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Title: Historical Record of the Eighteenth or The Royal Irish Regiment of Foot: From Its Formation in 1684 to 1848
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE EIGHTEENTH,

  OR

  THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT;

  CONTAINING

  AN ACCOUNT OF THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT IN 1684,

  AND OF ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES TO 1848.


  COMPILED BY RICHARD CANNON, ESQ., ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, HORSE
  GUARDS.


  LONDON: PARKER, FURNIVALL, & PARKER, 30, CHARING CROSS.

  MDCCCXLVIII.



  LONDON: PRINTED BY W. CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET, FOR HER
  MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE-GUARDS_,
  _1st January_, 1836.

His Majesty has been pleased to command that, with the view of
doing the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals
who have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with
the Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the
British Army shall be published under the superintendence and
direction of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall
contain the following particulars, viz.:--

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations in
  which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any Achievement
  it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies, &c., it may have
  captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers, and the number of Non-Commissioned
  Officers and Privates Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying
  the place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other Marks
  of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers, and
  Privates, as may have specially signalized themselves in Action.

  And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honorable

  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour by which all who enter into its service
are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that
any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which
alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have
preceded him in their honorable career, are among the motives that
have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
"London Gazette," from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on
the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their
orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill
and bravery; and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour
of their Sovereign's approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic
account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command that every Regiment shall, in
future, keep a full and ample record of its services at home and
abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, being undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active service
and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during peace, the
British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe, with little
or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which
so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services and of acts of
individual bravery can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under his
Majesty's special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk
of the Adjutant General's Office; and while the perusal of them
cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every
rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and
information to the general reader, particularly to those who may
have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or
are serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment
to everything belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a
narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great, the
valiant, the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with
a brave and civilized people. Great Britain has produced a race
of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood "firm
as the rocks of their native shore:" and when half the world has
been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained
by our countrymen, our brothers, our fellow citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us,--will certainly prove acceptable to the
public.

Biographical Memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value
and importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment
will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall
be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION

TO

THE INFANTRY.


The natives of Britain have, at all periods, been celebrated for
innate courage and unshaken firmness, and the national superiority
of the British troops over those of other countries has been
evinced in the midst of the most imminent perils. History contains
so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery, that no doubts can
be raised upon the facts which are recorded. It must therefore be
admitted, that the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is
INTREPIDITY. This quality was evinced by the inhabitants of England
when their country was invaded by Julius Cæsar with a Roman army,
on which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into the sea to
attack the Roman soldiers as they descended from their ships; and,
although their discipline and arms were inferior to those of their
adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing intimidated
the flower of the Roman troops, including Cæsar's favourite tenth
legion. Their arms consisted of spears, short swords, and other
weapons of rude construction. They had chariots, to the axles of
which were fastened sharp pieces of iron resembling scythe-blades,
and infantry in long chariots resembling waggons, who alighted
and fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit or retreat,
sprang into the chariot and drove off with the speed of cavalry.
These inventions were, however, unavailing against Cæsar's
legions: in the course of time a military system, with discipline
and subordination, was introduced, and British courage, being
thus regulated, was exerted to the greatest advantage; a full
development of the national character followed, and it shone forth
in all its native brilliancy.

The military force of the Anglo-Saxons consisted principally of
infantry: Thanes, and other men of property, however, fought on
horseback. The infantry were of two classes, heavy and light. The
former carried large shields armed with spikes, long broad swords
and spears; and the latter were armed with swords or spears only.
They had also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes and
javelins.

The feudal troops established by William the Conqueror consisted
(as already stated in the Introduction to the Cavalry) almost
entirely of horse; but when the warlike barons and knights, with
their trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a proportion
of men appeared on foot, and, although these were of inferior
degree, they proved stout-hearted Britons of stanch fidelity. When
stipendiary troops were employed, infantry always constituted a
considerable portion of the military force; and this _arme_ has
since acquired, in every quarter of the globe, a celebrity never
exceeded by the armies of any nation at any period.

The weapons carried by the infantry, during the several reigns
succeeding the Conquest, were bows and arrows, half-pikes, lances,
halberds, various kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour
was worn on the head and body, and in course of time the practice
became general for military men to be so completely cased in steel,
that it was almost impossible to slay them.

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the destructive
purposes of war, in the early part of the fourteenth
century, produced a change in the arms and equipment of the
infantry-soldier. Bows and arrows gave place to various kinds of
fire-arms, but British archers continued formidable adversaries;
and, owing to the inconvenient construction and imperfect bore of
the fire-arms when first introduced, a body of men, well trained
in the use of the bow from their youth, was considered a valuable
acquisition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth century.

During a great part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth each company
of infantry usually consisted of men armed five different ways; in
every hundred men forty were "_men-at-arms_," and sixty "_shot_;"
the "men-at-arms" were ten halberdiers, or battle-axe men, and
thirty pikemen; and the "shot" were twenty archers, twenty
musketeers, and twenty harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides
his principal weapon, a sword and dagger.

Companies of infantry varied at this period in numbers from 150
to 300 men; each company had a colour or ensign, and the mode of
formation recommended by an English military writer (Sir John
Smithe) in 1590 was:--the colour in the centre of the company
guarded by the halberdiers; the pikemen in equal proportions, on
each flank of the halberdiers: half the musketeers on each flank
of the pikes; half the archers on each flank of the musketeers,
and the harquebusiers (whose arms were much lighter than the
muskets then in use) in equal proportions on each flank of the
company for skirmishing.[1] It was customary to unite a number
of companies into one body, called a REGIMENT, which frequently
amounted to three thousand men: but each company continued to carry
a colour. Numerous improvements were eventually introduced in the
construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found impossible to
make armour proof against the muskets then in use (which carried
a very heavy ball) without its being too weighty for the soldier,
armour was gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seventeenth
century: bows and arrows also fell into disuse, and the infantry
were reduced to two classes, viz.: _musketeers_, armed with
matchlock muskets, swords, and daggers; and _pikemen_, armed with
pikes from fourteen to eighteen feet long, and swords.

In the early part of the seventeenth century Gustavus Adolphus,
King of Sweden, reduced the strength of regiments to 1000 men. He
caused the gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in flasks,
or in small wooden bandoliers, each containing a charge, to be
made up into cartridges, and carried in pouches; and he formed
each regiment into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division
of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of forming four regiments
into a brigade; and the number of colours was afterwards reduced to
three in each regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that his
infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated Polish horsemen
and Austrian cuirassiers; and his armies became the admiration of
other nations. His mode of formation was copied by the English,
French, and other European states; but so great was the prejudice
in favour of ancient customs, that all his improvements were not
adopted until near a century afterwards.

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea-service, styled
the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 each company of 100 men usually
consisted of 30 pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with light
firelocks. In this year the King added a company of men armed with
hand-grenades to each of the old British regiments, which was
designated the "grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived as to
fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets similar to those
at present in use were adopted about twenty years afterwards.

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by order of King James
II., to guard the artillery, and was designated the Royal Fusiliers
(now 7th Foot). This corps, and the companies of grenadiers, did
not carry pikes.

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's regiment in the second
Foot Guards, and raised two Marine regiments for sea-service.
During the war in this reign, each company of infantry (excepting
the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 pikemen and 46
musketeers; the captains carried pikes; lieutenants, partisans;
ensigns, half-pikes; and serjeants, halberds. After the peace in
1697 the Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again formed on
the breaking out of the war in 1702.[2]

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were laid aside, and every
infantry soldier was armed with a musket, bayonet, and sword; the
grenadiers ceased, about the same period, to carry hand grenades;
and the regiments were directed to lay aside their third colour:
the corps of Royal Artillery was first added to the Army in this
reign.

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion companies of infantry
ceased to carry swords; during the reign of George II. light
companies were added to infantry regiments; and in 1764 a Board of
General Officers recommended that the grenadiers should lay aside
their swords, as that weapon had never been used during the Seven
Years' War. Since that period the arms of the infantry soldier have
been limited to the musket and bayonet.

The arms and equipment of the British Troops have seldom differed
materially, since the Conquest, from those of other European
states; and in some respects the arming has, at certain periods,
been allowed to be inferior to that of the nations with whom they
have had to contend; yet, under this disadvantage, the bravery and
superiority of the British infantry have been evinced on very many
and most trying occasions, and splendid victories have been gained
over very superior numbers.

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like champions who have
dared to confront a host of foes, and have proved themselves
valiant with any arms. At _Crecy_ King Edward III., at the head of
about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 1346, Philip
King of France, whose army is said to have amounted to 100,000
men; here British valour encountered veterans of renown:--the
King of Bohemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and nobles
were slain, and the French army was routed and cut to pieces. Ten
years afterwards, Edward Prince of Wales, who was designated the
Black Prince, defeated, at _Poictiers_, with 14,000 men, a French
army of 60,000 horse, besides infantry, and took John I., King of
France, and his son Philip, prisoners. On the 25th of October,
1415, King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000 men, although
greatly exhausted by marches, privations, and sickness, defeated,
at _Agincourt_, the Constable of France, at the head of the flower
of the French nobility and an army said to amount to 60,000 men,
and gained a complete victory.

During the seventy years' war between the United Provinces of the
Netherlands and the Spanish monarchy, which commenced in 1578 and
terminated in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the
States-General were celebrated for their unconquerable spirit and
firmness;[3] and in the thirty years' war between the Protestant
Princes and the Emperor of Germany, the British Troops in the
service of Sweden and other states were celebrated for deeds of
heroism.[4] In the wars of Queen Anne, the fame of the British
army under the great MARLBOROUGH was spread throughout the world;
and if we glance at the achievements performed within the memory
of persons now living, there is abundant proof that the Britons
of the present age are not inferior to their ancestors in the
qualities which constitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds of
the brave men, of whom there are many now surviving, who fought in
Egypt in 1801, under the brave Abercromby, and compelled the French
army, which had been vainly styled _Invincible_, to evacuate that
country; also the services of the gallant Troops during the arduous
campaigns in the Peninsula, under the immortal WELLINGTON; and
the determined stand made by the British Army at Waterloo, where
Napoleon Bonaparte, who had long been the inveterate enemy of Great
Britain, and had sought and planned her destruction by every means
he could devise, was compelled to leave his vanquished legions to
their fate, and to place himself at the disposal of the British
Government. These achievements, with others of recent dates in the
distant climes of India, prove that the same valour and constancy
which glowed in the breasts of the heroes of Crecy, Poictiers,
Agincourt, Blenheim, and Ramilies, continue to animate the Britons
of the nineteenth century.

The British Soldier is distinguished for a robust and muscular
frame,--intrepidity which no danger can appal,--unconquerable
spirit and resolution,--patience in fatigue and privation, and
cheerful obedience to his superiors. These qualities,--united with
an excellent system of order and discipline to regulate and give
a skilful direction to the energies and adventurous spirit of
the hero, and a wise selection of officers of superior talent to
command, whose presence inspires confidence,--have been the leading
causes of the splendid victories gained by the British arms.[5]
The fame of the deeds of the past and present generations in the
various battle-fields where the robust sons of Albion have fought
and conquered, surrounds the British arms with a halo of glory;
these achievements will live in the page of history to the end of
time.

The records of the several regiments will be found to contain a
detail of facts of an interesting character, connected with the
hardships, sufferings, and gallant exploits of British soldiers in
the various parts of the world, where the calls of their Country
and the commands of their Sovereign have required them to proceed
in the execution of their duty, whether in active continental
operations, or in maintaining colonial territories in distant and
unfavourable climes.

The superiority of the British infantry has been pre-eminently set
forth in the wars of six centuries, and admitted by the greatest
commanders which Europe has produced. The formations and movements
of this _arme_, as at present practised, while they are adapted
to every species of warfare, and to all probable situations and
circumstances of service, are well suited to show forth the
brilliancy of military tactics calculated upon mathematical and
scientific principles. Although the movements and evolutions have
been copied from the continental armies, yet various improvements
have from time to time been introduced, to ensure that simplicity
and celerity by which the superiority of the national military
character is maintained. The rank and influence which Great Britain
has attained among the nations of the world have in a great measure
been purchased by the valour of the Army, and to persons who have
the welfare of their country at heart the records of the several
regiments cannot fail to prove interesting.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] A company of 200 men would appear thus:--

                                 __|
                                |  |
                                |__|
                                   |
      20     20     20     30     2|0     30     20      20     20
  Harquebuses.    Muskets.      Halberds.      Muskets.    Harquebuses.
           Archers.       Pikes.         Pikes.        Archers.

The musket carried a ball which weighed 1/10th of a pound; and the
harquebus a ball which weighed 1/25th of a pound.

[2] The 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine corps
in 1702, and were employed as such during the wars in the reign
of Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the Fleet under
Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of Gibraltar, and
in its subsequent defence in 1704; they were afterwards employed at
the siege of Barcelona in 1705.

[3] The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his Discourse on War, printed
in 1590, observes:--"I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation
would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the
field, let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the
Spanish infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe.
For instances of valour displayed by the British Infantry during
the Seventy Years' War, see the Historical Record of the Third
Foot, or Buffs.

[4] _Vide_ the Historical Record of the First, or Royal Regiment of
Foot.

[5] "Under the blessing of Divine Providence, His Majesty ascribes
the successes which have attended the exertions of his troops in
Egypt to that determined bravery which is inherent in Britons; but
His Majesty desires it may be most solemnly and forcibly impressed
on the consideration of every part of the army, that it has been a
strict observance of order, discipline, and military system, which
has given the full energy to the native valour of the troops, and
has enabled them proudly to assert the superiority of the national
military character, in situations uncommonly arduous, and under
circumstances of peculiar difficulty."--_General Orders in 1801._

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope
(afterwards Lord Hopetoun), congratulating the army upon the
successful result of the Battle of Corunna, on the 16th of January,
1809, it is stated:--"On no occasion has the undaunted valour of
British troops ever been more manifest. At the termination of a
severe and harassing march, rendered necessary by the superiority
which the enemy had acquired, and which had materially impaired
the efficiency of the troops, many disadvantages were to be
encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the
troops themselves; and the enemy has been taught, that, whatever
advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is
inherent in the British officers and soldiers a bravery that knows
not how to yield,--that no circumstances can appal,--and that will
ensure victory, when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any
human means."



  THE EIGHTEENTH,

  OR

  THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT,

  BEARS ON THE REGIMENTAL COLOUR

  "THE HARP AND CROWN,"

  AS THE BADGES OF DISTINCTION CONNECTED WITH ITS ROYAL TITLE;


  THE ARMS OF NASSAU,

  WITH THE MOTTO

  "VIRTUTIS NAMURCENSIS PREMIUM,"

  AS A LASTING TESTIMONY OF THE GALLANTRY DISPLAYED IN THE STORMING
  AND CAPTURE OF THE CASTLE OF NAMUR IN 1695 IN THE PRESENCE OF HIS
  MAJESTY KING WILLIAM III.;


  THE WORD "EGYPT" WITH THE "SPHINX,"

  IN COMMEMORATION OF ITS DISTINGUISHED SERVICES IN THE EXPULSION OF
  THE FRENCH ARMY FROM EGYPT IN THE YEAR 1801;


  AND

  THE WORD "CHINA" WITH THE "DRAGON,"

  FOR ITS SERVICES IN THE WAR WITH CHINA FROM 1840 TO 1842.



EIGHTEENTH,

OR

THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT.


CONTENTS

OF THE

HISTORICAL RECORD.


  YEAR                                                       PAGE

  1684 Formation of the regiment in Ireland                     1

  ---- Arthur Earl of Granard appointed to be Colonel           2

  1685 Decease of King Charles II.                              -

  ---- Accession of King James II.                              -

  ---- Rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth                        -

  ---- Embarkation of the regiment for England                  -

  ---- Capture and execution of the Duke of Monmouth            -

  ---- Regiment re-embarked for Ireland                         -

  1686 Proceedings in Ireland in favour of the Roman Catholics  3

  ---- Arthur Lord Forbes appointed Colonel in succession to
         the Earl of Granard                                    -

  1687 Encamped on the Curragh of Kildare                       -

  1688 Embarked for England                                     4

  ---- The Prince of Orange arrived from Holland                -

  ---- Adhesion of a certain number of the officers and
         soldiers to the Protestant cause                       5

  ---- The Protestant officers and soldiers marched into
         Hertfordshire with the regiment                        6

  ---- The Irish Roman Catholic soldiers sent to the Isle
         of Wight                                               -

  1688 Lord Forbes retired from the service, and succeeded in
         the Colonelcy by Sir John Edgeworth                    6

  ---- Colonel ---- Talbot, Earl Tyrconnel, appointed by King
         James II. as Lord-lieutenant of Ireland                -

  ---- The Prince of Orange elevated to the throne with the
         title of King William III.                             -

  1689 Regiment marched to Chester                              -

  ---- Sir John Edgeworth deprived of his commission, and
         succeeded in the Colonelcy by Edward Earl of Meath     -

  ---- Arrival of King James II. in Ireland, with troops from
         France                                                 7

  ---- King William III. assembled an army at Chester           -

  ---- Regiment marched to Highlake, and embarked for Ireland   -

  ---- Engaged at the siege of Carrickfergus                    -

  ---- Encamped at Dundalk                                      -

  ---- Quartered at Lisburn during the winter                   -

  1690 King William III. arrived in Ireland and assumed the
         command of the army                                    -

  ---- Battle of the Boyne                                      -

  ---- Marched to Dublin, and reviewed at Finglass              8

  ---- Detached against Castle-Connell                          -

  ---- Engaged in an unsuccessful assault upon Limerick         -

  ---- Siege of Limerick raised                                 9

  ---- Marched towards Mullingar                                -

  ---- Proceeded to the relief of Birr                          -

  ---- Stationed at Mullingar during the winter                 -

  1691 Detachment advanced towards Dunmore                      -

  ---- Quitted Mullingar, and engaged in the siege of
         Ballymore                                             10

  ---- Engaged in the siege of Athlone                         --

  ---- ------- at the battle of Aghrim                         --

  ---- Marched against Galway                                  11

  ---- Engaged in the siege and capture of Limerick            --

  ---- Termination of hostilities in Ireland                   --

  1692 Regiment embarked for England                           11

  ---- Naval action off La Hogue, and French fleet nearly
         destroyed                                             --

  ---- Menace of French invasion ceased                        12

  ---- Projected expedition to the coast of France             --

  ---- Certain regiments ordered to Flanders                   --

  ---- Regiment landed at Ostend                               --

  ---- Capture of Furnes and Dixmude                           --

  ---- Re-embarked for England                                 --

  ---- Lieut.-Colonel F. Hamilton promoted to the Colonelcy
         in succession to the Earl of Meath, retired           --

  1693 Embarked as Marines on board the fleet                  --

  ---- Disembarked and proceeded to Norwich                    13

  ---- Marched to London, and reviewed by King William III.
         in Hyde Park                                          --

  ---- Embarked for Ostend                                     --

  1694 Proceeded to Louvain                                    14

  ---- Engaged in the siege of Huy                             --

  ---- Marched into winter quarters at Ghent                   --

  ---- Rank of the regiment fixed as EIGHTEENTH of the
         infantry of the line                                  15

  1695 Engaged at the siege of Namur                           --

  ---- ------- in storming the castle of Namur                 16

  ---- King William III. conferred on the regiment the title
         of the ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT OF IRELAND, with the
         HARP IN A BLUE FIELD AND THE CROWN OVER IT, the
         privilege of bearing his own arms, THE LION OF NASSAU,
         on its colours; with the motto _Virtutis Namurcensis
         Premium_                                              17

  ---- Title afterwards changed to "THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT
         OF FOOT"                                              18

  ---- Surrender of the fortress of Namur                      --

  ---- Marched into winter quarters at Ghent                   --

  1696 Served under the Prince of Vaudemont                    --

  ---- Returned to Ghent                                       --

  1697 Joined the army of Brabant under King William III.      --

  1697 Termination of the war, and treaty of Ryswick           19

  ---- Embarked at Ostend for Ireland                          --

  ---- Arrived at Cork                                         --

  1699 Marched to Waterford, thence to Dublin                  --

  1700 Removed to Kinsale                                      --

  1701 Hostilities recommenced with France                     20

  ---- Embarked for Holland                                    --

  ---- Reviewed on Breda Heath by King William III.            --

  1702 Proceeded to Rosendael                                  --

  ---- Engaged at the siege of Kayserswerth                    --

  ---- ------- in skirmish near Nimeguen                       --

  ---- The Earl of Marlborough assumed the command of the
         allied army                                           21

  ---- Engaged in the siege of Venloo                          --

  ---- Extraordinary attack of Fort St. Michael                --

  ---- Engaged at the siege and capture of Ruremonde           24

  ---- -------------------------------- of Liège               --

  ---- Retired to Holland, and entered winter quarters at
         Huesden                                               --

  1703 Engaged at the siege and capture of Huy                 25

  ---- ------- at the siege and capture of Limburg             --

  ---- Marched to Breda                                        --

  1704 Proceeded from Breda to the Danube                      --

  ---- Joined the Imperial army                                26

  ---- Battle of Schellenberg                                  --

  ---- Crossed the Danube                                      --

  ---- Siege and capture of Rayn                               --

  ---- Battle of Blenheim                                      27

  ---- Marshal Tallard and many officers and soldiers made
         prisoners                                             --

  ---- Returned to Holland                                     28

  1705 General Ingoldsby appointed to be Colonel, in the
         place of General Hamilton (retired)                   29

  ---- Marched to Maestricht                                   --

  ---- Engaged in the recapture of Huy                         --

  ---- Passed the works of Helixem and Neer-Hespen             --

  ---- Returned to winter quarters in Holland                  30

  1706 Advanced to Tongres                                     --

  1706 Battle of Ramilies                                      30

  ---- Surrender of Brussels, Lierre, Ghent, Bruges, &c.       31

  ---- --------- of Oudenarde and Antwerp                      --

  ---- Siege and surrender of Ostend                           --

  ---- Attack and surrender of the fortress of Menin           --

  ---- Capture of the fortress of Aeth                         32

  ---- Returned to winter quarters at Ghent                    --

  1707 Engaged in active field-movements                       --

  1708 Re-embarked at Ostend for England to repel invasion
         by the Pretender                                      33

  ---- Returned to Flanders                                    --

  ---- Recaptured Ghent and Bruges from the French             --

  ---- Battle of Oudenarde                                     --

  ---- Siege and surrender of Lisle                            34

  1709 ------------------- of Tournay                          --

  ---- Battle of Malplaquet                                    35

  ---- Extraordinary collision between the two regiments
         called "_Royal Regiments of Ireland_:" one in the
         _English_ service, the other in the _French_ service,
         both regiments bearing the _Irish Harp_               36

  ---- Employed in the siege of Mons                           37

  ---- Marched into winter quarters in Ghent                   --

  1710 Engaged in forcing the lines at Pont-à-Vendin           --

  ---- ------- at the siege of Douay                           --

  ---- ------- at the siege of Bethune                         --

  ---- ------- at the siege of Aire                            --

  ---- Returned to Ghent                                       38

  1711 Passage of the French lines at Arleux                   --

  ---- Siege and capture of Bouchain                           --

  ---- Marched into winter quarters at Lisle                   40

  1712 Lieut.-Colonel Stearne promoted to be Colonel in
         succession to General Ingoldsby (deceased)            --

  ---- Marched from Lisle, and encamped beyond Bouchain        --

  ---- Joined the army under the Duke of Ormond                --

  ---- Suspension of hostilities                               --

  1713 Rank of the Royal Irish Regiment as 18th regiment of
         foot in the English army, directed to take date from
         the time of its arrival in England, in 1688           40

  ---- Conclusion of the treaty of peace at Utrecht            --

  1714 Remained in the garrison of Ghent until the Barrier
         Treaty was signed                                     41

  ---- Reception of the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough on
         passing through Ghent                                 --

  1715 Returned to England on account of the rebellion of the
         Earl of Mar, leaving the Lieut.-Colonel and 100 men
         in the castle of Ghent                                --

  ---- Landed at Greenwich, marched to Gloucester, and thence
         to Oxford                                             --

  1716 Rencontre at Oxford, in consequence of acts of
         disloyalty evinced in that town                       --

  1717 Marched to Portsmouth                                   42

  ---- Lieut.-Colonel William Cosby promoted to the Colonelcy
         in succession to General Stearne, who retired         --

  1718 Embarked for Minorca                                    --

  1727 Detachment of 500 men proceeded from Minorca to
         reinforce the garrison of Gibraltar, besieged by
         the Spaniards                                         --

  1732 Sir Charles Hotham, Bart., appointed to the Colonelcy
         in succession to General Cosby, appointed Governor-
         in-Chief of New York                                  --

  1735 Colonel John Armstrong appointed to the Colonelcy in
         succession to Sir Charles Hotham                      --

  1742 Colonel John Mordaunt appointed to the Colonelcy in
         succession to General Armstrong                       --

  ---- Returned from Minorca to England                        --

  1744 Reviewed on Hounslow Heath by Field-Marshal the Duke
         of Cumberland                                         43

  1745 Embarked for Flanders                                   --

  ---- Landed at Ostend, and marched to Mons                   44

  1745 Re-embarked for England in consequence of Charles
         Edward, son of the Pretender, having landed in
         Scotland                                              45

  ---- Landed at Gravesend, and embarked for Leith             --

  1747 Colonel John Folliott appointed to the Colonelcy in
         succession to General Sir J. Mordaunt                 46

  1748 Returned from Scotland to England                       --

  ---- Conclusion of the treaty of peace at Aix la Chapelle    --

  1749 Embarked for Ireland                                    --

  1751 Royal warrant issued for regulating the clothing,
         colours, &c.                                          --

  1755 War recommenced with France                             47

  ---- Embarked for England, marched to Edinburgh              --

  1757 Re-embarked for Ireland, and remained there during the
         Seven Years' War                                      --

  1762 General Sir John Sebright, Bart., appointed to the
         Colonelcy in succession to General Folliott
         (deceased)                                            --

  1767 Embarked from Ireland for North America                 --

  1775 Commencement of war with America                        --

  ---- Engaged at the village of Lexington                     48

  ---- Proceeded to destroy American stores at Concord         --

  ---- Engaged in the battle at Bunker's Hill                  49

  1776 Quitted Boston and embarked for Nova Scotia             --

  ---- Embarked for England and stationed at Dover Castle      --

  1778 Encamped at Coxheath                                    --

  1779 -------- at Warley                                      50

  1780 -------- at Finchley                                    --

  1782 Termination of the American war                         --

  ---- Embarked for Jersey                                     --

  1783 Removed to Guernsey                                     --

  ---- Engaged in quelling a mutiny in the 104th Regiment      --

  ---- Received the thanks of the Lieut.-Governor and of the
         States of the Island, accompanied by one hundred
         guineas for distribution among the non-commissioned
         officers and soldiers, for their loyal and spirited
         conduct                                               50

  1783 Proceeded to Portsmouth, and embarked for Gibraltar     --

  1793 Embarked from Gibraltar to take possession of Toulon
         in aid of the French loyalists and in the name of
         Louis XVII.                                           --

  ---- Evacuated Toulon after destroying the shipping,
         arsenal, and magazines                                52

  1794 Embarked for the Island of Corsica                      --

  ---- Siege and capture of the town and fortress of Calvi     53

  ---- General Sir James Pulteney, Bart., appointed to the
         Colonelcy in succession to General Sir John Sebright,
         Bart., deceased                                       54

  1796 Withdrawn from the Island of Corsica                    --

  ---- Proceeded to the Island of Elba                         --

  ---- Embarked for the coast of Italy, and took possession
         of Campiglia, Castiglione, and Piombino               --

  ---- Re-embarked for Elba                                    55

  1797 Removed to Gibraltar                                    --

  1800 Embarked from Gibraltar for service in the
         Mediterranean                                         --

  ---- Proceeded to Minorca                                    --

  ---- Sailed to Genoa to co-operate with the Austrians        --

  ---- Returned to Minorca                                     --

  ---- Embarked on an expedition against Cadiz                 --

  ---- Sailed to Gibraltar on the design of the expedition
         being relinquished                                    --

  ---- Proceeded again to Minorca                              --

  ---- Sailed to Malta, and joined the armament under
         Lieut.-General Sir Ralph Abercromby                   56

  ---- Sailed to Marmorice Bay                                 --

  ---- Proceeded to Alexandria, and anchored in the Bay
         of Aboukir                                            --

  1801 Landed at Aboukir                                       56

  ---- Advanced to Alexandria                                  57

  ---- Battle of Alexandria on the 21st of March               58

  ---- Death of Sir Ralph Abercromby                           --

  ---- Proceeded to Rosetta                                    --

  ---- Captured Fort St. Julian                                --

  ---- Advanced up the banks of the Nile                       --

  ---- Engaged in operations at El Aft and Rahmanie            59

  ---- Siege and capture of the city of Cairo                  --

  ---- Surrender of Alexandria, and expulsion of the French
         from Egypt                                            --

  ---- Authorized to bear the _Sphinx_ with the word _Egypt_   --

  ---- Proceeded to Malta                                      60

  1802 Treaty of Peace concluded at Amiens                     --

  ---- Embarked for Ireland                                    --

  1803 War with France recommenced                             --

  ---- Augmented to two battalions                             --

  ---- Two battalions embarked for Scotland                    --

  ---- Received a complimentary letter from the magistrates
         and clergy of Haddington                              --

  1804 Proceeded to England                                    --

  ---- Landed at Ramsgate and encamped on Barham Downs         61

  ---- Second battalion embarked for Jersey                    --

  1805 First battalion embarked for Jamaica                    --

  1807 Second battalion embarked for Curaçao                   --

  1809 First battalion embarked for St. Domingo                --

  ---- St. Domingo surrendered by the French                   62

  ---- First battalion returned to Jamaica                     --

  1810 Second battalion embarked for England                   --

  1811 ---------------- proceeded to Jersey                    --

  ---- General Lord Hutchinson, afterwards Earl of Donoughmore,
         appointed to the Colonelcy in succession to General
         Sir James Pulteney, Bart., deceased                   --

  1814 Termination of the war with France                      --

  ---- Disbandment of the second battalion                     --

  1817 Returned to England from Jamaica                        63

  1817 Proceeded to Brighton                                   --

  ---- Furnished the guard of H. R. H. the Prince Regent at
         the Pavilion                                          --

  1818 Marched to Gosport                                      --

  ---- Embarked for Ireland                                    --

  ---- Received the thanks and approbation of the public
         authorities of several of the principal places in
         Ireland                                               --

  1820 Marched to Cork                                         --

  1821 Embarked for Malta                                      --

  1824 Embarked for the Ionian Islands                         64

  ---- Received the testimonial of General the Marquis of
         Hastings                                              --

  1832 Embarked at Corfu for England                           65

  ---- Appointment of General Lord Aylmer to the Colonelcy
         in succession to General the Earl of Donoughmore,
         deceased                                              --

  1834 Embarked for Ireland                                    --

  1837 Formed into Six Service and Four Depôt Companies
         preparatory to embarkation for Foreign Service        --

  ---- Service companies embarked for Ceylon                   --

  1838 Depôt companies embarked from Dublin for England        --

  1839 Removed from Colombo to Trincomalee                     --

  ---- Three companies embarked from Portsmouth                --

  1840 War commenced with China                                --

  ---- Six companies embarked from Ceylon for China            66

  ---- Capture of the Island of Chusan                         67

  ---- -------------- city of Ting-hae-hien                    --

  1841 Possession taken of Hong-Kong                           --

  ---- Regiment sailed up the Canton river, and the City of
         Canton surrendered                                    69

  ---- Capture of the Island and City of Amoy                  70

  ---- -------------- Island of Koolangsoo                     --

  ---- Island of Chusan again taken possession of              71

  ---- Capture of the City of Chinhae                          --

  1841 Capture of the City of Ningpo                           72

  1842 Four companies stationed at Ningpo, and five companies
         at Koolangsoo                                         --

  ---- Defeat of the Tartars and Chinese in an attack upon
         Ningpo                                                --

  ---- Capture of Tsekee, and heights of Segaon                73

  ---- Forced the Chankee Pass                                 --

  ---- Attack and capture of the city of Chapoo                --

  ---- Employed on an expedition up the Yangtse-Keang river    74

  ---- Capture of Woosung, Poonshau, and the city of Shanghae  --

  ---- Capture of the city of Chin Keang-foo by storm          --

  ---- Embarked for Nankin, the ancient Capital of China       75

  ---- Conditions of Peace agreed                              --

  ---- The word "_China_" and the device of the "_Dragon_"
         authorized to be borne on the colours and
         appointments                                          --

  ---- Proceeded from Nankin to Chusan                         --

  1843 Head-quarters at Koolangsoo                             76

  ---- ------------- removed to Chusan                         --

  1845 --------------------- to Hong-Kong                      --

  1847 Embarked at Hong-Kong, and engaged in operations on
         the Canton River                                      --

  ---- Returned to Hong-Kong                                   --

  ---- Embarked for Calcutta                                   --

  1848 Arrived at Fort William, Bengal                         --

  ---- The Conclusion                                          77


1848.



PLATES.


  Colours of the Eighteenth, Royal Irish Regiment,
                                         _to face_              1

  Representation of the Battle of Blenheim, on the 13th
      August, 1704                                             28

  Costume of the Regiment                                      80



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF THE

EIGHTEENTH, OR ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT.


  YEAR                                                       PAGE

  1684 Arthur, Viscount of Granard                             81

  1686 Arthur, Lord Forbes                                     82

  1688 Sir John Edgeworth                                      83

  1689 Edward, Earl of Meath                                   --

  1692 Frederick Hamilton                                      84

  1705 Richard Ingoldsby                                       85

  1712 Richard Stearne                                         --

  1717 William Cosby                                           87

  1732 Sir Charles Hotham, Bart.                               --

  1735 John Armstrong                                          --

  1742 Sir John Mordaunt, K.B.                                 88

  1747 John Folliott                                           89

  1762 Sir John Sebright, Bart.                                --

  1794 Sir James Murray, Bart., afterwards Pulteney            --

  1811 John Hely, Lord Hutchinson, K.B., afterwards Earl of
           Donoughmore                                         90

  1832 Matthew, Lord Aylmer                                    91



[Illustration: EIGHTEENTH.

ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT.

QUEEN'S COLOUR.]

[Illustration: REGIMENTAL COLOUR.

FOR CANNON'S MILITARY RECORDS

_Madeley lith 3 Wellington S^t Strand_]



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF

THE EIGHTEENTH,

OR THE

ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT.


[Sidenote: 1684]

THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT existed many years, as independent
companies of pikemen and musketeers on the establishment of
Ireland, previous to the formation of the regiment in 1684; several
of these companies having been in the service of the Commonwealth
in the time of Oliver Cromwell. At the Restoration in 1660, King
Charles II. disbanded the army of the Commonwealth in England, and
embodied several new corps. Little alteration was, however, made
in the Irish forces, excepting the formation of a regiment of foot
guards, called the "Royal Regiment of Ireland," which, with about
twenty independent troops of horse and eighty companies of foot,
constituted the military force of Ireland. Towards the close of
his reign, King Charles II. took particular interest in improving
the organization of the military establishments of his dominions,
and the Irish independent troops of horse were embodied into three
regiments of cavalry; at the same time the companies of foot were
constituted seven regiments of infantry. The colonelcy of one of
these corps was conferred on ARTHUR EARL OF GRANARD, by commission
dated the 1st of April, 1684; it is the only one of these ten
regiments which has continued in the service of the British crown;
and it now bears the title of the EIGHTEENTH, or the ROYAL IRISH
REGIMENT OF FOOT.[6]

[Sidenote: 1685]

On the 6th of February, 1685, King Charles II. died, and was
succeeded by his brother, James II.; and in June following James
Duke of Monmouth erected the standard of rebellion in the west of
England, and asserted his own pretensions to the throne. On this
occasion the EARL OF GRANARD'S regiment was ordered to proceed to
England: it embarked from Dublin, landed at Park Gate, and marched
to Chester. In a few days after its arrival in England the rebel
army was overthrown at Sedgemoor, and the Duke of Monmouth was
subsequently captured and beheaded; when the regiment returned to
Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1686]

The King, being of the Roman Catholic persuasion, soon evinced
a determination to use his utmost endeavours to subvert the
Protestant religion and the constitution of the kingdom;
commencing in Ireland, where the Catholics were more numerous
than the Protestants. The Earl of Clarendon was nominated
Lord-Lieutenant; but "Colonel ---- Talbot, a furious Papist, was
empowered to model the army, and he dismissed the greater part of
the Protestant officers, filling their places with those of his own
religion. After having performed this signal service, he came over
to England, where he was created Earl Tyrconnel and lieut.-general
of the Irish army."[7] The Earl of Granard, not approving of these
proceedings, resigned the colonelcy of the regiment in favour of
his son, ARTHUR LORD FORBES, whose commission as colonel was dated
the 1st of March, 1686.

[Sidenote: 1687]

In the summer of 1687, the regiment was encamped, with the other
Irish corps, on the Curragh of Kildare; and the Earl Tyrconnel
made a minute inspection of every troop and company, inquiring
the name of every man, and discharging many because they were
the descendants of men who had served Oliver Cromwell. When the
regiment went into quarters, nearly all the Protestant officers and
soldiers were dismissed from the service, a few only being retained
to discipline the recruits, and the ranks were completed with men
of the Roman Catholic religion.[8]

Colonel LORD FORBES being a spirited young nobleman of the
Protestant religion, Earl Tyrconnel paid some deference to his
Lordship, to avoid an open collision with so chivalrous an officer;
and more Protestants were retained in LORD FORBES'S regiment than
in any other Irish corps.

[Sidenote: 1688]

In the summer of 1688, the regiment was again encamped on the
Curragh of Kildare. Meanwhile the proceedings of the Court in
favour of Papacy and arbitrary government, had alarmed the kingdom,
and a number of noblemen and gentlemen had invited the Prince of
Orange to come to England with an army to support the Protestant
interest. On this occasion LORD FORBES'S regiment was ordered to
proceed to England:[9] it landed at Chester, marched to London, and
was quartered in the borough of Southwark.

The Prince of Orange having passed Dover with a powerful armament,
the regiment was ordered to march to Salisbury, where it joined
King James's army a few days after the Prince had landed at
Torbay, and marched to Exeter. The English army, which amounted to
thirty thousand men, had not been remodelled as the Irish forces
had been, but consisted principally of Protestant officers and
soldiers, who refused to fight in the cause of Papacy and arbitrary
government, and many of them joined the Prince of Orange. Under
these circumstances, the King ordered the army to withdraw towards
London, and LORD FORBES'S regiment marched to Colnbrook, where
it was quartered when King James attempted to escape to France
Lord Forbes waited on the Prince of Orange, who directed him to
disband the Roman Catholic officers and soldiers, and to keep the
Protestants to their colours: upwards of five hundred officers and
soldiers were dismissed, and about two hundred Protestants, of all
ranks, remained with the colours.

In a few days after this event, a report was circulated that
the Irish soldiers had commenced murdering the country people
and setting fire to the villages in the south of England. This
proved false; but on the first circulation of the report, Major
Sir John Edgeworth, who commanded the regiment in the absence of
Colonel Lord Forbes, who was with the Prince of Orange in London
(the Lieut.-Colonel, Lord Brittas, being a Papist, had left the
regiment), assembled the men at his quarters, and formed them on
parade in the court of Lord Oslington's house, which was walled
in. "The country people, hearing that an Irish regiment was there,
came flocking from all parts to knock us on the head; but Sir John
bid them, at their peril, not to approach, and told them we were
not Irish Papists, but true Church of England men; and seeing
among the crowd a gentleman, called to him, and desired he would
send to the minister of the parish to read prayers to us, and if
the minister did not convince them we were all of the Church of
England, we would submit to their mercy. The minister was soon sent
for, and to prayers we went, repeating the responses of the Liturgy
so well and so exactly, that the minister declared to the mob he
never before heard the responses of the Church of England prayers
repeated so distinctly and with so much devotion, upon which the
mob gave a huzza, and cried '_Long live the Prince of Orange!_' and
so returned home."[10]

Soon afterwards the regiment marched to Hertfordshire, and the
Protestant officers of Hamilton's Irish regiment were added to its
numbers. The Irish Roman Catholic soldiers were sent prisoners to
the Isle of Wight, and afterwards transferred to the service of the
Emperor of Germany.

Lord Forbes retiring from the service at this period, the Prince of
Orange conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on Major Sir John
Edgeworth, by commission dated the 31st of December, 1688: at the
same time measures were adopted to recruit its diminished numbers.

[Sidenote: 1689]

In the beginning of April, 1689, the regiment marched to Chester,
where it was stationed several weeks.

Colonel Sir John Edgeworth having been guilty of irregularity in
procuring clothing, viz., purchasing the old clothing of disbanded
Roman Catholic soldiers, from the Jews, to supply the recruits,
instead of providing new clothing, was deprived of his commission;
and on the 1st of May, 1689, the colonelcy was conferred on EDWARD
EARL OF MEATH: Major Newcomb was appointed lieut.-colonel, and
Captain Frederick Hamilton major.

Early in May the regiment marched into Wales.

Meanwhile the Prince of Orange had been elevated to the throne; but
Earl Tyrconnel, who had been nominated lord-lieutenant of Ireland
in the preceding year, had retained that country in the Roman
Catholic interest; King James had arrived there with a body of
French troops, and the whole country was subject to him, excepting
Enniskillen and Londonderry, which were defended by Protestants.
To rescue the suffering Protestants of Ireland from the power of
their enemies, King William assembled an army at Chester, under
Marshal Frederick Duke Schomberg; and the EARL OF MEATH'S regiment
being selected for this service, marched to Highlake, where it
embarked for Ireland, and landing at White-house, near Belfast, on
the 22nd of August, joined the troops under Duke Schomberg, who had
commenced the siege of _Carrickfergus_, which fortress surrendered
a few days afterwards.

The regiment advanced with the army to Dundalk, where a camp
was formed on low, wet ground, which occasioned great loss of
life among the troops from disease. No action of importance
occurred during this campaign, and the regiment passed the winter
in quarters at Lisburn, where it furnished a daily guard at
Duke Schomberg's quarters: its ranks were completed by zealous
Protestants, who were eager to enrol themselves under its colours,
and it was the strongest corps in the army.

[Sidenote: 1690]

In the summer of 1690, King William arrived in Ireland, and the
officers and soldiers of the regiment had the honor of serving
under the eye of their Sovereign. They took part in the memorable
battle of the _Boyne_, on the 1st of July, when the army of King
William forced the passage of the river in the face of the French
and Irish forces under King James, and gained a decisive victory.

From the Boyne the regiment marched with the army towards Dublin,
and at the general review at Finglass, on the 7th and 8th of
July, it mustered six hundred and seventy-eight rank and file. It
afterwards proceeded towards _Limerick_, where the defeated army
of King James had rallied, and was prepared to make a determined
stand. On arriving before the town, the regiment was detached, with
three other corps, against _Castle-Connell_, which surrendered on
being summoned.

The British battering train was destroyed by a detachment of the
enemy, before it arrived at the camp; but the King resolved to
prosecute the siege, and on the 20th of August the grenadiers of
the regiment, commanded by Captain Needham, with those of Lord
Cutts's regiment under Captain Foxon, entered the trenches to storm
one of the outworks near the south-east corner of the wall. At two
o'clock in the afternoon the signal was given, when the grenadiers
rushed forward under a heavy fire, threw a shower of hand-grenades
into the outwork, and scaling the wall with distinguished
gallantry, captured the fort, killing about fifty men, and making
a captain and twelve men prisoners: the remainder of the garrison
escaped into the town. The grenadiers maintained the post they had
captured; a sortie of the enemy was repulsed; and when the soldiers
of the regiment were relieved, they retired: as they withdrew,
Captain Needham was killed by a random shot from the town.[11]

A breach being made in the wall, and the approaches carried to
the foot of the glacis, the King ordered a general assault to be
made, on the 27th of August, by half the grenadiers of the army,
supported by seven battalions, to capture the covered way and two
towers near the breach: the EARL OF MEATH'S regiment was one of
the corps selected for this service. The assault was made with
great gallantry; but, owing to some misapprehension of orders, the
attack failed, and the several regiments engaged were forced to
retire to the trenches, with the loss of five hundred officers and
soldiers killed, and upwards of a thousand wounded.

The regiment had Lieutenant Latham and Ensign Smith killed;
Lieut.-Colonel Newcomb died of his wounds; Colonel the Earl of
Meath, Lieutenants Blakeney and Hubblethorn, wounded; and upwards
of a hundred soldiers killed and wounded.[12]

The failure of this attack, with the approach of unfavourable
weather, occasioned His Majesty to raise the siege, when the
regiment marched with several others, under Major-General Kirke,
towards Mullingar; but afterwards proceeded to the relief
of _Birr_, which was besieged by a body of the enemy under
Major-General Sarsfield, who retired behind the Shannon on the
approach of the British troops.

The regiment was afterwards stationed at Mullingar, which was one
of the frontier garrisons, and was actively employed during the
winter in making incursions into the enemy's cantonments.

[Sidenote: 1691]

Towards the end of April, 1691, a detachment of the regiment,
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Hamilton, accompanied a party under
Colonel Brewer in a sudden advance towards Dunore, to surprise two
thousand armed Roman Catholic peasantry, who had taken post near
that place. At daybreak on the following morning the detachment
approached the post, and the enemy formed for battle, but soon
fled, and the soldiers pursued and killed about fifty fugitives.

Quitting Mullingar in the early part of June, the regiment was
engaged in the operations of the army under Lieut.-General Baron
De Ghinkel, afterwards Earl of Athlone:[13] it took part in the
siege of _Ballymore_, which place was captured in a few days;
and afterwards appeared before _Athlone_, in the siege of which
fortress it had several men killed and wounded.

A strong detachment of the regiment took part in the capture of
_Athlone_ by storm, on which occasion the assailants rushed through
the rapid stream of the Shannon, which was breast high, carried
the enemy's works in gallant style, and in less than half an hour
were masters of the town, to the surprise of General St. Ruth, who
commanded King James's army, which was encamped near the fortress,
and who was giving a public entertainment in his camp, when the
news of the loss of _Athlone_ reached him.

After putting the captured fortress in repair, the army marched
towards the enemy, who occupied a strong position near the castle
of _Aghrim_, and on the 12th of July a general engagement took
place, in which the Irish forces were overpowered and driven from
the field with severe loss, including General St. Ruth, who was
killed by a cannon ball. On this occasion the regiment formed part
of the brigade under Major-General Talmash: it had seven rank and
file killed; one major, two captains, one lieutenant, one ensign,
and eight rank and file wounded.

After this victory, the army marched to _Galway_, which surrendered
in a few days; and the victorious English troops proceeded to
_Limerick_, where the remains of the defeated Irish forces had
assembled, and appeared determined to make a resolute stand, in the
hope of being reinforced from France. The regiment had the honour
to take part in the siege of Limerick; and, the army having crossed
the river Shannon and completed the investment of the place, the
Irish soon afterwards surrendered the city, and with it every
other part of Ireland of which they retained possession, the Irish
regiments being permitted to follow King James to France, or remain
in their own country, as they should choose: the "Royal Regiment
of Ireland" was one of the corps which proceeded to France, and
was taken into the service of Louis XIV. The EARL OF MEATH'S, now
EIGHTEENTH regiment, was the only one of the eleven Irish corps
embodied by King Charles II. which remained in the service of the
English crown.

Ireland being rescued from the domination of King James, the
regiment went into quarters in the county of Wicklow, and in
December it proceeded to Waterford and Youghal.

[Sidenote: 1692]

In the spring of 1692, the King of France assembled an army near
La Hogue, and prepared an immense fleet to convey the troops to
England, to replace King James on the throne. When this menace of
invasion was given, the EARL OF MEATH'S and several other regiments
embarked at Waterford for England, and landing at Bristol,
proceeded from thence to Portsmouth. Meanwhile the British and
Dutch fleets had put to sea, and while the nations of Europe were
gazing, in anxious expectation, at these preparations, the French
navy was nearly annihilated in a decisive action off La Hogue, when
the alarm of invasion ceased.

Soon after this victory a powerful armament was placed under the
orders of Lieut.-General Meinhardt Duke of Leinster (afterwards
Duke Schomberg) for the purpose of making a descent on the coast of
France, and the EARL OF MEATH'S regiment was one of the corps which
embarked on this service. The court of France had, however, drawn
so immense a number of troops to the coast, that it was not thought
advisable to land, and the fleet sailed to the Downs, where orders
were received for a number of regiments to proceed to Flanders.
The transports sailed to Ostend, where the EARL OF MEATH'S and
several other corps landed, and being joined by a detachment from
the confederate army under King William, they took and fortified
the towns of Furnes and Dixmude. This service being completed, the
regiment embarked for England; it encountered a severe storm at
sea, and the transports were separated, but no loss was sustained;
part of the regiment arrived in the Thames, the remainder landed at
Harwich, and the whole were united at Bristol.

The Earl of Meath, being desirous of devoting his attention to the
interests of Ireland, retired from the regiment, and was succeeded
in the colonelcy by the lieut.-colonel, FREDERICK HAMILTON; Major
Ormsby was promoted Lieut.-Colonel, and Captain Richard Stearne
Major.

[Sidenote: 1693]

From Bristol the regiment marched in May, 1693, to Portsmouth,
where it embarked on board the fleet to serve as marines, and
in June sailed to Torbay, where the Dutch squadron joined. The
first service undertaken was the protection of about four hundred
merchant ships belonging to England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden,
Hamburg, and Flanders, engaged in the Mediterranean trade. As
the fleet proceeded through the Channel, it presented a splendid
appearance. Captain Parker states--"All the sea, from the line of
battle to our English coast, seemed as a floating wood covered
with canvass; and as the weather was very fair, the whole made a
most glorious appearance." After protecting the merchant-vessels
through the Bay of Biscay, the grand fleet returned, leaving a
squadron under Admiral Sir George Rooke, to continue the voyage
with them. The French monarch had made powerful efforts to send
to sea a formidable fleet, which attempted to intercept the
merchantmen and convoy under Sir George Rooke. The English admiral
avoided an engagement with so superior a force, and brought off the
greater part of his fleet; but many valuable vessels were captured
or destroyed by the enemy. On receiving news of this event, the
combined fleets of England and Holland attempted to intercept the
French naval force, but it got safe into port.

In the autumn the regiment landed and marched to Norwich.

During the campaign of this year, the confederate army in Flanders
had sustained severe loss at the battle of _Landen_, and efforts
were made to increase its numbers, for which purpose Colonel
HAMILTON'S regiment was ordered to proceed abroad. It marched to
London in December, was reviewed by King William in Hyde Park, and
embarking on the Thames, sailed to Ostend, where it landed, and
was stationed several months.

[Sidenote: 1694]

Taking the field in the spring of 1694, the regiment proceeded to
the vicinity of Louvain, where it was reviewed by the King, and
afterwards took part in the operations of the army. At the camp
near Ramilies it was formed in brigade under Major-General Ramsay,
and posted between two divisions of cavalry, in the left wing; it
afterwards shared in many toilsome marches, also formed part of the
covering army during the siege of _Huy_, and subsequently marched
into winter quarters at Ghent.

During this campaign a question arose respecting the rank of
regiments, and the King directed the subject to be submitted to
a board of general officers.[14] Captain Parker states,--"As the
general officers were most of them colonels of regiments raised
in England by King James II., they showed great partiality on
this occasion, for they would not allow the regiments, raised in
Scotland or Ireland, to have any rank in the army previous to the
time of their coming to England and entering upon English pay. By
this regulation, ours, that had been regimented in the time of King
Charles II., lost rank of eleven regiments, that had been raised
by King James II. The King thought it very hard; but as he had
left the matter to them, he confirmed their sentence." The rank
of the regiment was thus fixed as EIGHTEENTH in the British line;
numerical titles were, however, not generally used until the reign
of George II.[15]

[Sidenote: 1695]

Taking the field to serve the campaign of 1695, the regiment
was formed in brigade with the Fifth, Seventh, Twenty-third,
Collingwood's (afterwards disbanded), and La Melonière's
regiment of French Protestants, in the English service, under
Brigadier-General Fitzpatrick.

When King William undertook the siege of the important fortress of
_Namur_, the regiment formed part of the covering army under the
Prince of Vaudemont, against which a French force of very superior
numbers advanced under the orders of Marshal Villeroy. During the
night of the 14th of July, the hostile columns confronted each
other; the French, confident of success, detached a body of troops
to gain the rear of the allies, and anxiously waited for daylight
to commence the action. The Prince of Vaudemont ordered his cavalry
forward; the dragoons dismounting and forming on foot, while the
artillery, and infantry with pikes trailed, withdrew unobserved.
The French prepared for the attack, when the dragoons of the
confederate forces retired a few paces, mounted their horses, and
retreated, presenting to the surprised French what appeared to be
the magic spectacle of an army vanishing out of sight. The enemy
pursued, but the allies retreated in good order, and took up a
position in front of Ghent. This retreat has been celebrated by
historians as a fine specimen of the art of war.

The EIGHTEENTH were afterwards engaged in several manœuvres for
the preservation of the maritime towns of Flanders; in the early
part of August they were encamped between Genappe and Waterloo,
and afterwards joined the forces under King William. In the mean
time the town of Namur had surrendered; but the castle, a strong
fortress situate on a rock, still held out, and, on the 11th of
August, the EIGHTEENTH relieved one of the regiments which had
suffered severely in the siege, and took its turn of duty in the
trenches. A breach having been effected, arrangements were made
for a general assault. Three thousand British, under Lord Cutts,
were to attack the counterscarp and the breach of the Terra Nova;
three thousand Bavarians the breach of the Cohorn; two thousand
Brandenburgers (Prussians) the upper point of the Cohorn; two
thousand Dutch the Casotte; and six hundred men were to storm the
lower town: the EIGHTEENTH formed part of the British storming
party.

The regiment marched into the trenches on the 20th of August, to
take part in storming the Castle of Namur, and the soldiers were
elated with the expectation of distinguishing themselves under the
eye of their Sovereign. The trenches being crowded with troops, the
EIGHTEENTH and two other regiments were ordered to Salsine Abbey,
half a mile from the breach to be attacked. A little before mid-day
the assault was made with heroic ardour, but, owing to some mistake
in the signal, all the corps did not advance simultaneously, and
the British grenadiers, who headed the storming party, were
opposed by very superior numbers, and sustained severe loss; Lord
Cutts being among the wounded. Hurrying from Salsine Abbey to share
in the assault, the EIGHTEENTH approached the scene of conflict
a few moments after the grenadiers had been repulsed and forced
to retire; the regiment, however, rushed forward, stormed the
breach with signal gallantry, and planted the regimental colours
on the summit; but the enemy had constructed a strong work within
the breach, which the utmost efforts of the officers and soldiers
could not force, and after performing "prodigies of valour" they
were obliged to retreat with severe loss. The other attacks were
more successful; and lodgments were effected in the works. Captain
Parker states--"The King saw this action from a rising ground at
the back of Salsine Abbey, and _took particular notice of the
behaviour of our regiment; for ours, only, mounted the top of the
breach, and we planted our colours thereon_, but could not proceed
farther, because a strong retrenchment had been thrown up on the
inside, which we could not see till we had mounted the very top of
the breach, so we were obliged to follow the crowd. His Majesty,
on this occasion, was pleased to honour us with the title of 'THE
ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT OF IRELAND.'"[16] The King also conferred
on the regiment the privilege of bearing his own arms, "THE LION
OF NASSAU," on its colours (on which the cross of St. Patrick had
previously been displayed); also the "HARP IN A BLUE FIELD AND A
CROWN OVER IT," and the motto, "_Virtutis Namurcensis Præmium_."

The title was afterwards changed to "ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT."

The regiment sustained severe loss on this occasion; Lieut.-Colonel
Ormsby, Captains Purefoy, Pinsent, and Cateret, Lieutenants
Fitzmorris and Ramme, Ensigns Fettyplace, Blunt, Baker, and
Hayter, with eighty-six non-commissioned officers and soldiers,
were killed: Captain John Southwell and Ensign Lister died of
their wounds; Colonel Frederick Hamilton, Captains Kane, Duroure,
Seymour, and William Southwell, Lieutenants La Planche, Brereton,
Hybert, Arphaxad, and Rolleston, Ensigns John Gifford, Ormsby,
and Blakeney, with one hundred and eighty-five non-commissioned
officers and soldiers, were wounded.[17]

The fire against the castle was continued, and preparations were
made for another assault, which was prevented by the surrender of
the garrison. Thus was captured the celebrated fortress of _Namur_,
which reflected great credit on the confederate armies.

This conquest terminated the campaign, and the regiment passed the
winter in garrison at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1696]

During the campaign of 1696, the regiment served with the army of
Flanders under the Prince of Vaudemont; and was formed in brigade
with a battalion of the Royals, the third, fifth, and seventeenth
regiments under Brigadier-General Selwyn; and its services were
limited to the protection of Ghent, Bruges, and the maritime towns
of Flanders. In the autumn it returned to Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1697]

Leaving Ghent in the spring of 1697, the regiment joined the army
of Brabant under King William, and took part in the movements of
this campaign; which were terminated by the treaty of Ryswick, when
the British monarch saw his efforts for the liberty of Europe, and
the preservation of the Protestant religion, attended with success.

On the termination of hostilities, the regiment marched to Ghent,
where it was quartered several weeks, and on the 10th of December
embarked at Ostend for Ireland. As two of the transports approached
the Irish coast, they were chased by a Sallee man-of-war of
eighteen guns, carrying Zealand colours. Seeing his brave soldiers
in danger of being made slaves, Lieut.-Colonel Stearne called them
on deck; the whole resolved on a desperate defence; and it was
arranged that when the Sallee man-of-war attacked one transport,
the other should come to its assistance, and the enemy should be
boarded by the soldiers sword in hand, not doubting but that they
would overpower the Turks and Moors, and capture the ship. With
this view the soldiers were kept out of sight to induce the enemy
to make an attack, and every man was ready for action. "The Sallee
man-of-war kept us company about an hour, and was once, as we
thought, coming up to board us; however, she thought better of it,
fell astern, and stood off without firing a shot."[18] During the
following night the two transports narrowly escaped destruction
from a storm; they afterwards arrived safe in Bantry Bay; the
soldiers landed on the 24th of December, and marched to Cork, where
the regiment was assembled.

[Sidenote: 1699]

From Cork the regiment marched, in July, 1698, to Waterford; in the
spring of 1699 it proceeded to Dublin, and in 1700 it was removed
to Kinsale.

[Sidenote: 1700]

Pursuing those schemes of aggrandizement which had repeatedly
involved Europe in war, Louis XIV. procured the accession of
his grandson, Philip Duke of Anjou, to the throne of Spain, in
violation of existing treaties; seized on the Spanish Netherlands;
and made prisoners the Dutch troops in garrison in the barrier
towns. The sudden acquisition of the Spanish monarchy by a grandson
of the most ambitious and potent monarch of Europe, with the
prospect of France and Spain being eventually united under one
sovereign, affected the interests and agitated the public mind of
all countries.

[Sidenote: 1701]

War was resolved upon: the standing armies were augmented; and
while the din of hostile preparation was heard on every side, the
ROYAL IRISH regiment was placed upon a war establishment, and
embarked for Holland, where it arrived, with several other corps,
in July, 1701, and was placed in garrison at Huesden. On the 21st
of September it was reviewed on Breda-heath by King William III.

[Sidenote: 1702]

Quitting Huesden in March, 1702, the regiment proceeded to
Rosendael, where the British infantry was assembled under
Brigadier-General Ingoldsby; and at this place the troops received
information of the death of King William III., on the 8th of March,
and of the accession of Queen Anne.

From Rosendael the regiment marched to the duchy of Cleves, and
formed part of the army encamped at Cranenburg during the siege of
_Kayserswerth_, on the Lower Rhine, by the Germans. A French force
of very superior numbers attempting to cut off the communication
of the army at Cranenburg with _Nimeguen_, the troops struck their
tents on the 10th of June, and by a forced march during the night
arrived within a few miles of Nimeguen as the French legions
approached. Some sharp fighting occurred, in which the British
corps in the rear-guard evinced great gallantry, and the army
effected its retreat under the works of the fortress.

Additional forces having arrived from England, the EARL OF
MARLBOROUGH[19] assumed the command of the allied army, and by a
series of skilful movements he forced the French army to make a
precipitate retreat from the frontiers of Holland to their own
lines, and he twice attempted to bring on a general engagement
under advantageous circumstances, but was restrained by the Dutch
field deputies. The French forces having fled to their lines, the
English General resolved to attack their fortified towns, and
the ROYAL IRISH regiment was one of the corps detached from the
main army to undertake the siege of the fortress of _Venloo_,
situate on the east side of the river Maese, in the province
of Limburg.[20] On the west side of the river was a detached
fortification of five bastions, called _Fort St. Michael_, against
which the British troops carried on their approaches;--the Dutch
and Germans attacking other parts of the town: the whole were
under Veldt-Marshal Prince Nassau-Saarbruck. The approaches being
carried to the foot of the glacis, orders were given to storm the
covered-way, and make a lodgment on the top of the glacis; and the
ROYAL IRISH regiment, being on duty in the trenches at the time,
was appointed to make the attack, together with the grenadiers of
the brigade, and a party of chosen fusiliers. Captain Parker has
given the following account of this attack:--

"The Lord Cutts sent for all the officers, and told them, the
design was to drive the enemy from the covered-way, that they might
not disturb the workmen in making a lodgment; however, if the enemy
gave way with precipitation, we were to jump into the covered-way,
and pursue them, let the consequence be what it would. We all
thought these were very rash orders, contrary both to the rules of
war, and the design of the attack.

"About four in the afternoon (18th September), the signal was
given, and, according to our orders, we rushed up the covered-way;
the enemy gave us one scattering fire, and away they ran: we jumped
into the covered-way, and ran after them. They made to a ravelin,
which covered the curtain of the fort, in which were a captain and
sixty men. We, seeing them get into the ravelin, pursued them, got
in with them, and soon put most of them to the sword. They that
escaped us fled over a small wooden bridge, that led over the moat
to the fort; and here, like madmen, without fear or wit, we pursued
them over that tottering bridge, exposed to the fire of the great
and small shot of the fort. However, we got over the fausse-braye,
where we had nothing for it but to take the fort or die. They that
fled before us climbed up by the long grass that grew out of the
fort; so we climbed after them. Here we were hard put to it to pull
out the palisades, which pointed down upon us from the parapet,
and, was it not for the great surprise and consternation of those
within, we could never have surmounted this very point: but, as
soon as they saw us at this work, they quitted the rampart, and
retired down to the parade in the body of the fort, where they
laid down their arms and cried for quarter, which was readily
granted them. Thus were the unaccountable orders of Lord Cutts as
unaccountably executed, to the great surprise of the whole army,
and even of ourselves, when we came to reflect on what we had done."

The enemy had about four hundred killed, and two hundred made
prisoners. The British loss, in killed and wounded, did not exceed
forty men.

Captain Parker, of the ROYAL IRISH regiment, adds,--"This affair
was the occasion of another almost as surprising. An express came
to Prince Nassau which gave an account that Landau was taken;
whereupon he ordered the army to draw down near the town, to
fire three rounds (as a feu de-joie); the cannon also of all the
batteries, the mortars, and cohorns, were ordered to fire, with
the troops, into the town. When the garrison and inhabitants saw
us drawing down on all sides, they judged it was with a design of
making such an attack on the town as we had made on the fort, which
struck such a terror into them, that the magistrates begged the
Governor to capitulate, and not suffer them all to be put to the
sword. The first round of all our batteries, and the small shot of
the army, so affrighted them, that men, women, and children, came
flocking to the ramparts with white cloths in their hands, crying,
'Mercy! mercy!' and the Governor, in as great a consternation
as the rest, sent out an officer to the Prince to desire a
capitulation, which was immediately granted; as we had other sieges
to carry on this season, the Prince allowed them honourable terms."

After the capture of Venloo, the regiment was employed in the siege
of the fortress of _Ruremonde_, which was captured in a short time;
and Stevenswart having also been reduced by a detachment from the
covering army, the navigation of the Maese was thus cleared of the
enemy up to Maestricht.

Rejoining the main army after this achievement, the regiment
advanced towards the city of _Liège_, the French forces retiring
as the British approached, but leaving a strong garrison in the
citadel and Chartreuse. The ROYAL IRISH regiment was employed
in the siege of the citadel of Liège, and its grenadier company
had the honour to take part in the capture of that fortress by
storm, on the 23rd of October, when the British soldiers highly
distinguished themselves. They were permitted to appropriate a
large quantity of dollars and silver plate, captured on this
occasion, to their own use.

From the pleasant valley of Liège, the regiment commenced its
march, on the 3rd of November, back to Holland, and passed the
winter in garrison at Huesden.

[Sidenote: 1703]

Quitting its winter quarters in April, 1703, the regiment traversed
the country to Maestricht, and was in position near that city when
the French forces, under Marshals Villeroy and Boufflers, made a
sudden advance to surprise the British troops in their quarters,
but were defeated in their design.

The DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH assembled the army near Maestricht, and
the ROYAL IRISH regiment was formed in brigade with the eighth,
thirteenth, seventeenth, and thirty-third, under its colonel,
Brigadier-General F. Hamilton; and it advanced with the army
towards Tongres, when the French quitted their post and eventually
retired within their fortified lines, where the English General
was desirous of attacking them, but was prevented by the Dutch
commanders and field deputies. The services of the regiment were
afterwards connected with the siege of _Huy_, which fortress was
captured in ten days.

The ROYAL IRISH regiment formed part of the covering army during
the siege of _Limburg_, which was commenced on the 10th of
September, and on the 27th of that month the Governor surrendered.
Spanish Guelderland being thus delivered from the power of France,
the Dutch were freed from the danger of an invasion.

After taking part in these services the regiment marched to Breda:
during the severe frosts of winter it proceeded to Bergen-op-Zoom,
to reinforce the garrison of that fortress, and afterwards returned
to Breda, from whence it detached three hundred men to Maestricht,
to join the garrison of that city, while the Dutch soldiers were
working at the entrenchments on the heights of Petersberg.

[Sidenote: 1704]

Meanwhile the united French and Bavarian armies had gained
considerable advantage in Germany, and the Duke of Marlborough
resolved to lead his British brigades from the ocean to the Danube,
to rescue the Emperor of Germany from the menaced danger. To engage
in this splendid undertaking, the ROYAL IRISH regiment marched
from Breda on the 5th of May, N.S., and proceeded towards the
Rhine; being joined at Bedburg by the detachment from Maestricht.
Continuing its route, the regiment proceeded to Coblentz, where
it passed the Moselle and the Rhine, and afterwards traversed the
minor states of Germany towards the seat of war on the Danube;
all Europe being surprised at the ability evinced by the British
commander in conducting this daring enterprise.

Having united with the forces of the Empire, the British advanced
on the 2nd of July to attack a body of French and Bavarians
under Count d'Arco, in an entrenched camp on the heights of
_Schellenberg_, on the left bank of the Danube. About six in the
evening the leading division, of which a detachment of the ROYAL
IRISH regiment formed part, moved forward under a heavy fire, and
attacked the enemy's entrenchments with distinguished gallantry.
The enemy made a determined resistance, and the assailants were
repulsed; but the attack was renewed with heroic courage, and,
after a protracted contest, the Germans co-operated in the attack,
when the entrenchments were forced, and the French and Bavarians
driven from the heights with great slaughter. The British cavalry,
charging, completed the discomfiture of the enemy, and sixteen
pieces of ordnance, a number of standards and colours, with the
enemy's tents, and the equipage and plate of the Count d'Arco, were
captured.

The regiment had one serjeant and eleven rank and file killed;
Captain Lea, Ensigns Gilman, Walsh, and Pensant, three serjeants,
and thirty-two rank and file wounded.[21]

The victory at Schellenberg was followed by the flight of the enemy
from Donawerth; and the regiment was engaged in the operations
of the army which penetrated Bavaria, and captured _Rayn_ after
a short siege. The Elector of Bavaria formed an entrenched camp
at Augsburg, to which city the allied army advanced; but found
the enemy's camp too strong to be attacked with any prospect of
success, and the troops retired a short distance. The siege of
_Ingoldstadt_ was commenced by the Germans, and the ROYAL IRISH
regiment formed part of the covering army.

Quitting his camp at Augsburg, the Elector of Bavaria joined a
strong body of French troops sent to reinforce his army, and the
united divisions encamped in the valley of the Danube, near the
village of _Blenheim_.

At three o'clock on the morning of the memorable 13th of August,
1704, the allied army advanced towards the enemy, and about three
o'clock in the afternoon the British developed their attack
against the French brigades posted in the village of Blenheim;
thus commencing an engagement in which the English troops acquired
great distinction. The village being found strongly fortified,
it was environed by a few corps, and the army passed the little
river Nebel to attack the enemy's lines. The ROYAL IRISH regiment
directed its attacks against the right wing of the Gallo-Bavarian
army, and was engaged with the chosen troops of France, under
Marshal Tallard; its heroic conduct reflected the highest lustre
on the British arms, and it contributed materially to the complete
overthrow and discomfiture of the opposing host. The French were
chased from the field with great slaughter, and the loss of their
cannon, baggage, and many troops captured, including the brigades
posted in the village of Blenheim: Marshal Tallard, and several
officers of distinction, were among the prisoners. The left wing of
the enemy was also overpowered by the Germans, and the victory was
complete and decisive: the powerful armies of France and Bavaria
being literally destroyed. Thus, on the banks of the Danube, was
achieved by British valour a trophy which will serve as a monument
to commemorate the national glory to the end of time. The conduct
of the brave soldiers who conquered in the interior of Germany
was the admiration of surrounding states, and has been lauded by
numerous historians: the DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH was elevated to the
dignity of a PRINCE of the ROMAN EMPIRE.

The loss of the ROYAL IRISH regiment was Captains Brown, Rolleston,
and Vaughan, Ensign Moyle, five serjeants, and fifty-two rank and
file killed; Major Kane, Captains Lepenitor and Hussey, Lieutenants
Smith, Roberts, Blakeney, and Harvey, Ensign Trips, nine serjeants,
and eighty-seven rank and file wounded.[22]

From the Danube, the regiment traversed the country to the
banks of the Rhine, crossed that river at Philipsburg on the
7th of September, and formed part of the covering army encamped
at Croon-Weissemberg during the siege of _Landau_, which was
undertaken by the Germans. When the siege drew towards a close, the
regiment marched to Germersheim, where it embarked in boats on the
Rhine, and in twelve days arrived at Nimeguen, where it landed,
and, marching to Ruremonde, passed the winter at that place.

[Illustration: EIGHTEENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.

THE BATTLE OF BLENHEIM.

Aug^t the 13^{th} 1704.

_J.M. Jopling del^t_

_Madeley lith 3 Wellington S^t Strand_

_For Cannon's Military Records_]

[Sidenote: 1705]

Brigadier-General Hamilton, having become advanced in years,
retired from active service, and was permitted to dispose of the
colonelcy of the regiment to Lieut.-General Ingoldsby, from the
twenty-third foot, who was appointed colonel of the ROYAL IRISH
regiment by commission dated the 1st of April, 1705.

From Ruremonde the regiment marched to the vicinity of Maestricht,
where it joined the army; and afterwards proceeded by Juliers,
through a mountainous country, to the valley of the Moselle, where
it encamped near the city of Treves. The army passed the Moselle
and the Saar in the early part of June, with the view of carrying
on the war in that direction; but the Duke of Marlborough, being
disappointed of the co-operation of the Germans, marched his
army back to the Netherlands, which occasioned the soldiers much
fatigue. On arriving at the Maese, a detachment was employed in
recapturing _Huy_, which the enemy had taken during the absence of
the army up the Moselle.

A formidable barrier of forts and entrenchments had been
constructed with great labour and expense to arrest the progress of
the British General; but by menacing the lines to the south of the
Mehaine, to draw the French army to that quarter, and afterwards
making a forced march to the right during the night of the 17th
of July, these stupendous works were passed at _Helixem_ and
_Neer-Hespen_, with little opposition; and the French and Bavarian
troops, which hurried to the spot to drive back the leading corps
of the allied army, were repulsed with severe loss. The ROYAL
IRISH regiment was formed in brigade on this occasion with the
twenty-fourth, twenty-ninth, and Temple's (afterwards disbanded),
under Brigadier-General Webb, and, being in the main body of the
army, did not sustain any loss. After this brilliant success, the
designs of the British commander were frustrated by the opposition
of the Dutch Generals, and little further advantage was gained.

The regiment returned to Holland for winter quarters, and was
stationed at Worcum.

[Sidenote: 1706]

Taking the field in May, 1706, the regiment proceeded to the
general rendezvous of the army near Tongres, and, advancing from
thence in the direction of Mont St. André, on Whit-Sunday the 23rd
of May, the British commander discovered a powerful French army,
under Marshal Villeroy and the Elector of Bavaria, in position at
that place, with their centre at the village of _Ramilies_, which
was occupied by a considerable body of troops.

Diverging into the plain, the allied army formed line and advanced
towards the enemy; the ROYAL IRISH regiment, being in the right
wing, formed on the heights of Foulz, and, descending into the low
grounds near the Little Gheet river, menaced the enemy's left, at
Autreglise and Offuz, with an attack. This movement occasioned the
enemy to weaken his centre to support his left flank, when the
Duke of Marlborough instantly reinforced his centre, and made a
determined attack upon the enemy's position at the weakened point.
For some time the officers and soldiers of the ROYAL IRISH regiment
were spectators of the fight; but at a critical moment they were
brought forward, and they contributed to the complete overthrow
of the forces of France, Spain, and Bavaria. The warlike brigades
of the enemy, a few hours before so formidable and menacing,
were driven from the field with great slaughter, and the loss of
many officers and soldiers taken prisoners, also of their cannon
and many standards and colours. After pursuing the fugitives
a considerable distance, the regiment halted for the night,
surrounded by the ensanguined trophies of this day of glorious
triumph to the British arms.

Retreating to Louvain, the broken remains of the enemy's splendid
army halted a short time, and soon afterwards abandoned that city,
and also Lierre, Ghent, Damme, and Bruges. The magistrates of
these towns, together with those of Brussels, Malines, and Alost,
renounced their allegiance to the Duke of Anjou, and declared
in favour of the House of Austria. The garrisons of Oudenarde
and Antwerp surrendered; Ostend withstood a short siege and then
capitulated. Thus the successes of the allied arms were splendid
beyond all precedent.

Towards the end of July, the ROYAL IRISH regiment was detached
from the main army to take part in the siege of the fortress of
_Menin_, which was considered one of the masterpieces of VAUBAN,
the celebrated French engineer, and was provided with a numerous
garrison well supplied with everything necessary for a protracted
defence. The garrison disputed every yard of ground with sanguinary
tenacity; but the allies carried on the siege with vigour, and
brought their approaches to the foot of the glacis, where a
storming party was assembled to attack the covered-way. The ROYAL
IRISH regiment was appointed to take part in this service. The
signal being given, the assailants rushed forward to the palisades,
and threw a shower of hand-grenades into the covered-way; then,
entering amidst the confusion, overthrew all opposition. General
Stearne states,--"This proved warm service; for though we drove the
enemy at once out of the counterscarp, they sprung two mines upon
us, and from their works plied us with a most violent fire, which
we lay exposed to until our workmen had thrown up an entrenchment
sufficient to cover us. In this action our regiment had six
officers and upwards of eighty soldiers killed and wounded."[23]

The Governor, finding himself unable to arrest the progress of the
besieging force, surrendered.

The fortress of _Aeth_ was afterwards captured, and this event
terminated the campaign. Thus fortresses which had resisted
powerful armies for months and years, and provinces disputed
for ages, were the conquests of a summer: the nations of Europe
witnessing with astonishment the splendid achievements of the
forces under the Duke of Marlborough. After sharing in the
brilliant successes of this campaign, the ROYAL IRISH regiment
passed the winter at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1707]

In May, 1707, the regiment again took the field, and was formed
in brigade with the second battalion of the Royals, the eighth,
twenty-fourth, and Temple's regiments, under Brigadier-General Sir
Richard Temple (afterwards Viscount Cobham). During this campaign,
the French army avoided a general engagement, and the summer was
passed by the opposing armies in manœuvring and watching each
other's movements. In the autumn, the regiment marched to the
castle of Ghent, of which its commanding officer, Colonel Stearne,
was appointed governor.

[Sidenote: 1708]

Finding his armies beaten on the continent, the French monarch
fitted out an expedition for the purpose of landing the Pretender
in Scotland, to embroil Great Britain in civil war; and the
EIGHTEENTH regiment was one of the corps ordered home to repel the
invaders: it embarked from Ostend in the middle of March, 1708, and
sailed to the river Tyne; but the English fleet chased the French
squadron from the British coast, and the regiment returned to
Flanders.

When the opposing armies took the field, the French had obtained
possession of Ghent and Bruges by treachery; but the English
General surprised the French on the march near _Oudenarde_ on
the 11th of June, and gained a decisive victory. The EIGHTEENTH
regiment formed part of the leading brigade of the van of the army,
under Major-General Cadogan, and with the eighth, twenty-third, and
thirty-seventh regiments, descended from the high grounds between
Eyne and Bevere, forded a rivulet, and attacked seven battalions
of the Swiss regiments of Pfeffer, Villars, and Gueder, which had
taken post at Eyne: after a sharp contest British valour prevailed,
and Brigadier-General Pfeffer, with three entire battalions,
were made prisoners of war: the remainder were either killed,
or intercepted in their attempt to escape, and made prisoners.
The EIGHTEENTH afterwards attacked a body of troops posted in
the enclosures, and soon drove the French from their ground. As
the regiment was advancing in pursuit, a numerous body of French
cavalry menaced it in front and flank, and it fell back to the
hedges, where it repulsed the French horsemen. Other British
brigades arriving, the whole advanced; a fierce conflict of
musketry ensued, and charge succeeded charge until darkness put an
end to the conflict, and thus saved the French army from complete
annihilation. The enemy made a precipitate retreat during the
night.

Lieut.-Colonel Stearne commanded the regiment on this occasion, and
he states in his journal,--"Our regiment, though the first that
engaged, had only one lieutenant and eight men killed, and twelve
men wounded."

The ROYAL IRISH regiment formed part of the force employed in
the siege of the important fortress of _Lisle_, the capital of
French Flanders, and the regiment had numerous opportunities of
distinguishing itself during the long and determined defence made
by a numerous garrison under Marshal Boufflers. The citadel did
not surrender until the 9th of December. The EIGHTEENTH had two
captains and three subalterns killed, the major and several other
officers wounded, and two hundred non-commissioned officers and
soldiers killed and wounded.

[Sidenote: 1709]

A strong detachment of recruits replaced the losses of the
regiment, and it was in a highly efficient state when it took
the field to serve the campaign of 1709. The Duke of Marlborough
menaced the French army with an attack, which occasioned
Marshal Villars to weaken the garrisons of the fortified towns
to strengthen the army in the field, when the allies besieged
_Tournay_. The EIGHTEENTH were detached, under the Prince of
Orange, to drive the French detachment from Mortagne and St.
Amand, and, having accomplished this service, joined the besieging
army, and carried on its approaches at the seven fountains. The
regiment was engaged in storming the breaches in the Ravelin and
Half-Moon; and on the 29th of July it was in readiness to take part
in storming the town, which was prevented by the surrender of the
place, the garrison retiring into the citadel.

The EIGHTEENTH took part in the siege of the citadel of Tournay,
which was celebrated for the extent of its underground works.
Captain Parker, of the regiment, states in his journal,--"Our
approaches against this citadel were carried on mostly underground,
by sinking pits several fathom deep, and working from thence until
we came to their casemates and mines. These extended a great way
from the body of the citadel, and in them our men and the enemy
frequently met, and fought with sword and pistol. We could not
prevent them springing several mines which blew up some of our
batteries, guns and all, and a great many men, in particular a
captain, lieutenant, and forty (the London Gazette says thirty) men
of our regiment." The EIGHTEENTH lost a lieutenant and several men
in the combats underground; and ten grenadiers were suffocated in
one of the galleries. In the early part of September the governor
surrendered.

From Tournay the army marched in the direction of Mons, and, the
French taking up a position near _Malplaquet_, a general engagement
took place on the 11th of September, when the enemy was forced from
his entrenchments with loss. Captain Parker states,--"The part
which our regiment acted in this battle was something remarkable.
We happened to be the last of the regiments which had been left
at Tournay to level the approaches, and did not come up till the
lines were formed. We were ordered to draw up on the right of the
army, opposite a skirt of the wood of Sart, and, when the army
advanced to attack the enemy, we entered the wood in our front. We
continued marching till we came to a small plain, on the opposite
side of which we perceived a battalion of the enemy drawn up, a
skirt of the wood being in its rear. Colonel Kane, who was then
at the head of the regiment, having drawn us up, and formed our
platoons, advanced towards the enemy, with the six platoons of
our first fire made ready. When we arrived within a hundred paces
of them, they gave us a fire of one of their ranks; whereupon we
halted, and returned them the fire of our six platoons at once, and
immediately made ready the six platoons of our second fire, and
advanced upon them again. They then gave us the fire of another
rank; and we returned them a second fire, which made them shrink;
however they gave us the fire of a third rank, after a scattering
manner, and then retired into the wood in great disorder; on
which we sent our third fire after them and saw them no more.
We advanced up to the ground which they had quitted, and found
several of them killed and wounded; and among the latter was one
Lieutenant O'Sulivan, who told us the battalion we had engaged
was the 'ROYAL REGIMENT OF IRELAND.'[24] Here, therefore, was a
fair trial between the TWO ROYAL REGIMENTS OF IRELAND, one in the
BRITISH and the other in the FRENCH service; for we met each other
upon equal terms, and there was none else to interpose. We had but
four men killed and six wounded; and found near forty of them on
the spot killed and wounded. The advantage on our side will be
easily accounted for, first from the weight of our ball; for the
French arms carry bullets of 24 to the pound, whereas our British
firelocks carry ball of 16 only to the pound, which will make a
considerable difference in the execution: again, the manner of our
firing was different from theirs; the French, at that time, fired
all by ranks, which can never do equal execution with our platoon
firing."

Lieut.-Colonel Stearne gives nearly the same particulars, and
adds--"We marched into the wood after them (the Royal Irish in
the French service); and when we had got through, we found our
army mounting the enemy's last entrenchments, and our brother
_harpers_[25] scoured off as fast as their heels could carry them.
Thus ended this great and terrible battle, which was the most
obstinate engagement on both sides that has been known in the
memory of man: the killed and wounded on both sides was very great."

The EIGHTEENTH were afterwards employed in covering the siege of
_Mons_, and passed the winter in quarters at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1710]

From Ghent the regiment advanced on the 14th of April, 1710,
and took part in the operations by which the French lines were
passed at _Pont-à-Vendin_; and also formed part of the covering
army during the siege of _Douay_, and also during the siege of
_Bethune_; and was afterwards detached, under the Prince of
Anhalt, to attack the town of _Aire_, situate on the banks of the
river Lys. In the siege of this place many difficulties had to be
overcome, from the nature of the ground, and from the determined
defence of a numerous garrison: the EIGHTEENTH regiment had three
officers killed, and five wounded; also about eighty soldiers
killed and wounded. The garrison surrendered on the 9th of
November; and the regiment, afterwards returned to Ghent.[26]

[Sidenote: 1711]

The ROYAL IRISH again took the field in April, 1711, and were
employed in the operations by which the boasted impregnable French
lines were passed at _Arleux_, and the opportunity of attacking the
fortified town of _Bouchain_, situated on both sides of the river
_Scheldt_, was ensured. The regiment formed part of a detachment of
twenty battalions, commanded by Lieut.-General the Earl of Orkney,
which took post on the north and north-west side of the town
and river, and advanced to drive the French from the heights of
Wavrechin. Captain Parker states, "Our British grenadiers marched
to the top of the hill on the left of their works, in order to
begin the attack on that side: here we were posted in a field of
wheat, about seventy or eighty paces from their works, expecting
every moment the signal to fall on. I must confess I did not like
the aspect of the thing: we plainly saw their entrenchment was a
perfect bulwark, strong and lofty, and crowded with men, and cannon
pointed directly at us: we wished much that the Duke might take a
nearer view. * * * * While I was musing, the Duke of Marlborough,
ever watchful, ever right, rode up unattended, and posted himself
on the right of my company of grenadiers, from whence he had a
fair view of the greater part of the enemy's works. It is quite
impossible for me to express the joy which the sight of this man
gave me. I was well satisfied he would not push the thing unless he
saw a strong probability of success; nor was this my notion alone;
it was the sense of the whole army, both officers and soldiers,
British and Foreigners; and, indeed, we had all the reason in the
world for it, for he never led us on to any one action that we did
not succeed in. He stayed only three or four minutes, and then rode
back: we were in pain for him while he stayed, lest the enemy might
have discovered him, and fired at him, in which case they could
not well have missed him. He had not been longer from us than he
stayed when orders came to us to retire. As the corn we stood in
was high, we slipped off undiscovered, and were a good way down the
hill before they perceived that we were retiring, and then they
let fly all their great and small shot after us; but as we were by
this time under the brow of the hill, all their shot went over our
heads." This statement of a distinguished officer of the EIGHTEENTH
regiment shows how fully the great Duke of Marlborough possessed
the confidence of his troops.

During the siege of _Bouchain_, the ROYAL IRISH regiment was
actively engaged in the trenches and the attacks; but did not
sustain a very severe loss. Lieut.-Colonel Stearne states,--"In
this siege our regiment had four officers wounded but none killed,
and about forty men killed and wounded; the grenadiers suffered
most. Bouchain being taken, our regiment was ordered to Tournay,
where we were quartered the remaining part of the campaign, from
whence we escorted what provision came that way to the army which
continued about Bouchain." In October the regiment marched to
Lisle, where it passed the winter.

[Sidenote: 1712]

In February, 1712, Lieut.-General Ingoldsby died, and was succeeded
in the colonelcy of the regiment by Lieut.-Colonel Stearne, who
had held a commission in the corps thirty-four years, and wrote an
account of its services.[27]

From Lisle the regiment advanced in April to some high ground
beyond Bouchain, where a camp was formed of several corps, and
entrenchments thrown up. The ROYAL IRISH regiment afterwards joined
the army under the orders of the Duke of Ormond, and its grenadier
company advanced on a reconnoitring party into Picardy; but a
suspension of hostilities took place soon afterwards, and the army
withdrew to Ghent, where the regiment passed the winter. The power
of France was reduced, its armies defeated, its frontier towns
captured, its ambitious monarch was forced to sue for peace, and
the treaty of Utrecht gave repose to Europe.

[Sidenote: 1713]

The ROYAL IRISH regiment had acquired a high reputation during the
war; and a board of officers being assembled in London, to decide
on the rank of regiments, Colonel Stearne sent Captain Parker
to England to claim rank for the regiment from the date of its
formation in 1684, which would have given it rank as FIFTH foot;
but this was not granted, and it continued to take date and rank
in the English army from the time of its arrival in England in the
autumn of 1688.[28]

During the winter, a very serious mutiny occurred among the troops
stationed at Ghent, to which the soldiers were incited by a man,
whom Captain Parker calls "a pettifogging attorney from London,"
who had entered the EIGHTEENTH regiment. This dangerous combination
was suppressed, and ten of the ringleaders were executed.

[Sidenote: 1714]

After the conclusion of the treaty of peace, the British regiments
quitted Flanders, excepting the eighth and EIGHTEENTH, which were
appointed to garrison the citadel of Ghent until the barrier treaty
was signed. The Duke and Duchess of Marlborough passing through
Ghent, the officers of the two regiments met His Grace without
the town, to show their respect to the character of their former
commander.

[Sidenote: 1715]

On the breaking out of the rebellion of the Earl of Mar, in the
autumn of 1715, the regiment was ordered to proceed to England,
leaving the lieut.-colonel and a hundred men in the castle of
Ghent; it landed at Greenwich, and marched to Gloucester, where it
was joined by the party from Ghent in February following.

[Sidenote: 1716]

From Gloucester the regiment marched to _Oxford_; many persons at
this celebrated university were disaffected to the government of
King George I., and on the Prince of Wales's birthday, when the
officers of the regiment were assembled at one of the inns, to
celebrate the day, they were assailed by stones thrown from a house
on the opposite side of the street. A number of soldiers, hearing
that their officers had been thus assailed by the Jacobites, came
running to the spot, and soon destroyed the windows of the house
from whence the stones had been thrown. They afterwards went from
street to street, and broke the windows of persons who refused to
illuminate for the Prince of Wales's birthday. The Vice-Chancellor
sent a complaint to His Majesty's privy council, and the officers
were called upon for an explanation. The subject was afterwards
investigated by the House of Lords, and, after several debates,
the university was censured for not observing the birthday of the
Prince of Wales, afterwards King George II.

[Sidenote: 1717]

In May, 1717, the regiment marched to Portsmouth, where it received
orders to hold itself in readiness to proceed abroad.

Brigadier-General Stearne obtained permission to dispose of the
colonelcy of the regiment to Lieut.-Colonel William Cosby, from the
first troop, now first regiment of life guards.

[Sidenote: 1718]

Soon afterwards the regiment embarked for the island of Minorca,
where it arrived in the early part of 1718, and it was stationed
there many years, during which period little occurred worthy of
being recorded.

[Sidenote: 1727]

In 1727, when the Spaniards besieged _Gibraltar_, a detachment from
the regiments at Minorca proceeded to that fortress, under Colonel
Cosby of the ROYAL IRISH regiment, to reinforce the garrison. This
detachment took part in the successful defence of Gibraltar against
the power of Spain, and when the siege was raised, it returned to
Minorca.

[Sidenote: 1732]

[Sidenote: 1735]

[Sidenote: 1742]

While the regiment was at Minorca, Colonel Cosby was succeeded by
Sir Charles Hotham, Baronet, in 1732; and, in 1735, King George II.
nominated Colonel John Armstrong to the colonelcy. This officer,
dying in 1742, was succeeded by Colonel John Mordaunt, from the
forty-seventh regiment.

In the same year, the ROYAL IRISH regiment was relieved from duty
at Minorca, and returned to England: it landed at Portsmouth and
Southampton, and marched to Taunton, and the neighbouring towns,
where it passed the winter.

[Sidenote: 1743]

From Taunton the regiment marched, in the spring of 1743, to Exeter
and Plymouth, where it was reviewed by Lieut.-General Lord Tyrawley.

[Sidenote: 1744]

In the spring of 1744, the regiment marched to Richmond, and other
towns near Hounslow Heath, and was reviewed by His Royal Highness
the Duke of Cumberland. "The regiment gained great reputation by
its discipline and good appearance, and had the pleasure of being
assured of His Royal Highness' approbation."[29] After the review,
the regiment marched to Fareham, and mounted guard over the French
and Spanish prisoners at Portchester Castle.

[Sidenote: 1745]

At the battle of Fontenoy, the British troops, supporting the
interests of the house of Austria against the power of France and
Bavaria, were repulsed in their attempts to raise the siege of
Tournay, and sustained severe loss; and the ROYAL IRISH regiment
was ordered to join the British army in Flanders. The EIGHTEENTH
embarked at Gravesend, with a detachment of foot guards and the
fourteenth regiment, landed at Ostend, and, advancing up the
country, joined the army, commanded by His Royal Highness the
Duke of Cumberland, at the camp at Lessines, in May, 1745. The
French, having a great superiority of numbers, captured several
strong towns, and besieged _Ostend_, when the ROYAL IRISH were
selected to reinforce the garrison of that fortress. The regiment
accordingly marched to Antwerp, where it embarked on board of
Dutch billanders, in which it sailed to Flushing, where it was
removed on board of transports that conveyed it to Ostend, which
town was found abandoned by the inhabitants, and besieged by a
numerous French force. The garrison did not exceed three thousand
men, a number very inadequate to the defence of the place; the
fortifications had been neglected and were out of repair; and
the Austrian governor permitted the enemy to gain possession of
the sluices before he had inundated the country round the town.
The means of a long defence were wanting, and, after holding out
until the ammunition was nearly expended, and the guns of the
fortress dismounted, the governor capitulated, on condition that
the garrison should march to the quarters of the allied army. The
writer of the continuation of General Stearne's journal complains
of the treacherous conduct of the French on this occasion, in
causing the garrison to make a considerable détour, employing
agents to induce, by promises of reward, the soldiers to desert,
and, after a march of twenty miles in one day, delivering the
garrison up at a frontier village cantonment about seven in the
evening, and having a numerous force ready to cut off the fatigued
men at an early hour on the following morning. This was, however,
defeated; the Duke of Cumberland sent a General officer to take
charge of the troops on their arrival, and, instead of allowing
the tired soldiers to go into quarters, he ordered them to load
their muskets, fix their bayonets, and march for Mons. The writer,
before alluded to, states, "As we every moment expected the enemy,
we continued our march in the greatest order; not a whisper was to
be heard: the officers who were present will always remember with
pleasure the discipline and good disposition every regiment showed
on that occasion." ... "So narrow was our escape, that the French
got to their ground within an hour of our passing it, and we saw
them in the morning encamped about two miles from Mons."

The EIGHTEENTH regiment, and other corps from Ostend, remained at
Mons about three weeks, watched by a numerous French force; but
on the approach of a detachment from the allied army, the enemy
retired: the regiments then marched out at midnight, arrived at
Charleroi on the following day, and afterwards joined the army near
Brussels.

In the autumn of this year, Charles Edward, eldest son of the
Pretender, raised the standard of his father in Scotland, and,
being joined by a number of Highland clans, penetrated into
England. On this occasion the ROYAL IRISH regiment marched to
Williamstadt, where it embarked for England, and, arriving at
Gravesend on the 5th of November, landed and joined the camp at
Dartford, where it remained several weeks, and lost the surgeon and
a number of men from diseases produced by being exposed to severe
weather in a camp in the winter months.

[Sidenote: 1746]

The regiment returned to Gravesend in March, 1746, and embarked
for Scotland, with the twelfth, sixteenth, and twenty-fourth foot.
These corps arrived at Leith on the 19th of April, as the guns of
Edinburgh castle were firing for the victory gained over the rebels
at Culloden, and this terminated the rebellion.

The regiment waited at Leith until the return of an express from
the army, when it received orders to sail northward; it landed at
Nairn on the 1st of May, was cantoned in the neighbourhood of that
place three weeks, and afterwards joined the army at Inverness, at
which place the regiment was encamped until the autumn, when it
marched into quarters at Nairn, Elgin, &c.

[Sidenote: 1747]

In the summer of 1747, the regiment marched to Fort Augustus, and
encamped among the mountains near that place, under the orders of
Major-General Blakeney, until October, when it marched to Edinburgh
castle, and Stirling.

Major-General Sir John Mordaunt was removed to the twelfth
dragoons in December of this year, and was succeeded in the
colonelcy by Colonel John Folliott, from the sixty-first foot, a
newly-raised corps, afterwards disbanded.

[Sidenote: 1748]

[Sidenote: 1749]

[Sidenote: 1750]

Returning to England in the spring of 1748, the regiment was
stationed at Berwick, Newcastle, and Carlisle, where it remained
until the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, when it marched to Glasgow,
and embarked for Ireland on the 18th of February, 1749. It was
stationed at Enniskillen and Ballyshannon twelve months, and was
removed in 1750 to Kinsale, and in 1751 to Cork.

[Sidenote: 1751]

In the Royal warrant of the 1st of July, 1751, the uniform of the
regiment is directed to be scarlet, faced with blue. The First, or
King's colour, to be the great union; the Second, or regimental
colour, to be of blue silk with the union in the upper canton; in
the centre of the colour, the HARP in a blue field and the CROWN
over it; and in the three corners of the colour, the LION OF
NASSAU, the arms of King William III. On the grenadier caps, the
HARP AND CROWN, as on the colours. The HARP AND CROWN to be painted
in the same manner on the drums and bells of arms, with the rank of
the regiment underneath.[30]

[Sidenote: 1752]

[Sidenote: 1753]

[Sidenote: 1754]

From Cork the regiment marched, in 1752, to Waterford; in 1753 it
proceeded to Dublin, and in 1754 to Londonderry and Ballyshannon.

[Sidenote: 1755]

Disputes having arisen between Great Britain and France, respecting
the extent of the British territories in North America, hostilities
commenced, and the regiment was suddenly ordered to England in
the spring of 1755. It landed at Liverpool on Easter Sunday, the
3rd of April, and marched to Berwick, where the establishment was
augmented to seventy-eight men per company, and two companies were
afterwards added: in October the regiment marched to Edinburgh,
where it was stationed during the winter.

[Sidenote: 1756]

In February, 1756, the two additional companies were incorporated
in the fifty-sixth regiment, then newly raised; and in May the
EIGHTEENTH were reviewed by Lieut.-General Bland, commanding the
forces in North Britain, and afterwards marched to Fort William,
with numerous detachments at various posts in the Highlands.

[Sidenote: 1757]

Orders were received in February, 1757, for the regiment to proceed
to Ireland, and it was stationed in that part of the United Kingdom
during the remainder of the seven years' war.

[Sidenote: 1762]

Lieut.-General Folliott died in January, 1762, and in April King
George III. conferred the colonelcy of the EIGHTEENTH regiment on
Major-General Sir John Sebright, Bart., from the eighty-third foot,
which corps was disbanded in 1763.

[Sidenote: 1767]

[Sidenote: 1775]

In 1767 the ROYAL IRISH regiment proceeded from Ireland to
North America, where it was stationed when the unfortunate
misunderstanding occurred between Great Britain and her North
American colonies on the subject of taxation. The Americans
manifested a disposition to violence, and three companies of the
EIGHTEENTH were stationed at Boston, the capital of the state of
Massachusetts, under the Governor of the province, General Gage.

General Gage, having ascertained that the Americans had collected a
quantity of military stores at _Concord_, detached the grenadiers
and light infantry, including the companies of the EIGHTEENTH, to
effect the destruction of these stores. These companies embarked
in boats, under Colonel Smith, of the tenth, on the evening of the
18th of April, 1775, and sailed up Charles river to the marshes of
Cambridge, where they landed and marched towards Concord. At the
village of _Lexington_ they were opposed by a party of American
militia; some firing occurred, and several men were killed and
wounded: thus the first blood was spilt, and open resistance
followed. The King's troops continued their march to Concord, and
effected the destruction of the stores. In the meantime the country
had been alarmed for many miles, and, when the soldiers commenced
their journey back to Boston, they were fired upon from behind
the walls, trees, fences, barns, &c., on both sides of the road,
and skirmish succeeded skirmish until they arrived at Lexington,
where they were met by Earl Percy's brigade, with two field-pieces.
The fire of the artillery checked the Americans, and the troops
continued their march to Boston. The flank companies of the ROYAL
IRISH regiment had two men killed and four wounded on this occasion.

This open resistance to legal authority was followed by the
appearance of multitudes of armed Americans in the neighbourhood
of Boston, and on the night of the 16th of June they commenced
throwing up entrenchments on the peninsula of Charleston, on a
height called _Bunker's Hill_; and on the following day General
Gage detached a body of troops, of which the flank companies of the
ROYAL IRISH regiment formed part, to drive the Americans from the
hill. The attack was made about three o'clock in the afternoon,
and British valour was conspicuously displayed; but the Americans
had a great superiority of numbers and a strong post. The King's
troops were twice arrested in their progress, but by a determined
effort they carried the height at the point of the bayonet, and
triumphed over thrice their own numbers. The loss of the EIGHTEENTH
was limited to three rank and file killed, Lieutenant William
Richardson and seven rank and file wounded.

[Sidenote: 1776]

Although the valour and discipline of the British corps in North
America were so conspicuous as to excite the admiration of their
country, yet the few corps at Boston were beset by such multitudes
of opponents, that it became impossible for these excellent
qualities to be exercised with any prospect of ultimate success;
and in the middle of March, 1776, the town was abandoned, the
British troops embarking for Nova Scotia.

[Sidenote: 1777]

Soon afterwards the regiment received orders to transfer its men
fit for service to other corps, and return to Europe: it arrived in
England in July, 1776, and was stationed at Dover Castle, where it
remained during the year 1777.

[Sidenote: 1778]

From Dover, the regiment proceeded to Coxheath, where an encampment
was formed of the Royal Dragoons, five regiments of infantry, and
fifteen battalions of militia.

[Sidenote: 1779]

In the summer of 1779, the regiment was encamped at Warley, in the
Essex district, with three other corps of regular infantry and ten
battalions of militia, under Lieut.-General Parker.

[Sidenote: 1780]

[Sidenote: 1782]

The regiment was encamped at Finchley in 1780, and afterwards in
Hyde Park; and in 1782 it proceeded to the island of Jersey, where
its numbers were reduced to the peace establishment in consequence
of the termination of the American war.

Leaving Jersey in February, 1782, the thanks of the Commander
of the forces at that station were conveyed to the officers and
soldiers of the EIGHTEENTH, for their conduct while under his
command. The regiment was afterwards stationed at Guernsey, where
an alarming mutiny occurred among the soldiers of the 104th
regiment, who fired upon their officers, and took possession of the
fort. They were invested by the ROYAL IRISH regiment, commanded
by Major Mawby, and a battalion of militia, and were forced to
submit. The lieut.-governor thanked the ROYAL IRISH regiment, in
orders, for its loyal and spirited conduct on this occasion, in the
strongest terms, and promised to take the earliest opportunity of
bringing its meritorious conduct before the King. The States of the
island also conveyed the expression of their thanks and approbation
of the excellent behaviour of the EIGHTEENTH regiment, accompanied
by a vote of 100 guineas, to be divided among the non-commissioned
officers and soldiers.

[Sidenote: 1783]

In July, 1783, the regiment proceeded to Portsmouth, and in October
it embarked for the fortress of Gibraltar.

[Sidenote: 1793]

While the ROYAL IRISH regiment was employed in protecting the
important fortress of Gibraltar, a revolution occurred in France;
Louis XVI. was beheaded by his subjects in 1793; and while anarchy
and bloodshed prevailed in France, the republicans of that
country sought to involve other nations in the same calamities.
War was the result. A powerful party favourable to monarchy still
existed in France, many patriots stood forward in the cause of
royalty, and the inhabitants of _Toulon_ joined with Admiral Turgot
in delivering up that port to the British, who took possession
of the place in the name of Louis XVII. A numerous republican
army advanced against Toulon, and the allies made exertions to
procure troops for the defence of the town and harbour. Some corps
of French loyalists were embodied; detachments of Spaniards,
Neapolitans, and Sardinians were procured, and the ROYAL IRISH
regiment was withdrawn from Gibraltar to aid in the protection of
this important place.

The regiment arrived at Toulon in November, and was actively
employed in the defence of the place upwards of a month, during
which period it was frequently engaged with the republican troops
of France.

A battery having been erected by the enemy on the heights of
_Arenes_, which much annoyed one of the principal outposts, a party
of the EIGHTEENTH joined the troops under Major-General David
Dundas, which issued from Toulon on the morning of the 30th of
November, crossed the river, traversed olive-grounds, intersected
with stone walls, ascended a height cut into vine-terraces, and,
surprising the French on their post, drove them from the battery
with signal gallantry. The object in view was thus accomplished,
but the impetuosity of the soldiers could not be restrained; they
pursued the enemy too far, and, encountering fresh adversaries,
were forced to retire with loss. The ROYAL IRISH regiment had seven
men killed on this occasion, twenty-four wounded, four serjeants,
one drummer, and twenty-nine rank and file missing.

Much difficulty was experienced in defending Toulon with twelve
thousand men, of five different nations, against thirty to
forty thousand French troops; a circumference of fifteen miles
having to be occupied by a number of posts which required nine
thousand men for their protection, so that three-fourths of the
men were constantly on duty. On the 17th of December, the French
attacked the British quarter under Captain William Conolly of the
EIGHTEENTH, who defended his post with great gallantry until the
enemy had forced the Spanish side, when he fell back fighting to
another position. The regiment lost Ensign George Minchin and two
rank and file on this occasion. The enemy afterwards attacked
the posts on the mountain of Pharou, where another party of the
EIGHTEENTH was engaged, and lost one serjeant and five rank and
file.

The line of posts being forced, it was found impossible to preserve
the town and harbour, and the French shipping, arsenal, and
magazines were set on fire, and the troops of the several nations
embarked on board of the fleet on the 19th of December.

[Sidenote: 1794]

After the evacuation of Toulon, the fleet proceeded to the bay of
Hières, and arrangements were made for attacking the island of
_Corsica_: the fleet weighed anchor on the 24th of January, 1794;
but was dispersed by a gale of wind. Early in February a landing
was effected in the gulf of Fiorenzo in the island of Corsica, and
a series of operations were commenced by which the greater part
of the island was speedily reduced, and an assembly of Deputies
afterwards agreed to unite Corsica to the British dominions.

The fortified town of _Calvi_, situate on a tongue of land which
forms a beautiful harbour thirty-three miles from _Bastia_, the
capital of Corsica, still held out in the French interest, and the
EIGHTEENTH regiment, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel David Douglas
Wemyss, was selected to join the troops, under Lieut.-General C.
Stuart, appointed for the reduction of this fortress. The regiment
accordingly sailed from Bastia, and, having landed near Calvi on
the 19th of June, took post on a ridge of mountains three miles
from the town. Owing to the numerous rocky heights and steep
acclivities before the town, the soldiers and seamen had to make
roads along difficult precipices, to drag guns up the mountains,
and to carry up materials for erecting the batteries, which they
performed with cheerfulness. A practical breach having been made
in the west side of the Mozello, on the 18th of July the light
infantry (including the light company of the EIGHTEENTH) and
the second battalion of the Royals, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel
Moore, "proceeded with a cool steady confidence, and unloaded
arms, towards the enemy, forced their way through a smart fire of
musketry, and, regardless of live shells flung into the breach,
or the additional defence of pikes, stormed the Mozello; while
Lieut.-Colonel Wemyss, with the ROYAL IRISH regiment, and two
pieces of cannon under the direction of Lieutenant Lemoine of the
royal artillery, equally regardless of opposition, carried the
enemy's battery on the left, and forced the trenches without firing
a shot."[31]

After the capture of these important posts, the siege of Calvi was
prosecuted with vigour, and on the 10th of August the garrison
surrendered.

The loss of the ROYAL IRISH regiment was limited to six rank and
file killed; Lieutenant William Johnston, one serjeant, and ten
rank and file wounded.

In the early part of this year, General Sir John Sebright,
Bart., died; and the colonelcy of the regiment was conferred on
Major-General Sir James Murray, Bart., who afterwards took the
surname of Pulteney.

[Sidenote: 1795]

[Sidenote: 1796]

The ROYAL IRISH regiment was stationed in the island of Corsica
during the year 1795, and nine months of 1796. In the mean time
the success of the French arms, particularly the brilliant career
of General Bonaparte in Italy, had produced a change of sentiment
among the inhabitants of Corsica. Bonaparte was a native of the
island; the Corsicans gloried in him as a man who reflected honour
on their country, and they regretted that the island had become
annexed to Great Britain, as this event placed them in hostility
to their victorious countryman, and they began to plot measures to
effect its separation. It appearing evident that the expense of the
defence would exceed the advantage derived from the possession of
the island, the British troops were withdrawn in October, and the
EIGHTEENTH proceeded to the island of Elba.

[Sidenote: 1797]

[Sidenote: 1798]

[Sidenote: 1799]

Soon afterwards the regiment was detached, with a small force under
Colonel Wemyss, to the coast of Italy; the troops landed on the 7th
of November, and, having driven the French from the principality
of Piombino, occupied the towns of Campiglia, Castiglione, and
Piombino, with some advanced posts in the Tuscan states. The
ROYAL IRISH were commanded by Lieut.-Colonel H. T. Montresor,
and distinguished themselves on several occasions. They waded
through an inundation of near three miles, to attack the town of
_Campiglia_, and made the French garrison prisoners. The enemy
receiving considerable reinforcements, and advancing in force
against those towns, the British troops were withdrawn from Italy,
and returned to Elba. During the winter, the EIGHTEENTH regiment
sailed for Gibraltar, where it arrived in the beginning of 1797,
and was stationed at that fortress during the two following years.

[Sidenote: 1800]

In the spring of 1800, the regiment was withdrawn from Gibraltar,
to join the armament preparing for active service in the
Mediterranean: it proceeded to Minorca, where the land-forces
were assembled, and in the summer sailed under the orders of
Lieut.-General Sir Ralph Abercromby for Genoa, to co-operate with
the Austrians; but the victories gained by the French in Italy
occasioned this enterprise to be abandoned, and the EIGHTEENTH
returned to Minorca.

The regiment afterwards sailed with the expedition against _Cadiz_,
and it had entered the boats of the fleet for the purpose of
effecting a landing and attacking Cadiz, when orders were received
to return on board the shipping; the attack of this place having
been relinquished in consequence of an infectious disease of a
fatal character ravaging the city; and the armament sailed to
Gibraltar.

After some delay, the EIGHTEENTH regiment again proceeded to
Minorca.

In the meantime a powerful French army had taken possession of
Egypt, with the view of colonizing that country, and making it
the base of future conquests in the east, and the ROYAL IRISH
regiment was called from Minorca to take part in the expulsion
of the boasted invincible legions of France from Egypt. The
regiment accordingly quitted Minorca without landing, and sailed
to Malta, where it joined the armament under Lieut.-General
Sir Ralph Abercromby, and was formed in brigade with the
thirtieth, forty-fourth, and eighty-ninth, under the orders
of Brigadier-General Doyle. The troops were soon restored and
reanimated, after having been so long at sea, by the abundance
of fresh provisions which the island of Malta afforded, and the
comforts of the beautiful city of Valetta, and on the 20th of
December the fleet sailed for the bay of Marmorice, in Asiatic
Turkey, where it arrived in nine days.

[Sidenote: 1801]

In this bay, environed by mountains covered with the foliage of
trees, the troops remained several weeks, while preparations
were being completed, and a plan of co-operation was arranged
with the Turks, whose tardy proceedings detained the expedition
some time. On the 23rd of February, 1801, the fleet again put to
sea, presenting a splendid sight; the magnitude of the armament,
and the gaiety of the brave men on board, being calculated to
excite emotions of an interesting character. On the 1st of March,
the armament arrived off the celebrated city of Alexandria, and
anchored in the bay of _Aboukir_.

Early on the morning of the 8th of March, five thousand British
troops entered the boats to effect a landing in the face of an
adverse army, and the ROYAL IRISH regiment, having joined the
second brigade under Major-General Cradock, entered some small
Greek ships to be in readiness to support the gallant men who
should first land on the shores of Egypt. A rocket gave the
expected signal, and the clear silence of the morning was instantly
broken by the deep murmur of a thousand oars urging forward the
flower of a brave army, whose polished arms gleamed in the rays
of the morning sun. Suddenly the thunder of artillery shook the
ground, and a tempest of balls cut the surface of the water; but
the British soldiers speedily gained the shore in the face of
this tempest of war, and, rushing forward to close upon their
enemies with the bayonet, soon decided the contest and forced the
French to retreat with loss. The EIGHTEENTH regiment, commanded
by Lieut.-Colonel Montresor, was one of the first corps which
landed to support the leading division, and to participate in this
splendid triumph of British valour.

Advancing towards Alexandria, the British troops encamped near
Mandora Tower, and on the 13th of March they proceeded through a
wood of date-trees to attack the French forces posted on a ridge
of heights in front. The ROYAL IRISH deployed under a heavy fire,
with the other corps of their brigade, and executed the manœuvre
with admirable order and precision; and, advancing upon their
adversaries, compelled the French to retire from their position.
A strong body of French cavalry charged the leading corps of the
British right column, but was repulsed. Under the cover of some
sand-hills, a body of French dragoons rode towards the British
second brigade, and attempted to penetrate the interval between
the EIGHTEENTH and the regiment on their left: the French troopers
were checked by a prompt and well-directed fire from the light
company of the EIGHTEENTH, which was followed by a rapid platoon
fire from the regiment, and the French horsemen made a precipitate
retreat. They belonged to the eighteenth French dragoons, and had
been mistaken, by one British battalion, for a foreign corps in the
English service.

The French, having been driven from their post, fell back to an
entrenched position before Alexandria; and the British, after
reconnoitring the ground, encamped in front of the enemy's lines.
Speaking of the conduct of the army, on this occasion, in general
orders, Sir Ralph Abercromby stated that he felt it "incumbent on
him particularly to express his most perfect satisfaction with the
steady and gallant conduct of Major-General Cradock's brigade." The
conduct of the brigade was also commended in the General's public
despatch.

The loss of the ROYAL IRISH regiment was Captain George Jones,
killed; three officers, one serjeant, and forty-five rank and file
wounded.

On the morning of the 21st of March, the French issued from their
position, and attacked the British line; but they encountered an
opposition which they were unable to overcome, and the English
army was once more triumphant over the numerous veteran troops
of France. This action afforded the ROYAL IRISH regiment another
opportunity of gaining honour on the distant shores of Egypt;
and its gallant bearing throughout the day was conspicuous. This
victory was however clouded with the fall of the brave SIR RALPH
ABERCROMBY, who died of wounds received in action. He was succeeded
in the command of the army by Major-General (afterwards Lord)
Hutchinson.

Soon afterwards a body of British troops traversed the country
to _Rosetta_, where a small force of British, Turks, and Greeks
was assembled, and took post at Hamed. The EIGHTEENTH regiment,
and two other corps, followed on the 13th of April, and, after
the surrender of Fort St. Julian, a strong division of the army
advanced up the banks of the Nile, to attack the French troops in
Upper Egypt.

The ROYAL IRISH regiment took part in the operations by which the
French were driven from _El Aft_, and from the fortified post of
_Rahmanie_, and forced to retire upon Cairo.

Following the retreating enemy up the country, the EIGHTEENTH
arrived, with the army, at the vicinity of the celebrated pyramids
of Egypt, in the early part of June; and after a halt of several
days they advanced upon the city of _Cairo_, which was besieged
by the united British and Turkish forces, and in a few days the
garrison surrendered, on condition of being sent back to France.

The capture of the capital of Egypt added fresh laurels to the
British arms; and the troops which had acquired these honours
retired down the Nile to the vicinity of _Alexandria_, and,
having driven in the French outposts, commenced the siege of that
place with vigour. In the beginning of September, the garrison
surrendered, on condition of being sent back to France.

Thus was Egypt delivered from the power of France; and the
British troops, which overcame the boasted _invincible_ legions
of Bonaparte, and forced the _Army of the East_ to surrender
its conquests, were rewarded with the thanks of Parliament, the
approbation of their Sovereign, and the royal authority to bear on
their colours the "SPHINX," with the word "EGYPT;" and the officers
were permitted to receive gold medals from the Grand Seignior.

Immediately after the conquest of Egypt, the British generals and
admirals endeavoured to promote still further the interests of
their country by preparing to make additional acquisitions, and the
ROYAL IRISH regiment was one of the corps selected to proceed on
another expedition. Several corps sailed on the 12th of September;
but were met at sea by a ship of war bringing information that
the preliminaries of a treaty of peace were signed; the troops
proceeded to Malta, where the ROYAL IRISH regiment arrived in
October.

After performing garrison duty at Valetta for six weeks, the
regiment proceeded to the island of Elba, and occupied the fortress
of Porto Ferrajo, the French being in possession of other parts of
the island.

[Sidenote: 1802]

The treaty of Amiens being concluded, the regiment sailed for
Ireland in the summer of 1802, and after landing at Cork proceeded
to Armagh.

[Sidenote: 1803]

War was resumed in 1803, and in the summer of that year the
regiment marched to Newry, where it was augmented to _two
battalions_, from the army of reserve. Both battalions were
completed to 1100 men each in less than two months, and in October
the first battalion embarked from Ireland for Scotland; it landed
at Greenock, and proceeded from thence to Edinburgh. It was
followed to Scotland by the second battalion, which was stationed
a short time at Stirling castle; but on the removal of the first
battalion from Edinburgh to Haddington, the second battalion
proceeded to Dunbar.

[Sidenote: 1804]

The threat of invading England made by Napoleon Bonaparte, with
the progress of the naval preparations on the coast of France, and
the presence of a numerous French army at Boulogne, occasioned
the regiment to be withdrawn from Scotland in the summer of 1804,
and to proceed to the south of England, to be in readiness to
repel the invaders, should they venture to land. On quitting
Haddington, Lieut.-Colonel Montresor received a highly gratifying
letter from the magistrates and clergy of that place, expressing
their admiration of the peaceable and regular behaviour of the
non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the first battalion
during their stay at Haddington, and a tribute of public respect
to the officers for their gentlemanly deportment towards the
respectable inhabitants in the neighbourhood.

Both battalions landed at Ramsgate, and joined the troops encamped
on Barham Downs. On the breaking up of the camp, the second
battalion embarked for the island of Jersey.

[Sidenote: 1805]

Towards the end of January, the first battalion embarked for the
island of Jamaica, where it arrived in May.

[Sidenote: 1807]

In 1807 the second battalion proceeded to the West Indies, and was
stationed at the island of Curaçao.

[Sidenote: 1808]

[Sidenote: 1809]

The ROYAL IRISH regiment being employed in guarding the colonial
possessions of Great Britain, its services were valuable to the
Crown and to the kingdom, and the exemplary conduct of both
battalions was commended by the general officers under whom the
regiment served; but the performance of this duty precluded the
EIGHTEENTH sharing in the brilliant campaigns of the British army
in the Peninsula, where several corps acquired numerous honorary
inscriptions for their regimental colours.

The first battalion sailed from Jamaica on the 7th of June, 1809,
with the troops under Major-General Sir Hugh Lyle Carmichael, to
aid the Spaniards in their attempt to reduce the city of _St.
Domingo_. The British troops landed about thirty miles from the
place, and, advancing to the besieged fortress, found the Spanish
army greatly reduced by sickness. Prompt measures were adopted
for an attack on the place by storm by the British troops, and
the EIGHTEENTH were under arms to take part in this service, when
hostilities were suddenly terminated by the surrender of the
French garrison.

After the deliverance of the city of St. Domingo from the power of
France, the ROYAL IRISH returned to Jamaica.

[Sidenote: 1810]

Very severe losses having been sustained by the second battalion
from the climate of the West Indies, it was directed to transfer
its men fit for service to the first battalion, and embark for
England to recruit. It arrived at Ottery barracks, in Devonshire,
in October 1810, and was joined by the regimental depôt, amounting
to upwards of five hundred men.

[Sidenote: 1811]

In the spring of 1811 the second battalion proceeded to the island
of Jersey.

On the decease of General Sir James Pulteney, Bart., His Royal
Highness the Prince Regent conferred the colonelcy of the ROYAL
IRISH regiment on Lieut.-General John Lord Hutchinson, K.B.,
afterwards Earl of Donoughmore, from the fifty-seventh regiment, by
commission dated the 27th of April, 1811.

[Sidenote: 1814]

The second battalion was employed on garrison duty in the island
of Jersey until the power of Napoleon Bonaparte was overthrown by
the armies of the allies, and the Bourbon family was restored to
the throne of France, which was accompanied by the restoration
of peace to Europe. A reduction was, in consequence, made in the
strength of the British army, and the second battalion of the ROYAL
IRISH regiment was disbanded at Jersey on the 24th of October 1814,
transferring its non-commissioned officers and private soldiers fit
for duty to the first battalion.

[Sidenote: 1817]

After twelve years' service in Jamaica, during which time
it had suffered severely from the effects of climate, and
had lost upwards of fifty officers and nearly three thousand
non-commissioned officers and soldiers, the ROYAL IRISH regiment
received orders to return to England. It landed at Portsmouth in
March, 1817, in so complete a state of discipline and efficiency,
that it was ordered to proceed to Brighton, where it had the honour
of furnishing the usual guard for the Prince Regent during His
Royal Highness' stay at the Pavilion. The regiment was afterwards
removed to Chatham and Sheerness, and in August it proceeded to
Hilsea barracks.

[Sidenote: 1818]

Early in 1818 the ROYAL IRISH regiment marched to Haslar barracks
and Gosport; in December it embarked for Ireland, and, after
landing at Cork, proceeded to Fermoy.

[Sidenote: 1819]

From Fermoy the regiment marched, in January, 1819, to Waterford,
Wexford, Carlow, Duncannon-fort, and Kilkenny; and the excellent
conduct of the men, during their stay in these quarters, elicited
the admiration and gratitude of the public authorities of the
several places, which was communicated to the corps in the
strongest terms.

[Sidenote: 1820]

In July, 1820, the regiment marched to Cork.

[Sidenote: 1821]

Orders having been received for the regiment to transfer its
services to Malta, it embarked from Cork in February, 1821, and
after its arrival on that island the head-quarters were established
in the Cottonera district, with one company detached to the small
island of Gozo.

[Sidenote: 1822]

In November, 1822, the regiment was removed to St. Elmo barracks
and Valetta, where the detached company joined from the island of
Gozo.

[Sidenote: 1823]

After remaining twelve months at St. Elmo barracks, the regiment
was removed to Floriana barracks in November, 1823, detaching two
companies to Fort Manuel and Tignie.

[Sidenote: 1824]

On the 8th of May, 1824, the first division of the regiment
embarked from Malta for the Ionian Islands, and was followed by
the head-quarters in June, on which occasion the following general
order, dated Malta, 18th of June, 1824, was issued:--

"The Marquis of Hastings, having been long acquainted with the high
character of the ROYAL IRISH regiment of infantry, cannot suffer
that distinguished corps to quit this island without expressing
his regret at losing its services. The report made to him, by
Major-General Sir Manley Power, of the uniformly excellent conduct
maintained by the officers and men of the regiment, during their
residence here, authorizes the Marquis of Hastings to request that
they will accept his applause, and his sincere wishes for their
future welfare.

  "_By command of His Excellency_,
  "C. BAYLEY, A.M.S."

The last division of the regiment arrived at Corfu on the 24th of
June, and occupied quarters in the citadel.

[Sidenote: 1825]

In July, 1825, four companies and the head-quarters proceeded to
Fort Neuf, leaving the remaining companies in the citadel. In
August the regiment was formed into six service and four depôt
companies.

The head-quarters and flank companies returned to the citadel on
the 14th of November, and on the same day four battalion companies
embarked for Santa Maura, furnishing detachments at Calamas,
Magnassia, Fort Alexandria, San Nicolo, Fort Constantine, Scorpio,
San Nichola, and Vassaliki.

[Sidenote: 1832]

The regiment remained at the Ionian Islands until February, 1832,
when it embarked from Corfu for England, and landed at Portsmouth
on the 7th of March.

The decease of General the Earl of Donoughmore occurred in the
summer of 1832, when King William IV. appointed Lieut.-General
Matthew Lord Aylmer, K.C.B., from the fifty-sixth foot, to the
colonelcy of the ROYAL IRISH regiment, by commission dated 23rd of
July, 1832.

[Sidenote: 1834]

[Sidenote: 1835]

[Sidenote: 1836]

The regiment remained in England until May, 1834, when it embarked
from Liverpool, and, landing at Dublin, was stationed in Ireland
nearly three years, during which period it preserved its high
character.

[Sidenote: 1837]

Having received orders to transfer its services to the British
possessions in Asia, the ROYAL IRISH regiment was divided into six
service and four depôt companies, and on the 10th of January, 1837,
the service companies embarked for Ceylon, under the orders of
Colonel George Burrell: they landed at Colombo on the 1st of June,
and were stationed at that place and at Galle.

[Sidenote: 1838]

In the autumn of 1838 the depôt companies embarked from Dublin,
and, landing at Portsmouth, were stationed in South Britain.

[Sidenote: 1839]

The service companies remained at Colombo and Galle until February,
1839, when a change of quarters took place, and they were stationed
at Trincomalee and Galle, where they continued until March of the
following year.

[Sidenote: 1840]

In the mean time a course of violence and spoliation had been
commenced by the Chinese government against the persons and
property of the British merchants trading with that empire, in
consequence of the introduction of opium into China, which was
prohibited by the Chinese laws, but was tacitly admitted by
the local authorities, who did not enforce the law. At length,
however, the Chinese authorities commenced summary measures without
sufficient previous notice, and the British superintendents of
trade found it necessary to apply to the Governor-General of India
for a number of ships of war and armed vessels for the protection
of life and property. The violence of the Chinese, however, could
not be restrained by reason or menace, but the thunder of British
artillery was necessary to enforce forbearance.

The British government found it necessary to send an expedition
to the Chinese seas, to compel the government of the "Celestial
empire" to acknowledge the principles of international law, as
adopted by civilized nations, and the ROYAL IRISH regiment was one
of the corps selected for this service. Three companies from the
depôt embarked from Portsmouth in October, 1839, and arrived at
Bombay in March, 1840, and they afterwards sailed for China: three
companies embarked from Trincomalee in May, and three from Galle in
June, and sailed for the Chinese seas.

Hostilities having been found unavoidable, it became important to
gain possession of a portion of the Chinese territory, and the
governor of _Chusan_, an island lying off the coast, and comprising
in its jurisdiction a small group of islands, was summoned to
surrender in the beginning of July. He, however, made dispositions
to defend the place, and on the morning of the 5th of July the
shore was crowded with Chinese troops, and the landing place,
wharf, and adjoining hill displayed an array of military power. The
British shipping silenced the enemy's war-junks and batteries; and
the right wing of the ROYAL IRISH regiment, commanded by Major
Henry William Adams, with the Royal Marines of the fleet, forming
the advance, landed. They were followed by other corps, and the
British troops, commanded by Brigadier-General George Burrell,
Lieut.-Colonel of the EIGHTEENTH, took up a position in front of
the fortified city of _Ting-hae-hien_, from whence a sharp fire was
kept up for some time; but before the following day the Chinese
soldiers fled in a panic. The city was taken possession of, and
this success gave presage of future conquests; but the climate
proved injurious to the health of the troops, and many soldiers
died.

This display of British prowess was followed by negotiations; and
in August the other three companies of the regiment landed on the
island of Chusan, a detachment taking post at Tsin-Kong.

[Sidenote: 1841]

The tardy councils of the Chinese were expedited by the activity
of the British naval force, and in the early part of 1841 they
agreed to give up the island of Hong-Kong, pay an indemnity of six
million dollars, and open a direct intercourse for trading upon
an equal footing. The detachment of the ROYAL IRISH stationed at
Tsin-Kong joined the head-quarters, and on the 17th of February the
regiment embarked for Hong-Kong, where it arrived in seven days,
and the island was taken possession of; but the Chinese authorities
appeared by their conduct to have no intention of fulfilling the
other stipulations of the treaty. Hostilities were in consequence
resumed, and the ROYAL IRISH regiment sailed with the expedition up
the Canton river. The fleet silenced the batteries of _Wantong_,
and a body of troops landing, the island was captured without the
loss of a man, thirteen hundred Chinese soldiers surrendering
prisoners of war. Continuing the voyage up the river, the fleet
arrived at the bar, destroyed the enemy's war-junks, and the works
were stormed and captured by the Marines, &c. As the expedition
pursued its voyage up the river, the Chinese abandoned several
batteries and armed rafts, and solicited terms of peace; but
procrastination appeared to be their only object, and the British
fleet advanced. The forts in front of _Canton_ soon fell under the
fire of British artillery, the Chinese flotilla was destroyed,
and terms of peace were again solicited by the authorities of the
"Celestial empire." While negotiations were pending, bodies of
Tartar troops were arriving at _Canton_, which exposed the object
of the enemy; and on the 24th of May the ROYAL IRISH regiment
and other British troops landed. On the following day they
advanced against the fortified heights on the north of the city,
and dispositions were made for the attack, when the EIGHTEENTH,
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Adams, supported by the Royal Marines,
the whole under Major-General Burrell, were directed to carry a
hill in their front.

Major-General Sir Hugh Gough stated in his public despatch,--"About
half past nine o'clock the advance was sounded, and it has seldom
fallen to my lot to witness a more soldierlike and steady advance,
or a more animated attack. Every individual, native as well as
European, steadily and gallantly did his duty. The EIGHTEENTH and
forty-ninth were emulous which should first reach their appointed
goals; but under this impulse, they did not lose sight of that
discipline which could alone ensure success."

The heights were carried by a spirited effort, the British colours
waved triumphantly on the captured forts, and the soldiers looked
down on Canton within a hundred paces of its walls.

A fortified Chinese camp had been established on the high ground on
the north-east of the city, and from this camp bodies of the enemy
advanced against the British troops. The EIGHTEENTH, forty-ninth,
and a company of Marines, met and repulsed the principal attack,
and, following the fugitives along a causeway, stormed and captured
the entrenched camp in gallant style. Major-General Sir Hugh Gough
stated in his despatch,--"I have to record my approval of the
spirited conduct of Captain JOHN GRATTAN, who commanded the two
leading companies of the EIGHTEENTH across the causeway." The camp
was burnt, and the magazines were destroyed.

On the following morning a flag of truce was seen on the walls, and
hostilities were suspended; but procrastination still appearing to
be the object of the Chinese, preparations were made to attack the
city by storm, and the ROYAL IRISH were under arms waiting for the
signal to rush forward and achieve the conquest of the celebrated
city of Canton, when an agreement to terms suddenly prevented
further hostilities, the Chinese paying six millions of dollars for
the redemption of Canton, and opening the port for trade.

The ROYAL IRISH regiment, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Henry William
Adams, had two men killed; Captain John James Sargent, Lieutenants
George Hilliard and David Edwards, and sixteen men wounded.

On the 2nd of June, the regiment embarked for the ceded island of
HONG-KONG, where it arrived in a few days; and this station proving
healthy and convenient, works were constructed for its protection.

The Emperor of China disregarded the stipulations of treaties,
and issued a mandate for the extermination of the English who
dared thus to insult his coasts and capture his towns, offering,
at the same time, immense rewards for the heads of the British
commanders, and even a large sum for the head of a private soldier.
His decrees were responded to by depriving him of a greater extent
of territory; and on the 22nd of August the ROYAL IRISH sailed on
an expedition against the island and city of _Amoy_, situate in
a fine gulf in the province of Fokien, the great tea district of
China. On the 25th of August the fleet arrived before Amoy, which
was defended by five hundred pieces of cannon and a numerous force;
but nothing could withstand the combined efforts of the British
naval and land force. On the following day the works were bombarded
two hours. The ROYAL IRISH landed about three o'clock, with little
opposition, and escaladed a castellated wall with great gallantry.
They were speedily within the works, and afterwards charged up a
precipitous gorge in the face of two posts of defence, and rushing
forward with great gallantry, the Chinese and Tartar soldiers fled
in dismay, after firing a few shots. The regiment remained on the
heights above the city during the night; and on the following
morning the troops advanced towards the wall. No resistance was
made, the advance of the EIGHTEENTH escaladed the walls,--opened
the gates,--and the city was taken possession of. The small island
of _Koolangsoo_ was captured on the preceding day. The loss of the
regiment was limited to two men wounded.

On the 5th of September, the regiment sailed with the expedition
for the recapture of _Chusan_, which island had been given up in
consequence of the stipulations of the first treaty. The place was
found more strongly fortified than before, and a resolute stand
was made by the Chinese; but British skill and valour prevailed.
The EIGHTEENTH landed on the 1st of October, stormed the enemy's
works with great gallantry, under Lieut.-Colonel Adams, and
occupied the Joss-house hill, Captain Francis Wigston particularly
distinguishing himself at the head of the grenadier company of
the regiment. The ROYAL IRISH afterwards entered the city of
Ting-hae-hien at the western gate, and the British colours were
speedily planted in triumph on the walls. The regiment had one
serjeant and six rank and file wounded on this occasion.

On the following day the regiment traversed the island to
Tsin-kong, and afterwards proceeded to Sahoo; but returned to
Ting-hae-hien on the 4th of October, and on the 6th embarked with
the expedition against the city of _Chinhae_, the military depôt
of the province, situate on the mainland opposite Chusan, and
surrounded by a wall of extraordinary height and thickness. The
troops landed on the 10th of October, advanced through a difficult
country towards the city, and stormed the works covering the
approach to the place, overthrowing all opposition. "The EIGHTEENTH
charged up a deep gorge to the left, and broke through the central
encampment, carrying everything before them."[32] The city was
captured, and in it was an extensive arsenal, and cannon foundry,
with military stores. The EIGHTEENTH crossed the river and entered
the city on the same evening: their loss was one man killed and
three wounded.

From Chinhae the ROYAL IRISH proceeded up the river on the 13th
of October, against the fortified city of _Ningpo_, where no
resistance was met with. The troops landed and formed on the
ramparts, the band of the EIGHTEENTH playing "God save the Queen,"
and they took possession of the second city in the province of
Che-Keang, containing a population of three hundred thousand souls.
The regiment was afterwards stationed in the city of Ningpo some
time; and the Chinese having garrisoned several forts up the river,
the flank companies embarked on the 27th of December, with an
expedition to dislodge the Chinese and Tartar soldiers from their
posts, but the enemy fled without waiting to be attacked, and the
companies returned to Ningpo.

[Sidenote: 1842]

The flank companies proceeded to You-You on the 10th of January,
1842, and were engaged in routing the enemy, and destroying their
encampment the day following.

During the first three months of the year 1842, four companies of
the regiment were stationed at the city of Ningpo, under Major
Nicholas R. Tomlinson, and five companies at Koolangsoo, under
Major Jeremiah Cowper.

On the 10th of March a numerous army of Tartars and Chinese made
a sudden attack upon _Ningpo_, escalading the walls, and forcing
some of the gates, with great spirit, and the few British forces in
garrison were enveloped by crowds of assailants; but the bravery of
the British was conspicuous, and they triumphed over their numerous
opponents. A guard of the regiment, consisting of Lieutenant
Anthony W. S. F. Armstrong, one serjeant, and twenty-three rank and
file, stationed at the West-gate, being attacked by large numbers,
behaved steadily, and gallantly drove the enemy back, capturing
two banners, the bearers of which had been shot at the gate: the
spirited behaviour of Lieutenant Armstrong was commended in the
public despatches.

Five days afterwards, the EIGHTEENTH embarked from Ningpo, and
sailed up the river to attack the enemy's posts. On the 15th of
March they were engaged at _Tsekee_, and the heights of _Segaon_,
which were captured; and the ROYAL IRISH also took part in forcing
the _Chankee-pass_: they returned to Ningpo on the 17th of March.

Three companies of the EIGHTEENTH were withdrawn from Koolangsoo
at the end of March, and proceeded in a steam-vessel to Ningpo,
to reinforce the garrison: in April two companies proceeded from
Ningpo to Chinhae. One company was afterwards withdrawn from
Chinhae and five from Ningpo, to take part in the expedition
against the fortified city of _Chapoo_, under the command of
Lieut.-Colonel Tomlinson. A landing was effected on the 18th of
May; British prowess was again conspicuous, and the EIGHTEENTH were
distinguished for their heroic bearing at the attack and capture of
this place, on which occasion Lieut.-Colonel NICHOLAS R. TOMLINSON
fell at the head of the regiment, "in full career of renown,
honoured by the corps, and lamented by all."[33]

The loss of the regiment at the capture of this place was
Lieut.-Colonel Tomlinson, one serjeant, and three rank and file
killed; Lieutenants Edward Jodrell and Alexander Murray, one
serjeant, one drummer, and twenty-seven rank and file wounded.
Major Jeremiah Cowper was promoted to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel on
the 19th May, 1842, in succession to Lieut.-Colonel Tomlinson; and
Brevet Major John Grattan received the Majority. These brilliant
successes had taught the Chinese the true character of British
skill, spirit of enterprise, and valour, yet, with unaccountable
infatuation, the authorities of the "Celestial empire" still looked
for success, and their resistance gave the EIGHTEENTH opportunities
of gaining additional honours. In June six companies of the
regiment were employed in an expedition up the Yangtse-Keang river,
and took part in the capture of the fortified post of _Woosung_,
and also in the capture of _Poonshau_; they afterwards advanced
against the city of _Shanghae_, which was taken possession of
without opposition.

The company of the regiment stationed at Chinhae was withdrawn to
take part in active operations, and seven companies sailed with the
expedition to carry on operations against _Chin-Keang-foo_, one
of the strongest and most important cities of China. To proceed
on this enterprise the fleet left Woosung on the 6th of July, the
Chinese troops were driven from _Suyshan_, and on the 20th of July
the armament approached Chin-Keang-foo. A landing was effected,
and the EIGHTEENTH evinced the same intrepidity and valour in the
attack of the enemy's entrenched camp, and at the capture of the
city by storm, on the 21st of July, for which they had previously
been distinguished. On passing through the city and suburbs, the
troops witnessed the painful spectacle of hundreds of the dead
bodies of men, women, and children, lying in the houses, numerous
families having destroyed themselves sooner than outlive the
disgrace of their city being captured by foreigners.

The ROYAL IRISH regiment had Captain Charles J. Russell Collinson
and two soldiers killed; Lieutenant Scroope Bernard, one serjeant,
and fifteen rank and file wounded.

This brilliant success of the British arms filled the Chinese
empire with consternation and dismay, and the English General
prepared to carry his victorious troops into the heart of the
empire, and attack _Nankin_, the ancient capital of China, to
which place the fugitives from Chin-Keang-foo had fled for refuge.
Embarking on the 29th of July to carry out this important object,
the armament proceeded against the celebrated city of Nankin, where
the ROYAL IRISH and other corps arrived on the 9th of August, when
a great portion of the troops landed, and the ancient capital of
China was environed by the British naval and land forces. This
decisive step produced the desired results; the court of China
could no longer hope that its legions would eventually arrest the
victorious career of the British arms, and conditions of peace were
acceded to; the Chinese paying an indemnity, and ceding a portion
of territory to the British crown.

Thus terminated a war in which the EIGHTEENTH, or the ROYAL IRISH,
regiment, had acquired additional reputation; a hostile nation had
been impressed with a just sense of the capabilities of the English
arms; and important commercial and national advantages had been
acquired for the British empire.

Her Majesty, in consideration of the gallantry displayed by the
troops employed on the coasts and rivers of China, was graciously
pleased to permit the EIGHTEENTH (ROYAL IRISH), twenty-sixth,
forty-ninth, fifty-fifth, and ninety-eighth regiments, and Royal
Artillery, to bear on their colours and appointments the word
"_China_," and the device of the "_Dragon_," in commemoration of
their distinguished services.

After the termination of the contest, the EIGHTEENTH sailed from
Nankin to the island of Chusan, where they arrived in October:
the head-quarters sailed for Koolangsoo on the 17th of November,
leaving four companies of the regiment at Chusan.

[Sidenote: 1843]

The regiment remained at Koolangsoo during the year 1843.

[Sidenote: 1844]

On the 1st of April the light company embarked at Koolangsoo, and
arrived at Chusan on the 10th of that month. The head-quarters
proceeded from Koolangsoo to Chusan in the middle of May, and
remained there during the year.

[Sidenote: 1845]

The head-quarters of the regiment proceeded from Chusan to Hong
Kong on the 22nd of February: the left wing arrived at Hong Kong
from Chusan on the 12th of May.

[Sidenote: 1846]

During the year 1846 the regiment remained at Hong Kong.

[Sidenote: 1847]

The head-quarters, consisting of twenty-four officers, thirty-four
serjeants, seven drummers, and four hundred and sixty-eight
rank and file, embarked at Hong Kong for active service on the
1st of April, 1847, and were employed during the combined naval
and military operations on the Canton river under Major-General
D'Aguilar, C.B., and returned to Hong Kong on the morning of
the 9th of April, 1847, leaving a detachment at Canton of three
officers, six serjeants, and sixty-two men, which returned to Hong
Kong on the 2nd of June following.

The regiment, consisting of twenty-five officers and six hundred
and fifty-two men, embarked at Hong Kong for Calcutta on the 20th
of November, 1847.

[Sidenote: 1848]

The regiment arrived at Calcutta on the 10th of January, 1848, and
occupied the barracks at Fort William, where it continued to be
stationed on the 1st of June, 1848, at which period the record is
concluded.

The foregoing pages, after diligent research, contain, as far as
possible, a faithful detail of the services of the EIGHTEENTH,
ROYAL IRISH, REGIMENT OF FOOT.

The career of this highly honorable corps can only be appreciated
as a public body, and as a portion of the military force of the
British empire, after a perusal of its gallant deeds in the various
situations and services on which it has been employed.

The circumstance of its first formation in the reign of King
Charles II.,--of its adhesion to King James II. on his succeeding
to the British throne in 1685,--and of the severe test to which the
army was exposed at the Revolution in 1688,--all prove the value of
the corps, and the difficulties with which its principal officers
had to contend at a period when the English nation was endeavouring
to rid itself of a sovereign of Popish principles, and to establish
a Protestant Government.

The decided conduct of the EIGHTEENTH, ROYAL IRISH, regiment on the
commencement of the Revolution in 1688, and throughout the contest
in Ireland until 1691, evinced a steady loyalty and determination,
on which King William III. found he could rely.

The same confidence was placed in this regiment by King William
during the campaigns in Flanders from 1691 to 1697, for which the
most distinguished honours were conferred by His Majesty on the
corps on account of its heroic services.

In the war of the Spanish Succession, during the reign of Queen
Anne, from 1702 to 1712, the EIGHTEENTH, ROYAL IRISH, regiment is
recorded as having shared in the numerous sieges and victories
under the Duke of Marlborough, as detailed in the Regimental Record.

After the cessation of hostilities by the Treaty of Utrecht, in
1713, the services of the regiment were equally efficient and
useful in the British possessions, particularly at the island of
Minorca, from whence it proceeded in 1727 to Gibraltar, when the
Spaniards again besieged that fortress.

The ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT was again employed in Flanders during the
war of the Austrian Succession, from 1743 to 1748.

The regiment shared also in the arduous duties of the British
troops employed during the early part of the American war, which
commenced in 1775.

The next important service on which the EIGHTEENTH, ROYAL
IRISH, regiment was engaged, was the ever-memorable campaign of
the British army in Egypt, which succeeded in repelling from
that country the French army, which had vainly styled itself
"invincible," and through the efforts of which Napoleon Bonaparte
intended to open a route to India, and thereby disturb, if not
annihilate, the British possessions in Asia.

After returning from Egypt, the services of this valuable regiment
were employed in guarding the colonial possessions in the West
Indies for a period of twelve years, during which the British army
acquired additional honours and distinctions by its services in the
Peninsula, which terminated in 1814, and afterwards by the decisive
battle and overthrow of the French army at Waterloo.

The EIGHTEENTH was employed on garrison duty from 1821 to 1832 in
the islands of the Mediterranean.

In 1837 the regiment was embarked for Ceylon, and in 1840 it formed
part of the expedition to the Chinese seas, and by its gallantry
eventually compelled the government of the "_Celestial empire_" to
cede a portion of territory to the British Crown, and to pay an
indemnity for losses sustained: the word _China_ and the device of
the _Dragon_, authorized by Her Majesty to be borne on the colours
and appointments of the regiment, are proud memorials of its
services in this distant scene of warfare, which was a novel arena,
not only to the EIGHTEENTH, but to European troops generally. The
regiment was again employed during the military operations on the
Canton river in 1847, and towards the close of that year proceeded
to the East Indies.

After a service of twelve years in the eastern parts of the world,
the EIGHTEENTH, ROYAL IRISH, regiment has received instructions to
be prepared to return to its native country, on being relieved by
the _ninety-sixth_ regiment from the New South Wales Colony.

In drawing this summary, the compiler could not conclude the record
of the arduous services of so meritorious a regiment, without an
endeavour to do justice to its loyalty and devotedness to ten
successive sovereigns, and to its zeal and usefulness in the cause
of its country, during a period of one hundred and sixty-five years.


1848.


[Illustration: EIGHTEENTH,

ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT.

_Madeley lith 3 Wellington S^t Strand_

FOR CANNON'S MILITARY RECORDS.]



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF THE

EIGHTEENTH,

OR THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT.


ARTHUR VISCOUNT OF GRANARD.

_Appointed 1st April, 1684._

ARTHUR FORBES, son of Sir Patrick Forbes, a Baronet of Nova Scotia,
was a cavalry officer in the Royal army during the rebellion in
the reign of King Charles I., and attained the rank of Colonel
in 1646. In 1651 he held a considerable command in the north of
Scotland, and after the defeat of the Scots army at Worcester on
the 3rd of September, 1651, Colonel Forbes opposed the progress
of the English under General Monk, afterwards Duke of Albemarle,
but was eventually defeated, and fled to Ireland, where he was
permitted by Oliver Cromwell to possess his paternal estate. He
took an active part in bringing about the Restoration in 1660, and
was appointed one of the commissioners of the Court of Claims in
Ireland: he was also nominated captain of an independent troop of
horse, and elected a member of Parliament for Mullingar. He took an
active part in preventing the breaking out of a conspiracy against
the government in Ireland, in 1663; in 1670 he was sworn a member
of the Privy Council, and nominated Marshal of the army,--a rank
not continued in the service; and in 1671 he was constituted one
of the Lords Justices of Ireland. His services were rewarded, in
1675, with the dignity of Baron Clanehugh, and VISCOUNT OF GRANARD;
and in April, 1684, his Lordship was nominated Colonel of one of
the regiments, formed of independent companies in Ireland, at
that period, now the EIGHTEENTH, or the ROYAL IRISH regiment. In
September following he was promoted to the rank of Lieut.-General,
and two months afterwards he was advanced to the dignity of EARL
OF GRANARD. In March, 1685, King James II. nominated the EARL OF
GRANARD one of the Lords Justices of the kingdom, and he was also
appointed Chairman of the Council; in 1686 his Lordship resigned
the colonelcy of the regiment in favour of his son, Arthur Lord
Forbes. Being pressed upon to proceed with unusual severity against
the Protestants, he wrote to the King for permission to resign;
but His Majesty wrote an answer with his own hand, requesting him
to continue in office: he, however, advocated the cause of the
Protestants with so much warmth, that he was dismissed by King
James in March, 1689. The Earl of Granard attached himself to the
interests of King William III. He was sworn of the Privy Council
in December, 1690; and he commanded the troops at the reduction of
Sligo, in 1691.

The Earl of Granard built the Church of Castle-Forbes, and
established the linen manufactory at that place. He died in 1694.


ARTHUR LORD FORBES.

_Appointed 1st March, 1686._

ARTHUR LORD FORBES, son of the Earl of Granard, held a commission
in the army in Ireland in the reign of King Charles II., and in
1686 he succeeded his father in the colonelcy of the regiment
which is now the EIGHTEENTH, or the ROYAL IRISH regiment. He
was a spirited young nobleman, and succeeded in retaining more
Protestants in his regiment than were to be found in any other
corps in the army in Ireland. He joined the Prince of Orange at the
Revolution in 1688, when he withdrew from the service. He succeeded
to the dignity of EARL OF GRANARD on the decease of his father in
1694. He died in August, 1734.


SIR JOHN EDGEWORTH.

_Appointed 31st December, 1688._

This officer held a commission in the army in the reign of King
Charles II., and was appointed Captain of a non-regimented company
of pikemen and musketeers in Ireland. He was afterwards promoted
to the Majority of the Earl of Granard's regiment, now EIGHTEENTH,
which corps he accompanied to England at the Revolution in 1688,
when he joined the Prince of Orange's interest, and was promoted
to the Colonelcy of his regiment. Being afterwards found guilty
of irregularity in providing clothing for his regiment, he was
dismissed the service.


EDWARD EARL OF MEATH.

_Appointed 1st May, 1689._

The Honourable EDWARD BRABAZON, second son of Edward, second
Earl of Meath, was appointed Captain of a non-regimented company
of pikemen and musketeers in the summer of 1661, and he was
afterwards nominated keeper of the royal parks in Ireland, and
ranger of Phœnix Park, near Dublin. He subsequently commanded
a troop of cuirassiers; but falling under the displeasure of
the lord-lieutenant, the Earl of Essex, he was removed from his
appointments: he was, however, restored to favour at a subsequent
period. In 1684 he succeeded, on the death of his brother, to the
dignity of EARL OF MEATH. He joined the Prince of Orange at the
Revolution of 1688, and in May, 1689, he was appointed Colonel of
the EIGHTEENTH regiment, which corps he accompanied to Ireland,
and served at the siege of Carrickfergus and at the battle of the
Boyne; he also evinced great gallantry at the siege of Limerick,
where he was wounded. He was sworn a member of the Privy Council
in December, 1690. After the deliverance of Ireland from the power
of King James was accomplished, he chose to remain in that country
in order to devote himself to its interests, and withdrew from the
army. He died in 1708.


FREDERICK HAMILTON.

_Appointed 19th December, 1692._

FREDERICK HAMILTON rose to the command of one of the independent
companies in Ireland in the reign of King Charles II., and in 1684
his company was incorporated in Lord Mountjoy's regiment. Being a
zealous Protestant, Captain Hamilton was deprived of his commission
by Earl Tyrconnel, and remained unemployed until the Revolution of
1688, when King William III. gave him a company in Lord Forbes's,
now the EIGHTEENTH foot, and promoted him to the Majority of the
regiment. He accompanied the EIGHTEENTH to Ireland, served at
the siege of Carrickfergus, the battle of the Boyne, and at the
storming of Limerick, where he distinguished himself, and was
promoted to the Lieut.-Colonelcy of the regiment, in succession to
Lieut.-Colonel Newcomb, who was mortally wounded. He served at the
siege of Athlone, and at the battle of Aghrim, in 1691; also at the
second siege of Limerick: and in 1692 he commanded the regiment
in the expedition under Meinhardt Duke of Leinster; in December
of the same year he succeeded the Earl of Meath in the Colonelcy
of the EIGHTEENTH regiment. He served the campaign of 1694 under
King William, and in 1695 he distinguished himself at the siege of
Namur, and was wounded at the assault of the Castle. In May, 1702,
he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, and the four
regiments under his command were engaged in the sieges of Venloo
and Ruremonde. He also commanded a brigade during the campaign
of 1703; was promoted to the rank of Major-General on the 1st of
February, 1704, and served the campaign of that year in Germany,
taking part in gaining the victories at Schellenberg and Blenheim.
Having become advanced in years and infirm, he retired from the
service in 1705, Queen Anne giving him permission to sell the
colonelcy of his regiment to Lieut.-General Ingoldsby.


RICHARD INGOLDSBY.

_Appointed 1st April, 1705._

RICHARD INGOLDSBY entered the army in the reign of King Charles
II., his first commission being dated the 13th of June, 1667. He
adhered to the Protestant interest at the Revolution in 1688, and
served under King William III., who promoted him to the Colonelcy
of the Twenty-third Regiment in February, 1693. He commanded the
Twenty-third at the siege of Namur, in 1695, and in June, 1696,
he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General. On the breaking
out of the war in 1701, he was sent to Holland with a body of
British troops, and he highly distinguished himself during several
campaigns under the great Duke of Marlborough. He was promoted to
the rank of Major-General on the 9th of March, 1702, and served in
that capacity during the campaigns of that and the following year.
In January, 1704, he was promoted to the rank of Lieut.-General,
and his name is found among the officers who distinguished
themselves at the battles of Schellenberg and Blenheim. After
acquiring a high reputation in the field, he was honoured with the
appointments of one of Her Majesty's Lords Justices, and Master of
the Horse for Ireland. He died on the 29th of January, 1712.


RICHARD STEARNE.

_Appointed 18th February, 1712._

This officer commences a journal of his services in the following
words:--"In the year 1678 I got a commission from King Charles II.
to be Ensign to Captain John St. Ledger's company, then one of
the independent companies of Ireland; and in the following year I
was made Lieutenant to the same company. In the year 1684 all the
independent troops and companies in Ireland were incorporated into
regiments; Captain St. Ledger's company being one of those that
composed the regiment commanded by the Earl of Granard"--now the
EIGHTEENTH, or ROYAL IRISH regiment of foot. He accompanied his
regiment to England at the Revolution in 1688, and on the 1st of
March, 1689, he was appointed Captain of the company to which he
belonged. He served with his regiment in Ireland, at the siege of
Carrickfergus, the battle of the Boyne, the sieges of Limerick and
Athlone, the battle of Aghrim, and the second siege of Limerick,
besides several detached services. In 1692 he was promoted to the
majority of his regiment. He served in the expedition under the
Duke of Leinster; and afterwards joining the army in Flanders, was
at the siege of Namur, where his regiment distinguished itself and
acquired the title of the ROYAL IRISH regiment: Lieut.-Colonel
Ormsby being killed on this occasion, King William promoted Major
STEARNE to the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment. He served in the
Netherlands and Germany during the whole of the wars of Queen
Anne, was at the battles of Schellenberg, Blenheim, Ramilies,
Oudenarde, and Malplaquet, and also at the forcing of the French
lines in 1705, 1710, and 1711, and took part in numerous sieges,
at which the EIGHTEENTH distinguished themselves. Lieut.-Colonel
Stearne was promoted to the rank of Colonel in 1707, and to that
of Brigadier-General in 1711; in 1712 he was rewarded with the
colonelcy of his regiment; he was also nominated Governor of the
Royal Hospital at Dublin. He concludes the journal of his numerous,
distinguished, and meritorious services in the following words:--

"In the month of May, 1717, the regiment received orders to
march to Portsmouth, and there I take my leave of them, for, in
the month of January following, His Majesty gave me leave to
resign my regiment to Colonel William Cosby, after having served
six crowned heads of England, and been forty years attached to
one company without ever being removed from it; having made
twenty-one campaigns; having been in seven field-battles--fifteen
sieges--seven grand attacks on counterscarps and breaches--two
remarkable retreats--at the passing of four of the enemy's
lines--besides several other petty actions; and, through God's
assistance, never had one drop of blood drawn from me in all
those actions. After I had disposed of my regiment, I went to my
government in Ireland." Brigadier-General Stearne died on the 1st
of November, 1732.


WILLIAM COSBY.

_Appointed 24th December, 1717._

WILLIAM COSBY was many years an officer in the cavalry of the royal
household, and rose to the rank of Lieutenant and Lieut.-Colonel
of the first troop, now first regiment, of life guards; from
which he was promoted, in December, 1717, to the colonelcy of
the EIGHTEENTH, or the ROYAL IRISH regiment. He accompanied the
EIGHTEENTH to Minorca, and commanded a detachment of five hundred
men sent from that island to Gibraltar, when the Spaniards besieged
that fortress in 1727. He was subsequently nominated Governor
of the Leeward Islands, and in January, 1732, he was appointed
Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of New York and New Jersey,
when he relinquished the colonelcy of his regiment. In 1735 he was
promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General. He died on the 2nd of
May, 1737.


SIR CHARLES HOTHAM, BART.

_Appointed 7th January, 1732._

CHARLES HOTHAM entered the army in the reign of Queen Anne, and
served on the Continent under the great Duke of Marlborough. In
1723 he succeeded to the dignity of a Baronet. He was nominated to
the colonelcy of the EIGHTEENTH, or the ROYAL IRISH regiment, in
1732, and removed to the second troop of horse grenadier guards in
1735. He died in 1738.


JOHN ARMSTRONG.

_Appointed 13th May, 1735._

This officer entered the army in 1704, and served with
reputation under the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough. After
distinguishing himself on several occasions he was promoted to
the lieut.-colonelcy of the fifteenth regiment, and was promoted
to the rank of Colonel in December, 1712. In 1717 he obtained
the colonelcy of a newly-raised regiment, which was disbanded in
the following year. He was rewarded with the colonelcy of the
EIGHTEENTH, and promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, in 1735,
and in 1739 he was advanced to the rank of Major-General. He died
on the 15th of April, 1742.


SIR JOHN MORDAUNT, K.B.

_Appointed 18th December, 1742._

On the 25th of August, 1721, this officer entered the army, and
after a progressive service of several years he rose to the rank
of Captain and Lieut.-Colonel in the third foot guards, from
which he was promoted to the colonelcy of a newly-raised corps,
now forty-seventh, in 1741, and was removed to the EIGHTEENTH
regiment in the following year. Having been promoted to the
rank of Brigadier-General in June, 1745, he commanded a brigade
against the rebel army, and distinguished himself, at the battle
of Falkirk, on the 17th of January, 1746. He afterwards served
under His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, and was detached
with two regiments of dragoons and the Campbell Highlanders in
pursuit of the rebels on their retreat from Stirling. At the
decisive battle of Culloden he commanded a brigade of infantry,
and gained additional reputation; and afterwards proceeding to the
Netherlands, he distinguished himself at the head of a brigade at
the battle of Val, in 1747. In the autumn of the same year he was
promoted to the rank of Major-General; he was afterwards removed
to the twelfth dragoons, and in July, 1749, to the fourth horse,
now seventh dragoon guards; in November following he was removed to
the tenth dragoons. He was promoted to the rank of Lieut.-General
in 1754, and to that of General in 1770. His services were also
rewarded with the dignity of Knight of the Most Honourable Military
Order of the Bath, and the government of Berwick. He died in
October, 1780.


JOHN FOLLIOTT.

_Appointed 22nd December, 1747._

After serving with reputation in the subordinate commissions, this
officer was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the seventh horse,
now sixth dragoon guards, in June, 1737, and his constant attention
to all the duties of commanding officer of that distinguished corps
was rewarded, in June, 1743, with the colonelcy of the sixty-second
regiment (afterwards disbanded); from which he was removed, in
1747, to the ROYAL IRISH regiment. He was promoted to the rank of
Major-General in 1754, and to that of Lieut.-General in 1758; he
was also nominated Governor of Ross Castle. He died in January,
1762, at which period he was Member of Parliament for Sligo.


SIR JOHN SEBRIGHT, BART.

_Appointed 1st April, 1762._

JOHN SEBRIGHT was many years an officer in the first foot guards,
in which corps he was promoted to the rank of Captain and
Lieut.-Colonel on the 2nd of May, 1749; and in October, 1758, he
was nominated to the colonelcy of the eighty-third foot. In 1761
he was promoted to the rank of Major-General; and was removed to
the ROYAL IRISH regiment in the following year. On the decease of
his brother in 1765, he succeeded to the dignity of BARONET. He
was promoted to the rank of Lieut.-General in 1770, and to that of
General in 1782. His decease occurred on the 23rd of February, 1794.


SIR JAMES MURRAY, BART.

_Appointed 26th February, 1794._

JAMES MURRAY served in the army in the Seven Years' War, and was
appointed Major in the ninety-seventh foot in April 1762: in the
following year his regiment was disbanded. In 1771 he succeeded,
on the decease of his father, to the dignity of BARONET. He was
promoted to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel in 1772; and served with
reputation in the American war, particularly at the defence of
St. Christopher. In 1789 he was honoured with the appointment of
Aide-de-camp to the King, with the rank of Colonel; and in 1793 he
was appointed Adjutant-General to the army in Flanders, commanded
by His Royal Highness the Duke of York, and promoted to the rank of
Major-General; and while employed on the Staff in Flanders he was
nominated Colonel of the EIGHTEENTH regiment, his commission being
dated the 26th of February, 1794. Having married the Countess of
Bath, he assumed the surname and arms of PULTENEY. In the summer
of 1800 he commanded an expedition against the fortress of Ferrol,
in Spain; after viewing the town and defences he resolved not to
lose time in attacking this place, but to join the armament under
Lieut.-General Sir Ralph Abercromby. In 1807 he was nominated
Secretary at War, and held that appointment two years: in 1808 he
was promoted to the rank of General. His decease occurred on the
26th of April, 1811, and was occasioned by an injury received from
the explosion of a powder-flask while shooting on his estate at
Buckenham, in Norfolk.


JOHN H. LORD HUTCHINSON, K.B.

_Appointed 27th April, 1811._

The Honourable JOHN HELY HUTCHINSON entered the army in January,
1774, as Cornet in the eighteenth light dragoons, and in October,
1776, he was promoted Captain of a company in the sixty-seventh
regiment: in 1777 he was elected a Member of Parliament for
Cork. On the 21st of September, 1781, he was advanced to Major
in the seventy-seventh, or Atholl Highlanders, in which corps
he rose to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel in 1783; but his regiment
was disbanded soon after the termination of the American war.
Having previously studied tactics at Strasburg, he again visited
the Continent, and acquired additional information on military
subjects. Soon after the commencement of the French revolutionary
war he returned to the United Kingdom; was promoted to the rank
of Colonel on the 1st of March, 1794; and, taking great interest
in raising the ninety-fourth regiment, he was appointed Colonel
of that corps in October. He served two campaigns in Flanders, as
extra Aide-de-camp to Sir Ralph Abercromby. He was promoted to
the rank of Major-General in 1796; and, serving in Ireland during
the rebellion in 1798, he was second in command at the action at
Castlebar. He also served in the expedition to Holland in 1799,
and honourable mention is made of his gallant conduct in the public
despatches. Having given proof of his capabilities as a General
officer, he was nominated second in command in the expedition to
Egypt, under Lieut.-General Sir Ralph Abercromby; and after the
death of that officer, from wounds received in the action of the
21st of March, the command of the troops devolved on Major-General
Hutchinson, who found himself suddenly placed at the head of the
army under circumstances of a peculiarly difficult character. In
the subsequent operations in Egypt he evinced talent and energy,
sustaining the honour of his Sovereign, promoting the glory of his
country, and forcing the French "Army of the East" to evacuate
Egypt. For his services in this enterprise he twice received the
thanks of both Houses of Parliament; he gained the approbation
of his Sovereign, was nominated a Knight of the Bath, received
the Order of the Crescent from the Grand Seignior, was elevated
to the peerage by the title of BARON HUTCHINSON OF ALEXANDRIA
and of Knocklofty in the county of Tipperary, and received an
important addition to his income: he was also nominated Governor of
Stirling Castle. In 1803 his Lordship was promoted to the rank of
Lieut.-General.

The subsequent services of Lord Hutchinson were of a diplomatic
character: in November, 1806, he proceeded on an extraordinary
mission to the Prussian and Russian armies; and he afterwards
proceeded to the court of St. Petersburg. In 1806 he was nominated
to the colonelcy of the fifty-seventh regiment, and was removed,
in 1811, to the ROYAL IRISH regiment: in 1813 he was promoted to
the rank of General. On the decease of his brother, in 1825, he
succeeded to the title of EARL OF DONOUGHMORE. He died on the 6th
of July, 1832.


MATTHEW LORD AYLMER.

_Appointed 23rd July, 1832._


THE END.


London: Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street, For
Her Majesty's Stationery Office.


FOOTNOTES:

[6] This regiment has furnished several historians of its early
services. The first is General Richard Stearne, who was nominated
ensign of one of the independent companies in 1678, and colonel of
the regiment in 1712: his narrative comprises a period of forty-one
years,--viz. from 1678 to 1719, and is continued by an officer of
the regiment to 1759: this work is in manuscript. The journal of
Captain Parker, who entered the regiment as private in 1689, rose
to the rank of captain, and retired in 1718, embraces the services
of the regiment during that period, and was afterwards published
by his son. General Richard Kane, who was many years an officer of
the regiment, gives an account of its services, in the wars of King
William III. and of Queen Anne, in a work on military discipline.
Private Millner also published a journal of the campaigns from 1701
to 1712. No other regiment has produced so many historians of its
services.

[7] Smollett.

[8] General Stearne, Captain Parker, Bishop Burnett, Smollett, &c.

[9] _List of Irish Troops which came to England at the Revolution
in 1688._

                                                  Number of Officers
                                                       and Soldiers.

  Colonel Butler's dragoons, disbanded by the Prince of Orange   635
  Battalion of Foot Guards              ditto                    641
  LORD FORBES'S Regiment, now the EIGHTEENTH, or ROYAL IRISH     771
  Major-General Hamilton's regt., disbanded by the Prince of
  Orange                                                         771
                                                                ----
                                                      Total     2818
                                                 _Official Records._


[10] General Stearne's Journal. A similar statement is also given
in Captain Parker's Memoirs.

[11] Story's History of the War in Ireland.

[12] This list is from Story's History of the War in Ireland; the
Journals of General Stearne and Captain Parker say six officers
killed and eight wounded, but do not give their names.

[13] The Baron De Ghinkel was born in Guelderland: he commenced
his military career in early life, and obtained the Order of the
Elephant from the Prince of Orange for services in Flanders. He
accompanied King William III to Ireland in 1690, and served under
Marshal Duke Schomberg, and afterwards under Count Solms: he was
appointed to succeed the latter in the chief command of the army in
Ireland, and after the termination of the war in 1691, his Majesty
conferred on him the honor of the Irish peerage with the title of
_Earl of Athlone_ and _Viscount Aghrim_: he died at Utrecht in 1705.

[14] The rank of the several regiments of the British Army was
first regulated by a Board of General Officers assembled in the
Netherlands, by command of King William III., on the 10th June,
1694.

Another Board of General Officers was assembled by order of Queen
Anne in 1713, to decide on the rank and precedence of regiments
raised subsequently to 1694.

A third Board was assembled, by command of King George I., in 1715,
for the same purpose.

These Boards recommended that English regiments, raised in England,
should take rank from the dates of their formation; and that
English, Scots, and Irish regiments, raised for the service of
a foreign power, should take rank from the dates of their being
placed on the English establishment.

The numerical titles of regiments, as fixed on the principle laid
down in the reports of the Boards of General Officers, above
alluded to, were confirmed by the warrant issued by authority of
King George II., dated 1st July, 1751,--and also by the warrant of
King George III., dated 19th December, 1768.

[15] See Note inserted at page 46.

[16] A similar statement is made in General Stearne's Journal, and
is corroborated by other evidence.

[17] This list is from D'Auvergne's History of the Campaigns in
Flanders. General Stearne gives a greater number; as he appears to
include slight wounds not noticed in the official returns. Captain
Parker's statement agrees with the above.

[18] General Stearne's Journal.

[19] Colonel John Churchill was created Baron Churchill on the 14th
May, 1685;--Earl of Marlborough on the 9th April, 1689;--and Duke
of Marlborough on the 14th December, 1702.

[20] The British regiments at the siege of Venloo were the eighth,
thirteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth, under Brigadier-General F.
Hamilton and Lieut.-General Lord Cutts.

[21] Boyer's Annals of Queen Anne. The regimental historians do not
give the names of the officers in their lists of killed and wounded
on this occasion.

[22] This list is taken from General Stearne's Journal; he, being
lieut.-colonel commanding the regiment at the time, had every
opportunity of being well acquainted with its loss. His list does
not correspond exactly with that given by Captain Parker. In the
list in Boyer's 'Annals of Queen Anne,' there is another wounded
officer included, viz. Lieutenant Weddle.

[23] The names of the officers killed and wounded are not given.
Captain Parker states that he was wounded; his list says seven
officers killed and eight wounded.

[24] This corps was styled _foot-guards_ in the reigns of King
Charles II. and King James II.; the second battalion came to
England at the Revolution, and was disbanded by the Prince of
Orange. The first battalion adhered to King James, and at the
treaty of Limerick, in 1691, transferred its services to the crown
of France.

[25] Alluding to both regiments bearing the Irish Harp on their
Colours.

[26] The following curious statement is inserted in Lieut.-Colonel
Stearne's journal:--"During the siege of Aire, provisions were very
scarce; but one thing gave the soldiers relief, and it is indeed
almost incredible--and it was the hoards of corn which the mice had
laid up in store-houses in the earth, which our men found, and came
home daily loaded with corn, which they got out of these hoards."
Captain Parker alludes to the same circumstance, and adds,--"These
hoards were from four to six feet under ground, and in many of them
our men found some pecks of corn."

[27] On the appointment of _Lieut.-Colonel Stearne_ to the
colonelcy, Captain Parker states,--"He had served in the regiment
from its establishment, and, _being a brave and gallant man_, he
rose gradually, by long service and good fortune, until, from an
ensign, he became our colonel."

[28] See Note inserted at page 14.

[29] Continuation of General Stearne's Journal.

[30] The Warrant of the 1st July, 1751, issued by command of King
George II., contained regulations for the Standards, Colours,
Clothing, &c., of the regiments of Cavalry and Infantry, in order
to ensure uniformity throughout the army. In this warrant it was
directed, that in the centre of each colour the _Number_ of the
rank of the regiment should be painted or embroidered in gold
Roman characters. In the colours of those regiments authorised
to bear any _Royal Devices_, or _Ancient Badges_, the _Rank_ of
the regiment should be painted, or embroidered, towards the upper
corner.

A Warrant was also issued by King George III., on the 19th
December, 1768, containing regulations on the same subject.

[31] Lieut.-General Stuart's despatch.

[32] Major-General Sir Hugh Gough's despatch.

[33] Sir Hugh Gough's despatch.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
  Hong Kong, Hong-Kong; foot-guards, foot guards; situate; harquebus;
  enrol; ensanguined.

  Pg xxxiii, 'Curaçoa' replaced by 'Curaçao'.
  Pg 45, sidenote '1746' was moved up one paragraph to a more
         relevant position.
  Pg 61, 'Curaçoa' replaced by 'Curaçao'.
  Pg 87, 'Willam Cosby' replaced by 'William Cosby'.





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