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Title: A Birder's Guide to North Dakota
Author: Zimmer, Kevin J.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                                                             Price $5.00



                            A Birder’s Guide
                                   to
                              North Dakota


                                  _by
                            Kevin J. Zimmer_


                                  1979


                             Distributed by
                              L & P Press
                               Box 21604
                            Denver, CO 80221


  _This book is dedicated to my parents, Bernard and Mary Zimmer, who
 presented me with all the opportunities that made this book possible._



                                PREFACE


The area covered by this guide is so large that I could not possibly
have written it up without the help of many people.

I particularly wish to thank Bob Randall and Frank Kelley, who provided
much of the information used for the Bismarck-Mandan and Grand Forks
areas, respectively; my brother and almost constant field companion
Barry Zimmer, who helped with many suggestions; Kelly Stonecypher, who
provided inspiration and the best kind of moral support; and most
importantly, Jim Lane, whose advice, help, and encouragement made this
book possible.

Many others helped in some way, either with advice and information, or
as field companions. I want to thank the following, and after this has
gone to press I will probably think of others: Milan Alby, Steve Allen,
Beth Anderson, David L. Bartling, William Buresh, Gary A. Eslinger,
Palmer Forness, Ralph Fries, Ann and Bob Gammell, David Goeke, Harold
Holt, Harold Kantrud, Art Lies, Donald E. Lindberg, Jon M. Malcolm,
Rebecca Quanrud, Robert Rollings, Alan K. Trout, Robert Walkin, Dr.
Nathaniel Whitney, Hugh Willoughby, Jim Zimmer, and Bernard and Mary
Zimmer.

I would appreciate any suggestions or information for future editions of
this book. All such correspondence should be addressed to: Kevin J.
Zimmer, L & P Press, Box 21604, Denver, Colorado 80221.



                           TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                                    Page
  Preface                                                              3
  Introduction                                                         7
  Southeastern North Dakota                                           15
      Cass, Richland, Sargent, Ransom, Barnes, Stutsman, Kidder, and
      Logan Counties
  Southwestern North Dakota                                           33
      Burleigh, Morton, Dunn, Bowman, Slope, and Billings Counties
  Northwestern North Dakota                                           50
      Dunn, McKenzie, McLean, Burke, Mountrail, Ward, and Divide
      Counties
  Northeastern North Dakota                                           62
      McHenry, Bottineau, Rolette, Cavalier, Pembina, Walsh, Grand
      Forks, Nelson, Benson, and Ramsey Counties
  Specialties of North Dakota                                         80
  Birds of North Dakota                                              100
  Index                                                              111

    [Illustration: NORTH DAKOTA (Quarters are shown bounded by County
    Lines, Highways, or Rivers)]



                              INTRODUCTION


North Dakota is a fairly large state (17th among the states in total
land area) but a sparsely populated one (45th). Most of the people live
in rural areas, because there are few cities of any size; even these
are, for the most part, widely scattered. The largest urban area (the
tri-city area of Fargo, West Fargo, and Moorhead, Minnesota) has a
combined population of under 120,000.

Most people visit North Dakota on their way to someplace else. They rush
through because of the lack of big cities and scenic areas. Although it
is true that much of the state is anything but scenic, there is great
beauty awaiting those who explore the prairie, the rolling, wooded hills
of the Turtle Mountains, or the rugged badlands along the Little
Missouri River.

Over the years some of the greatest names in ornithology have visited
North Dakota on birding expeditions. At the head of the list is John
James Audubon, who made one of his last painting-and-collecting
expeditions here in 1843. The most celebrated birder ever to visit the
state, though, has to be our twenty-sixth president, Theodore Roosevelt.

Roosevelt established a large cattle-ranching enterprise in the Little
Missouri badlands in 1883. In doing so he established two ranches: the
Maltese Cross Ranch (about seven miles south of Medora) and the Elkhorn
Ranch (about thirty-five miles north of Medora). Although not an
ornithologist in the strictest sense of the word, Roosevelt kept written
records of his bird sightings in the badlands. These records represent
some of his most colorful and interesting writings.


                   HABITATS AND TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES

Much of the topography of North Dakota can be traced to the effects of
Wisconsin-age glaciation, particularly in the north and east. Large
portions of these glaciated areas are peppered by countless ponds and
lakes. A frightening number have been drained; nevertheless, these
wetlands constitute one of the most important waterfowl production areas
in the country.

Although North Dakota cannot boast of large mountain ranges like the
states farther west, it is anything but a flat, monotonous state. Much
of the state is characterized by gently rolling prairie. More noticeable
hills and escarpments may be found in the Turtle Mountains, Pembina
Hills, on the south side of Devils Lake, and along stretches of several
rivers (notably the Missouri). Further, beach lines and sandhills left
over from the last ice age provide a somewhat local variation to the
level topography of some areas. The most rugged terrain occurs in the
Little Missouri badlands, which are characterized by numerous steep
slopes, severely eroded buttes, and arroyos.

A large percentage of the state is occupied by agricultural land. This
category includes not only actively farmed land, but also retired
croplands, domestic hayfields, fence rows, wood lots (referred to as
tree claims), shelterbelts, orchards, and farmyards. While many of these
areas are almost devoid of wildlife, others provide suitable habitat for
a number of species.

Mixed-grass prairie is the predominant natural habitat, and it supports
the largest numbers of many of the prairie specialties which nest in the
state. Both tall-grass prairie and short-grass prairie also exist
locally.

A prairie habitat which is quite limited in the state is the
sage-prairie found in the southwest corner (primarily in the western
portions of Bowman and Slope Counties). Xeric in character, it is
composed mostly of buffalo and blue grama grasses peppered with sage
flats and clumps of prickly pear cactus.

Many prairie areas are punctuated by woody thickets, which host a number
of species that are characteristic of woodland-edge habitats. These
thickets are composed mostly of large shrubs (wolfberry and silverberry
are commonly found) in combination with a few small trees.

Wetlands occupy a major position on the list of habitats. Several types,
ranging from seasonal ponds and prairie marshes to permanent
wood-bordered lakes, are found here. Prairie wetlands are scattered
throughout the state, but are concentrated most densely in a broad belt
through the central and east-central portions. Permanent wood-bordered
ponds and lakes are mostly restricted to the Turtle Mountains.

Often associated with prairie wetlands are extensive wet meadows. These
are of primary interest to the birder because they support large numbers
of desired species such as Yellow Rail, Willow Flycatcher, Sedge Wren,
and Le Conte’s and Sharp-tailed Sparrows.

There are also several large alkaline lakes. Because of the high
salinity of the water and the adjacent salt flats, no emergent plants
are found, so they are not characterized by large numbers of breeding
birds. They do serve as excellent attractions to migrant shorebirds.

Very little of North Dakota is occupied by forest habitat, although it
is locally well-represented. Much of it is found in the form of
floodplain forests along the Red, James, Sheyenne, Souris, Missouri, and
Little Missouri Rivers and their tributaries. In the west the floodplain
forests are dominated, for the most part, by cottonwoods (as is true
along large portions of the Missouri and Little Missouri Rivers) and
have a more open canopy and understory than those of the eastern
streams.

In the east bottomland forests are represented by a more diverse plant
community. Among the more common trees are American elm, bur oak, green
ash, basswood, and box elder.

Tracts of upland deciduous forest can be found locally throughout the
state. In the southern and western portions, these are largely
restricted to buttes and bluffs overlooking various rivers. Bur oak,
green ash, and quaking aspen are usually the most representative trees.
(A good example can be found at Little Missouri State Park in Dunn
County.)

Upland deciduous forests also occur in the northeast. The best examples
are in the Pembina Hills of Pembina and Cavalier Counties. Smaller
tracts can be found on hills and bluffs overlooking many of the larger
lakes such as those around the shores of Devils Lake and Stump Lake.
Predominant trees include bur oak, American elm, quaking aspen, green
ash, box elder, and birch. The well-forested Turtle Mountains are
dominated for the most part by quaking aspen.

Small groves of evergreen forests dot the slopes and draws of the Little
Missouri badlands. These are represented by various species of junipers
and by ponderosa pine.

In addition to the natural habitats there are several artificial ones.
Agricultural areas, the largest group, have already been mentioned.
Others are urban areas—landscaped yards, gardens, golf courses, city
parks, cemeteries, and the almost-sterile downtown streets. Stock ponds,
reservoirs, and drainage ditches also constitute artificial
environments. An interesting man-made habitat (at least from the
birder’s view) is the municipal sewage ponds. These often attract an
incredible array of waterfowl and shorebirds and make excellent birding
spots for anyone who can put up with the smell.


                        BACKGROUND ON THE BIRDS

A few years ago the American Birding Association surveyed its members to
determine the 50 “most-wanted” species in North America. Of these, 9 are
to be expected in North Dakota. In decreasing order of priority they
are: Yellow Rail, Snowy Owl, Connecticut Warbler, Bohemian Waxwing,
Baird’s Sparrow, Northern Goshawk, Sprague’s Pipit, Hoary Redpoll, and
Smith’s Longspur. An additional 6 are on the current state list but are
very rare and seldom seen: Boreal Owl, Great Gray Owl, Gyrfalcon, Hawk
Owl, Black-backed Three-toed Woodpecker, and Eurasian Wigeon.

For the most part, North Dakota has an eastern avifauna which blends
almost imperceptibly into a more western one in the extreme western part
of the state. The blend zone is most apparent in the vicinity of
Bismarck in the south-central part of the state. Here the ranges of
Indigo and Lazuli Buntings and Rose-breasted and Black-headed Grosbeaks
overlap, and the birder may see some interesting hybrids.

With few exceptions, the birds of the eastern half (especially along the
Red, James, and Sheyenne Rivers) are the same species found in similar
habitats throughout eastern North America. East begins to give way to
West biologically in the central part. Here, the birder begins to notice
the western species such as Ferruginous and Swainson’s Hawks,
Yellow-headed Blackbird, Lark Bunting, and Chestnut-collared Longspur.

By the time one reaches the badlands on the western edge, it is the
eastern birds which are unusual. Here, there is an abundance of western
species, including Golden Eagle, Prairie Falcon, Sage Grouse, Burrowing
Owl, the red-shafted race of the Common Flicker, Say’s Phoebe,
Black-billed Magpie, Rock Wren, Mountain Bluebird, Lazuli Bunting,
Black-headed Grosbeak, the spotted race of the Rufous-sided Towhee,
Brewer’s Sparrow, and McCown’s Longspur.

Although the breeding birds may vary considerably from one part of the
state to the next, winter species are fairly uniform throughout.
Comparatively few birds stick out the North Dakota winters. Extremely
cold temperatures, little cover, and little open water combine to make
this a somewhat poor state for winter birding. The following species can
usually be found: Rough-legged Hawk; Golden Eagle; Sharp-tailed Grouse;
Ringnecked Pheasant; Gray Partridge; Great Horned, Snowy, and
Short-eared Owls; Mourning Dove; Common Flicker; Hairy and Downy
Woodpeckers; Horned Lark; Black-billed Magpie; American Crow; Blue Jay;
Black-capped Chickadee; White-breasted and Red-breasted Nuthatches;
American Robin; Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings; Northern Shrike; European
Starling; House Sparrow; Western Meadowlark; Red-winged and Rusty
Blackbirds; Evening and Pine Grosbeaks; Purple Finch; Hoary and Common
Redpolls; Pine Siskin; American Goldfinch; Red Crossbill; Northern Junco
(slate-colored race); Lapland Longspur; and Snow Bunting.


                              WHEN TO COME

The seasons are defined by the following dates: Spring—April 1 to May
31, Summer—June 1 to August 15, Fall—August 16 to November 20, and
Winter—November 21 to March 31.

Most birders will be interested in breeding populations of marsh and
prairie species. For these it would be best to come in June, preferably
during the first three weeks.

For migration, the timing depends on specifics. Warblers generally peak
about the third week of May and again in mid-September. For waterfowl
April and October are probably best. Shorebirds are usually good anytime
from late April to late October, but the first two weeks of May and the
months of August and September are the most consistent. Shorebirding can
be the most productive kind of birding in July and August.

Few people come to North Dakota in winter for the purpose of birding,
but perhaps more should. Although not abundant, many of the regular
winter birds make good additions to the list. Several northern species
that are uncommon over the rest of the United States are often
relatively easy to find here. This is also the time when the birder can
add the most to our knowledge of North Dakota’s birds. There are
relatively few good birders in the state, and many do not get out in
winter as often as they should. Who knows? You may turn up something
extra good, such as a Gyrfalcon or a Boreal Owl. For the northern owls
come after January, when the birds have been pushed south by the colder
weather.


                                WEATHER

North Dakota is a state of extremes when it comes to weather. To say
that the winters are cold would be a gross understatement. Wind-chill
factors commonly reach 50° below zero. (It is not wise to wander far
from your car in such weather. Remember, also, never to sit for any
period of time in your parked car with the heater on and the engine
idling. Carbon monoxide poisoning takes many lives each year in the
upper Midwest.) The winters are long in this part of the country, and
just when you think one is over, along comes another March or April
blizzard. As a rule the weather in spring and fall is pleasant, but be
prepared for cold temperatures at all times. Summer is an altogether
different story. Summer temperatures are often in the 80’s and 90’s, and
it doesn’t cool off very much at night. Summer days and nights are often
rather humid. Combined with the high temperatures, the high humidity can
make you feel very uncomfortable.

At times the wind never seems to quit blowing (especially in the
winter), and summer storms can come up fast. Remember, North Dakota is
one of the states occupying the tornado belt. If violent weather hits,
head for shelter immediately. Do not let all of this scare you off; most
Dakotans have been easily surviving such weather for years.


                             WHAT TO BRING

Dress is informal in this rural state. Levis are the rule rather than
the exception. When birding in spring and fall, carry a warm jacket
because the temperature can drop in a hurry. As for winter dress, there
is not much to say other than “get the warmest clothes and foot-gear
possible.” It is next to impossible to overdress for Dakota winters.
Other things that could come in handy in winter are: 1) a shovel
(especially if you intend to drive the back roads), 2) studded tires, 3)
booster cables, and 4) a lighter-weight motor oil for better
cold-weather starts. Make sure to winterize your radiator to at least
-30°, and keep more anti-freeze on hand; you may need it.

As a final suggestion, if you own a spotting scope by all means bring
it. There are certainly few activities more frustrating than trying to
identify shorebirds on a distant mud-flat with nothing more than
binoculars. A scope can also come in handy for viewing some of the more
elusive prairie sparrows.


                                 PESTS

There are plenty of biting insects around, and the mosquitoes can be
downright obnoxious at times (especially if you are sleeping outside).
Carry some kind of insect repellent (except in winter). Liquid
repellents seem to last longer than sprays.

Watch for ticks in brushy areas. No matter how hard you try you will
probably get some anyway. Never pull one off. The proboscis usually
breaks, whereupon infection may occur. They are best removed by applying
rubbing alcohol (Some of the more obnoxious ticks seem to get “bombed”
and then hang on for dear life.) or a hot instrument such as a recently
burnt match.

Rattlesnakes do occur in the western part (particularly in the
badlands), although you would be doing well to see one.


                             WHERE TO STAY

The larger towns have many motels, especially along the interstates.
There should be no problem in Bismarck-Mandan, Dickinson, Devils Lake,
Fargo, Grand Forks, Jamestown, Minot, Valley City, and Williston. These
towns are distributed rather evenly over the state. Most of the smaller
towns have at least one motel, but try to arrive early. Motels fill
quickly in summer.

Campers will find plenty of spots. In addition to the commercial
campgrounds, most of the state parks offer camp sites, and some are
free. Both units of the Roosevelt Memorial have good campgrounds.

Following is a list of the state parks:


  Fort Lincoln—all facilities, birding fair
  Lake Metigoshe—all facilities, birding excellent
  Lake Sakakawea—all facilities, little birding
  Turtle River—all facilities, birding good
  Beaver Lake—all facilities, birding fair
  Butte View—all facilities, little birding
  Fort Stevenson—all facilities, little birding
  Icelandic—all facilities, birding good
  Doyle Memorial—fireplaces, tables, water, little birding
  Little Missouri Bay—fireplaces, tables, water, birding good
  Streeter Memorial—fireplaces, tables, water, little birding
  Sully’s Creek—fireplaces, tables, water, birding good


                       SOME RECOMMENDED MATERIALS


  1. _Checklist of Birds in North Dakota_—free—Northern Prairie Wildlife
          Research Center, Box 1747, Jamestown, ND 58401. (The center
          has a wealth of other material.)
  2. _North Dakota Outdoors_—official publication of the State Game and
          Fish Department, 2121 Lovett Avenue, Bismarck, ND 58505.
          Monthly, $2.00 per year. Single copies can be found on
          newstands at 25¢.
  3. _Breeding Birds of North Dakota_ (Stewart, 1975) ($18.50 plus
          postage)—Tri-College Center for Environmental Studies, North
          Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102. An exhaustive
          treatise; good section on habitats.
  4. County maps—North Dakota State Highway Department, Capital Grounds,
          Bismarck, ND 58501. Expensive but very detailed.
  5. Refuge checklists, brochures, and maps—free—contact each refuge.
      Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge—Edmunds, ND 58476
      Audubon National Wildlife Refuge—Coleharbor, ND 58531
      Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge—Kenmare, ND 58746
      J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge—Upham, ND 58789
      Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge—Moffit, ND 58560
      Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge—Lostwood, ND 58754
      Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge—Cayuga, ND 58013
      Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge—Foxholm, ND 58738


                                 FORMAT

The main purpose of this guide is to direct the out-of-state birder to
the better spots, although it is hoped that the book will be of use to
resident birders as well. An effort is made to list several good areas
in different parts of the state, if possible, for each of the more
sought-after species. The best spots are shown in bold-faced type. If
you are in a hurry, stop only at these places.

Because of the large area, the state is split into four
regions—Southeast, Southwest, Northwest, and Northeast. The regions are
of approximately equal size and are divided, for the most part, along
county lines without regard for habitat. A minimal time of 2 weeks is
suggested to cover the entire state. Even then you will leave knowing
that you have missed a lot.

In North Dakota the best shorebird spot is often not one mentioned, but
rather a flooded field, which will be great one week and dry the next.
In addition many species change their locations from year to year
because of inconsistent water levels. It would be wise to check with
refuge managers and local birders for up-to-the-minute information on
desired species. The names and addresses of local birders can be
obtained by checking the _Christmas Bird Count_ for the local compiler
or by consulting the _American Birding Association Directory_ ($5.00—ABA
Sales, Box 4335, Austin, TX 78765).


                              NOMENCLATURE

In 1973 the American Ornithologists Union (A.O.U.) published a
supplement to its _Checklist of North American Birds_. This changed the
current names and taxonomic status of many species. A number of birders
have been in an uproar ever since, because many former species are
dropped to sub-specific rank. The A.O.U. has further revised the
checklist, with the promise of even more changes in the future. In
addition, the American Birding Association published its own _A.B.A.
Checklist (Birds of Continental United States and Canada_) in 1975. This
follows the taxonomic order used by the A.O.U. but incorporates some
entirely different names. Because the A.B.A. is the official “listing”
organization, its nomenclature is followed in this book. However, some
of the field guides currently in use do not yet reflect these name
changes. The old names affecting North Dakota birds are included
parenthetically below to avoid confusion for the beginner.


  American White Pelican (White Pelican)
  Great Egret (Common Egret)
  Greater White-fronted Goose (White-fronted)
  Snow Goose (both Snow and Blue)
  American Black Duck (Black Duck)
  Common Pintail (Pintail)
  Eurasian Wigeon (European)
  American Wigeon (Widgeon)
  Northern Shoveler (Shoveler)
  Black Scoter (Common Scoter)
  Red-tailed Hawk (includes Harlan’s Hawk)
  Northern Harrier (Marsh Hawk)
  Merlin (Pigeon Hawk)
  American Kestrel (Sparrow Hawk)
  Lesser Golden Plover (American Golden Plover)
  Upland Sandpiper (Upland Plover)
  Red Knot (Knot)
  Little Tern (Least Tern)
  Common Screech-Owl (Screech Owl)
  Common Flicker (combines Gilded, Yellow-shafted, and Red-shafted)
  Willow Flycatcher (Traill’s, FITZ-bew race)
  Alder Flycatcher (Traill’s, fee-BEE-o-race)
  Eastern Pewee (Eastern Wood Pewee)
  Western Pewee (Western Wood Pewee)
  American Crow (Common Crow)
  Marsh Wren (Long-billed Marsh Wren)
  Sedge Wren (Short-billed Marsh Wren)
  Gray Catbird (Catbird)
  American Robin (Robin)
  European Starling (Starling)
  Northern Parula (Parula Warbler)
  Yellow-rumped Warbler (combines Audubon’s and Myrtle)
  Common Yellowthroat (Yellowthroat)
  Northern Oriole (combines Baltimore and Bullock’s)
  Northern Cardinal (Cardinal)
  Northern Junco (combines Oregon, Slate-colored, and White-winged)
  American Tree Sparrow (Tree Sparrow)



                       SOUTHEASTERN NORTH DAKOTA


    [Illustration: Ruddy Ducks]

The southeast sector is probably the least glamorous as far as birders
are concerned. It cannot offer the western specialties of the southwest
nor the northern species of the northeast, and it does not have the
reputation of the northwest for prairie species. Despite these deficits,
the southeast quarter offers some of the best birding in the state.

Contained within its boundaries is some of the finest prairie-pothole
habitat in the country. This is the breeding ground for thousands of
ducks and other marsh species. Adjacent to the countless seasonal and
permanent ponds are broad expanses of mixed-grass prairie, which support
large numbers of Upland Sandpipers, Sprague’s Pipits, Baird’s Sparrows,
Chestnut-collared Longspurs, and other prairie specialities of great
interest to the birder.

This quarter also offers excellent bottomland habitat along portions of
the Red, James, and Sheyenne Rivers. These floodplain forests support an
avifauna typical of eastern deciduous forests, thus making it attractive
to western birders. Large numbers of eastern warblers pass through
during migration, and on good days one may find as many as twenty
species (possibly more).

Marshlands in the southeast corner attract southern species, such as the
Little Blue Heron and King Rail. All in all, the southeast sector offers
a very diverse avifauna, and it should not be ignored by the visiting
birder.


                             a) Cass County

    [Illustration: FARGO]

The city of Fargo (population 53,000—largest in North Dakota) lies in
the highly agricultural Red River Valley and is separated from Minnesota
only by the river. Birds found here are basically eastern in nature.

The Red River and its adjacent woodlands act as a funnel for migrating
passerines and provide food and cover in winter for the few species
which decide to stick out the long period of cold weather. Because of
this, wooded areas along the river are the most productive spots.

Probably the best place along the river is Lindenwood Park, which can be
reached in several ways. Coming from the east, take Interstate 94 west
from Moorhead, Minnesota. Turn right on the first exit after crossing
into North Dakota. This leads onto South University Drive. Stay in the
far right lane and turn right at the first signal light onto 18th Avenue
South. Go one block to the park entrance.

Beyond the entrance, the road forks. The right leads through the park.
The left (South Lindenwood Drive) follows the river for 0.8 mile and is
usually better for birding, because it is less crowded and has a greater
edge effect. South Lindenwood Drive is bordered in part on the left by a
large grassy triangle and on the right by a good variety of trees and
shrubs along the river.

Close to 175 species have been recorded here in the past ten years. Most
of the birds are characteristic of the eastern deciduous forest.
Exceptions include the Western Kingbird, Bobolink, Clay-colored Sparrow,
and Savannah Sparrow. All of these can often be seen from May to July in
the grassy triangle. In July the vegetation is cut, and the birds leave.

In migration the park is a mecca for flycatchers, thrushes, vireos,
warblers, and sparrows. All of the eastern _Empidonax_ flycatchers
(except the Acadian) can be found regularly, as can the Olive-sided
Flycatcher and Eastern Phoebe. All of the spot-breasted thrushes except
the Wood Thrush may be seen in good numbers every spring, and even it
manages to put in an appearance each year. Five species of vireos can be
seen in spring, the best of which is the Philadelphia Vireo. Also
occurring with regularity are twenty species of warblers, including
Orange-crowned, Cape May, Bay-breasted, and Connecticut.

Of all the fringillids using the park in migration, the most
sought-after is the Harris’ Sparrow. Fargo lies in its relatively narrow
migratory range. It may be seen (both spring and fall) in good numbers
at all parks in the area.

The following breeding species are shared with most other parks and
wooded habitats in the area: Wood Duck; Black-billed Cuckoo; Mourning
Dove; Great Horned Owl; Common Flicker; Red-headed, Hairy, and Downy
Woodpeckers; Great Crested and Least Flycatchers; Eastern Pewee;
American Crow; Blue Jay; Black-capped Chickadee; White-breasted
Nuthatch; House Wren; Gray Catbird; Brown Thrasher; Cedar Waxwing;
Yellow-throated, Red-eyed, and Warbling Vireos; Yellow Warbler; Northern
Oriole; Rose-breasted Grosbeak; Indigo Bunting; and Chipping and Song
Sparrows.

In winter check for owls, waxwings (Bohemian is common some winters),
grosbeaks (mainly Evening but some Pine), siskins, and crossbills (both
species).

Another productive location is the Riverside Cemetery. To get there from
Lindenwood Park turn left back onto 5th Street South. Go south for about
three blocks to the cemetery on the left. Although it attracts nowhere
near the number of birds that Lindenwood does, you are never bothered by
crowds of people, and it can be good in migration for warblers and
thrushes. Things are usually pretty dead in summer, but in winters when
there is an eruption of northern finches the cemetery is good for Red
Crossbills, Pine Siskins, and Pine Grosbeaks.

Oak Grove Park has essentially the same avifauna as Lindenwood Park. To
reach it from Lindenwood, turn right (north) on 5th Street South and
right on 13th Avenue South at the water treatment plant. Turn left on
4th Street South and go several blocks until you come to the YMCA, on
the left. Turn right at the signal light, and follow the road as it
bends around the river. Continue under the railroad tracks and past the
civic center on Second Street North. Take the first right after the
Shakey’s Pizza House (left side). There should be a sign pointing the
way to Oak Grove High School. After a few blocks the street becomes
South Terrace, which leads to the park just beyond the school gymnasium.

Most of the birds will be the same as those seen at Lindenwood, although
three species—the Common Screech-Owl, Pileated Woodpecker, and Northern
Cardinal—are more easily found here. The owl (seldom seen) is most often
heard calling on summer evenings from the trees across the river from
the athletic field. The woodpecker, which ranges widely along the river
in winter, has nested in the immediate vicinity in recent years. The
Northern Cardinal can be seen almost anywhere along the river in winter
(usually at feeding stations), but it is seen here more than anywhere
else during spring and summer. The Wood Duck and Spotted Sandpiper seem
to prefer this undisturbed stretch of the river.

Another good spot is not far from Oak Grove. From the park backtrack on
South Terrace and turn right on the first street beyond Fossom Hall, or,
if you wish, on the alley just behind it. Turn left on North Terrace,
and, when the street forks, go right on North River Road, which ends at
Mickelson Field. Most of this area has been converted into ball
diamonds, but there is still a strip of trees following the river which
can be productive on early mornings in migration. Walking is easy on the
bike trail, so a good stretch of the river can be readily covered. In
the early evening listen for the Common Screech-Owl, and keep an eye out
for Common Nighthawks and Chimney Swifts cruising over the ball
diamonds. Along the open stretch of the river, look for both Eastern and
Western Kingbirds. Check the banks closely for Wood Duck broods and
Spotted Sandpipers. Dead snags hanging over the water are favorite
perches of Belted Kingfishers and flycatchers.

Try walking north along the river to the dam. There is always some open
water which attracts over-wintering waterfowl, including an occasional
Common Goldeneye. Winter birds here are typical of the ones found along
the Red River in the Fargo area—Great Horned Owl; Pileated, Hairy, and
Downy Woodpeckers; Common Flicker; American Crow; Blue Jay; Black-capped
Chickadee; White-breasted and Red-breasted Nuthatches; Brown Creeper;
Cedar and Bohemian Waxwings; Northern Cardinal; Evening and Pine
Grosbeaks; Purple Finch; American Goldfinch; Pine Siskin; Red and
White-winged Crossbills; Northern Junco; and White-throated Sparrow.

Keep in mind that although some birds are often easy to find in winter,
their abundance varies drastically from year to year. The resident birds
are fairly stable, but winter visitors, such as the waxwings and
finches, may be everywhere one year and nowhere the next. Keep an eye
out for feeders, which are often the best places to find the northern
finches. If you have time for only one spot in spring, summer, or fall,
your best bet is Lindenwood Park. Under similar conditions in winter try
the Riverside Cemetery.

If you still have not found a Bohemian Waxwing, try driving through the
residential areas, keeping your eyes trained on the tops of bare trees
and on the ground near berry bushes. (It might also be wise to watch the
road from time to time.) The waxwings are especially fond of crab-apples
and highbush cranberries. This bird is very erratic, but in years when
it is common it can be found almost anywhere. Your first look may be of
a group of 20 or more perched high in a tree.

There should be no problem in separating this species from the Cedar
Waxwing, which is smaller and yellower in color. A good field mark for
the Bohemian is the reddish under-tail coverts. In flight the waxwings
give a Starling-like appearance.

If you are here in winter and need a respite from the cold, hop into
your car and try some open-country birding. Some good birds may be found
without leaving the warmth of the car. Using this technique, you will
really have to explore on your own. Take any of the main roads out of
Fargo, and go wherever the habitat and the plowed roads lead you. One
area in general that is usually pretty good can be reached by going
south on I-29 for about 6.0 miles from I-94. Then go about three miles
west to the town of Horace, and work your way south and west from there.

A word of caution should be heeded before setting out on back roads.
Snow and mud, which may prevail from December through early April, can
make these roads unfit for travel, especially for a large vehicle such
as a motor home. Many roads are little traveled, and help may be a long
time in coming. Being stranded in a North Dakota snowstorm is no joke.

Birding country roads can be productive from September through April. At
the right time in fall, hawks may be everywhere. On some days in late
September, every other post seems to have a hawk on it. Most will be
Red-tails and Northern Harriers, but watch for Swainson’s and
Ferruginous. If you are really living right, you may even turn up a
Peregrine Falcon. In September and October the fence lines, ditches, and
sloughs may hold a variety of sparrows, such as Savannah, Vesper, Field,
American Tree, Lincoln’s, White-throated, and Harris’. In October and
November, and again in March and April, watch for longspurs, which occur
by the thousands in some fields (look especially around marshy areas in
fall). Check carefully for a Smith’s or a Chestnut-collared, although
the vast majority will be Laplands. Two other birds to look for in
October and November are the Rough-legged Hawk and Short-eared Owl. A
few of each usually winter, but most occur only as late migrants. The
owl is somewhat diurnal and is often seen cruising over the fields like
a large, tawny moth.

Few species are found in the open areas in winter, but the ones present
are pretty choice. Large flocks of Snow Buntings will usually be the
most conspicuous birds. Buntings and Horned Larks often feed right along
the road. American Goldfinches and Common Redpolls are often abundant in
weed-filled ditches or in sunflower fields. Check redpoll flocks closely
for a Hoary, which is uncommon, but in good years not especially hard to
find.

Color in redpolls varies, so a light-colored bird does not always
signify a Hoary. The best field mark is the unstreaked, white rump.
Fortunately, this species has a habit of holding the wings in such a way
that the rump can be clearly seen.

Gray Partridge are often found in small flocks in the fields. At a
distance they look like large clumps of dirt against the white snow.
Rusty Blackbirds are sometimes encountered around farms. Watch also for
Northern Shrikes, which are usually perched in some conspicuous spot.
This species seems to prefer the sloughs, where there is an abundance of
the mice, voles, and shrews upon which it feeds.

Probably the most sought-after of the winter species is the Snowy Owl.
This bird may be seen right along I-29 on poles and signs. In some years
it is almost common, but hard to see if it is out in the middle of a
snow-covered field, where it can look amazingly like another lump of
snow-covered sod. Occasionally, it may linger until early April. When
some of the snow has melted, it is easier to see.

In April and May, flooded fields often make for good shorebirding with
several species present, including large numbers of Lesser Golden and
Black-bellied Plovers and such rarities as the Buff-breasted Sandpiper.

    [Illustration: SEWAGE LAGOONS]

For shorebirding, one area stands out—the North Fargo Sewage Lagoons.
Start at the Beef and Bun Drive-In on the corner of 19th Avenue and
North University Drive in Fargo. Turn right on Cass County Road #31 and
go past the airport.

At County Road #20 jog left for 0.3 mile, and continue right again on
County Road #31 (gravel surface). Drive 2.5 miles and stop on the right
at the home of Art Lies. Ask for the key to the gate at the lagoons.
Make sure to explain that you are a birder, because illegal shooting has
occurred in the past. Art is a birder and will be able to tip you off to
any rare visitors at the lagoons.

From the house go a mile straight down the road, watching and listening
for Western Kingbirds, Dickcissels, and Clay-colored and Savannah
Sparrows. When the road winds to the right, continue straight at the
yield sign. The dikes on your left can be driven, so continue to the
gate, drive through, and make sure to reclose the lock.

There are six lagoons, and the bird life is different at each. Because
the water levels are constantly changed and controlled, this area is
especially productive during dry summers when the potholes in the area
dry up. Check the ponds with low water levels for shorebirds, pipits,
and longspurs.

Twenty-seven species of shorebirds have been found; most are typical of
similar habitat throughout the area—American Avocet; Lesser Golden
Plover (peak numbers have reached 6500 in late September); Black-bellied
Plover; Semipalmated Plover; Killdeer; Ruddy Turnstone; Marbled Godwit;
Willet; Red Knot; Dunlin; Sanderling; Lesser and Greater Yellowlegs;
Short-billed and Long-billed Dowitchers; Solitary, Spotted, Stilt (often
in large numbers), Pectoral, Baird’s, Least, White-rumped, Semipalmated,
and Western (uncommon) Sandpipers; Common Snipe; and Northern and
Wilson’s Phalaropes.

Both Sprague’s and Water Pipits occur in migration (most commonly in
fall and mostly in October). The latter species is much more common.
Longspurs appear by the thousands in October, especially in the fields
and ditches surrounding the lagoons. Although the majority will be
Laplands, check carefully for Smith’s and Chestnut-collared. Snow
Buntings can often be found by driving the dikes in November.

The ponds with deeper water are the ones to check for ducks and grebes.
Large concentrations occur in April, September, and October, when close
to twenty species of ducks and geese may be found. The geese are more
often seen resting on mud bars or on the dikes than on the water. Most
will be Canadas and Snows (both phases), but a few Greater
White-fronteds are seen. All of the ducks and grebes normal to the area
can be expected, and the lagoons have even managed to attract such
rarities (for this part of the state) as Oldsquaw (very early spring),
Greater Scaup (possibly regular but overlooked), White-winged Scoter,
and Red-necked Grebe. Other species found at the lagoons in the past
include Double-crested Cormorant, Sora, Franklin’s Gull, Bonaparte’s
Gull, and Black Tern. The gulls alone have presented quite a spectacle
on different occasions, with peak numbers of over 30,000 Franklin’s and
200 Bonaparte’s present at one time.

Make sure to lock the gate on the way out and return the key. Remember,
the accessibility of this area in the future depends upon you.

    [Illustration: NORTH FARGO SEWAGE LAGOON]

Another fruitful spot for transient shorebirds and waterfowl is the West
Fargo Sewage Lagoons. To reach them, start at the signal light at Main
Avenue and 1st Street in West Fargo. Travel 1.0 mile north, turn left
(west), and continue for 1.0 mile to the lagoons. The water levels are
usually rather high, so shorebirds are not abundant. However, these
ponds do attract a large variety, including some of the larger ones such
as Marbled and Hudsonian Godwits. When the grassy ditches bordering the
ponds are filled with water, it is not unusual to find Common Snipe and
Wilson’s Phalarope.

The main attraction is the number of waterfowl using the lagoons in
migration. April seems to be the best month. The ducks, all in their
best spring plumages, appear to cover the water’s surface. The Lesser
Scaup is usually the most numerous, but several other species vie for
second honors. Mallards, Common Pintails, Gadwall, American Wigeon,
Northern Shovelers, Blue-winged Teal, Redheads, Canvasbacks, Ring-necked
Ducks, Ruddy Ducks, and Common Mergansers are usually common every
spring. Other species occurring in smaller numbers are Green-winged
Teal, Wood Duck, Common Goldeneye, and Bufflehead. The birder who has
the patience to check out all of the ducks present may turn up something
extra-special such as a Greater Scaup, Oldsquaw, White-winged Scoter,
Red-breasted Merganser, or Hooded Merganser. Common Loons; Eared,
Horned, and Pied-billed Grebes; Whistling Swans; Canada, Snow, and
Greater White-fronted Geese; and Northern Harriers also visit the
lagoons at some time.

    [Illustration: WEST FARGO SEWAGE LAGOON]

    [Illustration: RICHLAND COUNTY]


                           b) Richland County

To reach what may be the best river-bottom habitat in the southeast
sector, start from the town of Leonard (southern-most Cass County) and
go 1.0 mile south on State Highway 18. Turn left (east) on State Highway
46 and go 5.0 miles before turning right (south) on Highway 18 again as
it leaves Highway 46. Drive 4.0 miles and turn right (west). (If you
miss the turn, in another mile you will come to the Sheyenne River.) Go
5.0 miles and turn left (south). Stay on this road as it begins to
follow the river east. After about 5 miles, you may start birding.

This area is well-wooded with American elm, green ash, bur oak,
basswood, and many other species. There is also a lush under-story. It
is typical of Sheyenne River bottomlands throughout the area with one
important difference: this area is not posted nor fenced. It is one of
the few good stretches still open to the public. The birds are
representative of deciduous forest communities in this sector of the
state. Migrants pass through in large numbers, and, because of the great
amount of habitat available, this area holds one of the highest
densities of wintering birds in the state.

Three species could be considered as specialties of the area—Barred Owl,
Pileated Woodpecker, and Scarlet Tanager. All nest in the vicinity. This
is the only area in the state where the Barred Owl is known to nest, and
the other two species are quite restricted as well.

After 7.6 miles turn left (north) at the 4-H sign. After 2.3 miles you
will reach the road on which you entered. Turn right (east) and continue
4.0 miles back to Highway 18.


                           c) Sargent County

The Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge, an area for transient and nesting
waterfowl and marsh species, can be reached by starting just north of
Cayuga at State Highway 11 and going south on County Road #12 through
the town. After 4.7 miles you may turn left on a dirt road, which wraps
around Lake Tewaukon. However, you may wish to continue on to the
headquarters (turn left at a sign 5.5 miles south of starting point) to
get a map, bird-list, and current information on birds and road
conditions.

There are four large water-areas on the refuge—Lake Tewaukon, Cutler
Marsh, White Lake, and Clouds Lake. All are supplied by the Wild Rice
River and its tributaries. The refuge also contains several hundred
acres of upland terrain dotted with potholes.

Perhaps the most spectacular aspect of the bird life is the numbers of
geese which stop here in migration. Spring flights are greater than
those in fall, with peak populations of over 100,000 geese (mostly Snow
Geese of both color phases) present at one time. In addition, large
numbers of ducks pass through, and several species nest. Eared, Western
and Pied-billed Grebes all nest, and small numbers of American White
Pelicans and Double-crested Cormorants can be seen throughout the
summer.

Although the great numbers of geese usually get the most raves from
out-of-staters, there is a more interesting side to the refuge from the
North Dakota birder’s standpoint. It and other similar marshlands in the
southeastern sector draw into the state several species with more
southern affinities. A good example is the Great Egret. A rare migrant
and late-summer visitor over the rest of the state, here, it is fairly
common in late summer. Other species which could fall into such a
category include Little Blue Heron, Cattle and Snowy Egrets, Least
Bittern, White-faced Ibis, American Black Duck, and King Rail. All are
decidedly rare, not only here but throughout the state. Although most
occur every year, they are not to be expected by the visiting birder,
but they do show the potential of the area.

Besides attracting all of the common migratory shorebirds, the refuge
can boast of nesting Willets, Marbled Godwits, and Upland Sandpipers.
Soras and Virginia Rails are fairly common in the marshy areas, as are
Marsh and Sedge Wrens. Sharp-tailed and Le Conte’s Sparrows are uncommon
nesters in wet, grassy areas. The Swamp Sparrow (fairly common in
migration) should be watched for in summer, because there are a few
colonies nesting in the county. Yellow-headed Blackbirds are abundant,
and in some years Short-eared Owls nest. Some of the more interesting
upland species include Gray Partridge, Bobolink, Dickcissel, Lark
Bunting, Grasshopper Sparrow, Clay-colored Sparrow, and
Chestnut-collared Longspur.


                            d) Ransom County

A nice woodland area may be reached by going west on State Highway 46
from State Highway 32 about four miles west of Enderlin. Go 12.6 miles
and turn left (south) at the sign to Little Yellowstone State Park.

This park is not an outstanding birding spot, but it can be good in
spring and fall, and it does offer a pleasant spot to camp. It is well
wooded and therefore good for any of the species typical of this
habitat, as well as for accipiters and owls (Great Horned and Common
Screech). Most of the transient warblers found at Fargo also occur here,
although some of the more marginal eastern species, such as the Northern
Parula, are not to be expected this far west. Large numbers of sparrows
frequent the brushier areas during migration. Some of the more abundant
species include White-throated, White-crowned, Harris’, Lincoln’s,
American Tree, and Field Sparrows.


                            e) Barnes County

    [Illustration: BARNES COUNTY]

Lake Ashtabula, located predominantly in Barnes County, provides several
interesting birding spots. One of the best is around Baldhill Dam. To
reach the dam from Valley City, take Main Street East through the
downtown area. Take the first right (Central Avenue North) after the
city park and follow the signs for Lake Ashtabula, Baldhill Dam, and the
Fish Hatchery. At 12th Street Northeast turn right. After 0.3 mile turn
left at a sign for the dam. Continue for 0.8 mile and turn left after
the grain elevator toward Wesley Acres. After 1.8 miles the fish
hatchery will be on your left.

The Valley City National Fish Hatchery grounds provide prime birding for
woodland passerines, especially during migration. The ponds are often
good in spring and early summer for American White Pelicans,
Double-crested Cormorants, Black and Forster’s Terns, and all of the
swallows found in the state. Later in summer when the ponds are being
drawn down for fish removal, there can be excellent viewing of
shorebirds. A display of captive waterfowl is located on the grounds,
where you may drool over (but not count) Barnacle Geese and others.

After leaving the hatchery, continue north on the same road, keeping an
eye out for Wild Turkeys in the field to your left. These turkeys have
been stocked and restocked by the fish and game department until a
sizable flock has been built up. The most consistent spot along this
road for seeing them is on your left in 2 to 4 miles. The road forks 6.6
miles north of the hatchery. The left fork winds up at Baldhill Dam. By
going straight, you will come to a recreation area after 0.8 mile. You
can get from one spot to the other by walking the dike.

    [Illustration: Yellow-headed Blackbird]

The area surrounding the dam contains many diversified habitats. Almost
any type of bird may be found here: grebe, waterfowl, wader, shorebird,
raptor, gallinaceous fowl, gull, tern, or passerine. The grassy
hillsides around the parking lot may harbor Ring-necked Pheasants in any
season. A footbridge over the dam and onto the dike is a good vantage
point, providing a good view of a stretch of the Sheyenne River below
the dam. Both Eastern and Western Kingbirds may be seen on the hillsides
leading down to the river, and as many as six species of swallows
(Cliff, Barn, Tree, Bank, Rough-winged, and Purple Martin) hawk for
insects over the river. The Cliff and Tree are the most numerous.
American White Pelicans and Black-crowned Night Herons can usually be
seen fishing directly below the dam. This is also a good place to check
in winter and early spring for Common Goldeneye and Common Merganser. By
scanning the sandbars farther downstream, you should be able to find
several species of shorebirds during migration. Ring-billed Gulls will
be constantly circling overhead from spring to fall. In spring and fall
keep your eyes and ears open for flocks of geese and Sandhill Cranes
flying overhead.

Across the bridge, there are steps down the side of the dike to several
settling ponds which are productive in migration for shorebirds such as
Semipalmated Plover, Baird’s Sandpiper, both species of yellowlegs, and
Marbled and Hudsonian (rare) Godwits. Franklin’s Gulls may be seen in
numbers in spring and fall (especially in October).

If you visit the dam from the recreation area, walk down the side of the
dike and check the river at the first point available. The water ends
here in a quiet pool surrounded by trees and brush. Oftentimes, a Green
Heron will fly as you enter. This has been a consistent spot for it.
Black-crowned Night Herons, Wood Ducks, and Spotted Sandpipers are
common along the river from here to below the dam. In May the brush and
trees are often crawling with warblers. In September and October, the
brushy borders are full of sparrows, including Song, Lincoln’s,
White-throated, White-crowned, and Harris’.

The wooded ravines will usually produce the following nesting species:
Eastern and Western Kingbirds, Great Crested and Least Flycatchers,
Eastern Pewee, Cedar Waxwing, Yellow Warbler, Northern Oriole, Indigo
Bunting, and Rose-breasted Grosbeak.

From the recreation area continue northeast for 2 miles and turn left
(north) on the first intersecting road. After about 2 more miles you
will come to a sign reading “Sundstrom’s Landing Recreational Area”. On
the right across from the sign, a gravel trail leads up the small hill
to some prairie habitat worth investigating. Look for Eastern Bluebird,
Dickcissel, and Grasshopper Sparrow. Clay-colored Sparrows are
particularly numerous. Before birding this spot continue for 0.2 mile to
the recreation area to park your car. For easterners, the bird of most
interest is the Western Kingbird, a sure thing at the recreation area.
American White Pelicans can be seen from the point, and Western Grebes
are occasionally found. Check small wooded ravines in the area for
migrant passerines.

One of the best spots in Barnes County for viewing migrating waterfowl
and shorebirds is Hobart Lake National Wildlife Refuge. The lake can be
seen from I-94, about 7.0 miles west of Valley City. However, there is
no place along the interstate to stop and scan. For viewing purposes,
take I-94 west from Valley City and turn right (north) at Exit 1 for 1.4
miles to the lake.

Large numbers of Snow and Canada Geese use the refuge in migration, and
American White Pelicans are usually present during early and mid-summer.
Grebes, shorebirds, and some ducks can be found throughout the summer.
The refuge is especially good for Whistling Swans, with up to 1,000 or
more present for several weeks in fall.

Continue past Hobart Lake for 2.9 miles to the Sanborn Waterfowl
Production Area. This marshy area is good for Soras and Virginia Rails,
Marsh Wrens, and, when the water levels are low, shorebirds. Watch also
for Le Conte’s and Sharp-tailed Sparrows. Continue west on Highway 1 for
another 3.9 miles to check a large alkaline lake that is excellent for
shorebirds.

A fruitful spot for migrant and breeding passerines is the Clausen
Springs Recreational Area. To reach it, go south on Highway 1 from I-94
for 15.5 miles, turn left (east), and follow the signs to the springs.
If you are coming from the south, go north on Highway 1 for 2.0 miles
past Highway 46 (not far from Little Yellowstone State Park), turn right
(east), and follow the signs.

This can be a delightful spot to bird on a hot summer day! There is a
small lake, a pleasant stream, and lots of trees for shade. It is good
for all of the regular migrant flycatchers, warblers, vireos, and
sparrows. It also attracts some interesting breeding birds, one of which
is the Orchard Oriole. This is one of the better spots in the
southeastern sector for this species. Other nesting species include
Belted Kingfisher, Western Kingbird, Least Flycatcher, Eastern Pewee,
House Wren, Eastern Bluebird, Yellow Warbler, Rose-breasted Grosbeak,
and Song Sparrow. Clay-colored Sparrows are common on the grassy
hillsides, and the lake occasionally attracts some ducks or shorebirds.


                           f) Stutsman County

The best birding area in this county, Arrowwood National Wildlife
Refuge, ranks as one of the best in the state. The starting point is the
north edge of Edmunds (northwest of Jamestown on U.S. Highway 281). From
here, turn right (east) at the refuge sign onto County Road #44. After
5.4 miles you may turn left to the headquarters, or just beyond you may
turn right for the self-guided auto tour.

A visit to the headquarters is suggested, not only for information but
also for some good viewing of waterbirds along the way. In summer look
for Western, Eared, Horned, and Pied-billed Grebes; American White
Pelican; Double-crested Cormorant; numerous ducks; gulls (including an
occasional California); terns; shorebirds; swallows; and blackbirds. Ask
at the office for a map, checklist, and information on desired species
and access to other parts of the refuge.

While here, you may wish to inquire about Chase Lake National Wildlife
Refuge, which is administered from Arrowwood. This lake is of interest
because it has what is reputed to be the largest nesting colony of
American White Pelicans in the world. Large numbers of Double-crested
Cormorants and Ring-billed and California Gulls nest here.

Access is limited in order that people will not disturb the birds. The
only roads leading to the lake are better described as trails and, for
the most part, do not get too close. This is no real loss, because all
of the species here can be found easily elsewhere.

The auto tour at Arrowwood is a must. In summer check the boggy areas
surrounded by weedy fields at the start of the tour for Willow
Flycatcher, Marsh and Sedge Wrens, Bobolink, Dickcissel, and Savannah,
Grasshopper, Clay-colored, Le Conte’s (uncommon), and Sharp-tailed
(uncommon) Sparrows. Most of the route traverses fine grasslands dotted
with many species of shrubs, including silverberry and wolfberry. In
these areas watch for Sharp-tailed Grouse, Gray Partridge, Upland
Sandpiper, Sprague’s Pipit, Baird’s Sparrow, and Chestnut-collared
Longspur.

Other nesting species include Black-crowned Night Heron; American
Bittern; Gadwall; Common Pintail; Mallard; Green-winged, Blue-winged,
and Cinnamon (rare) Teals; American Wigeon; Northern Shoveler; Wood
Duck; Redhead; Ring-necked Duck; Canvasback; Lesser Scaup; Ruddy Duck;
Swainson’s Hawk; Northern Harrier; Ring-necked Pheasant; Sora; Virginia
Rail; American Coot; Willet; Marbled Godwit; American Avocet; Wilson’s
Phalarope; Forster’s and Black Terns; Long-eared Owl (rare); Eastern and
Western Kingbirds; Black-billed Magpie (uncommon); Loggerhead Shrike
(uncommon); Yellow-headed Blackbird; and Lark Bunting.


                            g) Kidder County

    [Illustration: KIDDER COUNTY]

The Baird’s Sparrow is rather common in the area surrounding Salt
Alkaline Lake. To reach the lake take the Crystal Springs Exit (#18) off
I-94, drive west on the lateral road along the north side for 1.5 miles,
and turn north. After 1.7 miles you will pass a lake on the right side
with a sign saying “Waterfowl Production Area”. There is another on the
left. Salt Alkaline Lake is 2.7 miles ahead on the left. At 5.0 miles
from the freeway, turn left for a closer look.

Both Salt Alkaline Lake and the lake before it have grassy borders,
which are summer havens for Baird’s Sparrows. In 1976, Burrowing Owls
nested in bordering fields and should be watched for again. Also check
for migrant ducks and shorebirds. The mixed-grass prairie along the road
is good for Chestnut-collared Longspur.

A prime spot for Sprague’s Pipit is also within easy reach of I-94 in
Kidder County. Take the Tappen Exit (#46) and drive 4.0 miles north on
County Road #71 to an extensive pond. Check the grassy margins for the
pipit. This area has one of the highest breeding densities in the state.
For best results the entire marshy area should be skirted. To do so
drive another 1.0 mile north, 1.0 mile west, 2.0 miles south, and then
1.0 mile east back to County Road #71. By walking the appropriate grassy
edges, you should have little problem in finding the bird. Just remember
to respect any “No Trespassing” signs that might be encountered.

Still another great location is the Alkaline Lake Game Area. From Tappen
(Exit #46) go south for 15.0 miles on County Road #71, and turn left
(east) for 2.6 miles to the lake.

This large alkaline lake is a mecca for waterbirds in spring, summer,
and fall. All of the regular grebes of North Dakota occur at one time or
another. The Western Grebe nests in abundance. American White Pelicans
and Double-crested Cormorants can usually be found, because they range
far from their nesting area on Chase Lake. Large numbers of all of the
regular ducks, gulls (watch for California), and terns can be expected
from April to October. This lake is especially good for shorebirds,
among them American Avocet, Semipalmated and Piping (uncommon—nests)
Plovers, both yellowlegs, Willet, Stilt Sandpiper, both dowitchers,
Ruddy Turnstone (rare), Pectoral Sandpiper, Dunlin (rare), Sanderling,
all of the peeps, and Wilson’s and Northern Phalaropes.

The Slade National Wildlife Refuge can be productive for waterbirds, but
it is not outstanding. Skip it if time is limited. To reach the refuge
take Exit #45 (Dawson) from I-94, and turn south on State Highway 3.
After 3.0 miles turn left (east) at the sign. On the way you will pass a
nice marsh where large numbers of grebes (especially Eared and Western),
ducks, gulls, and terns congregate. Just 0.3 mile after turning there is
a fork. Here you may go either straight (east) to the headquarters, or
right (south) through a segment of the refuge.


                            h) Logan County

    [Illustration: LOGAN COUNTY]

Probably the best birding in this county lies in and around Beaver Lake
State Park. From Napoleon, travel south on State Highway 3 for about
eight miles, turn left (east) at the sign, and drive 6.5 miles to
Burnstad. At this point there are two routes. The left (north) goes 2.0
miles to the park itself. (There are plenty of signs marking the way.)
The other goes south on a dirt road for 1.7 miles to several extensive
ponds and marshy areas.

The lake may be good in migration for loons, grebes, waterfowl,
pelicans, and cormorants. It has a lot of open water that is deep enough
to attract some of the rarer northern ducks such as Oldsquaw, Black
Scoter, or White-winged Scoter. The few trees and brushy tangles should
be checked in spring and fall for passerines, especially sparrows (The
Harris’ can be common at times.).

The ponds south of Burnstad can be particularly productive for all marsh
species from spring through fall. Close views may be obtained of
American White Pelicans, Double-crested Cormorants, Great Blue Herons,
Black-crowned Night Herons, American Bitterns, Soras, Virginia Rails,
Black and Forster’s Terns, Marsh Wrens, Common Yellowthroats,
Yellow-headed Blackbirds, and almost any grebe, duck, or shorebird
common to the state.



                       SOUTHWESTERN NORTH DAKOTA


    [Illustration: Black-headed Grosbeak]

The southwest sector will be of the most interest to visitors from the
east. While marshlands are generally fewer here, there are still a few
areas that attract large numbers of waterbirds. For the most part, all
of the North Dakota prairie specialties can be found. The uniqueness of
this area lies in its penchant for attracting western species which are
marginal in the state.

    [Illustration: Dickcissel]

The infrequent water areas (including wooded river bottoms), the
extensive sage prairies, the evergreen forests, and the arid badlands
serve to attract species such as Cinnamon Teal, Prairie Falcon, Golden
Eagle, Sage Grouse, Mountain Plover (accidental), Long-billed Curlew,
California Gull, Burrowing Owl, Poor-will, Lewis’ Woodpecker, Say’s
Phoebe, Western Pewee, Black-billed Magpie, Clark’s Nutcracker, Rock
Wren, Sage Thrasher, Mountain Bluebird, Townsend’s Solitaire, Blue-gray
Gnatcatcher (accidental), Black-headed and Blue Grosbeaks, Lazuli
Bunting, Gray-crowned Rosy Finch, Brewer’s Sparrow, and McCown’s
Longspur.

Although some of these species should not be expected by the visitor,
the true degree of regularity of their occurrence is not really known
because of the lack of observers in this area. If you have the spare
time for exploring, do it here. Not only may you turn up an exciting
western lifer for yourself, you may add to our knowledge of the status
of certain marginal species as well.


                           a) Burleigh County

Water areas (especially large marshes) are relatively few in the
southwestern sector. Probably the best of these is Long Lake National
Wildlife Refuge. To reach it go south on Highway 83 (Exit 40) from I-94
for 12.0 miles before turning left (east) at the sign. Refuge roads lead
around Long Lake and through some good marshes.

During migration, this is one of the best spots in the state. Some of
the more interesting migrants are: Whistling Swan; Canada and Greater
White-fronted Geese; Cinnamon Teal (rare); Common Goldeneye; Bufflehead;
White-winged Scoter (rare); Hooded (rare), Red-breasted (rare), and
Common Mergansers; Golden and Bald Eagles (uncommon); Peregrine Falcon
(rare); Whooping (rare) and Sandhill Cranes; Semipalmated, Lesser Golden
(rare), and Black-bellied (rare) Plovers; Ruddy Turnstone (rare); both
yellowlegs; Hudsonian Godwit (rare); Sanderling (rare); Northern
Phalarope; Solitary, Pectoral, Baird’s, White-rumped, Least, Stilt, and
Semipalmated Sandpipers; Herring, California, and Bonaparte’s Gulls;
Sprague’s Pipit; Le Conte’s (rare), Sharp-tailed (rare—may nest), and
Harris’ Sparrows; and Lapland Longspur.

Although migration is the most exciting time, the refuge should not be
by-passed in summer. Species to be seen then include Horned (uncommon),
Eared, Western, and Pied-billed Grebes; American White Pelican;
Double-crested Cormorant; Black-crowned Night Heron; American Bittern;
Mallard; Gadwall; Common Pintail; Green-winged and Blue-winged Teals;
American Wigeon; Northern Shoveler; Redhead; Canvasback; Lesser Scaup;
Ruddy Duck; Swainson’s, Red-tailed, and Ferruginous Hawks; Northern
Harrier; Sharp-tailed Grouse; Gray Partridge; Virginia Rail; Sora;
American Coot; Piping Plover; Killdeer; Willet; Spotted and Upland
Sandpipers; American Avocet; Wilson’s Phalarope; Ring-billed and
Franklin’s Gulls; Common, Forster’s, and Black Terns; Short-eared Owl;
Eastern and Western Kingbirds; all of the regular swallows; Marsh and
Sedge Wrens; Loggerhead Shrike; Bobolink; Western Meadowlark;
Yellow-headed, Red-winged, and Brewer’s Blackbirds; Dickcissel; Lark
Bunting; Grasshopper and Baird’s Sparrows; and Chestnut-collared
Longspur.

Another area which is often good is McKenzie Slough. To reach it take
Exit #39 off I-94, and go south through McKenzie. The slough begins just
south of the town. When water levels are high enough, the following
nesting species can be expected: American Bittern, Mallard, Common
Pintail, Blue-winged Teal, Gadwall, Ruddy Duck, American Coot,
Pied-billed and Eared Grebes, Sora, Marsh Wren, Common Yellowthroat, and
Red-winged and Yellow-headed Blackbirds. During migration, this spot
attracts many of the same species found at Long Lake. Chestnut-collared
Longspurs nest in the pastures along this road (south of the slough).

The city of Bismarck (population 34,703) lies on the east side of the
Missouri River in western Burleigh County. Not only is it the state
capital, but also it contains a habitat unique in the region—Missouri
River bottomland forest. At one time almost four hundred miles of this
habitat could be found. It stretched from the South Dakota border in the
south-central part of the state to the Montana border in the
northwestern part. The construction of dams brought about the subsequent
flooding of the bottomlands until the forests had been reduced to a
75-mile stretch between Bismarck and the Garrison Dam and a few miles
from Lake Sakakawea to the Montana border. Much of what little remains
is being cleared for housing and agriculture.

Nesting species found in this habitat include Red-tailed Hawk; American
Kestrel; Wild Turkey; Mourning Dove; Black-billed Cuckoo; Great Horned
Owl; Common Flicker; Red-headed, Hairy, and Downy Woodpeckers; Least
Flycatcher; Black-capped Chickadee; White-breasted Nuthatch; Blue Jay;
Black-billed Magpie; American Crow; House Wren; Brown Thrasher; Gray
Catbird; American Robin; Veery; Eastern Bluebird (usually restricted to
semi-open areas and adjacent fields); Cedar Waxwing; Red-eyed, Warbling,
and Bell’s (rare) Vireos; Black-and-white (uncommon) and Yellow
Warblers; Ovenbird; Yellow-breasted Chat; American Redstart; Orchard and
Northern Orioles; Common Grackle; Brown-headed Cowbird; Scarlet Tanager
(rare); Black-headed Grosbeak; Indigo (uncommon) and Lazuli Buntings;
American Goldfinch (open areas); Rufous-sided Towhee; and Chipping,
Clay-colored, Field (open areas), and Song Sparrows.

The woodlands bordering the Missouri River are the best places in the
Bismarck vicinity to look for migrant passerines, such as Red-breasted
Nuthatch; Brown Creeper; Hermit, Swainson’s, and Gray-cheeked Thrushes;
Golden-crowned and Ruby-crowned Kinglets; Black-and-white, Tennessee,
Orange-crowned, Magnolia, Yellow-rumped, Blackpoll, Palm, and Wilson’s
Warblers; Northern Waterthrush; Purple Finch; Northern Junco; and
Harris’, White-crowned, White-throated, Fox, and Lincoln’s Sparrows.
Birds to watch for in winter include Great Horned Owl, Common Flicker,
Hairy and Downy Woodpeckers, Blue Jay, Black-billed Magpie (semi-open
areas and margins), Black-capped Chickadee, White-breasted Nuthatch,
American Robin, Purple Finch, American Goldfinch, Northern Junco, and
American Tree Sparrow (open areas). Both species of waxwings can be
found in most years as well.

    [Illustration: SIBLEY ISLAND]

Typical bottomland habitat can be found near Sibley Island. To reach it
start at the Bismarck Airport on the road to the terminal and drive
south on Highway 1804 for 2.1 miles. Turn right (west) on a surfaced
road. After 0.5 mile you have a choice of continuing straight (west) or
turning left (south). To reach the best habitat, turn left and follow
the road as it swings to the left. Go 2.2 miles (.5 mile past the bend)
and turn right at the sign to the Girl Scout camp.

The road passes through excellent bottomland habitat. This consists
mostly of cottonwood, green ash, box elder, and to a lesser extent
American elm and bur oak. The understory, which is thick in some areas,
includes Wood’s rose, red-osier dogwood, snowberry, bittersweet, and
wild grape.

After birding around the camp, drive all the way to the river. From the
high banks you will have a good vantage point from which to look over
the sandbars for the area’s three specialties—Piping Plovers, Little
Terns, and skinny-dippers. The latter species, although cosmopolitan in
range, is quite rare in North Dakota. (When present they are “hard to
miss”.)

The Piping Plover can sometimes be found in good numbers. This is one of
the best areas in the state for them. Likewise, this stretch of the
river is the only known nesting site for the Little Tern in North
Dakota. When looking for them, remember that their locations vary from
year to year, depending on the sandbars. The best way to find them is to
check as many points along the river as possible. A spotting scope would
be very useful in looking for all three aforementioned species.

If you do not get the plover or tern here, backtrack 2.2 miles to the
fork before the Girl Scout camp and turn left (west). Drive 0.5 mile to
12th Street or 1.5 miles to Washington Street. By taking either south
you will eventually reach the river. The view at the end of Washington
Street is better, but access may be difficult if the river is high.
During migration you may want to check General Sibley Park along
Washington Street for passerines.


                            b) Morton County

The city of Mandan lies in Morton County just across the Missouri River
from Bismarck. Most of the birds here are about the same as on the other
side of the river, but there are some important exceptions.

To reach the best spots, take I-94 west to Mandan and turn off onto Main
Street (I-94/Highway 10 Business Loop). Turn left (south) on 6th Avenue
Southeast at the sign to Fort Lincoln State Park. This street becomes
Highway 1806 and leads to most of the better birding spots.

Fort Lincoln State Park (about four miles south of Mandan) is worth a
visit. It is not a particularly good spot for birds, although you will
probably find typical upland species present. The most interesting
feature of the park is its historical significance. There are three
important sites: 1) the Slant Indian Village, which was once occupied by
the Mandan Indians, 2) Fort McKeen Infantry Post, which was occupied by
the 6th Infantry, and 3) Fort Abraham Lincoln, home of the colorful
George Armstrong Custer and his famous 7th Cavalry. The two military
posts were active in the late 1800’s. The park also offers an
interpretive museum, picnic sites, and several modern camping sites
(complete with electrical hook-ups).

Continue south on Highway 1806 for 6.0 miles to the Little Heart River.
Turn left on an unmarked side road just north of the bridge. This passes
under an old railway trestle and through a field of alfalfa and tall
wheat grass. A colony of Sedge Wrens has nested here in recent years.
This area is also dependable for Gray Partridge, Bobolink, American
Goldfinch, Dickcissel, and Grasshopper Sparrow. At the field’s edge and
in the woods look for Cedar Waxwing, Veery, Yellow-breasted Chat,
Northern and Orchard Orioles, Lazuli Bunting, Black-headed Grosbeak, and
other typical bottomland birds.

Several roads lead from Highway 1806 down to the river, some of which
you may want to take in order to look for bottomlands species and
migrants. Some 4.0 miles past the Little Heart River Bridge, a small
road leads left to a good point for Piping Plover and Little Terns.

Another interesting spot is 6.8 miles past the bridge. Here, you will
enter a small badlands with several severely eroded buttes, much like
those in the extreme western part of the state. Watch for Turkey
Vulture, Swainson’s and Ferruginous Hawks, Western Kingbirds, and Say’s
Phoebes (rare; look near old buildings). Rock Wrens can be surprisingly
common. The best way to find them is to park and walk past eroded
buttes. It is just a matter of watching and listening for their
distinctive series of trills.

    [Illustration: Rock Wren]

A great place for winter birding is the Northern Great Plains Research
Station in Mandan. To reach it, continue west on Main Street past
Highway 1806 and turn left after one mile on Highway 6 (8th Street
Northwest). Cross the railroad trestle and continue on 10th Avenue
Southwest for 0.8 mile to a bridge. Just beyond, turn right at the sign.

These grounds are good for winter birding because of the conifers. Look
for all of the regular winter species and for invaders such as Cedar and
Bohemian Waxwings, Pine Siskins, Purple Finches, Pine (rare) and Evening
Grosbeaks, Red Crossbills, and Golden-crowned Kinglets. The Townsend’s
Solitaire, although rare, has been a fairly frequent visitor in recent
years. The trees are good also for roosting owls. With luck, you may
even turn up a Long-eared Owl.


                             c) Dunn County

    [Illustration: DUNN COUNTY]

Yet another location for migrant and nesting waterbirds is Lake Ilo
National Wildlife Refuge. To reach it, start just south of the town of
Killdeer at Highway 22, go east for 3.0 miles on Highway 200, and turn
right at the sign.

Drive south through the mixed-grass prairie, which is good for Northern
Harrier, Swainson’s Hawk, Ring-necked Pheasant, Sharp-tailed Grouse,
Eastern and Western Kingbirds, Horned Lark, Lark Bunting, Lark and
Grasshopper Sparrows, and Chestnut-collared Longspur. Turn left (2.0
miles) and bird until the road dead-ends at a farmhouse.

To bird the rest of the refuge, return to Highway 200 and head east
again. Turn right (1.5 miles) toward the recreation area (just before
the cemetery). After 0.3 mile the road forks. Go straight (keeping
right) and follow the road as it heads to the lake and then makes a
little square back to the road on which you entered. By taking this
little loop you will get a good view of Lake Ilo. From this vantage
point look for Common Loon (rare migrant), Western Grebe, American White
Pelican, Double-crested Cormorant, Great Blue Heron (lake edges),
Black-crowned Night Heron (lake edges), ducks and geese, and Sandhill
and Whooping (rare) Cranes (migration—lake edges).

After taking the loop, turn right and drive 0.4 mile. Turn left and
almost immediately swing to the right (at the fishing sign) and head
toward the lake. Turn right at the sign pointing to the headquarters
(0.5 mile). After 0.8 mile you may do three things: 1) turn right to the
headquarters for information, 2) go straight for a different view of the
lake, or 3) swing left to the slough.

The slough is the best area for birding. After swinging left, proceed
for 0.8 mile, turn left, and drive for 1.1 miles past the entire marsh.

Species to be seen from spring to fall include Red-necked (rare), Horned
(uncommon), Eared, Western (uncommon), and Pied-billed Grebes; Great
Blue Heron; Black-crowned Night Heron; American Bittern; Mallard, Common
Pintail; Blue-winged Teal; Northern Shoveler; Gadwall; American Wigeon;
Ruddy Duck; American Coot; Sora; Virginia Rail; Killdeer; Spotted
Sandpiper; Willet; Marbled Godwit; American Avocet; Wilson’s Phalarope;
Black Tern; Belted Kingfisher; Eastern and Western Kingbirds; Barn,
Cliff, and Tree Swallows; Marsh Wren; Common Yellow-throat; Red-winged,
Brewer’s, and Yellow-headed Blackbirds; and Song and Savannah Sparrows.
Many other ducks, shorebirds, and swallows may be seen as migrants or as
occasional summer visitors.

After driving by the marsh, turn right, south for 1.0 mile, and turn
right on a road through a mixed-grass prairie, which is good for
Chestnut-collared Longspurs and possibly for Baird’s Sparrows.


                            d) Bowman County

    [Illustration: Bowman Haley Dam Refuge]

Because of its position in the very southwestern corner of the state,
Bowman County is one of the most exciting to bird. If you are going to
find any truly western vagrants, your chances are better in either this
county or the next two.

The best spot for both waterbirds and grasslands species is Bowman-Haley
Dam National Wildlife Refuge. To reach it go north on U.S. Highway 85
from the South Dakota border for 5.3 miles, and turn right on an
improved gravel road at a sign saying “Bowman-Haley Dam Recreation
Area”. (This turn-off is about 11 miles south of Highway 12 near
Bowman.) Go 5.0 miles east and turn right (south) at the sign saying
“Point Rec Area 3 Miles”. After 2.0 miles turn left (east).

In the first mile check the roughly-plowed fields for McCown’s Longspurs
in both spring and summer. After 1.3 miles the road becomes narrower and
grassier and begins to loop around the lake. It should still be passable
in all but wet weather. From 1.3 miles until 4.8 miles (where the road
ends at a fence), you will be traversing some excellent grasslands. Most
are mixed-grass prairie, but close to the lake there are tall-grass
fields choked with weeds.

The mixed-grass prairie is good for nesting Sharp-tailed Grouse, Gray
Partridge, Upland Sandpiper, Marbled Godwit, Burrowing Owl, Sprague’s
Pipit (uncommon), Baird’s Sparrow, and Chestnut-collared Longspur. In
the weedy fields where vegetation is taller and thicker, look for
Bobolink, Dickcissel, and Clay-colored, Vesper, Grasshopper, and
Savannah Sparrows.

For a different view of the lake, back-track to Highway 85, turn right
(east), drive 3.0 miles, turn right (south), go 1.9 miles until the road
forks, and swing right toward the marina. After 0.2 mile bear right.
This road is good for birding, and there are picnic sites as well as
room to spread your sleeping bag.

The lake is mostly open water with few marshy areas. It is not
particularly good for nesting waterfowl. Nevertheless, in summer you
should be able to find American White Pelicans; Double-crested
Cormorants; Great Blue Herons; Ring-billed, California, and Franklin’s
Gulls; and Black Terns although only the latter nests. A sprinkling of
ducks use the lake in summer—both those that nest here and those from
neighboring marshes. During migration, check for transient ducks, geese,
and shorebirds. Short-eared Owls nest in the grassy areas.

The wooded ravines, tree lines, and shelterbelts provide habitat for
migrant and nesting passerines. Look for Black-billed Cuckoo, Eastern
and Western Kingbirds, Gray Catbird, Brown Thrasher, Yellow Warbler,
Orchard Oriole, American Goldfinch, and Rufous-sided Towhee (spotted
race).

    [Illustration: ROAD FROM RHAME]

There are two roads in the western part of Bowman County along which
most of the specialties of the area can be found. The first starts from
the town of Rhame (northwest of Bowman on U.S. Highway 12). From Rhame
go south on a paved road for 6.0 miles. Watch for a power relay station
(Slope Electric Cooperative) on the left, and turn right (west) on the
next road (paved). Start watching the fields and roadsides for Northern
Harrier, Swainson’s and Ferruginous Hawks, Merlin (rare), Sharp-tailed
Grouse, Gray Partridge, Western Kingbird, Loggerhead Shrike, Lark
Bunting, Vesper Sparrow, and McCown’s and Chestnut-collared Longspurs.

After 5.0 miles the road swings south. Stay with it for 7.0 miles, and
turn right (west) on a dirt road, which starts to zigzag south just
beyond a cattleguard some 2.2 miles ahead. Go 2.8 miles and watch on the
right for a large field peppered with black sage. Check here in summer
for Sage Grouse, Long-billed Curlew, Sage Thrasher (very rare), and
Brewer’s and Lark Sparrows.

Rock Wrens and Belted Kingfishers nest in the eroded buttes by the
stream, and Say’s Phoebes and Cliff Swallows nest under the bridge. Lark
Buntings and Lark Sparrows are rather common.

    [Illustration: Rock Wren Habitat near Rhame]

A better road for most of these species starts at Marmarth (Slope
County) and runs south to the state line. From the middle of Marmarth
(The St. Charles Hotel should be on your left.), proceed west for 0.4
mile. Turn left on a gravel road which angles off just before Highway 12
swings to the right and crosses a bridge over the railroad tracks.

Heading south, you will pass a prairie-dog town on your right after 13.1
miles. This town is not very conspicuous from the road, but it is rather
extensive. Watch for Black-tailed Prairie Dog, Black-footed Ferret (one
was observed here in 1976), Burrowing Owl, and McCown’s Longspur.

The predominant habitat is short-grass prairie with extensive flats of
black and silver sages. Some of the hillsides have lots of junipers.
This is good raptor country. Look for Turkey Vulture, Northern Harrier,
Swainson’s and Ferruginous Hawks, Prairie Falcon, and Golden Eagle.
Harding County (directly south in South Dakota) is known as one of the
best areas in that state for Golden Eagles, so it is possible that many
of the eagles seen in Bowman spill over from Harding.

This road passes through some of the best habitat in the state for Sage
Grouse. Sharp-tailed Grouse are also numerous. The Long-billed Curlew,
although uncommon, is present each year in these sage-covered
grasslands. Other species to look for are Mountain Plover (accidental);
Common Nighthawk; Horned Lark; Loggerhead Shrike; Western Meadowlark;
Lark Bunting; Vesper, Lark, and Brewer’s (common) Sparrows; and
Chestnut-collared and McCown’s Longspurs.

Some 4.8 miles beyond the prairie-dog town, turn left on a dirt road to
the Little Missouri River, where the trees and brush act as a migrant
trap. During migration, it is the natural spot to turn up a western
vagrant. Return to the main road and continue south for 2.2 miles to a
small bridge near an eroded butte. Check for Say’s Phoebes and Cliff
Swallows. Some 6.0 miles farther there is a larger bridge, where Cliff
Swallows nest in good numbers, and you may find a Belted Kingfisher or a
Say’s Phoebe. The state line is at the end of the bridge.


                            e) Slope County

If you did not find a Sage Grouse in Bowman County, try the road from
Marmarth to Amidon. It is 42 miles long, and takes off from the east
edge of Marmarth, where it is marked by a sign. The best area is the
first six miles, where the sage is thickest. However, it may be
worthwhile to drive the entire road.

While in Marmarth, check the trees in the residential area for nesting
Western Pewees. One place where they have nested in the past is in the
cottonwoods at the Marmarth Picnic Area. Turn left (south) off Highway
12 on the first street west of the St. Charles Hotel, drive 0.2 mile,
and swing right to the small picnic area.

Stewart Lake National Wildlife Refuge is excellent for marshland and
grassland birds. To get there go north from Bowman on U.S. Highway 85.
After 12.0 miles turn left (west) by the flying-goose sign. After 3.0
miles turn right and cross the cattleguard toward the lake.

This refuge is rather small, but in migration the lake attracts all of
the regular ducks, shorebirds, gulls (watch for California), terns, and
swallows. Species which nest in the reedy borders include American
Bittern, Blue-winged Teal, American Coot, Sora, Spotted Sandpiper,
Wilson’s Phalarope, Black Tern, Marsh Wren, Common Yellowthroat, and
Red-winged and Yellow-headed Blackbirds. In the mixed-grass prairie
watch in summer for Northern Harrier; Sharp-tailed Grouse; Upland
Sandpiper; Burrowing Owl; Horned Lark; Sprague’s Pipit; Loggerhead
Shrike; Lark Bunting; Baird’s, Lark, and Grasshopper Sparrows; and
Chestnut-collared Longspur.

    [Illustration: BURNING COAL VEIN CAMPGROUND]

Evergreen forests are limited in North Dakota, being found primarily in
the badlands of the Little Missouri. Most tracts are dominated by
juniper. However, in north-central Slope County a large tract of several
hundred acres dominated by ponderosa pine borders the Burning Coal Vein
Campground and Columnar Juniper Area.

To reach the area, continue north on Highway 85 from the turn-off to
Stewart Lake for 10 miles and turn left on a gravel road at a sign for
the campground. Go 0.2 mile and turn left. After 1.0 mile turn right.
Stay on this road (follow the signs) for the next 10.2 miles and turn
right to the campgrounds. The turn-off to the picnic area is 1.2 miles
up the road.

For the past few miles you will have passed excellent stands of
ponderosa pine. This hilly, forested country is more reminiscent of the
Black Hills of South Dakota than of anything which one might expect to
find in North Dakota. This is the only place in the state where the
Yellow-rumped Warbler (Audubon’s race) nests. It can be found on
practically any pine-covered slope. Its call note, a distinctive “chip”,
may be of great use in locating the bird.

Other species of the pine forests include Sharp-shinned Hawk, Merlin
(rare), Wild Turkey, Mourning Dove, Common Flicker (red-shafted race),
Black-billed Magpie, American Crow, Red-breasted Nuthatch (rare),
Brown-headed Cowbird, Rufous-sided Towhee, and Chipping Sparrow.

Another specialty of the area is the Poor-will, an uncommon breeder,
which is more easily found on the periphery of the forested slopes than
in the middle of them. A good place to watch and listen for it in the
evenings is the area directly surrounding the Columnar Juniper Area
(just up the road from the picnic site). Overlooking the spot is a
pull-off which makes a good vantage point.

Check the brushy tangles at the picnic area for House Wren, Brown
Thrasher, Lazuli Bunting, Rufous-sided Towhee, and Chipping and Lark
Sparrows. Open flats and arid slopes surrounding the pine forest should
be checked for Prairie Falcon and Say’s Phoebe.

    [Illustration: Pine Forest]


                           f) Billings County

Besides being one of the most scenic, Billings County is one of the most
rewarding to bird. As is the case with Bowman and Slope Counties, this
county is good for western specialties and vagrants.

The two best areas can be reached from the town of Medora. The first is
Sully’s Creek State Park. At the eastern edge of town by a sign for the
park, turn south on East River Road. Keep left at the first fork and
right at the next two. After 2.5 miles you will reach the campground.

This 80-acre park is nestled along the Little Missouri River and
contains a good stand of cottonwoods and willows surrounded by sagebrush
flats and grasslands. There is a high dirt cliff along the eastern edge,
where Prairie Falcons sometimes nest and (if you are lucky) Big-horned
Sheep play around.

    [Illustration: Sully Creek State Park]

Birds are abundant. One can expect to find most of the typical
“badlands” species. Along the river look for Belted Kingfisher, any of
the regular swallows, and migrant waterfowl and shorebirds. The
sagebrush flats are good for Sharp-tailed Grouse, Gray Partridge, and
Field Sparrows. In the cottonwoods and among the tangles of wild rose,
snowberry, and currants, you may find Common Flicker (both red-shafted
and yellow-shafted races, as well as many hybrids), Downy and Hairy
Woodpeckers, Eastern Kingbird, Least and Willow Flycatchers, Western
Pewee (rare), Blue Jay, American Crow, White-breasted Nuthatch,
Black-capped Chickadee, House Wren, Gray Catbird, Brown Thrasher, Cedar
Waxwing, Red-eyed and Warbling Vireos, Yellow and Black-and-white
Warblers, Ovenbird, Yellow-breasted Chat, American Redstart, Northern
(Bullock’s) Oriole (rare), Black-headed Grosbeak, Lazuli Bunting,
Rufous-sided Towhee (spotted form), and Chipping Sparrow. The chat is
heard more often than seen, but “pishing” noises are often effective in
bringing this species out into the open.

The other top spot in Billings County is the South Unit of Theodore
Roosevelt National Memorial, for which the exit is well marked along
I-94. The entrance is at the western edge of Medora (which you may want
to explore). Just inside the park there is a visitors’ center with
interpretive displays and a good selection of books dealing with the
natural history of the area. The 38-mile scenic loop is an excellent
drive for seeing the park and its birds.

There are several prairie-dog towns scattered throughout the park. The
first is 3.1 miles up the scenic loop. Check this and other towns for
Black-tailed Prairie Dog, Burrowing Owl, and Black-billed Magpie. To the
left of the town there is a Sharp-tailed Grouse dancing ground. Look for
performing males.

    [Illustration: Black-tailed Prairie Dog]

Watch on the left for the turnoff to the Cottonwoods Campground, which
is about 5.4 miles from the visitors’ center. This spot lives up to its
name in that there are many cottonwoods. It is a good place for Common
Flicker, Blue Jay, American Crow, Black-capped Chickadee, Red-eyed and
Warbling Vireos, Northern (Bullock’s) Oriole (rare), Black-headed
Grosbeak, and Lazuli Bunting. In the summer, there are lots of people in
addition to the birds.

A better area can be reached by continuing for 1.0 mile, turning left,
and then immediately right to the picnic area. This spot is not only
well-wooded, but also it has good patches of secondary growth. Look here
for Common Flicker, Willow Flycatcher, Western Pewee, Blue Jay,
Black-capped Chickadee, Gray Catbird, Brown Thrasher, Red-eyed and
Warbling Vireos, Black-and-white and Yellow Warblers, Ovenbird,
Yellow-breasted Chat, American Redstart, Black-headed Grosbeak, Lazuli
Bunting, Rufous-sided Towhee, and Chipping Sparrow.

The Jones Creek Trail (1.3 miles past the picnic area) passes through
vegetation typical of the park. There is also an excellent stand of
sage. Although not many birds are seen along the trail, it is good for
Sharp-tailed Grouse, Rufous-sided Towhee, and Field Sparrow.

Most of the park is occupied by short-grass prairie spotted with
occasional large sagebrush flats. Many of the rolling hills and ravines
are covered with junipers.

In open areas, watch for Swainson’s and Ferruginous Hawks; Prairie
Falcon; Golden Eagle; Sharp-tailed Grouse; Black-billed Magpie; Mountain
Bluebird; Rufous-sided Towhee (brushier areas); Field, Grasshopper, and
Lark Sparrows; McCown’s and Chestnut-collared Longspurs; Bison;
White-tailed Jackrabbit; Mule Deer; Gopher Snake; and Prairie
Rattlesnake. Check in the vicinity of eroded buttes for Poor-will
(rare), Say’s Phoebe, and Rock Wren.

These badlands are fairly good in winter, mainly for raptors and western
vagrants. Look for Northern Goshawk (rare), Rough-legged Hawk, Prairie
Falcon (rare), and Bald (rare) and Golden Eagles. Townsend’s Solitaires
usually winter, and Clark’s Nutcrackers and Gray-crowned Rosy Finches
sometimes wander over. In fact, 200 of the latter species were found on
a recent Medora Christmas Count. Other species found here are
Sharp-tailed Grouse, Ring-necked Pheasant, Great Horned Owl, Hairy and
Downy Woodpeckers, Horned Lark, Black-billed Magpie, Black-capped
Chickadee, White-breasted and Red-breasted (uncommon) Nuthatches,
American Robin, Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, Northern Shrike, Evening
Grosbeak, Purple Finch, Common Redpoll, and American Tree Sparrow.

After visiting the park, it is easy to see how Theodore Roosevelt
developed such a keen interest in conservation from having lived here.



                       NORTHWESTERN NORTH DAKOTA


    [Illustration: Swainson’s Hawk]

This sector is known chiefly for its large concentrations of breeding
waterfowl and for its prairie specialties, such as the Baird’s Sparrow.
The density of nesting waterbirds (not just ducks, but also grebes,
cormorants, herons, etc.) is truly spectacular, and the number and
abundance of prairie specialties would warm the heart of any lister.
Another dimension to this sector (in addition to the lakes, potholes,
prairie grasslands, and wooded coulees) is the badlands habitat with
many western species at the edge of their ranges.

Because of the unique blend of habitats, the northwestern sector is
strongly recommended to the visiting birder for top priority. If you are
limited in time, a tour of the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National
Park and of the refuges around Kenmare should enable you to see most of
the state’s specialties. While a visit between the months of September
and April could be more profitably spent in some other part of the
state, you could hardly go wrong in visiting here between May and
August.


                             a) Dunn County

As mentioned, badlands habitat does exist in the northwest sector. Its
easternmost extension is found around the Little Missouri State Park. To
reach it, go north from the town of Killdeer on State Highway 22 for
about 17 miles, turn right (east) at the sign for the park, and proceed
to the camping area.

This is still a primitive area, and the campground is not developed. All
trails are for hiking and horseback riding only. If your time is
limited, forget this spot and go on to the North unit of Roosevelt Park.
However, if you enjoy the peace and solitude of primitive areas, this is
the place for you.

The park has not been birded much, so it is hard to say what you may
find. Judging from the habitat, almost any badlands-type bird could be
found. Some of the likely ones include Say’s Phoebe, Black-billed
Magpie, Mountain Bluebird, and Lazuli Bunting.


                           b) McKenzie County

    [Illustration: North Unit Roosevelt Memorial]

One of the most interesting and unique places to bird in the state has
to be the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial. Most of
the western species which inhabit the south unit can be found here also,
and most birders who have visited both units agree that the north unit
is better. This may be true partly because people-pressure is greater in
the south unit, which lies right along the interstate.

To reach the park, go south from Watford City on U.S. Highway 85 for
about 15 miles and turn right (west) at the sign. The headquarters are
at the entrance.

The most productive birding spot is Squaw Creek Campgrounds, which is
5.1 miles from the headquarters. There are large trees (mostly
cottonwoods) as well as an ample understory in many places. Breeding
species include Common Flicker (both Red-shafted and Yellow-shafted, as
well as many hybrids), Downy Woodpecker, Willow Flycatcher, Western
Pewee (rare), Black-capped Chickadee, Brown Thrasher, Gray Catbird,
Red-eyed and Warbling Vireos, Black-and-white Warbler, Ovenbird,
Yellow-breasted Chat, American Redstart, Lazuli Bunting, Black-headed
Grosbeak, Rufous-sided Towhee (spotted race), and Field Sparrow (open
areas adjacent to the campgrounds). This is one of the most consistent
locations in the state for finding the chat, bunting, and grosbeak. By
making a careful check of the cottonwoods, you should be able to turn up
several Common Nighthawks, which rest on the more horizontal limbs
during the day.

Besides providing good nesting habitat, the wooded areas and thickets
along the river serve to attract numbers of migrants and wintering
species. In winter watch for Northern Goshawk (rare), Ring-necked
Pheasant (willow thickets), Great Horned Owl, Downy and Hairy
Woodpeckers, American Crow, Black-billed Magpie (more-open areas),
Black-capped Chickadee, White-breasted Nuthatch, American Robin,
Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, Northern Shrike (willow thickets), Evening
Grosbeak, Common Redpoll (willow thickets), and American Tree Sparrow
(willow thickets).

    [Illustration: Squaw Creek Campground]

The rest of the park is mostly short-grass prairie mixed with large
patches of sage, rolling hills spotted with junipers, and sharply eroded
buttes streaked with colorful veins of clay and mineral deposits. The
birds to be found in the open areas are Swainson’s and Ferruginous
Hawks; Prairie Falcon; American Kestrel; Golden Eagle; Sharp-tailed
Grouse; Black-billed Magpie; Mountain Bluebird; Western Meadowlark;
Field, Grasshopper, and Lark Sparrows; and Chestnut-collared Longspur.
The Say’s Phoebe and Rock Wren should be watched for (and listened for)
around eroded buttes, sharp cuts, and under bridges.

You will probably see few birds in the open areas of the park in winter,
but look for Rough-legged Hawk, Golden Eagle, Sharp-tailed Grouse, Gray
Partridge (prefers cultivated fields), Snowy and Short-eared Owls,
Horned Lark, Black-billed Magpie, Northern Shrike, Western Meadowlark,
American Goldfinch, Common Redpoll, and American Tree Sparrow. In early
and mid-November Sandhill Cranes pass over the badlands by the hundreds.

The park personnel can provide a detailed list of nature trails. One
that merits mention is the Caprock Coulee Nature Trail, which winds
through an area of junipers. Even though you will not be overwhelmed
with birds, the trail is an interesting one. Look for Golden Eagle,
Mountain Bluebird, Rufous-sided Towhee, Field Sparrow, Coyote, and Mule
Deer. This trail is a consistent spot for seeing Mountain Bluebirds.
Each year there are usually a couple of nesting pairs.

Another trail takes off from the Caprock Coulee Trail and leads over the
ridge to a prairie-dog town, where the dogs are much wilder than those
of the roadside colonies. Since the colony is somewhat remote, your
chances are better for finding a Burrowing Owl. At any rate, you should
find Black-billed Magpie, Western Meadowlark, and Field Sparrow.

For a pleasant place to camp, go south on Highway 85 from the park for
4.8 miles and turn right (west) to the Custer National Forest Summit
Campgrounds (not deluxe but more than adequate). There is a nice scenic
overlook, and you may even find some good birds. Wild Turkeys may be
seen in nearby ravines.

A fine marsh can be found just south of Williston (the second largest
town in the northwestern sector) in northern McKenzie County. From U.S.
Highway 2 just west of town, go south on Highway 85 for 2.3 miles and
cross the Missouri River. For the next couple of miles the road
transects fine marshlands, which should be checked for all of the usual
waterbirds.


                            c) McLean County

One of the better locations for transient and breeding waterbirds and
grasslands species is the Audubon National Wildlife Refuge. To reach it,
go north on U.S. Highway 83 from County Road #48 north of Coleharbor for
2.8 miles and turn right (east). After 0.5 mile, turn left to the
headquarters for a map, birdlist, and current information.

This refuge (formerly Snake Creek Refuge) was renamed in honor of John
James Audubon, who made one of his last painting and collecting
expeditions to this area in 1843. About the only thing that has not
changed since he was here is the extremely rich birdlife.

Most of the transient ducks and shorebirds common to the state can be
found in migration. Probably the most exciting migrant is the Whooping
Crane (rare), which occasionally stops on its way to or from the
breeding grounds in Canada. Hundreds of Sandhill Cranes put in an
appearance each spring and fall. Some of the other interesting migrants
include Greater White-fronted Goose, Common Goldeneye, Golden and Bald
Eagles (also in winter), Osprey (rare), Peregrine Falcon (rare),
California Gull (actually a summer visitor), Short-eared Owl
(occasionally nests), and Harris’ Sparrow (tree lines).

Although it is migration that brings the rarities, summer is just as
exciting. Audubon Refuge has a great variety of habitats, including
mixed-grass prairie, open water, marshy bays of the reservoir, prairie
potholes, and salt-grass marshes. This makes for a tremendous diversity
of breeding birds. Some of the more interesting ones are: Horned, Eared,
and Western Grebes; American White Pelican (summers in good numbers but
does not nest); Double-crested Cormorant; Black-crowned Night Heron;
American Bittern; Canada Goose (reintroduced nester); Mallard; Gadwall;
Common Pintail; Blue-winged and Green-winged Teals; American Wigeon;
Northern Shoveler; Redhead; Canvasback; Lesser Scaup; Ruddy Duck;
Northern Harrier; Swainson’s and Ferruginous Hawks; Sharp-tailed Grouse;
Ring-necked Pheasant; Gray Partridge; Sora; Virginia Rail; Upland
Sandpiper; Willet; Marbled Godwit; American Avocet; Wilson’s Phalarope;
Ring-billed and Franklin’s (visitor) Gulls; Common and Black Terns;
Black-billed Cuckoo; Burrowing Owl; Eastern and Western Kingbirds; Marsh
Wren; Brown Thrasher; Sprague’s Pipit; Bobolink; Western Meadowlark;
Yellow-headed Blackbird; Dickcissel; Lark Bunting; Savannah,
Grasshopper, Baird’s, Le Conte’s, Sharp-tailed (rare), Vesper, and
Clay-colored Sparrows; and Chestnut-collared Longspur.

The nearest lodging accommodations are at Garrison and Riverdale.
Coleharbor has service stations and a cafe.


                    d) Burke and Mountrail Counties

Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge is one of the better ones in the
state. To reach it, start at the northern edge of Stanley, go north from
Highway 2 on Highway 8 for 21.6 miles and turn left (west) at the sign.
From here it is just a short way to the headquarters, where you can pick
up a refuge map and checklist, and obtain up-to-date information about
road conditions and desired species. (The resident dog is dangerous, so
exercise appropriate caution.)

Lostwood consists basically of rolling hills dotted with potholes.
Mixed-grass prairie is the dominant habitat, but there are several
shelter-belts and small woodlots as well as numerous wetlands. The major
difference between Lostwood and other refuges in the northwest sector is
the presence of several alkaline lakes providing attractive habitat for
Piping Plover, American Avocet, and California Gull.

Waterfowl concentrations in spring, summer, and fall border on the
spectacular. The purely transient species are the Greater White-fronted
and Snow Geese, Whistling Swan, Common Goldeneye, Bufflehead, and Common
and Red-breasted Mergansers. The ducks which nest are the Mallard,
Gadwall, Common Pintail, Blue-winged and Green-winged Teals, American
Wigeon, Northern Shoveler, Redhead, Ring-necked Duck, Canvasback, Lesser
Scaup, and Ruddy Duck.

Other waterbirds which summer on the refuge are Horned (uncommon),
Eared, Western, and Pied-billed Grebes; American White Pelican;
Double-crested Cormorant; Great Blue Heron; Black-crowned Night Heron;
American Bittern; Virginia Rail; Sora; American Coot; Piping Plover
(alkaline lakes); Spotted Sandpiper; Willet; Marbled Godwit; American
Avocet; Wilson’s Phalarope; California (uncommon visitor), Ring-billed,
and Franklin’s Gulls; and Forster’s, Common, and Black Terns. Other
species to look for around water areas include Short-eared Owl, Belted
Kingfisher, Willow Flycatcher (boggy areas), all of the swallow species
found in the state, Marsh Wren, Sedge Wren (wet meadows), Red-winged and
Yellow-headed Blackbirds, and Le Conte’s and Sharp-tailed Sparrows (wet
grassy areas).

In the prairie areas look for Red-tailed and Swainson’s Hawks; Northern
Harrier; Sharp-tailed Grouse; Gray Partridge; Upland Sandpiper; Eastern
and Western Kingbirds; Horned Lark; Sprague’s Pipit; Loggerhead Shrike;
Bobolink; Western Meadowlark; Lark Bunting; Savannah, Grasshopper,
Baird’s, Vesper, and Clay-colored Sparrows; and Chestnut-collared
Longspur.

    [Illustration: WARD COUNTY]


                             e) Ward County

There are few avid listers who have not heard about the area surrounding
Kenmare. The town has become famous in birding circles largely because
of the field work done there by Ann and Bob Gammell, and because of
their hospitality in showing off the area’s specialties to visiting
birders. Perhaps the single factor which generated the most publicity
about Kenmare and its birds was the American Birding Association’s first
convention, which was held here in June of 1973. Birders who attended
were astounded by the density and diversity of birds to be found
breeding throughout the prairie-pothole country.

What makes Kenmare so special? For one thing, it is surrounded by
national wildlife refuges. The town itself lies right in the middle of
Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge. Lostwood Refuge is only a short
distance to the southwest while Upper Souris Refuge is just to the
southeast. These three areas contain almost every major habitat type to
be found in the region, and Kenmare makes a great base for exploring all
three. The town is not large (1,515 people as of 1970), but there are
several gas stations, stores, cafes, and motels.

    [Illustration: Des Lacs Refuge]

The best birding spot is Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge. This large
refuge (about 19,000 acres), following the Des Lacs River Valley,
extends from the Canadian border to a point about eight miles south of
Kenmare. The river valley contains both open-water lakes and marshlands.
Bordering the valley is mixed-grass prairie punctuated by numerous
wooded coolees (trenchlike wooded ravines).

Because this refuge is so large, it is here divided into three routes
which cover most of the better areas. Caution: After heavy rain all of
these routes can be almost impassable.

Route #1) Tasker’s Coulee and Refuge Headquarters. This trip begins in
Kenmare. From U.S. Highway 52 go west on Highway 2 (6th Street
Northeast). When it swings right after 1.1 miles, continue straight on
County Road #1 (south). At this point you have been transecting part of
the lake. Watch for Western and Eared Grebes. After 0.4 mile turn left
to the headquarters for a checklist, map, and current information on
road conditions. The wooded area surrounding the buildings may provide
good birding, especially during migration. In summer look for
Black-billed Cuckoo, Great Horned Owl, Common Flicker, Eastern and
Western Kingbirds (margins), Eastern Pewee, Least Flycatcher, House
Wren, Brown Thrasher, Gray Catbird, Cedar Waxwing, Warbling Vireo,
Yellow Warbler, Orchard Oriole, and American Goldfinch (margins).

To reach Tasker’s Coulee return to County Road #1 and continue south.
Bear left on County Road #1A as it heads up the hill. About 1.7 miles
past the turn-off to the headquarters, turn left at the sign saying
“Recreation Area”. After 0.5 mile you will descend into Tasker’s Coulee
Recreation Area.

This coulee is well wooded with American elm, green ash, box elder,
aspen, and several kinds of shrubs—including wild plum.

Many species of birds nest here with a great many more stopping during
migration. Among the nesting species are Cooper’s Hawk, Black-billed
Cuckoo, Great Horned and Long-eared Owls, Common Flicker, Downy
Woodpecker, Eastern Kingbird, Eastern Phoebe, Willow (borders) and Least
Flycatchers, House Wren, Brown Thrasher, Gray Catbird, Veery, Red-eyed
and Warbling Vireos, American Redstart, Ovenbird, Black-and-white and
Yellow Warblers, Northern Oriole, American Goldfinch, Rufous-sided
Towhee (spotted race), and Clay-colored Sparrow.

Route #2) The Old Lake Road. The starting point for this tour is along
County Road #1A at the turn-off to Tasker’s Coulee. Continue from the
turn-off for 2.0 miles and turn left on Ward County Road #4. After 2.8
miles swing to the left. After 6.1 miles on County Road #4 turn left on
Highway 52. Turn left again (0.5 mile) on a dirt road marked by a refuge
sign. This will take you along the lake back to Kenmare. It makes for
excellent birding because the lake with its reedy border will be on your
left, while to your right are grassy hillsides peppered with several
shrubby thickets. In the latter habitat watch for Swainson’s Hawk,
Eastern Kingbird, Willow Flycatcher, Brown Thrasher, Gray Catbird, and
Clay-colored Sparrow.

The lake itself is especially good for grebes (Western Grebe should be
easy.); American White Pelican; Double-crested Cormorant; ducks and
geese; Black, Forster’s, and Common Terns; and Ring-billed, Franklin’s,
Herring, California, and Bonaparte’s Gulls (the latter three occur only
as uncommon migrants or summer visitors). Large numbers of shorebirds
feed along the open shore or on mudflats during spring migration and
from July to October. Some of the shorebirds to be seen are Semipalmated
Plover; Killdeer; Ruddy Turnstone (rare); Lesser Golden Plover (uncommon
to rare); Willet; Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs; Spotted, Solitary,
Pectoral, White-rumped (uncommon), Baird’s, Least, Stilt, and
Semipalmated Sandpipers; Long-billed Dowitcher; Marbled Godwit; American
Avocet; and Wilson’s and Northern Phalaropes. The reedy borders of the
lake should be watched for Great Blue Heron, Black-crowned Night Heron,
American Bittern, Virginia Rail, and Sora. Check the reeds for Marsh
Wren and the taller grass closer to the road for Sedge Wren.

Go 2.0 miles to a small bridge under which dozens of Cliff Swallows
nest. All of the other swallow species found in the state can be seen
along this road. After 7.2 miles you will come out on Central Avenue.

Route #3) Boating Area Road and Sharp-tailed Grouse Photo Blind. This
tour begins at Highways 52 and 2 (6th Street Northeast) in Kenmare. Turn
west on Highway 2. Drive 1.0 mile and turn right (west) on Ward County
Road #2. The grassy marsh on your left can be excellent for bitterns,
rails, swallows, and Black Terns. After 0.7 mile turn right on a gravel
road going north. Cross the railroad tracks, pull over to the side, and
walk the meadow to your right. This area has been good in the past for
Le Conte’s and Sharp-tailed Sparrows. Watch also for Willow Flycatcher,
Common Yellowthroat, Bobolink, and Savannah Sparrow.

Continuing along Upper Des Lacs Lake, you should see all of the grebes,
pelicans, cormorants, ducks, gulls, terns, swallows, and blackbirds seen
on the preceding tour, but this route is not as good for shorebirds or
marsh species. The road is bordered for some way by a wooded area
(primarily second-growth) with all of the normal nesting and migrant
passerines.

After 4.0 miles you will see a boating and picnic area to the right.
Just beyond this, turn left. Turn right at the yield sign (0.8 mile),
and then turn right again on Highway 52 (5.0 miles). After 0.9 mile turn
left on a gravel road and immediately pull off to the right at a dirt
road by a gate. (There should be a small refuge sign on it.) By walking
past the gate and following the trail, you will come to a photo blind
overlooking a Sharp-tailed Grouse dancing ground. During spring as many
as 40-60 birds may be seen displaying. The blind may be used for
photography or simple observation. However, you are required to check
with refuge personnel before entering.

To return to Kenmare, continue past the turn-off to the blind for 11.0
miles to Highways 52 and 2.

The bird which brings more birders to Kenmare (and to North Dakota for
that matter) than any other has to be the Baird’s Sparrow. While it can
be found in appropriate habitat over most of the state, there is one
place where it is probably easier to find than in any other—Longspur
Pasture, a privately owned area of mixed-grass prairie encompassing
several acres. To reach it, start at Highway 52 in Kenmare. Turn west on
Highway 2, go 1.0 mile, and turn right (northwest) on Ward County Road
#2. After about 6.0 miles go straight west on Ward County Road #2A for
3.0 miles to an old country school-house on your right. Go another 1.5
miles and pull over just beyond two small tree rows. Longspur Pasture is
the fenced, grassy field on the left (south) (west of the tree rows).
Cross the fence to bird, but remember that this is private land and
should be respected as such. Cattle are sometimes encountered in the
pasture.

This quarter-section of relatively unspoiled prairie may not look like
much, but it is one of the most productive spots around for finding the
prairie specialties. Sprague’s Pipit, Baird’s Sparrow, and
Chestnut-collared Longspur are almost a sure thing between mid-May and
mid-August (the longspurs may leave by early August). Other species
which may be encountered are Gray Partridge, Marbled Godwit, Burrowing
Owl, Horned Lark, Western Meadowlark, and Savannah and Grasshopper
Sparrows. Pronghorn Antelope sometimes come to the small waterhole to
drink.

You may have to walk south into the field where the grass gets a little
taller to find the Baird’s Sparrow. It likes to sing from the patches of
wolfberry and silverberry. During the early stages of the nesting
season, it is quite conspicuous. Later in summer singing diminishes, and
the bird becomes a little harder to find. At this time it also seems to
stick closer to the ground. However, you can still get good views by
herding it toward a patch of wolfberry or silverberry. After being
flushed a couple of times, the sparrow will often fly to the shrub and
perch in plain view nervously repeating its call note, which is quite
like that of the Savannah Sparrow (a sharp “chik”).

The Sprague’s Pipit may be slightly harder to see well. It prefers to
stay on the ground where it is difficult to spot because of the grass.
When flushed, it usually flies a short way and drops back into the
grass. Unlike the Baird’s Sparrow, the pipit may be hardest to see when
singing because it sings while on the wing (like a Horned Lark) and
sometimes at amazingly high altitudes. At Longspur Pasture you will
often hear its “swishing” song from overhead without being able to see
the bird. Do not be discouraged by all of this. You may still get a good
look at the Sprague’s Pipit. In spring and early summer it often perches
on fence posts or sits around the muddy edges of the stock pond, where
the grass does not obscure the view.

    [Illustration: Longspur Pasture]

Still one more large refuge in the northwest sector is Upper Souris
National Wildlife Refuge. Although generally not as productive as
Lostwood or Des Lacs, it is a good spring-through-fall birding location.
The starting point is Foxholm (northwest of Minot on Highway 52). From
the center of town (Miller’s Bar) go 0.7 mile north on U.S. Highway 52
and turn right on Ward County Road #11 at the flying goose sign. Go 5.6
miles, turn right, and after 0.8 mile turn left to the headquarters.

The best habitat is marshland behind locked gates. By asking at the
headquarters, you may be able to obtain a key. Besides passing through
marshland, these roads thread brushy pastures and wooded areas.

Some of the species on the marshes include Pied-billed, Eared, Horned,
Western, and Red-necked (uncommon) Grebes; American White Pelican;
Double-crested Cormorant; Great Blue Heron; Black-crowned Night Heron;
American Bittern; all of the ducks, geese, shorebirds, gulls, and terns
normal to the sector; American Coot; Virginia Rail; Sora; all of the
state’s swallows; Marsh Wren; Common Yellowthroat; Yellow-headed,
Red-winged, and Brewer’s Blackbirds; and Song, Sharp-tailed (uncommon),
and Le Conte’s (common) Sparrows.

In the brushy pastures and wooded areas, you may see Eastern Kingbird,
Willow Flycatcher, Least Flycatcher, Eastern Pewee, Sedge Wren
(tall-grass areas), Brown Thrasher, Gray Catbird, Cedar Waxwing, Yellow
Warbler, Bobolink, Northern Oriole, and Song and Clay-colored Sparrows.
These wooded areas are especially productive during migration for
transient passerines.


                            f) Divide County

    [Illustration: Upper Souris Refuge]

One of the better places is a large alkaline lake near Westby on the
Montana-North Dakota line. To find it, start in the center of town (by
the large grain elevator), and drive east on State Highway 5 for 2.3
miles before turning left (north) on a gravel road. Watch for
Chestnut-collared Longspurs. After 2.0 miles you should be able to see
the south end of the lake on the left. The main portion will be visible
for the next few miles, and the whole distance should be driven.

This is the site of one of the few active California Gull colonies in
North Dakota. Ring-billed Gulls also nest, so care should be exercised
in identification. Most of the grebes, ducks, waders, and shorebirds
common to the western half of the state can be found—often in good
numbers. Sprague’s Pipits and Baird’s Sparrows should be watched for in
grassy areas.

If you still need McCown’s Longspur, get back on State Highway 5 and
head east to Crosby. Check the stubble fields adjacent to the highway
for several miles on all sides of town.



                       NORTHEASTERN NORTH DAKOTA


    [Illustration: Wilson’s Phalarope]

Although the northeast comes last among the chapters, it certainly does
not come last in bird-finding potential. In fact, it may offer the best
birding in the state. All of the waterbirds and grasslands species that
North Dakota is known for may be found in this quarter. In addition it
offers some specialties of its own. Several eastern passerines which
occur in the rest of the state only as migrants nest here. This is the
only place where the Ruffed Grouse is found, and it is here that one is
most likely to find those northern species which rarely visit the state
in winter—Saw-whet, Hawk, Boreal, and Great Gray Owls; Gray Jay;
Northern Raven; and Boreal Chickadee.

The northeast contains a great diversity of habitats. Grasslands and
prairie-potholes are present in ample amounts. The region also contains
agricultural areas, large lakes, sandhills, well-wooded river bottoms,
and rolling hills covered with stands of aspen, birch, and oak and
dotted with small lakes. Indeed, it is a pleasure to bird the relatively
cool forests of the northeast after the badlands and the hot, dry
prairies to the west.


                           a) McHenry County

    [Illustration: Scenic Tour Salyer Refuge]

The best birding location in North Dakota may be J. Clark Salyer II
National Wildlife Refuge, nestled along the lower reaches of the Souris
River. It is ideal in that most major habitat types are represented.
Included in its 58,700 acres are vast marshlands; uplands-sandhills;
wet, grassy meadows; mixed-grass prairie, and well-wooded bottomland.
The habitats are so diverse that over 250 species of birds have been
recorded, of which about 125 nest.

To reach the refuge, go north on State Highway 14 from Upham for 2.5
miles and turn right. The headquarters is 0.3 mile ahead. Check for the
usual assortment of checklists, pamphlets, and maps, including one
showing the two public automobile trails. More importantly, you may pick
up a trail-guide for the 22-mile scenic tour, which takes off from the
headquarters, winds through the refuge, and eventually ends back on
Highway 14 south of Upham. It traverses most of the major habitats.

The scenic tour passes through some very extensive marshlands which
harbor, in addition to all of the common waterfowl and shorebirds,
Red-necked (uncommon), Horned, Eared, Western, and Pied-billed Grebes;
American White Pelican; Double-crested Cormorant (There is a nesting
colony on the southern portion of the refuge.); Great Blue Heron;
Black-crowned Night Heron; American Bittern; Northern Harrier; Virginia
and Yellow Rails; Sora; American Coot; Ring-billed and Franklin’s Gulls;
Forster’s, Common, and Black Terns; Short-eared Owl; Tree, Bank,
Rough-winged, Barn, and Cliff Swallows; Purple Martin; Marsh and Sedge
Wrens; Common Yellowthroat; Yellow-headed and Red-winged Blackbirds; and
Le Conte’s and Sharp-tailed Sparrows.

Adjacent to many of the marshlands are wet, grassy meadows, which harbor
some of the species found in the marshes and a few of their own, such as
Yellow Rail, Short-eared Owl, Willow Flycatcher, Sedge Wren (very
common), and Savannah, Le Conte’s, Sharp-tailed, and Song Sparrows. The
Yellow Rail is rare but has been turning up with increasing frequency in
the past few years. Because of its accessibility, this refuge is one of
the best places to look for it.

A unique habitat found along the scenic tour is the sandhills. These
tall ridges of sand, now covered by grasses and shrubs, were once a
beach of glacial Lake Souris during the last ice age, about 10,000 years
ago. Some of the birds to be seen while walking the sandhills (or any
other open areas of the refuge) include Red-tailed and Swainson’s Hawks,
American Kestrel, Sharp-tailed Grouse (There is a photo blind near a
dancing ground on the refuge. To use it check with refuge personnel.),
Ring-necked Pheasant, Gray Partridge, Mourning Dove, Common Nighthawk,
Common Flicker, Eastern and Western Kingbirds, Say’s Phoebe (rare),
Black-billed Magpie, American Crow, Mountain Bluebird (Most common as a
spring migrant, but a few nest in the aspens.), Loggerhead Shrike,
Brewer’s Blackbird, Common Grackle, Brown-headed Cowbird, American
Goldfinch, Rufous-sided Towhee, and Vesper, Lark, and Clay-colored
Sparrows. Sandhill Cranes often pass overhead in migration.

One thing which distinguishes J. Clark Salyer from the other refuges to
the west is the large amount of wooded area. Most of it is composed of
American elm, box elder, and green ash in stands on the bottomlands
along the Souris River. However, there are large mixed stands (mostly
aspen) scattered across the uplands. These woodlands (especially those
along the river) are natural migrant traps for transient passerines.

Some of the regular migrants are Olive-sided Flycatcher; Red-breasted
Nuthatch; Brown Creeper; Hermit, Swainson’s, and Gray-cheeked Thrushes;
Golden-crowned and Ruby-crowned Kinglets; Bohemian Waxwing;
Black-and-white, Tennessee, Orange-crowned, Yellow-rumped, Bay-breasted,
Blackpoll, Mourning, and Wilson’s Warblers; Ovenbird; Northern
Waterthrush; Rusty Blackbird; Purple Finch; and Harris’, White-crowned,
White-throated, Fox, and Lincoln’s Sparrows.

Several species nest in these wooded areas. Two of the more interesting
are the Wood Duck and the Hooded Merganser. Both nest either in natural
cavities in trees along the river or in boxes provided by the refuge
personnel. The Wood Duck is fairly common in similar habitat over the
whole eastern half of the state, but this is about the only area where
the Hooded Merganser may be expected.

Other woodland nesting species include Red-tailed and Cooper’s Hawks;
Mourning Dove; Black-billed Cuckoo; Common Screech, Great Horned, and
Long-eared Owls; Belted Kingfisher (along the river); Hairy and Downy
Woodpeckers; Great Crested and Least Flycatchers; Eastern Phoebe;
Eastern Pewee; American Crow; Black-capped Chickadee; White-breasted
Nuthatch; House Wren; Gray Catbird; Brown Thrasher; American Robin;
Cedar Waxwing; Yellow-throated, Red-eyed, and Warbling Vireos;
Black-and-white (rare) and Yellow Warblers; American Redstart; Northern
Oriole; Brown-headed Cowbird; Rose-breasted Grosbeak; and Chipping
Sparrow.

    [Illustration: Grassland Tour Salyer Refuge]

The second tour is the grasslands trail, which crosses 5 miles of
mixed-grass prairie. It is usually passable from May 1 to September 15,
but it should not be driven in wet weather, although you may still walk
it. Precise directions may be obtained from the map at the headquarters,
or you may find it by going east from Newburg (Bottineau County) for
about 4 miles and turning north. The trail is marked.

Although not very long, the trail is great for finding the prairie
specialties. Watch for Red-tailed and Swainson’s Hawks; Northern
Harrier; Sharp-tailed Grouse; Gray Partridge; Marbled Godwit; Upland
Sandpiper; Eastern and Western Kingbirds; Horned Lark; Sprague’s Pipit;
Loggerhead Shrike; Bobolink; Western Meadowlark; Dickcissel; Lark
Bunting; Grasshopper, Baird’s, Savannah, Vesper, and Clay-colored
Sparrows; and Lapland (migration), Smith’s (rare—migration), and
Chestnut-collared Longspurs.


                          b) Bottineau County

    [Illustration: BOTTINEAU COUNTY]

The city of Bottineau is well-known in North Dakota as the gateway to
the International Peace Garden, which symbolizes our long-standing
friendship with Canada. More importantly to the birder, it is the
gateway to the Turtle Mountains, which are actually low hills dotted
with lakes and potholes surrounded by stands of aspen, poplar, birch,
and oak. The west end of the mountains is just north of Bottineau, from
which they extend 35 miles to the east. This popular recreation area is
filled in summer with campers, boaters, fishermen, and water-skiers. The
place is not nearly as crowded in winter, but you will still run across
snow-skiers and those abominations of the north—the snowmobiles.

Most of the birds can be found just by exploring any accessible areas
with good habitat. One specific spot which is usually rewarding is Lake
Metigoshe State Park. To reach it start from 4th Street in Bottineau, go
north on Main Street for 0.8 mile, and turn right at the sign for the
park. Shortly you will pass the North Dakota State School of Forestry on
your right. After 1.0 mile turn left (paved road). In 9.3 miles the road
forks. Go straight. This road leads along a large segment of the lake,
which is peppered with resorts. Continue for 4.4 miles, and turn left to
the park. Camping is allowed. There are even showers, which can feel
great after a long day of birding.

The best thing about the park is the excellent nature trail. It stays
close to the lake shore for awhile before cutting back through the
middle of the forest to the campground. The trees and secondary growth
along the way are typical of those found throughout the Turtle
Mountains, and so are the birds. Some of the species to be found in
summer include Cooper’s, Red-tailed, and Broad-winged Hawks; Ruffed
Grouse; Black-billed Cuckoo; Ruby-throated Hummingbird; Yellow-bellied
Sapsucker; Hairy and Downy Woodpeckers; Great Crested, Least, and Willow
Flycatchers; Eastern Pewee; Blue Jay; American Crow; Black-capped
Chickadee; White-breasted Nuthatch; House Wren; Brown Thrasher; Gray
Catbird; Veery; Red-eyed, Warbling, Yellow-throated, and Philadelphia
Vireos; Black-and-white, Yellow, Mourning, and Chestnut-sided Warblers;
Northern Waterthrush; Ovenbird; American Redstart; Northern Oriole;
Rose-breasted Grosbeak; American Goldfinch; Rufous-sided Towhee (eastern
form); and White-throated (rare), Chipping, and Song Sparrows. The real
prize has to be the Philadelphia Vireo. This is one of the few areas in
the United States where this species is known to breed. Most of its
breeding range is in Canada.

If there are not many birds moving, try a Common Screech-owl imitation
or tape. You may be surrounded by complaining birds in a matter of
minutes. Remember to watch the lake for Common Loon, Red-necked Grebe,
Ring-necked Duck, Bufflehead, and Common Goldeneye, all of which nest in
the area.

After finishing the park, return to the main road and continue to the
left around the lake. After 2.1 miles turn left (east) on Highway East
43 toward the Peace Gardens. Go 4.4 miles; turn right at the sign
pointing to Pelican-Sandy Lakes Primitive Recreation Area. This road
goes into the forest for 1.0 mile to an undeveloped area with primitive
campsites. There is plenty of suitable habitat, so you should be able to
find most of the birds that you found at the park, or any you missed. In
summer this area will probably be less crowded, as well.


                           c) Rolette County

    [Illustration: Lake Metigoshe State Park]

Willow Lake National Wildlife Refuge is often productive. To reach it
continue east on Highway East 43 from the turn-off to Pelican-Sandy
Lakes Primitive Recreation Area. After 3.1 miles you will cross the
Rolette County line, which is marked. Go another mile, and turn right
(south). The lake is 1.6 miles ahead on the left. The main attraction is
the colony of Double-crested Cormorants. However, watch for Common Loon,
grebes, American White Pelican (visitor), Great Blue Heron, and several
species of waterfowl.

After checking the lake, backtrack to Highway 43 and head east for about
13 miles to the Wakopa State Game Management Area. (It may also be
reached by going 0.5 mile north and 8 miles west from the town of St.
John.)

    [Illustration: WAKOPA STATE GAME MANAGEMENT AREA]

This area is relatively undisturbed, and the birding is great. There are
even walking trails. All of the birds common to the Turtle Mountains can
be found, and this just might be the best place to look for them.

As is the case across the rest of the state, the Turtle Mountains do not
offer a great diversity of winter birds. There are, however, some
interesting possibilities. The large amount of well-wooded habitat
combined with a geographic position on the Canada border makes the
mountains a definite attraction to several rare but exciting northern
birds such as Hawk, Great Gray, Boreal, and Saw-whet Owls; Northern
Raven; Gray Jay; Boreal Chickadee (accidental); and White-winged
Crossbill. Although the chances of finding any of these birds on any
given day are slim, the potential is there. Some may be more regular
than is currently thought, because not enough people bird this area in
winter.

Some of the more regular winter visitors and residents here include
Ruffed and Sharp-tailed Grouse; Gray Partridge; Mourning Dove; Great
Horned, Snowy, Long-eared, and Short-eared Owls; Common Flicker; Hairy
and Downy Woodpeckers; Horned Lark; Blue Jay; Black-billed Magpie;
Black-capped Chickadee; White-breasted and Red-breasted Nuthatches;
Brown Creeper; Cedar and Bohemian Waxwings; European Starling; House
Sparrow; Evening and Pine Grosbeaks; Purple Finch; Pine Siskin; American
Goldfinch; Common and Hoary Redpolls; Red Crossbill; and Snow Bunting.
Of course, you will be doing well to find half of these species on any
given trip, because many of them are decidedly cyclic in their
wanderings.

Just as there is no one spot to go in the Turtle Mountains to find all
of the summer residents, there is no one place to be recommended for
winter. Both Lake Metigoshe State Park and Pelican-Sandy Lakes Primitive
Recreation Area are good if road conditions allow entry. Usually, you
will come out ahead by following the plowed roads and the good habitat.


                           d) Cavalier County

Rush Lake, a large marsh encompassing several thousand acres, is ideal
for viewing waterfowl, shorebirds, and marsh species. To reach it drive
4.0 miles west from Wales to a point surrounded by marshy inlets and
water-filled ditches. You can drive as far as road conditions permit.

Although there is little open water, you should have excellent birding
from spring through fall. Some of the birds to watch for are Pied-billed
and Eared Grebes; all of the ducks common to the state; Great Blue
Heron; Black-crowned Night Heron; American Bittern; Green Heron; Sora;
Virginia Rail; American Coot; Killdeer; Semipalmated, Lesser Golden, and
Black-bellied Plovers; Ruddy Turnstone; Common Snipe; Willet; Greater
and Lesser Yellowlegs; Short-billed and Long-billed Dowitchers; Spotted,
Solitary, Stilt, Pectoral, White-rumped, Baird’s, Least, Semipalmated,
and Western (rare) Sandpipers; Dunlin; Sanderling; Marbled and Hudsonian
Godwits; American Avocet; Wilson’s and Northern Phalaropes; Ring-billed
and Franklin’s Gulls; Forster’s, Common, and Black Terns; all of the
state’s swallows; Marsh and Sedge Wrens; Common Yellowthroat;
Yellow-headed and Red-winged Blackbirds; and Le Conte’s and Sharp-tailed
Sparrows. Most of the shorebirds appear only as transients, even though
many may be seen throughout the summer.


                           e) Pembina County

The northeast sector contains many well-wooded areas. The Turtle
Mountains probably represent the best of these in terms of birdlife;
however, a similar avifauna can be found in the Pembina Hills, which lie
predominantly in eastern Cavalier County and western Pembina County. The
major habitat is upland, deciduous forest, with bur oak, American elm,
quaking aspen, birch, and box elder being some of the predominant trees.
Birding the Pembina Hills is like birding the Turtle Mountains. It is
hard to pick out specific spots because there is so much good habitat.

Most of the birds occurring in the Pembina Hills can also be found in
the deltaic sand area in western Pembina County (situated between the
Pembina and Tongue Rivers). There are many excellent sites.

For the sake of convenience, although not technically correct, all
statements concerning the Pembina Hills made in the following
Specialties Section refer to the area in general including the deltaic
sand area.

The best spot for finding species typical of the Pembina Hills is the
Tongue River Game Management Area. To reach it start at the western of
the two intersections of State Highways 5 and 32, and head north on
Highway 32. Turn right (4.0 miles) and continue east to the area. After
2.5 miles you will enter the heavily forested zone. The crisscrossing
auto trails allow good access.

This is a fantastic place. You may even find some Moose, which have
moved into this area in the past few years. Some of the summer residents
are Cooper’s, Red-tailed, and Broad-winged Hawks; Ruffed Grouse;
Black-billed Cuckoo; Great Horned Owl; Ruby-throated Hummingbird; Belted
Kingfisher (along the river); Common Flicker; Yellow-bellied Sapsucker;
Downy and Hairy Woodpeckers; Great Crested, Willow, and Least
Flycatchers; Eastern Pewee; Blue Jay; American Crow; Black-capped
Chickadee; White-breasted Nuthatch; House Wren; Gray Catbird; Brown
Thrasher; American Robin; Veery; Cedar Waxwing; Yellow-throated,
Red-eyed, and Warbling Vireos; Black-and-white, Yellow, and Mourning
Warblers; Ovenbird; Northern Waterthrush; American Redstart; Northern
Oriole; Scarlet Tanager; Rose-breasted Grosbeak; Indigo Bunting;
American Goldfinch; Rufous-sided Towhee; and Chipping and Song Sparrows.

In addition to the nesting species, this area attracts a number of
migrants. All species listed for the wooded areas of J. Clark Salyer may
also be found here. However, several of the eastern warblers (such as
the Magnolia, Cape May, Black-throated Green, Blackburnian,
Chestnut-sided, and Connecticut) may be easier to find at Tongue River.

Another good locale is the Gunlogson Arboretum. To reach it start at the
western edge of Cavalier, go west on State Highway 5 for 5.4 miles, and
turn right. The arboretum contains several diverse plant and animal
communities. Most are crossed by the nature trail that leads to a small
marshy area, several small springs, and a portion of the Tongue River.
All of this is surrounded by an impressive array of trees that include
willows, ironwood, alder, elm, oak, ash, and basswood and a lush
understory of ferns, grapevines, and wildflowers.

From the standpoint of habitat and fewer people, the birding is usually
better at the arboretum, but Icelandic State Park is good for migrants.
To reach it continue west on Highway 5 for 0.4 mile and turn right
(north) at the sign.

The Pembina Hills are good also for all of the regular winter species
plus an occasional northern stray such as Northern Raven; Hawk, Great
Gray, Boreal, and Saw-whet Owls; Northern Shrike; and Gray Jay. Many of
the roads are closed in winter. Care should be exercised when
driving-conditions are not known.

    [Illustration: Gunlogson Arboretum]


                            f) Walsh County

Although the northeastern sector is loaded with marshlands, there are
not many along the highly agricultural Red River Valley, which has been
extensively cleared of forests and drained. A few good spots remain. One
is Lake Ardoch, which can be reached by starting at U.S. Highway 81 on
the northern edge of Minto and going east on County Road #15 toward
Warsaw. After 3.4 miles turn right (south) on a gravel road. (It may not
be passable in wet weather.) After 3.8 miles you will see the lake on
the right.

Check for grebes, herons, and waterfowl. Walk the marshy areas on the
left for Marsh and Sedge Wrens, and Le Conte’s Sparrow. Continue
straight for another 2.2 miles and turn right on the paved road. In 0.2
mile a marshy inlet from the lake is on both sides of the road. Check
here for migrant shorebirds. Continue for 1.8 miles to the junction with
Highway 81, just north of the town of Ardoch.


                         g) Grand Forks County

    [Illustration: PRAIRIE CHICKEN AREAS]

There are only a few remnant populations of Greater Prairie Chickens
left in North Dakota. Luckily, the State Fish and Game Department has
managed to buy up most of the areas still frequented by them. Two spots
are in Grand Forks County. Start at the northern side of Manvel (north
of Grand Forks on U.S. Highway 81) and go west on County Road #33. To
reach area number one, go 9.0 miles on County Road #33 and turn left
(south). For the next 3.0 miles you will be crossing suitable sections
of long-grass prairie. To find area number two, backtrack to County Road
#33, cross the road, and go 5.0 miles north. Turn right and for the next
4 miles watch for the chickens. (This whole area should be marked by
Game Management Area signs.) Dawn is the best time, although you may
luck out and find them in the late afternoon just before sundown. Watch
also for Sharp-tailed Grouse and Upland Sandpiper.

    [Illustration: KELLY’S SLOUGH]

A good spot for grasslands birds is Kelly’s Pasture, a small prairie
area west of Grand Forks. To get there start at the underpass of I-29,
go west on Highway 2 for 5.7 miles, and turn left (south). Drive 4.0
miles and pull over to the right. There should be parallel fence rows
(several yards apart) running to the west. Park and walk between the
fence lines. Watch in this grassy area for Sedge Wren and Grasshopper,
Le Conte’s, and Clay-colored Sparrows. After about 6.0 mile the fences
will stop at a large grassy field. To your left (south) there should be
a small stockpond surrounded by reeds. Check the edges for Marsh and
Sedge Wrens and Le Conte’s Sparrow. Be careful at all times not to cross
any fence lines on the left (south) side of the trail, because all are
posted.

After checking the stockpond, walk north across the open field, watching
for Sharp-tailed Grouse, Upland Sandpiper, Western Meadowlark,
Grasshopper and Clay-colored Sparrows, and Chestnut-collared Longspur.
At dawn check any rises in the field for dancing grouse. During late
summer and early fall look for Sprague’s Pipit. This species is rare
here but occasionally passes through after breeding. At the north end of
this field is a large stock pen. This marks the end of the area which
can be walked.

Return to your car, drive 1.0 mile south, and turn left (east). For the
next few miles, check all of the grassy/brushy fields for Sharp-tailed
Grouse and Gray Partridge. The partridge may be seen almost anywhere,
but the grouse is restricted to a few overgrown fields. Some fields have
sunflowers, which may attract a number of winter birds (basically
goldfinches, siskins, redpolls, and Northern Shrike).

There are several great spots near Grand Forks. The best is Kelly’s
Slough. To get to it proceed to the underpass of I-29, go west on
Highway 2 for 7.8 miles, and turn right (north). After 3.3 miles stop on
the hill overlooking the slough.

This is a fantastic place for migrant waterfowl, waders, and shorebirds.
Some of the migrants include Common (occasional) and Red-throated
(accidental) Loons; Red-necked (uncommon), Horned, Eared, and Western
Grebes; American White Pelican; Double-crested Cormorant; Great Egret
(rare); Whistling Swan; Canada, Greater White-fronted, and Snow Geese;
Common, Red-breasted (rare), and Hooded (rare) Mergansers; White-winged
Scoter (rare); Redhead; Canvasback; Ring-necked Duck; Lesser and Greater
(rare) Scaup; Common Goldeneye; Bufflehead; Oldsquaw (rare); Mallard;
American Black Duck (rare); Gadwall; American Wigeon; Common Pintail;
Green-winged and Blue-winged Teals; Northern Shoveler; Wood Duck;
Semipalmated, Black-bellied, and Lesser Golden Plovers; Ruddy Turnstone;
Common Snipe; Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs; Solitary, Pectoral,
White-rumped, Baird’s, Least, Stilt, and Semipalmated Sandpipers;
Dunlin; Short-billed and Long-billed Dowitchers; Hudsonian Godwit;
Sanderling; Northern Phalarope; and Herring (uncommon) and Bonaparte’s
(rare) Gulls.

Summer residents are much fewer, but many of the transient species are
present from mid-summer on. Birds found throughout the summer include
Pied-billed Grebe, Great Blue Heron, American Bittern, Ruddy Duck, Sora,
American Coot, American Avocet, Spotted Sandpiper, Willet, Marbled
Godwit, Wilson’s Phalarope, Franklin’s and Ring-billed Gulls, Black
Tern, Marsh and Sedge Wrens, Red-winged and Yellow-headed Blackbirds,
and Le Conte’s Sparrow.

For best results bird the slough on both the east and west sides of the
road. The area to the east is better for rails, Marsh and Sedge Wrens,
and Le Conte’s Sparrows, because there is more emergent vegetation. In
fact, the grassy perimeter to the east end of the slough is full of
Marsh Wrens and Le Conte’s Sparrows. You may have to wade a bit to get
good views, but the water is only a few inches deep throughout most of
this grassy area. A walk along the railroad tracks north of the slough
may turn up Gray Partridge, Upland Sandpiper, and Chestnut-collared
Longspur. In fall watch for Lapland Longspurs along the tracks and over
the slough.

Continue north for 1.7 miles and turn right (east). During migration
check for Common Snipe and rails in the ditches on the right. Watch for
Chestnut-collared Longspurs as well. Drive 1.0 mile and turn right
again. Mountain Bluebirds have been found during spring (March 20-30)
around the farm area. Also check the surrounding fields in spring and
fall for Ruddy Turnstones and Buff-breasted Sandpipers. After 0.7 mile
the east end of Kelly’s Slough is on the right. At 1.8 miles you may
drive west through the cluster of buildings at Kelly and check the
nearby fields for Black-bellied and Lesser Golden Plovers (migration
only). To continue the tour, turn left (east) at 0.2 mile past Kelly.

Drive east for 2.0 miles to an old, white, country school-house. During
migration check the fields south of the intersection for Marbled and
Hudsonian Godwits. Continue straight east for another mile before
turning left (north). After 0.6 mile pull over to the left. Walk to the
northwest (45° to the left of the road ahead). There is a Sharp-tailed
Grouse dancing ground about 300 yards out. According to Frank Kelley,
there is a reasonably good chance of the grouse being on or near the
grounds at daybreak. At other times they may be anywhere within a
two-mile radius. Sprague’s Pipits and Chestnut-collared Longspurs nest
in the same area.

Return south, the same way you came in, and turn left (east). Check any
areas with tall grass in the next few miles for Sedge Wrens and Le
Conte’s Sparrows. After 2.0 miles turn right (south). In spring check
fields to the north and east of the intersection for Ruddy Turnstones
and Buff-breasted Sandpipers. After 0.5 mile, stop at the first of three
entrances to the sewage lagoons. As many as twenty species of shorebirds
can often be seen from the gate. The greatest concentrations occur in
mid-August. In migration large numbers of grebes, ducks, and gulls use
the ponds. Look for the rarer ducks or shorebirds. Check nearby plowed
fields for Lesser Golden Plover (in migration), Buff-breasted Sandpiper
(migration), and Upland Sandpiper (anytime from spring through fall).
For different views stop at the other two gates. Continue for 5.0 miles
and turn left (east) onto Highway 2 to return to Grand Forks.

A good place for woodland birds is Turtle River State Park, one mile
north of Arvilla or about 18 miles west of Grand Forks along Highway 2.
The entrance is well marked. This whole area was once covered by glacial
Lake Agassiz. As the lake lowered, the shoreline remained stable for
some time, allowing the wave action to form a prominent beach ridge
along what is now the eastern edge of the park. Here Baird’s Sparrows
occasionally are found in the grassy fields.

Summer residents are Sharp-shinned (rare), Cooper’s (rare), Red-tailed,
and Broad-winged Hawks; Spotted Sandpiper; Black-billed Cuckoo; Common
Screech and Great Horned Owls; Common Nighthawk; Ruby-throated
Hummingbird; Belted Kingfisher; Common Flicker; Yellow-bellied
Sapsucker; Red-headed, Hairy, and Downy Woodpeckers; Great Crested,
Willow, and Least Flycatchers; Eastern Pewee; Blue Jay; American Crow;
Black-capped Chickadee; White-breasted Nuthatch; House Wren; Gray
Catbird; Brown Thrasher; American Robin; Cedar Waxwing; Yellow-throated,
Red-eyed, and Warbling Vireos; Yellow Warbler; Northern Oriole; Common
Grackle; Scarlet Tanager; Rose-breasted Grosbeak; Indigo Bunting;
American Goldfinch; and Chipping, Clay-colored, and Song Sparrows.

Winter visitors include Northern Goshawk (rare), Barred Owl (rare),
Red-breasted Nuthatch, Brown Creeper, Bohemian Waxwing, Rusty Blackbird,
Evening and Pine Grosbeaks, Purple Finch, Red and White-winged (rare)
Crossbills, Northern Junco, and American Tree, Harris’ (rare), and
White-throated (rare) Sparrows. Other winter species which may be seen
in the open areas surrounding the park are Sharp-tailed Grouse, Gray
Partridge, Mourning Dove, Snowy and Short-eared Owls, Horned Lark,
Black-billed Magpie, Western Meadowlark, Common and Hoary (rare)
Redpolls, Lapland Longspur, and Snow Bunting.

The park is at its best in spring when the trees are dripping with
migrant warblers and other passerines, such as Olive-sided Flycatcher;
Hermit, Swainson’s, and Gray-cheeked Thrushes; Veery; Golden-crowned and
Ruby-crowned Kinglets; Yellow-throated, Solitary, and Philadelphia
Vireos; Black-and-white, Tennessee, Orange-crowned, Nashville, Magnolia,
Cape May, Yellow-rumped, Black-throated Green, Blackburnian,
Chestnut-sided, Bay-breasted, Blackpoll, Palm, Connecticut, Mourning,
Wilson’s, and Canada Warblers; Ovenbird; Northern Waterthrush; American
Redstart; Rufous-sided Towhee; and Harris’, White-crowned,
White-throated, Fox, Lincoln’s, and Swamp Sparrows. All of these species
occur in similar habitat throughout the area (especially along the Red
River in Grand Forks).


                            h) Nelson County

    [Illustration: NELSON COUNTY]

Two excellent spots for water and marsh species are Rose Lake National
Wildlife Refuge and Stump Lake National Wildlife Refuge. To reach them
proceed south from Lakota on State Highway 1 for 2.1 miles and turn
right (west) on a gravel road. Go 5.0 miles and turn left (south). Then
turn right (west) at 1.0 mile. After 0.8 mile you will reach a marshy
inlet of Rose Lake.

The shallow marsh can be productive in migration and late summer for
shorebirds. In the drier fields watch for Bobolink and Grasshopper
Sparrow. The wetter edges are good for Marsh and Sedge Wrens, Common
Yellowthroat, and Savannah, Le Conte’s, and sometimes Sharp-tailed
Sparrows. The lake attracts migrating waterfowl, shorebirds, gulls, and
terns.

Continue west for 0.3 mile to another marshy area with the same birds.
After 0.8 mile turn left (south) on Nelson County Road #23. Go south for
8.0 miles and turn left (east). Follow the main road as it swings north
(3.0 miles) and then east (1.0 mile). After another mile turn left
(north). In 1.5 miles you will see Stump Lake on both sides of the road.

This large lake has little vegetation around the perimeter, so few ducks
or marsh species actually nest, but some use the area from spring
through fall. You may expect lots of grebes (especially Western),
American White Pelicans, Double-crested Cormorants, and Ring-billed and
Franklin’s Gulls. Occasionally, a Bonaparte’s will put in a late-summer
appearance, and in migration watch for White-winged Scoter and Oldsquaw.
In spring and from mid-July through early October, the shorelines may be
covered with shorebirds. It is a consistent place to find Sanderlings.
Piping Plovers may nest.

Continue on to Highway 1 (3.0 miles). Turn south and go 1.7 miles before
turning right on the road to the recreation area. After 1.3 miles swing
right and continue to Stump Lake Park, a well-wooded area that is ideal
for transient passerines and nesting woodland species.


                            i) Benson County

A rewarding place to look for migrant and nesting woodland birds is
Sully’s Hill National Game Preserve. To reach it start in the town of
Devils Lake, go south from Highway 2 on Highway 20/57 for 12.0 miles,
and turn left at the sign. After 0.6 mile turn left. Go 0.5 mile and
turn left again. In 0.2 mile you will cross the cattleguard into the
preserve, an area of rolling hills and uplands habitat. Ask at the
headquarters for a list of the birds. You may either hike the nature
trail (1.2 miles), drive the auto trail (4.5 miles), or do both.

The nature trail winds through excellent deciduous-forest habitat that
is good for most of the birds listed under Turtle River State Park. The
birds here go crazy when a tape-recording of a Common Screech-owl is
played, which is a reliable indication that one of these little owls is
in residence. The auto trail goes through a large enclosure, where
Bison, Elk, and White-tailed Deer are allowed to roam freely. Because
most of the tour traverses uplands and dry-land forests, you probably
will not see many birds. Western Grebes, American White Pelicans, and
Double-crested Cormorants can be seen anywhere near Devils Lake itself.


                            j) Ramsey County

One of the best spots for migrant and nesting waterbirds is Lac Aux
Mortes National Wildlife Refuge (also known as Lake Alice N.W.R.). To
reach it go northwest on U.S. Highway 1 from Devils Lake. After about 13
miles turn right (north) on the road to Penn. Follow this gravel road
through town and past Lake Alice. The road is chained off after 9.2
miles. The last few passable miles pass directly between Lake Alice and
Chain Lake; you will have water on both sides of the road.

All of the grebes and waterfowl common to this half of the state can be
observed in large numbers. In spring Snow Goose numbers may exceed
200,000. American White Pelicans and Double-crested Cormorants use the
lake throughout the summer, and there are large nesting colonies of
Black-crowned Night Herons and Franklin’s Gulls. Great Blue Herons and
American Bitterns are commonly seen, and Great and Cattle Egrets have
been showing up in late summer for the past several years. The lake also
attracts all of the regular shorebirds, gulls, terns, swallows, and
blackbirds. Check the wet, grassy borders of the road for Marsh and
Sedge Wrens and for Le Conte’s and Sharp-tailed Sparrows.



                      SPECIALTIES OF NORTH DAKOTA


Listed below are some of the species found in North Dakota that may be
of particular interest to visiting birders. Some may be eastern birds of
interest to western birders. Others may be western birds of interest to
eastern birders. The purpose of the list is to aid finding each species.
Therefore, information is given on abundance, distribution, habitat,
and, where possible, on specific locations where each species may be
found.


Common Loon—Uncommon summer resident on permanent, freshwater lakes in
the Turtle Mountains (Bottineau and Rolette Counties). Try Lake
Metigoshe and Sandy Lake. This species is a rare migrant on large ponds
and lakes throughout the rest of the state.

    [Illustration: Black-crowned Night Heron]


Red-necked Grebe—Uncommon summer resident of larger ponds and lakes in
the northern portion. Most common in the Turtle Mountains and on J.
Clark Salyer Refuge. Also seen with some frequency on Des Lacs (try the
Old Lake Road) and Upper Souris Refuges. Rare breeder and uncommon to
rare migrant over the rest of the state.


Horned Grebe—Fairly common summer resident on ponds and lakes in the
northwest, northeast, and southeast sectors. This species does not nest
in large colonies as do the Western and Eared Grebes; hence, it may be
harder to find. However, it should be fairly easy to see at places such
as Des Lacs, Upper Souris, J. Clark Salyer, Lostwood, Long Lake, and
Arrowwood Refuges.


Eared Grebe—Common summer resident on seasonal and permanent ponds and
lakes over much of the state. Often nests in large colonies. Hard to
miss at such places as Long Lake, Hobart Lake, Arrowwood, Audubon, Des
Lacs, Lostwood, Upper Souris, J. Clark Salyer, and Stump Lake Refuges.


Western Grebe—Conspicuous and easy-to-find summer resident on scattered
lakes and permanent ponds throughout the northwest, northeast, and
southeast sectors. Usually nests in large colonies, and prefers areas
with lots of open water. Look for it on Devils Lake and on Des Lacs,
Lostwood, Upper Souris, J. Clark Salyer, Arrowwood, Lake Alice, Long
Lake, Alkaline Lake, Stump Lake, and Tewaukon Refuges.


American White Pelican—Hard-to-miss summer resident over most of the
state. Apparently, the only known breeding colony is on Chase Lake,
where there are about 4,000 pairs nesting. Individuals from this colony
(and many others which nest in neighboring states) range far and wide
all summer. Should be easy to find at Des Lacs, Lostwood, Upper Souris,
J. Clark Salyer, Audubon, Arrowwood, Long Lake, Lake Ilo, Bowman-Haley,
and Tewaukon Refuges, as well as at Beaver Lake and Baldhill Dam (Lake
Ashtabula).


Whistling Swan—Fairly common spring and fall migrant throughout. It can
be found on almost any large marsh or lake, including places like Des
Lacs, Upper Souris, Lostwood, J. Clark Salyer, Audubon, Arrowwood, Long
Lake, and Tewaukon Refuges. The best spot is Hobart Lake, where there
are usually hundreds present for several weeks in fall.


Greater White-fronted Goose—Fairly common migrant throughout the western
half; uncommon in the eastern half. Found on marshlands or grainfields
with congregations of Canada and Snow Geese.


Cinnamon Teal—Rare spring-through-April visitor and probable breeder in
marshlands throughout the central and western parts. Occasionally seen
in the southeast corner (Tewaukon).


Wood Duck—Fairly common summer resident of wooded streams, rivers,
ponds, and lakes through the eastern half. Uncommon in the western half
at places like Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and Audubon Refuges—except along
the Missouri River below Bismarck, where it is fairly common. Should be
easy to find along the Wild Rice and Red (especially at Fargo) Rivers,
along the Sheyenne River below Baldhill Dam, and at Arrowwood and J.
Clark Salyer Refuges.


White-winged Scoter—Rare migrant on lakes and sewage ponds throughout.
Occasionally nests on lakes in the Turtle Mountains and at Des Lacs
Refuge.


Hooded Merganser—Rare migrant on water areas throughout. Fairly common
summer resident along the woodland-bordered stretch of the Souris River
in Bottineau and McHenry Counties (particularly on J. Clark Salyer
Refuge). Uncommon to rare breeder at Arrowwood Refuge.


Northern Goshawk—Rare winter visitor/resident and migrant in wooded
areas throughout. Some possible areas include the river bottoms of the
James, Red, and Sheyenne Rivers in the southeast; Turtle River Park, the
Pembina Hills, the Turtle Mountains, the Souris River bottomlands in J.
Clark Salyer Refuge, and the forest surrounding Devils Lake in the
northeast; and the Missouri and Little Missouri bottomlands and the
wooded hills of the badlands in the western half. The Turtle Mountains
are probably your best bet.


Broad-winged Hawk—Uncommon to fairly common summer resident of mature,
deciduous forests in the Turtle Mountains and Pembina Hills. Rare
breeder in other areas with similar habitat in the eastern half.
Uncommon migrant through wooded areas of the western half.


Swainson’s Hawk—Common summer resident of prairies and agricultural
areas throughout the western three-fourths of the state. Uncommon to
rare in the eastern one-fourth. Easy to find.


Rough-legged Hawk—Uncommon to fairly common migrant and winter
visitor/resident, in prairies and agricultural areas throughout. Most
often seen in November.


Ferruginous Hawk—Fairly common summer resident of open prairies
throughout the western and southeast-central portions. Not hard to find.
Many people confuse this species with juvenile or light-phase Red-tails.
The best mark for separating the two is probably the large, white
windows on the upper side of the Ferruginous’ wings. Also, when soaring,
the Ferruginous flies with a dihedral (not as pronounced as with the
Swainson’s), as opposed to the more flat-winged pattern of the
Red-tailed.


Golden Eagle—Uncommon to fairly common permanent resident of the
badlands along the Little Missouri River. Uncommon to rare winter
visitor throughout. The best areas are the north and south units of the
Roosevelt Memorial (including prairies in between) and on the
sage-grasslands of Slope and Bowman Counties. The road going south from
Marmarth can be especially good. In winter also check Lake Sakakawea,
the Missouri River south of Bismarck, and Audubon Refuge.


Bald Eagle—Rare migrant and winter visitor throughout. A pair nested
along the Missouri River (McLean County) in 1975, for the first nesting
record in several years. In winter it may be found on almost any of the
refuges (most likely Audubon), Lake Sakakawea, or along the Missouri
River.


Prairie Falcon—Uncommon to rare resident of prairies and badlands in the
western quarter. Rare visitor elsewhere. The best areas are the north
and south units of the Roosevelt Memorial and Little Missouri and
Sully’s Creek State Parks.


Ruffed Grouse—Fairly common to uncommon permanent resident of the Turtle
Mountains and Pembina Hills. Can be found almost anywhere in mature
deciduous forests throughout these areas. Try the nature trail at Lake
Metigoshe State Park, the forest surrounding the Pelican-Sandy Lakes
Primitive Recreation Area, the Wakopa and Tongue River Game Management
Areas, and the Gunlogson Arboretum.


Greater Prairie Chicken—Rare permanent resident of remnant tracts of
tall-grass prairie in Grand Forks, Ransom, and Richland Counties. The
booming grounds in Ransom and Richland are on the Sheyenne National
Grasslands. However, many of these spots are hard to find and hard to
get to because of poor roads. Your best bet is on either of the two game
management areas near Manvel in Grand Forks County.


Sharp-tailed Grouse—Common permanent resident over the western half.
Fairly common in the central portion, and uncommon to rare across the
eastern quarter. Found mostly in mixed-grass prairies and abandoned farm
fields. Should be easy to find on the grasslands and sagebrush flats of
both units of the Roosevelt Memorial, on the roads going south from
Marmarth and Rhame, in the sandhills of Ransom and Richland Counties, in
weedy fields along the Missouri River south of Bismarck, and on Des
Lacs, Lostwood, J. Clark Salyer, Audubon, Long Lake, and Arrowwood
Refuges.


Sage Grouse—Uncommon to fairly common resident of sagebrush prairies in
Bowman, Slope, Billings, and Golden Valley Counties. Most common in the
western halves of Slope and Bowman Counties. Try the roads going south
from Marmarth and Rhame, and the road going north from Marmarth to
Amidon. Activity on the dancing grounds usually reaches its peak in
April.


Ring-necked Pheasant—Generally uncommon to fairly common resident over
most of the state. Prefers weedy fields and ditches, shelterbelts, dry
sloughs, and brushy edges of wooded river bottoms. Look for it in
Barnes, Ransom, Richland, Sargent, and Dickey Counties; in the sandhills
on J. Clark Salyer Refuge; around Lake Ilo; along the Missouri River
bottoms near Bismarck; and in the Little Missouri bottomlands of the
Roosevelt Memorial.


Gray Partridge—Fairly common resident over most of the state, becoming
less common in the northeast. Utilizes much the same habitat as the
Ring-necked Pheasant, but is more often found in open prairie areas.
Fairly easy to find, particularly in winter when it is often found in
the open along the roads.


Wild Turkey—Has been introduced in many areas. Has taken hold in the
wooded river bottoms of the Missouri and Sheyenne (locally—around Valley
City) Rivers, and in the Little Missouri badlands, where it occupies an
upland coniferous-forest habitat. In these areas it is a fairly common
to uncommon resident.


Whooping Crane—Rare migrant on its way to and from the nesting grounds
in Canada. At those times it may be seen on almost any of the refuges in
the western and central portions.


Sandhill Crane—Common migrant throughout the western half; uncommon to
rare through much of the eastern half. During migration, may be found in
large concentrations on refuges, in grain fields, or simply flying
through the air in long skeins.


Yellow Rail—Rare and local summer resident of spring-fed sedge fields in
the northern (mostly north-central) portion. Scattered colonies have
been reported in recent years from McLean, Mountrail, Bottineau, and
Benson Counties. Because of its accessibility, J. Clark Salyer Refuge
may offer your best chance of finding it. Check appropriate habitat
along the scenic tour.


Piping Plover—Uncommon summer resident of selected alkaline ponds and
lakes, and occasionally of freshwater lakes, rivers, and impoundments
with open sandy or gravel shores. Watch especially on sandbars along the
Missouri River at Bismarck, and on the alkaline lakes and potholes of
Lostwood Refuge. Other areas include Long Lake Refuge, J. Clark Salyer
Refuge, and the shores of Devils Lake, Stump Lake, and Alkaline Lake.


Lesser Golden Plover—Fairly common migrant throughout, except in the
southwest sector where it is uncommon to rare. In fall found in large
numbers at places such as Stump Lake, Alkaline Lake, Kelly’s Slough, and
the sewage ponds in Fargo, West Fargo, and Grand Forks. Numbers peak in
September and October. In spring (mostly mid-April) seems to prefer
flooded fields (and even some that are not flooded).


Ruddy Turnstone—Uncommon migrant in the eastern half; rare migrant
throughout the western half. Frequently seen on plowed fields
(especially flooded ones), and on artificial water impoundments such as
sewage ponds, flood-control ponds, and fish-removal ponds. Look for it
in Cass and Grand Forks Counties; at the Grand Forks, Fargo, and West
Fargo sewage ponds; at Kelly’s Slough; Rush, Alkaline, and Stump Lakes;
J. Clark Salyer Refuge; and at the fish hatchery in Valley City.


Long-billed Curlew—An uncommon to rare summer resident of scrub-prairie
and short-grass areas in the extreme southwest corner. Most likely in
Bowman and Slope Counties. Try the roads going south from Marmarth and
Rhame, and the road going north from Marmarth to Amidon.


Upland Sandpiper—Fairly common summer resident of prairie grasslands and
wet meadows throughout. Often seen sitting on fence posts in spring.
Look for it at Bowman-Haley, Stewart Lake, Lake Ilo, Lostwood, Des Lacs,
Upper Souris, J. Clark Salyer, Audubon, Long Lake, Arrowwood, and
Tewaukon Refuges; in the Sheyenne Grasslands of Ransom and Richland
Counties; and around Kelly’s Slough and the prairie-chicken areas in
Grand Forks County. Should be easy to find.


Willet—Fairly common summer resident of prairie potholes, marshes, and
lakes throughout. Easy to find at places such as Bowman-Haley, Lake Ilo,
Lostwood, Des Lacs, Upper Souris, J. Clark Salyer, Audubon, Long Lake,
Arrowwood, Lake Alice, and Tewaukon Refuges; Kelly’s Slough; Rush Lake;
Alkaline Lake; and the marshes around Burnstad.


Red Knot—Very rare migrant through the eastern half. Look for it at
Tewaukon, Kelly’s Slough, and the sewage ponds at Grand Forks, Fargo,
and West Fargo.


White-rumped Sandpiper—Uncommon migrant to water areas throughout. Look
for it at Rush Lake, Kelly’s Slough, Stump Lake, Alkaline Lake, Hobart
Lake, the sewage ponds at Grand Forks, Fargo, and West Fargo; and on
marshes on Long Lake, Des Lacs, Upper Souris, Lostwood, J. Clark Salyer,
Audubon, and Arrowwood Refuges.


Baird’s Sandpiper—Fairly common to uncommon migrant to water areas and
flooded fields throughout. Can be found at all of the areas listed for
the White-rumped Sandpiper.


Dunlin—Uncommon migrant throughout the eastern half; rare in the west.
Found on flooded fields as well as on ponds, lake shores, marshes, and
sewage ponds. Check Rush, Stump, Hobart, and Alkaline Lakes; Lake
Ardoch; Kelly’s Slough; the fish hatchery at Valley City; Tewaukon
Refuge; and the sewage ponds at Grand Forks, Fargo, and West Fargo.


Western Sandpiper—Uncommon to rare migrant throughout. Usually
associates with Least and Semipalmated Sandpipers, but seems to feed
farther out from shore. Difficult to separate from Semipalmated except
when in good spring plumage. Look for it on marshes, lake shores, and
sewage ponds, or wherever you find other species of “peeps”.


Buff-breasted Sandpiper—Very rare migrant over most of the state; most
regular in the northeast. Prefers grassy pastures and plowed fields.
Your best bet is to check the farm areas of Grand Forks County.


Marbled Godwit—Fairly common summer resident of prairie wetlands
throughout. Often seen on grasslands far removed from water (excluding
an occasional stock pond) as at Longspur Pasture. Easy to find at places
such as Bowman-Haley, Lake Ilo, Lostwood, Des Lacs, Upper Souris, J.
Clark Salyer, Audubon, Arrowwood, Long Lake, Slade, and Tewaukon
Refuges; Kelly’s Slough; Alkaline Lake; the marshes around Burnstad; and
on the Sheyenne Grasslands of Ransom and Richland Counties.


Hudsonian Godwit—Uncommon to rare migrant to pastures and water areas
throughout (less common in the western half). Try Rush Lake, Lake
Ardoch, Kelly’s Slough, Long Lake and Tewaukon Refuges, and the sewage
ponds at Grand Forks, Fargo, and West Fargo.


American Avocet—Fairly common summer resident of alkaline lakes and
ponds and shallow wetlands throughout (absent as a nesting species over
much of the southwest). Also commonly seen during migration and
throughout the summer on sewage ponds and other areas where it does not
nest. Easy to find at Bowman-Haley, Lostwood, Des Lacs, Upper Souris, J.
Clark Salyer, Audubon, Long Lake, Arrowwood, Stump Lake, and Tewaukon
Refuges; Kelly’s Slough; Alkaline Lake; Rush Lake; Hobart Lake; and the
North Fargo sewage ponds.


Wilson’s Phalarope—Common summer resident of prairie wetlands
throughout. Almost impossible to miss, especially in late summer when it
congregates in large numbers on certain water areas such as Hobart Lake,
Kelly’s Slough, and the North Fargo sewage ponds. Look for it on almost
any of the wildlife refuges, game management areas, and waterfowl
production areas.


Northern Phalarope—Fairly common to uncommon migrant to wetlands, lakes,
and sewage ponds throughout. Look for it in flocks of Wilson’s
Phalarope. In the northwest (around Kenmare) it is more common and can
often be seen in large numbers.


Migrant Shorebirds—In North Dakota the following species can be
considered purely migratory (The species marked by asterisks may be
expected in large numbers.): Semipalmated, Lesser Golden*, and
Black-bellied* Plovers; Ruddy Turnstone; Greater and Lesser* Yellowlegs;
Red Knot; Short-billed and Long-billed Dowitchers*; Dunlin; Solitary,
Pectoral*, White-rumped, Baird’s, Least*, Western, Semipalmated*,
Stilt*, and Buff-breasted Sandpipers; Sanderling; Hudsonian Godwit; and
Northern Phalarope. Remember that some species which breed in one part
of the state may occur only as migrants in other areas. Migrating
shorebirds can be found almost anywhere where there is water. Preferred
areas include sewage ponds, prairie wetlands, flooded fields in
agricultural areas, impounded river areas, and shores of larger lakes.
Some specific spots are Long Lake, Des Lacs, Upper Souris, Lostwood, J.
Clark Salyer, and Stump Lake Refuges; Kelly’s Slough; Rush Lake;
Alkaline Lake; Lake Ardoch; Hobart Lake; the river and settling ponds
below Baldhill Dam; the ponds at the Valley City fish hatchery; and the
sewage ponds at Fargo and Grand Forks. Shorebird migration is usually a
continuous movement from late April through mid-October with peaks
during the first two weeks in May and the entire month of August.


California Gull—Uncommon summer resident of scattered lakes (usually
alkaline) throughout. Occurs over a larger portion of the state as a
summer visitor. There are only a handful of known breeding colonies in
the state. The best known is probably the one at Chase Lake. A more
accessible colony is located near Westby (page 61). Bob Stewart lists
these additional colonies: Stony Lake in Kidder County, East Devils Lake
in Ramsey County, and Lake Williams in McLean County (_Breeding Birds of
North Dakota_, 1975). Other areas are Bowman-Haley, Audubon, Lostwood,
Des Lacs, Long Lake, and Arrowwood Refuges, and Alkaline Lake.


Franklin’s Gull—Common summer resident of extensive marshlands
throughout the northern half and southeast quarter. Nesting colonies can
be found on Devils Lake, Lake Alice, Stump Lake, marshlands in Sargent
County, and on Long Lake, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer Refuges.
Non-nesting birds can be found almost anywhere that wetlands exist. In
fall it moves south in large concentrations numbering in the tens of
thousands.


Bonaparte’s Gull—Uncommon to rare migrant and post-nesting visitor to
water areas throughout. Most likely in the southeast quarter. Usually
occurs with flocks of Franklin’s Gulls. Try the sewage ponds at Fargo in
late summer, or the marshlands in Sargent and Dickey Counties.


Common Tern—Uncommon and local summer resident of large lakes and river
impoundments at scattered locations in the central and northwest
portions. Look for it on Long Lake, Audubon, Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and
J. Clark Salyer Refuges, and on various lakes in the Turtle Mountains.

The Forster’s Tern is more common. The two species can be separated by
bill color (more reddish in Common, orange in Forster’s), tail color
(white to gray in Common, gray to white in Forster’s—going from the
inside or central tail-feathers out), and color of the primaries (darker
in Common, very white in Forster’s). The latter is probably the best
mark.


Little Tern—Uncommon summer resident of sandbars along the Missouri
River near Bismarck. Some years no nesting occurs, because of flooding.
To find this species keep checking exposed sandbars along the river in
the Bismarck-Mandan vicinity. Try first from the ends of 12th and
Washington Streets in Bismarck, or in the vicinity of the Girl Scout
camp southwest of that city.


Black-billed Cuckoo—Uncommon to fairly common summer resident of
woodland margins, shelterbelts, wood lots, prairie thickets, and wooded
coulees throughout. Look for it at Tasker’s Coulee; Sully’s Creek Park;
the south unit of the Roosevelt Memorial; the Missouri River floodplain
near Bismarck; Upper Souris, Des Lacs, and J. Clark Salyer Refuges; Lake
Metigoshe and Icelandic State Parks; the Gunlogson Arboretum; Wakopa and
Tongue River Game Management Areas; Sully’s Hill Game Preserve; Turtle
River Park; Stump Lake Park; and the bottomlands of the James and
Sheyenne Rivers (Stutsman, Barnes, Ransom, and Richland Counties).


Snowy Owl—Uncommon and irregular winter visitor to open country
throughout. A few of these large arctic wanderers are present every
winter. However, in some winters it may be hard to find while in others
it seems to be almost common. There are no specific spots. Just drive
the back-country roads any time from December through March. A few can
usually be found every winter in Cass County, often right along the
roads.


Burrowing Owl—Uncommon summer resident of heavily-grazed prairie
throughout the western three-fourths of the state. Look for it on
Arrowwood, Long Lake, Audubon, Des Lacs, Upper Souris, Lostwood, J.
Clark Salyer, Chase Lake, Lake Ilo, Bowman-Haley, and Stewart Lake
Refuges; Salt Alkaline Lake; prairie-dog towns in both units of the
Roosevelt Memorial; and south of Marmarth.


Barred Owl—Rare resident of Sheyenne River bottomlands in Ransom and
Richland Counties. Occasionally recorded in winter elsewhere in the
eastern half, particularly along the Red River.


Short-eared Owl—Uncommon and cyclic resident of grasslands, wet meadows,
and fallow fields throughout. In some years fairly common, in others
hard to find. An influx of migrants from the north sometimes appears in
November. Look at Bowman-Haley, Lake Ilo, Des Lacs, Upper Souris, J.
Clark Salyer, Arrowwood, Long Lake, and Tewaukon Refuges.


Saw-whet Owl—Rare winter visitor to conifer stands, alder thickets, and
residential areas throughout the eastern half. May be an occasional
summer resident in the Turtle Mountains, Pembina Hills, and on the south
side of Devils Lake (Sully’s Hill Game Preserve).


Poor-will—Uncommon summer resident of brushy slopes and ravines in the
badlands and pine forests of Slope County. Rare in the south unit of the
Roosevelt Memorial. Listen for it near the Columnar Juniper Area.


Chimney Swift—Uncommon to fairly common summer resident of towns and
cities throughout. More common in the eastern half. Look for it in
Fargo, Grand Forks, Devils Lake, Wahpeton, Valley City, Jamestown,
Bismarck-Mandan, Minot, Dickinson, and Williston. Should be fairly easy
to find in most towns and cities along the Red and Sheyenne Rivers.


Ruby-throated Hummingbird—Uncommon summer resident of deciduous-woods
margins in the Turtle Mountains, Pembina Hills, south side of Devils
Lake, and along the Souris (J. Clark Salyer), James (Jamestown), and
Sheyenne (Valley City to Baldhill Dam) Rivers. Occurs elsewhere
throughout the central and eastern portions as an uncommon to fairly
common migrant.


Common Flicker—Common summer resident (a few winter) of open woodlands
throughout. Both races are found, and many interesting and confusing
hybrids occur. The predominant race is the Yellow-shafted. The
Red-shafted race occurs throughout the western half, but is common only
in the Little Missouri badlands.


Pileated Woodpecker—Uncommon to rare resident of mature woodlands along
the Red River in Cass County (and possibly in Grand Forks) and along the
Sheyenne River in Ransom and Richland Counties. More common along the
Red River at Fargo in winter.


Red-headed Woodpecker—Fairly common to uncommon summer resident of open
woodlands and agricultural areas (shelter belts, orchards, farmyards,
etc.) throughout (range in the northwest is limited). Look for it in
Lindenwood Park (Fargo), the Sibley Island area in Bismarck, Sully’s
Creek Park, the Pembina Hills, Turtle River Park, and in the bottomlands
of the James, Red, and Sheyenne Rivers.


Eastern Kingbird—Common summer resident of open areas throughout. Nests
in hedgerows, shelterbelts, woodlots, farmyards, prairie thickets, and
along the edges of extensive woodlands. Commonly seen perched on
barbed-wire fences along the highways. Hard to miss.


Western Kingbird—Common summer resident throughout. Can be found in much
the same habitat as the Eastern. However, the Western is often found in
more wooded areas such as open bottomland forests and residential areas.
Even then it is still basically an edge-habitat species. Hard to miss.


Great Crested Flycatcher—Fairly common summer resident of mature
deciduous forests throughout the eastern half. Uncommon to rare in the
bottomland forests of the Missouri River near Bismarck-Mandan. Look for
it in places such as J. Clark Salyer Refuge (uncommon), throughout the
Turtle Mountain and Pembina Hills, Turtle River Park, Sully’s Hill Game
Preserve, Stump Lake Park, Little Yellowstone Park, and in the
bottomland forests of the James (Stutsman County), Sheyenne (Barnes,
Ransom, and Richland Counties), and Red (try especially at Lindenwood
and Oak Grove Parks in Fargo) Rivers.


Say’s Phoebe—Uncommon summer resident of badlands, sharply eroded
buttes, and agricultural areas throughout the western half. Rare east of
J. Clark Salyer Refuge. Prefers badlands-type habitat, but also nests
under the eaves of farm buildings and under small bridges. Look for it
in either unit of the Roosevelt Memorial, at Little Missouri and Sully’s
Creek Parks, along the roads going south from Marmarth and Rhame in
Bowman County, along Highway 1806 in the badlands area south of Mandan
(Morton County), and near Kenmare.


Yellow-bellied Flycatcher—Rare migrant in wooded areas throughout the
eastern half. Try the Turtle Mountains, Pembina Hills, Turtle River
State Park, Sully’s Hill Game Preserve, and Lindenwood and Oak Grove
Parks.


Willow Flycatcher—Fairly common to uncommon summer resident of
shelterbelts, prairie thickets and swales, and wood edges. You may hear
its distinctive “FITZ-bew” call often before actually seeing the bird.
In areas where the Least Flycatcher is found, song is probably the only
safe way to separate the two, although the Least is seldom found in
prairie areas. Look for the Willow Flycatcher throughout the Turtle
Mountains and Pembina Hills, in edge habitat along the James and
Sheyenne Rivers, at Sully’s Creek Park, and on Bowman-Haley, Lake Ilo,
Lostwood, Des Lacs, Upper Souris, J. Clark Salyer, Arrowwood, and Slade
Refuges.


Alder Flycatcher—Uncommon to rare migrant through wooded areas in the
eastern third. May nest in the Pembina Hills. This species was formerly
considered conspecific with the Willow Flycatcher as the Traill’s
Flycatcher. Safely separable from other members of the genus only by
song, which sounds like “fee-BEE-o”.


Least Flycatcher—Common summer resident of deciduous forests and wooded
farm habitats (like orchards and shelterbelts) throughout. Less common
in the western half (with the exception of the Kenmare area). Look for
it at such places as Sully’s Creek Park; the campgrounds in both units
of the Roosevelt Memorial; wooded portions of Lake Ilo, Des Lacs,
Lostwood, Upper Souris, J. Clark Salyer, Arrowwood, and Tewaukon
Refuges; Tasker’s Coulee; throughout the Turtle Mountains and Pembina
Hills; Turtle River Park; Stump Lake Park; Sully’s Hill Game Preserve;
Clausen Springs; and along the bottomland forests of the Missouri,
James, Red, and Sheyenne Rivers.


Eastern Pewee—Common to fairly common summer resident of wooded areas
throughout the eastern two-thirds. Uncommon in the western edge of this
area along the Missouri River at Bismarck, and on wooded portions of Des
Lacs and Upper Souris Refuges. Look for it throughout the Turtle
Mountains and Pembina Hills; on J. Clark Salyer and Tewaukon Refuges; at
Turtle River Park; Stump Lake Park; Sully’s Hill Game Preserve; and
along wooded bottomlands of the James, Sheyenne, and Red (try Lindenwood
and Oak Grove Parks) Rivers.


Western Pewee—Uncommon to rare summer resident of wooded bottomlands
along the Little Missouri River. Look for it in both units of the
Roosevelt Memorial, at Sully’s Creek Park, and in wooded residential
areas of Medora and Marmarth. This species has a harsh call which is
quite different from the “pee-a-wee” of the Eastern Pewee. It can often
be separated by sight as well. The Western has a dusky breast and flanks
with a light “zipper” extending upward to the upper breast something
like an Olive-sided Flycatcher.


Blue Jay—Fairly common permanent resident of deciduous woodlands west to
Bismarck. Uncommon in the southwest quarter and uncommon to rare in the
northwest quarter. Not hard to find in the Turtle Mountains and Pembina
Hills, at Turtle River Park, Stump Lake Park, Sully’s Hill Game
Preserve, Linden wood and Oak Grove Parks in Fargo, Little Yellowstone
Park, Sully’s Creek Park, Little Missouri Park, the campgrounds of both
units of the Roosevelt Memorial, the Sibley Island area at Bismarck, and
in bottomland forests along the James, Red, and Sheyenne Rivers.


Black-billed Magpie—Fairly common permanent resident of wood margins,
prairie thickets, and agricultural areas throughout much of the western
half. Uncommon breeder in the Turtle Mountains and Devils Lake regions.
Uncommon winter visitor over the rest of the state. Easy to find in both
units of the Roosevelt Memorial, Sully’s Creek and Little Missouri
Parks; western Bowman, Slope, and Golden Valley Counties; the Williston
area; and along the Missouri River near Bismarck. Look for it also on
Lostwood, Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer (especially the
sandhills) Refuges. In the east look for it in winter in the Turtle
Mountains, Pembina Hills, on the south side of Devils Lake, Arrowwood
Refuge, and in the Valley City area.


Black-capped Chickadee—Fairly common permanent resident of deciduous
forests throughout. In winter it is commonly seen in residential areas.
Should be easy to find at such places as Sully’s Creek Park, along the
river and in wooded draws in both units of the Roosevelt Memorial, Upper
Souris and J. Clark Salyer Refuges, throughout the Turtle Mountains and
Pembina Hills, Turtle River Park, Stump Lake Park, Sully’s Hill Game
Preserve, and along portions of the Missouri (near Bismarck), James
(Stutsman County), Sheyenne (Barnes, Ransom, and Richland Counties), and
Red (around Fargo) Rivers.


Sedge Wren—Fairly common summer resident of sedge fields, wet meadows,
grassy edges of seasonal ponds, retired croplands, and alfalfa hayfields
in the northwest, northeast, and southeast sectors. Found in the
southwest only in alfalfa fields bordering the Missouri and its
tributaries in Morton County. Look for it at Kelly’s Slough; Rush Lake;
Lake Ardoch; the Little Heart River crossing; Des Lacs, Lostwood, Upper
Souris, J. Clark Salyer, Rose Lake, Lake Alice, Arrowwood, Long Lake,
and Tewaukon Refuges; and in suitable habitat in the Turtle Mountains.
Of these, J. Clark Salyer Refuge may be best.


Rock Wren—Locally fairly common to uncommon summer resident of eroded
buttes and desert-like arroyos in the western half. Look for it in both
units of the Roosevelt Memorial, Sully’s Creek and Little Missouri
Parks, the badlands area south of Mandan on Highway 1806, and in
appropriate habitat along the roads going south from Marmarth and Rhame.


Gray Catbird—Common summer resident of brushy forest edges, prairie
thickets, and shelterbelts throughout. Easy to find at Sully’s Creek
Park, both units of Roosevelt Memorial, Lake Ilo, Des Lacs, Lostwood,
Upper Souris, J. Clark Salyer, Arrowwood, and Tewaukon Refuges;
throughout the Turtle Mountains and Pembina Hills; at Turtle River Park;
Stump Lake Park; Sully’s Hill Game Preserve; and along the wooded
bottomlands of the James, Missouri, Red, and Sheyenne Rivers.


Brown Thrasher—Common to fairly common summer resident throughout.
Occupies much the same habitat and areas as the Catbird. Occurs more
often in residential areas.


Gray-cheeked Thrush—Fairly common migrant in wooded parks, bottomlands,
hills, coulees, and residential areas throughout most of the state.
Fairly easy to find during May (harder to find in fall) at such places
as Lindenwood Park; Turtle River, Little Yellowstone, and Stump Lake
Parks; Sully’s Hill Game Preserve; Upper Souris, Des Lacs, and J. Clark
Salyer Refuges; throughout the Turtle Mountains and Pembina Hills; and
in wooded bottomlands of the Missouri (at Bismarck), James, Sheyenne,
and Red Rivers.


Eastern Bluebird—Uncommon summer resident of forest edges, sandhills,
orchards, shelterbelts, and agricultural areas throughout (rare in the
southwest quarter). Most common in the southeast corner and in the
Turtle Mountains. Some of the better areas are around Lake Ashtabula and
Clausen Springs in Barnes County, and in the Sheyenne River bottomlands,
sandhills, and grasslands in Ransom and Richland Counties. Try also
appropriate habitat along the James River near Jamestown, and along the
Missouri River near Bismarck and Mandan.


Mountain Bluebird—Fairly common summer resident of scrub prairie, dry
slopes, and wooded coulees in the badlands of the western third.
Uncommon to rare summer resident of forest-edge (usually near aspen
stands) habitats in the Turtle Mountains and on J. Clark Salyer Refuge
(sandhills area). Fairly common to uncommon migrant on prairies and
agricultural areas throughout the remainder of the western half. Rare
early-spring migrant over the rest of the state. Should be fairly easy
to find in both units of the Roosevelt Memorial (especially along the
Caprock Coulee Trail in the north unit), Little Missouri Park, the
sandhills area of J. Clark Salyer Refuge, and throughout the Kenmare
area during the second half of March.


Townsend’s Solitaire—Rare winter visitor/resident of wooded areas
throughout the western half. Prefers deciduous river bottoms (Little
Missouri River), coniferous slopes (badlands), and conifer stands in and
around towns and cities. Look for it anywhere in the badlands or at the
Northern Great Plains Research Station in Mandan.


Sprague’s Pipit—Fairly common but local summer resident of mixed-grass
prairies and grassy lake borders throughout most of the western and
central portions, but uncommon to rare in the eastern third. Uncommon
migrant throughout. Should be easy to find at such places as Des Lacs,
Lostwood, J. Clark Salyer (grasslands tour), Audubon, and Arrowwood
Refuges; Longspur Pasture; and in appropriate habitat over much of
Mountrail, Kidder, and Stutsman Counties.


Bohemian Waxwing—Fairly common but sporadic winter visitor to wooded
habitats and residential areas throughout. In winters when present,
often found in large flocks in bottomland forest, wood lots, city parks,
crab-apple orchards, and residential areas. In fact it can be found
anywhere where there are fruit-bearing trees or shrubs. During
non-invasion years; can be impossible to find.


Northern Shrike—Uncommon winter visitor to prairies, agricultural areas,
and open woodlands throughout. Often hangs out around feeding stations
and picks off smaller birds. One of its favorite habitats is a dry
slough with lots of willow growth. Here it can find an abundance of
shrews, voles, and mice. Likes to perch in conspicuous places.


Bell’s Vireo—Rare and local summer resident of wooded bottomlands along
the Missouri River at Bismarck. Try the Sibley Island area. Has a very
distinctive “hurried-up” song, which is useful in locating this rather
drab bird.


Yellow-throated Vireo—Fairly common to uncommon summer resident of
mature deciduous forests throughout the eastern half. Look for it
throughout the Turtle Mountains and Pembina Hills, on J. Clark Salyer
Refuge, at Stump Lake and Turtle River Parks, Sully’s Hill Game
Preserve, Lindenwood Park, and along bottomland forests of the James (in
Stutsman County) and Sheyenne (in Barnes, Ransom, and Richland Counties)
Rivers.


Red-eyed Vireo—Common summer resident of deciduous forests throughout.
Should be easy to find at such places as Sully’s Creek and Turtle River
Parks; along the river in both units of the Roosevelt Memorial; Des
Lacs, Upper Souris, J. Clark Salyer, and Tewaukon Refuges; throughout
the Turtle Mountains and Pembina Hills; Stump Lake Park; Sully’s Hill
Game Preserve; the Sibley Island area at Bismarck; Lindenwood Park; and
along stretches of the James (Stutsman County), Sheyenne (Barnes,
Ransom, and Richland Counties), and Red Rivers.


Philadelphia Vireo—Uncommon summer resident of aspen forests of the
Turtle Mountains. Look for it at Lake Metigoshe State Park and the
Wakopa Game Management Area. Uncommon migrant through deciduous
woodlands throughout the rest of the eastern half. In migration look for
it at Turtle River and Stump Lake Parks, Sully’s Hill Game Preserve, J.
Clark Salyer Refuge, Lindenwood Park, Icelandic Park, Gunlogson
Arboretum, Tongue River Game Management Area, in all appropriate habitat
in the Pembina Hills, and along the bottomland forests of the James,
Sheyenne, and Red Rivers.


Migrant warblers—Occur in wooded habitats, shelterbelts, and residential
areas throughout. More species and individuals can be found in the
eastern half. The greatest diversity of migrant warblers usually occurs
along the Red River at Fargo, where one may see as many as twenty
species in one day. The species which regularly occur as migrants (some
may nest) over the eastern half of the state include Black-and-white,
Tennessee, Orange-crowned, Nashville, Yellow, Magnolia, Cape May,
Yellow-rumped (Myrtle), Black-throated Green, Blackburnian,
Chestnut-sided, Bay-breasted, Blackpoll, Palm, Connecticut, Mourning,
Wilson’s, and Canada Warblers; Ovenbird; Northern Waterthrush; and
American Redstart. Other species which can be seen in the east but with
less regularity are Prothonotary, Golden-winged, Northern Parula,
Black-throated Blue, and Cerulean Warblers. In addition, the
Yellow-rumped (Audubon’s) Warbler, MacGillivray’s Warbler, and
Yellow-breasted Chat can be found in the western half. The peak
movements of warblers usually occur in mid-May and September.


Chestnut-sided Warbler—Uncommon to rare summer resident of deciduous
forest edges and secondary growth in the Turtle Mountains and Pembina
Hills. Fairly common to uncommon migrant throughout the eastern third;
rare farther west.


Ovenbird—Common migrant and fairly common to uncommon summer resident of
mature deciduous forests (especially bottomland forest) in scattered
areas throughout. Look for it in summer along the Little Missouri River
in both units of the Roosevelt Memorial (check the campgrounds and
picnic areas), at Sully’s Creek and Little Missouri Parks, Tasker’s
Coulee, J. Clark Salyer Refuge, throughout the Turtle Mountains and
Pembina Hills, Sully’s Hill Game Preserve, Stump Lake Park, along the
Missouri River at Bismarck (Sibley Island area), and in the bottomland
forests of the Sheyenne River in Ransom and Richland Counties.


Northern Waterthrush—Fairly common to uncommon summer resident of
wood-bordered bogs, swamps, streams, and lakes in the Turtle Mountains,
Pembina Hills, and on the south side of Devils Lake. Fairly common
migrant through similar habitat over most of the state.


Mourning Warbler—Uncommon summer resident of forests containing an
abundance of secondary growth in the Turtle Mountains and Pembina Hills.
Fairly common to uncommon migrant over the remainder of the eastern
half; rare in the western half.


Bobolink—Fairly common summer resident of tall and mid-grass prairies,
alfalfa and other hayfields, and retired croplands throughout. Easy to
find at almost any prairie area. Slightly harder to find in the
southwest quarter but try Bowman-Haley and Lake Ilo Refuges, and meadows
and alfalfa fields along the Missouri River in Morton County.


Western Meadowlark—Common to abundant summer resident (a few winter) of
open country throughout. This is the state bird of North Dakota and is
the only meadowlark present. If you miss this one, you are birding with
your eyes and ears closed!


Yellow-headed Blackbird—Common summer resident of cattail and bulrush
marshes and lake edges throughout. Less common in the southwest quarter.
Hard to miss at such places as Kelly’s Slough, the marshes around
Burnstad, Rush Lake, and Des Lacs, Lostwood, Upper Souris, J. Clark
Salyer, Audubon, Lake Ilo, Bowman-Haley, Long Lake, Slade, Arrowwood,
and Tewaukon Refuges.


Orchard Oriole—Fairly common to uncommon summer resident of forest
edges, farmyards, shelterbelts, orchards, and residential areas
throughout the southern half. Uncommon and local in similar habitat
throughout the northern half. Some specific spots include wooded ravines
and bottomland forest edges in the south unit of the Roosevelt Memorial,
Sully’s Creek Park, the residential areas of Kenmare, the wooded area
near the Des Lacs Refuge headquarters, the Sibley Island area at
Bismarck, wooded draws surrounding Lake Ashtabula in Barnes County, and
at Clausen Springs.


Northern Oriole—The predominant race, the Baltimore Oriole, is a fairly
common summer resident of deciduous woodlands, shelterbelts, farmyards,
and residential areas throughout the eastern two-thirds (uncommon to
rare west of Bismarck). Not hard to find. The other race, the Bullock’s
Oriole, is very restricted. It is uncommon and local in riparian stands
of cottonwoods in Billings, Slope, and Bowman Counties. Look for it at
Sully’s Creek Park, in the residential areas of Marmarth and Medora,
along the river and at the campgrounds and picnic grounds in the south
unit of the Roosevelt Memorial, and along wooded portions of the Little
Missouri River south of Marmarth.


Rusty Blackbird—Uncommon migrant and uncommon to rare winter visitor to
bottomland forests, wood lots, and farmyards throughout.


Brewer’s Blackbird—Fairly common summer resident and uncommon to rare
winter visitor of open country throughout. Least common in the
south-central portion. Not hard to find.


Common Grackle—Common to fairly common summer resident and rare winter
visitor of forest edges, farmlands, and residential areas throughout.
Easy to find almost anywhere.


Scarlet Tanager—Uncommon summer resident of mature deciduous forests
throughout the eastern quarter. Rare breeder in the bottomland forests
along the Missouri River at Bismarck. Uncommon migrant throughout the
eastern third. Look for it in the Pembina Hills, at Gunlogson Arboretum,
Stump Lake Park, Turtle River Park, and along the bottomland forests of
the Red, Pembina, Tongue, and Sheyenne (especially in Ransom and
Richland Counties) Rivers.


Northern Cardinal—Uncommon permanent resident of brushy tangles in
wooded areas along the Red River at Fargo. In summer it is easiest to
see at Oak Grove Park. In winter it may be observed at feeding stations
along the river.


Rose-breasted Grosbeak—Fairly common summer resident of mature deciduous
forests throughout the eastern half. Commonly seen in migration west to
Bismarck. Look for it at Oak Grove and Lindenwood Parks in Fargo, Turtle
River and Stump Lake Parks, Sully’s Hill Game Preserve, in the Turtle
Mountains and Pembina Hills, the Gunlogson Arboretum, J. Clark Salyer
and Tewaukon Refuges, Clausen Springs, and in the bottomland forests of
the James, Red, and Sheyenne Rivers.


Black-headed Grosbeak—Fairly common to uncommon summer resident of
mature deciduous forests bordering the Missouri and Little Missouri
Rivers in the western half. Fairly easy to find in the Sibley Island
area at Bismarck, at Sully’s Creek and Little Missouri Parks, in the
residential areas of Medora and Marmarth, and along the river in both
units of the Roosevelt Memorial (especially Squaw Creek
campgrounds/picnic grounds in the north unit).


Blue Grosbeak—Rare spring and summer visitor (and possible breeder) to
forest edges, prairie thickets, shelterbelts, and agricultural areas
throughout. Most likely in the Little Missouri badlands.


Indigo Bunting—Fairly common summer resident of deciduous forests
throughout the eastern third. Uncommon breeder along the Missouri River
at Bismarck. Look for this striking bird throughout the Pembina Hills,
at Turtle River and Stump Lake Parks, Sully’s Hill Game Preserve, Oak
Grove and Linden wood Parks in Fargo, along the Red River from Pembina
County to Richland County, along the James River in Stutsman County, and
in the Sibley Island area at Bismarck. The latter area overlaps the
range of the Lazuli Bunting, and you may see mated pairs and hybrids.


Lazuli Bunting—Fairly common summer resident of deciduous forests
throughout most of the western half. Like the Indigo Bunting, this
species prefers forest edges and semi-open forests to the thickly wooded
areas. Should be easy to find at Sully’s Creek and Little Missouri
Parks, along the river and at the campgrounds and picnic grounds in both
units of Roosevelt Memorial (especially at Squaw Creek
campgrounds/picnic grounds in the north unit), along the river on Upper
Souris Refuge, and along the Missouri River at Bismarck (try the Sibley
Island area).


Dickcissel—Fairly common summer resident of prairie grasslands, alfalfa
hayfields, and retired croplands over most of the state. Somewhat
cyclic; common one year and hard to find the next. Much less common in
the northern third. Look for it at Bowman-Haley, Lake Ilo, Long Lake,
Des Lacs (uncommon to rare), J. Clark Salyer, Audubon, Arrowwood, Slade,
Tewaukon, and Rose Lake Refuges; in alfalfa and weedy fields along the
Missouri River at Bismarck-Mandan; around Lake Ashtabula; along the road
to the North Fargo Sewage Lagoons; and along any back roads through open
country in the southeast quarter.


Evening Grosbeak—Fairly common but erratic winter visitor to forests,
wood lots, farmyards, and residential areas throughout. Easiest to see
at feeding stations along river bottoms at such places as Fargo, Grand
Forks, Valley City, Jamestown, Devils Lake, Bismarck, and Mandan. This
species is more regular than some of the other winter visitors from the
north, being present in good numbers during most winters.


Pine Grosbeak—Uncommon and erratic winter visitor to forests, wood lots,
orchards, farmyards, and residential areas over most of the state. Less
common in the southwestern quarter. Look for it at Des Lacs Refuge,
throughout the Turtle Mountains and Pembina Hills, at Turtle River Park,
Lindenwood Park and Riverside Cemetery in Fargo, Sully’s Hill Game
Preserve, and along wooded river bottoms (such as the Missouri, James,
Red, and Sheyenne) across the eastern two-thirds.


Gray-crowned Rosy Finch—Occasional winter visitor to open country in the
extreme western part of the state. Most likely in the Little Missouri
badlands. Often found in large flocks. Over the rest of the state single
birds may show up at feeding stations with flocks of juncos.


Hoary Redpoll—Rare and erratic winter visitor to open country and
feeding stations throughout. More common in the eastern half. Usually
found with flocks of Common Redpolls. During invasion years it may be
uncommon from Bismarck east.


Common Redpoll—Common but erratic winter visitor to open country
throughout. Frequents feeding stations in residential areas. Preferred
spots include forest edges, weed-filled ditches, dry sloughs, and
sunflower fields. Some winters totally absent; when present can usually
be found in good numbers almost anywhere.


Red Crossbill—Fairly common but erratic winter visitor to forests,
parks, cemeteries, tree lines, and residential areas throughout. Partial
to plantings of conifers, but may frequent feeding stations in large
numbers. After invasion winters, scattered pairs often nest over much of
the state. During good winters often easier to find in the vicinity of
Lindenwood Park and Riverside Cemetery in Fargo than elsewhere.


White-winged Crossbill—Rare and erratic winter visitor to woodlands and
residential feeding stations throughout. Apparently, more common in the
eastern half. Found in the same habitat as the Red Crossbill.


Lark Bunting—Common to abundant summer resident of sage prairies,
grasslands, weedy fields, and retired croplands throughout the western
two-thirds. Uncommon to rare east of Jamestown. Most abundant in the
southwest sector.


Baird’s Sparrow—Fairly common to uncommon summer resident of mixed-grass
prairies, alfalfa hayfields, and retired croplands throughout much of
the western three-fourths of the state. For the most part rare or absent
east of Stutsman County. The preferred habitat seems to be mixed-grass
prairie dotted with wolfberry and silverberry shrubs. Tall-grass areas
bordering prairie potholes and lakes are also frequented. Some of the
better areas include Bowman-Haley, Lake Ilo, Lostwood, Des Lacs, Upper
Souris, J. Clark Salyer (grasslands tour), Audubon, Arrowwood, and Long
Lake Refuges; Longspur Pasture; and the edges of Salt Alkaline Lake. Of
these, Longspur Pasture is probably the easiest place to find it.

The Baird’s Sparrow has a song consisting of three short “tic”’s
followed by a musical trill, somewhat like the song of the Savannah
Sparrow. The song usually given by the Grasshopper Sparrow is similar in
pattern, but has more of an insect-like quality to the trill. The
Grasshopper Sparrow also has a second song, which is also very similar
to that of the Baird’s. With practice you will learn to distinguish
between the two, but at first you will have to see the bird to make
sure.


Le Conte’s Sparrow—Fairly common summer resident of sedge fields, wet
meadows and lake borders, alfalfa hayfields, and retired croplands
throughout much of the eastern half. Fairly common in the Kenmare area
as well. This rather shy sparrow often undergoes yearly population
fluctuations, which are dependent upon water levels. During dry years it
is often absent from many of its regular breeding locations. (This is
especially true in the Kenmare area.) Some of the more dependable spots
include Lostwood, Des Lacs, J. Clark Salyer, Arrowwood, Audubon, Lake
Alice, Rose Lake, and Tewaukon Refuges; Kelly’s Slough; Lake Ardoch; and
the area surrounding the Sanborne Waterfowl Production Area in Barnes
County. Of these spots J. Clark Salyer, Kelly’s Slough, and the Rose
Lake area are probably your best bets.


Sharp-tailed Sparrow—Locally fairly common to uncommon summer resident
of sedge fields, wet meadows, and marshes with much emergent vegetation
over much of the eastern half and northwest quarter. Undergoes frequent
fluctuations of breeding populations. Unlike the Le Conte’s, the
Sharp-tailed is more common during dry years. When the water levels of
marshes are lowered, there is more emergent vegetation to utilize as a
nesting habitat. Look for it at such places as Lostwood, Des Lacs, J.
Clark Salyer, Arrowwood, Long Lake, Slade, Lake Alice, Rose Lake, and
Tewaukon Refuges; Rush Lake; the Sanborne Waterfowl Production Area in
Barnes County; and in proper habitat throughout Sargent, Stutsman,
Benson, and Nelson Counties.


American Tree Sparrow—Common migrant and uncommon winter visitor to
weedy fields and ditches, retired croplands, sunflower fields, and
feeding stations throughout. Not hard to find.


Clay-colored Sparrow—Common summer resident of prairie thickets,
shelterbelts, brushy wood margins, and retired croplands throughout. If
you miss this species, you are probably not birding.


Brewer’s Sparrow—Fairly common summer resident of sage prairies in the
southwest corner. Largely restricted to the western portions of Slope
and Bowman Counties. Local populations occur in Billings and Golden
Valley Counties. Easy to find along the road going south from Marmarth.

If you are not familiar with this species, you may have trouble in
differentiating between it and the Clay-colored Sparrow. The songs of
the two species are very different and are the easiest way to tell them
apart. The Clay-colored has a very low buzzy song of short duration. The
Brewer’s has a series of trills.


Field Sparrow—Fairly common summer resident of sage flats, prairie
thickets, brushy ravines, and wood margins in the western half. Uncommon
summer resident of sandhills and brushy margins of the Sheyenne River in
Barnes, Ransom, and Richland Counties. Uncommon migrant elsewhere. Easy
to find along the Missouri River at Bismarck, at Sully’s Creek State
Park, and in both units of the Roosevelt Memorial.


Harris’ Sparrow—Common migrant and rare winter visitor to brushy wood
margins, shelterbelts, wood lots, parks, residential areas, and feeding
stations throughout. Not hard to find.


Swamp Sparrow—Uncommon and local summer resident of brushy bogs
scattered throughout the eastern half. Isolated colonies have been
located in Bottineau, Benson, LaMoure, Kidder, Dickey, and Sargent
Counties in recent years (Stewart, _Breeding Birds of North Dakota_,
1975). Uncommon migrant through wood-bordered streams, ponds, lakes, and
marshy areas west to about Bismarck.


McCown’s Longspur—Locally fairly common to uncommon summer resident of
short-grass prairies, stubble fields, and summer fallow fields in the
northwest and southwest corners of the state. Look along the roads going
south from Rhame and Marmarth, in the stubble fields around Bowman-Haley
Refuge, in the Kenmare area, in the south unit of the Roosevelt
Memorial, the stubble fields of central McKenzie County, and in the
vicinity of Crosby (Divide County).


Lapland Longspur—Common migrant and uncommon winter visitor to open
country throughout. Can be seen in large flocks around marshy areas
during migration. Some flocks may contain thousands of birds. In winter
look for it along roadsides with Horned Larks and Snow Buntings.


Smith’s Longspur—Rare migrant in open country throughout much of the
eastern two-thirds (more common in the eastern one-fourth). Usually
found in flocks of Lapland Longspurs, but occasionally occurs in large,
pure flocks in the fall, particularly around marshes in the southeast
sector. Try the North Fargo Sewage Lagoons and the waterfowl production
areas near Alice (Cass County).


Chestnut-collared Longspur—Common summer resident of mixed-grass
prairies, short-grass prairies, pastures, stubble fields, fallow fields,
and retired croplands throughout (rare in Steele, Traill, Cass, Ransom,
and Richland Counties). Hard to miss at such places as Bowman-Haley,
Lake Ilo, Stewart Lake, Lostwood, Des Lacs, Upper Souris, J. Clark
Salyer (grasslands tour), Audubon, Long Lake, Arrowwood, and Salde
Refuges; along the roads going south from Marmarth and Rhame; at
Longspur Pasture; and in prairie grasslands.


Snow Bunting—Common winter visitor to open country throughout. Less
common in the southwest corner. Easy to find just by driving any roads
(with the possible exception of interstates) leading through prairies or
agricultural areas. Often seen right along the road feeding with Horned
Larks.



                         BIRDS OF NORTH DAKOTA


The following charts include all species of wild birds occurring in
North Dakota.

The bar-graphs are designed to give a conservative idea of your chances
of finding a particular species rather than of its abundance. Thus a
large bird such as the Red-tailed Hawk may be shown as “hard to miss”
while a shy, hard-to-identify, or small bird such as the Sharp-tailed
Sparrow may occur in greater numbers, but be shown as “may see.”

    [Illustration: Bar-graph Key]

  HARD TO MISS                    ######
  SHOULD SEE                      xxxxxx
  MAY SEE                         ======
  LUCKY TO FIND                   ------
  HOW LUCKY CAN YOU GET           ......

Many local birders and others who bird the area frequently were
consulted in determining the status of each bird. Since these people are
familiar with the birds, their songs, habits, and habitats, they are
good at finding the more elusive species. On your first trip to the
area, you may think that some birds are harder to find than is indicated
here.

If you are in the RIGHT HABITAT and the RIGHT AREA at the RIGHT SEASON,
you should be able to find the “hard to miss” birds on nearly every
field trip; the “should see” on 3 out of 4 trips; the “may see” on 1 out
of 4 trips; and the “lucky to find” on 1 out of 10 trips or even less
frequently. The “how lucky can you get” species occur at very infrequent
intervals or take an expert to identify.

Although “forget it” is the answer that you will probably receive when
inquiring about your chances of seeing a very rare species, do not stop
looking. Adding a rarity to your list is what puts the topping on a
trip. If you are positive of your identification, take careful notes and
report your find to the regional editor of _American Birds_: Esther M.
Serr, 615 8th Street, Rapid City, S.D. 57701.

    [Illustration: Bar-graph Page 1]

    [Illustration: Bar-graph Page 2]

    [Illustration: Bar-graph Page 3]

    [Illustration: Bar-graph Page 4]

    [Illustration: Bar-graph Page 5]

    [Illustration: Bar-graph Page 6]

    [Illustration: Bar-graph Page 7]

    [Illustration: Bar-graph Page 8]

    [Illustration: Bar-graph Page 9]

                            SE  SW  NW  NE   JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

  COMMON LOON               --- --- --- ===              --- ---             --- --
  ”                                     ===                  === === === ===
  RED-NECKED GREBE          --- --- --- ===              --  --- --- --- --- --- --
  ”                                     ===                      === === ===
  HORNED GREBE              === --- === ===              ==  === === === === === ==
  EARED GREBE               xxx xxx xxx xxx              xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx
  WESTERN GREBE             xxx xxx ### xxx              xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx
  PIED-BILLED GREBE         ### ### ### ###              ### ### ### ### ### ###
  AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN    ### ### ### xxx              ### ### ### ### ### ###
  DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT  ### ### ### ###              ### ### ### ### ### ###
  GREAT BLUE HERON          === === === ===          ==  === === === === === === ===
  GREEN HERON               === ... ... ---              --- --- --- --- --- --- ...
  CATTLE EGRET              ... ... ... ---              ... ... ... ... ... ... ..
  GREAT EGRET               --- ... ... ---              --  ---         --- ---
  ”                         ===                                      ==  === ===
  SNOWY EGRET               ... ... ... ...              ..  ...         ... ...
  BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON xxx xxx xxx xxx              xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  LEAST BITTERN             ...     ... ...              ..  ... ... ... ... ...
  AMERICAN BITTERN          === === === ===              ==  === === === === ===
  WHITE-FACED IBIS          ...         ...              ..  ... ... ... ... ...
  WHISTLING SWAN            === === === ===          ==  ===                 === xxx ===
  CANADA GOOSE              xxx xxx xxx xxx          xx  xxx === === === === xxx xxx ==
  GREATER WHITE-FRONTED     --  xxx xxx ---          ==  ===                 === === ==
  GOOSE
  SNOW GOOSE                ### xxx xxx ###          ##  ###                 ### ### ==
  MALLARD                   ### ### ### ###  === === xxx ### ### ### ### ### ### === === ===
  AMERICAN BLACK DUCK       ... ... ... ...              ... ... ... ... ... ... ..
  GADWALL                   ### ### ### ###              ### ### ### ### ### ### ==
  COMMON PINTAIL            ### ### ### ###              ### ### ### ### ### ### ==
  GREEN-WINGED TEAL         === xxx xxx xxx              xxx xxx === === === xxx ==
  BLUE-WINGED TEAL          ### ### ### ###              ### ### ### ### ### ### xx
  CINNAMON TEAL             ... ... ... ...              ... ... ... ... ... ... ..
  AMERICAN WIGEON           xxx xxx xxx xxx              xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx ==
  NORTHERN SHOVELER         ### ### ### ###              ### ### ### ### ### ### ##
  WOOD DUCK                 xxx === === xxx              xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx === ==
  REDHEAD                   xxx xxx xxx xxx              xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx ==
  RING-NECKED DUCK          xxx xxx xxx xxx              xxx xxx --- --- --- xxx xxx
  CANVASBACK                xxx xxx xxx xxx              xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx --
  GREATER SCAUP             ... ... ... ...              ... ...             ... ...
  LESSER SCAUP              xxx xxx xxx xxx              xxx xxx === === === xxx xxx
  COMMON GOLDENEYE          === === === ===  ... ... ... === ==              --- --- --. ...
  ”                                     ...                  ..  ... ... ...
  BUFFLEHEAD                === === === ===              === ===             === ===
  ”                                     ---                      --- --- ---
  OLDSQUAW                  ...     ... ...          ... ...                     ... ...
  WHITE WINGED SCOTER       --- ... ... ---          --  ---                 --  --- --
  ”                                 ... ...                  ... ... ... ...
  BLACK SCOTER              ...     ... ...          ..  ...                 ..  ... ..
  RUDDY DUCK                ### ### ### ###              ### ### ### ### ### ### ##
  HOODED MERGANSER          --- ... --- ---              --- --- --- --- --- --- --
  COMMON MERGANSER          xxx === xxx xxx              xxx ==              --- ---
  RED-BREASTED MERGANSER    --- --- --- ---  ... ... ... --- --              --- --- ... ...
  TURKEY VULTURE                === ---                  --  --- --- --- --- --- --
  NORTHERN GOSHAWK          --- --- --- ---  --- --- --- ...                 ... ... --- ---
  SHARP-SHINNED HAWK        --- --- --- ===              === === --- --- --- === === --
  COOPER’S HAWK             --- --- --- ===              --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
  RED-TAILED HAWK           ### ### ### ###  --- --- --- ### ### ### ### ### ### ### --- ---
  BROAD-WINGED HAWK         === --- --- ===              ==  === --- --- --- === ===
  SWAINSON’S HAWK           === xxx xxx ===              ==  xxx xxx xxx xxx ===
  ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK         === --- --- ===  === === === ==                      ==  === ===
  FERRUGINOUS HAWK          === === === ---              ==  === === === === === ==
  GOLDEN EAGLE              ... === --- ...  --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
  BALD EAGLE                --- --- --- ---  --- --- --- --- ... ... ... ... ... --- --- ---
  NORTHERN HARRIER          ### ### ### ###  ... ... ... ### ### ### ### ### ### xxx ... ...
  OSPREY                    ... ... ... ...              ... ...             ... ...
  GYRFALCON                 ... ... ... ...  ... ... ...                                 ...
  PRAIRIE FALCON            ... --- --- ...  --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
  PEREGRINE FALCON          ... ... ... ...  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
  MERLIN                    ... --- --- ...  --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
  AMERICAN KESTREL          xxx xxx xxx xxx  --- --- --- xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx --- --- ---
  RUFFED GROUSE                 ... ... ===  --- --- --- === === === === === --- --- --- ---
  GREATER PRAIRIE CHICKEN   ===         ===  --- --- ==  === ==  --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
  SHARP-TAILED GROUSE       === ### ### ===  xxx xxx xxx ### ### xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  SAGE GROUSE                   ---          --- --- --- === === --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
  RING-NECKED PHEASANT      === === === ---  === === === === === === === === === === === ===
  GRAY PARTRIDGE            xxx xxx xxx xxx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  WILD TURKEY               === === === ---  === === === === === === === === === === === ===
  WHOOPING CRANE                ... ...                  ..  ..              ... ...
  SANDHILL CRANE            --- xxx xxx ---          === xxx                     xxx xx
  KING RAIL                 ...                          ..  ... ... ... ... ...
  VIRGINIA RAIL             === --- === ===              ==  === === === === ===
  SORA                      === === === ===              ==  === === === === ===
  YELLOW RAIL                       ... ...                  ... ... ... ... ...
  AMERICAN COOT             ### ### ### ###              ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ==
  SEMIPALMATED PLOVER       === === === ===              ==  ===         === ===
  PIPING PLOVER             --- === === ---              ==  === === === === ===
  KILLDEER                  ### ### ### ###          === ### ### ### ### ### ### ### --
  LESSER GOLDEN PLOVER      xxx --- === ===              ==  ==              xxx xxx --
  BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER      xxx --- === ===              ==  ==          === === ==
  RUDDY TURNSTONE           === ... --- ===              ==  ===         === === ==
  AMERICAN WOODCOCK         ...         ...              ... ... ... ... ... ...
  COMMON SNIPE              === --- === ===              === === --- --- --- === ===
  LONG-BILLED CURLEW            ---                      --  --- --- --- --- --
  UPLAND SANDPIPER          xxx xxx xxx ===              ==  xxx xxx xxx xxx ===
  SPOTTED SANDPIPER         xxx xxx xxx xxx              xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx === ==
  SOLITARY SANDPIPER        === === === ===              ==  ===     ==  === === ==
  WILLET                    xxx xxx xxx xxx              xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx ==
  GREATER YELLOWLEGS        === === === ===              ==  ===     ==  === === ==
  LESSER YELLOWLEGS         ### xxx xxx xxx              xx  xxx === =xx xxx xxx ==
  RED KNOT                  ...         ...                  ...         ... ... ..
  PECTORAL SANDPIPER        === === === ===              ==  ===     ==  === === ==
  WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER    --- --- --- ---                  ---     --  --- --- --
  BAIRD’S SANDPIPER         === === === ===              ==  ===     ==  === === ==
  LEAST SANDPIPER           ### xxx ### ###              ##  ### === ### ### ### ==
  DUNLIN                    === --- --- ===              ==  ===     ==  === === ==
  SHORT-BILLED DOWITCHER    === --- --- ===              ==  ===     ==  === === ==
  LONG-BILLED DOWITCHER     === === === ===              ==  ===     ==  === === ==
  STILT SANDPIPER           xxx --- --- xxx              xx  xxx     xx  xxx xxx ==
  SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER    ### === ### ###              ##  ###     ##  ### ### ==
  WESTERN SANDPIPER         --- --- --- ---                  ---     --  --- --- --
  BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER   ... ... ... ---              ..  ...             ... ..
  MARBLED GODWIT            xxx xxx xxx xxx              xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  HUDSONIAN GODWIT          --- --- --- ---              --  ---         --- --- --
  SANDERLING                === --- --- ===              ==  ===     ==  === === --
  AMERICAN AVOCET           ### ### ### ###              ##  ### ### ### ### ### --
  WILSON’S PHALAROPE        ### ### ### ###              ##  ### ### ### ### ### --
  NORTHERN PHALAROPE        === === xxx ===              ==  ===     ==  === ===
  HERRING GULL              --- --- --- ---              --  ---     --  --- ---
  CALIFORNIA GULL           === === === --               --  --- --- --- --- ---
  RING-BILLED GULL          ### ### ### ###              ##  ### ### ### ### ### ##
  FRANKLIN’S GULL           ### ### ### ###              ##  ### ### ### ### ### ##
  BONAPARTE’S GULL          === --- --- ---              --  ---         --- --- --
  FORSTER’S TERN            xxx === === xxx              ==  xxx xxx xxx xxx --- --
  COMMON TERN               === === === ===              ==  === === === === --- --
  LITTLE TERN                   ---                          --- --- --- --- --
  CASPIAN TERN              ...     ... ...              ..  ... ..          ... ..
  BLACK TERN                ### ### ### ###              ##  ### ### ### ### ### ==
  ROCK DOVE                 ### xxx xxx ###  ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
  MOURNING DOVE             ### ### ### ###  --- --- -## ### ### ### ### ### ### ### === ---
  YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO      ... ... ... ...                  ..  ... ... ... ... ..
  BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO       === === === ===                  ==  === === === === --
  COMMON SCREECH-OWL        --- ... ... ---  ... ... --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ...
  GREAT HORNED OWL          === === === ===  === === === === === === === === === === === ===
  SNOWY OWL                 === === === ===  === === === --                          --  ===
  BURROWING OWL             --- === --- ...              --- === === === === --- ---
  BARRED OWL                ...         ...  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
  LONG-EARED OWL            ... ... --- ...  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
  SHORT-EARED OWL           --- === --- ---  === === === ==  --- --- --- --- --- === === ===
  SAW-WHET OWL              ... ... ... ...  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
  WHIP-POOR-WILL            ...         ...                  ... ... ... ... ... ..
  POOR-WILL                     ---                      --  --- --- --- --- ---
  COMMON NIGHTHAWK          ### ### ### ###              ##  ### ### ### ### xxx
  CHIMNEY SWIFT             xxx xxx === xxx              xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xx
  RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD === --- --- ===                  === --- --- --- ===
  BELTED KINGFISHER         === === === xxx              ==  === === === === === ==
  COMMON FLICKER            ### ### xxx ###  === === === ### ### ### ### ### ### ### === ===
  PILEATED WOODPECKER       ---         ---  --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
  RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER    ... ...     ...  ... ... ... ...                     ... ... ...
  RED-HEADED WOODPECKER     xxx xxx --- ===              ==  xxx xxx xxx xxx === ===
  LEWIS’ WOODPECKER             ... ...      ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
  YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER  === === --- xxx              ==  === === === === === ===
  HAIRY WOODPECKER          xxx xxx === xxx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  DOWNY WOODPECKER          xxx xxx === xxx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  EASTERN KINGBIRD          ### ### ### ###                  ### ### ### ### ===
  WESTERN KINGBIRD          ### ### ### ###                  ### ### ### ### ===
  GREAT-CRESTED FLYCATCHER  === --- --- xxx                  === === === === ===
  EASTERN PHOEBE            === --- --- ===              ==  === === === === === ==
  SAY’S PHOEBE              --- === === ...              --  === === === === === --
  YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER ---         ---                  ---             --- --
  WILLOW FLYCATCHER         xxx === xxx xxx                  === xxx xxx xxx === ==
  ALDER FLYCATCHER          ---         ---                  --- ... ... ... --- --
  LEAST FLYCATCHER          xxx xxx xxx xxx                  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx ==
  EASTERN PEWEE             xxx ... --- xxx                  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx ==
  WESTERN PEWEE                 === ...                      ==  === === === === ==
  OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER    --- --- --- ===                  ---             --- --
  HORNED LARK               ### ### ### ###  xxx xxx xxx ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### xxx
  TREE SWALLOW              xxx --- xxx xxx                  xxx xxx xxx xxx ===
  BANK SWALLOW              ### ### ### ###                  ### ### ### ### ===
  ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW      xxx xxx xxx xxx                  xxx xxx xxx xxx ===
  BARN SWALLOW              ### ### ### ###                  ### ### ### ### ### ===
  CLIFF SWALLOW             ### ### ### ###                  ### ### ### ### ===
  PURPLE MARTIN             ### xxx xxx ###                  ### ### ### ###
  BLUE JAY                  xxx === === xxx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  BLACK-BILLED MAGPIE       === xxx xxx ===  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  NORTHERN RAVEN                        ...  ... ... ... ...                         ... ...
  AMERICAN CROW             ### xxx xxx ###  --- --- -## ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### #--
  BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE    xxx xxx xxx xxx  ### ### ### xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx ### ###
  WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH   xxx === --- xxx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH     === === === ===  --- --- --- === === ... ... ... ==  === === ---
  BROWN CREEPER             === === === ===  --- --- --- === ==              ==  === === ---
  HOUSE WREN                ### ### ### ###                  ### ### ### ### ### ===
  WINTER WREN               ... ... ... ---              ..  ..              ... ...
  MARSH WREN                ### xxx ### ###                  ### ### ### ### ### ===
  SEDGE WREN                xxx === xxx ###                  xxx xxx xxx xxx === ===
  ROCK WREN                     === ---                      === === === === === ==
  NORTHERN MOCKINGBIRD      ... ... ... ...  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
  GRAY CATBIRD              xxx xxx xxx xxx              xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx ===
  BROWN THRASHER            xxx xxx xxx xxx              xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx ===
  SAGE THRASHER                 ... ...                      ... ... ... ... ...
  AMERICAN ROBIN            ### xxx xxx ###  === === === ### ### ### ### ### ### === === ===
  WOOD THRUSH               ...         ...                  ...             ...
  HERMIT THRUSH             === === === ===              ==  ===             === ==
  SWAINSON’S THRUSH         xxx xxx xxx xxx              ==  xxx             xxx ==
  GRAY-CHEEKED THRUSH       === === === ===              ==  ===             === ==
  VEERY                     === === xxx xxx              ==  xxx xxx xxx xxx ===
  EASTERN BLUEBIRD          === === --- ===              === === === === === === === ==
  MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRD             === === ---          ==  === === === === ===
  TOWNSEND’S SOLITAIRE      ... --- ... ...  --- --- ...                         ... ... ---
  GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET    xxx xxx === xxx  --- --- --- xxx                     xx  xxx ---
  RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET      xxx === === xxx              xxx                     xx  xxx
  WATER PIPIT               xxx === === ===              ==  --              === ===
  SPRAGUE’S PIPIT           === === xxx ===              --  === === === === === ---
  BOHEMIAN WAXWING          xxx xxx xxx xxx  xxx xxx xxx                                 xxx
  CEDAR WAXWING             xxx === xxx xxx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  NORTHERN SHRIKE           === === === ===  === === ===                             === ===
  LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE         === xxx xxx ---              xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx === ==
  EUROPEAN STARLING         ### xxx xxx ###  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  BELL’S VIREO                  ...                          ..  ... ... ... ...
  YELLOW-THROATED VIREO     ===     --- ===                  ==  === === === === --
  SOLITARY VIREO            === ... ... ===                  ==              === --
  RED-EYED VIREO            xxx xxx xxx xxx                  xx  xxx xxx xxx === --
  PHILADELPHIA VIREO        === --- --- ===                  ==              --- --
  ”                                     ---                      --- --- ---
  WARBLING VIREO            xxx xxx xxx xxx                  xx  xxx xxx xxx === --
  BLACK-AND-WHITE WARBLER   xxx === === xxx                  xxx === === === === --
  PROTHONOTARY WARBLER      ...         ...                  ...             ... ..
  GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER     ...         ...                  ..              ...
  TENNESSEE WARBLER         xxx xxx xxx xxx                  xx              xxx --
  ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER    xxx xxx xxx xxx                  xxx             xxx --
  NASHVILLE WARBLER         === --- --- ===                  ==              === --
  NORTHERN PARULA WARBLER   ...         ...                  ...             ...
  YELLOW WARBLER            ### ### ### ###              ##  ### ### ### ### === --
  MAGNOLIA WARBLER          === === --- ===                  ==              === --
  CAPE MAY WARBLER          --- ... ... ---                  ---             --- --
  BLACK-THROATED BLUE       ...         ...                  ...             ... ..
  WARBLER
  YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER     ### ### ### ###              ##  ###                 ### ###
  ”                             xxx                              xxx xxx xxx xxx
  BLACK-THROATED GREEN      --- ... ... ---                  --              ... ..
  WARBLER
  CERULEAN WARBLER          ...         ...                  ..              ...
  BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER      --- ... ... ---                  --              ...
  CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER    === ... ... ===                  ==              === --
  ”                                     ---                      --- --- ---
  BAY-BREASTED WARBLER      === ... --- ===                  ==              --- --
  BLACKPOLL WARBLER         === === === ===                  ==              === --
  PALM WARBLER              === === === ===                  ===             === ===
  OVENBIRD                  xxx xxx xxx xxx                  xx  === === === xxx
  NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH      xxx === === xxx                  xx  === === === xxx
  CONNECTICUT WARBLER       ---     ... ---                  --              --
  MOURNING WARBLER          === --- --- ===                  ==              === --
  ”                                     ===                      === === ===
  MACGILLIVRAY’S WARBLER        ... ...                      ...             ...
  COMMON YELLOWTHROAT       ### xxx ### ###              ##  ### ### ### ### ### ==
  YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT      ... === === ...                  ==  === === === ===
  WILSON’S WARBLER          === === === ===                  ==              === --
  CANADA WARBLER            --- --- --- ---                  ---             ---
  AMERICAN REDSTART         xxx xxx xxx xxx                  xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx
  HOUSE SPARROW             ### ### ### ###  ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
  BOBOLINK                  xxx xxx xxx xxx                  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  WESTERN MEADOWLARK        ### ### ### ###  --- --- --- ### ### ### ### ### ### ### xxx ---
  YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD   ### xxx ### ###              ##  ### ### ### ### ### xx
  RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD      ### ### ### ###  --- --- --- ### ### ### ### ### ### ### xxx ---
  ORCHARD ORIOLE            === === === ---                  ==  === === === ===
  NORTHERN ORIOLE           xxx === === xxx                  xxx xxx xxx xxx ===
  RUSTY BLACKBIRD           === === === ===  === === === ===                     ==  === ===
  BREWER’S BLACKBIRD        === xxx xxx xxx  --- --- --- xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx x-- ---
  COMMON GRACKLE            ### ### ### ###  --- --- --- ### ### ### ### ### ### ### #-- ---
  BROWN-HEADED COWBIRD      ### ### ### ###                  ### ### ### ### ###
  SCARLET TANAGER           --- --- ... ===                  --  === === --- ---
  NORTHERN CARDINAL         === ... ... ---  --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
  ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK    xxx --- --- xxx                  xx  === === === xxx
  BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK         xxx xxx                      xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx
  BLUE GROSBEAK             ... ... ...                          ... ... ... ...
  INDIGO BUNTING            === --- --- ===                  ==  === === === ===
  LAZULI BUNTING                xxx xxx                      xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx
  DICKCISSEL                xxx xxx --- ===                  xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx ==
  EVENING GROSBEAK          === === === ===  === === === =                           =   ===
  PURPLE FINCH              === === === ===  === === === === ==              ==  === === ===
  PINE GROSBEAK             === === === ===  === === ===                             =   ===
  GRAY-CROWNED ROSY FINCH       ... ...      ... ... ...                                 ...
  HOARY REDPOLL             --- --- --- ---  --- --- ---                                 ---
  COMMON REDPOLL            xxx xxx xxx xxx  xxx xxx xxx                             xx  xxx
  PINE SISKIN               xxx xxx xxx xxx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xx- ... ... ... .== xxx xxx xxx
  AMERICAN GOLDFINCH        ### ### ### ###  === === === === ### ### ### ### ### === === ===
  RED CROSSBILL             === === --- ===  === === === ... ... ... ... ... ... === === ===
  WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL    --- --- --- ---  --- --- ---                             --- ---
  RUFOUS-SIDED TOWHEE       === xxx xxx ===              ==  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx ==
  LARK BUNTING              xxx ### ### ===                  ### ### ### ### ###
  SAVANNAH SPARROW          xxx xxx xxx xxx              xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx
  GRASSHOPPER SPARROW       xxx xxx xxx xxx                  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
  BAIRD’S SPARROW           xxx === xxx ===                  x   xxx xxx xxx ---
  LE CONTE’S SPARROW        === ... ===                      === === === === ---
  SHARP-TAILED SPARROW      === ... === ===                  === === === --- ---
  VESPER SPARROW            xxx xxx xxx xxx              xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx
  LARK SPARROW              === xxx xxx ===                  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx ==
  NORTHERN JUNCO            ### ### ### ###  xxx xxx xxx ### ##                  ### ### xxx
  AMERICAN TREE SPARROW     xxx xxx xxx xxx  === === xxx xx                      xxx xxx ===
  CHIPPING SPARROW          ### ### xxx xxx              ##  ### ### ### ### ###
  CLAY-COLORED SPARROW      ### ### ### ###              ##  ### ### ### ### ###
  BREWER’S SPARROW              ===                          === === === === ---
  FIELD SPARROW             === xxx xxx ...              xx  xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx ==
  HARRIS’ SPARROW           xxx xxx xxx xxx  ... ... ... ..x xxx             xx  xxx === ...
  WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW     xxx xxx xxx xxx                  xxx             xx  xxx
  WHITE-THROATED SPARROW    ### ### ### ###  --- --- --- --# ###             ##  ### # - ---
  ”                                     ---                      --- --- ---
  FOX SPARROW               === === === ===              ==                  ==  ===
  LINCOLN’S SPARROW         xxx xxx xxx xxx                  xxx             xx  xxx
  SWAMP SPARROW             --- --- --- ---                  --- --- --- --- --- ---
  SONG SPARROW              xxx xxx xxx xxx  ... ... ... .xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx ..  ...
  MCCOWN’S LONGSPUR             === ===                      === === === === ---
  LAPLAND LONGSPUR          xxx xxx xxx xxx  === === xxx xx                  xx  xxx === ===
  SMITH’S LONGSPUR          --- ... ... ---              ...                 --- ---
  CHESTNUT-COLLARED         ### ### ### xxx              ##  ### ### ### ### ### ==
  LONGSPUR
  SNOW BUNTING              ### === === ###  ### ### ###                             ##  ###



                                 INDEX


                                   A
  Alkaline Lake, 31
  Antelope, 59
  Arrowwood Refuge, 29
  Audubon Refuge, 53
  Avocet, 21, 30, 31, 34, 40, 54, 55, 58, 70, 75, 86, 104


                                    B
  Baldhill Dam, 26
  Beaver Lake, 32
  Bittern, Am, 30, 32, 34, 35, 40, 44, 54, 55, 60, 63, 101
      Least, 25, 101
  Blackbird, Brewer’s, 35, 40, 58, 60, 64, 79, 95, 108
      Red-wg, 35, 40, 44, 55, 60, 63, 70, 75, 108
      Rusty, 19, 64, 77, 95, 108
      Yellow-hd, 25, 30, 32, 35, 40, 44, 54, 55, 60, 63, 70, 75, 94,
          108
  Bluebird, Eastern, 28, 29, 35, 92, 106
      Mountain, 34, 49, 51, 52, 53, 64, 92, 106
  Bobolink, 16, 25, 30, 35, 37, 41, 54, 55, 58, 60, 65, 78, 94, 108
  Bunting, Indigo, 17, 28, 35, 71, 76, 96, 108
      Lark, 25, 30, 35, 39, 42, 44, 54, 55, 65, 97, 109
      Lazuli, 34, 35, 37, 46, 47, 48, 51, 96, 108
      Snow, 19, 21, 69, 77, 99, 109
  Burning Coal Vein, 45


                                    C
  Cardinal, 14, 17, 18, 95, 108
  Catbird, 14, 17, 35, 41, 47, 48, 51, 57, 60, 65, 67, 71, 76, 91,
          106
  Chase Lake, 29
  Chat, 35, 37, 47, 48, 51, 108
  Chickadee, Black-cp, 17, 18, 35, 36, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 65, 67,
          69, 71, 76, 91, 106
      Boreal, 69
  Clausen Springs, 29
  Columnar Juniper, 45
  Coot, 30, 34, 35, 40, 44, 55, 60, 63, 70, 75, 103
  Cormorant, 21, 24, 26, 29, 31, 32, 34, 39, 41, 54, 55, 57, 60, 63,
          68, 75, 79, 101
  County, Barnes, 26
      Benson, 79
      Billings, 46
      Bottineau, 66
      Bowman, 40
      Burke, 54
      Burleigh, 34
      Cass, 16
      Cavalier, 70
      Divide, 61
      Dunn, 39, 51
      Grand Forks, 73
      Kidder, 31
      Logan, 32
      McHenry, 63
      McKenzie, 51
      McLean, 53
      Morton, 36
      Mountrail, 54
      Pembina, 70
      Ramsey, 79
      Ransom, 25
      Richland, 24
      Rolette, 68
      Sargent, 24
      Slope, 44
      Walsh, 72
      Ward, 55, 56
  Cowbird, 35, 46, 64, 65, 108
  Coyote, 53
  Crane, Sandhill, 27, 34, 39, 53, 64, 84, 103
      Whooping, 34, 39, 53, 84, 103
  Creeper, 18, 35, 64, 69, 77, 106
  Crossbill, Red, 17, 18, 38, 69, 77, 97, 108
      White-wg, 17, 18, 69, 77, 97, 108
  Crow, 14, 17, 18, 35, 46, 47, 48, 52, 64, 65, 67, 71, 76, 106
  Cuckoo, Black-bl, 17, 35, 41, 54, 57, 64, 67, 71, 76, 87, 104
  Curlew, 34, 42, 43, 85, 103


                                    D
  Deer, Mule, 49, 53
      White-tl, 79
  Des Lacs Refuge, 56
  Devil’s Lake, 79
  Dickcissel, 20, 25, 28, 30, 33, 35, 37, 41, 54, 65, 96, 108
  Dove, 17, 46, 64, 69, 77, 104
  Dowitcher, Long-bl, 21, 31, 58, 70, 75, 86, 104
      Short-bl, 21, 31, 70, 75, 86, 104
  Duck, Black, 14, 25, 75, 101
      Bufflehead, 22, 34, 54, 67, 75, 102
      Canvasback, 22, 30, 34, 54, 75, 102
      Gadwall, 22, 30, 34, 35, 40, 54, 75, 101
      Goldeneye, 22, 27, 34, 53, 67, 75, 102
      Mallard, 22, 30, 34, 35, 40, 54, 75, 101
      Pintail, 14, 22, 30, 34, 35, 40, 54, 75, 101
      Redhead, 22, 30, 34, 54, 75, 101
      Ring-nk, 22, 30, 34, 67, 75, 102
      Ruddy, 22, 30, 34, 35, 40, 54, 102
      Shoveler, 14, 22, 30, 34, 40, 54, 75, 101
      Wigeon, 14, 22, 30, 34, 40, 54, 75, 101
      Wood, 16, 17, 18, 22, 28, 30, 64, 75, 81, 101
  Dunlin, 21, 31, 70, 75, 85, 86, 104


                                    E
  Eagle, Bald, 34, 49, 53, 83, 102
      Golden, 34, 43, 49, 52, 53, 82, 102
  Egret, Cattle, 25, 79, 101
      Common, 14
      Great, 14, 25, 75, 79, 101
      Snowy, 25, 101


                                    F
  Falcon, Peregrine, 19, 34, 53, 102
      Prairie, 34, 43, 46, 47, 49, 52, 83, 102
  Fargo, 16
  Ferret, 43
  Finch, Purple, 18, 35, 36, 38, 49, 64, 69, 77, 108
  Flicker, 14, 17, 18, 35, 36, 46, 47, 48, 51, 57, 64, 69, 71, 76,
          88, 105
  Flycatcher, Acadian, 16
      Alder, 14, 90, 105
      Gt Crested, 17, 28, 29, 35, 47, 57, 60, 64, 67, 71, 76, 90,
          105
      Least, 17, 28, 29, 35, 47, 57, 60, 64, 67, 71, 76, 90, 105
      Olive-sided, 16, 64, 77, 105
      Traill’s, 14
      Willow, 14, 29, 47, 48, 51, 55, 57, 58, 60, 64, 67, 71, 76,
          89, 105
      Yellow-bl, 89, 105


                                    G
  Gnatcatcher, 34
  Godwit, Hudsonian, 22, 28, 34, 70, 75, 76, 86, 104
      Marbled, 21, 22, 25, 28, 30, 40, 41, 54, 58, 59, 65, 70, 75,
          76, 85, 104
  Goldfinch, 18, 19, 35, 36, 37, 41, 53, 57, 64, 67, 69, 71, 75, 76,
          108
  Goose, Canada, 21, 22, 28, 34, 54, 75, 101
      Snow, 14, 21, 22, 24, 28, 54, 75, 79, 101
      White-fr, 14, 21, 22, 34, 53, 54, 75, 81, 101
  Goshawk, 9, 49, 52, 77, 82, 102
  Grackle, 35, 64, 76, 95, 108
  Grebe, Eared, 22, 24, 29, 31, 34, 35, 40, 54, 57, 60, 63, 70, 75,
          81, 101
      Horned, 22, 29, 34, 40, 54, 60, 63, 75, 81, 101
      Pied-bl, 22, 24, 29, 34, 35, 40, 54, 60, 63, 70, 101
      Red-nk, 21, 40, 60, 63, 67, 81, 101
      Western, 24, 28, 29, 31, 34, 39, 40, 54, 56, 57, 60, 63, 75,
          78, 79, 81, 101
  Grosbeak, Black-hd, 33, 34, 35, 37, 47, 48, 51, 96, 108
      Blue, 34, 96, 108
      Evening, 17, 18, 38, 49, 52, 69, 96, 108
      Pine, 17, 18, 38, 69, 77, 96, 108
      Rose-br, 17, 28, 29, 65, 67, 71, 76, 77, 95, 108
  Grouse, Ruffed, 67, 69, 71, 83, 103
      Sage, 34, 42, 43, 44, 83, 103
      Sharp-tl, 30, 34, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 52, 54, 55,
          58, 64, 65, 69, 73, 74, 76, 77, 83, 103
  Gull, Bonaparte, 21, 34, 57, 75, 78, 87, 104
      Calif, 29, 31, 34, 41, 44, 53, 54, 55, 57, 61, 87, 104
      Franklin’s, 21, 28, 34, 41, 54, 55, 57, 63, 70, 78, 79, 87,
          104
      Herring, 34, 57, 75, 104
      Ring-bl, 27, 34, 41, 54, 55, 57, 61, 63, 70, 78, 104
  Gunlogson Arboretum, 71
  Gyrfalcon, 9, 102


                                    H
  Haley Dam, 28
  Harrier, 14, 19, 22, 30, 34, 39, 42, 43, 44, 54, 55, 63, 65, 102
  Hawk, Broad-wg, 67, 71, 76, 82, 102
      Cooper’s, 57, 67, 71, 76, 102
      Ferruginous, 19, 34, 37, 42, 43, 49, 52, 54, 82, 102
      Harlan’s, 14
      Marsh, 14
      Pigeon, 14
      Red-tl, 14, 19, 34, 35, 55, 64, 65, 67, 71, 76, 102
      Rough-lg, 19, 49, 52, 82, 102
      Sharp-shn, 46, 76, 102
      Sparrow, 14
      Swainson’s, 19, 30, 34, 37, 39, 42, 43, 49, 50, 52, 54, 55,
          64, 65, 82, 102
  Heron, Gt Blue, 32, 39, 40, 41, 55, 58, 60, 63, 68, 70, 79, 101
      Green, 28, 70, 79, 101
      Lt Blue, 25
      Night, 27, 28, 30, 32, 34, 39, 40, 55, 58, 60, 63, 70, 79, 101
      Hobart Lake, 28
  Hummingbird, 67, 71, 76, 88, 105


                                    I
  Ibis, White-f, 25, 101
  Icelandic Park, 71


                                    J
  Jackrabbit, 49
  Jay, Blue, 17, 18, 35, 36, 47, 48, 67, 69, 71, 76, 90, 105
      Gray, 69
  Junco, Northern, 14, 18, 35, 36, 77, 109
      Oregon, 14
      Slate-cl, 14
      White-wg, 14


                                    K
  Kelly’s Pasture, 74
      Slough, 75
  Kenmare, 56
  Kestrel, 14, 35, 52, 64, 102
  Killdeer, 21, 34, 40, 58, 70, 103
  Kingbird, Eastern, 27, 28, 30, 34, 39, 40, 41, 47, 54, 55, 57, 60,
          64, 65, 89, 105
      Western, 16, 20, 27, 28, 29, 30, 34, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 54,
          55, 57, 64, 65, 89, 105
  Kingfisher, 18, 29, 40, 47, 55, 64, 71, 76, 105
  Kinglet, Golden-cr, 35, 38, 64, 77, 106
      Ruby-cr, 35, 64, 77, 106
  Knot, 14, 21, 85, 86, 103


                                    L
  Lac Aux Mortes Refuge, 79
  Lake Alice, 79
  Lake Ardoch, 72
  Lake Ashtabula, 25
  Lake Ilo Refuge, 39
  Lake Metigoshe Park, 66
  Lark, Horned, 19, 39, 43, 44, 49, 52, 59, 65, 69, 77, 105
  Lindenwood Park, 16
  Little Missouri Park, 50
  Little Yellowstone Park, 25
  Long Lake Refuge, 34
  Longspur, Chestnut-col, 19, 21, 25, 30, 31, 35, 39, 40, 41, 42,
          43, 44, 49, 52, 54, 55, 59, 61, 75, 76, 99, 109
      Lapland, 19, 21, 34, 65, 75, 77, 99, 109
      McCown’s, 34, 41, 42, 43, 49, 61, 99, 109
      Smith’s, 9, 19, 21, 65, 99, 109
  Longspur Pasture, 58
  Loon, Com, 22, 39, 67, 68, 75, 80, 101
      Red-th, 75
  Lostwood Refuge, 54, 56


                                    M
  Martin, 27, 63, 105
  Magpie, 30, 34, 35, 36, 46, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 64, 69, 77, 91,
          106
  McKenzie Slough, 35
  Meadowlark, Western, 35, 43, 52, 53, 54, 55, 59, 65, 74, 77, 94,
          108
  Mickelson Field, 17
  Merganser, Com, 22, 27, 34, 54, 75, 102
      Hooded, 22, 34, 64, 75, 82, 102
      Red-br, 22, 34, 54, 75, 102
  Merlin, 14, 42, 46, 102
  Mockingbird, 106
  Moose, 70


                                    N
  Nighthawk, 18, 43, 51, 64, 76, 105
  Night-heron, 27, 28, 30, 32, 34, 39, 40, 55, 58, 60, 63, 70, 79,
          101
  Northern Gt Plains Sta, 38
  No. Fargo Sewer, 20
  North Unit R M, 51
  Nutcracker, 34, 49
  Nuthatch, Red-br, 18, 35, 46, 49, 64, 69, 77, 106
      White-br, 17, 18, 35, 36, 47, 49, 52, 65, 67, 69, 71, 76, 106


                                    O
  Oak Grove Park, 17
  Oldsquaw, 21, 32, 75, 78, 102
  Oriole, Baltimore, 14, 95
      Bullock’s, 14, 47, 48, 95
      Northern, 14, 17, 28, 35, 37, 47, 48, 57, 60, 65, 67, 71, 76,
          95, 108
      Orchard, 29, 35, 37, 41, 57, 94, 108
  Osprey, 102
  Ovenbird, 35, 47, 48, 51, 64, 67, 71, 77, 94, 107
  Owl, Barred, 24, 77, 88, 104
      Boreal, 9, 69, 71
      Burrowing, 31, 34, 41, 43, 44, 48, 53, 54, 59, 88, 104
      Great Gray, 9, 69, 71
      Great Horned, 17, 18, 25, 35, 49, 52, 57, 64, 69, 71, 76, 104
      Hawk, 9, 69, 71
      Long-eared, 30, 38, 57, 64, 69, 104
      Saw-whet, 69, 71, 88, 105
      Screech, 14, 17, 25, 64, 67, 76, 104
      Short-eared, 19, 25, 34, 41, 52, 53, 55, 63, 64, 69, 77, 88,
          104
      Snowy, 9, 19, 52, 69, 77, 88, 104


                                    P
  Parks, Beaver Lake, 32
      Fort Lincoln, 37
      General Sibley, 36
      Icelandic, 71
      Lake Metigoshe, 66
      Lindenwood, 16
      Little Missouri, 50
      Little Yellowstone, 25
      Oak Grove, 17
      Roosevelt, 47, 51
      Sully’s Creek, 46
      Turtle River, 76
  Partridge, Gray, 19, 25, 30, 34, 37, 41, 42, 47, 52, 54, 55, 59,
          64, 69, 74, 75, 77, 84, 103
  Pelican-Sandy Lakes, 67
  Pelican, 14, 24, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 34, 39, 41, 54, 57, 60, 63,
          68, 75, 78, 79, 101
  Pembina Hills, 70
  Pewee, Eastern, 14, 17, 28, 29, 57, 60, 65, 67, 71, 76, 90, 105
      Western, 14, 34, 44, 47, 48, 51, 90, 105
  Phalarope, Northern, 21, 31, 58, 70, 75, 86, 104
      Wilson’s, 21, 22, 30, 31, 34, 40, 44, 54, 58, 70, 75, 86, 104
  Pheasant, 27, 30, 39, 49, 52, 54, 64, 83, 103
  Phoebe, Eastern, 16, 57, 65, 105
      Say’s, 34, 37, 42, 44, 46, 49, 51, 52, 64, 90, 105
  Pipit, Sprague’s, 9, 21, 30, 31, 34, 41, 54, 59, 61, 65, 76, 92,
          106
      Water, 21, 106
  Plover, Black-bl, 20, 21, 34, 70, 75, 86, 103
      Golden, 14, 20, 21, 34, 58, 70, 75, 76, 84, 86, 103
      Mountain, 34, 43
      Piping, 31, 34, 36, 37, 54, 78, 84, 103
      Semipalmated, 21, 31, 34, 57, 70, 75, 86, 103
      Upland, 14
  Poor-will, 34, 46, 49, 88, 105
  Prairie Chicken, 73, 103
  Prairie Dog, 43, 48


                                    R
  Rail, King, 25, 103
      Sora, 21, 25, 28, 30, 32, 34, 35, 40, 44, 54, 55, 58, 60, 63,
          103
      Virginia, 25, 28, 30, 32, 34, 40, 54, 55, 58, 60, 63, 103
      Yellow, 9, 63, 64, 84, 103
  Raven, 69, 71, 106
  Redpoll, Com, 19, 49, 52, 53, 69, 75, 77, 97, 108
      Hoary, 9, 19, 69, 77, 97, 108
  Redstart, 35, 47, 48, 51, 65, 67, 71, 77, 107
  Refuges, Arrowwood, 13, 29
      Audubon, 13, 53
      Des Lacs, 13, 56
      Lac Aux Mortes, 79
      Lake Alice, 79
      Lake Ilo, 39
      Long Lake, 13, 15
      Lostwood, 13, 54, 56
      Rose Lake, 78
      Salyer, 13, 63
      Snake Creek, 53
      Stewart Lake, 44
      Stump Lake, 78
      Tewaukon, 13, 24
      Tongue River, 70
      Upper Souris, 13, 56, 60
      Wakopa, 68
      Willow Lake, 68
  Rhame, 42
  Rivers, James, 15
      Little Heart, 37
      Missouri, 35
      Red, 16, 72
      Sheyenne, 15, 24
      Souris, 63
      Tongue, 70
      Wild Rice, 24
  Riverside Cemetery, 17
  Robin, 35, 49, 65, 71, 76, 106
  Roosevelt Memorial, 47, 51
  Rose Lake Refuge, 78
  Rosy Finch, 34, 49, 97, 108
  Rush Lake, 70


                                    S
  Salt Alkaline Lake, 31
  Salyer Refuge, 63
  Sanborne, 28
  Sanderling, 31, 34, 70, 75, 86, 104
  Sandpiper, Baird’s, 21, 28, 34, 58, 70, 75, 85, 86, 103
      Buff-br, 20, 75, 76, 85, 86, 104
      Least, 21, 34, 58, 70, 75, 86, 103
      Pectoral, 21, 31, 34, 58, 70, 75, 86, 103
      Semipalmated, 21, 34, 58, 70, 75, 86, 104
      Spotted, 17, 18, 21, 28, 34, 40, 44, 58, 70, 75, 103
      Solitary, 21, 34, 58, 70, 75, 86, 103
      Stilt, 21, 31, 34, 58, 70, 75, 86, 104
      Upland, 14, 25, 30, 34, 44, 54, 73, 74, 75, 76, 85, 103
      Western, 21, 70, 85, 86, 104
      White-rp, 21, 34, 58, 70, 75, 85, 86, 103
  Sandy Lake, 67
  Sapsucker, 67, 71, 76, 105
  Scaup, Greater, 21, 22, 75, 102
      Lesser, 22, 30, 54, 75, 102
  Scoter, Com, 14
      Black, 14, 32, 102
      White-wg, 21, 32, 34, 75, 78, 82, 102
  Screech-owl, 14, 18, 25, 64, 67, 76, 104
  Sewerage Lagoons, 20, 23
  Sheep, Big horned, 47
  Shrike, Loggerhead, 30, 35, 42, 43, 44, 52, 55, 65, 106
      Northern, 19, 49, 52, 75, 93, 106
  Sibley Island, 36
  Siskin, 17, 18, 75, 108
  Slade Refuge, 31
  Snipe, 21, 22, 70, 75, 103
  Solitaire, 34, 38, 49, 92, 106
  South Unit R M, 47
  Sparrow, Baird’s, 9, 30, 31, 35, 40, 41, 44, 54, 55, 58, 61, 65,
          97, 109
      Brewer’s, 34, 42, 98, 109
      Chipping, 17, 35, 46, 47, 48, 65, 67, 71, 76, 109
      Clay-col, 16, 20, 25, 28, 29, 30, 35, 41, 54, 55, 57, 60, 64,
          65, 73, 76, 98, 109
      Field, 19, 25, 35, 47, 49, 51, 52, 53, 98, 109
      Fox, 35, 64, 77, 109
      Grasshopper, 25, 28, 30, 35, 37, 39, 41, 44, 49, 52, 54, 55,
          59, 65, 73, 78, 109
      Harris, 17, 19, 25, 28, 32, 34, 35, 53, 64, 77, 99, 109
      House, 69, 108
      Lark, 39, 42, 44, 46, 49, 52, 64, 109
      Le Conte’s, 25, 28, 30, 34, 54, 55, 58, 60, 63, 64, 70, 78,
          79, 98, 109
      Lincoln’s, 19, 25, 28, 35, 64, 77, 109
      Savannah, 16, 19, 20, 30, 40, 41, 54, 55, 58, 59, 65, 78, 109
      Sharp-tl, 25, 28, 30, 34, 54, 55, 58, 60, 63, 64, 70, 78, 79,
          98, 109
      Song, 17, 28, 29, 35, 40, 60, 64, 67, 71, 76, 109
      Swamp, 25, 77, 99, 109
      Tree, 14, 19, 25, 36, 49, 52, 53, 77, 98, 109
      Vesper, 19, 41, 42, 54, 55, 64, 65, 109
      White-cr, 25, 28, 35, 64, 77, 109
      White-th, 18, 19, 25, 28, 35, 64, 67, 77, 109
  Starling, 14, 69, 106
  Stewart Lake, 44
  Stump Lake, 78
  Sully’s Creek, 46
  Swallow, Bank, 26, 27, 63, 105
      Barn, 26, 27, 40, 63, 105
      Cliff, 26, 27, 40, 42, 44, 63, 105
      Rough-wg, 26, 27, 63, 105
      Tree, 26, 27, 40, 63, 105
  Swan, 22, 28, 34, 75, 81, 101
  Swift, 18, 88, 105


                                    T
  Tanager, 24, 35, 71, 76, 98, 108
  Tasker’s Coulee, 57
  Teal, Blue-wg, 22, 30, 34, 35, 40, 44, 54, 75, 101
      Cinnamon, 30, 34, 81, 101
      Green-wg, 22, 30, 34, 54, 75, 101
  Tern, Black, 21, 26, 30, 32, 34, 40, 41, 44, 54, 55, 57, 58, 63,
          70, 75, 104
      Caspian, 104
      Common, 34, 54, 55, 57, 63, 70, 87, 104
      Forster’s, 26, 32, 34, 55, 57, 63, 70, 87, 104
      Least, 14, 37
      Little, 14, 36, 87, 104
  Tewaukon Refuge, 24
  Thrasher, Brown, 17, 35, 41, 46, 47, 48, 51, 54, 57, 60, 65, 67,
          71, 76, 91, 106
      Sage, 34, 42, 106
  Thrush, Gray-ck, 35, 64, 77, 92, 106
      Hermit, 35, 64, 77, 106
      Swainson’s, 35, 64, 77, 106
      Wood, 16, 106
  Tongue River Refuge, 70
  Towhee, 35, 41, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 57, 64, 67, 77, 108
  Turkey, 27, 35, 46, 53, 84, 103
  Turnstone, 21, 31, 34, 58, 70, 75, 76, 84, 86, 103
  Turtle Mtns, 66
      River, 76


                                    U
  Upper Souris Refuge, 56, 60


                                    V
  Veery, 35, 37, 57, 67, 71, 77, 106
  Vireo, Bell’s, 35, 93, 105
      Philadelphia, 16, 67, 77, 93, 107
      Red-eyed, 17, 35, 47, 48, 51, 57, 65, 67, 71, 76, 93, 107
      Solitary, 77, 107
      Warbling, 17, 35, 47, 48, 51, 57, 65, 67, 71, 76, 107
      Yellow-th, 17, 65, 67, 71, 76, 77, 93, 107
  Vulture, 37, 43, 102


                                    W
  Warbler, Audubon’s, 14, 45
      Bay-br, 16, 64, 107
      Blackburnian, 71, 77, 107
      Black-th Blue, 107
      Black-th Green, 71, 77, 107
      Blackpoll, 35, 64, 77, 107
      Black-and-white, 35, 47, 48, 51, 64, 65, 67, 71, 77, 107
      Canada, 77, 107
      Cape May, 16, 71, 77, 107
      Cerulean, 107
      Chestnut-sided, 67, 71, 77, 94, 107
      Conn, 9, 16, 71, 77, 107
      Golden-wg, 107
      MacGillivray’s, 107
      Magnolia, 35, 71, 77, 107
      Mourning, 64, 67, 71, 77, 94, 107
      Nashville, 77, 107
      Orange-cr, 16, 35, 64, 77, 107
      Palm, 35, 77, 107
      Parula, 14, 25, 107
      Prothonotary, 107
      Tenn, 35, 64, 77, 107
      Wilson’s, 35, 64, 77, 107
      Yellow, 17, 28, 29, 35, 41, 47, 48, 57, 60, 65, 67, 71, 76,
          107
      Yellow-rumped, 14, 35, 45, 64, 77, 107
  Waterthrush, 35, 64, 67, 71, 77, 94, 107
  Waxwing, Bohemian, 9, 17, 18, 38, 49, 52, 64, 69, 77, 92, 106
      Cedar, 17, 18, 28, 35, 37, 38, 47, 49, 52, 57, 60, 65, 69, 76,
          106
  Westby, 61
  West Fargo, 22
  Whip-poor-will, 105
  Wigeon, European, 9, 14
  Willet, 21, 25, 30, 31, 34, 40, 54, 58, 70, 75, 85, 103
  Willow Lake Refuge, 68
  Woodcock, 103
  Woodpecker, Downy, 17, 18, 35, 36, 47, 49, 51, 105
      Hairy, 17, 18, 35, 36, 47, 49, 52, 64, 67, 69, 71, 76, 105
      Lewis’, 34, 105
      Pileated, 17, 18, 24, 89, 105
      Red-bl, 105
      Red-hd, 17, 35, 76, 89, 105
      Three-toed, 9
  Wren, House, 29, 35, 46, 47, 57, 65, 67, 71, 76, 106
      Long-bl, 14
      Marsh, 14, 25, 28, 30, 32, 34, 35, 40, 44, 54, 55, 58, 60, 63,
          70, 72, 73, 75, 78, 79, 106
      Rock, 37, 42, 49, 52, 91, 106
      Sedge, 14, 25, 30, 34, 37, 55, 58, 60, 63, 64, 70, 72, 73, 75,
          76, 78, 79, 91, 106
      Short-bl, 14
      Winter, 106


                                    Y
  Yellowlegs, 28, 31, 34, 58, 70, 75, 86, 103
  Yellowthroat, 14, 32, 35, 40, 44, 58, 60, 63, 70, 107


                              Also Available

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                           A Birder’s Guide to
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                           A Birder’s Guide to
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                               Order from:
                               L & P Press
                                Box 21604
                             Denver, CO 80221



                          Transcriber’s Notes


—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—Corrected a few palpable typographical errors and invalid index
  entries.

—Transcribed the bar charts for the text versions.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





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