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Title: Statement of the Provision for the Poor, and of the Condition of the Labouring Classes in a Considerable Portion of America and Europe - Being the preface to the foreign communications contained - in the appendix to the Poor-Law Report
Author: Senior, Nassau W.
Language: English
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                               STATEMENT
                                OF THE
                        PROVISION FOR THE POOR,
                              AND OF THE
                  CONDITION OF THE LABOURING CLASSES,
                     IN A CONSIDERABLE PORTION OF
                          AMERICA AND EUROPE.

                                  BY
                        NASSAU W. SENIOR, ESQ.

                               BEING THE
            PREFACE TO THE FOREIGN COMMUNICATIONS CONTAINED
                IN THE APPENDIX TO THE POOR-LAW REPORT.

                                LONDON:
                     B. FELLOWES, LUDGATE STREET.
             (_Publisher to the Poor-Law Commissioners._)

                              MDCCCXXXV.

                                LONDON:
                  PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS,
                           Stamford Street.



ADVERTISEMENT.


The following pages were prepared for the sole purpose of forming an
introduction to the foreign communications contained in the Appendix
to the Poor-Law Report. Their separate publication was not thought
of until they had been nearly finished. When it was first suggested
to me, I felt it to be objectionable, on account of their glaring
imperfections, if considered as forming an independent work, and the
impossibility of employing the little time which can be withdrawn
from a profession, in the vast task of giving even an outline of the
provision for the poor, and the condition of the labouring classes,
in the whole of Europe and America. But the value and extent of the
information which, even in their present incomplete state, they
contain, and the importance of rendering it more accessible than when
locked up in the folios of the Poor-Law Appendix, have overcome my
objections. The only addition which I have been able to make is a
translation of the French documents.

I cannot conclude without expressing my sense of the zeal and
intelligence with which the inquiry has been prosecuted by his
Majesty’s diplomatic Ministers and Consuls, and of the active and
candid assistance which has been given by the foreign Governments.

NASSAU W. SENIOR.

_Lincoln’s Inn, June 10, 1835._



CONTENTS


                                                                  Page
    INTRODUCTION                                                     1

    AMERICA

        Pennsylvania                                             13-18

        Massachusetts                                            14-17

        New Jersey                                                  18

        New York                                                    19

    EUROPE

        Norway                                                      20

        Sweden                                                      24

        Russia                                                      29

        Denmark                                                     33

        Mecklenburg                                                 44

        Prussia                                                     45

        Saxony                                                      53

        Wurtemberg                                                  53

            Weinsburg House of Industry                             65

        Bavaria                                                     68

        Berne                                                       74

    CAUSES favourable to the Working of a Compulsory Provision      84

        Hanseatic Towns

            Hamburgh                                                95

            Bremen                                                  96

            Lubeck                                                  98

        Frankfort                                                  101

        Holland                                                    101

            Poor Colonies of                                       109

                Frederiks-Oord                                     110

                Wateren                                            113

                Veenhuisen                                         113

                Ommerschans                                        115

        Belgium and France                                         117

            French Poor-Laws:

                Hospices et Bureaux de Bienfaisance                118

                Foundlings and Deserted Children                   120

                Mendicity and Vagrancy                             122

        Belgium

            Monts-de-Piété                                     126-138

            Mendicity                                              126

            Foundlings and Deserted Children                       133

            Antwerp                                                139

            Ostend                                                 143

            Gaesbeck                                               145

            Poor Colonies                                          148

        France                                                     154

            Havre:

                Hospital                                           155

                Bureau de Bienfaisance                             156

            Rouen:

                Workhouse Regulations                              157

            Brittany                                               160

            Loire Inférieure:

                Nantes                                             163

            Gironde:

                Bourdeaux                                          170

            Basses Pyrenées:

                Bayonne                                            176

            Bouches du Rhone:

                Marseilles                                         178

        Sardinian States:

            Piedmont                                               181

            Genoa                                                  186

            Savoy                                                  187

        Venice                                                     189

        Portugal:

            Oporto                                                 194

            The Azores                                             196

            The Canary Islands                                     199

        Greece                                                     201

        European Turkey                                            203

        General Absence of a Surplus Population in Countries not
        affording Compulsory Relief                                204

        Agricultural Labourers in England.

            Wages of                                               206

            Subsistence of                                         208

        Wages and Subsistence of Foreign Labourers.

            _Vide_ Tables                                      210-235

        Comparison between the state of the English and
        Foreign Labouring Classes                                  236



STATEMENT OF THE PROVISION FOR THE POOR, AND THE CONDITION OF THE
LABOURING CLASSES, IN A CONSIDERABLE PORTION OF AMERICA AND EUROPE.


The Commissioners appointed by His Majesty to make a diligent and full
Inquiry into the practical operation of the Laws for the relief of
the Poor, were restricted by the words of their Commission to England
and Wales. As it was obvious, however, that much instruction might
be derived from the experience of other countries, the Commissioners
were authorized by Viscount Melbourne, then His Majesty’s Principal
Secretary of State for the Home Department, to extend the investigation
as far as might be found productive of useful results. At first they
endeavoured to effect this object through their personal friends, and
in this manner obtained several valuable communications. But as this
source of information was likely to be soon exhausted, they requested
Viscount Palmerston, then His Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State
for the Foreign Department, to obtain the assistance of the Diplomatic
Body.

In compliance with this application, Viscount Palmerston, by a circular
dated the 12th of August, 1833, requested each of His Majesty’s
Foreign Ministers to procure and transmit, with the least possible
delay, a full report of the legal provisions existing in the country in
which he was resident, for the support and maintenance of the poor; of
the principles on which such provision was founded; of the manner in
which it was administered; of the amount and mode of raising the funds
devoted to that purpose; and of the practical working and effect of
the actual system, upon the comfort, character, and condition of the
inhabitants.

The answers to these well-framed inquiries form a considerable portion
of the contents of the following volume. They constitute, probably, the
fullest collection that has ever been made of laws for the relief of
the poor.

But as a subject of such extent would necessarily be treated by
different persons in different manners, and various degrees of
attention given to its separate branches, the Commissioners thought it
advisable that a set of questions should also be circulated, which,
by directing the attention of each inquirer and informant to uniform
objects, would enable the influence of different systems on the welfare
of the persons subjected to them to be compared.

For this purpose the following questions were drawn up:--

    The following Questions apply to Customs and Institutions
    whether general throughout the State, or peculiar to certain
    Districts, and to Relief given:

    1st. By the Voluntary Payment of Individuals or Corporate
    Bodies.

    2nd. By Institutions specially endowed for that purpose.

    3rd. By the Government, either general or local.

    4th. By any one or more of these means combined.

    And you are requested to state particularly the cases (if any)
    in which the person relieved has a legal claim.

    QUESTIONS.

    VAGRANTS.

    1. To what extent and under what form does mendicity prevail in
    the several districts of the country?

    2. Is there any relief to persons passing through the country,
    seeking work, returning to their native places, or living by
    begging; and by whom afforded, and under what regulations?

    DESTITUTE ABLE-BODIED.

    1. To what extent and under what regulations are they, or any
    part of their families, billeted or quartered on householders?

    2. To what extent and under what regulations are they boarded
    with individuals?

    3. To what extent and under what regulations are there district
    houses of industry for receiving the destitute able-bodied,
    or any part of their families, and supplying them with food,
    clothes, &c., and in which they are set to work?

    4. To what extent and under what regulations do any religious
    institutions give assistance to the destitute, by receiving
    them as inmates, or by giving them alms?

    5. To what extent and under what regulations is work provided
    at their own dwellings for those who have trades, but do not
    procure work for themselves?

    6. To what extent and under what regulations is work provided
    for such persons in agriculture or on public works?

    7. To what extent and under what regulations are fuel,
    clothing, or money, distributed to such persons or their
    families; at all times of the year, or during any particular
    seasons?

    8. To what extent and under what regulations are they relieved
    by their children being taken into schools, and fed, clothed
    and educated, or apprenticed?

    9. To what extent and under what regulations, and to what
    degree of relationship are the relatives of the destitute
    compelled to assist them with money, food, or clothing, or by
    taking charge of part of their families?

    10. To what extent and under what regulations are they assisted
    by loans?

    IMPOTENT THROUGH AGE.

    1. To what extent and under what regulations are there almshouses
    or other institutions for the reception of those who, through age,
    are incapable of earning their subsistence?

    2. To what extent and under what regulations is relief in food,
    fuel, clothing, or money afforded them at their homes?

    3. To what extent, and under what regulations, are they boarded
    with individuals?

    4. To what extent and under what regulations are they quartered
    or billeted on householders?

    5. To what extent and under what regulations, and to what degree
    of relationship, are their relatives compelled to assist them with
    money, food, or clothing, or by taking part of their families?

    SICK.

    1. To what extent and under what regulations are there district
    institutions for the reception of the sick?

    2. To what extent and under what regulations are surgical and
    medical relief afforded to the poor at their own homes?

    3. To what extent and under what regulations are there
    institutions for affording food, fuel, clothing, or money to
    the sick?

    4. To what extent and under what regulations is assistance
    given to lying-in women at their homes, or in public
    establishments?

    5. To what extent and under what regulations are there any
    other modes of affording public assistance to the sick?

    CHILDREN:

    _Illegitimate._

    1. Upon whom does the support of illegitimate children fall;
    wholly upon the mothers, or wholly upon the fathers; or is the
    expense distributed between them, and in what proportion, and
    under what regulations?

    2. To what extent and under what regulations are the relatives
    of the mothers or fathers ever compelled to assist in the
    maintenance of bastards?

    3. To what extent and under what regulations are illegitimate
    children supported at the public expense?

    _Orphans, Foundlings, or Deserted Children._

    4. To what extent and under what regulations are they taken
    into establishments for their reception?

    5. To what extent and under what regulations are they billeted
    or quartered on householders?

    6. To what extent and under what regulations are they boarded
    with individuals?

    7. To what extent and under what regulations, and to what
    degree of relationship, are their relatives compelled to
    support them?

    CRIPPLES, DEAF AND DUMB, AND BLIND.

    1. To what extent and under what regulations are there
    establishments for their reception?

    2. To what extent and under what regulations are they billeted
    or quartered on householders?

    3. To what extent and under what regulations are they boarded
    with individuals?

    4. To what extent and under what regulations, and to what
    degree of relationship, are their relatives compelled to
    support them?

    IDIOTS AND LUNATICS.

    1. To what extent and under what regulations are there
    establishments for their reception?

    2. To what extent and under what regulations are they billeted
    or quartered on householders?

    3. To what extent and under what regulations are they boarded
    with individuals?

    4. To what extent and under what regulations, and to what
    degree of relationship, are their relatives compelled to
    support them?

    EFFECTS OF THE FOREGOING INSTITUTIONS.

    You are requested to state whether the receipt, or the
    expectation of relief, appears to produce any and what effect,

    1st. On the industry of the labourers?

    2nd. On their frugality?

    3rd. On the age at which they marry?

    4th. On the mutual dependence and affection of parents,
    children and other relatives?

    5th. What, on the whole, is the condition of the able-bodied
    and self-supporting labourer of the lowest class, as compared
    with the condition of the person subsisting on alms or public
    charity. Is the condition of the latter, as to food and freedom
    from labour more or less eligible? _See_ p. 261 and 335 of the
    Poor Law Extracts.

       *       *       *       *       *

    You are also requested to read the accompanying volume[1],
    published by the English Poor Law Commissioners, and to
    state the existence of any similar mal-administration of the
    charitable funds of the country in which you reside, and what
    are its effects?

    You are also requested to forward all the dietaries which
    you can procure of prisons, workhouses, almshouses and other
    institutions, with translations expressing the amounts and
    quantities in English money, weights and measures, and to state
    what changes (if any) are proposed in the laws or institutions
    respecting relief in the country in which you reside, and on
    what grounds?

       *       *       *       *       *

    In reply to the following Questions respecting Labourers, you
    are requested to distinguish Agriculturists from Artisans, and
    the Skilled from the Unskilled.

    1. What is the general amount of wages of an able-bodied male
    labourer, by the day, the week, the month or the year, with and
    without provisions, in summer and in winter?

    2. Is piece-work general?

    3. What, in the whole, might an average labourer, obtaining
    an average amount of employment, both in day-work and in
    piece-work, expect to earn in a year, including harvest-work,
    and the value of all his advantages and means of living?

    4. State, as nearly as you can, the average annual expenditure
    of labourers of different descriptions, specifying schooling
    for children, religious teachers, &c.

    5. Is there any, and what employment for women and children?

    6. What can women, and children under 16, earn per week, in
    summer, in winter and harvest, and how employed?

    7. What, in the whole, might a labourer’s wife and four
    children, aged 14, 11, 8 and 5 years respectively (the eldest
    a boy), expect to earn in a year, obtaining, as in the former
    case, an average amount of employment?

    8. Could such a family subsist on the aggregate earnings of the
    father, mother and children, and if so, on what food?

    9. Could it lay by anything, and how much?

    10. The average quantity of land annexed to a labourer’s
    habitation?

    11. What class of persons are the usual owners of labourers’
    habitations?

    12. The rent of labourers’ habitations, and price on sale?

    13. Whether any lands let to labourers; if so, the quantity to
    each, and at what rent?

    14. The proportion of annual deaths to the whole population?

    15. The proportion of annual births to the whole population?

    16. The proportion of annual marriages to the whole population?

    17. The average number of children to a marriage?

    18. Proportion of legitimate to illegitimate births?

    19. The proportion of children that die before the end of their
    first year?

    20. Proportion of children that die before the end of their
    tenth year?

    21. Proportion of children that die before the end of their
    eighteenth year.

    22. Average age of marriage, distinguishing males from females?

    23. Causes by which marriages are delayed?

    24. Extent to which, 1st, the unmarried; 2nd, the married, save?

    25. Mode in which they invest their savings?

    [1] Extracts from the information on the Administration of
    the Poor Laws.

These questions, together with the volume to which they refer, of
Extracts of Information on the Administration of the Poor Laws, were
transmitted by Viscount Palmerston to His Majesty’s Foreign Ministers
and Consuls on the 30th November, 1833.

The replies to them form the remaining contents of the following pages.

It will be perceived, therefore, that this volume contains documents of
three different kinds:

1. Private Communications.

2. Diplomatic Answers to the general inquiries suggested by Viscount
Palmerston’s circular of the 12th of August, 1833.

3. Diplomatic Answers to the Questions framed by the Commissioners, and
contained in Viscount Palmerston’s circular of the 30th November, 1833.

Unfortunately, only a small portion of these documents had arrived
when the Commissioners made their Report to His Majesty on the 20th
February, 1834. The documents then received are contained in the first
115 pages of this volume, and were printed by order of the House of
Commons, and delivered to Members in May, 1834. Those subsequently
received were transmitted to the printers as soon as the requisite
translations of those portions which were not written in English or
French could be prepared. If it had been practicable to defer printing
any portion until the whole was ready, they might have been much more
conveniently arranged. But to this course there were two objections.
First, the impossibility of ascertaining from what places documents
would be received; and secondly, the difficulty of either printing
within a short period so large a volume, containing so much tabular
matter, or of keeping the press standing for six or seven months.
The Parliamentary printers have a much larger stock of type than any
other establishment, but even their resources did not enable them
to keep unemployed for months the type required for many hundred
closely-printed folio pages. The arrangement, therefore, of the
following papers is in a great measure casual, depending much less
on the nature of the documents than on the times at which they were
received. The following short summary of their contents, may, it is
hoped, somewhat diminish this inconvenience.

I.--The Private Communications consist of,

                                                                      Page
    1. Two Papers by Count Arrivabene, containing an account of the
    labouring population of Gaesbeck, a village about nine miles from
    Brussels (p. 1.); and a description of the state of the Poor
    Colonies of Holland and Belgium in 1829                            610

    2. A Report, by Captain Brandreth, on the Belgian Poor Colonies,
    in 1832                                                             15

    3. A Statement, by M. Ducpétiaux, of the Situation of the Belgian
    Poor Colonies, in 1832                                             619

    4. An Essay on the comparative state of the Poor in England and
    France, by M. de Chateauvieux                                        2

    5. Notes on the Administration of the Relief of the Poor in
    France, by Ashurst Majendie, Esq.                                   34

    6. A Report made by M. Gindroz to the Grand Council of the Canton
    de Vaud, on Petitions for the Establishment of Almshouses           53

    7. A Report by Commissioners appointed by the House of
    Representatives, on the Pauper System of Massachusetts              57

    8. A Report by the Secretary of State, giving an Abstract of the
    Reports of the Superintendents of the Poor of the State of New
    York                                                                99

    9. A Report by Commissioners appointed to draw up a Project of a
    Poor Law for Norway                                                701

II.--The following are the answers to Viscount Palmerston’s Circular of
the 12th August, 1833.

Some of these Reports were transmitted to the Commissioners without
signatures. The names of the Authors have been since furnished by the
Foreign Office, and are now added.

AMERICA.

    1. _New York_--Report from James Buchanan, Esq., his Majesty’s
    Consul                                                             109

    2. _New Hampshire and Maine_--Report from J. Y. Sherwood, Esq.,
    Acting British Consul                                              111

    3. _The Floridas and Alabama_--Report from James Baker, Esq., his
    Majesty’s Consul                                                   113

    4. _Louisiana_--Report from George Salkeld, Esq., ditto            115

    5. _South Carolina_--Report from W. Ogilby, Esq., ditto            117

    6. _Georgia_--Report from E. Molyneux, Esq., ditto                 123

    7. _Massachusetts_--Report from the Right Hon. Sir Charles R.
    Vaughan, his Majesty’s Minister                                    123

    8. _New Jersey_--Report from ditto                                 673

    9. _Pennsylvania_--Report from Gilbert Robertson, Esq., his
    Majesty’s Consul                                                   135

EUROPE.

    1. _Sweden_--Report from Lord Howard de Walden, his Majesty’s
    Minister                                                           343

    2. _Russia_--Report from Hon. J. D. Bligh, ditto                   323

    3. _Prussia_--Report from Robert Abercrombie, Esq., his Majesty’s
    Chargé-d’Affaires                                                  425

    4. _Wurtemberg_--Report from Sir E. C. Disbrowe, his Majesty’s
    Minister                                                           483

    5. _Holland_--Report from Hon. G. S. Jerningham, his Majesty’s
    Chargé-d’Affaires                                                  571

    6. _Belgium_--Report from the Right Hon. Sir R. Adair, his
    Majesty’s Minister                                                 591

    7. _Switzerland_--Report from D. R. Marries, Esq., ditto           190

    8. _Venice_--Report from W. T. Money, Esq., his Majesty’s
    Consul-General                                                     663

III.--Answers to the Questions suggested by the Commissioners, and
circulated by Viscount Palmerston on the 30th November, 1833, have been
received from the following places:

AMERICA.

    1. _Massachusetts_--by George Manners, Esq., his Majesty’s Consul  680

    2. _New York_--by James Buchanan, Esq., ditto                      156

    3. _Mexico_--R. Packenham, Esq., his Majesty’s Chargé-d’Affaires   688

    4. _Carthagenia de Columbia_--by J. Ayton, Esq., British
    Pro-Consul                                                         164

    5. _Venezuela_--by Sir R. K. Porter, his Majesty’s Consul          161

    6. _Maranham_--by John Moon, Esq., ditto                           692

    7. _Bahia_--John Parkinson, Esq., ditto                            731

    8. _Uruguay_--by T. S. Hood, Esq., his Majesty’s Consul-General    722

    9. _Hayti_--by G. W. Courtenay, Esq., ditto                        167

EUROPE.

    1. _Norway_--by Consuls Greig and Mygind                           695

    2. _Sweden_--by Hon. J. H. D. Bloomfield, his Majesty’s Secretary
    of Legation                                                        372

        (_a_). _Gottenburg_--by H. T. Liddell, Esq., his Majesty’s
               Consul                                                  384

    3. _Russia_--by Hon. J. D. Bligh, his Majesty’s Minister           330

        (_a_). _Archangel_--by T. C. Hunt, Esq., his Majesty’s Consul  337

        (_b_). _Courland_--by F. Kienitz, Esq., ditto                  339

    4. _Denmark_--by Peter Browne, Esq., his Majesty’s Secretary of
    Legation                                                           263

        (_a_). _Elsinore_--by F. C. Macgregor, Esq., his Majesty’s
               Consul                                                  292

    5. _Hanseatic Towns:_

        (_a_). _Hamburgh_--by H. Canning, Esq., his Majesty’s
               Consul-General                                          390

        (_b_). _Bremen_--by G. E. Papendick, Esq., British
               Vice-Consul                                             410

        (_c_). _Lubeck_--by W. L. Behnes, Esq., ditto                  415

    6. _Mecklenburgh_--by G. Meyen, Esq., ditto                        421

    7. _Dantzig_--by Alexander Gibsone, Esq., his Majesty’s Consul     459

    8. _Saxony_--by Hon. F. R. Forbes, his Majesty’s Minister          479

    9. _Wurtemberg_--by Hon. W. Wellesley, Chargé-d’Affaires           507

    10. _Bavaria_--by Lord Erskine, his Majesty’s Minister             554

    11. _Frankfort on the Main_--by ---- Koch, Esq., his Majesty’s
    Consul                                                             564

    12. _Amsterdam_--by R. Melvil, Esq., ditto                         581

    13. _Belgium:_

        (_a_). _Antwerp and Boom_--by Baron de Hochepied Larpent, his
              Majesty’s Consul                                         627

        (_b_). _Ostend_--by G. A. Fauche, Esq., ditto                  641

    14. _France:_

        (_a_). _Havre_--by Arch. Gordon, Esq., his Majesty’s Consul    179

        (_b_). _Brest_--by A. Perrier, Esq., ditto                     724

        (_c_). _La Loire Inferieure_--by Henry Newman, Esq., ditto     171

        (_d_). _Bourdeaux_--by T. B. G. Scott, Esq., ditto             229

        (_e_). _Bayonne_--by J. V. Harvey, Esq., ditto                 260

        (_f_). _Marseilles_--by Alexander Turnbull, Esq., ditto        186

    15. _Portugal_--by Lieut. Col. Lorell, ditto                       642

    16. _The Azores_--by W. H. Read, Esq., ditto                       643

    17. _Canary Islands_--by Richard Bartlett, Esq., ditto             686

    18. _Sardinian States_--by Sir Augustus Foster, his Majesty’s
    Minister                                                           648

    19. _Greece_--by E. J. Dawkins, Esq., ditto                        665

        (_a_). _Patras_--by G. W. Crowe, Esq., his Majesty’s Consul    668

    20. _European Turkey_--                                            669

It is impossible, within the limits of a Preface, to give more than a
very brief outline of the large mass of information contained in this
volume, respecting the provision made for the poor in America and in
the Continent of Europe.



AMERICA.


It may be stated that, with respect to America, a legal provision is
made for paupers in every part of the United States from which we have
returns, excepting Georgia and Louisiana; and that no such provision
exists in Brazil or in Hayti, or, as far as is shown by these returns,
in any of the countries originally colonized by Spain.

The system in the United States was of course derived from England, and
modified in consequence, not only of the local circumstances of the
country, but also of the prevalence of slavery in many of the States,
and of federal institutions which by recognising to a certain extent
each State as an independent sovereignty, prevent the removal from one
State of paupers who are natives of another. Such paupers are supported
in some of the northern districts not by local assessments, but out of
the general income of the State, under the name of state paupers.

The best mode of treating this description of paupers is a matter now
in discussion in the United States.

The following passage in the report of the Commissioners appointed to
revise the civil code of Pennsylvania, shows the inconveniences arising
from the absence of a national provision for them: (pp. 139, 143.)

    We may be permitted to suggest one alteration of the present
    law, of considerable importance. In Massachusetts and New
    York, and perhaps in some other States, paupers who have
    no settlement in the State are relieved at the expense of
    the State. In this commonwealth the burthen falls upon the
    particular district in which the pauper may happen to be.
    This often occasions considerable expense to certain counties
    or places from which others are exempt. The construction of
    a bridge or canal, for instance, will draw to a particular
    neighbourhood a large number of labourers, many of whom may
    have no settlement in the State. If disabled by sickness or
    accident, they must be relieved by the township in which they
    became disabled, although their labour was employed for the
    benefit of the State or county, as the case may be, and not for
    the benefit of the township alone. If provision were made for
    the payment of the expenses incurred by the township in such
    case out of the county, or perhaps the State treasury, we think
    that it would be more just, and that the unhappy labourer would
    be more likely to obtain adequate relief, than if left to the
    scanty resources of a single township. A case which is stated
    in the second volume of the Pennsylvania Reports (_Overseers v.
    M’Coy_, p. 432), in which it appeared, that a person employed
    as a labourer on the State Canal, and who was severely wounded
    in the course of his employment, was passed from one township
    to another, in consequence of the disinclination to incur
    the expense of supporting him, until he died of the injury
    received, shows in a strong light the inconvenience and perils
    of the present system respecting casual paupers, and may serve
    to excuse our calling the attention of the legislature to the
    subject.

On the other hand, the Commissioners appointed to revise the poor laws
of Massachusetts, after stating that the national provision in their
State for the unsettled poor has existed ever since the year 1675,
recommend its abolition, by arguments, a portion of which we shall
extract, as affording an instructive picture of the worst forms of
North American pauperism: (pp. 59, 60, 61.)

    It will appear (say the Commissioners), that of the whole
    number more or less assisted during the last year, that is,
    of 12,331 poor, 5927 were State’s poor, and 6063 were town’s
    poor; making the excess of town’s over State’s poor to have
    been only 497. The proportion which, it will be perceived, that
    the State’s poor bear to the town’s poor, is itself a fact
    of startling interest. We have not the means of ascertaining
    the actual growth of this class of the poor. But if it may
    be estimated by a comparison of the State’s allowance for
    them in 1792-3, the amount of which, in round numbers, was
    $14,000, with the amount of the allowance twenty-seven years
    afterwards, that is, in 1820, when it was $72,000, it suggests
    matter for very serious consideration. So sensitive, indeed,
    to the increasing weight of the burthen had the legislature
    become even in 1798, when the allowance was but $27,000 that
    “an Act” was passed, “specifying the kind of evidence required
    to accompany accounts exhibited for the support of the poor
    of the Commonwealth.” In 1821, with a view to still further
    relief from the evil, the law limited its allowance to 90 cents
    a week for adults, and to 50 cents for children; and again,
    for the same end, it was enacted, in 1823, that “no one over
    twelve, and under sixty years of age, and in good health,
    should be considered a State pauper.” The allowance is now
    reduced to 70 cents per week for adults, and proportionally
    for children; and in the cases in which the poor of this class
    have become an integral part of the population of towns, and
    in which, from week to week, through protracted sickness, or
    from any cause, they are for the year supported by public
    bounty, the expense for them is sometimes greater than this
    allowance. But this is comparatively a small proportion of
    the State’s poor: far the largest part, as has been made to
    appear, consists of those who are but occasionally assisted,
    and, in some instances, of those of whom there seems to be good
    reason to infer, from the expense accounts, that they make a
    return in the product of their labour to those who have the
    charge of them, which might well exonerate the Commonwealth
    from any disbursements for their support. Even 70 cents a week,
    therefore, or any definable allowance, we believe, has a direct
    tendency to increase this class of the poor; for a charity will
    not generally be very resolutely withheld, where it is known
    that, if dispensed, it will soon be refunded. And we leave it
    to every one to judge whether almsgiving, under the influence
    of this motive, and to a single and defined class, has not a
    direct tendency at once to the increase of its numbers, and to
    a proportionate earnestness of importunity for it.

    It is also not to be doubted, that a large proportion of this
    excess of State’s poor, more or less assisted during the year,
    consist of those who are called in the statements herewith
    presented, “wandering or travelling poor.” The single fact
    of the existence among us of this class of fellow-beings,
    especially considered in connexion with the facts, that nearly
    all of them are State’s poor, and that, to a great extent, they
    have been made what they are by the State’s provision for them,
    brings the subject before us in a bearing, in which we scarcely
    know whether the call is loudest to the pity we should feel
    for them, or the self-reproach with which we should recur to
    the measures we have sanctioned, and which have alike enlarged
    their numbers and their misery. Nor is it a matter of mere
    inference from our tables, that the number is very large of
    these wandering poor. To a considerable extent, and it is now
    regretted that it was not to a greater extent, the inquiry was
    proposed to overseers of the poor, “How many of the wandering,
    or travelling poor, annually pass under your notice?” And the
    answers, as will appear in the statements, were from 10 to
    50, and 100 to 200. Nor is there a more abject class of our
    fellow-beings to be found in our country than is this class of
    the poor. Almshouses, where they are to be found, are their
    inns, at which they stop for refreshment. Here they find rest,
    when too much worn with fatigue to travel, and medical aid when
    they are sick. And, as they choose not to labour, they leave
    these stopping places, when they have regained strength to
    enable them to travel, and pass from town to town, _demanding_
    their portion of the State’s allowance for them as _their
    right_. And from place to place they receive a portion of
    this allowance, as the easiest mode of getting rid of them,
    and they talk of the allowance as their “rations;” and, when
    lodged for a time, from the necessity of the case, with town’s
    poor, it is their boast that they, by the State’s allowance for
    them, support the town’s inmates of the house. These unhappy
    fellow-beings often travel with females, sometimes, but not
    always their wives; while yet, in the towns in which they take
    up their temporary abode, they are almost always recognized and
    treated as sustaining this relation. There are exceptions, but
    they are few, of almshouses in which they are not permitted
    to live together. In winter they seek the towns in which they
    hope for the best accommodations and the best living, and where
    the smallest return will be required for what they receive.
    It is painful thus to speak of these human beings, lest, in
    bringing their degradation distinctly before the mind, we
    should even for a moment check the commiseration which is so
    strongly claimed for them. We feel bound therefore to say, that
    bad as they are, they are scarcely less sinned against in the
    treatment they receive, than they commit sin in the lawlessness
    of their lives. Everywhere viewed, and feeling themselves to be
    outcasts; possessed of nothing, except the miserable clothing
    which barely covers them; accustomed to beggary, and wholly
    dependent upon it; with no local attachments, except those
    which grow out of the facilities which in some places they may
    find for a more unrestrained indulgence than in others; with
    no friendships, and neither feeling nor awakening sympathy; is
    it surprising that they are debased and shameless, alternately
    insolent and servile, importunate for the means of subsistence
    and self-gratification, and averse from every means but that
    of begging to obtain them? The peculiar attraction of these
    unhappy fellow beings to our Commonwealth, and their preference
    for it over the States to the south of us, we believe is to
    be found in the legal provision which the State has made for
    them. Your Commissioners have indeed but a small amount of
    direct evidence of this; but the testimony of the chairman of
    the overseers in Egrement to this fact, derived from personal
    knowledge, was most unequivocal, and no doubt upon the subject
    existed in the minds of the overseers in many other towns.
    But shall we therefore condemn, or even severely blame, them?
    Considered and treated, in almost every place, as interlopers,
    strollers, vagrants; as objects of suspicion and dread, and,
    too often, scarcely as human beings; the cheapest methods are
    adopted of sending them from town to town, and often with the
    assurance given to them that _there_, and not _here_, are
    accommodations for them, and that _there_ they may enjoy the
    bounty which the State has provided for them. Would such a
    state of things, your Commissioners ask, have existed in our
    Commonwealth, if a specific legal provision had not been made
    for this class of the poor? Or, we do not hesitate to ask, if
    the Government had never recognized such a class of the poor as
    that of State’s poor,--and, above all, if compulsory charity,
    in any form, had never been established by our laws, would
    there have been a twentieth part of the wandering poor which
    now exists in it, or by any means an equal proportion of poor
    of any kind with that which is now dependent upon the taxes
    which are raised for them? Your Commissioners think not.

Either an increase of the evils of pauperism, or a clearer perception
of them, has induced most of the States during the last 10 years
to make, both in their laws for the relief of the poor and in the
administration of those laws, changes of great importance. They
consist principally in endeavouring to avoid giving relief out of the
workhouse, and in making the workhouse an abode in which none but the
really destitute will continue. Compared with our own, the system is,
in general, rigid.

In the detailed account of the workhouses in Massachusetts, (pages
68 to 93,) the separation of the sexes appears to be the general
rule wherever local circumstances do not interfere: a rule from which
exceptions are in some places made in favour of married couples. And in
the returns from many of the towns it is stated that no relief is given
out of the house.

The following passages from the returns from New Jersey, Pennsylvania
and New York, are also evidences of a general strictness of law and of
administration.

By the laws of New Jersey,

    The goods and chattels of any pauper applying for relief are to
    be inventoried by the overseer before granting any relief, and
    afterwards sold to reimburse the township, out of the proceeds,
    all expenses they have been at; all sales of which by the
    pauper, after he becomes chargeable, are void.[2]

The same rule prevails in Pennsylvania. When any person becomes
chargeable, the overseers or directors of the poor are required to
sue for and recover all his property, to be employed in defraying the
expense of his subsistence.[3]

By the laws of the same State,

    No person shall be entered on the poor-book of any district,
    or receive relief from any overseers, before such person, or
    some one in his behalf, shall have procured an order from
    two magistrates of the county for the same; and in case any
    overseer shall enter in the poor-book or relieve any such poor
    person without such order, he shall forfeit a sum equal to the
    amount or value given, unless such entry or relief shall be
    approved of by two magistrates as aforesaid. (p. 142.)

Nor is the relief always given gratuitously, or the pauper always at
liberty to accept and give it up as he may think fit; for by a recent
enactment[4] the guardians are authorized--

    To open an account with the pauper, and to charge him for his
    maintenance, and credit him the value of his services; and
    all idle persons who may be sent to the almshouse by any of
    the said guardians, may be detained in the said house by the
    board of guardians, and compelled to perform such work and
    services as the said board may order and direct, until they
    have compensated by their labour for the expenses incurred on
    their account, unless discharged by special permission of the
    board of guardians; and it shall be the duty of the said board
    of guardians to furnish such person or persons as aforesaid
    with sufficient work and employment, according to their
    physical abilities, so that the opportunity of reimbursement
    may be fully afforded: and for the more complete carrying into
    effect the provisions of this law, the said board of guardians
    are hereby authorized and empowered to exercise such authority
    as may be necessary to compel all persons within the said
    almshouse and house of employment to do and perform all such
    work, labour, and services as may be assigned to them by the
    said board of guardians, provided the same be not inconsistent
    with the condition or ability of such person.

    And whereas it frequently happens that children who have been
    receiving public support for indefinite periods are claimed by
    their parents when they arrive at a proper age for being bound
    out, the guardians are authorized to bind out all children that
    have or may receive public support, either in the almshouse
    or children’s asylum, although their parents may demand their
    discharge from the said institutions, unless the expenses
    incurred in their support be refunded.

In New York the administration of the law is even more severe than this
enactment:--

    With respect to poor children, (says Mr. Buchanan,) a system
    prevails in New York, which, though seemingly harsh and
    unfeeling, has a very powerful influence to deter families
    from resorting to the commissioners of the poor for support,
    or an asylum in the establishment for the poor; namely, that
    the commissioners or overseers apprentice out the children, and
    disperse them to distant parts of the State; and on no account
    will inform the parents where they place their children. (p.
    110.)

[2] New Jersey Revised Laws, p. 679.

[3] Act of 1819, p. 155.

[4] Act of 5th March, 1828, p. 149.



EUROPE.


It appears from the returns that a legal claim to relief exists in
Norway, Sweden, Russia, Denmark, Mecklenburg, Prussia, Wurtemberg,
Bavaria, and the Canton de Berne; but does not exist in the Hanseatic
Towns, Holland, Belgium, France, Portugal, the Sardinian States,
Frankfort, Venice, Greece, or Turkey. The return from Saxony does not
afford data from which the existence or non-existence of such a claim
can be inferred.

The great peculiarity of the system in the North of Europe is the
custom of affording relief by quartering the paupers on the landholders
in the country and on householders in the towns.



NORWAY.


Consuls Greig and Mygind, the authors of the return from Norway, state,
that the--

    Impotent through age, cripples, and others who cannot subsist
    themselves, are, in the country districts, billeted or
    quartered on such of the inhabitants (house and landholders in
    the parish) as have the means of providing for them. By them
    they are furnished with clothing and food, and they are in
    return expected to perform such light services as they can.
    In the distribution, respect is had to the extent or value of
    the different farms, and to the number of the indigent, which
    varies greatly in different parishes. In some they have so
    few poor that only one pauper falls to the lot of five or six
    farms, who then take him in rotation; whilst in other parishes
    they have a pauper quartered on every farm or estate all the
    year round, and on the larger ones several. (p. 696.)

It is to be regretted that the information respecting the existing
poor laws of Norway is not more full and precise. The return contains
two projects of law, or in other words, bills, for the relief of the
poor in the country and in towns, drawn up in 1832, in obedience to
a government commission issued in 1829; and also the arguments of the
commissioners in their support; but it does not state how far these
projects have been adopted.

In treating of the modes of relief, the bill for the country states
that,

    Section 26. The main principle to be observed everywhere in
    affording relief is to maintain “lœgd,” or the outquartering
    of the paupers, wherever it has existed or can be introduced,
    taking care to avoid the separation of families. The regulation
    of “lœgd,” where it has been once established among the farms,
    should be as durable and as little liable to alteration as
    possible; so that a fresh arrangement should be made only
    in instances where there exists a considerable decrease or
    increase in the number of the paupers quartered out, or a
    marked alteration in the condition of the occupiers upon whom
    they are so quartered. In the event of a fresh arrangement, it
    is desirable that the existing paupers hitherto provided for
    should, in as far as may be consistent with justice towards the
    parties to whom they are quartered, continue to have “lœgd”
    upon the same farm or farms where they have hitherto been
    relieved. Families not belonging to the class of peasants are
    bound to have paupers quartered upon them in “lœgd” in case
    they cultivate land; however, the overseer of the district
    is competent to grant permission to them as well as to other
    “lœgds-ydere,” to let out the “lœgd” when he finds that they
    individually are unable to provide for the pauper on their
    own lands, and the letting out can be effected without any
    considerable inconvenience to the latter. (p. 704.)

    27. When a new regulation of “lœgd” takes place, or new “lœgd”
    is established, a statement in writing of the “lœgd,” or
    outquartering intended, is to be issued by the commission,
    or by the overseer on its behalf, containing the name of the
    pauper to be outquartered, and the farm or farms on which
    he shall receive “lœgd,” and in case it is on several, the
    rotation, and for what period, on each. In case the “lœgd”
    is only to be during the winter, or during a certain part
    of the year, this likewise is to be stated. In like manner
    the houseless and others, who are provided with relief in
    kind from particular farms, are to be furnished with a note
    setting forth the quantity the individual has to demand of
    each farm, and the time at which he is entitled to demand the
    same. In default of the furnishing of these contributions in
    proper time, they are to be enforced by execution, through the
    lensmand. (p. 705.)

    5. In case the house poor, and other poor who are not quartered
    out, conduct themselves improperly, are guilty of idleness,
    drunkenness, incivility, obstinacy or quarrelsomeness, the
    overseer is entitled to give them a serious reprimand; and
    in case this is unattended with any effect, to propose in
    the poor commission the reduction of the allowance granted
    to the offender, to the lowest scale possible. Should this
    prove equally devoid of effect, or the allowance not bear any
    reduction, he may, in conjunction with the president of the
    commission, report the case, at the same time stating the names
    of the witnesses, to the sorenskriver[5], who on the next
    general or monthly sitting of the court, after a brief inquiry,
    by an unappealable sentence shall punish the guilty with
    imprisonment not exceeding 20 days, upon bread and water.

    In case of a like report from the superintendent of the “lœgd,”
    of improper conduct on the part of the pauper quartered out,
    the overseer shall give the said offending pauper a severe
    reprimand; and in case this likewise proves devoid of effect,
    the mode of proceeding to be the same as has been stated
    already in reference to the house poor.

    36. In case the person with whom a pauper has been quartered
    out do not supply adequate relief, or ill use the pauper so
    quartered upon him, and is regardless of the admonitions of
    the overseer, an appeal to the sorenskriver is to take place,
    and in other respects the mode of proceeding is to be the same
    as is enacted in s. 35: when all the conduct complained of can
    be proved, for which purpose, in default of other witnesses,
    the combined evidence of the superintendent of the “lœgd,” and
    of the overseer, is to be deemed sufficient, the offending
    party to be fined, according to his circumstances and the
    nature of the case, from 2 to 20 specie dollars, and in case of
    ill-usage, to be imprisoned on bread and water for from 5 to 10
    days; and in the event of a repetition of the offence, for from
    10 to 20 days.

    39. None may beg, but every person who is in such want that he
    cannot provide for himself and those belonging to him, shall
    apply for aid to the competent poor commission, or to the
    overseer. In case any one is guilty of begging, for the first
    offence he is to be seriously admonished by the overseer of
    the district in which he has begged, who is likewise to point
    out to him what consequences will follow a repetition of the
    offence. In case he offends afterwards, he is to be punished
    according to the enactments set forth in s. 35; and afterwards,
    in case of a repetition of the offence, with from two months’
    to a year’s confinement in the house of correction.

    A person is not to be accounted a beggar who asks only for
    food, when it appears that his want of sustenance is so great
    that unless he tried to procure immediate relief he would be
    exposed to perish of hunger, provided he immediately afterwards
    applies to the overseer of the district for relief; or in case
    the poor administration is unable to relieve all the poor in
    years of scarcity, save in a very scanty manner, and the hungry
    mendicant then confines himself to the soliciting of food. (p.
    706.)

The bill directs that the poor-fund shall consist, in the country,

1. Of the interest of legacies, and other property belonging to it.

2. An annual tax of 12 skillings (equal according to Dr. Kelly, Univ.
Cambist, vol. 1, p. 32, to 2_s._ 6_d._ sterling,) on each hunsmand or
cottager, and on each man servant, and six skillings on each woman
servant.

3. A duty on stills equal to half the duty paid to the State.

4. Penalties directed by the existing laws to be paid over to that fund.

5. The property left by paupers, if they leave no wife or children
unprovided for.

6. An annual assessment on the occupiers of land, and on all others
capable of contributing, such as men servants, clerks, tutors, and
pilots.

In towns,

Of all the above-mentioned funds, except No. 2, and of a tax of one
skilling (2½_d._ sterling) per pot on all imported fermented liquors.

We have already remarked that the report does not state how far this
bill has passed into a law, or how its enactments differ from the
existing law: they appear likely, unless counteracted by opposing
causes, to lead to considerable evils. The relief by way of lœgd
resembles in some respects our roundsman system. It is, however,
less liable to abuse in one respect, because the lœgd, being wholly
supported by the lœgd-yder, must be felt as an incumbrance by the
farmer, instead of a source of profit. On the other hand, the situation
of the country pauper cannot be much worse than that of the independent
labourer; and in towns, though this temptation to idleness and
improvidence may be avoided by giving relief in the workhouse, the
temptation to give out-door and profuse relief must be considerable,
since a large portion of the poor-fund is derived from general sources,
and only a small part from assessment to which the distributors of
relief are themselves exposed. It is probable that the excellent habits
of the population, and the great proportion of landowners, may enable
the Norwegians to support a system of relief which in this country
would soon become intolerable.

[5] Sorenskriver, an officer in the country, whose duties are chiefly
those of a registrar and judge in the lowest court.



SWEDEN.


The fullest statement of the pauperism of Sweden is to be found
in a paper by M. de Hartsmansdorff, the Secretary of State for
Ecclesiastical Affairs, (p. 368); an extract from Colonel Forsell’s
Swedish Statistics, published in 1833, (p. 375); and Replies to the
Commissioners’ Queries from Stockholm, (p. 372), and from Gottenburgh,
(p. 384.)

M. de Hartsmansdorff states that every parish is bound to support its
own poor, and that the fund for that purpose arises from voluntary
contribution, (of which legacies and endowments appear to form a large
portion,) the produce of certain fines and penalties, and rates levied
in the country in proportion to the value of estates, and in towns
on the property or income of the inhabitants. Settlement depends on
residence, and on that ground the inhabitants of a parish may prevent
a stranger from residing among them. A similar provision is considered
in the Norwegian report, and rejected, (p. 718,) but exists in almost
every country adopting the principle of parochial relief, and allowing
a settlement by residence. An appeal is given, both to the pauper and
to the parishioners, to the governor of the province, and ultimately to
the King.

M. de Hartsmansdorff’s paper is accompanied by a table, containing
the statement of the persons relieved in 1829, which states them to
have amounted to 63,348 out of a population of 2,780,132, or about
one in forty-two. This differs from Colonel Forsell’s statement, (p.
376,) that in 1825 they amounted to 544,064, or about one in five.
It is probable that Colonel Forsell includes all those who received
assistance from voluntary contributions. “In Stockholm,” he adds,
“there are 83 different boards for affording relief to the poor,
independent one of the other, so that it happens often that a beggar
receives alms at three, four, or five different places.” There is also
much discrepancy as to the nature and extent of the relief afforded to
the destitute able-bodied. We are told in the Stockholm return, (p.
372,) that no legal provision is made for them; but by the Gottenburgh
return, (pp. 384 and 386,) it appears that they are relieved by being
billeted on householders, or by money.

The following severe provisions of the law of the 19th June, 1833, seem
directed against them. By that law any person who is without property
and cannot obtain employment, or neglects to provide himself with any,
and cannot obtain sureties for the payment of his taxes, rates, and
penalties, is denominated unprotected (förswarlös). An unprotected
person is placed almost at the disposal of the police, who are to allow
him a fixed period to obtain employment, and to require him to proceed
in search of it to such places as they think fit.

    Should any person, (the law goes on to say,) who has led an
    irreproachable life, and has become unprotected, not through
    an unsteady or reprehensible conduct, but from causes which
    cannot be reasonably laid to his charge, and who has obtained
    an extension of time for procuring protection, still remains
    without yearly employment or other lawful means of support,
    and not be willing to try in other places to gain the means of
    support, or shall have transgressed the orders that may have
    been given him, and (being a male person) should not prefer to
    enlist in any regiment, or in the royal navy, or should not
    possess the requisite qualifications for that purpose, the
    person shall be sent to be employed on such public works as
    may be going on in the neighbourhood, or to a work institution
    within the county, until such time as another opportunity may
    offer for his maintenance; he shall however be at liberty,
    when the usual notice-day arrives, and until next moving-time,
    to try to obtain legal protection with any person within the
    county who may require his services, under the obligation to
    return to the public work institution in the event of his not
    succeeding. Should there be no public work to be had in the
    neighbourhood, or the person cannot, for want of necessary
    room, be admitted, he shall be sent to a public house of
    correction, and remain there, without however being mixed with
    evil-disposed persons or such as may have been punished for
    crimes, until some means may be found for him or her to obtain
    a lawful maintenance.--(p. 362.)

    Servants or other unprotected persons who have of their own
    accord relinquished their service or constant employ, and by
    means of such or other reprehensible conduct have been legally
    turned out of their employ, or who do not perform service
    with the master or mistress who has allowed such person to
    be rated and registered with them, or who, in consequence of
    circumstances which ought to be ascribed to the unprotected
    person himself, shall become deprived of their lawful means
    of support, but who may not be considered as evil-disposed
    persons, shall be bound to provide themselves with lawful
    occupations within 14 days, if it be in a town, and within
    double that number of days if it be in the country. Should the
    unprotected person not be able to accomplish this, it shall
    depend on Our lord-lieutenant how far he may deem it expedient
    to grant a further extended time, for a limited period, to a
    person thus circumstanced, in order to procure himself means
    for his subsistence.--(p. 363).

    Such persons as may either not have been considered to
    be entitled to an extension of time for procuring lawful
    maintenance, or who, notwithstanding such permission, have not
    been able to provide themselves with the same, shall be liable
    to do work, if a man, at any of the corps of pioneers in the
    kingdom, and if a woman, at a public house of correction. If
    the man is unfit for a pioneer, he shall in lieu thereof be
    sent to a public house of correction.--(p. 363.)

It appears that pauperism has increased under the existing system.
Mr. Bloomfield states that since its institution the number of poor
has increased in proportion to the population (p. 368). The Stockholm
return states that--

    The main defect of the charitable institutions consists in a
    very imperfect control over the application of their funds,
    the parish not being accountable for their distribution to any
    superior authority. This is so much felt, that new regulations
    are contemplated for bringing parish affairs more under the
    inspection of a central board. Another great evil is, that each
    parish manages its affairs quite independently of any other,
    and frequently in a totally different manner; and there is no
    mutual inspection among the parishes, which, it is supposed,
    would check abuses. Again, parishes are not consistent in
    affording relief; they often receive and treat an able-bodied
    impostor (who legally has no claim on the parish) as an
    impotent or sick person, whilst many of the latter description
    remain unaided.

    The Swedish artizan is neither so industrious nor so frugal as
    formerly; he has heard that the destitute able-bodied are in
    England supported by the parish; he claims similar relief, and
    alleges his expectation of it as an excuse for prodigality or
    indifference to saving.--(p. 375.)

    That the number of poor (says Colonel Forsell) has lately
    increased in a far greater progression than before, is indeed
    a deplorable truth. At Stockholm, in the year 1737, the number
    of poor was 930; in 1825 there were reckoned 15,000 indigent
    persons. Their support, in 1731, cost 9000 dollars (dallar). In
    1825, nearly 500,000 rix dollars banco were employed in alms,
    donations, and pensions. Perhaps these facts explain why, in
    Stockholm, every year about 1500 individuals more die than are
    born, although the climate and situation of this capital is by
    no means insalubrious; for the same may be said of almshouses
    as is said of foundling hospitals and similar charitable
    establishments, that the more their number is increased, the
    more they are applied to.

    In the little and carefully governed town of Orebro, the
    number of poor during the year 1780 was no more than 70 or 80
    individuals, and in the year 1832 it was 400! In the parish of
    Nora, in the province of Nerike, the alms given in the year
    1814 were 170 rix-dollars 4 sk.; and in 1832, 2138 rix-dollars
    27 sk.; and so on at many other places in the kingdom. That the
    case was otherwise in Sweden formerly, is proved by history.
    Botin says that a laborious life, abhorrence of idleness and
    fear of poverty, was the cause why indigent and destitute
    persons could be found, but no beggars. Each family sustained
    its destitute and impotent, and would have deemed it a shame to
    receive support from others.

    [Sidenote: The price of 8 kappar = 1½ doll., or 2_s._ 5_d._]

    When the accounts required from the secretary of state
    for ecclesiastical affairs, regarding the number of and
    institutions for the poor, shall be reduced to order, and issue
    from the press, they must impart most important information.
    By the interesting report on this subject by the Bishop of
    Wexio, we learn, that the proportion of the poor to the
    population is as 1 to 73 in the government of Wexio, and as
    1 to 54 in that of Jönköping. The assessed poor-taxes are,
    on an average, for every farm (hemman,) eight kappar corn in
    the former government, and 12½ in the latter. With regard to
    the institutions for the poor, it is said, the more we give
    the more is demanded, and instead of the poor-rates being
    regulated by the want, the want is regulated by the profusion
    of charities and poor-taxes.

    In the bishopric of Wisby (Island of Gottland), the proportion
    between the poor and those who can maintain themselves, is far
    more favourable than in that of Wexio; for in the former only 1
    in 104 inhabitants is indigent, and in 22 parishes there is no
    common almshouse at all. Among 40,000 individuals, no more than
    17 were unable to read.--(p. 377.)



RUSSIA.


A general outline of the provision for the poor in Russia, is contained
in the following extracts from Mr. Bligh’s report, (pp. 328, 329, 330).

    As far as regards those parts of the empire which may most
    properly be called Russia, it will not be necessary for me to
    detain your Lordship long, since in them (where in fact by far
    the greatest portion of the population is to be found), the
    peasantry, being in a state of slavery, the lords of the soil
    are induced more by their own interest, than compelled by law,
    to take care that its cultivators, upon whom their means of
    deriving advantage from their estates depend, are not entirely
    without the means of subsistence.

    Consequently, in cases of scarcity, the landed proprietors
    frequently feel themselves under the necessity (in order to
    prevent their estates from being depopulated) of expending
    large sums, for the purpose of supplying their serfs with
    provisions from more favoured districts. There is no doubt,
    however, (of which they must be well aware) that in case
    of their forgetting so far the dictates of humanity and of
    self-interest, as to refuse this assistance to the suffering
    peasantry, the strong hand of a despotic government would
    compel them to afford it.

    The only cases, therefore, of real misery, which are likely to
    arise, are, when soldiers, who having outlived their 25 years’
    service, and all the hardships of a Russian military life,
    fail in getting employment from the government as watchmen in
    the towns, or in other subordinate situations, and returning
    to their villages, find themselves unsuited by long disuse to
    agricultural pursuits, disowned by the landed proprietors, from
    whom their military service has emancipated them, and by their
    relations and former acquaintances, who have forgotten them.

    I am led to understand, that in all well-regulated properties,
    in order to provide for the contingencies of bad seasons, the
    peasants are obliged to bring, to a magazine established by the
    proprietor, a certain portion of their crops, to which they may
    have recourse in case of need.

    In the estates belonging to the government, which are already
    enormous, and which are every day increasing, in consequence of
    the constant foreclosing of the mortgages by which so many of
    the nobility held their estates under the crown, more special
    enactments are in vigour; inasmuch as in them, all serfs
    incapable of work are supported by their relations, and those
    whose relations are too poor to afford them assistance, are
    taken into what may be termed poor-houses, which are huts, one
    for males, the other for females, built in the neighbourhood of
    the church, at the expense of the section or parish, which is
    also bound to furnish the inmates with fuel, food, and clothing.

    The parish must, moreover, establish hospitals for the sick,
    for the support of which, besides boxes for receiving alms, at
    the church and in the hospitals themselves, all fines levied in
    the parish are to be applied.

    The clergy are compelled to provide for the poor of their
    class, according to an ordonnance, regulating the revenues set
    apart for this object, and enacting rules for the distribution
    of private bequests and charities.

    In _Courland_, _Esthonia_, and _Livonia_, the parish (or
    community) are bound to provide for the destitute to the utmost
    of their means, which means are to be derived from the common
    funds; from bequests, or from any charitable or poor fund which
    may exist; and in Esthonia, from the reserve magazines of
    corn, which, more regularly than in Russia, are kept full by
    contributions from every peasant.

    When those are inadequate, a levy is made on the community,
    which is fixed by the elders and confirmed by the district
    authorities; and when this rate is levied, the landowners or
    farmers contribute in proportion to the cultivation and works
    they carry on, or to the amount of rent they pay; and the
    labourers according to the wages they receive.

    The overseers consist of the elder of the village, (who is
    annually elected by the peasantry) and two assistants, one of
    whom is chosen from the class of landholders or farmers, and
    the other from the labourers, and who are confirmed by the
    district police. One of these assistants has to give quarterly
    detailed accounts to the district authorities, and the elder,
    on quitting office, renders a full account to the community.

    Those who will not work voluntarily may be delivered over to
    any individual, and compelled to work for their own support, at
    the discretion of the elder and his assistants.

    Those poor who are found absent from home, are placed in the
    hands of the police, and transferred to their own parishes.

    All public begging is forbid by very strict regulations.

    In the external districts of the _Siberian Kirghese_, which
    are for the most part peopled by wandering tribes, the
    authorities are bound to prevent, by every means in their
    power, any individual of the people committed to their charge
    from suffering want, or remaining without superintendence or
    assistance, in case of their being in distress.

    All the charitable offerings of the Kirghese are received by
    the district authorities, and as they consist for the most
    part of cattle, they are employed, as far as necessary, for
    the service of the charitable institutions; the surplus is
    sold, and the proceeds, together with any donations in money,
    go towards the support of those establishments; when voluntary
    contributions are not sufficient for that purpose, the district
    authorities give in an estimate of the quantity of cattle of
    all sorts required to make up the deficiency, and according
    to their estimate, when confirmed by the general government,
    the number of cattle required in each place is sent from the
    general annual levy made for the service of the government.

    In the _Polish Provinces_ incorporated with the empire, as the
    state of the population is similar to that of Russia Proper,
    the proprietors in like manner, in cases of need, supply
    their peasantry with the means of existence; under ordinary
    circumstances, however, the portions of land allotted to them
    for cultivation, which afford them not only subsistence, but
    the means of paying a fixed annual sum to their lords, and the
    permission which is granted to them of cutting wood in the
    forests for building and fuel, obviate the necessity of their
    receiving this aid.

    The same system existed in the _Duchy of Warsaw_ prior to 1806,
    and every beggar and vagabond was then sent to the place of his
    birth, where, as there was not a sufficiency of hands for the
    cultivation of the soil, he was sure to find employment, or to
    be taken care of by his master, whilst there were enough public
    establishments for charity to support the poor in the towns
    belonging to the government, and those, who by age, sickness,
    or natural deformities, were unable to work.

    But when the establishment of a regular code proclaimed all
    the inhabitants of that part of _Poland_ equal in the eye of
    the law, the relations of the proprietor and the peasant were
    entirely changed; and the former having no power of detaining
    the latter upon his lands, except for debt legally recognised,
    was no longer obliged to support them.

    So great and sudden a change in the social state of the country
    soon caused great embarrassment to the government, who being
    apprehensive of again altering a system which involved the
    interests of the landed proprietors, the only influential class
    in the country, for a long time eluded the consideration of
    the question, by augmenting the charitable institutions; but
    at length the progressive expense of this system compelled the
    Minister of Finance to refuse all further aid to uphold it,
    and by an arbitrary enactment, recourse was had to the former
    plan of passing the poor to the places of their birth. As this
    arrangement is only considered as provisional, and as the
    population has not hitherto more than sufficed for the purpose
    of agriculture, and the manufactories which were established
    prior to the late insurrection, it has not been much complained
    of, though the necessity for some more precise and positive
    regulations respecting the poor is generally acknowledged.

    In _Finland_, there are no laws in force for the support of the
    indigent, nor any charitable establishments, except in some of
    the towns. In the country districts it is expected that reserve
    magazines of corn should be kept in every parish, but I cannot
    ascertain that the adoption of this precautionary measure is
    imperative upon the landed proprietors and peasantry.

On comparing, however, Mr. Bligh’s statement as to the law in Courland
with that made by M. Kienitz His Majesty’s Consul, it does not seem
that the provision afforded by law is often enforced, excepting as
to the support of infirmaries. It appears from his report that the
government provides expeditiously for vagrants by enrolling them as
soldiers or setting them on the public works; and that the proportion
of the population to the means of subsistence is so small, and the
demand for labour so great, that scarcely any other able-bodied paupers
are to be found.



DENMARK.


The information respecting Denmark is more complete and derived from
more sources than any other return contained in this volume.

The Danish poor law is recent. It appears (p. 278) to have originated
in 1798, and to have assumed its present form in 1803. The following
statement of its principal provisions is principally extracted from Mr.
Macgregor’s report (pp. 280, 283, 284-7, 288, 273-285, 289, 290).

    [Sidenote: Poor districts.]

    Each _market town_, or kiöbstœd, (of which there are 65 in
    Denmark,) constitutes a separate poor district, in which are
    also included those inhabitants of the adjacent country who
    belong to the parish of that town. In the _country_, each
    parish forms a poor district.

    The poor laws are administered in the _market towns_ by a board
    of commissioners, consisting of the curate, of one of the
    magistrates (if any), of the provost (byefoged) in his quality
    of policemaster, and of two or more of the most respectable
    inhabitants of the place.

    In the _country_ this is done in each district by a similar
    board, of which the curate, the policemaster, besides one
    of the principal landholders, and three to four respectable
    inhabitants, are members, which latter are nominated for a term
    of three years.

    All persons are to be considered as destitute and entitled to
    relief, who are unable, with their own labour, to earn the
    means of subsistence, and thus, without the help of others,
    would be deprived of the absolute necessaries of life.

    [Sidenote: Classification of paupers.]

    The poor to whom parochial relief may be awarded, are
    divided into three classes. To the _first class_ belong the
    aged and the sick, and all those who from bodily or mental
    infirmity are wholly or partially debarred from earning the
    means of subsistence. In the _second class_ are included
    orphans, foundlings, and deserted children, as well as
    those, the health, resources, or morals of whose parents are
    of a description which would render it improper to confide
    the education of children to their care. The _third class_
    comprises families or single persons, who from constitutional
    weakness, a numerous offspring, the approach of old age or
    similar causes, are unable to earn a sufficiency for the
    support of themselves or children.

    [Sidenote: Relief to first class.]

    Paupers of the first class who are destitute of other support,
    are to be supplied by the proper parish officers:

    (_a_) With food (or in market towns where the necessary
    establishments for that purpose are wanting, with money in
    lieu thereof); to which, in the agricultural districts, the
    inhabitants have to contribute, according to the orders issued
    by the commissioners, either in bread, flour, pease, groats,
    malt, bacon, butter or cheese, or in corn, or in money,
    or by rations, or in any other manner, which, from local
    circumstances, may be deemed most expedient:

    (_b_) With the necessary articles of clothing:

    (_c_) With lodging and fuel, either by placing them in
    establishments belonging to the parish, or in private dwellings:

    (_d_) With medical attendance, either at their own dwellings,
    or in places owned or rented by the parish.

    [Sidenote: To second.]

    The children belonging to the second class are to be placed
    with a private family, to be there brought up and educated at
    the expense of the parish, until they can be apprenticed or
    provided for in any other manner.

    The commissioners are carefully to watch over the treatment
    and education of the children by their foster-parents, and
    that such of them as have been put out to service are properly
    brought up and instructed until they are confirmed.

    [Sidenote: To third.]

    The paupers of the third class are to be so relieved that
    they may not want the absolute necessaries of life; but
    avoiding mendicity on the one hand, they must at the same
    time be compelled to work to the best of their abilities
    for their maintenance. To render the relief of paupers of
    this description more effectual, care must be taken that,
    if possible, work be procured for them at the usual rate of
    wages; and where the amount does not prove sufficient for their
    support they may be otherwise assisted, but in general not with
    money, but with articles of food and clothing, to be supplied
    them at the expense of the parish.

    In cases where families are left houseless, the commissioners
    are authorized to procure them a habitation, by becoming
    security for the rent; and where such habitation is not to be
    obtained for them, they may be quartered upon the householders
    in rotation, until a dwelling can be found in some other place.

    Should the rent not be paid by the parties when due, such
    persons must be considered as paupers, and be removed to that
    district where they may be found to have a settlement. The
    house-rent thus disbursed must in this case be looked upon as
    temporary relief, and be borne by the parish that advanced
    it. Where parish-officers refuse to obey these injunctions,
    they may be compelled by a fine, to be levied daily until they
    comply.

    [Sidenote: Liabilities of pauper.]

    The Danish law has established the principle, that every
    individual receiving relief of any kind under the poor-laws, is
    bound, either with his property or his labour, to refund the
    amount so disbursed for him, or any part thereof; and authority
    has therefore been given to the poor-law commissioners, “to
    require all those whom it may concern, to work to the best of
    their ability, until all they owe has been paid off.”

    On relief being awarded to a pauper, the commissioners of
    the district have forthwith to take an inventory of, and to
    appraise, his effects, which are only to be delivered over to
    him for his use, after having been marked with the stamp of the
    board.

    Any person receiving goods or effects so marked, either by way
    of purchase or in pledge, shall be liable to the restitution
    of the property, to the payment of its value, and besides to a
    fine.

    The same right is retained by the parish upon the pauper, if he
    should happen to acquire property at a later period, as well as
    it extends to his effects at his demise, though he should not
    have received relief at the time of his death.

    An ordinance of the 13th of August, 1814, expressly enacts,
    that wherever a person absolutely refuses either to refund or
    to pay by instalments the debt he has so contracted with the
    parish, he shall be forced to pay it off by working for the
    benefit of the same, and not be allowed to leave the parish;
    but that if he do so notwithstanding, he is to be punished by
    imprisonment in the house of correction. The commissioners are
    further authorized to stipulate the amount such individual is
    to pay off per week, in proportion to his capability to work,
    to the actual rate of wages and other concurring circumstances,
    and that where such person either refuses to work, or is idle
    or negligent during the working hours, he is to be imprisoned
    on bread and water until he reform his conduct.

    [Sidenote: Begging.]

    The poor having thus been provided for, begging is prohibited,
    and declared to be liable to punishment.

    In adjudging punishment for begging, it is to be taken into
    consideration whether the mendicant was in need of support or
    not. In the first case he shall, the first time, be imprisoned
    fourteen days; the second time, four weeks; and the third time,
    work for a year in the house of correction. For every time the
    offence is committed, the punishment to be doubled. But if the
    mendicant is able to work, and thus not entitled to support
    from the parish, he shall, the first time, be imprisoned four
    weeks; the second time, eight weeks; and the third time, work
    for two years in the house of correction, which last punishment
    is to be doubled for every time the offence is committed. When
    the term of punishment is expired, the beggar is to be sent
    to his home under inspection, and his travelling expenses by
    land in every parish through which he passes to be paid by the
    poor-chest of the bailiwick in which the parish lies; but his
    conveyance by water to be paid by the parish bound to receive
    him.

    [Sidenote: Duty of the poor to seek service.]

    In the market-towns, all persons belonging to the working
    classes are obliged to enter into fixed service, unless they
    have some ostensible means of subsistence, which must be proved
    to the satisfaction of the magistrates, if required.

    In the agricultural districts, every person belonging to the
    class of peasants, who is not a proprietor or occupier of land,
    a tacksman (_boelsmand_), or cottager (_huusmand_), or subsists
    upon some trade or profession, is to seek fixed service, unless
    he be married and permanently employed as a day-labourer.

    Where a single person of either sex belonging to the labouring
    class is not able to obtain a place, he (or she) shall within
    two months before the regular term when regular servants are
    changed (Skiftetid) apply to the parish-beadle, who, on the
    Sunday following at church-meeting, is publicly to offer the
    services of his client, and inquire amongst the community if
    any person is in want of a servant, and will receive him (or
    her) as such. Should the said person not get a place within a
    fortnight, a similar inquiry is to be made in the neighbouring
    parish.

    _All those that have not followed the line of conduct pointed
    out in the preceding regulation, and are without steady
    employment, shall be considered as vagrants, and punished
    accordingly._

    It is also provided, that where parents, without sufficient
    reason, keep more grown up children at home than they
    absolutely require for their service, it shall be considered
    indicative, either of their being in comparatively good
    circumstances, or that their income has been improved by
    the additional labour of their children, and their poor and
    school-rates are to be raised in proportion.

    [Sidenote: Mode of raising fund.]

    It is not only made obligatory upon the house and landowners
    to contribute to the parochial fund, but also upon servants
    and labouring mechanics; in short, upon all persons, without
    distinction of religion, who are not on the parish themselves,
    and whose circumstances are such that they can afford to pay
    the contribution in proportion to their incomes, without
    thereby depriving themselves of the necessaries of life.

    The only exception are the military, and persons receiving pay
    from the military fund, who are only liable to contribute in so
    far as they have private means.

    The receipts of the parochial fund are derived from various
    sources, which may be classed under the following heads, viz.--

    [Sidenote: 1. Parochial fund.]

    1ᵒ. An annual contribution in money, either voluntary or levied
    upon the inhabitants, according to the assessment of the board
    of commissioners in each parish, and in proportion to the
    amount annually required for the relief of the poor.

    This contribution is recovered in four quarterly instalments,
    each of which is payable in advance. The commissioners have to
    transmit a list of those persons that are in arrears to the
    bailiff of the division, who may levy the amount by distress.

    2ᵒ. A contribution assessed upon the produce of the ground-tax
    in the townships.

    3ᵒ. One-quarter per cent. of the proceeds of goods and effects
    sold by public auction in the townships.

    4ᵒ. Fines and penalties adjudged to the parochial fund by the
    courts of justice, and the commissioners of arbitration in the
    townships.

    5ᵒ. Produce of collections in churches and hospitals on certain
    occasions; of the sale of the effects of paupers deceased; of
    the sale of stray cattle having no owner; voluntary donations
    on the purchase or sale of houses and lands; contingencies.

    6ᵒ. Interest on capital, and rent of lands or houses bequeathed
    to, or otherwise acquired by, the poor administration.

    [Sidenote: 2. Bailiwick fund.]

    The receipts of the separate poor fund of the bailiwick consist
    chiefly,--1ᵒ. In a proportion of certain dues levied in each
    of its jurisdictions; 2ᵒ. In fines and penalties adjudged to
    the fund by the tribunals and the commissions of arbitration in
    the agricultural districts; 3ᵒ. In ¼% of all goods and effects
    sold by public auction in the country; 4ᵒ. In the interest on
    capital belonging to the fund.

    This fund has been established for the following purposes:--1ᵒ.
    Of contributing to the support of paupers who, although not
    properly belonging to the poor of the district in which
    they have become distressed, must still be relieved; 2ᵒ. Of
    assisting the parochial fund in extraordinary cases; 3ᵒ. Of
    defraying all expenses of a general nature that ought to be
    assessed upon the several parish funds within the jurisdiction
    of the bailiwick.

[Sidenote: Effects of these institutions.]

With respect to the effects of these institutions the evidence is not
consistent. Mr. Macgregor’s opinion is, on the whole, favourable.

    Be the management (he says) of the poor-laws good or bad, yet
    the system itself seems to have answered an important object,
    that of checking the rapid growth of pauperism. I admit that
    paupers have increased in Denmark these last thirty years, in
    the same proportion with the increase of population (_pari
    passu_); but I am far from believing that the proportion which
    they bear to the whole population is _much_ greater now than
    it was in 1803, namely, 1:32, although some of the townships,
    from particular circumstances, may form an exception. I have
    diligently perused all the different reports that have been
    published for the last five years upon the present state of the
    rural economy of the country, and they all concur in stating
    that there is a slight improvement in the value of land; that
    idle people are seldom found; and that there is sufficient work
    in which to employ the labouring population.--(p. 291.)

    Pauperism is chiefly confined (especially in the country) to
    the class of day-labourers, both mechanic and agricultural,
    who, when aged and decrepit, or burdened with large families,
    throw themselves upon parish relief whenever they are
    distressed from sickness or from some other casualty. But
    happily the allowance-system, which is productive of so much
    mischief, is not acted upon here to the same enormous extent as
    in England, and as the able-bodied can expect nothing beyond
    the _absolute_ necessaries of life, they have no inducement for
    remaining idle, and they return to work the moment they are
    able, and have the chance of obtaining any. Relief, therefore,
    or the expectation of it, has hitherto not been found to
    produce any sensible effect upon the _industry_ of labourers
    generally, nor upon their _frugality_, although it is more than
    probable that any relaxation in the management of the system
    would stimulate them to spend all their earnings in present
    enjoyment, and render them still more improvident than they
    already are. Nor are the poor-laws instrumental in promoting
    early marriages among the peasants; but it being their custom
    to form engagements at a very early period of life, this, in
    the absence of all moral restraint in the intercourse between
    the two sexes, leads to another serious evil, _bastardy_,
    which has so much increased of late years, that out of _ten_
    children, _one_ is illegitimate.

    A pauper in this kingdom lives in a state of degradation and
    dependence; he only receives what is absolutely necessary for
    his subsistence, and must often have recourse to fraud and
    imposition to obtain that, what is reluctantly given.

    The working labourer, on the other hand, enjoys a certain
    degree of freedom and independence, although his means may
    be small, and that sometimes he may even be subject to great
    privations.

    Should it ever so happen that the labouring population readily
    submit to all the restrictions imposed upon them by the
    parish officers, and that this is found not to be owing to
    any transitory causes, such as a single year of distress or
    sickness, _then_, in my humble opinion, the time is arrived
    and no other remedy left to correct the evil than for the
    government to promote emigration. (p. 292.)

Mr. Thaloman states that,

    Hitherto these institutions have had a salutary and beneficial
    effect on the nation, inasmuch as many thousand individuals
    have been prevented from strolling about as beggars, and many
    thousand children have received a good education, and have
    grown up to be useful and orderly citizens. Neither as yet have
    any remarkable symptoms of dissatisfaction appeared among the
    wealthier classes. But we cannot be without some apprehension
    for the future, since the poor-rates have been augmented to
    such a degree that it would be very difficult to collect larger
    contributions than those now paid. And as sufficient attention
    has not been paid to this circumstance, that the farmers are
    continually building small cottages, in which poor people
    establish themselves, since the government have been unwilling
    to throw any restraint on marriages between poor persons; there
    seems reason to fear, that in the lapse of another period of
    twenty years, the poor in many districts will to such a degree
    have multiplied their numbers, that the present system will
    yield no adequate means for their support.

    In the towns much embarrassment is already felt, the poor
    having increased in them to a much greater extent than in the
    country.

    All the taxes of a considerable merchant of Dram in Norway, who
    owns eight trading vessels actually employed, amounted during
    last year to not more than the school and poor-rates of one
    large farm in the heath district which you visited last year.
    (p. 279.)

M. N. N., a correspondent of Mr. Browne’s, and the author of a very
detailed account of the existing law, after stating that,

    Benevolent as the Danish poor system will appear, it is
    generally objected to it that the too great facility of gaining
    admittance, particularly to the third class, encourages sloth
    and indolence, especially in the country, where the means
    are wanted to establish workhouses, the only sure way of
    controlling those supported:

And that,

    It is further objected to the present system, that it already
    begins to fall too heavy on the contributors, and that in
    course of time, with the constant increase of population, it
    will go on to press still more severely on them, inasmuch as
    their number and means do not by any means increase in a ratio
    equal to the augmentation of the number wanting support: (p.
    274.)

Adds, in answer to more specific inquiries,

    Before the introduction of the present poor law system, the
    distress was much greater, and begging of the most rapacious
    and importunate kind was quite common in the country. This was
    not only a heavy burthen on the peasantry, but was in other
    respects the cause of intolerable annoyance to them; for the
    beggars, when their demands were not satisfied, had recourse to
    insolence and threats, nay, even to acts of criminal vengeance.
    This is no longer the case, and _in so far_, therefore, the
    present system has been beneficial.

    It is a fact that poverty now appears in less striking features
    than it did before the introduction of the poor law system.
    This may, however, proceed from causes with which that system
    has no connexion; for example, from the increased wealth of
    the country in general, from improvements in agriculture, from
    the large additions made to the quantity of arable land, which
    have been in a ratio greatly exceeding that of the increased
    population. If the clergyman, who is, and will always be the
    leading member of the poor committee, was able to combine
    with his other heavy duties, a faithful observance of the
    rules prescribed for him in the management of the poor, I am
    of opinion that the system would neither be a tax on industry
    nor a premium on indolence. But it rarely happens that the
    clergyman can bestow the requisite attention on the discharge
    of this part of his duty; and therefore it is not to be denied
    that the present poor law (not from any defect inherent in the
    system, but merely from faulty management) does occasionally
    act as a tax on industry and a premium on idleness. (p. 275.)

On the other hand, Mr. Browne thus replies to the questions as to the
effects of the poor laws on the, 1. industry, 2. frugality, 3. period of
marriage, and 4. social affections of the labouring classes, and on the
comparative condition of the pauper and the independent labourer. (pp.
266, 267.)

    1. On the industry of the labourers?--On their industry, most
    injurious, involving the levelling principle to a very great
    degree, lowering the middleman to the poor man, and the poor
    man who labours to the pauper supported by the parish. It tends
    to harden the heart of the poor man, who demands with all that
    authority with which the legal right to provision invests him.
    There is no thankfulness for what is gotten, and what is given
    is afforded with dislike and reluctance.

    2. On their frugality?--The poor laws greatly weaken the frugal
    principle.

    3. On the age at which they marry?--Encourage early and
    thoughtless marriages. The children are brought up with the
    example of indolence and inactivity before their eyes, which
    must be most prejudicial in after-life. I have often remarked
    amongst the people, who are naturally soft, susceptible and
    sympathizing, an extraordinary insensibility towards those who
    voluntarily relieve them, even at the moment of relief, and
    no gratitude whatever afterwards. I can attribute this most
    undesirable state of feeling, so contrary to what might be
    expected from the natural character of the people, solely to
    the perpetual association of right to relief. Thus does the
    system always disturb and often destroy the moral and kindly
    relation which should subsist and which is natural, between
    the higher and lower orders. The poor man becomes stiff and
    sturdy; the rich man indifferent to the wants and sufferings
    of the poor one. He feels him a continual pressure, at moments
    inconvenient to relieve, and under circumstances where he
    would often withhold if he could, partly from dislike to the
    compulsory principle, and often not regarding the case as one
    of real charity, and disapproving, as he naturally may, of the
    whole system of poor laws’ administration. From all I have
    observed, I feel persuaded (and I have lived a good deal in the
    country, having had much connexion with the lower orders, and
    not having been indifferent to their condition either moral or
    physical) that a more mischievous system could not have been
    devised--that poverty has been greatly increased by weakening
    the springs of individual effort, and destroying independence
    of character--that the lower orders have become tricky, sturdy
    and unobliging, the higher orders cold and uncharitable; and in
    short, that ere long, unless some strenuous steps are taken,
    Denmark will drink deep of the bitter cup of which England, by
    a similar system, has been so long drinking to her grievous
    cost. Were there no other objection, the machinery is wanting
    to conduct so delicate and complicated a system. And were it
    the best possible, and had the managers no other occupation
    but the one, the ingenuity of idleness to escape from action
    is so great, that it would often, very often, defeat eyes less
    actively open to detect it. I have spoken with few who do not
    object to the system from first to last, or who do not press an
    opinion that the state of the population before the existence
    of the poor laws was more desirable by far than at present.

    4. On the mutual dependence and affection of parent, children,
    and other relatives?--No doubt it materially disturbs the
    natural dependence and affection of parent and child. The
    latter feels his parent comparatively needless to him; he
    obtains support elsewhere; and the former feels the obligation
    to support the latter greatly diminished. In short, being
    comparatively independent of each other, the affections must
    inevitably become blunted.

    5. What, on the whole, is the condition of the able-bodied
    and self-supporting labourer of the lowest class, as compared
    with the condition of the person subsisting on alms or public
    charity; is the condition of the latter, as to food and freedom
    from labour, more or less eligible?--Were I a Danish labourer,
    I would endeavour to live partly on my own labour, and partly
    on the parish, and I feel persuaded that a labourer so living
    in Denmark will be better off than one who gets no help from
    the parish; that is, the former, from a knowledge that he may
    fall back on the parish, will spend all he earns at the time on
    coffee, spirits, tobacco, snuff, &c., whereas the latter, who
    certainly can live on his industry (except under extraordinary
    and occasional emergencies, sickness, &c.) is debarred from
    such gratifications. Under such circumstances, the _poorer_
    labourer is better off than the _poor_ one.

And his views are supported by the following observations of Count
Holstein:

    1st. The dread of poverty is diminished, and he who is
    half-poor works less instead of more, so that he speedily
    becomes a complete pauper. Those who are young and capable
    of labour are less economical, always having the poor rate
    in view, as a resource against want; likewise marriages are
    contracted with much less forethought, or consideration as to
    consequences.

    2d. The morality of the poor man suffers, for he looks upon
    his provision as a right, for which he, therefore, need not
    be thankful; and, 3d, the morality of the rich man suffers,
    for the natural moral relation between him and the poor man
    has become completely severed; there is no place left for
    the exercise of his benevolence; being obliged to give, he
    does it with reluctance, and thus is the highest principle of
    charitable action, Christian love, exposed to great danger of
    destruction.

    4th. As the clergyman of the parish is the president of the
    poor committee, he becomes involved in transactions peculiarly
    unsuited to his sacred calling, sometimes even compelled
    to resort to the extremity of distraint to compel his own
    parishioners to pay the allotted proportions; and thus does the
    moral influence of him, who should be a picture of the God of
    love, become every day less and less powerful. (p. 276.)

We have entered into this full statement of the Danish poor laws,
and of their administration, because they exhibit the most extensive
experiment that has as yet been made in any considerable portion of the
Continent of a system in many respects resembling our own.



MECKLENBURG.


The following passage, at the conclusion of M. Meyen’s report, gives a
short summary of the poor laws of Mecklenburg: (p. 424.)

    Every inhabitant is obliged to pay certain poor rates, with
    the exception of military men, up to a certain rank, students,
    clerks in counting-houses and shops, assistant artisans and
    servants.

    When the crown lands are let, there is always a clause in the
    contract, to regulate what the farmer, the dairy farmer, the
    smith and the shepherd, are to give. A day labourer pays 8_d._
    yearly.

    The inhabitants of higher situation and public officers pay
    voluntarily. They ought to pay one per cent. of their income.
    If any one pays too little, the overseers of the poor rates
    can oblige him to pay more. The overseers are chosen by the
    inhabitants of the district.

    In the towns all inhabitants pay a voluntary subscription; it
    ought to be one per cent. of their income. If they pay too
    little, the overseers can demand more. The overseers are chosen
    by the magistrate.

    With respect to estates belonging to private individuals, the
    subsistence of the poor falls entirely to the charge of the
    proprietor, who is entitled to levy a trifling tax from all
    the inhabitants of the estate, equal to a simple contribution
    amounting to 8_d._ for a day labourer per annum, and 4_d._ for
    a maid servant. Few proprietors, however, levy such a tax.

    Every one has a legal claim to assistance, and there are to be
    distinguished,

    1st. Able-bodied persons. Work and a dwelling _must_ be
    provided for them; the former at the usual rate, in order not
    to render them quite destitute, if through chicane work should
    be denied to them.

    2d. People, impotent through age, must perform such work as
    they are capable of, and so much must be given to them that
    they can live upon it, besides a dwelling and fuel.



PRUSSIA.


There is some difficulty in reconciling Mr. Abercrombie’s report and
Mr. Gibsone’s. The following is Mr. Abercrombie’s statement: (pp. 425,
426.)

    Throughout the whole kingdom of Prussia, the funds for the
    maintenance and support of the poor are raised from private
    charity. No law exists enabling either the government of the
    country, or the subordinate provincial regencies, to raise
    funds explicitly appropriated for the provision of the poor,
    and it is only when private charity does not suffice for the
    exigencies of the moment, that the government, or the regency,
    advance money for that purpose. But to enable them to do so,
    the amount must be taken from those funds which had been
    destined for other purposes, such as, for improvements in
    paving, lighting, or for the public buildings of a town, or for
    the construction of roads, or other public works.

    In Prussia, each town, and each commune, is obliged to take
    charge of the poor that may happen to reside within them; and
    consequently there is no passing from one parish to another, or
    refusal to maintain an individual because he belongs to another
    parish.

    In each town there is a deputation (called armen-direction)
    or society for the poor, who undertake the collection and
    distribution of funds raised by charity. In small towns, of
    under 3,500 inhabitants, exclusive of military, this society is
    composed of the burgomaster, together with the town deputies
    (forming the town senate) and burghers chosen from the various
    quarters of the town.

    In large and middle-sized towns, including from 3,500 to 10,000
    inhabitants, exclusive of military, to the afore-mentioned
    individuals is always added the syndic (or town accomptant),
    and if necessary, another magistrate. Clergymen and doctors
    are likewise included in the society; and where the police of
    the place has a separate jurisdiction from the magistrate, the
    president of the police has always a seat as a member of the
    society.

    Under this armen-direction the care of the poor is confided
    to different sub-committees formed of the burghers, and for
    this purpose the town is divided into poor districts (or
    armenbezirke). In small and middle-sized towns, these districts
    are again divided into sub-districts, containing not above
    1,000, or less than 400 souls. In large towns the sub-districts
    are to comprise not above 1,500, or less than 1,000 souls; and
    in these last towns several sub-districts may, if requisite, be
    united into one poor district or armenbezirke.

    From each armenbezirke must be elected one or more of the
    town deputies, or burghers, according to necessity, for the
    management of the affairs of the poor; and it is also required
    that at least one of those elected should be a member of
    the society for the poor (or armen-direction), and these
    individuals are required to find out and verify the condition
    of the poor of their own district.

    The direction of the affairs of the poor is therefore, as thus
    established, confided entirely to the burghers of the town,
    and the provision of the funds rests upon the charity and
    benevolence of the inhabitants.

    As regards hospitals and public charities, one or more of the
    members of the armen-direction undertake to watch that the
    funds are expended according to the provisions made by the
    founders.

    In the villages, the direction of the funds for the poor is
    confided to the mayor (or schûltze), assisted by individuals
    chosen for that purpose from amongst the principal inhabitants
    of the commune.

    This body is accountable to the councillor of the district (or
    land rath), who is in like manner under the jurisdiction of the
    provincial regency, and the whole is under the inspection of
    the 1st section of the home department.

    I have now specified the authorities who control the
    maintenance for the poor, and who are likewise charged with the
    care of administering to their wants.

    _As regards the manner of obtaining the necessary funds,
    everything is done by donations and private charity. Each house
    proprietor, each inhabitant of a floor or apartment, is in his
    turn visited by some of the members of the sub-committee of
    the armenbezirke, who, in return for the donation, deliver a
    receipt for the amount._

    _The donations from residents are generally monthly, and vary
    in amount according to the number of individuals in the family,
    or to the feelings of generosity of the donor. No rate or
    calculated fixed table exists, regulating the sum to be given
    by each individual or head of a family._

    Each town being governed by its own particular laws and customs
    with regard to the management of its poor, and each from
    accidental circumstances differing from its neighbour, it is
    impossible to particularize any other general principle that
    is followed, than the establishments of the armen-direction,
    and of the sub-committees; which detailed information I have
    extracted as above from the Städte Ordnüng, or town laws, as
    revised in 1831.

    As regards the practical working of this system, I have no
    hesitation in affirming, that it is found universally to
    succeed; that the effect upon the comfort, character, and
    condition of the inhabitants, is, first, to afford speedy and
    sufficient means of relief when necessary; that it prevents
    in a great degree false applications, inasmuch as that the
    districts being small, the really needy are more easily
    discovered; and secondly, that as no tax is fixed for the
    maintenance of the poor, it renders all classes more willing
    and anxious to assist, according to their respective means, in
    sustaining the funds required for the support of the poor. (p.
    426.)

On the other hand, the following is the statement of Mr. Gibsone: (pp.
460, 461, 463, 464.)

    In general it is the duty of the police authority in every
    community, where any person in distress may come, to render him
    the needful assistance for the moment, which must be repaid,

    _a_) by the provincial pauper fund, if the person be a
    foreigner, or have no domicile; or,

    _b_) by the community, or owner of the estate (called the
    dominium), he belongs to, if a native of the country.

    _Destitute Able-bodied._

    Every pretended needy person is duly examined by a medical
    man, whether he be bodily and mentally able to maintain
    himself (it is the same with families) by work, and in this
    case he is required by the police to do so, and to conduct
    himself properly. Any one who does not, is sent to the
    poor-and-workhouse (the work is compulsive) of the province,
    where he is taught to earn a livelihood. If the distress be
    temporary, the proprietor of the estate (called the dominium),
    or the community in which the indigent person has acquired
    a settlement, is bound to afford the requisite relief; yet
    having the right to claim restitution, upon the assisted person
    becoming able to make it. When this is not the case, and the
    relief has been afforded by a community, the members of it must
    bear the expense, if in a town, out of its general funds; if
    in the country, in the proportions they pay the land-tax to
    the king, called war-contribution. The support is rendered in
    giving a dwelling, (with a garden, if in the country), fuel,
    salt, money, &c., wholly or partly, sometimes by boarding the
    pauper, according to the necessity of the case.

    There is in every province a poor-and-workhouse (the work
    compulsive), for receiving the following persons:

    _a_) such as have indeed a fixed place of abode in the country,
    yet seek their livelihood by begging, although able to work;

    _b_) actual paupers, who receive a fixed maintenance or
    aid from communities, benevolent institutions, &c., yet,
    notwithstanding, wander about the country begging;

    _c_) invalid soldiers, found begging, as every soldier who has
    been rendered invalid in war enjoys a pension from the state (a
    very small one);

    _d_) travelling handicraftsmen, as none are permitted to travel
    in their profession who have not the means of subsistence, or
    are above 30 years old;

    _e_) foreign vagabonds, until they can be transported over the
    borders;

    _f_) those who have been punished for crime, in the fortress
    or house of correction, and after expiration of their term of
    punishment, are unable to show how they can earn an honest
    livelihood;

    _g_) such as by particular sentences are, or by future laws may
    be, declared subjects for the compulsive workhouse.

    It is left to every proprietor of an estate (called the
    dominium), to every town and village community, to provide and
    select, at their option, a livelihood for those individuals,
    having a settlement under their jurisdiction, who cannot
    procure such for themselves. _Should a proprietor of an estate,
    or a community, not fulfil this obligation, it is compelled to
    do so, but which seldom is necessary._

    It is to be observed, that when, from bad crops, inundations,
    &c., a general scarcity occurs in particular parts of the
    country, works of public utility, such as turnpike-roads,
    drains, and the like, are ordered by government, in order to
    afford the inhabitants the means of subsistence, which work is
    paid for with money, grain, salt, or other articles, as most
    suitable, according to circumstances.

    _No person, able-bodied or capable of earning a livelihood, has
    a legal claim for support, but he can only, when misfortune
    befals him, receive a temporary aid in the way of an advance._
    For further answers to this question, see the preceding answers.

    All children capable of going to school are obliged to attend
    it. Those whose parents are unable to pay the expense,
    must be sent thither at the cost of the community to which
    they belong, which must also do the needful for clothing,
    feeding, educating, and apprenticing them. Such children also
    frequently receive assistance from private benevolent societies
    and individuals.

    _Impotent through Age._

    In the towns, the community must provide for all the absolute
    wants of the poor out of the municipal funds, and in every town
    a board is established for directing the management of these
    affairs.

    In the country, the proprietors of the estates, or the village
    authorities, must provide for these wants, for which, in
    the latter case, the members of the village community must
    contribute in the proportions as they pay the taxes to the
    king, say the land-tax, called war contribution.

    In Dantzig, the poor, besides being placed in the poor-house,
    or, otherwise assisted, receive alms at their homes from a
    charitable society of the citizens, whose funds arise partly
    from private contributions, and partly from an annual supply
    out of the municipal funds. From this society about 1000
    persons yearly receive support (about one-third males and
    two-thirds females), but not above about 3_s._ to 4_s._, and
    not under 1_s._ monthly, for the time the support is required.
    In winter, when severe, they get also firing, partly in
    fir-wood, but chiefly in turf. The sum thus disbursed is now
    considerably less than before, from the control on the part of
    the magistracy being much stricter. The whole annual expense of
    the society is about 1200_l._ sterling.

    _Sick._

    The law prescribes that every town and every village community
    must support its own members when in distress, provided there
    be no relations able to do so, and the owners of estates are
    under a similar obligation; hence the sick stand under the same
    regulations as the impotent through age.

    _Effects of the foregoing Institutions._

    The regulations for the support of paupers operate beneficially
    on industry. Every proprietor of an estate, every community
    of a town or village has unquestionably the most correct
    knowledge of the bodily condition, of the moral conduct, of the
    expertness, of the capability to earn a livelihood in whole
    or in part, and of the pecuniary circumstances of the needy
    persons under their jurisdiction, whom they are bound to
    support, as well as of the circumstances of their relatives.
    The pauper knows that aid must always be given when necessary,
    _and he applies to the proper authority for it, when not duly
    afforded_; while he is, on the other hand, deterred from
    making exorbitant claims by his situation being so thoroughly
    known in every respect, and from ungrounded demands not being
    complied with. In general, therefore, neither the party called
    upon for assistance, nor that requiring it, inclines to let
    the authority interpose, but an amicable arrangement usually
    takes place between them, according to existing circumstances.
    The pauper must perform what service or work he can for those
    who assist him, or for himself, towards contributing to his
    own support as far as in his power; while those rendering
    assistance can seek only in themselves the means to do so, of
    course in the least expensive and most suitable manner. The
    paupers are employed at various kinds of work and service,
    accordingly as such is wanted and as they are able to perform
    it, and this as well for their supporters, privately, as in the
    public workhouses.

    It is, in general, to be observed that the right of settlement
    of individuals is established in the following manner:--

    If any person acquires the right of citizenship in a town,
    or a possession (house or lying-ground) in the country, or
    if he is permitted by the local authority to form a regular
    domicile by becoming a householder, he then is considered as an
    expressly accepted member of the community, and the obligation
    to support him, when reduced to want, immediately commences. So
    soon, therefore, as any person shows an intention to settle,
    or to become a householder, in a place, it is the business of
    the community, or of those interested, to ascertain, through
    the medium of the proper local authority, whether or not the
    emigrant possesses sufficient means to maintain himself there.
    Should this not be the case, and he is evidently unable to
    earn a livelihood, then must the support of the individual
    (or family) be borne by the community where he has previously
    dwelt, and it is not advisable to permit the change of
    domicile. Thence is the rule justified, that upon any person
    being regularly received as member of a community, with the
    express consent of its magistracy, that community becomes
    bound to render him support, when his situation requires it.
    Minors belong to the community in which their parents were
    settled, even after the death of these. With regard to other
    inhabitants, only that town or village community is bound to
    maintain a pauper where he last contributed to its public
    burthens.

    A person who is of age, and has resided three succeeding years
    in a place (for instance, as servant,) acquires by that the
    right of settlement, but which he again loses by leaving the
    place for one year. Privileged corporations, that possess a
    particular poor-fund, or raise among themselves, pursuant to
    their laws, the means to provide for their needy members, are
    specially bound to maintain them.

    In conformity with the rules before stated, must also the
    wives, widows, and destitute children of paupers be supported
    by the communities or corporations, or the owners of the
    estates.

    Paupers for whom communities, corporations, proprietors of
    estates, or relatives are not bound to provide, according to
    the foregoing rules, or when these are unable to do so, have
    to be maintained in provincial poor and workhouses. These are
    established at the expense of government, and supported by
    contributions from the whole province.

We are inclined to suspect that the practice corresponds with Mr.
Abercrombie’s account, and the general law with Mr. Gibsone’s, and that
the pauper possesses a legal right to assistance, though that right is
seldom enforced, because the impotent are voluntarily provided for,
and the able-bodied would probably be sent to a penal workhouse. It is
probable indeed that the law itself is vague as respects the relief
of the able-bodied. The difficulty in framing a poor-law, of either
expressly admitting or expressly rejecting their claim, is such that
almost all who have legislated on the subject have left their legal
right undecided. Mr. Gibsone’s statement, that no person able-bodied
_or_ capable of earning a livelihood has a legal claim for support, is
inconsistent with his general account of the law, unless we change _or_
into _and_.



SAXONY.


But little information has been received from Saxony.

Some of the modes in which relief is administered appear, as they are
nakedly stated in the Report, to be liable to great abuse. We are told
that persons receive from the parishes to which they belong assistance
in proportion to their inability to maintain themselves; that a sum is
fixed as necessary to support a man, and that if he cannot earn the
whole, the difference is given to him as relief; and that with respect
to lodging, the parish interferes in cases where ejectment takes place
on account of non-payment of house-rent, and guarantees payment for a
short time to those who agree to receive the houseless (p. 479). These
customs, as they are mentioned, resemble the worst forms of English
mal-administration,--allowance and payment of rent.

Mr. Forbes, however, states that more relief than is strictly necessary
is never given; and that it has been the steady determination of every
government to render the situation of those receiving parochial relief
too irksome for it to proceed from any other than the merest necessity.
It is probable, therefore, that a strict administration prevents the
customs which have been mentioned from being sufficiently prevalent to
produce what have been their consequences with us.



WURTEMBERG.


The information respecting Wurtemberg is remarkably full and precise,
having been collected with great care by Sir Edward Disbrowe and Mr.
Wellesley, assisted by the provincial authorities and the government.

The kingdom of Wurtemberg consists of about 8000 square English miles,
inhabited by 1,578,000 persons, being about 200 persons to a square
mile. It is divided into 64 bailiwicks, which are subdivided into civil
communities or parishes, containing each not less than 500 individuals.
Each parish constitutes a separate corporation, and the parishes in
each bailiwick also constitute one superior corporation.

A large proportion of the parishes appears to possess a fund called
_pium corpus_, arising partly from voluntary contribution and other
casual receipts, but principally from funds which previously to the
Reformation had been employed for the purposes of the Roman Catholic
worship, and instead of being confiscated by the government, as was the
case in England, were directed to be employed for charitable purposes.

Many of them also have almshouses, or, as they are called in the
Reports, hospitals for the residence of the poor, and other endowments
for their use; and almost all possess an estate called an allemand,
which is the joint property of the persons for the time being having
bürgerrecht, or the right of citizenship in the parish, and is,
together with the _pium corpus_ and endowments, the primary fund for
the relief of the poor. Subject to the claims of the poor, the allemand
is divided among the bürghers, without reference to their wealth or
their wants, but apparently in equal proportion to each head of a
family, and enjoyed in severalty, but inalienably, either for life or
for a shorter period.

Sir E. Disbrowe states (p. 485) that the government of the parish is
vested in the mayor and a certain number of counsellors for life (who
appear to be appointed by the government), and an equal number of
representatives chosen by the bürghers, half of whom go out by rotation
every second year.

About nine-tenths of the population appear to be bürghers; the
remainder are called beisitzers or settled non-freemen, and differ
from the bürghers by having no claim on the allemand, or vote in the
election of the parochial authorities.

Bürgerrecht is obtained by inheritance, or by purchase at a sum
regulated by law, but varying according to the allemand and the
population of each parish.

It is lost by emigration or misconduct. 1st, A person who has lost his
bürgerrecht is entitled to purchase that right in the parish in which
he formerly possessed it: a person who never possessed that right is
entitled to purchase it; 2dly, In the parish in which he spent the last
five years. In default of this claim, 3dly, in the parish in which
he obtained his marriage license. 4thly, If unmarried, in the parish
in which he was born; or 5thly, if he have none of these claims, in
the parish to which the police thinks fit to assign him. If he cannot
or will not pay the requisite purchase-money, he is bound by payment
of half the previous sum to constitute himself a beisitzer, and has
similar claims to admission as a beisitzer. If he cannot pay this sum
he is assigned by the police to a parish, as a beisitzer, without
payment.

Having given this outline of the mode in which the population is
distributed, we proceed to state, from the report furnished by the
government, the degree and mode in which the poor are relieved. (Pages
524, 525, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 547.)

    39. He who cannot derive the necessaries of life either from
    his property, his labour, or his trade, nor be supported by
    his nearest relations and other persons bound to it by private
    right, has a claim on the support of the (political or civil)
    _community_ in which he has the right of a burgher or of a
    beisitzer.

    In times of particular distress, not only those who are
    absolutely poor, but those also who are indeed not without
    property, but, by the unfavourable circumstances of the times,
    are rendered incapable of providing the necessaries of life
    for themselves and their children, have a right to require,
    from the communities of which they are members, the necessary
    support. Thus, in the year of scarcity in 1817, the spiritual
    and temporal overseers of the communities were expressly made
    responsible by the government, that none of those who were
    confided to their superintendence and care should be exposed
    to suffer want; with the threat, that if, for want of care on
    the part of the overseers, any person should perish, the guilty
    should be prosecuted with all the rigour of the law.

    If a person belonging to one or more communities has need of
    public support, the share to be borne by each is determined
    by the government authorities, having respect to the merely
    personal or family connexion with the several communities.

    Each of the three religious persuasions prevailing in the
    kingdom has the full enjoyment of its poor fund. Poor members
    of the community, however, who belong to a religious persuasion
    different to that which prevails in the place, cannot be denied
    the necessary relief from the poor fund of the place, on
    account of the difference of religion.

    _Of the Bailiwick Corporations._

    40. If a community has so many poor, or is so limited in its
    resources, that it is not in a condition properly to support
    its poor, the _other communities of the bailiwick, particularly
    the towns, so far as they are better able, and have few or no
    poor_, are bound by the law to assist such a poor community
    with their alms. A general obligation of the bailiwick
    corporation to assist those communities of the bailiwicks
    which are not able to afford the necessary assistance to their
    poor inhabitants, is not ordained by the laws, unless such
    assistance is to the interest of the bailiwick corporation as
    such.

    In the year 1817, however, the bailiwick corporations were
    enjoined, so long as the dearth lasted, and with reference
    to old laws, in case single communities should be unable
    sufficiently to provide for all the inhabitants, to give them
    credit so far as to answer either partly or entirely for the
    debt, but always with the reservation of repayment by the
    receivers of the aid. And with respect to the support of the
    poor, which are assigned to a community, it is expressly
    ordered, that if the assignment is founded on one of the titles
    to a right of settlement enumerated under 1, 2, and 3[6],
    the community against which the right is established is to
    bear only one-third, and the whole of the bailiwick the other
    two-thirds; but if the assignment is founded on one of the
    other titles, the whole bailiwick has to take upon itself this
    support. The expense which is hereby incurred by a bailiwick,
    constitutes an object of what is called _amtsvergleichung_, and
    is imposed on the whole old and now rateable _cadastre_ of the
    bailiwick.

    _Of the Duty of the State._

    41. The public Exchequer affords, partly on account of the
    previous sequestration of the church property, and of some
    other funds and revenues destined for pious and charitable
    purposes, and partly without any such special legal ground,
    contributions for the foundation and support of various public
    beneficent institutions, and it sometimes assists single
    bailiwicks, communities, and individuals in particular cases,
    by contributions for charitable purposes. But a general
    obligation of the public Exchequer to intervene, in case of the
    inability of the communities or bailiwicks, is no where enacted
    in the laws of Wurtemberg, and is also not recognised by the
    government, because too great liberality on its part, and the
    grant of a distinct head of expenditure for this purpose, as
    in general the transferring of local burthens to the public
    exchequer, might lead to very extensive consequences, and might
    gradually give rise to always increasing claims, which, in the
    impossibility of ranging single cases under general points of
    view, it might not be always possible successfully to meet.

    _Amount of Relief to the Poor._

    42. What is _necessary_ for a poor person or a poor family,
    and how much such a person or family may require for their
    _necessary support_, is not expressed in the laws of
    Wurtemberg; on the contrary, the answer to this question is
    left to the judgment of the magistrate in every particular
    case. In fact, it is not well susceptible of a general answer,
    because the wants of men are so very different, according
    to their constitutions and inclinations, and the means of
    satisfying these wants depend too much on personal, local, and
    temporary circumstances.

    _Support and Employment of the Adult Poor._

    [Sidenote: Relief of the able-bodied out-doors.]

    75. With respect to the adult poor, it is enacted by our oldest
    laws, that such grown-up poor who would willingly work, but
    cannot find employment, _shall_, as far as possible, _have
    means found them by the magistrates_ to earn a livelihood by
    their labour; but that lazy idlers who are strong and healthy
    _shall be compelled to work_; and, according to a recent
    ordinance, the able-bodied who claim support from the public
    funds are bound to take any work for which they have adequate
    strength, whether it be public or private, which is assigned
    to them by the local overseers, receiving for it proportionate
    moderate wages. If they refuse to do the work assigned them,
    and cannot allege that they can earn something by other work,
    or produce some other excuse, the overseer is authorized to
    employ towards them means of compulsion.

    According to old laws, poor persons who still have a house and
    lands, or at least some little portions of land, and who have
    suffered by failure of the crops, frost, &c., or who cannot sow
    their lands, or are unable to dispose of them without great
    loss, but are still able to work, and have hopes of retrieving
    their losses in the harvest and autumn, shall be assisted by
    the communities, which, according as the case may be, shall
    lend to them from the public fund a sufficient sum, to be
    repaid as they may be able to do it in course of time, or shall
    at least give security for them.

    The laws also order that in public works which the communities
    have executed by daily labourers, able-bodied poor who have a
    claim to support from the public funds shall be employed in
    preference. In places where the hospitals have lands of their
    own, and farm them on their own account, poor persons are also
    employed in preference, at suitable wages.

    Not only in the year of scarcity, 1817, and subsequently,
    many adult poor have been employed at suitable wages on the
    public account in other hard work, such as forest labours,
    planting trees, cultivating waste lands, turf-digging, working
    in the quarries, lime-pits, or excavating for antiquities,
    pulling down old buildings, cutting down avenues of old trees,
    levelling ground, laying out new public walks or churchyards,
    draining marshes, cleaning common sewers and streets, working
    at bridges, roads, and canals, &c.

    79. According to the ancient laws, the communities are bound
    to advance money on loan according to the ability of the
    poor fund, and to the circumstances of the persons, to poor
    mechanics who cannot begin or carry on their trade, without
    assistance, which sum they are to repay as they may be able to
    do in time.

    81. But the indirect support of the poor by employment and
    loans has, however, its limits.

    The extraordinary expense incurred in 1817, for _public
    works_, was indeed justified at that time by the extraordinary
    distress; but for the constant prosecution of such works, there
    would be wanting, in most places, occasion and opportunity, and
    at all events the necessary means; nor could the communities
    well be expected, merely for the sake of employing the poor,
    to have such works done by them if they are not absolutely
    necessary, or at least urgently required at the moment, or if
    they could be performed at a cheaper rate by contract or by
    statute labour.

    In many places there is not always an opportunity to obtain
    work for daily wages, with private persons, especially in
    winter, and for women and children; or at least the wages at
    different times of the year, and for many kinds of work, are
    too small to support a family, and when public institutions for
    giving employment are in question, great prudence is necessary,
    that while one person is provided with work and wages, another
    may not find the source of gain interrupted or cut off by which
    he has hitherto obtained a livelihood without the assistance of
    the magistrates.

    But when due attention is paid to these very important
    considerations, it is extremely difficult, in Wurtemberg at
    least, to find means of employing the poor capable of work, by
    the intervention of the magistrates, when they are themselves
    not able to obtain suitable employment, and this difficulty
    must increase from year to year, in which the number and extent
    of the public institutions for employing children increase, and
    as the employment of the prisoners in the penal establishments
    (police and workhouses, and houses of correction) is extended.

    On this account, there are indeed in the capital, and in
    some other places, where for the sake of the moral gain a
    small pecuniary sacrifice is not regarded, particular public
    establishments for employing the adult poor in spinning, and
    other such work; but they nowhere extend to a whole bailiwick.
    Wherever they still exist, though the poor in them are not
    fed and clothed, but only employed, their support requires
    considerable annual aid from public funds; and in most places
    the establishments formerly opened for the employment of the
    adult poor have been entirely broken up, with the exception of
    a part of the inhabitants of the poor-houses (s. 91).

    Consequently, and especially till the new institutions for the
    better education of the youthful poor shall have been able
    to produce their entire effect, there will still remain in
    Wurtemberg a very considerable number, not only of poor unable
    or unwilling to work, but also of such as are both able and
    willing, who cannot be supported otherwise than directly.

    82. In many places the local poor are, with this view, allowed
    _themselves to collect_ gifts in money, food, &c. from the
    wealthier inhabitants of the place; but in most of these
    places this kind of collecting of such gifts is limited to
    the houses of certain of the richer inhabitants, who have
    given them express permission to do so, and to fixed days and
    hours, and it is likewise subject to the superintendence of
    the police: but as a general rule, the poor are prohibited
    from personal collecting of gifts, even in their own place
    of residence. On the other hand, those poor persons in whose
    cases the above-described indirect means of relief are not
    applicable, or not sufficient for their necessary support,
    regularly receive everywhere out of the _public funds of the
    community to which they belong_, and under different names,
    such as alms, gratuity, pension, board, &c., partly weekly,
    monthly, quarterly, or annually, partly without any fixed time,
    as need may be, gifts according to the wants of the individuals
    relieved, and the ability of the community, sometimes amounting
    to only one or a few florins, sometimes to 20, 50, 70, and even
    100 and more florins, for each person or family in a year.
    With respect to the extent of these gifts, there is nowhere
    any general, legal ordinance; but the question, how much is
    requisite for the necessary support of each individual or of
    each family, remains entirely for the consideration of the
    authorities which have to give the relief.

    [Sidenote: In-door relief.]

    67. Adult poor who, on account of their great age, or of
    weakness, infirmity, and sickness of body or mind, or on
    account of immoral conduct, cannot be left to themselves, and
    who have no relations legally bound and able to superintend
    and take care of them, and who consequently would not be
    sufficiently relieved merely by a present in money or in kind,
    are even now, especially in small towns, taken in by all the
    members of the community in their turn, from house to house,
    by the day or by the week, or else put out to board in a fixed
    private house at the expense of the local funds.

    But as nobody readily determines to admit such persons to
    his table and his house, particularly persons affected with
    the itch and other contagious disorders; and as even the
    most careful selection of such private boarding-houses, with
    the best superintendence which is possible in such cases,
    frequently answers neither the expectations of those who
    provide such accommodation, nor the wants of those intended
    to be provided, it is very fortunate that, partly so far back
    as the 14th and 15th centuries,--partly in modern and very
    recent times, almost in every large and small town, and even
    in some villages,--partly by particular endowments for the
    purpose,--partly at the expense of the local funds, a distinct
    public poor-house, or even several such poor-houses, have been
    built, or purchased, or taken from debtors in lieu of payment,
    which were not precisely intended to provide for persons of the
    above description, but rather to receive foreign vagabonds,
    and also for fear of the leprosy, plague, or cholera; which
    establishments, founded under various denominations, such as
    poor-house, beggars’-house, hospital, lazaretto, infirmary,
    leprosy-house, cholera-house, &c., &c., now that the entrance
    of foreign vagrants is prevented, and the fear of plague,
    leprosy, and cholera is past, can be made use of for the
    reception of the native poor belonging to the above classes.

    Many of these houses can, indeed, accommodate only 10, 20, 30,
    or 40 persons, but many of them are calculated for a hundred or
    several hundred persons.

    Formerly it was usual to receive also poor children, with or
    without their parents, into these houses, but latterly the
    children are otherwise disposed of, and only _married persons,
    without children_, or single adult poor, are admitted, who for
    the most part are, as far as possible, kept separate according
    to their sex, and partly according to other circumstances,
    especially as prescribed by existing ordinances. Separate
    rooms for insane and sick persons, particularly for those
    who have the venereal disease and the itch, are fitted up in
    these poor-houses, so as to answer, as much as possible, this
    particular object; and in some cases separate buildings are
    allotted for this purpose.

    90. In many of these poor-houses, those who are admitted into
    them have only free lodging and firing, and sometimes clothing;
    and to provide for their other wants, a weekly, monthly, or
    annual allowance in money or in kind.

    In others, they are directly provided with every thing; that
    is, they have in the house free lodging, candles, firing,
    bedding, clothes, food, and in case of sickness, medical care,
    medicine, and attendance. In general, in this case, each of
    the two sexes, or a great number of such persons, nearly of
    the same class, have a _common sleeping-room_, and a _common
    eating_ and _working-room_. Sometimes however only two, three,
    or four poor persons together, and often even individual poor
    have their separate rooms.

    In the common sleeping-rooms, every person has his separate
    bed, generally feather beds, such as are usually found in poor
    independent families.

    The clothing is mostly warmer and stronger, but not so
    good-looking and more old-fashioned than that of the poorer
    independent citizens.

    The food consists, generally, in the morning of soup, at noon
    a farinaceous dish and vegetables, and once, twice, rarely
    three times in the week, of a quarter or half a pound of meat;
    in the evening of soup, together with milk or potatoes. There
    are, however, poor-houses where they get no breakfast in the
    morning; at dinner only farinaceous food or vegetables (not
    both together), and once a week only, or even but a few times
    in the year, on certain holidays, or even not at all, meat,
    and in the evening nothing but _soup_.[7] When this diet is
    furnished by contract, 5, 5½, 6, 7, 8 to 8½ kreutzer daily per
    head are at present paid for it; besides which, however, the
    contractor mostly has lodging and firing gratis, and the use of
    a garden.

    Besides this, every person receives in most of these houses,
    3, 3½, 4, 5, 6, and even 7 pounds of bread weekly, and in some
    places a few kreutzer every week for snuff; wine is given only
    where there are special endowments for that purpose, mostly on
    certain holidays. The sick have better and lighter food and
    wine, as the physician thinks fit to prescribe in every case.

    In some of these houses, more, and in others less, care is
    taken that the inmates of them do not unnecessarily go out,
    and that those who are able to do some work are not idle. Some
    hospitals have lands which they keep in their own hands, and
    in this case the inmates are employed as much as possible in
    assisting in the agricultural operations. Where there is no
    land, they must at least prepare the necessary firewood, carry
    wood and water, help in washing, cooking, and other domestic
    employments; they must spin, wind yarn, knit, sew, make clothes
    and shoes for the house, &c. In some poor-houses they are also
    employed in making wooden pegs for shoemakers and tilers,
    matches, &c.

    On the whole, however, the employment of these people in the
    poor-houses does not produce much.

    _In the year 1817, and during the dearth which prevailed at
    that time, an old law which had fallen into desuetude was
    revived; according to which, the rich and opulent who, after
    having been previously applied to for voluntary contributions,
    should not come forward in a manner suitable to their property,
    are to be taxed by the magistrates in a sum conformable to
    their income, and according to all the circumstances of their
    situation._

The comparative situation of the pauper and the independent labourer is
thus stated at the conclusion of the Government Report:--

    If we now compare the situation of one of the poorest of the
    Wurtemberg poor who support themselves independently by their
    labour without external aid (_see_ § 40.), with that of one of
    the more favoured of the Wurtemberg poor who lives by public
    charity, for instance, the inmate of an hospital, and even of
    a prison, it might certainly appear that the condition of the
    latter is preferable to that of the former.

    In fact, we often see such hospital inmates, and even
    prisoners, attain the most advanced age, while many a poor
    day-labourer and artisan sinks at a much earlier age under the
    weight of his cares and the want of necessaries. In fact, many
    an inmate of an hospital, and many a prisoner, even with bodily
    infirmities and sufferings, still seems to find his condition
    quite comfortable, and shows himself thankful for the good
    which he enjoys, while many a day-labourer or artisan, in the
    enjoyment of good bodily health, feels himself miserable, and
    curses his existence; in fact, many a one seeks admission into
    the hospital who would be very well able to provide himself
    with necessaries by his work at home. In fact, the man often
    separates from his wife, or the wife from her husband, or from
    the children, to be received into the hospital. In fact, many
    a one does not economize, but squanders what he has, and does
    not work in order to earn something, because he thinks that
    he always has the right of being received into the hospital
    as a last resource. _In fact, in many places where there are
    rich hospitals and other foundations, the number of the poor
    is proportionably greater than in places where less is done
    for their support. In fact, many a one continues to beg and to
    steal, who has already been frequently imprisoned for these
    offences, because he finds his situation in the workhouse very
    tolerable in comparison with the laborious life of a poor man
    at liberty._

    However, the situation of the inmates of an hospital, even
    of those which are the most liberal to their inmates, is by
    no means so enviable as from the above comparison it might
    seem to be. Frequently their residence is embittered by their
    being obliged to live together with rude, quarrelsome, mad,
    silly, and disgusting persons. Many embitter their own lives
    by a discontentedness, which may either be natural to them, or
    communicated by others. Many dislike the kind or the quantity
    of the work allotted to them, the restrictions with respect to
    the time of going out and returning home which are prescribed
    by the regulations of the house. Prisoners, in particular,
    consider the loss of their freedom as an intolerable burden.
    Besides this, too, the treatment is by no means in general and
    in _every_ poor-house so good as it is represented in the above
    comparison; hence it is not the case with all the poor received
    into a poor-house, that they have voluntarily sought admission
    there, or that they voluntarily and willingly remain in it;
    hence, too, the applications for admission to these houses are
    not everywhere equally pressing; hence the assertion that the
    existence of such houses increases the numbers of prodigals,
    idlers, and poor, cannot be taken as generally correct.

    At all events, the above comparison applies to the actual
    inmates of the hospital, rather than to those poor who are
    relieved only by money and commodities, or by finding them
    employment; for the relief which they receive in this manner is
    in most places dealt out with so scanty a measure, that their
    situation is little or not at all better than that of a healthy
    poor person, who maintains himself independently by the labour
    of his hands, without external assistance. The independent
    poor man always has the cheering consciousness of maintaining
    himself and his family by his own exertions, and of enjoying
    the respect of his fellow-citizens, which is always lost in a
    greater or less degree by the poor man who receives relief, to
    whom, in the eyes of the better classes, a kind of disgrace
    attaches, which must often fall on the idle, who is excluded
    from elections of the community, &c., restricted in marrying,
    &c.

And the authors go on to express a belief that pauperism is
diminishing, and that the number of paupers, which in 1820 amounted
to 64,896, does not now exceed 50,000, or about 1-30th of the whole
population.

The preference which the government reporter appears to give to
out-door relief is opposed to the preface to the rules of the Weinsburg
House of Industry.

    The former mode of providing for the wants of the poor by
    weekly relief in money or in bread, by giving them clothes,
    or providing them small apartments, or by paying their rent
    or their board, entrained many abuses, and therefore little
    effected its end; in fact, it wanted the superintendence
    essential to the management of a class of men for the most
    part of irregular and dissipated habits. Employment was not
    furnished to those who were yet in a state to work; and there
    were no means of repressing mendicity and vice.--(p. 500.)

The object of this establishment is said to be,

    Art. 1.--To provide a common habitation, and all other
    necessaries, for all those who, whether sick or in health,
    need assistance.

    Art. 2.--As far as it may be possible, to furnish them with
    employment, according to their capability of work.

    Art. 3.--Not only to provide work for those who ask for it, but
    to enforce it from those who, being without property, neither
    engage in trade nor in service, but endeavour to live at the
    expense of others.

    2. _Conditions of Admission._

    The persons who need assistance are, with few exceptions, men
    of vicious, or careless, or improvident habits, who are now
    unable to earn their bread. The old practice was, to pay their
    rent, furnish them with fuel, or give them weekly allowances
    in money or bread; but there was no certainty that these gifts
    were well employed. For this reason, only persons worthy of
    assistance are received, clothed, and fed in this institution:
    for, in our country, well-disposed people, even with little
    talent, can always earn their own maintenance.

    The aged or impotent poor may be admitted at their own request.

    Art. 7.--The Directors of the establishment, as well as the
    President of the Committee of Founders, can order the admission
    of poor people if they are fully persuaded of its necessity.
    The person so admitted must promise, in writing, to obey the
    laws of the establishment. This admission requires to be
    confirmed at the next sitting of the Committee of Founders. The
    same rules apply to the admission of the indigent sick.

    Art. 8.--_But in no case is this charitable institution to
    become the periodical abode of persons not accustomed to
    a fixed trade, or of those who will not remain with their
    masters, or who would like to pass there the winter when the
    demand for labour is slack, or who have wasted their summer
    wages by spending the earnings of one day’s toil in two days of
    idleness and debauchery._

    Art. 9.--_Whoever then is once admitted, enters the
    establishment with all that he possesses, and engages himself
    to work and remain there for ever._

    Art. 10.--In all cases, those who enter voluntarily, as well
    as those who are forced to enter, are, from the moment of
    admission, considered as paupers, and whatever they possess
    becomes the property of the foundation.

    Art. 11.--In case of extraordinarily good conduct on the part
    of a pauper, when there is reasonable hope that he can support
    himself, or if he wishes to enter the service of a respectable
    family, the Council of Foundation may permit him to leave the
    Institution. In this case his property is restored to him,
    after deducting, from a person capable of work, 58f., and from
    one incapable of work 88f. The expense of their residence is
    deducted from the property of the sick.

    All persons of the age of fourteen, who cannot prove that they
    are in the service of a respectable family, may be forced to
    work in the Institution.

    Art. 12.--All persons of either sex, who are not in a state to
    maintain themselves, either from their property or by industry,
    and who become chargeable to others may be admitted; but,
    before the police can require their admission, it must be shown
    that they have been punished three times, either for mendicity
    or theft--(p. 501.)

Regulations of this severity prove that the able-bodied paupers at
least are a small and degraded class, exciting little sympathy, for
whom enough is supposed to be done if they are prevented from starving.
As far indeed as can be collected from the Weinsberg regulations, the
undeserving may be utterly refused relief, since it does not appear
that relief is to be given out of the house, and the applications for
admission by undeserving objects are to be rejected.

The actual working of the system may be best inferred from the detailed
accounts supplied by Sir Edward Disbrowe of 18 parishes.

Of these four, that is Obertürkheim, Osweil, Necker Weihingen,
and Egolsheim, provide for their poor by rates levied on all the
inhabitants. During each of four years, from 1829 to 1832 inclusive,
the persons receiving relief in Obertürkheim were three out of a
population of 842, at an annual expense of 5_l._ 0_s._ 3_d._, or about
1½_d._ per head on the whole population. In Osweil the average number
was eight, out of a population of 1608; average annual expense 25_l._,
or about 3½_d._ a head. In Necker Weihingen, of which the population
is 1070, the persons relieved were, in 1829, one man; in 1830, one man
and one woman; in 1831, one man and one woman; and the annual expense
in 1829 was 5_l._; and in each of the years 1830 and 1831, 4_l._ 3_s._
4_d._, or about 1_d._ a head. The number relieved in Egolsheim, of
which the population is 618, is not mentioned; but it must have been
very trifling, since the average annual expense is stated at 2_l._
1_s._ 8_d._, which is less than 1_d._ per head.

In those places in which the relief of the poor is wholly or
principally supplied from endowments, the annual expenditure is, as
might have been expected, much larger. But even in these it seldom
amounts to 1_s._ per head on the whole population, being about
one-twelfth of the average expenditure in England. And in the whole
bailiwick of Ludwigsberg, containing 29,068 inhabitants, in the year
1831 only 372 persons received regular, and 371 persons irregular (and
indeed merely medical) relief. The kingdom of Wurtemberg, therefore,
appears to have been, as yet, eminently successful in reconciling a
recognition of the right to relief with economy in its distribution.

[6] See above for the statement of the different grounds on which a
man may claim the right to obtain a settlement in a parish.

[7] The word “_suppe_,” here and elsewhere translated by the word
_soup_, has, however, a far more general signification; the proper
definition of it being “_boiled fluid food_, eaten alone, warm, with
a spoon.” Thus the Germans have water-soup, beer-soup, milk-soup,
bread-soup, flour-soup, wine-soup, &c.



BAVARIA.


With respect to the Bavarian institutions we have little information
excepting the text of the law. The following extracts will show its
general law tendency: (pp. 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 562, 563.)

    [Sidenote: Poor Law authorities.]

    Each town, market, and village, is to have an institution for
    the poor; but if several villages wish to unite in forming
    one of these institutions, it is not only to be permitted, but
    every facility is to be afforded it.

    Each provincial district (landgericht) must have an institution
    of its own.

    All the inhabitants of such district are obliged, according to
    their means, to contribute to that purpose; each person is,
    besides, bound to continue to support those poor relations whom
    the laws direct him to maintain.

    The claims for relief are to be fixed according to the laws of
    their district (heimath gesetz.) Sometimes, in cases of great
    necessity, relief is allowed to strangers who do not belong to
    the parish.

    The overseers consist (unless it is otherwise determined) of
    the directors, of the police, commissaries, and magistrates.

    In cases where medical aid is necessary, they are to be
    attended by physicians, who are appointed by the state.

    In towns and larger market towns, besides the above-named
    overseers, a council is to be formed, consisting of the
    clergyman and the mayor and persons deputed by the magistrates
    and all classes of the people, in proportion to the number of
    inhabitants of each place.

    In smaller market-towns the clergyman and deputies from the
    peasants form this council.

    When several villages join together to form one of these
    institutions, a general committee is to be formed.

    The members of the council for the institutions for the poor
    are to be elected in the same way as the magistrates and mayors
    (burgermeister).

    When several parishes are joined together, a deputy is to be
    chosen from each, and again, several are elected from among
    these, who are to take immediate charge of the affairs. Each
    deputy is chosen for three years, and is obliged to perform
    his duties without remuneration; no inhabitant is allowed to
    refuse to perform his functions the first time he is elected;
    extraordinary merits in the service of the poor are to be
    publicly distinguished.

    [Sidenote: Mode of relief.]

    The public charge is brought into action in the following
    manner:

    1st. By institutions for working.

    2d. By institutions for taking care of people who are unable to
    work.

    3d. By institutions for alms.

    [Sidenote: 1. Finding work.]

    1. Materials and tools are to be distributed to those paupers
    who, notwithstanding all inquiries and interference, cannot
    obtain the necessary work, to be used at their houses until
    the required situation can be obtained. If in larger towns the
    number of these is very great, houses are to be opened and
    maintained at the expense of the institution for the poor, in
    which the paupers who are unoccupied are to work.

    The choice among the different sorts of work in these houses
    is settled according to the local circumstances, and chiefly
    according to the facility with which either orders from private
    persons can be received, or with which the material is obtained
    and worked; then accordingly as the material can be used for
    the wants of the poor or can be usefully employed for any other
    purpose.

    The houses for the employment of the poor are always to retain
    their original destination, namely, an employment, for the
    present, of poor men who would otherwise be without work, and
    therefore do not admit any such persons whose names are not
    down on the above-named register. Therefore those persons are
    no longer allowed to work in this house after they have had an
    offer of work from any other quarter.

    [Sidenote: 2. In-door relief.]

    2. Houses of nourishment are to be erected for those poor
    who, besides having no fortune or means of obtaining their
    livelihood, are in an extraordinary degree helpless, namely,
    children, sick people, old persons, and cripples.

    [Sidenote: 3. Money relief.]

    3. Poor people who do not require extraordinary care, and
    who are not fit to be admitted into the particular houses of
    nourishment, or cannot yet be received into them, but are
    unable to gain their livelihood, are to be assisted by alms,
    which, however, are not to be given without the most complete
    proof of want.

    The alms are to be given in the form of gifts of money. These
    gifts are sometimes to be increased, according to the price of
    provisions; and from time to time a maximum is to be fixed,
    which is on no account to be exceeded.

    [Sidenote: Relief by quartering on householders.]

    These gifts of money may, either in part or entirely, be
    substituted by provisions, if this sort of aid is more easily
    afforded with regard to lodging, nourishment, and clothing.

    Their lodging is to be changed every day among the different
    members of the parish, but the poor who are lodged are obliged
    to repay this lodging by work. Where there are opportunities,
    rooms are to be warmed, to which the poor may bring their work.

    The nourishment of the poor can be facilitated and insured
    by the equal division of them amongst the public, to be
    maintained in turn, being obliged to partake of the work
    of their host, or by voluntarily offered days for food, or
    lastly, by distribution of bread and other nourishment. Where
    circumstances permit, kitchens are to be erected on purpose for
    preparing nourishing soups, partly gratis, partly very cheap.

    [Sidenote: Liabilities of pauper.]

    No pauper who partakes of the benefactions of the poor
    institutions may go away from his dwelling without the
    knowledge and leave of the head of the village, to stay for
    some time, or permanently in another village, even if it is in
    the same district.

    The same leave from the police direction is necessary when a
    pauper wishes, for some good reason, to go out of his police
    district; the leave is only to be given in both cases on
    well-grounded reasons, and on proofs that the poor will not be
    burdensome to other villages and districts; also he must give
    in a declaration to the same, in which, besides his name and
    village, and the duration of his absence, the villages to which
    he intends to go must be expressed.

    Paupers who have been warned in vain concerning bad conduct
    and idleness shall be proceeded against without favour, by the
    power of magistrates, and be punished accordingly.

    The poor institutions can claim repayment from those hypocrites
    who, although they possess private means, embezzle and grasp
    at the gifts and assistance which are only intended for true
    poverty, which shall be fully repaid. The poor institutions can
    make the same claim from those persons who have renounced their
    duty of supporting those relations whom they are obliged to
    support, either by law or by contract.

    _No marriage between people without capital shall be allowed
    without the previous permission of the poor institutions.
    Directors who do not follow these orders, nor pay attention to
    the Act of the 12th of July, 1808 (Government Paper, page
    1506), concerning marriages in the country, have to answer for
    the maintenance of the new families, should they not be able to
    maintain themselves. In the same manner, the priests and other
    churchmen shall be responsible for the support of such persons
    as they have married without leave from the authorities,
    besides other fines which are imposed on this breach of the
    rules of the marriage ceremony._

    [Sidenote: Sources of poor fund.]

    Besides the extraordinary sources, which consist partly in the
    restitution which hypocrites and relations who avoid their duty
    are obliged to make, and partly out of fines which are given
    to the poor fund, or may be hereafter given, are sources for
    charity from donations from the district fund, and from loans
    or from taxes.

    The yearly produce of all charities belongs to the poor
    institutions, and is used for their purposes. With the
    establishments for the poor are united the already existing
    or still accumulating capitals of one or other of the poor
    institutions; the gain on mortgages or on those possessions
    whose owners cannot be discovered; the legacies for the poor,
    when by the will of the deceased they are to be laid out in a
    regular yearly income, and the fourth part of such legacies as
    are destined in general for pious purposes.

    The voluntary donations consist of casual gifts in money and
    food which have been given by philanthropic persons of their
    own accord, for the use of the poor institutions, and in this
    manner are to be employed for their daily use. Besides these,
    are the legacies which are meant for immediate division among
    the poor, and those subscriptions which are collected either by
    single persons or by companies and corporations.

    General and extraordinary collections, in the name of the
    institutions for the poor, are to be made monthly from house
    to house, when the members of the parish have bound themselves
    to a certain subscription; also in the churches on the great
    holidays, and in the public-houses by means of private
    poor-boxes; and lastly, on all important and joyful occasions
    of the state, or companies.

    According to the circumstances of the place, certain
    accidental funds can be appropriated to the uses of the poor
    institutions, which particularly on great joyful occasions,
    namely, great marriages in the taverns, the permission to have
    music, particularly past the stated times, processions of
    the apprentices, shooting matches, &c. &c., at shows, balls,
    masquerades, and so on.

    When all the aforesaid sources do not suffice to cover the
    wants of the poor institutions, it will be supplied out of the
    funds of the district, or through loans, and then only when
    all these means cannot be put in practice, or do not suffice
    to cover their wants, compulsory contributions or poor-taxes
    are to be resorted to. The manner and amount of these are to
    be according to the calls of the villages and districts, and
    are only to be levied for a certain time. It is to be observed,
    however, that these taxes are to be imposed with the greatest
    equality, and without any exception among all classes.

    [Sidenote: Central control.]

    The poor institutions and committees in such towns as have no
    police directors or commissaries, also in the market towns
    and parishes, are directly under the control of the district
    tribunal, and under their guidance and inspection.

    The inspection of the poor institutions of the whole kingdom
    is given to the ministry for the interior, which is to
    receive regularly the report of the state of this branch of
    administration from the annual accounts and other proper
    sources, and which is to issue the necessary general orders
    and regulations, and is to judge of the proposals for the
    establishment, the arrangement and fitting up of workhouses,
    and others in which the poor are taken care of, for single
    districts, whole circles, or for the entire kingdom, which
    decides with the ministry of finance all proposals for allowing
    certain taxes and poor subscriptions, decides the complaints
    brought against the general circle and local commissaries,
    if such do not belong to the private council, and causes the
    election of certain poor directors where it may be found
    advisable.

It will be observed, that these institutions bear a considerable
resemblance to those of Wurtemberg. Their effects are thus summed up by
Lord Erskine:

    Upon carefully examining and considering these poor laws of
    Bavaria. I have come to the conclusion in my own mind that
    they are useful, and well adapted to the purposes for which
    they were intended, because by the establishment of the poor
    institutions (as they are called), by districts over the whole
    kingdom of Bavaria, with sufficient power by law to carry their
    provisions into execution, the great and important object is
    attained of giving relief and support to the aged, helpless,
    and sick, and finding work in workhouses or at their own homes,
    at a moderate payment, for those who cannot otherwise obtain
    it; for which purpose a register is to be kept by the guardians
    of the poor of all those persons who are in want of work,
    and who are therefore either a burthen upon the parish, or
    are likely to become so, as also a list of those who wish to
    employ workmen, in order to endeavour to arrange between them
    the terms of employment; and that this object may be the more
    easily attained, the directors are required to be in continual
    communication with the overseers of public works, the masters
    of manufactories, with individual proprietors, and societies;
    in order that where there are a quantity of hands capable
    of work, they may be passed into that part of the country
    where they are most wanted; but whenever it may happen that,
    notwithstanding all inquiries and exertions, the necessary work
    cannot be obtained, in such cases materials and tools are to
    be distributed to those paupers who may be in want of them, to
    be used at their own houses; and if in larger towns the number
    of those paupers should be very great, houses are to be opened
    and maintained at the expense of the institutions for the poor,
    in which the paupers who are out of work are to be employed;
    but the number of paupers to be so employed is always limited
    to those who have not had a reasonable offer of work from any
    other quarter. But the great cause why the number of the poor
    is kept so low in this country, arises from the prevention by
    law of marriages in cases in which it cannot be proved that
    the parties have reasonable means of subsistence; and this
    regulation is in all places and at all times strictly adhered
    to.

    The effect of a constant and firm observance of this rule
    has, it is true, a considerable influence in keeping down the
    population of Bavaria, which is at present low for the extent
    of country, but it has a most salutary effect in averting
    extreme poverty and consequent misery. (p. 554.)

The last of the countries subject to a system of compulsory relief,
from which we have a return, is the ancient part of the



CANTON DE BERNE.


It appears from that return, that the inhabitants of that part of the
Canton, which is subject to the laws which we are going to describe,
consisted, in 1831, of 321,468 persons, divided into three classes,
heimathloses, aubains, and bourgeois.

The first class, which appears to be so small as to be inconsiderable,
consist of foreign refugees or their descendants. The second comprises
all those who have not a right to bourgeoisie in any commune: their
number amounted, in 1780, to 3482 persons. It is said to have
subsequently increased, but it is not probable that it has more than
doubled; and we believe that 10,000 persons, or less than 1-32nd part
of the whole population, exceeds the whole number of those who are
not entitled to bourgeoisie; but it is to be observed that the word
“aubain,” though strictly meaning a person who has no settlement in
the Canton, is also applied to persons who, though bourgeois, are
not entitled to bourgeoisie in the commune in which they reside. The
support of the heimathloses and of the aubains, properly so called,
that is, of those who have no right whatever to bourgeoisie, falls on
the government.

The third class is composed of the descendants of those who, in the
sixteenth century, were held entitled to the public property of each
commune, and those who by themselves or their ancestors have purchased
bourgeoisie in any commune. Bourgeoisie appears to be personal and
hereditary. It is not gained by residence, or lost by absence; and may
therefore, in fact, belong to persons having little other connexion
with the commune.

At a period, of which the precise date is not stated, but which appears
to belong to the seventeenth century, it became the law that every one
was entitled to support from the commune of which he was bourgeois, and
that the sums necessary were to be supplied from the public property
of the commune; and so far as that was insufficient, from landed
property, to whomsoever belonging, situated in the commune, and from
the personal property of the bourgeois whether resident or not.

To this hereditary bourgeoisie the raising and administration of
the poor-fund was and still is confided; and apparently with most
unfortunate results.

The following is the conclusion of the official answer of the
government of Berne to the questions proposed by Mr. Morier (p. 207):--

    _What are the abuses complained of?_

    _Do they arise from the principle of the law, or from the
    character and social position of its administrators?_

    _What remedies have been applied?_

    _What have been their results?_

    The abuses in the administration arise both from the principle
    of the law, and from the character and social position of
    its administrators: from the law, because it abandons all
    administration to the communes; from the administrators,
    because they neglect improvement, distribute relief without
    discrimination or real inquiry, and generally provide only
    against the exigences of the moment.

    The separate parishes, being, for the most part, too small
    to establish schools and workhouses, want means of coercion,
    and are in general more busied in providing relief for those
    actually indigent than in diminishing their number, either as
    regards the present or future generations. Besides, although
    the practice is not sanctioned by law, many parishes, in order
    to prevent the return of their bourgeois who are domiciled
    elsewhere, forward to them relief without being able to
    ascertain their conduct.

    The government has long felt that these abuses could not
    be remedied except by a law founded on a principle totally
    different from that of abandoning the administration to the
    parishes: but from a mistaken solicitude for the poor, it
    always hesitated to take this course.

    _What has been the influence of the system?_

    1. _Statistically?_

    2. _Morally?_

    1. _Has the number of the indigent augmented, diminished, or
    remained stationary?_

    2. _Does the law appear to have encouraged imprudent marriage
    or illicit intercourse?_

    The answers are implied in our previous statements. The
    existing system favours imprudent marriage and illicit
    intercourse,--but, precisely because it encourages marriage,
    probably does not augment the proportion of illegitimate
    to legitimate births. But the final result is, that it
    encourages, in an extraordinary degree, the increase of the
    indigent population. The abuses which have followed this fatal
    system are too numerous to be here detailed. It is easy to
    conceive what must have been its results on a populace whom
    education, or rather the want of education, has deprived of
    all honourable feeling, and of all preference of independence
    to public charity. Idleness, carelessness, improvident
    marriage, and illicit intercourse, have been encouraged by the
    prospect of making others support their results. All means and
    opportunities of acquiring knowledge, or skill, or regular
    occupation, have been neglected. Thence have arisen not only
    a constantly increasing burden upon society, but obstacles to
    the development of the physical and intellectual faculties,
    to moral improvement, and in short to the advancement of
    civilization. _Experience has clearly proved, that the number
    of paupers increases in proportion to the resources created for
    them, and that the bourgeois population is least industrious
    and least active, and endeavours least to be useful to society
    in those parishes which have the largest public property and
    public revenue._

    This state of things, and above all the constantly increasing
    burden in some parts of the country, and the demands urged by
    parishes on the State for protection against the claims and
    the insolence of the really and the pretended indigent, have
    determined the government to strive to remedy the evil at its
    source. We are still ignorant of the proposed principles of the
    new law. The plan, or at least the preparatory inquiry, is now
    going on in the offices of the Department of the Interior. It
    is nearly certain, however, that compulsory charity will be, if
    not entirely abolished, at least restricted to those poor who
    are incapable of work. But if assessment for the indigent is
    put an end to, the revenue of the properties appropriated to
    them will remain for their support.

    The administration of the poor-laws in the Canton of Berne is
    therefore on the eve of a radical reform.

The same views are more fully developed in a long and very able
supplement to these answers, which immediately follows them, and bears
the same official character--(pp. 220-222, and 225.)

    The administration of parochial property has not been properly
    audited by any parochial authorities: frequently and for many
    years it has remained in the hands of the same family; those to
    whom it has been intrusted have received little or no salary:
    a capricious and dishonest management were the obvious and
    almost the inevitable consequences. The mere nature of the
    transaction led to mal-administration. The poor who had a right
    to bourgeoisie had a right to relief. How could their conduct
    or their wants be ascertained, if they dwelt in other parishes,
    with whose authorities their own parish had no relation? Was
    it not almost inevitable that relief would be demanded with
    insolence and spent in idleness and debauchery?

    In some places in the mountains (such as Sieventhal and
    Grindelwald), the relief was given in kind; but with the
    increased circulation of money, money-relief has become
    general, and is exclusively afforded to out-parishioners. The
    facility with which such relief is mis-applied has favoured
    mis-management, and may be said to engender pauperism.

    _These fatal results have become more strongly felt as the
    number of the poor has augmented. In many places the growing
    embarrassment occasioned great and praiseworthy remedial
    efforts. The administration was made more regular, and
    inspectors and other officers appointed. Some country parishes
    erected alms-houses at an expense apparently beyond their
    means. But many of these fine institutions disappointed the
    hopes of their founders: we shall presently see why. These new
    measures and institutions were each the private affair of each
    parish; they failed because they were isolated. The beneficial
    measures of one parish were not supported by its neighbours.
    They followed their old routine, and opposed improvement by
    obstacles and dislike. Superintendence, which is essential to
    the administration of poor laws, was ineffectual, because it
    was applied only to the parishioners of the single commune
    which enforced it._

    During the last half century, other countries have acquired
    knowledge relative to alms-houses for the poor, and have
    adopted the results of the inquiries and experience of
    their neighbours. This has not been the case with our own
    establishments: their very origin was erroneous. They were
    the products of a philanthropy which proposed entirely to
    remedy all human misery. They were founded in villages, and
    proportioned each to the existing wants of the village. Their
    resources seldom permitted the adoption of the first condition
    of good administration, namely, classification. And even when
    we find a spacious building, we see heaped, pell-mell, children
    by the side of the old and infirm, and the sick mixed with
    able-bodied idlers. Even whole families are found in this
    assemblage of the good and bad, the sick and the healthy, the
    useful and the mischievous. In such establishments provision
    ought to have been made for the education of the children, the
    cure of the sick, the support of the aged, and the employment
    of the able-bodied. Each class of inmates required a separate
    treatment. The instant this principle is neglected, and
    classification abandoned, the institution not only loses its
    utility, but becomes actually mischievous. But each single
    establishment was governed by a single authority, unfit for
    the management of several dissimilar classes of inmates.
    In general, one uniform system was applied to them all. A
    further obstacle to the success of these establishments was
    the frequent change of their governors. As they were ill-paid
    and often subject to disagreeable contests with the local
    authorities, it was difficult to get good officers, and still
    more so to keep them. (p. 221.)

    Unfavourable as our representation of these establishments has
    been, the picture of the treatment of the poor in the other
    parts of the canton is still more gloomy and painful. In these
    districts (superintendence being absent) all that is not left
    to accident is regulated by habit, or by a routine without
    apparent motives.

    In such places no regular system is to be looked for. The
    most usual modes of affording relief are allowances in money,
    or payment of board. In some places, as in Emmenthal, the
    parochial charges are thrown on the large estates, and the
    proprietors are forced in turn, and gratuitously, to maintain
    the paupers who are allotted to them. In many other places
    it has long been the custom to send round the poor to be
    maintained in turn by the settled inhabitants (bourgeois), some
    of whom, though forced to receive paupers, are themselves in
    indigent, or even in distressed circumstances.

    Not less sad or even revolting is the practice which prevails
    in some poor and ill-judging parishes of getting rid of their
    poor by allotting them to those who will take them on the
    lowest terms. The parochial authorities offer an allowance to
    those who will receive such and such paupers. The allowance
    at first proposed is very small; but it is ready money, and
    public competition enables the parish to make it still smaller.
    The poor victim falls into the hands of a rapacious and needy
    family. We may conceive how deplorable his situation must
    always be. That it is sometimes supportable can be attributed
    only to a benevolence not yet entirely stifled in the hearts of
    our people. Cases even have occurred in which the proprietors,
    by allowing their inmates to work for themselves, have given
    them habits of industry, and bred up their children to be good
    workmen. But these exceptions only render the general rule more
    apparent.

    Relief in money produces effects equally pernicious. It is
    the result of the law which enables every family which is,
    or believes itself to be, in want, to demand a relief which
    cannot be refused. Small sums are given sometimes for payment
    of rent, sometimes to meet other wants, whether the applicant
    live in the parish or elsewhere--and without control or
    superintendence. What can, what must be the consequences? (p.
    222.)

    We cannot wonder, then, that the administration of the poor
    laws in the canton of Berne has become so irregular and so
    mischievous. The effects of the subdivision of the inhabitants
    into so many corporations have become more and more apparent.
    The principle of permanent and hereditary unions necessarily
    clashed with the principle of mobility and change which governs
    all our social relations. The welfare of the public necessarily
    gave way to that of the particular corporations, and the
    private interests of the corporations or parishes rendered
    them selfish and mutually hostile. _Obstacles were opposed
    to every change of residence, and consequently the industry
    and enterprise of the labouring classes were paralyzed, and
    the parishes felt the results of their own measures when an
    unemployed and dispirited population was thrown upon them. It
    was to be expected that in time this population would look for
    support to the relief to which they had a legal right; it was
    natural that in time they would get a taste for an idle and
    consequently vicious existence._ We could support our remarks
    by many instances of whole families which have subsisted like
    parasites from year to year, and from generation to generation,
    on the parochial funds; whose status it is to be paupers; and
    the cases in which they have emerged from this condition are
    few.

The government appears to have been struggling with these evils ever
since the beginning of this century. The first ordonnance which has
been forwarded to us is that of the 22d December, 1807.

The following are its most material enactments (pp. 191, 192):--

    The parishes and parochial corporations (bourgeoisies) in the
    town and in the country are required, as heretofore, to afford
    protection and relief to their needy fellow-citizens.

    No one can claim parochial relief unless he is without
    property, and either physically incapable of work, or out of
    employ without his own fault.

    Parishes may continue their previous modes of regulating and
    fixing their accounts with respect to the poor.

    They may likewise relieve their poor as they think fit,
    by regular money relief, by putting them out to board, by
    collecting them in a single establishment, or placing them in
    hospitals, or distributing among themselves the children of
    the indigent. But it is forbidden for the future that, except
    in cases of emergency, and with the sanction of the district
    authorities, they should be sent round from house to house to
    be maintained. Persons arrested for begging, and taken to their
    parish, shall be sentenced by the parochial authorities, after
    having given notice to the district judge. The punishment may
    be eight days’ imprisonment on bread and water, or fifteen
    days’ hard labour[8].

    _An equally rigorous treatment is to be applied to those who,
    being in the receipt of parochial relief, are disobedient, or
    give rise to well-founded complaint. They may be forbidden
    to enter inns, or drinking-shops, and punished in the
    above-mentioned manner if they disobey._

    Parishes may require their overseers to watch the conduct of
    those who, from extravagance, drunkenness, debauchery, or other
    misbehaviour, are in danger of poverty, and to proceed legally
    to have them placed under restrictions. Such persons may be
    forbidden by the prefect, on the application of the parish, to
    frequent, for a certain period, inns and drinking-shops.

    If a person who has received relief subsequently obtains
    any property, his parish may demand to be reimbursed their
    expenditure on his behalf, but without interest; and though
    they may not have exercised their right during his life, they
    may proceed against his estate after his death.

    _No pauper can marry without the consent of his parish, nor
    without having reimbursed it for the relief which he has
    received._ The same law applies to widowers, who, while
    married, had received relief for themselves or their children.
    None who are relieved in consequence of sickness or infirmity
    should be allowed to marry, except in extreme cases.

    No minister, unless with the permission of the parish, ought to
    announce from the pulpit the intended marriage of one whom he
    knows to be in the receipt of relief.

    If children, in consequence of the idleness, debauchery,
    gambling, or voluntary desertion of their father, become
    chargeable to the parish, and it is alleged that the father if
    he had been industrious and frugal could have supported them,
    the overseers may bring an action against him for the amount
    of the relief which has been afforded to his children; and if
    he do not pay he may be suspended from the exercise of all
    civil rights and claims as a bourgeois, _or be sentenced to not
    exceeding two years’ imprisonment in a house of correction_. A
    second offence is to be more severely punished.

    A mother wilfully abandoning her children shall be taken
    back to her parish and there kept to work. If she refuse, or
    attempt to escape, she may, on the requisition of her parish,
    and subject to an appeal to the Council of State, be sentenced
    to not exceeding three years’ imprisonment in a house of
    correction.

    Women who have had several bastards chargeable to the parish
    may, on the requisition of their parishes, be similarly
    punished. No one receiving, or who has received, parochial
    assistance, either on his own account or on that of his
    children can, unless specially authorized so to do by his
    parish, be present at parochial meetings, until he has repaid
    all the sums advanced to him.

    If any person entitled to parochial relief shall be refused,
    or insufficiently relieved, he may complain to the Prefect,
    who shall thereupon hear the allegations of the parish,
    and ascertain the condition of the complainant, with the
    assistance, if he has any doubt as to the existence or degree
    of his bodily infirmities, of a physician. The Prefect may then
    order such relief as may appear to him necessary, but no part
    of it is to be given in money.

It appears, however, to have been unsuccessful; for 12 years after,
the government, after having in vain offered rewards for good advice
on the subject (p. 225), by an ordonnance dated the 14th April, 1819,
absolutely forbade the levying of rates higher than the average of
those of the years 1813, 1814, and 1815. The failure of so coarse a
remedy might have been predicted, and accordingly we find the present
state of the country thus described in the official report (p. 214):--

    It is evident that, with respect to pauperism, the present
    situation of the Canton de Berne is in the highest degree
    painful. The evil is not temporary or partial: it arises from
    no external or accidental sources: a considerable portion of
    the population is attacked by it, and it is spreading itself,
    like a moral blight, over the whole community.

    Some districts, or some classes, may perhaps suffer less
    than others, but the malady continues its progress and its
    extension: if it decrease in one place, it grows in another. It
    is indeed evident that it contains within itself the elements
    of its own increase. Not merely the annual augmentation
    of the number of paupers, but their constantly increasing
    misconduct, their carelessness, and insolence, and above all,
    their utter immorality, prove the augmenting force of the
    evil; an evil which must destroy all benevolent feelings, and
    swallow up, without being satisfied, all that charity can
    supply. The contagious nature of the disease carries it beyond
    the indigent, to invade and destroy the classes immediately
    above them. Those whose daily labour ought to have supported
    them, and those small proprietors whose properties ought to
    have enabled them to maintain their families, satisfy their
    engagements, and contribute to the relief of the poor, even
    these classes throw themselves among the really indigent, and
    add weight to the load which oppresses those who cannot escape
    the poor tax.

[8] It is not easy to say what is meant by the original; whether
labour in irons, “enchainement au bloc,” is a necessary part of
the punishment or not.



Causes favourable to the working of the above institutions.


We have now given a very brief outline of the institutions of those
portions of the Continent which appear, from the returns, to have
adopted the English principle of acknowledging in every person a right
to be supported by the public. It will be observed that in no country,
except, perhaps, the Canton de Berne, has compulsory relief produced
evils resembling, either in intensity or in extent, those which we have
experienced; and that in the majority of the nations which have adopted
it, the existing system appears to work well.

These opposite consequences from the adoption of the same principle,
may be accounted for on several different grounds.

[Sidenote: 1. Villenage.]

1. Among some of the nations in question villenage still exists. Now
where slavery, in any of its forms, prevails, the right of the slave
or villein to support is a necessary and a safe consequence. It is
necessary, because a person who is not a free agent cannot provide for
himself. It is safe, because one of the principal evils of pauperism,
improvidence, can scarcely exist among slaves, and the power of the
master enables him to prevent idleness and fraud. The poor laws of
Russia, therefore, if they can be called poor laws, are merely parts of
her system of slavery.

[Sidenote: 2. Recency of the system.]

2. Among most of the other nations in question the compulsory system
is in its infancy. Denmark has only lately got rid of slavery, and her
poor laws date from 1798. Those of Sweden, in their present form, of
Mecklenburg, Saxony, Wurtemberg and Bavaria, all bear the appearance
of recency. In Wurtemberg assessments had been long obsolete, until
they were re-introduced during the famine of 1817. The only country in
which the compulsory system appears to have continued as long as it has
in England, is that in which it has produced effects resembling those
which have followed it with us, namely, the Canton de Berne.

[Sidenote: 3. Small number of persons wholly dependent on wages.]

3. Another circumstance which renders compulsory relief less dangerous
in the countries which we have been considering than in our own, is
the economical situation of their labouring population. In England
the great mass of the people are day-labourers, enjoying, where they
have escaped the oppression of poor law abuses, high wages and steady
employment, but possessed of little visible property, and seldom
living under their masters’ roof. Such persons are not deterred from
demanding relief by the fear of losing their property, since, where
they have any, it is capable of concealment; and they need not always
even fear degradation, since the fact of their receiving it may often
be concealed. There are many instances in the Poor Law Evidence in
which the masters, and even the companions of paupers, were not aware
of their receiving allowance. But the class of persons without visible
property, which constitutes the bulk of English society, forms the
small minority of that of the north of Europe. The Norwegian return
states, (698 and 699) that at the last census in 1825, out of a
population of 1,051,318 persons, there were 59,464 freeholders. As by
59,464 freeholders must be meant 59,464 heads of families, or about
300,000 individuals, the freeholders must form more than a fourth of
the whole population. Mr. Macgregor states (p. 300) that in Denmark (by
which Zealand and the adjoining islands are probably meant), out of a
population of 926,110, the number of landed proprietors and farmers is
415,110, or nearly one-half. In Sleswick Holstein, out of a population
of 604,085, it is 196,017, or about one-third. The proportion of
proprietors and farmers to the whole population is not given in Sweden;
but the Stockholm return estimates the average quantity of land annexed
to a labourer’s habitation at from one to five acres (p. 375); and
though the Gottenburg return gives a lower estimate, it adds, that
the peasants possess much of the land. (p. 387.) In Wurtemberg we are
told that more than two-thirds of the labouring population are the
proprietors of their own habitations, and that almost all own at least
a garden of from three-quarters of an acre to an acre and a half. (p.
511.)

All the returns concur in stating the number of day-labourers to be
very small.

The Norwegian report states, that “by law servants should never be
hired for a shorter period than a twelvemonth. Employing labourers
by the day, though often done in and about towns, is consequently
illegal.” (p. 695.) Few day-labourers are to be met with. (p. 698.)
The Gottenburgh, that “strictly speaking there are in Sweden few
labourers on the same footing as in England.” (p. 387.) The Russian,
that “the labourers are almost all slaves,” and that “the average
quantity of land allowed by a proprietor to his slave is 15 acres.” (p.
334.) The Danish report, that “the day-labourers form in Zealand and
the adjoining islands less than one-fifth, and in Sleswick Holstein
less than one-third of the agricultural population.” (p. 300.) The
Wurtemberg report states the labourers to amount to 41,913 (meaning
of course heads of families, or about 210,000 individuals) out of a
population of 1,518,147, being in fact less than 1-7th. (p. 514.) The
Bavarian, that “in the country there are very few day-labourers, as
almost every person has some ground of his own, and few are rich enough
to hire labour.” (p. 556.)

It is probable therefore that the class of persons who in the north of
Europe and Germany would be exposed to the temptation of applying for
public relief if it were granted on the same terms as in England, would
be a small minority instead of a large majority, and would be perhaps a
seventh, fifth, or at most a third instead of three-fourths, or even a
larger proportion of the whole community.

[Sidenote: 4. The situation of the pauper being made less eligible than
that of the independent labourer.]

4. But the conditions on which parochial assistance is afforded in the
countries in question, form perhaps the principal difference between
their systems and that which we have adopted. In England, where the
scale and the allowance system prevail, no condition whatever can be
said to be imposed on the pauper. What he receives is a mere gratuitous
addition to his income. Even where work is required, the hours are in
general fewer, and the labour less severe than those of the independent
labourer. And the workhouse, the most powerful of our instruments of
repression, affords, in general, food, lodging, clothing and warmth,
better than can be found in the cottage, _and may be quitted at a day’s
notice_.

But in all the countries which we have been considering, except the
Canton de Berne and perhaps Denmark, the great object of pauper
legislation, that of rendering the situation of the pauper less
agreeable than that of the independent labourer, has been effectually
attained.

On recurring to the statements which we have extracted, it will be
seen that he loses all right to property; that he becomes incapable of
contracting marriage while receiving relief, and in many countries,
if he have once received relief, cannot marry until he has reimbursed
the parish, or has procured security that his future family shall not
become chargeable, or till three years have elapsed since he last
received relief. If married, he loses control over his children, he
cannot choose his residence or his occupation, and if he once becomes
the inmate of a workhouse _he incurs the risk of imprisonment for
life_. When such are the terms offered by the public, it is easy to
understand that none but the really destitute will accept them.

[Sidenote: 5. Restraints imposed on the labouring classes.]

5. The prevalence of habits productive of pauperism is repressed
by subjecting the whole labouring population to superintendence
and restrictions, which we should consider vexatious. As they are
in a great measure interwoven with the laws for the relief of the
unemployed, and have been in general already stated, it is not
necessary to repeat them.

[Sidenote: 6. Prevention of improvident marriage.]

6. In almost all the countries which have been mentioned, endeavours
are made to prevent the existence of a redundant population, by
throwing obstacles in the way of improvident marriage. Marriage on
the part of persons in the actual receipt of relief, appears to be
everywhere prohibited, and the marriage of those who are not likely to
possess the means of independent support, is allowed by very few.

Thus we are told that in Norway no one can marry without “showing,
to the satisfaction of the clergyman, that he is permanently settled
in such a manner as to offer a fair prospect that he can maintain a
family.” (p. 697.)

In Mecklenburg, that “marriages are delayed by conscription in the 22d
year, and military service for six years; besides, the parties must
have a dwelling, without which a clergyman is not permitted to marry
them. The men marry at from 25 to 30, the women not much earlier, as
both must first gain by service enough to establish themselves.” (p.
423.)

In Saxony, “that a man may not marry before he is 21 years old, if
liable to serve in the army.” In Dresden, “professionists, (by which
word artizans are probably meant,) may not marry until they become
masters in their trade.” (p. 482.)

In Wurtemberg, “that no man is allowed to marry till his 25th year,
on account of his military duties, unless permission be especially
obtained or purchased: at that age he must also obtain permission,
which is granted on proving that he and his wife would have together
sufficient to maintain a family, or to establish themselves; in large
towns, say from 800 to 1000 florins, (from 66_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._ to
84_l._ 3_s._ 4_d._;) in smaller, from 400 to 500 florins; in villages,
200 florins, (16_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._) They must not be persons of
disorderly or dissolute lives, drunkards, or under suspicion of crime,
and they must not have received any assistance from their parish within
the last three years.” (p. 511.)

And we have seen that a similar law prevails and is strictly enforced
in Bavaria.

[Sidenote: 7. Provision for the education of the labouring classes.]

7. Another means by which the extension of pauperism is opposed in the
countries which we have described, is the care taken by the government
to provide for the education of the labouring classes. We are told
(pp. 695 and 698) that in Norway their children have free access to
the parish schools, and that the poor pay for the education of their
children, and for religious teachers, nothing or nearly so. The general
report from Russia states (p. 332) that every parish in every town has
a school which is open to children of all classes, under the direction
of the clergyman; and this is borne out by the consular return from
Archangel. (p. 337.) The Gottenburg report states (p. 385) that in
Sweden gratuitous education is provided for children of the indigent,
and that it is asserted that there is not one person out of 1000 who
cannot at least read. The Danish reports state (pp. 264, 293) that
the children of all poor persons are educated gratuitously: that the
parish is taxed for the payment of the schoolmaster, the repairs of
the schoolhouse, books, papers, pens, ink, &c.; and that parents are
bound under a penalty to send their children regularly to school
until they have passed the age of 14, and been confirmed. Gratuitous
education is also afforded in Mecklenburg (p. 491) and in Prussia.
Mr. Gibsone states, as the general law of the country, that “all
children capable of going to school are obliged to attend it. Those
whose parents are unable to pay the expense, must be sent thither at
the cost of the community to which they belong” (p. 460); “the expense
of school-money and religious instruction is about 1_s._ 6_d._ yearly
for each child.” (p. 466.) In the detailed regulation for the relief
of the poor in Berlin, (p. 455,) it is laid down that “the period of
children being sent to school regularly commences at the beginning of
the child’s seventh year, and terminates when the child, according to
the testimony of the minister, has acquired the knowledge necessary for
his station in life, which generally occurs on his attaining his 14th
year. If parents allow their children to grow up without instruction,
the commissioners for the relief of the poor are to remonstrate with
them, and should this be of no avail, the commissary of police is
to interfere.” In Saxony, “the local poor commission supports free
schools.” (p. 480.)

The care which has been bestowed on this subject in Wurtemberg
is remarkable. The government report, after stating the recent
introduction and success of infant schools, adds that--

    For older children, from the age of 6 to 14, there has long
    existed in Wurtemberg in every, even the smallest community,
    supported chiefly at the expense of the local church estate
    and community fund, and of the parents, with the co-operation,
    however, of the public treasury, a _German or elementary
    school_, which all children of that age, both boys and girls,
    must attend, and in which, with the exception of short holidays
    during the time of haymaking, harvest and vintage, they receive
    throughout the year every day, with the exception of Sundays
    and holidays, in winter for five and in summer for at least two
    hours, instruction in religion, morality, singing, the German
    language, reading, writing, arithmetic, and the elements of
    natural philosophy, natural history, geography and history.
    In summer, in consideration of the work in the fields, the
    instruction is given as much as possible in the morning; and
    at the season when the labours of the field are the most
    urgent, and in cases of great poverty, an exception is made
    in favour of those children, where it is required, who, on
    application, are excused two or three times a week from coming
    to school. With this exception, every illegal neglect of school
    is punished by a fine of two or three kreutzers, and if the
    neglect of attending is continued, from four to six kreutzers;
    and no child, even if it has completed the 14th year, is
    suffered to leave the elementary school till it has acquired
    sufficient knowledge of what is taught there. (p. 528.)

    As, however, many poor children endeavour notwithstanding to
    avoid attending the elementary schools, and in all cases the
    instruction in these elementary schools occupies only the
    smaller portion of the day, so that those poor children who are
    not properly attended and employed by their parents have still
    plenty of time for idleness and beggary; attempts have latterly
    been made in some places to put such children under special
    superintendence, as, for instance, by appointing a guardian for
    each poor child in the person of an overseer or other public
    officer of the community, or of a neighbour, who has to observe
    it every where, at home, at work, at play; or by periodical
    general summons to the several parents; or by periodical
    visitations in the houses of poor families, especially of
    those who are suspected of not paying proper attention to the
    education of their children; or by the periodical exhibition
    of the work done at home; or by the public performance of some
    work as a specimen; or by gratuitously providing the poor
    children with tools and materials; by the distribution of
    rewards among the most diligent and skilful of the children;
    and by exhorting, summoning, and punishing negligent parents;
    by these means to acquire the certainty that such children are
    kept to the constant attendance of the church and school, and
    to doing their tasks; that they are sufficiently employed in a
    suitable manner; that they are not ill-treated, either by being
    overworked or by unmerited corporal chastisement; that they
    are not neglected with respect to clothing and cleanliness;
    and that they are not abandoned to idleness, beggary and other
    vices, &c. (p. 529.)

    Partly to retain, by practice, what they have learnt in
    the elementary schools, and partly to promote the further
    improvement of the grown-up youth, a _Sunday School_ is kept
    in every community in Wurtemberg, in the common school-room,
    where every youth and girl above 14 years of age, in the
    Protestant places to their 18th, and in Catholic places to
    their 21st year, must go every Sunday, or where there is only
    one school-room the youths and girls every Sunday alternately,
    and attend the lessons for at least an hour and a half, on
    pain of paying four kreutzers, and if the neglect is of long
    continuance, six kreutzers, for every time that they remain
    away. It may be added, that, according to the existing laws,
    more care has lately been taken that young persons of this
    age, unless they are wanted to assist their parents in their
    domestic and field-work, particularly those who are educated at
    the public expense, and the poor girls and youths discharged
    from the penal establishments, _do not remain at home with
    their families_, or, out of love to a more unrestrained way of
    life, endeavour to gain a livelihood as _Eigenbrödler_[9], as
    they are called, merely by sewing, knitting, &c., but that they
    try either to engage as servants or learn a trade. (p. 534.)

The Bavarian poor law enacts, that all the children of the poor shall,
without favour and without regard to the usual pretexts, be kept to the
practice of the public school and religious instructions, as also of
frequenting the work and industry schools, and of learning a trade. The
school money is to be paid from the poor institutions. (p. 559.)

Among all the Continental communities which recognize in the poor the
right to relief, the only one which does not appear to provide the
means of education, and to enforce their being made use of, is that
in which pauperism has become absolutely intolerable, namely, the
Canton de Berne; and even there any aubain (or person not entitled to
bourgeoisie in the parish in which he resides) may be summarily ejected
(unless possessed of landed property in it), if it can be proved that
he does not either send his children to school or provide otherwise for
their education. (p. 199.)

[Sidenote: 8. Central superintendence.]

8. Lastly, in most of the countries which have been considered,
the local administration of the laws for the relief of the poor is
controlled by a central superintending authority.

The only countries, the reports from which state that this is not
the case, are Sweden, Denmark, and Berne; and we have seen both that
these are the three countries in which the poor laws are the worst
administered, and that in all of them the mal-administration which the
reporters deplore is mainly attributed by them to the absence of a
central control.

[9] “_Eigenbrödler_” means one who endeavours to earn a livelihood
independently.

       *       *       *       *       *

We now proceed to give a short outline of the institutions for the
relief of the poor in those countries which do not appear, from
the reports in this Appendix, to acknowledge a legal right in the
applicant.



HANSEATIC TOWNS.


_Hamburgh._

1. HAMBURGH.--The situation of Hamburgh, a large commercial town, with
a small territory and few manufactures, exposes it to a considerable
influx of foreign poor; and the number of charitable establishments
appears to have fostered and still to encourage pauperism to an
extent exceeding the average of the north of Europe. It appears from
the Consul-general’s return, that besides many endowed schools,
hospitals, and almshouses, the city possesses a general institution
for the poor, supported by the interest of its own capital and by some
voluntary contributions, and considerable advances from the treasury
of the State. A report has been furnished of the proceedings of that
institution during the year 1832.

It appears by that report (pp. 397, 398) that in 1832, 141,858 current
dollars, or about 25,000_l._ sterling, was distributed in money, by
way of weekly relief among registered or regular poor, amounting at
an average to 2,900 individuals, or heads of families; the smallest
weekly relief being 8 schillings or 7_d._ sterling; the largest for an
individual, 2 dollars or 7_s._ sterling; and for family, 3 dollars or
10_s._ 6_d._ Half of the adult paupers appear to have been foreigners.
Besides the amount of money relief, considerable sums were expended
in the distribution of soup, clothing, beds and bed clothing, and
fuel, and in the education and maintenance of poor children, and in
medical relief to the sick. Both the Consul’s report and that of
the institution, lament the absence of a workhouse. “Of those who
are capable, but will not work,” says the latter, “a great number
to be sure will be found: the only help against this would perhaps
be an institution, under a strict superintendence of the police,
for compelling them to work; the want of which, from the undeniably
increasing degeneration of our lowest class of people, is sensibly
felt from year to year.” (p. 402.) This statement is borne out by the
progressive increase of the registered paupers, from 2,332 in May 1826
to 2,969 in May 1832, and by the large amount of the regular out-door
relief in money, amounting, on a population of 130,000, to very
nearly 4_s._ a head. Further evidence of the extent of pauperism is
afforded by the number of persons buried in 1832 at the expense of the
institution, which was 459, or nearly one-tenth of the average number
of deaths.

No means exist of forcing parents to educate their children; a defect
deplored by the institution. (p. 403.)


_Bremen._

2. BREMEN.--The poor institutions of Bremen seem to resemble those
of Hamburgh; but the general enforcement of education, the use of a
workhouse, and perhaps other circumstances not mentioned in the report,
appear to have rendered their results more beneficial. The following
answers to questions 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Commissioners’ questions,
give a short outline of the existing system:--

    3. To what extent and under what regulations are there district
    houses of industry for receiving the destitute able-bodied,
    or any part of their families, and supplying them with food,
    clothes, &c., and in which they are set to work?--There
    exists but one poor-house in Bremen, in which the destitute
    able-bodied are received, to the number of 220, lodged, fed,
    and clothed, for which they are bound to work, for the benefit
    of the institution, as far as they are able.

    4. To what extent and under what regulations do any religious
    institutions give assistance to the destitute, by receiving
    them as inmates, or by giving them alms?--Independently of
    three houses for the lodging and partly providing for poor
    widows, free of expense, there are other buildings set apart
    for the reception of poor superannuated or helpless women;
    but chiefly a number of private institutions for the relief
    of poor deserving persons by testamentary bequests. Such are
    the Rheden, the Tiedemann, the Nonnen, the Von Bühren, &c., so
    called.

    5. To what extent and under what regulations is work provided
    at their own dwellings for those who have trades, but do not
    procure work for themselves?--This is done, but in a very
    limited degree, at the public expense, as those who have trades
    come under the care and superintendence of their respective
    guilds, whose duty and credit it is to prevent any of their
    fraternity coming upon the parish, and who can easily afford
    the means of providing them with work. Females, on application
    to the poor-house, may receive hemp and flax for spinning, and
    are remunerated accordingly.

    7. To what extent and under what regulations are fuel,
    clothing, or money distributed to such persons or their
    families; at all times of the year, or during any particular
    seasons?--Those who are registered in the poor-house list, and
    thus come under the superintendence and control of the parish
    officers, receive, as long as they may require assistance,--1.
    A small monthly allowance in money. 2. Clothing for themselves
    and their families. 3. If necessary, bedding. 4. In the winter,
    during severe frost, fuel.

    8. To what extent and under what regulations are they relieved
    by their children being taken into schools, and fed, clothed,
    and educated or apprenticed?--Means are not only afforded to
    the poor for sending their children to school and for giving
    them religious instruction, but they are here compelled to do
    so, on pain of forfeiting all claim to parochial relief, or
    by other modes of punishment. _That every child in the State,
    of whatever descent, shalt be subjected to school discipline
    and tuition_, is founded upon the principle, that no means so
    effectually obviates that general poverty, among the lower
    classes in particular, as an attention to the development of
    their minds, by which they acquire that self-confidence that
    stimulates exertion, and that proper spirit of independence
    that keeps them above want, whilst by religious instruction
    they are impressed with a sense of the duties and advantages
    of good moral conduct through life. It has ever been the
    prevailing opinion in this Republic, that the principal duty
    of the State towards bettering the condition of its poorer
    classes, rests upon a due regard to this school discipline,
    and that it tends in its practice to prevent the frequent
    recurrence of application for relief in the same family; the
    descendants of which, without such control, would habitually
    and irrecoverably become, in their turn, dependents upon
    public charity. When such children have arrived at the age of
    14 or 15 years, after having been taught reading, writing,
    arithmetic, and any other acquirement consistent with their
    situation, books, and other materials being furnished them by
    the poor-house, gratis; they are, after confirmation, generally
    put out to service, and thus prevented from returning to the
    idle habits of their parents. Girls are, in like manner, often
    provided for. They are taught reading, writing, knitting, and
    needle-work. (pp. 410, 411.)


_Lubeck._

3. LUBECK.--If the statistical returns respecting Lubeck, which
however do not appear to rest on enumeration, can be depended on, the
proportion of deaths, births, and marriages to the whole population is
less than in any other part of Europe. The deaths being stated to be 1
in 56; the births 1 in 53½; and the marriages 1 in 177. And, what is
perhaps the strongest indication of the general welfare of a community,
the deaths under the age of one year are stated to be only 1 in 7. The
following answers to questions 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8, may be compared with
the corresponding answers from Bremen:

    3. To what extent and under what regulations are there district
    houses of industry for receiving the destitute able-bodied,
    or any part of their families, and supplying them with
    food, clothes, &c., and in which they are set to work?--No
    other institution of this kind exists here but the work and
    poor-house, called the Cloister, into which, however, none are
    admitted but persons totally incapable of contributing to their
    own support, whether from drunkenness or other incapacitating
    causes.

    4. To what extent and under what regulations do any religious
    institutions give assistance to the destitute, by receiving
    them as inmates, or by giving them alms?--We have none such,
    but a collection is made in all our churches every Sunday for
    the poor; this, however, being a regular matter-of-course
    thing, yields comparatively small sums, which are privately
    distributed to poor persons by the churchwardens and deacons.

    5. To what extent and under what regulations is work
    provided at their own dwellings for those who have trades,
    but do procure work for themselves?--or for such persons in
    agriculture or on public works? Every able-bodied man is
    supposed capable of providing for himself, and no such work
    or relief is afforded him. In winter, many poor women are
    supplied with a little work by the overseers of the workhouse,
    who give them flax to spin. The average annual quantity thus
    spun is about 6000 to 6500 pounds, the pay for which, amounting
    to about 130_l._ annually, relieves about 300 poor women.
    The linen yarn thus spun is disposed of by lottery among the
    wealthier classes. No work is supplied at the public expense
    or by public institutions to able-bodied men, merely because
    they are destitute; they must seek and find it themselves,
    and are of course accepted and employed on public works, as
    far as there is a demand for them. Having no relief to expect
    elsewhere, they are of course spurred on to exertion, and if
    sober and of good character, it may be generally assumed that
    they find work, at least sufficient for their bare existence,
    since, if a man can earn but a few pence daily, it will suffice
    to support him in this country.

    7. To what extent and under what regulations are fuel,
    clothing, or money, distributed to such persons or their
    families; at all times of the year, or during any particular
    seasons?--As above stated, no relief of this kind is afforded
    to able-bodied men; their families, if considered destitute,
    may perhaps obtain the relief afforded by the poor-board to the
    poor generally, by means of portions of cheap food daily during
    the five winter months, and four times a week during the other
    part of the year. About 230,000 such portions are distributed
    annually, and bread to the value of about 60_l._ Fuel is
    distributed during the severer part of the winter, but money
    is rarely given, and only in extreme cases, never exceeding
    one mark, or about 14_d._ sterling a week, to the same party.
    Clothing forms no part of the relief afforded. In Lubeck these
    various kinds of relief are partaken of by about 850 persons
    annually.

    8. To what extent, and under what regulations, are they
    relieved by their children being taken into schools, and
    fed, clothed, and educated, or apprenticed?--Not only are
    all the children of the poor admitted into the poor-schools
    for instruction gratis, but when relief is afforded by the
    poor-board, it is on the positive condition that they shall
    send their children to such schools. Neither food, clothing,
    nor any further provision is afforded them, in these schools,
    excepting in a very few extreme cases, in which the maintenance
    of very young children is undertaken by the poor-board. The
    number of children in our poor-schools averages about 300. (p.
    415, 416.)

    The allowance in our poor and workhouse for every individual,
    is--

      Daily:--1½ lb. of coarse rye bread.
              2½ --     vegetables or porridge, such as potatoes,
                        yellow peas, green peas, dried white
                        beans, carrots, peeled barley, cabbage, &c.,
                        according to the season, and sometimes rice.
              1 bottle of weak beer.

    Monthly:--1½ lb. of meat, and
               ½ lb. of butter, lard, or fat, to cook the food with.
                        (p. 420.)

    Marriages among the poor are delayed by the necessity a man is
    under, _first_, of previously proving that he is in a regular
    employ, work, or profession, that will enable him to maintain
    a wife; and _secondly_, of becoming a burgher, and equipping
    himself in the uniform of the burgher guard, which, together,
    may cost him nearly 4_l._ (p. 419.)

    The condition of the labouring classes living on their own
    earnings is considered by themselves to be far superior to
    that of the paupers maintained in our poor-house. The partial
    assistance afforded by the poor-board is chiefly directed
    towards aiding those who are not devoid of honest pride, and
    have some feelings of independence left, who consequently
    earn their own maintenance as far as they can, and are thus
    assisted in their endeavours to support themselves, and keep
    out of the workhouse. The aid they receive is proportioned to
    their age and families, and is mostly granted to females; it
    is gratefully received, and no idea exists of ever thinking it
    a right. As a rule, no persons fully able to work can receive
    assistance; they are therefore forced to seek out employment,
    and may be generally presumed to succeed. If they get but a
    moderate portion of work, very trifling earnings place them
    in a situation much more eligible than that of the pauper
    maintained in the poor-house. (p. 418.)



FRANKFORT ON THE MAIN.


The institutions for the relief of the poor in Frankfort do not appear
to require much notice.

The most striking circumstance mentioned in the report is, that the
orphans and deserted children brought up in the public establishments
are so carefully and successfully educated, that on an average they
turn out better than those merely kept to school and living at home.
(p. 567.) Permission to marry is not granted to a person who cannot
prove his ability to support a family.



HOLLAND.


As the Canton de Berne appears to be the portion of continental Europe
in which the burthen of legal relief is most oppressive, Holland
appears to be that in which pauperism, unaided by a legal claim, is the
most rapidly advancing. The Appendix contains an official communication
from the Dutch government, and answers from His Majesty’s Consul in
Amsterdam, to the Commissioners’ questions.

The clearest general view of the mode in which relief is administered,
is contained in the following extract from the Consul’s report: (p.
581.)

    [Sidenote: General view of the Dutch system.]

    The main support of the poor is derived from religious
    communities and charitable institutions. Every denomination of
    Christians, as well as the Jews, relieve their own members;
    and for this purpose have, for the most part, orphan and
    poor-houses, and schools connected with them, which are
    supported by property belonging to them, and by voluntary
    contributions at the church-doors, and collections at the
    houses of the members: the Jews being permitted occasionally
    to make a general collection throughout the city for their
    own purposes. These establishments, among the Protestants
    (the most numerous community), are called Deaconries; and
    they provide not only for the support of their indigent
    members, but also for their relief in sickness. The deacons,
    who have the immediate superintendence of the poor, limit the
    assistance given according to the exigency of the case, which
    they investigate very narrowly; and by becoming particularly
    acquainted with the situation of the applicants, are enabled to
    detect any imposition. The pecuniary relief afforded is very
    small, and can only be considered as in aid of the exertions
    of the poor to earn their own support, being limited to a
    few pence in the week; a weekly donation of 2 florins (or
    40_d._) being looked upon as one of the largest. In winter,
    provisions, fuel, and clothing, are given in preference to
    money. The aged and infirm are admitted into the poor-houses,
    where, and at the schools, the children are educated, and
    afterwards put out to different trades, till they are able
    to provide for themselves. The deacons act gratuitously; and
    being of the most respectable class of citizens, elected by
    the churches to that office, the conscientious discharge of
    it is ensured, and in consequence, malversations seldom take
    place. The general poor (being inhabitants), including persons
    who are and are not members of religious communities (Jews
    excepted), are relieved at their own houses from the revenue of
    property, long since appropriated to that use, administered by
    commissioners appointed by the magistrates, and acting without
    emolument (as is the case with most similar offices in this
    country), and in aid of which public charitable collections at
    private houses are permitted, while any eventful deficiency is
    supplied from the funds of the city; but the relief afforded by
    these means is very small, and is confined chiefly to bread,
    with the addition of fuel in winter. Without other resources,
    therefore, or the assistance of private charity, the claimants
    could hardly subsist upon what they obtain in this way. By
    a decree passed in the year 1818, it was enacted, that the
    domicile of a male pauper is the place of his birth, superseded
    by the place where he has resided four years and paid taxes;
    and that of a child, the residence of his father, or of his
    mother, if a widow. That the domicile of a stranger is the
    place where he has resided six years; of married women and
    widows, the place of their husband’s residence; of legitimate
    minors, that of their fathers’, and of illegitimate, that of
    their mothers’. This decree, fixing the domicile of paupers
    for the purpose of obtaining relief, and a subsequent one, by
    which gratuitous legal advice is allowed them, if they apply
    for it, implies that they have a claim to support, which can
    be enforced at law; but as the funds from which this support
    must be obtained are uncertain, the amount of the relief that
    can be given depends upon their extent, and it is in fact left
    at the discretion of the overseers, who have the faculty of
    withholding it on the proof of bad conduct of the recipients,
    or when their children do not properly attend the school, or
    have been neglected to be vaccinated. Those not members of
    churches are, moreover, admonished to join some religious
    community, and must promise to do so the first opportunity.
    The decree above alluded to also regulates the proceedings
    of one town against another, and of religious and charitable
    institutions at the same place, in respect to paupers. There
    are at Amsterdam, besides, a variety of private establishments
    for the poor of different religious denominations, endowed by
    charitable persons, in which the poor are relieved in different
    ways, according to prescribed regulations. _In general, the
    funds of all the public charitable institutions have greatly
    diminished, while the number of claimants has much increased,
    which causes frequent and urgent appeals to the public
    benevolence._ In the country, the same system prevails, and
    the deacons or office-bearers of the churches are often called
    upon during the winter to assist in the support of indigent
    labourers with families, till the return of spring enables them
    to find work; but there are few permanent poor there, except
    the old and infirm, who are generally boarded in poor-houses in
    the adjoining town. (p. 582.)

It will be observed that the Consul considers the law which fixes the
domicile of a pauper, and entitles him to legal advice, as implying in
him a legal right to relief. We understand, however, that no such right
is in practice acknowledged. And as a large proportion of the fund for
the relief of the poor arises from endowments, the law may fix the
legal settlement of every person, that is, his right to participate in
the endowments of a particular parish, and allow him legal assistance
in establishing it, without giving to him that indefinite claim which
exists in those countries in which every person has a right to receive
from the public subsistence for himself and his family.

The official report contains the following details respecting the funds
from which public relief is afforded: (pp. 573, 574, 575.)

    The principle which invariably has been acted on is, that
    the charge of relieving the poor should in the first place
    rest on the overseers of the poor of the religious sects in
    each parish; but when the means of the administration of the
    poor are not sufficient, they can indiscriminately (without
    reference to the sect to which such poor belong) apply
    to the local administration for relief, which, after due
    investigation, generally grants it, according to the means
    of the municipal administration, which is regulated by its
    direction.

    Paupers, however, who are not members of any congregation, or
    any religious sect, in the place where they live and receive
    relief, or where no ecclesiastical charity for the poor exists,
    are supported by the municipal administration of the place
    where they live and obtain their support; for which purpose,
    in several cities and parishes, a separate administration
    for the poor is established responsible to the municipal
    administration; whereas in the remaining cities and parishes
    such relief is granted either by the burgomaster, or by an
    overseer of the poor nominated by him.

    The hospitals, which in many cities exist, are for the greater
    part government establishments, which are administered on
    account of the local magistracy, by a number of directors
    appointed thereto, in which hospitals all inmates, without
    any distinction as to religion, are taken in; some of these
    hospitals are however separate foundations, which exist wholly,
    or in part, on their own revenues.

    Amongst the orphan houses and charities for children and old
    people, there are several establishments which exist wholly
    or in part on their own revenues; whereas the remainder are
    generally the property of particular church administrations of
    the poor, which in great cities is almost generally the case in
    orphan houses, or charities for children.

    Foundlings and abandoned children, at the charge of the
    place in which they are abandoned, are provided for in the
    establishment for children of the society for charitable
    purposes; by which institution the beggars are also provided
    for in the establishments appropriated for that purpose, and
    acknowledged by the government, at the charge of the place
    where they have a claim for relief.

    There exist three local workhouses, one at Amsterdam, one at
    Middleburgh, and one in the commonalty Nieuwe Pekel A., in the
    province of Groningen, in which paupers, generally those who
    apply of their own accord, are taken in, upon condition that
    they contribute to their support as much as possible by labour:
    further, there are in several places twenty-one charitable
    houses of industry, which procure work for paupers who are in
    immediate want of work, either in the houses of industry, or at
    their own dwellings.

    Besides the before-mentioned institutions, there are also
    various places, unions, and societies, the intentions of which
    are to grant relief in some way or other; namely, some for the
    relief of very indigent poor; others for granting relief to
    poor lying-in-women; and the commissions or societies which
    during the winter distribute provisions and fuel.

    For the twelve years from 1820 to 1831, the receipts of the
    administration for the established charity houses, and those
    of the hospitals, taken on an average for each year, amount
    together;

                                                           | Guilders.
    1. The revenues of properties and acknowledged rights  | 2,461,883   26
    2. Proceeds of collections                             | 1,320,551   48
    3. Subsidies granted by                                |
               _a._ The parishes             1,779,719   67|
               _b._ The provinces of the State  38,642   78|
                                             --------------+ 1,818,362   45
                                                           +---------------
                                      Making      Guilders | 5,600,797   19
                                                           |
    By which all the disbursements of these                |
    institutions are covered.                              |
                                                           |
    And if to the above-mentioned sum are added, for the   |
    same period of twelve years, the following, viz.:      |
                                                           |
    1. For the local workhouses and charitable houses of   |
    industry:                                              |
               _a._ Revenues of properties                 |      7,458  50
               _b._ Collections                            |      7,971  63
               _c._ Subsidies of the parishes              |     99,083  87
    2. For the new erected beggars’ workhouses:            |
               _a._ Daily wages paid by the parish for the |
                   beggars placed therein                  |     41,090  40
               _b._ Provincial subsidies                   |        871  49
    3. For the society for charitable purposes:            |
               _a._ Contributions and voluntary donations  |
                  by individuals                           |     48,893  55
               _b._ Monies for stipulated contracts        |    208,651  69
                                                           +---------------
    Consequently, the whole sum is               Guilders     6,014,818  32
                                                 --------------------------

It appears from this statement that rather more than 6,000,000 guilders
(equal, at 20_d._ the guilder, to 500,000_l._ sterling) has, on an
average of the last 12 years, been annually expended on the relief
of the poor, being an expense per head, on an average population of
2,292,350, of about 4_s._ 4¼_d._--an expenditure small compared with
our own, but very large when compared with the average expenditure of
Europe.

The official report does not state the progressive increase of the
annual expenditure; but it contains a table of the progressive increase
of the number of persons receiving relief, from which we extract the
particulars of the 10 years ending with 1831. (p. 580.)

HOLLAND.--Statement of the Number of Persons who have received Relief,
or to whom Work has been given, by the Civil or Ecclesiastical
Charitable Institutions in North Netherland, during 10 years, from 1822
to 1831 inclusive.

  +----+----------+-------------------------------
  |    |          |   Institutions for Relief.
  |    |          +-----------+----------+--------
  |    |          |           |          |
  |    |          |           |          |
  |    |Population| Number of |          |
  |    |of North  |  Persons  |          |
  |    |Netherland| relieved  |Population| Number
  |    |on the    |  by the   |  of the  |   of
  |    |31st Dec. | direction |Hospitals.|Persons.
  |    |          |  of the   |          |
  |    |          |Poor-House.|          |
  |    |          |           |          |
  |    |          |           |          |
  |    |          |           |          |
  +----+----------+-----------+----------+--------
  |1822| 2,190,171| 174,802   |  20,501  | 195,303
  |    |          |           |          |
  |1823| 2,219,982| 193,633   |  17,430  | 211,063
  |    |          |           |          |
  |1824| 2,253,794| 196,786   |  19,955  | 216,741
  |    |          |           |          |
  |1825| 2,281,789| 240,400   |  17,943  | 222,343
  |    |          |           |          |
  |1826| 2,296,169| 227,501   |  18,731  | 246,232
  |    |          |           |          |
  |1827| 2,307,661| 232,426   |  19,775  | 252,201
  |    |          |           |          |
  |1828| 2,329,934| 217,343   |  17,928  | 235,271
  |    |          |           |          |
  |1829| 2,427,206| 235,771   |  17,884  | 253,655
  |    |          |           |          |
  |1830| 2,444,550| 244,503   |  17,870  | 262,373
  |    |          |           |          |
  |1831| 2,454,176| 248,380   |  17,887  | 266,267
  +----+----------+-----------+----------+--------

  Key to Column Headings:
    Col A1: Fed and lodged in the Institutions.
    Col A2: Those only who have worked in the same, or at their own Houses.
    Col A3: Together.

    Col B1: At Hoorn.
    Col B2: At Veere.
    Col B3: Together, or in the whole.

    Col C1: Poor Families making the number of Persons.
    Col C2: Orphans, Foundlings, or abandoned Children.
    Col C3: Beggars.
    Col C4: Persons, Veterans’ families, making together.
    Col C5: Together, or in the whole.

    Col D: Number of Persons

  ----+--------------------------------------------------------------------
      |               INSTITUTIONS FOR GIVING OR PROCURING WORK.
      +---------------+-----------------+---------------------------+------
      |   Number of   |                 |                           |
      |  Persons who  |                 |                           |
      |have worked in |                 |Population of the Colonies,|
      |  and for the  |  Population     |   and Establishments of   |
      |   the local   |  of Paupers’    |      the Society for      |
      |Workhouses and |  Workhouses.    |   Charitable Purposes.    |
      |  Charitable   |                 |                           |
      | Work-places.  |                 |                           |
      +---+-----+-----+----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+---+-----+
      |   |     |     |    |     |      |     |     |     |   |     |
      |A1 | A2  | A3  | B1 |  B2 |  B3  | C1  | C2  | C3  |C4 | C5  |  D
      |   |     |     |    |     |      |     |     |     |   |     |
  ----+---+-----+-----+----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+---+-----+------
  1822|id.| id. |3,227|750 |  .. |  750 |1,979|  456|  300| ..|2,735| 6,712
      |   |     |     |    |     |      |     |     |     |   |     |
  1823|id.| id. |4,358|750 |273  |1,023 |2,295|  475|1,053| ..|3,823| 9,202
      |   |     |     |    |[10] |      |     |     |     |   |     |
      |   |     |     |    |     |      |     |     |     |   |     |
  1824|id.| id. |4,271|700 |200  |  900 |2,614|1,214|1,061| ..|4,889|10,060
      |   |     |     |    |     |      |     |     |     |   |     |
  1825|862|2,982|3,844|323 |136  |  459 |3,227|2,174|1,377| ..|6,778|11,081
      |   |     |     |    |     | [11] |     |     |     |   |     |
      |   |     |     |    |     |      |     |     |     |   |     |
  1826|920|3,199|4,119|380 | 82  |  462 |2,724|2,233|1,581|231|6,769|11,350
      |   |     |     |    |[12] |      |     |     |     |   |     |
      |   |     |     |    |     |      |     |     |     |   |     |
  1827|670|4,001|4,671|378 |  .. |  378 |2,560|2,059|1,763|401|6,783|11,832
      |   |     |     |[13]|     |      |     |     |     |   |     |
      |   |     |     |    |     |      |     |     |     |   |     |
  1828|607|4,017|4,624| .. |  .. |  ..  |2,510|2,358|1,826|562|7,256|11,880
      |   |     |     |    |     |      |     |     |     |   |     |
  1829|672|4,077|4,749| .. |  .. |  ..  |2,626|2,340|1,942|543|7,451|12,200
      |   |     |     |    |     |      |     |     |     |   |     |
  1830|733|4,263|4,996| .. |  .. |  ..  |2,619|2,288|2,111|473|7,491|12,487
      |   |     |     |    |     |      |     |     |     |   |     |
  1831|973|4,637|5,610| .. |  .. |  ..  |2,694|2,297|2,406|456|7,853|13,463
  ----+---+-----+-----+----+-----+------+-----+-----+-----+---+-----+------

  ----+---------+--------------------------------------+
      |         |     Statement for the Population     |
      |         | of North Netherland of 100 Persons.  |
      | General |------------+------------+------------+
      |  Total  |            |            |   Of the   |
      | Persons |   Of the   |            |  general   |
      |who have |Total Number|Of the Total|  Total of  |
      |received | of Persons | of Persons |  Persons   |
      | Relief, |relieved or |   by the   |  who have  |
      |  or to  | maintained |Institution |participated|
      |whom Work|   by the   |    for     |   in the   |
      |has been |Institution | providing  | Relief, or |
      | given.  |for granting|   Work.    |  to whom   |
      |         |  Support.  |            |  Work has  |
      |         |            |            |been given. |
  ----+---------+------------+------------+------------+
  1822| 202,015 |    8,914   |   0,306    |    9,220   |
      |         |            |            |            |
  1823| 220,265 |    9,507   |   0,415    |    9,922   |
      |         |            |            |            |
  1824| 226,801 |    9,617   |   0,446    |   10,063   |
      |         |            |            |            |
  1825| 233,424 |    9,744   |   0,486    |   10,230   |
      |         |            |            |            |
  1826| 257,582 |   10,724   |   0,494    |   11,218   |
      |         |            |            |            |
  1827| 264,033 |   10,929   |   0,513    |   11,442   |
      |         |            |            |            |
  1828| 247,151 |   10,098   |   0,510    |   10,608   |
      |         |            |            |            |
  1829| 265,855 |   10,450   |   0,503    |   10,953   |
      |         |            |            |            |
  1830| 274,860 |   10,733   |   0,511    |   11,244   |
      |         |            |            |            |
  1831| 279,730 |   10,849   |   0,549    |   11,398   |
  ----+---------+------------+------------+------------+

    OBSERVATIONS.

    _General Observations._--Although the persons who have only
    worked in or for the charitable work-places, and are not lodged
    or fed in them, are probably already included amongst the number
    of those who have been relieved by the direction of the
    Poor-house; it was, however, thought proper not to exclude
    them from this Table, because the expenses of procuring work
    belong likewise to these persons.

    [10] This being the first year in which the establishment at
    Veere was opened.

    [11] This decrease is occasioned by the removal of able paupers
    to the Ommerschans.

    [12] This establishment was done away with on the 20th June,
    and the able paupers were removed to the Ommerschans, and the
    invalid paupers to Hoorn.

    [13] This establishment was done away with on the 15th October,
    all the paupers in it were removed to the Ommerschans.

It appears from this table that the number of persons relieved has
steadily increased from 202,015, the number in 1822, to 279,730, the
number in 1831; and that the proportion of paupers to independent
members of society has also increased from 9²³⁰⁄₁₀₀₀ per cent., the
proportion in 1822, or rather more than one-eleventh, to 11⁸⁹⁸⁄₁₀₀₀
per cent., or rather more than one-ninth, the proportion in 1831: a
proportion exceeding even that of England.

And it is to be observed that the greater part of this great positive
and relative increase of pauperism has taken place during a period of
profound peace, internal and external; only one of these years being
subsequent to the Belgian revolution. It is probable that if the years
1832 and 1833 had been given, the comparison with the earlier period
would have been still more unfavourable.

We have omitted in the statement of the expenditure for the relief
of the poor a sum of 200,000 guilders, or about 16,666_l._ sterling,
annually employed on the gratuitous instruction of poor children: the
number thus instructed in 1831 was 73,609. It does not appear, however,
that any persons are compelled to attend to the education of their
children, except by its being made (as is the general rule on the
Continent of Europe) one of the conditions on which relief is granted:
and the Consul states that the labourers in general think it beneath
them to let their children go to school for nothing; and that some,
when unable to pay, prefer keeping them at home.

It is remarkable that neither the official nor the consular report
dwells on that portion of the Dutch poor institutions which has
excited the greatest attention in Europe, namely, the Poor Colonies.


POOR COLONIES.

The following statements are extracted from the narrative of Count
Arrivabene, who visited them in 1829: (pp. 610, 611, 612, 613, 614.)

    The dearths of 1816 and 1817, and the consequent distress,
    occasioned the establishment, in the northern provinces of
    the Low Countries, of a Philanthropic Society (_Société de
    bienfaisance_), to whose funds each subscriber was to pay one
    halfpenny a week. The subscribers soon amounted to 20,000. One
    of its projects was the foundation of poor colonies among the
    heaths, with which this country abounds. The Colonies were
    to be divided into Colonies for the Repression of Mendicity,
    Colonies for Indigent Persons and Veterans, Free Colonies,
    Colonies for Inspectors of Agricultural Works, Colonies
    for Orphans and Foundlings, and Colonies for Agricultural
    Instruction.

    In the first year of its formation the Society established the
    Free Colony, called Frederiks-Oord, on the heaths between the
    provinces of Drenthe, Friesland, and Over-Yssel. It consisted
    of 52 small farms, part of which had been previously cultivated
    by the Society, of a store-house, of several workshops, a
    school, &c. It was peopled with families, indigent, but not
    dependent altogether on alms. The expense of its foundation
    amounted to 68,000 flor. (5666_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._), and was
    defrayed out of the annual subscriptions and donations of the
    members of the _Société de bienfaisance_; and in order to give
    employment to the colonists during the dead season of the year,
    the Society engaged to purchase from them 26,000 ells of linen.

    In 1819, the Society proposed to the directors of the Orphan
    Institutions throughout the kingdom, to take charge, at a
    fixed annual payment, of any number of orphans of the age
    of six years, leaving to those institutions the right of
    superintending their treatment. To meet this expense, the
    society borrowed 280,000 flor. (23,333_l._ 6_s._ 10_d._). The
    orphans were for a time placed in separate dwellings, six
    orphans with two elderly persons, to act as their parents,
    in each. But afterwards almost all were collected into large
    buildings. In the same year the members of the society had
    increased to 22,500, and their subscriptions to 82,500 flor.
    or 6875_l._, and the society was enabled to establish two other
    free colonies, and to place in them 150 families.

    In 1820, the society borrowed 100,000 flor. more, or 8333_l._
    6_s._ 8_d._, which, with donations to the amount of 78,000
    flor. or 6500_l._, enabled it during that year to settle 150
    more families.

    In 1821, the society by means of loans and subscriptions had
    collected a sum of 421,000 flor. or 35,083_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._, of
    which 300,000 flor., or 25,000_l._ was borrowed, and 121,000
    flor., or 10,983_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._ subscribed, and was possessed
    of seven free colonies, consisting of 500 small farms, with the
    public buildings to which we have alluded.

    In 1822 the society founded the first colony for the repression
    of mendicity; and engaged with the Government to receive and
    settle on its colonies 4000 orphans, 2500 indigent persons, and
    1500 mendicants, the Government engaging to pay for each orphan
    45 florins, or 3_l._ 15_s._ a year, for 16 years, but nothing
    for the others. As yet the society has fulfilled only a part
    of its engagements. It has, however, established every kind of
    colony which we have enumerated.


    _Frederiks-Oord._

    In August, 1829, we visited all the colonies of the society.
    Those of Frederiks-Oord are spread over a space of two leagues.
    The small farms, containing each about 9 English acres, extend
    along the sides of roads, bordered with trees, and of canals,
    which intersect the colonies in different directions. Each
    house is composed of one great room, round the walls of which
    are placed the large drawer-like beds, in which, according
    to the custom of the Dutch peasantry, the family sleep.
    A cow-house, a barn, and every building necessary for an
    agricultural family, is annexed to the farm. Near the house is
    the garden; beyond it the land to be cultivated.

    Upon his admission into the colony, each colonist makes a
    declaration, by which he binds himself to obey its rules, as
    respects subordination to its officers, moral and religious
    conduct on the part of himself and his family, modes of
    working, wearing the colonial uniform, &c.

    When a family of 8 persons (the number usually adopted by the
    society) has been settled in a farm, the society opens an
    account with them, in which they are debited in the sum of 1700
    florins, or 141_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._, which is considered as having
    been advanced for their use under the following heads:--

                                               flor.   _£_  _s._ _d._
    Purchase-money of 9 acres of land          100  or   8    6   8
    Labour previously expended on it           400  ”   83    6   8
    Two cows and some sheep                    150  ”   12   10   0
    The house                                  500  ”   41   13   4
    Incidental expenses                         50  ”    4    3   4
    Furniture and clothing                     250  ”   20    6   8
    Reserved fund for extraordinary occasions  250  ”   20   16   8
                                              ----     ---   --  --
                                              1700     141   13   4

    The sum advanced for furniture and clothing is stopped out of
    the wages of the colonist; and as soon as the farm has been
    completely brought under cultivation, the head of the family is
    annually debited 60 florins, or 5_l._, as the interest of the
    remainder of the capital, and the rent of the farm.

    During three years at the least, the colonists cultivate the
    land in common, and receive wages, but are allowed to make
    use of no part of the produce of the farm; though that of the
    garden and the cows is their own. The farm produce (and it
    appeared to us to be very trifling), consisting principally of
    rye, potatoes, and buck-wheat, is taken to the storehouses of
    the society to be preserved for subsequent distribution, either
    as prepared food or otherwise, among the colonists, in payment
    or on account of their wages.

    As long as a family cannot provide its own subsistence, it
    receives food daily from the society; but when it can provide
    for itself (as it can when it earns 4 flor., or 6_s._ 8_d._ a
    week), it is allowed to prepare its food at home.

    The society distributes medals of copper, of silver, and of
    gold. The first are the rewards of those who distinguish
    themselves by regular labour and good conduct, and confer the
    right to leave the colony on Sundays and holydays without
    asking permission. The second are bestowed on those whose
    industry supplies their whole subsistence; they confer the
    right to leave the colony without permission, not only on
    Sundays and holydays, but on every day of the week, at the
    hours not devoted to labour. The golden medals are distributed
    to those who have already obtained silver ones, when their
    farms produce the annual value of 250 flor. (20_l._ 16_s._
    8_d._), and upon obtaining them the colonist is no longer
    subjected to the strict colonial regimen, though some
    restrictions still distinguish him from an ordinary farmer.
    The medals which have been obtained by good conduct may be lost
    or suspended, with their privileges, by misbehaviour. They are
    solemnly distributed, and withdrawn every fifteen days.

    After a residence of three years in the colony, the colonists
    are distributed into three classes:--1st, That of industrious
    men who have received the silver medal: they may continue to
    cultivate their farms in common, as before, or, after having
    discharged their original debt to the society, may manage them
    on their own account, at a rent payable to the society. 2nd.
    That of colonists who have received the copper medal: they may
    manage their own farms, and dispose of a part of the produce;
    the other part must be sent to the magazines of the society, to
    be applied in payment of the rent of the farm, in discharge of
    the original advances, and in creating a common fund. A portion
    of it, however, is returned to them in bread. But if in any
    year a colonist does not raise a given quantity of potatoes,
    or if he requires from the society extraordinary assistance,
    he is forced to restore his medal, and to return to the third
    class. 3. This last class, which is composed of those who have
    obtained no medal, must, in addition to what is required from
    the others, render to the magazines of the society a greater
    amount of produce, and have therefore less for their own use.

    A certain extent of ground is cultivated in common by the
    colonists, each head of a family being required to work on
    it three days in the year, at wages paid in a colonial paper
    money. The produce of this common land is employed in supplying
    the deficiencies of the harvests of the separate farms, and
    meeting the expenses of the school, the hospital, and the
    general Administration. The colonists are also allowed in
    summer to pasture their cattle in the common pastures of the
    colony. There are several shops for the sale, at prices fixed
    by the Administration, of whatever the colonists are likely to
    want, except spirituous liquors, the use of which is prohibited.

    Whatever may have been the length of time during which the
    colonist has resided in the colony he can never become the
    proprietor of his farm. He may, however, acquire the ownership
    of his furniture, and sell it or remove it when he quits the
    colony.

    No colonist is allowed to marry unless he be a widower, or
    the son of a widower, and in possession of a farm. When his
    children have attained 16 or 18 years of age, they choose
    a trade (etat) with the consent of their parents and the
    colonial authorities, and may follow it either in the colony or
    elsewhere.

    To every 25 farms there is a superintendent, who visits them
    daily, and directs and distributes among the colonists the
    labours of the day; and to every 100 farms a sub-director, who
    gives instructions to the superintendent, keeps the registers,
    and manages the manufactures.

    In selecting the occupiers of each subdivision of 25 farms,
    care is taken that persons of different trades shall be
    included. The superintendence to which a family is subjected
    diminishes day by day with its good conduct, and ceases almost
    entirely as soon as the colonist has repaid the value of the
    advances which have been made to him. Those who are idle or
    disorderly are taken before a council of superintendence, of
    which some colonists are members, and may be sent on to a
    council of discipline, which has the power to transfer them
    to Ommerschans, a colony for the repression of mendicity; of
    which we shall speak hereafter. They are detained there for a
    fixed period, in a place set apart for them, and kept to more
    than usually hard labour. The industrious and well-disposed
    colonists are appointed superintendents of the works in the
    colonies for the repression of mendicity, and in those for the
    reception of orphans and indigent persons.

    Most of the inhabitants of Frederiks-Oord are Protestants;
    there are, however, several Catholic and two Jewish families.


    _Wateren._

    In the morning of the 3d day we went to Wateren, which is
    two leagues from Frederiks-Oord. Wateren is the colony of
    Agricultural Instruction, to which are sent the orphans who
    most distinguish themselves in their colonies. They amount
    to 60, and acquire agricultural knowledge from a master, and
    from the practice of working at a farm of 42 bonniers (nearly
    103 acres) in arable, nursery grounds, and pasture. They are
    instructed by the same master in the Bible, the history of
    Holland, land surveying, natural-history, botany, mathematics,
    chemistry, and gymnastics. They are better dressed than the
    others, and wear a hat with a riband, on which is written the
    name of the privileged colony to which they belong. Their
    destination is to become superintendents in the free colonies.
    The society derives from this colony an annual profit of about
    900 flor. or 75_l._


    _Veenhuisen._

    On the same day, after a journey of three leagues, we arrived
    at Veenhuisen, which contains one colony for the repression
    of mendicity, two for orphans, one for indigent persons and
    veterans, and one for inspectors of agricultural works. They
    are intersected by high ways, bordered by trees and by canals
    communicating with Amsterdam. Two great square buildings,
    at the distance of a half mile from each other, contain, in
    the part which looks into the interior quadrangle, the one
    mendicants, the other orphans, and each contains, in the
    rooms on the exterior, indigent persons and veterans. Another
    similar edifice, at two miles distance, contains all these
    three classes of individuals. In the midst of the three
    edifices are situated two churches, one Catholic, the other
    Protestant; twenty-four houses forming a colony of inspectors
    of agricultural works, and an equal number of houses inhabited
    by the officers of the colonies.

    The children and grown-up persons have been placed thus near
    one another for convenience, with respect both to their
    agricultural and manufacturing employments.

    The interior of each of the three great edifices is divided
    into two sides, one for the males, the other for the females,
    separated by the kitchen. On the ground-floor are large rooms,
    containing each forty or fifty individuals. The upper floors
    are mere lofts, and used as store-rooms.

    The persons placed in the colonies for the repression of
    mendicity receive a new and uniform dress, and for some time
    are maintained without reference to the value of their work.
    Their out-doors employment consists of agricultural labor,
    brick-making, or turf-cutting: in-doors they work as artizans,
    generally by piece work. The society fixes the amount of their
    wages.

    The lands of these colonies are divided into farms of
    thirty-two bonniers, or about eighty acres each, half arable,
    half pasture. To each of these farms are attached forty or
    fifty colonists, who work under the orders of a superintendent,
    who himself follows the instructions of a sub-director. The
    annual expenditure on each of these farms is fixed at 1680
    flor., or 140_l._

    The accounts between the society and the colonists are kept in
    the military form. Each colonist carries a book, in which is
    entered the work which he has performed each day, the supplies
    and paper money which he has received, and his share of the
    general expenditure. If his earnings exceed what has been laid
    out on him, which is said to be commonly the case, a third of
    the excess is given to him in paper money, another third is
    placed in a savings’ bank, to be given him on his leaving the
    colony, and the remaining third is retained by the society to
    meet contingent expenses.

    Horse-patrols round the colonies, rewards to such as bring back
    colonists who have attempted to escape, and a uniform dress
    are the means employed to prevent desertion. The colonists
    are detained for 6 years, unless they have previously saved
    12½ flor. (1_l._ 10_d._), which entitles them to immediate
    discharge.

    Orphans are admitted in the orphan colonies at the age of six.
    They work, either in-doors or in the fields, for a part of
    the day, another part is employed in elementary instruction,
    drawing, and singing. They leave the colonies at the age of 18,
    generally for the sea or land service.

    The colonies for indigent persons and veterans serve as
    preparatory residences for those who are to be placed in the
    free colonies. These colonists dwell with their families in
    the outer apartments of the great buildings, the interior
    quadrangles of which are inhabited by the mendicants and
    orphans. Like the mendicants, they are considered day
    labourers, and paid according to their work.

    In every colony the supplies and wages vary according to the
    difference of age, strength, or sex. The men are divided into 5
    classes, the women into 7. The first class of men is supposed
    to earn 1 flor. 70 cents, or 2_s._ 10_d._ per week; the second,
    1 flor. 35 cents, or 2_s._ 3_d._; the third, 1 flor. 6 cents,
    or 1_s._ 11_d._; the fourth, composed of children from 8 to 16
    years, 1 flor. 1 cent, or 1_s._ 8½_d._; the fifth, composed of
    children under that age, 67½ cents, or 1_s._ 1½_d._ The first
    class of females is supposed to earn per week 1 flor. 51 cents,
    or 2_s._ 6¼_d._; the second, 1 flor. 26 cents, or 2_s._ 1_d._;
    the third, 98 cents, or 1_s._ 7½_d._; the fourth and fifth,
    composed of children, 95 cents, or 1_s._ 7_d._, and 75 cents,
    or 1_s._ 3_d._ respectively; the sixth and seventh, composed
    also of children, but still younger, 63 cents, or 1_s._ 0½_d._,
    and 55 cents, or 11_d._, respectively.


    _Ommerschans._

    On the morning of the fourth day we went to Ommerschans, which
    is seven leagues from Veenhuisen.

    At Ommerschans there is a colony for the repression of
    mendicity, and one for indigent persons and veterans. The
    first is composed of men and children; and has a separate
    division for the free colonists who have been sent thither
    as a punishment. The building can contain 1000 persons, and
    resembles in several respects those in Veenhuisen, except
    that its moat, and the iron-bars to its windows give it
    more the appearance of a prison; and that it has a story
    above the ground floor. Nor does it differ as to its interior
    arrangement, or the employment or treatment of its inmates. In
    the middle of the quadrangle there are shops for locksmiths,
    joiners, and other trades; and for the manufacture of thread
    and linen. On the outside stands the church, which serves for
    both Catholic and Protestant worship, and as a school; the
    house of the sub-director, the hospital, and other public
    edifices; and 20 houses scattered about the lands, form a
    colony of inspectors of agricultural works. Nearly 150 persons
    are annually discharged from this colony for the repression of
    mendicity.

On recurring to the official statement of the total number of persons
relieved during the ten years ending 1831, it will be seen that in
1831 the population of the poor colonies consisted of 7853, being an
increase of 402 from the time of Count Arrivabene’s visit, arising
solely from an increased number placed in the repressive or most severe
of the penal colonies; and that this population was thus distributed:
2297 in the colony assigned to orphans and abandoned children; 456 in
the preparatory colony; 2694 in the colonies called free; and 2406 in
the repressive or mendicity colonies.

The nature of these institutions appears to have been imperfectly
understood in England. They are in fact large agricultural workhouses;
and superior to the previous workhouses only so far as they may be less
expensive, or, without being oppressive, objects of greater aversion.

It is scarcely possible that they can be less expensive.

The employing persons taken indiscriminately from other occupations and
trades, almost all of them the victims of idleness and misconduct, and
little urged by the stimulus of individual interest in farming the
worst land in the country, (land so worthless that the fee-simple of it
is worth only 24_s._ an acre,) at an expense for outfit, exclusively of
the value of the land, of more than 130_l._ per family, and under the
management of a joint-stock company of more than 20,000 members, cannot
but be a ruinous speculation.

Nor does the institution appear to have repressed pauperism by the
disagreeableness of the terms on which it offers relief: we have seen,
on the contrary, that it has not prevented its steady increase. It will
be shown subsequently that a similar establishment has signally failed
in Belgium, and we cannot anticipate a different result in Holland.



BELGIUM AND FRANCE.


M. Lebau, the Belgian Minister of Justice, has furnished a detailed
report on the poor laws of Belgium, together with a considerable
number of printed documents. Of the latter, we have printed only the
regulations of the schools for the poor in Louvain, and of the out-door
relief in Tournay; the laws of August, 1833, respecting the Dépôts de
Mendicité; and some statistical papers respecting the relief afforded
in different manners in 1833, and in some of the preceding years. The
others were too voluminous for this publication; and though we have
consulted them (particularly the Code Administratif des Etablissemens
de Bienfaisance, M. Quetelet’s statistical works on the Netherlands
and Belgium, and M. Ducpétiaux’s on Indigence,) with great advantage,
we have been forced to omit them. Baron de Hochepied Larpent and
Mr. Fauche, His Majesty’s Consuls in Antwerp and Ostend, have given
valuable replies to the Commissioners’ questions; and Count Arrivabene
a detailed account of the state of Gaesbeck, a village a few miles from
Brussels. And we have inserted three reports as to the state of the
Belgian poor colonies; one from Count Arrivabene, who visited them in
1829, and one from M. Ducpétiaux, and another from Captain Brandreth,
both dated in 1832.

The union and subsequent separation of Belgium and France, and
afterwards of Belgium and Holland, occasion the Belgian laws on this as
on every other subject to be divisible into three heads:

First, those which she received when incorporated with France;
secondly, those which were made during the union with Holland; and
thirdly, those which have been passed since the revolution of 1830.

By far the largest portion of the Belgian poor laws is derived from the
first of these sources.


FRENCH POOR LAWS.

The government of the Directory, by three laws passed in the autumn of
1796, established the system under which the principal portion of the
relief afforded by the public is now regulated in most of the countries
which constituted the French empire.


Hospices and Bureaux de Bienfaisance.

By the first of these, that of the 16 Vendémiaire, An v. (7th October,
1796), the property belonging to the hospices (or almshouses) was
restored to them, and their management was entrusted to a commission
appointed by the municipal authorities.

By the second, that of the 23 Brumaire, An v. (13th November, 1706),
it was enacted, that all the revenues of the different hospices in one
commune should be employed as one fund for their common support.

And by the third, that of the 7 Frimaire, An v. (25th November, 1796),
that in every commune there should be appointed one or more bureaux de
bienfaisance, each bureau consisting of five members, to administer
out-door relief; and that the funds at the disposition of the bureau
de bienfaisance should consist of one-tenth of the receipts from all
public exhibitions within its district, and of whatever voluntary
contributions it could obtain. By the same law all able-bodied beggars
were required, under pain of three months’ imprisonment, to return to
their place of birth, or of domicile, if they had subsequently acquired
a domicile.

By the law of the 3 Frimaire, An vii. (23d November, 1798), the
additional sums necessary to provide for the hospices, and the secours
à domicile (or out-door relief), of each commune, are directed to
be raised by the local authorities in the same manner as the sums
necessary for the other local expenses.

By that of the 4 Ventose, An ix. (23d February, 1801), all rents
belonging to the State, of which the payment had been interrupted,
and all national property usurped by individuals, were declared the
property of the nearest hospitals. By that of the 5 Prairial, An
xi., the commissaires des hospices and bureaux de bienfaisance were
authorized to make public collections in churches, and to establish
poor-boxes in public places; and by a train of subsequent legislation
they were enabled to acquire property by testamentary dispositions.

It is to be observed that under these laws the members of the
commissions des hospices, and of the bureaux de bienfaisance, are
frequently, but not necessarily, the same persons. The maire (or
principal civil officer) of each commune is a necessary member of every
charitable board. The other members go out by lot, one every year, but
are re-eligible.

By the law of the 16 Messidor, An vii., the inmates of the hospices
were to be set to work, and two-thirds of the produce of their work
was to belong to the hospice, the other third to be given to them
either periodically or when they quitted the hospice. We mention
this enactment, because it has afforded a precedent for many similar
regulations.

And partly for the purpose of increasing the funds for charitable
purposes, and partly with a view to reduce the rate of interest in
the mode of borrowing usually adopted by the poor, by two arrêtés of
the 16 Pluviose and 24 Messidor, An xii. (6th February and 13th July,
1804), all pawn-broking by individuals was prohibited, and public
establishments for that purpose, under the name of Monts-de-Piété, were
directed to be established and conducted for the benefit of the poor.


Foundlings and deserted children.

The French legislation respecting foundlings and deserted children is
of a very different kind, and appears to us to be the portion of their
poor laws deserving least approbation.

A law of the 27 Frimaire, An v. (17 Dec., 1796), enacted, that all
recently-born deserted children should be received gratuitously in all
the hospices of the Republic, at the expense of the State so far as
those hospices had not a sufficient revenue specially destined to that
purpose; and an arrêté of the Directory, of the 30 Ventose, An v.,
(20th March, 1791), founded on the previous law, directed that as soon
as possible after children had been received in any hospice they should
be sent out to be nursed, and brought up in the country until the age
of 12; and then either left to those who had brought them up, if they
chose to take charge of them, or apprenticed to farmers, artists, or
manufacturers, or, if the children wished it, to the sea service.

The law on this subject received nearly its present form from an
Imperial decree of the 19th Jan., 1811.

By that decree, the children for whom the public became responsible
were divided into three classes: 1. Enfans trouvés; 2. Enfans
abandonnés; 3. Orphelins pauvres. The first class comprises children of
unknown parents, found exposed, or placed in foundling hospitals. The
second, children whose parents are known, but have abandoned them, and
cannot be forced to support them. The third, children without father
or mother, or means of subsistence. For the first class a hospice was
directed to be appointed in every arrondissement, with a tour (or
revolving slide) for their reception, without the detection of the
person bringing them. All the three classes of children were to be put
out to nurse until six years old, and then placed with landholders
(cultivateurs) or artizans until 12, subject to any mode in which the
Ministre de la Marine might dispose of them. If not wanted by him, they
were at 12 to be apprenticed for periods not exceeding their attaining
the age of 25.

The annual sum of four millions (160,000_l._) in the whole was to be
contributed by the State towards these expenses. The remainder to be
supplied by the hospices out of their own revenues or out of those of
the communes.

Relatives claiming a foundling were to repay all that it had cost, as
far as they had the means.

The last clause of this decree directs that those who make a custom
of taking infants to hospitals shall be punished according to law.
It is not easy to reconcile this clause with the rest of the decree.
If taking an infant to a foundling hospital were an offence, it
seems strange that the law should itself prescribe a contrivance (a
tour), the object of which is to prevent the detection of the person
committing the offence. In fact, however, no such punishment “according
to law” seems to exist. If a nurse or other person entrusted with a
child take it, in breach of duty, to a foundling hospital, the offence
is punishable by the code pénal; but no punishment is denounced against
a parent for doing so, however often the act may be repeated. Nor
does the “making a custom of taking children to a hospital” appear as
an offence in the detailed “Compte général de l’administration de la
justice criminelle en France.”


Mendicity and Vagrancy.

The following is an outline of the French regulations, as far as they
affected Belgium, for the repression of mendicity and vagrancy. A
decree of the Convention, 27 Vendémiaire, An ii. (15th Oct., 1798),
fixed the settlement, or domicile de secours, of every person, 1st,
in the place of his birth; 2dly, of his residence for six months in
any commune in which he should have married, or for one year in any
in which he should have been registered as an inhabitant, or for
two years in any in which he should have been hired by one or more
masters. Every person found begging was to be sent to his place of
domicile; if he could not prove any domicile he was to be imprisoned
for a year in the maison de repression of the department, and at the
end of his imprisonment, if his domicile were not then ascertained,
to be transported to the colonies for not less than eight years. A
person found again begging after having been removed to his domicile,
was also to be imprisoned for a year: on a repetition of the offence
the punishment was to be doubled. In the maison de repression he was
to be set to work, and receive monthly one-sixth of the produce of his
labour, and at the end of his imprisonment another sixth, the remaining
two-thirds belonging to the establishment. On the third offence he also
was to be transported. A transport was to work in the colonies for the
benefit of the nation, at one-sixth of the average wages of the colony:
one-half of that sixth to be paid to him weekly, and the other half on
the expiration of his sentence. No person was to be transported except
between the ages of 18 and 60. Those under 18 were to be detained until
they arrived at that age, and then transported; those above 60, to be
imprisoned for life.

The local authorities were authorized to employ their able-bodied poor
on public works, at three-fourths of the average wages of the canton.
Every person convicted of having given to a beggar any species of
relief whatever was to forfeit the value of two days’ wages; to be
doubled on the repetition of the offence.

The provisions of this law were, as might have been anticipated, far
too severe for execution. After having remained, though inoperative, on
the statute book for nearly 15 years, it was replaced by the Imperial
decree of the 5th July, 1808.

By that decree a depôt de mendicité was directed to be established in
each department, at the expense partly of the nation and partly of the
department. Within 15 days after its establishment, the Prefect of
the department was to give public notice of its being opened, and all
persons without means of subsistence were bound to proceed to it, and
all persons found begging were to be arrested and taken to it.

By a subsequent arrêté of the 27th October, 1808, it was ordered that
all beggars should on their arrest be placed in the first instance
in the maison d’arrêt of the district; and transferred from thence,
if guilty of vagrancy, to the maison de detention, or prison; if
not vagrants, to the depôt de mendicité. In the depôt they were to
be clothed in the house dress, confined to regular and very early
hours, the sexes separated, subject to severe punishments (rising to
six months’ solitary imprisonment (cachot) on bread and water) for
disobedience or other misconduct, or attempts to escape; deprived
of all intercourse, except by open letters with their relations or
friends, and kept to work at wages to be regulated by the Prefect,
two-thirds of which were to belong to the establishment, and the
remaining third was to be paid to them on their quitting the depôt.

The conditions on which a person might obtain his release from a depôt
de mendicité are not stated.

The provisions of the code pénal appear to leave that question to the
discretion of the Executive.

Section 274 of that code enacts that every person found begging in
a place containing a public establishment for the prevention of
mendicity, shall be imprisoned for from three to six months, and
then removed to the depôt de mendicité. Under section 275, if there
be no such establishment in the place where he is found begging, his
imprisonment is to last only from one to three months; if, however, he
has begged out of the canton in which he is domiciled, it is to last
from six months to two years.

After having suffered his punishment, he is to remain (apparently in
the depôt de mendicité) at the disposition of Government.



BELGIUM.


Monts-de-Piété.

Such was the state of the law respecting purely charitable, and what
may be called penal, relief at the time of the establishment of the
kingdom of the Netherlands. We have stated these provisions at some
length, because they form, with little material alteration, the
existing law on the subject in France. No change of any importance
appears to have been made by the late Government of the Netherlands,
or by the present Belgian Government, with respect to the hospices or
the bureaux de bienfaisance; but with respect to foundlings, an arrêté
of the 2nd June, 1825, declared that the expense of their maintenance
ought to be supplied by the hospices, and so far as these were unable
to meet it, from the local revenues of the commune or the province
in which they had been abandoned--a provision which has been the
subject of much complaint, as imposing a heavy and peculiar burthen
on the few towns which possess foundling hospitals. And with respect
to monts-de-piété, an arrêté of the 31st October, 1826, directed the
local authorities of towns and communes to prepare regulations for the
management of their respective monts-de-piété, their support, and the
employment of the profits, subject to certain general rules; among
which are,--

1. That the administration shall be gratuitous.

2. That the interest shall not exceed 5_l._ per cent. per annum, and
that no farther charge shall be made on any pretext whatever.

3. That they shall be open every day.

4. That the pledges may be redeemed at any time before their actual
sale.

5. That they shall not be sold until the expiration of 14 months from
the time of the loan.


Mendicity.

The following are the most material alterations made in the laws
respecting mendicity. By a law of the 28th November, 1818, the period
of residence necessary for acquiring a settlement, or domicile de
secours, was extended to four years: and by a law of the 12th October,
1819, the expense of supporting a person confined in a depôt de
mendicité was thrown on the commune in which he had his domicile de
secours.

In 1823 the Belgian Société de Bienfaisance was established, on the
model of that which existed in Holland, and contracted with the
Government to receive in its colonies de repression 1000 paupers,
at the annual sum of 35 florins (2_l._ 18_s._ 4_d._) per head. In
consequence of this arrangement, all the regulations which required
a beggar to be removed to a depôt de mendicité were varied by the
introduction of the words “or to a mendicity colony;” and by an arrêté
of the 12th October, 1825, the governors of the different provinces
were directed to give notice that all persons in want of employment
and subsistence would obtain them in the depôts de mendicité, or the
mendicity colonies, and had only to apply to the local authorities in
order to be directed to the one or the other; and that consequently
no begging at any period of the year, or under any pretext whatever,
could in future be tolerated. Persons arrested for begging were
allowed on their own request, if their begging were not accompanied by
aggravating circumstances, to be conducted to one or the other of these
establishments without suffering the previous imprisonment inflicted by
the penal code.

By another arrêté of the same date, the local authorities were directed
to prepare new codes for the regulation of the different depôts de
mendicité, based on principles of which the following are the most
material:

1. That the depôts should be confined to the reception of those who,
from age or infirmity, should be unfit for agricultural labour.

2. That all above the age of six, and under that of 70, and capable of
working, should be kept to work, at average wages; that each person
should be charged per day 17 cents (about 3½_d._) for his maintenance,
being its average cost, and retain the remainder of his earnings; and
be allowed nothing beyond strict necessaries (mere bread is specified
for food), if his earnings were under that sum.

That a portion of each person’s surplus earnings should be reserved and
paid over to him on leaving the house, and the other portion paid to
him from time to time in a local paper money.

3. That cantines should be established in the house, to enable the
inmates to spend their surplus earnings.

4. That those who had voluntarily offered themselves for reception
should be at liberty to quit the house, after having repaid the
expenses of their maintenance there.

5. That those arrested and sent thither as beggars should not be set
free until, 1st., they had repaid all expenses; and 2ndly, had fitted
themselves to earn an independent livelihood, or been demanded by their
commune or relatives, and security given for their future conduct.

6. That in each house there should be an ecclesiastic to perform divine
service, and give moral and religious instruction, frequently in
private, and twice a week in public; and that, where the inmates should
consist of Protestants and Catholics, there should be both a Catholic
and a Protestant ecclesiastic.

7. That in each house there should be a daily school for the young,
and a school for the adult, open for four hours on Sundays, and for an
hour two evenings of the week. The attendance on these schools to be
compulsory.

8. That so far as the confined paupers did not earn their own
subsistence, each commune should pay for the support of those having
in it their domicile de secours, at the above-mentioned rate of 17
cents. (3½_d._) per day, but be allowed a discount of 2 cents. per day
(reducing the daily payment to 3_d._) on prompt payment.

A decree of the 9th April, 1831, by the Regent, abolished that
discount, the sum of 3_d._ a day having been found insufficient, except
in the depôt of Bruges, in which the decree states that it covers every
expense.

The existing Government has passed two very important laws, dated the
13th & 29th of August, 1833.

The first of these enacts, that until the laws on mendicity shall have
been revised, the daily charge for the subsistence of each detenu in
the depôt de mendicité, instead of being fixed at 17 cents., shall be
determined annually by the Government. The commune bound to repay the
expense is to be assisted, if incapable of meeting it, by the province,
the King deciding if the matter is disputed. If payment is not made, a
personal remedy is given against the receiver of the commune.

By the second, a conseil d’inspection des depôts de mendicité is to be
elected in each province. Each conseil is to propose a scheme,--

1. For dividing the inmates of the depôts into three classes,
comprising, 1st, the infirm; 2d, the able-bodied who have voluntarily
entered them; 3d, those sentenced to them as beggars or vagrants.

2. For obviating the abuses which might follow from the power given to
the indigent of voluntarily entering the depôts.

And as a general rule, a pauper who requests admission without any
authority from his commune, may be received; but in that case his
commune is to be immediately informed of what has occurred. If it
offers to support him at home, he is to be sent back to it: if it
refuses, he is to remain in the depôt at the expense of the commune:
and the communes are to be informed that it depends on themselves to
diminish the expense of supporting their poor in the depôts, by the
judicious distribution of out-door relief, by the organization of
committees for the purpose of watching over the indigent, and inquiring
into the causes of their distress; by the erection of asylums for
lunatics, the deaf and dumb, the blind and the incurable; and by the
establishment of houses of employment (d’ateliers libres de travail) in
winter, and infant schools. For all which purposes they are recommended
to assess themselves. M. Lebeau says in his report, “Enfin chez, nous
nul ne peut exiger de secours en vertu d’un droit.”[14] (p. 594.) But
it must be admitted that these provisions, if not constituting a right
in the pauper to relief, give at least a right to the managers of the
depôts to force the parishes to relieve, either at home or in the
depôt, any pauper who presents himself: and M. Lebeau himself felt
the danger to which the parishes are exposed. In his circular of the
13th September, 1833, addressed to the provinces in which depôts are
established, he urges the importance of adopting regulations respecting
the reception and dismission of the poor voluntarily presenting
themselves, which may preserve parishes from “the indefinite burden
which would follow the too easy admission of applicants.” “These
establishments,” he adds, “must not be considered by the poor as places
of gratuitous entertainment, (des hôtelleries gratuites.) One of the
best methods of preventing this will be the strict execution of the law
which prescribes work to all those who are not physically incapable
of it; and for those who are incapable, the ordinary hospices and
hospitals are the proper receptacles. It is true that in some depôts
work has been discontinued, because the results did not repay the
expenditure; but this consideration ought not to prevail over the moral
advantages which follow its exaction. Labour is the essential condition
which must be imposed on the pauper; and if it require the sacrifice of
some expenditure, that sacrifice must be made.”

In a subsequent circular, dated the 4th July, 1834, and addressed to
the governors of the different provinces, M. Lebeau states, that one of
the causes assigned for the prevalence of mendicity, is the facility
with which persons obtain release from the depôts. “I invite you, M. le
Gouverneur,” says the Minister, “when a pauper requests his release,
to consider his previous history, to ascertain whether he has the means
of subsistence, or the local authorities have engaged to provide for
him; and to treat with great suspicion the solicitations of parishes,
as they are always interested in obtaining the release of the paupers
for whose maintenance they pay.”

With respect to the general working of these institutions we have not
much information. It appears from the report of M. Lebeau that there
are in Belgium six depôts de mendicité; one at Hoogstraeten for the
province of Antwerp, at Cambre for Brabant, at Bruges for the two
Flanders, at Mons for Hainault, at Namur for Namur and Luxembourg,
and at Reckheim for Limbourg and Liege; that the hospices for the old
and impotent, and the hospitals for the sick, are very numerous, and
that nearly every commune possesses its bureau de bienfaisance for
the distribution of out-door relief. In 1832 the annual income of the
different bureaux de bienfaisance was estimated at 5,308,114 francs
(equal to about 212,325_l._ sterling), and that of the hospices at
4,145,876 francs (equal to about 165,835_l._ sterling), altogether
about 378,160_l._ But the report contains no data from which the whole
expenditure in public relief, or the whole number of persons relieved,
or the general progress or diminution of pauperism, can be collected.

An important paper, however, is contained in the supplement to M.
Lebeau’s report, stating the number of foundlings, deserted children
and orphans, in the nine provinces constituting the kingdom of Belgium,
in the years 1832 and 1833; of which we subjoin a copy, having added
to it the population of the different provinces, as given in the
official statement of 1830.

YEAR 1832.

  ---------+-----------+-----------+-----+-------+----------------------+--
  Population.          |           |     |       |            OBSERVATIONS.
           |PROVINCES. |           |     |       |                      |
           |           |  Average  |     |       |                      |
           |           | number of |     |       |                      |
           |           +-----+-----+     |       |                      |
           |           |Foundlings.|     |       |                      |
           |           |     |Deserted   |       |                      |
           |           |     |Children   |       |                      |
           |           |     |and        |       |                      |
           |           |     |Orphans.   |       |                      |
           |           |     |     |TOTAL|       |                      |
           |           |     |     |NUMBER.      |                      |
           |           |     |     |     |TOTAL  |                      |
           |           |     |     |     |EXPENSES.                     |
           |           |     |     |     |       | Subdivision of those |
           |           |     |     |     |       |   Expenses among     |
           |           |     |     |     |       +----------------------+
           |           |     |     |     |       |The Hospitals,        |
           |           |     |     |     |       |Charitable            |
           |           |     |     |     |       |Institutions,         |
           |           |     |     |     |       |or Foundations.       |
           |           |     |     |     |       |      +---------------+
           |           |     |     |     |       |      |Towns or       |
           |           |     |     |     |       |      |Communes.      |
           |           |     |     |     |       |      |       +-------+
           |           |     |     |     |       |      |      Provinces.
  ---------+-----------+-----+-----+-----+-------+------+-------+-------+--
    354,974|Anvers     |  886|  566|1,452| 71,300|   .. | 31,300| 40,000| a
           |           |     |     |     |       |      |       |       |
    556,146|Brabant    |2,244|  286|2,530|197,550|   .. |147,050| 50,500| b
           |           |     |     |     |       |      |       |       |
    601,678|Flandre    |   35|  461|  496| 34,123|15,600| 18,523|    .. | c
           |Occidentale|     |     |     |       |      |       |       |
           |           |     |     |     |       |      |       |       |
    733,938|Flandre    |  688|  219|  907| 64,479|   .. |     ..| 64,479| d
           |Orientale  |     |     |     |       |      |       |       |
           |           |     |     |     |       |      |       |       |
    604,957|Hainault   |1,870|  333|2,203|172,792|   .. | 25,072|147,720| e
           |           |     |     |     |       |      |       |       |
    369,937|Liége      |   41|  153|  194| 15,550| 9,665|  4,694|  1,191|}
           |           |     |     |     |       |      |       |       |}
    337,703|Limbourg   |   11|  123|  134| 12,056|10,658|  1,398|    .. |}f
           |           |     |     |     |       |      |       |       |}
    292,151|Luxembourg |   13|   12|   25|  1,841|   232|  1,609|    .. |}
           |           |     |     |     |       |      |       |       |
    212,725|Namur      |  653|    9|  662| 44,533|   .. | 25,533| 19,000| g
  ---------+-----------+-----+-----+-----+-------+------+-------+-------+--
  4,064,209|  TOTAL    |6,441|2,162|8,603|614,224|36,155|255,179|322,890|
  ---------+-----------+-----+-----+-----+-------+------+-------+-------+--

(a) There is a tour at Antwerp, and also at Mechlin.

(b) A tour in Brussels and one in Louvain.

(c) No tour.

(d) A tour at Ghent.

(e) A tour in Mons, and one in Tournay.

(f) No tour.

(g) A hospital, but no tour.

N.B. There are tours at Antwerp, Mechlin, Brussels, Louvain, Ghent,
Mons, and Tournay; seven in all.

N.B. A tour is a horizontal wheel, with a box for the reception of the
infant, which, when empty, is open to the street, and when full is
turned into the interior of the house.

YEAR 1833.

  +---------------+-----------+------+-----------------------+-----------+
  |   PROVINCES.  | Number of |Total.|     Expenses of       |   TOTAL   |
  |               +-----+-----+      +-----------+-----------+  EXPENSES.|
  |               |Foundlings.|      |Foundlings.|           |           |
  |               |     |Deserted    |           |Deserted   |           |
  |               |     |Children.   |           |Children.  |           |
  |               |     |     |      |           |           |           |
  +---------------+-----+-----+------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  |Anvers         |  886|  578| 1,464| 37,107  65| 26,927  61| 64,035  26|
  |Brabant        |2,648|  318| 2,966|182,321  69| 23,081  84|205,403  53|
  |Fl. Occidentale|   39|  460|   499|  3,258  67| 31,841  89| 35,100  56|
  |Fl. Orientale  |  752|  242|   994| 49,874  81| 14,902  67| 64,717  48|
  |Hainault       |1,969|  382| 2,351|123,368  71| 23,533  18|146,901  89|
  |Liége          |   38|  162|   200|  2,899   0| 12,857  04| 15,756  04|
  |Limbourg       |   14|  157|   171|    913  96| 11,054  44| 12,968  40|
  |Luxembourg     |    7|   31|    38|    880  94|  3,212  80|  4,093  74|
  |Namur          |  615|    7|   622| 41,082   0|    467  60| 41,549  60|
  |               +-----+-----+------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  |               |6,968|2,337| 9,305|442,647  43|147,879  07|590,526  60|
  +---------------+-----+-----+------+-----------+-----------+-----------+


Foundlings.

It appears from this statement that in the provinces of Antwerp,
Brabant, and Hainault, containing a population of 1,514,072 persons,
and possessing each two public receptacles for foundlings, the number
of foundlings in 1833 was 5,404, or 1 in 278: that in Flandre Orientale
and Namur, containing a population of 946,663, and possessing each a
single public receptacle, the number of foundlings was 1367, or 1 in
699; and that in Flandre Occidentale, Liége, Limbourg and Luxembourg,
containing a population of 1,601,469, but having no such establishment,
the number of foundlings was 98, or less than 1 in 16,000. Nor does
this difference arise from an increased number of deserted children
in those provinces in which foundling hospitals do not exist: on the
contrary, the numbers in the second column, comprising both orphans
and deserted children, in the four provinces in which no foundling
hospitals exist, amount to 910, out of a population of 1,601,469, being
1 in 1649, whereas those in Antwerp, Brabant and Hainault amount to
1356, out of a population of 1,514,077, or 1 in 116; and when it is
recollected that the proportion of orphans can scarcely differ in the
different provinces, and that in the second column they are mixed with
the deserted children, the superiority of the four former provinces
over the three latter will be found to be really much greater than it
appears.

Nor does the difference arise from the prevalence of infanticide.

It appears from the statistique des tribunaux de la Belgique, that in
the years 1826, 1827, 1828, and 1829, there were in the provinces of
Antwerp, Brabant, Flandre Orientale, Hainault, and Namur, containing
2,450,740 inhabitants, and possessing foundling establishments, 13
convictions for infanticide; and in Flandre Occidentale, Liege,
Limbourg, and Luxembourg, containing 1,601,469 inhabitants, and no such
establishments, only nine convictions, being a proportion slightly
inferior. So far, therefore, from foundling hospitals having had a
tendency to prevent desertion of children, or infanticide, it appears
that their tendency is decidedly to promote the former, without
preventing in any degree the latter. The real infanticides, strange as
it may sound, are the founders and supporters of foundling hospitals.
The average mortality in Europe of children during the first year does
not exceed one in five, or 20 per cent. In England and Holland it
is less: in Belgium it is 22⁴⁹⁄₁₀₀, per cent. But in the foundling
hospitals of Belgium (and their mortality is below the average of such
establishments), it is 45 per cent.[15]

In the foundling hospital in Brussels it is now 66 per cent., having
been from 1812 to 1817, 79 per cent.

Nor is the fate of those who escape from these receptacles much
preferable to that of those who perish there. M. Ducpétiaux, the
inspector of prisons, states that, small as is their number relative
to the rest of the population, they form a considerable proportion of
the inmates of gaols and prisons, and a still larger proportion of the
prostitutes.[16]

Such having been the legislation, and such being its results, an
attempt towards its improvement was made by a law, dated the 30th
July, 1834. That laws enacts, that from the 1st of January, 1835, the
maintenance of foundlings and of deserted children whose place of
settlement is not known, shall be supplied one half by the communes in
which they shall have been exposed or deserted, with the assistance of
their bureaux de bienfaisance, and the other half by the province of
which those communes form a part, and that an annual grant shall be
made by the State in aid of this expenditure; and that the expense of
maintaining deserted children whose place of settlement is known, shall
be supported by the hospices and bureaux de bienfaisance of their place
of settlement, with the assistance of the commune.

The object of this law is stated in a circular from the Minister of
Justice, dated the 23d January, 1834.

He directs, in the first place, the local authorities to provide for
the subsistence of the foundlings with whom they may be charged,
without reference to the proposed annual grant, since neither the
amount of that grant, nor the mode of its distribution, is laid down by
the law; and urges them to prevent the increase of their own burthens
by endeavouring to prevent the abandonment of children born within
their jurisdictions, and the exposure within their jurisdictions of
children born elsewhere; and for that purpose to procure the punishment
by law of those convicted of having exposed infants, or made a custom
of taking them to hospitals. He admits, however, that the necessary
investigations are matters of great delicacy; and he might have added
that the punishment by law to which he refers does not exist, unless
punishment by law means the arbitrary interference of the police, so
much tolerated in continental Europe.

“These,” he adds, “are the wishes of the Government and of the
Chambers; and this declaration will enable you to understand the
motives of the silent repeal of the law, directing the establishment
of tours for the reception of foundlings. The Legislature could not at
the same time prescribe measures intended to diminish the exposure of
children, and an institution by which it is favoured and facilitated.
It did not venture to pronounce the suppression of the existing tours;
but the silence of the law on this subject is the expression of its
earnest desire that this institution should be discontinued; the mode
of discontinuing it is left to the local authorities. The Government
will require from you an annual report on these subjects, before it
decides on the distribution of the annual grant; and the favour shown
to each district may depend on its endeavours to comply with these
instructions.”

This circular is a curious instance of an attempt to undermine an
institution which the Government and the Legislature disapprove, but
which they do not venture directly to grapple with. All that the
Legislature ventures directly to do is to express its earnest desire
(désir formel), _by the silence of the law_. The Government however
goes further, and holds out hints, though it does not venture to hint
very clearly, that the fewer the foundlings in any district, the
larger will be the share of that district in the government grant.
Under the influence of these double motives we may expect the tours
soon to be closed.

We have also inserted (p. 607) a paper respecting the operation of the
monts-de-piété, of which the following is the result:--

  ------------------------+---------------------+---------------------
  Average of Nine Years,  |                     |
  from 1822 to 1830       |       1831.         |       1832.
  inclusive.              |                     |
  -----------+------------+----------+----------+----------+----------
  Pledges.   |  Amount.   | Pledges. |  Amount. | Pledges. |  Amount.
  -----------+------------+----------+----------+----------+----------
             |  Francs.   |          |  Francs. |          |  Francs.
  1,271,122  | 3,778,286  |1,185,834 | 3,268,104| 1,129,373| 3,939,219
             |   or       |          |   or     |          |    or
             | £151,131   |          | £130,124 |          |  £157,548
  -----------+------------+----------+----------+----------+----------

The number of pledges redeemed is stated only for 1832, in which year
1,124,115 pledges, on which 3,162,399 francs, or 126,495_l._ sterling,
had been lent, were redeemed. It is to be observed that the pledges
are for small sums, amounting, on an average, to about three francs,
or less than half-a-crown per pledge; and that the amount of the
redemption in 1832 nearly corresponds with the amount lent in 1831. On
the whole, considering the low rate of interest exacted by the Belgian
monts-de-piété, as compared with that taken by our pawnbrokers, the
small aggregate amount of deposits, being about 150,000_l._ for four
millions of people, is a strong indication of the generally provident
habits of the labouring population.

As further illustrations of the general working of the Belgian system,
we extract the following particulars from the reports from Antwerp and
Ostend. (pp. 627, 628, 629, 630, 634, 636, 637, and 639.)

    [14] “With us no one has a right to relief.”

    [15] Quetelet, Recherches sur la Population, &c., p. 38.

    [16] Des Modifications, &c. de la Loi sur les Enfans Trouvés,
    p. 13.


ANTWERP.

[Sidenote: Population, 11,328.]

_Vagrants._

Indigent travellers, foreigners, or denizens, who pass through Antwerp,
are received there at an establishment called St. Julien’s Hospital,
where they are lodged and boarded for three nights at the expense of
the establishment, which provides their wants for the moment.

The foundation of this hospital, which yearly receives about 1000
individuals, dates from the beginning of the 14th century. It subsists
by itself, under the direction of a private charitable administration,
by means of some fixed revenues, and also by the liberal donations of
philanthropic persons.

The same poor travellers, when Belgians, receive at Antwerp an
indemnity of 15 centimes, or 1½_d._ sterling, per league per head for
travelling expenses to the first town in the neighbourhood, where this
relief is continued to them. These travelling expenses are at the
charge of the town, and paid out of the municipal funds, in virtue of a
Royal Act of the 10th May, 1815.

_Destitute Able-bodied._

Necessitous individuals of the labouring and indigent class, who do not
attempt to go a begging, and who, for want of work, are without means
of providing for the necessaries of life, and also the members of their
families, are provided for at their own dwellings, by the care of the
bureau de bienfaisance, by the means or revenues of this establishment,
and the subsidies which the town grants it yearly out of the municipal
funds, in order to supply what may be necessary to continue its
service. The amount of this grant varies annually, according to the
real wants of the establishment, by reason of the circumstances that
either augment or reduce its expenses.

The succours distributed by this establishment consist in money, bread,
potatoes, fuel, and clothing, &c.

Besides, there exists at Antwerp, under the direction of the same
bureau de bienfaisance, a workhouse, where carpets of cow-hair and
other articles are made. This workhouse is established especially
to procure work to the indigent and working class who are without
employ. The population of this establishment varies according to the
different seasons and other circumstances. It is most frequented during
the winter, when the navigation is interrupted, and the stagnation of
several branches of industry causes the number of indigent to augment.
Those who come to work in this establishment remain there the whole
day, and receive their meals, besides a salary in cash, proportioned to
the work they are employed at.

If, through the effects of a hard winter, the wants of the labouring
and indigent class are excessive, there are formed at Antwerp private
societies for relief, which, by means of donations, collections, and
voluntary subscriptions, efficaciously assist the unfortunate by
distributions of money, food, fuel, &c.

The depôt of mendicity in the province of Antwerp is situated at
Hoogstraeten, in an ancient manor bought for that purpose by the
former department administration. It is a spacious establishment of
agriculture, possessing a great number of acres of arable, pasture, and
wood land, and a still greater number of heath (bruyère).

Those individuals who are destitute, and who desire to be admitted into
this establishment, are received as free men; the vagrants are brought
there by force. Both are employed there at sundry works of agriculture,
of manufacture, or in the household establishment, according to their
physical strength. The impotent and aged alone are kept without working
in a separate place.

For several years the expense for the maintenance of individuals of the
depôt at Hoogstraeten has not amounted to more than 32 centimes per
individual, (or 3_d._ sterling.)

On the 1st January, 1834, the number of persons entertained at the
provincial depôt, on account of the city of Antwerp, was 153. The
population of this establishment generally amounts to 250 or 300
individuals, all belonging to the province.

The children of the working class or indigent are received, without any
distinction, in the public schools established gratis. Those children
abandoned to the public charity, or of whom the parents are entirely
unable to bring them up, and who request to be relieved of them from
inability to maintain them, are sent to an hospital established for
that purpose, or else placed in the country under the direction of the
civil hospital, or the bureau de bienfaisance.

_Impotent through Age._

There are at Antwerp 26 private hospitals, founded and established for
many centuries by charitable persons in favour of a stated number of
aged persons, of both sexes, and of decent and respectable families;
but in preference for the members of the founders’ family, and which
persons, without being entirely destitute, have, notwithstanding,
no sufficient means to provide for their subsistence. Those persons
inhabit a small house in the hospital, where they keep their own
household separately, and subsist by what they can earn personally
by any hand-work, and by the weekly succour which they receive from
the revenue of the foundation. These men and women reside in separate
hospitals.

Destitute persons, of both sexes, who are impotent through age, but
have not claims to be admitted into the before-mentioned private
hospital, are maintained by the administrations of the poor, the sick,
incurable, and impotents, in the civil hospital, and the others in the
country, where they are boarded with the farmers at the expenses of the
public establishment of charity; that is to say, of the administration
of the civil hospitals and bureau de bienfaisance. Besides, there is
at Antwerp a special establishment as a refuge to the impotent through
age, of decent and respectable families, who are without means of
procuring a livelihood.

_Sick._

In Belgium every town has its civil hospital for the maintenance of
destitute sick. That of Antwerp is open to all the unfortunate, without
distinction, whenever their social position does not afford them the
means of being attended by a physician at their dwellings, who are
deemed proper objects for admission.

Are also admitted, in a private room in this hospital (upon payment of
a small daily retribution), all individuals who, although not entirely
destitute, prefer to be treated in the hospital rather than at their
own houses; such as men and female servants, who are commonly sent
there by the persons who have them in their employ.

Indigent persons, born at Antwerp, are treated at the hospital at the
expense of the establishment. Those who are not of the town, but are of
the country, are treated there at the expense of the commune where they
have their domicile de secours.

These expenses are fixed at the rate of 62 cents., or 1 franc 31
centimes (1_s._ 0½_d._ sterling) per diem, whatever may be the
sickness. The expenses, for the treatment of those who have no domicile
de secours, are repaid by government out of the treasury funds.
The town provides for the insufficiency of the private revenue of
this establishment, in the same manner as it does for the bureau de
bienfaisance, by means of “subsidies in aid,” paid out of the municipal
funds. This amount of “subsidies” varies annually according to the
wants of the administration of the hospital.

Persons of the indigent and necessitous class, whose sickness or
complaint is not severe enough to require their entering the hospital,
receive medical and surgical relief at their own homes. To that effect,
there are several physicians and surgeons appointed and attached to
the bureau de bienfaisance, who give their assistance to the sick
who require it, every one in the district or section for which he is
appointed. These physicians and surgeons, who receive a fixed salary
from the administration of the poor, also receive at their domicile,
at fixed hours of the day, indigent persons who want to consult them
on the state of their health; and it is on a ticket delivered by them,
that such sick persons are received at the hospital. The bureau de
bienfaisance has a special pharmacy, situated in the centre of the
town, where medicine is given gratis to the indigent, on a prescription
signed by a physician of the poor establishment.

The indigent persons relieved by the bureau de bienfaisance receive
only the strict necessaries of life to feed and support their families,
and no more, so that they have nothing to satisfy their private wants
or fancies, nor can they procure themselves any luxuries or other
comforts; and they always lead a life, that, although protected against
the most pressing wants, is notwithstanding a very miserable one. It
is thus the interest of those individuals that are able to work (and
this they perfectly comprehend) to seek to maintain themselves. It is
only those persons who are totally depraved, and who give themselves
entirely up to drunkenness and every other excess, who feel assured
that, after having wasted and spent the little they possess, and
abandoned the work that maintained them, there always remains to them
the resource of the distributions made by the administration of the
poor.

In Antwerp, the situation of a workman, whatever may be the class he
belongs to, and who maintains himself solely by his work, is by all
means preferable and better than that of a person who only subsists
by relief or public charity. The existence of those who reside in the
depôts of mendicity, excepting only the loss of their liberty, is even
in many respects preferable to the situation of the latter, who are
maintained by general charity.


OSTEND.

[Sidenote: Population, 11,328.]

_Destitute Able-bodied._

The only legal mode of lodging the destitute able-bodied is to send
them to the depôt of mendicity, where they are treated as paupers.
There existed formerly agricultural colonies on the same principles as
those in Holland, to which the parishes could send their able-bodied,
destitute, and their families; it was found in vain to attempt making
cultivators or proprietors of them.

The destitute able-bodied, but quite indigent, of the two Flanders,
and the vagrants who have been tried as such, compose altogether a
population of about 300 persons (the destitute able-bodied of Ghent
excepted.) For each of these 300 poor, his parish pays a contribution
of 32 centimes (3_d._) per day (men and women equally.) The depôt
for both the Flanders established at Bruges, by the mildness of its
administration, has gradually overcome the dread which it inspired
at its origin. The directors have banished all rigour, not even
enforcing work on the destitute; but as they are paid according to
their industry, that inducement to work is found sufficient. This
establishment is remarkably prosperous, having already saved fr. 80,000
(3200_l._), all expenses paid. It is not found necessary to have any
armed force in the neighbourhood to keep this large number of destitute
in order, this being attained by gentleness and good usage. On any of
the poor leaving the establishment, improved in their moral conduct,
they receive a part of their own earnings, which enables them to seek
some employment.

Besides this depôt, there is at Ghent a workhouse where employment is
given to the destitute, but without their being maintained. The number
of labourers in this establishment, which was erected by voluntary
subscription, has been as many as 1900 in time of great distress.

Every church has its masters of the table of the poor, or distributors
of assistance. Such funds proceed from collections made in the church,
voluntary alms, and assignments from the “bureau de bienfaisance.”
Weekly distributions of bread or fuel, sometimes money or clothing,
are made; but this assistance is generally discontinued in the summer
months, on account of the abundance of work during that season. In the
towns the relief consists principally in money (about 32 centimes per
man and per day, or 3_d._ sterling.) In the country the rule is not to
give money, but assistance in kind.

Generally their children may be educated gratuitously; but they take
little advantage of it, as they prefer employing them in gathering
up firewood, &c.; and, generally, there is felt a want of coercive
measures to force the parents to send their children to school, and to
allow them to be put out as apprentices.

_Impotent through Age._

There are almshouses throughout the kingdom, where the impotent through
age are maintained and taken care of. These institutions are so far
profitable to the parishes, as that it would cost them more money to
assist these persons separately. Some have been endowed by deeds of
gift, others are supported by the inhabitants of the towns. The number
of them is increasing in the country, and most towns are well provided
in that respect.

The assistance afforded to those relieved at home is in clothing,
bread, fuel twice a week, and 75 centimes in money (7_d._) every Sunday.

There exists between the self-supporting labourers and the persons
subsisting exclusively on alms or public charity, a very numerous
intermediate class, consisting of those who live partly on relief and
partly on labour, so that the two extremities only of the scale can be
compared. An able-bodied but not labouring man receives only about the
half what the last of those who do labour and are not assisted would
earn; the legal relief being 32 centimes (3_d._), and the lowest day’s
work more than 64 centimes (6_d._) As to liberty, nobody is forced to
work, not even at the depôt of mendicity; they are only not allowed to
go out at will. Food is almost equally distributed, and many destitute
poor prefer the depôt to free labour, when they are not sure of being
employed every day; but in no other instance.

The grievances which result from this system arise from the neglect,
the ignorance or the corruption of the local authorities, and although
numerous, they are not very striking.

2dly. Grievances arise from the want of proper conditions with which
lands or houses are bequeathed to the bureaux de bienfaisance. Wherever
a revenue is bequeathed it is shared equally by the poor, even when
they may be beyond need; for instance, a beggar will receive 1 fr. 50
c. (1_s._ 2_d._) per day for her maintenance, which would not have cost
more than the fifth part of that sum if paid by the depôt of mendicity.
To obviate this abuse, and to increase the power of useful charity, the
revenue of the bureau de bienfaisance of each parish should be added
to the sum principal of the province when the revenue of the bureau
exceeds the wants of its locality. 3dly. Grievances arise from the
liberty of parents to neglect their children, and allowing them to beg
alms for their own benefit. This last appears to be the root of the
evil, and the great cause of the augmentation of pauperism in these
towns.


GAESBECK. (page 1.)

But the most interesting portion of the Belgian details is Count
Arrivabene’s account of Gaesbeck, a small village about nine miles from
Brussels, containing about 857 acres, inhabited by 364 persons, forming
60 families, or separate menages, constituted of 13 comparatively large
farmers, occupying each from 30 to 150 acres, 18 small proprietors or
small farmers, 21 day-labourers, and 8 artizans. The commune possesses
a property producing an annual revenue of 556 francs, or nearly 23_l._
sterling, managed by its bureau de bienfaisance, of which the curé is
the acting member. It expended in the year 1832, on the relief of the
poor, (including the salary of the schoolmaster and clothing for the
poor children who were to be confirmed,) 625 francs, or about 25_l._
2_s._, being rather less than 1_s._ 4½_d._ per head. How the extra
2_l._ 2_s._ was obtained is not mentioned; but as the bureau is stated
to have always nearly a year’s revenue in hand, it was probably taken
from the receipts of a previous year. The heaviest item of expense
is the support of one old man, at the annual expense of 72 francs,
(rather less than 3_l._) Ten other individuals, or heads of families,
appear to have received nearly regular relief, amounting in general
to about 6_d._ a week; and four others to have been assisted at
times irregularly; the largest sum being 1_l._, given to L. Maonens,
“pour malheur.” There has been only one illegitimate birth during
the last five years. The average age of marriage is 27 for men, and
26 for women; the average number of births to a marriage, 3½. As
these averages are taken for a period of 23 years, ending in 1832,
during which the population has not increased, they may be relied on.
Of the whole 60 families, only 11 are without land; all the others
either possess some, or hire some from the proprietor. The quantity
generally occupied by a day-labourer is a bonnier, or about 2½ acres,
for which he pays a rent of from 60 to 80 francs. With this land the
labourers keep in general a cow, a pig, and poultry. To be without
land is considered the extreme of poverty. The number of labourers
is precisely equal to the demand for their services. Daily wages are
6_d._, with some advantages equal to about 1_d._ more; and, as might
be expected under a natural system, with no preference of the married
to the unmarried. Labourers are generally hired by the year, and
remain long in the same service. Crime is exceedingly rare: for the
last 12 years no one has been committed to prison. Offences against
the game laws are unknown. There are three houses of entertainment in
the village, but they are not frequented by the labourers. “Are the
labourers discontented; do they look on the farmers with envy?” asked
the Count of his informant. “I do not believe,” was the answer, “that
the labourers envy the farmers. I believe that the relation between
the farmers and labourers is very friendly: that the labourers are
perfectly contented in their situation, and feel regard and attachment
for their employers.” (p. 14.)

What a contrast is exhibited by this picture of moral, contented, and
(if the term is permissible) prosperous poverty, supported by the
frugality and providence of the labourers themselves, and that of the
population of a pauperized English village, better fed indeed, better
paid, better clothed, and better lodged, and, above all, receiving
10, or perhaps 20 times the amount of parochial alms, but depraved by
profligacy, soured by discontent, their numbers swelled by head-money
and preference of the married to double the demand for their labour,
their frugality and providence punished by the refusal of employment,
and their industry ruined by the scale; looking with envy and dislike
on their masters, and with hatred on the dispensers of relief!

And it is to be observed that the independence of the Belgian peasantry
does not arise from any unwillingness to accept of relief. Out of the
60 families forming the population of the village, 19 appear to have
received it in 1832; and a fact is related by Count Arrivabene, which
shows that indiscriminate alms are as much coveted there as with us. In
1830 (the year of the revolution) many persons applied for charity at
the gate of the castle of Gaesbeck, the residence of Marquis Arconati,
and something was given to each. The next year the applications were
renewed: the sum given to each applicant was fixed at 1_d._, and a
single day in the week was fixed for its distribution. On the first
of these days there were 50 applicants; the second, 60. The sum given
was reduced to ½_d._ to a man, and a farthing to a child; but towards
the end of the season the weekly assemblage had risen to 300 and
400 persons; they came from 10 and 12 miles distance, and it became
necessary to abolish the allowance, trifling as the amount appears.


_Poor Colonies._

The last portion of the Belgian institutions requiring notice are the
poor colonies. We have already stated, that in 1823 the Belgian Société
de Bienfaisance was established on the model and for the purposes
of that already existing in Holland. In the beginning of that year
the society purchased 522 bonniers (rather less than 1,300 statute
acres), at Wortel, for the establishment of two colonies, called free,
and divided them into 125 farms, of 3½ bonniers (about 9 statute
acres) each; 70 in the colony No. 1, and 55 in the colony No. 2. In
1823 they purchased 516 bonniers (about 1,280 acres), at Mexplus and
Ryckevoorsel, for the establishment of a mendicity colony. The first
estate cost 623_l._, the second 554_l._, or less than 10_s._ an acre,
from which the quality of the land may be inferred.

Families placed in the free colonies were provided each with a house,
barn, and stable, a couple of cows, sometimes sheep, furniture,
clothes, and other stock, of the estimated value, including the land,
of 1,600 florins (133_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._ sterling), which was charged
against them as a debt to the society. They were bound to work at wages
fixed by the society, to wear the uniform, and conform to the rules
of the colony, and not to quit its precincts without leave. A portion
of their wages was retained to repay the original advance made by the
society; a further portion to pay for the necessaries furnished to them
from time to time, and the food for their cattle; and a portion paid to
them in a base money of the colony, to be expended in shops established
by the society within its limits.

At first each family of colonists worked on its own farm, and managed
its own cattle, but it was found that the land was uncultivated, and
the cattle died for want of attention or food; and in 1828 the society
took back the cattle, and employed all the colonists indiscriminately
in the general cultivation of the land of the colony. “From this time,”
says M. Ducpétiaux (p. 624), “the situation of the colonist who is
called free, but is in fact bound to the society by restrictions which
take from him almost the whole of his liberty for the present, and
deprive him of all hope of future enfranchisement, has resembled that
of the serfs of the middle ages or of Russia. It is worse than that
of the Irish cottiers, who, if they are fed like him on potatoes and
coarse bread, have at least freedom of action and the power of changing
their residence.”

Those colonists who had obtained a gold or silver medal, as a testimony
that they could support themselves out of the produce of their own
farms, were excepted from this arrangement, and allowed to retain
the management of their farms, paying a rent to the society; but at
the date of M. Ducpétiaux’s communication (10th December, 1832), the
greater part even of them had been forced to renounce this advantage,
and to fall back into the situation of ordinary colonists. Four
families were all that then remained in this state of comparative
emancipation.

The inhabitants of the mendicity colony were from the first subjected
to the regulations ultimately imposed on the free colonists, with the
additional restriction of being required to live in common on rations
afforded by the society; the only respect in which, according to M.
Ducpétiaux, they now differ from the free colonists.

Count Arrivabene visited these colonies in 1829, and then predicted
their failure. The three years which elapsed between his visit and the
report of M. Ducpétiaux were sufficient to prove the accuracy of this
prophecy.

It appears from the statement of M. Ducpétiaux (p. 621), that on the
1st of July, 1832, the debts due from the society amounted to 776,021
florins (about 64,661_l._ sterling); the whole value of its property
to 536,250 florins (about 44,698_l._ sterling); leaving a deficit of
239,771 florins, or nearly 20,000_l._ sterling. And this deficit was
likely to increase every year; the expenses, as they had done from the
beginning, greatly exceeding the receipts, a fact which is shown by the
following table:--

  ----+-------------+-----------+------------------+-----------------
      |    Free     | Beggars.  |  Expenditure.    |     Receipts.
      | Colonists.  |           |                  |
  ----+-------------+-----------+------------------+-----------------
  1822|    127      |    ..     |   38,899  50     |       ..
  1823|    406      |    ..     |   93,532  07     |       ..
  1824|    536      |    ..     |  106,102  72     |   12,339  31
  1825|    579      |   490[17] |  102,983  73     |   25,740  74
  1826|    563      |   846     |  163,933  45     |   56,476  88
  1827|    532      |   899     |  168,754  61     |   50,677  38
  1828|    550      |   774     |  144,645  28     |   54,994  62
  1829|    565      |   703     |  174,611  44     |   98,523  57
  1830|    546      |   598     |  127,358  72     |   67,718  72
  1831|    517      |   465     |  135,405  81[18] |   82,578  81[19]
  ----+-------------+-----------+------------------+-----------------

    [17] During the four last months.

    [18] These sums do not include many of the expenses of
    administration. They consist simply of the sums remitted to the
    director for current expenses.

    [19] These sums include not only every species of net profit,
    but in fact the value of the gross produce.

M. Ducpétiaux’s statement may be compared with that of Captain
Brandreth, who visited the colonies at about the same period. (pp. 19,
20.)

    Among the colonists there were a few whose previous habits and
    natural dispositions disposed them to avail themselves, to
    the best of their ability, of the benevolent provisions thus
    offered for their relief, and who had worked industriously,
    and conducted themselves well during their residence in the
    colony. Their land was cultivated to the extent of their means;
    and their dwelling-houses had assumed an appearance of greater
    comfort, order, and civilization than the rest. But these were
    too few in number, and the result too trifling to offer the
    stimulus of emulation to others.

    Those farms that I examined, with the above exceptions, were
    not encouraging examples: there were few evidences of thrift
    and providence, the interior of the dwellings being, in point
    of comfort, little, if at all removed from the humblest cottage
    of the most straitened condition of labourers in this country.

    A clause in the regulations allows certain of the colonists,
    whose good conduct and industry have obtained them the
    privilege, to barter with the neighbouring towns for any
    article they may want.

    The nearest towns to the establishment, of any note, are
    Hoogstraten and Tournhout; but on inquiry I could not find
    that any intercourse was maintained with them; and the country
    round offered no evidences of the existence of a thriving
    community in its centre, exercising an influence on its traffic
    or occupations. In the winter I should think the roads to the
    colonies scarcely practicable for any description of carriages.

    From what I saw of the social condition of the colonists, I am
    disposed to insist much on the inexpediency of assembling, in
    an isolated position especially, a large community of paupers
    for this experiment.

    Admitting the physical difficulties to have been much less than
    they are, and the prospect of pecuniary advantage much greater
    and more certain, the moral objections to the system would
    outweigh them. Without the example of the better conditions of
    society, there can be no hope of such a community gradually
    acquiring those qualities that would fit the members of it for
    a better condition. One or two families established in the
    neighbourhood of an orderly and industrious community would
    find the stimulus of shame, as well as emulation, acting on
    their moral qualities and exertions; but in the present case,
    where all are in a condition of equal debasement, both of those
    powerful stimuli are wanting. The reports of the progress of
    the Dutch free colonies up to the year 1828 are certainly
    encouraging; and as the same system has been adopted in the
    free colonies of Belgium as in Holland, and the experiment
    in both cases tried on similar soils, they might lead to the
    inference that some peculiar cause has operated in favour of
    the Dutch colonies, and against those of Belgium. Not having
    had an opportunity of visiting the Dutch colonies, I cannot
    offer an opinion on the subject; but reasoning from what I
    personally witnessed, I should be disposed to think, that
    either some greater encouragement has been granted in Holland,
    or some improvement of the system adopted; or that the habits,
    dispositions, and character of the Dutch fit them better for
    this experiment.

    The same authorities that I have quoted in the case of these
    colonies, speak favourably also of the Belgian colonies up to
    the same period; and on the part of the latter experiment it
    may be asserted, that the unsettled state of the country since
    that period ought very much to qualify any condemnation of
    its principle. But notwithstanding this disadvantage (which
    is much less, I fear, than has been insisted on), there would
    still have remained evidences of the probable success of the
    experiment. Those evidences were not satisfactory to my mind;
    and I may further observe, that while the people in general
    recommended the colonies to foreigners as especially worthy of
    their notice, I do not remember meeting with one individual
    who could point out any specific results, and few who would
    distinctly assert that there was any increasing and permanent
    benefit to the community from them.

    It is probable that unless some great change is made in the
    present system, the colonies will be ultimately abandoned, or
    merge into the establishments for compulsory labour: in other
    words, the society will become the farmers, and the present
    colonists merely agricultural labourers, differing only from
    the ordinary labourer, inasmuch as they will work under the
    penalty of being treated as vagabonds in case of contumacy.

    The observations I have hitherto made apply only to the free
    colonies. In the mendicity or compulsory colonies, the poor are
    assembled in large establishments, and cultivate the ground,
    either by task or day labour, and attend the cattle, &c., under
    the direction of certain officers; it is, in fact, a species of
    agricultural workhouse.

    The following is a Return of the compulsory establishment at
    Merxplas. (p. 20.)

    ---------------------------+-------+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----
                               | 1826. | 1827. | 1828. |1829.|1830.|1831.
    ---------------------------+-------+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----
    Present on the 1st January |   604 |   919 |   816 | 722 | 658 | 519
    Admitted during the year   |   422 |   247 |   172 | 147 |  97 |   5
    Brought back from desertion|     6 |    25 |    12 |  23 |  27 |  18
    Born                       |     5 |     3 |     3 |   3 |   1 |  ..
                               | ----- | ----- | ----- | --- | --- | ---
                               | 1,037 | 1,194 | 1,003 | 895 | 783 | 542
                               |       |       |       |     |     |
    Enlarged                   |     7 |   159 |   135 | 116 |  82 |  18
    Deserted                   |    14 |    42 |    35 |  37 |  65 |  66
    Died                       |    91 |   166 |   104 |  37 |  81 |  23
    Entered the military       |       |       |       |     |     |
      service as volunteers    |    .. |    .. |     2 |  39 |  28 |  ..
    Entered the militia        |     4 |     9 |     4 |   8 |   4 |   3
    Brought before justice     |     2 |     2 |     1 |   3 |   8 |  ..
                               | ----- | ----- | ----- | --- | --- | ---
                               |   118 |   378 |   281 | 240 | 268 | 110
                               | ----- | ----- | ----- | --- | --- | ---
        Total, 31st Dec.       |   919 |   816 |   722 | 655 | 515 | 432
    ---------------------------+-------+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----

The number of deaths is very striking. It amounts to 502 in six years,
or 83⅔ per year, the average population during that time having
consisted of 708 persons; so that the average annual mortality was
nearly 12 per cent. The proportion of desertions appears also to have
progressively increased, until in the last year 66 deserted out of 542.

On the whole the Belgian poor colonies appear to be valuable only as a
warning.



FRANCE.


The information contained in this Appendix respecting the poor-laws of
France, and their administration, consists of a paper by M. Frederic
de Chateauvieux, on the comparative state of the poor in France and
England (p. 21); a report by Mr. Majendie, from Normandy (p. 34); and
reports by his Majesty’s Consuls from Havre (p. 179), Brest (p. 724),
Nantes (p. 171), Bourdeaux (p. 229), Bayonne (p. 260), and Marseilles
(p. 185).

We have already stated (pp. 117-125) the general outline of the French
establishments for the relief of the poor, consisting of hospices
for the impotent, hospitals for the sick, depôts de mendicité for
vagrants and beggars (constituting the in-doors relief), and bureaux
de bienfaisance for the secours à domicile, or out-doors relief.
But this comprehensive and discriminative system of public relief
appears to have been carried into effect in France with a far less
approach to completeness than in Belgium. The number of hospices and
hospitals is indeed large in the towns, and not inconsiderable in the
country: but of the depôts de mendicité, of which the decree of 1808
ordered the establishment, very few were in fact organized, and of
those the greater part have since been suppressed; and the bureaux
de bienfaisance are almost confined to the towns. As more than
three-fourths of the population of France is agricultural, only a small
portion of that population therefore is capable of participating in
public or organized relief. M. de Chateauvieux estimates that portion,
or, in other words, the population of the towns possessing institutions
for the relief of the poor, at 3,500,000 persons, and the value of the
public relief annually afforded at 1,800,000_l._ sterling. (p 25.) If
this approximation can be relied on, the expenditure per head in that
portion of the French population nearly equals the expenditure per head
in England.

The following are the most material portions of the consular reports:--


HAVRE.

[Sidenote: SEINE INFERIEURE. Population of the Department, 693,683.
Population of Havre, 23,816.]

The provisions for the relief of the poor in Havre may be collected
from the following statement of the principal regulations of the
hospitals, the bureau de bienfaisance, and the depôt de mendicité for
the department, which is situated in Rouen. (pp. 182, 183, 184, 185,
186.)

    _Hospital Regulations at Havre._

    [Sidenote: HOSPITAL.]

    Aged persons of 60, without distinction of sex, are admitted
    into the hospital upon a certificate of indigence delivered by
    the mayor of their district, and a ticket of admission signed
    by one of the directors of the establishment.

    The sick are admitted if they can produce a certificate of
    indigence from the mayor or curate of their parish, and every
    care is taken of them at the expense of the establishment.

    Orphans, foundlings, or deserted children are admitted,
    provided they are under 12 years; they are then engaged as
    servants or apprentices; but should they get out of employment
    from no fault of their own, they are at liberty to return until
    the age of 21 years.

    _Regulations of the Establishment of the Bureau de
    Bienfaisance, of Havre._

    [Sidenote: Bureau de Bienfaisance.]

    1. None are admitted but those whose poverty is well known, and
    who have lived 12 months in the town. The number of persons to
    be relieved is fixed by the bureau, whose names must be entered
    in a register, stating their age, date of application, place of
    residence, number and age of their children.

    2. There is a second register for such poor who, having resided
    one year in Havre, shall apply after the closing of the
    register mentioned in the above article. This inscription is
    made in order of their dates, and the paupers carried upon it
    will only be entitled to relief in turn, and as vacancies occur
    in the first list, by departures, deaths, or discharge.

    3. No poor of either sex can receive relief if more than 15
    years old, and under 50. This exclusion is not applicable to
    widows with young children, or with four children under 15
    years. In all cases they must produce a certificate that their
    children attend the free school, and are diligent.

    4. The inscription in the register mentioned in No. 2, can only
    take place after inquiry has been made respecting the claimant,
    and it has been authorized by the bureau, which meets for this
    purpose once a month.

    5. No children can be admitted to the assistance of the bureau,
    nor into the classes of instruction and work, above the age of
    15, or without having been vaccinated.

    6. If the number of children attending the classes and work
    shall be too many, either on account of the size of the
    building or the attention of the instructors, preference
    will be given to the children whose parents are already on
    their lists, and who are known to require assistance for the
    education of their children.

    7. Every year, at the period of the first communion, a certain
    number of children shall be clothed. But to be admitted to this
    assistance they must produce a certificate from the clergyman
    appointed to give religious instruction, or from the nuns of
    the convent, that they have been attentive and are deserving.
    The boys are clothed in brown cloth; the girls in coloured
    calico.

    8. Every year the sum of 653 fr. (26_l._) shall be given to
    the clergymen of the town, in tickets of 1 fr. (9_d._), 50 c.
    (4½_d._), to be distributed where they think proper, of which
    only those who are past 60 or under 15 can participate.

    9. Each person shall receive 3 lbs. of bread, two in the same
    family 6 lbs. of ditto, three to five persons in the same
    family, whose children are under 15, 12 lbs. of ditto, for 15
    days. The number admitted to this relief to be regulated each
    year, so that the distribution shall not exceed 3,000 lbs. a
    month. These distributions will take place to the most needy
    each Monday and Friday, from 9 to 12 o’clock, after which no
    more will be given.

    10. In the distribution of clothing, which will be made once a
    year, each individual will only be clothed once in two years.

    11. When the establishment is enabled to give woollen clothing,
    it will only be to such as are above 60 years, or to children
    under seven years, and those the most destitute; this relief
    once in two years.

    12. If any one who receives bread and clothing from the bureau
    sells or pawns the same, he shall be struck off.

    13. All clothes given by the establishment shall be marked, so
    that they may be known.

    14. Assistance to lying-in women, new-born children, and sick,
    will be rendered at their houses; those who are not on the
    lists cannot be assisted until their case is examined; money
    will not be given to women in labour but when absolutely
    necessary; soup is distributed on Mondays and Wednesdays, from
    two to three o’clock.

    15. There is attached to the establishment a doctor, at 400
    fr. (16_l._), and two assistants, at 500 fr. (20_l._) each per
    year, who attend such as are named by the bureau; and also
    women in extraordinary cases of labour.

    16. A midwife is attached, at 200 fr. (8_l._) a year, who
    attends all women designated by the bureau.

    17. In hard weather, if it should be thought expedient to make
    a subscription, the poor who are upon the second list (article
    2) will be relieved from it.


ROUEN.

    _Rouen Depôt of Mendicity._

    REGULATIONS.

    SECTION 1.--_Duty of the Porter of the Outside Gates._

    ART. 1st. All the gates shall be kept constantly shut.

    3. The porter shall not allow any one to enter or go out during
    the day without a permission or passport from the Governor.

    6. The porters and other officers are expressly forbidden, on
    pain of dismissal, to allow the inmates to send any message
    or commission, or have any correspondence whatever beyond the
    walls of the establishment. Letters to and from them must be
    laid before the governor before they are forwarded.

    SECTION 2.--_In-doors Porter._

    ART. 3. To prevent all communication between the mendicants
    of different sexes and ages, the porter is ordered to keep
    locked the doors of the dormitories, the work-shops, the courts
    for recreation, and other places to which the inmates have
    access, as soon as they have quitted them, in pursuance of the
    regulations of the place.

    4. It is the duty of the porter and other officers and servants
    to see that the inmates are carefully kept to the apartments
    provided for them respectively. The porter must go the rounds
    from time to time to ascertain this.

    SECTION 3.--_Dormitories._

    ART. 1. The bell is to announce the hour of rising from the 1st
    of March to the 30th of September at 4 o’clock in the morning,
    and from the 1st Oct. to the 28th Feb. at 6. The inspectors
    must take care that the inmates immediately rise.

    3. After prayers at 6 o’clock in summer, and 7 in winter, the
    inmates, accompanied by the inspectors, are to proceed to their
    respective workshops. The dormitories are to be swept and
    cleaned by two inmates, selected by turns for this employment
    out of each dormitory, and then to be kept locked.

    4. At 9 in the evening, in all seasons, the bell is to
    announce bedtime. The inmates are immediately to proceed to
    their respective dormitories; the roll is to be called by the
    inspector, and prayers (not lasting more than a quarter of
    an hour) are to be said, and listened to attentively; after
    prayers each shall go quietly to bed, and perfect silence be
    kept in every dormitory.

    SECTION 4.--_Refectories._

    ART. 1. Breakfast shall take place during the summer six months
    precisely at 8 in the morning, and during the six winter months
    at 9, and last half an hour. Immediately after breakfast the
    inmates are to return to work until precisely half-past 12
    o’clock, the dinner hour at all seasons.

    5. From half-past 12 till 2 is allowed for dinner and for
    recreation, under the inspection, in each division, of a
    servant. At 2 o’clock precisely the bell is to summon the
    inmates to return to work, and the inspectors are to call the
    roll in each workshop.

    6. At 8 in the evening, in all seasons, the bell is to be rung
    for supper; the inmates may remain in the refectory till nine.

    7. The same regulations shall be observed in the dormitories
    and refectories of each sex, except that as respects the aged,
    sick, and infirm.

    SECTION 4.--_Workshops._

    ART. 1. The inspectors are to see that every workman is busily
    employed, and loses no time.

    2. The workshops are to be kept locked during the hours of
    work, and the inmates not allowed to leave them.

    3. Each able-bodied inmate is to have a task set him,
    proportioned to his strength and skill. If he do not finish it,
    he is to be paid only for what he has done, put on dry bread,
    and kept to work during the hours of recreation.

    4. Every workman, who for three consecutive days fails in
    completing his task, is to be kept during the hours of meals
    and of recreation, and during the night, confined in the
    punishment-room upon bread and water, until he has accomplished
    his task.

    5. Every workman who wilfully or negligently spoils the
    materials, tools, or furniture in his care, shall pay for
    them out of the reserved third of his earnings, besides still
    further punishment as the case may deserve.

    6. Every workman doing more than his task is to be paid
    two-thirds of the value of his extra labour.

    7. With respect to every inmate who shall have been imprisoned,
    5 centimes for each day of imprisonment shall be deducted
    from the reserved third of his earnings. The amount of these
    deductions, and of all fines and other casual sources of
    profit, is to form a reserved fund for the purpose of rewards
    for those inmates who may distinguish themselves among their
    companions by good conduct and industry.

    SECTION 7.--_Religious Instruction._

    ART. 1. Religious and moral instruction is to be given in the
    chapel twice a week--on Sundays and Thursdays, at 7 in the
    evening.

    All the able-bodied inmates are to be present, in silence
    and attention, under the inspection of their respective
    superintendents. On Sundays, and the holidays established by
    the Concordat, all the inmates and the officers of the depôt
    shall hear mass at half-past 8 in the morning, and vespers at
    half-past 1 in the afternoon.

    2. At periods determined by ecclesiastical authority, the
    children who are to be confirmed are to be instructed for two
    months.

    7. When any of these regulations are broken, the inspectors
    and other officers are to report to the Governor, and he is to
    pronounce sentence on the inmates.


BRITANY.

Mr. Perrier’s report from Brest, and Mr. Newman’s from Nantes, give a
very interesting account of the state of Britany. We will begin by Mr.
Perrier’s, as the more general view. (pp. 728, 729.)

    Finisterre              524,396
    Côtes-du-Nord           598,872
    Morbihan                433,522
    Ille-et-Vilaine         547,052
    Loire Inférieure        470,093
                            -------
                          2,573,935

    It is extremely difficult to obtain any statistical information
    in Britany, all inquiries being received with distrust, not
    only by the authorities, but also by the inhabitants. This has
    been the principal cause of my delay in replying to the series
    of questions. The answers, imperfect as they may appear, are
    the result of patient and persevering inquiry.

    The state of society in Britany, and its institutions, differ
    so widely from those of any other civilized country, that
    few of the questions are applicable. In order, therefore, to
    convey the information which they are intended to elicit, it is
    necessary to enter into a description of the population, which
    I shall endeavour to do as briefly as possible.

    The population of Britany may be classed under the following
    heads:

    Old noblesse, possessing a portion of the land.

    Proprietors, retired merchants, and others, who have vested
    their money in landed property.

    Peasants, owners of the ground they till.

    Farmers.

    Daily labourers and beggars.

    The abolition of the right of primogeniture causes a daily
    diminution of the two first classes. As property, at the demise
    of the owner, must be divided equally amongst his children,
    who can seldom agree about the territorial division, it is put
    up for sale, purchased by speculators, and resold in small
    lots to suit the peasantry. Farmers having amassed sufficient
    to pay a part, generally one-half, of the purchase-money of a
    lot, buy it, giving a mortgage at five or six per cent. for
    the remainder. Thus petty proprietors increase, and large
    proprietors and farmers decrease.

    A man, industrious enough to work all the year, can easily get
    a farm.

    Farms are small. Their average size in Lower Britany does not
    exceed 14 acres. Some are so small as two acres, and there are
    many of from four to eight. The largest in the neighbourhood of
    Brest is 36 acres. The average rate of rent is 1_l._ 5_s._ per
    acre for good land, and 8_s._ for poor land (partly under broom
    and furze).

    The farmers are very poor, and live miserably: yet, their
    wants being few and easily satisfied, they are comparatively
    happy. Their food consists of barley bread, butter, buck wheat
    (made into puddings, porridge, and cakes). Soup, composed of
    cabbage-water, a little grease or butter and salt poured on
    bread. Potatoes; meat twice a week (always salt pork).

    A family of 12, including servants and children, consumes
    annually about 700 lbs. of pork and 100 lbs. of cow beef; the
    latter only on festivals.

    The class of daily labourers can only be said to exist in
    towns. In the country they are almost unknown.

    The inmates of each farm, consisting of the farmer’s family,
    and one, two, or three males, and as many female servants
    (according to the size of the farm), paid annually, and who
    live with the family, suffice for the general work. At harvest
    some additional hands are employed. These are generally people
    who work two or three months in the year, and beg during the
    remainder. Daily labourers and beggars may, therefore, in the
    country, be classed under the same head.

    Farmers’ servants are orphans or children of unfortunate
    farmers.

    The conditions of the poorer farmers, daily labourers and
    beggars, are so near akin, that the passage from one state to
    another is very frequent.

    Mendicity is not considered disgraceful in Britany. Farmers
    allow their children to beg along the roads. On saints’ days,
    especially the festivals of celebrated saints, whose shrines
    attract numerous votaries (all of whom give something, be it
    ever so little, to the poor), the aged, infirm, and children of
    poor farmers and labourers, turn out. Some small hamlets are
    even totally abandoned by their inhabitants for two or three
    days. All attend the festival, to beg.

    The Bretons are hospitable. Charity and hospitality are
    considered religious duties. Food and shelter for a night are
    never refused.

    Several attempts to suppress mendicity have been unsuccessful.
    District asylums were established. No sooner were they filled
    than the vacancies in the beggar stands were immediately
    replenished by fresh subjects from the country; it being a
    general feeling that it is much easier and more comfortable to
    live by alms than by labour.

    In towns where the police is well regulated, the only
    mendicants permitted to sojourn are paupers belonging to the
    parish. They are known by a tin badge, for which they pay at
    the police office.

    No such thing is known as a legal claim for assistance from
    public or private charities.

    In towns, destitute workmen or other persons in distress must
    be authorized by the municipality previous to soliciting
    public or private assistance. To this effect, the pauper makes
    known his case to the commissary of police of the quarter he
    inhabits, who makes inquiry among the neighbours. Should the
    destitute case of the applicant be established, the mayor
    grants him a certificate of indigence, which authorizes him to
    apply for relief to the public institutions, and to solicit
    private charity. It also exempts him (or rather causes his
    exemption) from the payment of taxes.

    The principal cause of misery is inebriety; its frequency among
    the lower orders keeps them in poverty. The “_cabaret_” (wine
    and brandy shop) absorbs a great portion of their earnings.
    This vice is not confined to men; the women partake of it. It
    has decreased within the last five or six years, but is still
    considerable.

We now proceed to give some extracts from the more detailed report of
Mr. Newman, who writes, it must be recollected, from Nantes. (pp. 171,
172, 173, 174, 178, 175, 176, 177.)


LOIRE INFERIEURE.


NANTES.

[Sidenote: Population of the Department, 470,093. Population of Nantes,
87,191.]

    _Vagrants._

    In the department Loire Inférieure there is no asylum for
    mendicants; but Nantes has a species of workhouse, “St.
    Joseph’s House,” supported entirely by private subscriptions.
    To this house the tribunals often send vagabonds, in virtue of
    the 274th article of the Penal Code, although the directors of
    the establishment have contested, and still contest, the right
    assumed by the judges to do so; and they never receive any
    person so sent as a criminal to be detained a certain number of
    days at labour as if in a prison, but merely give him a refuge
    as an act of charity, and liberty to leave the place, if he
    likes to go before the time expires. The number of vagrants
    that formerly infested Nantes (strangers to the department as
    well as to the city) have decreased to about a tenth part since
    begging in the streets was prohibited, and the paupers sent to
    this establishment.

    The hospitals of Nantes receive all workmen, travellers, and
    needy strangers, that fall sick in the city (if foreigners, at
    the charge to their consuls of 1_s._ 3_d._ sterling per day for
    men, and 10_d._ for women.) If a man, (and his family also,)
    being destitute, wishes to return to his native place, and has
    not rendered himself liable to be committed as a vagrant, the
    préfet has the power to give a passport to him for that place;
    on the production of which at the mairie of the commune from
    which he sets out he receives from the public funds of the
    department three halfpence per league for the distance from
    thence to the next place he is to be relieved at, and so on to
    the end of his journey, each place he has to stop at being set
    down on his passport; if he deviates from the route designated,
    he is arrested as a vagabond.

    There is in France throughout the whole country a general
    union for each of several trades, the carpenters, bakers,
    masons, tailors, &c. In each city or town of consequence, each
    society has a member who is called “the mother,” who receives
    the weekly contributions of those who reside in that place,
    affords relief to all of its members passing through it, and is
    obliged to procure work for the applicant, or support him at a
    fixed rate, established by their bye-laws, until a situation
    be provided for him there or elsewhere. Those unions sometimes
    assume a very dangerous power, by compelling masters to hire
    all their members that are without work, before they engage one
    man who does not belong to them.

    _Destitute Able-bodied._

    In times of political commotion, of unforeseen events, of
    rigorous seasons, when the usual courses of labour are stopped,
    the civil administrations create temporary workshops, furnish
    tools, &c., to the labourers, and enter into contracts for
    repairs to the streets, quays, bridges, roads, &c., from which
    a large city, as well as the country parishes, can always
    draw some advantages for the money so distributed, to employ
    those persons who would otherwise be supported without work
    by the same funds. The money required on those occasions is
    furnished by the treasury of the city or commune, assisted
    by private subscriptions from nearly all persons in easy
    circumstances. The want of regular or parish workhouses for
    labourers, unemployed, is in some measure supplied by private
    charities, for a great number of wealthy families, and others
    of the middling class, give employment to old men, women, and
    children, in spinning, and in weaving of coarse linen, at
    prices far beyond those that the articles can be purchased at
    in the shops; but this plan is adopted to prevent a disposition
    to idleness, although at a greater sacrifice, perhaps, than
    would be made by most of the promoters of it, in a public
    subscription.

    The bureau de bienfaisance distributes annually about 80,000
    fr.; the chief part, or very nearly the whole, to poor families
    at their homes, in clothes, food, fuel, and sometimes money;
    but of the latter as little as possible. Les dames de charité
    (ladies of the first families, who are appointed annually
    to visit and give relief to the poor, each having a fixed
    district) distribute about three-fourths of that sum, which
    would be insufficient for the indigent if it were not assisted
    by distributions made by the priests of the different parishes
    and other persons employed to do so by private families,
    who give their alms in that manner, and not at their own
    residences. It is generally supposed that, in the whole, not
    less than 250,000 fr. are so distributed annually in the city
    of Nantes. In making this distribution care is always taken to
    prefer invalids to those in health.

    _Impotent through Age._

    In the city of Nantes there is a general hospital, called
    the “Sanitat,” for the reception of the old and impotent;
    at present it contains about 800; it answers to an English
    workhouse; the inmates are lodged, fed, clothed, and are taken
    care of in every way: they are employed about trifling work,
    but the average gain by it does not exceed 20 fr. per annum
    for each. The average cost appears to be about 11 to 12 sous
    per day for each person. The establishment of St. Joseph’s,
    already alluded to, is, in fact, a sort of assistant to the
    Sanitat (although supported by private charity) for the 100
    to 120 old people it contains. The Sanitat has a ward for
    dangerous as well as ordinary lunatics; is under the same board
    and direction as the Hôtel Dieu (the general hospital for the
    sick); but each is supported by its own funds, arising from
    bequests and donations from private persons, and from the city
    funds; yet if either hospital should require any assistance,
    the money wanted would be voted by the city treasury.

    The general council for the department votes about 1200 to 1250
    fr. annually to the Sanitat from the departmental funds.

    _Sick._

    Nantes has a general hospital (Hôtel Dieu) for the sick,
    containing 600 beds, 300 of which are reserved for the indigent
    of the city. The expense of this establishment is about a franc
    to 25 sous per day to each person. The military are received
    at 20 sous per man per day, which is paid by the government.
    It is supported by its own funds, arising from bequests and
    donations, and grants made from time to time by the city; is
    under the same board and direction as the Sanitat. If a poor
    person becomes sick in the country, he is either relieved
    by the curé of the parish or by some of the more wealthy
    neighbours, or he comes into Nantes and resides there for a
    week or ten days before he makes an application to the mayor
    to be admitted into the hospital; he is then sent there as an
    inhabitant of the city. The authorities in the country have
    not the right to send a patient to the Hôtel Dieu, yet a great
    number arrive at the hospital, sent by country practitioners,
    who have not the skill, or perhaps the leisure or inclination,
    to attend to them; and _they are always received_, if it be
    possible to take them in. The students at the hospital are
    ever ready to admit any difficult cases or fractures from the
    country, for their own improvement.

    There are also hospitals for the sick at the following places
    in the Loire Inférieure: Ancenis, for the town and commune;
    Chateaubriand, Paimbœuf, Savenay, and Clisson, for the towns
    only.

    Besides the succour afforded to the poor at their homes by the
    bureau de bienfaisance, there are three dispensaries supported
    by that establishment, for administering relief to the sick,
    who are attended at their homes, if necessary, by the nuns of
    St. Vincent de Paule, 12 or 14 of whom are kept in the pay of,
    and are wholly supported by the bureau. They carry to them
    soup and other victuals, remedies, &c., and lend them linen
    and clothes, if wanted. There are a number of young men, who
    are either studying, or have just completed their study of
    medicine, who are anxious to give their assistance gratis,
    and who are in constant attendance on those who are receiving
    relief from the dispensaries. It is impossible to state the
    extent to which such relief is given. The nuns are paid by the
    bureau de bienfaisance, which also pays for the medicines, &c.
    they distribute; but the sum that is thus expended bears but
    a small proportion to the amount that is distributed by the
    hands of those sisters, who, from the accurate knowledge they
    possess of the real situation and condition of each person they
    visit, are employed by numerous wealthy persons to distribute
    privately such charities as they feel disposed to give; and can
    thus be well applied in providing those little comforts for the
    invalids, which cannot be sent from the bureau to all those who
    require them, although the funds are increased from time to
    time by the proceeds of representations at the theatre, public
    concerts, &c. given for that purpose.

    Independent of the foregoing, there are several tradesmen’s
    societies on the plan of benefit societies in England, the
    members of which pay five or six sous per week, and receive, in
    case of sickness, all necessary assistance in medicines, &c.,
    besides an indemnity of a franc to a franc and a half per day
    during the time they are unable to work.

    _Orphans, Foundlings, or Deserted Children._

    The law requires an establishment (a tour) in each department,
    for the secret reception of children. Every arrival is
    particularly noted and described in a register kept for that
    purpose, that the infant may be recognised if it should be
    claimed. The children, after having received all necessary
    assistance and baptism, are confided to women in the country
    (a regulation of this department only), to dry-nurse them (au
    biberon); they are paid eight francs per month for the first
    year, seven for the second and third, six until the ninth
    year, and four francs per month from that time until the child
    is 12 years old; when the nurse who has taken care of one
    from its birth to that age receives a present of 50 fr. for
    her attention. A basket of requisite linen is given with the
    child, and a new suit of clothes annually for seven years.
    These regulations are observed for orphans and foundlings. The
    registers for the last 20 years give an average of 360 to 370
    admissions annually; _more than one-half of them die under one
    year old_; therefore, with the deaths at other ages, and the
    claims that are made for some of them before they attain 12
    years, the establishment has seldom at its charge more than
    from 1200 to 1300, of all ages, from 0 to 12.

    The parents being unknown when they place their infants in the
    “tour,” cannot be traced afterwards, unless they acknowledge
    themselves; they are, however, as has been observed before,
    liable for the expenses of their offspring; and whenever
    they are discovered, whether by claiming their children or
    otherwise, the right to make them repay the costs they have
    occasioned is always maintained, and they are compelled to pay
    the whole, or as much as their finances will admit of.

    Deserted children of the city, or the children of poor persons,
    who cannot support them, are received and treated in a similar
    manner, without being placed in the “tour;” they are admitted
    according to the state of the finances appropriated to such
    branch of the establishment, which in general permits from
    80 to 100 to be on it. Certificates are required that the
    parents are dead, the child abandoned, or that the mother is
    totally unable to support it, or that she has a number of
    young children. Independent of the 1400 children thus received
    by the Hôtel Dieu, the bureau de bienfaisance supports 200
    _legitimate_ children, and the société maternelle from 60 to
    80, until they attain the age of 18 years.

    The number of deaths in 1832 was 11,999; the number under one
    year old, 1970, or one in 6¹²⁄₁₉₇. Chateauneuf states, _for all
    France_, 33 deaths, under one year old, out of every hundred
    births, which is nearly double the number of deaths of that
    description for this department; but the mortality is much
    greater amongst the orphans, foundlings, and deserted children
    of this city received at the hospital. An account, made up to
    the year 1828, gave an average of 52 deaths, under one year
    old, of every hundred children received there; and since that
    date it has increased considerably.

    There are women in the city who make it their business to place
    infants in the “tour,” and who afterwards attend the delivery
    of them to the country nurses, and thus, knowing where certain
    children are placed, give notice to the parents, who can visit
    them without being discovered. Children thus recognised are
    frequently demanded by their parents for servants, in the
    ordinary way; and by this plan they screen themselves from the
    payment of the child’s support.

    [Sidenote: Effects of these institutions.]

    There can be no doubt that the prospect of an asylum for the
    indigent creates amongst the working class a disposition to
    idleness and debauchery, whilst at the same time there are
    those who look down with disgust on their miserable brothers
    who are compelled to accept a public charitable support; and
    the shame which they consider attaches to a man who does it
    stimulates them to avoid the doors of an hospital by industry
    and sobriety. The number of these, however, is very small,
    whilst the applications for admittance to the Sanitat and
    to St. Joseph’s are so very numerous, so far beyond the
    accommodation that can be granted, that after the name of an
    applicant is registered he has (frequently) to wait 18 to 24
    months for his turn. For the sick, however, at the Hôtel Dieu
    it is not so; for arrangements are made that no delay takes
    place with any case requiring immediate relief or treatment.

    The shades between the healthy labourers of the lowest class
    that support themselves, and those who obtain relief from
    charitable institutions, are so slight, that it is almost
    impossible to state the difference in their conditions. _No
    man_ has a _legal claim_ upon any of the charities; in the
    distribution of which, however, there is but one fixed rule
    that governs the distributors, and that is, to compel the
    applicants for relief to work to their utmost power, and to
    give such relief only in each individual case as they suppose
    to be necessary with the wages he can or ought to earn,
    according to the demand for labourers at the time.

    According to the price of lodgings, victuals and clothing in
    Nantes, a steady labourer at the highest rate of wages, 1_s._
    3_d._ per day, supposing he had 300 days’ employment in the
    year, is considered to be able to support a wife and three
    young children; if he has a larger family, is out of employ,
    or is at a lower rate of wages, without his wife and children
    being able to gain a little, he is regarded as indigent, and
    in need of succour. A labourer, his wife, and three children
    consume in the day from 8 to 10 lbs. of bread, which is their
    chief food, and will cost him 240 fr.; his cabbages and other
    vegetables, butter or fat for his soup, 90 fr.; his room, 50
    fr.; leaving 70 fr. or 2_l._ 18_s._ 4_d._ for clothes, fuel,
    &c.; which make up the sum of his wages for 300 days at 1½ fr.,
    or 1_s._ 3_d._ per day. The wife in general adds a little to
    the husband’s earnings by spinning, and sometimes weaving; but
    it is not much when the family is young.

    To prevent the increase and lessen the present state of
    disorder into which the greater part of the labouring class and
    mechanics of Nantes has fallen, a number of master tradesmen
    and proprietors of factories will not employ those men who do
    not agree to allow a certain sum weekly to be retained from
    their wages for the use of the wife and family. The example
    spreads, and will no doubt become more general; but this
    circumstance shows forth, in strong colours, the immoral state
    of the working class in France.

    There are no cottages for labourers, as are seen in England:
    the chief part of the work on farms in this part of France is
    done by servants in the house of the farmer, or by married
    labourers, to whom an acre or two, sometimes as high as 10,
    according to the quality, is fenced off from the estate for
    the use of the man and his family; for which he has to give a
    certain number of days’ work. If such patch of land requires
    to be ploughed, the farmer does it for him, for an additional
    number of days’ work. Besides those, there are an immense
    number of little proprietors, having from an acre and a half to
    10 or 15 acres; and they give their labour also to the farmers
    of larger estates, receiving in return either assistance with
    oxen, carts, ploughs, &c., or an equivalent in some produce
    which they do not raise on their own land. Very little money,
    if any, passes between them. These little properties have
    sprung up from labourers and others fencing in small patches
    of commons or waste lands. Nearly all the vineyards in the
    Loire Inférieure are cultivated by labourers, who have a small
    spot of ground partitioned off from the main estate: it is for
    married men only that ground is so divided; the single men live
    with their families in the villages, or in public-houses, but
    generally in the latter. In regard to these questions, it must
    be observed that almost every farmer who hires an estate takes
    such a one as will just sustain his family, without the aid, or
    with the assistance only of a man or a man and woman servants,
    and that therefore very few daily labourers find employment.
    Few estates run to 200 acres, and if so large, a daily labourer
    is only hired during harvest, so wretchedly is the husbandry of
    the country managed.

    The cottages or houses in villages for labourers are in
    general the property of the owners of the large estates in the
    neighbourhood, as well as those that are built on the patches
    of land for the use of those who are married; some of the
    latter, however, are built at the joint expense of the farmer
    and labourer. A cottage or cottages in a detached place from a
    village, or a house in such a situation, with a little plot of
    ground for a garden for each apartment, lets for about 20 to 30
    francs a year per room, whether the building consists of one
    or of four rooms. In the villages the rent is a little higher,
    from 30 to 50, and sometimes as high as 80, if the garden be
    large to a cottage with only one room. These buildings are so
    seldom on sale, that the price cannot be stated with accuracy.

We now proceed to the


GIRONDE.


BOURDEAUX. (pp. 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 235.)

[Sidenote: Population of the Department, 554,225. Population of
Bourdeaux, 109,467.]

    There are no houses of industry in this department for the
    destitute able-bodied, except that known as the _Depôt de
    Mendicité_.

    This institution was first established in the year 1827, with
    a view to suppress the great number of professed beggars
    who infested the streets and public walks, taking advantage
    of any defect of conformation, &c. to attract the notice of
    passengers. By law all persons found begging in the streets
    are liable to be taken up, and imprisoned; but instead of
    imprisonment, those arrested are conveyed to the _Depôt de
    Mendicité_, where, if able, they are made to work. The good
    effects of this institution are visible; for instead of the
    number of professed beggars amounting to 800, which it did
    before the institution of the establishment, it does not now
    amount to above 150 or 200.

    This institution is supported by private contribution. The King
    and the town contribute a certain portion to make up what may
    be wanting. The average number of the population of the depôt
    amounts to 350 souls.

    Generally speaking, owing to the want of population, employment
    is to be found in commerce, trade or agriculture. The high
    price of wages in the towns and in the country proves that work
    is always to be found.

    When any unforeseen circumstances have arisen to interrupt the
    common order of things, the local authorities have come to the
    assistance of the population, by giving work to those out of
    employment. Public subscriptions are also resorted to on these
    occasions.

    All indigent families, and in which there are those capable of
    working, but who are not able to obtain it, or whose numbers
    are so great that all cannot be subsisted, are relieved by the
    _Bureaux de Charité_.

    The same relief is given to those who, having a habitation,
    are unable of themselves, through age or infirmity, to support
    themselves.

    The mode of obtaining this relief is by petition, signed by
    some credible person, and attested by the priest or protestant
    clergyman. It is proportioned to the number of the family, and
    to the number of those able to work, and whose wages go to
    the maintenance of the family. The relief consists in bread,
    soup, wood for fuel, and sometimes, though rarely, blankets and
    woollen clothing; medicines for the sick, and broth.

    Generally speaking, these distributions of food would be
    insufficient; but most indigent families are assisted by
    private persons, so that, on the whole, they have wherewithal
    to sustain life.

    The annual _distribution à domicile_ (domiciliary relief)
    amounts to the sum of 100,000 francs (4,000_l._).

    3,520 families are relieved. The number of impotent in these
    families, father and mother included, though able to work,
    amounts to 9,634, or less than a franc per head per month.

    It is in proportion to these numbers that the relief is given,
    but it is greater in winter than the other parts of the year.

    As to the medicines and broth, whenever there are sick in these
    families a sufficiency is given. Physicians are attached to
    each auxiliary bureau of every district, who visit the sick,
    prescribe the remedies, &c., all of which are distributed
    by the _Sœurs de Charité_ (Sisters of Charity, an order of
    nuns who devote themselves to the care of the poor and sick,
    and who undertake, gratuitously, the elementary education of
    their children). It is a most respectable and praiseworthy
    institution.

    The same Sisters receive in their houses the little girls of
    these families who are old enough to read. Books are supplied
    by the instructors.

    In extraordinary cases, recourse is had to subscriptions and
    collections, which increase the means of the _Bureaux de
    Charité_; so that during long and hard winters, more clothing,
    &c. is distributed. It seldom happens that money is given.

    There are, however, no positive regulations on these
    points. The whole is in the hands of the directors of this
    establishment. A responsible receiver is attached to it, whose
    accounts are submitted to the examination of the _Cours des
    Comptes_ (audit office). Thus, though the distributions are
    left to the judgment of the directors, they are subjected to
    control.

    The above details relate to the city of Bourdeaux. There are,
    however, proportionate institutions in most of the larger
    towns of the department, but in the poorer parishes and rural
    districts the _Bureaux de Charité_ are merely nominal. These
    parishes being without a revenue, are unable to assist their
    poor, who subsist on the alms they may receive at the different
    dwelling-houses, and who when ill, if possible, come to the
    nearest hospital, generally to that of Bourdeaux.

    In this department there are no schools in which indigent
    children are received to be fed and clothed gratuitously, but
    there are those in which they receive a certain degree of
    instruction.

    For Boys.--The institution of _Freres des Ecoles Chrétiennes_
    (Brothers of the Christian Schools), and two Lancasterian
    schools, which have been lately instituted.

    For Girls.--A Lancasterian school, a few boarding schools,
    in which a certain number of indigent girls are taught
    gratuitously; and also the Sisters of Charity attached to the
    administration of the _Bureaux de Charité_.

    The _Ecoles Chrétiennes_ are at the charge of the town. The sum
    appropriated to those establishments amounts annually to about
    14,000 francs (560_l._). Admissions are granted by the town.
    The number of children instructed in reading, writing, and a
    little arithmetic, amounts to about 1,800 for the town. At
    the Lancasterian school, the instruction is on a more extended
    scale. Grammar, drawing and surveying are taught, in addition
    to what is taught at the _Ecoles Chrétiennes_.

    There are at present in these latter schools 300 boys and 150
    girls in all.

    The department pays the expenses of these schools.

    The girls received in the private boarding schools, where they
    learn to read, to write, and to sew, amount to the number of
    about 600. This is entirely a private act of charity.

    The number of girls received by the Sisters of Charity amounts
    to about 900.

    There has also been established within the last year a model
    infant school, founded by private subscriptions, for the
    children of labourers and journeymen artisans. At present,
    however, it is so little known, that it is of very little
    importance.

    _Impotent through Age._

    Bourdeaux is the only town of the department which possesses
    any establishments of this kind, viz., the Hospital of
    Incurables (_Hospice des Incurables_), and that of the old
    people (_Hospice des Vieillards_).

    These two establishments support 300 old people. This number
    falls very short of that which the population requires. The
    requisite qualifications for admission are, to have passed the
    age of 60, and to prove that the candidate has no means of
    subsistence.

    It may be added, that at Bourdeaux the number of old people who
    are candidates for admittance to these hospitals amounts to
    300, and that on an average a vacancy occurs for each at the
    end of four years at the _Hospital des Incurables_, and two
    years at _Hospice des Vieillards_, and that all these claimants
    find either in their families, the _Secours à Domicile_, or
    private charity, means of subsistence.

    _Sick._

    The department possesses, for the reception of the sick, a
    small hospital at Bazas; one at St. Macaire, and one at La
    Réole; a more extensive one at Blaye and Libourne, and the
    great hospital at Bourdeaux.

    The great hospital of Bourdeaux contains always from 600 to 650
    sick. The daily admittances average 30; the discharges, 28, and
    the deaths two.

    No distinction is made as to country, &c. either in admittance,
    treatment, or discharge.

    The inmates of this hospital are generally composed of
    inhabitants of the town, who are too poor to be treated at
    home, or who prefer the care that is taken of them there to
    that which they would experience at home; of workmen, &c. from
    the neighbouring departments employed in the town, and who have
    nowhere else to go; of peasants, even in easy circumstances,
    who, from illness or accidents, have not the same resources at
    home.

    Bourdeaux possesses a _Hospice de la Maternité_, or Lying-in
    Hospital, and a society, founded by private benefactions, for
    the same purpose.

    The Lying-in Hospital is an asylum in which any woman who
    presents herself in the ninth month of her pregnancy, whatever
    may be her state, her country or condition, is admitted without
    difficulty, without question or inquiry, under the name she
    pleases, and in such a manner, that the fear of being known or
    discovered may not prevent those who wish to remain unknown
    from benefiting by the institution.

    Women admitted at the ninth month remain in the establishment
    till they have completely recovered their lying-in. (p. 231.)

    The number of those women, either lying-in or subsisted in the
    hospital, varies from 35 to 60, and their stay is about 30
    days. The births amount annually from 400 to 450; upon this
    number, 30 or 40 at most are kept and suckled by their mothers;
    the rest are abandoned and sent to the Foundling Hospital.

    Among these inmates, about one-fifth is composed of married
    women, who have no means of being confined at home; two-fifths
    of young girls of the town, chiefly servants; the rest of
    peasants, who leave their homes in order not to be discovered.

    Illegitimate children deserted by their parents, and which are
    deposited at the Foundling Hospital, are clothed and nourished
    by women in the institution, till a nurse out of it can be
    procured.

    These children, after being suckled, remain with their nurses
    till the age of 12 years. At this age, if the individuals who
    have brought them up do not wish to keep them gratuitously
    till their majority and give them a trade, they return to
    the hospital, and they then cease to be at the charge of the
    special funds. The establishment itself provides for their
    expenses; and until they can be placed as apprentices, they
    receive, in the Bourdeaux hospital, the rudiments of reading
    and writing, and they are taught some trade.

    Once placed as apprentices, they remain with the master till
    the age of 21, when they are to shift for themselves.

    Those that cannot be placed, or are infirm, remain in the
    hospital, and form a sort of permanent population there.

    Children whose parents are known, and who are living, but
    have either disappeared or are confined, are received in the
    same way as foundlings, the mode of admission differing only.
    This must be granted by the prefect after an inquest. For the
    remainder, they enjoy the same advantages as the foundlings.

    As to orphans, they are also admitted into the Foundling
    Hospital, upon the order of the administrative commission,
    after information as to the state of the family. At Bourdeaux
    the orphans of the town alone are received. Those of the rest
    of the department remain at the charge of their parishes, and
    generally live by alms. The orphans received into the hospital
    enjoy the same privileges as the foundlings and deserted
    children.

    The annual exposal of children amounts at Bourdeaux to 900,
    comprising all those abandoned at the Lying-in Hospital, those
    of the town, and those sent from the various parts of the
    department, as well as from the neighbouring departments.

    From 10 to 15 deserted children, and the same number of
    orphans, are annually admitted.

    The population of the hospital amounts generally to 40 new-born
    infants, waiting to be sent to nurse; 150 children beginning
    their apprenticeships, and waiting to be placed; about 150
    infirm of all ages forming the permanent part of the population.

    The number of children from the age of one month to that of
    12 years, amounts to 3,600; and that of children above 12 and
    below 21 apprenticed out, amounts to above 1,500.

    The expenditure of the hospital, comprising the clothing for
    the children brought up out of the establishment, amounts to
    110,000 francs per annum (4,400_l._) That for the nurses or
    board in the country, to 240.000 francs (9,600_l._), of which

    104,000 fr. (4,160_l._) is given by the government upon the
    common departmental fund.

    27,000 fr. (1,080_l._) taken from the revenue of the town of
    Bourdeaux.

    60,000 fr. (2,400_l._) voted by the general council on the
    _Centimes Facultatifs_.

    49,000 fr. (1,960_l._) on the revenue of the other parishes of
    the department.

Owing to the extreme carelessness and entire absence of frugality
on the part of the peasantry and other classes of labourers, it is
impossible to give an accurate account of their expenditure. They
live entirely from hand to mouth; and nine-tenths are in debt for the
common necessaries of life. The men are addicted to gambling, and the
women spend the greater part of what they earn in useless articles of
dress. As to the expenditure for schooling and religious teaching, no
provision is thought of.


BASSES PYRENÉES.


BAYONNE.

[Sidenote: Population of the Department, 428,401. Population of
Bayonne, 14,773.]

On recurring to the statistical statements respecting this department,
it will be seen that it supports its population with a smaller number
of deaths, births, and marriages, than any other extensive district in
Europe. Compared with the countries which have been lately considered,
its provisions for public charity are trifling, as will appear by the
following extracts from Mr. Harvey’s report. (pp. 260, 261, 262.)

    _Vagrants._

    Mendicity, under the head of vagrancy, is not prevalent in the
    department of the Lower Pyrenees; the relief afforded to French
    subjects passing through the department, seeking work (which
    seldom occurs), or returning to their native places, is at the
    rate of three sols per league, or ½_d._ per mile; but this
    relief is more frequently granted to foreigners in distress,
    and is paid by the several mayors at certain stations or towns
    on their route. There is no public relief granted to vagrants
    living by begging.

    _Destitute Able-bodied._

    There are no public or private establishments or relief
    afforded to the destitute able-bodied or their families; but
    this description of pauper is seldom or ever to be met with in
    this department.

    _Impotent through Age._

    There are no public or religious institutions or regulations
    for the relief of the poor in general; they subsist by begging;
    and when no longer able to do so, they receive a trifling
    relief from “The Ladies of Charity” (Dames de la Charité), who
    make quarterly collections from the respectable inhabitants,
    which these ladies distribute in food, fuel, or money, to the
    _pauvres honteux_, or infirm, as the case may be; but this
    private voluntary subscription is very inadequate.

    The inhabitants of Bayonne (and it is hoped and expected that
    the example will be followed in other places) are now occupied
    in forming, by voluntary annual subscriptions, an establishment
    for the relief of the poor; a commission of gentlemen has been
    appointed, and there is every prospect that this charitable
    undertaking will be crowned with success.

    _Sick._

    In the towns there are public hospitals for the sick and
    wounded; but when convalescent, they are obliged immediately to
    quit the hospital, destitute or not.

    CHILDREN.

    _Illegitimate._

    Illegitimate children (infants only) are received into the
    hospitals established by the famous St. Vincent de Paul, but
    where the parents have no communication with or control over
    them; these children are placed out to nurse in the country
    at about 5_s._ a month, and are afterward provided for by the
    hospital, if in the course of seven years they are not claimed
    by the parents.

    When not deposited in the hospitals, the mothers have
    invariably been found to bestow upon their infants the most
    scrupulous care and attention, the natural consequence of
    having had the firmness and humanity not to abandon their
    offspring, notwithstanding the facility of concealment held out
    to them by the hospital.

    _Orphans or Deserted Children._

    There are no public or private institutions or regulations for
    orphans.

    _Deserted Children._--There are no public or private
    regulations or institutions under this head; but I have not
    heard of a case in question in this department.

    _Cripples, Deaf and Dumb, and Blind._

    _Cripples._--Obliged to beg if destitute, there being no public
    or private institutions or regulations for cripples.

    The deaf and dumb, if poor and destitute, are obliged to beg;
    there are excellent establishments in the large towns for their
    instruction, for those who have the means.

    _Blind._--Obliged to beg, there are no public or private
    institutions for them.

    _Idiots and Lunatics._

    There are no public or private institutions for idiots.

    There is an institution (Maison de Force) for the admission of
    lunatics at the Chef Lieu of the department only (at Pau).

    The questions relative to hired country labourers are not
    altogether applicable to this department, which is invariably
    divided into small farms, not exceeding from 20 to 30 English
    acres each, the families on each farm sufficing for the
    cultivation thereof, the proprietors or the farmers being
    themselves the labourers of the soil, the neighbours assisting
    each other in time of harvest; consequently it seldom occurs
    that a hired labourer is called in; but when employed they are
    paid at the rate of about 1_s._ per diem, without food. The
    women, and the children from the age of 10 years, constantly
    work on the land. The children generally receive a primary
    education at the village day schools, where there is always a
    schoolmaster or mistress appointed by the authorities; price
    of education, 2 francs (about 1_s._ 7_d._) per month. At these
    schools the children are prepared for their first communion;
    they learn reading, writing, and calculation. The food of the
    proprietor or farmer labourer chiefly consists in vegetable
    soups, potatoes, salt fish, pork, bacon, &c., and seldom
    or ever butcher’s meat, and invariably Indian corn bread,
    homebaked. These persons (who are generally the owners of the
    soil) procure for themselves a comfortable subsistence, but
    they are seldom able to lay by anything. The equal division of
    the land prevents in a great measure mendicity. The families
    on each farm in the whole department consist on an average of
    about five persons.

    It is calculated that persons attain a more advanced age in
    this department than in any other in France.


BOUCHES DU RHONE.


MARSEILLES.

[Sidenote: Population of the Department, 359,473. Population of
Marseilles, 145,115.]

    _Vagrants._

    It has been calculated that the average number of beggars in
    this department (the Mouths of the Rhone) is 1060, whereof 900
    are natives and 105 strangers, besides 240 who traverse the
    department. The calculation having been made some years ago,
    the numbers may have increased with the population, which was
    then 313,000, and is now 359,000.

    The only relief granted to the poor travelling is by giving
    them a “passport d’indigent,” furnished by the local
    authorities, in which their exact route is designated, and not
    to be deviated from; they receive, as they pass through each
    commune, three sous for every league of distance, equal to a
    halfpenny per mile, and lodging for the night: beggars have no
    relief but private charity.

    _Destitute Able-bodied._

    The principal establishment at Marseilles for their relief is
    the bureau de bienfaisance, whose revenues, arising partly from
    the remnant property of some charitable institutions existing
    before the revolution, partly from an annual allowance granted
    by the budget of the commune, partly by a tax on theatrical
    admissions, and from private subscriptions, amount altogether
    to about 140,000 francs, or 5600_l._, of which the major
    part is distributed in money to the “pauvres honteux” (those
    who have seen better days), and in providing necessaries and
    medical assistance for the poor in general, by five directors,
    and at their sole discretion. Similar establishments exist in
    the other arrondissements of this department, but, with the
    exception of Aix, with very small means, principally dependent
    on the commune budgets, which, in many cases, furnish nothing.
    I am informed that in this commune, with a population of
    140,000 inhabitants, the bureau relieves, more or less, 800
    families of “pauvres honteux” and 4000 families of indigent
    poor. There is also at Marseilles a société de bienfaisance,
    supported principally by private charity, whose chief object
    is the establishment of soup kitchens and dispensaries for
    the relief of the poor, and a school for the education of
    their children from four to nine years of age. No relief is
    ever given in money. Their annual revenue is about 40,000
    francs, or 1600_l._; and in times of great distress the local
    administration increases its funds, and supplies the poor with
    soup through its means.

    The number of children received in the school above-mentioned
    is about 200: they receive two meals a day and sleep at home;
    they are taught various trades, and apprenticed at the expense
    of the commune; there are also several gratuitous day-schools
    for children of the age of seven years and upwards, and who
    bring their own food.

    _Impotent through Age._

    The only public establishment for the reception of this class
    is that called “La Charité,” in which those are admitted who
    have attained the age of seventy, and none before; the number
    of those individuals at present is about 350; they are there
    boarded, clothed, and fed.

    _Sick._

    There are no district institutions for the reception of the
    sick, except the general hospitals. The average number of sick
    in the hospital of Marseilles may be about 450.

    _Children._

    One large branch of the administration of hospitals of
    Marseilles is “La Charité,” which receives, as before
    mentioned, old men, and also all children under twelve years of
    age, whether illegitimate, orphans, foundlings, or deserted;
    they are there received, and, when infants, principally nursed
    in the country. At this time there are 2240 infants in this
    situation, and on their return they are boarded, lodged, and
    educated.



SARDINIAN STATES.


The information respecting the Sardinian States consists of answers
from Piedmont, Genoa, and Savoy, obtained by Sir Augustus Foster from
the Minister of the Interior, from M. de Vignet, a Senator of Chambery,
from Marquis Brignole Sale, Syndic of Genoa, and from the Marquis
Cavour, Syndic of Turin, and his son, Count Camille Cavour.

The following extracts comprise their most material contents. (Pages
653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 659, 660, 661, 662.)

The general system appears to resemble that of France, except that in
Piedmont mendicity is not an offence.


PIEDMONT.

    _Mendicants._

    Mendicity is not forbidden by law; every person who is
    considered unable to obtain by his own industry subsistence for
    himself and his family may station himself in the streets, and
    ask charity of the passers by. The government and the local
    authorities have often, but in vain, endeavoured to repress the
    innumerable abuses which have followed. But the regulations
    which have been made for this purpose have been ineffectual
    and even nugatory. The law, however, which forbids the poor to
    beg out of their parishes, is frequently put in force. When
    a great number of strangers are found begging in a town, the
    municipal authorities drive them out _en masse_, leaving it to
    the gendarmerie to oblige them to return to their country, or
    to the places considered to be their homes. But as the law in
    question is not enforced by any punishment, if they find any
    difficulty in living at home, they soon return to violate it
    afresh.

    There are no means of ascertaining, even by approximation,
    the total number of mendicants. It depends, too, in part on
    many causes continually varying; such as good or bad harvests,
    hard or mild winters, and the changes of employment in those
    trades which afford subsistence to many hands. It is spread,
    however, over the whole country, but in different degrees. In
    the valleys of the Alps it scarcely exists; in those of the
    Apennines it is considerable, as is generally the case where
    chestnuts are the ordinary food of the lower orders.

    If a labouring man, not domiciled in the place of his
    residence, finds himself, from accident or illness, unable
    either to earn his living, or to reach his home, the
    authorities, both of his temporary residence, and of the places
    that lie in his route homewards, are required to supply to him
    the means of travelling. In Turin, a small pecuniary assistance
    is given to all workpeople who wish to return to their own
    homes, but this is not a general practice.

    _Destitute Able-bodied._

    _Are there any establishments for the reception of the
    destitute able-bodied and their families, in which they are set
    to work, and furnished with food and clothes?_

    There are none. The only attempt of the sort was one made
    some years ago at Raconis, and it failed almost immediately,
    among difficulties and bad consequences of every description.
    An establishment called Ergastolo exists near Turin, in which
    young vagrants are confined and kept to constant work; but
    although a person may be committed to it without trial on a
    simple order from the police, it is considered rather as a
    house of correction than a workhouse.

    There are still convents at whose doors soup, bread, and other
    kinds of food are distributed. But this deplorable practice is
    not now sufficiently prevalent to produce a sensible effect
    except in some parts of the Genoese coast, where the mendicant
    orders are the most numerous, and the poverty the greatest.

    Many charitable institutions have ecclesiastical forms and
    names, but their attention is almost confined to the sick and
    the impotent. When a bad harvest or a hard winter occasions
    much distress, the municipal authorities, either spontaneously
    or on the suggestion and with the aid of the government,
    undertake public works in order to give employment to the
    able-bodied. This is more frequent in the large towns, such as
    Turin and Genoa.

    _To what extent do they obtain relief in kind and in money?_

    They never receive either from the government or from the
    municipal authorities; what they get is from private charity.
    But on some great occasions, such as the anniversary of the
    Restoration of the Monarchy, or the celebration of the King’s
    Birth-day, food and clothes are distributed among some of the
    most needy families.

    Many of the towns have _Monts-de-piété_, which lend on pledges
    at 6 per cent., but under very rigorous rules. If the unhappy
    borrower cannot redeem the pledge before the fixed time, it is
    sold, whatever may be its value, for the amount of the debt.
    In spite of this, the number of people who have recourse to
    them is immense. I do not think I exaggerate in saying that
    there are very few poor housekeepers some of whose furniture or
    clothes is not thus in pawn.

    _Impotent through Age._

    1. _Are there hospitals for the reception of those who through
    age are incapable of earning their subsistence?_

    There are none avowedly for this purpose, but there are several
    intended for incurables, into which those whose only infirmity
    is old age, manage to get received.

    2. _Do they receive relief in kind and in money at their own
    homes?_ They receive none from the government or the municipal
    authorities, but such relief is afforded by many charitable
    institutions. In Turin, for example, the congregation of St.
    Paul has large revenues; and by law, there ought in every
    parish to be a charitable association. But, in fact, none
    are to be found excepting in some villages and towns; almost
    all the rural parishes are without them. The resources of
    those which exist arise from endowments, from donations, and
    from periodical collections made in churches, or from house
    to house. _These associations certainly do much good, but
    being subjected to no general rules or central control, their
    proceedings are neither uniform nor regular; a source of
    enormous abuse, which, in the present state of things, it is
    impossible to correct or even to verify._

    Much charity is also given through the hands of the clergy.
    This is, without any doubt, the best distributed, and the most
    effectual; much of it is devoted to the aged and impotent.

    _The Sick._

    In all the towns, and in many of the large villages, there
    are hospitals in which any individual suffering under acute
    sickness, or casualty, may be nursed until his perfect
    recovery. The principal acute complaint is fever. But there
    are few hospitals for chronic or incurable cases, and few such
    patients can obtain access to them: they are, therefore, in
    general left to private charity.

    The hospitals have in general property in land, in the public
    funds, or lent on mortgage, and when these revenues are
    insufficient, they are assisted from the local assessments
    of the parishes and provinces, and by charitable persons.
    The management of the different hospitals is not uniform; it
    is in general much under the influence of the government. In
    some towns, the ecclesiastical authorities and the chapters
    interfere, and it is in such cases in general that there is
    most of disorder and abuse. In most parishes the indigent sick
    receive gratuitous treatment from the physicians and surgeons,
    who are paid an annual salary by the municipal authorities,
    or the charitable associations. In Turin, and in some other
    places, there are dispensaries, distributing gratis, to those
    who have a certificate of poverty from their clergyman, the
    most usual and necessary remedies, whenever medically ordered.
    In general, the sick who cannot procure admission to the
    hospitals are in a pitiable state of poverty and distress.

    CHILDREN.

    _Illegitimate._

    If an unmarried woman has a child by an unmarried man, she has
    recourse to the ecclesiastical tribunal, that is to say, to
    the episcopal court of the diocese to compel him to marry her.
    If she succeeds in proving her previous good conduct, and that
    promises, or other means of seduction were employed against
    her, the tribunal orders the marriage. The defendant may
    refuse; but in that case the cause is carried before the civil
    judges, who admitting the seduction as already proved, award to
    her damages, regulated by the circumstances of the case.

    The child is by law entitled to an allowance for its
    maintenance, which may be demanded from either parent.

    It is to be observed that, in consequence of the constant
    inclination of the ecclesiastical tribunal, in favour of the
    female plaintiff, in order that the harm done may be repaired
    by marriage, and the ease with which children are disposed
    of in the Foundling Hospitals, few illegitimate children are
    brought up at home, even in the lowest classes of society.

    If the seducer is a member of the family, and under the
    authority of his father, the girl in general has recourse to
    his parents for the damages awarded to her. The illegitimate
    child may claim its allowance from its paternal or maternal
    grandfather; and if its father and mother have died without
    leaving it any provision, may claim one from those who have
    succeeded to their property.

    FOUNDLINGS, ORPHANS, AND DESERTED CHILDREN.

    Many towns have hospitals for foundlings. Their parents may
    remain perfectly unknown; they have only to deposit the child
    at night in a wheel which in all these hospitals communicates
    with the street and with the interior of the house, ring a bell
    to warn the person on the watch, and go away. The wheel turns,
    the child is received into the hospital, and numbered, and no
    further trace remains of the transaction.

    Genoa possesses a splendid orphan establishment; and there
    is one in Turin for girls only. But they are far from being
    sufficient for this numerous and interesting class. There is no
    further public assistance for orphans and deserted children;
    they are thrown on private charity.

    CRIPPLES, DEAF AND DUMB, AND BLIND.

    There is no establishment for persons maimed or deformed. Even
    in the surgical hospitals, as soon as a patient no longer
    requires the assistance of art, he is dismissed, even if he
    should have lost the use of his limbs.

    In Genoa there is an establishment for the deaf and dumb, which
    enjoys a well-founded celebrity. On certain conditions poor
    children are gratuitously admitted. There is no institution for
    the blind, or any further public relief for any of the classes
    in question: they are left to private charity.

    _Idiots and Insane._

    There are two large establishments for the insane, one at
    Turin, the other at Genoa. In each a small payment is made, in
    respect of the lunatic, either out of his own property, or,
    if he has none, by his parish or province. In some rare cases
    insane persons are received gratuitously.

    Some mountain districts, and particularly in the valley of
    Aoste, contain many of the idiots, commonly called Cretins.
    They are in general gentle and inoffensive, and the objects of
    the pity and zealous assistance of all around them, so much so
    that it is never necessary to place them in an hospital. The
    interesting popular belief that a special protection of heaven
    is attached to the house inhabited by a Cretin is well known.

    _Effects of these Institutions._

    It is not to the encouragement given by public charity that the
    great number of premature and improvident marriages contracted
    in this country is to be imputed. With the exception of those
    between professional beggars, we owe the greater part of them,
    first, to the natural disposition of ignorant and rude persons
    to follow, without reflection, the passions of the moment,
    and, secondly, to the blind zeal with which the clergy and
    bigotted people encourage all kinds of marriages, with the
    erroneous idea of thus preventing the immorality and scandal
    of illegitimate connexions. Nor are family ties affected by
    the charitable institutions. Whatever those may be, the poor
    man ever considers his relations as his sole support against
    adversity. Besides, as the Roman law with respect to paternal
    authority has been preserved among us unimpaired, family union
    is more easy and common than anywhere else.

    Though some individuals, skilled in working on the public
    compassion, may gain more than the average wages of labour,
    we cannot compare the results of the honest and independent
    labourer’s industry with the mendicant’s profits: so immense is
    the difference between the honourable existence of the one, and
    the humiliation, debasement, and moral degradation of the other.


GENOA.

    1. Public mendicity not being at present forbidden, it is
    difficult to ascertain the number of professed mendicants.
    Those on the town of Genoa may however be estimated at, at
    least, 200. If we add to these their families, or at least
    those members of their families who exist on the profit of
    their begging, the whole mendicant population may amount to
    from 600 to 700[20].

    2. The unemployed poor, not being mendicants, are relieved at
    their own homes by the “magistrat de misèricorde,” the “dames
    de misèricorde,” and by other governors of charities, out of
    the revenue of many pious bequests, with the administration of
    which they are charged.

    3. The children of the poor, to whatever class they may belong,
    are gratuitously instructed in the primary public schools,
    under the direction of the municipal authorities. Six of these
    schools are for boys, and two for girls.

    4. There is a mont de piété in Genoa, from which the poor can
    borrow on pledge; at 8 per cent. interest.

    5. The poor of all ages, from the earliest childhood, who
    are natives of the town of Genoa, are gratuitously received,
    lodged, and fed, in the poor hospital, as far as the means of
    that establishment will go. The poor of the other parts of the
    duchy are also received there on payment of a small allowance.

    6. There are two large hospitals in Genoa, one for the
    treatment of acute disorders, the other for the incurables and
    insane. Another lunatic asylum has been just begun, and there
    is a small establishment in the suburbs for leprosy and other
    diseases of the skin.

    7. The “Conservatoire des Sœurs de St. Joseph,” and a
    charitable institution, called “Notre Dame de la Providence,”
    furnish in pursuance of their rules, medical and surgical
    advice, and remedies to the poor who do not publicly solicit
    relief [pauvres honteux].

    8. Poor lying-in women, born in the town, or domiciled
    there for the three previous years, are received and nursed
    gratuitously in the great hospital, called “de Pammatone.”

    9. The same hospital receives illegitimate and deserted
    children, if secretly placed on the turning box. The hospital
    takes the charge of the boys until 12 years old, and of the
    girls until their marriage or death. Ten poor lunatics and
    idiots, natives of Genoa, are gratuitously received in the
    hospital for the incurables and insane. Those of the other
    parts of the duchy, and those who are not poor, are also
    received there, on paying a sum proportionate to the sort of
    food given to them.

        [20] The population of Genoa exceeds 80,000.


SAVOY.

    1. Mendicity is very common in the environs of Chambery and
    the Haute Tarentaise. In the other provinces it is not more
    extensive than in Florence, and much less so than in Italy.
    In 1789, the total number of mendicants was 3688. Under the
    French dominion it rose to 4360. Since that time it has much
    diminished, partly from the diminution of the public taxes, and
    partly from the discontinuance of the sales of property which
    were enforced by the French treasury against the relations of
    refractory conscripts, and by Genoese creditors against their
    debtors. It cannot now be estimated at more than 2500.

    2. Vagrant mendicity being prohibited by law, beggars have
    no right to relief. The town of Chambery contains a depôt de
    mendicité, in which 100 paupers are endeavoured to be kept to
    work.

    3. The duchy possesses nearly 250 charitable establishments,
    possessing funds distinct to the relief of the poor of the
    place in which they are situated. Their resources are very
    far from being sufficient for that purpose, especially in
    years of bad harvests. But poor families are assisted by their
    neighbours, their relations, the clergy, and other charitable
    persons in their parishes. This relief is distributed in the
    town of Chambery, according to a simple and excellent system.
    The poor are divided into 24 districts, each confided to a
    committee consisting of three ladies of charity (dames de
    charité), belonging in general to the highest class of society.
    Each committee seeks out, registers, and superintends the poor
    of its district, gives secret assistance to those families

who would be disgraced by the publicity of their situation, and
withdraws relief from the unworthy. The resources of the dames de
charité consist only of one tenth of the price of the theatrical
tickets, of the great public collections (quêtes) made at Easter
and Christmas, and of some secret gifts from individuals. If this
establishment were rich enough to provide employment for indigent
families at their own homes, it would be far superior to all other
charitable institutions.

We have as yet spoken of the relief given to those who have no plea
beyond that of mere poverty. For those who have some other claim there
are several institutions. The Hospice de Charité of Chambery receives
171 persons, consisting of orphans, infirm persons, and old men. The
“Asyle de St. Benoit” in the same town is destined to the old of
both sexes who once were in easy circumstances; and the Orphan House
educates young girls without fortune belonging to the middling classes,
in such a manner as to enable them to earn an independent subsistence.

4. The Duchy of Savoy now possesses a great number of gratuitous
religious schools, receiving, among others, the children of the poor.
At Chambery the two schools de la Doctrine and de St. Joseph provide
education for more than 700 children of both sexes, four-fifths of whom
could not pay for it.

5. There is no Mont-de-Piété in Savoy.

6. Chambery contains a hospital with 80 beds, all constantly occupied.
There are also institutions for the relief of those suffering under
incurable or contagious disease, and for sick travellers. There are
also hospitals for the sick at Annecy, Thonon, St. Jean-de-Maurienne,
Montmelian, Moûtiers, Yenne, la Roche, la Motte-Servolex, and Thônes.

7. Many establishments of sisters of charity have been founded, either
by parishes, or by opulent individuals, for the relief of the sick at
their own homes. But with respect to the poorest classes it has been
necessary to abandon this kind of relief, as they either neglected to
use the remedies supplied to them, or used them with fatal imprudence.
It can safely be bestowed on those only whose situation is raised above
actual poverty.

8. Lying-in women, married or unmarried, are received at Chambery in
the Hospice de Maternité.

9. In Chambery, and in Thonon, the greater part of the illegitimate
children, whatever be the circumstances of their parents, are taken,
the first night after their birth, to the foundling hospitals, which
receive them, though clandestinely deposited. Those born in the distant
provinces are generally brought up by their mothers, and partake their
fortune, or their poverty.

10. At some distance from Chambery a hospital has been established,
intended for the gratuitous reception of 60 lunatics. But as yet it has
had room for only 20. The others are at the charge of their parishes.

The class of day labourers, such as it exists in England, is not at all
numerous in Savoy, almost all the population consisting of proprietors.
Out of 102,000 families in the Duchy, 85,000 heads of families are
owners of some portion of land; 80,000 of them subsist by agriculture.
There is therefore little employment for day labourers. According to
the enumerations of 1789 and 1801 the number of persons, including both
sexes, and artisans, as well as agriculturists, employed in day labour
in that part of Savoy, which formed after 1789 the departement de Mont
Blanc, did not exceed from 9000 to 10,000 individuals, which would make
for the whole Duchy more than from 14,000 to 15,000 such individuals.
The day labourers in general hire, from a small proprietor, part of a
cottage, and half an acre, or an acre of land, at the rent of from 60
to 100 francs, which they work out. Saving is a thing almost unknown
in Savoy. With the rich people and with the poor, from the gentleman
to the peasant, it is unusual and even strange to put a revenue to any
other use than that of spending it. A few men of business, and usurers,
are the only persons who think of augmenting their patrimonies.
Sometimes indeed a merchant or a manufacturer will economise something
from his profits, but with no other object than that of procuring a
country-house, which from that time swallows up all that he can spare.

The poor never apply for relief to the authorities, but always to
private charity; and it is inexhaustible, for (except during the famine
of the year 1817) no one has ever perished from want. Vagrants are
forced to return to their parishes, or, if foreigners, driven out of
the country.



VENICE.


[Sidenote: Population about 112,000.]

Mr. Money’s Report from Venice is so concise that we insert the whole
(pp. 663, 634). We cannot perfectly reconcile the statement at the
beginning, that there is no compulsory legal provision for the poor;
and that at the end, that every commune is bound to support the poor
and indigent within its limits. Perhaps Mr. Money uses the word “bound”
in a moral, not a legal sense.

    1. Is there any compulsory legal provision for the poor in
    Venice?--None.

    2. In what manner are the funds arising from voluntary
    donations collected in Venice?--There is a commission of
    public charity, composed of the laity of the first rank and
    consideration in Venice, at the head of which is the patriarch.

    All sums destined for the relief of the poor and the indigent,
    from whatever source, are placed at the disposal of this
    commission.

    These funds arise from bequests, which are numerous, from
    voluntary contributions, from collections made by lay
    associations in each of the 30 parishes, which hold their
    meetings either at the church or at the house of the priest;
    sometimes from the produce of a lottery; and by a singular
    contrivance of the late patriarch, to render an old custom of
    complimentary visits on New Year’s-day contributory to the
    purposes of charity, he had it announced, that all who would
    subscribe to the funds of the commission of public charity
    should have their names published, and be exempted from the
    costly ceremony above adverted to.

    3. By what authority are they distributed?--By that of the same
    commission, which receives the reports of the state of the poor
    in the several parishes, and particularly inquires into the
    circumstances of every case.

    4. What constitutes a claim to relief, and how is that claim
    investigated?--Among the lower classes, extreme poverty without
    the means of obtaining subsistence, or incapability from age
    or sickness to labour for it. This is certified by the parish
    priest to the association mentioned in answer to query No. 2,
    which makes itself acquainted with every case of distress. But
    there is great distress to be relieved among those who once
    constituted the higher classes of society, but whose families,
    since the fall of the Republic, have, from various causes,
    fallen into decay; these make their application direct to the
    commission, and are relieved according to their necessities
    and the state of their funds. 5. What is the amount of relief
    usually given in each case, and for what length of time is
    it usually continued?--The amount of relief given, according
    to the class and circumstances of the distressed, is from 10
    cents. to 65 cents. per head per day (or from 3_s._ 4_d._ to
    5_s._ 4_d._ sterling.)--[_Sic in orig._]

    These alms are continued as long as the parish priest certifies
    the need of those of the lower classes, or the commission,
    through its inquiries, are satisfied of the necessities of the
    others.

    6. Is relief given by taking the poor into almshouses or
    houses of industry, or by giving them relief at home; and
    in the latter case, is it given in money or in food and
    clothing?--There are no almshouses in Venice, but there are
    houses of industry, where work of various descriptions is
    provided for those who are able to work. Relief is given to
    many at home, but to most upon their personal appearance before
    some of the members of the commission.

    In winter, relief is afforded by the commission, both in food
    and clothing.

    7. What is the number of persons in Venice usually receiving
    relief, and what is the least and greatest number known during
    the last 10 years?--The number usually receiving relief, and
    which is the least number during the last 10 years, is about
    47,000; the greatest number in the last 10 years was about
    50,000. The last year 42,705[21] received relief, either at
    home or by personal application to the commission, and the
    number in houses of industry and hospitals was 4667.

    8. Is there much difficulty in procuring sufficient funds for
    the support of the poor in times of distress, or is the supply
    so large as at all to diminish the industry and providence of
    the working classes?--It has been found impossible to procure
    sufficient funds for the support of the poor at Venice, and
    there never was so large a supply as at all to diminish the
    industry and providence of the working classes. When the
    funds prove insufficient, the commune contribute, and after
    their contributions, whatever is deficient is supplied by the
    Government.

    9. Do cases of death by starvation ever occur?--Do the poorer
    classes afford much assistance to one another in time of
    sickness or want of employment?--Cases of death by starvation
    never occur. Even during the great distress caused by the
    blockade in 1813, and the famine in 1817, no occurrence of
    this kind was known. In fact, the more urgent the circumstances
    are, the more abundant are the subscriptions and donations.

    The poorer classes are remarkable for their kindness to each
    other in times of sickness and need. Many instances of this
    have fallen under my own observation.

    10. Is there a foundling hospital at Venice, and if so, what is
    the number of infants annually admitted into it?--There is a
    foundling hospital in Venice, which was instituted in 1346, and
    the number received into it annually is between 400 and 500. I
    have known seven found in the receptacle in one morning.

    Each child is immediately given to a wet nurse; at the end of
    seven or eight days it is vaccinated, and sent to nurse in the
    country.

    11. Do members of the same family, among the poorer classes
    in general, show much disposition to assist one another in
    distress, sickness, or old age?--There is much family affection
    in all classes of the Venetians, and in sickness, distress, and
    old age, among the poorer classes, they show every disposition
    to assist and relieve each other.

    The clergy, who have great influence over the lower classes,
    exert themselves much to cultivate the good feeling which
    subsists among them towards one another.

    12. Have you any other observations to make on the relief
    afforded to the poor at Venice?--Besides the voluntary
    contributions and the assistance of the commune and the
    Government, the several charitable institutions (of which
    there are no less than 10) in this city, have annual incomes
    derivable from various bequests in land and other property,
    amounting to 483,000 Austrian livres (or 16,000_l._ sterling).
    Last year the commune contributed 359,000 Austrian livres
    (or 11,970_l._ sterling) and the Government 460,000 Austrian
    livres (or 15,330_l._ sterling). The Government contributes
    annually for the foundlings and the insane of the eight
    Venetian provinces, 1,000,000 of Austrian livres (33,000_l._
    sterling). I should remark, that among other resources which
    the commission of public charity have at their command, is a
    tax upon the theatres and other places of public amusement.

    The total expenditure of the commission of public charity may
    be taken approximately at 3,000,000 of Austrian livres, or
    100,000_l._ sterling annually, for the city of Venice alone,
    which is now declared to contain a population of 112,000.

    Mendicity is not permitted in the streets of Venice, and
    although distress does force mendicants to appear when they can
    escape the vigilance of the police, yet I do not believe that
    20 beggars are to be met with in this large and populous city.

    The poor in every parish in Venice have the benefit of a
    physician, a surgeon and medicines gratis; the expense of these
    is paid by the commune.

    Every commune in the Venetian provinces is bound to support
    the poor and the indigent within its limits, whether they be
    natives of the commune or not. No commune or parish can remove
    from it a pauper, because he may have been born in another. Ten
    years’ residence entitles a man to a settlement in a different
    parish from that of his birth. When a commune to which a pauper
    does not belong affords him relief, it is always reimbursed by
    his own parish.

    Every commune derives funds from local taxes; the communes
    of towns from taxes on certain articles of consumption; the
    communes in the country, where articles of consumption are not
    taxed, from an addition to the capitation tax, which is levied
    by the State, but all communes have, more or less, sources of
    revenue from land, houses, and charitable bequests, which are
    very frequent in these states.

    The number of foundlings at present in the country under
    the age of 12 years is 2300. After that age the child is
    transferred from the family who have the charge of it, and
    apprenticed to learn some craft or trade, or servitude; but so
    kind-hearted are the people in the Venetian provinces, that in
    numerous instances, from attachment to the child which they
    have reared, they have begged, when the time arrived for its
    removal, to be allowed to keep it as their own.

    Venice, March 24, 1834.

        [21] This amounts to nearly one-half of the supposed
        population.



PORTUGAL AND ITS DEPENDENCIES.


The information from Portugal and its dependencies consists of answers
from Oporto, the Azores and the Canary Islands, to the Commissioners’
questions. The following extracts show the general state of these
countries. (pp. 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 686, 687.)


PORTUGAL.

    Although poverty prevails to a great extent in Portugal, still
    the frugal habits and very limited wants and desires of the
    lower classes of the population in the northern provinces
    prevent mendicity from showing itself in those offensive and
    distressing forms which it assumes in many other countries.
    The very limited provision which has been made for the poor by
    the Government, or by public regulation, throws them on their
    own resources, and makes them careful and provident. Although,
    during the late siege of Oporto, we issued at one period
    gratuitously, from a soup society, upwards of 6,000 rations
    of soup each day, the number of absolute mendicants who were
    relieved fell greatly short of 1,000. The remainder of the
    applicants were principally families reduced to distress by
    the circumstances of the times, who withdrew their claims as
    soon as the termination of the blockade opened to them other
    resources and means of support.

    Persons destitute of resources, who may be travelling in
    search of work or otherwise, can claim no pecuniary relief;
    but the different religious establishments are in the habit of
    affording a temporary asylum and succour to strangers. There
    are also houses of refuge for the poor, called “Misericordias,”
    at various places, which are supported by royal gifts, bequests
    by will, and private donations.

    None but the military can be billeted on private houses; and
    even this right is now contested by the camara (municipality)
    of Oporto, as contrary to the constitutional charter. Nor
    are there any houses of industry for receiving destitute
    able-bodied, or their families, except at Lisbon, where I
    understand there are royal manufactories in which the poor
    are employed, as well as at a rope-walk called the Cordoario.
    The different religious establishments are, as I have already
    observed, in the habit of affording pecuniary relief, as well
    as of giving food and medical aid to the destitute of every
    description; but the political changes, by suppressing some and
    diminishing the resources of all these establishments, must
    have greatly reduced this description of charity.

    In most towns and large villages there are schools to which
    the poor may send their children free of expense; but they
    receive neither food nor clothing, and the instruction is
    extremely limited. The masters are allowed a small stipend by
    the Government.

    Relatives are forced to aid each other, in the degrees of
    father, mother, child, brother and sister, in cases of want:
    for persons impotent through age, there are houses of charity,
    called “Recolhimentos,” in most cities and considerable
    towns, where a limited number of aged or infirm poor of both
    sexes are lodged, clothed, and fed. These establishments are
    supported in part by royal gifts, and in part by the different
    municipalities; but no provision is made for the attendance of
    the sick poor at their own dwellings, nor are they in any case
    boarded with individuals, or billeted on private houses; but if
    they have relatives in the degrees above-mentioned, these are
    bound to assist them, if able to do so.

    There are public hospitals in most cities and towns, where
    the sick poor are received and treated gratis. There are also
    lying-in hospitals, which receive pregnant women (without
    inquiring as to their being married or not) without any charge;
    but I am not aware of the existence of any regulation which
    obliges the medical officers of these establishments to deliver
    women at their own dwellings, although this is frequently done
    voluntarily.

    _Children._

    A law or decree, issued in 1772, imposes equally on both
    parents the duty of maintaining their children, whether
    legitimate or illegitimate, where they have the means of doing
    so; and the parentage in the latter case, if the father can
    be ascertained or is acknowledged. Brothers and sisters are
    equally bound to assist each other.

    But in cases where the parents either have not the means or
    want inclination to support their illegitimate child, a ready
    resource is offered by the “Casas dos Expostos” which exist in
    most towns. These establishments for foundlings are provided
    with rodas, or revolving boxes, into which the infant is
    placed, and is received without inquiry. The practice of thus
    abandoning infants to be reared by public charity, prevails, I
    am assured, to a painful extent in Portugal.

    _Cripples, Deaf and Dumb, and Blind._

    At Lisbon there is, I understand, an establishment for the
    reception of the deaf and dumb.

    _Idiots and Lunatics._

    At Lisbon there is an establishment for lunatics, called the
    Hospital of St. Joseph, where lunatics and idiots are received
    and supported gratuitously, if without means. Better treatment
    and greater comforts may be obtained for patients ably to pay
    for the same. This institution is partly supported by the
    Government, and partly by voluntary contributions, in the same
    manner as the misericordias in provincial towns.

    It may be observed generally, that in Catholic countries, the
    care of administering to the wants, both physical and moral,
    of the poor, being left in a great degree to the clergy and
    religious establishments, the action of the civil government,
    as well as of private benevolence in their favour, is much less
    visible, and far more confined than in Protestant states.

    Oporto, April 24, 1834.


THE AZORES.

    _Vagrants._

    In the Azores mendicity is limited to the aged and infirm poor,
    and to the crippled and blind, for whom there is no legal
    provision; they are therefore dependent on the charity of the
    wealthy, to whom they make a weekly application and receive
    alms. There are no houses for their reception, or asylum of any
    description, but they obtain a distribution of victuals from
    the convents, of whatever surplus food remains after the friars
    and nuns have dined.

    Vagrants are not allowed; such people are liable to be
    imprisoned, and on conviction may be shipped off to India,
    Angola, &c., or employed on public works, by decrees of the
    16th May, 1641, 19th May, 1684, 4th March, 1688, 7th March,
    1691, and 4th November, 1755. Those decrees, though severe,
    have had a good effect in exterminating vagrancy in the Azores.
    No relief is given to persons seeking work.

    _Destitute Able-bodied._

    There are no laws for granting relief to the poor of any
    description, excepting the sick. Able-bodied men in want of
    work can always find employment on seeking it.

    Public schools for teaching reading and writing are established
    in each municipal district, where the children of the poor
    are taught gratis. A small tribute on the wine produce of the
    country is levied for payment of these schools, called the
    Literary Subsidy, and public professors are paid out of it
    also, who teach Latin, grammar, rhetoric and philosophy to all
    who choose to attend.

    The laws of Portugal oblige the proprietors of entailed
    property to give alimentary allowances to their children and
    brothers and sisters, in proportion to their own means and the
    wants of the applicants. Children coming into possession of
    property are obliged to assist their parents and brothers, if
    in necessity. The poor, however, are left to themselves, and to
    the stimulus of natural affection; and cases are very rare in
    which appeals are made in vain; but lawsuits are very common to
    oblige the rich heir of entailed property to give aliments to a
    brother or sister, as the elder brother takes the whole estate,
    and the younger branches are entirely dependent on him, if the
    father has not left money or unentailed property to distribute
    amongst his other children.

    _Sick._

    In every municipal district there is a public hospital called
    the Misericordia, _i.e._ house of mercy, for the reception of
    the sick poor, supported by endowments of land and bequests
    of money from pious people long since deceased, and voluntary
    contributions of living persons, where the sick are well
    treated, and when cured are sent to their families, and if in
    great distress a small sum of money is given to assist them.
    These hospitals contain generally from 200 to 300 sick, and
    are, generally speaking, well conducted by the governors,
    stewards, medical attendants, and nurses. Foreign seamen are
    also admitted on the respective consuls paying 1_s._ 6_d._ per
    diem for diet and attendance.

    In cases where the hospitals are full, and cannot accommodate
    any more patients, medicines are given to applicants,
    and surgical and medical advice gratis from the hospital
    practitioners.

    CHILDREN.

    _Illegitimate._

    The mother must support it in case she chooses to suckle
    the child herself; if, on the contrary, the sense of shame
    overcomes her maternal feelings, and she takes it to the
    misericordia, where there is a private place to receive the
    infant, it is immediately taken care of, and put out to nurse
    at the expense of the municipality until seven years of age,
    when it is apprenticed (if a male) to some trade or handicraft,
    or to a farmer; if a female to domestic service in some family,
    where it is fed and clothed until of an age to earn wages. In
    nine cases out of ten, the practice is to take the child to the
    misericordia, as pregnancy is more easily concealed here than
    in other countries, by the peculiar dress of the common class
    of women. The municipality are at the expense of maintenance
    of the children, and if their funds are scanty, the State pays
    the deficiency.

    _Orphans, Foundlings, and Deserted Children._

    _Orphans._--Various laws have been promulgated in favour
    of orphans, for whom the respective local magistrates were
    appointed judges and protectors, which duty now devolves on the
    justices of the peace. If any property belongs to them, proper
    guardians are appointed to take care of it, and to educate the
    children; if none, they are under the municipal protection
    until of age to be put to some trade or calling, service, &c.,
    in cases where their relatives are unable to take charge of
    them.

    _Foundlings._--Foundlings are taken charge of and treated as
    orphans; there are several funds set apart for their support
    by express decrees of former sovereigns of Portugal; they are
    received into the misericordias, and supported by the chamber
    of municipality.

    _Deserted Children whose Parents are known._--Deserted children
    are also reputed as foundlings or orphans, and have similar
    care taken of them by the municipal authorities; the instances
    are extremely rare of children being deserted by their parents,
    which is justly held in abhorrence by all classes of persons.

    _Cripples, Deaf and Dumb, Blind, Idiots and Lunatics._

    There are no establishments whatsoever of any kind; they live
    on the alms bestowed weekly by the benevolent.

    In general there prevails much love and affection between
    parents and children, and from the children much obedience and
    respect towards their parents, to which they are exhorted by
    the clergy, who inculcate great subjection to their parents on
    all occasions.

    The poorest able-bodied labourer abhors begging; his utmost
    exertions are therefore employed to support himself and family;
    and it is only in cases of sickness, or other corporeal
    impediment, that he ever has recourse to alms.

    In the Island of St. Mary’s wheat and barley are chiefly
    cultivated, but little Indian corn; much waste land is to be
    seen, arising from the absence of the great proprietors, who
    live in St. Michael’s or at Lisbon.

    At Terceira more wheat than Indian corn is to be seen under
    cultivation; much land lying waste from the want of capital or
    enterprise in the proprietors.

    At St. George’s, being a volcanic soil, there are more
    vineyards and pasture land than arable.

    Gracioza being flat in surface, and having a strong clay soil,
    much barley and wheat is grown, but little Indian corn; the
    poor subsist chiefly on barley-bread, pulse, &c.; it also
    produces much brandy from the low-priced wines.

    Pico being very mountainous and volcanic, the whole island is
    one continued vineyard; little soil for corn; the inhabitants
    depend upon the other islands for the supplies of bread.

    Fayal, partly vineyard, the rest corn land and pasture: all the
    principal proprietors of Pico living at Fayal, the poor of Pico
    are chiefly supplied from thence by their landlords.

    Corvo produces grain, &c., for its consumption only.

    Flores: some wheat and Indian corn is exported from thence,
    also bacon and hams, as large quantities of hogs are bred in
    that island.

    A great deal of land is still uncultivated throughout the
    Azores, so that no able-bodied labourer can want employment,
    and for two centuries to come there will be employment for
    the increasing population. The temperature of the climate,
    ranging from 55° to 76° of Fahrenheit, reducing the physical
    wants of man as to clothing, fuel, &c.; and the abundance of
    vegetables, fruits, &c., renders the poor man’s lot easier
    than in colder climates. In the hospitals there is no limit of
    rations to the sick patients; they have bread, meat, poultry,
    milk, &c., in abundance. The state of criminals in the prisons
    is however dreadful; they are not fed by government, and must
    die if not succoured by relatives, and the casual supply of
    bread sent them from the misericordia in cases of extreme need:
    this however is not obligatory on the part of the hospital.
    Criminals, after sentence to the galleys, are allowed a loaf of
    bread per day, but nothing more.

    St. Michael’s, April 20, 1834.


CANARY ISLANDS.

    _Mendicity, Vagrants, Destitute Able-bodied, Impotent through
    Age._

    Mendicity does prevail to a great extent in the Canary Islands.
    There is no legal provision whatever for the relief or support
    of the poor included in the denominations stated above; casual
    charity is the only resource; but as the natives for the most
    part remain in the places where they were born, there are
    very few who have not some relations and acquaintance, from
    whom they receive occasional assistance. From the nature of
    the climate, the wants of the poor, when not suffering from
    sickness, are very limited; having food sufficient to satisfy
    their hunger, they are scarcely affected by the privations
    so sensibly felt by the poor in northern climates. “Goffro,”
    (which is maize, barley or wheat, roasted, and ground by the
    hand between two stones,) mixed with water or milk, potatoes
    and other vegetables, with sometimes a small piece of salt
    fish, constitute the general food of the peasantry throughout
    the islands. In the towns the artisans live better, obtaining
    bread, potatoes, salt fish, and sometimes butcher’s meat.

    _Sick._

    In Santa Cruz there is one hospital for the poor, but the
    accommodation is very limited (24 beds), in no degree
    proportional to the wants of the population.

    In the town of Laguna is one also, larger than Santa Cruz, and
    tolerably maintained.

    At Las Palmas, the capital of the island of Canary, is the
    largest and best hospital in the islands; near that town also,
    is the hospital of St. Lazarus, exclusively for lepers, of
    which there are considerable numbers. This hospital is well
    kept up, and the building in a good state of repair, with a
    garden walled round. The unfortunate inmates are said to be
    comfortably provided for.

    _Children, Illegitimate; Orphans, Foundlings, Deserted
    Children._

    There are no legal regulations as to illegitimate children;
    their support therefore falls on the mother. There is a
    foundling hospital at Laguna in Teneriffe, and another at Las
    Palmas in Canary; in each a turning-box, and a great number
    of children are by this means disposed of. In the hospital
    of Santa Cruz is also a turning-box; the infants left are
    understood to be sent to Laguna. Children placed in the box
    have usually some mark by which they may be recognised, and
    they are given up to parents when claimed. There is no other
    provision for children.

    _Cripples, Deaf, Dumb, and Blind._

    Live with their parents or relations, or subsist by casual
    charity. No provision.

    _Idiots and Lunatics._

    No particular establishment; live with their relations. When
    violent, they are placed in the hospitals or gaols.

    Almost all the land in the Canary Islands is cultivated by
    agreement between the owners of the land and a class of persons
    called “medianeros” (middlemen), intelligent husbandmen; the
    conditions are simple: that the medianero shall cultivate the
    land, and find half the seed, he retaining half the produce;
    the other half is delivered to the landlord in kind.

    The peasantry are a robust and hardy race, laborious and
    frugal. There is a great deal of family affection among them.
    Considerable numbers emigrate to the Havannah and Puerto Rico
    ostensibly, but it is believed that they are taken to Caraccas
    and other American countries, once dependencies of the Spanish
    crown.



GREECE.


There are two sets of answers from Greece to the Commissioners’
questions. One a general one, by the Secretary of State for the
Interior, the other from Patras, by Mr. Crowe, His Majesty’s Consul.
It will be seen from the following extracts from the Government
report, (pp. 665, 666, 667,) that there are scarcely any charitable
institutions.

    _Vagrants._

    Before the Revolution, two classes of vagrants existed in
    Greece; of these, one class consisted of those individuals
    who, having no property of their own, and being averse to
    labour, lived by robbery; the other class consisted of those
    persons who were indeed destitute, but refusing to labour, did
    not at the same time resort to robbery: the latter existed
    by the charity of their relations, and of other benevolent
    individuals, the former were constantly pursued by the Turkish
    police.

    In two provinces only of the new Greek State, viz. Thravari in
    Acarnania, and Cloutzinas of Kalavryta, does systematic beggary
    exist; in these places, many persons mutilated their new-born
    children for the express purpose of exciting the compassion
    of the public; but neither before the Revolution, during the
    Revolution, nor even now, is there any public establishment for
    the relief of either of the above two classes of vagrants; and
    notwithstanding that during the Revolution the number of these
    vagrants increased it is now certain that their numbers have
    sensibly diminished and it is to be hoped that as soon as the
    municipalities are regularly established, all these individuals
    will be obliged to labour for their subsistence.

    There exists no public institution or decree organizing the
    relief to be granted to the poor in Greece; neither did
    anything of the kind exist before the Revolution, although the
    country was formed into municipalities. It was feared that
    the Ottoman authorities would appropriate to themselves any
    resources which might be set apart for the poor. Charitable
    subscriptions were therefore the only means by which the poor,
    sick, &c. obtained relief.

    _Impotent through Age, and Sick._

    No regulations ever existed on these heads. The aged who
    were destitute received, and still receive, assistance from
    the charitably disposed, and from the monasteries; but this
    assistance is voluntary, not obligatory.

    With regard to hospitals, there are only two, one at Nauplia
    and one at Syra; the first is at present given up to the
    military service, and the second, belonging to the municipality
    of Syra, is maintained by a small duty levied on merchandize;
    the one at Nauplia was formerly supported in the same manner.

    _Children._

    The support of bastards falls upon their fathers. With regard
    to foundlings, who are generally left clandestinely at the
    church doors, the local authorities take charge of them, and
    intrust them to nurses, whose expenses are defrayed by the
    government; benevolent individuals likewise frequently take
    charge of them, and bring them up at their own expense. The
    number of foundlings supported by the government barely exceeds
    forty throughout the whole State, by which it appears that
    depravity of morals in Greece is not great.

    For the support of destitute orphans, an establishment (the
    Orphanotropheion) exists at Ægina, where many are brought up
    at the expense of the government, and are taught to read and
    write, and various trades. However, the nearest relations of
    the orphans generally consider it to be a religious duty to
    take care of them; so that, in consequence of this praiseworthy
    feeling, they are seldom left entirely destitute, unless they
    have no relations, or unless the latter have no means of
    assistance at their disposal. Moreover, there are numerous
    benevolent persons who are in the habit of taking orphans into
    their houses, and bringing them up at their own expense.

    Labour hitherto has not much increased in Greece; the labourers
    are industrious, frugal, and attached to their relations.

    I may add, that in consequence of the vast extent of land in
    Greece in comparison with the number of its inhabitants, the
    latter apply themselves mostly to agriculture and the care of
    flocks, by which means they procure ample means of subsistence;
    and the few manufactures which exist in Greece being all made
    by hand, sufficient employment is to be procured by every
    individual. These are the reasons why the number of the poor
    is so limited, notwithstanding that late events were so much
    opposed to the progress of arts and industry.



EUROPEAN TURKEY.


The only remaining portion of Europe which has furnished answers to the
Commissioners’ questions is European Turkey; with respect to which it
may be enough to say, that the only charitable institutions mentioned
in the return are religious establishments and khans, in which vagrants
are allowed to remain a few days, and receive food; and schools
attached to the mosques, in which children of every description receive
gratuitous instruction in reading and writing.



ABSENCE OF SURPLUS POPULATION.


[Sidenote: General absence, in the countries not subject to compulsory
relief, of a surplus population.]

One of the most striking circumstances connected with the countries
which we have last considered is the accuracy with which the population
seems to be regulated with reference to the demand for labour. In the
ill-administered parts of England there is in general no approach
to any such regulation. That sort of population which, from our
familiarity with it, has acquired the technical name of a surplus
population, not only continues stagnant in places where its services
are no longer required, but often springs up and increases without any
increase of the means of profitable employment. The parochial returns,
forming part B. of this Appendix, are full of complaints of a want of
labourers in one parish, and of an over-supply in another; without
any tendency of the redundancy to supply the deficiency. In time, of
course, the deficient parish is filled up by natural increase; but in
the mean time the population of the redundant parish does not seem to
diminish. In general, indeed, it goes on increasing with unchecked
rapidity, until, in the worst administered portions of the kingdom, a
state of things has arisen, of which the cure is so difficult, that
nothing but the certainty of absolute and almost immediate ruin from
its increase, or even from its continuance, would have induced the
proprietors to encounter the dangers of the remedy. Nothing like this,
indeed, exists in any of the countries affording compulsory relief,
except Berne, which have given us returns. But they provide against its
occurrence, as we have already observed, by subjecting the labouring
classes, indeed all classes except the opulent, to strict regulation
and control, by restraining their marriages, forcing them to take
service, and prohibiting their change of abode unless they have the
consent of the commune in which they wish to settle. By a vigilant
exertion of these means, the population of the north of Europe and
Germany seems in general to be proportioned to the means of employment
and subsistence; but in the countries which have not adopted the
compulsory system the same results are produced without interference
or restriction. Complaints are often made in the different returns of
the idleness, the drunkenness, and the improvidence of the labouring
classes, but never of their disproportionate number.



Condition of the labouring classes.


Another and a very interesting portion of the information which the
intelligence and industry of His Majesty’s foreign Ministers and
Consuls have enabled us to submit to the public, consists of the
answers to the questions respecting labourers. In order to facilitate
a comparison between the state of the English and foreign populations,
the questions proposed were in general the same as had been already
answered in England, either by the population returns, or by the
returns to the questions circulated in England by the Poor Law
Commissioners.

The following questions, being 1, 3, 7, and 8, correspond to the
English questions 8, 10, 13, and 14, of the rural queries:--

1. (8 of English questions.) What is the general amount of the wages
of an able-bodied male labourer, by the day, the week, the month, or
the year, with and without provisions, in summer and in winter?

3. (10 of English questions.) What in the whole might an average
labourer, obtaining an average amount of employment, both in day-work
and in piece-work, expect to earn in a year, including harvest work,
and the whole of all his advantages and means of living?

7. (13 of English questions.) What in the whole might a labourer’s
wife and four children, aged 14, 11, 8, and 5 years respectively, (the
eldest a boy), expect to earn in a year, obtaining, as in the former
case, an average amount of employment?

8. (14 of English questions.) Could such a family subsist on the
aggregate earnings of the father, mother, and children; and if so, on
what food?

The following is a digest of the answers from all the agricultural
parishes in England which have given returns to the corresponding
questions circulated by the Poor Law Commissioners:--


Agricultural wages in England.

Q. 8. Weekly wages, with or without beer or cider, in summer and winter?

254 parishes give an average in summer, with beer or cider, of per
week, 10_s._ 4¾_d._

522 parishes give an average in summer, without beer or cider, of per
week, 10_s._ 5½_d._

200 parishes give an average in winter, with beer or cider, of per
week, 9_s._ 2¼_d._

544 parishes give an average in winter, without beer or cider, of per
week, 9_s._ 11¾_d._

Q. 10. What in the whole might an average labourer, obtaining an
average amount of employment, both in day-work and piece-work, expect
to earn in the year, including harvest work, and the value of all his
other advantages and means of living, except parish relief?

Q. 13. What in the whole might a labourer’s wife and four children,
aged 14, 11, 8, and 5 years respectively, (the eldest a boy,) expect to
earn in the year, obtaining, as in the former case, an average amount
of employment?

    856 parishes give for the man, an average of              £27 17 10
    668 parishes give for the wife and children an average of  13 19 10
                                                              ---------
    Average annual income of the family                       £41 17  8
                                                              ---------


Subsistence of agricultural labourers in England.

Q. 14. Could such a family subsist on the aggregate earnings of the
father, mother, and children; and if so, on what food?

    --------------+----------+---------+---------+----------+-------
                  | Number of|   No.   |  Yes.   |  Barely, | With
                  | Parishes |(simply).|(simply).|or without| Meat.
                  | answering|         |         |   Meat.  |
                  |  Q. 14.  |         |         |          |
    --------------+----------+---------+---------+----------+--------
    Bedford       |    15    |    1    |   3     |    0     |    11
    Berks         |    24    |    2    |   1     |    2     |    19
    Bucks         |    27    |    2    |   5     |    5     |    15
    Cambridge     |    33    |    2    |  11     |    3     |    17
    Chester       |    12    |    0    |   5     |    2     |     5
    Cornwall      |    24    |    0    |   1     |    2     |    21
    Cumberland    |    33    |    0    |   7     |   13     |    13
    Derby         |     7    |    0    |   2     |    0     |     5
    Devon         |    18    |    1    |   7     |    1     |     9
    Dorset        |    16    |    1    |   4     |    2     |     9
    Durham        |    30    |    0    |   6     |    4     |    20
    Essex         |    38    |    9    |   9     |    6     |    14
    Gloucester    |    19    |    0    |   7     |    5     |     7
    Hereford      |    16    |    2    |   1     |    5     |     8
    Hertford      |    16    |    0    |   2     |    6     |     8
    Huntingdon    |     9    |    2    |   0     |    1     |     6
    Kent          |    43    |    5    |  12     |    2     |    24
    Lancaster     |    14    |    0    |   8     |    1     |     5
    Leicester     |    14    |    0    |   6     |    3     |     5
    Lincoln       |    14    |    1    |   5     |    0     |     8
    Middlesex     |     2    |    0    |   0     |    0     |     2
    Monmouth      |     7    |    0    |   2     |    1     |     4
    Norfolk       |    27    |    2    |   8     |    0     |    17
    Northampton   |    14    |    0    |   2     |    1     |    11
    Northumberland|    18    |    0    |   2     |    0     |    16
    Nottingham    |    19    |    0    |   7     |    1     |    11
    Oxford        |    21    |    0    |   8     |    3     |    10
    Rutland       |     4    |    0    |   3     |    0     |     1
    Salop         |    19    |    0    |   1     |    0     |    18
    Somerset      |    22    |    2    |   0     |    6     |    14
    Southampton   |    43    |    3    |   7     |    6     |    27
    Stafford      |    12    |    1    |   1     |    0     |    10
    Suffolk       |    26    |    4    |   9     |    3     |    10
    Surrey        |    20    |    0    |   5     |    2     |    13
    Sussex        |    68    |   21    |   18    |    7     |    22
    Warwick       |    31    |    1    |   4     |    4     |    22
    Westmorland   |    17    |    3    |   4     |    5     |     5
    Wilts         |    24    |    1    |   7     |    4     |    12
    Worcester     |    18    |    1    |   6     |    2     |     9
    York          |    65    |    4    |  16     |   17     |    28
    (40)          +----------+---------+---------+----------+--------
                  |          |         |         |          |
        TOTAL     |   899    |   71    | 212     |   125    |   491
    --------------+----------+---------+---------+----------+--------



Wages and subsistence of foreign labourers.


We now add a digest of the foreign answers to the corresponding
questions, and also to Question 6: “What can women and children under
16, earn per week in summer, in winter, and in harvest, and how
employed?” a question as to which the English answers do not admit of
tabular statement.

We have arranged the answers under seven heads: 1. Wages of artisans;
2. of agricultural labourers; 3. of labourers whom the author of the
return appears not to have included in either of the other two classes;
4. of women; 5. of children; 6. of the labourer’s wife and four
children; and 7. the food on which the supposed family could subsist,
on their average annual earnings and means of living.

DIGEST OF FOREIGN ANSWERS


     |ARTISANS, Per Day.
     |    |AGRICULTURISTS.
     |    |    |OTHER LABOURERS.
     |    |    |    |WOMEN.
     |    |    |    |    |CHILDREN.
     |    |    |    |    |    |WIFE and Four Children.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |SUBSISTENCE.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  AMERICA:
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  MASSACHUSETTS, p. 683
     |First-rate, 2 to 3 dollars, others, 1½ dollars, 6_s._ 9_d._;
     |overseers, per year, 1500 to 3500 dollars.
     |    |Per day, in harvest, 1 to 1½ dollars; per month, with board and
     |    |lodging, 14 to 18 dollars during summer and autumn (six months,)
     |    |some all the year; others during the other six months, 10 to 12
     |    |dollars a month.
     |    |    |Per year, 250 to 300 dollars, i.e. 56_l._ 5_s._ to 67_l._
     |    |    |10_s._
     |    |    |    |At factories per week, 2½ to 5 dollars.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |There are very few who do not eat meat,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |poultry, or fish twice or three times a
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |day.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  NEW YORK, p. 158
     |Dollar and a half; one-fourth less in winter and dull times.
     |    |Per month, 1_l._ 10_s._ to 2_l._ 5_s._, with board, washing, and
     |    |mending; per day, in harvest, 4_s._ 6_d._ with board
     |    |    |3_s._ 6_d._ per day; 44_l._ per year.
     |    |    |    |Per day, 1_s._ 6_d._ to 3_s._ 6_d._
     |    |    |    |    |Early enfranchised
     |    |    |    |    |    |The children quit their parents and shift
     |    |    |    |    |    |for themselves. The wife may earn 1_s._
     |    |    |    |    |    |6_d._ to 3_s._ 6_d._ a day.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |A family united could subsist well on
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |their aggregate earnings have tea,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |coffee, and meat twice a day.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  MEXICO, p. 690
     |Double the wages of the agriculturists.
     |    |1_s._ to 1_s._ 4_d._ per day
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Enough for their support.
     |    |    |    |    |Enough for their support.
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Most certainly. The common food of
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |working people in  Mexico is maize or
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Indian corn, prepared either as
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |porridge (atole,) or in thin cakes
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |(tortillas,) and beans (frijoles,) like
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |the white beans so much in use in
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |France, with addition of chile, a
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |speckle of the hot pepper, of which
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |they eat enormous quantities by way of
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |seasoning. In the town wheaten bread
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |forms a part of the food of the lower
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |classes, and meat occasionally.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  CARTHAGENA DE COLUMBIA, p. 166
     |. . . .
     |    |. . . .
     |    |    |Per day, town, 2_s._, country, 1_s._ to 1_s._ 6_d._; in
     |    |    |year, about 12_l._
     |    |    |    |As servants, about one- third a man’s wages.
     |    |    |    |    |Under 16, as servants, about one-third a man’s
     |    |    |    |    |wages.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year about 50_l._ (supposed to include a
     |    |    |    |    |    |man’s wages, but even then apparently
     |    |    |    |    |    |excessive.)
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Very comfortably; chiefly on animal
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |food.
  VENEZUELA, p. 163
     |. . . .
     |    |Per day, 1_s._ 6_d._ with usual provisions.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |1_s._ 1½_d._ to 1_s._ 6_d._ per day.
     |    |    |    |    |Under sixteen 1_s._ 1½_d._ to 1_s._ 6_d._ per
     |    |    |    |    |day.
     |    |    |    |    |    |15_l._ per year.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Maize cakes, with vegetables and fruit,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |form the chief aliments of the peon and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |his family; and they can with little
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |difficulty subsist, if they choose to
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |work, on their aggregate earnings.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  MARANHAM, p. 693
     |Per day, 1_s._
     |    |Generally slaves; where hired they earn about 17_s._ a month,
     |    |and food.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |The necessaries of life are few, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |easily obtained.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  BAHIA, p. 731
     |2_s._ per day; 25_l._ per year.
     |    |. . . .
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Women and children,
     |    |    |    |nothing
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  URUGUAY, p. 723
     |. . . .
     |    |Herdsmen, slaves, or guachos, 8 dollars a month, by the year.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |A family may subsist on the labour of
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |the husband alone, and have a meal with
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |meat three times a day.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  HAYTI, p. 168
     |Per day, from 2_s._ 6_d._ to 3_s._; per year, 38_l._
     |    |Per day, 7_d._; per year, 9_l._ 10_s._
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |As servants, from 10_s._ to 20_s._ a month.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |A family can easily subsist on the
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |earnings of their parents. Their food
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |consists of what are termed “ground
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |provisions,” i. e., plantains, sweet
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |potatoes, and other vegetables and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |fruits, which if not raised by
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |themselves are obtained at a cheap
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |rate.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  EUROPE:
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  NORWAY, p. 698
     |Per week, 5_s._ 4_d._ to 7_s._ 2_d._, with food and lodging and
     |tools.
     |    |Per day, 3_d._ to 5½_d._, with food.
     |    |    |Per day, in or near Christiania, summer, 10½_d._; winter,
     |    |    |8½_d._; per year, 11_l._ 10_s._ 9_d._
     |    |    |    |Per week, summer, and occasionally in winter, 3_s._
     |    |    |    |6_d._
     |    |    |    |    |Per week, above 14, and under 16, 17_d._
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year, about 6_l._ 4_s._ 3_d._
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Except in illness, it can subsist on
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |its aggregate earnings. The labourers
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |live on very simple food: salt
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |herrings, oatmeal porridge, potatoes,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |coarse oatmeal bread, may-be twice a
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |week a piece of bacon or salt beef, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |along the coast, and the rivers and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |lakes, on fresh fish. Corn brandy is in
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |general use.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  SWEDEN:
    STOCKHOLM (Mr. Bloomfield’s Return), p. 374
     |Per day, during nine months, 1_s._ 7_d._; winter, indoors, 1_s._
     |7_d._ nearly; outdoors, nothing.
     |    |Per day, skilled, 7_d._ to 8_d._, unskilled, 3_d._ to 4_d._;
     |    |average the year, about 11_l._
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Per day, as agriculturists, in summer, 4_d._
     |    |    |    |    |Per day, as agriculturists, in summer, 2_d._
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year, as agriculturists:
     |    |    |    |    |    |                         £. _s._
     |    |    |    |    |    |  Wife                   5   0
     |    |    |    |    |    |  Boy of 14              2  10
     |    |    |    |    |    |  Children of 11 and 8   1   0
     |    |    |    |    |    |                         ----
     |    |    |    |    |    |                        £8  10
     |    |    |    |    |    |As artisans:
     |    |    |    |    |    |                         £. _s._
     |    |    |    |    |    |  Wife                   8   0
     |    |    |    |    |    |  Boy of 14              4  10
     |    |    |    |    |    |  Children of 11 and 8   2   0
     |    |    |    |    |    |                         -----
     |    |    |    |    |    |                       £14  10
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |It could subsist. The agriculturists in
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |the southern provinces on potatoes and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |salt fish, in the northern, on porridge
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |and rye bread; the artisans on better
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |food than the agriculturists, with
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |coffee, and occasionally fresh meat.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    Count Forsell’s Statement, p. 380
     |The support of a cottager’s household, consisting of husband, wife,
     |and three children, in the middle part of Sweden, costs yearly about
     |146⅔_r.d._, according to the prices of last year; the husband being
     |occupied during the whole year, and his wife having enough to do with
     |the care of her children, so that neither she nor her husband can
     |calculate on any additional earnings.
     |
     |The labourer receives 2½ barrels of rye, or in money 16_r.d._
     |32_sk._; 1 barrel of corn, 5_r.d._ 16_sk._; half barrel of pease,
     |3_r.d._ 16_sk._; half ditto of malt, 2_r.d._ 32_sk._; 2 ditto
     |potatoes, 2_r.d._; 1½ lb. salt, 32_sk._; 4 lbs. herrings, 2_r.d._
     |16_sk._; 1 lb. of butter, 4_r.d._ 16_sk._; 3 lbs. of hops, 1_r.d._;
     |1½ pint of sweet milk per day, 10_r.d._ 16_sk._; 3 pints of sour milk
     |during the summer, 4_r.d._ 16_sk._; 9 gallons of bränvin (a kind of
     |whiskey), 5_r.d._ 16_sk._; lodging and fuel, 16_r.d._ 32_sk._; annual
     |wages in money, 44_r.d._; earnest, 3_r.d._ 16_sk._; contributions,
     |3_r.d._ 16_sk._; sundries, 6_r.d._ 34_sk._; total banco, 146_r.d._
     |32_sk._ That is, on an average, 29_r.d._ 16_sk._ annually for every
     |individual; and daily, 3_sk._ 10½_rst._
     |
     |On a gentleman’s estate in the neighbourhood of Stockholm, the
     |following was given last year: Annual pay in money, 33_r.d._ 16_sk._;
     |¼ barrel of wheat, 2_r.d._ 32_sk._; 4 barrels of rye, 24_r.d._; 2
     |barrels of corn, 9_r.d._ 16_sk._; 2 ditto potatoes, 2_r.d._; 10 heads
     |of white cabbage, 32_sk._; ½ barrel of herrings, 4_r.d._ 32_sk._; 1
     |lb. salt, 21 _sk._; 2 lbs. of meat, 2_r.d._; 1 lb. of bacon, 2_r.d._
     |32_sk._; 1 lb. of hops, 16_sk._; 2 pairs of shoes, 3_r.d._ 16_sk._;
     |sweet milk, 10_r.d._; sundry expenses, 5_r.d._; lodging, wood,
     |earnest, taxes, 25_r.d._; equal to 123_r.d._ 21_sk._ Were that sum
     |divided among five persons, 25_r.d._ 29_sk._ would accrue to each;
     |and daily, 3_sk._ 3_rst._
     |
     |The household of a cottager belonging to this estate, about 10
     |English miles from Stockholm, was bound, according to a written
     |contract, for 10 years to perform the following labour for the estate
     |or landowner; namely,
     |
     |                                            _r.d._ _sk._
     |208 days’ work for a man, at 21_sk._ 6_rst._  93     8
     | 40   ditto    for a woman at 10_sk._ 8_rst._  8    42
     | 14 journeys to Stockholm, 1_r.d._            14     0
     |To mow and get in 14 acres of meadow          10    32
     |To cut down and carry home 5 sawn timbers      2    32
     |Ditto ... ditto ... 4 fathoms of firewood      5    16
     |Ditto ... ditto ... 100 pairs of stakes        2     0
     |To put out fishing-lines                       3     0
     |To keep in order a portion of the main road    2     0
     |Ditto ...        ditto ...        bye-road     6     0
     |To spin for wages                              2     0
     |To gather berries                              0    32
     |Sundry accidental jobs                         3     0
     |                                              --------
     |                       Total _r.d._ banco      143  18
     |    |
     |    |In Stockholm, a poor mechanic’s household, consisting of
     |    |husband, wife, and four children, can hardly be supported on
     |    |less than 546_r.d._ banco annually, as follows:
     |    |
     |    |                                                   _R.d._
     |    |Bread, meal, salad, potatoes and other vegetables   120
     |    |Meat, butter, cheese, herrings and other fish       176
     |    |Milk, beer, bränvin (or whiskey)                     26
     |    |Candles, coals, wood                                 24
     |    |Clothes                                              60
     |    |Rent and furniture                                   50
     |    |Taxes, medicines, and sundries                       24
     |    |                                                   ----
     |    |                                Total        _R.d._ 546
     |    |
     |    |Hence will be seen that the master of such a family must earn
     |    |daily, during the whole year, nearly 2_r.d._ banco, and
     |    |consequently no masons, carpenters, smiths, &c. can be included
     |    |in this class. If the husband, wife, or children are sick for
     |    |any length of time, the state of such a family is far more
     |    |deplorable than that of the agricultural peasantry of Sweden.
     |    |
     |_Note._--146⅔_rds._ = 11_l._
     |                 1 lb. = 20 lbs. English.
     |              1 dollar = 48 skillings.
     |            1 skilling = 1½ farthing.
     |A dollar therefore is worth 72 farthings, or 1_s._ 6_d._
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    GOTTENBURGH (Consul’s Return), p. 386
     |Per day, 1_s._ 6_d._ to 2_s._
     |    |Per day, 6_d._ to 9_d._; per year, 7_l._ 13_s._ (Few such
     |    |labourers).
     |    |    |Per day, 10_d._ to 1_s._
     |    |    |    |In towns, per week, summer, 6_s._ to 9_s._; winter,
     |    |    |    |4_s._ to 6_s._ (This seems too large).
     |    |    |    |    |Under 16, in harvest, per day, 2_d._ to 3_d._
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year, about 3_l._
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Yes; on the following food, viz., 11
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |bushels of rye, cost 1_l._ 5_s._;
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |4¾ bushels of barley, 8_s._; 4¾
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |ditto of peas, 5_s._; 4¾ ditto of
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |malt, 4_s._; 9½ ditto of potatoes,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |3_s._ 2_d._; 19 lbs. of salt, 1_s._; 75
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |lbs. of herrings, 3_s._ 6_d._; 19 lbs.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |of butter, 6_s._ 6_d._; 3 lbs. of hops,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |1_s._; 19 lbs. of stockfish, 2_s._
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |3_d._; 19 lbs. of pork, 4_s._ 6_d._;
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |half a cow, 15_s._; about three pints
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |of sweet milk daily, 15_s._ 2_d._; and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |six pints of sour milk, in summer,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |daily, 6_s._ 6_d._; 42 bottles of
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |potatoe brandy, 8_s._ 3_d._; lodging
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |and wood, 1_l._ 5_s._; taxes, 5_s._;
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |sundries, 10_s._ Wages, about 3_l._
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |10_s._, or in the whole, say, 10_l._
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |18_s._ 10_d._ The above statement
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |applies to a small farmer; reduce it
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |about one-third, and it may apply to a
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |common (married) labourer in the
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |country.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  RUSSIA:
    General Return, p. 334
     |(No distinction of classes given). The pay of labourers varies in
     |different parts of Russia. In Georgia, it is 3½_d._ per day, which
     |is the lowest; in St. Petersburg, it is 1_s._ 3_d._ per day, which is
     |the highest.
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |It would subsist. On rye bread, buck
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |wheat, and sour cabbage soup, well
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |seasoned with salt, and occasionally
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |a little lard.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    ARCHANGEL Return, p. 338
     |Summer, 10_d._, winter, 8_d._; often doubled.     } Per Year: 18_l._
     |    |Summer, 8_d._, winter, 6_d._; often doubled. } to 30_l._
     |    |    |...
     |    |    |    |...
     |    |    |    |    |...
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year, 10_l._ to 15_l._ (This is supposed
     |    |    |    |    |    |to be the meaning of the answers to queries
     |    |    |    |    |    |6 and 7).
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Decidedly yes. Their food consists of
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |fish, rye bread, gruel, kvas,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |occasionally meat and turnips. A great
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |deal of tea is also drunk by the
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |peasants of this neighbourhood.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    COURLAND Return, p. 341
     |Per day, skilled, 3_s._ to 4_s._; unskilled, 1_s._ 6_d._ to 2_s._
     |    |Paid by land for subsistence.
     |    |    |Per day, summer, 1_s._; winter, few pence less.
     |    |    |    |Per week, summer, 3_s._ 6_d._; winter, 2_s._ 6_d._
     |    |    |    |    |Per week, under 16, summer, 3_s._, winter 2_s._
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year, 30_l._ to 35_l._, (supposed to
     |    |    |    |    |    |include man’s earnings).
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |They can subsist on the aggregate
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |earnings, in most cases, however, but
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |needy; on bread, potatoes, salted fish,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |&c., seldom beef.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  DENMARK:
    COPENHAGEN Return, p. 267
     |One-third more than agriculturists.
     |    |Per day, 6_d._ to 8_d._ (with, in harvest, provisions of poor
     |    |quality); per year, 15_l._ (Sunday nearly a day of work).
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Per day, 4_d._, all the year.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |Man, wife, and four children, working on the
     |    |    |    |    |    |Sundays, about 12_s._ a week.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |It is frequently done. The food
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |wholesome rye bread, bad milk, cheese,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |shocking butter, coffee (as it is
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |called), profusion of tobacco and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |snuff, and too much spirits, which are
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |unfortunately cheap and very bad.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    ELSINORE Return, p. 296
     |No subdivision. Per day, summer, 9_d._ to 10_d._, or 6_d._ to 7_d._
     |with food: winter, 6_d._ to 7_d._, or 4_d._ to 5_d._ with food; per
     |year, 12_l._ to 15_l._
     |    |    |    |Summer, four months, 2_s._ 6_d._ to 3_s._ per week;
     |    |    |    |winter, 8 months, 1_s._ 6_d._ to 2_s._ a week.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year, about 6_l._
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |With prudence and economy, which,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |however, are no characteristics of the
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |peasantry of this country, I doubt not
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |it might be done. Their principal food
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |consists of rye bread, groats,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |potatoes, coffee, butter, cheese, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |milk, in which articles a family
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |consisting of man, wife, and three
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |children, would expend about 15_l._ per
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |annum in this neighbourhood; in other
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |parts of the country they fare worse.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Food is cheap.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    Further statement, by Cons. Macgregor, p. 299
     |Per week, with food, 4_s._ 6_d._ to 6_s._ 9_d._; without food, 11_s._
     |to 11_s._ 6_d._ In manufactories, per week, male, 4_s._ 6_d._ to
     |12_s._; female, 4_s._ 6_d._ to 5_s._; children above 14, 3_s._ 6_d._
     |to 4_s._, or under 14, 1_s._ 9_d._ to 2_s._ 3_d._; ropemakers, 1_s._
     |9_d._ to 2_s._ 3_d._ per day.
     |    |Per year, with food and lodging, males, 4_l._ to 5_l._; females,
     |    |3_l._ 10_s._ to 3_l._ 15_s._; boys, 2_l._ 10_s._ to 3_l._ 15_s._
     |    |    |Per day, in towns, 1_s._ to 1_s._ 6_d._ Agriculture, males,
     |    |    |6_d._ to 10_d._; females, 5_d._ to 7_d._; with food,
     |    |    |one-half less.
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  HANSEATIC TOWNS:
    BREMEN, p. 413
     |No subdivision. Per day, in the country, summer, 1_s._, winter,
     |9_d._; per year, 17_l._ 10_s._ to 22_l._ In towns, about 25 per cent.
     |higher; per year, 17_l._ 10_s._ to 25_l._
     |    |    |    |Per day, country, summer, 6_d._; winter, 4_d._, town,
     |    |    |    |4_d._
     |    |    |    |    |Per week, from 12 to 16, in tobacco
     |    |    |    |    |manufactories, 3_s._ 6_d._
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Can very well support itself. They can
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |subsist upon potatoes, beans, buck
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |wheat or grits, and rye bread, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |twice a week meat or bacon.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    LUBECK, p. 415
     |Per week, 7_s._ to 14_s._, or if constantly employed, and with board
     |and lodging, 2_s._ 4_d._ to 4_s._; per year, 30_l._
     |    |Per day, summer, 9_d._; winter, 7_d._; harvest, 1_s._ Per year,
     |    |12_l._
     |    |    |Per day, in the town, 14_d._; per year, 18_l._
     |    |    |    |Town, 7_d._ a day; country, in harvest, 7_d._ a day.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Even comfortably, on the usual food of
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |the poorer classes here, namely, coarse
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |rye bread, potatoes, bacon, fat or
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |dripping, milk, porridge made of peas,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |groats or peeled barley, herrings or
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |other cheap fish, butter and lard, but
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |very seldom meat. Greatest luxury, a
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |cup of coffee in the morning.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  MECKLENBURG, p. 422
     |Per week, in towns, 7_s._ to 10_s._ 6_d._, and free boarding. In the
     |country, about two-thirds.
     |    |Per week, in country, 3_s._ 6_d._, a dwelling, garden, and
     |    |pasture for a cow and two sheep in summer, and provender for
     |    |them in winter.
     |    |    |Per week, in towns, 5_s._ 3_d._ to 7_s._
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Could subsist on good sound food, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |occasionally meat.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  DANTZIG, p. 465
     |Per day, summer, 13½_d._; winter, 23_d._
     |    |Per day, summer, 4⅔_d._ to 7_d._; winter, 3½_d._ to
     |    |4⅔_d._, besides a dwelling, either free of, or at a small rent,
     |    |pasture for a cow in summer, and a small load of hay in winter,
     |    |and fuel.
     |    |    |Per day, summer, country, 8¼_d._ to 11¾_d._; town,
     |    |    |8½_d._ to 16_d._ Winter, country, 4¾_d._ to 7_d._;
     |    |    |town, 7_d._ to 12_d._ Yearly, country, 8_l._ 10_s._ to
     |    |    |9_l._; town, 10_l._ to 10_l._ 10_s._
     |    |    |    |Per day, country, summer, 3½_d._ to 4⅔_d._;
     |    |    |    |winter, 2½_d._, to 3_d._ Towns, 4⅔_d._ to 7_d._
     |    |    |    |    |Per day, from 12 to 16, country, 2⅓_d._ to
     |    |    |    |    |3_d._; towns, about 2½_d._
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year, country, woman, 3_l._ 15_s._; boy,
     |    |    |    |    |    |12 to 16, 3_l._ Towns, women, 4_l._ 10_s._;
     |    |    |    |    |    |boy, 12 to 16, 3_l._
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Very well; living in the country on rye
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |bread, potatoes, and other vegetables,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |fruit, food of wheat, flour, lard,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |milk, meat once or twice weekly, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |fish; but chiefly on rye bread and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |potatoes.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  SAXONY, p. 481
     |The average amount of wages is not more than 9_d._ a day.
     |    |    |    |A woman can earn on an average 3_d._ daily, a child,
     |    |    |    |1_d._
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Parents with four children, with
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |management, abstemiousness and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |diligence, can earn their livelihood.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  WURTEMBERG
    (Mr. Wellesley’s Return), p. 510
     |Per week, in towns, 1 to 2½ _fl._, fed and lodged. In villages,
     |20_kr._ to 1 _fl._, fed and lodged.
     |
     |_Note._--1 _fl._ is equal to 60_kr._,
     |or to 20_d._ sterling.
     |    |Per year, with food and lodging, in towns, 50 to 60 _fl._; in
     |    |villages, 20 to 40 _fl._; without food and lodging, 150 _fl._,
     |    |but with food and wood under market price in winter.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Per week, 42 _kr._ to 1_fl._ 30 _kr._; in
     |    |    |    |manufactures, 1 _fl._ 40 _kr._ to 2 _fl._ 30 _kr._
     |    |    |    |    |Per week, 20 to 40 _kr._; in manufactures, 1
     |    |    |    |    |_fl._ 12 _kr._ to 2 _fl._
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year, from 40 to 50 _fl._ The children
     |    |    |    |    |    |too much in school to earn much (supposed to
     |    |    |    |    |    |include man’s wages.)
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |They could. In the morning, soup and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |potatoes and bread; dinner, vegetables
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |or pudding; between dinner and supper,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |bread; supper, potatoes and milk or
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |soup; once or twice a week, meat.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    Government Return, p. 525
     |_A_) A grown-up female--
     |
     |  _a_) By spinning and ordinary knitting can seldom gain more than 4,
     |6, or 8 _kr._ daily; by finer knitting, embroidery, lace-making, and
     |other such female work, which are paid by the piece, can seldom gain
     |more than from 10 to 25 _kr._ one day with another.
     |
     |  _b_) A sempstress receives, in the country, in small places, from 4
     |to 6 _kr._, in larger places and towns, from 12 to 15 _kr._; in the
     |capital, a dress-maker, an ironer, a plaiter, from 24, 36 to 48 _kr._
     |daily, besides board.
     |
     |  _c_) A washerwoman or charwoman receives in the country only 8, 10,
     |12, 15 to 18 _kr._; in the capital, 36 _kr._ daily, with board; or
     |without board, from 1 _fl._ to 1 _fl._ 12 _kr._
     |
     |  _d_) A maid servant receives, in money and money’s worth, annually,
     |besides board, in the country only 16, 18, 20, to 24 _fl._; in the
     |capital, 24, 30, 36 to 40 _fl._; to which, according to
     |circumstances, vails are to be added, especially in the capital.
     |
     |_B_) A male adult receives, namely--
     |
     |  _a_) A journeyman workman--
     |
     |    _aa_) In the country, with the shoemakers and tailors, 20, 24, to
     |30 _kr._; with the bakers, 48 _kr._ to 1 _fl._; with the smiths, 48
     |_kr._ to 1 _fl._ 12 _kr._; with calendrers and tanners, 48 _kr._ to 2
     |_fl._ weekly, with board; a journeyman carpenter or bricklayer, from
     |30 to 36 kr. daily, with bread and something to drink.
     |
     |    _bb_) In the capital, with board, from 1 _fl._ 12 _kr._ to 2
     |_fl._ 42 _kr._ weekly; without board, 36 _kr._ to 1_fl._ daily; on
     |Sunday, nothing.
     |
     |  _b_) A man servant receives, in the country, 20, 30, 36, to 40
     |_fl._; in the capital, 50 to 60 _fl._ and more per annum, with board.
     |
     |  _c_) A farmer’s labourer or other day labourer in the country, 12,
     |15, 18, 20, to 24 _kr._ daily, with board, or, instead of the latter,
     |10 or 12 _kr._ in money; in the capital, in winter, from 24 to 30
     |_kr._; in summer, from 36 to 48 kr. for everything.
     |
     |  _d_) A wood-cleaver can gain daily in all only from 20 to 24, and
     |at the most, 30 _kr._
     |
     |All these rates of wages rise or fall according as the work requires
     |more or less dexterity or exertion, as the individual workman is more
     |or less distinguished by skill, strength, or diligence, as the
     |scarcity and the supply of workmen is greater or less, as the days
     |are longer or shorter, &c.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  BAVARIA, p. 556
     |. . . .
     |    |Good labourers, 8_d._ per day; generally provisions at harvest
     |    |time. There are very few day labourers in the country.
     |    |    |In towns, from 8_d._ to 16_d._ a day.
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  FRANKFORT, p. 567
     |Per day, summer, 1_s._ 4_d._ to 1_s._ 6_d._; winter, 2_d._ less;
     |2_d._ a day extra for drink-money. Per year, 14_l._ to 28_l._
     |    |. . . .
     |    |    |Per day, 10_d._ to 1_s._
     |    |    |    |Per day, 8_d._ to 1_s._ 4_d._
     |    |    |    |    |Per day, under 16, 2_d._ to 4_d._
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Yes. Meat twice a week; soup,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |vegetables, potatoes, bread, coffee
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |and beer daily.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  HOLLAND
    (General Return), p. 585
     |Not classified. From 150 to 225 florins, or from 12_l._ 10_s._ to
     |18_l._
     |    |    |    |15_s._ a year.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |From 20 to 30 florins, (from 1_l._ 13_s._
     |    |    |    |    |    |4_d._ to 2_l._ 10_s_.)
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |They could subsist thereon, and live
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |upon bread, principally rye, cheese,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |potatoes, vegetables, beans and pork,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |buttermilk, with buck wheat, meal, &c.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    AMSTERDAM Return, p. 586
     |Per day, summer, 1_s._ 6_d._ to 2_s._ 8_d._; winter, 1_s._ 3_d._ to
     |2_s._ 8_d._ Shoemakers and tailors, from 8_s._ 4_d._ to 20_s._ per
     |week.
     |    |. . . .
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    HAARLEM, p. 587
     |Per week, summer, 4_s._ 4_d._ to 10_s._ 10_d._; winter, one-fourth
     |less. Weavers, from 10_s._ to 13_s._ 4_d._
     |    |. . . .
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Per week, summer, 4_s._ 4_d._ to 5_s._; winter,
     |    |    |    |one-fourth less.
     |    |    |    |    |Per week, summer, 8_d._ to 3_s._; winter,
     |    |    |    |    |one-fourth less.
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    NORTH HOLLAND, p. 587
     |Per week, 3_s._ 4_d._ to 15_s._; firewood free.
     |    |Per year, 3_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._ to 8_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._, with board and
     |    |lodging.
     |    |    |Per day, first class, 20_d._
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    VRIESLAND and GRONINGEN, p. 587
     |Per week, 2_s._ 6_d._ to 10_s._
     |    |Per year, 3_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._ to 8_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._ with board and
     |    |lodging. Per day, summer, 10_d._ to 20_d._; winter, 8_d._ to
     |    |1_s._
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  BELGIUM:
    BOOM, p. 634
     |Per year, brickmakers, summer, 10_l._ 16_s._ 8_d._; winter, 3_l._
     |10_s._ 10½_d._; total p’ year, 14_l._ 7_s._ 6½_d._
     |    |Per year, farming labourers, summer, 4_l._ 14_s._ 6_d._; winter,
     |    |1_l._ 19_s._ 4½_d._; total, 6_l._ 13_s._ 10½_d._, with food.
     |    |    |Per week, waterman, 5_s._ 8¾_d._, with food.
     |    |    |    |Per week, in the brick manufacture, summer, 3_s._
     |    |    |    |1½_d._
     |    |    |    |    |Per week, under 16, summer, 2_s._ 9½_d._
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Such family can subsist by their
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |earnings only, bread, potatoes, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |milk.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    OSTEND, p. 639
     |Per day, skilled, summer, 1_s._ 2_d._ to 1_s._ 5_d._; winter, 10_d._
     |to 1_s._ 2_d._ Yearly, 20_l._ in a town. Unskilled, summer, 7_d._ to
     |1_s._; winter, 5½_d._ to 8_d._
     |    |Per day, summer, 1_s._; winter, 10½_d._; when boarded,
     |    |5½_d._ is deducted. Yearly, 14_l._
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Per day, in towns, 10½_d._, with food, 1_s._ 5_d._
     |    |    |    |without. In the country, summer, 8½_d._, winter,
     |    |    |    |7½_d._, without food; summer, 4¼_d._, winter,
     |    |    |    |3½_d._, with food.
     |    |    |    |    |Per day, of 11, summer, 1½_d._ and food; winter
     |    |    |    |    |nothing.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Yearly, women and two eldest children, food
     |    |    |    |    |    |in summer, and from 6_l._ 8_s._ to 7_l._
     |    |    |    |    |    |4_s._ in the year; the third child its food.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |It can, in the towns, eating only
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |potatoes and rye bread; the father
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |being an unskilled artisan, and the
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |towns possessing no manufacture. In the
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |country, the same family would consume
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |a little butter, some vegetables, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |perhaps sometimes a piece of pork.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    GAESBECK pp. 7, 8
     |. . . .
     |    |Per day, summer and winter, 6_d._ with beer, and sometimes
     |    |coffee and bread and butter, of the value of 1_d._ more.
     |    |Occasional labourers, 1_d._ more.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Per day, 6_d._ in summer, and 5_d._ in winter, without
     |    |    |    |food.
     |    |    |    |    |Same as a woman.
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Rye bread, cheese, butter or fat,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |bacon, vegetables, coffee, and very
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |weak beer.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  FRANCE:
    HAVRE, p. 181
     |Labourers (not stated of what description) per day, town, 2_s._;
     |country, summer, 1_s._ 6_d._; winter, 1_s._ 2_d._
     |    |    |    |Per day, 10_d._ with food.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Families do subsist, and are
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |respectable upon these earnings. Their
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |food is bread, a few vegetables, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |cider; never animal food, or very
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |rarely. Coffee and treacle are also
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |used.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    BRITTANY, p. 726
     |Per day, summer and winter, 15_d._ per year 18_l._
     |    |Per day, summer, 10_d._; winter, 7_d._ per year, 11_l._
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Per day, as artisans, 5_d._ to 7_d._; as
     |    |    |    |agriculturists, 3_d._
     |    |    |    |    |Per day, as artisans, 2½_d._; as agriculturists,
     |    |    |    |    |during at other times very little.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year, as artisans, 10_l._; as
     |    |    |    |    |    |agriculturists, 8_l._
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Artisans.--Yes; bread and a small
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |quantity of meat (perhaps 5 lbs. a
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |week), vegetables and fish, which are
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |very cheap. Agriculturists.--Yes; the
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |principal articles of food are buck
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |wheat made into porridge and cakes,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |barley bread, potatoes, cabbages, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |about 6 lbs. of pork weekly. A little
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |grease for the cabbage soup, which is
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |poured on barley bread.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    LA LOIRE INFERIEURE, p. 176
     |Per day, summer and winter, 1_s._ 8_d._ to 2_s._ 6_d._ Per year
     |26_l._ 10_s._, in Nantes.
     |    |Per day, summer and winter, 7½_d._ to 10_d._ Per year, 12_l._
     |    |to 12_l._ 10_s._ If lodged and boarded, from 5_l._ to 8_l._
     |    |6_s._ 8_d._
     |    |    |Per day, summer and winter, 1_s._ ½_d._ to 1_s._ 3_d._ Per
     |    |    | year, 13_l._--_s._ 5_d._ to 15_l._ 12_s._ 6_d._ in Nantes.
     |    |    |    |Per day, summer and winter, 4_d._ to 8_d._ in the
     |    |    |    |country, 6_d._ to 10_d._ in towns.
     |    |    |    |    |Per day, summer and winter, 3_d._ to 6_d._, under
     |    |    |    |    |16, in Nantes.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year, in Nantes, sometimes from 15_l._
     |    |    |    |    |    |to 16_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._; in the country
     |    |    |    |    |    |considerably less.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |If the father obtains constant
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |employment and applies the whole of his
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |earnings to the support of his family,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |and his wife and children are enabled
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |to add 200 or 300 francs thereto, he
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |may have in his power to buy a little
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |bacon or other meat now and then, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |maintain his family without assistance
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |from the bureau de bienfaisance, but
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |that allows only 70 francs to provide
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |fuel and clothes for the whole family,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |after the hire of a room. The bread and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |vegetables had been paid for out of the
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |father’s wages.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    BOURDEAUX, p. 235
     |Per day, 1_s._ 7½_d._ to 2_s._ 5_d._
     |    |Daily labourer, 1_s._ 4½_d._
     |    |Yearly labourer:
     |    |  Money             £17   0
     |    |  Other advantages,   4  12
     |    |                     ------
     |    |  Annual inc.       £21  12
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Per week, 3_s._ 4½_d._; in harvest, 4_s._ 2½_d._;
     |    |    |    |in the vine districts, except during harvest, 2_s._
     |    |    |    |10_d._
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year, 12_l._
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Certainly. The food varies in different
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |districts. Throughout the district
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |called Landes (heath) occupying alone
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |one-third of this department, the food
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |consists in rye bread, soup made of
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |millet, cakes made of Indian corn, now
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |and then some salt provision and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |vegetables, rarely if ever butchers’
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |meat; their drink water, which for the
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |most part is stagnant.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    BAYONNE, p. 261
     |Per day, average workmen, 1_s._ 3_d._ to 1_s._ 6_d._; best workmen,
     |2_s._ 6_d._ to 3_s._
     |    |Per day, town and country, 1_s._ Very few in the country.
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |The food of the proprietor or working
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |farmer chiefly consists of vegetable
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |soups, potatoes, salt fish, pork,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |bacon, &c., &c., seldom or ever
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |butchers’ meat, and invariably Indian
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |corn bread, home-baked.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    MARSEILLES, p. 188
     |Labourers (of what description not stated) per day, 15_d._ to 18_d._;
     |by the year, 7_l._ to 8_l._, with board and lodging; 16_l._ to 20_l._
     |without board and lodging.
     |    |    |    |Per day, 7_d._ to 9_d._, all the year.
     |    |    |    |    |Per day, aged 11 and under 16, same as woman;
     |    |    |    |    |under 11, nothing.
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |They could subsist on the aggregate
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |earnings of the father, mother, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |children. Their food is generally
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |composed of vegetables, bread, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |farinaceous substances made into soup,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |&c.; and meat soup or bouillie probably
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |once a week.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  PIEDMONT, pp. 657, 658
     |From 1_s._ 8_d._ to 4_s._ 2_d._ The first sum forming the wages of a
     |carpenter or mason, the second those of a clever goldsmith.
     |    |Per day, summer 10_d._ to 12_d._; winter 6_d._ to 7½_d._;
     |    |intermediate seasons, 7½_d._ to 10_d._ Per Year, 8_l._ to
     |    |12_l._ The piece labourer obtains about 20 or 30 per cent. more
     |    |than the day labourer. Almost every family earns from 1_l._
     |    |13_s._ 4_d._ to 2_l._ 8_s._ 4_d._ by breeding silk-worms.
     |    |    |Something more than those of the country.
     |    |    |    |During eight months, 2_s._ 6_d._ a week; other four
     |    |    |    |months (winter) 1_s._ 8_d._ per week, at most.
     |    |    |    |    |Per day, 5_d._ in silk-mills; little other
     |    |    |    |    |employment.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Per year, inclusive of produce of
     |    |    |    |    |    |silk-worms, rather less than 10_l._ to
     |    |    |    |    |    |12_l._
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |I think it can, but on the simplest and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |coarsest food; no meat, little wine,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |and twice as much maize flour as wheat
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |flour. And with all possible economy,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |if there has been a bad harvest, and
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |consequently dear provisions, he must
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |apply to the charity of his neighbours
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |or of the inhabitants of his parish.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |If his character is good, he cannot
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |fail of obtaining it.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  GENOA, p. 660
     |In fine manufactures, from 25_l._ to 28_l._ a year; in ordinary
     |manufactures, from 16_l._ to 20_l._ a year.
     |    |. . . .
     |    |    |From 12_l._ to 14_l._ a year, without food.
     |    |    |    |A little.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  SAVOY, p. 661
     |. . . .
     |    |Per day, 15_d._ in summer; 12_d._ or 10_d._ in winter, without
     |    |food, or 6_d._ with food, and a pint of wine.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |One-third of a man’s earnings.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  PORTUGAL, p. 642
     |. . . .
     |    |In the cultivation of the vine and in the vintage, from 1_s._
     |    |6_d._ to 2_s._ 6_d._ per day, with food.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |In harvest, from 3½_d._ to 6_d._ per day, with coarse
     |    |    |    |food.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Salt fish, vegetable soup with oil or
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |lard, and bread made of maize.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  THE AZORES, p. 645
     |Per day, skilful, 15_d._ to 20_d._
     |    |Per day, 6_d._ to 8_d._; or yearly, 6_l._ to 8_l._, with
     |    |breakfast and dinner on certain occasions, such as harvest,
     |    |vintage, hoeing corn, or cutting wood on the mountains.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Children under 16; field to 5_d._ per day; boys from
     |    |    |    |10 to 14, 3_d._ to 4_d._ per day; boys from 7 to 10,
     |    |    |    |2_d._ to 3_d._ per day.
     |    |    |    |    |    |If employed for 250 days, 13_l._ 10_s._
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |With the above earnings they may
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |subsist pretty well with sufficiency
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |of Indian corn, bread, vegetables,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |potatoes, and fruit; seldom any meat,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |but in the summer time fish, when
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |abundant, such as mackerel, sardinhas,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |smelts, bonitas, abacore, and dolphin.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  THE CANARY ISLANDS, p. 687
     |Per Day, 3_s._
     |    |Per day, 14_d._ to 18_d._
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Per day, as sempstresses, at Santa Cruz, 6_d._ with
     |    |    |    |food; 10_d._ without.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |They are satisfied with the commonest
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |food and their other wants are very
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |limited from the nature of the climate.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  GREECE, p. 666 (General Return)
     |Labourers not distinguished. Per day, 17_d._, without food; per year,
     |18_l._ 1_s._ 2_d._
     |    |    |    |Children under 16, per week, 4_s._ 9½_d._
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  PATRAS, p. 668
     |Per day, 1_s._ 6_d._ to 2_s._ 3_d._
     |    |Per day, summer, 1_s._ 2½ _d._, winter, 11_d._ without food;
     |    |per year, 12_l._; with food and shoes, per month, 9_s._
     |    |N.B. Only 248 working days.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |Children under 16, per day, in harvest, 6_d._;
     |    |    |    |something less in winter.
     |    |    |    |    |    |23_l._ (supposed to include the man’s
     |    |    |    |    |    |wages.)
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |They do so, living temperately, as
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |these persons almost all do, using both
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |maize and wheaten bread, olives, pulse,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |vegetables, salt fish, and occasionally
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |meat on great festivals. Their usual
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |drink is water, but the men take wine
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |also moderately.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  EUROPEAN TURKEY, p. 671
     |Near Towns: Skilled, per month, 1_l._ with provisions; 1_l._ 10_s._
     |without provisions; unskilled summer, per month, 9_s._ with
     |provisions; 1_l._ without provisions; winter, one-third less.
     |
     |Distant from Towns, a little more than half. Common labourer, near
     |towns, per year, about 18_l._; in other districts, about 8_l._
     |
     |Wages of artisans, about double those of common labourers.
     |    |    |    |Per week, spinners and weavers, and in the field,
     |    |    |    |2_s._
     |    |    |    |    |Under 16, apprenticed labourers and shepherds,
     |    |    |    |    |about half as much as women.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Wife, 4_l._; eldest child, 2_l._; together
     |    |    |    |    |    |6_l._; (the children under 14 being employed
     |    |    |    |    |    |at home.)
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Such a family can subsist on their
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |aggregate earnings. Their food
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |principally consists of bread, rice,
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |greens, dried beans and peas, olives
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |and onions, and meat about once a week.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |

[Sidenote: English Statistics.]

The answers to the following eight purely statistical questions may
also be compared with the results respecting England and Wales,
obtained by the Enumeration of 1831.

14. The proportion of annual deaths to the whole population?

15. The proportion of annual births to the whole population?

16. The proportion of annual marriages to the whole population?

17. The average number of children to a marriage?

18. Proportion of legitimate to illegitimate births?

19. The proportion of children that die before the end of their 1st
year?

20. Proportion of children that die before the end of their 10th year?

21. Proportion of children that die before the end of their 18th year?

The average annual proportion, since 1820, of births and deaths, to the
whole population of England and Wales, is thus stated by Mr. Rickman:

    Deaths     1 in 49[22]
    Births     1 in 28[23]

The average annual proportion during five years preceding 1831, of
marriages to the whole population of England and Wales, is stated by
Mr. Rickman to be 1 to 128[24].

The average annual proportion in England and Wales, during ten years
preceding 1831, of births to marriages, to be 441 to 100[25].

The proportion in England and Wales, in the year 1830, of legitimate to
illegitimate births, to be 19 to 1[26].

The proportion in England and Wales of deaths of persons under 1 year
to the whole number of deaths during 18 years, ending in 1830, to be
778,803 out of 3,938,496, or 1 in 5¹⁄₁₇, or more nearly 1 in 5²⁄₃₅.

The proportion of deaths under the age of 10 years to be 1,524,937 out
of 3,938,496, or 1 in 2⅗, or more nearly 1 in 2²⁹⁄₅₀.

The proportion of deaths under the age of 18 years to be 1,703,941 out
of 3,938,496, or 1 in 2⅓, or more nearly 1 in 2⁵³⁄₁₇₀[27].

    [22] Preface to Enumeration Abstract, p. 25.

    [23] Ib., p. 44, 25.

    [24] Ib., p. 34.

    [25] Ib., p. 45.

    [26] Preface to Enumeration Abstract, p. 44.

    [27] Ib., p. 36.

The following is an Abstract of the Foreign Returns contained in this
Appendix. Those marked thus (*) appear to have been derived from
enumeration; the others to depend on estimation.

DIGEST OF ANSWERS.

  PLACE.
     |Proportion of Annual DEATHS to the whole Population.
     |    |Proportion of Annual BIRTHS to the whole Population.
     |    |    |Proportion of Annual MARRIAGES to the whole Population.
     |    |    |    |Average Number of CHILDREN to a Marriage.
     |    |    |    |    |Proportion of LEGITIMATE to ILLEGITIMATE Births.
     |    |    |    |    |    |PROPORTION OF CHILDREN
     |    |    |    |    |    |That Die before they attain their
     |    |    |    |    |    |First Year.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Tenth Year.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |Eighteenth Year.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  AMERICA:
    MASSACHUSETTS, p. 684
     |About 1 in 40
     |    |About ⅛ per cent. more than the deaths.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |5
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    BOSTON, p. 685
     |1 in 41⁷⁄₁₁*, ascertained by dividing the average population during
     |20 years, ending 1830, by the average deaths.
     |    |. . . .
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |Nearly 1 in 5*
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |⁶¹¹⁄₁₄₇₆*
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    NEW YORK, p. 159
     |1 in 30
     |    |. . . .
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |5
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |27 per cent. in the city*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |49 per cent. in the city*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |53 per cent. in the city*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  MEXICO, p. 691
     |Not known; but the Population increases very slowly, and the average
     |duration of life is short.
     |    |. . . .
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  CARTHAGENA DE COLOMBIA, p. 166
     |Probably 6 to 8 per cent.
     |    |Probably 8 to 10 per cent.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |4 to 5
     |    |    |    |    |As 5 to 6 probably
     |    |    |    |    |    |Say one-half
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  HAYTI, p. 166
     |Not known, but supposed that births and deaths are about equal, and
     |the Population stationary.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |3 to 4
     |    |    |    |    |Probably 1 to 1000
     |    |    |    |    |    |Comparatively large proportion.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Comparatively large proportion.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  MARANHAM, p. 693
     |1 in 25
     |    |1 in 20
     |    |    |Comparatively small
     |    |    |    |5
     |    |    |    |    |Proportion of illegitimates great.
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  EUROPE:
  NORWAY, p. 699
     |1 in 54*
     |    |1 in 28*
     |    |    |1 in 119*
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |14 to 1*
     |    |    |    |    |    |Under 5 years, rather more than 1 in 3*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Under 10, nearly 1 in 2⁴⁄₇*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |Under 20, nearly 1 in 2⅜*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  SWEDEN:
    GENERAL RETURN, p. 374
     |1 in 41½*
     |    |1 in 29*
     |    |    |1 in 117½*
     |    |    |    |3⁶⁄₁₀ to 4⅙
     |    |    |    |    |In 1749, 49 to 1
     |    |    |    |    |From 1775 to 1795, 27 to 1
     |    |    |    |    |---- 1795 to 1800, 20 to 1
     |    |    |    |    |---- 1800 to 1805, 17 to 1
     |    |    |    |    |---- 1805 to 1810, 15 to 1
     |    |    |    |    |---- 1810 to 1820, 14 to 1
     |    |    |    |    |---- 1820 to 1825, 13³⁄₁₀ to 1
     |    |    |    |    |---- 1825 to 1830, 16 to 1*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |1st year, legitimate, 1 in 6¹¹⁄₁₃;
     |    |    |    |    |    |illegitimate, 1 in 3¹⁵⁄₁₇*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |¹³⁄₂₉ die before their 16th year*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    GOTTENBURG Return, p. 387
     |Average of 5 years ending in 1830, 1 in 40.
     |    |Average of 5 years ending in 1830, 1 in 30.
     |    |    |Average of 5 years ending in 1830, 1 in 131.
     |    |    |    |Average of 5 years ending in 1830, about 4¹⁄₁₆.
     |    |    |    |    |Average of 5 years ending in 1830, 16 to 1.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Average of 5 years ending in 1830, 1 in 5.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Average of 5 years ending in 1830, 1
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |in 2¾.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  RUSSIA:
    GENERAL RETURN, p. 334
     |In the year 1831, 1 in 25⁹²⁄₁₀₀*.
     |    |In the year 1831, 1 in 23³⁶⁄₁₀₀*.
     |    |    |In the year 1831, 1 in 132*.
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |One-half*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    ARCHANGEL Return, p. 339
     |Annual average of 5 years, excluding 1831, (the cholera year), in
     |which one-tenth of the population died, 1 in 45; average of 5 years,
     |including the cholera year, 1 in 25*.
     |    |Average of 5 years, 1 in 24*.
     |    |    |Average of 5 years, 1 in 100*.
     |    |    |    |3 or 4.
     |    |    |    |    |Nearly 34 to 1*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 16⁸⁄₁₀*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |One-half*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 1⁸³⁄₁₀₀*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    COURLAND Return, p. 342
     |In healthy times, 1 in 28⁵⁷⁄₁₀₀.
     |    |1 in 26³⁄₁₀.
     |    |    |1 in 100.
     |    |    |    |4.
     |    |    |    |    |In town, 5 to 1; in country, above 20 to 1.
     |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 8.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  DENMARK, p. 297
     |Average of 5 last years (3 unhealthy) 1 in 36*. Usual proportion, 1
     |in 40.
     |    |1 in 34*.
     |    |    |1 in 123*.
     |    |    |    |3²⁷⁄₄₀*.
     |    |    |    |    |9⁶⁶¹⁄₁₀₀₀ to 1*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 3⁵⁸¹⁄₁₀₀₀*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  HAMBURGH, p. 394
     |Within a small fraction, 1 in 29*.
     |    |Within a small fraction, 1 in 27*.
     |    |    |1 in 75⁵⁄₁₀*.
     |    |    |    |About 2⅕*.
     |    |    |    |    |4⅚ to 1*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 6⁷²⁄₃₈₅*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Rather more than 1 in 3*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |Rather less than 1 in 2½*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  BREMEN, p. 410
     |From 1 in 43 to 1 in 40.
     |    |From 1 in 37 to 1 in 33.
     |    |    |About 1 in 124½.
     |    |    |    |About 4.
     |    |    |    |    |About 11 to 1.
     |    |    |    |    |    |About 1 in 4.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |About 1 in 3.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  LUBECK, p. 419
     |About 1 in 56.
     |    |About 1 in 53½.
     |    |    |1 in 177.
     |    |    |    |3⅓ to whole number of marriages, but of legitimates
     |    |    |    |2¹¹⁄₁₆ to each marriage.
     |    |    |    |    |Rather less than 6 to 1.
     |    |    |    |    |    |About 1 in 7.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |About 1 in 3¾.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |About 1 in 3⁵⁄₁₆.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  MECKLENBURG, p. 423
     |Nearly 1 in 46½*.
     |    |Nearly 1 in 27*.
     |    |    |1 in 124*.
     |    |    |    |4
     |    |    |    |    |9 to 1.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Before the 14th year, one fourth.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  DANTZIG, p. 466
     |Nearly 1 in 24½*, ascertained by dividing the population by the
     |average deaths of 3 years, one of which was 1831, the cholera year.
     |    |Nearly 1 in 29*.
     |    |    |Nearly 1 in 134*.
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |Nearly 6½ to 1*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Rather more than 1 in 5.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |About 1 in 2½.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |Under 20, about 1 in 2⅓.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  SAXONY, p. 479
     |1 in 34½.
     |    |1 in 24⁸⁄₁₀.
     |    |    |1 in 131⁸⁄₁₀.
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |7 to 1.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Rather more than one-half die under 14*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  WURTEMBERG, p. 507
     |1 in 31¹¹⁄₃₇*.
     |    |1 in 27⅒*.
     |    |    |1 in 147*.
     |    |    |    |4³⁄₁₀*.
     |    |    |    |    |7⅒ to 1*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |34⅔ in 100*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |From 1 year to 7, 1 in 10*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |From 7 to 14, 1 in 45*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  FRANKFORT, p. 564
     |1 in 43½.
     |    |1 in 48²⁄₁₀.
     |    |    |1 in 188⁷⁄₁₀.
     |    |    |    |5 to 6.
     |    |    |    |    |6⁷⁄₁₀ to 1.
     |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 6½*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Under 6 years, 1 in 4⁶⁷⁄₂₅₄*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |Under 19, 1 in 3¹²⁶⁄₃₁₉*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  NORTH HOLLAND, p. 581
     |In 1832, 1 in 30⁶⁄₁₀*. Nearly ¹⁄₁₅ of the deaths were of cholera.
     |In Amsterdam 1 in 28¹⁴⁄₁₀₀*.
     |    |In 1832, 1 in 30⁷⁄₁₀*.
     |    |    |1 in 122²⁄₁₀*.
     |    |    |    |5⅒*
     |    |    |    |    |15 to 1*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Nearly 1 in 7⁸⁄₁₁*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Nearly 1 in 4⁴⁄₁₀*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |Nearly 1 in 2¾*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  BELGIUM:
  The following are the results of the official enumeration in 1830
     |1 in 43.
     |    |1 in 30.
     |    |    |1 in 144.
     |    |    |    |4⁷²⁄₁₀₀
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 4⁵¹⁄₁₀₀.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |³³⁄₈₀.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |¹⁷⁄₃₈.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    BOOM, p. 635
     |1 in 28⁵⁄₁₀*.
     |    |1 in 36*
     |    |    |1 in 95²⁄₁₀*.
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |21 to 1*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 5*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 4*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 2⁴⁄₂₁*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    OSTEND, p. 640
     |1 in 35⁴⁄₁₀*.
     |    |1 in 31*
     |    |    |1 in 146⁵⁄₁₀*.
     |    |    |    |4⁷²⁄₁₀₀*.
     |    |    |    |    |9 to 1*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 5⁷⁄₁₀*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 2⁴⁄₁₀*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |45 per cent.*
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  FRANCE: The following are the results of the official enumeration of 1831
     |1 in 39⁶⁄₁₀.
     |    |1 in 32⁴⁄₁₀.
     |    |    |1 in 131⁶⁄₁₀.
     |    |    |    |4⁷⁄₁₀₀; legitimate 3⁷⁷⁷⁄₁₀₀₀.
     |    |    |    |    |13¹⁶⁴⁄₁₀₀₀ to 1.
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    HAVRE, p. 182
     |1 in 34.
     |    |1 in 25.
     |    |    |1 in 110.
     |    |    |    |About 3
     |    |    |    |    |About 9 to 1.
     |    |    |    |    |    |About 1 in 6.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |About 1 in 3.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    BRITTANY, LAMBEZELLEC, (adjoining Brest; population 8460), p. 727
     |1 in 28*.
     |    |1 in 22¹⁴⁄₁₀₀*
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |In the whole province, 3*.
     |    |    |    |    |In the whole province, 8⁵⁄₁₀ to 1*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Under 5 years, 1 in 2¹²⁄₄₄*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Under 10 years, 1 in 2*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |Under 20 years, rather more than
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 2*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    PLOUSANE (inland, population 2452)
     |1 in 43*.
     |    |1 in 35*.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |3*.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |Under 5 years, 1 in 2⅜*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |Under 20 years, 1 in 2⅓*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    CONQUET (inland, population 1294)
     |1 in 44⁵⁄₁₀*.
     |    |1 in 30*.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |3*.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |Under 5 years, 1 in 9⅔*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |Under 20 years, 1 in 7¼*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    LA LOIRE INFERIEURE (in 1832), p. 177
     |1 in 39*.
     |    |1 in 34*.
     |    |    |1 in 147*.
     |    |    |    |3⅔ legitimate*
     |    |    |    |    |In Nantes, 8 to 1; in country, 12 to 1.
     |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 6¹²⁄₁₉₇*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 2¾*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 2⁵⁄₁₄*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    BOURDEAUX, p. 236
     |. . . .
     |    |. . . .
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |3*.
     |    |    |    |    |18 to 1.
     |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 7.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 4.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 3.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    BASSES PYRENEES, p. 260
     |1 in 50³⁰⁄₈₅*.
     |    |1 in 38¹⁄₁₂*.
     |    |    |1 in 165³⁵⁄₄₁*.
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |14½ to 1*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Under 4 years, 1 in 2⁷⁄₁₂*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |Under 20 years, 1 in 1¾*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    MARSEILLES, p. 189
     |1 in 80*, in 1831
     |    |1 in 34*, in 1831
     |    |    |1 in 156*, in 1831
     |    |    |    |4½*.
     |    |    |    |    |Department, 9 to 1; Marseilles, 5 to 1*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 4⅓*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |1 in 2⅙*.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  THE AZORES, p. 643
     |1 in 48.
     |    |1 in 19.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |3 to 4.
     |    |    |    |    |About 7 to 1.
     |    |    |    |    |    |Nearly one-half.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  GENOA, p. 660
     |About 1 in 28⁴⁄₇.
     |    |About 1 in 20.
     |    |    |About 1 in 166.
     |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |About 1 in 4.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |45 per cent.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |48 per cent. die before the age
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |of 16.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  SAVOY, p. 662
     |General average 1 in 42; but in some marshy districts 1 in 28; in
     |some mountainous districts 1 in 52.
     |    |1 in 29.
     |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |4½.
     |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  GREECE, p. 666
     |Nothing ascertained, but that the deaths are far fewer than the
     |births: average number of children to a marriage 4: very few
     |illegitimate.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |. . . .
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  EUROPEAN TURKEY, p. 672
     |In healthy years about 1 in 50[28].
     |    |About 1 in 31[28].
     |    |    |About 1 in 66[28].
     |    |    |    |4.
     |    |    |    |    |Few illegitimate born, and few of those allowed
     |    |    |    |    |to live.
     |    |    |    |    |    |About 1 in 5⁹⁄₁₀.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |About 1 in 4.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |About 1 in 3³⁄₁₀.
     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |

    [28] These numbers cannot be correct.



Comparison between the state of the English and Foreign Labouring
Classes.


On comparing these statements respecting the wages, subsistence, and
mortality of those portions of Continental Europe which have furnished
returns with the corresponding statements respecting England, it will
be found, that on every point England stands in the most favourable,
or nearly the most favourable, position. With respect to money wages,
the superiority of the English agricultural labourer is very marked.
It may be fairly said that his wages are nearly double the average of
agricultural wages in the Continent. And as fuel is generally cheaper
in England than in the Continent, and clothing is universally so,
his relative advantage with respect to those important objects of
consumption is still greater.

On the other hand, as food is dearer in England than in any other part
of Europe, the English labourer, especially if he have a large family,
necessarily loses on this part of his expenditure a part of the benefit
of his higher wages, and, if the relative dearness of food were very
great, might lose the whole. On comparing, however, the answers to
the 14th English and 8th Foreign question, it appears probable, that
even in this respect the English family has an advantage, though of
course less than in any other. Of the 687 English parishes which have
given an answer, from which the diet of the family can be inferred,
491, or about five-sevenths, state, that it could obtain meat; and of
the 196 which give answers implying that it could not get meat, 43 are
comprised in Essex and Sussex, two of the most pauperised districts in
the kingdom. But in the foreign answers, meat is the exception instead
of the rule. In the north of Europe the usual food seems to be potatoes
and oatmeal, or rye bread, accompanied frequently by fish, but only
occasionally by meat.

In Germany and Holland the principal food appears to be rye bread,
vegetables, the produce of the dairy, and meat once or twice a week.

In Belgium, potatoes, rye bread, milk, butter and cheese, and
occasionally pork.

The French returns almost exclude fresh meat, and indicate a small
proportion of salted meat. Thus we are told, that in Havre they live on
bread and vegetables; never animal food, or very rarely. In Brittany,
on buck wheat, barley bread, potatoes, cabbages, and about 6 lbs. of
pork weekly. In the Gironde, on rye bread, soup made of millet, Indian
corn, now and then some salt provision, and vegetables, rarely if ever
butcher’s meat. In the Basses Pyrenées, on vegetable soups, potatoes,
salt fish, pork and bacon, seldom or ever butcher’s meat. In the
Bouches du Rhone, on vegetables, bread, and farinaceous substances made
into soup, and bouillie about once a week. Their food in Piedmont is
said to be the simplest and coarsest; no meat, and twice as much maize
flour as wheat flour. In Portugal, salt fish, vegetable soup, with oil
or lard, and maize bread.

Further evidence as to the relative state of the bulk of the population
of England is afforded by the ratio of its mortality.

The only countries in which the mortality appears to be so small as in
England, are, Norway, in which it is ¹⁄₅₄, and the Basses Pyrenées,
in which it is ¹⁄₅₆[29]. In all the other countries which have given
returns it exceeds the English proportion, sometimes by doubling it,
and in the majority of instances by more than one fourth.

A portion of our apparent superiority arises from the rapidity with
which our population is increasing; but though the proportion of our
births exceeds the average proportion of Europe, the difference as to
births is small when compared with the difference as to deaths, and
in a great part of the north of Europe and Germany the proportion of
births is greater than our own, and therefore the longevity of the
population still more inferior to that of England than it appears to be.

    [29] We exclude Lubeck, the Azores, and European Turkey, as the
    Returns from them appear to be mere guesses.

London: Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS, Stamford-street.





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