori=, alone, or one.

=hitori-bitori=, in T. = _hitori_.

=hitoshi=, equal, alike.

=hitotsu=, one, T.

=hito yo=, one of the three _yo_--i.e. the present one.

=hi-tsugi=, sun-descent, 227.

=hi-tsuki=, days and months, time.

=hi-tsura= (_hita-ura_), simple-lined, or unlined, unwadded, 203.

✱=hiyaku=, one hundred, all; _hiyaku kuwan_, all the officials, T.

✱=hiyaushi= (_hyôshi_), be in accord, or tune with (music), Ta.

=hiza=, knee.

=hizhiri=, sage, priest.

✱=hizhiyau= (_hizhô_), lifeless, Ta.

=ho=, sail, Ta.

=ho=, spike, ear, florescence (Midzuho), _ho nideru_, be in ear.

=ho=, _100 ya ho yorodzu_, 800 myriads, countless.

=ho=, top, _hotsuye_, top branchage, 108, 139.

=hodo=, quantity, measure, extent (_tsuki no hodo ni_, as the moon
waxed), T.

=hodonaku=, at once, T.

=hodo ni=: see gramm.

=hogi= (_u_): see _hosagu_.

✱=ho-i-naku= (_hon-i-naku_), against one’s will.

=hoka=, other, _hokazama_, other way, astray, T.

=hoki= (_u_): see _hosagu_.

=hokori= (_u_), be proud of, boast, 105.

=hokorohedo= (_hokori_), 67.

=hokoroheru= (_hokori_), 203.

=hokosugi=, spear-shaft-_sugi_, i.e. _sugi_ tree tall as a _hoko_,

✱=hoku-ro=, north-dew (on sunless side of plants), Ts.

✱=honchiyau= (_honchô_), homeland, Japan, Ts.

=ho ni= (_honoka_).

=honoka ni=, dimly, faintly, 196.

=hori= (_u_), love, _me wo hori_, 138.

=hori-suwe=, scoop, dig hollow to place thing in, 42.

=hosagu= (_hosaku_) = _ihafu_, bless, 257.

=hosazu= (_hosu_), not dry, 48, 50.

=hoshi= (_hosu_), to dry.

=hoshiki= (_hoshii_), desirable, 133.

=hoshisa=, desire, envy for, T.

=hoso=, thin, slender, 203.

=hotaru=, pretty, T.

=hotaru-nasu=, m. k.

=hotoke=, Buddha, darling, T.

=hototogisu=, cuckoo, Cuculus poliocephalus.

=hotsu= (_hatsu_?): see _hotsute_.

=hotsutaka=, chief, favourite hawk, 225.

=hotsute=, chief, headman, perhaps _ho-tsu-te_.

=hotsuye=, top branches, 107.

=hoye= (_hoyuru_), to back, 159.

=i=, prefix (value uncertain), 3, 15.

=i=, affix, perhaps Korean article.

=i=, _i no ne_ = _nuru_ (_neru_), sleep, 44.

=ibaye=, neigh, 185.

=ibuki-madohashi=, distracted with doubt, gloom, anxiety.

=ibusemi=, gloomy.

✱=ichi=, one, whole, T.

=ichi=, place of market, sort of town.

=ichihi= (_ichiwi_), Taxus cuspidata, S. and Z., 210.

=ichishiruku=: see next word.

=ichizhiruku=, plain, evident, 81, 204.

=ide=, often a sort of auxiliary prefix verb, also exclamative.

=ide-ahi=, T.

=ide-ki=, T.

=ide-kite=, come (from somewhere) 105.

=idemashi=, a royal progress, 57.

=ide-mi= (_mu_), go or come out and see, 197.

=ide-miru= (_idemimu_).

=ide-mishi= (_ide-miru_).

=ide-sohe= (_sofu_), T.

=ide-tachi=, start, 173, 190, 218.

=idete= (_idzuru_).

=ide-wite=, be in place one has come or gone to.

=ide-yukaba=, =ide-yukasu=, =ide-yukishi= = =ide-yuku=, set out, go
forth, 50.

=idezu=, not go out, 120, 206.

=idzuku=, in what place, where, whither, 63, 64.

=idzura=, where (comp. _dochira_, _achira_).

=idzure=, where, what.

=idzuru= (_deru_), go out, come out, start, 206.

=ifu=, speak, say.

=ifukarishi= (_ibu-_), _utsutsu to shite_, be gloomy, sad, 110.

=i-fuki= (_fuku_), blow.

=ifusemi= (_ibusemi_), 125, 232.

=iha=, rock, stone, 12.

=iha-bashiru=, m. k.

=ihafu= (_ihahi_), bless, congratulate, Ts.

=ihahamu= (_ihafu_), bless.

=iha-hashi=, rock-bridge, stepping-stones or natural bridge.

=ihaheru= (_ihafu_): see gramm.

=ihahi= (_ihafu_), _ihahi-uta_, Ts.

=i-hahi= (_hafu_), creep.

=ihahi he= (_be_), sacrificial jar, 42, 119.

=ihahi-ko=, girl well brought up, i.e. of good position, 124.

=ihahi-suge=, sacred reed.

=ihaho=, rock, cliff, 93.

=iha-kaki=, rock-fence.

=iha-kamahe= (_g_), rock-enclosure, stone-construction (of piled
stones), 122.

=iha ki=, stones and stocks.

=ihaku= (_ifu_), _ihaku mo shiruku_, 59.

=ihamaku= (_ifu_) = _ihamu_.

=ihamu= (_ifu_).

=iha-ne=, stone, rock (part sunk in earth), peak.

=i ha nezute= = _nezute_ (_nuru_), not sleep, 156.

=ihare= (_ifu_), also reason, explanation, story.

=iha-to=, rock-door.

=ihatoko= (_d_), rock-couch, flat top of rock, 156, 187.

=ihayeshi= (_ifu_) = _ihayuru_, what is called …, 48.

=ihazu= (_ifu_), not-say, 60, 121.

=ihe= (_ru_), was, is said, 119.

=ihe= (_i-he_), dwell-place, abode, house, home.

=iheba= (_ifu_), 59.

=ihe-bito=, house-folk, 200.

=ihe-de=, house-, home-leave (possibly = sometimes _shukke_, Buddhist
renouncement of world).

=iheraku= (_iheru_, _ifu_), 105.

=iheru= (_ihe_, _ifu_).

=ihe-tsu-tori=, house-bird; _kake_, cock.

=ihe-wasure=, home-forget, abandon.

=ihe-zakari=, be far from home, 61.

=ihi=, boiled rice.

=ihi= (_ifu_), say, speak, T.

=ihi-oku=, say and leave, hand down, Ta.

=ihidzurabi= (_ihitsuru_), 171.

=ihi-hazhime=, begin to say, T.

=ihi-itari=, was saying, T.

=ihi-kakare=, address, T.

=ihi-kashiku=, boil rice, 67.

=ihi-kereba= (_ifu_).

=ihi-oki=, say, order, T.

=i-hirihi= (_hirifu_, _hirofu_), 209.

=ihitate=, declare, announce, T.

=ihiteshi= (_ifu_), 192.

=ihi-tsugahikeru= (_ihi-tsugi_).

=ihi-tsugeru=, tell, 30.

=ihi-tsugi=, hand down story of, 65.

=ihi-tsugitaru= (_ihi-tsugi_).

=ihitsuru= (_ifu_).

=ihitsutahe= (_-afu_), hand down orally, T.

=ihi-tsute-keraku= (_ihi-tsutahikeru_).

=ihi-wadzurahi=, be averse from saying, T.

=ihi-yaramu=, say-send, make known to, communicate, 158.

=iho=, hut, 25.

=i-ho-chi=, five hundred thousands.

=i-ho-he=, five-hundred-fold, 86.

=ihori= (_iho-wori_), abide in hut, _ihorite_, 30, 78.

=iho-ye=, 500 (countless) branches, 78, 211.

=i-ho-yorodzu=, 500 myriads.

=i-imo= (_imo_), 53.

=ika=, how, how much, T.

=ika-bakari=, just how much, T.

=ikada=, raft, 13, 135.

=ikade=, how, what amount, &c.

=ikadeka=, howsoever, somehow, T.

=ikaga=, how, T.

=i-kaki-watari= (_watari_), _ikameshiu_, with dignity, severity, T.

=i-kakuru= (_kakuru_).

=ikanaru=, what sort of, what? T.

=ika ni=, how, &c., 31.

=i-kari= = _kari_ (hunt).

=ikaru= (_ikaruga_).

=i-karuga=, a bird: see 139.

=ikasama=, how, after what fashion? _-- ni oboshimese ka_, 48, 49; _--
ka_, in some way, for some reason, or other, 22.

=ikatsuchi= (_dz_), thunder, 24.

=ika-=✱=yau= (_ikayô_) = _ikasama_, T.

=ike=, pond, pool.

=ikeramu= (_ikeru_), 146.

=ikerazhi=, not-be-alive, not-live, 124.

=ikeri-tomo= (_ikeru_).

=ikeru=, be alive, 125.

=ike-tori=, take alive, 210.

=iki= = _yuki_ (_u_), T.

=iki=, breath, life, 101, 117. _-- no wo_, thread of life, life, 155.

=iki= (_iku_), live, Ta.

=iki-dohoru= (_t_), revive, cheer, 236, note.

=iki-dzuke= (_iki-dzuki_).

=iki-dzuki= (_ts_), breath-stick, gasp, 28, 69, 102.

=ikihohi=, power, influence, T.

=iki sahe tayete= = _iki-tayete_, breath-fail, 105.

✱=ikken=, one look, a glance, look, Ta.

=i-kogi= (_kogu_).

✱=ikoku=, barbarian lands, Ta.

=i-koroshi= (_su_), aim at and kill, T.

=ikubaku=, very, ever so much, 124.

=ikuda=, how much, much, many; _-- mo_, ever so much; _-- -- arazu_,
some, few, 17.

=i-kuhi= (_kuhi_), 151.

=ikuri=, sea-bottom (muddy?), 79.

=ikusa=, host, forces, army, war, 24.

=ima=, now, presently, 3, 108, 161.

=imada=, not yet, 24, 61.

=i-maki= (_maki_).

=imasamu=, =imasane=, =imasanu= (_imasu_).

=ima sara=, now again, 204; now at all events, T.

=imase=, =-- ba=, =-- taru= (_imasu_).

=imashinu= (_imasu_).

=imashi-ra=, ye, you, 87.

=imashite= (_imasu_).

=imasu=, hon. form., be-in-at, &c.

=imasukari= (_imasogaru-i_) = _imasu ga ari_, T.; = _ohashimasu_.

=ime= (_yume_), 18, 60, 161.

=i-me=, archers, bow-men, 76, 159.

=imi= (_u_), _tabu_, forbid, keep pure, clean, 162.

=imi= (_u_), keep out, ward off (203), dislike, shun, _tabu_, T.

=imizhiku=, very, extremely, magnificently.

=imo=, younger sister, wife, mistress, 16.

=imohi= (_imofu_) = _imu_, T.

=imo mekarete=, part from one’s _imo_, 82.

=imo mo se mo=, younger sister and elder brother (all children, girls
and boys), 214.

=i-mo-nezu= (_nezu_), not-sleep.

=imo-ra=, hon. pl., cf. _imo_, 170.

=imu=: see _imi_.

=imu= (_i_ = _iru_, aim, shoot at), T.

=in=: see _imu_ (_i_ = _iru_), T.

=ina=, no (decidedly), T.

=(w)inaba=, rice-foliage, but in 224 it is _-- aba_, form of _wiru_,

=inabi= (_inamu_), T.

=inaki=, a (royal) village headman, 203.

=inamu= (_inami_), refuse, T.

=inamu= (_inan_, _inu_, _ini_), will go away, T.

=ine= = _ne_, sleep, _na ine so_, 105.

=ine-kate=, hard to get sleep, 54.

=inetaru=, asleep, 194.

=inikemu=, pass away, die.

=inishi= (_inu_), past, gone, agone, 250.

=inishi-he=, time agone.

=inochi= (_inu-uchi_?), life, 29.

=i-no-ne-kateneba= = _inekate_ (_neba_), 44.

=inoru= (_i-noru_), pray, supplicate, recite prayer to, 74.

=inu= (_inuru_, _ini_), go away, T.

=inu=, dog.

=iraka=, tiles, tiled roof, 203.

=iranakeku= (_irairashi_), vexed, despondent, ‘nettled’? 215.

=irayuru= (_iraye-_), reply, answer, T.

=irazuba= (_iru_, _iri_, enter), T.

=ire= (_iru_, go in), put in, T.

=irete= (_iru_).

=irihi=, setting of sun.

=irihinasu=, m. k.

=irite= (_iru_).

=iri-wi=, enter-be, be in, 53, 105.

=iri-ye=, creek, bay, 47.

=iri-ye-kogu=, 223; here the meaning might be, _irikogubeshi_--can
scull, oar in.

=iro= (_irose_, _irodo_, 206), term of address and endearment.

=iro=, love, passion, 158. _-- ni deru_, to go out to meet a mistress,
118, 158.

=iro-dzuku= (_ts_), imbue with colour, colour (as autumn tints, 86).

=irogonomi= (_u_), be fond of women, Ts.

=irogonomi=, luxurious (in Shakespearean sense), T.

=iroiro=, various, T.

=irosohi= (_fu_), colour-add, conjoin hues, Ta.

=iroye=, add colour, colour (in various ways).

=iru=, go, come in, enter.

=[i-] saki-motoheru= (_hiraki motoheru_), said of waves rising and
breaking along or around a coastline, 78.

=isamenu=, not-forbid, 113.

=isamitaru=, bold, 258.

=isanatori=, m. k.

=isaru=, fish for, fish, 259.

=isasaka=, a very little, T.

=isayohi=, moon on 16th of (lunar) month.

=ishi=, stone, 65.

=ishi-ura=, rock divination, 45.

=iso=, shore, sea-marge, 132.

=i-sobahi= (_asobari_?), 139.

=isobe=, shore, stony place, 30.

=iso-gakure=, rocks being concealed by (mist), Ta.

=isohaku=, be active, busy.

=isozhi=, fifty, T.

✱=issen=, one thousand, Ta.

✱=issho=, one-place, together, T.

✱=isshou= (_isshô_), through life, T.

=ita= (_ito_).

=i-tachi= (_tatsu wi-tachi_ = _tachi-wi_).

=itadaki=, top, summit, head, T.

=itadaki= (_chôdai_), receive humbly, 68.

=i-tadori= (_tadori_), 64.

=itadzura ni= (_itami-dzura_), in vain, uselessly, unpleasantly, 101,

=itahashi= (_-- kereba_), pitiable.

=itakeku=, _itaki koto_ (_itamu_), 214.

=itaki=, unpleasant, 69.

=itaku=, extremely; _-- shite_, T., 19.

=itame= (_itamu_).

=itami= (_itamu_).

=itamo= (_itomo_), subenami, 217.

=itamu=, feel unpleasant, in pain, vexed, suffer, 17, 31, 50, 94.

=itareba= (_itaru_), 33.

=itareru= (_itaru_).

=itari= (_itaru_), arrive at.

=itariki= (_itaru_), 153.

=itarinu= (_itaru_).

=itaru=, arrive at, reach.

=itashi= (_itaki_), 180.

=itate=, plank, or wooden door (not sliding), 64.

=ito=, very, 93.

=itodo=, very, 233.

=itohoshi= (_itahashi_), pitiable, worthy of love, regret, pity, 193.

=itoke-mi=, young (person, &c.), 62.

=itoko=, term of address and endearment, 210.

=itoma= (_môsu_), take leave, T.; farewell, leisure (Ts).

=itonokite= (_itonoku_), extremely, excessively, 67, 69.

=i-torashite= (_toru_), 66.

=itsu=, when.

=i-tsugari= (_tsugaru_).

=itsuka=, at any time.

=i-tsuki= (_imi-tsuki_), sacred elms, 131.

=itsuki= (_u_), keep, guard with care or reverence, 45, 55, 252,
cherish; _itsuki-kashidzuki_, attend upon and cherish, T.

=itsukushiki= (_utsukushiki_), 68.

=i-tsukusu= (_tsukusu_).

=itsumo=, whenever, any time, always, 50.

=i-tsumoru= (_tsumoru_).

=itsushika=, some time or other, 66, 128, 196; an uncertain ‘when.’

=i-wakare= (_wakareru_).

=i-watashi= (_watasu_).

=iwo mo nezu= = _i mo nezu_.

=iya=, more, more and more, 16, 140, 228.

=iyashiki=, mean, vulgar, 125.

=iya shiki= (_iya shiku_), more and more, continuously.

=iya tate=.

=iya toho=, further and further (space or time), 250.

=iyoiyo=, more and more, surely.

=i-yori-tatashishi= = _yori-tateshi_.

=iyu=, shot (by arrow), _i_, _iru_, 123.

=i-yuki=, _yuki_.

=iza ha=, excl. of appeal, 197, 216.

=izanahi= (_fu_), invite, 225.

=izayohi= (_fu_), hesitate, 41.

=ji= (_michi_), road, path, track (sea or land).

✱=ji=, chorus (or actors, acting as such), Ta.

=ka=, interrog. particle.

=ka=, intensitive prefix, _ka-awo_, 16.

=ka=, there, thither, _ka yori kaku yoru_, thither, hither, to and fro,

=ka(ze)= = wind (_kami_), 24.

=ka=, a day (_nanuka_), seven days, T.

=kabakari= (_kaku-bakari_), just this much, just thus, T.

=kabane=, corpse, family, _gens_, 227. See Manyôshiu, Introd., sect. X.

=kabura=, turnip; _kabura ya_, arrow with rounded head pierced with
holes to cause whistling or resonance.

=kachi-yori=, follow on foot, come or go on foot, 180.

=kado=, door, abode, house, 16.

=kado-de=, start from door, go out of door, start on journey, 261.

=kadzuke=, dive, 33, 79, 189.

=kadzunaki=, of no account. 216.

=kadzura=, chaplet, 233, 243.

=kadzuraku=, put on chaplet.

=kafu=, feed, nourish, 149, 185.

=kafuchi= (_kaha uchi_), streamy land, 10, 222.

=kafuchi= (_kaha no fuchi_?) river-pool, 223.

=kagafuri= (_kami kafu[mu]ru_), cover head with, 67.

=kagahi= (_kake-ahi_), a sort of answer-singing, by men and women, 113.

=kagahi= (_kake-ahi_), meet, assemble, 124.

=kagami=, mirror (polished metal), 210.

=kagari=, stand for decoy-fire, used in fishing, 225, 237.

=kage=, light, or shade, or favour, protection, 36, 132.

=kagetomo= (_kage-tsu-mo_), side towards sun, south aspect.

=kagi=, key, 104.

=kagiri=, limit, extent, 69, 122.

=kagura=, sacred mime, Ta.

=kagirohi=, m. k.

=ka-guhashi=, very fine, 231, 241.

=ka-guroki=, deep black.

=kaha=, river.

=kaha=, skin, pelt, 210.

=kahadzu=, frog, 39.

=kahagoromo=, robe of pelt, T.

=kahahori=, bat (animal), T.

=kaha-mo=, river-weed.

=kahara=, dry river-bed, 22, 72.

=kaharafu= (_kaharu_), change, 94.

=kaharamu=, _kaharu_.

=kahasu=, exchange, adds idea of reciprocation.

=kaha-se=, river-stream.

=kahe= = _kaya_? Torreya nucifera, or species of oak.

=kahe= (_kafu_), buy (imperative), 180.

=kaheri=, =kaherahi=, =kaheramu=, =kaheri-kite= =… ko=, =… kone=,
=… komu=, =… koshi=, =… mase= =… mi= (look back), =… te=.

=kaheri=, go back, come back, return (as of year), Ts.

=kaheshi-yaru=, send back to, 199.

=kahesu=, return, 90; (= _kahere_).

=kahesugahesu=, again and again, T.

=kahete= (_kaheri_).

✱=kahi=, useless (with neg.), T.

=kahi-ko=, young, fledglings, 111.

=kahina=, arm.

=kahi-name=, feed and give to taste, feed--perhaps = give savoury food,

=kaho=, face, 24, 203.

=kaho-tori=, a kind of bird, 41.

=kai=, scull, oar.

=kai=, shell, T.; (also _kahi_).

=kaimami= (_ru_), peep, T.

=kaji=, scull, oar (steering), 30, 116.

=kajitori=, steersman, T.

=kakafu= (_kakaha_), _boregire_, rags, 67.

=kakafu= (_kaki-u_, rake up), Ta.

=kakahe= (_kakafu_), hold in arms, hold fast, T.

=kakarahashi= (_kakaru_), caught by or in, 62.

=kakarazu mo kakari mo=, be it not so, or be it so (good issue or not
to prayers), 70.

=kakareba= (_kaku areba_), T.

=kakari= (_kakaru_).

=kakaru=, depend on, be connected with, caught by.

=kakaseru= (_kakuru_), _mi na ni kakaseru Asuka_ … [her] name-sake the
Asuka river.

=kakasu=, bear, 221.

=kake= (_ru_), suspend, hang, put to; _tanomi wo kaketari_, proffered
their request, T.

=kake=, cock, 178 (onomatopoietic?).

=kake= (_kakuru_), hang on (67), place on by, apply; _kotoba ni kake_ =
utter, put into words, 4.

=kake no yoroshiku=, appropriate (time, &c.) for utterance; _kai kake_,
put oars in place or action, 245.

=kakemaku= = _kakemu koto_, 24.

=kakenu= (_kotoba ni_) = not-utter, 120.

=kakerafu= (_kakeru_, soar), 203.

=kakeri= (_u_), soar, 60; _tobi --_, fly high, 111, 225.

=kakeru=, be defective, lack, 100.

=kakeshi=, wane (moon), 238.

=kakete=, i.e. _kokoro wo_, thinking of, attending to, applying mind
to, 4, 207.

=kaki=, fence, hedge, 105, 248.

=kaki= (_u_), beat water with oars, 102.

=kaki= (_u_), scratch, comb, also common prefix-verb denoting
particularity or commencement--_kakinadete_, 67.

=kaki= (_u_), write, T.

=kaki-haki=, gird on, put on.

=kakihonasu=, m. k.

=kaki-ide=, claw, scratch out, T.

=kaki-kayofu= = _kayofu_.

=kaki-musubi= = _musubi_.

=kaki-nade= (see _nade_), 67, 70.

=kaki-nage= (_naguru_).

=kaki-tare=, fall down (hair on shoulders), 203.

=kakitarishi= (_taru_), scratched in (by time), said of wrinkles, 64.

=kaki-tsu-ta=, enclosed field.

=kaki-utemu= (_utsu_), throw away, 154.

=kako=, sailor, boatman, 55, 192.

=kako= (_shika-ko_), young of deer, 119.

=kakotereba= (_kakotsu_), weary; be wearied of, vexed, Ts.

=kako-zhi=, like young deer.

=kaku=, thus, this way, 5, 141.

=kaku= (_umi wo_), wind, 94.

=kakumare= (_kaku mo are_), thus, T.

=kakumite= (_kakumu_, _kakomu_).

=kakumi-wite=, surround, 67, 89, 262.

=kakure= (_ru_), hide, T.

=kakuri= (_u_), hide or be hidden from view, 24.

=kakurohi= (_kakuri-u_), hide, &c., from view, 17.

=kakusafu= (_kakusu_).

=kakusaharu= (_kakusafu_).

=kakushi= (_-su_), hide, cause to be hidden, conceal, T.

=kaku shi koso=, just thus.

=kaku shi mo ka (ga) mo to=, Oh, that thus it may remain! 52.

=kakute=, being thus, T.

=kamado=, hearth, furnace, 67.

=kamahe= (_kamafu_), enclose, fence in, T.

=kame=, tortoise, 13, 204.

=kame=, earthen jar, 211.

=kami=, god, lord, superior, chief.

=kami=, hair, 64.

=kami he=, upper part.

=kaminari=, thunder (god-voice), 253.

=kami-tachi=, the gods.

=kami-tsu-se=, upper stream or reach.

=kami-yo=, age of the gods.

=kamo=, wild duck, 13, 198.

=ka mo=, interjection of doubt and entreaty.

=ka mo kaku mo=, that way and this.

=kamome=, gull.

=kamu= (_kami_).

=kamu-agachi= (_-- wakachi_), allotment of gods (to special functions).

=kamu-kaze=, divine wind or influence.

=kamu nagara=, as a god, god-wise, being a god.

=kamusabi= (_u_), be divinely majestic with a sense of retiredness or

=kamusabi-geru=, be _kamusabi_-like, solemn, awful, 33.

=kana=, interjection of longing, regret, admiration.

=kanado= (_to_), door (opening outwards), 60, 104.

=kanafu= (_kanahi_).

=kanafuru= (_kanafu_).

=kanaguri-otoshi=, twist out, force out, T.

=kanahama= (_kanafu_).

=kanahe=, a tripod cauldron, T.

=kanahi= (_kanafu_), be in accordance, agree with, T.

=kanamaru=, metal bowl, T.

=kanashi=, _kanahe_, exciting emotion, sad, mournful, 242.

=kanashikeku= (_kanashi_), 215.

=kanashimeru= (_kanashi_).

=kanashimi= (_u_), _kanashimeru_.

=kanashira=, =kanashisa= (_kanashi_).

✱=kandau=, expulsion from clan, &c., T.

=kane=, metal, copper, T.

=kane= (_kaneru_), 37, 50.

=kane=, bell, Ta.

=kane-ki= (_kanetsu_), 251.

=kaneru=, not-can, be unable.

=kanete=, previously, T.

=kanete=, =kanetemu=, 23, 59.

=kanetsu=, =kanetsutsu= (_kaneru_), 118, 205.

=kani=, crab.

=kaniha-maki= (_kaba_, _kamba_), birch-(bark) built.

=ka ni kaku ni=, that way and this, 69.

=kannari= = _kanari_, passable, can-be, T.

=kannushi=, warden of shrine, Ta.

=Kara=, China, Korea, 64.

=kara= = _nagara_ (30, 35); or _kare_, reason, cause; _-- yama kara_,
as being mountains.

=kara=, from, 71, 109.

=karabitsu=, china-box, long chest on four legs, T.

=karakutari= (_karaku_ = bitter, acrid).

=karashiho=, bitter coarse salt, 69.

=karashimi= (caus. of _karu_), wither; _mi_ is iterative affix, 231.

=kara-usu=, Korean mortar.

=karauzhite= (_karôjite_), painfully, T.

=kare=, dem. pron.: see gramm.

=kareru= (_karu_), be temporary, as life, 50.

=karete= = _wakarete_.

=kare-yuku=, go on withering.

=karezu=, not-wither.

=kari=, temporary, impermanent.

=kari= (_gari_), hunt.

=karigane=, wild goose, or its cry, 84, 131.

=karikemu= (_karu_, reap), 47.

=karikomono=, m. k.

=kari-miya=, temporary shrine or mortuary chapel.

=karobi= (_kara-obi_), Chinese (or Korean) girdle.

=karu=, wither, 26, 50.

=karu=, reap, gather, 47.

=kasa=, sun-canopy, shade, hat, 206, 210.

=kasanahe=, =kasanu= (_kasaneru_).

=kasanari= (_u_), be heaped up, accumulate, 120.

=kasaneru=, heap-up, pile-up, 69.

=kashi=, oak (Quercus acuta?), 107.

=kashi=, a final particle: see gramm., T.

=kashihara=, oak-plain.

=kashiko=, there, T.

=kashikokaredomo= (_kashikomi-kuki_), 20, 183, &c.; have feeling of awe.

=kashikomaru=, honour verb of respect, reverence, T.

=kashiku= (_kashigu_), prepare, boil rice.

=kashira=, head, chief, T.

=kasokeki=, dim, misty, 247.

=kasumetaru= (_kasumi_, _kasumu_, _kasumi-tatsu_), foggy, misty.

=kasu-yu-sake=, dregs-_saké_, _saké_ made from dregs of a former brew.

=kata=, direction, quarter, person, T.

=kata=, quarter, direction, locality.

=kata=, shoulder, shoulder-blade, 202.

=kata=, tidal shore, or swamp, 220.

=katabuki= (_-u-muku_), lean, incline, T.

=katachi=, form, shape, 61, 70.

=katadzukite= (_ku_), be near, beside, 248.

=katagata=, pl. of _kata_, T.

=katahara=, side, T.

=kata-ito=, one thread, m. k., Ts.

=kataki=, hard, difficult, 117.

=kataki=, enemy, T.

=kata-kinu= (_g_), sleeveless mantle, 67, 203.

=kata-kohi=, one-side-love, one of a pair absent, 41.

=kataku= (_-ki_, &c.), hard, difficult, Ts.

=katakuna=, obstinate, foolish, 105.

=katameshi=, settle, fix, 105.

=katami ni=, in memory of, as souvenir, 26.

=kata-nashi=, without tidal shore, 16.

=katane-mochi= = _musubi-mochi_, _tsukanu_, sense not quite clear, see
the translation of 233.

=kata-ohi=, part-grown, young, 125.

=katarahamashi= (_kataramu_), 170.

=katarahite= (_katarafu_, _kataru_), 48.

=kataraku= (_kataru_), 105.

=katarikemaku= (_katarikemu_).

=katari-sake=, utter conversation, converse, 236.

=katari-tsugi=, hand down, 36.

=kataru= (_ri_), relate.

=kata-sari=, moving a little way from, 229.

=katashiho=, block salt, 67.

=kata-shikite=, spread sidewards; see 198.

=katatoki=, a while, a short time, T.

=katayama=, remote hill [or country], far, i.e. from City-Royal.

=katazhikenaku=, grateful, also humilific expression, unworthy, feeling
awe of, T.

=kate= (_katsu_, conquer), an affix to verbs.

=kate= = _yezu_ (cannot obtain, or do), or _katashi_, difficult, 261.

=kate=, victuals, T.

=kateneba= (_kate_).

=katsu ha=, moreover, 57.

=katsura=. There are four homophons: (1) _katsura no ki_,
Cercidiphyllum jap^m.; (2) _Katsura_, a place in Yamashiro, called
after a famous courtesan; (3) _kadzura_, a grass Brachypodium jap^m.;
(4) _kadzura_, false hair, also a chaplet, and _sane-kadzura_, a
sarmentaceous magnoliad, Kadzura jap^a.

=katsuwo=, tunny.

=kaube= (_kôbe_), head, Ta.

=kawaki= (_u_), dry up, to dry, T.

=ka-yasuki=, quite easy, 225.

=kayofu=, go, or come from one place to another (_kayohamu_,
_kayohasu_, _kayohashishi_, _kayohikemu_, _kayohikemaku_,
_kayohasase_), T.

=ka yori kaku yori=, thither, hither.

=kazareru= (_kazaru_), adorn, T.

=kazashi= (_u_), _kami sasu_, stick in hair, as adornment.

=kaze= (_kami-shi_), wind (God-breath); _-- mazhiri_, wind and [rain]
together, 67.

=kaze=, cold in head, T.

=kazohe-uta=, non-figurative, simple song, Ts.

=kazoheyezu=, countless, 227.

=kazu=, number, total, T.

=kazuke= (_ru_), bestow, T.

=kazunaki=, of no account.

=ke=, hair, fur, Ts.

=ke= (_ki_), power, essence, spirit, natural force, =hi no ke=, heat of
sun, 211.

=ke= (_ki-he_), pass on, elapse, 43, 51, 52, 197.

=keburi= (_kemuri_), smoke, mist, 183.

=kechi= (_keshi kesu_), quench, cause to disappear, 37.

=kedashiku mo=, in case that, if, 233.

=kedzurazu=, not-comb, 229.

=kefu=, to-day.

=kego=, family, housefolk, T.

✱=ken=, volume, Ts.

=kenaba= (_keru_).

=ke-nagaki=, hair-long.

=kenu=, a past tense of _keru_.

=kenubeku=, 152.

=kenureba= (_keru_), past tense.

=kera=, hairs, 210.

=keru=, vanish, go out, perish, 24, 152.

=keru=, _keri_, _keraku_, _kereba_ (203); _kerashi_ (_keru_, past
affix); see _ki_, _kuru_.

✱=kesau= (_kesô_) = _keshiyau_ (_keshô_), face powder (adorning with).

=keseru=, put on (dress), 118, 206.

✱=keshiki=, scene, appearance, expression, T.

=kesu=, extinguish, cause to end, or perish, 24.

=kesubeku= (_kesu_).

=kesuru= (_kesu_), 50.

=ke-usemu= (_kiye-usemu_), vanish utterly.

=keya ni= (_isagiyoku_), in an unsullied, virtuous or brave manner.

=ke-yasuki=, easy to quench, &c.

=ki=, tree, timber, wood.

=ki=, _saké_, 87.

=ki= (_kuru_), come, go--often a past suffix.

=ki= (_ni keru_, _ki_, a past form).

✱=kidoku=, merit, excellence, Ta.

=kiyeru=, be extinguished, perish.

=kidzu=, wound.

=kigishi= (_kizhi_), pheasant.

=kigusa=, trees and herbs, T.

=kihame=, =kihamari= (_muru_), settle, determine.

=kihami=, space, extent, limit, fixed point, 22, 53, 86, 234.

=ki-hanare=, come or go and be far from, 224.

=kihe= (_ki-heru_).

=ki-heru=, come or go and pass away.

=kihohi= (_kisohi_), vie, rival, dispute.

=Ki-ji=, _Kii_, road.

=kikamakuhori= (_kikamu_, _kiku_).

=kikamu=, gnash teeth with rage, 125.

=kikazu=, _kikedo_, _kikishi_, _kikite_, _kikiteshi_, _kikitsuru_
(_kiku_, hear).

=kiki= (_kiku_), listen, hear.

=kiki-kofuru=, hear, and long for.

=kiki-narete=, accustomed to hear, Ta.

=kiki-yoshi=, pleasant to hear.

=kikori=, woodman, 135.

=kikosedomo= (_kikosu_).

=kikoshimesu=, hear (superior of inferior), T.

=kikoshishi= = _notamaheru_, 181.

=kikoshite= (_kikosu_).

=kikoshi-wosu=, rule, govern, 10.

=kikosu= = _notamafu_, honour-form, say, speak, 59.

=kikoye= (see _kikoyezu_), T.

=kikoyetsuru=, heard of, heard, Ta.

=kikoyezu=, not-audible, not to be heard.

=kimasaba= (_kuru_), 86.

=kimasame=, _kimase_, _kimaseri_, _kimashite_, _kimasazu_ (_kuru_).

=kimi=, prince, lord, you, sir, he.

=kimo=, liver, 210.

=kimomukafu=, m. k.

=ki-mukaheba=, come towards, 243.

=ki-naki-doyomoshi=, cometh singing, and making (the country) resound.

=ki-nakite=, come singing (of birds).

=ki-naku= (_ki-nakite_).

=kinamu= = =komu= (_kuru_), 105.

=kinofu=, yesterday, 124.

=kinu=, mantle, upper dress, 18, 83, 189.

=kinu= (_kuru_), T.

=kinu=, silk stuff, T.

=kinugasa=, a large sun-umbrella.

=kinuran= (_kuru_), Ta.

=kinureba= (_kuru_, come).

=kirahazu=, not-dislike, without distinction, T.

=kirakirashiki=, shining, brilliant, 104.

=kireru=, be foggy, misty.

=kiri= (_giri_), fog, mist, 23, 29.

=kiru=, cut.

=kisaragi=, second (lunar), month, T.

=ki-sarite=, come, and pass away, 149.

=kisekemu= (_kisuru_), put on, 121.

=kisete=, put on, 198.

=kiseteshi= (_kisuru_), 198.

=kishi=, coast, 105.

=kiso=, yesterday, 18.

=ki-sohedomo= (_ki-sohe_), put on (garments), one over the other, 67.

=ki-tachi=, clump of trees.

=kitanage-naru=, dirty, filthy, T.

=kitanaki=, unclean, foul, T.

=kitaramu= (_ki_, put on), Ts.

=kitare= (_kitaru_).

=kitarishi= (_kuru_).

=kitaru= (_kuru_).

=ki-tateba=, come to (a place), 104.

=kite= (_kiru_), put on, wear, 105.

=kito=, suddenly, T.

=ki-tsugi=, come, follow in (due) succession.

=kiye= (_-ru_), vanish, T.

=kiyoki=, limpid, unsullied, pure, 10, 72, 93, 221.

=kiyora= = _kiyoki_, T.

=ki-yoru=, come, approach, come up to, 97.

=ki-yose= (caus. _ki-yoru_), 16.

✱=kiyou=, joy, amusement, pleasure, T.

=ki-wite=, come, and be at, in, &c.

=kizu=, wound, cut.

=ko=, child, prince, girl, boy, 119.

=ko=, basket, 1.

=ko= (_ki_), tree, 6, 247.

=ko=, come, imperative, 132.

=kobochi= (_tsu_), shatter, T.

=kochi-gochi=, here and there, 28.

=ko-dachi=, clump of trees, 34.

=ko-dakashi=, tree-tall, having tall trees.

=kodomo=, children, 48.

=kofu=, love (_kofuru_), 18, 60, 181.

=kofu=, =kohi=, beg, implore.

=kofuraku= (_kofuru_), 150.

=kofure=, =kofuramu=, =kofuredomo= (_kofuru_).

=kofuru=, love, yearn for.

=kogazu= (_kogu_), not-row.

=kogi-demu=, start forth rowing.

=kogi-hatemu=, scull and arrive at.

=kogi-kuru=, come or go sculling.

=kogiri-ko= (_kogi-iri-ko_), come sculling in.

=kogi-tami=, scull round, 44, 135.

=kogoshi= (_kehashi_), steep, craggy, 156, 187.

=kogu=, scull, row.

=kohanaku=, not-implore, 104.

=kohi=, =kohiba=, =kohimu= (_kofu_).

=kohi-nomaku=, implore and pray.

=kohi-nomite= (_kohi-nomaku_), beg, intreat.

=kohishiku=, feel love, regret; _kohishiku omufu_, to love, yearn for,

=kohi-surashi= = _kohimu_, 126.

=kohori= (_kôri_), land-division, county, T.

=kohori-watarinu=, pass over to state of ice.

=kohoshiku= (_kohishiku_), 204.

=koi-marobi=, roll prostrate (with grief, &c.), 51, 116.

=koishikeku= (_kohishiku_).

=kokage=, tree-shadow, Ta.

=koke=, moss, 133.

=koke-musu=, moss-grow.

=kokibaku=, very much, much, ever so much (number and quantity), 259.

=kokire= (_koki ire_), strip or plank to put in or on: see notes, 231.

=koko=, here.

=kokobaku= = _kokibaku_, _ikubaku_.

=kokochi=, feelings, spirits, T.

=kokoda=, much, 31.

=kokodaku mo=, very much, 101, 179.

✱=kokon=, old and new, Ta.

=kokono=, nine, Ts.

=kokoro=, heart-feelings, mind.

=kokorobosoku=, heart-weak, despondent, feeble, T.

=kokoro-darachi=, satisfaction.

=kokoro-dzukahi=, anxiety, interest, Ta.

=kokoro-gara=, state of mind, feeling, &c.

=kokoro-gushi= (not _-- gurushiki_), but _-- ni natsukashimaruru_,
pleasant to mind or feelings.

=kokoro-nashi=, without feeling, sense, Ta.

=kokoro-yaru=, give mind to enjoyment, recreate, 219.

=ko-kuru=, be dark as among trees.

✱=kokushi=, provincial governor, T.

=koma=, pony, horse, 17, 64.

=komagoma=, minutely, in detail, T.

=ko-makura=, wooden pillow, 28.

=koma-nishiki=, a sort of brocade (Korean).

=komashi= = _komu_ (_kuru_), 55, 217.

=ko-matsu=, young pine, 126.

=kome= (_komu_, _komuru_), confine, seclude, T.

=kome=, rice (unboiled), T.

=komo=, a sort of rush (also Zostera nana).

=komori= (_-u_), shut up in, T.

=komori=, _komorinu_, _komorite_, _komori-wite_.

=komori-dzuma=, secluded wife, 152.

=komorikuno=, m. k.

=komoru=, be secluded, surrounded by.

=komu= (_kuru_), sometimes as auxiliary, 108.

=ko-mura=, grove of trees, 38.

=komu zu= = _komu zo_ (_so_), T.

=konata=, this side, herewards, &c., T.

=kone= (_kuru_), do come! 86.

=koneba= (_kuru_), 149.

=kono=, this.

=konogoro=, lately.

=ko no kure=, shade of trees.

=konomi= (_u_), desire, love, T.

=konomoshikari=, desirable, T.

=konu= (_kuru_).

=konure= (_ko no ure_), tree-top, 129.

=kora=, youths, girls, also honour-plural, young lady.

=koro= (_goro_), period, time, T.

=korofuseba= (_busu_) = _korobifusu_, tumble, fall prostrate, 26.

=koromo=, vestment (outer).

=koromode=, sleeve.

=koroshi= (_-su_), kill, T.

=Kose-ji=, _Kose_ road or track.

=koseru=, bring down, along, 13.

=koshi= (_kuru_), often auxil.

=koshi= (_kosu_), cross over, traverse.

=koshi=, bier, 51.

=koshi=, loin; _-- hoso_, slender-waisted; _koshi wo suru_, sit, Ta.

=koshiki=, cauldron, 67.

=koso=, emphatic particle.

=ko-suge=, little sedge, pretty sedge, 182.

=kotahe= (_kotafu_), answer.

=kotahemu= (_kotafu_).

=kote= (_kaute_, _kakute_), thus, T.

=koto=, thing, following verb or adjective, gives abstraction, or act,
or state.

=koto=, speech, words, saying, 68.

=koto= = _gotoku_, 197.

=koto=, different, strange, T.

=koto=, flat harp.

=koto age=, declare, announce, 146.

=kotoba=, speech, T.

=kotodate=, =kotodatsu= = do something distinguished or not ordinary,

=kotogoto= (_ku_), wholly, all, 9, 20.

=koto-hiki=, play _koto_.

=kotohiushi=, m. k.

=kotomono=, a different thing, counterfeit, T.

=koto-naku= (_koto mo naku_), untroubled, 56, 69.

=koto no ha= = _kotoba_, Ts.

=kotoshi=, this year, T.

=koto-tama= (_dama_), spirit or soul of speech, of the language (of
Japan), 68.

=koto-tofu= (_-hi_, _-hamu_), converse, talk with.

=kototohi kahasu=, exchange talk.

=kotowari=, reason, motive, explanation, 62, 230, 252.

=kotowaza=, affairs, actions, doings, Ts.

=kotoyosete=, commit to, 58, 230.

=kou= (_kô_), _kimi_, lord, Ta.

=kowadaka ni=, loudly, T.

=kowaku=, unpliable, hard, firm, T.

=kowe=, voice, cry, 38, 67, 199.

=koyaseru= (_fusu_), lie prostrate, 124, 195, also _koyashime_.

=koyasugai=, birth-easing shell, T.

=koye-henarinaba=, cross over away, afar from.

=koye-kinu=, cross over to, 16.

=koyesugi=, cross over beyond.

=koyohi=, to-night.

=koyuru=, cross over, _koye_, _koyete_, _koyemashite_, _koyuramu_.

=kozo=, last year, 28.

=kozu=, _kuru_ (neg.), T.

=kozute= (_kuru_), neg.

=kubete= (_-eru_), put in fire, T.

=kubi=, neck, T.

=kubi-tsuki= seems to mean a young child or _mezashi_, lit. cling-neck.

=kuchi=, mouth, entrance (T.).

=kuchi woshiku=, having or causing a feeling of regret, disappointment,

=kuda=, horn (musical), 24.

=kudakete= (_kudaku_), smash, 120, 204.

=kudaki= (_kudaku_).

=kudari= (_-- ki_, 232), go down from City-Royal to a province, descend
(from heaven).

=kudo=, furnace, T.

✱=kudoku=, merit, T.

=kugane= (_kogane_), gold, 63, 227.

=kuhahete= (_kuhaheru_, _kuhafu_), add to, 69.

=kuhashi= (_ki_), pretty, delicate, dainty, comely, 189.

=kuhashime= (_kufu_), cause to eat or swallow, 189.

=kuhazu=, neg. _kufu_, eat, T.

=kuhi=, pile, port (_i-kuhi_, _ma-kuhi_), 151.

=kuhi= (_kufu_), eat, chew, T.; _su wo kufu_, build nest, T.

=kukane= (_kugane_, _kogane_).

=kuki=, stalk, stem, T.

=kukumeru= (_fukumeru_, _kukumu_), put in mouth or bill.

=kukumi= (_kukumu_), hold in mouth or bill.

=kukuri= (_u_) = _shibaru_, tie together, fasten, 189.

=kuma=, recess, corner, nook.

=kumashikeru= (_kumu_), 124.

=kumi= (_kumu_), T.

=kumo=, cloud.

=kumo=, spider.

=kumo-banare=, =kumo-gire=, spaced, scattered rifted clouds, far off as
clouds are, 201.

=kumori= (_u_), be cloudy, clouded, 183.

=kumo-wi=, cloudy tract, atmosphere, sky; often refers to horizon, 197,

=kumu= (_i_), draw water, 150, 185.

=kuneru=, take ill, dislike, Ts.

=kuni=, province, country (Ch. chün kwên?).

=kuni-gata= (_katachi_), appearance of land, 86.

=kuni-he=, a country, province, countryside.

=kuni-magi=, _kuni wo motomuru koto_, explore, open a country, 263.

=kuni-mi=, land-view, view the country (as from a hill-top), 255.

=kunuchi= = _kuni uchi_, 221.

=kuraki=, dark, gloomy, T.

=kura-koma=, dark or black horse.

=kuraku= (_shi_, _ki_), dark, 21.

=kurashi= (_su_), get dark, pass time.

=kura-yami=, dark darkness, 49.

=kure=, darkness, shade, gloom.

=kure= (_ru_), grow dark, 4.

=kure-gakure=, shade-hidden, 92.

=kurekure to= (_kuregure_), in 138, obscurely, fearfully.

=kurenureba= (_kureru_), 149.

=kureru=: see _kururu_.

=kure-shigemi=, darkly abundant (thick-grown), 33.

=kuretakeno=, m. k., Ts.

=kuri=, chestnut, 63.

=kuri-kutsu=, black boots (_kuri_ seems = black mud at bottom of pool),

=kuro-kami=, black hair (youth), 53.

=kurokarishi=, become black, 105.

=kurokoma= (_kuro-ma_), black horse, 159.

=kuru=, come, go, sometimes auxiliary; _ko_, _kozu_, _konu_, _kone_,
_koshi_, _komu_, _kereba_, _ki_, _kitaru_, _kitareba_, _kitarishi_,
_komashi_, _kimashi_, &c.

=kuruma=, car, vehicle, 203.

=kurumi=, walnut.

=kururu= (_kureru_), be gloomy, grow dark, T.

=kurushige=, wretched-like, T.

=kurushiki= (_gurushiki_, _gushiki_), afflicting, painful.

=kusa=, grass, herbs (also = _tane_ as subject, origin, also kind,

=kusagusa=, miscellaneous, many or all sorts.

=kusamakura=, m. k.

=kusa-musa=, grass-grown, 227.

=kuse=, twist, inclination, bent (spirit or meaning of a composition),

=kushi= (_kusushiki_), strange, 65.

=kushi=, comb, 250.

=kushige=, comb-box, toilet-case, 55, 105, 252.

=kuso=, dung, T.

=kusuhashiki= (_kusushiki_), 250.

=kusuri=, physic, drugs, T.

=kusuri-gari=, hunt after simples.

=kusushiki= (_mi_), wondrous, strange, 37, 235.

=kutsu=, boots, footgear.

✱=kuwannin=, official.

✱=kuwa-yefu= (_kwayô_), flowers and leaves, Ta.

✱=kuwazhitsu= (_kwajitsu_), flowers and fruit, Ta.

=kuyashi= (_ku_, _ki_, _mi_), vexed, regretful, pained, 173.

=kuyete= (_koyuru_, cross over).

=kuye-yuku= (_koye-yuku_).

=kuzhiri= (_u_), bore, T.

=kuzu=, Pueruria Thunbergiana--a leguminous climber or creeper.

=ma=, interval, spot, moment (space or time), 57.

=ma=, chamber, T.; _ma goto ni_.

=ma=, prefix = true, fine, good, εὐ- (in composition).

=ma= = _mi_.

=ma= = _uma_ (_muma_), horse (a Chinese word), 52.

=mabora= ? (_mahora_).

=machi= (_matsu_, wait).

=machi=, _kate_ (_katai_), hard or vain to wait, 84.

=machi-kanetsu=, cannot wait.

=machikemu= (_matsu_), 48.

=machi-mausamu= (_matsu_), Ta.

=made= (_-ni_), until, up to, 101.

=madofu= (_hi_), be astray, beguiled, distracted.

=madohaseru=, =madohasu= (_madofu_).

=madzu=, first of all, in first place, now, T.

=madzushi= (_-ki_), poor, 67.

=magari= (_wemi-magari_, said of eyebrows arching with a smile), 247.

=mage-iho=, hut awry, tumble-down hut, 67.

=magire= (_ru_), be confused with, lost in, T.

=ma(mi)guhashi=, truly fair, comely, 136.

=ma-hari= = _hari_, stretch, extend.

=mahe= (_ni_), before, in front of, (place, time).

=mahi=, bribe, 111.

=mahi= (_mafu_), dance, _mahihime_, Ta.

=mahora= (_mahora-ma_, _mahoro-ba_)--comp. _motohoru_--here seems =
tract among the hills, 226.

=makago-ya=, god-arrows.

=ma-kai=, true oars, paddles, sculls.

=ma-kaji=, true stout stern oars, or sculls, &c.

=ma-kami= (_ma-gami_) = _ohokami_, wolf.

=makari=, a sort of intensitive prefix to verbs, _-- dete_, _-- imase_,
_-- nishi_.

=makari= (_u_), go down, from, go back, go, pass away (die), 29, 33, 87.

=makase= (_ru_), commit to, charge with.

=makashi= (_maku_), caus., 64.

=make= (_môke_), provide, procure, obtain, 116.

=make= (_-- no manimani_), in accordance with duty or office, 258.

=make= (_ru_), yield, T.

=makeru= (_maku_), be wound on, round, 142.

=makeru= (_te_), yield to, 125.

=maki= = rolled, and bound up as hair in knot.

=maki=, right true stout timber, may be Podocarpus chinensis, Wall,
or Quercus glandulifera, Bl., or Quercus serrata, Thbg., or Hinoki
(Chamaecyparis sp.).

=maki= (_u_), appoint to office, 24.

=maki= (_u_), roll, also sow, water.

=maki-hashira=, pillars or columns of _maki_.

=maki-ire=, lay on ornament.

=maki-mi=, _mi_ seems = frequency, or it may be the mere termination.

=maki-mochi= (_te_), wear, rolled or wound round, 18, 120.

=maki-motaru= (_maki-mochi_), 131.

=maki-ohoshi=, sow-make-grow, 232.

=makishi= (_maku_, sow).

=maki-tamafu=, appoint to office or duty, 232.

=maki-tatsu=, where _maki_-trees grow together, 72.

=makite-neshi=, embrace-sleep.

=makiwe=, gold and silver lacquer, or laid on ornament, T.

=makoto=, true, real, sincere, T..

=ma kuhi= (_kuhi_, pile, post).

=makura= (_ma-kura_?), pillow.

=makura-dzuku=, pillow by pillow.

=ma-kushi=, true, fine comb.

=ma-kuzu=, true, fine _kuzu_.

=mama=, state, condition, will.

=mame-naru=, be on watch, T.

=mame-naru=, serious (_mazhime_), Ta.

=ma mo ochizu=, letting no occasion slip.

=mamorasu= (_mamoru_), T.

=mamori= (_u_), guard, 227.

✱=man= (_ban_), a myriad, T.

=manago=, own child, 194.

(=manago=) = _masago_, sand, 97.

=manakahi=, before one’s eyes.

=manako=, eyeball, eye, T.

=ma naku=, ceaselessly, without interruption, immediate, 150, 216.

=maneku= (_ki_, _shi_), many, 241.

=ma ni ma= (_manimani_), 117.

=manimani=, according to will or pleasure of, 57, 62, 197.

=ma nuraru= (_noru_ = _nonoshiru_), true-revile, scold, shout at, 208.

✱=manzairaku=, myriad years’ joy, Ta.

=mari-okeru=, round-lay, i.e. lay or drop something round, T.

=maro-ne=, round-sleep, sleep with day-clothes on (as on a journey when
sleeping alone), 118, 232.

=ma-sakiku= (_te_), truly prosperous, fortunate.

=masaki no kadzura=, Euonymus japonica, Ta.

=masamu= (_mashi masu_), increase, excel.

=masanashi=, wrong, ἀεικής.

=masa ni=, just, precisely.

=masaredo=, _masareru_ (_mashi masu_), 63, 103, 118.

=mashi=, excellent, 14, 84.

=mashi=, optative form, 189, 206.

=mashikemu=, _mashinure_, _maseba_, _masaba_, _masamu_, &c.: see _masu_.

=mashite=, _mashi_.

=mashite=, increasingly more, T.

=ma shirafu=, dappled white (of hawk).

=ma-shiraga=, quite white hair (or white cloth-offerings).

=maso-kagami=, bright (metal) mirror, also m. k., 70.

=masu= (_mashi_), excel, increase.

=masu=, honour affix; also, be.

=masumasu=, more and more, 69, 75.

=ma sumi=, quite black (so written in 210; but it must mean _ma sumi_,
quite clear, unflawed, being applied to _kagami_, mirror).

=masurahare= = _masurawo ware_, 215.

=masuratakewo= = _masurawo_, 263.

=masurawo= (_masa-ara-wo_), warrior, soldier, follower of military

=mata=, again.

=ma-tama= (_dama_), true fine jewel, precious.

=ma-tama-de=, fine precious arms (brachia).

=matamiru=, sort of seaweed (Codium?), 172.

=matamu= (_matsu_, _machi_, wait).

=mataneba= (_matsu_), since-not-wait, 200.

=matashikemu= (_matsu_), honour causative, 248.

=matasuramu= (_matamu_), hon. caus.

=matazhi= (_matsu_), T.

=mate= (_matsu_), imperative, 176.

=matedo= (_matsu_).

=matsu= (_machi_), wait, expect, 22.

=matsu=, pine-tree, 47.

✱=matsudai=, to end of time, Ta.

=matsu-hara=, pine-plain, 197.

=ma-tsukahi=, true excellent messenger, or runner, 215.

=matsu-kaze=, pine-wind, 33.

=matsuri= (_-shi-te-sena-semu_), an important verb, of uncertain
derivation (perhaps simply _ma-tsu[ru]_--εὖ πράσσειν), perform ritual
or religious act, hence perform duly, act, do, serve; affix verb of act
towards superior, _tatematsuri_ (offer to superior), _tsukamatsuri_ (do
for superior). See 104.

=matsurigoto=, due performance of state ritual, hence government, state
affairs, Ts.

=matsurofu= (_-hi_, _-he_ _-hagu_ _-hanu_), strong form of _matsuri_,
q. v.

=matsuru= (_matsuri_).

=matauyama=, pine-hill, Ts.

✱=mau= (_mô_), _ikihohi mô_, wealthy, great, T.

=maude= (_ru_), emphatic form of _ko_, come, go, T.

=maude-toburai=, _maude-ki_, _maudzu_ (_mawidzu mawide_).

=mauke= (_môke-ru_), prepare, obtain, establish.

=mausu= (_mawoshi_).

=mawide mawishi= (_mawi-ide_), go, come.

=mawi-nobori=, go, come (up to City-Royal).

=mawisaku= = _mawiru_ = _mairu_, go, come.

=mawoshi= (_su_), say, report to throne, _mawosamu_, _mawoseba_, 24;
often used as prefix to verbs as in _mawoshi-hayasane_ (= _hayasane_).

=mayo-biki=, the painting of false eyebrows.

=mayo-komori= (_mayu_), within-cocoon-secluded.

=mayo-ne= (_mayu_), eyebrow, 247.

=mayu=, eyebrow.

=ma yufu=, true or fine _yufu_ (Broussonetia).

=mazhihe= (_mazhiri_).

=mazhiri= (_mazhiru_), mix, mingle, 67, 229.

=me=, contraction of _mure_--_me koto mo tahenu_, the throng of words
is ended, or (_me_ = eye) mutual sight and speech ended--as by death.

=me=, eye, T.

=me= (_omi no me_), woman of _omi_ (court-official) rank.

=me=, suffix to adjectives = condition or state or conjuncture,
_wabishiki me_, state of misery, T.

=me=, woman, wife, 110.

=mede= (_medzuru_), love, like.

=medetaki= (_-ku-shi_), lovely, delightful, T.

=medzurashimi=, lovely, 33.

=megumi=, grace, favour, 255.

=megurashi= (_su_): see _meguri_, T.

=meguri= (_ru-reru-rebu_), go round, 220; be surrounded, engirdled by,

=megushi=, lovable, 62, 217, 230.

✱=meisho=, famous place, Ta.

=mekarete=, turning eyes from, losing sight of, parting from.

=me ko=, wife and child, 62.

=me-oto= (_fuufu_), man and wife, male and female, Ta.

=me-ra=, eyes, 210.

=meramerato=, in a quick crackling way, rapidly burning, T.

=mesaku= (_mishi_), 81.

=mesedo= (_misedo_), 86.

=meshi= (_mishi_), 13, 86, 259.

=meshi= (_mesu_), summon.

=meshi-akirameshi= = _miakirameshi_, clear (delight) mind by sight of
(chase), 52.

=meshite= (_mesu_), T.

=meshitori=, seize, arrest, T.

=meshi-tsudohe=, summon-assemble.

=meshi-tsugi= (_u_), send order, T.

=mesu= (_meshi_), summon, 24.

=mesurame-mesame=, _mesu_, 211.

=metsuko=: see note, 209.

=mi=, three.

=mi= = _umi_, 16.

=mi= = _midzu_, 133.

=mi= = self, _mi no uhe_, 69.

=mi= = honour prefix, or fine, good, εὐ- in composition [_mi yuki_,
fine, true (much?) snow], 1, 3, 13, 24.

=mi= = round about? _kuma mi_, 66.

=mi= = _miru_, see.

=mi= = fruit, _kashi no mi_, acorn, 107.

_mi_ = suffix adjectival, also denoting frequency, habit, _udaki-mi
ohi-mi_, _nashi mi_, _maki mi_.

=michi= (_mi chi_), exalted path, a sort of highway, or way to or from
City-Royal originally.

=michi= (_mitsu mitsuru_), grow full as moon.

=michibiki=, road-guide, 68.

=michi-hi=, flow and ebb (high and low) tide, Ta.

=michi-kureba= (_michi-ki_), as-grow-full.

=michi-mori=, road-guards, 57.

=michite= (_michi michiteri_, _mitsuru_), 54, 68.

=michiyuki=, journey, Ta.

=michi yuki-bito=, wayfarer.

=midaredomo=, although be disordered, confused, 108, 121.

=midari= (_ru_), _midarete_.

=mide= (not-see, _miru_), T.

=midori=, green, Ta.

=midori-ko= (_go_), green, i.e. very young child, babe, 53, 203.

=midzu=, water, 13, 14.

=midzu=, shining, 14, 22; _midzu-gaki_, Ta.

=midzu-ho=, shining ears (of grain).

=midzukara=, self, Ts.

=mi-dzuki=, moon.

=midzuku= (_midzu tsuku_), sodden.

=midzu-tade=, Polygonum flaccidum, Roxb.

=midzu-ye=, shining twigs.

=migahoshi= (_-karamu_), desirable to see, 39.

=migaku=, polish, make bright, Ta.

=migi=: see notes, 210.

=migiha=, sea-edge, shore (_midzu kiha_), Ta.

=migiri=, stone (or cobble) pavement, yard, 183.

=mi-hakashi-wo=, m. k.

=mi-hanada=, fine blue, 203.

=mi-he=, three turns or folds (_obi_), 121.

=mi-hitsutsu= (_dzutsu_), get wet?

=Mi-kado=, Grand House, Palace; _mikado_, court, government, or realm,


=mi-kamo nasu=, m. k.

=mi-kanete=, cannot see, 105.

=mi-kari=, royal hunt.

=mike=, sovran’s food (_ohomike_), _gugo_, _omono_.

=mike-mukafu=, m. k.

=mi-ki=, royal _saké_.

=mi-ko=, prince.

=mi kokoro=, exalted heart, or mind, &c., 10.

=mikoto=, majesty, highness, godship.

=mi-koto=, exalted speech (of sovran).

=mi-koto-nori=, rescript, decree, command.

=mi-kudaseba=, look down on, see (by superior), 72.

=mi-kushige=: see _kushige_.

=mi-madohi=, see confusedly, be distracted at seeing, T.

=mimahoshikedo= (desirous of seeing).

=mimakuhori=, desire to see.

=mimashi= (_mimu_), would see, 110.

=mime= (_miru_), _kefu koso ha mime_, to-day surely I shall see her, T.

=mi metsuko no tozhi=, lady-mother.

=mimi=, ear (auris), 210.

=mi-moro= (_mi-muro_), great cave, divine dwelling.

=mimu= (_miru_), T.

=mina= (_no wata_), black pulp of shell; Melania sp., 64.

=mina=, all, T.

=minadzuki=, waterless month (6th), 37.

=mi nagishi=, solace, comfort.

=minami=, south.

=mi-narahi= (_nare_, be accustomed to see), be always seeing, T.

=minato=, haven, 30, 124.

=minaw(h)anasu=, m. k.

=mine= (_ohimi ne_), summit, 108, 159.

=mi-nikushi=, ugly to look on, T.

=mi-okose=, send glance towards, T.

=mi-okuri=, accompany with eyes, T.

=mi omo=, lady-mother.

=mireba=, _miredo_, _mishi_, _mimu_, _migu_, _minu_, _mineba_, _mite_,
_miteshi_, _miteba_, miteshikado, _mishikaba_, _mitari_, _mitsuramu_,
_mitsutsu_ (_miru_).

=miru=, a seaweed (Codium).

=miru=, see, look, _miraku_, _mirame_.

=mirushiru=, see and know.

=mi-sakaru= (_mi-saku_), look towards, 197.

=mise= (_-mashi_, _-teba-sureba_), show, let, or make see, 50.

=miso=, thirty, Ts.

=misogite= (_gu_), purify, lustrate.

=misu=, blind of bamboo-strips.

=mi-tama=, soul, spirit, ghost.

=mi-tami=, people.

=mitashime=, make full, flow of tide, 44.

=mi-te= (_te_), hand, arm, 68.

=mite= (_mitegura_), offering to a god.

=miteba= = _mitareba_ (_miru_), 105.

=miteshi= (_mite shi_?), _miru_, 28.

=mitsu=, three, T.

=mitsugi=, tax, tribute (in kind), 79.

=mi-tsuke= (_kuru_), look at, perceive, T.

=mi-warahi=, laugh at, T.

=mi-watashi= (_su_), survey, scan, regard, 68, 136, 224.

=mi-wo=, water-thread, fairway, channel.

=mi-wo-biki= (_suru_), pilot, steer, 259.

=mi wo hayami=, rapid stream.

=miya=, grand house, palace, shrine, mortuary chapel.

=miya-bashira=, pillars of _miya_.

=miyabi-wo=, courtier.

=miyadzukahi= (_e_), palace attendant, palace-lady, T.

=miyako=, City-Royal.

=miyako-ji=, road to City-Royal, Ta.

=mi yamahi=, malady, illness (honour word).

=miyatsuko-tachi=, servants of shrine, Ta.

=miye=, _miyetsuru_, _miyezu_, _mizhi_ (not see, _miru_), T.

=mi-yo=, a reign.

=Mi-Yoshinu Yoshino= (word-play by repetition).

=miyu= (passive of _miru_), T.

=mi-yuki=, snow, much snow.

=mi-yuki=, royal progress.

=miyuru=, be seen.

=mizhikaki=, short, 67.

=mizu=, not-see.

=mo=, also, too, &c.

=mo=, sea, river or pond-weed, 16.

=mo=, skirt, 64, 201; _mo gisu_, put on skirt of puberty, T.

=mo=, mourning 69; ill-fortune, 202.

=mochi=, a sort of birdlime, _mochitori_, 62.

=mochi= (_motsu_), hold.

=mochi-kechi= = _kechi_ (_keshi_), quench.

=mochi-ki=, take-come, bring.

=mochi-kudachi=, turn of full moon, 101.

=mochite= (_mochi_).

=mochi-tsuki= (_michi-tsuki_?), full moon, 22.

=moda= (_muna_, _motona_), silent, dumb, in 57 useless.

=’mofu= = _omofu_.

=mohara= (_moppara_), mostly, T.; with neg. = not at all, οὐκ ἔμπης.

=moitsutsu=, push forth (as shoots), 231.

=mokoro= = _gotoku_.

=momi= (_u_), rub or pound, 209.

=momi=, red.

=momiji=, ruddy hues of autumn, ruddy leaves of maple.

=momitsu= (_momiji_).

=momo=, hundred.

=momo=, peach.

=momodzutafu=, m. k.

=momo fune=, 100 ships, all, or very many ships or boats, a m. k.

=momo-he=, hundredfold, manifold, showing many-ridges, 66.

=momo-ki=, 100 trees, all sorts of trees.

=momo-kusa=, 100 plants, all sorts.

=momoshikino=, m. k.

=momoshinu no=, m. k.

=momotarazu=, m. k.

=momo tori=, all sorts of birds, 95.

=momo-ye-zashi=, displaying a mass of branches and twigs.

=momo yo=, 100 ages, many ages.

=mo naku=, safely, without [cause of] mourning, 202.

=mono=, thing, person.

=mono ihazu=, saying nothing.

=mono ni yuku=, go somewhere for some purpose or other, 210.

=mononofu=, armed follower (lit. weapon-wight), 52.

=mononofuno=, m. k.

=mononofuno yaso tomo no= (_wo_), a double, m. k.

=mono omofu=, think of things, be sad, 175.

=monoshi= (_mono su_), do something, act, T.

=morasu=, let or cause leak, escape; also for _mamorasu_, hon.
causative, watch or guard, 203.

=mori=, grove, 109.

=mori=, guard, watch; _watari-mori_, ferryman, 235.

=mori= (_moru_), heap up, 209.

=moribe=, guard, watch.

=moro= (_muro_).

=moro=, all, many, 227.

=moromoro=, all, 68.

=morotomo ni=, all together, T.

=moru= (_mamoru_), watch, guard, 94, 107.

=moru= (_ru_), leak out, find expression in, Ta.

=Moru yama=, a hill in Ômi, originally perhaps = watch or beacon-hill.

=motage= (_ru_), lift up, T.

=motari= (_motsu_), _-ru_, _-shi_, _-zu_, 59.

=mote= (_mochite_).

=mote-kite=, bring.

=moteredomo= (_motsu_), though I hold, 199.

=moto=, origin, former, 90; _moto no gotoku_, as before; tree-trunk
or foot, 223; _on moto_ (your, or his, or her), palace, mansion,
residence, T.

=moto hikaru=, self-shining? or, stem shining, T.

=motohore= (_ru-ri_), go about, also _motohoshi_.

=motomu= (_muru_, _memu_, _mete_), seek, explore, open out.

=motona=, useless (_itadzura ni_), 31.

=moya=, inner or central chamber, T.

=mo yo=, _mo ya_, _mo gana_, _mo gamo_, _ka mo_, _shi mo_, _mo … mo_:
see gramm.

=moyetsutsu moyenu= (_moyuru_), 28, 123, 215.

=moyuru=, burn.

=mozhi=, letters, writing, Ts.

=mugura=, Japanese wild hop, Humulus japonicus.

=mu-gusa=, six sorts, Ts.

=mukafu= (_mukahi_), be opposite to, turn towards, go towards, 28, 83,

=mukahase= (_mukafu_), T.

=mukahe mukahesase= (_mukafu_), T.

=mukahi-mawidemu= (_mukafu_), 86.

=mukashi=, long ago, formerly, T.

=muke=, turn towards.

=muke= (_tahirageru_), subdue (_debellare_).

=muke no manimani=, according to his (the sovran’s) pleasure or

=muki= (_muku_), turn with face towards, T.

=muki-tachi=, stand facing (river of heaven), 102.

=mukutsuge=, frightful-like, horrible, T.

=muma= (_ma_), horse.

=muna= (_shiku_), empty, vain, useless, 263.

=munashi=, empty, vain, _-- kaze_, T.

=muna-wake=, part between the breasts, 104.

=munawake mo hirokeki=, wide-bosomed.

=mune=, breast, feelings, 50, 146.

=mune=, roof, ridge, T.

=mura=, multitude, flock, 33.

=murakimono=, m. k.

=murasaki=, purple, 203.

=muratorino=, m. k.

=mure=, crowd, throng, number.

=muredo=, =murete= (_mureru_).

=mureru=, assemble, crowd.

=muro= (_moro_), cave, earth-dwelling, inner chamber, abode, sacred

=musebu= (_bu_), choke, sob, gasp, 261.

=muse-tsutsu= (_musebu_), 58.

=mushi=, insect, Ta.

=mushiro=, mat, T.

=mushi-tame=, grow thickly (as moss, &c.), 133.

=musu= (_mushi_), grow (as mosses, &c.).

=musubi= (_u_), bind, contract, engage.

=musubiteshi= (_musubi_).

=musuhore= (_bore_) = _musubaharu_, be bound, involved in, entangled.

=musume=, girl, Ta.

=muta=, =tomo ni=, =manimani=, together with, according to, 59, 123.

=mutsumazhi=, benevolent, friendly, Ta.

=muya= = _moya_, T.

=na=, do not (_na -- so_, _na yume_).

=na=, personal name, fame.

=na=, salad herbs (Brassica sp.), 1.

=na= (_namuzhi_, _nanzhi_), thou, _nase_, _na imo_, 213.

=na= (_nan_, _namu_), fut. suffix of verbs, emphatic particle.

=nabe= (_naburu_), together with? emphatic affix to adjectives
(_yoroshi nabe_), 27, 251.

=nabe ni=, together with.

=nabikahishi= (_nabikafu_) = _nabiku_ (_nabike_), 23.

=nabike= (_ki_, _ku_), bend, yield, 141.

=nabiki-neshi=, sleep with, sleep close by.

=nade= (_ru_) = _nadamuru_, soothe, smooth, treat with favour, 255.

=nadeshiko=, pink (Dianthus), 232.

=nadeu= (_najô_), _nan chifu?_ or _nani tefu_, what, why, how? T.

=nado=, =nado ka= = _nani ka_, _naze_, why, wherefore?

=nadokoro= (_meisho_), famous place, Ta.

=nadzuke= (_ru_), give name, 37.

=nadzumi= (_u_), stick to, make way through obstacles, force way, 28,
168; =-- koshi=, loins obstructed by (grass, bush, &c.).

=nadzusafu=, float on water, 48, 198, 225.

=nadzusafu=, swim, float on surface, 198.

=nagahama=, long tract of shore, 219.

=nagahitsu=✱, coffer (Chinese shape) on four legs, T.

=nagaki= (_ku_, _shi_, _mi_), long (space or time).

=nagame=, long-rains, rain, 203: see also _nagamuru_.

=nagamuru=, contemplate, _nagara_: see gramm.

=nagarahete= (_nagarafu_, _nagare_, _nagaru_), Ta.

=nagare= (_ruru_), flow on.

=nagasaheru= (_nagasafuru_) = _nagasu_.

=nagasere= (_nagasu_).

=nagasu= (caus. of _nagaru_, flow).

=nagatsuki=, long-moon month, ninth month (Oct. and part of Nov.).

=nagekafu= (_hi_) = _nageku_.

=nagekashige=, weeping-like, T.

=nageku= (_-ki_, _-kedo_ _-shi_, _-kasuramu_) (_naga-iki_), draw long
breath, sigh, lament, weep.

=nagi=, sea-calm.

=nagimu=, be still, calm.

=nagisa=, strand.

=nagori=, vestige, relic, memory.

=nagu= (_nagusamu_), _nagishi_, 199, 242.

=nagu= (_naguru_), cast, throw, shoot off (_ya wo nagu_), 196.

=nagu= = _nagimu_.

=na-guhashi=, beautiful, fair-flowery (_hanaguhashi_), 14, 30.

=nagusa=, diversion, distraction.

=nagusamuru=, divert, console, distract, 23, 103.

=naha=, rope, line, cord, 89.

=naha-nori=, a ropy seaweed, 173.

=naho=, still, yet, more.

=nahonaho=, still more.

✱=naishi=, women attendants at court, T.

=naka=, within, midmost, middle, 37.

=na kakasu=, give name to.

=nakanakani=, more than one thought, indeed; but in 120 said to =
_namanaka_, imperfectly, negligently, without reflection.

=nakare= (_naku-are_), _koso nakare_, 253--do not.

=nakarishi= (_nakaru_), not-been.

=nakashi= (hon. caus. _naku_, weep).

=naka-tsu-ye=, middle branchage.

=nakazarishi=, not-sing (_naku_).

=nake=, _nakedo_, _nakemu_, _nakinu_, _naki_, _naki-tsutsu_,
_nakuramu_: see _naku_ weep.

=naki-fuse=, lie-weeping, T.

=naki-nonoshiri=, shout, scream, weeping, T.

=naki-wataru=, weep-pass-on, go on weeping.

=naki-watase=, pass or fly along while singing.

=naku=, cry (bird, &c.), sing.

=naku=, weep; _nakayu_ = _nakutokoro_, 31, 69.

=naku= (_naki_, _nashi_, _nakereba_, _nakare_), be-not, not-be, 28.

=nakunaku=, weep-weep, T.

=namarite=, secluded, concealed, 211.

=namashi= (_naramashi_, _naru_), 208.

=namasu=, 210 note, a sort of mayonnaise (fish, herbs, and vinegar).

=namayomino=, m. k.--or _namayumino_, (1) bow of green wood that warps
(_sori_ kahe_ru_), applied to Kahi (pl. n.).

=name= (_ru_) = _naraberu_, be in row, abreast, side by side, 76.

=name=, lick, taste.

=name-ge= (_nameshi_?), vulgar, T.

=nameri= (_namu-ari_), T.: see gramm.

=nami=, not-be, 28, 59, 123.

=nami=, waves; _nami-ma_, Ta.

=namida=, tears.

=nami ni=, regularly.

=nami no he=, by the waves.

=nami-shikeba=, extend together.

=nami-tachi=, stand, rise together (the two peaks of Tsukubane), 43.

=namu= (_ni_, _nu_): see gramm., T.

=namuji= = _nanji_, _namujura_.

=nan= = _namu_.

=nana=, seven.

=nana-he=, sevenfold, manifold, 210.

=nana-kusa=, seven sorts, many sorts, 70.

=nanasoji=, seventy years old, T.

=nanatabi=, seven times, T.

=nane= (_nanzhi-ane_), you (by man to woman), term of address and
endearment, 60, 121.

=nani=, what?

=nani shi ka mo=, whatever it be!

=nani su to ka= = _na ni to ka_, what can it be?

=nanji= = thou, you, T.

✱=nankai=, southern sea, T.

=nanoka=, _nanuka_.

=nanori=, tell one’s name.

=nanori so= (_nami-nori_), a seaweed, _sargassum_?

✱=nanshi=, southern (sun-towards) branchage, Ta.

=nanuka=, seven days, 105, 181.

=na oto=, you, younger brother.

=narabi-nashi=, incomparable, peerless, T.

=narabi-wi=, be together.

=narabi-woru=, be together, side by side, as _tonari_, neighbours.

=narafu= (_hi_), learn, T.

=narahasu= (caus. of _narafu_), T.

=narasu=, tread, level.

=narasu=, make, cause to sound, T.

=nare-goromo=, worn garment, usual garment, 198.

=narenu=, worn, soiled, 118.

=nareru=, grown, or full grown, ripe, 231.

=nari= (_narihai_), way of life, business, occupation.

=narihahi=, crops.

=nari-idete=, come into existence, become.

=nari-masarau=, grow and increase, T.

=nari-yuku=, turn out (to be), result in or as, T.

=naru=, be, be in, at: cf. _naraba_, _narade_, _narame_, _naramu_,
_narashi_ (_narurashi_), _narazu_, _nare_, _nareba_, _naredo_,
_nareneba_, _nareri_, _nareru_, _nari_, _narinu_, _narinuru_,
_narishi_, _narishikaba_, _nariteshi_, _naritomo_, _narurashi_.

=naru= (_ni aru_), be: see gramm.

=naru=, sound, resound (_narasu_).

=nasa= = _nashi_, not-be.

=nasanu= (_nashi_).

=nase= (_nanzhi se_), thou, elder brother, sir, 210.

=nashi=, not-be (_naku_).

=nasu= (_nasazu_), 242; _nashite_, _nashi_, _nasanu_ (_naseru_,
_nasuramu_), caus. of _naru_, let or cause to (be or do or make).

=nashimi=, manner of being (the force of _mi_ is rather obscure), 203.

=nasu=, form, manner = _zhi_; appended to nouns _tamamonasu_, like

=natane=, rape seed, T.

=natsu=, summer.

=natsukashi= (_-ki_, _-ku_, _-shi_), loving, longing for, lovely, 136.

=natsu-kusa=, summer grass, summer abundance of herbs.

=natsu-mushi=, summer flies, 124.

=natsusobiki=, m. k.

=nayamase=, cause (or feel) distress or trouble, suffer; _shita --_,
_ura --_, 227, 242.

=nayami-kite= (_kite_ is almost aux.) = _nayami_ (_nayamase_).

=naye-kagamari= (_u_), to be feeble and bent, T.

=nayete= (_nayu_), grow or be feeble, yield, bend.

=nayotakeno=, m. k.

=na yume=, do not … at all.

=nayutake= (_nayotake_).

=nazorahe=, liken to, Ts.

=nazorahe-uta=, imitative poetry, Ts.

=ne=, precative affix, 159.

=ne=, root, mass of rock (summit).

=ne=, sound, cry, wail.

=ne-bari= (_ne-hari_), wide-rooted. In 183 it has the m. k.
_sashi-yanagi_, ‘growing-willow-like’, attached.

=neburi= (_nemuri_), here = with half-closed eyes, or with stupefied
look, T.

=nedzumi=, rat, rodent, T.

=negafu=, beg for, desire, 70.

=negahamu= (_negafu_), T.

=negahi-hori=, long lovingly for, 70.

=ne-gami=, sleep-hair, disordered morning-hair.

=negi= (_u_), comp. _negahi_, pray, invoke gods, 87.

=negura=, roost, Ta.

=ne-haheru=, in 156 seems to mean wide-based.

=nemokoro ni=, earnestly.

=neneba= (not-sleep), _neshi_, _nete_, _neteshi_, _netaru_, _nezu_.

=ne nomi shi nakayu=, lamenting and weeping only.

✱=nenzhite=, praying.

=ne-same=, wake from sleep, 96.

=netakeku=, jealous, envious.

=netaku= (_keku_), T.

=netami= (_u_), be jealous, envious, T.

=ne-toyomu=, wail-resound, 93, 96.

=neya=, sleep-chamber, T.

=neyado=, sleep-place, 67.

=neyo=, sleep! 70.

=nezu=, not sleep, T.

=ni=, post-position in, to, at, by, with.

=ni=, red, ruddy; _-- tsukafu_ (= _ni tsuku_), apply red-colour.

=ni ini ni keru=, &c.: see gramm.

=ni no ho=, ruddy (ripe), ears of grain.

✱=nichi=, day, T.

=nifubu= = _niko niko to_, gently, softly, 233.

=nige= (_ru_), run away, T.

=nige-use=, run away out of sight, T.

=nigi …= _v._ =niki= (_hada_).

=nigiri= (_u_), grasp in hand, close fist on, T.

=nigiri-mochite=, grasping, clutching.

=nigitahe=, fine soft cloth, opp. to _aratahe_.

=niha=, forecourt, garden.

=nihaka ni=, suddenly, 70, 204.

=nihi=, new, 93, 125.

=niho-dori=, a sort of duck, or grebe, Podiceps? 61, 197.

=nihofu= (connected with _nihi_, new, fresh?), smell sweet, be bright,
flourish--_nihohamu_, _nihoheme_, _nihoheru_, _nihohi_, _nihohishi_,

=nikemu= (_ni_, _ini_).

=ni ke ni=--_ni (ini)-ki-he-ni_, 101.

=nikerazu=, _ni keri_, _niki_.

=nikibi-nishi= (_nigi_), soft, pleasant, 53, 155.

=niki-hada= (_nigi_), soft surface (of body).

=nikukarazu=, not hateful, without distinction, T.

=niku maye= (_nikumu_), 64.

=nikumu= (_i_), to hate.

✱=nin=, man, person, T.

=ninafu= (_ninahi_), bear burden, T.

=ninaharete= (_ninafu_).

=ni no ho=, _ni_.

=ni-no-ho-nasu=, like ruddy-coloured grain-ears.

=ni-nuhi= (_tsuke_), red-sew-on, 203.

=ni-nuri=, red-painted, coloured, stained, 170.

=nire=, an elm, Ulmus parviflora, Jacq., 211.

=nishi= (= _inishi_, gone i.e. sun), west.

=nishiki-nasu=, _nishiki_-like, brocade-like (originally _ni-shiki_,
red-stained), 94, 124.

=nite=: see gramm.

=nite shi=, really like, 27.

=ni-tsutsuzhi=, Skimmia japonica?

=niyouniyou ni= (_nyônyô ni_), groaningly, βαρυστενάχων, T.

✱=nizhifu= (_nijiu_), 20.

=no=, gen. poss. particle: see gramm.

=no= (_nu_), moor waste, 232; uncultivated wild land.

=nobe=, moor-side.

=nobori=, _noboru_, _noborashite_, _noborazu_.

=nobori-tachi= (ascend up to), 11.

=noboru=, go up, ascend.

=nobu=, extend, stretch, prolong, utter, relate, escape, _kokoro mo
nobu_, heart open out (feel happy), Ta.

=nochi=, after, later.

=nodo=, throat, 67.

=nodoka=, fair, fine, calm, Ta.

=nodokeki= (_nodoka_).

=nodo ni= (_nodoka ni_), calm, pleasant, fine (weather).

=nogaroyeru=, unavoidable, cannot be escaped.

=nogohi= (_nuguhi_), wipe, 261.

=nokesama ni=, fall on back, T.

=nokon= (_nokoru no_), Ta.

=nokoreru=, remaining, excepted, omitted, left over, 118.

=nokori= (_u_): see _nokoreru_, T.

=nokoshi= (_nokosu_), take (a quantity) for some purpose, set apart,
except, 231.

=nomare= (_nomu_, drink), T.

=nomeredo= (_nomu_, pray).

=nomi= (_nomu_), drink, T.

=nomi=, only, 186.

=nonoshiri=, shout (abuse, revile), T.

=norahi= (_norafu_, _-noru_, _-noraku_), say, tell, 105.

=noramu=, _norame_, _norase_, _norasane_, _norazu_.

=nori= (_noru_), ride on, go as passenger on.

=nori-tachi=, get on board.

=noru=, say, tell, order.

=nosesu= (caus. of _nosu_), cause to be placed on, T.

=notamafu= (_-hi_, _-hase_, &c., say (honour-form)), T.

=nozoki= (_u_), peep at, look on, T.

=nozomi= (_u_), gaze at something distant, hope for, 102.

=nu= (_no_), moor, waste.

=nubatama= (_no_), m. k.

=nugu=, doff.

=nu-he= (_nu be_, _no be_), moor-side, 92.

=nuhi= (_nufu_), sew, sew together, sew on, 189.

=nuhishi= (_nufu_, _nuhi_).

=nukadzuki=, to _kotow_, knock forehead on floor, 70.

=nukidete=, draw forth, 140.

=nuki-oroshi=, set (oars or sculls), and let fall on water, 40.

=nukitari=, to thread (as beadlace), 42.

=nuku= (_nugu_, _nuki_, _-nukitsuru_), doff, 18, 62.

=nuno=, hempen cloth, 67, 203.

=nurasu=, _nurashi_, _nurenu_, _nurete_ (_nuru_).

=nuri= (_nuru_), smear, varnish, wet, T.

=nurigome=, plastered store-place, T.

=nuru= (_neru_), sleep (_nemuru_).

=nuru=, smear, varnish, stain, wet, 211.

=nuruku=, tepid (slow, dull).

=nururu= (_nureru_), be wet.

=nusa= = _mitegura_, 134, 137, 192.

=nushi=, lord, house-master.

=nusubito=, thief, T.

=nu-tsu-tori=, moorside bird, _kizhi_, pheasant.

=nuye-tori=, a fabulous bird, perhaps a kind of owl.

=obaseru=, engirdle, 221.

=obashishi=, girt.

=obi=, girdle, 67; _obi ni seru_, engirdle, 133.

=obiyuru=, be alarmed, 24.

=oboshi=, _obosu-obosaruru_, _obosarezu_, _oboshimese_, _oboshiki_, all
= _oboshimesu_ = _omofu_ (hon. form), T.

=oboyuru= (_oboye_), think, feel, know, T.

=ochi=, a prefix to verbs giving emphasis.

=ochi=, _otsu_, _ochiru_, fall.

=ochiba=, falling leaves, Ta.

=ochi-kakari=, hang over (as wave), T.

=ochiru=, _otsuru_, fall, drop.

=ochitagitsu=, swirl, roar down, 71, 94.

=ochizu= (_nokorazu_), not-excepted, without exception.

=odoro-odoroshiku=, startled, astonished, T.

=ofu= (_ohi_), bear, contain, carry.

=ofu=, follow, pursue, T.

=ofuru=, grow in, on, 17, 26.

=ogiro-naki=, vast, illimited, 259.

=ogoru=, live in luxury, Ts.

=ohamu= (_ofu_, _ohedo_, _ohi_), follow after, 222.

=ohasu= (_e_, _-eru_, _-shimasu_, _-shimashinu_, _-shimasenu_,
_-shitari_, _-suramu_), hon. caus. form ‘be’, T.

=ohazu= (_ofu_), not-bear, Ts.

=oheru= (_ofu_, _ohi_), bear.

=ohi-harahi=, chase, clear away, T.

=ohi-kaze=, stern-wind, T.

=ohi-kuru=, come close after, 64.

=ohi-mi=, carry on back (as a habit?), 54.

=ohi-mochite= (_ofu_, bear), 227.

=ohi-nabikeru=, follow after, and yield, or bend to.

=obi-name= (_ofu_), bear together with, 180.

=ohi-noboru=, grow and ascend, Ts.

=ohitachi= (_ofu_, grow), grow up, growth.

=ohitaru= (_ofu_, grow).

=ohite nabikeru=, grow drooping over or towards (said of a tree planted
over adjoining grave), 250.

=ohi-tsugi=, follow on.

=ohi-yukereba=, follow on, 125.

=oho=, in comp. big, great, grand, vast.

=oho aya=, large patterned? 203.

=ohobune=, great ship, 100.

=ohobuneno=, m. k.

=ohochi= (_ji_), great road, main road, high road? 203.

=ohofu= (_hi_), cover, 24.

=ohohashi=, great bridge, 107.

=ohohi-kitareba=, come clouding, or covering over, 70.

=ohohoshiku= (_obo-_) dim, gloomy, 30.

=oho-i-dzukasa=, chief cook, T.

=oho-kami= (_gami_), wolf.

=oho kami=, great god.

=ohokari= (_u_), be-many, T.

=ohokedo= (_ohoku_, many), 30.

=ohokimi=, great lord, sire, sovran.

=ohoki ni=, greatly, T.

=ohokisa=, greatness, size, T.

=ohoku=, many, T.

=oho-kuchi=, vast mouth, mouth wide-open, wolf’s jaws.

=oho-kuro=, deep black.

=ohomi=, great, grand, an honour-word.

=oho-mikado=, great palace (vast and wide realm?).

=oho-mike=, great fare, exalted food, (of sovran), 11.

=ohomi-mi=, great self (sovran).

=ohomi-te=, great hand (sovran’s).

=ohomiya=, palace.

=oho ni= = _ohoyoso_, in a general way, not definitely, generally.

=oho-nu=, great moor.

=ohoroka ni=, about, generally, almost, 239, 263.

=ohose= (_ofu_, _ohi_, bear), impute, charge with, 204.

=ohoserarete=, being commanded, Ts.

=ohosora=, sky, atmosphere, Ts.

=ohotomo=, great or chief ‘tomo’.

=ohotono=, lit. great hall or pavilion or palace. In 183 and 189
it must have one of these meanings, not the more modern one of a
sleeping-chamber in the Royal Palace.

=ohotori=, great bird, probably a crane or stork. _Ohotorino_ is a m.
k. of _Hagae [yama]_, _hagae_ meaning feather-change = moulting.

=ohowada=, sea, ocean.

=ohoyuki=, great fall of snow, 24.

=oi=, old age, 69.

=oi-dzuku=, get old, 252.

=oi-hatsuru=, grow very old, 210.

=oi-hito=, old man, 203.

=oi-mi=, old.

=oi mo sezu=, never growing old.

=oiraka ni=, courteously (here = honestly, straight out), T.

=oitachi= (_tsu_), grow up, growth, T.

=ojinaki=, pusillanimous, T.

=okamashi= (_oku_), 50.

=okanedomo=, though not stand up, 211.

=okashi= (_okasu_, _oku_), put, place, hon. causative in, 65.

=okazu= (not omit), 82; _okeru_ (left behind), 28.

=oki=, offing, deep water, 16, 68, 198; opp. to _he_, littoral water.

=oki= (_oku_), put.

=oki-agari= (_u_), rise to one’s feet, T.

=oki be=, offing, 199.

=oki mo agarazu= = _oki-agarazu_, T.

=okiru=, rise up, T.

=okite=, _okasu_, _okashi_, _okamashi_.

=oki tsu mo=, deep-sea seaweed.

=oki tsu nami=, deep-sea waves.

=oki tsu tori=, deep-sea birds.

=oki-wi=, rise and rest (get up and go to rest), Ta.

=okoru=, rise, originate from, Ts.

=okose= (_-ru_), send, sent, T.

=okosetaru=, given, bestowed, 237.

=okoshi-tate=, raise, set up, bring up, T.

=okosu= (_shi_), rouse, raise; _omohi_, _okoshi_.

=oku=, innermost part.

=oku=, put, place, leave behind, omit.

=oku-ka= (_okuga_), inmost place, end, term, 155, 183.

=okure-nami=, crowding after to say goodbye, 116.

=okuretaru=, left behind, 166.

=okurishi= (_okuru_), _okurishikeri_.

=okuru=, send, see off (person on journey), give.

=oku-tsuki=, secluded mound (grave), 47, 122.

=okuyama=, recesses of hills, 42.

=omi=, a follower, palace servant, minister, 55: see Introduction
Manyôshiu, ix, x, vol. of Translations.

=omo=, mother, 48.

=omo chichi=, parents.

=omofu=, think, be sad, think lovingly or affectionately of any one;
_omohashishi_, _omohaku_, _omohami_, _omohanu_, _omoharete_, _omohazu_,
_omoheba_, _omoheru_, _omohishi_, _omohikoshi_, _omohi-tsutsu_,

=omofubekere= (_omofu_), T.

=omohashiki=, to be thought of, desired, thoughtful.

=omohi-de=, have [pleasant] recollection of, remember, recall to mind,

=omohi-hokorite=, recall with pride, 225.

=omohi-kofuramu=, recall with affection, think of affectionately.

=omohi-madohahi=, think-distract, be embarrassed with one’s thoughts,
perplexed, uncertain.

=omohi-mase=, honour form of _omohi_.

=omohi-midarete=, think-be-confused, be uncertain, perplexed in mind.

=omohi-nadzumi=, sunk in, distracted with thought (love), 148.

=omohi-nobe=, give utterance to thoughts, 236, 242.

=omohi-okosu=, recall, bring to mind, T.

=omohi-sadamete=, determine, T.

=omohi-shigeku=, full of thought (of love, &c.), 244.

=omohi-sugubeku=, think too much, love too much.

=omohi-tanomu= (_-mite_, _-meru_), think or love and trust to.

=omohi-tarahashi=, think-complete, be full of love?

=omohi-tsumi-koshi=, be absorbed in (thought, love, &c.); _koshi_ is
aux. (_kuru_).

=omohitsure= (_omofu_), T.

=omohi-urabure=, be sad with thought, love, &c.

=omohi-wabi=, be love-sick, T.

=omohi-wadzurahi=, be thought-sick, love-sick.

=omohi-yamu=, cease thinking, loving, &c.

=omohi-yaru=, chase thoughts, love, &c., drive out care (modern use,
sympathize with, imagine).

=omohi-yasumi=, thought, love, &c., ceasing or becoming tranquillized.

=omohoseru=, 172 (_omohosu_), hon. caus. _omofu_; _omohoshikeme_, 9;
_omohoshiki_, 194, 214; _omohoshimeshite_ (_obo_), _omohoshishi_,
_omoyu_ (_omofu_).

=omohoyuru= (_omofu_).

=omokage=, appearance of a person’s face, 252.

=omokaharisezu=, without change of appearance, i.e. not looking older,

=omoki= (_-ku_, _-shi_), heavy, 69.

=omomuki= (_u_), go to, T.

=omonaki=, be shamed, mortified, T.

=omoshiroki= (_-ku_, _-shi_, _-mi_), pleasant.

=omote=, face, 64.

=omotozhi=, lady mother, 91.

=omowa=, face, surface; _tsuki no_, face of moon, 241.

=on= (_ohon_, _ohomi_), hon. particle, T.

=onazhi= = _oyazhi_, T.

=oni=, demon, goblin, elf.

=onna= (_omina_), woman.

=ono= = _onore_, one’s, his, I, self, 58, 83, 228.

=ono ga mi=, my, one’s self.

=onomo onomo= = _ono ono_, each, every, 123.

=orabi= (_u_) = _sakebu_, shout, 125.

=ori-fuse= (_hiza_), bend on knees, kneel (in prayer), 42.

=ori-kazasu= (_-amu_), break off spray for head-adornment, 46.

=ori-kite=, weave-put on, 124.

=oroka=, foolish, vulgar.

=oru=, weave, plait, 203.

=osahe= (_osu_), push, ward, press down, &c.

=osahe-sasu= = _osahe_.

=osahe-tome= (_ru_), forcibly detain, stop, 52.

=osamuru= (_osame_), govern, administer, regulate.

=osanakereba= (_osanaku_ = young, tender), T.

=oshi=, a prefix to verbs, giving force, extent, particularity.

=oshimu= (_-mi_) = _woshimu_.

=oshinabe= (_te_), universally, lit. make-yield = government =
universally (_all_ being under the sway of the sovran), 1.

=oshineri= (_oshi-hineri_), grasp, seize hold of, 125.

=oshiteruno=, m. k.

=oshiwake=, separate, push, force way through, 222.

=oso= = _nibuki mono_, fool, blockhead, 105.

=osoharuru= (_osofu_), be afraid of, T.

=osoroshiku= (_-ki_, _-shi_), fearful, dreadful, T.

=osoru= (_i_), fear, dread, Ts.

=ososhi= (_-ku_, _-ki_), late, slow, T.

=osuhi=, a long veil worn on the head by women, 42.

=oto=, noise, sound.

=oto= (_ototo_), younger brother, 123.

=otodzure=, message, communication, Ta.

=oto ni kiki=, be noised abroad, T.

=otori-masari=, worse or better, T.

=otorohe= (_otorofu_), be inferior, T.

=otosamu= (_otoshi_), T.

=otoshi-ire=, let drop in, 207.

=oto su=, cause sound, Ta.

=otsuru= (_ochiru_), fall, flow down, 135.

=otsutsu= = _utsutsu_, present, real life, 65.

=otte= (_orite_): see _oru_, break, Ta.

=ouna= (_onna_), woman, T.

=oya=, fathers, ancestors, 48.

=oyazhi= = _onazhi_, same, 217, 233.

=oyodzure=, false or delusive rumour or news, 51, 213.

=oyoshiwo= = _oyoso_.

=oyoso= (_oho-yoso_), lit. great elsewhere, almost, about, generally.

=oyu= (_oi_), grow old, 144.

=oyuraku= = _oyu_.

=ra=, plural suffix (plurals in _ra_ are often honour-singulars;
_imashira_ = you, _kora_ = maiden, &c.; _yamahi wo ra_ = _yamahi nado_,
69: comp. _kinuwatara_, _kinu hakamara_, silks and the like, trousers
and the like).

✱=rakai=, a canopy of thin silk stuff, T.

✱=rauzhin= (_rôjin_), old person, Ta.

✱=rei=, usual, ordinary.

✱=ri=, the Chinese league.

✱=riyau= (_ryô_), a gold coin, also plan, device, T.

=ro=, an affix: see 14, 52, 65, 183; _ro ka mo_ (56).

✱=roku-we=, the six Royal regiments of Guards, T.

✱=ruri=, a precious stone, probably lapis lazuli, T.

=sa= (_semaku_), a sense of narrowness or contraction, 17.

=sa= (= _ma_, true, ζα- εὐ-), _sa ni nuri_, well red-stained, 170.

=sa= = _ya_, arrow.

=sa= = _shika_, thus.

=sabahenasu=, m. k.

=sabakari=, so much (_sore hodo_), T.

=sa-bashiru= (_hashiru_).

=sabi-=, affix to _kamu_, _yama_, &c.--it seems to mean godlike,
solemn, lonely.

=sabi= = _shikaburi_, wont, habit, practice, 64.

=sabishi= (_sabushi_), desolate and lonely, 29, 214, 230.

=sabitateru= (_sabi_).

=sabushiki= (_sabishi_).

=sadaizhin=, Left Great Councillor, T.

=sadaka ni=, decidedly, certainly, T.

=sadamuru= (_sadame_), settle, fix, _sadameteshi_; _-- kerashi_.

=sadashite= (_sadaka ni shite_), T.

=sade=, small hand-net (fishing), 246.

=sado= = _sato_, village district, 122.

=sadofu= (_sadohi_), beguile, _sadohaseru_, 89.

=sadzuke= (_-- tamaheru_), bestow.

=safubeshi=, _safu_ = impede, stop.

=safurafu= (_sôrô_), _samorafu_.

=safurahikemu= (_sorahikemu_), T.

=safuramu=, _samorafu_.

=sagareru=, be hanging down, 67.

=saga= (=shiri=) (_sore ga shiri_), his hinder parts, T.

=sage= (_u_), let down, T.

=sage-oroshi= (_sage_), T.

=sagukumu= (_i_) = _yuki-nayamu_, make difficult way over (as waves),

=saha ni=, many, numerously.

=saharazu= (_-- ru_), not be impeded [not be touched].

=sa-hashiru= (_-- bashiru_), dart, as fish in stream, 51.

=sahe=, even, at least, not at all (with neg.), 31, 105.

=sahegu=, talk indistinctly (as foreign lang.).

=sahidzuru= (_sahedzuru_), chatter, pipe as birds do (also = _sahegu_).

=sahihahi=, fortunate, prosperous, T.

=saka=, hill, pass, 121, 236.

=saka=, according to Kogi a _shaku_ = 1 foot, 158; according to (I.) =
_ata_ = one space, about 4 inches. The former meaning is probable in

=sakaba= (_saku_).

=sakagami=, seizure by hair of head, T.

=sakahaye= (_sakahayuru-saku_, blossom).

=sakahi=, frontier, 68.

=sakaki=, Eurya ochnacea, Szysz--a sacred low Ternstroemiaceous tree or
shrub, on branches of which are hung offerings to the gods.

=saka midzuki=, a feast of _saké_, banquet, 225.

=sakanamu= (_saku_).

=sakaru=, be in bloom, 64, 218.

=sakaru=, be afar, distant, 16, 18, 70, 140; _sakari-wite_,
_sakari-kinu_, _sakarinu_.

=sakashi= (_-- ki-ku_, &c.), wise, sage, able, T.

=sakashiki=, wise, prudent, learned, 203.

=saka-tori= (_dori_), hill-pass-birds.

=sakaya=, _saké_-booth.

=sakayete= (_-- yuru_), flourish, 24, 255.

=sakazarishi= (_saku_), not in bloom.

=saké=, rice-beer.

=sakebi= (_bu_), shout, 70, 105, 125.

=saki=, before, in front (place, time), T.

=saki=, cape, headland.

=sakihafu=, be prosperous.

=sakiku= (_saihai ni_), prosperous.

=sakikusano=, m. k.

=saki-mori=, a soldier serving in Tsukushi garrison, frontier-guard.

=saki-nihofu=, bloom-flourish, 241.

=saki-tsugi=, bloom and bloom, 108.

=saki-woworu(i)=, blossom in abundant falling masses.

=saki-zaki=, cape after cape, 90, 139.

=saku=, for _semaku_ (_sebaku_), narrow, 67.

=saku= (_hanatsu_, _yaru_, _hanareru_), _sakeru_, _sakete_, send forth,
let forth, comp. _sakaru_.

=saku(i)=, bloom, flourish; _sakinamu_, _sakitaru_, _sakukeshi_,
_sakeru_, _sakeredo_.

=sakumite= (_-mu_) = _fumi-nuku_, _fumi-saku_, force way on foot
through, 28, 86.

=sa-kumori=, very cloudy.

=sakura=, wild cherry-tree; _-- bana_, cherry-blossom, 33, 86.

=sama=, way, manner, appearance, T.

=sa-manemi=, very many.

=sa-mayohi= (_-fu-nureba_), wander about aimlessly or without order, be
in a state of confused to-and-froness, physical or moral, 67, 69, 262.

=samazama=, variously, Ta.

=same= = _ame_, rain.

=sameru= (_same_), awake, recover (from drunkenness).

=samorafu= (_samu-sabu-rafu_), lit. serve, wait on, follow--also an
auxil. = _hateru_ = to do, &c., 24, 44, 128.

=samuku=, weather-cold.

=samura ni= = _samuge ni_, 121, cold-like.

✱=san=, three.

=sana= (_sane_) _kadzura_, Kadzura japonica, L., 161.

=sa-naraberu= = _naraburu_.

=sa nasu itato wo= = _sashi-narasu itato_, door that creaks in
shutting, 64.

=sane=, lit. pips, seed in fruit.

=sa-neshi=, sleep close to, sleep, 53, 64.

=sa-ni-dzurafu=, well-red-stained or ruddy-faced, comely, 55, 94.

=sa ni-nuri=, well-red-stained (of boats), 102.

✱=san-sen-banri=, mountains and rivers and thousands of leagues, Ta.

=sanu= = _sa nuru_, sleep, 198.

=sa nu tsu tori=, pheasant, 203.

=sa-otodoshi= (_ototoshi_), year before last.

=sara ni=, again, afresh, quite, 68, 161.

=sarasamu= (_sarasu_), bleach, T.

=sarazu= (_saru_ = _hanareru_), _asa sarazu_ = _asa goto ni_, each
morning, no morning omitted, 70.

=sareba=, _sa_ (_shika_) _areba_.

=sarikureba=, _-- nureba_, come or go away.

=sarinamu=, _sa ari namu_, T.

=saritomo=, _sa ari to mo_, nevertheless, howbeit, T.

=saritote=, it being so yet, T.

=saru=, monkey, T.

=saru=, _sa aru_, thus-be, T.

=saru toki=, about 4 p.m., T.

=sasagu= (_sashi-agu_), lift up (offer to superior), _sasagetaru_.

=sasahe-kasanahe= (_sashi-kasane_), heap on (clothes), put on one robe
over another, 203.

=sasakishi= (_sasameku_), whisper, murmur, 203.

=sasanami=, small waves, rippling surf.

=sasanamino=, m. k.

=sasayaku(i)=, whisper, murmur, T.

=sashi= (_sasu_).

=sashi=, a prefix giving particularity or initial force.

=sashi-afugi= (_afugu_), T.

=sashi-ire= (_-sesase_), put into, T. _-- makura_, pillows side by
side. _-- hakite_ (_haku_). _-- kudari_ (_kudaru_). _-- megurashite_
(_meguru_), T. _-- mukafu_ (_mukafu_). _-- nami_ = _sashi-naraburu_ =
_narabu_, arrange in row or order, 90, 104.

=sashi-watashi=, pass or make go across, carry across, 246.

=sashi-yakamu= (_yaku_), burn.

=sashi-yanagi=, planted willow.

=sashi-yoranu=, not-approach.

=sasofu= (=hi=), invite.

=sasu=, thrust in, stick in, stick out from (_sasudake_), point towards
(16), attach _tsuna_ (33).

=sasudakeno=, m. k.

=sasuga ni= (_shika-su-nagara_), even so, T.

=sasuhi= = _sasohi_.

=sate=, well, now (_shika shite_), T.

=sato=, village district, Gau, 16, 27.

=satosu= (_shi_), explain, instruct in, exhort, 263.

=sa-tsuki= (_sa nahe_), month of growth, fifth month of lunar year, 46,
101, 210.

=satsusatsu=, murmuringly (as wind), Ta.

=satsuya=, hunting-arrows, 31.

=satsuyumi=, hunting-bow, 64.

✱=sauzoku= (_sôzoku_) = _shiyauzoku_, raiment, full dress, T.

=sawagu= (_sawaku_), be violent, agitated, 30, 69.

=sa-wataru(i)= = _wataru_, cross over.

=sawi= = _saki_, _shiho sawi_, flood-tide.

=sawo=, pole (boat), 33, 140, 259.

=sawo= (_sa awo_), true green, 211.

=sa-wo-shika= (_wozhika_), young stag, 94, 210.

=saya=, scabbard, 140.

=sayaka ni= (_saya ni_), clearly, brightly, 15, 17, 74.

=sayakeku=, shining, bright, 35.

=saya ni= = _soyo-soyo_.

=sayarazu= = _saharu_, impede, stop (neg.), 239.

✱=sayau= (_sayô_), thus so, T.

=sa-yeda=, twigs, sprigs.

=sa-yo=, full, deep night, 126, 178, 243.

=sa-yobahi= (_yobu_).

=sa-yo-fukete=, full deep into the night, 199.

=sa-yuri=, a kind of lily, 232.

=sayuru= (_sayu_), be chill, 15.

=sazara-nami= (_sasara-_) = _sasanami_, ripples, small waves or
breakers, 220.

=sazare=, pebbles.

=sazare-ishi=, pebbles, Ts.

=se=, current, stream, 23, 72.

=se=, elder brother, term of respect and endearment, especially from
sister to brother, sir, 90, 254.

=sebaya=, opt. form _suru_, Ta.

✱=sechi ni=, earnestly, strongly, T.

✱=sei=, spirit, Ta.

✱=seikaiha=, Blue sea wave (name of a musical piece), Ta.

✱=seishi= (_seisu_), reprove, T.

✱=sekai=, this world, T.

=seki=, barrier, guard-gate, 217.

=seki-tome=, stop, restrain, T.

=seko=, elder brother! sir (to husband, &c.), 57; friend to friend,
225, 242.

=seku=, stop, close, T.

=semete=, at least, T. (but also, of necessity, by compulsion).

=semeyori-kitari=, come pressing on, 64.

=semu= (_suru_), _semusube_ = _nasubeki shikata_, feasible future

=semu= (_i_), attack, T.

✱=sen=, a thousand, T.

=sen= (_semu_), T.

=se ni= = _sebaku_.

✱=sen nen=, 1,000 years, Ta.

=senshiu=, 1,000 autumns, Ta.

✱=sen shiu raku=, Joy of a 1,000 Autumns (music), Ta.

=seru= (a caus. of _suru_), in meaning = _naseru_, 152.

=seruramu= (_suru_), 201.

=sesasetamafubeki= (_sasu_, honour double-causative).

=seshi= (_suru_), 84.

=sesu= = _nashitamafu_, cause-let-be, 179.

✱=seu-shiyau= (_shoshô_), major-general, T.

=seyo= (_suru_), imperative.

=sezu= (_suru_).

✱=shaku=, a foot (measure), T.

✱=shaku=, badge, degree of rank, T.

=shi=, emphatic particle, 4, 243.

=shi= (_sore_), _shiga_ = _sono_, 70, 105, 139, 250; lower twigs, &c.,

=shiba=, brushwood, bush for wattles, bush-twigs, 66.

=shiba-naki=, _shibashiba naki_ (twitter-song, chirrup of birds), 41,
74, 216.

=shibashi= (_ni_, _no_), a little time, T.

=shibashiba=, times and again, often, constantly.

=shibi=, tunny fish.

=shibomi= (_u_), wilt, wither, 234.

✱=shichi=, seven, T.

=shidzu=, a sort of hempen cloth, 163.

=shidzu=, inferior, mean.

=shidzu-hata=, an ancient kind of loom, a hempen stuff woven in it (cf.
N. 1, 401).

=shidzukeshi=, tranquil, calm; _niha shidzukeshi_ = sea-floor (surface)
calm, 44.

=shidzuku=, falling water, water dropping from trees on a hillside,
also to be immersed and visible in water, as a stone at bottom (see a
_tanka_ in Manyôshiu, vol. vii).

=shidzumarimashimi=, was at rest, 24.

=shidzume=, tranquillize, rule, 65.

=shidzu-tamaki=, m. k.

=shidzu-ye=, lower branchery, 139.

=shi ga=, _sono_, _sore ga_, that, of that.

=shigarami= (_u_), roll round, as deer do; _hagi_ leaves for their
couch, 92.

=shigeru= (_shige_, _shigemu_), be abundant, 9, 24, 76, 215, 244; _--
shigeki_ (_-shi-ku_).

=shige-yama=, thickly wooded hill, T.

=shigi=, snipe, Ts.

=shigure= (_ru_), shower, 46, 94, 183.

=shihabukahi= (_-- buku_), cough, 67.

=shihabure=, stammer out, stutter, 225.

=shihasu=, eleventh (lunar) month, December-Jan.

=shihite= (_shihiru_), compulsorily, forcibly, T.

=shiho=, salt; _yashiho_, many times dipped (dyeing), 237.

=shihohi=, ebb tide, 96.

=shihosawi= (_-- saki_), flood tide, 44.

=shiho-yaki=, making salt from sea-water.

=shika=, thus, 5, 73, 197.

✱=shikai=, the four seas (of China) but referred to Japan, Ta.

=shikame=, _shikameya_ = _koso shikame_, surely will be so!

=shika mo=, so too besides, &c.

=shikanaku= (_shikanu_), not spread, not extend over, 182.

=shikare=, _shikareba_, _shikaredomo_, _shikasu_ (57), _shikaru_,
_shikashi_ (24), _shika to_ (67), be thus, be so certainly.

=shikemu= (_suru_), 47, 112.

✱=shiki=, colour, _go shiki_, the five colours--black, white, green,
yellow, red (Chinese).

=shiki= = _shikiri ni_, _iya shiki_ (_hototogisu_) _iyashiki nakinu_,
repeatedly, often, 34.

=shiki= (_u_), spread out, govern, administer (_shikite_).

=shikimasu=, _-- maseru_ = _shiroshimesu_, reign, rule, 34.

=shikinahete= = _oshinabete_, 1.

=Shikishima=, an old name for Yamato or Japan, also of an ancient
capital, T.

=shikitaheno=, m. k.

=shiki-ya= (_shiko-ya_), wretched hut, 154.

=shiko=, wretch, dolt, 101, 225.

=shikomete= (_mu_), seclude carefully from observation, T.

=shikushiku= = _shikirini_, repeatedly, again and again, 30.

=shima=, island, tract surrounded by stream? 38.

=shimaba-shimu= = _somaba somu_--if dyeing dye (comp. Gaelic idiom),

=shima-dzutahi=, coast thread or islands.

=shima-kakure= (_g_), hidden by islands, _shima no kage ni_, 201.

=shima-ne= = _shima_, island, (I.) _shimakuni_ [Yamato shimane],
island-province as Shimane ken (Idzumo Ihami, and the Oki islands).

=shima-yama=, island-hill.

=shime=, hawfinch, 139.

=shime=, for _shimenaha_, rice-straw ropes hung before temples and
houses, to keep off evil influences, 155.

=shimerani= = _oharazu_, not-end, 215.

=shimesu= (_-shi_), make known, announce, 65, 110.

=shime-yufu=, set in place a _shime-nawa_, 155.

=shimi=, =shimimi ni= = _shigeku_, 49, 183.

=shimi-ra-ni= = _shimimi ni_, but in 154 it seems = _shimerani_ (_hiru
ha shimirani_ = all day long).

=shimi-tohori= = _sometohori_, dye deep, dye through.

=shimo=, hoar-frost, rime, 15, 64, 198.

=shimo=, lower, under.

=shi mo=, emphatic compound particle.

=shimo-he=, under, lower side, quarter, direction.

=shimoto=, bush-shrub-growth (12); rod (to beat with), 67.

=shimo tsu se=, lower waters of a river, 26.

=shinaderu=, m. k.

=shi-naga-tori=, long-tailed or long-rumped bird--or long-breathed bird

=shinahe= (_shinahi_).

=shinahi= (_-fu_), incline, bend, yield.

=shinakereba= (_suru_--a neg. form).

=shiname= (_shinuru_, die).

=shinana= (_shinamu_, _shinuru_, die), 69.

=shina-tatsu= (_shinaderu_?), steep, 182.

=shinazakaru=, m. k.

=shini-hito=, dead man, 30.

=shinikeru=, died, 105.

=shinobu= (_shinubu_), T.

=shinu=, die (_shini_), _shinu_ = _shi-inu_, do-finish or breath-depart?

=shinu= = _shinafu shinahi_, 148, 222.

=shinubame=, _-- bamu_, _-- basu_, _-- basenu_, _-- baye_, _-- bayu_,
_-- bazu_, _bi kerashiki_, _-- bitsu_, _-- buramu_, 16, 97, 122.

=shinubu= (_bi_), love, long for, endure, conceal.

=shinubu-kusa= (_gusa_), a fern, Davallia bullata, Wilf.

=shinuburahi= (_shinubu_).

=shinugi= (_shinogu-gi_), endure, bear.

=shirade= (_shiru_).

=shiraga=, white hairs, or white cloth offerings.

=shira-hama=, white-shore, white-sanded, clear-watered, 97.

=shirakenu= (_-- genu_, _-- geru_), whiten, 105.

=shira-kumo= (_g_), white cloud, sunshiny clouds, 186.

=shiramaseba= (_shiramu_).

=shira mayumi=, whitewood-bow.

=shirame= (_shirome_), white-eye, white of eye, T.

=shiranami=, white waves.

=shiranuhino=, m. k.

=shira-nuri=, silvered, 225.

=shira-tama=, white jewel, pearl.

=shira-tsuyu=, white (bright), dew.

=shira-yufu=, white _yufu_ (Broussonetia yarn).

=shire ni shirete= (_shiremono_), silly, infatuated, T.

=shirinu= (_shiru_), T.

=shirizoku=, return, withdraw, T.

=shirokane=, silver, 63.

=shiroku= (_-ki-shi_), white, T.

=shirotaheno=, m. k.

=shiroshi-meseba=, _-- kemu_, _-- shi_, _-- mesu_.

=shiroshimeshi= (honour-form of _shiru_), govern.

=shiru= (_shiri_), know, govern, _shiranaku_, _shirani_ (_shirazu_),
_shiranu_, _shirashikuru_ (_-- nure_), _shiraseru_, _shirasenure_,
_shiredomo_, _shirinubeki_, _shirinubemi_, _shiriseba_, _shirisubeni_,

=shiruku= = form in _aku_? 59.

=shirushi=, sign, token, effect, result, 59, 178, 199.

=shirusu=, make note of, make known, give token or sign of, 34.

=shi seshite=, hon. caus. = _shi-tamahite_, 255.

=shishi=, deer.

=shishi=, flesh (deer or boar).

=shishiki-ya=, _satsuya_, hunter’s arrows? 173.

=shishi-zhi=, deer-like, like a deer.

✱=shisoku= (_-seshite_), causing a light to be brought, T.

=shita=, under, beneath, often = _ura_, inner, deeper, as in
_shita-gokoro_, 176.

=shitabaye=, heartfelt affection, 125.

=shitaberu= (_-- buru_), be drooping, wilting (associated with red hues
of autumn), 29.

=shitadohi=, underground pipe, conduit or drain, 128, K. lxxviii.

=shitafu= (_hi_), love, 49.

=shitagafu= (_-hi_), follow (_shitagahite_, _shitagahazu_).

=shita-gohi= (_ura-kohi_), deep, real love, 214.

=shita-gokoro= (_ura-kokoro_), deep, real, inmost feelings, bottom of
heart, 4.

=shita-hi=: see 120, _Shitahi yama_.

=shita hikari=, glow of colour (spring blossoms or autumn leaves), on
lower slopes of mountain, 94 (see also K. 163).

=shita-ji=, path under trees, 183.

=shitakumi=, resourceful, crafty, T. δολόμητις.

=shita-kutsu=, sock, 203.

=shita ’mohi= (_ura-omohi_), inmost feelings.

=shitanushi= (_suru tanomashiki_) = _tanoshi_, agreeable.

=shitari= (_shite ari_), T.

=shitashikeku=, arousing love, affection, friendship.

=shitatami=, a sort of clam, 209.

=shite=, protagonist (drama), Ta.

=shite= (_suru_).

=shitsu= (_shidzu_).

=shitsu kura= (_shita-gura_), under-saddle (_shidzu_ cloth under
saddle, often finely embroidered, &c.), 64.

=shitsurafu= (_hi_), arrange, T.

=shi-tsutsu= (_suru_).

✱=shiyau= (_shô_) (_-zoku_), gala dress, T.

✱=shiyau= (_shô_) _zuru_, invite, T.

✱=shiyau= (_shô_), life, Ta.

✱=shiyauga= (_shôga_), song, vocal music, T.

✱=shiyaukuwan= (_shôkwan_), admire, Ta.

✱=shiyou-kon= (_shôkon_), pine-foot, Ta.

✱=shiyou-kwa= (_shôkwa_), pine-florescence, Ta.

=shizhikushiro=, m. k.

=shizhi ni=, abundantly.

=so= (_zo_) = perhaps _sore_, an emphatic particle.

=so=, final imperat. particle: see gramm.

=so= (_sore_), 13, 159.

=soba=, side, T.

=soba-dzura=, side face or slope (of hill), T.

=sode= (_so_, dress, _de_, stick-out), sleeve; (more properly?)
arm-holes in upper garment.

=sode-furi=, wave sleeve.

=sode tsuke=, sleeved, 203.

=sofu= (_sohi_), accompany, join, add to, 109.

=so ga= = _sore ga_, T.

=sogahi=, back-turn, behind; _-- ni mi_, with back turned toward, 49,

=sohe-neneba= (neg.), _sohe-nekeme_, sleep by side of, 23, 29.

=sohe-uta=, satirical song, Ts.

=sohi=, _sohete_ (_sofu_).

=sohobune=, red-stained ship.

=soki=, afar, 86.

=sokidaku= (_sokobaku_).

=soko=, bottom.

=soko= (_sono tokoro_), there.

=sokoba= (_sokobaku_).

=sokobaku= (_soku baku_), a quantity, much.

=sokora=, there (vaguely), T.

=sokoraku= (_sokobaku_), 105.

=soku-he=, almost = _soki_, more particularized.

=soma=, wooded hill, woodman.

=somekeme= (_someru_ = _hazhimeru_), begun, be first, 85.

=somete= _somu_ (_someru_), dye, 237.

=somosomo=, well then, next, now, T.

=somuki= (_-shi-te_), oppose.

=somukaba=, T.

=sonafuru= (_sonahe_), provide, Ta.

=sono=, that.

=sora=, sky, atmosphere (what intervenes between heaven and earth),
metaph. vain, empty; _sora ji_, vain, useless journey, 202.

=soragoto=, false, counterfeit, T.

=soramitsu=, m. k.

=sorohete= (_sorofu_), arrange, bring into order, Ta.

=soshiri= (_u_), revile, T.

=sosogu=, pour, sprinkle, lave, 69.

=sosori=, ascend.

=soto=, outer, _soto mo_, outer face or aspect; in 14, northwards.

✱=sousesase=, caus. _sousu_, T.

✱=soushi= (_sousu_), T.

✱=sousu=(=ru=), report (to Throne), T.

=so ya=, war-arrows.

=su= (_suru_).

=su=, web (spider), 67.

=su=, nest, _su wo kufu_, build nest, T.

=sube= (_subeki_?) manner, means; _semu sube mo nashi_ = _shikata ga

=subekameru= (_subeki-aramu-aru_) or _beku_ may have had form _bekamu_,

=subemi= (_subeshi_), 118.

=sube mo naku= (_subeku mo naku_).

=suberu= (_i_), slip, T.

=sube-shirani=, _subeku shirazu_.

=subete=, in all, Ts.

=sudakeri= (_sudaku_) = _atsumaru_, collect, assemble, flock, 225.

=su-dori=, sea-swamp birds, 20, 21.

=suga=, rush (plant).

=suganoneno=, m. k.

=sugara=, whilst, through, 59, 154, 169, 215.

=sugaru=, sand-wasp, 104, 203.

=sugata=, form, shape, manner, Ta.

=sugata=, form, shape, T.

=suge=, sedge (Carex), 54.

=sugi=, Japanese cedar, but was the ancient _sugi_ identical?

=sugi= (_sugu_), _sugimaku_, _sugime_, _sugimu_, _suginamu_,
_suginishi_, _suginu_, _sugite_, _suguraku_, _sugubeku_, _sugureba_,

=sugikoshi=, elapsed, Ta.

=sugi-mura=, clumps of _sugi_, trees.

=sugi-wakaru=, go departing from T.

=sugu= (_i_), pass beyond, overpass, excel, 17, 55.

=sugu ni=, next, immediately, Ta.

=sugurete=, surpassing, Te.

=suguru= (_sugu_), T.

=sugushi=, _sugoshi_ (hon. caus. of _sugu_), 155.

=sugushi-yare=, passing of time, 64, 215.

=sugusugu to=, speedily, soon, T.

=suji=, line, _take hito suji_, one bamboo. This ἅπαξ λεγόμενον is the
only Japanese quasi-numerative found in the text.

=suki= (_u_), be fond of, T.

=suki-kakuru= refers to some mode of carrying a child (on back in a
cloth?), 203.

=sukoshi=, little (quantity, time, &c.).

=sukunakarazu=, not-few, T.

=sukunaki=, few, 206.

=sumafu= (_-hi_), dwell in, at.

=sume= (_ru_), dwell in, abide in; _sume kami_, God whose seat is … 68,

=sumera=, sovran.

=sumerogi= (_sumera-gi_), =sovran=.

=sumi=, ink, 210.

=sumi-naha=, ink-cord used by carpenters, builders, &c., 68.

=sumire=, the violet flower, 216.

=sumi=(=u=)=tamahaku=, hon. form. _sumu_, dwell, T.

=sumi-yoshi= (_-ki_), fair to dwell in (pl. n), 92, 96.

=sumomo=, a kind of plum, sloe? a variety of Prunus communis, Huds., T.

=sumu= (_sumi_, _sumeru_), dwell in or at, 105, 113.

✱=sun=, inch, T.

=suna=, sand, Ts.

=sunahachi=, and so, and then, T. (later, scilicet).

=sura=, even, almost = _sahe_, 23.

=sureba= (_suru_).

=suredomo= (_suru_), T.

=suri= (_suru_ = rub).

=suri= (_ashi --_), shuffle feet on ground, sign of emotion.

=suru= (_suri_), rub, 211 (_sureru_, be rubbed, dyed), 107.

=suso=, hem of vestment.

=susobiki=, train of vestment, trail of skirt, 105, 200, 216.

=suso-mi=, tract at foot of hill, 218.

=susuki= (_i_ = _sosogi_), 209.

=susukitaru=: see _suzukitaru_.

=susumu= (_i_), go on, go forward, 121.

=sute=, _sutsuru_, _sutete_, cast away, T.

=suwe=, end, 146.

=suwe= (_-ru_), place, put.

=suwe-hari-okoshi=, bend bow for shooting.

=suwe-he=, put-place, upper part, 130.

=suwe-hito=, potter, 211.

=suwe-okite=, place-put, 48, 76.

=suwe tsuhi mi=, at very last, 146.

✱=suwi-on=, water-sound, sound of river, Ta.

=suzu=, small bells (horses’, falcons’, &c.), 225.

=suzukitaru= (_susukitaru_), smoke-blackened, besooted, T.

=suzuro ni= (_-sozoro_, _-obohezu_), suddenly, by carelessness,
unforeseen, T.

=suzushime= (_suzusu_), refresh, Ta.

=ta=, prefix to verbs, &c., _tadohomi_, _tayasushi_, &c.

=ta=, cultivated (paddy), land.

=tabakaru= (_i_), deceive, T.

=ta-banare=, be loosed from hand, (as hawk), 225.

=tabarishi=, _tamaharishi_, 203.

=tabasami=, hand-hold, under arm hold, 173, 210.

=tabase= (_ru_), hon. caus. _tabe_, T.

=tabe= = _tamahe_ (_tamafu_, _tabu_).

=tabi=, journey, travel.

=tabi=, hand-flame, torch, 31.

=tabi=, time (once, twice, &c.), 15, 60.

=tabi= (_tabu_), T.

=tabi-goromo=, travelling-garb, Ta.

=tabi-ne=, journey-sleep, sleep while on journey, 23.

=tabi-yadori=, [night] shelter while on journey, 12.

=tabi-yuku=, to travel.

=tabu= (_tamafu_).

=taburetaru=, wrong-witted, stupid (_tahamuretaru_), 225.

=tachi=, plur. suffix, T.

=tachi=, sword.

=tachi= (_tatsu_), verbal prefix, giving particular sense--stand up,

=tachi-afu= (_afu_).

=tachi-azaru= (_i_), (_aseru_), to be in a state of doubt and
commotion, 70.

=tachi-bana no ki=, orange-bush, 46, 101.

=tachi-biki=, spread over, 84.

=tachi-domari=, _todomari_ (_u_), stay, stop.

=tachi-kikeba=, listen (to somebody’s talk).

=tachi-kuku=, dart in and out, 247.

=tachimachi ni=, at once, suddenly, 104.

=tachi-matsu= = _matsu_, wait for, expect, 128.

=tachi-miru=, look for, 55, 122.

=tachi-mukafu= = _mukafu_, 114.

=tachi-nagekahi= = _nageku_, 122.

=tachi-narasu=, in 124 = approach and stand by.

=tachi-nishi=, a past of _tachi-ini_, just go away.

=tachi-noboru= (_noboru_), T.

=tachinu= (_tatsu_).

=tachi-samorahi= (_-fu_) = _samorafu_.

=tachi-tanabiku= = _tanabiku_.

=tachi-tatsu=, rise suddenly, start up.

=tachite= (_tatsu_).

=tachite mo wite mo=, =tachite wite=, standing or sitting, under all

=tachi-tomari=, stop, 31, 158.

=tachi-tori-obashi=, a double prefix = gird on.

=tachi-toyomurashi= (_d_), _-toyomu_.

=tachi-tsurare=, be struck with dismay? T.

=tachi-wakare=, take leave and depart, T.

=tachi-washiri= (_-hashiri_ = _u_), 105.

=tachi-wataru= = _wataru_, pass over, or rise and pass over, 75.

=tachi-wi=, be standing up, T.

=tachi-wodori= = _wodoru_, be agitated (with emotion).

=tachi-yoru=, draw near to, Ta.

=tada=, just, simply, at once, ordinary, only, true, 50, 83, 120.

=tada-bito=, an ordinary mortal, T.

=tada goto= (_koto_), mere words, Ts.

=tadaka=, personality, appearance of a person, 118, 167, 192.

=tada koto=, an ordinary affair, T.

=tada me ni=, before one’s very eyes, before one, eye to eye, 146.

=tada-mukafu= = _mukafu_.

=tada ni= (_tadachi ni_), directly, only, immediately, merely, vainly.

=tadare= (_ru_), be blear-eyed (_me no tadare_).

=tada-watari=, in 193, seems = _kachi-watari_, cross water barefoot,
wade over.

=ta-dohomi=, quite distant, 56.

=tadoki= = _tadzuki_, 70, 120, 128, 204.

=tadori=, grope after, 64.

=tadzu=, a crane, 39, 55, 100, 199.

=tadzuki=, means, way.

=tadzukuri= = _tedzukuri_.

=tadzumi= (_u_), collect as water in a pool, 238.

=tadzusafu=, lead by hand, take with one, 26, 28, 64, 220.

=tadzusahari= (_tadzusafu_).

=tadzutadzushi= (_tadotado_), uncertain, dim, in a groping manner.

=tafutoku= (_-ki_, _-shi_, _-mi_, _-karamu_), noble, honourable,
excellent, exalted.

=taga=, whose?

=tagafu=, be different from, opposed to, oppose, mistake or fail (Ta.),

=tagahinu= (_tagafu_).

=tagane= (_u_) = _tsukanu_, bind, lean on supporting staff, 64, 203.

=tagi= (_tagu_ or _daku_), in (236) = draw in, pull in, rein up.

=tagichi= (_-tsu_, _-te_), swirl, _-ochi-tagitsu_, 189.

=tagoshi=, a _koshi_ (litter) borne by men, T.

=tagufu= (_taguhi_, _-hite_, _-heredo_), be of a kind with, pair with,
198, 217.

=taguhi-naku=, peerless, T.

=tahagoto= (_-koto_) = _mudanaru shigoto_ = a folly, a silly business,
fond, foolish, jest, 51, 192.

=tahare= (_-u_ = _tahamuru_, _-- razaru_), play fool, joke, &c., 70,

=taharete= (_tahare_).

=tahayasuku= = _yasuku_, T.

=tahenaru=, be excellent, fine, of rare beauty.

=tahe no ho=, brightness of _tahe_ (fine white hemp cloth), or
_tahenaru no ho_.

=tahi=, a fish, sea-bream, 105.

=tahiragete= (_tahiragu_), quell, pacify, debellare.

=tahirakeku=, even, level, prosperous, as when well governed, 69.

✱=taidai= (_taida_?), negligent, remiss, T.

✱=taimen=, face to face, interview, T.

✱=taishite=, be girded with, T.

=ta-jikara=, strength (of arm), 215.

=taka=, hawk, falcon, 225.

=takabe=, a bird (teal?), 33.

=takadaka ni=, in 201, intently, anxiously, as if peering into the
distance with head high.

=takadama=, bamboo-jewel, bamboo worked in with pearls; but in lay 42
bamboo circlets threaded as beads seem to be meant.

=taka-hikaru=, m. k.

=takakarashi= (_-ku_, _-mi_), appearing to be high, lofty.

=takaki= (_-ku_, _-shi_), high, lofty.

=taka-kura=, high seat, throne.

=ta-kami= (_ta-gami_), hilt of sword, 125.

=taka-ne=, lofty peak.

=takara=, treasure, 37, 63, 227.

=takashirasu=, honour causative of _takashiru_.

=takashiru=, high-know, rule, reign over (honour word).

=takataka= = _takadaka_.

=takatama= = _takadama_.

=taka-tobu=, fly high.

=taka-tono= (_dono_), high hall, of two or more stories.

=takatsuki=, a raised stand or tray for offerings, 209.

=taka-yama=, high mountain.

=take=, bamboo, T.

=take=, height, summit, 8, 92.

=take=, stature, T.

=takebu= (_i_), shout, storm.

=takeki= (_-ku_, &c.), bold, T.

=taketori=, bamboo-gatherer, wicker-worker, T.

=taki=, waterfall, cascade, rapids.

=takigi=, firewood, Ts.

=taku=, =tagane-musubu=, bind-up, 125.

=taku= = _yufu_ (paper mulberry).

=takudzununo=, m. k.

=takuhafu= (_-hahe_), treasure up, 252.

=takumi=, builder, carpenter, craftsman, T.

=takunaha=, rope of paper mulberry-fibre.

=tama=, originally perhaps to bestow (_tamafu_), hence precious, jewel,
round, fine, &c.

=tama-de=, fine arm.

=tamadzusano=, m. k.

=tamafu=, honour verb = confer, bestow, deign to, _tamafurashi_,
_-hamashi_, _-hane_, _-nu_, _-kashi_, _-heba_, _-hi_, _-hinu_,
_-hishi_, _-hite_, _-hari_, _-haru_, _-hinu_, _-hine_, _-hiten_,
_-hama_, _-hasenu_.

=tamahashi=, fine bridge, 115.

=tamahe= (_tamafu_); also _tamaheri_.

=tamahokono=, m. k.

=tamakadzura= = _kadzura_, 39, m. k.

=tamakagiri=, m. k.

=ta-maki=, a bracelet or arm-ornament, arm-encircle, 197.

=tamakiharu=, m. k.

=ta-makura=, arm (of another) used to rest head on, 29.

=tama-kushige=, fine toilet-case, 105.

=tama-maki=, wear pearls round (arm).

=tama-mo=, fine _mo_ (seaweed), 59.

=tamamonasu=, m. k.

=tamareru=, get collected (as water in pool, &c.), 165.

=tamasaka ni=, now and then, not often, by rare chance, 105.

=tama-shihi=, soul, spirit, ψυχή, T.

=tamatareno=, m. k.

=tamatasuki=, m. k.

=tama-toko=, an honour word, bed-place (_tamatoko_, also = bed-place of
a dead person left untouched for seven days after death).

=tamazakaru=, loss of sense or wit.

=tame ni=, for, on account of, for sake of, 56, 99.

=tameshi=, be example or sign or proof of, Ta. _tamesu_ = _kokoro-miru_
= try.

=ta-mi=, field-hands, people (plebs), 12.

=tamoto=, sleeve, pocket-sleeve, sleeve-pocket = _sode_, 64.

=ta-motohori=, go to and fro, wander about (_maharu_), 80, 219.

=ta-muke=, hand-offer, offer ritually, 133.

=ta-muke-gusa=, various kinds of offerings (to gods), 138.

=tanabiku= (_-ki_, _-keru_), 48, 105, spread over, as clouds do.

=tanakumori= (_g_), clouds gathering and spreading.

=tanashiru= (_-shirazu-shirani_, &c.) = _shiru_.

=tane=, seed, cause, source, means, Ta.

=tani=, valley, hollow, 248.

=ta-nigiri=, hand-grasp, seize, 64.

=tani-guku=, toad (Bufo vulgaris, _hiki-gaheru_), 62.

=tanka= = _mizhika uta_.

=tanomaru= (_-ishi_, &c.), _tanomeru_, _tanomu_, 22, 92.

=tanomoshigari=, desirable, reliable, T.

=tanomu=, trust to, 57, 183.

=tanoshikeku= = _tanoshi_, glad, happy.

=tanushisa= (_no_), gladness, happiness, 110.

=tarachineno=, m. k.

=tarachishi= = _tarachineno_.

=tarahashi= (_-su_), be complete, adequate, full, 149.

=tareru= (_taru_), be complete, 124.

=taretaru= (_taru_, to drop).

=tari= (_taru_), _ama no tari yo_, night-as-much-as-heaven, i.e. all
night, 70, 161.

=tari-yukamu=, become perfect, complete.

=tashi=, Eastland for _tachi_.

=tashika= (_-ni_, _-naru_), certain, firm, T.

=tasuke= (_u_), help, T.

=tasuki=, hand-help, shoulder-bands (see _tamatasuki_, m. k.), 70, 164.

=tatafubeki=, to be honoured, respected, T.

=tatafuru=, extol, 93.

=tatahashikemu=, _tatahasu_ = _michi-tari_, complete, perfect, as full
moon, 22, 183.

=tatakafu=, fight, T.

=tatamaku= = _tatamu_ (_tatsu_).

=tatami=, mat, 200, 210.

=tatanadzuku=, m. k.

=tatasu=, _tatashi_, _tataseru_, _tatamu_, _tatsuramu_, _tatasurashi_,
_tateba_, _tatazu_ (caus. of _tatsu_).

=tatazumi=, stop, stand still awhile, T.

=tate= (_ru_), raise, establish, set up.

=tate=: see _hi no tate_ (from E. to W.).

=tate= (_hi no_), East.

=tatematsuru=, hon. form suffix verb., lit. humbly raise, offer, T.

=tate-okite=, _naka ni tate-okite_ = rising out of the midst of [the
sea], 44.

=tate-watashi= (_watasu_).

=tatohe=, example, Ta.

=tatsu= (_tachi_), stand up.

=tatsukadzuwe=, hand-help-staff, staff to lean on.

=tatsu-kirino=, m. k.

=tatsu na= (_na wo --_ do not injure name (reputation)).

=tatsu-tsuki=, moon that rises.

=taurahi= (_tô rahi_) = _toburahi_, q. v.

=tawamite= (_tawamu_), be weak, 80.

=ta-waraha= = _waraha_, 159.

=ta-warahi= (_warafu_).

=tawayame= (_tawoyamu_, _tawamu_), 57.

=tawayame= (_tawayame_).

=ta-wi= means, in 112, _ta_ merely--paddy-land. May also mean ‘a
flooded rice-field’.

=tawori= (_u_), break off, 50, 66, 101, 215.

=tawori=, rugged mountain-peak, 159.

=tayori=, advantage, Ta.

=ta-yowai-me=, arm-weak-woman, delicate, tender.

=taye=, _tayezu_, _tayezhi_, _tayeme_, _tayureta_, also _tayuru_,
endure, support.

=tayu= (_tayuru-eru_), end, cease, be exhausted, interrupted, die.

=tayutafu= (_-hi_), heave, toss, roll, 26, 105.

=te=, hand, arm, _te udaki_, fold hands (sign of tranquillity and
contentment), 255.

=tedzukuri=, hand-work, 203.

=tekona= (_tegona_, _tego_) = _ateyaka naru musume_, beautiful girl,
47, 48, 124.

=temukahi= = _tamuke_, offering, Ts.

=tera=, Buddhist monastery, Korean _chöl_, T.

=terasu= (_-shi_), hon. caus. _teru_, 110.

=teri-hatataku=, to lighten and thunder, T.

=teri-kagayaku=, be dazzlingly bright, T.

=teru= (_i_), shine, 27, 67, 142.

=-te shi=: see gramm.

=te-tsu-kara= (_karada_), like _midzukara_, one’s own hands, one’s
self, 67.

=te wo wakachite=, dividing in different parties, T.

=to=, that, with, &c.: see gramm.

=to= = _soto_, outside, 28, 48, 179.

=to= = _minato_, 44 (_Akashi no to_).

=tobashitsu= (_tobu_), caus. vb., to fly, let fly, 70.

=tobi= (_u_), to fly.

=tobi-kakeri=, fly-soar, 203.

=tobi-karasu=, flying crow.

=tobi-koyete=, fly across, 225.

=tobi-kuku=, fly in and out, 215.

=tobi-ta-motohori=, fly circling, wheeling about, 225.

=tobu-hi=, flying-flame, signal-flare (_noroshi_).

=toburafu=(=hi=), or _tomurafu_(_hi_), make visit of condolence (on a
death), T.

=tobu-tori=, flying birds.

=to-de=, depart from door (start on journey), 262.

=todokohoru= (_i_), stop, delay, 261.

=todomareru=, stop behind, 100.

=todomari-gataki=, cannot pause or rest.

=todome=, stop, delay, 135.

=todomesase=, caus. _todome_, T.

=todomi=, turn or full of high tide, 116.

=todomi-kane= = _todomari-gataki_, hard to delay, 199.

=todomu= (_-i_, _-muru_, _-me_), stop, T., stay, delay, 64.

=tofu= (_tohi_), inquire, ask.

=togamu= (_-eru_), censure, reproach, blame, 113.

=to-gari= (_tori-kari_), hunting birds with hawks, 225.

=togenaki=, unsuccessful, T.

=togezu=, not-achieve, 53.

=togishi= (_togu_), polished, made bright and shining, approved, 59,

=to-gura= (_tori-kura_), bird-perch (hawk), 236.

=to ha=: see gramm.

=tohamu=, _toheba_, _tohasazu_, _tohamuku_, _tohamashi_ (_tofu_).

=tohi-saku=, talk with, converse with, 49, 61.

=tohi-sawaku=, ask or talk loudly, agitatedly.

=tohi-sawagi= (_u_), ask excitedly, T., 49, 61.

=toho= (_tohoku_), far, distant, 16, 200; also in comp.

=toho-dzuma=, a wife left behind in distant home.

=tohoki= (_-ku_, _-shi_), far distant.

=tohokute= (_tohoku_), T.

=tohonaga= (_ku_), far, long, very far (place, time), 26.

=toho no mikado=, distant portion of realm as Tsukushi frontier,
official post there, 61, 200.

=tohoru=, go through (as wet, &c.), 17.

=tohoshiroshi=, conspicuous (lit. white), from afar, 39, 225.

=tohotsu-hito=, one who is far off (as lord on journey seems to his
house-folk), men far off in time, men of old, 227.

=tokaku=, that and this way, somehow, by all means, T.

=toki=, time, season, period.

=toki= (_toku_, _tokanu_, _tokete_), unloose, 110.

=toki-doki=, times, often.

=tokiha= (_toki-hanare_?), lasting, eternal, 14, 223.

=tokiha-gi=, eternal tree (pine), Ta.

=tokiha nasu= (_tokiha_), 64.

=toki-kahete=, unloose and exchange (girdles), 47, 55.

=toki-kinu=, _tokikinuno_, m. k.

=toki-midashi=, unloose and let be in confusion, 203.

=toki-naku=, timeless, incessantly, 8.

=toki-narazu=, untimely, premature, 48.

=toki ni=, when.

=toki-sakezu=, not-unloose, 55.

=toki-shikite=, unloose-spread, 67.

=toki to naku=, no time fixed, at any time, irregularly, always, 110.

=toki tsu=, timely, regular (as tides, tidal winds, &c.), 30.

=tokizhiku=, constantly, perpetually, 36, 43.

=toko=, couch, alcove, later, bed-place.

=toko=, everlasting, enduring.

=toko-miya=, everlasting palace.

=tokonatsu=, everlasting summer, also (_nadeshiko_), the pink flower.

=toko no be= = _toko_, 70.

=tokoro=, place.

=tokoro-dzura=, Dioscorea tokoro?

=tokoshihe ni=, everlastingly, 105.

=tokoshinahe=, everlasting.

=tokoyami=, everlasting darkness, 24.

=toko-yo=, everlasting age, eternal life, 60, 105, 233.

✱=toku=, virtue, excellence, Ta.

=toku= (_tou to_), rapidly, quickly, T.

=tokuchi= (_-guchi_), door-mouth, entry, T.

=tomare=, _to mo are_, be it so, T.

=tomari= (_u_), stay, stop, anchor.

=tomari-wite=, staying, &c., 97, 139.

=tomeru=, delay, stay, &c.

=to-mi= (_ato-mi_), trackers (hunting).

=tomo=, guild of palace retainers, officials, &c.

=tomo=, plural affix: see gramm.

=to mo=, that too: see gramm.

=tomo=, stern (boat), 127.

=tomokaki= = _tomodachi_, comrade, friend, 62.

=tomonahe= (_tomonafu_), accompany, lead.

=tomo ni=, together with.

=tomo no he=, stern (of ship).

=tomoshibure-gane= = _urayamashigaru_, desirable, enviable, 221.

=tomoshiku= (_-ki_, _-mi_), empty, deficient, hence rare, excellent,
72, 131, 220, 236.

=to-nami= (_tori no ami_), fowler’s net, 134.

=tonari=, neighbour (_to nar[ab]i_?), 104.

=toneri= (_to ni ari_?), court-servant, page, almost = _yatsuko_, 51,
183. See Asakawa’s ‘Early Institutions’.

=tono=, mansion, hall, palace.

=tono=, lord, master, excellency, T.

=tonogomori= (_tanagumoru_), spreading of clouds, 127.

=tonogomori= may also mean place-retire = retire to rest (not in M. Y.

=tora=, Korean tiger, 24, 210.

=torafuru= (_torahe_) = _toru_.

=toraku= (_toru_).

=torashi= (_su_), hon. caus. (_toru_).

=toreru= (_toru_), T.

=toreyede= (_toru_) = _toraredzu shite_, _tori-kanete_, T.

=tori=, bird, _tori-zhi_, like a bird.

=tori=, verbal prefix giving idea of particularity and beginning of
action, &c.

=tori= (_toru_), _toramu_, _torashi_, _torahe_, _toreru_, _torite_,
_toritemu_, _toreba_, &c.

=tori-atafu= (_atafu_), give, 28.

=tori-dashi=, take out, T.

=tori ga ne=, cry, song, twitter of birds.

=tori-haki=, gird on, 64.

=tori-kahe=, exchange.

=tori-kake= = _kakuru_, 42.

=tori-kazarahi= (_kazaru_).

=tori-kite= (_kiru_ = put on, don).

=tori-mimashi= (_miru_).

=tori-mochi= (_motsu_).

=tori-motasu= (_motsu_).

=tori-nade= (_nadamuru_).

=tori-name= (_namuru_).

=tori-obashi= (_obiru_), gird.

=tori-ohite= (_ofu_ = bear).

=tori-sagaru= (_sagaru_), drop.

=tori-shidete= (_shidarashimete_), hang, suspend (as offerings on
branch of Cleyera--_sakaki_).

=tori-shiki= (_shiku_), spread, 66.

=tori-sohe=, add to, join.

=tori-sutesase= (_tori-sutsuru_), T.

=tori-tsudzuki=, follow on, continue, 64, 125.

=tori-tsudzushirohi= (_fu_), nibble, swallow in small portions, 67.

=tori-tsuke= (_tori-sugaru_), attach (cord or rope).

=tori-yorofu= (_-hi_), _tori-sorofu_, complete, equip.

=tori-yosofu= (_-hi_), dress one’s self carefully, make one smart, &c.,
with paint, powder, &c.

=toru= (_i_), take, grasp, _tori_, _torazu_, _torite_.

=tose= = _toshi_, a year’s space, _toshi-he_, 127, 232.

=to shi=, that! see gramm.

=toshi=, year.

=toshi no ha= = _toshi no hashi_, a year or term of years.

=toshi-tsuki-hi=, years, months and days--time.

=totonofu=, _totonofuru_, arrange, array, order, 255.

=totsu-miya= (_rikyu_, _gekkû_, outer-palace, i.e. outside of
City-Royal), country or temporary palace.

✱=toufuu= (_tôfû_), east wind, Ta.

=towomu= = _tawamu_, 252.

=towowoni=, gently, gracefully, 131.

=towoyoru= (_tawami-yoru_), approach gracefully, 29.

=toyo mi ki= (_oho miki_), rich royal _saké_, 87; rich _saké_, p. 194.

=toyomu= (_doyomu_), resound, 44, 220.

=toyo no akari=, rich-effulgence, a royal banquet, 257.

=tsu=, head, one head (mammal).

=tsu=, perhaps = _to_, place, place of arrival or departure,
ferry-place, harbour, anchorage, 113.

=tsu=, a possessive particle: see gramm., 210?

=tsubaki= (sword-guard-wood), Camellia tree, 130, 242.

=tsubakurame= (_tsubame_), swallow (bird), T.

=tsubaraka= (_tsumabiraka_), clearly, plainly, 110.

=tsubasa=, wing (bird), 196.

=tsubo=, jar, 210.

=tsubure= (_ru_), be broken up, T.

=tsuchi=, earth, soil, glebe, 13, 26.

=tsudofu= (_hi_), collect, assemble 22, 113.

=tsudzuku= (_ki_), continue.

=tsudzumi=, hand-drum.

=tsuga= (_no ki_), Abies tsuga.

=tsugaru= (_i_), halter, tether, moor.

=tsuge= (_no ki_), box-wood.

=tsuge= (_tsugu_), tell, announce, 248.

=tsugi= (_tsugu_, _tsudzuku_), continue, go on; _tsugitaru_, T.;
_tsugite_, _tsugitete_, _tsugite-ki_ (20).

=tsugi-shidai=, entrance of actors &c., Ta.

=tsugi-tsugi=, in succession, 39.

=tsugi-yuku=, continue, continuing.

=tsuguraku= (_tsugu_).

=tsuhi ni=, finally, 105.

=tsuide=, opportunity, Ta.

=tsuihiji=, either a parapet or terrace of earth or platform of beaten
earth on which a house stands, T.

=tsukafu= (_tsukaharuru_, _tsukafuru_, _tsukahematsuru_), serve (a
superior), 20, 210.

=tsukafumatsuru= (_tsukômatsuru_), serve (a superior), T.

=tsukahasare=, _tsukahashi_, _tsukahashishi_, _tsukahashitsu_.

=tsukahasu=, to send on duty or service.

=tsukahi=, messenger, servant.

=tsukamatsuri= (_u_) = _tsukahematsuru_. See _tsukafu_.

=tsukami-tsubushi=, grasp and overthrow, T.

=tsukanedomo= (_tsuku_), though not construct, build, 211.

=tsukasa=, an administrator, minister, chief of a department.

=tsukazu= (_tsuku_), not-arrive at, 200.

=tsuke= (_-kuru_), fix, apply to, T.

=tsukedomo= (_tsuki_), pierce, make way through, 141.

=tsuke-sasu=, cause to fix, apply (give name), T.

=tsuki=, moon, _tsuki-hi_, months and days--time.

=tsuki=, stand on which food is served.

=tsuki= (_mitsuki_), tribute, tax (in kind).

=tsukiba=, _tsukinu_, _tsukineba_ (_tsuku_, if exhausted).

=tsukinaki=, resourceless, T.

=tsuki no ki=, an elm, Zelkova Keaki, Sieb.

=tsuku= (_e_), stick to, be close to, arrive at, pierce, be possessed
with, moisten, soak in, pound in mortar, be at end of, exhausted.

=tsukuhori=, explained in Kogi as bowed and emaciated, 70.

=tsukumodokoro= (_mono wo tsukuru tokoro_), the place within palace
precincts where metal work was executed, T.

=tsuku no ana goto ni=, at each hole where the pillars or beams
supported roof, T.

=tsukurase= (caus. of _tsukuru_), T.

=tsukurashishi= (_tsukuru_).

=tsukuri-hana=, artificial flowers, T.

=tsukuru=, make, build, construct, also prepare, cultivate land, 13,
49, 67, 125.

=tsukusu= (_-shi_), exhaust, 239.

=tsukuwe=, stick, staff.

=tsukuyo=, moonlit night.

=tsuma=, spouse, 94.

=tsuma-biku=, twitch strings of _koto_ (flat harp), &c., with nails.

=tsumade=, planks, logs, for building, 13.

=tsuma-dohi= (_fu_), woo.

=tsumadzuku=, stumble.

=tsuma-gomoru=, seclude wife.

=tsuma-kohi=, spousal-love, wooing.

=tsumara=, plural of _tsuma_, spouse, wife. In Lay 258, may or may not
be an honour-plural like _kora_, young lady.

=tsumari= (_tomari_).

=tsumasu= (hon. caus. _tsumu_, pluck).

=tsuma-ya=, wife-hut or bridal hut.

=tsuma-yobu=, call one’s mate (as deer in autumn).

=tsume=, claw, nail, hoof, 210.

=tsumi= (_tsumu_), pluck.

=tsumi=, sin, offence.

=tsumi-age=, seize-raise.

=tsumi wo tsukuru=, to commit an offence, T.

=tsumoru= (_-i_, _-inu_), accumulate.

=tsumushi= (_zhi_), whirlwind, hurricane, 24.

=tsuna=, cord, rope, 32.

=tsunashi=, sort of herring, 225.

=tsune=, always, ordinary, 52, 75.

=tsuno=, horn.

=tsunu= (_tsuno_), 210.

=tsunusahafu=, m. k.

=tsurakeku= (_tsurashi_).

=tsuraku= (_tsurashi_).

=tsurane= (_tsuranu-uru_), connect, be connected, be in row or series,

=tsurara= (_tsura-tsura_), in rows, 199: conf. K. 271, App. LII.

=tsurare-noborite=, climb in company, ascend in company with, lead up,

=tsurashi= (_-ki-ku_), painful, grievous, disagreeable, &c.

=tsurazuwe= (_hohozuwe_), with cheek on hand, T.

=tsure=, companion, attendant, 22, 49, 184.

=tsuremonaki=, without companion.

=tsurenashi= (_-ki_, _-ku_), pitiless, also companionless.

=tsuri-age-sase=, draw up by cord or rope, T.

=tsuri-bune=, boat for angling.

=tsuru=, to angle with line.

=tsuru=, a crane, Ta.

=tsuru=, a verbal form: see gramm.

=tsurugi=, a straight sword.

=tsurugitachi=, m. k.

=tsuta=, ivy, 17, 219.

=tsutafu= (_-hi_), creep along, keep close to.

=tsutafu=, _tsutafuru_, _tsutaheru_, hand down; tradite.

=tsute= (_tsutahe_).

=tsuto=, something wrapped up and sent as a present home by one on a
journey (_ihe tsuto_), 199, 231.

=tsutsu=, pipe, hollow stem, T.

=tsutsu=: see gramm.

=tsutsuki=(=u=), pound, pound up, 209.

=tsutsumahazu=, _tsutsuga naku_, unanxious, 258.

=tsutsumerishi= (_tsutsumu_), wrapped up, concealed, 162.

=tsutsumeru=, in 37 used of Lake Se as overhung by Fuji.

=tsutsumi=, dike, bank.

=tsutsumi naku= (_tsutsuga naku_), unanxious, untroubled.

=tsutsumu= (_-i_, _-eru_, &c.), fold up in, wrap up in.

=tsuyoku= (_-ki_, _-shi_), strong, T.

=tsuyu=, dew, dew-drop.

=tsuyushimono=, m. k.

=tsutsuzhi=, Rhododendron Indicum, 175.

=tsuwa-tsuki=, leaning on staff (as old man).

=tsuwetarazu=, m. k.

=uba=, old woman, Ta.

=ubena=, _ube_, _-sube_, _-mube naru_, what is just, right, proper,

=ubeshi=, good, excellent, 71.

=uchi=, house, abode, T.

=uchi= = _utsutsu_, 69.

=uchi=, within, 28.

=uchi= (_utsu_), frequent prefix to verbs, denoting beginning,

=uchi-age-asobu=, lift-up (the cup), hence feast or banquet, T.

=uchi-dete=, _-- hahete_ (155), _-- harahi_ (103, 160), _-- kake_
(_-te_), _-- koi-fushite_ (66), _-- irete_, put in, T.

=uchi-hashi=, temporary bridge? on piles or posts, or planks or logs
merely, 26.

=uchihisasu=, m. k.

=uchi-kake=, hang over, impend, T.

=uchi-kise=, put on, make don, T.

=uchi-koyete=, _-- murete_, _-- nabiki_, 49, _-- kubete_, cast in fire,

=uchi-kuchi-buri= (_wochi-kochi-furi_), here-there-fashion, see 219.

=uchi-nade= (_nadame_), _-- nageki_ (70).

=uchi-nageki=, lament, weep, T.

=uchi-oki= (64), _-- shinahi_, (104), _-- sugi_, pass beyond, away, T.

=uchi-susu=(=zu=)=rohite= (67), _-- woramu_, _-- yosuru_, _-- yukite_.

=udakaye= (_udaku_, _idaku_), embrace, enfold, clasp (_te wo_, &c.),
87, 255, 257.

=udomuguye=, a flower that appears once only in 3,000 years, T.

=udzu=, precious, 87; also head or hair decoration of flowers, &c., 257.

=udzura=, quail, 24.

=ugara=, blood-kin, 49.

=ugokarenu= (_ugoku_), move.

=ugokasu= (_ugoku_).

=ugokite= (_ugoku_), move.

=uguhisu=, Japanese nightingale, (so called), Cettia cantans, 240.

=uhagi=, outer- or over-dress.

=uhani=, upper-cargo (ship), upper (over) load on a pack-horse, 69.

=uhe=, above.

=uji= (_kabane_), family.

=ukabu= (_-be_), float, 13.

=ukagafu= (_hi_), inquire, T.

=ukagahasemu= (_ukagafu_), T.

=u-kaha=, cormorant-stream, 219.

=u-kahi= (_kafu_), cormorants-feed, keep or employ cormorants (for

=ukanerafu=, read watch, trace.

=uke-gutsu=, torn, dilapidated boots, 62.

=ukeri= (_ukuru_, _ukeru_, _uku_), float, 199.

=uke-suwe=, float-place, launch, 30, 102.

=uketamaharazaramu= (_uke-tamahi-arazu-aramu_), negative form, not-hear
and obey, not-hear (hon. word), T.

=uketsu= (_uku_, receive).

=uki= (_uku_), float.

=uki= (_-shi_, _-ku_), miserable.

=uki= (_ukeru_, _uku_), receive, T.

=uki fushi=, drifting joint of bamboo, Ts.

=uki-hashi=, floating bridge, hanging bridge or ladder (_ama no --_),
boat-bridge (not in Manyôshiu?).

=uki-idzuru=, float up to surface, 207.

=uki-kata=, fabric with raised pattern.

=uki-ne=, sleep while afloat, on shipboard, 199.

=uma= (_muma ma_), horse.

=uma= (_umashi_, _-ku_, _-ki_), savoury, pleasant (to taste), &c., &c.

=umakori=, m. k.

=uma-ni=, horse-load.

=umare-idetaru= (_umaru_).

=umaru= (_umaruru_, _-reru_, _-rete_, _-rureba_), be born, 49.

=umasahafu=, m. k.

=umasakeno=, m. k.

=umase=, caus. of _umu_, bear, give birth to, T.

=umaya=, stable (horse).

=umayori=, on horseback, 180 (like _kachi-yori_, on foot).

=umazhi=, horse-like, as a horse does, &c.

=ume= (_no ki_), plum-tree.

=umeru= (_umu_), be born, T.

=umi=, sea, lake (_ohomi_?).

=umi=, hank, skein, ball of yarn.

=umi-he=, by the sea.

=umi-ji=, sea-road, sea-track.

=umi wo kaku=, wind off skein.

=umiwonasu=, m. k.

=unabara= (_umi no hara_), sea-plain.

=unadzuki= (_u_), nod head in assent, T.

=unagakeri-wite=, place hand or arm on neck (in friendship, love).

=unagaseru= (_unagu_), clasp neck, put on neck; _unageru_, wear on
neck, 142, 206, 235.

=unahara= (_unabara_).

=unakami= (_umi no kami_), by, on the sea, 65.

=unasaka= (_umi no sakahi_), limit of sea, 105.

=uneme=, maid, girl, Ts.

=u no hana=, ‘harebush’, Deutzia scabra, 111, 217.

✱=unzuru= (_unzhite_), be sad, vexed, gloomy, T.

=ura=, bight, shallow bay, or coast thereof.

=ura=, divination, 181, 204, _yufu-ura_, &c.

=ura=, within, inner, hinder, deeply, 195.

=urabe=, divination.

=urabure=, _urabiru_ = _urehe-wabu_, be anxious, troubled, sad,
miserable, 174, 217; inwardly, deeply moved or grieved.

=ura-gohi= (_kofu_), to love, long for deeply, passionately.

=uraguhashi= (_-ku_, _-ki_), deeply desirable, lovable, pleasant.

=urahashiku= (_uruhashiku_), T.

=urahe= (_urafu_) = _uranahi_ (_nafu_), to divine.

=uraheru=, in 165, seems = _ahi-aru_, be (emphatic).

=ura-kanashi= (_-ku_, &c.), very sad, 101.

=ura-mi=, tract, adjacent to a bay (_ura_), 199.

=ura mo naku=, literally without inner side (wadding or lining), in
194 explained as = _nanigokoro mo naku_, here meaning inattentive,
indifferent, i.e. dead.

=uramu= (_-mi_, _-meshi_, _-zu_), be in a state of dislike or hate or
vexation or disappointment (at another’s conduct).

=ura-nage= = _ura-nageki_, deeply, inly sorrowing, 4.

=urasabite= (_urasabu_), down-hearted, desolate, 28.

=urasu=, a creek or inlet, or shore thereof, 96, 195.

=urayamu= (_i_), be envious of, marvel at, Ts.

=ure=, tree-top (_ko no ure_, _konure_).

=urefu= (_urehi_, _-hi_, _-shi_), be miserable, sorrowful, 67, 69, 110.

=ureheseshi= (_urefu_), T.

=ureshiku= (_-ki_, _-shi_), delightful.

=uretaki= (_-shi_, &c.), sad, sorrowful.

=uri=, melon, 63.

=uruhashiku= (_-ki_, &c.), fine, beautiful, 70.

=ushi= (_ukeki_, _uki_, &c.), 151.

=ushi=, bull, 211.

=ushi-haki= = _nushi-haki_, sway, rule.

=usobuku= (_fuku_) = _usomuku_, T.

=usomuki= (_usobuki_), whistle, draw breath shrilly (panting), 110.

=usu= (_usuru_), disappear, vanish, pass away, _use_, _usemi_, _useme_,

=uta=, Japanese lay, poem, song, T.

=utafu= (_utahi_), sing.

=utagafu=, doubt, T.

=utagata= (_utahito_), songman, Ta.

=utakata=, foam, 215.

=utate=, unusual, excessive, T.

=utena=, a sort of balcony, T.

=utoshiku=, unfamiliar, unpleasing, estranged, indifferent to, Ts.

=utsu=, to beetle, make even and supple.

=utsu= (_uchi_), strike, in 69, seems = throw on, add.

=utsubusu=, lie prone, T.

=u-tsuki=, ‘hare’ month (4th), 210, 240.

=utsukushi= (_-ku_, &c.), comely, pretty, beautiful, admirable (Ts.).

=utsurofu= (_-hi_), _utsuru_, 92, 217.

=utsuru=, change (place or condition), 52.

=utsuru=, reflect (as mirror, water), Ta.

=utsusemi=, cast-off exuviae of insect, cast-off skin.

=utsusemi= (_utsutsu-mi_), real self, mortal self (also _utsusomi_).

=utsusemino=, m. k.

=utsushi= (_su_), change, reflect (as light); also real, _utsushi
kokoro_, true, real heart.

=utsusoyashi-utsusowo=, m. k.

=utsutahe=: see 37, 203; _tahe_ is a sort of cloth, beetled cloth.

=utsutete=, _sutsuru_ = _suteru_, discard, reject, 69.

=utsutsu=, present, real, opposed to _yume_, dream.

=utsuyufu=, m. k.

=uwe-ki=, planted bush or tree.

=uweru= (_uwe_), be starved, cold, 67.

✱=uzhiyau= (_ujô_), having life, quick, Ta.

=wa= (_ware_), 262.

=wabi= (_wabu_), beseech, implore, excuse oneself, T.

=wabishiki me=, state or fact of sadness, wretched plight, T.

=wabishiku=, lonely, sad, wretched, deplorable, T.

=wada=, sea, ocean.

=wadzuka=, little, slight, Ts.

=wadzuki=, _wakachi_, _kejime_, difference, 4.

=wadzurafu= (_hi_), be anxious, ill at ease, troubled.

=waga=, of me, mine (but see gramm.), also their, 198.

=wagihe= = _waga ihe_, 82, 217.

=wagimo= (_-- ko_) = _waga imo_.

=wago= = _waga_, 20.

✱=waka=, Japanese poetry, Ta.

=wakachi= (_wakatsu_), divide, distribute, T.

=wakaki= (_-ku_, _-shi_), young, _wakakarishi_, 105.

=wakakomowo=, m. k.

=wakakusano=, m. k.

=wakare= (_wakaru_).

=wakaru=, be apart, separated, divided from--_wakaruru_, _wakare_,
_wakarekinureba_, 53, 66.

=wake= (_waku_, _wakuru_), divide, part among, T.

=waki=, one of the Nô actors (tritagonist), Ta.

=waki=, side (of chest), side.

=waki-basami=, clasp to side, 53.

=waku-go=, young child.

=waku koto mo naku=, without distinction, division, separation, 222.

=wakuraba=, lit. sere leaves (autumn); _-- ni_, rarely, in 67.

=wakuraba ni= = _tamasaka_, by mere chance (Buddhist word).

=wakuru= (_wakete_), divide, allot, 22.

=wara=, straw, 67.

=waraha=, child, 197.

=ware=, I, myself (but see gramm.).

=washi=, eagle, 113.

=wa shi=, an interjectional final exclamation! see 207, 208.

=washiri-de= (_hashiri-de_), run out, jut out, 28, 190.

=wasurahe-naku= (_wasuru naku_), without forgetting.

=wasuru= (_-re_, _-rete_), forget.

=wata= (_wada_), 65.

=wata=, pulp of shellfish, 64.

=wata=, wadding, 67.

=wata no soko=, bottom of sea.

=watarafu= (_-hi_) = _wataru_.

=wataru=, pass on, along, over, _watari_, _-rasu_, _-shi_, also
metaphor., 160.

=wata-tsu-mi=, sea, πόντος (202), also god of sea.

=wawake=, rags, tatters, 67.

=waza=, act, deed, 113, 250.

=wazurahashiku=, miserable, wretched, T.

=we=, interjection of distress, 54.

=wefu=, be drunk, T.

=wehitaru= (_wefu_), T.

=wemimi wemazu=, smiling or not smiling, 230.

=wemi-sakaye=, full smiling, T.

=wemu= (_-i_, _-ite_, _-mahi_), smile, 52, 104, 124.

=werawera=, smilingly, joyously, 257.

=wi= (_wiru_, _woru_, _winaba_), be at, in, &c., 224.

=wi=, well (water), 14, 124.

=wi-chirashi=, be among and scatter, 111.

=wo=, diminutive prefix (often of praise or endearment).

=wo=, gramm. (= _ni_, 61).

=wo=, male, 110.

=wo=, man, vir (_miyabi wo_, _tomo no wo_, &c.).

=wo= (_mine_), summit, 109.

=wo=, tail, 198.

=wo=, so-called adversative conj.: see gramm.

=wo=, thread, string, 49, 110.

=wo ba=: see gramm., 22.

=wo-bana=, a grass (Miscanthus Sinensis), 112, 201.

=wo-bune=, skiff, boat, 245.

=wochi= (_wotsu_), return to former state (I.), 143. Also has the
meaning, there, afar, before, &c.

=wochi=, return (of hawk to wrist), 225.

=wochi-kochi=, here and there, far and near.

=wochi-midzu=, dropping water, 143.

=wochi-yeshimu=, obtain return (to youth).

=wo-gaha=, stream, 35.

=wo-gushi= (_kushi_), comb.

=wo-hanari=, part hair (girls) to fall on either side, 125.

=woharu= (_-ri_, _-raba_), end, conclude, 68, 233.

=woka=, hill, knoll, 22.

=wokabe= (_woka_), 93.

=wo-kai= (_kai_).

=wo-kaji= (_kaji_).

=wo-kanato= (_kanato_).

=wo-kasa=, small plaited hat, 206.

=wokashiku=, agreeable, amusing, ridiculous.

=woke=, tub, bowl.

=woku= = _maneku_, in 225 = recall.

=wo-kushi= (_wo-gushi_).

=womi goromo=, a ritual or ceremonial dress (as at _kagura_), Ta.

=womina=, woman.

=wominameshi=, Patrinia scabiosaefolia, a Valerian, Ts.

=womi no kora=, spinster, spinning-girl.

=wono=, axe, 135, 207.

=wonoko=, man (vir), T.

=wo-nu=, little moor, fine moor, 76.

=wori-kaheshi=, fold back (sleeve), 156, 214, 258.

=wori-kazashi=, break off (spray), to adorn head, 26.

=wori-wori= (_ori-ori_), at times, T.

=worogami= = _wogamu_, bend in prayer, _kotow_ in prayer.

=woru=, be in, at.

=woru=, bend, break.

=wosa= [senior, elder], headman (village).

=wosamaru=, be in state of tranquillity (well governed), Ta.

=wosamuru= (_osamu_, _osame_), arrange, receive, govern, administer,

=woshi= (_wosu_).

=woshi=, Mandarin duck, Anas galericulata, 33.

=woshiki= (_-ku_, _-keku_, _-kedomo_, _-mi_), longed for, desirable,
regrettable, pitiable, 72, 95.

=wosu=, perhaps hon. caus. of _wiru_, _woru_; _kikoshi-wosu_, be in
state of making hear and obey = rule, reign.

=wo-suzu=, small bells (worn as armlets), 131.

=wo-tachi=, small sword.

=wote mo kono mo= = _kono mo kano mo_, this side, and that side.

=wotoko= (_wo-tsu-ko_), man (vir).

=wotoko-i=, _wotoko_ with _i_ (Korean article?).

=wotoko-zhi=, in a man’s way (as distinct from a woman’s).

=wototsu= (_ototohi_), day before yesterday = _wotsutsu hi_, passed
away day.

=wotsuru= = _wochiru_, fall.

=wotsutsu= = _utsutsu_.

=wowoheru=, _woworu_, hang down, as spray heavy with flowers, blossoms.

=wo-ya=, hut, cabin, 54.

=ya=, arrow.

=ya=, eight, many, all.

=ya=, house, roof, T.

=ya=, particle (?!): see gramm.

=ya-chi=, eight thousands, very many, 94.

=yachihoko=, m. k.?

=yachikusa=, all sorts of (lit. 8,000) herbs.

=yado=, night-place, lodging, shelter, abode, 51.

=yadori= (_u_), _yado-wori_, take lodging, shelter, pass night in, 12,

=yadosu=, lodge, T.

=yagara=, house-kin, relations, 263.

=yagate=, straightway, T.

=yaharagu=, be, or make, or keep tranquil, peaceful, Ta.

=yahasu= (_-shi_, _-she_), pacify, quell, 24, 263.

=ya-he=, eightfold, manifold, 22, 210.

=yahegaki=, manifold fence or defence.

=yahokomochi=, m. k.

=ya-ho-yorodzu=, eight hundreds of myriads.

=yakata wo=, roof-shaped, that is truncated, wedge-shape, of tail

=yakitachi=, sword with fired (tempered) edge, 123.

=yaku= (_i_, _uru_), burn, set fire to, consume--_yakamu_, _yakete_,
_yakezuba_, _yakite_, _yakamu_, T.

=yaku-shiho=, burn-salt (heat salt-pans), a sort of m. k. of _omohi_.

=yama=, mountain, hill, wooded hills, wild country.

=yama-be=, towards the mountains.

=yamabi= = _yamabe_, nearly.

=yamabiko=, echo among hills and valleys, _hibiku_.

=yamabiko-doyome=, the resounding of an echo among hills.

=yamabito=, woodman, Ts.

=yamabuki=, the Kerria japonica, 24.

=yama-dakami=, the loftiness of mountains.

=yama-dori=, the mountain (wild) bird, copper pheasant, 103.

=yama-gahi=, between mountains, a valley or ravine, 215.

=yamahi=, sickness, illness.

=yama-hiko=: see _yamabiko_, hill-sprite, also a m. k.

=yama-ji=, mountain road, road across mountainous country.

=yamame= (_yamu_), 146.

=yamaneba= (_yamu_), 108.

=yamatadzu=, m. k.

=yama-tsu-mi= (like _wata-tsu-mi_) = _yama no kami_, hill-gods.

=yama-wi=, Fimbristylis japonica, var. (_Yama ahi_, Mercurialis
leiocarpa, S. et Z.).

=yamazu= (_yamu_).

=yame(ru)=, be pained, grieved, 187.

=yami-fuse=, lie prostrate with pain or sickness, T.

=yaminu= (_yamu_).

=yami-yo=, dark night.

=ya mo?!= see gramm.

=yamu= (_i_), be ill.

=yamu=, cease, stop, _yamemu_, _yamubeku_, T.

=yanagi=, willow.

=yara= = _yaramu yaran_ (_yaru_), used as affix.

=yara=, pool or pond, or mud at bottom of pool, swampy pool, 207.

=yaramu=, will send to, 199.

=yare= = _yabure_, smash, break, 155, 189.

=yaru=, give, send, &c.--_yari_, _yaramu_, _yari_, _yarimi_,
_yaritsure_, _yarinureba_, _yarazu_, _yarazute_, _yaredomo_.

=yasaka=, eight feet or eight spaces (or many feet, &c.?); for very
long or deep.

=yasashi= (_-ki_, &c.), gentle, agreeable, easy, T.

=yase= (_-ru_, _-nu_), emaciated, become lean, 60.

=yashiho=, eight (many) times dipped (deep-dyed), deep tinted, 237.

=Yashima=, eight (many) islands, a name of Japan.

=yashinafu= (_-hi_), nourish, bring up, T.

=yashinahasu= (_yashinafu_).

=yashiro=, shrine.

=yaso=, eighty, many; _yaso shima_, the countless islands (Japan);
_yasotomo_, all the guilds or clans; _yasouji_, all the (noble)
families, a m. k.

=yasu-i=, sleep quietly, 63, 242.

=yasukaranu=, _yasukaranaku_ (_yasuku_).

=yasukeku= (_-ki_, &c.): see _yasuki_.

=yasuki-shi-keku=: see _yasuku_.

=yasuku=, unanxious, untroubled, at rest, peaceful, restful.

=yasumezu= (_i_), _yasumu_.

=yasumishishi=, m. k.

=yasumite=, _yasumu_.

=yasumu=, be at rest, tranquil.

=ya tose=, eight years.

=yatsu=, fellow, creature, T.

=yatsubara=, fellow, T.

=yatsuko=, fellow, servant, 208.

=yatsure=, ragged, barebones, T.

✱=yaushyun= (_yôshun_), warm or quickening spring.

=yauyau= (_yaya_, _yauyaku_, _dandan ni_), gradually.

=yayohi=, month of growth, third (lunar) month, 58.

=ye=, _yeda_, branch, twig, sprig, 28, 203.

=ye=, creek, 173.

=ye= (_u_), get, obtain; _yeshi_, _yetaru_, _yeteshi_, T.

=ye= (_he_), to, towards: see gramm., T.

=ye=, sort of passive prefix to verbs: see gramm., almost = ‘get’.

=yegata=, hard to get, T.

✱=yekau= (_yekô_), praying to a god, Ta.

=ye-mi-tsuke-tatematsurazu=, could not get sight of, T.

=ye-oki-agari-tamahade=, His Honour not being able to get up on his
feet, T.

=yerabu= (_i_), _mu_ (_i_), choose.

=yeri=, collar, 124.

=yeru= (_uru_), obtain, get: see _ye_ (gramm.), _ye_, _yeshi_,
_yeneba_, _yezu_.

=yeshirade= (_shiru_), T.; _yeshihinu_, _yetatakahamu_, T.

=yo=, I., T.

=yo=, age, period, reign.

=yo=, an interjection.

✱=yo=, excess, T., _sen yo nichi_, 1,000 days and more, T.

=yo= = _yori_, from.

=yo=, night-time, a night.

=yo=, this world.

=yobahi= (_yobu_), call, woo, 67.

=yobi-doyome=, make resound with calling (as deer belling), 93, 242.

=yobisuwe=, invite to enter, see Taketori, p. 216.

=yobu= (_i_), call, call by name, 27.

=yochi=, like-aged, 64.

=yodo=, pool in river.

=yodomu= (_i_), slowing of stream to form pool.

=yodo-se=, pool in stream.

=yo-gomori=, pass night secluded in temple in prayer.

=yo ha wataru=, the passing on of this world, 67.

=yohi=, night-time.

=yojiru= (_i_, _-ite_), twist (grasp), twist, break off, 101, 244.

=yokaru= = _yoku aru_, T.

=yokashi= = _yoshi_.

=yokikoto=, quite right.

=yokoshima=, cross-wise, perverse, wrong, 70.

=yoku= (_-ki_, _-keku_), good, excellent.

=yomi-kuwahe=, compose and add (verses), T.

=yomi-mazaru=, compose-mingle, Ts.

=yomo=, four sides or faces, on every side, 22, 227.

=yomogi=, Erigeron or Artemisia, 233.

=yomu= (_-i_, _-ite_), count, enumerate, read, compose.

=yo no naka=, in this world, this world.

=yora=, several nights.

=yori=, from, close to.

=yori= (_yoru_).

=yori=, a verb-prefix giving force of closeness, completion and

=yori-ahi= (_afu_) come close together as sky and earth will eventually.

=yori-konu= (_kuru_), not come to.

=yori-kumazhiki= (_yori-kuru_), T.

=yori-kuru= = _yoru_, approach? Ta.

=yori-maude=, approach, T.

=yori-neshi=, sleep by, 16.

=yori-tachi=, stand by, 3.

=yoriyori= = _oriori_, at times, Ts.

=yorodzu=, a myriad.

=yorokobu= (_-i_), be glad, T.

=yoroshiki= (_-ku_), good, excellent.

=yoroshi-nabe= (force of _nabe_, seems uncertain), perhaps quite or
altogether good.

=yoru=, approach, draw, be near to, lean on, &c.

=yoru=, night.

=yo-sari=, night-come-forth = night, T.

=yose= (_su_, _suru_), caus. of _yori_ (_yoru_).

=yose= (_yosu_), is caus. or hon. caus. of _yoru_ (_se_), 142.

=yose-kuru= (_kuru_ is aux.).

=yoshi= (_yoku_), good, &c.

=yoshi=, means, motive, cause, explanation.

=yoshinakari= = _yoku-naki_ (not good).

=yoshiwe=, _-- yashi_ = _yoshiya_ = although it be so, if it be so,
howbeit, 70, 132, 165, 217.

=yoso=, elsewhere, _yoso nomi ni mitsutsu_, while regarding elsewhere
only, i.e. in passing, &c.

=yosofu= (_-hi_), dress up, make a toilet, 24, 51, 199.

=yosofu=, _yosoheru_, liken, compare, Ts.

=yosofu= (_yosu_, lengthened); comp. _utsuru_, _utsurofu_.

=yosohofu= (_hi_), lengthened form of _yosofu_, T.

=yosoru= = _yosofu_ = _nazurafu_, compare, liken, 175.

=yosu= (caus. of _yoru_).

=yosuka= (_yosuga_), lit. bring-to or rely-place, means, connexion,
relation, help, 53.

✱=youzhi= (_yôji_), business affair, T.

=yowaku=, weak, feeble, T.

=yoyo=, age after age, Ta.

=yu= = _yo_ = _yori_, 71.

=yu= = _yumi_, bow, 24.

=yu=, hot springs, hot wells, 38.

=yu-ami=, warm baths, hot wells, T.

=yufu= (_-- be_), evening.

=yufu=, paper-mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera), 253.

=yufu= (_-hi_) = _musubu_, tie, knot, bind, 155.

=yufu-dzuku=, evening moon.

=yufu-dzudzu=, evening star, Venus, 70.

=yufu-gari=, evening chase.

=yufu-giri=, evening mist.

=yufugure=, evening dusk, 108.

=yufuhanano=, m. k.

=yufuhinasu=, m. k.

=yufu-ke= (_ge_), evening oracle (listening to talk of passers-by): see

=yufu-nagi=, evening calm (sea), 81.

=yufu-nami=, evening waves, Ta.

=yu-hadzu=, bow-end or notch, 210.

=yuhi-agete=, bind-raise (hair), or draw up with rope, T.

=yukamahoshiki=, where one might desire to go, T.

=yukashi= (_-ku_, &c.), nice, admirable, precious, T.

=yuki= (_yuku_), go, come, go on--often prefix or affix in composition.

=yuki=, quiver.

=yuki=, snow.

=yuki-ahi=, reciprocal meeting on journey or road, 58.

=yuki-ge=, appearance like snow, of snow.

=yuki-hate=, _kokoro yuki-hatete_, heart-go-end, heart going on again,
recover oneself--_hate_ is emphatic, T.

=yuki-kagahi= = _yuki-kake-afu_ (_kagahi wo nasu_ = men and women
assembling to sing, &c.).

=yuki-kaharedomo=, although come and go.

=yuki-kaheri=, come or go and return, 97.

=yuki-kakuru=, become hidden, &c., in course of journey (as ships by
islands on a voyage), 82.

=yuki-kayohi=, go, pass to and fro.

=yuki-koharu=, change as go on, go and change, 235.

=yuki-kurashi=, go on till dark (i.e. travel), 225 [possibly

=yuki-sugi= (_u_), go beyond, 213.

=yuki-torashi= (hon. caus.) = _toru_, T.

=yuki-wakarinamu= (_wakaru_), go away from (some one).

=yuki-yorite= (_yoru_), stop at in passing by, 122.

=yuku= (_-ki_, _-kazu_, _-kamu_, _-kamashi_, _-kana_, _-kanamu_,
_-kanaku_, _-keba_, _-kinu_, _-kaba_, _-kamu_, _-kaneba_, _-kikemu_,

=yuku-he=, go-direction, course, future course, 22, 140, 157.

=yukura yukura ni= (_yukuraka ni_), in a rocking, heaving way.

=yukusuwe=, time to come, future, future course, path, T., Ta.

=yukutorino=, m. k., 24.

=yume= (_ime_), dream.

=yume=, with negative, not at all, never, 101.

=yumi=, bow.

=yu-midzu=, warm water, T.

=yumi-ya=, bow-arrow, archer, 89.

=yura ni= (_yurayura ni_), in a drifting or wavy manner, as snow or
rain falling, or water trickling.

=yurara ni= = _yura ni_.

=yuri=, lily, 232.

=yuri= = _yori_, 232.

=yuriyuri to= (_yururi to_) = _yuruyuru_, with movement side to side,
rocking, tremblingly, 105.

=yurusu= (_-shi_, _-sazhi_, _-shite_, _-shite shi_, _-shi-tachi_),
allow, let do, 59 (= welcome, 110).

=yutakeki= (_yutaka_), abundant, rich, prosperous, 259.

=yuwe=, reason, cause, 125.

=yuweyoshi= (_yuwe_), 125.

=yuyami=, dark (moonless) night or evening.

=yuyushiki= (_-ku_, _-mi_, _-karamu_), in Manyôshiu implies sentiment
of awe and fear, as of thing under _tabu_, or sacred.

✱=zeni= (_sen_), a cash, money.

✱=zheu= (_jô_), old sir, Ta.

=zhi= (of unknown derivation) = _nasu_, be like, _kako zhi_, like a
young deer, not in appearance, but in manner of action, &c.

✱=zhi-getsu= (_jigetsu_), second (lunar) month, Ta.

✱=zhiuhachi= (_jiuhachi_), eighteen, Ta.

✱=zhiyaudai= (_jōdai_), ancient, Ta.

✱=zhiyufuku= (_jiufuku_), long life and prosperity, Ta.

=zo= = so.

✱=zonzhi= (_zonji_, _zondzuru_), think, intend, have a mind to, Ta.



The colon and semicolon are not used in the texts, the comma is
employed very sparingly, chiefly with forms of _ifu_ (say, &c.) after

In Japanese the clauses of a sentence run together in such a way that
punctuation beyond what is adopted in this volume is better avoided.
The verbal forms (allowing for inversions) sufficiently indicate the
end of the clause in most cases.

There are no long lays in books VII, XI, XII, and XIV of the Manyôshiu.

_Nigori_ (voicing) of mutes is seldom observed; owing to its
uncertainty it would have been better to have omitted it altogether
save in a few verbal forms _-eba_ _-aba_ _-de_, _-do_ _-domo_, &c.
_Nigori_ applies to the consonants and digraphs k, s, sh, t, ch, ts, h,
which, _nigori_’ed, become g, z, zh, d, j, dz, b.

The following additions and emendations would not have been relegated
to an appendix but for the fact that certain important and not very
common works could not be procured from Japan until after the texts and
glossaries had been printed.

  Lay 14, l. 15. In the note better read ‘north or cross’ for ‘noon-sun’.

      16, 5, _kata nashi_ is perhaps a better reading.

      27, 40 n., a preferable reading is _imo ga yamazu idemishi Karu_.

      31, 10, _ika ni to toyeba_ is better than the text.

      40, 21 n., add ‘or _shima kuni_, land of islands.’

      44, 26, more correctly _abete_.

      46, 6 n., change to--‘the subject seems to be _hito_ of line 4.’

      69, 26, more probably _yami shi_ should be read.

      82, 25, _nagami_ is the correct reading.

      87, 13 n., add _nade_ = stroke, approve.

      88, 13, read _kono yama_.

      130, 2,  } the notes may be omitted.
      155, 27, }

      192, 19, line 19 is really a m. k. of Tsukushi.

      194, 11 n., add--indifferent, see Glossary.

      198, over this should be inserted the heading MAKI XV, KAMI; the
        same should be the heading of page 137.

      On page 235, line 5 from bottom, it is better to remove the quotation
        mark to ‘_mune …_, and in line 6 to read _kohishikarame_.

      In Lay 171 note 9 should be deleted and the translation consulted.

      In Lay 235, line 5, an improved reading is _mukahi tachi_.

      257, 15, the _nigori_ is better omitted, not _agari_ but _akari_, so
        in 255 (_dai_).

  Page 194, l. 35, should read _tatematsurase_.

      195, l. 18, better _makishime_.

      196, 11, 2, read _haru no ni idete_.

      203, l. 23, better a full stop after _nari--nari_. _Yo.…_

      207, l. 17, preferable to add _wo_ after _so_.

      227, l. 3 (from bottom), _no_ is better than _ha_ after _me_.



N.B. It is not always sufficiently explained that the m. k. often apply
to syllables only, either identical in sound merely with part of the m.
k., or, by some kind of word-jugglery, suggesting decoratively a new

=akahoshi=, _add_ morning-star.

=amadzutafu=, _add_ or pass along or over.

=amakazofu=, _add_ perhaps a script-error for _amakumo_ or
_sasanami_--the former would apply to _oho_ (dimly), the latter to
Ohotsu (pl. n.).

=asahisasu=, _for_ as _read_ in.

=awokumono=, like blue cloud--in Lay 186 this m. k. seems to mean the
blue expanse of sky above the clouds showing white against it--the
blue sky being regarded as a vast blue cloud. _After_ clouds; _read_
or as clear as blue (_awo_) of sky and so epithet of white (_shiro_):
after _ideko_ come forth through (as the gods did through the clouds on
Idzumo) as blue in stormy sky.

=awomidzura=, _add_ or possibly where fowlers’ nets are spread

=awoniyoshi=, _transpose_ also K. lviii _after_ 137.

=fujikoromo=, read _ma-tohoku_.

=guwan=, prayer or petition to Buddhist saint.

=hahomameno=, _add_ perhaps the creeping fern Taenitis carnosa
(_mamedzura_) is meant.

=hanakatsumi=, _add_ perhaps nothing more than a repetition of _katsu_
is intended.

=hanezuirono=, add _hanezu_ seems to be Prunus japonica.

=hashitateno=, _after_ palisade _add_ a comma.

=hisakatano=, _add_ the usual script is ‘long-hard’, i.e. firm and
enduring, but this does not agree with all the applications of the
word. It might also mean ‘sunbright’. _After_ inversely _add a comma_,
and read _hisao_, _hisago_.

=ihabashino=, _for_ or _read_ as.

=ihafuchino=, _after_ (of river) _add a comma_.

=ihatsutano=, _read_ like rock-creeper, i.e. ivy.

=kariganeno=, _for_ like &c. _read_ when.

=katamohino=, _add_ or one half of a receptacle consisting of two bowls
fitting one on the other.

=kazenotono=, _after_ love _add_ as.

=kekoromowo=, _dele all after_ vestment; _and add_ used with _haru_,
spring-time, as homophonous with _haru_, stretch, as skins when being

=komomakura=, _add_ with _ahimakishi_ as meaning, embraced, enlaced.

=koromote=, _from_ other _to end dele and insert_:--

=koromoteno=, sleeve, used with the syllable _ta_ (hand, or a
homophon), with the syllable _na_ (_naga_), with _ma_ (_ma te_ meaning
‘both hands’, i.e. perfect or complete or pair, so _ma-kai_, pair of
oars?), with _kaheru_ (comp. _hiru-gaheru_, to wave).

=Kotori= (Lay 250) = _kototori_, i.e. _koto wo toriokonafu_, an
administrator or commissioner (to levy troops).

=kurenawino=, scarlet or light red; perhaps = _Kureno awi_ = Kure
indigo, Kure being a name for Go or Wu in China; used with _iro_,
colour, _asa_, light tinted, _utsushi kokoro_, real heart regarded as
‘red’, i.e. true.

=makibashira=, _for_ word _read_ wood.

=matamatsuku=, _insert_ after _matamanasu_ thread-jewels applied to
syllable _wo_ as homophon of _wo_, thread.

=matorisumu=, dele _mamori_.

=midzukukino=, _add_ there is also a pl. n. _Midzukuki no Woka_.

=mimorotsuku=, add _tsuku_ may be _itsuku_, reverence. _Miwa_ is a pl.
n., also ‘sacred saké’, also ‘tub for brewing saké’, also _miwaku_ =
gushing of water, or fermenting of saké liquor.

=minasegaha=, _translate_ my life trickles on, lessening month by
month, day by day, as the water of a waterless stream (which disappears
under the dry bed--a very common result in Japan) whose gradual
exhaustion is like the death of men from love.

=miru=, in Lay 263, means--to have emotional or intellectual experience

=misagowiru=, _add_ more likely = where ospreys (_misago_) are.

=mitsumitsushi=, _for_ ccxxvii _read_ Lay 227.

=momoshikino=, _after_ countless _shiki add_ or provided with many

=momotarazu=, for _ika_ read _i_ = fifty.

=momoyogusa=, _dele all after_ pyrethrum, and add _chichi haha ga
| tono no shiri he no | momoyogusa | momoyo idemase | waga kitaru
made_, like the hundred-ages-herb that groweth behind my father and
mother’s mansion, live thou for a hundred ages until I return (a lover
dispatched on official duty to his mistress).

=nahanorino=, _for_ not yet told _read_ certainly untold to parents.

=nihatadzumi=, _read_ form pools as rain does.


=nikogusano=, said to be Solomon’s seal (flower); _hanatsuma_ =
beautiful woman.

=sagoromono=, _after_ fastened _add_, _tsuku_.

=sahidzuruyo=, read _sahidzuruya_.

=sakidakeno=, _add_ or bedfellow.

=sanekayano=, _read_, _sa nahe kaya no_, pliant as _kaya_ (dwarf

=sashisusumu=, _add_ perhaps error for _muratama_ = _nubatama_ which
might be m. k. of Kurusu, taking _kuru_ = _kuro_, black.

=shikishimano=, _read_ fort-island or isolated place.

=shinaderu=, slopewise with _kata_, shoulder, slope.

=shinazakaru=, separated by many steep passes.

=shiranakuni=, _read_ unknown or remote provinces used with Koséji
Kose-road, _kose_ = come. A more elaborate explanation hints at the
bringing or coming of remote lands under the sway of the Mikado.

=shiranamino=, _dele_ perhaps … hills.

=shizhikushiro=, _after_ Hades _add_ as homophon of _yomi_, excellent.

=tadawatari=, add _anashi_ is also a name for the north-west wind _ana!

=tamadzusa=, _after_ like insert _tamadzusa_ flower.

=tamakadzura=, _dele_ false hair, _after_ chaplet _add_ of beads, after
_kage_ _add_ sparkle, _dele words in_ ( ), _add_ other explanations are
given by Motowori.

=tamakiharu=, _after_ (arm) _add_ for _utsutsu_, present real existence.

=tamanowono=, _for_ custom _read_ or succession or life.

=tamatareno=, _add_ m. k. of syllable _wo_ taken as _wo_, thread.

=tamatasuki=, _for_ lie on &c. _read_ fasten round _une_ or _una_.

=tatamikeme=, _for_ ‘rush, (matting)’ _read_ ‘rush’ (matting).

=tobusatate=, _read_ The Kogi &c., _for_ tree-tops _read_ lopped

=tokikinuno=, _after_ unfastened _add_ or taken to pieces.

=tokozhimono=, like a bed-place, _after_ prostrate _add_ (on pallet of
reeds, &c.).

=tomoshihino=, _read_ like a light or flame giving light.

=tonogumori=, for _gumovi_ read _gumori_.

=tsumagomoru=, after _sa_ add (see N. I. 402, 2nd _uta_), _before_
meaning _insert_ perhaps the real.

=uchitawori=, perhaps simply by syllable-repetition a m. k. of syllable

=udzuranasu=, read _ihahi_ as _i-hahi_.

=umashimono=, _add_ the true orange _kunempo_.

=umazhimono=, for _naka_ read _naha_.

=wagasekowo=, read _waga seko wo | na kose no yama no | yobu kotori |
kimi yobi kahese | yo no fukenu to ni_, far gone is the night, ye birds
that cry on Kose hill, turn back my lord, crying to him, cross not the
hills (to prevent him leaving her).

=wagatatami=, _read_ my own mat.

=wagimokowo=, _add_ Hayami is the name of a part of the coast of Settsu
… in the phrase _wagimokowo kiki Tsuga nu_, prefatially, as if …
_kikitsugi_ … my love, of whose beauty the fame passeth from age to age.

=wakakusano=, add _wakaku he_, while young by side of.…

=yakitachiwo= or =-no=, with the syllables _to_ (_toshi_), smart,
ready, vigorous, and _he_, side.

=yakushihono=, _add_ before _kohi_, _karaki_, passionate.

=yamanowino=, _after_ well _add_ or source, not deep like an artificial

=yufuhinasu= (to follow =yufuhanano=), like evening sun, used with
_uraguhashi_ (delightful to the feelings, as _maguhashi_ is delightful
to the eye).

=yufutatami=, _after_ Broussonetia _add_ kept: after _tatami_ insert a

=yukumidzuno=, after _sayakeku_ read (clear-sounding as running water).



=agari=, read _akari_, _toyo no akari_.

=ahare=, pitiful; later--interesting, see Lay 231.

=ahishi= = _arasohishi_?

=akazu=, sometimes = _tarazu_.

=amatsu mikado=, _add_ i.e. tomb or _mi-sasagi_ of Mikado.

=aretsukashi= = _araharetsukahe_ (not _tsugu_), cause to establish,
build, 94.

=arikuru= = _arisofu_, _arasofu_, 240.

=ariso=, strictly, perhaps, rough shingly shore.

=asa hi nasu=, morning-sun-like.

=asamashigari=, for _akereru_ read _akireru_.

=asatedzukuri=, remove ‘notes’ after ‘203’.

=ato=, for _katu_ read _kata_.

=awayuki=, snow just melting, p. 194.

=ayakaki=, pictured, patterned, T.

=chôka=, long lays.

=fuhaya=, soft, p. 194.

=fumedomo=, _remove_ ‘(Chinese _wen_)’ to next word after ‘13’.

=fumi-nuku=, tread, trample, wear through.

=futoshiritate=, stablish stoutly, 263.

=hanka=, envoys (to the lays).

=hokosugi=, _for_ tall _read_ upright.

=hotaru=, _for_ pretty _read_ firefly.

=idete=, for _idyuru_ read _idzuru_.

=i-kaki-watari= after (_watari_) _insert_ 102, _dele the rest_.

=ikameshiu=, sumptuously, T.

=i-karuga=, _omit_ hyphen.

=ikidohoru=, vexed, angry.

=imohi= (or _imowi_?), _imofu_, to seclude oneself ritually, be
tabooed. See p. 218.

=(w)inaba=, the _w_ belongs to next line, _winaba_, form of &c.

=isogakure=, rocks or shore, &c.

=itate=, read _itato_.

=iyatate= = _iyoiyotatete_.

=ka=, _after_ day _add a comma_.

=kabakari= (p. 203) = this much, so much, equally.

=kako totonohe=, arrange rowers in due order, see Lay 258.

=kanahama=, read _kanahamu_.

=kara=, _omit the_ --.

=kare yuku=, go on withering, 234.

=kaushi=, lattices, T.

=Ki-ji=, _omit the comma_.

=kiki-kofuru=, _omit the comma_.

=kiyora= (_keura_), in Lay 229, pure, precious, rare.

=kokire=, _for_ plank to _read_ pluck and.

=koshi=, _add_ also palanquin, litter.

=kote=, read _kôte_.

=kou=, prefix asterisk.

=kure kure=, _add_ secretly.

=kusa musa=, read _kusamusu_.

=makari=, _after_ down _omit the comma_.

=maki-mi=, _add_ or equal _nasu_.

=managari=, entwine arms, p. 194.

=meguri=, for _-rebu_ read _-reba_.

=meshi-tsugi=, rather, one who takes an order or message.

=mi=, adjectival or verbal suffix, seems to denote habit, state, &c.

=mikado=, _add_ Sovran.

=mizhika uta=, short lays, _tanka_, envoys.

=momonaga ni=, with legs out-stretched, p. 194.

=moto hikaru=, _add_ value of _moto_ uncertain, probably lower part of

=mushibusuma=, warm coverlet, p. 194.

=nabe=, _add_ gives a sense of completeness, _yoroshi nabe_, 14.

=nadzumi=, obstruct, impede, be obstruction to.

=nadzusafu=, also = _nadzusaharu_ = _nazhimu_, be intimate, friendly

=naga-uta=, long lays, or _chôka_.

=naki-wataru=, _add_ (or go on singing as birds do).

=nani=, _add_ thing, anything.

=naresofu=, accompany.

=nari-hahi=, produce (vegetable).

=neburi=, look with half-closed eyes, perhaps = _niramu_, stare.

=nikibi-nishi=, _add_ comfortable.

=nobu=, _kokoro wo nobu_ rather means ‘explain meaning’.

=nogaroyeru=, read _nogaroyenu_.

=nu= sometimes = precative _ne_, =ahanu= in 42 = _ahane kashi_.

=nutsutori=, pheasant.

=ohashimashinu=, _sarimashita_. (Taketori.)

=ohi-mi=, rather act, or state of carrying on back.

=ohorokani=, _oho-ro-ka_, an obscure word, perhaps = _oho ni_, greatly.
The note to 263 should be changed by altering ‘lightly’ to ‘gravely,

=ohotono=, _for_ 189 _read_ 184.

=oiraka=, simply (Lay 205).

=oiraka ni=, _read_ plainly, simply.

=osuhi=, _add_ or perhaps an outer dress.

=rani=, after verbs = _ge ni_, 60.

=sabi=, _add_ has force of ‘like’, as _kamusabi_, godlike.

=sakimori=, soldier of frontier garrison (Tsukushi)--literally,
cape-watcher or (perhaps) frontier (_sakahi_) guard. See Lay 258.

=saki-tsugi=, bloom successively.

=samorafu=, for _hateru_ read _haberu_ (be, do).

=sarazu=, p. 232, inevitably.

=saritote=, _for comma after_ yet, _put_ --.

=sayagu=, rustle, p. 194.

=shigarami=, _dele the_ ;

=shima-dzutahi=, oar along coasts of, or amid, islands.

=shinaye=, droop (physically or morally), see Lay 240.

=shizhi-nuki=, _shigeku tsuranuku_, well equipped (as boat with oars)
or well furnished as bead-lace with _tama_, wreath with blossoms, &c.
See Lay 258.

=sode=, _read_ (_so_, dress, _de_, arm), sleeve.

=sora mo naku= = _ki wo ushinahi_, lose one’s wits, T.

=sotataki= (_sotto_), soft-pat, stroke.

=tachi-azaru=, to be anxious, distracted.

=tachi-narasu=, level by standing on (as when one frequents a
particular spot).

=tadaka=, real self, person.

=tadamuki=, arm, 194.

=tadayofu=, drift, T.

=tagoshi=, _before_ men _insert_ two or few.

=tahagoto=, _better read_ foolishness, jest.

=takubusuma=, white-bark coverlet, p. 194.


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