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Title: A Manual of Historic Ornament
Author: Glazier, Richard
Language: Spanish
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                               Historic

       [Illustration: PAGE FROM ONE OF THE HARLEIAN MANUSCRIPTS.

                            BRITISH MUSEUM.

                     FRENCH, EARLY 15TH CENTURY.]



                              A Manual of
                               HISTORIC

                     TREATING UPON THE EVOLUTION,
                     TRADITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF
                    ARCHITECTURE AND OTHER APPLIED
                                 ARTS.

                   PREPARED FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS
                            AND CRAFTSMEN.

                            [Illustration]

                          BY RICHARD GLAZIER,
        Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects;
                  Head Master of the Municipal School
                          of Art, Manchester.

                            [Illustration]

                 With 470 illustrations by the Author.

                            [Illustration]

                                LONDON:
                   B. T. BATSFORD, 94, HIGH HOLBORN.
                                 1899.

                              MANCHESTER:
            PRINTED BY CHORLTON & KNOWLES, MAYFIELD PRESS.



Preface.


This manual has been prepared with the three-fold object of giving an
elementary knowledge of Architecture and Historic Ornament, of awakening
a responsive and sympathetic feeling for the many beautiful and
interesting remains of ancient and mediæval civilization, and lastly of
directing the attention of students and craftsmen to the beauty,
suggestiveness and vitality of the Industrial Arts of the past, and
their intimate relation to the social and religious life of the people.

The advantages to be derived by students and craftsmen from such a study
are manifold, for, by a careful study of these arts, we may see the
capabilities and limitations of material, the appropriateness and
application of ornament, the continuity of line and form--yet with a
marked diversity of enrichment and treatment--the interest and
significance of detail, and the customs, myths and traditions of the
past with their continuity of thought and expression.

The illustrations, which have been chosen expressly for this work, are
typical examples of each period or style and are produced in line as
being the method best suited to the requirements of students, giving
definition, emphasis and the constructive qualities of design rather
than pictorial effect.

In the appendix will be found a list of text books and works of
reference, which may be studied with considerable advantage by students
desiring further information upon this important subject.

RICHARD GLAZIER.

MANCHESTER,

1899.



Contents.


                                                                    PAGE.
  Ornament of Oceania                                                  3
  Egyptian Ornament                                                    5
  Assyrian Ornament                                                    7
  Greek Architecture                                                   9
  Greek Ornament                                                      13
  Roman Architecture                                                  21
  Roman Ornament                                                      25
  Pompeian Ornament                                                   29
  Byzantine Ornament                                                  31
  Scandinavian Ornament                                               33
  Celtic Ornament                                                     35
  Norman and Gothic Architecture                                      36
  Norman Details                                                      43
  Early Gothic Details                                                45
  Renascence Ornament                                                 49
  French Renascence                                                   58
  English Renascence                                                  60
  Mahometan and Moresque                                              63
  Persian Ornament                                                    65
  Indian Ornament                                                     69
  Chinese and Japanese Ornament                                       71
  Ivories                                                             73
  Mosaics                                                             75
  Greek Ceramics                                                      77
  Ceramic Art                                                         79
  Maiolica                                                            87
  Terra Cotta                                                         88
  Enamels                                                             91
  Glass                                                               95
  Stained Glass                                                       97
  Gold and Silver                                                    101
  Bronzes                                                            103
  Wrought Iron                                                       105
  Furniture                                                          106
  Textile Fabrics                                                    109
  Frets                                                              123
  Continuity of Style                                                125
  Terms used in Ornamental Art                                       131



List of Plates


  PLATE.                                                            PAGE.
  1 Ornament of Oceania                                                2
  2 Egyptian Ornament                                                  4
  3 Assyrian Ornament                                                  6
  4 Greek Architecture                                                 8
  5 Greek Ornament                                                    12
  6 Greek Ornament                                                    18
  7 Roman Architecture                                                20
  8 Roman Ornament                                                    24
  9 Roman Ornament                                                    26
  10 Pompeian Ornament                                                28
  11 Byzantine Ornament                                               30
  12 Scandinavian Ornament                                            32
  13 Celtic Ornament                                                  34
  14 The Triforium and Clearstory                                     41
  15 Norman Details                                                   42
  16 Early Gothic Details                                             44
  17 Decorated & Perpendicular Gothic Details                         46
  18 Renascence Ornament                                              48
  19 Renascence Ornament                                              55
  20 Arabian Ornament                                                 62
  21 Persian Ornament                                                 64
  22 Persian Ornament                                                 67
  23 Indian Ornament                                                  68
  24 Chinese and Japanese Ornament                                    70
  25 Ivories                                                          72
  26 Mosaics                                                          74
  27 Greek Ceramics                                                   76
  28 Ceramics                                                         78
  29 Maiolica                                                         86
  30 Glass                                                            94
  31 Stained Glass                                                    96
  32 Gold and Silver                                                 100
  33 Bronzes                                                         102
  34 Wrought Iron                                                    104
  35 Textile Fabrics                                                 108
  36 Sicilian Fabric                                                 111
  37 Indian Palampore                                                112
  38 Persian Carpet                                                  114
  39 Textile Fabrics                                                 117
  40 Peruvian Textiles                                               119
  41 Peruvian Textiles                                               120
  42 Frets                                                           122
  43 Polynesian Paddle                                               124



Illustrations in the Text.


                                                                    PAGE.

Ornament of Oceania                                                    3

Plan of the Parthenon                                                  9

Plan of the Erectheum                                                 10

The two Fates, from the
Eastern Pediment of the Parthenon                                     14

Doric Frieze of the Parthenon                                         14

North Frieze of the Parthenon                                         15

Frieze from Phigaleia                                                 15

Relief from Nike Apteros                                              16

Frieze from Pergamos                                                  16

Frieze from Susa                                                      17

Greek Scroll                                                          17

Greek Coins                                                           19

Arch of Septimius Severus                                             21

Theatre of Marcellus                                                  22

Plan of the Pantheon                                                  22

Plan of the House of Pansa                                            23

Roman Scroll                                                          25

Coffered Ceiling                                                      25

Frieze from Tivoli                                                    27

Plan of St. Mark’s                                                    31

Plan of St. Sophia                                                    31

Lismore Crosier                                                       35

Gothic Piers                                                          37

Plan of Lincoln Cathedral                                             37

Early Gothic Window                                                   38

Grisaille Glass, Salisbury                                            39

Gothic Crockets                                                       45

Gothic Borders                                                        45

Tomb of Ilaria del Carretto                                           50

Bas-relief, by Donatello                                              51

Monument to Conte Ugino                                               51

Italian Velvet                                                        52

Fresco, by Michel-Angelo                                              52

A Sibyl, by Michel-Angelo                                             53

Arabesque Decorations                                                 53

Renascence Scroll                                                     54

Renascence Marble Inlay                                               54

Frieze, by Mantegna                                                   56

An Italian Etching                                                    56

Venetian Well-head                                                    57

Wood Carving, period of Francis I.                                    58

Decoration, period of Francis II.                                     58

Relief, by Jean Goujon                                                59

Wood Carving, by Jean Goujon                                          59

Frieze, by Le Pautre                                                  59

Wood Carving, period of Louis XV.                                     59

Elizabethan Frieze                                                    60

Elizabethan Strap-work                                                60

Ceiling, Audley End                                                   60

Persian Plate                                                         65

Peruvian Pottery                                                      85

Greek Terra Cotta                                                     89

The Annunciation, by Andrea della Robbia                              89

Relief, by Andrea della Robbia                                        90

Painted Enamel by Pierre Raymond                                      93

Battersea Enamel                                                      93

Early Gothic Glass                                                    97

Early French Glass                                                    98

Late Gothic Glass                                                     98

Chairs                                                               106

Italian Carved Chest                                                 107

Carved Wood Screen                                                   107

Italian Fabrics                                                      115

Flower Vase Pattern                                                  116

Spitalsfield Silk                                                    116

Flemish Fabrics                                                      116

Frets                                                                123

Egyptian Capital                                                     126

Corinthian Capital                                                   127

Early French Capital                                                 127

Composite Capital                                                    127

Byzantine Capital                                                    128

French Romanesque Capital                                            128

Siculo-Norman Capital                                                129

Early English Capital                                                129

Arabian Capital                                                      129

Decorated Gothic Capital                                             130

Renascence Capital                                                   130

Roman Scroll                                                         130

[Illustration:

ORNAMENT OF OCEANIA.      Plate 1.
]



ORNAMENT OF OCEANIA.


The ornamentation of the people of the Pacific Isles is full of interest
and is remarkable for the evolution and perfecting of an ornamental
style by a primitive people, with myths and traditions purely local and
in no way influenced by other nations. It is a style of ornament full of
meaning and symbolism, yet simple in detail and arrangement, not founded
upon the beautiful vegetation and flora of their islands but upon
abstract forms derived from the human figure, and arranged with a
pleasing geometrical precision remarkable for a primitive people.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

The ornamental art of these people may be broadly divided into
provinces, each with its distinct ornamental characteristics and
traditions, New Zealand showing the highest development and Australia
the lowest in the ornament of Polynesia and Melanesia.

Much of the ornament is purely linear, consisting of parallel and
zig-zag lines; that of Australia consists almost entirely of these lines
incised in the ground and occasionally filled in with colour. In New
Guinea a higher development is reached, the ornament, of straight and
curved lines, being carved in flat relief. In the province of
Tonga-Samoa, the surface is divided into small fields, and the linear
ornament runs in a different direction on each of the fields. The Hervey
and Austral Islands are distinguished by their remarkable adaptations of
the human female figure, the illustrations given here showing the
original type and its ornamental development. These examples, together
with the circular eye pattern form the elements of the Hervey province,
of which the Heape collection contains many fine examples. In the
Solomon Island the linear ornament is occasionally interspersed with an
inlay of angular pieces of mother of pearl. The New Zealand province is
distinguished by its skilful pierced carving, the beauty of its spiral
forms adapted from the human figure, fig. 1. 12., and the constant use
of the border here given.

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT.      Plate 2.
]



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT.


The history of Egypt, extending from 4400 B.C. to 340 B.C., during which
30 dynasties existed, is usually divided into three groups: (1) The
Ancient Empire, I.-XI. dynasties, 4400-2466 B.C. (2) The Middle Empire,
XII.-XIX., 2466-1200; and (3) the New Empire, XX.-XXX. dynasties,
1200-340 B.C.

The capitals of the Ancient Empire comprised Memphis and Abydos; of the
Middle Empire, Thebes, Luxor and Tanis: and of the New Empire, Sais and
Bubastes. The remarkable civilization of these early dynasties are
attested by the many fine remains of architecture, sculpture and
decorative arts that enrich our national museums. The Great Pyramids
were built during the fourth dynasty, the largest by Kheops, 3733-3700
B.C., is 756 ft. × 756 ft., and 480 ft. high; the second, by Kephren,
3666-3633 B.C., is 707 ft. × 707 ft. and 454 ft. high: and the third,
333 ft. × 330 ft., and 218 ft. high, was erected by Mykerinos, 3633-3600
B.C.

The Sphinx, half animal and half human, is the oldest sculpture known,
and is probably of the 1st and 2nd dynasties, yet it is singular that
all the earliest sculptures of the 3rd and 4th dynasties with which we
are acquainted, were realistic portraiture, remarkable for its fidelity
to nature. Kings, queens, and individuals of note, were finely
sculptured, frequently of a colossal size. But the Deities, Amen Sckhet,
Horus, Hathor, Iris, and Osiris, were represented in the later dynasties
by small votive statuettes, noticeable for their number rather than for
their artistic qualities, never reaching the excellence or vitality of
the earlier period. Much of the architectural enrichment was in Cavo
Relievo, a peculiarly Egyptian mode of ornamentation, the outline of the
figures, birds, or flowers, being sunk into the surface of the granite
or basalt, and then carved within this sunk outline, leaving the ground
or bed raised, these reliefs being invariably painted red, blue, green,
and yellow. The frieze, which, in the hands of the Greeks at a later
period, became their principal ornamental field, was used by the
Egyptians in superposed bands, showing, in cavo relievo, the industrial
arts and pursuits, weaving, glass blowing, and the making of pottery;
ploughing, sowing, and reaping, also hunting and fishing. The
composition and sculpture of these incidents was simple, refined and
purely decorative, with a _naïveté_ and unaffection so appropriate to
the architectonic conditions. Mingled with these incidents were the
beautiful hieroglyphs, or picture writing of the Egyptians. Figs. 7-13
are examples of painted decorations showing the spiral construction of
lines, together with the symbolic treatment of the Lotus, the latter
being regarded by the Egyptians as a symbol of fertility and of a new
life, hence the profusion with which it was used in their decorative
work. Great fertility of invention was displayed in enriching their
architectural capitals with the Lotus, the Papyrus, and the Palm. A
singular feature introduced during the 18th dynasty was the Hathor
Capital surmounted by a small Naos. During the Ptolemaic period, B.C.
300, the Hathor Capital was placed upon the vertical bell-shaped capital
(fig. 3).

[Illustration:

ASSYRIAN ORNAMENT.      Plate 3.
]



ASSYRIAN ORNAMENT.


The early history of Babylonia and Assyria is one long series of wars
and conquests. Originally one nation, they became divided, and the
younger Assyria in the north became the most powerful empire of that
period under Tiglath Pileser I., B.C. 1100, Ashur-nasir-pal, B.C.
885-60, Shalmaneser II., B.C. 860-25, Tiglath-Pileser III., B.C. 745-27,
the Great Sargon, B.C., 722-705, Sennacherib, B.C. 705-681, Esarhaddon,
B.C. 681-668, and Ashur-ban-pal, B.C. 668-626. In B.C. 609 the capital,
Nineveh, was destroyed by Cyaxares the Mede, and Babylon arose again to
power under Nebuchadnezzar, B.C. 604-562; this city was destroyed by
Cyrus the Persian, B.C. 539.

Assyrian art with its racial influences, religious beliefs and climatic
conditions, differs in a remarkable degree from Egyptian art. Though
stone is found in Assyria, the great cities were built of brick, no
doubt owing to the fact of the arts and civilization coming from
Chaldea, where stone was scarce and clay plentiful. Both at Babylon in
Chaldea, and Nineveh in Assyria, the traditional type of building was
rectangular, with arched openings and vaults, built of sun-dried bricks;
the lower part of the wall was covered with large alabaster slabs,
carved in low relief with scenes representing the King and his warriors
engaged in hunting or fighting (fig. 1). The upper part of the wall was
in enamelled brick or in coloured stucco, with details of the Lotus and
Bud, together with the rosette, which was often carried round the
archivolt. The representation of the industrial arts and the pursuits of
agriculture, which is so admirably illustrated upon the Egyptian
reliefs, is entirely absent in Assyria. The enamelled bricks of Chaldea,
were modelled in low relief with enamels of turquoise blue, yellow,
white and black, of fine quality and colour, one splendid example is the
Frieze of Archers from the Palace of Susa. The enamelled bricks of
Assyria were usually flat, or modelled but slightly, and the enamels
were less pure. The external walls were similar to the internal ones,
but with larger friezes and bolder reliefs, and usually with religious
subjects (fig. 9). The portals of the doors were enriched with colossal
winged and human headed bulls, of alabaster, finely carved in relief.
Typical examples of Assyrian ornament are the Lotus and Bud (figs. 2 and
3), the Patera or Rosette (figs. 6 and 7), and the Horn or Tree of Life
(fig 8). The Lotus enrichment shows Egyptian influence, and only came
into use during the 7th century B.C., when intercourse between the two
nations was established. It is differentiated from the Egyptian lotus by
its vigorous growth and curved profile, and the geometrical form of the
calyx of the flower and bud (fig. 2).

The Anthemion or _Hom_, with its alternate bud and fir-cone, and with
strong lateral markings is beautiful in line and proportion of mass
(fig. 3). The _Hom_ is frequently used as a flower on the sacred tree, a
form of enrichment that influenced much of the later Persian and
Sicilian textile fabrics.

[Illustration:

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.      Plate 4.
]



GREEK ARCHITECTURE.


Classic or columnar architecture is divided into the Greek and Roman
styles, and each style comprises several orders of architecture; the
Grecian orders are the Doric, the Ionic, and the Corinthian, and many
examples of each of these orders are still extant in Greece and her
colonies:--Asia Minor, Southern Italy, and Sicily. From a comparison of
these buildings certain constructive and decorative features are
observed to be present, and thence they are considered as the
characteristics of the style or order, which comprises the base, (except
in the Grecian Doric, which has no base) column and capital, and the
Entablature, which consists of the Architrave, Frieze, and Cornice. The
proportions of these orders are generally determined by the lower
diameter of the column which is divided into 2 modules or 60 parts; the
height of the column always including the base and capital. The DORIC
order was used for the early Greek temples from B.C. 600 and culminated
in the Parthenon B.C. 438. The COLUMNS in this order are 4-1/2 to 6
diameters in height with 20 shallow flutings with intermediate sharp
arrises; the CAPITAL is half a diameter in height and is composed of an
echinus or ovolo moulding with annulets or deep channellings below, and
a large square abacus above. The ARCHITRAVE is plain; the FRIEZE is
enriched by rectangular blocks, with 3 vertical channellings in the
face, termed triglyphs, alternately with square metopes which were
frequently sculptured. The CORNICE, composed of simple mouldings, and
enriched with mutules over the centre of the triglyphs and metopes,
projects considerably beyond the face of the frieze.

[Illustration]

The IONIC order has columns of from 9 to 9-1/2 diameters in height, with
24 flutings divided by narrow fillets; the _base_ is half a diameter in
height and composed of a plinth, torus, fillet, cavetto, fillet, torus,
and fillet. The CAPITAL is 7/10 of a diameter high and consists of a
pair of double scrolls or volutes, supported by an echinus moulding
enriched with the egg and tongue, with an astragal below.

The ENTABLATURE is 1/4 the height of the columns, the ARCHITRAVE of one
or more fascias, the FRIEZE continuous and frequently enriched with
sculpture in low relief; the CORNICE has simple and compound mouldings
supported by a dentil band. Caryatides were occasionally introduced into
this order; they were female figures clad in drapery having vertical
folds which re-echoed the flutings of the Ionic column. These caryatides
supported the entablature in place of the columns; a beautiful example
of this feature is the south portico of the Erechtheum at Athens.

The CORINTHIAN order was not much used by the Greeks; the examples
however show considerable refinement and delicacy of details. The
COLUMNS are 10 diameters in height with 24 flutings; the BASE is 1/2
diameter high; the CAPITAL is a little greater than a diameter in height
and is enriched with acanthus foliations and spiral volutes. The
ENTABLATURE is richer; and the CORNICE deeper and more elaborate than
those of the other orders.

A table is here given showing the relative height in parts (a part is
1/60 of the diameter) of the entablature in some typical Grecian
examples.

+------------+------------+------------+--------+---------+-------------+
|            |            |            |        |         |    Total    |
|            |            | Architrave | Frieze | Cornice | Entablature |
|            +------------+------------+--------+---------+-------------+
| Doric      | Parthenon  |     43     |   43   |   32    |     118     |
|            +------------+------------+--------+---------+-------------+
|            | Theseus    |     50     |   48   |   19    |     107     |
|            +------------+------------+--------+---------+-------------+
| Ionic      | Erechtheum |     43     |   48   |   47    |     140     |
|            +------------+------------+--------+---------+-------------+
|            | Priene     |     37     |   49   |   47    |     133     |
|            +------------+------------+--------+---------+-------------+
| Corinthian | Lysicrates |     53     |   41   |   49    |     143     |
|            +------------+------------+--------+---------+-------------+
|            | Jupiter    |            |        |         |             |
|            |   Olympius |     40     |   26   |   46    |     112     |
+------------+------------+------------+--------+---------+-------------+

The principal Doric buildings in Greece are:--The Temples at Corinth
B.C. 650, Ægina B.C. 550, the Parthenon and the Theseum B.C. 438, the
Temples of Jupiter at Olympia, Apollo Epicurius at Bassæ B.C. 436,
Minerva at Sunium, and the Propylæa at Athens B.C. 431. The Parthenon is
the only octastyle temple in Greece.

Ionic buildings in Greece are:--Temples at Ilyssus, Nike Apteros, and
the Erectheum. In Asia Minor, the Temples at Samos, Priene, Teos, and of
Diana at Ephesus, and of Apollo at Miletos.

[Illustration]

Corinthian buildings in Greece are:--Monument of Lysicrates, the Tower
of Winds, and Jupiter Olympius, all in Athens.

During the 5th century B.C. the Doric order was extensively used in the
Greek colonies of Sicily. At Acragas or Agrigentum the remains of 6 fine
hexastyle and peripteral Doric Temples are found, of which the Temple of
Zeus B.C. 450 is the largest, being 354 by 173 feet. In this temple were
found the Telemones or Atlantes, male figures 25 feet in height, with
their arms raised, probably supporting the roof of the temple.

At Selinus there are six large Doric temples, five being hexastyle and
peripteral, the other octastyle and pseudo-dipteral, 372 by 175 feet.
This temple has columns 57 feet in height with an entablature of 19
feet. At Egesta, there is a hexastyle, peripteral, Doric temple with
the columns not fluted, and at Pæstum in Southern Italy there are two
Doric temples, the temple of Neptune, and the temple of Vesta, of the
usual hexastyle and peripteral form, but the Basilica is pseudo-dipteral
and is remarkable for its two porticos of nine columns each. All these
buildings in Sicily and Pæstum date between B.C. 500 and 430.

Classification of Classic Temples:--

1st. The arrangements of the columns and walls

(_a_) When the side walls have no colonnade       _Apteral_

(_b_) When there is a colonnade standing apart
from the side walls                            _Peripteral_

(_c_) When the colonnade is attached to the
side of the side walls                  _Pseudo-peripteral_

(_d_) When there is a double colonnade standing
from the wall                                    _Dipteral_

2nd. The relation of the ends of the temple

(_a_) When the columns do not project beyond
the walls                                        _In Antis_

(_b_) When a portico stood in front of the
temple                                           _Prostyle_

(_c_) When there was a portico at each end _Amphi-prostyle_

(_d_) If the portico was one column in depth_Mono-prostyle_

(_e_) If the portico was two columns in depth _Di-prostyle_

3rd. The number of columns in the portico

(_a_) If of 2 columns                             _Distyle_

(_b_) If of 4 columns                          _Tetrastyle_

(_c_) If of 6 columns                             exastyle_

(_d_) If of 8 columns                           _Octastyle_

4th. The Intercolumniation

(_a_) If 1-1/2 diameters apart                 _Pycnostyle_

(_b_) If 2 diameters apart                        _Systyle_

(_c_) If 2-1/4 diameters apart                    _Eustyle_

(_d_) If 3 diameters apart                       _Diastyle_

(_e_) If 4 diameters apart                       _Ærostyle_

[Illustration:

GREEK ORNAMENT.      Plate 5.
]



GREEK ORNAMENT.


Greece, or Hellas, consisted of a number of small states, speaking the
same language, and worshipping the same gods. Almost the whole of the
Ægean coast of Asia Minor was occupied in early times by Greek Colonies,
which supplanted those of the Phœnicians of Tyre and Sidon. The southern
portion of this seaboard was occupied by the Dorians, and the northern
by Ionians. In the course of time other Greek settlements were made on
the Black Sea and Mediterranean Coast of Asia Minor; as well as at
Syracuse, Gela and Agrigentum, in Sicily, and in Etruria and Magna
Grecia in Italy. These colonies appear to have reached a higher state of
art at an early period than Greece itself. The ascendency in art in
Greece was enjoyed by the Dorians circa, 800 B.C.; after which Sparta
took the lead, but was in turn excelled by the Ionians, when Athens
became the focus of Greek art, and attained a degree of perfection in
that respect that has remained unequalled to this day. Athens was
destroyed by the Persians under Xerxes, 480 B.C.; but under Pericles
(470-29 B.C.) Greek art reached its culmination.

The abundant, although fragmentary, remains of Grecian architecture,
sculpture, and the industrial arts, show most vividly the artistic
feeling and culture of the early Greeks, with their great personality
and religious sentiment, in which the personal interest of the gods and
goddesses was brought into relation with the life and customs of the
people. Their myths and traditions, their worship of legendary heroes,
the perfection of their physical nature, and their intense love of the
beautiful, were characteristic of the Greek people, from the siege of
Troy to their subjection by Rome, B.C. 140. The almost inexhaustible
store of Greek art, now gathered in the British Museum, and in other
European museums, furnishes one of the most valuable illustrations of
the many glorious traditions of the past. The vitality of conception,
the dignity and noble grace of the gods, the consummate knowledge of the
human figure, and the exquisite skill of craftsmanship, are here seen in
the greatest diversity of treatment and incident.

The work of Phidias, the most renowned of Greek sculptors, is largely
represented in the British Museum by noble examples, showing his great
personality, wonderful power, and his remarkable influence, upon
contemporary and later plastic art.

The Parthenon, or temple of the goddess Athene, which was built upon the
Acropolis at Athens by Ictinus and Callicrates, B.C. 454-438, was
enriched with splendid works of sculpture by Phidias. Many of the
originals are now in the British Museum, forming part of the Elgin
Marbles, which were purchased from the Earl of Elgin, in 1815. The two
pediments of the temple contained figure sculpture in the round, larger
than life size. The Eastern group represents the birth of Athene, and
the western group the contest of Athene and Poseidon for the soil of
Attica. The fragments of these pedimental groups are now in the British
Museum, and, though sadly mutilated, show the perfection of sculpture
during the Phidian age. An illustration of the “Fates” from the Western
pediment is given here, showing a perfect mastery of the human figure,
with rare selective power of composition. The appropriateness of line
and mass for its position renders it singularly beautiful and
architectonic in character. Of the 92 square metopes sculptured in high
relief, that enriched the Doric frieze, 15 are included in the Elgin
Marbles. The subject represented on these metopes was the battle between
the Centaurs and Lapithæ, or Greeks, and are fine examples of
composition of line and mass, and dramatic power of expression.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

The continuous frieze upon the upper part of the cella wall, under the
colonnade or Peristyle, was 40 feet from the ground, 40 inches in
height, and 523 feet in length. It was carved in low relief, the subject
being the Panathenæic procession, the most sacred and splendid of the
religious festivals of the Ancient Greeks. This frieze, with its rhythm
of movement and unity of composition, its groups of beautiful youths and
maidens, sons and daughters of noble citizens, its heroes and deities,
heralds and magistrates; its sacrificial oxen, and its horses and riders
are doubtless the most perfect production of the sculptor’s art. Each
figure is full of life and motion, admirable in detail, having an
individuality of action and expression, yet with a unity of composition,
appropriate to its architectural purpose as a frieze or band.

The Parthenon, however, was but the shrine of the standing figure or
statue of the goddess Athene, which was 37 feet high, and formed of
plates of gold and ivory, termed Chryselephantine sculpture. Probably
owing to the intrinsic value of the material, this work of Phidias
disappeared at an early date.

[Illustration]

Among the examples of sculptured marbles in the British Museum is the
beautiful frieze from the interior of the Temple of Apollo at Phigaleia,
erected by Ictinus, B.C. 450-430. This frieze, which shows an
extraordinary vitality and movement, is 101 feet long, and consists of
23 slabs 25-1/2 inches in width, the incidents depicted being the battle
of the Greeks and the Amazons, and the contest between the Centaurs and
the Lapithæ. The dignity and reserve of the Parthenon frieze is here
replaced by activity and energy of line and an exuberance of modelling.

[Illustration]

Some of the marbles in the British Museum are from the Nereid Monument
of Xanthos, B.C. 372, so called because the female figures display moist
clinging garments, and have fishes and seabirds between their feet.
These sculptures show a high degree of perfection, and were probably the
work of the Athenian sculptor, Bryaxis.

Among other examples of the Greek treatment of the frieze, is that of
the Erectheum, B.C. 409, with its black Eleusinian stone background, and
white marble reliefs. The Temple of Nike Apteros, of about the same
date is noted for the beautiful reliefs from the balustrade which
crowned the lofty bastion on which the temple stands. An example of Nike
or victory, adjusting her sandal is here given. These reliefs are
remarkable for their delicacy and refinement of treatment, and the
exquisite rendering of the draped female figure. Other friezes now in
the British Museum are from the Mausoleum erected by Artemisia to her
husband Mausolus B.C. 357-348. This tomb consisted of a solid basement
of masonry, supporting a cella surrounded by a colonnade of 36 columns.
The upper part of the basement was enriched with a frieze, illustrating
the battle of the Centaurs and Lapithæ; the frieze of the cella was
illustrated with funeral games in honour of Mausolus. Seventeen slabs of
the frieze of the order from the colonnade are in the British Museum;
they represent the battle of the Greeks and Amazons. In their
composition these slabs show extraordinary energy of movement and
richness of invention. This frieze differs absolutely from the Parthenon
frieze in its fertility of incident and intensity of action. Bryaxis,
the sculptor of the Nereid monument executed the north frieze, while the
south was by Timotheus, the east by Scopas, and the west by Leochares.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

A remarkable building, where again the frieze was an important feature,
was the great altar at Pergamos, erected by Eumenes II., B.C. 168. This
had a basement of masonry 160 ft. by 160 ft., and 16 ft. high, enriched
with a sculptured frieze 7-1/2 ft. high. The subject is the
Gigantomachia, or battle of the gods and giants; the treatment being
characterised by passionate energy and expression, and daring skill in
grouping and technique. Ninety-four of the original slabs of this frieze
are now in the Berlin Museum.

The frieze was an important decorative feature with the Assyrians and
Greeks. The continuity of incident and rhythm of movement that was
possible with the continuous frieze, together with its functional use of
banding, no doubt tended to preserve its traditional form, hence we have
many remains from antiquity of this beautiful decorative treatment. An
early and fine example is the frieze of Archers from the palace of
Darius at Persepolis, B.C. 532, now in the Louvre. This frieze, of
which an illustration is here given, was executed in glazed and
enamelled bricks. A dignity of conception and unity of composition were
here combined with skilful modelling of relief work, and fine colouring
of blue, turquoise and yellow. This treatment of the frieze no doubt
influenced the later work of the Greeks, who so nobly carried on this
tradition of the frieze.

[Illustration]

Greek ornament is distinguished by simplicity of line, refinement of
detail, radiation of parts, unity of composition and perfect symmetry.
The anthemion, which is the typical form, is derived from the
traditional lotus and bud of Egypt, Assyria, and India. It differs
however in its more abstract rendering and its absence of symbolism,
having a charm of composition and a unity and balance of parts, yet
lacking that interest and deeper significance associated with many
periods of art.

[Illustration]

The anthemion was sculptured upon the top of the funeral stele, (figs.
1, 2, and 5, plate 4), upon the architrave of doorways (fig. 6), and
above the necking of the Ionic columns (plate 6); or painted upon the
panels of the deep coffered ceilings. It was also used in a thousand
ways upon the many fine vases and other ceramic wares of that period.
The simplicity and

[Illustration:

GREEK ORNAMENT.      Plate 6.
]

beauty of the anthemion and its ready adaptability, has doubtless
rendered it one of the best known types of ornament. Like the Egyptian
and Assyrian prototype the Greek anthemion is usually arranged with
alternate flower and bud, connected by a curved line or more frequently
by a double spiral. Illustrations are given on the opposite plate of a
few typical examples, where the rhythm and beauty of composition are
indicative of the culture and perfection of Greek craftsmanship.

Another feature, which at a later period received considerable
development, was the scroll given on the preceding page, which is a fine
example from the roof of the monument to Lysicrates. The scroll cut with
V shaped sections, springs from a nest of sharp acanthus foliage, the
same features being observed in the nest of foliage which supports the
tripod upon the apex of the roof (plate 6). This scroll is formed of a
series of spirals springing from each other, the junction of the spiral
being covered by a sheath or flower; the spiral itself being often
broken by a similar sheath.

This spiral form, with its sheathing, is the basis of the Roman and
Italian Renascence styles, and sharply differentiates them from the
Gothic ornament, in which the construction line is continuous and
unbroken.

The rosette, a survival of the traditional Assyrian form was frequently
used upon the architrave (fig. 6), and the funeral stele (fig. 5 plate
5) where its circular and radiating form contrasts so beautifully with
the functional straight lines of architectural design. The extraordinary
vitality and versatility of the Greek craftsmen may be traced through a
magnificent series of coins dating from B.C. 700 to B.C. 280. The
interest of subject, beauty of composition and largeness of style,
combined with the utmost delicacy of technique, of these gold, silver
and electrum coins are a reflex on the artistic feeling for beauty of
the early Greeks.

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.      Plate 7.
]



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.


Roman Architecture is differentiated from that of Greece by the
extensive use of the arch and of superposed orders. The many fine
remains of Roman temples and public buildings show the extraordinary
versatility and conception of the Roman architects, their constructive
skill, and their remarkable power of assimilating the arts of other
nations. The Roman temples were somewhat similar in plan to the Greek
prototypes, but usually without the side colonnade, larger in scale, and
with an ostentatious display of mouldings and ornament, less refined in
contour and detail.

[Illustration]

A typical example is given here of a triumphal arch, namely, that of
Septimus Severus, A.D. 211. Other examples are the Arch of Titus, A.D.
79, and the Arch of Constantine, A.D. 326. Trajan’s Arch, A.D. 114, was
destroyed by Constantine, who used many of the reliefs for the building
of his own arch.

The superposition of columns and arches is shown in the annexed
illustration from the Theatre of Marcellus, where the lower order is of
the Doric and the upper of the Ionic. The Colosseum has a third story,
having the Corinthian order, and an attic story, with Corinthian
pilasters; the whole reaching to a height of 156 feet.

[Illustration]

One of the best preserved buildings of the Roman period is the Pantheon,
with its fine domed ceiling of coffered panels, enriched with bronze
ornaments. The portico, octastyle and di-prostyle, is of the Corinthian
order, beautifully proportioned and enriched. The finest example of the
Corinthian order was used in the temple of Castor and Pollux, frequently
called Jupiter Stator; some 50 examples of this Corinthian order date
from the Roman period. The _Tuscan_ and _Composite_ orders were added by
the Romans to the Doric, Ionic and the Corinthian, forming the five
orders of architecture.

[Illustration]

The following table gives the relative proportions of the typical Roman
orders, the columns in modules, and the capital, entablature, &c., in
parts:--

+-----------+----------+-------+-------+----------+------+-------+-----------+
|           |          |Columns|Capital|Architrave|Frieze|Cornice|Entablature|
+-----------+----------+-------+-------+----------+------+-------+-----------+
|Doric.     |Theatre of| 15-1/2| 24    |    31    |  46  |   37  |    113    |
|           | Marcellus|       |       |          |      |       |           |
|           |Baths of  | 1     | 22    |    32    |  45  |   46  |    123    |
|           | Diocletia|       |       |          |      |       |           |
+-----------+----------+-------+-------+----------+------+-------+-----------+
|Ionic.     |Theatre of| 18    | 31    |    43    |  36  |   66  |    145    |
|           | Marcellus|       |       |          |      |       |           |
|           |Temple of | 17-1/2| 33-3/4|    38    |  28  |   70  |    137    |
|           | Virilis  |       |       |          |      |       |           |
+-----------+----------+-------+-------+----------+------+-------+-----------+
|Corinthian.|Jupiter   | 20    | 66    |    43    |  43  |   69  |    156    |
|           | Stator   |       |       |          |      |       |           |
|           |Pantheon  | 19-1/2| 67    |    42    |  39  |   54  |    136    |
+-----------+----------+-------+-------+----------+------+-------+-----------+

The Romans rarely used the peristyle temple, consequently the cella was
of the same width as the portico. In the civic buildings and palaces the
Romans show the greatest constructive skill and splendour of
embellishment. The skilful planning and appropriateness of decorative
treatment in their basilicas and amphitheatres are evidences of the
practical nature of the Romans.

The Basilica or Hall of Justice was an important architectural feature,
rectangular in plan, with a semi-circular apse at one end, where the
Tribunal was placed; roofed with timber framing, or vaulted with
concrete, and supported with rows of columns or biers. The remains of
two typical Roman basilicas are still in existence: the Basilica of
Trajan, A.D. 114, rectangular, 180 × 160 feet, five aisles, the centre
aisle with a semi-circular wooden roof, and enriched with bronze plates,
is typical of one class; and the basilica of Maxentinus, A.D. 310, with
a width of 195 feet and a length of 260 feet, is typical of a vaulted
Basilica, the two side aisles with an arched roof, and the centre aisle
with an intersecting vaulted roof.

These Roman basilicas were adopted by the early Christians to their
service, and the basilica church was the typical form used up to the
12th century in the Romanesque provinces.

[Illustration]

The Roman houses were of two types: the _Domus_, or houses clustered
together, and the _Insular_, houses which were surrounded by streets.
Most of the finest Pompeian houses were of the _Insular_ type.

The usual plan of a Roman house consisted of the _Ostium_ or entrance,
sometimes called the _Vestibule_, which opened into the _Atrium_, which
was a large room or court partly roofed over, with an opening in the
centre called the _Conpluvium_, under which was the _Impluvium_, or
cistern of water, placed below the level of the ground. Small chambers
surrounded the _Atrium_, and at the further end was the _Tablinum_ or
private room, frequently leading to the _Peristylium_ or private part of
the house, an open court, with a colonnade surrounding a marble
fountain, with flowers, shrubs and trees, forming a _Viridarium_.
Surrounding the _Peristylium_ were private rooms, one of which was the
_Triclinium_ or dining room. From the _Peristylium_, _fauces_ or
passages led to the _Porticus_, a colonnade which overlooked the
garden.

[Illustration:

ROMAN ORNAMENT.      Plate 8
]



ROMAN ORNAMENT.


Rome, founded by Romulus, B.C. 783, became by successive wars and
conquests the mistress of the world, absorbing the arts and the
architecture of the Etruscans B.C. 567, the Samnites B.C. 340, and of
Corinth and Carthage B.C. 146. From these varied sources arose the style
termed Roman, assimilating and adopting the column and the horizontal
entablature of the Greeks; the arch, the vault, the mural paintings and
the decorative use of bronze and the terra-cotta of the Etruscans, with
the sculpture, ornament, mosaics and coinage of the Greeks and
Carthaginians. These varied arts were assimilated and perfected by the
Romans during the period B.C. 100 to 337 A.D.

Roman ornament is the continuity of the Greek and Etruscan styles,
consisting of the anthemion, the acanthus and the scroll; the Romans
using these forms with greater exuberance and elaboration, together with
bold and vigorous carving, yet lacking the simplicity, refinement and
graceful contour of the Greek and Etruscan forms.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

Roman ornament consists largely of continuous spiral lines clothed with
cups and sheaths of acanthus foliage, the various spirals terminating in
a rosette. These main spirals are frequently interwoven with fine curved
or spiral lines, clothed with acanthus or other foliation, such as the
vine, olive and ivy. Birds and reptiles and cupids, and the chimera or
griffin (fig. 1) are often interspersed with the ornament, thus giving
that largeness of mass and contrast of form which is so characteristic
of Roman art.

The Thermæ, or baths and public buildings, displayed fine decorative
ceilings, having deep sunk panels called Lacunaria; or coffers, square,
hexagonal or octagonal in form, with a centre rosette in high relief and
the border mouldings of the coffers being enriched with the egg and dart
or the water leaf. These exhibit an effective treatment of moulded
surfaces. The ceilings of the tombs and palaces were in many cases
ornamented

[Illustration:

ROMAN ORNAMENT.      Plate 9.
]

with circular and square panels, richly decorated with arabesques or
mythical figures, and cupids in low relief of fine stucco; the mouldings
or divisions in higher relief, and having the water leaf or the egg and
dart enrichment (plate 9.)

[Illustration]

The architectural frieze and the sepulchral urn and sarcophagi of this
period were often decorated with festoons (figs. 4 and 5, plate 9), and
were supported by cupids or by candelabra (plate 9), or by the skulls of
oxen, as on the frieze from the Temple of Vesta at Tivoli, here given,
which is no doubt a survival of the sacrificial custom of worship.

The architectural basilica and forum of Trajan, erected A.D. 114, by
Apollodorus, a Greek of Damascus, was of the utmost magnificence, the
remains attesting to the skill and artistic craftsmanship of the Romans.
Apollodorus also erected the marble column of Trajan, having a
rectangular pedestal 18 feet high, and richly sculptured with the
dresses, armour and standards of the Roman army. This pedestal supports
a column of the Tuscan order of architecture 97-1/4 feet high and 12
feet in diameter, enriched with a series of spiral bands, having
bas-reliefs representing the successive events of the Dacian War by the
Emperor Trajan.

This magnificent and well preserved relic of antiquity furnishes a
complete epitome of the costumes and the arms and armour of that period.
Another well-preserved column, similar to that of Trajan, was erected in
Rome by Marcus Aurelius A.D. 174, the subjects of its reliefs being the
war with the Marcomans. Large marble urns, or Tazzas, enriched with
Bacchanalian figures, surrounded with foliage and birds and animals;
magnificent tables, chairs, couches, and candelabra, of bronze, enriched
with silver damascening, together with the choice remains of sculpture
and mosaics, all indicate the luxuriousness and love of magnificence of
the wealthy Roman citizens.

In Roman architectural ornament we see the most powerful modelling
combined with the use of the continuous scroll growing from a nest of
foliage, repeated in their painted decorations (see Pompeian). This
elaboration of the typical Greek ornamentation and the rounded
serrations of the Acanthus, forms the chief characteristic of Roman
ornament, which is wonderfully bold, and vigorous in conception and
execution, but deficient in the refinement and delicacy of Greek art.

[Illustration:

POMPEIAN ORNAMENT.      Plate 10.
]



POMPEIAN ORNAMENT.


Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabia, Roman cities, were buried by an
eruption of Vesuvius in the year A.D. 79. These cities had already
suffered from an earthquake in A.D. 63, and were being rapidly rebuilt
when they were finally destroyed by the eruption. The younger Pliny, the
historian, was a spectator of the event at Pompeii, and wrote two
letters to his friend Tacitus, describing the event and his flight from
the doomed city, which remained buried for seventeen centuries, with the
treasures of gold and silver, bronzes of rare workmanship, mural
paintings on a most magnificent scale, and floors of mosaics of
marvellous execution and design; everything affording a vivid glimpse of
the domestic and public life of the Romans of the 1st century A.D.
Herculaneum was discovered in 1709, and Pompeii in 1748 A.D., and from
these cities many valuable remains of art have been taken. In the museum
at Naples there are over 1,000 mural paintings, some 13,000 small
bronzes, over 150 large bronzes of figures and busts, 70 fine large
mosaics, together with a splendid collection of marble statuary.

A plan of a Roman house is given on page 23 showing the arrangement of
and use of the rooms. The floors covered with mosaics, those of the
vestibule, corridors, and small rooms having simple patterns enclosed
with borders of the key pattern, or the Guilloche in black, red, grey,
and white tesserie. The triclinium, or dining room floor was often a
magnificent mosaic representing some mythological or classic subject.
The walls were painted in colour, usually with a dado 1/6th the height
of the wall, with pilasters dividing the wall into rectangular panels
and a frieze above (plate 10). The general scheme of colour was, the
dado and pilasters black, the panels red, and the frieze white; or black
dado, red pilasters and frieze, with white or yellow panels. The
decorations upon these various coloured grounds was light and fanciful,
and painted with great delicacy. Representations of architectural forms,
such as columns and entablatures, are often rendered in perspective upon
the painted walls. A small panel painted with a classical subject
usually occupies the centre of each wall panel.

The painted ornament has somewhat the same characteristics as the Roman
relief work, but is usually much more delicate in treatment. The spiral
form and the sheath are always prevalent and from these sheaths and cups
grow the finer tendrils or delicately painted spray of foliage, upon
which birds are placed.

Stucco enrichments, such as ornamental string courses and mouldings,
were frequently combined with the painted ornament; they consist of
small details, such as the water-leaf, the egg and dart, and the
anthemion, and are repeated in a regular series.

[Illustration:

BYZANTINE ORNAMENT.      Plate 11.
]



BYZANTINE.


When the Emperor Constantine, removed the seat of Government from Rome
to Byzantium, in the year A.D. 330, he inaugurated a new era in art,
viz.: the Byzantine. The traditional Greek and Roman arts were now
assimilated with the arts of Persia and Syria, but moulded and
influenced by the new religion, giving the strong personal vitality,
deep significance and symbolism which was so remarkable throughout the
Byzantine period.

[Illustration]

The change of style did not take place immediately, for most of the
buildings erected by Constantine were in the traditional Roman style,
but the arts were gradually perfected until they culminated in the
building of S. Sophia by Anthemius of Tralles, and Isidorus of Miletus,
during the reign of Justinian, A.D. 538. This building is remarkable for
its splendid dome, supported by semi-domes and pendentives on a square
plan, its embellishment with mosaics of glorious colours, and the great
inventiveness and symbolism of the detail. The traditional sharp
acanthus foliage of the Greeks was united with the emblems of
Christianity such as the circle, the cross, the vine, and the dove; the
peacock also is frequently seen. Figure sculpture was rarely used, but
groups of figures were used in great profusion in the gold ground
mosaics that covered the upper part of the walls and the vaults and
domes of the magnificent Byzantine buildings. The churches of Ravenna in
Italy, have somewhat similar characteristics; S. Vitale, the basilica
churches of S. Apollinare Nuovo, A.D. 493-525, S. Apollinare in Classe,
A.D. 538-44, together with the Baptisteries are rich in mosaics and
sculptured capitals of the 6th and 7th centuries. In the cathedrals of
Torcello, A.D. 670, and Murano and the beautiful St. Mark’s at Venice,
marbles and mosaics were used in great profusion. The two sketch plans
here given are typical of Byzantine planning in which the symbolism of
the circle and cross are used as constructive features. This symbolism
is a marked feature in Byzantine ornament; interlacing circles and
crosses mingle with the acanthus or the vine, and are cut with a
peculiar V-shaped section. The circular drill is largely used at the
sinking of the leaves, and but little of the background is visible in
the sculptured ornament of this period.

[Illustration:

SCANDINAVIAN ORNAMENT.      Plate 12.
]



SCANDINAVIAN ORNAMENT.


The beautiful bronze and silver jewellery, and implements of war of the
early Viking period, found in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, display no
trace of plant forms in their ornamentation, the latter consisting
wholly of interlacing animal forms, chiefly the dragon. The viking ship
found at Sandifiord in 1880, although destitute of ornament, shows
traces of the “Bronze Dragon Prow,” referred to in the early
Scandinavian Sagas. At the commencement of the 12th century, plant forms
are found mingled with the dragons, and figure sculpture became
important in treating of the myths of the gods; Frey, Woden, Thor and
Fyr, of the pagan period, being influenced by the newer cult in
religion. This is shown by the Sigurd Overlap.

Hreiômar had three sons, Otter, Fafni and Regan. Otter was killed one
day by Loki, one of the three Scandinavian gods--Loki, Hœni and
Woden--these being seized by Hreiômar, who would only release them when
the skin of Otter should be covered with gold. Thereupon Loki seized the
dwarf Andwan, who was made to give up his treasure of gold, and a ring
of magical properties, carrying with it a curse, that the treasure
should be the death of those who held it. Loki then returned and covered
the skin of Otter with the gold (fig. 3), after which the gods were set
at liberty. Then Hreiômar was slain by his sons for the treasure. Fafni,
after seizing the latter, took the form of a dragon, and lay guarding
the plunder at Gnita Heath. Regan, his brother, in order to obtain the
treasure, prompted Sigurd, his foster son, to slay the dragon. Sigurd,
in testing his sword, broke it in twain, thereupon Regan made him a
magic sword, with which he lay in the trail of the dragon, and pierced
it through (figs. 1-4). Then Regan took out the heart of the dragon,
which Sigurd cut into slices and toasted while Regan slept. Sigurd,
burning his fingers, places them in his mouth, and tasted the blood of
Fafni, the dragon (fig. 1), and, lo! he heard the voice of birds saying
that Regan was plotting to kill him. Then Sigurd killed Regan, eat the
heart of Fafni, placed the treasure on the back of the noble horse
Grani, and departed, only to be slain for the gold by Gunnar, who for
this crime was cast into the pit of serpents (fig. 1).[A]

This myth explains much of the Scandinavian ornament, for in figs. 1 and
2 the story is told in a series of incidents remarkable for the
fertility of invention and dracontine ornamentation. Halton Cross, in
Lancashire, and a slab at Kirk Andreas, Isle of Man, illustrate the same
subjects, dating from the 11th century. In later times the dragon
becomes more pronounced in character, until in the 14th century it fills
the whole portal with the beautiful interlacing ornament (fig. 6).

[Illustration:

CELTIC ORNAMENT.      Plate 13.
]



CELTIC ORNAMENT.


No period in the history of Art is more remarkable than the Celtic. The
carved stone architecture and crosses, the bronzes, enamels and
silversmith’s work, the splendid illuminated books and manuscripts with
capitals and borders, full of imagery and intricacy of detail, and the
clear and accurate writing of the text, are all indications of the
culture and love of ornament of the early Irish people. The incised
ornament upon the stone tumuli of the 3rd and 4th centuries B.C. show
simple forms such as chequers, chevrons, circles and spirals which are
used by almost all primitive people, yet even at this early stage the
Celts show a remarkable preference for the spiral and interlacing forms.
The bronze shield (fig. 6), with its spirals and bosses of enamel
enriched with the northern “Fylfot” is a typical example of the 2nd or
3rd century, A.D. Then comes the trumpet pattern or divergent spiral,
which, seen in its infancy on the bronze shield, reached a great degree
of elaboration in the 8th and 9th centuries (figs. 2 to 7), being
typical of Celtic work up to the middle of the 11th century when all
trace of this spiral is lost. The interlacing bird and animal forms used
from the 8th to the 14th centuries are doubtless derived from Byzantine
and Lombardic sources. The serpent or dragon, which is such a marked
feature from the 7th to the 15th century must have been borrowed from
the north, as Ireland had no traditions of dragons, and it is to
Scandinavia, with its legend of Fafni, that we must look for the origin
of the dracontine treatment. It is this Zormorpic character that
distinguishes the Celtic from all other styles of ornament except
Scandinavian.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

The illustrations given here from the Lismore crosier are typical
examples of this Celtic dracontine treatment. The early or Pagan period
is noted for its bronze work, cast and wrought, and enriched with
Champlevé enamels. The fine chalice of Ardagh (plate 34) and the Tara
Brooch (7th century) are splendid examples of the Christian period
dating from St. Patrick, A.D. 440-460. The beautiful Book of Kells, A.D.
650-690, the Book of Armagh, A.D. 807, the Book of Durrow, A.D. 750
(Trinity College, Dublin), and the Book of Durham, A.D. 689-721, written
by Eadfrith and illuminated by Ethelwald, are a tribute to the vitality,
assimilation of ideas, and the culture and wonderful craftsmanship of
the early Irish people.



NORMAN AND GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.


English Gothic Architecture has been broadly divided into periods for
the purpose of classifying the styles, the following being the most
generally accepted.

By SHARPE.[B]

                              A.D.
Romanesque  {Saxon              1066.
            {Norman        1066-1145.

            {Transitional  1145-1190.
Gothic      {Lancet        1190-1245.
            {Curvilinear   1245-1360.
            {Rectilinear   1360-1550.

By RICKMAN.[C]

                  A.D.
Norman         1066-1189.
Early English  1189-1307.
Decorated      1307-1379.
Perpendicular  1379-1483.
Tudor          1483-1546.

French Classification by DE CAUMONT.

            {Primordiale       5th to 10th century.
Romanesque  {Secondaire       10th to 12th   “
            {Tertiaire                12th   “

            {Primitive                13th century.
Pointed     {Secondaire or Rayonnant  14th   “
            {Tertiaire or Flamboyant  15th   “

Most of our magnificent cathedrals were founded A.D. 1066-1170 by Norman
bishops, some upon the old Saxon foundations, such as Canterbury and
York, or near the original Saxon buildings as at Winchester, or upon new
sites such as Norwich and Peterborough, and were without exception more
magnificent erections than those of the anterior period, portions of the
older style still existing in many cathedrals, showing the fusion of
Roman and Byzantine architecture with the more personal and vigorous art
of the Celtic, Saxon, and Scandinavian peoples.

The plan, given on next page, of Lincoln Cathedral shows no trace of the
apsidial arrangement so universal in Norman and French cathedrals, and
is therefore considered a typical English cathedral. Each vertical
division in the nave, the choir, and transept is termed a bay. On plate
14 is an illustration of four typical bays of English cathedrals,
showing the development of style from the 12th to the 15th century. The
general characteristic of each bay is given separately, but obviously it
can only be approximate, as the building of each cathedral was
influenced by local considerations, each period necessarily overlapping
its predecessor, thus forming a transitional style. For instance, in the
choir of Ripon Cathedral, the aisle and clerestory have semi-circular
Norman windows and the nave arcading has pointed arches. In the
Triforium and Clerestory arcading, round arches are seen side by side
with the pointed arch.

The PIERS (sometimes termed columns) of these bays have distinctive
features which are characteristic of each period of the Gothic
development. Sketch plans are here given showing the changes that took
place in the shape of the pier from 1066 to 1500. The same general
characteristics are observed in the arch mouldings and string courses.

[Illustration]


CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NORMAN PERIOD.

NAVE ARCADING. The universal use of the round arch, cylindrical or
rectangular piers with semi-circular shafts attached to each face.
Capitals cubical and cushion shaped. Arch mouldings enriched with
concentric rows of Chevron and Billet ornament.

[Illustration]

TRIFORIUM. In early work, of one arch. In later work, two or four small
arches carried on single shafts under one large semi-circular arch.

CLEARSTORY. One window with an open arcading in front, of three arches,
the centre one larger and often stilted. This arcade forms a narrow
gallery in the thickness of the Clearstory wall. The roof of the nave,
of wood, flat and panelled, roof of the aisles, semi-circular quadra
partite vaulting.

An arcading of semi-circular arches was usually placed upon the wall,
under the aisle windows.

Early windows are narrow, flush with the external wall, and deeply
splayed on the inside. Later windows are recessed externally, with jamb
shafts and capitals supporting an enriched moulded arch. A few
semi-circular rose windows still remain, of which a fine example is to
be found in Barfrestone Church, Kent.


EARLY ENGLISH OR LANCET PERIOD.

The Lancet or pointed arch universal.

CAPITALS, of three lobed foliage and circular abacus. The pier arch
mouldings, alternate rounds and hollows deeply cut and enriched with the
characteristic dog’s tooth ornament. A hood moulding which terminates in
bosses of foliage or sculptured heads invariably surrounds the arch
mouldings. This moulded hood when used externally is termed a
“Dripstone,” and when used horizonally over a square headed window a
“Label.”

The TRIFORIUM has a single or double arch, which covers the smaller or
subordinate arches, the spandrels being enriched with a sunk or pierced
trefoil or quatrefoil. The Triforium piers are solid, having delicate
shafts attached to them, carrying arch mouldings of three orders, and
enriched with the _Dog’s tooth_ ornament or trefoil foliage.

The CLEARSTORY lancet windows are in triplets, with an arcading on the
inner face of the wall. The vaulting shaft occasionally springs from the
floor, but more usually from a corbel above the nave capitals, and
finishes under the clearstory string with an enriched capital, from
which springs the simple vaulting usually quadrapartite or hexapartite
in form. Early windows in small churches were arranged in couplets and
at the east end, usually in triplets, with grisaille stained glass
similar to the example given on the next page from Salisbury Cathedral.
The annexed example from the east end of Rievaulx Abbey shows a finely
proportioned window and its arrangement.

[Illustration]

Figure sculpture, beautiful and refined in treatment, was frequently
used upon external walls. The figures of Saints and Bishops were placed
singly under triangular pediments and cusped arches, of which there are
fine examples at Wells, Lichfield, Exeter, and Salisbury (fig. 5, plate
14). Splendid examples of circular rose windows are to be seen in the
north and south transepts of Lincoln Cathedral, also at York, but they
are comparatively rare in England, while France possesses over 100 of
the finest and most important examples of this type of ecclesiastical
adornment. They are to be seen in the Cathedrals of Notre Dame, Rouen,
Chartres, and Rheims.

[Illustration]


DECORATED OR GEOMETRIC PERIOD.

In this, the piers have engaged shafts with capitals having plain
mouldings or enriched with finely carved foliage of the oak, maple, or
mallow. The pier arches have mouldings of three orders, also enriched,
usually with the characteristic ball flower, or foliage similar to that
upon the capitals.

The TRIFORIUM consists of double arches, with subordinate cusped arches,
adorned with Geometric tracery.

The inner arcading of the Clearstory is absent, the one large window
being divided by mullions and geometrical tracery, or by equilateral
triangles enriched with circular and bar tracery (fig. 3, plate 14).
Above the pier capitals an enriched corbel is usually placed from which
springs the vaulting shafts, terminating with a richly carved capital
under the Clearstory string.

The aisle arcading, as a rule, is very beautiful, having geometric
tracery and finely proportioned mouldings, the aisle windows with
mullions and bold geometric tracery. The circular rose windows of the
transepts are typical of this period.


PERPENDICULAR AND TUDOR.

The PIERS of this style are lofty and enriched with shallow mouldings
carried round the pier arch, where capitals are introduced, they
frequently resemble a band round the pier at the springing of the arch,
or occasionally they are octagonal in form, and decorated with an
angular treatment of the vine. In some instances, the upper part of the
plain octagonal capital is relieved with an embattlement. The latter is
also frequently used as a cresting for the elaborate perpendicular
screens, or for relieving the clearstory strings.

The TRIFORIUM is absent in this period, the bay consisting of two
horizontal divisions only. The CLEARSTORY, owing to the suppression of
the Triforium becomes of more importance. The windows are large and
often in pairs, with vertical mullions extending to the arch mouldings
of the window head. The aisle windows are similar, and when lofty have
horizontal transoms, on which the battlement ornament is displayed. The
aisle arcading being also suppressed, all plain wall space was covered
with perpendicular surface tracery. Enrichment of this type was used in
the greatest profusion upon walls, parapets, buttresses, and arches,
also upon the jambs and soffits of doorways. This, together with the use
of the four-centred arch, forms the characteristic features of the
Perpendicular or Tudor period. English cathedrals show a marked contrast
in scale to contemporary French buildings. The English nave and choir is
less in height and width but greater in length than French cathedrals.
For instance, Westminster is the highest of our English cathedrals, with
its nave and choir 103 ft. from floor to roof, 30 ft. wide, and 505 feet
in length. York is next with 101 ft. from floor to roof, 45 ft. wide,
and 486 ft. in length. Salisbury is 84 ft. from floor to roof, 32 ft.
wide, and 450 ft. in length, and Canterbury 80 ft. from floor to roof,
39 ft. wide, and 514 ft. in length. Lincoln with 82 ft. and Peterborough
with 81 ft. are the only other examples reaching 80 ft. in height; York
with 45 ft. being the only one reaching above 40 ft. in width of nave.

The measurements of contemporary French cathedrals on the other hand,
being as follows:--Chartres, 106 ft. from floor to roof, 46 ft. wide,
and 415 ft. in length; Notre Dame, 112 ft. from floor to roof, 46 ft.
wide, and 410 ft. in length; Rheims, 123 ft. from floor to roof, 41 ft.
wide, and 485 ft. in length, while that at Beauvais reaches the great
height of 153 ft. in the nave, 45 ft. in width, and only 263 ft. in
length.

The remarkable growth of the Gothic style during the 13th and 14th
centuries was contemporary in England, France, Flanders, Germany, and in
a less degree in Italy. One of the most beautiful churches in Italy, is,
S. Maria della Spina, at Pisa, with its rich crocketed spires and
canopies, features which were repeated a little later at the tomb of the
famous _Scaligers_ at Verona. At Venice, the Gothic is differentiated by
the use of the ogee arch with cusps and pierced quatrefoils. It was in
France and England where Gothic architecture reached its culmination;
the abbeys and cathedrals, with pinnacles, spires, and towers, enriched
with the most vigorous and beautiful sculpture; the arcadings and
canopies with crockets, finials, and cusps, vibrating with interest and
details, and the splendid windows filled with glorious coloured glass,
are all tributes to the religious zeal and splendid craftsmanship of the
middle ages.

On the opposite page are illustrations showing the modifications that
took place in the evolution of church architecture from the 12th to the
15th century. The triforium in the Norman period was fundamental, but in
the Perpendicular period this feature was absent. The change of style
may also be observed in the windows of each bay, from the simple Norman
one (fig. 1) to the vertical mullioned 15th century window, figs. 4 and
8.

[Illustration:

THE TRIFORIUM & CLEARSTORY.      Plate 14.
]

[Illustration:

NORMAN DETAILS.      Plate 15.
]



NORMAN DETAILS.


Norman architecture was distinguished by the use of the traditional
semi-circular arch, superseded by the pointed arch of the early Gothic
period. These semi-circular arches in the earlier dates were decorated
with rudely executed carvings, cut or worked with the axe. Later Norman
work is very rich, the mouldings being well carved with enrichments of
the Chevron, the Cable Pallet, Star, Fret or Key Patterns; the lozenge
and the beading or pearling. Characteristic features of this period also
are the beak-head (fig. 5) and the corbel-table, which was a series of
heads of men or animals, from which spring small arches supporting the
parapet. Many rich examples of Norman surface ornament are still extant;
at Christchurch, Hants, a beautiful intersecting arcading of
semi-circular arches occurs, the enrichment above being a scale or
imbricated pattern; at St. Peter’s, Northampton, a very rich example of
surface ornamentation may be seen (fig 6).

Floral forms are but rarely used in Norman ornament; instances are known
of the use of the rose and the fir-apple, but they are the exception and
not the rule.

Early doorways usually have a square head recessed under semi-circular
arch mouldings, decorated with the Chevron, Key, or Beak-head. The
semi-circular Tympanum over the door was plain or enriched with rude
sculpture in low relief. Later doors show a great profusion of ornament
in the archivolt and arch mouldings, which are often carried down the
jamb mouldings. The recessed columns are also enriched with the Chevron,
or diagonal lines of pearling (fig. 1), and have sculptured capitals
showing a classical tendency in the arrangement of acanthus foliage and
the volute. Fine examples of this period may be seen in the west front
of Lincoln Cathedral (fig. 1), the Galilee porch at Durham, and the west
door of Iffley Church, Oxfordshire.

The Norman capitals are usually cushion-shaped, with a square abacus,
enriched with the Chevron, star pattern, or the anthemion (fig. 9). The
capital itself was decorated with the anthemion, or with rude volutes or
segments of circles.

The architecture of this period in France, differing from contemporary
work in England, shows a strong Roman influence, hence its
name--Romanesque. St. Trophine at Arles is a fine example of this style,
beautiful in its proportions and vigorous in detail. The west front of
Angouleme Cathedral, with its profusion of semi-circular arcading,
displays more affinity to contemporary work in England. In the two
French capitals (figs. 9 and 10) a characteristic treatment of animals
and birds may be seen, showing a strong vitality in the ornamental art
of that period.

[Illustration:

EARLY GOTHIC DETAILS.      Plate 16.
]



EARLY GOTHIC DETAILS.


The NORMAN style was succeeded by the pointed, or GOTHIC style,
remarkable for its variety, its beauty of proportion, and the singular
grace and vigour of its ornament. Showing no traditions, beyond Sicilian
and Arabian influence, it grew rapidly, and reached a high degree of
perfection in France and England. The massive and barbaric character of
the Norman style gave place to the light clustered shafts and
well-proportioned mouldings of the early English Gothic, with its
capitals characterised by a circular abacus, and the typical three-lobed
foliage growing upwards from the necking of the shafts, thence spreading
out in beautiful curves and spirals under the abacus. This tendency to
the spiral line is peculiar to the early Gothic, and differentiates it
from the Decorated and Perpendicular Period. The diagrams of the three
crockets here given show the distinctive character of English Gothic
ornament.

[Illustration: A]

[Illustration: B]

[Illustration: C]

A. Early Gothic, three lobed leaves arranged in spiral lines. B.
Decorated Gothic, with natural types of foliage, such as the oak and
maple, with a flowing indulating line. C. Perpendicular Gothic, showing
the vine and leaves as elements, and arranged in a square and angular
manner. The same features and characteristics are observed in the
borders here given.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

The beautiful carved spandril from the stone church, Kent (fig. 1), is
remarkable for the vigour and flexibility of curve, its recurring forms
of ornamentation, and admirable spacing, typical of much of our early
English foliage.

The type of foliage in early English stained glass is somewhat similar
to contemporary carved work, but showing more of the

[Illustration:

DECORATED AND PERPENDICULAR
GOTHIC DETAILS.      Plate  17.
]

profile of the leaf, and it has a geometric or radiating arrangement in
addition to the spiral forms of foliage.

Early French work (figs. 7 and 8), with its square abacus, differs from
the early English, in having less of the spiral arrangement, and a
rounder type of leaf, together with the absence of the mid rib, which is
so characteristic of contemporary early English Gothic. The plain
moulded capitals so prevalent in this country are rarely found in
France.

[Illustration]


DECORATED & PERPENDICULAR GOTHIC DETAILS.

Decorated Gothic is remarkable for its geometric tracery, its natural
types of foliage, and the undulating character of line and form in its
ornamental details. The foliage of the oak, the vine, the maple, the
rose, and the ivy were introduced in much luxuriance and profusion,
being carved with great delicacy and accuracy. Lacking the dignity and
architectonic qualities of the early Gothic foliage, it surpassed it in
brilliancy and inventiveness of detail. The Capitals, enriched with
adaptations from nature, carved with admirable precision, were simply
attached round the bell, giving variety and charm of modelling, but
lacking that architectonic unity which was so characteristic of early
work.

Diaper work, crockets and finials, introduced in the early English, were
now treated with exceeding richness, and used in great profusion. The
ball flower so characteristic of the Decorated period replaced the
equally characteristic tooth enrichment of the preceeding style.

French Contemporary Work has similar characteristics, but displays more
reserve and affinity for architectural forms.

This brilliant Decorated period reached its culminating point within
half a century and then rapidly gave place to the Perpendicular Style,
with its distinctive vertical bar tracery of windows and surface
panelling, and the prevalent use of the four centred arch--of octagonal
capitals enriched with the angular treatment of the vine,--of heraldic
shields and arms, and of the four-leaved flower; all typical of the
period.

[Illustration:

RENASCENCE ORNAMENT.      Plate 18.
]



RENASCENCE ORNAMENT.


The arts of Rome and Byzantium lingered in Italy until the 12th century,
losing their vitality and vigour, except at Venice, where the Byzantine
style reached a culminating point in the glorious buildings at Murano
and of St. Mark’s.

Lombardy, in the north, had witnessed a singular blending of the old
classic art with the vigorous traditions and myths of the Longobards and
the symbolisms of the old Byzantine, thus producing the architecture
known as Lombardic, with its multiplicity of small columns and arches,
quaint imagery of sculpture, and the frequent use of a lion or dragon as
a support for the columns. These are features of the early art at Lucca,
and at Bergamo, Padua, Verona, and other towns in Lombardy; a beautiful
illustration from Lucca is given in the appendix to Ruskin’s “_Stones of
Venice_,” Vol. 1. Contemporary with this period came the Gothic
influence with its clustered columns, pointed arches, its cusps and
crockets, and its strong vitality, impressing the arts and architecture
with this Gothic personality; hence, during the 12th and 13th centuries
in Italy, this intermingling of styles, traditions, religious beliefs
and myths, produced an art barbaric and vigorous in character, the
imagery full of suggestiveness, and the detail rich and varied in
conception. Yet it was but the herald of a style which culminated in the
glorious epoch of the Renascence, a style where symmetry was to play an
important part, as in classic art, where refinement of line and detail,
of culture and craftsmanship, are found; and which, though beautiful in
proportion, unity of parts, and perfect adaptability, yet lacked that
symbolism, suggestiveness, inventiveness, and rugged personality of the
early Byzantine, Lombardic and Gothic styles.

ITALIAN Renascence is broadly divided into three periods. Tre-cento,
A.D. 1300 to 1400; Quattro-cento, A.D. 1400 to 1500; and Cinque-cento,
A.D. 1500 to 1600. In the Tre-cento style this intermingling of the
classic details with the Lombardic and Gothic constructions produced
such remarkable buildings as S. Maria della Spina, and the Campo Santo
at Pisa, by Giovanni Pisano 1240-1320; the Palazzo Vecchio, the Church
of Santa Croce, and the Cathedral of Florence, by Arnolfo di Cambio
(1232-1310), with its alternate courses of black and white marble, and
its Gothic arches and tracery; the beautiful Campanile by Giotto
(1276-1336) is a noble accessory to Arnolfo’s Cathedral. A charming
illustration of this Tre-cento period, from Giotto’s Campanile, is the
frontispiece to Ruskin’s “_Seven Lamps of Architecture_.”

The sculpture and decorative arts of this period are marked by dignity
of conception, and a mingling of Gothic and classical traditions.
Perhaps the earliest examples known are the hexagonal pulpit in the
Baptistery at Pisa, a similar one in the Cathedral at Siena, and the
fountain at Perugia, all by Nicolo Pisano (1206-76). He was assisted in
much of his work by his son Giovanni, who also executed the pulpit in
the Cathedral at Pisa. Andrea Pisano (1273-1344), a pupil of Giovanni
executed a beautiful bronze gate or door, cast in 1332, for the
Baptistery at Florence.

A fine monumental work of this period is the tomb of St. Peter the
Martyr, in the Church of St. Eustorgio at Milan, by Balducco di Pisa,
1308-47.

The QUATTRO-CENTO period, of which Lorenzo Ghiberti (1381-1465), was the
great master, is remarkable for its vitality and naturalism. Ghiberti’s
chief works are the two bronze gates for the Florentine Baptistery; the
first gate is dated 1403-24, and the second 1425-50. Both have panels
modelled in low relief, the first with incidents from the New, and the
second from the Old Testament. The frame-work of these gates has a
series of single figures in niches, with circular medallions between
them. The bronze architrave round each of the Ghiberti gates, in
addition to the one he placed round the earlier gate, by Andrea Pisano,
are rich examples of Quattro-cento design. The details are natural
fruits, flowers, and foliage, banded-together with ribbons, with the
introduction of birds, squirrels, &c. The egg-plant and pomegranate
portion (fig. 1) is a familiar example.

[Illustration]

Other masters of this period were Jacopo della Quercia (1371-1438) who
executed the beautiful monument here shown, to Ilaria di Carretto, in
the cathedral at Lucca. The recumbent figure of Ilaria is sculptured in
white marble with perfect simplicity and beauty; another famous work of
Jacopo was the fountain at Siena.

Luca della Robbia (1400-82) executed a beautiful organ gallery in marble
for the Cathedral at Florence, with admirable singing and dancing
figures in relief. But beautiful as this work is, Luca’s reputation
rests upon his Enamelled Terra Cotta, which he perfected to a
remarkable degree. Modelled first in clay and coated with tin enamel
(see Maiolica), he produced a marvellous series of these reliefs, which
were invariably surrounded with the typical quattro-cento border of
modelled fruit and flowers, enamelled in bright colours. His nephew,
Andrea della Robbia (1445-1525) continued the traditions, methods, and
skill, with marked success; and also Andrea’s son Giovanni (1524) who
executed a beautiful frieze upon the façade of the hospital at Pistoja.
Andrea’s other sons, Girolamo and Luca carried the art into France under
Francis I. (1531.) Donatello (1386-1466) was remarkable for the singular
grace and sincerity of his portraiture, especially of children; the
dancing figures in relief on the panels of the singing gallery of the
Cathedral of Florence, are perfect examples of his art. Donatello also
carried the art of low flat relief called “_Stiacciato_” to the greatest
perfection. An illustration of Donatello’s work, from the high altar of
St. Antonio at Padua, is here given.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

The art of the medallist, which had declined since the Roman period, now
took its position among the arts of the quattro-cento period, under
Vittore Pisano, called Pisanello (1380-1451). The vigour of his
modelling, and the individuality of his medals of the contemporary
Princes of Italy, are exceedingly fine. Among other remarkable
medallists were Sperandio of Verona (1423-90); Caradosso, of Milan
(1480-1545); Vincentine, of Vicenza (1468-1546); Benvenuto Cellini, of
Florence (1500-71); Lione Leoni (1498-1560); Pompeoni Leoni (1530-1610);
and Pastorino, of Siena (1510-91). The great dome of Arnolfo’s Cathedral
at Florence was designed by Brunelleschi (1377-1446), who was a
competitor with Ghiberti for the bronze gates of the Baptistery at
Florence. Other names of this period were Desiderio da Settignano
(1428-64,) his masterpiece being the tomb of Carlo Marzuppini, in the
Church of Santa Croce, Florence; Mino da Fiesole (1430-84); Andrea
Verrocchio (1435-88); the author of the fine equestrian statue of
Bartolommeo Colleone at Venice (see Bronzes); Matteo Civitali
(1435-1501); and the Rossellini, a remarkable family of five brothers,
of which the most famous was Antonio Rossellini (1427-79), who executed
a charming tomb to Cardinal Jacopo di Portogallo in the Church of the
Nunziata, Florence.

The CINQUE-CENTO period was the culmination of the Renascence, when
architecture, sculpture, painting, and the decorative arts, were under
the magnificent patronage of the Popes and Princes of Italy. Palaces,
churches, and public buildings were completed and embellished with
beautiful sculptures and decorations; hung with the most sumptuous
fabrics of the Venetian, Florentine, and Genoese looms; decorated with
altar paintings and mural decorations, by the most renowned of painters;
and enriched with the magnificent productions of the gold and
silversmiths’ art, and the loveliest of intarsia or inlaid woodwork.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

Michel Angelo Buonarroti (1474-1653), by his great intellect and power,
stands above his many contemporaries. The colossal figure of _David_,
and the _Madonna_ and _Child_ at Bruges, are familiar examples of this
great artist’s work. The magnificent tombs of Lorenzo and Giuliano de
Medici at Florence, show his noble power and conceptions of art. The
splendid decorative work on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the
Vatican is another example where unity of conception and marvellous
execution are shown in a remarkable degree. Two illustrations of this
ceiling are given--one of the panels, with the expulsion from Eden, and
one of the Sibyls or Prophets, both showing beautiful harmony of
incident and composition.

[Illustration]

Contemporary with Michel Angelo was Raphael (1483-1520), who displayed
the highest capacity for grace and refinement in painting. His principal
mural paintings are in the stanze of the Vatican, where four rooms are
painted in fresco, almost entirely by Raphael. The Loggia of the
Vatican, by Bramante, was also decorated by Raphael and his pupils. The
then-recent discoveries of the Baths of Titus and House of Livia, with
their Roman mural painting, influenced in a remarkable degree the
decorative painting of the Cinque-Cento period. These arabesques (or, as
they were termed, Grotteschi, being found in the supposed caves or
grottos of Roman gardens), were utilised by Raphael in the decoration of
the pilasters, piers, and walls of this Loggia. The designs were painted
with a fine range of colour upon white ground, and enclosed within
borders of modelled stucco ornaments. In the panels upon the ceiling,
Raphael painted a series of 52 incidents of the Bible. These are spoken
of as “Raphael’s Bible.”

[Illustration]

Raphael was assisted in this work of the Loggia by many contemporary
artists: Giovanni da Udine (1494-1564), Giulio Romano (1492-1546),
Francesco Penni (1488-1528), Perino del Vaga (1500-47), and Primaticcio
(1490-1580), who completed much of the work after Raphael’s death. These
artists carried his traditions and methods to other parts of Italy.
Giulio Romano executed some fine mural decorations at the Villa Madama
in Rome; and for Federigo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, he enriched with
beautiful decorative paintings and arabesques, the Palazzo Ducale and
the Palazzo del Te. These arabesques were upon richly coloured or
parti-coloured grounds (see plates 86-9 “_Grammar of Ornament_,” by Owen
Jones).

[Illustration]

These arabesques of Raphael’s, which were excelled by later ones of
Giulio Romano, show a great inventiveness and skilful combination of
parts, but they are not to be compared with the refined and beautiful
modelling and harmonious composition of the contemporary carved work of
Andrea Sansovino (1460-1528), Jacopo Sansovino (1486-1570), Agostino
Busti, Pietro Lombardo (1500), and his sons Tullio and Antonio. These
delicate reliefs have the traditional Roman acanthus, but treated with a
fine feeling for relief modelling, and beauty of line; vases, masks,
shields, and similar accessories are found in profusion in some examples
(fig. 3, plate 19). The composition of the Cinque-cento ornament is
symmetrical, the details being varied and most interesting in the best
work, and whilst lacking the vigour and symbolism of the Lombardic and
Byzantine styles, it excelled them in its absolute adaptation to
architectural conditions, with perfection of design and craftsmanship.

[Illustration]

Andrea Mantegna (1431-1517) executed nine paintings or cartoons in
tempera upon linen, representing the triumphs of Julius Cæsar, which are
a portion of the cartoons for a frieze 9 feet high and 80 feet long,
painted for Lodovico Gonzaga’s Palace of St. Sebastian at Mantua, they
were purchased by Charles I., and are now at Hampton Court. An
illustration of this frieze, from an engraving upon copper in the
British Museum, is given on page 55; they were also engraved on wood by
Andrea Andreani in 1599.

Many beautiful examples of the Cinque-Cento ornament may be found in
contemporary printed and illuminated books. The advent of printing in
Italy (1465) by the Germans, Conrad Sweynheym and Arnold Pannitz at the
Benedictine Monastery of Subiaco, near Rome, gave a great impetus to
Literature, and printing rapidly progressed in Italy, more especially at
Venice, where in 1499 Aldus Manutius produced the Hypnerotomachia, or
dream of Poliphilus

[Illustration:

RENASCENCE ORNAMENT.      Plate 19.
]

with illustrations ascribed to Mantegna. Good reproductions of many of
these early illustrated books are given in the “_Italian Book
Illustrations_,” by A. W. Pollard, No. 12 of the Portfolio, December,
1894; and in “_The Decorative Illustration of Books_,” by Walter Crane.

[Illustration]

The study of classical architecture was stimulated by the publication at
Rome in 1486, of the treatise by Vitruvius, an architect of the time of
Augustus; an edition was also published at Florence in 1496, and at
Venice in 1511. In 1570, Fra Giocondo, at Venice, published “_The Five
Books of Architecture_,” by Andrea Palladio (1518-80). Another treatise
upon architecture, by Serlio (1500-52), was also published at Venice in
1537 and 1540.

[Illustration]

Beautiful types of the Renascence decorative art were the Venetian
well-heads, situated as they were in most of the public squares of
Venice, and in many of the court-yards of her princely palaces. Designed
with details of the most varied and beautiful character by such artists
as Andrea Sansovino, Pietro Lombardo, and his sons Tullio and Antonio,
the Venetian well-head became a type of beauty, diversified in its
treatment, but never losing its characteristics or its usefulness.
Venetian well-heads display a great variety of form and decoration. The
earlier examples are square or circular, with enrichments of Byzantine
character, consisting largely of interlacing, circular, and angular
lines, enclosing quaint bird and animal forms. In the later examples the
Renascence treatment is used with singular richness and appropriateness,
the grace, delicacy and diversity of detail being a tribute to the
vivacity and artistic feeling of the Venetian Republic. These
well-heads, worked mostly in white marble and evincing good judgment in
the quality of relief, now show comparatively little injury after
centuries of usefulness. Occasionally they were of bronze, of which two
fine examples are still in position in the court-yard of the Doge’s
Palace. Many of these well-heads are carefully treasured in our
European Museums, teaching us that beauty of form, and perfection and
delicacy of ornament are quite compatible with usefulness, when used by
an artistic people.

[Illustration]

The Renascence in Italy was remarkable for the many magnificent secular
buildings erected during the 15th and 16th centuries in the chief cities
in Italy.

In FLORENCE the palaces have a severe dignity of treatment, with bold
rusticated courses of stone-work, circular-headed windows, and
finely-proportioned cornices. The first Renascence palace was the
Riccardi (1430) by Michelozzi (1370-1440); and it was followed by the
Pitti (1435), by Brunelleschi (1377-1444), the Rucellai (1460), by Leon
Battista Alberti (1389-1472), the Strozzi (1489), by Cronaca
(1454-1509), the Gondi (1490), by Giuliano Sangallo (1443-1507), the
Guadagni and the Nicolini, by Bramante (1444-1514), the Pandolfini
(1520), by Raphael (1483-1520), and the Bartolini (1520), by Baccio
d’Agnolo (1460-1543).

In ROME the palaces were characterised by largeness of scale and the
frequent use of Ionic and Corinthian pilasters or columns, and
square-headed windows with triangular or curved pediments. The chief
palaces in Rome are the Cancelleria (1495) and the Giraud (1506) by
Bramante (1444-1514), the Farnesina (1506), the Massimi (1510), and the
Villa Ossoli (1525), by Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1536), the Palma and
the Farnese, by Antonio Sangallo (1476-1546), the Borghese (1590), by
Martino Lunghi, the Laterano, by Fontana (1543-1610), and the Barberini,
by Carlo Maderno (1556-1629), Borromini (1599-1667), and Bernini
(1598-1680).

In VENICE the palaces were rich and varied; with the frequent use of
pilasters, semi-columns and circular-headed mullioned windows suggested
by the earlier Gothic palaces. The Renascence period commenced here with
the re-building of the court-yard of the Doge’s Palace (1486) by Antonio
Bregno, and completed in 1550 by Scarpagnino. Then came a beautiful
series of buildings, the chief being:--the Vendramini, the Trevisani,
and the Gradenigo Palaces, by Sante Lombardo (1504-1560); the Cornaro
Palace and the Library of St. Mark’s, by Sansovino (1479-1570), and the
Grimani Palace by San Michele (1484-1559).



FRENCH RENASCENCE.


Towards the close of the 15th century, the vigorous and beautiful Gothic
architecture of France, with its rich traceried and mullioned windows,
its niches and canopies, its crocketed spires and varied treatment of
floral enrichment, lost its vitality; and was succeeded by the
Renascence style, which at first was purely Italian, but afterwards,
with the intermingling of Gothic traditions and craftsmanship, became a
distinct phase of the Renascence.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

French Renascence may be broadly divided into distinctive periods: 1st.
The earlier or transitional, 1453-1515, when the influence of the
Renascence began to be felt. 2nd. 1515-47, FRANÇOIS PREMIER. This period
is remarkable for the number of Italians engaged by Francis I. for the
embellishment of the Château Fontainbleau, the principal being Rosso,
painter; Serlio and Vignola, architects; Primaticcio and Penni,
ornamentists, Benvenuto Cellini, with his beautiful goldsmiths’ art; and
Girolamo della Robbia, who produced enamelled Terra Cotta. The work of
these renowned craftsmen necessarily had a marked influence upon the
traditional French art. Of the architecture of this period, there is the
south-west angle of the Louvre, commenced in 1548 by Pierre Lescot
(1510-78), and enriched with sculpture by Jean Goujon (1515-72), who
also executed the sculptures that embellished the beautiful Château
Ecouen, by Jean Bullant (1515-60), and the beautiful fountain of the
Innocents at Paris, of which an illustration of one of the panels is
here given. The tomb of Louis XII., at St. Denis, by Jean Juste (1518),
is remarkable for the purity of its enrichments.

3rd. HENRI DEUX and HENRI QUATRE period, 1547-1610, when the building of
the Tuileries was commenced in 1564 by Philibert de Lorme (1500-78), the
building of the Louvre being continued by De Carreau and Duperac; the
Luxembourg being subsequently built by De Brosse, 1610. This period was
also represented by the exquisite Ceramics of Oiron or Henri Deux Ware,
and the fine geometrical interlacings and arabesques of the bookbindings
of Grolier.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

4th period, 1610-43, under LOUIS TREIZE, when considerable skill was
shown in the carved and painted shell and scroll ornament, and in the
bookbindings of Le Gascon.

[Illustration]

5th. LOUIS QUATORZE period, 1643-1715, of which the palace of Versailles
and the Château Maison, by François Mansard (1598-1666), are typical
examples of architecture. The decorative compositions of le Pautre (see
annexed illustrations), and the richly-decorated furniture, with
marquetry in tortoise-shell and brass, by André Boule (1642-1732); the
magnificent Gobelins tapestry, so liberally encouraged by the Minister
Colbert (1667); and the beautiful Rouen pottery; are characteristic of
the industrial and decorative arts.

[Illustration]

6th. LOUIS QUINZE period, 1715-74, when the Rococo style was paramount,
the vitality of the preceding periods being lost. The pastoral scenes by
the painter Watteau (1684-1721), and the inlaid furniture of Jean
François Ochen (1754-65), for Madame de Pompadour, are typical of this
period.

7th. LOUIS SEIZE, 1774-89. The arts of this period are more refined and
reserved in line, as evinced in the fine marquetry furniture of Riesener
and David Roentgen with the ormolu mountings by Gouthière (1740-1810),
for Marie Antoinette.

The last period, EMPIRE STYLE, 1804-70, when purely classical forms and
Greek enrichments prevailed throughout the whole of the decorative
arts.



ENGLISH RENASCENCE.


The English Renascence period began during the reign of Henry VIII., and
was contemporary with that of France under Francis I. It was Torrigiano,
a contemporary of Michel Angelo, who about 1519 brought this new
Renascence style into repute by erecting the tomb of Henry VII., and
that of the Countess of Richmond, in Westminster Abbey.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

English Renascence was further developed by Hans Holbein (1498-1554),
who came into this country in 1526, followed by craftsmen from Flanders,
Germany and Italy. This intermingling of Flemish, German and Italian
styles with the traditional Gothic of our own country, distinguishes
English Renascence from that of France and Italy. The marked prevalence
of interlacing strap-work, which is so characteristic of Elizabethan and
Jacobean ornament, had its origin in Flemish sources.

[Illustration]

Of English Renascence architecture, Caius College, Cambridge, (1565-74),
by Theodore Hare, of Cleves, and Longleat House (1567-79), by John
Thorp, are the earliest examples extant. The Wonderful Palace of Nonsuch
(of which no trace remains) was erected by Henry VIII. about 1530-40,
doubtless in the Renascence style, as we know that it was embellished
with beautifully enriched stucco ornaments and figures by Tolo del
Nunziato. Robert Smithson built Wollaton House in 1580. Hardwicke Hall
and Haddon Hall are of the later Elizabethan age (1592-97). Typical
buildings of the Jacobean period are Holland House (1607), Hatfield
(1611), Bolsover (1613), Audley End (1616), Crewe Hall and Aston Hall
(1620). These are all enriched with many beautiful examples of modelled
plaster work. That at Longleat and Hardwicke being executed by Charles
Williams, and at Audley End, by Bernard Jansen (1615).

English stucco-work of this period often consisted of geometrical
panelling similar in style to the Tudor fan-tracery and the pendentives
of the preceding century. These richly-moulded pendentives were
connected together by bands of pierced strap-work decorated with
arabesques in low relief. From 1615 to 1650 the panels were composed of
purely geometrical forms, such as circles, squares, lozenges and
interlacing quatre-foils, enriched with delicate arabesques, the ribs or
mouldings frequently having a repeating pattern impressed in the soft
plaster.

The many fine friezes of this period were remarkable for their boldness
of conception and their skilful craftsmanship; frequently a double
frieze was used, the lower part consisting of delicate arabesques and
interlacing strap-work, while the upper part was of boldly modelled
cartouche and delicate arabesques. During the latter part of the 17th
century, owing to French influence, the stucco enrichment usually
consisted of acanthus foliage and festoons.

From Charles I., (1625), to Queen Anne, (1702), the purely Italian
Renascence prevailed; the Banqueting House at Whitehall, by Inigo Jones,
(1572-1652), being a fine example of this period. St. Paul’s Cathedral
(1675-1710) by Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723) and his many beautiful
churches in London, mark a distinct epoch of English Renascence; the
tradition being carried-on by Vanbrugh (1666-1736) who built Blenheim
Palace and Castle Howard. Other architects of this period were Hawksmoor
(1666-1726), Kent (1684-1754), Gibbs (1674-1754), Chambers (1726-96),
who built Somerset House, and Robert Adam (1725-92), who carried on the
traditional method of stucco enrichment, but in a more rigid and formal
classic manner. His geometrical panelling of hexagons, octagons, and
ovals, was enriched with conventional renderings of the acanthus and
olive leaf arranged in small units and repeated without variation over
the whole of the surface. These enrichments were cast in plaster or
compo and were mechanical in treatment, lacking the beautiful decorative
quality of the modelled stucco of the early 17th century. The Wellington
Monument in St. Paul’s Cathedral, by Alfred Stevens, is distinguished
from much of the modern work by its strong vitality and architectonic
treatment of the composition, and the beauty and singular grace of its
detail.

[Illustration:

MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT.      Plate 20.
]



MAHOMETAN & MORESQUE.


Of mediæval history as associated with the decorative arts, the rise and
development of the Arabs is the most remarkable. The wide appreciation
and liberal patronage of the arts by the Khalifs; the influence of its
religion and precepts upon contemporary and later periods of art; the
distinct individuality and geometrical arrangement of its ornamentation;
all had a most marked effect upon tradition and craftsmanship.

The history commences with Mohammed, A.D. 570-632, who founded and
consolidated the empire, of which, under Omar, A.D. 635, Damascus became
the capital; in A.D. 638 Kufa and Bassora were founded in Persia. In
A.D. 641 Egypt was conquered and the Mahometan capital, Fustât, founded.
Persia was conquered in A.D. 642, Spain invaded in A.D. 711, Bagdad in
Persia became the capital of the Arabian Khalifs in A.D. 762, and in
A.D. 827 Sicily was conquered; but it was not until the dynasty of
Ibu-Tūlūn, A.D. 868-914, that the history of Cairene art begins, of
which the mosque of Ibu-Tūlūn in Fustât, or old Cairo, is the earliest
example. Under the Fatimy dynasty, A.D. 867-1171, Cairo was founded, and
the arts, receiving further encouragement, were now introduced into
Sicily and Europe. In A.D. 997 the Mahometan invasion of India took
place. In A.D. 796-965 the mosque of Cordova was built, and in A.D. 1236
the kingdom of Granada was founded and the Alhambra was built by
Mohammed ben Alhamar, A.D. 1248, and Mahometan art, as exemplified in
the architectural decorations, arms and armour, woodwork, ivory, textile
fabrics, and illuminated books, reached its culmination under the Mamlūk
dynasty, A.D. 1250-1516.

Thus the Arabs, from a roving tribe, became, by religious zeal and
conquests, the most powerful and wealthiest nation of mediæval times,
assimilating and influencing the customs and the arts of the different
nations and provinces.

The term MAHOMETAN ART includes ARABIAN, MORESQUE, PERSIAN, INDIAN, and
SICILIAN, all having the same characteristics yet distinguished by the
racial influence and custom. The Arabian is marked by its flowing,
interlacing, and symmetrical lines, geometrical arrangement (doubtless
derived from Byzantine sources), and its prevalence of inscriptions or
texts from the Koran. In Spain a more complex geometrical arrangement is
found, intermingled with a flowing foliage or arabesque of a purely
conventional type. This style is noticeable for its entire absence of
any natural forms and its abundant use of inscriptions, and glazed and
enamelled tiles, distinctly influenced of Persian tradition though
purely geometric and formal. These tiles cover the lower part of the
wall, the upper portion, as also the ceiling being decorated with
arabesques of modelled plaster in flat relief, of two or more planes,
enriched with red, blue, white and gold; this is typical of the Moresque
style. The Sicilian work is remarkable for its beautiful fabrics of silk
and the prevalence in its ornament of birds, animals, and heraldic
forms, showing the continuity of the traditions of Persia.

[Illustration:

PERSIAN ORNAMENT.      Plate 21.
]



PERSIAN ORNAMENT.


The early art of Persia was similar to that of Assyria and Babylon,
having the same forms, materials, and traditions. With the accession of
the Sassanides (A.D. 223) came the introduction of the elliptical dome,
so typical of eastern architecture. This dome rested on pendentives
which occupied the angles of the square base. These pendentives and the
elliptical dome are distinctive features in Mahometan architecture.

The industrial arts of Persia were largely influenced by the traditional
arts of Assyria and Chaldea; this tradition was carried on with rare
skill and selective power by the Persians, culminating in the splendid
period of Shah Abbas A.D. 1586 to 1625. The vitality, beauty, and
interest of detail, combined with perfect decorative adaptation to
material, are characteristic of the textiles, pottery, metal work, and
illuminated manuscripts of the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries.

The Mahometan conquest of Persia, A.D. 632 to 637, by Abu Bekr, the
successor of Mohammed, largely influenced the development of the arts of
the Persians, who adopted the customs and habits of contemporary races,
yet preserved all the characteristics of their art; and there is no
doubt that the art of the Arabs was founded upon the traditional arts of
Persia.

[Illustration]

Persian decoration is characterised by a fine feeling for form and
colour, and for the singularly frank renderings of natural plants, such
as the pink, hyacinth, tulip, rose, iris, and the pine and date. These
are used with perfect sincerity and frankness, and are essentially
decorative in treatment, combining harmony of composition of mass,
beauty of form, and purity of colour. It was doubtless owing to these
qualities, together with the perfect adaptation of ornament to material,
that the Persian style so largely influenced contemporary work, and
especially the European textile fabrics of the 16th and 17th centuries.
The illustrations given are of some familiar types of Persian
adaptations of natural flowers, doubtless chosen for their significance,
beauty of growth and form, and appropriateness of decorative treatment.
Purely Arabian forms, as given in plate 21, are frequently associated
with the Persian floral treatment, showing the influence of the Artists
of Damascus. Many fine examples of lustred wall tiles, dating from the
10th and 11th centuries, are in the South Kensington Museum, of which
the blue, brown, and turquoise colouring is of a splendid quality. They
often have Arabic inscriptions interspersed with the floral enrichments.
Examples of wall tiles of the 8th century have been found in the ruins
of Rhages.

These lustred tiles are a remarkable instance of tradition or hereditary
proclivity. This art, beginning with the enamelled bricks of Babylon,
and the later frieze of Susa, page 16, with its brilliant enamel and
fine colour, was continued by the Persians, and, passing to the Arabs,
the tradition was carried to Cairo, Spain and Majorca; thence into
Italy, where enamelled lustred ware was made, differing from the
original Persian by its frequent absence of utility, which was
fundamental to the art of the Persians.

Mahometan ornament has four broad divisions, viz.: Arabian, Moresque,
Indian, and Persian; and they are characterised by strongly-marked
compartments or fields which are filled with finer and more delicate
enrichments. These compartments are most pronounced in the Moresque with
its complex geometric interlacing and entire absence of natural forms
(figs. 4, 6, 7, and 8, page 62). The Arabian style is somewhat similar,
but less formal. The Indian has a conventional rendering of plants, and
the introduction of the lion, tiger, and the elephant (fig. 2, plate
23); while in the Persian work there is a still less formal constructive
arrangement, with floral forms clearly defined in line and mass, and the
introduction of the human figure with the horse, the lion, the tiger and
birds. Note the illustration in Textiles which is taken from a fine
carpet in the South Kensington Museum. In this carpet, animal forms,
chosen with rare selective power and judgment, are combined with the
typical floral enrichment of Persia, with the wealth of colour,
admirable spacing of detail and mass, beauty of incident and vigour, and
appropriateness of treatment. These are features that distinguish the
industrial designs of Persia, and it is doubtless due to the interest
and vitality of their ornament that we owe the remarkable influence of
Persian art upon the contemporary and latter craftsmanship of Europe.

[Illustration:

PERSIAN ORNAMENT.      Plate 22.
]

[Illustration:

INDIAN ORNAMENT.      Plate 23.
]



INDIAN ORNAMENT.


The civilization of India dates from the remote past, but the oldest
remains of its art and architecture are connected with the Buddhist
religion, introduced by the prophet Sakya Muni, B.C. 638. This
influenced the arts of India till A.D. 250, when the Jaina style was
adopted. The examples of Buddhist architecture consist of Topes (which
were sacred or monumental temples, either detached or rock-cut), and
monasteries. The rock-cut temples usually consist of a nave and aisles,
and a semi-circular recess containing a statue of the seated Buddha. The
hall has square or octagonal columns, with bracket capitals (fig. 1).
The finest examples of these temples are those at Ajanta, which are
richly-decorated in colour with incidents of Hindoo mythology. The fine
temples at Ellora, which are cut entirely out from the rock, are of the
Jaina period, A.D. 250. The pagodas at Chedombaram are of the Brahmin
period, as is also the great hall of 1,000 pillars, which is 190×340
feet, containing the sacred image of the god Siva.

Alexander the Great conquered India B.C. 327, and doubtless left the
influence of the Persian tradition in India. This influence was still
further developed by the commercial intercourse of Persia and India, and
by the Arabian invasion of India in A.D. 711, when a Mahometan dynasty
was established, 711 to 1152. This largely controlled and influenced the
arts under the Mogul dynasty, 1525-1837, when the decorative arts and
the manufacture of the beautiful woven brocades and silks were fully
developed. The splendid carpets and rugs, printed cottons, metal work,
and fine enamels of this dynasty bear a remarkable tribute to the
vitality, originality of ideas, and the practical utility of the
industrial arts of India.

Indian ornament has the typical Mahometan division of spaces, but is
more flowing and graceful than the pure Arabian style. These divisions
are filled with fine conventional floral forms, as the lotus, the date
or hom, the iris, the rosette and the pine. This pine is treated
occasionally as a single flower, but more frequently as a cluster of
flowers, which still retains the distinctive form of the pine (figs. 2,
4 and 6).

Typical also of this period is the judicious treatment of the elephant,
lion, tiger, peacock, and the human figure, as accessories in the
decorative arts of India. They were applied with rare knowledge and
skill, combined with an artistic perception of applied art, showing a
very strong affinity with contemporary Persian ornament.

Indian ornament has a more conventional rendering of natural forms, than
the frank treatment of Persian ornament. Block printing upon silk and
cotton fabrics reached a high degree of perfection during the last
century. The inventiveness and significance of detail; the charm of
composition of line and mass, and the beautiful colour of these printed
fabrics are a reflex of the decorative feeling for beauty by the people
of India.

[Illustration:

CHINESE AND JAPANESE
ORNAMENT.      Plate 24.
]



CHINESE AND JAPANESE ORNAMENT.


The early bronzes, enamels, porcelain and textile fabrics of China are
indicative of the perfection and luxuriance of the decorative arts of
that ancient Empire. This perfection is shown by a Splendid technic and
a fine appreciation of colour and ornamentation, differentiated from the
western nations by myths, traditions, and the remarkable persistency of
a few typical forms through many centuries, doubtless owing to the
profound ancestral worship and veneration for the past. The Dragon was
represented under many aspects, frequently forming vigorous lines of
composition (fig. 3, 4). The beautiful flora of the country largely
influenced Chinese art. The peony and chrysanthemum (frequently highly
conventionalized), are typical examples, forming the elements of
decorative design. Geometric forms, such as the hexagon, octagon, and
the circle, enriched with flowers or the fret, are largely used. The
many splendid examples of bells, gongs, and incense-burners in bronze
and iron:--the carvings in wood, ivory, and jade:--the beautiful woven
silks and embroidered fabrics, and the richness and purity of their
porcelain, all testify to the versatility and vitality of the Chinese
decorative arts in the past. Their architecture was usually of wood,
distinguished by complexity and quaintness of form rather than beauty of
proportion and detail, but their pagodas or temples were of brick
encased with glazed tiles, the most remarkable of these erections being
the Nankin Pagoda of the Ming dynasty (A.D. 1412-31), with its imperial
yellow tiles.

The arts of Japan, though doubtless owing their origin to China, are
differentiated by a keener observation of nature and a more literal
treatment of landscape, bird and animal life, and the beautiful flora of
the country--the “kiki” or chrysanthemum, the “botan” or peony, the
“kosai” or iris, the “yuri” or lily, the “kiri” or paulawina imperialis
(somewhat resembling our horse chestnut), the “ume” or plum, the “matsi”
or fir, and the “taki” or bamboo,--likewise the peacock, the crane, the
duck, the pheasant and many smaller beautiful birds, together with
reptiles, insects, and fishes; all are elements in the decorative arts,
being rendered with remarkable fidelity and delicacy of touch, united
with a fine feeling for composition of line. It is this literal
treatment of natural types, the marvellous technic and especially the
significance of the forms chosen that constitutes the charm of the
earlier Japanese art. It is singular that the materials used by the
Japanese should be of little intrinsic value. Having no jewellery, they
use little of the precious metals; iron, bronze, enamels, wood and lac,
being the chief materials utilised in the decorative arts of Japan.

[Illustration:

IVORIES.      Plate 25.
]



IVORY,


doubtless owing to its beautiful texture, colour and adaptability for
delicate carving, has been in use from a remote period. Egypt, Assyria,
and India have each contributed many beautiful examples of fine
craftsmanship, indicative of the artistic culture of the centuries
preceding the Christian Era. Of Solomon we read in I Kings, 18, x:
“Moreover the king made a great throne of ivory and overlaid it with the
best gold.” This traditional use of ivory was most probably derived from
Egypt, the source of so many of the decorative arts.

In the Periclean age of Greece, ivory was used for the figure of Athene
Parthenos by Pheidias, placed inside the Parthenon. This statue of the
standing goddess, 40 feet high, was of gold and ivory (called
_chryselephantine sculpture_), the drapery being of beaten gold and the
exposed parts of the figure of carefully-fitted pieces of ivory. A
seated _chryselephantine_ figure of Jupiter, about 58 feet high, in the
temple of Olympia, was also by Pheidias. Pausanias the Roman traveller
enumerates some ten _chryselephantine_ statues which he saw in his
travels, A.D. 140.

The Roman period is noted for the many beautiful Consular diptychs,
which may now be seen in our national museums. They consist of two ivory
leaves usually 12 by 5 inches, the inside having a slightly sunk plane
covered with wax for writing upon, the outside being enriched with
delicate carved reliefs (figs. 7, 8, and 9). These diptychs were given
by new consuls on their appointment, to their friends and officers of
the state. The consul is usually represented seated on the cushioned
curule chair, or chair of state, and his name is generally written
across the top of one leaf.

The Byzantines enriched the covers of their manuscripts with ivory, of
which an illustration is given in fig. 6; the ivory throne of Maximian,
Archbishop of Ravenna, A.D. 546-556, is also of this period. A beautiful
treatment of ivory was used in the 13th and 14th centuries by the
Saracens of Egypt; they frequently worked a fine geometric inlay of
ivory upon ebony; in other examples ivory panels were pentagonal,
hexagonal, or star-shaped, and carved with delicate arabesques, the
framing of the panels being of cedar or ebony. In India ivory carving
reached a high degree of perfection, especially in the many ivory combs,
with pierced and relief work representing the figure of Buddha
surrounded with foliage and richly caparisoned elephants.

In the Carlovingian period, 8th to 10th centuries, ivory was largely
used for coffers or small chests. During the early Gothic period in
Italy and France, ivory crucifixes, pastoral staffs, croziers,
statuettes and triptychs were made in large numbers; and the ivory combs
and mirror cases of the Renascence period have fine reliefs of legendary
or allegorical subjects. Of pictorial ivories the modern Japanese
craftsmen show the highest technical skill, combined with a keen
perception of nature and movement, yet their ivories lack the beauty and
dignity of composition and the decorative treatment of the early and
Mediæval ivories.

[Illustration:

MOSAICS.      Plate 26.
]



MOSAICS.


The durability, range of colour, and appropriateness of material and
treatment to architectural conditions, has placed the art of Mosaic as
the chief decorative enrichment of architecture. Its antiquity is
unquestionable, for in the Book of Esther, i, 6, we read “of a pavement
of red, and blue, and white, and black marble.”

Mosaic is the art of forming patterns by means of pieces of
variously-coloured materials, fitted together, and is broadly divided
into three classes: (1) OPUS TESSELATUM, or clay mosaic; (2) OPUS
LITHOSTRATUM, or stone mosaic; (3) OPUS MISERUM, or glass mosaic. These
divisions are again sub-divided into: (1) _Opus Figlinum_, or ceramic
mosaic, formed of a vitreous composition and coloured with metallic
oxides; (2) _Opus Signinum_, small pieces of tile; (3) _Opus
Vermiculatum_, sub-divided into (a) _Majus_, black and white marble, (b)
_Medium_, in which all materials and colours were used, and (c) _Minus_,
of minute tesseræ, principally used for furniture inlay; (4) _Opus
Sculpturatum_, slabs of marble hollowed out and filled in with grey or
black marble; (5) _Opus Alexandrinum_, inlay of porphyry and serpentine;
and (6) _Opus Sectile_, formed of different laminæ or slices of marble
of various colours.

It was in Rome that the art of Mosaic was brought to its greatest
perfection, during the 1st and 2nd centuries, A.D., and many splendid
examples of this period are now in the museums of the Vatican and at
Naples. The finest example came from the House of the Faun, Pompeii, and
represents the battle of Issus, between Alexander and Darius. This
mosaic, of the 3rd century B.C., is probably a copy of a Greek painting.

Many fine Roman mosaics have been found in England at Cirencester,
London, Lincoln (fig. 6), Leicester, and at Brading in the Isle of
Wight.

The tradition was carried on in Italy at Ravenna and Venice, where the
_Opus Miserum_ reached its culmination. Of the Ravenna mosaics, those of
the Baptistery, A.D. 450, and of S. Apollinare are typical examples of
the earlier Byzantine mosaics, having dark green and gold back-grounds
with tesseræ about 3/8 inch square. The beautiful frieze of male and
female saints in S. Apollinare extends along both sides of the nave, and
is 10 feet high. The vaulting and domes of St. Mark are entirely covered
with the characteristic 11th century Byzantine gold ground mosaic,
formed by fusing two pieces of glass together with gold leaf between. At
Santa Sophia, Constantinople, other fine mosaics exist of the 6th and
7th centuries. In Italy under the Cosmati (a family of mosaicists of the
13th and 14th centuries), fine geometrical inlaid mosaics were used for
the enrichment of marble tombs and altars; some good examples of this
style are in Westminster Abbey on the tomb of Edward the Confessor
(finished under Henry III, A.D. 1270).

[Illustration:

GREEK CERAMICS.      Plate 27.
]



GREEK CERAMICS.


It is difficult in the 19th century to realise the importance of vases
in ancient life. To the Greeks a vase was a receptacle for food, liquid,
or storage, and for the adornment of the home. It was used in the daily
life of the living and buried with the dead. Most of the finer Greek
vases have been found in Etruscan tombs, but of Greek workmanship,
imported from Greece or Grecian Colonies. Some black unglazed Etruscan
vases have been found, but painted vases of Etruscan origin are rare.

Early Greek pottery, dating probably from the 10th century B.C., has
been found in Greece, the Colonies of Rhodes, Cyrene in Africa, and
Naucratis in the delta of Egypt--these, showing an historic development,
are arranged in groups, each with its distinctive characteristic:--(1st)
Primitive vases, simple in shape, handles small or absent, decorations
in simple line, punctured or incised, or in raised slip. (2nd) MYCENÆ or
COLONIAL (B.C. 900-700) vases, often covered with a creamy slip; the
designs painted in brown and black, being derived from geometric
patterns with marine and animal forms. (3rd) DIPYLON or GEOMETRIC (B.C.
700), with fret pattern enrichment, and panels with rude figures of men
and animals in black and brown. (4th) PHALERON WARE (B.C. 700-550), with
continuous bands of animals, probably derived from Phœnicia or Assyria
(fig. 4). Among the animals depicted, are placed portions of the fret
pattern, a survival of the previous style. The details are incised
through the black or brown figure, showing the colour of the clay body.
A development of this Phaleron Ware was the introduction of the rosette,
taking the place of the fret pattern, between the figures or the
animals. (5th) BLACK FIGURE PERIOD (B.C. 600-480), vases, fine in
profile, and with good handles, the body of the vase, in red ware, being
painted with subjects of Grecian mythology in black, and the details
incised; the faces, arms, and legs of the female figures afterwards
painted in white or red slip, and fired at a lower heat. The AMPHORA
(fig. 5) was the chief form of this black figure period, some fine
examples are signed by Exekias and Amasis. (6th) the Transitional period
(B.C. 500-470), when the black silhouette figures on a red ground gave
way to the RED FIGURE PERIOD on a black ground. Artists of this style
were Epiktetos, Pamphæios, Nicosthenes, and Pythos. Many of the vases by
Nicosthenes resemble contemporary metal work in their shape and handles.
The 7th group (B.C. 470-336), also red figures on the black ground, was
the period when Greek fictiles reached their highest perfection, the
chief form employed being the KYLIX. A fine series of these _Kylikes_,
signed by Cachrylion, Euphronios, Duris, Pethenos, and Hieron, are in
the British Museum.

A vase produced specially for funeral purposes was the ATHENIAN
LEKYTHOS, the body of which was covered with white slip, then painted in
polychrome with subjects of singular appropriateness.

[Illustration:

CERAMICS.      Plate 28.
]



CERAMIC ART.


The antiquity of Ceramic Art and its scientific and artistic qualities,
render this subject one of considerable interest to art students.

The plasticity of clay and its hardening qualities under the influence
of intense heat, its adaptability to the most refined and appropriate
forms, its affinity for the beautiful glazes and enamels so often
associated with pottery, and its splendid traditions of craftsmanship,
of colour, form and decorations, so beautiful and varied in
character,--all combine to invest the subject with a charm or
fascination of its own. Intrinsically valueless in its natural state, it
is capable of being rendered almost priceless by scientific workmanship
and artistic skill. The history of this material, and of its easy
adaptation to the most refined and intricate, as well as the simplest of
forms, affords invaluable lessons for present day artistic students.

Pottery clay may be classified under three divisions or headings: (1)
EARTHENWARE. (2) STONEWARE. (3) PORCELAIN. Under the first are grouped
the largest number of Ceramic Wares. The pottery of Egypt, the faience
of Assyria and Persia, the Greek and Etruscan vases, the famous red ware
from the Isle of Samoa, and its counterpart the Roman Samian ware, the
beautiful maiolica of Spain and Italy, the pottery of Rouen, St.
Porchaire, Delft, and most of our English pottery are earthenwares; the
paste or body consists of natural clays selected for their plasticity,
their hardening qualities, their fusibility or their colour, and when
burnt have a porous opaque body, usually dull in colour. This dulness
was usually overcome by coating the ware with a slip of fine white clay,
which, whilst not possessing inherent qualities to form pottery by
itself, would adhere to the coarser coloured body of the earthenware,
thereby forming a smooth white ground. The early Greek vases of
Nancrates, the later Lekythos of the Greeks, the faience of Persia, the
Mezza Maiolica and the Sgraffito of the early Italian Renascence, and
our English slip ware are examples of this method of giving a smooth
white surface to coarse coloured earthenware. A similar result to the
slip covering was also produced by the use of a silicious glaze,
rendered white and opaque by the addition of oxide of tin. Early
Assyrian faience, Della Robbia ware, the Maiolica of Spain and Italy,
and the wares of Delft and Rouen are earthenwares coated with a tin
enamel.

The silicious glaze here referred to is prepared by fusing silicious
materials with soda or potash, and is known as Vitreous, or glass glaze.
Plumbeous, or lead glaze, is produced by the addition of oxide of lead
to the silicious glaze, rendering it more fusible, and still
transparent. A white opaque enamel formed by using oxide of tin with the
vitreous glaze, is termed Stanniferous, or tin enamel. These different
processes of covering the porous body of the earthenware largely
influenced the decorations and scheme of colouring.

The beautiful faience of Damascus and Rhodes is covered with the
silicious slip or glaze, the colours being rich blues, produced by
cobalt, turquoise and green, by cobalt and copper, and purple by the use
of manganese; and then covered with an Alkaline glaze.

In the Rhodian Ware the same scheme of colour prevails, except that the
purple is replaced by a fine opaque red of great body, called Rhodian
red, produced from Armenian bole. On the Italian Maiolica, with its tin
enamel and plumbeous glaze, there are fine blue, turquoise and green,
but red is very poor in colour, and is generally replaced by rich yellow
from antimony, and orange from iron. This white tin enamel was
undoubtedly introduced into Europe by the Moors, as some tiles in the
Alhambra date from 1273-1302.

A large number of bowls and dishes, called Samian Ware, of Roman
importation, have been found in England. The paste is usually of a fine
sealing wax red, with a good glaze. These bowls are enriched with a
series of horizontal bands, containing the festoon, the scroll, birds,
animals, and figures. The bands or friezes are often divided by the
traditional egg and tongue moulding (fig. 1). Clay moulds, impressed
with stamps, were made and then fired. The red paste having been pressed
into the mould, the interior was smoothly turned in the lathe. A mould
of this character was found at York in 1874, so it is possible that some
of this ware was made in England, by Roman potters. Roman pottery has
also been found at Castor, near Peterborough, doubtless made at the
former place, kilns for firing having been found on the same site. This
Castor ware is usually brown, with a black glaze, being ornamented with
indented tool marks, and raised slip patterns of pipe clay (fig. 3).
Many Roman dishes and vases of a dark grey colour, ornamented with
incised lines and raised bosses of clay, have been found in the Upchurch
Marshes in Kent. Little artistic pottery of the mediæval period however
is known to exist. Early in the 13th century beautiful encaustic tiles
were made for the great monasteries, abbeys and cathedrals.

About 1500, the production of tiles was introduced into Holland,
quantities of small blue and white ones decorated with scriptural
subjects, being made at Delft, and thence exported to England for the
lining of fire places, &c. Some fine painted tiles or “Azulejos” were
made at Valencia about the 17th century.

In the 16th century, the porcelain of China was introduced into Europe
by the Dutch and Portuguese traders, and much of the Delft and Rouen
ware subsequently produced, was in imitation of this oriental porcelain.
“Delft” ware which takes its name from the small town of that name in
Holland, dating from 1500 A.D., is a ceramic coated with stanniferous
enamel, decorated with a full and liquid brush upon the absorbent enamel
ground, and then glazed with a plumbeous glaze. Some of this Delft ware
is very fine in quality, the cobalt blues under the glaze being
remarkably soft and rich in colour. Early examples were decorated with
historical subjects, often containing numerous figures, the middle
period being notable for its imitation of Chinese porcelain, and the
application of coloured enamels on coloured grounds. Vast quantities of
this kind of ware were manufactured up to 1760 and exported to all parts
of Europe. The production of Delft ware was first introduced into
England at Lambeth by some Dutch potters in 1676, being subsequently
extended to Fulham, Bristol and Liverpool.

The use of stanniferous enamel was introduced into France by Girolamo
della Robbia, son of Andrea della Robbia, during the reign of Francis
I., 1516, and enamelled ware similar to the later productions of Urbino
was made at Nevers, where also was produced a fine ware decorated with
Persian _Motifs_ in yellow and blue. At Rouen, also, a fine earthenware
covered with tin enamel was manufactured, the decorations consisting of
the lambrequins or scallop pattern, symmetrical in arrangement, and
converging to the centre of the plate or dish. The ornament was based
upon Chinese examples, influenced by the contemporary woven fabrics of
France. The decorations were usually in blue and with overglaze
painting, i.e., after the white enamel was fired, finer and more
delicate detail being obtained by this process, but at the cost of the
purity and liquid softness of colour which is so characteristic of Delft
and Oriental underglaze painting.

In Rouen ware, the ground is generally white, but some fine examples at
South Kensington have a soft yellow ground, a rich Indian yellow being
sometimes introduced with the blue decoration. It was under the
directions of Louis Poterat, 1673, that this most beautiful faience was
perfected.

Bernard Palissy, 1510-90, by repeated experiments discovered the
stanniferous or tin enamel. His first productions were Jasper ware, warm
and brilliant in colour and richly enamelled. In the second period,
rustic dishes elaborately decorated with carefully modelled fishes,
reptiles, and plants or natural foliage, covered with an enamel of great
brilliancy and purity, were the chief productions. The later pottery of
Palissy consisted of salt cellars, inkstands, ewers, &c., the elaborate
figure decorations of which were probably executed by some contemporary
artist.

Henri-Deux or St. Porchards ware, now more properly described as Oiron
ware, originated at St. Porchard in 1524, perhaps by the hand, certainly
under the patronage of Hélène de Hangest, widow of A. Gouffier, a former
Governor under Francis I. This Oiron ware, of a pale straw colour, is
enriched with inlays of yellow, blue, green, and brown coloured pastes,
the interlacing and arabesque ornamentation carried out under the
direction of Jehan Bernart and François Charpentier, being similar in
type to the contemporary bookbinding of Grolier and was probably
executed with similar tools.

Many early examples of Staffordshire slip ware are to be found in
England, consisting chiefly of candlesticks, cups, tygs, posset pots,
piggins and plates, the slip decorations being in yellow, white and
brown. This ware was made at Wrotham as early as 1649, and by Thomas
Toft, at Shilton, 1660 (fig. 9). Marbled, combed and tortoise-shell ware
were formed by using colour slips or clays. Agate and onyx ware were
formed by layers of different coloured clays, crossed, cut, and pressed
into moulds. These methods were perfected by Thomas Wheildon, 1740-98,
and Josiah Wedgwood, 1730-95, who perfected both the Queen’s and the
variegated ware. Queen’s ware of a creamy colour was made chiefly for
dinner and dessert services, being decorated with painted flowers in
enamel.

In 1781, Wedgwood introduced his famous Jasper ware, and Jasper dip or
washed Jasper. This latter ware was dipped into admixtures of metallic
oxides, producing blue, lilac, pink, sage green, olive, yellow, and
black colours as desired. The decorations in low relief, are of the
purest white (fig. 10) and in the traditional classic style, the figures
being arranged as cameo medallions, or in bands with the scroll, the
festoon, and the vine in delicate relief. Many of these beautiful cameos
were designed or modelled by Flaxman, 1755-1826; Pacetti and Angelini,
1787; Bacon, 1740-99; Hackwood, 1770; Roubiliac, 1695-1762; Stothard,
1755-1834; Tassie, 1735-99; and Webber, 1782.

Stone-wares differ from earthenwares, owing to the presence of a larger
percentage of silicia in the plastic material, which, being fired at a
greater degree of heat, vitrifies the body or paste into a kind of
glass, thus ensuring a closeness and hardness of material not possessed
by ordinary earthenware. Stoneware is usually glazed during the firing
by throwing common salt into the kiln, which being volatilized, re-acts
upon the silicia in the body, forming with it a silicate of soda or
glass, having a minute granular texture. The usefulness and the artistic
character of stoneware was perfected by the Flemish and German potters
of the 16th century.

The principal varieties of this ware are the grey and white “Canette” of
Siegburg, near Bonn, and the pale brown or grey ware of Raeren, near
Aix-la-Chapelle, with its incised and stamped enrichments, sometimes
with blue decoration. Frechen, near Cologne, probably supplied the
“Bellarmines” or “Grey beards,” largely imported into England under the
name of “Cologne Pots.” Examples of this Frechen ware were frequently
ornamented with a raised scroll of oak leaves. Grenzhausen, in Nassau,
produced a beautiful grey ware, having delicately moulded reliefs filled
in with blue and purple. Many grey jugs ornamented with the initials of
William III., Queen Anne, and George I., were imported into England from
the Nassau kilns.

A peculiar kind of stoneware, also termed “Cologne ware” was produced at
Fulham by John Dwight, about 1670. Some fine jugs and a few cleverly
modelled unglazed statuettes, believed to have been made at this place,
are to be seen in the British Museum (fig. 11).

Another peculiar red stoneware, porcelain, or Red China as it was
called, was made near Burslem by the Brothers Elers, 1688-1710, the
ornamentation being obtained by pressing sharp intaglio copper moulds
upon pieces of clay attached to the shaped ware. Fine examples,
characterised by beauty of outline and delicacy of enrichments are
exhibited in the Museum of Geology, Jermyn Street. Astbury, 1710-39,
continued the traditions of Elers, producing a fine white stoneware,
which largely influenced the Staffordshire pottery of that period. A
stoneware was also made at Nottingham from 1700 to 1750.

Porcelain is technically known under the terms “hard paste” (“pâte
dure”) and “soft” (“pâte tendre”). Hard porcelain is made from clays
containing much aluminia and felspar or decomposed granite, having but
little plasticity, which necessarily influenced the shape or profile of
the vessel. The beauty of form, which is so typical of the Greek
earthenware vase, is absent in porcelain, where the cylindrical or
octagonal form is principally used. “Pâte tendre” is a soft and vitreous
porcelain, having a great affinity for the beautiful coloured glazes and
enamels used in the early examples of Sèvres.

Porcelain was known in China about 200 B.C., and it was in common use
during the 16th century. During the Ming dynasty, 1568-1640, porcelain
reached its highest development in the perfection of its body,
ornamentation, colour and glazes, blue and turquoise being the chief
colours of this period; this limited range of colour was owing to the
intense heat required to fuse the felspar glaze upon the hard porcelain.

It is uncertain at what date Chinese porcelain was first brought to
Europe. Amongst the earliest known pieces in England are some bowls
given by Philip of Austria to Sir Thomas Trenchard in 1506. But whatever
the date, it was inevitable that attempts should be made to imitate this
beautiful ceramic. Florentine or Medician porcelain was made 1575-80. It
was not however until 1690 or 1700, that a similar manufacture was
established at Rouen and St. Cloud. In 1709, Bottcher commenced making
hard porcelain at Meissen, in Saxony, subsequently producing some
excellent examples about 1715. This was the commencement of the
well-known Dresden china. In 1768, the manufacture of hard porcelain was
adopted at Sèvres, replacing that of “pâte tendre” which had been in use
from 1670. Both “pâte dure” and “pâte tendre” were made at Buen Retiro
in Madrid, A.D. 1759, all the porcelain manufactured for the first 20
years being kept for the exclusive use of the Royal family. There are
some finely modelled Buen Retiro tiles in the Royal Palace at Madrid.

About the year 1740 the manufacture of porcelain was established at Bow,
Chelsea, Derby, Plymouth, Bristol, and Worcester. The shapes and
ornamentation of these English porcelains, having no traditions beyond
the oriental influence, were of a low artistic order, being simply
copies of natural forms, without any controlling influence as regards
design or harmonious arrangements. A lavish use of gilding was also
characteristic of this period, the ornament being very largely
misapplied. This continued to grow worse until the middle of the last
century, when it reached its culminating point of absurdity and
extravagance of form and decorations. The best examples of English
porcelain of this period are obviously copies of oriental porcelain,
chiefly Persian and Chinese. A great advance in the technic of the
porcelain produced in this country took place after the discovery of
Kaolin, in Cornwall, by William Cookworthy, 1755.

Transfer printing over the glaze was adopted at Worcester about 1757,
the transfers being taken from copper plates engraved by Robert Hancock,
a pupil of Ravenet, who was employed at the Battersea enamel works,
about 1750. Sadler and Green in 1756 also adopted over glaze printing on
the Liverpool delft. About 1770, under glaze printing on the biscuit
ware superseded the over glaze process.

Of early English porcelains, those of Derby are, perhaps, the most
refined in form and in treatment of decoration, the plates, cups, and
saucers having borders of blue or turquoise, with enrichments of
festoons, leaves, and flowers; many of the cups were pressed with
fluted, ribbed, or imbricated patterns. The Derby works were founded in
1757 by William Duesbury, who in 1769 purchased the Chelsea works and
carried on the two simultaneously until 1784, when the Chelsea plant was
transferred to Derby. From 1769-73 the ware called “Chelsea-Derby” was
produced, and between 1773-82 “Crown-Derby” was introduced.

Porcelain of an excellent quality was made at Nantgario about 1813, and
at Swansea 1814-17, the decorations in enamel colours consisting of a
natural rendering of flowers, birds, butterflies, and shells.

Porcelain was also made about 1800 at the Herculaneum potteries at
Liverpool. Rockingham, in Yorkshire, produced during the years 1759-88 a
brown china, which, however, was but a fine earthenware, of a hard and
compact body, covered with a rich brown or chocolate glaze. In 1820,
porcelain was made at Rockingham, comprising dinner and dessert
services, richly enamelled and gilt, together with vases, flower
baskets, and busts in white biscuit ware. In 1832, a dessert service of
200 pieces was made for William IV. at a cost of £5,000, the decorations
consisting of natural fruit and flowers, with landscapes and the royal
arms in enamel colours.

In some of the earlier Rockingham ware the outlines of the flowers and
butterflies were in transfer printing, and the colouring was added by
hand.

The illustrations given on plates 21, 27, 28 and 29, show the
universality of the potter’s art, which may be traced through many
beautiful examples differentiated by racial customs and material.

The beauty of form in the Greek vase (plate 27) was but the natural
outcome of a fine earthenware in the hands of an artistic people, with
traditions and architecture of the highest order. In Persian pottery,
form is subservient to colour, blue, turquoise and white being used in
charming combination, together with a frank yet decorative treatment of
natural forms.

[Illustration]

The Hispano-Moresque and Italian Maiolica (plate 29) are remarkable for
the technical excellence of their white enamel, rich blue, yellow and
orange, the iridescence of their gold and ruby lustre, and their high
technical skill in painting.

English earthenware of the 17th and 18th centuries, though traditional,
showed a remarkable diversity in treatment and conception. The
picturesque platter of the Toft school, with its quaint enrichment of
trailing lines and heraldic forms in coloured slip, the fine red
stoneware of Elers, with its graceful enrichments in delicate relief,
and the varied and beautiful jasper ware of Wedgwood mark a distinct
phase of the potter’s art, and bear a tribute to the vitality and
personality of the founders of the “_Potteries_.”

[Illustration:

MAIOLICA.      Plate 29.
]



MAIOLICA.


Maiolica or Italian faience is an earthenware, coated with a
stanniferous or tin glaze, termed enamel. This is formed by the addition
of oxide of tin to a silicious glaze or slip, thus rendering it white
and opaque, hence its name, enamel.

The origin of this beautiful ceramic art may be traced to Persia. From
Persia the art was carried by the Arabians to Fustat, or old Cairo,
which was destroyed 1168 A.D., and amongst the ruins many fragments of
gold and copper lustered ware have been found. This enamelled ware was
introduced into Spain in the 13th century, and perfected there by the
Moors, giving rise to the HISPANO-MORESQUE ware. This ware was enriched
with central heraldic arms, surrounded by concentric bands of foliage,
arabesques, or inscriptions in blue, with a copper lustre. This
Hispano-Moresque ware was manufactured chiefly at Malaga, Talavera,
Triana and Valencia, and dates from the Moorish occupation of Granada
A.D. 1235-1492.

In the island of Majorca, from which this beautiful ware derives its
name, fine examples were manufactured at an early date by Persian and
Arabian potters. After the conquest of Majorca by the Pisans, A.D. 1115,
many of these examples were introduced into Italy, the art being
subsequently cultivated in some of the smaller central states. The early
ITALIAN MAIOLICA was usually covered with a thin white “slip” or engobe
of clay which served as a ground for the coloured patterns. It was then
coated with a lead glaze and was known as mezza or mixed maiolica. In
some examples the design was scratched or engraved through the upper
layer or white engobe, showing the darker body underneath. This type of
ware, known as “sgraffito” was also glazed with the lead glaze, forming,
when fired, the beautiful iridescent lustre.

No remains of a tin enamel of Italian workmanship have been found in
Italy prior to the time of Luca della Robbia, 1400-1481, who discovered
an enamel of peculiar whiteness and excellence. The secret of its
composition was kept by him, his nephew Andrea, and his great-nephews
Giovanni, Luca and Girolamo, until 1507. The Mezza Maiolica was then
superseded by the true Maiolica or the tin enamelled wares of
Caffaggiolo, Castel Uurante, Urbino, Pesaro, Faenza, Forli, Diruta,
Siena and Gubbio, with their remarkable brilliance of blues, greens,
yellows and orange. The Gubbio ware is noted for its metallic ruby and
golden lustre and was signed by Maestro Georgio (Georgio Andreoli,
1492-1537). The same artist also lustred many wares made by the potters
of Urbino and Castel Durante. Other examples of Urbino ware are signed
by Niccola da Urbino, 1490-1530, Orazio Fontano, 1540-70, Francesco
Xanto Avelli, 1530-40. Faenza ware was produced at the Casa Pirota
Botega, and Siena ware was signed by Maestro Benedetto.

The chief characteristics of Caffaggiolo ware are arabesques and figures
in white, grey or yellow on a rich dark blue ground. Urbino has small
medallions with figures and blue and yellow arabesques on a white
ground, called Raffaelesque, being from designs by Raffaelle del Colle.
Faenza has a yellow ground with blue arabesques.

In brief, the number of colours that could be used on the absorbent tin
enamelled ground with its lead glaze was somewhat limited, consisting of
blue, turquoise, yellow and orange. These colours are of great depth and
translucency, and are only equalled by the blues and turquoise of China,
Persia and India.

Gubbio ware is frequently enriched with a raised curved fluting called
“_Gadroons_,” a most effective method of enhancing the beautiful ruby
lustre of Maestro Giorgio. This Gubbio tradition was continued by
Giorgio’s son, Vincentio, called Maestro Cencio, and many beautiful
lustre works are signed by him.

This lustre was produced by exposing the ware to the action of smoke
during the firing in the kiln; the smoke, being carbon in a highly
divided state, reduces the metallic salts of the pigment or glaze,
forming a thin film of metal upon the surface, the beautiful iridescent
lustre resulting from the relative thickness of the film.

Castel Durante was frequently enriched, on white or grey borders, with
delicate raised scroll-work in white slip or enamel, a process called
“_Lavoro di sopra bianco_” or “_bianco sopra bianco_.”

Faenza Maiolica has, frequently, the whole surface of the ground covered
with a dark blue enamel, enriched with dancing amorini and arabesques in
blue, heightened with white “_Sopra Azzurro_.”

A frequent form of enrichment upon plates was to have small medallions
painted with portraits and appropriate inscriptions, and doubtless
intended as lover’s presents. They are known as “_Amatorii Maiolica_.”



TERRA COTTA.


Terra Cotta is usually made from pure clay, which will burn to a white
or yellow colour, or from impure, which will burn to a red colour, owing
to the presence of oxide of iron. Pure clay is a hydrous silicate of
alumina, containing 47 parts per cent. of silica, 40 of alumina, and 13
of water. Clay, in this proportion, is the Kaoline or china clay. Fire
clay, which is found in the coal measures, has a larger proportion of
silica than Kaoline, and from it much of the terra cotta is made. When
first dug out, it is hard and compact, and of a greenish grey colour,
deepening to black. It is often weathered before using. This causes it
to “fall” and facilitates grinding. Old fire clay, previously burnt
(“grog” as it is called) is added to the new clay to counteract the
excessive shrinkage to which all close-grained clays are liable. The
coarser the clay, the less the shrinkage. The colour of the clay varies
according to the quantity of lime, iron, or bitumen it contains. Pure
clay contracts as much as one-eighth from the size of the mould; one
half of this contraction takes place in drying, the other half in
burning. Clay mixed with “grog” will contract about one-twelfth.

[Illustration]

The moulds for terra cotta are usually piece moulds, made of plaster of
Paris, which absorbs much of the moisture of the clay. Sheet clay about
two inches thick is used. This is carefully pressed into the mould and
supported by webs of clay of the same thickness. It is essential to the
clay to be uniform throughout, or the shrinkage would be unequal. It is
then placed upon a flue to dry from two to six hours, when the clay will
have contracted sufficiently to allow the mould to be taken off. It is
then dried for a further period and burnt in a kiln. For fine work, the
kiln is “muffled”--the “muffle” being a lining of bricks to keep the
clay from actual contact with fire and smoke. The dry, or semi-dry
process, is the pressing of clay-powder into metal moulds, which
obviates the excessive shrinkage of the wet process. Encaustic tiles are
made in this way, the ornament being run into the incised pattern with
“slip.” Many tiles are decorated in the same way as ordinary
earthenware, that is, painted and glazed.

Terra cotta was largely used by the nations of antiquity, especially by
the Assyrians, whose clay tablets or books throw so much light upon
Assyrian history. With the Greek, terra cotta was extensively used for
“antefixa,” and the many beautiful Tanagra figures now treasured in our
museums show the exquisite modelling by the Greeks, in such a material
as terra cotta.

[Illustration: TERRA COTTA BY ANDREA DELLA ROBBIA.]

This material was used by the Etruscans for their sarcophagi and
recumbent figures. The Pompeians tiled their roofs with terra cotta. It
was used for votive statues and offerings, and for lamps, some of which
were dipped in molten glass.

During the revival of art in Italy in the 15th and 16th centuries, terra
cotta was extensively used by the Della Robbia family. LUCA DELLA
ROBBIA, 1400-82, produced many beautiful terra cotta reliefs coated with
the white tin enamel and enriched with coloured enamels. Among his
numerous works were the following:--The marble _Cantoria_ in the
cathedral; five bas-reliefs in marble on the Campanile at Florence; his
two first terra cotta reliefs in the tympanans of the doorway, and the
doors of the sacristry of the cathedral at Florence (1443-46); with the
two kneeling angels holding candelabra; the splendid monument to
L’Evêque Federighi (1455) with its beautiful recumbent figure, in the
church of S. Trinità, Florence; and the many fine medallions enriched
with heraldic forms executed for the church of Or San Michele and the
palace Quarateri in Florence. Fine examples are the medallions with the
arms of King Renè D’Anjou, now in the South Kensington museum.

In Santa Croce at Florence, there are a series of medallions of the four
evangelists and the twelve apostles, and in the South Kensington museum
there are twelve medallions representing the months. Many splendid
examples of Luca della Robbia’s work are now treasured in the national
museums.

Andrea della Robbia (1435-1525) the nephew of Luca carried on the
traditions with rare selective power and artistic skill; among his early
works are the medallions for L’Hospital des Innocent, or the Children’s
Hospital. The Adoration and the Annunciation were familiar subjects with
Andrea, the illustrations given of the Annunciation in the Children’s
Hospital, and the Virgin and child in the national museum at Florence
being typical examples of his work. There is a splendid “Adoration” by
Andrea in the South Kensington museum.

[Illustration: ENAMELLED TERRA COTTA ANDREA DELLA ROBBIA.]

Giovanni della Robbia (1469-1527) son of Andrea continued this splendid
tradition: his principal works being the Lavabo in S. Maria Novella, the
tabernacle in S. Apostles, and the virgin and saints in Santa Croce, all
in Florence. Many other beautiful works still remain which attest to the
remarkable traditions of craftsmanship of the Della Robbia family.

Girolamo, brother of Giovanni, carried this tradition into France under
Francis I.



ENAMELS.


Of the many decorative arts, enamelling is one of the most beautiful,
having a singular charm of limpid or opalescent colour of great purity,
richness and durability, and being capable of a most refined and varied
treatment for the enrichment of metals.

Enamel is a vitreous or glass compound, translucent, semi-translucent or
opaque, owing its colouring properties to mineral oxides, or sulphides,
a fine opaque white being produced by oxide of tin. These enamels
require different degrees of heat in order to fuse them and to cause
their adhesion to the metal. Enamels are divided into three classes,
CLOISONNÉ, CHAMPLEVÉ and PAINTED ENAMELS.

CLOISONNÉ enamel is that in which the cloisons or cells are formed by
soldering thin, flat wire of metal upon a plate of copper, the cloisons,
being filled with the various enamels, in powder or in paste, then, in
order to vitrify the enamel, exposed to heat in a kiln, if upon a flat
surface, or by the aid of a blow-pipe if upon a curved surface.

Cloisonné was in use from the early dynasties in Egypt, many fine large
pectorals having been found in the tombs. These usually have the form of
a hawk and are of gold or bronze with well-defined cloisons, which were
filled with carefully fitted coloured paste or glass, and this
undoubtedly was the origin of the true or vitreous cloisonné enamel.
Byzantine enamel is invariably cloisonné and one of the most beautiful
examples of this period is the Pala d’Oro of St. Mark’s at Venice, A.D.
976. Perhaps the Chinese and Japanese have carried this cloisonné to its
greatest perfection in softness of colour and beauty of technic. The
earliest Chinese cloisonné is of the Ming dynasty, 1368-1643; this has
heavy cast metal grounds with low toned colours and deep reds and blues.
Under the Thsing dynasty, which commenced in 1643, the colours became
brighter and the designs more refined.

Early Japanese cloisonné or “Shippo” was doubtless derived from Chinese
or Persian sources, and it is characterised by extremely thin beaten
copper grounds and the frequent use of a dark green ground in place of
the dark blue of the Chinese cloisonné.

The Japanese cloisonné reached its culmination during the last century,
when many splendid examples of refined and delicate enamels were
produced, remarkable for their beautiful opalescent and translucent
colour. Gold cloisons with opaque and translucent enamels were
frequently inserted in iron or silver objects by the Japanese of this
period.

An early example of English cloisonné is the jewel of King Alfred, now
in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford: this has a rich setting of opaque and
translucent enamels. A fine Celtic cloisonné treatment may be seen in
the Ardage chalice, where the cloisons were cut out of a plate of silver
and embedded in the enamel while soft. These Celtic craftsmen also had a
beautiful treatment of enamelling by engraving or pressing a pattern in
intaglio, or sunk relief, on an enamelled ground, and then filling these
intaglios with other enamels.

A most exquisite kind of enamel called “_Plique à Jour_,” was used by
the Byzantines; this was composed of open filigree cloisons, filled with
translucent enamels.

CHAMPLEVÉ enamel is formed by engraving, casting or scooping out the
cloisons from a metal plate, leaving a thin wall or boundary between
each cloison, which is then filled with the various enamels as in the
cloisonné method. This Champlevé method was practised in Britain before
the Roman conquest, and was probably derived from the Phœnicians, who,
centuries before the Romans came to England, had traded with Cornwall
for tin. The beauty of colour and perfect adaptability of these early
enamelled brooches, fibulæ and trappings of horses of the early Britons
and Celts, are remarkable, showing a fine sense of colour and a harmony
of line and mass. A splendid bronze Celtic shield (fig. 4, plate 13),
now in the British Museum, is enriched with fine red bosses of enamel.
These Champlevé enamels upon bronze have usually an opalescent or cloudy
appearance caused by the fusion of the tin in the bronze alloy during
firing. Champlevé enamels were used with rare skill and refinement to
enhance the beautiful art of the goldsmith during the Middle Ages; the
Chalice, the Paten, the Reliquary, the Thurible, the Crozier, and the
bookcovers of the Churches, especially, were enriched with beautiful
enamels. Classed among the Champlevé enamels is that method called
JEWELLER’S ENAMEL or “_Baisse Taille_,” in which the plate is engraved
in low relief or beaten up in repoussé and then flooded with translucent
enamel. The Lynn cup of the time of Richard II. is one of the oldest
pieces of corporation plate and is covered with fine translucent blue
and green enamels.

In India, where fine colour is a splendid tradition, Champlevé enamel
soon attained a remarkable perfection of technic and purity and
brilliance of colour almost unknown to the Western nations. The
Champlevé enamels of JAIPUR have most beautiful lustrous and transparent
blues, greens and reds laid on a pure gold ground. PERTUBGHUR is
renowned for the fine green or turquoise enamel fired upon a plate of
gold; while the enamel was still soft a plate of pierced gold was
pressed into the enamel. This pierced plate was afterwards engraved with
incidents of history or hunting. In RATAIN, in Central India, a similar
enamel is made having a fine blue in place of the Pertubghur green.

The fine monumental brasses, of which many still remain in our English
cathedrals and churches, are a survival of the Champlevé process, the
cloisons, being usually filled with a black NIELLO, but occasionally the
heraldic shields are enriched with coloured enamels. During the 11th and
12th centuries, LIMOGES was renowned for its fine Champlevé enamels, but
early in the 15th century PAINTED ENAMELS were introduced and Limoges
became the centre of this art, called late Limoges or GRISAILLE ENAMEL.
The enamel colours were now used as a pigment, and were painted and
fired upon a copper plate. The enrichments in grisaille, or grey and
white, were used upon a black, violet or dark blue ground, the grisaille
afterwards being enriched with details of fine gold lines. These Limoges
enamels have a splendid technic, but they lack the charms of the
luminous colour and judicious use of enamels of the early Champlevé
period. The most renowned masters of the painted enamels of Limoges were
Penicand, 1503, Courtois, 1510, Pierre Raymond, 1530-1570, and Leonard
Limousin, 1532-1574. About 1600-1650, Jean Toutin and his pupil Petitot
produced some fine painted miniatures in opaque enamels upon gold,
remarkable for delicacy and perfection of enamelling. In 1750, painted
enamel was introduced into England and produced for about 30 years at
Battersea by Janssen. The enrichment consisted of flowers painted in
natural colours on a white ground. A similar enamel was also produced at
Bilston in Staffordshire.

[Illustration]

The finest enamels undoubtedly are those in which the enamel is used in
small quantities, such as in the Celtic jewellery, the bookcovers, and
the Church and Corporation plate of the Gothic and early Renascence
period, and the early Byzantine cloisonné, such as the Hamilton brooch
in the British Museum, and the Pala d’Oro of St. Mark’s, Venice, which
was made at Constantinople for the Doge Orseolo in 976 A.D., and has 83
panels of fine cloisonné enamel set in a framework of gold.

[Illustration]

The “_Plique à jour_,” the “_Baisse taille_” and the Pertubghur enamels
are fine examples of appropriateness of treatment with translucency or
opalescence and richness of colour.

The Japanese cloisonné with its literal treatment of natural forms, and
the painted enamel portraits of Francis I. and contemporary princes by
Leonard Limousin, clever as they undoubtedly are, lack the depth and
purity of colour obtained by the early methods. Frequently, however, the
Penicauds, Nardou, and Jean I. and II. obtained some richness in the
painted enamels by the use of “_Paillons_” or pieces of metallic foil
which were afterwards flooded with translucent enamel.

[Illustration:

GLASS.      Plate 30.
]



GLASS.


The purity of glass, its adaptability to colour, and its remarkable
ductility while hot for blowing, twisting or drawing into threads,
differentiates it from all other materials and methods of treatment. Its
tradition dates from the remote past, for glass-blowing is represented
on the tombs at Thebes, B.C. 2500. It was also used in Egypt for
vitreous pastes for bronze and gold cloisonné jewellery, and for the
small bottles or Stibium, with chevron patterns, in yellow, turquoise
and white on a coloured ground. Similar patterns, colours and forms were
used by Phœnicia and her colonies, the usual forms being the Alabastra
and Amphorae. Many remains of bowls were found in Assyria, one (now in
the British museum) of transparent green glass, having the name of
Sargon, B.C. 722. Greece seems to have imported most of her glass from
Phœnicia, but the Romans carried on the tradition, producing fine MOSAIC
or MILLEFIORI. This was made by fusing rods of white and coloured glass
together, then drawing it out to fine threads and slicing it
transversely; the section is then placed in a mould and a bubble blown,
uniting the mosaic, which is then blown into various shapes. The Romans
also used the interlacing of white and coloured rods called LATICINIO,
but they excelled in the CAMEO GLASS, of which the Portland vase is the
finest known example. This vase is of dark blue glass, covered with
white opaque glass, which was ground away with the wheel, leaving the
figures in delicate relief. It was found in 1644 in the sarcophagus of
Alexander Severus, A.D. 325, the subject of its relief being the myth of
Peleus and Thetis. Another Roman example of cameo glass in the British
museum is the Auldjo vase or Oinochoè with beautiful reliefs of vine
leaves. Frequently these reliefs were blown or pressed into moulds, and
a good example of this treatment is in the South Kensington museum (fig.
6). The tradition then declined until the 14th century, when the
Venetians in the island of Murano, perfected the art of glass making.

The earliest examples of VENETIAN GLASS were massive, richly gilt and
enamelled in colours; one fine example in the British museum is signed
by its maker, “Magister Aldrevandini.” In the 15th and 16th centuries
the most delicate and beautiful blown glass was made, often uncoloured
and with enrichments of knots and wings in blown and shaped blue glass.
The Venetians used with equal skill all the old methods of glassmaking;
the MILLEFIORI; the LATICINIO or threads of opaque white enclosing
pattern; RETICELLI, a network of white lines enclosing at the
intersections a bubble of air; and the beautiful VITRO DI TRINA,
filigree or lace glass, formed by canes or threads of white or coloured
glass being placed in a mould, a bubble being then blown in, and the
glass afterwards taken from the mould and blown or twisted to the shape
required. The artistic bronze mirrors of ancient and mediæval times now
give way to the glass mirrors of the Venetians, A.D. 1500.

[Illustration:

STAINED GLASS.      Plate 31.
]



STAINED GLASS


with its depth and translucency, owes its intrinsic qualities to
metallic oxides, such as cobalt, giving fine blues, silver, pale and
deep yellows, pink from iron and antimony, and ruby from gold and
copper, which also yields fine greens. When these oxides are mixed with
the glass, in its fused state, it is termed _pot metal_, but if the
coloured oxides are applied to the surface of the glass only, it is
termed _flashed_ or _cased glass_. Ruby, owing to its depth of colour,
is usually cased glass. Fine blues are often flashed, and splendid
effects are produced by flashing ruby over yellow, or blue pot metal
glass. Cased glass is of the greatest value owing to the variety of tint
that can be produced on a single sheet of glass, and also that the
colour may be removed by grinding or by the use of fluoric acid.

The rationale of the glass painter is--1st, The scheme of composition
and colour shown on a small scale. 2nd, A full sized cartoon in charcoal
or monochrome, with all the details carefully drawn, and showing the
lead lines and positions of the iron stanchions for strengthening the
window. 3rd, A tracing on cloth showing the lead lines only, called the
cut line, on which is cut the selected pieces of glass. 4th, Tracing all
details from the cartoon, with brown enamel on each piece of glass, the
pieces after firing being then fixed in the leading, and kept together
with H shaped leads. A diagram is given here showing the leading of an
example of 13th century glass.

[Illustration]

The brown enamel, which is used entirely for outline, detail or shading,
is a fusible glass in combination with opaque manganic or ferric oxide,
and tar oil. With this enamel, smear shading or stipple shading is
worked. This may be removed as required, before firing, by means of a
pointed stick or quill, so as to give the details of embroidery, or of
heraldic forms.

Silver stain (oxide of silver) introduced at the beginning of the 14th
century is largely used in stained glass, and usually on the back
thereof. According to the different degrees of heat in the firing, a
pale yellow or deep orange of great transparency is produced.

Coloured glass was made by the Egyptians 4000 years ago, but the
earliest stained glass windows recorded, were those of Brionde A.D. 525.
None however are known to be in existence prior to those of St. Denis
A.D. 1108. Other examples are found in Norman windows, with small
medallions of figures and ornament of a decided Byzantine type,
extremely deep in colour, being, by its style of treatment, termed
mosaic glass. The 13th century, or early Gothic period, has single
lancet lights, with medallions containing small figures surrounded by
the typical 13th century foliage; or the windows were entirely of
ornament in _grisaille_, arranged symmetrically, having narrow bands of
ruby or blue, with wide borders. These _grisaille_ windows are of a
greenish white glass, with the ornament in outline, and the ground
hatched with brown enamel in fine cross lines (fig. 1-2). The north
transept window at York cathedral, called the five sisters, is typical
of this grisaille glass. The finest examples however, are at Salisbury
and Chartres cathedrals. Later in the period, single figures were
introduced under a simple canopy or gabling, plain or crocketed, with an
ordinary trefoil arch.

[Illustration: 13TH CENTURY GLASS. CHARTRES CATHEDRAL.]

“Quarry glass,” square or diamond in shape, with brown enamel details,
was frequently used, where simple masses were desired.

In the 14th century, the figures were larger and placed under canopies
in each light of the mullioned windows, such figures in rich colours
forming a bright belt across the window, surmounted by the canopies,
cusped and crocketed, and in strong yellow pot metal, or yellow-cased
glass. The borders were narrow, with a somewhat natural rendering of the
rose, the maple and the oak.

In the 15th century, a further change took place, figures became more
numerous and the canopy or shrine larger, and chiefly in white glass,
with the crockets and finials tipped with yellow stain. The coloured
border of the earlier glass is entirely absent, its place being taken by
the shaft of the canopy, and the crockets, finials and ornaments are
square in treatment and based chiefly on the vine leaf.

[Illustration]

Fairford church, perhaps, contains the finest series of late Gothic
glass A.D. 1500-30. Like the contemporary architecture of the 16th
century, the Renascence now influenced stained glass. The canopy still
survived, but was horizontal or pedimental in form, with purely
classical columns and details. Good examples of this period are the
windows of King’s College Chapel, Cambridge (1520), where rich
Renascence work is introduced into late Gothic mullioned windows. About
1540, transparent enamels were introduced with skill and reticence, but
gradually glass painters began to vie with pictorial oil painting in
effects of light and shade, the ground work or material losing that
beautiful translucent or transmitted colour, which is the chief glory of
stained glass. An example showing the degradation of this art is the
west window of New College, Oxford, painted by Jervas, 1777, from
designs by Sir Joshua Reynolds.

The ornamentation of stained glass naturally followed contemporary
architecture in the treatment of style, differentiated only by the
technical necessities of material. For instance, in the early English
glass (plate 31), the details of the ornament have the characteristic
spiral arrangement and the trefoil foliage of contemporary architectural
ornament, only the foliage is treated more in profile, as being more
suited to the technical necessities of leading and brush work.

Most of the detail, however, shows a strong affinity to French
contemporary ornament, this doubtless was owing to the influence of
French craftsmanship and tradition in the stained glass of that period.

In the 14th century, the English craftsman attained a thorough mastery
over his materials, and consequently the type of ornament followed
English contemporary architecture more closely.

To sum up, stained glass changed through the different periods from the
rich coloured mosaic of the Normans--the equally rich coloured
medallions and grisaille glass of the early Gothic--the decorated
Gothic, with glass in lighter colours, and a prevalence of yellow stain,
culminating in the later Gothic period, when largeness of mass,
lightness, and silvery colour, were the characteristics. A beautiful
treatment of stained glass, dating from the 15th century was used by the
Arabians; this glass, which has a singular gem-like quality, and without
enamel or stain, was let into a framework of plaster, which had been cut
and pierced with geometrical or floral patterns.

Modern stained glass has attained a high degree of perfection in design
and material under Burne Jones, Walter Crane, Frederic Shields and Henry
Holiday, with glass such as that produced by Morris, Powell and Sparrow,
and the American opalescent glass of La Farge and Tiffany.

The individuality of their work, appropriateness of treatment, based
upon the splendid tradition of the past, mark a distinct epoch in
history of stained glass.

Splendid heraldic glass by A. W. Pugin may be seen in the Houses of
Parliament, Westminster; and in the hall and staircase of the Rochdale
Town Hall, there is a fine series of windows by Heaton, Butler, and
Baine, remarkable for dignity of style and unity of conception.

[Illustration:

GOLD AND SILVER.      Plate 32.
]



GOLD AND SILVER.


Of all treasure trove, those of gold and silver are the most valuable,
showing us the riches, culture and the decorative arts of the people who
centuries ago used these beautiful objects of jewellery or of utility.
One of the earliest and most valuable of these treasures was found in
1859 with the mummy of Queen Aah-Hotep, 1800 B.C. (Cairo Museum), and
consisted of: bracelets, armlets, rings, chains, a diadem (fig. 1), a
small model of a twelve-oared war galley, and a poniard, all of
exquisite workmanship, and of pure gold, enriched with jasper and
turquoise vitreous pastes. At Petrossa in 1837 (Bukarest Museum),
twenty-two beautiful gold objects were found, but only twelve were
recovered, consisting of two neck-rings or Torques; a large salver,
hammered and chased; a ewer; a bowl with figures in repoussé; four
fibula enriched with precious stones; a gorget; and two double-handled
cups (fig. 4) all of which are Byzantine work of the 5th century. At
Guarrazar in Spain, ten gold votive crowns of Gothic workmanship were
found; one inscribed with the name of King Suintila, 630 A.D., is now in
the museum at Madrid, the others in the Hôtel Cluny, Paris, the largest
having the name of King Rescesvinthus, 670 A.D. in pendive letters (fig.
3). Of silversmith’s work, the most important is the “Treasure of
Hildesheim,” found in 1868 (now in the Berlin Museum) consisting of
thirty objects, cups, vases, and dishes, beautiful in contour and
admirably enriched with delicate repoussé work of the Greco-Roman period
(fig. 5). The British Museum contains many fine examples of Greek and
Etruscan goldsmith’s art; some early Greek work has the typical Mycenæ
spiral enrichment. Beautiful Greek plaques of the 4th and 5th centuries
B.C. were obtained by pressing the gold into stone moulds, and were
afterwards enriched with threads of gold or “filigree,” which developed
later into the Byzantine filigree work.

The beautiful Etruscan Fibulæ are enriched with minute globules of gold
soldered on, a process brought to a remarkable degree of perfection by
the Etruscans in the 7th, 6th and 5th centuries B.C. Of the gold and
silver vessels used by Solomon in the temple, we have the description in
the Books of Kings and Chronicles, but no trace of the originals, except
that on the Arch of Titus, 79 A.D., we find a representation of the
seven-branched golden candlestick (fig. 9). Of the Mediæval period, many
fine examples of church and corporation plate are still treasured in our
museums. They are of great intrinsic value, of beautiful workmanship,
chased and engraved, and enriched with cast and repoussé work and the
choicest enamels. Of the craftsman or goldsmith we know but little, but
his delicacy of touch, his just appreciation of appropriateness of
treatment to his material, and the singular grace and charm of his
design are a tribute to his culture and personality. Cellini produced
many beautiful works, yet perhaps not more beautiful than his many
contemporary goldsmiths. In our museums there are some charming
specimens of engraving upon silver, filled in with black enamel called
Niello, by Maso Finiguerre, about 1450, who produced some early prints
from an engraved plate.

[Illustration:

BRONZES.      Plate 33.
]



BRONZE.


Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, has been in use from a remote period
in the history of the arts. Its adaptability for casting, its
durability, utility and colour have rendered this material one of the
most useful and valuable. Of the many fine examples of the early
Egyptian and Assyrian bronze now in the British Museum, the most
beautiful are the bronzes of Siris, two fragments of armour, with
reliefs in repoussé (fig. 4). The many Greek statues in the round, of
their Gods and heroes, show the most skilful technique and beauty of
form. The Etruscans were clever workers in this material, and they used
a most expressive treatment of incised lines, which differentiates their
decorative bronzes from those of Greece, with their delicate low
reliefs. The bronze mirrors (fig. 2) and the Cista are typical examples
of the Etruscan treatment. The finest known cista is that called the
“Ficoroni Cista,” by Morios Plantios (3rd century B.C.) and is now in
the Collegio Romano; a description, with illustrations of this example
is in the “_Magazine of Art_,” April, 1884. Descriptions of this cista
and of the many fine examples in the British Museum are given in
“_Murray’s Handbook of Greek Archæology_.” Of small decorative bronzes,
Naples Museum alone has over 13,000 examples, consisting of candelabra,
tripods, tables, chairs and couches, which, eighteen centuries ago, were
used by the wealthy Roman citizens. Of bronze equestrian statues, the
most renowned are those of Marcus Aurelius, at Rome, A.D. 175;
Bartolomeo Coleone, at Venice, A.D. 1488, by Andrea Verrocchio; and
Alessandro Leopardo; and that of Gattamelata, at Padua, 1453 A.D., by
Donatello.

A remarkable bronze figure of the Renascence period is that of Perseus,
by Benvenuto Cellini, 1500-1570, at Florence, and the figure of Neptune
on the fountain at Bologna by Giovanni da Bologna, 1524-90.

The bronze doors of San Zenone, at Verona, (see plates 1 and 3 in
“_Aratra Pentelici_” by John Ruskin), and those of the Baptistery, at
Florence, by Andrea Pisano and Ghiberti (see Renascence) are typical
examples of early Renascence bronzes. The casting of these Bronzes was
by the “Cire Perdu” method, that is, by forming a core of firm material
nearly the size and shape required, then covering with sheet wax and
finishing with the detail required, with sticks of wax projecting to
form vents for the escape of steam in casting. The wax is then brushed
over with a composition of fine clay and ground crucibles to some
thickness and the mould thus formed is connected with the inner one by
bronze rods. The wax is then melted out, leaving a cavity Into which the
liquid bronze is poured, the core and mould being afterwards removed.
Bronze is also cast in piece moulds taken from the model; the piece
mould is then lined with sheet clay and put together and the core run
in. The clay is then removed and the bronze run in as in the former
process. The sand process for casting has now reached a high degree of
perfection in which the core and mould are formed by pressure in a fine
tenacious sand.

[Illustration:

WROUGHT IRON.      Plate 34.
]



WROUGHT IRON.


The decorative qualities of iron, with its strength, durability and
comparative cheapness, have rendered it one of the most useful metals in
the applied arts. Used from an early period for implements of war and
the chase, it gradually became associated with architecture and
furniture, reaching in the 15th and 16th centuries a remarkable degree
of beauty and skilful craftsmanship that has never been excelled. Many
fine Norman hinges of wrought iron are still in existence, having a
straight central bar or strap, with small scroll terminations; these
central straps were strengthened with crescent-shaped pieces,
terminating in small serpent forms, probably a survival of the Viking
traditions. This form of hinge was succeeded by the Early Gothic hinge,
which was a series of spirals springing from the straight bar or strap,
the spiral being welded or fastened with collars; these spirals were
enriched with the three-lobed foliage or trefoil, typical of the Early
Gothic period; fine examples of this hinge occur on the west door of
Notre Dame, Paris, where this typical spiral has the trefoil leaf, with
birds, dragons and small rosettes in stamped iron. This stamped
characteristic may be seen, but in a less degree, in the fine hinges of
Leighton Buzzard Church, Eaton Bray Church, Bedfordshire, and the
Eleanor grill in Westminster Abbey, by Thomas de Leghton, in 1294. In
the 14th and 15th centuries, when panelled doors took the place of the
earlier doors, this Early Gothic style of hinge was not needed (fig. 5)
so that we find no trace of it in that period, but the art of wrought
iron was continued with the hammered and chiselled hinges and lock
plates of the most varied and delicate workmanship, which enriched the
beautiful Gothic chests of the 14th and 15th centuries. The simple
wrought screen, which was so largely used in the 13th century was now
elaborated, especially in Italy, and fine examples of quatre-foil
grilles with massive wrought framing and a rich frieze of foliage,
cupids and animals in pierced and hammered iron are to be seen at the
cathedrals of Orvieto, Prato and Siena, dating from about 1337 to 1350,
and at Santa Croce, Florence, 1371; but it was in Spain and France that
the screen reached its culmination. The Spanish screens or “Réjas” in
the cathedrals of Seville, Toledo and Granada have a fine range of
turned and chiselled vertical bars some 30 to 50 feet high, with an
elaborate frieze and cresting.

Beautiful wrought and chiselled gates were erected in France about 1658,
for the Louvre and the Royal Chateaux of Anet and Econeu. There are some
fine wrought gates at Hampton Court by Jean Tijon, who published some
drawings of them in 1693, and many good simple gates of the last century
are still in position in many parts of the country.

The wrought iron gate piers in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor, with their
architectural treatment of open panelling, cresting, and massive
buttresses, in filed, bolted and riveted, are splendid examples of
Flemish workmanship, and are probably by Quintin Matsys (1450-1529).



FURNITURE.


The adaptability and universality of wood for domestic and public
purposes, its susceptibility to carving and enrichment, its beautiful
texture, grain and colour, have made it one of the most useful of
materials in the constructive and decorative arts.

The many chairs, tables and chests of ancient times, and the beautiful
choir stalls, cabinets and screens of the middle ages are a tribute to
the vitality, inventiveness and artistic perception of the old
craftsman.

[Illustration]

The universality of the chair has tended to preserve the form through
many centuries. The chair has undergone various modifications, from the
ornate Egyptian one to the Assyrian example with the supports of
fir-cones. In the Greek example, the beauty and simplicity of profile is
remarkable, while the Chair of St. Peter, 1st century A.D., is purely
architectonic with enrichments of gold and ivory.

[Illustration]

The Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey, of the time of Edward I., is
one of the earliest in England, offering a strong contrast to the chairs
of the 18th century by Chippendale and Sheraton.

[Illustration]

A Venetian chair of the 16th century shows a skilful but inappropriate
treatment.

The Arabians at Cairo, in the 15th century, produced some beautiful
geometrical wood panelling, frequently inlaid with ebony and ivory, and
having a marvellous intricacy of line and detail.

In Italy, during the 16th century, many beautifully carved cassone or
chests, in walnut, enriched with gilding, were produced, similar to the
one here figured from South Kensington Museum.

In Italy the beautiful carved choir stalls of the 16th century were
frequently enriched with INTARSIA, a light wood inlay upon a dark
ground, this intarsia being afterwards slightly etched and black rubbed
in, or scorched with hot sand or irons. The choir stalls at St. Organo,
Verona, and the Certosa, at Pavia, are fine examples of Intarsia.

[Illustration: CASSONE OR CHEST S K M ITALIAN 16^{TH} CENTURY]

In the Renascence of France we meet with many examples of beautiful
furniture, great skill, taste and ingenuity being brought to bear upon
this work. Jean Goujon, Bachelier and Philibert de l’Orme were famed for
their wood carvings in the 16th century.

In 1642, André Charles Boule introduced a veneered work composed of thin
tortoise-shell and brass, frequently chased or engraved; this is now
termed BOULE work. In some of the later work the shell is laid on a
vermilion or gold ground, which greatly enhances its effect. In the 18th
century, Boule work was still made in France, but new methods and new
men came to the front, amongst others were Riesener and David Roentgen,
who produced splendid MARQUETRY of flowers, festoons and diaper patterns
inlaid in various coloured woods. Both these men worked in mahogany and
ebony, and their lighter marquetry was frequently shaded by scorching
with hot sand. These pieces of furniture were usually enriched with
gilt, bronze or metal mountings by Gouthière, a contemporary craftsman.
A beautiful mode of enriching woodwork was introduced by Vernis Martin,
1706-70; this was the use of a gold and green lac, which was transparent
and brilliant, and similar to the beautiful lac work of Japan.

[Illustration]

Of English men of this period, Thomas Chippendale produced some good
furniture and published a book of designs in 1764, which undoubtedly
influenced much of the furniture of that period; Mathias Lock was
another noted cabinet maker. In 1789, A. Hepplewhite published a book on
furniture, and, in 1795, Thomas Sheraton published a work on the same
subject.

[Illustration: OAK SCREEN. 16^{TH} CENTURY. FRENCH SOUTH KENSINGTON
MUSEUM]

The beautiful panelling and carved mantels of the many fine halls of the
time of Elizabeth and James are characteristic of English work.
Contemporary with this are the beautiful English panelled chests with
quaint imagery and enrichments, and the curious Jacobean bed-foot with
its pierced pedestal and baluster pillar.

With Grinling Gibbons, who died in 1721, wood carving reached its
culmination for delicacy and skilful craftsmanship.

[Illustration:

TEXTILE FABRICS.      Plate 35.
]



TEXTILES.


The utility, universality, construction, texture, ornamentation and
colour of textile fabrics are full of interest and suggestiveness, for
in the remarkable development of textile fabrics we may trace the
continuity of style and tradition, the intermingling of races and
customs, and the grafting of religious ideas with the wealth and
luxuriance of the past.

All fabrics wrought in the loom are called textiles. They are broadly
divided into three classes: 1st, plain fabrics in which the warp and
weft alternate equally; 2nd, those fabrics in which a pattern is
produced by the warp and weft intermingling in different proportions or
colours, figured cloths and tapestries being included in this class;
3rd, those fabrics in which the plain textile NO. 1 is enriched with the
needle or by printing, termed embroideries or printed fabrics.

Owing to their perishable nature few remains of ancient textile fabrics
are in existence. The oldest examples are found in the tombs of Egypt,
where, owing to the dryness of the climate, some fabrics of the early
dynasties still remain. They are usually of fine linen and without
enrichment, yet upon the same tombs are many painted patterns that
undoubtedly show a woven origin. The oldest figured fabrics found in
Egypt are of the 6th century A.D., and they show a remarkable similarity
to the early patterns of Persia and Byzantium, for it was in India,
Persia and Arabia that textiles reached their perfection of workmanship
and their wealth of material. This splendid tradition was carried from
Persia and India to Byzantium in the 5th century, and in the 8th century
the Arabians absorbed and assimilated the arts of Persia, India, Egypt
and Spain and brought the art of weaving to its culmination during the
14th and 15th centuries.

The ornamental designs of textile fabrics of different nations and
periods are characterised by well-defined forms, differentiated by
racial influence, climatic conditions and the myths and traditions of
the people. Yet the traditional Eastern origin may be traced through
many textile designs, for there is no doubt that India, Persia and
Arabia influenced the designs of textile fabrics more than any other
nations. This was due no doubt partly to the Eastern weavers carrying
their art and traditions with them to various parts of Europe, and also
to the exportation of their splendid fabrics, but principally to the
beautiful and interesting designs which were perfectly adapted to the
process of weaving. It is due no doubt to this frank adaptation of
natural forms and their appropriateness to the technical necessities of
woven fabrics, that has rendered this Eastern influence so persistent
through many centuries in different parts of Europe. It is remarkable
that even in Italy during the whole of the Renascence period, with the
characteristic scroll forms and acanthus foliation of its architecture
and decorative arts, the textiles are quite distinct in style, having
the characteristics of the Sicilian, Persian and Indian ornament.

Among the earliest figured fabrics must be placed those of Assyria, of
which representations may be seen in Layard’s Book on Nineveh. The
patterns consisted of symmetrically placed winged figures with the Hom
or Tree of Life and the rosette, which was used as a symbol by Zoraster.
It is probable that many of these patterns were embroidered, as the
Babylonians were reported to be skilful in the art of embroidery, but it
is also certain that some of the patterns were woven. The figured
fabrics found in Egypt only date from the 5th and 6th centuries A.D.,
and show a marked Byzantine and Persian influence (figs. 1-7, plate 35).
Characteristic Byzantine examples have medallions and symmetrically
placed figures and ornament of the “Hom.” At Alexandria and Antioch,
many fine green and gold silk fabrics with ornament in brown outline
were produced from the 6th to the 10th centuries.

Under the Saracens, textile fabrics reached their highest development;
splendour of colour, beauty and perfection of material and the
singularly interesting beauty of the designs being the chief
characteristics.

The conquest of Persia, in 632 A.D., by Abu Bekr, the successor of
Mahomet, the establishment of Bagdad in 762 as the capital of the
Arabian Khalifs, and the invasion of India, in 711, gave a remarkable
impetus to the decorative arts, more especially the arts of dyeing,
weaving and embroidery. These arts culminated in the splendid period of
the Fatimy Khalifs, 909-1171 A.D. Though Mahomet forbade his followers
to wear silk, it was largely used by the Saracens and, to evade the
injunction, cotton was frequently interwoven with it, and, in India
especially, the fabrics often have a cotton warp as a foundation for the
weft patterns of coloured silks and gold thread. Many fine examples of
Saracenic fabrics of the 11th to the 15th centuries are now in our
national museums. The larger portion are from Sicily, and are termed
Sicilian or Siculo-Saracenic. They have bands of birds, animals, foliage
and inscriptions in blue, green and gold on a red ground. If wholly of
silk the fabric was termed _Holosericum_, and if of silk and gold,
_Chrysoclavum fundatum_. Drawn gold thread was not used in early
fabrics, but gold leaf laid on paper or skin and then rolled round a
fine thread of silk was largely used by the Saracenic weavers. The
patterns in some of the later Sicilian fabrics of the 13th and 14th
centuries have a purple ground in twilled silk, with birds and foliage
formed by a weft of gold thread. These patterns were usually symmetrical
in arrangement, no doubt partly due to the traditional art of Assyria,
but also to the simple necessities of weaving, for in the early looms
the turnover of the pattern was frequently used. The Saracenic fabrics
produced in Spain are called Hispano-Moresque and are distinguished by
splendid crimson or dark blue conventional patterns of silk upon a
yellow ground of a fine quality, and a frequent use of strips of gilded
parchment in place of the rolled gilt thread. In this period, many fine
velvets raised on a satin ground with gold

[Illustration:

Plate 36.

SICILIAN FABRIC IN GOLD THREAD ON PURPLE GROUND. 13^{TH} CENTURY. BOCK
COLLECTION. MANCHESTER]

[Illustration:

Plate 37.

PRINTED COTTON. INDIAN 18^{TH} CENT. S.K.M.]

and silver threads, were made. In the 12th century, Roger II., the
Norman King of Northern Sicily, took Corinth and Argos, and carried many
weavers and embroiderers from Greece to Sicily, and established them at
Palermo, where they quickly assimilated the Sicilian style and produced
many fine fabrics during the 13th and 14th centuries.

The crusades now began to influence the arts; in 1098, Antioch was taken
and the spoil distributed through Europe; in 1204, Constantinople was
taken by Baldwin, Count of Flanders, and the Venetian Doge, Dandolo, and
the vast spoil of textiles distributed. It was doubtless under the
influence of the crusades that the Sicilian weavers of the 13th and 14th
centuries produced the many beautiful fabrics enriched with winged
lions, foliated crosses and crowns, rayed stars, harts and birds linked
together, and with the introduction of armorial bearings. Early in the
14th century, this splendid tradition was introduced into Italy, and at
Lucca many beautiful fabrics were produced, having the same
characteristics and technique as the Sicilian fabrics.

The cloak upon the recumbent bronze figure of Richard II. in Westminster
Abbey has a pattern of foliage with couchant harts and rayed stars, and
was most probably copied from the original silk made for Richard at
Lucca or Palermo.

The beautiful materials and designs of Indian textile fabrics are
indicative of the love of nature and the splendour of colour of a remote
antiquity. Though influenced at various times by Greek, Persian and
Arabian traditions, India still preserved an indigenous ornamental art
of remarkable freshness and vitality, the designers choosing their own
flora and fauna with rare selective power and adaptive qualities. With
an instinctive feeling for ornamental art, aided by the splendid
colourings of the native dyes, they produced textile fabrics of silks,
brocades, and gold and silver lace remarkable for richness and
perfection of material, beauty of design and harmony of colour. The
Indian pine is a familiar form of enrichment differentiated from the
cypress of Persia (fig. 1, plate 22), by the spiral at the apex. This
typical pine is treated with a wonderful diversity of detail (figs. 4, 5
and 6, plate 23). The splendid carpets of India were doubtless
influenced by the Persian tradition and they follow the same methods and
ornamental arrangements, adapting, conventionalizing and emphasising
plants, flowers and seeds, and rendering them with a fine feeling for
form and colour. Block printing was largely used for silks and cottons,
and many splendid examples are now treasured in our museums; an
illustration of a printed cotton Palampore from South Kensington is
given here, showing the beautiful floral treatment, diversity of detail,
and contrast of line and mass. The gold and silver Brocades or “Kincobs”
of Ahmedabad and Benares, with patterns of animals, flowers and foliage
richly spangled; the delicate muslins of Dacca, the gold and silver
primed muslins of Jaipur, and the woollen

[Illustration:

Plate 38.

PERSIAN CARPET. 16^{TH} CENTURY. S.K.M]

shawls of Kashmir, with the well-known pine pattern, are splendid
examples of richness of material, delicacy and skilfulness of technic,
and beauty and appropriateness of ornamentation.

The Pile carpets of Persia, especially those of Kurdistan, Khorassan,
Kirman, and Ferahan, are the finest in the world, being magnificent in
colour and having bold conventional patterns of their beautiful flora,
with birds and animals interspersed with the ornament, giving a
largeness of mass and interest and vitality of detail. The illustration
on the opposite page is from a fine 16th century Persian carpet, and is
a good example of their methods and traditions. The hyacinth, tulip,
iris and the pink, are frequently introduced, together with the hom or
tree of life. An illustration is given (fig. 2, plate 22) of a Genoa
fabric but of Persian design, showing the typical “pink” with its
simplicity and beauty of line. This traditional art of Persia had a most
marked influence upon the textile fabrics of Europe from the 12th to the
17th centuries. This was no doubt due to many causes, but the perfect
adaptability to the process of weaving, the interest, inventiveness and
beauty of the ornament, and the singular frank treatment of form and
colour, doubtless appealed to the craftsmen of Europe, and hence we find
many Persian designs produced in Sicily, Spain, Italy, France and
Flanders.

[Illustration: DOUBLE MULLION PATTERN, ITALIAN.]

The finest silk velvets and damasks produced from the looms of Florence
show a distinct Persian influence in their bold artichoke and
pomegranate patterns of the 16th and 17th centuries. In Genoa, similar
patterns in many coloured velvets were produced, and it is singular how
largely this persistency of type prevails in all countries.

[Illustration: SILK ITALIAN 16th CENTURY]

In 1480, Louis XI. introduced the art into France, when looms were
established at Tours, and in 1520 they were established at Lyons by
Francis I., and the art of weaving rapidly spread. The earliest fabrics
of these looms have patterns similar to the Persian and Italian fabrics;
but soon the vase pattern, which no doubt had its origin in Byzantine
textiles and which had been used by the Persians and Italians, began to
influence French designs. However, this rapidly gave place towards the
middle of the 17th century to the imitations of ribbons and laces in
textile fabrics, together with a more naturalistic treatment of floral
forms, and the beauty, suggestiveness and interest of the early patterns
now gave way to prettiness, affectation and a naturalistic treatment
which culminated in the period of Madame Pompadour.

The remarkable invention of perforated cards for facilitating the
weaving of figured fabrics was introduced by Bonchon, 1725, and
continued by Falcon in 1728, by Vancanson in 1745, and perfected by
Joseph Marie Jacquard, 1752-1834.

The revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 by Louis the XIV., caused
large numbers of weavers to come to England, bringing their art and
tradition with them, and many established themselves at Spitalfields
which soon rose to some importance. The patterns, necessarily, were
purely French in treatment, consisting of natural arrangements of
flowers; a sketch is here given of a Spitalfields design for silk
damask.

[Illustration: FLOWER VASE PATTERN]

The textile fabrics of Flanders reached a high degree of perfection in
the 16th and 17th centuries, Bruges being famous for its silk damasks
and velvets, the patterns showing the traditional Persian or the
pomegranate and artichoke type of the Florentine textiles. Block
printing had been introduced into Flanders in the 15th century and many
fine patterns with Indian motives were produced up to the 17th century.

[Illustration: DESIGN FOR A SPITALSFIELD SILK FABRIC DATED 1739 SKM]

At Ypres, fine diapered linen was manufactured, and Ghent was famous for
its woollens, but the remarkable prosperity of Flanders was destroyed by
the Spanish occupation (1556-1648).

[Illustration: SINGLE MULLION PATTERN]

Then large numbers of Flemish weavers came to England and settled in
many parts of the country, bringing their traditions and craftsmanship,
which have undoubtedly had a most marked influence upon the production
of cotton and woollen textile fabrics in England.

Tapestry, of which many fine examples of the 16th and 17th centuries are
treasured in our museums and palaces, differs from most woven fabrics in
its method of production, which consists of interweaving and knotting
short pieces of coloured wefts, which form the pattern, to a strong
warp, a ground weft being thrown across each pick to bind the material
well together;

[Illustration:

TEXTILE FABRICS.      Plate 39.
]

this is almost the same method as that used in the manufacture of the
Indian and Persian carpets. It was during the 14th and 15th centuries,
at Arras in Flanders, that storied tapestries were brought to their
culmination and the tapestry workers became a most powerful guild. From
about 1480, Brussels produced many magnificent hangings from designs by
the great masters of the Italian Renascence. Raphael’s famous cartoons
which are now in the South Kensington Museum are the original designs
for the ten tapestries manufactured at Brussels for Pope Leo X. for the
enrichment of the Sistine chapel in the Vatican; the seven cartoons,
three being lost, were purchased by Charles I.

Many of the great Flemish painters also designed for the Brussels
tapestries, such as Van Orley, Van Leyden and Jan Mabuse.

Francis I. caused tapestry looms to be set up at Fontainbleau in 1339,
under the direction of the Italian, Serlio, but it was not until the
Gobelin tapestry manufactory was established in 1603 in the Faubourg
Saint Marcel by the Fleming, Marc de Comans, and François de la Planche,
that French tapestry reached any importance. Under the Minister Colbert
in 1667, the Royal Gobelin manufactory produced many fine tapestries
designed by the head of the establishment, Charles le Brun.

About 1590, some carpets called Savonnerie were made in the Louvre, the
technique being somewhat similar to the Persian carpets but the patterns
were more pictorial and naturalistic in treatment; fine tapestries were
also produced at Beauvais and Aubusson. Tapestry had been manufactured
in England as early as the reign of Edward III., but it was not until
the time of James I. that it assumed any importance, when a tapestry
manufactory was established at Mortlake by Francis Crane.

Some fine Flemish tapestries are in the South Kensington museum and
eight large pieces by Bernard Van Orley are in the Great Hall of Hampton
Court. The coloured cartoons by Mantegna in Hampton Court, representing
the Triumph of Cæsar, were to be reproduced in tapestry for the Duke of
Mantua. There are some fine Gobelin and Beauvais tapestries in Windsor
Castle which were gifts from the Court of France, and they all show the
most consummate technique, beauty of material and harmony of colour.

The well-known Bayeux tapestry is embroidered in coloured wools upon a
white linen ground. It is 214 feet in length and 22 inches in width and
divided in 72 compartments with incidents representing the Norman
invasion of England by William I.

Though reputed to be the work of Queen Matilda, the probability is that
it is the work of English hands some few years after the invasion. This
embroidery or tapestry is still preserved in the cathedral of Bayeux.

The remarkable civilization of the Incas or Peruvians, is shown in the
many splendid objects of the industrial arts now treasured in our
museums. Of these relics of a vanished civilization, the textile

[Illustration:

PERUVIAN TEXTILES.      Plate 40.
]

[Illustration:

PERUVIAN TEXTILES.      Plate 41.
]

fabrics are, perhaps, the most instructive and interesting. The high
technical skill of the craftsmanship, the fine spinning of the wool and
cotton, and the perfection of the dyeing of the yarn, together with the
skilful weaving of the figured cloths and tapestries are a tribute to
the vitality and civilization of a people remote from all Asiatic or
European influences.

Many of the fabrics are of double cloth, of deep brown and pale straw
colour, and show the same colour and pattern on both sides of the cloth.
Some of the fabrics are tapestry woven, having short strands of coloured
wool inserted into the fabric by the aid of the needle, and they
somewhat resemble the Gobelin tapestry in their method of production.

A few of these Peruvian cotton fabrics are ornamented by means of tied
or knotted work, identical with the Bandhana or knotted work termed
Chunti Cloth, of the North-west province of India. These knotted
patterns consist of simple spots arranged in square, zig-zag or curved
lines. The pattern is first marked with a red earth on the plain fabric;
then the pattern or spots are tied up tightly with cotton thread and the
whole dipped in the dye which only acts on the untied portions of the
cloth; a white pattern on a coloured ground is thus produced, both sides
being alike.

These Peruvian textiles are remarkable for the absence of the beautiful
flora of Peru as elements for decoration. The fylfot or fret is a
frequent form of enrichment (plates 40-41.) The wave scroll so typical
of Greek work is also a remarkable element in Peruvian ornament, and
illustrates the singular development of the same ideas and aspect of
form among people so remote from each other as the Greeks and Peruvians.

But the patterns that sharply differentiate Peruvian examples from all
other styles are the conventional treatments of figures, birds, fishes
and animals. The llama is conspicuous in many patterns, but the bird
forms are the most remarkable, having many variations of type and
treatment. Illustrations are given in plates 40 and 41, all taken from
the Smithies Loan Collection at Manchester. Other examples of these
interesting fabrics may be seen in the Smithies collection at South
Kensington, showing the wonderful diversity of the treatment of pattern
designing by a people so remote as the Peruvians.

It is difficult to fix any date for these Peruvian examples, but as it
is known that during the reign of Inca Pachacutic (circa 1390), the
ceramic art was at its best, we may assume that the sister art of
weaving reached its perfection about the same period, and continued
until the Spanish Conquest in the 16th century.

[Illustration:

FRETS.      Plate 42.
]



FRETS.


The remarkable universality of the fret, the simplicity and rhythm of
detail, its adaptability and usefulness for surface enrichment, have
made the fret one of the best known forms of ornamentation. It was used
in the surface decorations of the tombs of Egypt, the temples of Greece,
and the civic and domestic buildings of Rome.

The Greek form with its right-angular and equally-spaced keys was used
on the simple abacus and plain fascias of the Dorian architecture, in
bands upon the painted vases, and in a concentric form when used in the
interior of the red-figured circular cylix. The Romans, without
imparting freshness, used the same right-angled key pattern, chiefly as
borders for mosaic pavements and upon the horizontal soffits of their
architecture. The Byzantine using the same type in conjunction with the
cross and circle gave more significance to the fret.

The Arabian fret differs in the use of the oblique line together with
the right-angled key, obtaining a wonderful degree of complexity and
richness.

The Celtic fret is chiefly a diagonal one, but the recurrent angle is
rounded to a curve.

Chinese and Japanese frets are usually right-angled, and are used in
great profusion, often in a secondary field or background.

[Illustration: WALL MOSAIC OF COLOURED MARBLES]

The Japanese key or “_Fret diaper_” is used in the greatest profusion;
it is used alike on silks and brocades, damascened in metal, in
cloisonné enamel and in lacquered work, and is frequently arranged in
irregular shaped compartments or medallions.

The Greek continuous fret border is rarely used by the Japanese, who
generally use the disconnected or irregular fret. A similar irregular
fret border was used by the Peruvians (plate 41), by the Mexicans, and
by the natives of Polynesia.

The Assyrian and Byzantine guilloche is but a curved fret, but
additional interest is given by the introduction of radiating forms in
the principal interstices of the fret (fig. 5, plate 11.)

[Illustration:

Plate 43.
]



CONTINUITY OF STYLE


in architecture and ornament has always been influenced by tradition,
racial influence, and the myths and religious beliefs of the people, and
it developed with the progress of the nation, often culminating in some
great epoch. Frequently the continuity was carried on by some
contemporary or succeeding race, modified by different conditions and
environments, yet still retaining the style in its general
characteristics, or, this thread of continuity was occasionally lost for
a time, only to spring into new life, endowed with fresh vitality and
beauty, culminating again in splendour. Then fresh religious ideas and
conditions engrafted their symbolism and traditions upon the style, thus
forming a new period in the history of art.

Ornament is the expression of the people or of the priestcraft, and in
its primitive state was used symbolically. The ornament of Polynesia and
Melanesia probably shows this primitive state of ornamentation. Isolated
as these islanders were from the influence of Eastern or Western art,
and with but little communication among the various islands, the
ornamental art of these people has its own traditions and
characteristics, each province or group of islands showing different
ideas and details in proportion to its culture or state of civilization,
New Zealand showing the highest development and Australia the lowest,
while with the Marquesans the ornament is almost pure picture writings.
The illustration of the beautiful paddle in the Heape collection, with
its geometric ornamentation, shows the continuity and ornamental
development of the representation of the human figure, which was
originally chosen by the priesthood for its significance or divinity.

In Europe and Asia all trace of this primitive stage has ceased to
exist. The development and continuity of ideas and customs, the
traditions of style and craftsmanship carried on through many centuries
of the world’s history have obliterated the early or primitive style of
ornament, chosen first for its significance or emblematic character.

Some remarkable examples of pottery and woven textile fabrics have been
recently found in the ancient cemeteries of Peru--relics of the
Incas--long anterior to the Spanish conquest. Many fine examples of
these woven textiles of cotton and wool are now in the South Kensington
museum, forming the Smithies collection, and, as in the ornament of
Polynesia, floral forms are entirely absent, the ornament consisting of
conventional representations of the human figure, with the owl, condor
and the toucan, mingled with the wave scroll and the fret, elements
doubtless chosen for their significance.

Many beautiful illustrations could be chosen from the history of
ornament, showing this continuity and persistency of line and form and
its remarkable influence upon contemporary and succeeding races.

Perhaps the form and enrichment of the Architectural Capital offer one
of the most interesting and instructive fields of study in the history
and evolution of architecture. The remarkable persistency of the capital
as a distinctive feature in architecture may be traced through many
centuries, though differentiated by climatic conditions and racial
influences, yet still preserving a remarkable similarity of form and
enrichment among the various nations of the earth.

The function of the capital is to sustain and transmit to the columns
the weight of the entablature or archivolt, and the beauty and
appropriateness of the capital depends:--

First, upon this functional treatment of strength;

Second, upon the beauty of profile or mass;

Third, upon the enrichment and proportion of the capital.

The dignified Doric capital of the Greeks illustrates these functions
and conditions by its perfect adaptability, simple functional strength,
beauty of profile, appropriateness of enrichment and proportion and
harmony of parts, qualities which are essential to beauty of
architecture. In the Parthenon, B.C. 438, we have the finest treatment
of this capital--a treatment full of dignity, reserve, and unison of
profile (plate 6). The many examples of the Doric Order in Greece and
her colonies attest to the esteem in which this order was held by the
Greeks. The Indian capital (plate 24) exhibits the same functional
treatment by the use of brackets or modillions, which undoubtedly are a
survival of a wooden construction, and which are typical of Eastern
architecture.

[Illustration: EGYPTIAN CAPITAL FROM PHILÆ.]

The remarkable persistency of the profile, and enrichment of the capital
extending through a period of 4,000 years, may be illustrated by a
series of diagrams of typical examples. The profile of the capital has
not varied to any appreciable extent in the examples here given, and the
enrichment of the bell is remarkable for its persistency, though
differentiated by racial influences. The Corinthian capital, with its
volutes and acanthus foliage, is but the architectural continuity of the
Egyptian capital. The only pure Greek example of this order is from the
monument of Lysicrates, but the Romans continued the tradition,
assimilating and elaborating until they produced the magnificent
capitals of the portico of the Pantheon and the temple of Castor and
Pollux. In these examples the leaves are arranged in series of two rows
of eight leaves each, the volutes springing from sheaths and stems
between the leaves, which support the angle of the volutes. The example
of early French Gothic has similar characteristics and illustrates the
continuity of style.

The Ionic capital, though one of the most persistent in the history of
architecture, never reached the architectonic perfection of other
capitals. This was undoubtedly owing to the wooden origin being
incompatible with the necessities of stone and marble. There is a want
of unity between the volutes and ovolo of the capital; in brief, it has
neither coherence nor harmony of parts. The exquisite craftsmanship of
the capitals of the Erectheum, with their anthemion enrichment of the
greatest purity, the beauty of the ovolo and the subtility of the
volutes compensates to some extent for the lack of unison (plate 6). The
enrichment of the architectural capital is no doubt a survival of the
primitive custom of binding floral forms round the simple functional
capital, these forms being afterwards perpetuated in stone or marble.

[Illustration: CORINTHIAN CAPITAL FROM THE PANTHEON ROME.]

In early Corinthian examples these floral forms were frequently of
beaten metal, which, in turn, gave place to the beautiful marble foliage
of the Greeks and Romans.

[Illustration: FRENCH. EARLY GOTHIC.]

That the ancients used metal work in their capitals we have abundant
proof. In the descriptions of the building of Solomon’s Temple we read
of “Two chapiters of molten brass to set upon the pillars, and nets of
chequer work and wreath of chain work to set upon the top of the
pillars.”

[Illustration: COMPOSITE CAPITAL FROM POMPEII.]

The Composite capital is deficient in coherence and unity of parts,
having the same defects as its prototype the Ionic. The annexed
illustration from Ancient Rome gives an unusual treatment by the
introduction of the human figure in the centre of the face of the
capital.

The Byzantine capital differs from those of the Greeks and Romans in its
marked symbolism of detail and the prevalence of the cushion form.
Functionally, this type of capital is admirable, yet it lacks the
vigorous upward growth of the Egyptian and early Gothic capitals.

The Byzantine capitals have a wonderful complexity and variety of
detail, such as interlacing circles and crosses with their mystic
symbolism, basket work, chequered details, and the traditional sharp
acanthus foliage of the Greeks.

[Illustration: BYZANTINE. S^T MARKS VENICE.]

These features are seen in the greatest profusion at S. Sophia at
Constantinople; S. Apollinare and S. Vitale at Ravenna, and S. Marco at
Venice. These splendid capitals of a splendid period are exceedingly
beautiful in fertile inventiveness of enrichment, and show the
assimilative power of the Byzantine craftsmen. The abundant use of
chequer work, wreaths of chain work, and of lily work in Byzantine
capitals, many of which are figured in Ruskin’s “Stones of Venice,” show
the continuity of style and tradition in architecture.

[Illustration: BYZANTINE S^T MARKS VENICE.]

The Byzantine capitals have the square abacus, usually consisting of a
simple fillet and chamfer enriched with the billet, dentil or star
pattern. The Dosseret, a singular adjunct to the capital was introduced
during this period; it was a cushion-shaped or cubicle stone placed upon
the abacus of the capital to give additional height (plate 11).

[Illustration: BYZANTINE CAPITAL S^T MARK’S VENICE.]

The Byzantine influence is seen upon the Norman capitals with their
square abacus of fillet and chamfer, and the cushion profile of capital.
Some remarkable Siculo-Norman capitals are in the cloisters of the
Benedictine Monastery of Monreale in Sicily, A.D. 1174-1184. The great
fertility of inventiveness in the 200 capitals, their storiation, the
intermingling of figures, birds and animals with the classic and
Byzantine foliage makes this cloister one of the most remarkable in the
history of the world. The Arabian capital, which frequently shows the
traditional volute, differs from the typical bell-shaped form in its
marked squareness of profile with flat or low reliefs enriched with
colour.

[Illustration: FRENCH ROMANESQUE CAPITAL.]

The Early Gothic capital is one of the most vigorous and beautiful. The
perfect adaptability of its foliage to stone carving, the significance
of its detail as emblematic of the Trinity, the spiral growth of its
foliage and the vigorous contrast of light and shade are the chief
characteristics of this period. Lacking, perhaps, the delicacy or
variety of detail of the Byzantine period or the later Gothic work, it
excelled them in the appropriateness of its enrichment, which is more
beautiful in the Early English examples with their circular abacus than
in contemporary French capitals where the square abacus was prevalent.
The transition from the circular column to the square abacus was always
felt to be a difficulty, and was rarely overcome, but in the circular
abacus of the Early English capitals we have a break in the continuity
of the style of the capital.

[Illustration: CAPITALS FROM THE CLOISTERS MONTREALE.]

[Illustration: CAPITALS FROM THE CLOISTERS OF MONTREALE.]

The English foliage of this period differs from the French in the use of
a deep mid-rib and simple trefoil leaf. The French examples have a less
pronounced mid-rib, and the leaf is convex in form and divided into
three lobes, and the foliage adheres more closely to the bell,
consequently the brilliant play of light and shade which is so
characteristic of Early English work, is generally absent from French
examples (fig. 12, plate 16).

[Illustration: EARLY ENGLISH CAPITAL ELY CATHEDRAL.]

[Illustration: ARABIAN CAPITAL FROM THE ALHAMORA]

[Illustration: SOUTH-WESTMINSTER DECORATED CAPITALS]

The Decorated Gothic capitals differ essentially from those of the Early
Gothic period, a more natural type of foliage being used, consisting of
the briony, maple, mallow and oak. This foliage was carved with singular
delicacy of touch and grace of profile, and is beautiful in its
modelling and play of light and shade, yet frequently the capitals are
trivial in conception and arrangement, lacking that architectonic
character which is so essential to all architectural constructive
features.

[Illustration: RENASCENCE CAPITAL VENICE.]

The perpendicular or late Gothic capital was usually octagonal in form
with square conventional foliage of the vine, showing a marked decadence
in tradition and craftsmanship (fig. 9, plate 17).

The Renascence capital was frequently marked by a fine feeling for
profile, splendid craftsmanship, diversity of enrichment, and vitality
of conception, more especially in Italy, where the tradition of
architecture culminated in the works of such remarkable men as Leon
Battista Alberti, Bramante, Baldassare Peruzzi, San Micheli, Serlio,
Palladio, and Sansovenio. The tradition was worthily carried on in
France by Pierre Lescot, Jean Bullant, Philipert de Lorme, and De
Brosse, and in England by Inigo Jones, Wren, and Chambers.

[Illustration: ROMAN SCROLL.]



TERMS USED IN ORNAMENTAL ART.


Ornament is the means by which Beauty or Significance is imparted to
Utility. It is either Symbolical or Aesthetic. Symbolic ornament
consists of elements or forms chosen for the sake of their
_significance_--Aesthetic ornament consists of forms or elements chosen
for their _Beauty_ alone, or their power of appealing to the senses.

Of the historic styles of ornament, the Egyptian, Assyrian, Byzantine,
Scandinavian, Persian, Indian, Gothic, Polynesian, and much of the
Chinese and Japanese are symbolical, having elements and ornamental
details chosen for their significance; while in the Greek, Roman, and
Renascence ornament, the purely aesthetic motive is characteristic.

Ornament, again, may be natural or conventional--Imitative or Inventive.
The terms “natural” and “imitative” have the same significance--viz.,
the exact copying of natural forms, so that they become principal--not
secondary as perfect ornament should be. Conventional ornament is the
adaptation of natural forms to ornamental and technical requirements,
and is seen in its greatest beauty in the frank treatment by the Indians
and Persians of their flora and fauna for the decorative enrichment of
their textile fabrics, pottery, and jewellery.

Inventive ornament is that which consists of elements not derived from
any natural source; the Moresque style is a good example of this type.

The _elements_ of ornament are the details or forms chosen for
ornamental motives, and the _principals_ of ornament are the arrangement
of these forms and details; they comprise repetition, alternation,
symmetry, radiation, balance, proportion, variety, eurythmy, contrast,
intersection, complication, fitness, and utility.

_Repetition_ is the use of elements in a continuous series;
_Alternation_ is the repetition of an element at intervals, with others
intervening; _Symmetry_: when the leading lines are equal or similar (or
reciprocal) on both sides; _Radiation_: when the lines spring from a
centre, for example, a bird’s wing and the flower of the daisy;
_Balance_ and _Proportion_: when the relation and harmony of parts is
based upon natural laws; _Variety_ implies difference in the details,
with respect to form or type; _Eurythmy_ signifies rhythms or harmony in
ornament; _Contrast_ is the arrangement in close proximity of colours or
forms of opposite characters, as the straight line with the curve, or
light with dark; _Intersection_ is the crossing of the leading lines,
the Arabian, Moresque and Celtic styles are examples of this principle;
_Complication_ is the effect produced by elements so arranged as to be
more or less difficult to trace with the eye alone: as in the Japanese
key and the Moresque star pattern. _Fitness_ and _utility_ as their
names imply are essentials in all good periods of ornamentation.

[Illustration: ROMAN SCROLL.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Text Books upon Architecture and Ornament.


  Classic and Early Christian Architecture  _Roger Smith_,            5/-
  Gothic and Renascence                     _Roger Smith_,            5/-
  Glossary of Architecture                  _J. Parker_,              7/6
  Handbook of Architectural Styles          _Rosengarten_,            7/6
  Introduction to Gothic Architecture       _J. Parker_,              5/-
  Three Manuals of Gothic Ornament          _J. Parker_, _each_    1/-
  Classic and Early Christian Sculpture     _G. Redford_,             5/-
  Gothic and Renascence Sculpture           _Leader Scott_,           5/-
  Handbook of Greek Sculpture, 2 vols.      _Ed. Gardner_,           10/-
  History of Greek Art                      _Tarbell_,                5/-
  Analysis of Ornament                      _J. Wornum_,              8/-
  Handbook of Ornament                      _Meyer_,                 10/6

An excellent series of illustrated Handbooks upon the Industrial Arts by
writers of repute, is published by the Science and Art Department, and
may be obtained at the Bookstall of the South Kensington Museum, at a
cost of 1/-each part (paper covers), or they may be purchased through
Messrs. Chapman and Hall, at 2/6 each part, bound in cloth, they
include:

  The Industrial Arts of India        _Sir G. Birdwood_    }
   “          “          Spain        _Juan F. Riano_      }
   “          “          Denmark      _J. J. Worsaae_      }
   “          “          Scandinavia  _Hans Hildebrand_    }
  The Saracens of Egypt               _Stanley Lane Poole_ }  each in
  Early Christian Art in Ireland      _Margaret Stokes_    } two parts.
  English Earthenware                 _A. H. Church_       }
    “     Porcelain                   _A. H. Church_       }
  French Pottery                _P. Gasnault & E. Garnier_ }
  Wrought Iron Work                   _J. Starkie Gardner_ }

  Bronzes                             _Drury E. Fortnum_   }
  College and Corporation Plate       _Wilfred Cripps_     }
  Furniture                           _J. H. Pollen_       }
  Gold and Silversmith’s Work         _J. H. Pollen_       }
  Glass                               _A. Nesbitt_         }
  Ivories                             _W. Maskell_         } complete
  Japanese Pottery                    _A. W. Franks_       }    in
  Maiolica                            _Drury E. Fortnum_   } one part.
  Persian Art                         _R. Murdoch Smith_   }
  Textile Fabrics                     _Rev. Daniel Rock_   }
  Tapestry                            _Alfred de Champeaux_}
  The Industrial Arts                                      }

       *       *       *       *       *

Works of Reference.


Architecture:--

  Antiquities of Rome                       _Taylor & Cresy_.
  Antiquities of Athens                     _Stuart & Revett_.
  Analysis of Gothic Architecture           _Brandon_.
  Architecture for General Readers          _H. H. Statham_.
  Byzantine Architecture                    _Texies & Pullan_.
  Constantinople                            _Salzenberg_.
  Civil Architecture                        _Chambers_.
  Decorated Window Tracery                  _E. Sharpe_.
  Encyclopædia of Architecture              _Gwilt_.
  English Renascence Architecture           _J. A. Gotch_.
  Gothic Mouldings                          _F. A. Paley_.
  Gothic Architecture                       _T. Rickman_.
  Gothic Architecture in France             _E. Corroyer_.
  Gothic Architecture in Spain              _G. E. Street_.
  Gothic Foliage                            _J. K. Collings_.
  Handbook of Architecture                  _J. Fergusson_.
  History of Architecture                   _J. Fergusson_.
  Indian and Eastern Architecture           _J. Fergusson_.
  Mansions of England                       _J. Nash_.
  Old English Mansions                      _C. Richardson_.
  Orders of Architecture                    _R. Phéne Spiers_.
  Orders of Architecture                    _C. Norman_.
  Orders of Architecture                    _J. M. Manch_.
  Spanish Renascence                        _D. N. Prentice_.
  Stones of Venice                          _J. Ruskin_.
  Seven Lamps of Architecture               _J. Ruskin_.
  The Seven Periods of Church Architecture  _E. Sharpe_.


Ornament and Sculpture:--

  Art of the Old English Potter             _L. M. Solon_.
  Ancient Pottery                           _S. Birch_.
  Alphabets                                 _E. Strange_.
  Alphabets                                 _Lewis F. Day_.
  Basis of Design                           _Walter Crane_.
  Fresco Decoration in Italy                _L. Gruner_.
  Grammar of Ornament                       _Owen Jones_.
  Greek and Roman Sculpture                 _W. G. Perry_.
  Greek Vase Painting                       _Jane Harrison_.
  Glass Painting                            _C. Winston_.
  Stained Glass Windows                     _Lewis F. Day_.
  Handbook of Greek Archæology              _A. S. Murray_.
  Primitive Greece                          }
  Persia                                    }
  Phrygia                                   } _George Perrot and
  Sardinia and Asia Minor                   }    C. Chipiez_.
  Chaldea and Assyria                       }
  Egypt                                     }

  Keramic Art of Japan                      _Audsley & Bowles_.
  Nineveh                                   _Layard_.
  Ornamental Metal Work                     _Digby Wyatt_.
  Ornamental Art                            _Gruner_.
  Ornamental Textiles                       _Fischbach_.
  Ornament of Textile Fabrics               _Dupont Auberville_.
  Pompeii                                   _Zahn_.
  Polychromatic Ornament                    _Racinet_.
  The Alhambra                              _Owen Jones_.
  Alfred Stevens, his life and work         _Hugh Stannus_.

Many excellent “CANTOR LECTURES,” by experts, upon the practical
application of the Industrial Arts, will be found in the _Society of
Arts Journal_.

The following Lectures may be studied with advantage:

April, 1891  Cloisonné                           _Clement Heaton_.

Feb., 1894   Decorative Treatment of Artificial
               Foliage                           _Hugh Stannus_.

April, 1891  Decorative Treatment of Natural
               Foliage                           _Hugh Stannus_.

June, 1897   Delft Ware                          _J. W. L. Glaisher_.

March, 1891  Enamels                             _J. Starkie Gardner_.

Jan., 1892   Indian Art                          _Sir G. Birdwood_.

Feb., 1892   Japanese Pottery                    _E. Hart_.

Feb., 1891   Lithography                         _W. Simpson_.

Jan., 1897   Material and Design in Pottery      _William Burton_.

April, 1891  Plaster Work                        _A. Robinson_.

Feb., 1891   Storiation                          _Hugh Stannus_.

Feb., 1891   S’graffito                          _Heywood Sumner_.

March, 1899  Vitreous Enamels                    _C. Davenport_.

Feb., 1898   Some Laws of Form in Applied Art    _Hugh Stannus_.

In the transactions of the Rochdale Literary Society for 1891 (_Aldine
Press_) is a most instructive and well-illustrated article on “The
Ornamental Art of Savage People,” by _Dr. Hjalmar Stolpe_, translated by
Mrs. H. C. March.

The transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society
(1891) contains an excellent article upon “The Pagan Christian Overlap
in the North,” by _H. Colley March, M.D._

The illustrated articles in the transactions of the Royal Institute of
British Architects, may also be studied with advantage, they include:

1892 Byzantine Architecture                 _George Aitchison_.

1892 Casting in Metals                      _D. Graham, H. Longden &
                                             H. Singer_.

1891 Decorative Plaster Work                _G. Robinson, Heywood Sumner
                                              and Stephen Webb_.

1897 Heraldry in English Mediæval
       Architecture                         _W. H. St. John Hope_.

1897 Heraldry of the Renascence in England  _Alfred Gotch_.

1898 Heraldic Drawing                       _J. D. Crace_.

1894 Mosaics                                _C. H. Harrison & J. C. Powell_.

1898 Sculptured Columns of the Temple at
       Ephesus                              _A. S. Murray_.

1891 Sculpture in relation to Architecture  _G. Simonds_.

1892 Stained Glass                          _H. Charpenter, J.
                                             Powell, H. Westlake
                                             and C. Heaton_.

1891 Wrought Iron Work, Mediæval Period     _J. Starkie Gardner_.

1891 Wrought Iron Work, Renascence Period   _J. Starkie Gardner_.

Good articles are found in the _Magazine of Art_, they include:

1897   Chippendale Furniture                 _C. Dempsey_.

1893   Design                                _Walter Crane_.

1890   Embroidered Bookcovers                _S. E. Prideaux_.

1896   Ironwork                              _J. Starkie Gardner_.

1888   Language of Line                      _Walter Crane_.

1882-3 Stained Glass                         _Lewis F. Day_.

1883   Sheraton Furniture                    _E. Balfour_.

1891   The Use of Metals in Bookbinding      _S. E. Prideaux_.

1884   The Ficoroni Dressing Case

1896   The Influence of Architecture Style
         upon Design                         _Walter Crane_.

In the _Art Journal_, there is:

1888 Ancient Glass in the British Museum      _Henry Wallis_.

1889 Antique Glass in the Naples Museum       _Henry Wallis_.

1888 Textile Fabrics in the South Kensington
       Museum                                 _Gilbert R. Redgrave_.

1887 Meaning in Ornament                      _Lewis F. Day_.

1888 The Boulaq Museum                        _Henry Wallis_.

In the _Portfolio_, there is:

  1893 Old English Pottery             _A. H. Church_.
  1893 English Enamels                 _J. Starkie Gardner_.
  1893 English Bookbinding             _W. Y. Fletcher_.
  1894 Bookbinding in France           _W. Y. Fletcher_.
  1894 Italian Book Illustrations      _A. W. Pollard_.
  1894 Josiah Wedgwood                 _A. H. Church_.
  1898 Greek Bronzes                   _A. S. Murray_.
  1897 Armour in England               _J. Starkie Gardner_.
  1898 Foreign Armour in England       _J. Starkie Gardner_.

In the _Builder_, there are the Royal Academy Lectures upon Architecture
given by _George Aitchison, R.A._ They include:

  1891 Roman Architecture.
  1892 Saracenic Architecture.
  1893 Byzantine Architecture.
  1894 Renascence Architecture.
  1896 Romanesque Architecture.



Index.


PAGE.

Alberti, Leon, Battista, 57

Aldus Manutius, 54

Alhambra, 63

Amasis, 77

Anthemion, 7-17

Andreani, Andrea, 54

Apollodorus, 27

Arabesque, 53-54

Arch of Septimus Severus, 21

Architecture
  Capitals, 126
  Composite, 22
  Corinthian, 10
  Decorated Gothic, 39-46-130
  Doric, 9
  Early Gothic, 38-45-129
  English Renascence, 60
  French Renascence, 58
  Ionic, 9
  Italian Renascence, 56
  Perpendicular Gothic, 46
  Tuscan, 22

Atrium, 23


Baccio d’Agnolo, 57

Balducco di Pisa, 50

Baptistery at Pisa, 49

Baptistery at Florence, 50-103

Basilica of Trajan, 27

Black Figure Vases, 77

Boule, André, 59-107

Bramante, 57

Bronzes, 103

Brunelleschi, 51-57

Buen Retiro, 83

Bullant, Jean, 58

Busti, Agostino, 54


Cachrylion, 77

Cambio, Arnolfo di, 49

Caradosso, 51

Caryatides, 9

Castor Ware, 80

Cellini, Benvenuto, 51

Celtic Ornament, 35

Ceramic Art, 78

Chairs, 106

Chaldea, 7

Champlevé Enamels, 35

Chinese Ornament, 71

Chippendale, 106

Chryselephantine Sculpture, 73

Cinque-Cento Ornament, 49-52

Classification of Temples, 11

Classification of Gothic Architecture, 36

Cloisonné Enamels, 91

Coleone, Bartolomeo, 103

Cologne Pots, 82

Column of Trajan, 27

Column of Marcus Aurelius, 27

Compluvium, 23

Continuity of Style, 125

Crockets, 45

Cronaca, 57


Decorated Gothic Details, 46

Delft Ware, 80

Dipylon Ware, 77

Domus, 23

Donatello, 51

Duris, 77


Early Gothic Details, 45

Earthenware, 79

Egyptian Ornament, 5

Elgin Marbles, 13

Elizabethan Ornament, 60

Elizabethan Mansions, 60

Enamels, 91

English Cathedrals, 40

English Renascence, 60

Epiktetos, 77

Euphronios, 77

Exekias, 77


Fauces, 23

Flaxman, 82

Fontana, 57

Fontano, Orazio, 87

French Cathedrals, 40

Frets, 123

Frieze of the Parthenon, 15

Frieze at Phigaleia, 15

Frieze at Pergamos, 16

Frieze from Susa, 17


Georgio, Maestro, 87-88

Ghiberti, Lorenzo, 50-103

Giotto, 49

Glass, 95-97

Gobelin Tapestry, 59

Goldsmith’s Work, 101

Gothic Architecture, 36

Goujon, Jean, 59-107

Gouthière, 59-107

Greek Architecture, 9

Greek Ceramics, 77

Grisaille Enamel, 93

Grisaille Glass, 98

Grinling Gibbons, 107

Grolier, 59


Henri Deux Period, 58

Henri Deux Pottery, 81

Henri Quatre, 58

Hepplewhite, 107

Hieron, 77

Hispano-Moresque Pottery, 87


Impluvium, 23

Indian Ornament, 69

Insular, 23

Ivories, 73


Jacobean, 60

Japanese Ornament, 71

Jean, Juste, 58

Jeweller’s Enamel, 92


Lacunaria, 25

Lancet Period, 38

Leoni, Lione, 51

Leoni, Pompeoni, 51

Lescot, Pierre, 58

Lombardo, Pietro, Tullio and Antonio, 54-56

Lotus, 7

Louis Quatorze, 59

Louis Quinze, 59

Louis Seize, 59


Maiolica, 87

Mantegna, Andrea, 54

Marquetry, 107

Matteo Civitali, 51

Mausoleum, 16

Melanesia, 3

Michel Angelo, 52

Michelozzi, 57

Mino da Fiesole, 51

Mosaics, 75

Mycenæ or Colonial Ware, 77


Nicosthenes, 77

Nineveh, 7

Norman Architecture, 37


Oiron Pottery, 81

Opus Tesselatum, 75

Opus Lithostratum, 75

Opus Miserum, 75


Painted Enamels, 91

Palaces in Italy, 57

Palissy, Bernard, 81

Palladio, Andrea, 56

Pamphæios, 77

Pantheon, 22

Pannitz, Arnold, 54

Parthenon, 13

Pastorino, 51

Patera, 7

Penni, Francesco, 53

Perino del Vaga, 53

Perpendicular Gothic, 46

Persian Ornament, 65

Peristylium, 23

Pethenos, 77

Peruvian Textiles, 118

Peruzzi, Baldassare, 57

Phaleron Ware, 77

Phidias, 13

Pisanello, 51

Pisano, Nicolo, 49

   “    Giovanni, 49

   “    Andrea, 50

   “    Vittore, 51

Plaster Work, 61

Plique à Jour, 92

Polynesian Ornament, 2

Pompeian Ornament, 29

Porcelain, 79-83

Portland Vase, 95

Primaticcio, 54

Printing in Italy, 54

Pythos, 77


Quercia, Jacopo della, 50


Raphael, 53

Red Figured Ware, 77

Renascence Ornament, 49

Renascence Palaces, 57

Rhodian Pottery, 80

Riesener, 107

Robbia, Luca della, 51-87-90

   “    Andrea   “, 51-90

   “    Giovanni “, 51-90

Roentgen, David, 107

Romano, Giulio, 53-54

Roman Ornament, 25

Rosette, 7

Rossellini, 51

Rouen Pottery, 81


Samian Ware, 80

Sangallo, Antonio, 57

   “      Giuliano, 57

Sansovino, Andrea, 54

   “       Jacopo, 54

Scandinavian Ornament, 33

Serlio, 56

Settignano, Desiderio da, 51

Sgraffito, 87

Sheraton, Thomas, 107

Sicilian Fabrics, 111

Silversmith’s Work, 101

Sperandio, 51

Stained Glass, 97

Stiacciato, 51

Stoneware, 82

St. Mark’s, 31

  “ Apollinare Nuovo, 31

  “      “     in Classe, 31

St. Sophia, 31

  “ Vitale, 31

  “ Paul’s, 61

Sweynheym, Conrad, 54


Tablinum, 23

Tapestry, 118

Terra Cotta, 89

Terms used in Ornamental Art, 131

Textile Fabrics, 109

Theatre of Marcellus, 21

Thermæ, 25

Tijon, Jean, 105

Toft, Thomas, 82

Torrigiano, 60

Trajan, 27

Trecento, 49

Triforium, 41

Triclinium, 23


Udine, Giovanni da, 53


Verrocchio, Andrea del, 51

Vestibule, 23

Vignola, 58

Vincentine, 51

Viridarium, 23

Vitruvius, 56


Watteau, 59

Wedgwood, 82

Well-heads, 57

Wheildon, Thomas, 82

Wrought Iron, 105


Zormorpic Ornament, 35

       *       *       *       *       *

                      _A LIST OF STANDARD BOOKS_

                                  ON

                             ARCHITECTURE

                                  AND

                          THE DECORATIVE ARTS

                             PUBLISHED BY

                            B. T. BATSFORD,
                       94, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON.

        Forwarded Carriage Paid at the Discount Prices affixed.


     NATURE IN ORNAMENT. By LEWIS F. DAY. With 123 full-page Plates and
     192 Illustrations in the Text. Third Edition, revised (Fifth
     Thousand). Thick crown 8vo, in handsome cloth binding, richly gilt,
     from a special design by the Author. Price 12_s._ 6_d._ Net 10_s._

     CONTENTS:--I. Introductory. II. Ornament in Nature. III. Nature in
     Ornament. IV. The Simplification of Natural Forms. V. The
     Elaboration of Natural Forms. VI. Consistency in the Modification
     of Nature. VII. Parallel Renderings. VIII. More Parallels. IX.
     Tradition in Design. X. Treatment. XI. Animals in Ornament. XII.
     The Element of the Grotesque. XIII. Still Life in Ornament. XIV.
     Symbolic Ornament.

     “Amongst the best of our few good ornamental designers is Mr. Lewis
     F. Day, who is the author of several books on ornamental art.
     ‘Nature in Ornament’ is the latest of these, and is probably the
     best. The treatise should be in the hands of every student of
     ornamental design. It is profusely and admirably illustrated, and
     well printed.”--_Magazine of Art._

     “A book more beautiful for its illustrations, or one more helpful
     to students of art, can hardly be imagined.”--_Queen._

     SOME PRINCIPLES OF EVERY DAY ART.--INTRODUCTORY CHAPTERS ON THE
     ARTS NOT FINE. Forming a Prefatory Volume to the Series of Text
     Books. Second Edition (Fourth Thousand), revised, containing 70
     Illustrations. Crown 8vo, art linen. Price 3_s._ 6_d._ Net 3_s._

     “Authoritative as coming from a writer whose mastery of the
     subjects is not to be disputed, and who is generous in imparting
     the knowledge he acquired with difficulty. Mr. Day has taken much
     trouble with the new edition.”--_Architect._

     “A good artist, and a sound thinker, Mr. Day has produced a book of
     sterling value.”--_Magazine of Art._

     THE ANATOMY OF PATTERN.--Fourth Edition (Ninth Thousand), revised,
     with 41 full-page Illustrations. Crown 8vo, art linen. Price 3_s._
     6_d._ Net 3_s._

     CONTENTS:--I. Introductory. II. Pattern Dissections. III. Practical
     Pattern Planning. IV. The “Drop” Pattern. V. Skeleton Plans. VI.
     Appropriate Pattern.

     “ ... There are few men who know the science of their profession
     better or can teach it as well as Mr. Lewis Day; few also who are
     more gifted as practical decorators; and in anatomising pattern in
     the way he has done in this manual--a way beautiful as well as
     useful--he has performed a service not only to the students of his
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     THE PLANNING OF ORNAMENT.--Third Edition (Fifth Thousand), further
     revised, with 41 full-page Illustrations, many of which have been
     re-drawn. Crown 8vo, art linen. Price 3_s._ 6_d._ Net 3_s._

     CONTENTS:--I. Introductory. II. The use of the Border. III. Within
     the Border. IV. Some Alternatives in Design. V. On the Filling of
     the Circle and other Shapes. VI. Order and Accident.

     “Contains many apt and well-drawn illustrations; it is a highly
     comprehensive, compact, and intelligent treatise on a subject which
     is more difficult to treat than outsiders are likely to think. It
     is a capital little book, from which no tyro (it is addressed to
     improvable minds) can avoid gaining a good deal.”--_Athenæum._

     THE APPLICATION OF ORNAMENT.--Third Edition (Sixth Thousand),
     further revised, with 48 full-page Illustrations and 7 Woodcuts in
     the Text. Crown 8vo, art linen. Price 3_s._ 6_d._ Net 3_s._

     CONTENTS:--I. The Rationale of the Conventional. II. What is
     implied by Repetition. III. Where to stop in Ornament. IV. Style
     and Handicraft. V. The Teaching of the Tool. VI. Some
     Superstitions.

     “A most worthy supplement to the former work, and a distinct gain
     to the art student who has already applied his art knowledge in a
     practical manner, or who hopes yet to do so.”--_Science and Art._

     ORNAMENTAL DESIGN.--Comprising the Three Books, “ANATOMY OF
     PATTERN,” “PLANNING OF ORNAMENT,” and “APPLICATION OF ORNAMENT,”
     handsomely bound in one volume, cloth gilt. Price 10_s._ 6_d._ Net
     8_s._ 6_d._

     WINDOWS.--A BOOK ABOUT STAINED AND PAINTED GLASS. By LEWIS F. DAY.
     BOOK I., “THE COURSE OF CRAFTSMANSHIP”; BOOK II., “THE COURSE OF
     DESIGN”; BOOK III., “BY THE WAY.” Containing 410 pages, including
     50 full-page Plates, and upwards of 200 Illustrations in the Text,
     all of Old Examples. Large 8vo, cloth gilt. Price 21_s._ net.

     “Contains a more complete popular account--technical and
     historical--of stained and painted glass than has previously
     appeared in this country.”--_The Times._

     “The book is a masterpiece in its way ... amply illustrated and
     carefully printed; it will long remain an authority on its
     subject.”--_The Art Journal._

     “All for whom the subject of stained glass possesses an interest
     and a charm, will peruse these pages with pleasure and
     profit.”--_The Morning Post._

     “Mr. Day has done a worthy piece of work in more than his usual
     admirable manner ... the illustrations are all good and some the
     best black-and-white drawings of stained glass yet produced.”--_The
     Studio._

_In Preparation. To be published shortly._

     A HANDBOOK OF EMBROIDERY.--By LEWIS F. DAY and MISS MARY BUCKLE.
     Being a handbook on the Art for Designers, Needleworkers, Students,
     Teachers, &c. Both artistic and practical sides of the subject are
     thoroughly treated, and the work is illustrated with Photographs of
     Stitches, and Historic Examples, &c.

_Now published, the most handy, useful, and comprehensive work on the
subject._

     ALPHABETS, OLD AND NEW.--Containing 150 complete Alphabets, 30
     Series of Numerals, Numerous Facsimiles of Ancient Dates. Selected
     and arranged by LEWIS F. DAY. Preceded by a short account of the
     Development of the Alphabet. With Modern Examples specially
     designed by WALTER CRANE, PATTEN WILSON, A. BERESFORD PITE, the
     Author, and others. Crown 8vo, art linen. Second Impression,
     completing Fifth Thousand. Price 3_s._ 6_d._ net.

     “Mr. Day’s explanation of the growth of form in letters is
     particularly valuable.... Many excellent alphabets are given in
     illustration of his remarks.”--_The Studio._

     “Every one who employs practical lettering will be grateful for
     ‘Alphabets, Old and New.’ Mr. Day has written a scholarly and pithy
     introduction, and contributes some beautiful alphabets of his own
     design.”--_The Art Journal._

     “A practical resumé of all that is to be known on the subject,
     concisely and clearly stated.”--_St. James’s Gazette._

     “It goes without saying that whatever Mr. Batsford publishes and
     Mr. Day has to do with is presented in a good artistic form,
     complete, and wherever that is possible, graceful.”--_The
     Athenæum._

     A HANDBOOK OF ORNAMENT.--With 300 Plates, containing about 3,000
     Illustrations of the Elements and Application of Decoration to
     Objects. By F. S. MEYER, Professor at the School of Applied Art,
     Karlsruhe. Second English Edition, revised by HUGH STANNUS,
     F.R.I.B.A., Lecturer on Applied Art at the Royal College of Art,
     South Kensington. Thick 8vo, cloth gilt, gilt top. Price 12_s._
     6_d._ Net 10_s._

     “A library, a museum, an encyclopædia, and an art school in one. To
     rival it as a book of reference, one must fill a book case. The
     quality of the drawings is unusually high, the choice of examples
     is singularly good.... The work is practically an epitome of a
     hundred works on Design.”--_Studio._

     “The author’s acquaintance with ornament amazes, and his three
     thousand subjects are gleaned from the finest which the world
     affords. As a treasury of ornament drawn to scale in all styles,
     and derived from genuine concrete objects, we have nothing in
     England which will not appear as poverty-stricken as compared with
     Professor Meyer’s book.”--_Architect._

     “The book is a mine of wealth even to an ordinary reader, while to
     the student of art and archæology it is simply indispensable as a
     reference book. We know of no one work of its kind that approaches
     it for comprehensiveness and historical accuracy.”--_Science and
     Art._

     THE HISTORIC STYLES OF ORNAMENT.--Containing 1,500 examples from
     all countries and all periods, exhibited on 100 Plates, mostly
     printed in gold and colours. With historical and descriptive text
     translated from the German of H. DOLMETSCH. Folio, handsomely bound
     in cloth, gilt. Price £1 5_s._ net.

     This work has been designed to serve as a practical guide for the
     purpose of showing the development of Ornament, and the application
     of colour to it in various countries through the epochs of history.
     The work illustrates not only Flat Ornament, but also many
     DECORATIVE OBJECTS, such as METAL-WORK, POTTERY AND PORCELAIN,
     LACE, ENAMEL, MOSAIC, ILLUMINATION, STAINED GLASS, JEWELLERY,
     BOOKBINDING, &c. showing the application of Ornament to Industrial
     Art.

_A small remainder, just reduced in price._

     ANIMALS IN ORNAMENT.--By Professor G. STURM. Containing 30 large
     Collotype Plates, printed in tint, of Designs suitable for Friezes,
     Panels, Borders, Wall-papers, Carving, and all kinds of Surface
     Decoration, &c. Large folio in portfolio. Price 18_s._ net
     (published £1 10_s._).

     A new and useful series of clever designs, showing how animal form
     may be adapted to decorative purposes with good effect.

     A HANDBOOK OF ART SMITHING.--For the use of Practical Smiths,
     Designers and others, and in Art and Technical Schools. By F. S.
     MEYER, Author of “A Handbook of Ornament.” Translated from the
     Second German Edition. With an Introduction by J. STARKIE GARDNER.
     Containing 214 Illustrations. Demy 8vo, cloth. Price 6_s._ Net
     5_s._

     Both the Artistic and the Practical Branches of the subject are
     dealt with, and the Illustrations give selected Examples of Ancient
     and Modern Ironwork. The Volume thus fills the long-existing want
     of a Manual on Ornamental Ironwork, and it is hoped will prove of
     value to all interested in the subject.

     “Charmingly produced.... It is really a most excellent manual,
     crowded with examples of ancient work, for the most part extremely
     well selected.”--_The Studio._

     “Professor Meyer’s work is a useful historical manual on Art
     Smithing, based on a scientific classification of the subject, that
     will be of service to all smiths, designers, and students of
     technical and art schools. The illustrations are well drawn and
     numerous.”--_Building News._

_A Facsimile reproduction of one of the rarest and most remarkable Books
of Designs ever published in England._

     A NEW BOOKE OF DRAWINGS OF IRON WORKE.--Invented and Designed by
     JOHN TIJOU. Containing severall sortes of Iron Worke, as Gates,
     Frontispieces, Balconies, Staircases, Pannells, &c., of which the
     most part hath been wrought at the Royal Building of Hampton Court,
     &c. ALL FOR THE USE OF THEM THAT WORKE IRON IN PERFECTION AND WITH
     ART. (Sold by the Author in London, 1693.) Containing 20 folio
     Plates. With an Introductory Note and Descriptions of the Plates by
     J. STARKIE GARDNER. Folio, bound in boards, old style. Price 25_s._
     net.

     Only 150 copies were printed for England, and but 20 now remain.
     Early application is therefore necessary to secure copies.

     An original copy is priced at £48 in a recent catalogue of Mr.
     Bernard Quaritch, the renowned bookseller.

     DECORATIVE WROUGHT IRONWORK OF THE 17TH AND 18TH CENTURIES.--By D.
     J. EBBETTS. Containing 16 large Lithographic Plates, illustrating
     70 English Examples of Screens, Grilles, Panels, Balustrades, &c.
     Folio, boards, cloth back. Price 12_s._ 6_d._ Net 10_s._

_Just Published._

     A MANUAL OF PRACTICAL INSTRUCTION IN THE ART OF BRASS REPOUSSÉ FOR
     AMATEURS.--By GAWTHORP (Art Metal Worker to H.R.H. the Prince of
     Wales). Second and Enlarged Edition. With 32 Illustrations, many
     from photographs of executed designs. Crown 8vo, in wrapper. Price
     1_s._ net.

     EXAMPLES OF ENGLISH MEDIÆVAL FOLIAGE AND COLOURED DECORATION.--By
     JAS. K. COLLING, Architect, F.R.I.B.A. Taken from Buildings of the
     XIIth to the XVth Century. Containing 76 Lithographic Plates and 79
     Woodcut Illustrations, with Text. Royal 4to, cloth, gilt top. Price
     18_s._, net 15_s._ (published at £2 2_s._).

_Published with the Sanction of the Science and Art Department._

     FRENCH WOOD CARVINGS FROM THE NATIONAL MUSEUMS.--A Series of
     Examples printed in Collotype from Photographs specially taken from
     the Carvings direct. Edited by ELEANOR ROWE. Part I. Late 15th and
     Early 16th Century Examples; Part II. 16th Century; Part III. 17th
     and 18th Centuries. The Three Series complete, each containing 18
     large folio Plates, with Descriptive Letterpress. Folio, in
     portfolios, price 12_s._ each net, or handsomely half bound, in one
     volume, price £2 5_s._ net.

     “Students of the art of Wood Carving will find a mine of
     inexhaustible treasures in this series of illustrations of French
     Wood Carvings.... Each plate is a work of art in itself; the
     distribution of light and shade is admirably managed, and the
     differences in relief are faithfully indicated, while every detail
     is reproduced with a clearness that will prove invaluable to the
     student.... Sections are given with several of the plates.”--_The
     Queen._

     “Needs only to be seen to be purchased by all interested in the
     craft, whether archæologically or practically.”--_The Studio._

     HINTS ON WOOD CARVING FOR BEGINNERS.--By ELEANOR ROWE, with a
     Preface by J. H. POLLEN. Fourth Edition, revised and enlarged,
     Illustrated. 8vo, sewed. Price 1_s._ in paper covers, or bound in
     cloth, price 1_s._ 6_d._

     “The most useful and practical small book on Wood Carving we know
     of.”--_Builder._

     “ ... Is a useful little book, full of sound directions and good
     suggestions.”--_Magazine of Art._

     HINTS ON CHIP CARVING.--(Class Teaching and other Northern Styles.)
     By ELEANOR ROWE, with a Preface by T. R. ABLETT. 40 Illustrations.
     8vo, sewed. Price 1_s._ in paper covers, or in cloth, price 1_s._
     6_d._

     “A capital manual of instruction in a craft that ought to be most
     popular.”--_Saturday Review._

     DETAILS OF GOTHIC WOOD CARVING.--Being a Series of Drawings from
     Original Work of the 14th and 15th Centuries. By FRANKLYN A.
     CRALLAN. Containing 34 large Photo-lithographic Plates,
     illustrating some of the finest specimens of Gothic Wood Carving
     extant, with Introductory and Descriptive Text. Large 4to, in
     handsome cloth portfolio, or bound in cloth gilt. Price 28_s._ Net
     24_s._

     “The examples are carefully drawn to a large size ... well selected
     and very well executed.”--_The Builder._

     “This admirable work is one of great interest and value.... Every
     variety of Gothic detail is here illustrated. Hitherto no
     full-sized details have been published, so that the present work
     will be invaluable to the wood carver, as the drawings possess all
     the strength and vigour of the original work.”--_Education._

     PROGRESSIVE STUDIES AND DESIGNS FOR WOOD CARVERS.--By MISS E. R.
     PLOWDEN. With a Preface by MISS ROWE. Consisting of seven large
     folding sheets of Illustrations (drawn full size), of a variety of
     objects suitable for Wood Carving. With Descriptive Text. Second
     Edition, enlarged. 4to, in portfolio. Price 5_s._ net.

     REMAINS OF ECCLESIASTICAL WOOD-WORK.--A Series of Examples of
     Stalls, Screens, Book-Boards, Roofs, Pulpits, &c., containing 21
     Plates beautifully engraved on Copper, from drawings by T. TALBOT
     BURY, Archt. 4to, half-bound. Price 10_s._ 6_d._, net 8_s._ 6_d._

     HEPPLEWHITE’S CABINET-MAKER AND UPHOLSTERER’S GUIDE; or Repository
     of Designs for every article of Household Furniture in the newest
     and most approved taste.--A complete facsimile reproduction of this
     rare work, containing nearly 300 charming Designs on 128 Plates.
     Small folio, bound in speckled cloth, gilt, old style. Price £2
     10_s._ net. (1794.) _Original Copies when met with fetch from £15
     to £18._

     “A beautiful replica, which every admirer of the author and the
     period should possess.”--_The Building News._

     CHIPPENDALE’S THE GENTLEMAN AND CABINET-MAKER’S DIRECTOR.--A
     complete Facsimile of the Third and rarest Edition, containing 200
     Plates of Designs of Chairs, Sofas, Beds and Couches, Tables,
     Library Book Cases, Clock Cases, Stove Grates, &c., &c. Folio,
     strongly bound in half-cloth. Price £3 15_s._ net. (1762.)

     THE DECORATION OF HOUSES.--By EDITH WHARTON, and OGDEN CODMAN,
     Architect. 204 pages of text, with 56 full-page Photographic Plates
     of Views of Rooms, Doors, Ceilings, Fireplaces, various pieces of
     Furniture, &c., from the Renaissance period. Large square 8vo,
     cloth gilt. Price 12_s._ 6_d._ net.

     “ ... has illustrations which are beautiful ... because they
     illustrate the sound and simple principle of decoration which the
     authors put forward.... The book is one which should be in the
     library of every man and woman of means, for its advice is
     characterised by so much common sense as well as by the best of
     taste.”--_The Queen._

     OLD CLOCKS AND WATCHES AND THEIR MAKERS.--By F. J. BRITTEN,
     Secretary of the Horological Institute. Being an Account of the
     History of Clocks and Watches, with a List of 8,000 Old Makers,
     with descriptive Notes. Containing over 400 Illustrations, many
     from photographs, of choice and curious examples, of Clocks and
     Watches of the past, including the finely-ornamented Bracket Clocks
     of the XVIIth Century, and the tall cases of the XVIIIth Century.
     512 pages. Demy 8vo, cloth gilt. Price 10_s._ net.

     FLAT ORNAMENT; A PATTERN BOOK FOR DESIGNERS OF TEXTILES,
     EMBROIDERIES, WALL PAPERS, INLAYS, &C., &C.--150 Plates, some
     printed in colours, exhibiting upwards of 500 Examples of Textiles,
     Embroideries, Paper Hangings, Tile Pavements, Intarsia Work, &c. By
     DR. FISCHBACH. Imperial 4to boards, cloth back. Price 25_s._ Net
     20_s._

     EXAMPLES OF OLD FURNITURE, ENGLISH AND FOREIGN.--Drawn and
     described by ALFRED ERNEST CHANCELLOR. Containing 40
     Photo-lithographic Plates exhibiting some 100 examples of
     Elizabethan, Stuart, Queen Anne, Georgian and Chippendale
     furniture; and an interesting variety of Continental work. With
     historical and descriptive notes. Large 4to, gilt. Price £1 5_s._
     Net £1 1_s._

     “In publishing his admirable collection of drawings of old
     furniture, Mr. Chancellor secures the gratitude of all admirers of
     the consummate craftsmanship of the past. His examples are selected
     from a variety of sources with fine discrimination, all having an
     expression and individuality of their own--qualities that are so
     conspicuously lacking in the furniture of our own day. It forms a
     very acceptable work.”--_The Morning Post._

     PLASTERING: PLAIN AND DECORATIVE.--A Practical Treatise on the Art
     and Craft of Plastering and Modelling. Including full description
     of the various Tools, Materials, Processes and Appliances employed.
     With over 50 full-page Plates, and about 500 smaller Illustrations
     in the Text. By WILLIAM MILLAR. With an Introduction of the History
     of the Art, by G. T. ROBINSON, F.S.A. Second Edition. Thick 4to,
     cloth, containing 600 pages of Text. Price 18_s._ net.

     “This new and in many senses remarkable treatise ... unquestionably
     contains an immense amount of valuable first-hand information....
     ‘Millar on Plastering’ may be expected to be the standard authority
     on the subject for many years to come.... A truly monumental
     work.”--_The Builder._

     A GRAMMAR OF JAPANESE ORNAMENT AND DESIGN.--Illustrated by 65
     Plates, many in gold and colours, representing all classes of
     Natural and Conventional Forms, drawn from the originals, with
     Introductory, Descriptive, and Analytical Text. By T. W. CUTLER,
     F.R.I.B.A. Imperial 4to, in elegant cloth binding. Price £2 6_s._
     Net £1 18_s._


_NATIVE PRINTED JAPANESE ART BOOKS._

JAPANESE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF DESIGN.

     BOOK I.--Containing over 1,500 engraved Curious and most ingenious
     Geometric Patterns of Circles, Medallions, &c., comprising
     Conventional Details of Plants, Flowers, Leaves, Petals, also
     Birds, Fans, Animals, Key Patterns, &c., &c. Oblong 12mo, fancy
     covers. Price 2_s._ net.

     BOOK II.--Containing over 600 most original and effective Designs
     for Diaper Ornament, giving the base lines to the design, also
     Artistic Miniature Picturesque Sketches. Oblong 12mo, fancy covers.
     Price 2_s._ net.

     These books exhibit the varied charm and originality of conception
     of Japanese Ornament, and form an inexhaustible field of Design.

     A DELIGHTFUL SERIES OF STUDIES OF BIRDS IN MOST CHARACTERISTIC AND
     LIFE-LIKE ATTITUDES, SURROUNDED WITH APPROPRIATE FOLIAGE AND
     FLOWERS.--By the celebrated Japanese Artist, BAIREI KONO. In three
     Books, 8vo, each containing 36 pages of highly artistic and
     decorative Illustrations printed in tints. Bound in fancy paper
     covers. Price 10_s._ net.

     These books are of the greatest value to Artists, Screen and China
     Painters, Decorators, and Designers in all branches of Art
     Manufacture, and of much interest to the admirers of Japanese Art.

     “In attitude and gesture and expression, these birds, whether
     perching or soaring, swooping or brooding, are
     admirable.”--_Magazine of Art._

     JAPANESE STUDIES OF BIRDS AND FLOWERS, A NEW SERIES OF.--By
     WATANABE SIETEI, the acknowledged leading living Artist in Japan. 3
     volumes, containing numerous exceedingly Artistic Sketches in
     various tints, 8vo, fancy covers. Price 10_s._ net.

     “Contain a wealth of exquisite xylographic impressions, which
     cannot be beaten by any European attempts.”--_The Studio._

     THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE RENAISSANCE IN ITALY.--A General View for
     the use of Students and others. By W. J. ANDERSON, A.R.I.B.A.,
     Director of Architecture, Glasgow School of Art. Second Edition,
     revised and enlarged. Containing 74 full-page Plates, mostly
     reproduced from Photographs, and 98 Illustrations in Text. Large
     8vo, cloth gilt. Price 12_s._ 6_d._ net.

     “A delightful and scholarly work ... very fully
     illustrated.”--_Journal R.I.B.A._

     “It is the work of a scholar taking a large view of his subject....
     The book affords easy and intelligible reading, and the arrangement
     of the subject is excellent, though this was a matter of no small
     difficulty.”--_The Times._

     “Should rank amongst the best architectural writings of the
     day.”--_The Edinburgh Review._

     “We know of no book which furnishes such information and such
     illustrations in so compact and attractive a form. For greater
     excellence with the object in hand there is not one more
     perspicuous.”--_The Building News._

     A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE FOR THE STUDENT, CRAFTSMAN AND
     AMATEUR.--Being a Comparative View of the Historical Styles from
     the Earliest Period. By BANISTER FLETCHER, F.R.I.B.A., Professor of
     Architecture in King’s College, London, and B. F. FLETCHER,
     A.R.I.B.A. Containing upwards of 300 pages, with 115 Collotype
     Plates, mostly reproduced from large Photographs, and other
     Illustrations in the Text. Third Edition, revised. Crown 8vo,
     cloth, gilt. Price 12_s._ 6_d._ Net 10_s._

     “We shall be amazed if it is not immediately recognised and adopted
     as _par excellence_ THE STUDENT’S MANUAL OF THE HISTORY OF
     ARCHITECTURE.”--_The Architect._

     THE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE: GREEK, ROMAN AND ITALIAN.--Selected
     from Normand’s Parallels, &c. With 4 new Plates specially prepared.
     Edited, with Notes, by R. PHENÉ SPIERS, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. Third
     Edition, with 2 new Plates. Containing in all 26 Plates. 4to,
     cloth. Price 10_s._ 6_d._ Net 8_s._ 6_d._

     “A most useful work for architectural students.... Mr. Spiers has
     done excellent service in editing this work, and his notes on the
     plates are very appropriate and useful.”--_British Architect._

     ARCHITECTURE AMONG THE POETS.--By H. HEATHCOTE STATHAM. With 13
     Illustrations. Square 8vo, artistically bound. Price 3_s._ 6_d._
     net.

     “This little work does for architecture in relation to English
     poetry what Mr. Phil Robinson has done for the birds and beasts.
     The poet’s appreciation of architecture is a delightful subject
     with which Mr. Statham has become infected, not only illustrating
     his points with quotations and his judgments with his reasons, but
     the whole with a series of fanciful or suggestive sketches which
     add considerably to the attractiveness of the book.”--_The Magazine
     of Art._

     RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE AND ORNAMENT IN SPAIN.--A Series of
     Examples selected from the purest executed between the years
     1500-1560. By ANDREW N. PRENTICE, A.R.I.B.A. Containing 60
     beautiful Plates, reproduced by Photo-lithography and Photo
     Process, from the Author’s Drawings, of Perspective Views and
     Geometrical Drawings, and Details, in Stone, Wood, and Metal. With
     short Descriptive Text. Folio, handsomely bound in cloth, gilt.
     Price £2 10_s._ Net £2 2_s._

     “For the drawing and production of this book one can have no words
     but praise.... It is a pleasure to have so good a record of such
     admirable architectural drawing, free, firm and
     delicate.”--_British Architect._

               B. T. BATSFORD, 94, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON.


FOOTNOTES:

 [A] “The Pagan-Christian Overlap in the North,” by H. Colley March,
 M.D. (Lond.)

 [B] “The seven periods of Church Architecture,” by Edmund Sharpe.

 [C] “Gothic Architecture,” by Thomas Rickman.

Typographical errors corrected by the etext transcriber:

Arch of Septimius Severus 21=> Arch of Septimus Severus 21

was the typical forms used=> was the typical form used {pg 23}

from Rome to Byzantine=> from Rome to Byzantium {pg 31}

Girolama della Robbia=> Girolamo della Robbia {pg 81}





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software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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