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Title: West Virginia Trees
Author: Brooks, A. B.
Language: English
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                          WEST VIRGINIA TREES

                             BULLETIN 175

                    Agricultural Experiment Station

                        College of Agriculture

                       WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY


                      JOHN LEE COULTER, Director

           _Bulletin 175_                  _September, 1920_

                    Agricultural Experiment Station
           College of Agriculture, West Virginia University

                      JOHN LEE COULTER, Director,


                          West Virginia Trees

             [Illustration: A Stand of Young White Pines.]


                             A. B. BROOKS

Bulletins and Reports of this Station will be mailed free to any
citizen of West Virginia upon written application. Address Director of
the West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Morgantown, W. Va.

                      THE STATE OF WEST VIRGINIA

                       Educational Institutions

                      THE STATE BOARD OF CONTROL

  E. B. STEPHENSON, President                   Charleston, W. Va.
  JAMES S. LAKIN                                Charleston, W. Va.
  J. M. WILLIAMSON                              Charleston, W. Va.

The State Board of Control has the direction of the financial and
business affairs of the state educational institutions.

                     THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION

  M. P. SHAWKEY, President                      Charleston, W. Va.

                    State Superintendent of Schools

  GEORGE S. LAIDLEY                             Charleston, W. Va.
  NOAH G. KEIM                                      Elkins, W. Va.
  EARL W. OGLEBAY                                 Wheeling, W. Va.
  FRANK N. SYCAFOOSE                       Webster Springs, W. Va.
  L. W. BURNS                                      Grafton, W. Va.
  W. C. COOK                                         Welch, W. Va.

The State Board of Education has charge of all matters of a purely
scholastic nature concerning the state educational institutions.

                       WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY

  FRANK BUTLER TROTTER, LL.D.                            President

                 Agricultural Experiment Station Staff

  JOHN LEE COULTER, A.M., Ph.D.                           Director
  BERT H. HITE, M.S.                     Vice-Director and Chemist
  FRANK B. KUNST, A.B.                           Assistant Chemist
  CHARLES E. WEAKLEY, Jr.                        Assistant Chemist
  W. E. RUMSEY, B.S.Agr.                        State Entomologist
  N. J. GIDDINGS, Ph.D.                          Plant Pathologist
  ANTHONY BERG, B.S.                   Assistant Plant Pathologist
  ERNEST L. ANTHONY, M.S.                                 Dairyman
  H. O. HENDERSON, M.S.                         Assistant Dairyman
  HORACE ATWOOD, M.S.Agr.                         Poultry Research
  E. L. ANDREWS, B.S.Agr.           Assistant in Poultry Husbandry
  ROBERT M. SALTER, M.Sc.                      Soil Investigations
  R. E. STEPHENSON, M.S.          Assistant in Soil Investigations
  I. S. COOK, Jr., B.S.Agr.                    Research Agronomist
  T. C. McILVANE, M.S.Agr.                    Assistant Agronomist
  R. P. BLEDSOE, M.S.                         Assistant Agronomist
  J. K. SHAW, Ph.D.                                 Horticulturist
  H. A. JONES, Ph.D.                      Assistant Horticulturist
  L. F. SUTTON, B.S., B.S.Agr.            Assistant Horticulturist
  H. E. KNOWLTON, B.S.Agr.                Assistant Horticulturist
  H. L. CRANE, M.S.Agr.                   Assistant Horticulturist
  ROLAND H. PATCH, M.S.                   Assistant Horticulturist
  H. W. RICHEY, B.S.Agr.                  Assistant Horticulturist
  ERNEST ANGELO, B.S.Agr.                 Assistant Horticulturist
  L. M. PEAIRS, M.S.                         Research Entomologist
  E. A. LIVESAY, M.S.Agr..                        Animal Husbandry
  [1]R. H. TUCKWILLER, B.S.Agr.      Assistant in Animal Husbandry
  C. V. WILSON, B.S.Agr.             Assistant in Animal Husbandry
  A. J. DADISMAN, M.S.Agr.                          Farm Economics
  C. A LUEDER, D.V.M.                           Veterinary Science
  C. E. STOCKDALE, B.S.Agr.                    Agricultural Editor
  D. M. WILLIS, LL.M.                          Financial Secretary
  J. C. JOHNSTON                                       Chief Clerk
  MARY A. FOX                                  Assistant Librarian

[1] In co-operation with U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


The native trees of West Virginia number about 125, of which 101 are
described and illustrated in this publication. The omissions are
principally species of unimportant willows and hawthorns which can be
identified only by specialists. Some of the more common introduced
trees are mentioned in the family descriptions on pages 13 to 27, and a
few are illustrated in groups after the descriptions of native species.
It has been the object to simplify everything in this publication as
much as possible. The meaning of unfamiliar words in the keys and
descriptions can be learned by consulting the glossary beginning on
page 237.

The keys are based principally on characters of leaf and fruit since
these are usually available for study during several months in the
summer and fall. The text, however, contains brief descriptions of the
flowers which often denote most surely the natural relationship of

Scientific names and the order of arrangement are essentially those of
the seventh edition of Gray’s New Manual of Botany.

The drawings were made by the writer from specimens collected during
the past few years.

This bulletin has been prepared mainly for those who desire to become
more familiar with our native and introduced trees, but who do not have
access to the larger publications on the subject. It will serve also as
a basis for future forestry studies in the State. Popular interest in
forestry, which is sadly lacking in West Virginia at this time, will be
stimulated by a more general and more intimate acquaintance with the
different kinds of trees. It is hoped that this bulletin will help to
create the needed interest. If difficulty is found in determining the
name of any tree, specimens mailed to the West Virginia Agricultural
Experiment Station, Morgantown, West Virginia, will be named, if
possible, without charge.

  —_A.B. BROOKS._

  Morgantown, W. Va.
  September 1, 1920.



  Preface                                     3

  Contents                                    4

  Key to Genera                               7

  Pinaceae—The Pine Family                  13

  Salicaceae—The Willow Family              14

  Juglandaceae—The Walnut Family            15

  Betulaceae—The Birch Family               16

  Fagaceae—The Beech Family                 17

  Urticaceae—The Nettle Family              19

  Magnoliaceae—The Magnolia Family          20

  Anonaceae—The Custard Apple Family        20

  Lauraceae—The Laurel Family               21

  Hamamelidaceae—The Witch Hazel Family     21

  Platanaceae—The Plane Tree Family         21

  Rosaceae—The Rose Family                  21

  Leguminosae—The Pulse Family              22

  Rutaceae—The Rue Family                   23

  Simarubaceae—The Quassia Family           23

  Anacardiaceae—The Cashew Family           23

  Aquifoliaceae-The Holly Family             24

  Aceraceae—The Maple Family                24

  Sapindaceae—The Soapberry Family          25

  Tiliaceae—The Linden Family               25

  Araliaceae—The Ginseng Family             25

  Cornaceae—The Dogwood Family              25

  Ericaceae—The Heath Family                25

  Ebenaceae—The Ebony Family                26

  Styracaceae—The Storax Family             26

  Oleaceae—The Olive Family                 26

  Caprifoliaceae—The Honeysuckle Family     27

  White Pine                                 29

  Pitch Pine                                 31

  Table Mountain Pine                        33

  Yellow Pine                                35

  Jersey or Scrub Pine                       37

  Tamarack                                   39

  Red Spruce                                 41

  Hemlock                                    43

  Balsam Fir                                 45

  Arbor Vitae                                47

  Red Cedar                                  49

  Black Willow                               51

  American Aspen                             53

  Large-toothed Poplar                       55

  Cottonwood                                 57

  Butternut                                  59

  Black Walnut                               61

  Shell-Bark Hickory                         63

  Big Shell-Bark Hickory                     65

  Mockernut Hickory                          67

  Pignut Hickory                             69

  Bitternut Hickory                          71

  Hop Hornbeam                               73

  American Hornbeam                          75

  Black Birch                                77

  Yellow Birch                               79

  Red Birch                                 81

  Beech                                     83

  Chestnut                                  85

  Chinquapin                                87

  White Oak                                 89

  Post Oak                                  91

  Bur Oak                                   93

  Swamp White Oak                           95

  Yellow Oak                                97

  Chestnut Oak                              99

  Red Oak                                  101

  Pin Oak                                  103

  Scarlet Oak                              105

  Black Oak                                107

  Spanish Oak                              109

  Scrub Oak                                111

  Black Jack Oak                           113

  Laurel Oak                               115

  Slippery Elm                             117

  American Elm                             119

  Hackberry                                121

  Red Mulberry                             123

  Cucumber Tree                            125

  Umbrella Tree                            127

  Mountain Magnolia                        129

  Tulip Tree                               131

  Common Pawpaw                            133

  Sassafras                                135

  Witch Hazel                              137

  Sweet Gum                                139

  Sycamore                                 141

  American Crab Apple                      143

  Mountain Ash                             145

  Shad Bush                                147

  Cockspur Thorn                           149

  Dotted Thorn                             151

  Black Cherry                             153

  Choke Cherry                             155

  Wild Red Cherry                          157

  Wild Plum                                159

  Honey Locust                             161

  Red Bud                                  163

  Common Locust                            165

  Hop Tree                                 167

  Stag Horn Sumach                         169

  Dwarf Sumach                             171

  Poison Sumach                            173

  American Holly                           175

  Mountain Holly                           177

  Striped Maple                            179

  Mountain Maple                           181

  Sugar Maple                              183

  Black Sugar Maple                        185

  Silver Maple                             187

  Red Maple                                189

  Box Elder                                191

  Fetid Buckeye                            193

  Sweet Buckeye                            195

  Basswood                                 197

  White Basswood                           199

  Hercules Club                            201

  Flowering Dogwood                        203

  Alternate-Leaved Dogwood                 205

  Black Gum                                207

  Great Laurel                             209

  Mountain Laurel                          211

  Sour-wood                                213

  Common Persimmon                         215

  Opossum Wood                             217

  White Ash                                219

  Red Ash                                  221

  Black Ash                                223

  Fringe Tree                              225

  Sweet Viburnum                           227

  Black Haw                                229

  Red Pine                                 230

  Scotch Pine                              230

  Bald Cypress                             230

  European Larch                           230

  Norway Spruce                            230

  White Willow                             230

  Osage Orange                             230

  Norway Maple                             231

  Sycamore Maple                           231

  Gray Birch                               231

  Horse Chestnut                           231

  Catalpa                                  231

  Tree of Heaven                           231

  Kentucky Coffee Tree                     231

  Native Shrubs and Shrubby Vines          232

  Glossary                                 237

West Virginia Trees



(Based on leaves and fruit)

  a.—Leaves simple.

  b.—Leaves needle-shaped, awl-shaped, or scale-like, usually
  evergreen; fruit a cone or berry-like.

  c.—Leaves in bundles of 2-many; fruit a cone.
  Leaves in bundles of 2-5, evergreen         =Pinus, p. 13.=

  Leaves in clusters of 8-many on short spur-like
  branchlets, deciduous in autumn             =Larix, p. 13.=

  c.—Leaves not in bundles, solitary.

  d.—Leaves alternate or whorled.

  Leaves 4-angled, harsh, needle-shaped       =Picea, p. 13.=

  Leaves flat, whitened beneath, ½-1¼ inches
  long, sessile, aromatic; cones 2-4 inches long
  with deciduous scales; bark of twigs smooth,
  and on old trunks with raised resin-filled blisters
                                              =Abies, p. 14.=

  Leaves two-fifths to one-half inch long, short-petioled,
  flat and whitened beneath; cones
  about ¾ inch long with persistent scales; bark
  of twigs rough                              =Tsuga, p. 14.=

  d.—Leaves opposite.

  Leaves scale-like, decurrent on the stem, all of
  one kind; twigs flattened; fruit a small elongated
  cone with 8-12 over-lapping scales          =Thuja, p. 14.=

  Leaves of two kinds, either scale-like or awl-shaped,
  not decurrent on the stem; twigs nearly
  terete; fruit a bluish, berry-like strobile
                                              =Juniperus, p. 14.=

  b.—Leaves flat and broad, usually deciduous.

  c.—Leaves alternate or clustered.

  d.—Leaves without lobes.

  e.—Leaves with margins entire or slightly

  f.—Leaves deciduous.

  Leaves 2-5 inches long, oval; fruit an
  ovoid, blue berry-like drupe, borne 1-3 in
  a drooping cluster                          =Nyssa, p. 25.=

  Leaves 2-5 inches long, ovate; fruit a
  spherical, blue berry-like drupe, borne
  many in an upright cyme, (_Cornus alternifolia_)
                                              =Cornus, p. 25.=

  Leaves 4-6 inches long, oval; fruit an edible
  berry ¾-1¼ inches in diameter
                                              =Diospyros, p. 26.=

  Leaves 4-12 inches long, obovate-lanceolate;
  fruit banana-like, 3-5 inches long,
  with many flattened seeds in the yellow
  flesh                                       =Asimina, p. 20.=

  Leaves 6-24 inches long, ovate-obovate;
  fruit a cone-like or cucumber-like cylindrical
  mass 2-4 inches long                        =Magnolia, p. 20.=

  Leaves 3-5 inches long, heart-shaped;
  fruit a pod 2-3 inches long                 =Cercis, p. 23.=

  Leaves 4-6 inches long, oblong-lanceolate;
  fruit an acorn (_Quercus imbricaria_)
                                              =Quercus, p. 17.=

  f.—Leaves evergreen.

  Leaves 3-4 inches long; fruit many dry
  spherical capsules in a corymb
                                              =Kalmia, p. 26.=

  Leaves 4-11 inches long, evergreen; fruit
  an oblong, dry capsule, several in umbel-like
  clusters                                    =Rhododendron, p. 26.=

  e.—Leaves with margins toothed.

  f.—Branches armed with stiff, sharp thorns.

  Leaves 1-3 inches long, serrate or doubly
  serrate; fruit a small pome                 =Crataegus, p. 22.=

  f.—Branches not armed with thorns.

  g.—Base of leaf decidedly oblique.
  Leaf-blade broad, heart-shaped, serrate;
  fruit a spherical woody drupe
  on stalks attached to an oblong
  bract                                       =Tilia, p. 25.=

  Leaf-blade oval, doubly-serrate, primary
  veins straight; fruit an oval
  samara                                      =Ulmus, p. 19.=

  Leaves 2-4 inches long, serrate; fruit
  a small sweet purple drupe                  =Celtis, p. 19.=

  g.—Base of leaf nearly symmetrical.

  h.—Teeth coarse, 2-5 to the inch.

  Leaves smooth, oval, 3-5 inches
  long; fruit a small bur with weak
  prickles and 3-faced nuts ½-¾
  inch long                                   =Fagus, p. 17.=

  Leaves 6-8 inches long; fruit a
  bur with stiff prickles and 1-3
  rounded, brown nuts                         =Castanea, p. 17.=

  Leaves 2-4 inches long, broadly
  ovate to sub-orbicular; fruit a
  small capsule falling in spring
                                              =Populus, p. 15.=

  Leaves 4-8 inches long, lanceolate
  to obovate; fruit an acorn
                                              =Quercus, p. 17.=

  Leaves wavy-toothed with sharp
  spines, evergreen; fruit a small
  red drupe                                   =Ilex, p. 24.=

  Leaves 4-6 inches long, oval;
  fruit a short woody pod with
  black seeds                                 =Hamamelis, p. 21.=

  h.—Teeth fine, 6-many to the inch.

  i.—Leaves not doubly serrate.

  Leaves 1½-2 inches long, nearly
  as broad, tremulous on long
  petioles; fruit a small capsule.
  (_P. tremuloides_)                          =Populus, p. 15.=

  Leaves 2-6 inches long, often
  narrow; twigs easily separated
  at the joints; fruit a small
  capsule                                     =Salix, p. 14.=

  Leaves 5-7 inches long, 1½-2½
  inches wide, very smooth; bark
  acid; fruit a 5-valved capsule
  borne in clusters
                                              =Oxydendrum, p. 26.=

  Leaves 2-5 inches long, ovate to
  lanceolate; bark often bitter;
  fruit a drupe                               =Prunus, p. 22.=

  Leaves 3-4 inches long; fruit a
  red berry-like pome in clusters
                                              =Amelanchier, p. 22.=

  Leaves 3-5 inches long, nearly
  as wide, often heart-shaped,
  sometimes 2-5-lobed; fruit oblong,
  about 1 inch long, composed
  of many small drupes
                                              =Morus, p. 19.=

  Leaves 3-4 inches long, often
  doubly serrate or lobed on sterile
  shoots; fruit a greenish-yellow
  pome about 1 inch in
  diameter                                    =Pyrus, p. 21.=

  Leaves 4-6 inches long, ovate-lanceolate;
  fruit 1-2 inches long,
  dry, 4-winged                               =Halesia, p. 26.=

  Leaves 4-5 inches long, ovate;
  fruit scarlet berry-like drupes
  on short stems and scattered
  along the branches (_Ilex monticola_)
                                              =Ilex, p. 24.=

  Leaves 2-5 inches long; fruit
  cone-like, containing many dry
  scales (_B. lenta_)                         =Betula, p. 16.=

  i.—Leaves doubly serrate.

  Leaves 2-4 inches long, thin;
  fruit a small nut enclosed in a
  halberd-shaped leaf-like involucre;
  trunk smooth and fluted
                                              =Carpinus, p. 16.=

  Leaves 3-5 inches long; fruit
  hop-like, composed of several
  inflated bracts overlapping and
  each containing a flat seed;
  bark brown with loose scales
                                              =Ostrya, p. 16.=

  Leaves 2-4 inches long; bark
  peeling off in papery scales;
  fruit oblong or ovate, 1-2 inches
  long, composed of numerous 3-lobed
  scales, bearing winged
  nuts                                        =Betula, p. 16.=

  Leaves 1-3 inches long, sometimes
  serrate or lobed; twigs
  armed with stiff thorns; fruit a
  hard pome                                   =Crataegus, p. 22.=

  Leaves 3-4 inches long, often
  serrate or lobed; fruit a sour
  yellowish pome about 1 inch in
  diameter                                    =Pyrus, p. 21.=

  d.—Leaves lobed.

  e.—Margins of lobes entire.

  Leaves oval often without lobes or with 2-3
  lobes, smooth, aromatic; fruit a dark blue
  drupe borne on a thickened red stem
                                              =Sassafras, p. 21.=

  Leaves broadly ovate, with truncate apex,
  2 apical and 2-4 basal lobes; fruit a cone-like
  aggregate of dry, lance-shaped carpels
                                              =Liriodendron, p. 20.=

  Leaves variously lobed, some with bristle-tipped
  teeth; fruit an acorn                       =Quercus, p. 17.=

  e.—Margins of lobes not entire.

  Leaves thick, glossy, star-shaped, with fine
  pointed serrate lobes; fruit a pendulous
  spiny spherical head about 1 inch thick,
  composed of numerous capsules
                                              =Liquidambar, p. 21.=

  Leaves oval, pointed, often without lobes,
  thin, margins serrate or doubly serrate;
  fruit a yellowish pome 1-1½ inches thick
                                              =Pyrus, p. 21.=

  Leaves oval, pointed, often without lobes,
  thin, margins serrate or doubly serrate;
  fruit a pome about two-fifths of an inch
  thick, often red; twigs armed with thorns
                                              =Crataegus, p. 22.=

  Leaves often broadly ovate and not lobed,
  sometimes with 2-5 lobes, serrate; fruit oblong,
  about 1 inch long, an aggregate of
  many small dark purple drupes               =Morus, p. 19.=

  Leaves nearly round in outline, 3-5 lobed,
  coarse sinuate-toothed; fruit a round pendulous
  head 1 inch thick; composed of many
  hairy achenes                               =Platanus, p. 21.=

  c.—Leaves opposite.

  d.—Leaf margins entire or slightly undulate.

  Leaves 3-5 inches long, ovate; fruit a bright red
  ovoid drupe, two-fifths inch long in small
  bunches                                     =Cornus, p. 25.=

  Leaves 4-8 inches long, ovate; fruit a dark blue
  ovoid drupe, ¾ of an inch long, in drooping,
  loose clusters                              =Chionanthus, p. 27.=

  d.—Leaf margins not entire.

  Leaves 3-5 lobed, finely or coarsely toothed,
  fruit a drooping samara                     =Acer, p. 24.=

  Leaves not lobed, 1-3 inches long, oval, finely
  toothed; fruit a dark blue drupe borne in
  clusters                                    =Viburnum, p. 27.=

  a.—Leaves compound.

  b.—Leaves alternate.

  c.—Margins of leaflets entire.

  Leaves pinnate, 8-14 inches long; fruit a pod 2-4
  inches long; limbs bearing short spines in pairs at
  the nodes                                   =Robinia, p. 23.=

  Leaves 3-foliate; fruit a samara, winged all around,
  in drooping clusters                        =Ptelea, p. 23.=

  Leaves pinnate with 9-21 leaflets; fruit small, red
  or white dry drupes in dense upright or loose
  drooping clusters                           =Rhus, p. 23.=

  c.—Margins of leaflets not entire.

  Leaves pinnate with 11-23 serrate leaflets; fruit a
  large sculptured nut                        =Juglans, p. 15.=

  Leaves odd-pinnate, with 3-11 leaflets; fruit a
  smooth or angled nut                        =Carya, p. 15.=

  Leaves odd-pinnate, with 13-17 lance-shaped leaflets;
  fruit a small red acid pome, borne many in a
  flat-topped cluster. (_Pyrus Americana_)    =Pyrus, p. 21.=

  Leaves doubly compound with many ovate serrate
  leaflets; fruit a small ovoid black berry in large
  branching clusters; twigs and trunk armed with
  sharp spines      =Aralia, p. 25.=

  b.—Leaves opposite.

  c.—Leaves pinnate, fruit a samara.

  Leaflets, 3-5, samaras paired               =Acer, p. 24.=

  Leaflets, 5-11, samaras, not paired         =Fraxinus, p. 26.=

  c.—Leaves digitate, fruit a globular capsule containing
  large brown nuts                            =Aesculus, p. 25.=


The Pine family comprises nearly 300 species belonging to 34 genera,
distributed principally in temperate regions throughout the world. This
family is of great economic importance, supplying a larger quantity of
lumber than any other family as well as enormous amounts of tannin,
turpentine, resin, tar and pitch. Many of its members also are highly
useful for ornamental purposes.

The leaves of the trees and shrubs belonging to the Pine family are
needle-shaped, awl-shaped, or scale-like, and are usually persistent
for more than one year, the American Larch or Tamarack being the only
exception to this rule in West Virginia. The seeds are borne either in
true cones, or in berry-like fruits such as are produced on the cedars.

The following are the genera of Pinaceae represented in West Virginia:

=Pinus=.—Of the 34 species of pines native to North America only 5
are found in West Virginia. These are described and illustrated on
following pages. Besides the native pines several introduced species
are planted on lawns and in parks. The most common of the exotics are
Red Pine (_Pinus resinosa_, Ait.) and Scotch Pine (_Pinus sylvestris_,
L.), the former having smooth cones about 2 inches long and leaves 4-6
inches long, two in a bundle, and the latter having cones 1½-2½ inches
long, and leaves 1½-3½ inches long, two in a bundle.


Leaves 5 in a cluster; cones smooth, 4-10 inches long =P. strobus, p. 29.=

Leaves fewer than 5 in a cluster; cones less than 4 inches long.

  Leaves 3 in a cluster; cones with prickles      =P. rigida, p. 31.=

  Leaves 2 in a cluster.

    Leaves stiff, sharp-pointed, 2-4 inches long; cones 2-4 inches
    long with very thick sharp spines      =P. pungens, p. 33.=

    Leaves twisted 1½-3½ inches long; cones 2-3 inches long;
    scales terminated with prickles      =P. virginiana, p. 37.=

    Leaves slender, not twisted, 3-4 inches long, often 3 in a cluster,
    especially near the ends of twigs      =P. echinata, p. 35.=

=Larix=, (page 39).—There are 10 known species of Larches found
principally in the colder regions of the northern hemisphere. Three of
these are indigenous to North America and one extends as far south as
the northern part of West Virginia. Unlike most of the members of the
Pine family the Larches shed their leaves each fall. The European Larch
(_Larix decidua_, Mill.) is frequently planted for ornamental purposes.
It can be distinguished from the native species by its much larger

=Picea=, (page 41).—Eight of the 18 or 20 known species of Spruces are
native to North America and one species is found in West Virginia. The
2 introduced Spruces most commonly planted are Norway Spruce (_Picea
Abies_, (L.) Karst.) and Colorado Blue Spruce (_Picea pungens_, Engl.).
The Norway Spruce can be distinguished from our native species by its
much larger cones, and the Colorado Blue Spruce by its blue-green

=Tsuga=, (page 43).—This genus comprises 8 species, 4 of which grow in
Asia and 4 in North America. One of the 2 Eastern Hemlocks is common in
West Virginia, the other (_Tsuga caroliniana_, Engl.) grows from the
mountains of Virginia south to Georgia.

=Abies=, (page 45).—The 25 known species of Firs are found principally
in cold and temperate regions. Of the 10 species in North America only
2 are found east of the Rocky Mountains and 1 in West Virginia. The
other Eastern Fir is _Abies balsamea_, (L.) Mill, which does not extend
southward into this State.

=Thuja=, (page 47).—Four species of Arbor Vitae are known, 2 of which
are native to North America, one in the West and the other in the East.
The limited distribution in West Virginia of the latter is given on the
page describing this species.

=Juniperus=, (page 49).—This is a large genus comprising 40 trees and
shrubs. Of these, 16 species are found in North America. Red Cedar,
described in this bulletin, is common in West Virginia and _Juniperus
communis_, (L.) has been reported from Wood, Mineral and Fayette

Other members of the Pine family which may be seen occasionally planted
on lawns in West Virginia are the following:

White Cedar (_Chamaecyparis thyoides_, (L.) B.S.P.)

Bald Cypress (_Taxodium distichum_, Rich.)

Ginkgo Tree (_Ginkgo biloba_, (L.)) and several other species and
varieties of Junipers, Pines, Spruces, and Yews.


The Willow family, which includes also the Poplars, comprises about
200 species, a large proportion of which are distributed in temperate
and arctic zones. Several shrubby species extend far into the arctic

On the whole this family is not important commercially, but with the
disappearance of the more valuable kinds of trees the rapid-growing and
easily-propagated Willows and Poplars are receiving more attention.

The 2 genera belonging to this family are given below:

=Salix=, (page 51).—This genus comprises no fewer than 175 known
species, 100 of which are native to North America. The following
species are reported from West Virginia: _S. nigra_, Marsh., _S.
amygdaloides_, Aud., _S. discolor_, Muhl., _S. humilis_, Marsh., _S.
cericea_, Marsh. and _S. cordata_, Muhl. Doubtless several other
species occur in the State. The task of determining the different
species of Willows is one for the specialist who has devoted much
time to their study. For this reason only one species, the common
Black Willow of our stream banks, is described and illustrated in this
bulletin. The most common introduced Willows are the well-known Weeping
Willow (_Salix babylonica_, (L.)) and a yellow-twigged variety of the
White Willow (_Salix alba_, var. _vitellina_, (L.) Koch.).

=Populus=.—The species of Poplars and Aspens number 27 of which 19
are native to North America and 3 to West Virginia. White Poplar
(_P. alba_, (L.)) and Balm of Gilead (_P. candicans_, Ait.) are the
principal introduced species planted in the State.


  Leaves broadly deltoid, acuminate, marginal teeth somewhat incurved;
  trees of stream banks and extensively planted along
  streets      =P. deltoides, p. 57.=

  Leaves ovate to sub-orbicular.
  Leaves coarsely sinuate-toothed, 3-5 inches long
               =P. grandidentata, p. 55.=

  Leaves finely serrate, less than 3 inches long  =P. tremuloides, p. 53.=


The Walnut family, with its 6 genera and 35 species, is represented
in North America by 2 genera (Juglans and Carya) and 19 species. This
family is a very important one, contributing much of the costliest and
most durable timber as well as large quantities of edible nuts. The
wood of Black Walnut is especially adapted to fine cabinet work and
that of the Hickories to the manufacture of vehicles, handles, etc.,
where strength and flexibility are desired.

=Juglans=.—The 15 species comprising this genus are found principally
in the north temperate zone. Five species are native to North America
and two are found in West Virginia. The English Walnut (_Juglans
regia_, (L.)) which has been introduced and widely planted in the
United States yields the valuable Circassian Walnut woods used in
the manufacture of fine furniture as well as the walnuts sold in our


  Leaflets 11-17, often viscid-hairy; pith chocolate-brown; fruit
  elongated, sticky-hairy      =J. cinerea, p. 59.=

  Leaflets 13-23, not viscid-hairy; pith cream-colored; fruit globose, not
  sticky-hairy      =J. nigra, p. 61.=

=Carya=.—The Hickory species number about 10, all of which are native
to that part of North America lying east of the Rock mountains. At
least 5 of these are found in West Virginia. _Carya microcarpa_, Nutt.,
not described herein is reported from Fayette County.

The Pecan Hickory (_Carya illinoencis_ (Wang.) K. K.), a southern
species prized for its nuts, is occasionally planted.


  a. Bark of trunk not deeply furrowed or shaggy; husk of fruit less
  than ⅛ inch thick.

  Leaflets usually 5-7, glabrous beneath; the upper 2-2½
  inches broad; kernel of nut sweet      =C. glabra, p. 69.=

  Leaflets usually 7-11, somewhat downy beneath, the upper
  1-1½ inches broad; kernel of nut bitter      =C. cordiformis, p. 71.=

  a. Bark of trunk deeply furrowed or shaggy; husk of fruit more than
  ⅛ inch thick.

  Leaflets 5-7, scurfy or pubescent; bark rough but not
  shaggy; buds densely hairy      =C. alba, p. 67.=

  Leaflets usually 7; nuts 1¼-2 inches long, pointed at both
  ends, dull white; bark shaggy      =C. laciniosa, p. 65.=

  Leaflets usually 5; nuts smaller, rounded or notched at
  the base, white, thin-shelled; bark shaggy      =C. ovata, p. 63.=


The 6 genera and about 75 species belonging to this family are
principally confined to the higher latitudes of the northern
hemisphere. In North America there are 5 genera and about 30 species,
of which the 5 genera and at least 9 species grow in West Virginia. The
Common Hazelnut (_Corylus americana_, Walt.) and the Beaked Hazelnut
(_Corylus rostrata_, Ait.) are both common shrubs of the State. The
Smooth Alder (_Alnus rugosa_, (DuRoi) Spreng.) and the Hoary Alder
(_Alnus incana_, (L.) Moench.) are both to be found, the former
abundant along our streams, and the latter rare in upland swamps.
_Alnus alnobetula_ (Ehrh.) K K. is also reported from Greenbrier,
Fayette, and Randolph counties.

This family produces products of great value. The wood of Birches is
used extensively for furniture and interior finish, and for fuel. Black
Birch supplies a volatile oil of considerable importance. The wood of
some of the Alders is becoming valuable on account of its use in the
manufacture of gunpowder, and the fruits of the Hazelnuts bring a good
price on the market. The following are our tree genera:

=Ostrya=, (page 73).—Four species of Hop Hornbeam or Ironwood are
known, 2 being found in North America. One of these is limited in its
range to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, in Arizona; the other is
widely distributed and is common locally in West Virginia.

=Carpinus=, (page 75).—Eleven species of Hornbeams are native to
Asia and Europe and only 1 species is found in North America. This is
abundant in most parts of West Virginia.

=Betula=.—This genus comprises 25 known species of trees and 10
species of shrubs. About 15 of these are native to North America and
3 to West Virginia. Besides our native species the Gray Birch (_Betula
populifolia_, Marsh.) and varieties of White Birch (_Betula alba_, L.)
are often planted for ornamental purposes.


  Bark of the trunk light-colored with thin layers curling or peeling off.

  Outer bark yellowish, fruits usually sessile; leaves usually rounded
  at base; twigs with slight wintergreen taste      =B. lutea, p. 79.=

  Outer bark reddish-brown, inner bark tinged with red; fruits on
  slender stalks; leaves usually wedge-shaped at base; not
  aromatic      =B. nigra, p. 81.=

  Bark of trunk rough, dark gray, without thin outer layers; bark of
  twigs with wintergreen taste      =B. lenta, p. 77.=


There are 6 genera and about 400 species of trees and shrubs belonging
to the Beech family of which 5 genera and about 60 species are native
to North America. Fourteen species of Oaks, 2 species of Chestnuts, and
1 species of Beech occur in West Virginia.

This large family is second in importance only to the Pine family and
in some respects surpasses it. Nearly all its members, especially the
various kinds of oaks, produce wood of superior quality and adapted to
a great variety of uses.

=Fagus=, (page 83).—This genus comprises, in the world, 5 species,
only 1 of which is found native in America. The others are Asiatic and
European species. The European Beech (_Fagus sylvatica_, L.), and its
varieties having purple leaves, cut leaves or pendent branches are
often planted for ornamental purposes.

=Castanea=, (pp. 85, 87).—Of the 5 or more species of chestnuts
belonging to this genus, none is found in the western part of North
America and 3 species are native to the eastern part of the United
States. _Castanea alnifolia_, Nutt., is a shrub found in the southern
Atlantic states. The European Chestnut (_Castanea sativa_), the
Japanese Chestnut (_Castanea Japonica_) and the Chinese Chestnut
(_Castanea mollissima_) are all planted in this country for their
nuts. The Japanese and Chinese species are more or less resistant to
the chestnut bark disease and for this reason they and their hybrids
with our native species are likely to receive much attention from
nut-growers. The common Chestnut and the Chinquapin, both of which are
natives of West Virginia, may be exterminated by the disease mentioned

=Quercus=.—The Oak genus comprises 300 known species in the world. Of
these about 55 are indigenous to North America and 14 to West Virginia.
The Oaks belong to two classes, namely, those that mature their acorns
in one season and those that mature them in two. The West Virginia
species are grouped below according to their classes:

White Oak Class:

  1.—White Oak (_Quercus alba_).
  2.—Post Oak (_Quercus stellata_).
  3.—Bur Oak (_Quercus macrocarpa_).
  4.—Swamp White Oak (_Quercus bicolor_).
  5.—Yellow Oak (_Quercus Muhlenbergii_).
  6.—Chestnut Oak (_Quercus Prinus_).

Black Oak Class:

  1.—Red Oak (_Quercus rubra_).
  2.—Pin Oak (_Quercus palustris_).
  3.—Scarlet Oak (_Quercus coccinea_).
  4.—Black Oak (_Quercus velutina_).
  5.—Spanish Oak (_Quercus falcata_).
  6.—Scrub Oak (_Quercus ilicifolia_).
  7.—Black Jack Oak (_Quercus marilandica_).
  8.—Laurel Oak (_Quercus imbricaria_).

The following key will assist in distinguishing the species.


  a. Apex of leaves or their lobes sharp-pointed, usually bristle tipped;
  acorn maturing at end of second season.

  b. Leaves entire, not lobed.

  Leaves often pubescent beneath      =Q. imbricaria, p. 115.=

  b. Leaves lobed.

  Leaves very broad toward apex, with shallow lobes,
  brownish tomentose beneath      =Q. marilandica, p. 113.=

  Leaves not uniform, lobes usually long and lanceolate,
  often scythe-shaped      =Q. falcata, p. 109.=

  Leaves 2-5 inches long, densely white pubescent beneath;
  tree small, often a shrub      =Q. ilicifolia, p. 111.=

  Leaves with sinuses extending not over half way to the
  mid-rib, dull green above; inner bark pinkish; acorn
  cup saucer-shaped      =Q. rubra, p. 101.=

  Leaves of upper branches similar in shape to those of
  _Q. rubra_ but bright green above; those on lower limbs
  and young trees often with lobes rounded; inner bark
  yellow; acorn cup top-shaped      =Q. velutina, p. 107.=

  Leaves with sinuses extending at least ⅔ of the way to
  mid-rib; acorn cup large and top-shaped    =Q. coccinea, p. 105.=

  Leaves similar to those of _Q. coccinea_ but with acorn
  cup small and saucer-shaped; a tree of low grounds
  with lower branches drooping      =Q. palustris, p. 103.=

  a. Apex of leaves or their lobes without bristle tips usually rounded;
  acorns maturing at end of first season.

  b. Leaves not deeply lobed.

  Leaves coarsely sinuate-crenate; acorns on stems 1-3
  inches long; bark of branches with papery scales
  turning back      =Q. bicolor, p. 95.=

  Leaves coarsely crenate-toothed; acorns 1-1½ inches long,
  glossy, cup deep and thin; bark of trunk deeply furrowed,
  dark gray or black      =Q. Prinus, p. 99.=

  Leaves equally and sharply coarse-toothed; acorns less
  than an inch long; bark of tree not deeply furrowed,
  light gray, resembling that of White Oak
        =Q. Muhlenbergii, p. 97.=

  b. Leaves deeply lobed.

  Leaves 6-12 inches long, cut near the middle almost to
  mid-rib by two opposite rounded sinuses, 5-7 lobed,
  the terminal lobe large; acorn ¾-1½ inches long; cup
  deep, fringed around the outer rim      =Q. macrocarpa, p. 93.=

  Leaves thick, leathery, usually 5-lobed, bright yellow-green
  above; acorns small, inch long
        =Q. stellata, p. 91.=

  Leaves 3-9 lobed, medium thin; acorn ¾-1¼ inches
  long      =Q. alba, p. 89.=


The trees and shrubs alone belonging to the Nettle family number 1000
or more, most of which are tropical. The herbaceous representatives of
this family in West Virginia are mostly unimportant weeds, but the 3
genera and 4 species of trees have considerable commercial value and
are attractive ornamentally.

=Ulmus=, (pp. 117, 119).—There are about 15 known species of Elms of
which 6 are native in North America and 3 in West Virginia. The English
Elm (_Ulmus campestris_, L.) is planted for ornamental purposes. The
Cork Elm (_Ulmus racemosa_, Thomas) is reported from Summers, Monroe,
and Randolph counties.

=Celtis=, (page 121).—There are about 60 species of Hackberries, 9
being natives of North America and 2 natives of West Virginia. Besides
the species herein described _Celtis pumila_, Pursh, a shrubby variety,
grows at Harpers Ferry and other stations in the eastern part of the

=Morus=, (page 123).—About 10 species of Mulberries are known, of
which 3 are native to North America and 1 to West Virginia. The White
Mulberry (_Morus alba_, L.) a native of Asia, introduced to furnish
food for silk worms, has become established in many sections.

The Osage Orange (_Maclura pomifera_, (Raf.) Sch.), a member of this
family found native in the southwestern states, has been introduced
into many sections where it is planted for hedges.

Paper Mulberry (_Broussonetia papyrifera_, Vent.), a Japanese species,
is reported from Jefferson, Berkeley, Kanawha, and other counties.
The Common Fig Tree (_Ficus Carica_, L.) is occasionally found in the
eastern part of the State where it has been planted.


The Magnolia family, comprising about 10 genera and 85 species of trees
and shrubs, is represented in North America by 4 genera, two of which
contain only shrubs. The other two include the valuable Magnolias and
Tulip Tree which not only produce large quantities of choice lumber but
are among the most desirable of our ornamental trees.

=Magnolia=, (pp. 125, 127, 129).—Most of the 25 species of Magnolias
are tropical only one venturing as far north as southern Canada.
Three species are native in West Virginia. _Magnolia virginiana_, a
fragrant-flowered species growing farther east and south, is sometimes
planted in West Virginia but is not hardy. Several shrubby and
arborescent Chinese and Japanese species are also grown for ornamental

=Liriodendron=, (page 131).—The Chinese _Liriodendron chinensis_ and
our common Tulip Tree are the only known species belonging to this


This family is essentially tropical, only a few of the 600 species
being found in temperate regions. It has 2 genera, _Asimina_ (page
133) and _Anona_, the former having 5 species of shrubs in the south
Atlantic and Gulf states, and one tree growing in the eastern half of
the United States. _Anona_ is a tropical genus.

The trees of this family are small and the wood has no commercial
value. The fruit of our Common Pawpaw is sweet and edible, but to many
persons distasteful. The tree is highly ornamental and interesting when
growing singly or in groups.


The Laurel family, with about 40 genera and nearly 1000 species, is
represented in North America by 6 genera, of which 4 are arborescent.
Most of the species are tropical. The 2 genera represented in West
Virginia are _Sassafras_, (page 135) and _Benzoin_, the latter having 1
shrubby species, the common Spice Bush. The Sassafras described herein
is the only member of this genus in North America. Another species is
found in China.

The members of this family are aromatic trees and shrubs, none of
which is important as a wood producer. Some of them possess medicinal
properties and all have ornamental value.


The Witch Hazel family comprises about 18 genera with 50 species most
of which are native in Asia, South Africa and North America. Of the 3
North American genera 2 are arborescent. The genus _Hamamelis_ (page
137) has 2 species in Asia and 1 herein described. _Liquidambar_ (page
139) also comprises 2 Asiatic and 1 North American species, the latter
being found in West Virginia.

The species produce hard, dark-colored and handsome wood.


The Plane Tree family has a single genus. _Platanus_, (page 141) with
about 7 species, 3 of which are native to North America and 1 to West
Virginia. Of the exotic species the Old World _Platanus orientalis_, L.
is frequently planted along streets for shade.


The Rose family with about 90 genera and 1,500 species is one of the
largest and most important families of plants, including the apple,
pear, cherry, plum, quince, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry.
About 90 species, 30 or more of which are trees, are found in West
Virginia. The genera which include our tree species are given below:

=Pyrus=, (pp. 143, 145).—This genus comprises about 40 species of
trees and shrubs, 10 of which are native to North America and 2 or
more to West Virginia. The apple and pear, introduced from Europe,
are placed by some authors under the genus _Malus_, and Mountain Ash
under the genus _Sorbus_. The latter is included under Pyrus in this
bulletin. The European Mountain Ash (_Pyrus aucuparia_, (L.) Ehrh.) is
often planted for ornamental purposes.

=Amelanchier=, (page 147).—The Juneberry species number about 30.
About 23 of these are found in North America, 6 of which attain tree
size. Besides the species described herein, variety _botryapium_ has
been reported from Preston County and a specimen collected in Tucker
County has been pronounced by Dr. C. S. Sargent as the recently-named
_Amelanchier laeris_. A shrubby species (_Amelanchier oligocarpa_,
(Michx.) Roem.) is found in Tucker and Pocahontas counties.

=Crataegus=, (pp. 149, 151).—A few species of this genus occur
in Europe and Asia, but most of them are native to North America.
About 700 species of Thorns have been described. According to some
authorities there are fewer species than have been described, while
others affirm there are many yet to be found. Millspaugh’s Flora of
West Virginia lists 22 species, and the writer has collected several
additional species that have been examined and identified by Eggleston
and others. Because the Thorns are of little commercial importance and
are very difficult to identify only 2 species are described in this

=Prunus=.—This genus includes the Plums and Cherries. Of the 100 or
more species distributed in Asia, Europe and America, about 30 are
native in the United States, and 4 or 5 are found in West Virginia.


  a. Fruit in long racemose clusters.

  Leaves 2-5 inches long; fruit purplish-black      =P. serotina, p. 153.=

  Leaves 2-4 inches long; fruit dark crimson      =P. virginiana, p. 155.=

  a. Fruit in 4-5 fruited, umbel-like bunches.

  Leaves lanceolate, thin, 3-5 inches long; fruit ¼ inch in
  diameter, light red      =P. pennsylvanica, p. 157.=

  Leaves obovate, thick, rough above, 1½-4 inches long; fruit
  1 inch in diameter, red or yellow      =P. americana, p. 159.=


The Pulse family embraces over 400 genera with about 7,350 species of
trees, shrubs, and herbs. Out of this number 100 genera with about
1,400 species are found in North America, and about 25 genera with 65
species are recorded for West Virginia. Only 3 genera with 3 species in
this State can be classified as trees.

=Gleditsia=, (page 161).—About 11 species belonging to this genus are
distributed throughout the temperate regions of Asia and eastern North
America, 3 of which are native to the south-central and eastern parts
of the United States. One is found in West Virginia.

=Cercis=, (page 163).—This genus includes 7 species of small trees
and shrubs distributed in parts of Europe, Asia and North America, 3
of which are found in the United States and one in West Virginia. The
genus is of little commercial importance.

=Robinia=, (page 165).—- This is an American genus containing 7
species, 4 of which are shrubs, one tree species being found in West
Virginia. Locusts have been introduced into Europe where they are
widely planted. The Rose Acacia (_Robinia hispida_, L.) is occasionally
planted for ornamental purposes.

The Kentucky Coffee tree (_Gymnocladus dioica_, (L.) Koch.) has been
planted in many sections of the State, and is reported by Millspaugh as
native in Randolph and Webster counties.


This large family is confined chiefly to the Old World and the
southern hemisphere, and is largely made up of herbs. Four genera
have tree representatives in the United States. The species are not
commercially valuable. _Ptelea_ (page 167) is the only genus native to
West Virginia. Prickly Ash (_Zanthoxylum americanum_, Mill.) grows in
Monongalia, Jefferson, and Taylor counties, probably as an introduced


The Tree of Heaven (_Ailanthus glandulosa_, Desf.), introduced from
Asia, has been extensively planted along streets and on lawns from
which it has escaped in many places.


The Cashew or Sumach family is mainly tropical comprising about 50
genera with 500 species of trees, shrubs and woody vines. Its members
are not valuable as wood producers but in many cases they have
commercial importance on account of their acrid, milky, or resinous
juice, used in medicine, tanning, and the manufacture of varnishes and
resins, and on account of their attractive appearance when planted
as ornaments. The genus _Rhus_, (pp. 169, 171, 173) is the only one
native to Northeastern America. There are 120 known species of _Rhus_,
about 16 of which are found in North America and 6 in West Virginia.
Besides those described in this bulletin the following shrubby species
grow wild in the State: Smooth Sumach (_Rhus glabra_, L.), Poison Ivy
(_Rhus Toxicodendron_, L.) and Fragrant Sumach (_Rhus canadensis_,

The Smoke Tree (_Rhus Cotinus_, L.), an introduced tree, is planted on


The Holly family with 5 genera and nearly 300 species is distributed in
temperate and tropical regions of both hemispheres. _Ilex_, (pp. 175,
177) which is represented in West Virginia by 4 species of small trees
and shrubs, is the only genus of this family which is important in
number of species or is widely distributed. Our hollies, not described
herein, are Winterberry (_Ilex verticillata_, (L.) Gray), a low shrub
common in high swamps; and a rare shrubby species with long-stalked
fruits (_Ilex longipes_ Chapm.) recently collected in Randolph County.
_Nemopanthus mucronata_, (L.) Trel., also a member of this family, is a
common shrub growing at high altitudes in this State.


This family includes only 2 genera, one of which (_Dipternia_) contains
a single Chinese species. The genus _Acer_ comprises about 70 species
distributed principally in the northern hemisphere. There are 13
species native to the United States, 6 of which are found in West

The maples not only produce much valuable wood but are used more
extensively than any other group for ornamental purposes. The principal
exotic species are Norway Maple (_Acer platanoides_, L.), and Sycamore
Maple (_Acer Pseudo-Platanus_, L.).

The following key will be of use in distinguishing the species:


  a. Leaves simple.

  b. Leaf sinuses acute at base.

  Leaf-lobes long and narrow, leaves silvery white beneath;
  fruit in pairs, each key 1-2 inches long, falling in
  May      =A. saccharinum, p. 187.=

  Leaf-lobes short and broad, leaves white-downy beneath,
  3-lobed; fruit small, several, persistent till fall, in long
  drooping clusters; a small tree or shrub      =A. spicatum, p. 181.=

  Leaves whitish and nearly glabrous beneath, 3-5 lobed,
  lobes broad and short; fruit in small clusters, falling
  in early summer      =A. rubrum, p. 189.=

  b. Leaf sinuses rounded at base, leaves 3-lobed, finely and
  evenly toothed; fruit several in drooping racemes; a
  small tree or shrub with striped bark
        =A. pennsylvanicum, p. 179.=

  Leaves usually 5-lobed (or 3-lobed in variety nigrum, p.
  185), the lobes sparingly wavy-toothed; fruit in small
  clusters, persisting until fall; a large tree
        =A. saccharum, p. 183.=

  a. Leaves compound; twigs greenish; fruit in long drooping racemes
        =A. negundo, p. 191.=


This family embraces 100 genera and about 1000 species, chiefly
tropical in the Old World. Six genera of trees occur in North America.
The genus _Aesculus_, (pp. 193, 195) comprises 14 species, 10 of which
are found in America and 2 in West Virginia. No other genus of this
family is represented in the flora of the State. The Horse Chestnut
(_Aesculus Hippocastanum_, L.) is a common introduced species.


The Linden family with about 35 genera and over 300 species is chiefly
tropical, having more representatives in the southern than in the
northern hemisphere. Of the 3 North American genera only one (_Tilia_)
is arborescent. Of the 8 species of _Tilia_ (pp. 197, 199) found in
North America 2 are native to West Virginia. The European Linden
(_Tilia Europea_, L.) is occasionally planted.


This family having about 50 genera with over 400 species is chiefly
tropical, though widely distributed in other parts of the world. The
genus _Aralia_ (page 201) contains the only tree species in North
America. This is common in West Virginia.


The Dogwood family, with 15 genera, is widely distributed in temperate
regions. _Cornus_ (pp. 203, 205) and _Nyssa_ (page 207) are the only
genera having tree representatives in North America. Of the 40 known
species of _Cornus_ 15 are native to North America and 7 to West
Virginia. The shrubby species are listed on page 234. _Nyssa_ comprises
7 known species, 5 of which are found in North America and 1 in this


The Heath family with its 90 genera and 1,400 species is widely
distributed in tropical and temperate regions. Of the 40 genera found
in the United States 7 have tree representatives. The flora of West
Virginia comprises about 22 genera and 40 species belonging to this
family. Many of these are shrubs, the names of which are given in the
list of native shrubs beginning on page 232.

Three small trees belonging to the following genera are described

=Rhododendron=, (page 209).—This genus embraces about 100 species
of shrubs and small trees in the Northern hemisphere besides a large
number in the southern. Of the 17 or more species native to North
America only 1 reaches tree size. In addition to the species described
herein the flora of the State embraces the Mountain Rose Bay (_R.
catawbiense_, Michx.) and several species of Azaleas.

=Kalmia=, (page 211).—The genus _Kalmia_ includes about 5 species
in North America, 2 of which are found in West Virginia. _Kalmia
angustifolia_, L. is a rare shrub reported from several counties in the

=Oxydendrum=, (page 213).—This genus contains a single species, the
Sour-wood, described in this bulletin.


The Ebony family with 6 genera and many species is distributed chiefly
in tropical regions of both hemispheres. The genus _Diospyros_ (page
215) is the only representative of this family in the United States and
includes 2 species one of which is native to West Virginia.


This family embracing about 7 genera and comparatively few species is
distributed principally in North and South America and in eastern Asia.
Of the 3 North American genera only _Halesia_ (page 217) is found in
West Virginia.


The Olive family comprises about 20 genera with 500 species distributed
principally in the northern hemisphere. In North America there are 5
genera with 20 species and in West Virginia 2 genera with 4 species.
The Olive Tree (_Olea Europaea_, L.), which produces the olives used
for food, belongs to this family. This tree has been introduced into
the southwestern part of the United States. The _Syringas_, (Lilacs),
_Forsythias_, and _Ligustrums_ (Privets) are extensively planted in
this State for ornamental purposes and for hedges. The two genera
described below have representatives in West Virginia.

=Fraxinus=, (pp. 219, 221, 223).—The _Ashes_, numbering about 40
species, are distributed chiefly in the north temperate zone. Of this
number 16 occur in North America and 3 in West Virginia. The European
Ash, (_F. excelsior_, L.) is occasionally planted.

=Chionanthus=, (page 225).—This genus embraces only 2 species one of
which is found in West Virginia. The other is native to northern and
central China.


The Honeysuckle family, comprising about 10 genera with 275 species,
is represented in North America by 8 genera and in West Virginia by
7 genera and about 18 species. Of this number 15 are shrubs or small
trees. The species not described herein belonging to the genera
_Viburnum_ (pp. 227, 229), _Diervilla_, _Lonicera_, and _Sambucus_, are
given in the list of native shrubs.

[Illustration: WHITE PINE]


=Pinus strobus=, L.

=Form=.—Height 50-100 feet, diameter 2-4 feet; trunk when in close
stands long, straight, and free from limbs; limbs arranged in whorls.

=Leaves=.—Arranged in clusters of 5, slender, 3-sided mucronate, 3-5
inches long, blue-green when mature.

=Flowers=.—May; monoecious; the staminate oval, light brown one-third
inch long, clustered at base of new growth; the pistillate catkins in
small groups or solitary along the new growth, cylindrical, about ¼
inch long, pink.

=Fruit=.—Cones maturing in autumn of second year, drooping,
cylindrical, often curved, 4-6 inches long, scales thin without spines;
seeds red-brown mottled with black spots, ¼ inch long with wings 1 inch

=Bark=.—On young branches smooth, green, often with red tinge; on old
trunks thick, divided by shallow fissures into wide flat-topped ridges
covered with purplish scales.

=Wood=.—Soft, weak, straight-grained, easily worked, not durable in
contact with the ground, light brown with whitish sapwood.

=Range=.—Newfoundland and Manitoba to Pennsylvania, Indiana and Iowa,
and south along the Alleghany mountains to northern Georgia.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Originally abundant in parts of
Pocahontas, Greenbrier, Raleigh, and Tucker counties, and sparingly
distributed in all the counties east of the Alleghanies, and in
Gilmer, Jackson, Monongalia, Preston, Ritchie, Tyler, Wetzel, and Wirt
counties. Now becoming rare.

=Habitat=.—Prefers fertile, well-drained soil, but will grow in all
soils and situations excepting swamps and dry wind-swept ridges.

=Notes=.—White Pine is easily distinguished from all other native
species by the leaves which are in clusters of five. This tree is
one of the most valuable and beautiful of the conifers. Its wood is
extensively used for shingles, construction, cabinet work, woodenware,
matches, etc. As an ornamental tree it is especially attractive. A
fungous disease, the white pine blister rust, threatens to destroy the

[Illustration: PITCH PINE]


=Pinus rigida=, Mill.

=Form=.—Usually 50-60 feet high, 1-2½ feet in diameter; trunk not
straight, tapering; crown rounded, usually open; limbs coarse, gnarled,
with thick bark, and persistent old cones.

=Leaves=.—In clusters of three; stout, rigid, somewhat twisted, often
standing at right angles with the branches; yellow-green.

=Flowers=.—Appear April-May; monoecious; the staminate in crowded
spikes, at base of new growth, yellow; the pistillate short-stalked,
nearly round, green tinged with rose.

=Fruit=.—Cones maturing autumn of second year; ovoid, often clustered,
divergent from stem, 1-3 inches long, adhering for several years;
scales thin, armed with stiff recurved prickles; triangular seeds ¼
inch long with wing ¾ inch long, one-third inch wide, dark brown to
black, sometimes spotted with gray or red dots.

=Bark=.—Twigs green becoming dull orange and then gray-brown with age;
trunk with rough, thick, deeply-and irregularly-furrowed, red-brown

=Wood=.—Light, soft, brittle, coarse-grained, durable, resinous; with
thick yellowish sapwood.

=Range=.—New Brunswick and Lake Ontario, south to Georgia, and west to
the Alleghany foothills of West Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found locally in the following
counties: Boone, Braxton, Berkeley, Clay, Doddridge, Fayette, Gilmer,
Grant, Hampshire, Hardy, Jefferson, Kanawha, Logan, Mercer, Monroe,
Mingo, Nicholas, Preston, Pocahontas, Randolph, Roane, Summers, Tyler
and Wayne. Rare in McDowell, Wyoming, and Webster.

=Habitat=.—Prefers dry sandy soils of hillsides, sometimes found in

=Notes=.—This is our only native pine having all the leaves in
bundles of three. It is of much less value than the White Pine but
wall often grow where other pines will not. and is resistant to fire.
Wood used chiefly for mine props, fuel, charcoal, boxes, crates,
and construction. Tar is sometimes made from this wood, and the
resin-filled knots and wood are excellent for kindling fires.



=Pinus pungens=, Lamb.

=Form=.—A small tree 30-50 feet high, 1-2½ feet in diameter; trunk
sometimes with limbs almost to the ground, the lower drooping, the
upper ascending; often bearing cones when only a few feet tall.

=Leaves=.—Two in a bundle, stiff, usually twisted, sharp-pointed, 1½-3
inches long; dark blue-green.

=Flowers=.—April-May; monoecious; staminate in long, loose spikes,
anthers yellow; pistillate clustered on sides of new growth.

=Fruit=.—Cones large, oblong-conical, oblique at base, 2-3½ inches
long, hanging on for many years; scales with very stout, curved

=Bark=.—On the trunk broken by fissures into irregular plates with
loose red-brown scales.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, brittle, coarse-grained, resinous, brown with
yellowish sapwood.

=Range=.—Pennsylvania and New Jersey to northern Georgia, in the
Appalachian mountains.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Scattered sparingly in the counties
along the Alleghany Mountains.

=Habitat=.—Usually found on dry gravelly slopes and ridges.

=Notes=.—This species is most easily distinguished from the other
pines of the State by the very large and prickly cones and by the
bundles of two stiff, short leaves. The yellow pine which has some of
its leaves grouped in twos has very small and nearly smooth cones. Not
valuable for lumber; used chiefly for fuel and charcoal.

[Illustration: YELLOW PINE]


=Pinus echinata=, Mill.

=Form=.—From 80-100 feet high, 2-3½ feet in diameter; trunk straight,
slightly tapering; crown pyramidal or rounded; limbs not tolerant of
shade and in dense stands dropping off early leaving a long, clean

=Leaves=.—In clusters of 2 and 3, the leaves in threes more often near
the ends of twigs; slender, flexible, 3-5 inches long, blue-green.

=Flowers=.—April-May; monoecious, pale purple, staminate flowers in
clusters at base of new growth; pistillate flowers 2-4 in a whorl near
end of new growth, pale rose-colored.

=Fruit=.—Cones maturing at end of second year; ovoid, 1½-2½ inches
long; flat scales, armed with weak, often deciduous prickles; seeds
triangular, winged, brown mottled with black.

=Bark=.—On the trunk broken into large more or less rectangular plates
the scales of which readily peel off.

=Wood=.—Hard, heavy, coarse-grained, yellowish.

=Range=.—New York to Florida and west to Missouri and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A scattered growth in the hilly
counties lying east of the Ohio river and in the counties along the
Alleghany Mountains.

=Habitat=.—Usually found with hardwoods and other pines on clay or
gravelly soil, on hills or stony slopes.

=Notes=.—The Yellow-Pine can be distinguished from the other pines by
its clusters of two and three slender leaves and its small cones. It
furnishes excellent lumber for commerce and is extensively used for
many purposes in buildings.

[Illustration: SCRUB PINE]


=Pinus virginiana=, Mill.

=Form=.—A small tree usually 30-50 feet high, diameter 1-2 feet; trunk
short and often crooked; crown pyramidal to flat-topped.

=Leaves=.—Clustered in twos, 1½-3 inches long, twisted, rather stout,
sharp-pointed, gray-green.

=Flowers=.—April-May; monoecious; staminate in clusters at base of new
growth, yellow-brown; pistillate near middle of season’s growth, pale
green, the scale tips rose-colored.

=Fruit=.—Ovoid when open, sometimes slightly curved; scales thin,
nearly flat, bright brown, with persistent prickles.

=Bark=.—With shallow fissures, and dark brown loose scales.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, brittle, pale orange with whitish sapwood.

=Range=.—Southern New York to Georgia, west to Kentucky and southern

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in Berkeley, Jefferson,
Morgan, Grant, Mercer and other counties southward along the mountains;
less common in Barbour, Boone, Fayette, Kanawha, Logan, Monongalia,
Randolph, Ritchie, Wayne and Wyoming counties.

=Habitat=.—Prefers light sandy and thin rocky soils; often found on
exhausted farm lands.

=Notes=.—This species is most easily confused with yellow pine, but
can be distinguished by its uniform 2-leaf clusters, small prickly
cones and comparatively smooth bark. The leaves are twisted and
divergent, giving the twigs a disheveled appearance. Of little value as
a timber tree; wood used chiefly for boxes, crates, fencing, ties, and

[Illustration: TAMARACK]


=Larix laricina=, (DuRoi) Koch.

=Form=.—A tree usually 30-60 feet high, 1-2 feet in diameter; trunk
straight, tapering, and having numerous slender, upward-curving
branches; crown narrowly pyramidal.

=Leaves=.—Scattered singly or clustered in dense fascicles on short
lateral spurs; linear, triangular in cross-section, ¾-1¼ inches long,
light green, falling each year in autumn.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; monoecious; staminate sessile,
sub-globose, yellow; pistillate oblong with light-colored bracts and
nearly orbicular rose-colored scales.

=Fruit=.—Cones mature autumn of first season; ovoid, obtuse, ½-¾ inch
long with few light brown rounded scales.

=Bark=.—Thin, roughened with small rounded red-brown scales.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, slightly resinous, very strong, durable in soil,
light brown.

=Range=.—Newfoundland south to Maryland and West Virginia, west to
Minnesota and the Rocky Mountains, through British Columbia to Alaska.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A few trees near Cranesville, Preston
County, growing in a swamp.

=Habitat=.—Prefers swamps and lake borders, but thrives in many other

=Notes=.—Tamarack is our only native cone-bearer with deciduous
leaves. This tree has been transplanted in several places in the State
where it makes a good appearance on the lawn.

[Illustration: RED SPRUCE]


=Picea rubra=, (DuRoi) Deitr.

=Form=.—Height 70-80 feet, diameter 2-3 feet; trunk straight,
continuous, free from limbs to a considerable height when in close
stands; crown conical; limbs somewhat drooping below, horizontal in the
middle, ascending above.

=Leaves=.—Crowded and diverging in all directions from the twig;
rounded or acute points, ½-⅝ inch long, dark yellow-green.

=Flowers=.—April-May; monoecious; staminate oval, almost sessile, red;
pistillate oblong, with thin rounded scales.

=Fruit=.—Cones ovate-oblong, narrowed from middle to acute apex; 1¼-2
inches long; scales reddish-brown with entire margins.

=Bark=.—Roughened by thin, irregular-shaped brown scales.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, close-grained, not strong, pale in color, with
whitish sapwood.

=Range=.—Newfoundland to West Virginia and southward along the
Alleghany Mountains to northern Georgia, west to Minnesota.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Growing at high elevation in Grant,
Tucker, Randolph, Pendleton, Pocahontas, Webster, Nicholas and
Greenbrier counties. Now largely removed by lumbermen.

=Habitat=.—Well-drained uplands; also on mountain tops and
occasionally on borders of swamps.

=Notes=.—Since this species is the only native spruce in West Virginia
there is no cause for confusing it with anything else. Norway spruce
has much larger cones. Originally red spruce was one of our principal
lumber trees, but when it is removed there is but little natural
reproduction. Often planted for shade. Wood used for construction,
musical instruments, furniture, aeroplanes and paper pulp.

[Illustration: HEMLOCK]


=Tsuga canadensis=, (L.) Carr.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 2-4 feet; trunk with limbs nearly
to the ground when in the open but free from them to a considerable
height when in dense stands; slender horizontal branches form a
pyramidal crown which is often irregular.

=Leaves=.—Arranged on all sides of the branch, but appearing as if in
two ranks, flat, thin, rounded or slightly notched at the tip, about ½
inch long, dark green above, pale beneath.

=Flowers=.—April-May; monoecious; staminate in the axils, globose,
yellow; pistillate terminal, pale green, oblong, with broad bracts and
short pinkish scales.

=Fruit=.—Cones mature each autumn; borne on slender stalks; ovate,
about ¾ of an inch long; scales rounded, about as broad as long; seeds
about ⅛ inch long, half as long as their wings.

=Bark=.—With deep fissures on old trunks and prominent rounded ridges;
inner bark cinnamon-red.

=Wood=.—Light, medium hard, brittle, coarse-grained, not easily
worked, not durable when exposed to the weather; red-brown with lighter

=Range=.—Nova Scotia, south to Alabama and west to Minnesota.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in nearly all parts of the
State, reaching high elevations in the mountain counties, and confined
to ravines and rough stony ground in most of the hilly sections.

=Habitat=.—Prefers damp stony northern exposures, deep stream gorges,
river banks, and swamp borders.

=Notes=.—The hemlock ranks as one of the most useful trees. The wood
is used for construction, paper pulp, and lath; the bark is used in
tanning; and the trees are often planted on lawns and in hedges.

[Illustration: BALSAM FIR]


=Abies fraseri=, (Pursh) Poir.

=Form=.—Height 30-70 feet, diameter 1-2½ feet; trunk continuous,
tapering; crown pyramidal; rigid horizontal or ascending branches.

=Leaves=.—Linear, arranged around the stem, ½-¾ of an inch long, dark
silvery green.

=Flowers=.—Monoecious; staminate yellow with red tinge; pistillate
with rounded scales and pale yellow-green bracts.

=Fruit=.—Cones oblong-ovate, about 2½ inches long; width of scales
twice their length, dark purple; bracts reflexed covering at maturity
about half the scale.

=Bark=.—Roughened by cinnamon or gray scales.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, pale brown with
whitish sapwood.

=Range=.—From Virginia and West Virginia south to North Carolina and

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Growing near Cheat Bridge, Randolph
County; on the head of the Greenbrier River, Pocahontas County; and
near the head of Blackwater fork of Cheat River in Tucker County.

=Habitat=.—Grows at high elevations and seems to prefer swampy soil in
West Virginia.

=Notes=.—This species, which reaches the northern limit of its
restricted range in Tucker County, is not commercially important. The
trunks are occasionally sawed into lumber, and the tree has been widely
transplanted on lawns.

[Illustration: ARBOR VITAE]


=Thuja occidentalis=, L.

=Form=.—Height 40-50 feet, diameter 1-2 feet; trunk often divided;
crown compact, pyramidal.

=Leaves=.—In 4 ranks on the stems, scale-like, ⅛-¼ inch long,
longest and long-pointed on leading shoots, yellow-green, aromatic.

=Flowers=.—April-May; monoecious; staminate round, small, yellow;
pistillate larger, oblong, reddish.

=Fruit=.—Cones maturing in early Autumn, oblong, about ½ inch long,
reddish-brown, and persisting through the following winter.

=Bark=.—On trunk reddish-brown, slightly furrowed, and separating in
ragged and twisted strips.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, brittle, durable, fragrant, yellowish-brown;
sapwood whitish and thin.

=Range=.—Labrador, Manitoba and Minnesota, southward along the
mountains to North Carolina.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Small trees on the South Branch
of the Potomac River and on the North Fork of the South Branch in
Pendleton County. Reported from Grant and Mineral counties.

=Habitat=.—River banks, swamps, rocky hillsides.

=Notes=.—This tree, often called white cedar, is so rare in West
Virginia, and of so small a size that it has but little value, except
from the standpoint of the botanist. It is commonly planted throughout
the State for hedges and other ornamental purposes.

[Illustration: RED CEDAR]


=Juniperus virginiana=, L.

=Form=.—Height 30-40 feet, diameter 1-2 feet; crown pyramidal or
rounded, often irregular, dense.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, of two kinds: (1) scale-like overlapping
one-sixteenth inch long, (2) awl-shaped, ¼-½ inch long, less common
than the other form.

=Flowers=.—April-May; dioecious, or occasionally monoecious; in small
lateral catkins.

=Fruit=.—A berry-like strobile, maturing in autumn, about ¼ inch in
diameter, dark blue with white bloom, sweet and resinous.

=Bark=.—Thin, peeling off in long strips, reddish-brown.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, fragrant, close-grained, very durable, red, with
whitish sapwood.

=Range=.—Nova Scotia and Ontario, south to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Occasionally found in Randolph,
Tucker, Upshur, Pocahontas, Webster, Barbour, Harrison, Taylor, Lewis,
and in the mountainous parts of Nicholas, Greenbrier, Grant, Preston
and Monongalia counties. A scattered growth throughout the western and
southern hilly counties. Plentiful in Jefferson, Berkeley, Morgan,
Hampshire, and in parts of Gilmer, Calhoun and Putnam counties.

=Habitat=.—Prefers rough limestone soils and dry hillsides, but grows
in a variety of soils and situations.

=Notes=.—This species is valued on account of its durable wood and
attractive appearance. During the past two or three years many red
cedars have been destroyed in the eastern section of the State in order
to stamp out apple rust which exists in one of its stages upon this

[Illustration: BLACK WILLOW]


=Salix nigra=, Marsh.

=Form=.—Height 30-50 feet, diameter 1-2 feet; trunk often crooked or
leaning; crown open with long straggling limbs.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, narrowly lanceolate, taper-pointed,
margins finely serrate, 3-6 inches long, ¼-¾ inch broad; large
semicordate stipules.

=Flowers=.—March-April, before the leaves; dioecious; both kinds of
flowers borne in slender, hairy catkins, 1-3 inches long; calyx and
corolla wanting; scales yellow, with 3-6 stamens.

=Fruit=.—A capsule ⅛ inch long, early splitting open and liberating
the hairy seeds which are carried about by the wind.

=Bark=.—On twigs reddish-brown; on old trunks thick, and rough with
many broad connecting ridges, often becoming shaggy.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, brittle, not durable, very dark colored with
light sapwood.

=Range=.—New Brunswick south to Florida, west to Dakota, Arizona and
central California.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A common tree along streams in nearly
all parts of the State.

=Habitat=.—Banks of streams and pond borders.

=Notes=.—This is the commonest and most easily recognized of the
willows. Its greatest value in West Virginia is probably the part it
plays in holding stream banks in place. The wood is sometimes used for
fuel and charcoal.

[Illustration: AMERICAN ASPEN]


=Populus tremuloides=, Michx.

=Form=.—Height 30-40 feet, diameter 10-20 inches; trunk usually
continuous, supporting a rounded loose crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 1½-2 inches long, roundish, heart-shaped,
thin, margins finely serrate; petioles long and slender, permitting the
leaves to tremble with the slightest breeze.

=Flowers=.—April, before the leaves; dioecious; both kinds of flowers
on drooping aments.

=Fruit=.—A 2-valved capsule ¼ inch long; seeds brown, with long, white

=Bark=.—Smooth, greenish, sometimes with raised, warty bands and dark
blotches below the bases of limbs.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, not strong nor durable, brownish with lighter

=Range=.—Alaska to Newfoundland south to Pennsylvania and along the
mountains to Kentucky, west to California and Mexico; the widest range
of any North American species.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Small trees found growing sparingly
in the mountain counties; observed in Randolph, Pocahontas, Pendleton,
Grant, Tucker, Preston and Upshur counties. Reported from Calhoun,
Gilmer, Monongalia, Mason, Summers and Wirt counties.

=Habitat=.—Prefers sandy and gravelly soils, but thrives on others;
frequent in high cut-over areas which have been burned.

=Notes=.—This tree, which is locally known as Quaking Asp, can be
distinguished from the other poplars by its finely-toothed tremulous
leaves. The species is not important in West Virginia, and is seldom
used for any purpose.



=Populus grandidentata=, Michx.

=Form=.—Height 30-60 feet, diameter 1-2 feet; trunk continuous,
tapering; slender ascending branches forming a somewhat loose oval

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, round-ovate, coarsely sinuate-toothed,
thin, dark green above, paler beneath, smooth; petioles long, slender,
laterally flattened.

=Flowers=.—April-May, before the leaves; dioecious; staminate in short
catkins; pistillate in elongating looser catkins.

=Fruit=.—Two-halved, cone-shaped, hairy capsules ⅛ inch long on
drooping catkins; seeds brown, small, with long white hairs.

=Bark=.—Smooth except near the base, gray-green, resembling that of
American Aspen, but with more yellowish or buff color on young trunks
and limbs.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, not strong, light brown with almost white sapwood.

=Range=.—Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Minnesota to Iowa, Illinois,
Indiana and Delaware; southward along the Alleghanies to North Carolina.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Not common. Found in the following
localities: Webster, on Elk Mountain; Randolph, Horton and Gandy Creek;
Tucker, near Davis; Monongalia, Deckers Creek; Tyler near Middlebourne.
Reported from Ohio and Preston counties.

=Habitat=.—Rich, moist, sandy soil.

=Notes=.—This tree can be distinguished by its coarse-toothed leaves.
It is comparatively rare and of little importance commercially.

[Illustration: COTTONWOOD]


=Populus deltoides=, Marsh.

=Form=.—Height 50-100 feet, diameter 3-5 feet; trunk usually
continuous and tapering; horizontal and ascending branches forming a
long pyramidal crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, deltoid or broadly ovate, 3-5 inches
long, margins coarsely crenate toothed except at base and apex, dark
shining green above, paler beneath, petioles 2-3 inches long, laterally

=Flowers=.—April, before the leaves; dioecious; staminate in short
drooping catkins; pistillate in elongating looser catkins.

=Fruit=.—Capsule 2-4-valved on long drooping catkins; brown seeds
covered with a dense mat of long white hairs.

=Bark=.—Rough on old trees, with deep fissures and with more or less
parallel and connected rounded ridges.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, not easily seasoned, brown with thick whitish

=Range=.—Southern Canada to Florida and west to the Rocky Mountains.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Infrequent; South Branch of the
Potomac River near Romney, Hampshire County, and near Petersburg,
Grant County. Found at a few other points along the Potomac and its

=Habitat=.—Prefers rich moist soil, along the banks of streams.

=Notes=.—The Cottonwood, commonly known as Carolina Poplar, is the
largest of our true poplars. It is rare and of little value where it
grows naturally in the State, but is extensively planted as a shade
tree. This species is a very rapid grower but otherwise has little to
recommend it for ornamental planting.

[Illustration: BUTTERNUT]


=Juglans cinerea=, L.

=Form=.—Height 20-60 feet, diameter 2-3 feet; trunk short, dividing
into an open, broad crown of large horizontal or ascending branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound, 15-30 inches long; leaflets 11-17,
oblong, acute, 2-3 inches long, finely serrate except at the base,
yellow-green, rough above, pubescent beneath; petioles hairy.

=Flowers=.—May, with the first leaves; monoecious; staminate flowers
in drooping catkins the pistillate solitary or several on a spike,
bracts covered with white or pink glandular hairs; pistils red.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn; solitary or in clusters of 3-5; nut
ovate-oblong, deeply furrowed and sculptured into several longitudinal
ribs; husk thin, hairy, sticky; kernel sweet, edible, and oily.

=Bark=.—Light gray on twigs, brownish on old trunks; divided by dark
fissures into lighter flat-topped ridges. Inner bark bitter, becoming
yellow on exposure to the air.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, light brown, light
colored sapwood.

=Range=.—Southern Canada and Minnesota to Delaware and Arkansas, south
in the mountains to Georgia.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A common tree, found throughout the
State except in the highest mountains and in a few areas south and
west, especially in Jackson, Putnam, Mingo, and Wyoming counties.
Thrives at higher altitudes than Black Walnut, and grows at 3000 feet,
or over, along cold mountain streams and hillsides in Randolph and
adjacent counties.

=Habitat=.—Prefers rich, moist soil.

=Notes=.—A less common and less valuable tree than its near relative
next described.

[Illustration: BLACK WALNUT]


=Juglans nigra=, L.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 2-6 feet; trunk usually straight
and clean; crown round and very open.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound, 1-2 feet long, 13-23 leaflets, 3-3½
inches long, 1-1¼ inches broad, sharply serrate, long, sharp-pointed,
yellow-green and smooth above, paler and pubescent beneath.

=Flowers=.—May, with half developed leaves; monoecious; staminate
flowers in long, greenish, drooping catkins; the pistillate single or
several in a spike.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn, nut round, very rough, 1-2 inches in
diameter; husk thick, rough; kernel sweet, edible, oily.

=Bark=.—Brownish and hairy on twigs, dark brown on old trunks, with
deep furrows and rounded ridges.

=Wood=.—Hard, heavy, strong, close-grained, rich dark brown with
light-colored sapwood.

=Range=.—Northern states from Maine to Minnesota and south to Florida.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in all parts of the State, but
not found at high elevations. The best stands are now cut out.

=Habitat=.—Prefers rich, moist soils, and requires an abundance of

=Notes=.—The Black Walnut is classed as one of the most valuable of
our trees on account of its superior wood. It is also prized on account
of its nuts and is sometimes planted on lawns. Where suitable land is
available this rapid-growing species may be profitably planted for
commercial purposes.

[Illustration: SHELL-BARK HICKORY]


=Carya ovata= (Mill.) K. Koch.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 1-2 feet; trunk in close stands
straight and free from branches to a good height; in the open short and
bearing a rounded or oblong crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound, 8-14 inches long; leaflets usually 5,
ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, ciliate on the margins,
firm, dark yellow-green and glabrous above, paler and nearly glabrous
beneath; petioles usually smooth, sometimes hairy.

=Flowers=.—May; monoecious; the staminate in pendulous catkins; the
pistillate in 2-5-flowered spikes.

=Fruit=.—Round-oval, nearly smooth, 1-2 inches in diameter; husk
thick, splitting freely to the base; nut 4-angled, with a thick or thin
wall; kernel sweet and edible.

=Bark=.—Gray; on old trunks very rough, separating into long loose
strips which give the trunk its characteristic shaggy appearance.

=Wood=.—Hard, heavy, tough, strong, close-grained, pliable, light
brown with nearly white sapwood.

=Range=.—Southern Canada and Minnesota south to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A common tree except on the highest
mountains. Reported as not plentiful in Wetzel, Roane, Jackson and
Summers counties.

=Habitat=.—Thrives best in rich, damp soils, common along streams and
on moist hillsides.

=Notes=.—The Shellbark Hickory furnishes much of the valuable wood
used where strength and toughness are required. The tree is known best
to most people on account of its excellent nuts. It can be profitably
grown from seed.



=Carya laciniosa=, (Michx. f.) Loud.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 1-2 feet. Similar to that of the
smaller shell-bark.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound; leaflets usually 7, sharp-pointed,
serrate, dark green and smooth above, paler and covered with soft hairs

=Flowers=.—Very similar to those of the smaller shell-bark, previously

=Fruit=.—Ovoid, with four shallow creases above the middle, 1½-2½
inches in diameter, thick, smooth husk, splitting to the base; nut
large, thick-shelled and angled; kernel sweet and edible.

=Bark=.—About the same as that of the smaller shell-bark hickory.

=Wood=.—The wood of this species can hardly be distinguished from that
of the shell-bark hickory.

=Range=.—Central New York and Southern Michigan to North Carolina and

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Not common, found principally near
the Ohio River from some distance north of Parkersburg to Kenova.
Reported from Harrison, Upshur and Monongalia counties, where possibly
the trees have sprung from artificially planted seeds.

=Habitat=.—Rich, damp bottom lands and coves near rivers.

=Notes=.—Too rare to be an important tree in West Virginia. The wood
is equal to the best of other species of hickory, but the nuts are
rendered less valuable on account of the thickness of their shells.



=Carya alba=, (L.) K. Koch.

=Form=.—Height 50-80 feet, diameter 1-2½ feet; trunk in the woods
straight and free from limbs for about half its length; crown round or
oblong, open.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound, 8-12 inches long; leaflets 5-7,
of varying lengths; oblong to ovate-lanceolate, serrate, lustrous
yellow-green above, paler and pubescent beneath; petioles pubescent.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; monoecious; staminate flowers in
pendulous green catkins; the pistillate in 2-5-flowered spikes.

=Fruit=.—Ovoid, 1½-2 inches long; husk thick, splitting nearly to the
base; nut indistinctly angled with very hard thick shell and small
edible kernel.

=Bark=.—Gray, tight, rough but not shaggy.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, tough, close-grained, elastic, brown with
white sapwood.

=Range=.—Massachusetts and Ontario to Nebraska, Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common, especially on the hillsides
and ridges east of the Alleghanies. Less frequent and scattered in the
central and western counties.

=Habitat=.—Prefers rich, well-drained soils of open wooded hillsides.

=Notes=.—This tree has very thick sapwood which is the most valuable
part of hickory wood. It is unsurpassed for handle material and other
uses where strength and elasticity are desired. The nut kernels are
of good quality but are small and hard to get. The pubescent leaf
petioles and the thick husks and thick-walled nuts form easy marks for
distinguishing this species from the common shell-bark. Big Bud Hickory
and White Heart Hickory are other names for this tree.

[Illustration: PIGNUT HICKORY]


=Carya glabra=, (Mill.) Spach.

=Form=.—Height 50-80 feet, diameter, 2-3½ feet; trunk usually
straight, clean and long; crown rounded or narrowly oblong.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound, 8-12 inches long; leaflets usually 5-7,
oblong to obovate-lanceolate, long taper-pointed, sharply serrate, dark
yellow-green and glabrous above, paler beneath, fragrant when crushed.

=Flowers=.—Similar to those of other hickories.

=Fruit=.—Variable in shape, pear-shaped to ovoid, 1-2 inches long;
husk thin, splitting half way or more to the base; nut smooth or
obscurely angled, thick-walled and enclosing a sweet or slightly bitter

=Bark=.—Dark gray, roughened by many flat-topped ridges, the outside
layers of which sometimes become detached at one end, giving the trunk
a somewhat shaggy appearance.

=Wood=.—As in other species of hickory before described.

=Range=.—Maine, Ontario and Minnesota to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in every county, less
frequently found at high elevations.

=Habitat=.—Thrives on almost any rich, well-drained soil of ridges and

=Notes=.—The abundance of this species in nearly every section of the
State makes it one of the most useful hickories, especially for the
farmer. Its growth in farm woodlands, as in other places, should be



=Carya cordiformis=, (Wang.) K. Koch.

=Form=.—Height 60-75 feet, diameter 1-2½ feet; trunk long and free
from limbs; crown rounded, broadest near the top.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound, 6-10 inches long; leaflets 7-11,
lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, taper-pointed, serrate, yellow-green
above, paler beneath.

=Flowers=.—May, monoecious; similar to those of the other hickories.

=Fruit=.—Spherical to obovate; about 1 inch long, coated with a yellow
scurfy pubescence; husk thin, splitting half way to the base, sutures
winged at the top; nut nearly smooth with a small bitter kernel.

=Bark=.—Not so rough as in other species, but with many narrow
connecting ridges.

=Wood=.—Similar to that of other hickories but not so strong and of
less fuel value.

=Range=.—Southern Canada and Minnesota to Nebraska, Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found in scattered growth in nearly
all parts of the State.

=Habitat=.—Prefers low ground along streams, but is often seen on
higher ground. The name, Swamp Hickory, is not inappropriate.

=Notes=.—Of less value than our other hickories, but of sufficient
worth to warrant its propagation in suitable places. This tree can
be distinguished by its more numerous leaflets and by its small
bitter-kerneled nuts.

[Illustration: HOP HORNBEAM]


=Ostrya virginiana=, (Mill.) K. Koch.

=Form=.—A small tree not often exceeding 30 feet in height and 1 foot
in diameter; trunk usually straight and bearing a rounded crown of
slender branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 3-5 inches long, acute at apex, doubly
serrate, thin and tough, smooth above, pale and slightly pubescent

=Flowers=.—Appear with the leaves, monoecious; staminate flowers in
drooping catkins which develop from the wood of the previous summer,
usually three in a bunch; pistillate in erect aments; each enclosed in
a bladdery bract.

=Fruit=.—Small flat nutlets, enclosed in bracts arranged in pendulous
light-green clusters resembling hops.

=Bark=.—Brownish, roughened by narrow ridges with loose flat scales.

=Wood=.—Strong, hard, tough, close-grained, durable, red-brown, with
light sapwood.

=Range=.—Cape Breton Island and Minnesota south to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Not common in many sections but
scattered locally throughout nearly all parts of the State. Found
usually with other species in the rougher, more elevated situations.

=Habitat=.—Rich open woods of slopes and ridges.

=Notes=.—Although this tree has valuable wood it is not sufficiently
plentiful nor of such a size as to make it an important species for
forestry purposes. It is desirable for parks and lawns. The rough,
scaly bark, peculiar fruits, and hard wood are distinguishing marks.
Its most common local name is Ironwood.



=Carpinus caroliniana=, Walt.

=Form=.—Small tree, usually from 10-25 feet high; trunk short, often
leaning, fluted and bearing an irregular crown of slender, often zigzag

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 2-4 inches long, thin, oval,
long-pointed, doubly serrate, dull green above, lighter beneath,
scarlet and orange in autumn.

=Flowers=.—Appear in April; monoecious; without petals; staminate
catkins 1-1½ inches long; the pistillate shorter, with greenish scales
and red styles.

=Fruit=.—Small nuts, enclosed in 3-lobed, leafy bracts grouped on a
common drooping stem.

=Bark=.—Gray, smooth, thin, tight.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, tough, close-grained, light brown with thick
nearly white sapwood.

=Range=.—Northern states to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common throughout the State.

=Habitat=.—Moist soil of stream borders, swamps and hillsides.

=Notes=.—This species, commonly called Water Beech, is of no
commercial importance, but is attractive on lawns, especially in
autumn, and performs a valuable service in preventing the caving in of
stream banks where it grows.

[Illustration: BLACK BIRCH]


=Betula lenta=, L.

=Form=.—Height 50-85 feet, diameter 2-4 feet; trunk long and clear in
dense growths; crown narrow and open.

=Leaves=.—Alternate in pairs, simple, 3-4 inches long; ovate to
oblong, taper pointed, doubly serrate, dull dark green above, paler
beneath; petioles short, hairy, grooved above.

=Flowers=.—April, before the leaves; monoecious; the staminate in
pendent yellowish catkins; the pistillate in shorter erect catkins.

=Fruit=.—An oblong, cone-shaped strobile, 1-1½ inches long, erect,
3-lobed scales smooth; nutlets small, winged.

=Bark=.—Very dark and broken into thick, irregular ridges and plates;
the young and inside bark having a sweet, wintergreen taste.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, close-grained, dark reddish brown, with light

=Range=.—Newfoundland to Illinois, Tennessee and Florida.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Scattered locally through nearly all
parts of West Virginia.

=Habitat=.—Grows in a variety of soils and exposures, but prefers rich
moist woodlands.

=Notes=.—Black Birch is a widely-known tree and is highly valued on
account of its wood. The local names, Red Birch and Cherry Birch refer
to the appearance of the heartwood and the bark, and Sweet Birch to the
flavor of the bark. This tree can be distinguished from Yellow Birch,
which it most closely resembles, by its darker-colored bark which does
not peel off in loose flakes.

[Illustration: YELLOW BIRCH]


=Betula lutea=, Michx.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 2-4 feet; trunk short and usually
forking near the base; crown rounded, open.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, solitary or in pairs, simple, 3-4 inches long,
acute at apex, doubly serrate, dull green.

=Flowers=.—April; monoecious; staminate flowers in pendent purplish
catkins; the pistillate in shorter, erect, greenish catkins.

=Fruit=.—Cone-shaped strobiles, 1 inch long and erect, scales of
strobile downy on the back and edges; nut small, about as broad as its

=Bark=.—Silvery yellow-gray, with thin, papery layers separating
and often curling at the edges giving the trunk a ragged appearance;
slightly aromatic, and bitter. Campers often use the loose outer bark
for starting camp fires in wet weather.

=Wood=.—Heavy, strong, hard, close-grained light reddish-brown, with
nearly white sapwood.

=Range=.—Newfoundland to Minnesota and south to North Carolina.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Frequent, especially in mountain
sections, growing with spruce and hemlock; rare in low hilly parts of
the State and in the Eastern Panhandle; found along streams and in
other damp situations on the outskirts of its range.

=Habitat=.—Moist fertile uplands and along streams.

=Notes=.—This large birch is associated with other mountain species
such as Spruce, Hemlock, Black Cherry, and Black Birch. It furnishes
valuable lumber and is a rapid grower. The characteristic appearance of
the bark, described above, will prevent the confusion of this tree with
its close relative, the Black Birch.

[Illustration: RED BIRCH]


=Betula nigra=, L.

=Form=.—Height, 50-90 feet, diameter, 1-3 feet; trunk usually short,
dividing into two or three large ascending limbs; crown irregular,

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 1½ to 3 inches long, round-ovate, acute,
doubly serrate, sometimes cut or slightly lobed, deep green, pale
yellow-green beneath.

=Flowers=.—April, before the leaves; monoecious; staminate formed in
the fall and remaining over winter as short aments, usually in clusters
of three and elongating in the spring to 2-3 inches; pistillate, short,
erect, situated on twigs with the staminate flowers and back of them.

=Fruit=.—Cylindrical strobile, 1-1½ inches long; 3-lobed scales of
strobile pubescent; nuts small, hairy, winged.

=Bark=.—On old trunks dark red-brown and rough, with deep furrows and
broken ridges; on younger trees, lighter-colored, the outer papery
layers separating freely into thin sheets and turning up at the edges.

=Wood=.—Light, rather strong, close-grained, light brown with pale

=Range=.—New England, west to Missouri, and south to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Observed growing along the banks of
the following rivers: Williams, Gauley, Greenbrier, New, Great Kanawha,
Little Coal, Elk, Guyandot, Twelvepole, Big Sandy, Little Kanawha,
Potomac, Shenandoah, Great Cacapon.

=Habitat=.—Banks of streams, occasionally on drier ground.

=Notes=.—A common name of this species, River Birch, signifies its
preference for river borders as its habitat. While the tree is not
important it serves to hold stream banks from falling in and at the
same time adds much to the attractiveness of river scenery. The bark
and leaves lack the aroma of some of the other birches.

[Illustration: BEECH]


=Fagus grandiflora=, Ehr.

=Form=.—Height, 50-100 feet, diameter, 2-3 feet; trunk often long
under forest conditions, in the open short; crown narrow or rounded.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, oblong-ovate, acute, coarsely serrate,
3-5 inches long; dark blue green above, light green and very lustrous
beneath, petioles short and hairy.

=Flowers=.—April-May; monoecious, staminate flowers in loose, light
green globose heads, about 1 inch in diameter and hanging on long,
slender peduncles; the pistillate small, 2-flowered, protected by
awl-shaped bracts, and with long red stigmas.

=Fruit=.—A prickly bur, bearing 2 or 3 triangular brown nuts about ¾
inch long.

=Bark=.—On the trunk smooth, close, light gray and mottled with darker

=Wood=.—Hard, strong, close-grained, not durable, light red, with
yellowish-white sapwood.

=Range=.—Southern Canada and Wisconsin, south to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in nearly all parts of the
State; less frequent or rare locally in the Eastern Panhandle and in
Summers, Mercer, McDowell, and Wyoming counties.

=Habitat=.—Prefers rich bottom lands but grows frequently on thin
gravelly slopes and flats, sometimes growing at high elevations.

=Notes=.—This is one of the most familiar of our trees, except in a
few restricted areas. It is shade-loving, and is a valuable tree in
the farmers’ woodland. The wood is used principally for novelty wares,
carpenters’ tool handles, clothespins, fuel and charcoal.

[Illustration: CHESTNUT]


=Castanea dentata=, (Marsh) Borkh.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 3-5 feet; trunk, in close stands
with few low branches and little taper; in the open having a short
trunk and rounded crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, oblong-lanceolate, taper-pointed,
6-8 inches long; coarsely serrate with incurved teeth, thin, dull,
yellow-green, glabrous.

=Flowers=.—June-July; monoecious, the staminate borne in bunches at
intervals on long catkins; the pistillate borne in scattered involucres
near the base of the upper catkins.

=Fruit=.—A large prickly bur, opening at its four sutures in early
autumn; nuts usually 2-3, compressed, ½-1 inch wide, brown, sweet and

=Bark=.—Moderately rough, with shallow fissures and flat-topped
ridges, gray-brown.

=Wood=.—Soft, light, not strong, easily split and worked,
coarse-grained, durable, red-brown with light sapwood.

=Range=.—Maine and Michigan southward to Arkansas, Mississippi, and

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Abundant in most parts of the State;
of best quality along the lower western slopes of the Alleghanies.

=Habitat=.—Thrives in most places in West Virginia, but is less
frequently seen on limestone soils and in swampy places.

=Notes=.—The Chestnut tree is prized for its lumber, its nuts, its
tannin, and for its numerous uses, especially on the farm. It is a
very rapid grower, and sprouts freely from the base of the stump when
cut down. A disease known as chestnut blight has entered the State and
threatens to exterminate this tree.

[Illustration: CHINQUAPIN]


=Castanea pumila=, (L.) Mill.

=Form=.—Height 20-30 feet, diameter 1-2 feet, in West Virginia usually
much smaller; trunk short, supporting a rounded crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 2-6 inches long, lanceolate or oblong,
narrowed at both ends, coarsely serrate, thick, smooth and yellow-green
on the upper surface, paler and covered with a whitish down beneath.

=Flowers=.—May-June; monoecious; staminate flowers in clusters along
the catkin; the pistillate borne at the base of the upper catkins in
rounded, prickly involucres.

=Fruit=.—Matures in early autumn; bur covered with stiff spines and
enclosing usually only one ovoid brown nut which is very sweet and

=Bark=.—On trunk lightly furrowed and with flat ridges broken into
light brown, loose plates.

=Wood=.—Light, hard, strong, coarse-grained, brown, with thin hardly
distinguishable sapwood.

=Range=.—Pennsylvania and New Jersey south to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Not widely distributed but common in
some sections. Observed in the following counties: Mercer, Wyoming,
Summers, Fayette, Logan, and Boone. Reported also from Wayne, Monroe,
Mingo, Braxton, Gilmer, Pendleton, Greenbrier, Grant and Nicholas

=Habitat=.—Dry slopes and flats and stream borders.

=Notes=.—This species is usually a shrub in West Virginia, often
bearing fruit when only a few feet high. Several trees observed south
of the Kanawha River were well-formed, 20-25 feet tall, and with
straight trunks 6-8 inches in diameter. The Chinquapin is chiefly
prized on account of its nuts. It is susceptible to the attack of
chestnut blight and may eventually be killed out by this disease.

[Illustration: WHITE OAK]


=Quercus alba=, L.

=Form=.—Height 75-100 feet, diameter 3-6 feet; trunk long and
free from limbs and with slight taper; crown broad and open with
wide-spreading and often twisted branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 5-8 inches long, obovate-oblong, rounded
at the apex and with usually 7 rounded lobes with entire edges, bright
green above, glaucous beneath.

=Flowers=.—May, when leaves are one-third grown; monoecious; the
staminate in long pendulous catkins; the pistillate borne above on
short stalks in the leaf axils.

=Fruit=.—Acorns maturing in autumn after flowering; cup with small
brown tomentose scales, enclosing about ¼ of the nut; nut ovoid,
rounded at apex, light brown, shining; kernel bitter-sweet.

=Bark=.—On old trunks rough with deep fissures, and ridges which are
often broken into short flat light gray scales.

=Wood=.—Strong, heavy, close-grained, durable, light reddish brown
with thin sapwood.

=Range=.—Maine and Minnesota to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found in every county and in almost
every locality except at high elevations.

=Habitat=.—Grows on many different types of soils and from moist
bottom lands to the tops of dry ridges.

=Notes=.—The White Oak ranks as one of the most valuable timber
trees. It is known to more persons than any of our other oaks, and is
generally praised as a beautiful and useful tree.

[Illustration: POST OAK]


=Quercus stellata=, Wang.

=Form=.—Height 50-75 feet, diameter 2-3 feet, trunk usually short; the
crown rounded, with spreading branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, about 4-5 inches long, usually with five
lobes, the middle pair largest but all short and broad; thick and
leathery, nearly smooth above, covered beneath with dense grayish or
yellowish stellate pubescence.

=Flowers=.—May; monoecious; the staminate on long drooping catkins;
the pistillate short-stalked and woolly, with bright red stigmas.

=Fruit=.—Acorn ripening in autumn after flowers; cup small, thin,
hairy inside, scales flat and woolly; nut small, oval ½-¾ inch long,
brown, sometimes marked with nearly black longitudinal stripes.

=Bark=.—Similar to that of White Oak, but usually rougher and more

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, close-grained, durable in contact with the soil,
brown with thick sapwood.

=Range=.—New England, where it is a shrub, southward to Florida and
Texas, and west to Kansas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Distributed in nearly all the hilly
parts of the State, though nowhere very common and in some sections

=Habitat=.—Prefers dry sandy or gravelly soil.

=Notes=.—The Post Oak in winter may easily be mistaken for a White
Oak, but in summer and fall the small acorns and the peculiar lobing of
the leaves assist the student in distinguishing it from other species.
It is not commercially important but should be encouraged to grow on
account of the superior lasting qualities of the wood when used for
fence posts or otherwise in contact with the soil.

[Illustration: BUR OAK]


=Quercus macrocarpa=, Michx.

=Form=.—Height 40-75 feet, diameter 2-4 feet; trunk usually short,
bearing a rounded crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 6-12 inches long, wedge-shaped at the
base, usually crenate lobed toward the apex with deep sinuses and
rounded lobes in the middle; thick and firm, dark green and glossy
above, pale pubescence beneath.

=Flowers=.—Similar to the other annual oaks, before described.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn of first season; very large acorn with
a deep cup heavily fringed on the rim; nut ovoid, 1-1½ inches long,
brown, pubescent, about one-third enclosed in the cup.

=Bark=.—Deeply furrowed and similar to that of White Oak; corky on the

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, durable, brownish, with
thin sapwood.

=Range=.—Nova Scotia and Manitoba south to West Virginia and west to
Kansas and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Rare. Observed in the following
localities: Hardy County, between Romney and Moorefield; Grant County,
several trees on Lunice Creek near Petersburg; Morgan County, near
Great Cacapon station. Reported from Tyler County.

=Habitat=.—Usually on rich soils near streams.

=Notes=.—This is a very large and valuable oak in Kansas and other
states but is too rare to merit much attention in West Virginia. The
beautifully-lobed leaves and large acorns will not fail to interest the
student of trees.

[Illustration: SWAMP WHITE OAK]


=Quercus bicolor=, Willd.

=Form=.—Height 50-75 feet, diameter 2-3 feet; trunk, in the open,
usually short, supporting a broad round-topped crown; in close stands
the trunk is longer and well-formed; lower branches usually drooping.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 5-7 inches long, 3-5 inches broad,
obovate, coarsely sinuate or shallow-lobed, margins thick and firm,
smooth and shining above, paler and tomentose beneath.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; monoecious; the staminate on
long drooping catkins; the pistillate few-flowered, borne above on
relatively long peduncles.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn after the flowers; acorns on pubescent
stems 1-4 inches long; cup deeply saucer-shaped, enclosing about
one-third of the nut, which is ¾ to 1¼ inches long, chestnut brown,
usually hairy at apex.

=Bark=.—Rough on trunks with deep furrows and flat-topped and scaly
ridges; on branches soon becoming rough, with scales which often curl
back at the edges.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, tough, light brown, with thin and hardly
distinguishable sapwood.

=Range=.—Maine, south to Georgia and west to Michigan and Arkansas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Infrequent. Found in the following
localities: Grant County, on Lunice Creek; Hardy, near Moorefield;
Pocahontas, near Marlinton; Greenbrier, near White Sulphur Springs;
Berkeley, on Back Creek; Randolph, near Huttonsville; Upshur, at

=Habitat=.—Borders of swamps and low ground along streams.

=Notes=.—The Swamp White Oak can easily be distinguished from its near
relatives; in the winter, by the bark ridges of the small branches
and the drooping lower limbs; in the summer and fall by the wavy or
sinuate-margined leaves and the long-stemmed acorns. This tree is not
considered of much importance in this State.

[Illustration: YELLOW OAK]


=Quercus Muhlenbergii=, Engelm.

=Form=.—Height 50-75 feet, diameter 2-3 feet; trunk usually short,
sometimes buttressed at the base; crown round-topped with relatively
short, ascending branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 4-7 inches long, oblong, tapering at both
ends, margins with coarse, sharp-pointed teeth which somewhat resemble
those of the Chestnut and Chestnut Oak; bright yellow-green above, pale
and pubescent beneath.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; monoecious; the staminate in long
pendulous catkins; the pistillate in short spikes.

=Fruit=.—Acorns mature in autumn after the flowers; cup enclosing
about ½ of the light brown, ¾-inch-long nut; kernel sweet and more
edible than that of most other acorns.

=Bark=.—On trunks moderately rough, the light gray ridges broken into
scales; resembles the bark of White Oak.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, durable, brown with
brownish sapwood.

=Range=.—Vermont and Minnesota south to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Not common. Observed in the following
counties: Boone, Doddridge, Fayette, Grant, Hardy, Kanawha, Monongalia,
Morgan, Summers and Webster. This tree is more common near Petersburg,
Grant County, and on Long Island Creek, Doddridge County, than at any
other places where it was found.

=Habitat=.—River banks and limestone hillsides.

=Notes=.—The wood of this oak is inferior to that of some other
species and it occurs here too infrequently to be classed as very

[Illustration: CHESTNUT OAK]


=Quercus Prinus=, L.

=Form=.—Height 60-90 feet, diameter 3-5 feet; trunk long but usually
more or less bent and often divided, forming a loose, open irregular

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 6-8 inches long, usually obovate,
coarsely crenate, firm or leathery, smooth, dark green above, paler and
finely pubescent beneath.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; monoecious; the staminate flowers in
long catkins; the pistillate in short spikes.

=Fruit=.—Acorns mature in autumn after the flowers; cup thin, deep,
enclosing about ½ of the smooth, light brown, oblong-ovoid nut.

=Bark=.—Very rough with deep fissures and long, dark gray, continuous
or broken ridges; rich in tannin.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, durable in contact with
the soil, dark brown with light sapwood.

=Range=.—Maine to West Virginia and south along the mountains to
Georgia and Alabama.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common except at high elevations.

=Habitat=.—Prefers dry gravelly hillsides and ridges.

=Notes=.—The Chestnut Oak is one of our common trees in the hilly
sections and can easily be distinguished by its thick, dark-colored
bark, crenate-margined leaves and large, deep-cupped acorns. Many of
the best stands have been cut for tan bark. Rock Oak is a common name
in some localities.

[Illustration: RED OAK]


=Quercus rubra=, L.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 2-5 feet; trunk long and free
from limbs when standing in close growth, with a narrow or rounded open

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 5-9 inches long, with 5-7 toothed,
bristle-tipped lobes, becoming narrower outward from rounded sinuses,
thin and firm, smooth, lusterless dark green above, paler beneath.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; monoecious; the staminate flowers in
long hairy catkins, the pistillate on short smooth stalks.

=Fruit=.—Acorns maturing the second autumn after the flowers; cup
shallow, saucer-shaped, enclosing only the base of the nut; scales
closely-appressed and somewhat glossy; nut oblong-ovoid, 1 inch long;
kernel white, bitter.

=Bark=.—Rough with long fissures and flat-topped ridges, gray brown,
inner bark light red, not bitter.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, light red-brown.

=Range=.—Southern Canada and Minnesota to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A common tree in all parts of the
State. Most abundant and of superior size and quality in the high hilly
and mountain sections.

=Habitat=.—Rich loamy or gravelly soils of bottom lands, slopes and

=Notes=.—The Red Oak is most frequently confused with the Black
Oak from which it can be distinguished by the light red inner bark,
the shallow-cupped acorns and the dull green leaves. This oak is
extensively sawed into lumber which is easily worked and capable of a
fine finish for furniture and interior work. As a tree for the park or
lawn there are few which surpass it.

[Illustration: PIN OAK]


=Quercus palustris=, Michx.

=Form=.—Height 50-75 feet, diameter 2-3 feet; trunk usually straight
and bearing a conic, well-shaped crown, lower limbs usually drooping
and curving upward at the tips.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, much smaller than those of the Red Oak,
with 3-7, coarse-toothed, bristle-tipped lobes, with rounded sinuses;
dark green and shining above, pale below, and smooth except for bunches
of brownish tomentum in the axils of the principal veins.

=Flowers=.—Appear with the leaves; monoecious; staminate flowers in
catkins 2-3 inches long; pistillate short-stalked and with red styles.

=Fruit=.—Acorns maturing in autumn of second year after the flowers;
cup thin, shallow, about ½ inch across, enclosing about ¼ of the nut;
kernel yellowish, bitter.

=Bark=.—Not as rough as that of most of the oaks, but with shallow
fissures and broad flat ridges.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, light-brown.

=Range=.—Massachusetts and Michigan to Virginia, Tennessee and

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Not a common tree. Plentiful near
Princeton, Mercer County, and less common in Hardy and Morgan counties;
doubtless growing locally in most of the counties south of the Great
Kanawha River.

=Habitat=.—Prefers low ground along streams and borders of swamps.

=Notes=.—Pin Oak leaves resemble those of Scarlet Oak, but the
appearance of the whole tree is quite different from it. The drooping
lower branches and the location of the tree most readily distinguish
it, and a comparison of its small acorns with the large acorns of the
Scarlet Oak will serve to separate the two species. It is unexcelled
as a tree for parks where it grows with a straight trunk and beautiful
rounded crown.

[Illustration: SCARLET OAK]


=Quercus coccinea=, Muench.

=Form=.—Height, 60-80 feet; diameter 2-3 feet; trunk tapering, usually
straight; crown open, and narrow when crowded.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 3-6 inches long, usually with 7 lobes
which are deeply toothed and bristle-tipped at the apex, and separated
by oblique sinuses; thin and firm, bright green above, paler beneath,
lustrous on both sides; brilliant scarlet in the fall.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; monoecious; staminate flowers on long
catkins; the pistillate on short stalks in the leaf axils.

=Fruit=.—Acorns mature in second autumn after flowering; cup deep,
covering about ½ of the nut, with closely appressed, sharp-pointed
scales, somewhat glossy or slightly pubescent, forming a fringe around
the edge which is closely appressed to the large ovoid, reddish-brown
and sometimes striate nut.

=Bark=.—On trunks resembling that of Red Oak, but with shallower
fissures and narrower ridges; inner bark reddish.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, reddish-brown.

=Range=.—Maine to North Carolina and west to Minnesota and Nebraska.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in all parts of the State
except at high elevations.

=Habitat=.—Prefers dry sandy soil of hillsides and ridges.

=Notes=.—The wood of Scarlet Oak is of less value than that of several
other oaks, but is frequently used for lumber, cross-ties, and other
purposes. The tree is desirable for streets or parks and in autumn is
especially attractive.

[Illustration: BLACK OAK]


=Quercus velutina=, Lam.

=Form=.—Height 50-100 feet, diameter 2-4 feet; trunk long, clear,
slightly tapering; crown spreading and rounded.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 5-10 inches long, lobes usually 7, with
coarse, bristle-tipped teeth, thick and firm, dark green and shining
above, paler beneath; on lower limbs and young trees, often with
rounded, mucronate lobes; petioles yellowish.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; monoecious; the staminate flowers in
long, hairy catkins; the pistillate on short stalks, reddish.

=Fruit=.—Acorns mature the second autumn after flowering; cup deep,
cup-shaped, enclosing about ½ of the nut; scales reddish-brown
pubescent, tightly appressed at the base, and loosely over-lapping at
the edge forming a fringe-like margin; nut small, light reddish-brown,
often pubescent; kernel yellow, bitter.

=Bark=.—Rough with thick cross-fissured ridges, nearly black, inner
bark yellow and bitter.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, brown, with thin lighter sapwood.

=Range=.—Northern New England and Ontario, west to Minnesota and
Nebraska, south to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common throughout the State except at
high elevations.

=Habitat=.—Rich soils of slopes or drier gravelly soils of ridges.

=Notes=.—Black Oak is very common but of less value than several of
the other oaks. The lumber is similar to that of Red Oak. For the
characteristics which distinguish this oak from the species with which
it is most often confused, see “Notes” on Red Oak. Yellow Oak and Black
Jack are two local names for this oak in West Virginia.

[Illustration: SPANISH OAK]


=Quercus falcata=, Michx.

=Form=.—Height 60-80 feet, diameter 2-3 feet; crown round-topped.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 6-7 inches long; variable in shape, with
3-7 toothed bristle pointed lobes, terminal lobes often elongated and
falcate, dark green and lustrous above, paler and downy beneath.

=Flowers=.—April-May, with the leaves; monoecious; staminate flowers
in long catkins, the pistillate on short hairy stalks.

=Fruit=.—Acorns mature the second autumn after flowering; cup
hemispheric, ½-¾ inch across, reddish-brown inside and with reddish,
pale, pubescent scales; nut ½ inch long, ovoid, pale orange-brown.

=Bark=.—On trunks with shallow fissures and brownish scaly ridges.

=Wood=.—Hard, strong, not durable, coarse-grained, reddish with light

=Range=.—New Jersey to Florida and west to Missouri and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Confined, as far as known, to a few
trees on the north side of Great Kanawha River near Charleston.

=Habitat=.—Dry soil.

=Notes=.—This tree, which is rare in West Virginia, must be listed in
the class of unimportant trees. Its wood is comparatively inferior and
it is less desirable for ornamental purposes than many other species.

[Illustration: SCRUB OAK]


=Quercus ilicifolia=, Wang.

=Form=.—Height 4-20 feet, diameter 2-6 inches; trunk short, branches
stiff, contorted forming a flat-topped irregular head.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 2-5 inches long, usually 5-lobed, with
shallow sinuses and sharp, bristle-tipped divisions of the lobes;
leathery, dark green and lustrous above, coated beneath with a dense
white pubescence.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; monoecious; staminate flowers on long
catkins, the pistillate on short tomentose stalks, and with red stigmas.

=Fruit=.—Acorns mature in second autumn after the flowers; cup deep,
reddish-brown and soft downy within, with light brown scales, the outer
row forming a narrow fringe around the edge; nut ovoid, about half
enclosed in the cup; kernel yellow.

=Bark=.—Dark gray and scaly on old trunks.

=Wood=.—Strong, hard, with brown heartwood.

=Range=.—Maine to southern Virginia, west to Ohio.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common along the Alleghany Mountains
and in the Eastern Panhandle.

=Habitat=.—Dry soils of slopes and mountain tops.

=Notes=.—This oak is usually a shrub in West Virginia, but it
sometimes reaches the form and size of a small tree. In many places
it grows in dense thickets covering large areas on mountain sides and
flats. The red-brown dry leaves often hang on over winter, giving rise
to a common local name, “Red-brush.”

[Illustration: BLACK JACK OAK]


=Quercus marilandica=, Muench.

=Form.=—Height 30-50 feet, diameter 12-18 inches; crown narrow and
compact with short stout branches.

=Leaves.=—Alternate, simple, 6-7 inches long, nearly as wide as long,
rounded and narrow at the base, broadening outward, with about 3 broad
and shallow lobes which are dentate; leathery, dark green and lustrous
above, paler and often coated with a rusty, scurfy pubescence beneath.

=Flowers.=—May, with the leaves; monoecious; the staminate flowers in
long catkins, the pistillate on short pubescent stalks.

=Fruit.=—Acorns mature the second autumn after the flowers; cup deep,
covering about ½ of the nut, downy within, scales large, reddish-brown
and loose.

=Bark.=—Rough, with deep fissures and dark ridges which are broken
into broad angular plates.

=Wood.=—Heavy, hard, strong, dark brown.

=Range.=—New York to Florida and Texas, west to Nebraska.

=Distribution in West Virginia.=—Observed only on the western slope of
Blue Ridge Mountains in Jefferson County.

=Habitat.=—Sandy or heavy clay soils.

=Notes.=—The Black Jack Oak is very rare and scrubby in growth in
this State. It has no value as a timber tree, but is desirable for
ornamental purposes.

[Illustration: LAUREL OAK]


=Quercus imbricaria=, Michx.

=Form=.—Height 50-100 feet, diameter 1-3 feet; crown pyramidal or
round-topped and open, with drooping lateral branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 4-6 inches long, oblong or lanceolate,
margins entire or sometimes undulate, with acute apex, dark green and
lustrous above, pale and hairy beneath.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; monoecious; staminate flowers borne
on long catkins; the pistillate on short stalks.

=Fruit=.—Acorns mature the second autumn after the flowers; cup
saucer-shaped, brown and glossy inside, with reddish-brown scales, and
enclosing about ½ of the ovoid, dark brown, often striate nut.

=Bark=.—With shallow fissures and with ridges having brown scales.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, coarse-grained, reddish-brown.

=Range=.—Pennsylvania to Georgia west to Michigan. Nebraska and

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Locally distributed in many parts
of the State, but nowhere common. Observed in Barbour, Grant, Hardy,
Mason, Monongalia, Morgan, and Upshur counties.

=Habitat=.—Prefers bottom lands along streams.

=Notes=.—This oak is unusual in appearance since the leaves are
entirely without lobes. It cannot be recommended for forestry purposes.

[Illustration: SLIPPERY ELM]


=Ulmus fulva=, Michx.

=Form=.—Height 40-80 feet, diameter 1-2½ feet; trunk usually short and
soon branching; crown open and broad.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 5-7 inches long, ovate-oblong, oblique at
base, abruptly sharp-pointed apex, margin doubly serrate, rough-hairy
on both sides.

=Flowers=.—April, before the leaves; mostly perfect; on short pedicels
in crowded branches; corolla absent, calyx green, anthers red, two
stigmas purple.

=Fruit=.—Matures in spring a few weeks after the flowers; a one-seeded
samara consisting of a small flat seed surrounded by a wing which is
nearly circular in outline and smooth, except over the seed cavity.

=Bark=.—Thick, divided by fissures and with large, thick appressed
scales, brown tinged with red within, inner bark fragrant, mucilaginous
and slippery.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, reddish-brown, with thin sapwood.

=Range=.—Southeastern Canada to Florida, west to North Dakota and

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common locally, rare in many
sections. Found in the following counties: Barbour, Braxton, Clay,
Fayette, Grant, Mingo, Monongalia, Pocahontas, Putnam, Roane, Tyler,
Upshur and Wetzel.

=Habitat=.—Fertile, rocky soil.

=Notes=.—The slippery, inner bark, the smooth-margined fruits and the
rusty-brown, orbicular, pubescent buds distinguish this from other
elms. It is not an important tree for forest planting. It is sometimes
called Red Elm.

[Illustration: AMERICAN ELM]


=Ulmus americana=, L.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 2-6 feet, sometimes much larger;
trunk usually dividing 25-30 feet above the ground; crown varied in
form, usually wide-spreading.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 4-6 inches long, oval,
coarsely-doubly-serrate, oblique at the base, thick, dark green and
rough above, paler and smoother beneath.

=Flowers=.—April, before the leaves, mostly perfect; borne in dense
fascicles, corolla absent, calyx 5-9 round-lobed, stamens with red
anthers, styles two, green.

=Fruit=.—Matures in spring soon after the flowers; oval samara
consisting of a flat seed surrounded by a wing which has a terminal
notch and ciliate margin.

=Bark=.—Rough, with deep fissures and scaly ridges, ashy-gray.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, not easily split, light brown.

=Range=.—Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and south to Florida and

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A very common tree, especially at low
elevations. Not often found in the counties adjoining the Alleghanies.

=Habitat=.—Prefers rich bottom lands.

=Notes=.—The American or White Elm is one of the most valuable and
magnificent trees of the United States. Its wood is extensively used
where toughness is desired, as in wagon hubs. It grows to a very large
size and over a wide range, and is unsurpassed in elegance of form
and other characteristics which make it valuable for park and street
planting. In low wet grounds it may be grown for forestry purposes.

[Illustration: HACKBERRY]


=Celtis occidentalis=, L.

=Form=.—Height 25-80 feet, diameter up to 30 inches; trunk long when
in close stands with other trees; crown spreading or round.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, ovate, narrowed to sharp points, rounded
oblique base, coarsely serrate, rough above, with prominent veins,
light yellow-green. The leaves are soft hairy beneath and pilose above
when young.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; monoecious, or with some perfect
flowers; the staminate on drooping pedicels at base of season’s growth;
the pistillate, few-flowered in axils of the upper leaves, greenish and

=Fruit=.—Ripens in September, a berry-like drupe, ¼ to ½ inch thick,
dark purple, sweet and edible, on slender pedicels, often remaining on
the tree during the winter.

=Bark=.—Usually rough with warty projections, light gray.

=Wood=.—Heavy, soft, coarse-grained, yellowish, resembling ash, with
light-colored sapwood.

=Range=.—Most of the United States, east of the Rocky Mountains.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in the eastern Panhandle and
scattered throughout the State; rare or not occurring in the counties
along the Alleghanies and in those adjacent on the west.

=Habitat=.—Grows best on moist, rich land, but is found in a variety
of soils.

=Notes=.—Sugar Berry and Hoop Ash are two common local names of this
species. In some places along the Ohio River the tree grows to a fairly
large size with a long clear trunk; in the eastern part of the State it
is usually small and scrubby. The tree is most easily distinguished by
its peculiar warty bark and by the witches’ brooms which are usually
present. The wood is often sold as Ash and is used for cheap furniture,
cooperage, crates, boxes, agricultural implements, etc. The very small
shrubby trees found in the Eastern part of the State should probably be
classed as Variety _pumila_, Muhl.

[Illustration: RED MULBERRY]


=Morus rubra=, L.

=Form=.—Height 15-25 feet, diameter 10-20 inches; trunk usually
straight, short, bearing a rounded crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 3-6 inches long, nearly orbicular in
outline, or with 3-5 lobes, coarsely serrate, dark green and usually
slightly rough above, paler and hairy beneath.

=Flowers=.—May-June; monoecious or dioecious; the staminate in dense
spikes 1-2 inches long; the pistillate arranged in the same way but in
shorter spikes.

=Fruit=.—July-August; very small drupes aggregate in a dense cylindric
cluster about 1 inch long, blackish when ripe, sweet, juicy and edible.

=Bark=.—On trunks, brownish-gray, roughened by narrow ridges.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, tough, coarse-grained, very durable, light orange

=Range=.—Massachusetts to Florida, west to Kansas and Nebraska.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found in scattered growth throughout
the State.

=Habitat=.—Grows best in rich bottoms, but is found scattered with
other hardwoods in various locations.

=Notes=.—The Mulberry is easily distinguished in summer by its
irregular leaf forms and peculiar fruits. It is not important as a
lumber tree, though the wood is attractive and durable.

[Illustration: CUCUMBER TREE]


=Magnolia acuminata=, L.

=Form=.—Height 50-90 feet, diameter 2-4 feet; trunk long, clear,
straight; crown usually pyramidal with spreading lower branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, ovate, 4-12 inches long, apex pointed,
entire, thin, smooth above, pale and downy beneath.

=Flowers=.—April-June; perfect, upright, solitary, bell-shaped,
greenish-yellow, about 3 inches long.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn; fleshy, cucumber-shaped, about 2½ inches
long, composed of 1-2-seeded carpels; seeds scarlet, drupe-like,
attached by slender extensile threads.

=Bark=.—Grayish-brown, furrowed, with loose scales.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, close-grained, durable, yellowish, resembling
Yellow Poplar, and used for interior finish and other purposes in

=Range=.—New York to Georgia, west to Kansas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—With other hardwoods throughout the
State. Most plentiful in the mountainous and high hilly sections.

=Habitat=.—Prefers rich soils of bottoms and hillsides.

=Notes=.—The Cucumber is valuable as a forest and shade tree and
should be propagated for these purposes. It can be distinguished
from the other West Virginia magnolias by its smaller leaves, its
greenish-yellow flowers, and its usually larger size.

[Illustration: UMBRELLA TREE]


=Magnolia tripetala=, L.

=Form=.—Height 25-50 feet, diameter 10-15 inches; trunk straight, with
spreading branches which form a broad, round-topped crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, arranged near the ends of the branches in an
umbrella-like circle, simple, obovate-lanceolate, pointed at both ends,
12-24 inches long, with short stout petioles, entire, smooth on both
sides when old.

=Flowers=.—Appear in May; perfect, solitary, erect, surrounded by a
whorl of leaves, petals creamy white, 4-5 inches long, slightly scented.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn; cylindric or oblong, cone-like, 2-4 inches
long, fleshy, composed of numerous rose-colored follicles which split
on the back at maturity and liberate small flat, red seeds.

=Bark=.—Smooth, light gray, sometimes roughened by scattered irregular

=Wood=.—Light, soft, close-grained, not strong, light brown, with
white sapwood.

=Range=.—Southern Pennsylvania to Georgia, west to northern
Mississippi and Arkansas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found on swamp borders or along
streams in the following counties: Boone, Braxton, Fayette, Kanawha,
Logan, McDowell, Mingo, Nicholas, Randolph, Raleigh, Upshur, Webster,

=Habitat=.—Prefers rich soil of streams and swamps.

=Notes=.—The Umbrella Magnolia is chiefly valuable as an ornamental
tree. It is especially attractive in autumn when the bright,
rose-colored fruits are mature.



=Magnolia Fraseri=, Walt.

=Form=.—Height, 30-50 feet, diameter 12-18 inches; trunk straight or
inclining, undivided for half its length, or separating near the ground
into several stems.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, oblong-obovate or spatulate, eared at the
base, bluntly pointed at the apex, glabrous 10-24 inches long, often
crowded in whorls.

=Flowers=.—May; perfect, solitary, 8-10 inches in diameter, creamy
white, sweet-scented.

=Fruit=.—Matures in early autumn; an oblong cone-like aggregate of
fleshy, rose-colored follicles, with sharp-pointed tips; seeds obovoid,
compressed, ⅝ inch long.

=Bark=.—Smooth, or on old trunks roughened by irregular excrescences
or scales, dark brown.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, not strong, close-grained, brown with light

=Range=.—West Virginia to northern Georgia and Alabama, west to
northern Mississippi and eastern Tennessee.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Infrequent, found scattered through
the mountainous parts of Clay, Nicholas, Pocahontas, Randolph, Upshur
and Webster counties; growing at 3,500 feet elevation on the head of
Cherry River.

=Habitat=.—Borders of streams and rich mountain-sides.

=Notes=.—Like the Umbrella Tree this species is of little value for
forestry purposes, but is highly ornamental. Its chief distinguishing
mark in summer is the leaf base which is prominently eared.

[Illustration: TULIP TREE]


=Liriodendron tulipifera=, L.

=Form=.—Height 80-150 feet; diameter 3-10 feet; trunk long, clear and
straight; crown open, conical, of slender branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 5-6 inches long, and about as broad,
usually with four lobes, two at the truncate apex and one on each side,
smooth, bright green above, paler beneath; petioles angled, slender,
5-6 inches long.

=Flowers=.—May-June; solitary, terminal, perfect, tulip-shaped 1½-2
inches long, greenish yellow with orange spots; petals 6, in two rows;
sepals greenish, early falling.

=Fruit=.—Matures in early autumn; oblong, cone-like, composed of
numerous brown flat pointed carpels, each bearing a 1-2-seeded nutlet
at its base.

=Bark=.—Rough on old trunks, with prominent parallel connected ridges,
and deep fissures, light grayish-brown.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, not strong, easily worked, light yellow with
creamy white sapwood.

=Range=.—Rhode Island and Michigan, south to Florida and Arkansas, not
of commercial size at the extremes of its range.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found throughout the State below the
Spruce belt, rare on the Potomac waters.

=Habitat=.—Prefers rich, moist soil of stream valleys and coves, but
adapts itself to less favorable situations.

=Notes=.—This tree, commonly known as Yellow Poplar, is of first
importance for forestry purposes; it reproduces readily from the seed,
is a rapid grower, and its wood is easily worked and desirable for many

[Illustration: COMMON PAWPAW]


=Asimina triloba=, Dual.

=Form=.—Height 10-50 feet, diameter 8-12 inches; trunk usually
straight and slender, bearing a broad or restricted crown of straight

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, thin, obovate-lanceolate, pointed, 4-12
inches long, margin entire, smooth except when young, dark green above,
paler beneath.

=Flowers=.—April-May, with the leaves; scattered along the twigs,
perfect, 1-1½ inches wide, dark reddish purple, borne on stout hairy

=Fruit=.—Matures in early autumn; short, cylindric, resembling a
banana, 3-5 inches long, with a thin, greenish-yellow skin, enclosing a
yellow pulpy edible mass through which is scattered several brown shiny

=Bark=.—Rather smooth, brown, often blotched, thin and close.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, coarse-grained, brown with yellowish sapwood.

=Range=.—Western New York and central New Jersey, south to Florida and
west to Texas, Kansas and Michigan.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Scattered groups throughout the
State, except in the Spruce belt, and in the higher adjacent sections.
Common along the Ohio and Potomac river valleys.

=Habitat=.—Prefers moist soils along streams, but grows well on loamy

=Notes=.—The Pawpaw or Custard Apple is not important as a forest tree
but is interesting and attractive on account of its peculiar fruits.
It is very tolerant of shade and is suitable for underplanting where
production of wood is not the object.

[Illustration: SASSAFRAS]


=Sassafras variifolium=, (Salis.) Kuntze.

=Form=.—Height 40-50 feet, diameter 1-3 feet; trunk usually short,
stout, and bearing an open crown of contorted branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, ovate in outline, entire, or 2-5 lobed,
4-6 inches long, smooth, dark green above, paler beneath.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; dioecious; both sexes about ½ inch
long, greenish yellow, in few-flowered, drooping racemes.

=Fruit=.—Matures in early autumn; a dark blue, berry-like drupe,
one-third inch long, borne on a bright red thickened stalk with
persistent calyx.

=Bark=.—Rough, with shallow fissures and flat-topped connected ridges,
light brown.

=Wood=.—Soft, weak, brittle, durable in the soil, aromatic, dull
orange-brown with thin lighter sapwood.

=Range=.—Massachusetts to Florida, and west to Texas, Kansas and

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A common tree distributed throughout
the State except at high elevations.

=Habitat=.—Prefers sandy loam. Common in thin soil of worn out fields
and along fence rows.

=Notes=.—This species is commonly considered a weed among trees. The
wood is very durable when in contact with the ground but is not often
used. The fruits are eagerly eaten by birds and the aromatic bark is
used for flavoring candy and medicine.

[Illustration: WITCH HAZEL]


=Hamamelis virginiana=, L.

=Form=.—Height 15-25 feet, diameter 4-10 inches; trunk short, often
inclined, bearing an irregular crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, oval, 4-6 inches long, rounded at the
apex, wavy-toothed, somewhat downy when young.

=Flowers=.—October and November; perfect; with 4 slender, strap-shaped
yellow petals, clustered at the leaf axils.

=Fruit=.—Ripens in autumn from flowers of the previous year; a
two-celled, woody, nut-like pod, ½ inch long, containing black shining
seeds which are propelled a distance of several feet when the pods
burst open.

=Bark=.—Smooth or scaly, thin, light brown and blotched.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, close-grained, light brown.

=Range=.—Ontario to Florida, west to Texas and Minnesota.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found throughout the State.

=Habitat=.—Prefers moist rocky soils but thrives in a variety of

=Notes=.—This small abundant tree is interesting in that it blossoms
in the fall at the same time its fruit is maturing. It is not important
for forestry uses, and is seldom planted for any purpose.

[Illustration: SWEET GUM]


=Liquidambar styraciflua=, L.

=Form=.—Height 50-100 feet, diameter, 2-4 feet; trunk usually tall and
straight with narrow crown, except when grown in the open.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 3-5 inches long, irregularly star-shaped,
with five unequal pointed lobes, broader than long, margins of lobes
serrate, bright shining green above, paler beneath, petioles long and

=Flowers=.—April-May; usually monoecious; the staminate green, borne
in terminal racemes; the pistillate in heads on long axillary stalks.

=Fruit=.—A long-stalked spherical head, 1-1½ inches in diameter,
composed of numerous capsules, covered with curved, blunt, spine-like

=Bark=.—On old trunks gray with deep furrows and scaly ridges. Corky
bark is often present on limbs and twigs.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, reddish-brown with whitish

=Range=.—Southern Connecticut to Florida, west to Missouri and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found locally along the Great
Kanawha, New, Gauley, Elk, Tug Fork, and for short distances up several
of the tributaries of these rivers.

=Habitat=.—Prefers deep rich soils along streams.

=Notes=.—Sweet Gum cannot be classed as a valuable forest tree in
West Virginia, though in other states its wood is extensively used for
boxes, interior finish, etc. It is very desirable for planting in parks
or on lawns and is especially attractive when the leaves change color
in the fall.

[Illustration: SYCAMORE]


=Platanus occidentalis=, L.

=Form=.—Height 100-150 feet, diameter 4-10 feet; trunk massive,
usually short, often inclined; crown open, irregular, of large limbs
and irregular branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, broadly oval, 4-10 inches long,
3-5-sinuate lobed, the short lobes sharp-pointed, bright green above,
pale and somewhat pubescent or woolly beneath.

=Flowers=.—May; monoecious; the staminate dark red on short axillary
stalks, the pistillate greenish on long, slender terminal stalks.

=Fruit=.—October, persisting through the winter, in brown heads about
1 inch in diameter and suspended on long slender stalks. The chaffy
achenes which compose the head are about ¾ of an inch long.

=Bark=.—Covered with broad curling scales which are shed off exposing
the smooth greenish-white surface beneath.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, difficult to split, reddish-brown with light

=Range=.—Maine to Florida, west to Texas and Minnesota.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common throughout the State along
streams below 3,000 feet elevation.

=Habitat=.—Moist soil of stream borders.

=Notes=.—The wood of Sycamore is considered valuable for interior
finish, furniture, crates and tobacco boxes. Its growth should be
encouraged whenever possible both as a forest and shade tree.



=Pyrus coronaria=, L.

=Form=.—Height 15-25 feet, diameter 10-14 inches; trunk short and
usually armed with many stubby, thorn-like branches; crown narrow when
in a thicket but broad and flat-topped in the open.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, ovate, or elliptic, 3-4 inches long;
sharp-pointed apex, rounded base, serrate, smooth, dark green above,
paler beneath.

=Flowers=.—May, with the nearly full-grown leaves; perfect,
rosy-white, 1½-2 inches across, arranged in umbel-like cymes; very

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn; a depressed globose pome, 1-1½ inches in
diameter, yellowish green, fragrant, flesh firm and bitter.

=Bark=.—Roughened with flat, scaly ridges; brownish-gray or reddish.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, light reddish brown.

=Range=.—Southern Canada to Alabama, west to Louisiana, Missouri and

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in most sections. Rare in
Boone, Logan, Mingo and other southwestern counties. Abundant in the
hilly regions of the central and northern parts of the State.

=Habitat=.—Prefers a moist soil and is usually found in thickets in
open woods and neglected fields.

=Notes=.—The Crab Apple is best known on account of its fragrant
blossoms. The wood is sometimes used for tool handles, turned articles,
and engravings.

[Illustration: MOUNTAIN ASH]


=Pyrus americana= (Marsh.) D. C.

=Form=.—Height 20-30 feet, diameter 8-12 inches; trunk short,
supporting a round-topped crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound, 6-9 inches long; leaflets 9-17, 2-3
inches long, nearly sessile, except the terminal one, lanceolate,
taper-pointed, sharply serrate above the entire base; glabrous, dark
green above, paler beneath.

=Flowers=.—Appear in May; perfect, in flat cymes 3-4 inches across,

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn, persistent on the tree through the winter;
a round berry-like pome, ¼ inch in diameter, bright red, acid, in large
flat-topped clusters.

=Bark=.—Smooth or slightly roughened, light gray.

=Wood=.—Light, close-grained, soft, weak, light brown with lighter

=Range=.—Newfoundland west to Manitoba and Iowa, south along the
mountains to North Carolina.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Confined to high swamps and
mountains. Observed in the following counties: Pendleton, Pocahontas,
Preston, Randolph and Tucker.

=Habitat=.—Moist soil of swamps and rocky slopes.

=Notes=.—This tree has no commercial value, being rare and of small
size. Its form, foliage, flowers and bright persistent fruits make it a
desirable tree for ornamental planting.

[Illustration: SHAD BUSH]


=Amelanchier canadensis=, (L.) Medic.

=Form=.—Height 10-40 feet, diameter 4-16 inches; trunk short; crown
shallow and usually narrow, with numerous slender branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 3-4 inches long, ovate to ovate-oblong,
finely serrate, smooth when old, dark green above, paler beneath.

=Flowers=.—April; perfect, white, borne in drooping racemes.

=Fruit=.—June-August; a berry-like, globular pome, one-third-½ inch
long, borne in racemes, red to purple, sweet and edible.

=Bark=.—Smooth, or somewhat rough, with narrow scaly ridges on old

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, warps and checks easily,
dark reddish-brown with thick whitish sapwood.

=Range=.—Newfoundland and Ontario, south to Florida and west to
Louisiana and Kansas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in nearly all parts of the

=Habitat=.—Dry, light soils of upland woods and hillsides. Grows in a
variety of soils and exposures.

=Notes=.—Service tree and Juneberry are two other names of this tree.
The wood is rarely used for any purpose.

At least two shrubby species of Amelanchier are native to West

[Illustration: COCKSPUR THORN]


=Crataegus crus-galli=, L.

=Form=.—Height 10-25 feet, diameter 6-12 inches; trunk short; crown
broad and flat-topped.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, ovate-obovate, 1-3 inches long, sharply
serrate except toward the base, long tapering at the base, rounded or
blunt-pointed at the apex, thick, dark green and glossy above, paler

=Flowers=.—June; perfect; white, two-thirds of an inch across,
arranged in many-flowered corymbs; stamens 10; styles 1-3.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn; an ovoid or sub-globose pome two-fifths-½
inch long, greenish to dull red, containing usually 2 boxy nutlets
which are 2-3-grooved on the back.

=Bark=.—Grayish brown, roughened on old trees by small scales.

=Wood=.—Hard, heavy, close-grained, reddish brown with thick
light-colored sapwood.

=Range=.—Southern Canada to northern Georgia, west to Missouri and

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A common thorn throughout the State.

=Habitat=.—Borders of woods and abandoned fields on many kinds of

=Notes=.—As indicated by the name, this species is armed with long,
curved thorns. The taper-based, serrate, glossy leaves and the dull
red-green fruits will help the student in identifying this common tree.

[Illustration: DOTTED THORN]


=Crataegus punctata=, Jacq.

=Form=.—Height 10-35 feet, diameter 8-14 inches; trunk thick and
short; crown very broad and flat-topped.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, oblanceolate-obovate, 1½-3 inches long,
tapering at the base, rounded or blunt-pointed at apex, irregularly
serrate or sometimes lobed, dull grayish-green and strongly
impressed-veined above.

=Flowers=.—May-June; perfect; white, about ¾ of an inch across, in
corymbs with tomentose stalks; stamens usually about 20.

=Fruit=.—Ripens in autumn; an ovoid pome, ½-1 inch thick, red (var.
_rubra_, Ait.) or yellow, (var. _aurea_, Ait.) nutlets usually 3-4 with
2-5 ridges on the back.

=Bark=.—Gray, with thin scales on old trunks.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, close-grained.

=Range=.—Minnesota and western New England, southward along the
mountains to Georgia.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A common tree, especially at high
elevations. Found growing on Spruce Knob, Pendleton County, at altitude
4,860 feet. Forming almost pure stands on Bickle Knob, Randolph County,
near Durbin, Pocahontas County, in Canaan Valley, Tucker County, and at
many places along the Alleghanies.

=Habitat=.—Prefers rich sandy soil of stream borders and mountain

=Notes=.—The large red or yellow fruits of this thorn help in the
identification of the species and give it a very attractive appearance
in the fall. The fruits are eaten by the Ruffed Grouse and other birds,
and are sometimes used for making jelly. The spines are straight and
from 1½ to 2¾ inches long.

[Illustration: BLACK CHERRY]


=Prunus serotina=, Ehrh.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 2-5 feet; trunk when in close
stands tall and straight, bearing a rather open irregularly-oblong

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, lanceolate-oblong, taper-pointed, 2-5
inches long, thickish, serrate-crenate, with incurved teeth, smooth,
dark green above, paler beneath.

=Flowers=.—May-June; perfect; ¼ inch wide, white arranged in drooping
many-flowered racemes.

=Fruit=.—Matures in late summer and persists for two or three months;
a nearly black drupe, in drooping clusters, one-third-½ inch thick,
with purplish juicy slightly bitter edible flesh.

=Bark=.—On old trunks roughened by thick, blackish, irregular plates;
inner bark aromatic, bitter.

=Wood=.—Light, strong, close-grained, light reddish brown, with thin
yellowish sapwood.

=Range=.—Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Dakota and Arizona.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A common timber tree in the more
mountainous parts of the State; once plentiful on rich soils of upland
flats and stream valleys of Tucker, Randolph, Barbour, Webster,
Nicholas, Pocahontas, Greenbrier, and Monroe counties. Smaller and less
common in most other sections.

=Habitat=.—Thrives best in rich, loose soils of slopes and mountain

=Notes=.—This tree, which is usually called Wild Cherry, produces
excellent lumber for furniture, and interior finish. It can be
distinguished from the Choke Cherry, which it most closely resembles,
by its larger size, longer narrower leaves, and rougher bark. Wild
cherry trees large enough for lumber are now becoming scarce.

[Illustration: CHOKE CHERRY]


=Prunus virginiana,= L.

=Form=.—Height 15-30 feet, diameter 6-12 inches; trunk usually short
with a rounded crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 2-4 inches long, oval, oblong, or
obovate, abruptly pointed, very sharply serrate, with slender teeth,
glabrous, dull dark green above, paler beneath.

=Flowers=.—May-June; perfect; about ½ inch broad, white, arranged in a
drooping, many-flowered raceme 3-6 inches long.

=Fruit=.—Ripens in late summer; a globular, dark crimson drupe, borne
on short pedicels in drooping clusters, astringent.

=Bark=.—Smooth, dark gray, somewhat roughened on old trunks by shallow
fissures. Inner bark has a disagreeable odor.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, close-grained, light-brown; sapwood light colored.

=Range=.—Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to Georgia and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Rare in most sections. Scattered
trees grow at high elevations along the Alleghanies. Most common and of
largest size on the borders of swamps from Cranesville, Preston County,
southward to Canaan Valley, Tucker County.

=Habitat=.—Prefers damp soils of swamp borders, streams and thickets.

=Notes=.—The Choke Cherry is in no sense a timber tree but is
attractive when growing wild or planted.

[Illustration: WILD RED CHERRY]


=Prunus pennsylvanica=, L. f.

=Form=.—Height 20-35 feet, diameter 8-12 inches; trunk straight,
short, tapering, with upright branches forming a narrow crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 3-5 inches long, oblong-lanceolate,
pointed, finely and sharply serrate, glabrous, thin, bright green
above, paler beneath.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; perfect; about ½ inch wide, white on
slender pedicels in 4-5-flowered umbels.

=Fruit=.—Ripens in July and persists until autumn; a globular drupe,
about ¼ inch in diameter, bright red, thick-skinned, sour.

=Bark=.—Smooth, or somewhat roughened by loose, papery plates, reddish

=Wood=.—Light, soft, close-grained, light brown with thin yellowish

=Range=.—Labrador to British Columbia and southward to North Carolina
and Colorado.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in West Virginia along the
mountains, especially in areas from which other timber has been
destroyed by fire.

=Habitat=.—Sandy soils of burned-over mountain-sides and flats, and
along streams at lower elevations.

=Notes=.—Fire Cherry and Bird Cherry are two common names of this
tree, the first denoting its habitat and the second the attractiveness
of its fruit to birds. This species performs its principal service in
covering otherwise bare, fire-burned areas to which the seeds have been
carried and dropped by birds.

[Illustration: WILD PLUM]


=Prunus americana=, Marsh.

=Form=.—Height 10-25 feet, diameter 6-12 inches; trunk short
supporting a wide-spreading crown of horizontal and drooping branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple 2-4 inches long, narrowly obovate, long
taper-pointed at apex, sharply and doubly serrate, firm, dark green and
rough above, paler and hairy below.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; perfect; 1 inch wide, white, arranged
in 2-5-flowered umbels.

=Fruit=.—Ripens in early autumn; a globose, red drupe about 1 inch in
diameter, the flesh sweet and edible; stone flattened.

=Bark=.—Grayish-brown and rough on old trunks with thin, flat plates.

=Wood=.—Hard, heavy, strong, close-grained, red-brown, with thin light

=Range=.—New York to Florida, west to Texas and Montana.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Scattered throughout the State but
nowhere common except in small areas.

=Habitat=.—Grows principally on swamp borders and along streams.

=Notes=.—The Wild Plum is found growing in dense thickets in some of
our upland swamps where it produces large crops of fruit. The tree is
of little importance commercially but is sometimes used as a stock upon
which domestic plums are grafted.

[Illustration: HONEY LOCUST]


=Gleditsia triacanthos=, L.

=Form=.—Height 40-50 feet, diameter 1-2 feet; trunk usually short and
armed with branched thorns; crown broad, round-topped.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, singly or doubly compound, 7-8 inches long,
the single compound leaves having 18-28 leaflets; the double
compound leaves 8-14 divisions each, with 18-20 leaflets; leaflets
lanceolate-oblong, somewhat serrate.

=Flowers=.—May-June; polygamous; small, greenish.

=Fruit=.—A flattened and twisted pod, 10-18 inches long, containing
oval brownish seeds.

=Bark=.—Sometimes smooth but often roughened on old trunks, by shallow
fissures and thick ridges with projecting edges, and by branched thorns.

=Wood=.—Hard, heavy, strong, durable in contact with the soil, bright
reddish brown heartwood, whitish sapwood.

=Range=.—Ontario to Florida, west to Kansas and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Not common in any part of West
Virginia, but found in scattered stands throughout the State, except at
high elevations. Rare in Upshur and other high hilly counties west of
the Alleghanies, and also in the Eastern Panhandle.

=Habitat=.—Thrives best in fertile soil of river bottoms, but grows
well in other situations.

=Notes=.—The wood of Honey Locust is used principally for fencing,
wheel hubs, and general construction; but the tree is too rare and not
of sufficient size to give it any commercial importance.

[Illustration: RED BUD]


=Cercis canadensis=, L.

=Form=.—Height 15-25 feet, diameter 6-10 inches; trunk usually
inclined and short; crown broad, open and shallow.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, rounded, 3-5 inches long, with
heart-shaped base, and blunt apex; smooth, entire, bright pale green
above, paler beneath.

=Flowers=.—April, before the leaves; perfect; in form like the sweet
pea, red-purple, arranged in umbel-like clusters along the branches of
the last or preceding years.

=Fruit=.—A flattened, many-seeded pod, the upper suture with a winged

=Bark=.—Thin, with shallow fissures and scaly reddish brown ridges.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, not strong, reddish brown with thick whitish

=Range=.—Ontario to Florida, west to Minnesota and Kansas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in most parts of the State,
forming thickets along borders of woods and streams. Rare in the higher

=Habitat=.—Rich moist soil of abandoned fields, open woods and stream

=Notes=.—This tree is chiefly ornamental. Its profuse purplish flowers
give it attractiveness early in the spring, when the Service and
Flowering Dogwood are in bloom.

[Illustration: COMMON LOCUST]


=Robinia Pseudo-Acacia=, L.

=Form=.—Height 50-75 feet, diameter 2-3 feet; trunk when grown in the
forest often tall and free from limbs; crown loose and more or less

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound, odd-pinnate, 8-14 inches long; leaflets
7-21, ovate or oblong, 1-2 inches long, entire, very thin, smooth, dull
green above, paler beneath; stipules thorny or spine-like.

=Flowers=.—May, after the leaves; perfect, pea-shaped, white, very
fragrant, borne on slender pedicels in loose drooping racemes 4-5
inches long.

=Fruit=.—A flat pod 3-4 inches long, containing 4-8 small brown seeds.

=Bark=.—Deeply furrowed into firm, prominent ridges, reddish-brown.

=Wood=.—Heavy, very hard and strong, close-grained, very durable in
contact with the soil, brownish with thin yellow sapwood.

=Range=.—Pennsylvania to Georgia west to Iowa and Kansas. Naturalized
over a large area in America and extensively cultivated in Europe.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common throughout West Virginia, but
most abundant and healthiest in high limestone areas.

=Habitat=.—Prefers rich limestone soil, but adapts itself to other
soils and to almost all exposures and elevations.

=Notes=.—Black Locust, Yellow Locust, and False Acacia are other names
of this tree. According to Sargent’s “Manual of the Trees of North
America” locust trees are “most abundant and of largest size on the
western slopes of the Alleghanies of West Virginia.” It is a rapid
grower, its wood is unsurpassed for many purposes and, as a legume, it
adds fertility to the soil wherever it grows.

[Illustration: HOP TREE]


=Ptelea trifoliata=, L.

=Form=.—A shrub occasionally attaining the size and form of a small

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound, 3-foliate, the leaflets entire, ovate,
pointed, downy when young.

=Flowers=.—June; polygamous; small, greenish-white, arranged in
compound terminal cymes.

=Fruit=.—A 2-celled, 2-seeded, nearly circular samara, winged all
around, in drooping cymes; bitter, used as a substitute for hops.

=Bark=.—Smooth, light brownish-gray.

=Range=.—Long Island to Minnesota and southward.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Rare, collected in Summers and Morgan

=Habitat=.—Prefers sandy soils of river banks.

=Notes=.—This small, shrubby tree is useful only for ornamental
planting for which purpose it will be found very interesting and

[Illustration: STAGHORN SUMACH]


=Rhus typhina=, L.

=Form=.—A shrub or small tree sometimes reaching a height of 15-20
feet and a diameter of 8-10 inches; trunk short, bearing a broad crown
of ascending branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound, 16-24 inches long, and with 11-31
leaflets; leaflets oblong, 2-5 inches long, nearly sessile,
oblanceolate, pointed, serrate, when mature dark green and smooth
above, pale beneath.

=Flowers=.—May-June; polygamous, arranged in compact oblong
yellowish-green panicles.

=Fruit=.—Matures in late summer and persists through the winter;
numerous dry drupes aggregate in a compact pyramidal panicle, 5-8
inches long; drupes thickly studded with red acid hairs, not poisonous.

=Bark=.—On old trunks somewhat roughened by loose brown scales. Twigs
and leaf stalks are densely velvety-hairy.

=Wood=.—Soft, light, coarse-grained, orange-colored, showing plainly
the annual growths.

=Range=.—New Brunswick to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Alabama.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common throughout the State and
reaching higher altitudes than some of the other sumachs.

=Habitat=.—Fertile dry upland soil, preferring abandoned fields,
borders of woods and fence rows.

=Notes=.—The wood of this species is sometimes used for sugar spiles
and for the manufacture of napkin rings, cups, etc. The leaves are rich
in tannin; the wood has little commercial value. Its beautiful foliage
and red fruit spikes give it value for ornamental planting.

[Illustration: DWARF SUMACH]


=Rhus copallina=, L.

=Form=.—A shrub or small tree often attaining in West Virginia a
height of 15-20 feet and a diameter of 3-5 inches; trunk straight or
angular, supporting a loose irregular crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound, 6-12 inches long, with petioles
wing-margined between the 9-21 oblong or ovate lanceolate, nearly
entire leaflets which are smooth and shining above and pubescent

=Flowers=.—July; polygamous; in terminal compact panicles.

=Fruit=.—Matures in late summer; small dry drupes in compact erect
panicles, red, turning dark later in the year, the panicles finally
drooping; not poisonous.

=Bark=.—Roughened on old trunk by brown papery scales or elevated
brown projections.

=Wood=.—Soft, coarse-grained, light brown, richly striped with yellow
and black.

=Range=.—Maine to Florida, west to Texas and Nebraska.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in most sections of the State
except at high elevations.

=Habitat=.—Dry hillsides and ridges, frequenting abandoned fields.

=Notes=.—This sumach, like others of the genus, is chiefly valuable
for landscape work, being especially ornamental in its autumnal
foliage. The wood is sometimes used in the manufacture of small wooden

[Illustration: POISON SUMACH]


=Rhus vernix=, L.

=Form=.—A shrub or small tree sometimes reaching a height of 10-15
feet; trunk usually branching near the ground and separating into a
loose irregular head.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound, leaflets 7-13, oblong-obovate, entire,

=Flowers=.—June-July; polygamous; small, yellowish-green, arranged in
long drooping panicles.

=Fruit=.—Small, nearly spherical, glossy, dull white drupes in long,
loose, drooping, axillary panicles; ripening in early autumn and
persisting into the winter.

=Bark=.—Thin, streaked, smooth, covered with numerous raised lenticels.

=Wood=.—Soft, brittle, light yellow.

=Range=.—Ontario to Florida, west to Louisiana and Minnesota.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Rare, found in swamps at Cowen,
Webster County and near Elkins, Randolph County.

=Habitat=.—Thrives best in swamps but may be found on moist slopes.

=Notes=.—Poison Dogwood, Poison Elder, and Poison Oak are other
names of this species. This is one of our most poisonous plants and
should be avoided except by those who are immune. It has no commercial

[Illustration: AMERICAN HOLLY]


=Ilex opaca=, Ait.

=Form=.—Height 15-30 feet, diameter 1-2 feet; trunk short; branches
slender, spreading and ascending, forming a conic crown.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, evergreen, leathery, glabrous, oval,
margins wavy with scattered spiny teeth, dark green above, pale green

=Flowers=.—May to June; dioecious, or polygamo-dioecious, the
staminate 2-9 on a common stalk, the pistillate usually solitary;
small, white.

=Fruit=.—Matures in late summer and persists through the following
fall and winter; a bright red berry-like drupe about the size of a pea,
smooth, shining, containing a 4-ribbed, brown nutlet.

=Bark=.—Smooth, or slightly rough with age, grayish or grayish-brown.

=Wood=.—Hard, tough, close-grained, chalky-white in color.

=Range=.—Maine to Florida, west to Texas and Missouri.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Observed in the following counties:
Boone, Braxton, Fayette, Logan, Mingo, McDowell, Nicholas, Randolph,
Upshur, Webster and Wyoming. Rare east of the mountains and sparsely
scattered in other counties along the Ohio River.

=Habitat=.—Prefers moist soil near rivers or rich loamy and rocky

=Notes=.—Holly wood is very valuable for inlaid work, cabinet making,
interior finish, and piano keys, but the trees in West Virginia are
usually small, and afford little timber. During the holidays the
evergreen foliage with bright red fruits are much sought after. The
tree is slow-growing but is otherwise very desirable for ornamental

[Illustration: MOUNTAIN HOLLY]


=Ilex monticola=, Gray.

=Form=.—Height 15-25 feet, diameter 2-8 inches; a shrub or small tree
with short trunk and slender ascending branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, deciduous, 4-5 inches long, ovate or
lance-oblong, taper-pointed, thin-membranaceous, smooth, sharply

=Flowers=.—May-June; polygamo-dioecious; staminate and pistillate
flowers on very short pedicels, white, clustered, about one-third of an
inch across.

=Fruit=.—Ripens in early autumn; globose, about two-fifths of an inch
in diameter, bright scarlet, containing 4-6 striate nutlets ridged on
the back.

=Bark=.—Thin, somewhat rough and warty on old trees, light

=Wood=.—Hard, close-grained, nearly white.

=Range=.—New York, southward along the Alleghanies.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Not common except locally. Found
principally at high altitudes. Common near Davis, Tucker County, and in
various parts of Randolph and Pocahontas counties.

=Habitat=.—Upland sandy flats, cool mountainsides, and swamp borders.

=Notes=.—This small tree is not important except for ornamental use.
Its bright foliage and fruits recommend it for this purpose. The
species may easily be confused with Winterberry (_Ilex verticillata_,
(L.) Gray) which often grows with it. The nutlets of the latter,
however, are smooth and smaller, its flowers are shorter-stalked and
its leaves somewhat downy beneath.

[Illustration: STRIPED MAPLE]


=Acer pennsylvanicum=, L.

=Form=.—Height 10-25 feet, diameter 6-12 inches; trunk medium short;
crown irregular, usually broad.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, simple, 5-6 inches long, nearly as broad, 3-lobed
above the middle with short, pointed lobes, sharply and doubly serrate,
rounded or cordate at base, rather smooth above and rusty pubescent

=Flowers=.—May-June; usually monoecious, yellow, bell-shaped, in long,
drooping, terminal racemes.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn; paired samaras in long racemose drooping
clusters, wing ¾ inch long, widely divergent, marked on one side of
each nutlet by a small cavity.

=Bark=.—Smooth, thin, greenish or reddish-brown, marked longitudinally
by pale stripes.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, close-grained, pinkish brown, with thick sapwood.

=Range=.—Novia Scotia south along the mountains to Georgia, west to

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in shaded ravines and rich
slopes in the mountainous parts of the State, especially in Webster,
Randolph, Upshur, Pocahontas and Nicholas counties.

=Habitat=.—Thrives best in rich soil of rocky or sandy woods.

=Notes=.—This small maple is also called Moosewood and Goosefoot
Maple, the latter name referring to the goosefoot shape of the leaf. It
is not a commercially valuable species, but always attracts attention
whether growing in its shady mountain habitat or on the lawn.

[Illustration: MOUNTAIN MAPLE]


=Acer spicatum=, Lam.

=Form=.—A small tree or shrub sometimes reaching a height of 20-25
feet and a diameter of 6-10 inches.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, simple, 4-5 inches long, 3-lobed, coarsely
serrate, the lobes taper-pointed, glabrous and dark green above,
somewhat downy beneath, petioles long and slender.

=Flowers=.—May-June; polygamo-monoecious; small, yellow-green,
arranged in upright, dense, somewhat compound racemes.

=Fruit=.—Early autumn; small, paired samaras, red, turning brown and
drooping when mature, in racemose clusters.

=Bark=.—Nearly smooth, light brown, thin; twigs reddish, slightly

=Wood=.—Light, soft, close-grained, light brown, with thick sapwood.

=Range=.—Newfoundland and Labrador, south to Georgia and west to

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in mountainous sections and
sometimes occurring at low elevations adjacent to the mountains. Found
growing from elevation 850 feet, in Monongalia County, to elevation
4,800 feet, in Pendleton County.

=Habitat=.—Damp mountain forests, along streams and on rocky slopes;
thrives in the shade of other trees.

=Notes=.—The Mountain Maple is often seen fruiting when only 4
or 5 feet high, but it frequently reaches tree size in favorable
locations. The wood is not found on the market. This species is one
of the most ornamental of the maples and should be planted more
generally. The erect flower spikes, small red fruits, reddish twigs,
and coarse-toothed leaves are characters that distinguish it from other

[Illustration: SUGAR MAPLE]


=Acer saccharum=, Marsh.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 3-5 feet; trunk of trees in close
stands long, clear and straight; crown conical or round-topped, with
many ascending and horizontal branches.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, simple, 3-5 inches long, 5-lobed with rounded
sinuses and sparingly sinuate-toothed margins; smooth and dark green
above, paler and somewhat downy on the veins beneath.

=Flowers=.—April-May; polygamo-monoecious or dioecious; both kinds of
flowers on thread-like, hairy pedicels in drooping corymbs; greenish

=Fruit=.—Matures in early autumn; clustered groups of paired samaras,
glabrous, with slightly diverging wings about 1 inch long.

=Bark=.—Deeply fissured and with prominent dark gray, flaky ridges.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, durable, light brown to

=Range=.—Newfoundland to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found in nearly all parts of the
State; most abundant on upland flats and in rich coves along the
Alleghanies from Preston County through Tucker, Barbour, Randolph,
Pocahontas, Greenbrier and Monroe; common in the high hilly sections
lying west of the mountains, rare in the Eastern Panhandle.

=Habitat=.—Moist, rich soils of river valleys, coves, and high flats
and rocky loams of hillsides.

=Notes=.—The Sugar, or Rock Maple is one of our best known and most
valuable trees. Its timber is becoming more highly prized as other
species are disappearing. Interior finish, furniture, shoe-lasts and
cross-ties are among the common uses of this wood. It is the principal
species from which maple syrup and sugar are made, and one of the very
best trees for ornamental planting.

[Illustration: BLACK SUGAR MAPLE]


=Acer saccharum nigrum=, (Michx. f.) Britt.

=Form=.—Height 75-90 feet, diameter 2-3½ feet; trunk and crown as in
sugar maple.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, simple, 5-6 inches long, wider than long,
3-5-lobed, the lower lobes often reduced to a shallow rounded tooth,
thick and firm, green and usually downy beneath.

=Flowers=.—May, with the leaves; monoecious, arranged in umbel-like
corymbs, yellow, on slender, hairy pedicels.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn; paired samaras clustered on drooping
pedicels, wings slightly diverging.

=Bark=.—Usually very dark gray, furrowed deeply.

=Wood=.—Hard, heavy, strong, close-grained, light yellow or brownish,
with thin, lighter sapwood.

=Range=.—Quebec and western New Hampshire, southward and westward.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Less common than sugar maple,
but often growing with it on low ground. Observed in the following
counties: Lewis, Monongalia, Randolph, Tyler, Upshur, Webster and

=Habitat=.—Moist soil of river bottoms and slopes.

=Notes=.—This tree, which is classed as a sub-species of the common
sugar maple, can scarcely be distinguished from the latter, except by
the leaves which are thicker, usually dropping, less deeply lobed and
slightly hairy beneath.

[Illustration: SILVER MAPLE]


=Acer saccharinum=, L.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 2-4 feet; trunk usually short and
soon divided into several large, ascending branches which subdivide and
form a large open, rounded, or vase-shaped crown.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, simple, 3-6 inches long, deeply 5-lobed, the
lobes cut and toothed, sinuses deep, light green above, silvery-white
beneath, downy when young, petioles long and slender.

=Flowers=.—March-April; polygamo-monoecious or dioecious, yellow-green
in crowded umbels.

=Fruit=.—Matures in May; large paired samaras, with wings 1-2 inches

=Bark=.—On old trunks roughened by shallow fissures and flat-topped
ridges with thin, loose scales.

=Wood=.—Medium hard, brittle, close-grained, not durable, light brown,
with thick whitish sapwood.

=Range=.—New Brunswick to Florida, and west to Indian Territory.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common along the following streams:
Potomac River and its larger tributaries, Great Kanawha, New, Elk,
Little Coal, Big Sandy, Little Kanawha, Monongahela, and Ohio rivers.

=Habitat=.—Confined to river banks and swamp borders.

=Notes=.—This species, also known as White Maple, River Maple, and
Soft Maple, is one of the less valuable of the genus. Its lumber is
used principally for flooring, cheap furniture and paper pulp. Silver
Maple is extensively planted along streets and in parks. It grows
rapidly, often becoming too large, and has a less perfect crown than
some of the other maples.

[Illustration: RED MAPLE]


=Acer rubrum=, L.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 1-3½ feet; trunk usually more or
less inclined or twisted; crown rather narrow and rounded.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, simple, 3-4 inches long, about as broad, lobes
3-5, coarsely toothed, green and glabrous above, whitish beneath.

=Flowers=.—March-April; polygamo-monoecious, or dioecious; in
few-flowered clusters on shoots of the previous year; petals
linear-oblong, red or orange.

=Fruit=.—May-June; paired samaras, small, smooth, wings about 1 inch
long on long, drooping pedicels.

=Bark=.—Thick, roughened by shaggy ridges, gray. The smooth bark of
young trees and limbs of large trees are silvery gray.

=Wood=.—Heavy, medium soft, close-grained, light brown, with whitish

=Range=.—Southern Canada to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Occurs in all parts of the State. Not
common east of the Alleghanies.

=Habitat=.—Thrives best in swamps or on stream borders, but is found
also on hillsides and ridges.

=Notes=.—The Red Maple is especially noticeable early in spring on
account of the red flowers and fruits, and in autumn when the leaves
turn bright scarlet. The wood is used for cheap furniture, turnery, and
paper pulp. It cannot be recommended highly for forestry purposes.

[Illustration: BOX ELDER]


=Acer negundo=, L.

=Form=.—Height 40-60 feet, diameter 1-2½ feet; trunk usually short
dividing into several large, spreading branches, forming an unequal,
open crown.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, compound, the 3-5 leaflets 2-4 inches long, ovate,
pointed, coarse-toothed above the middle, or sometimes slightly 3-lobed.

=Flowers=.—April; dioecious; small, yellow-green, the staminate on
slender drooping pedicels, the pistillate in narrow drooping racemes.

=Fruit=.—Matures in late summer and persists into the winter; paired
samaras hanging in racemose clusters.

=Bark=.—Somewhat roughened by narrow, close ridges, gray-brown; twigs

=Wood=.—Light, soft, close-grained, not strong, creamy-white with
scarcely lighter colored sapwood.

=Range=.—Ontario and Vermont to Florida, Texas and Mexico.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common locally along streams at lower
elevations. Plentiful in some sections of the following counties:
Boone, Braxton, Doddridge, Fayette, Jefferson, Lewis, Monongalia, and

=Habitat=.—Deep moist soils of stream banks and swamp borders.

=Notes=.—Box Elder grows naturally along streams but thrives when
planted in drier soils. It is not important as a timber tree, nor very
desirable for ornamental uses. This tree is sometimes called Ash-leaved

[Illustration: FETID BUCKEYE]


=Aesculus glabra=, Willd.

=Form=.—Height 30-60 feet, diameter 12-20 inches; trunk short
supporting a deep, round-topped crown.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, digitately compound, leaflets usually 5, 3-6
inches long, oval, tapered at base, sharp-pointed, irregularly and
finely toothed, pale green above, paler beneath, smooth, when old. The
foliage is ill-smelling when bruised.

=Flowers=.—April-May; polygamo-monoecious or perfect; most of the
flowers with imperfect pistils; borne in downy terminal panicles 5-6
inches long; corolla yellow.

=Fruit=.—Matures in October; a leathery round or pear-shaped prickly
pod or capsule about 1 inch in diameter, containing a large, shining,
brown nut.

=Bark=.—Roughened by even, scaly, broken gray ridges.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, weak, pale yellow.

=Range=.—Pennsylvania to Alabama and west to Iowa and Oklahoma.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common along the Ohio River at
Wheeling. Reported from Wirt, Gilmer and Monongalia counties and from
points along the Ohio River north of Wheeling.

=Habitat=.—Moist soils of river banks and ravines.

=Notes=.—The Fetid or Ohio Buckeye is an unimportant tree of stream
borders, confined in its distribution here principally to the western
part of the State. It can easily be distinguished when in fruit from
the common species, next described, by its prickly pods. This tree is
sometimes planted on lawns but is less desirable than its European
relative the Horse Chestnut (_Aesculus hippocastanum_).

[Illustration: SWEET BUCKEYE]


=Aesculus octandra=, Marsh.

=Form=.—Height 50-80 feet, diameter 1-2½ feet; trunk usually short;
crown conical or round-topped.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, digitately compound, leaflets 5-7, oval, 4-10
inches long, long-pointed, finely toothed, smooth and dark green above,
somewhat hairy and yellowish-green beneath.

=Flowers=.—April-May; polygamo-monoecious or perfect, borne in
terminal panicles 4-12 inches long; corolla yellow, with included

=Fruit=.—October; a large smooth irregularly rounded or pear-shaped
pod or capsule, 1-2 inches thick, 3-celled but usually bearing only
one large irregularly rounded, glossy, brown nut, which is somewhat

=Bark=.—Evenly furrowed, the gray-brown ridges breaking up into
irregular scales.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, yellowish, or nearly white.

=Range=.—Pennsylvania to Georgia, west to Oklahoma and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common locally. Found in the
following counties: Barbour, Boone, Braxton, Calhoun, Doddridge,
Fayette, Kanawha, Lewis, Logan, Marshall, Mingo, Monongalia, Monroe,
Pocahontas, Putnam, Ritchie, Summers, Tyler, Upshur (rare), Webster
(rare), and Wyoming.

=Habitat=.—Rich soil, preferring river valleys.

=Notes=.—The wood of Sweet Buckeye is not important commercially,
but is used to some extent for veneer, cooperage, candy boxes, paper
pulp, etc. The tree is a rapid grower and is sometimes planted with
satisfactory results on lawns and in parks. Variety _hybrida_ (D. C.)
Sarg. with calyx and corolla tinged with purple has been found at
Weston and other points in the State.

[Illustration: BASSWOOD]


=Tilia americana=, L.

=Form=.—Height 60-100 feet, diameter 2½-4 feet; trunk straight and
free from limbs to a considerable height; crown dense, ovoid or

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 5-6 inches long, obliquely heart-shaped,
coarsely serrate, thick and firm, dark-green and shining above, pale
green and almost glabrous beneath.

=Flowers=.—June; perfect; yellowish-white, fragrant, 5-20, in drooping
cymes, the peduncle or flower stalk attached for half its length to a
flat narrow greenish bract.

=Fruit=.—October; a woody, globose, nut-like drupe, about the size of
a pea and borne in drooping clusters.

=Bark=.—On old trunks deeply furrowed and with broad, scaly, light
brown ridges.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, close-grained, tough, light brownish-red, with
thick scarcely lighter sapwood.

=Range=.—Manitoba to Georgia, and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common, especially in the mountainous
and high hilly parts of the State, though occurring less frequently
than the following species.

=Habitat=.—Rich, well-drained soil of bottoms and slopes.

=Notes=.—The wood of this species is used for paper pulp, wooden
ware, furniture, kegs, buckets, barrel heads, boxes, etc. It is one of
our valuable forest trees and should be encouraged to grow wherever
it is possible. Linden, Lynn, Beetree, and Lime Tree are others of
its common names. Its smooth leaves furnish the best distinguishing

[Illustration: WHITE BASSWOOD]


=Tilia heterophylla=, Vent.

=Form=.—Height 60-90 feet, diameter 2-3 feet; trunk long, straight,
and slightly tapering; crown dense and rounded.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, oblong, ovate to orbicular-ovate, 5-8
inches long, firm, apex pointed, truncate or heart-shaped and usually
very unequal at base, upper surface bright green, under surface
silvery, whitened with a fine down.

=Flowers=.—June-July; perfect; regular, fragrant, yellow-white; 5-15
in drooping cymose clusters; peduncle attached for half its length to a
thin, oblong, greenish bract.

=Fruit=.—A spherical, woody, nut-like drupe about the size of a pea,
borne singly or in clusters on a common stalk attached to the bract.

=Bark=.—Deeply furrowed, grayish-brown.

=Wood=.—Similar to and used for the same purposes as that of the
preceding species.

=Range=.—New York to Florida, west to Alabama and Illinois.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A common tree in Upshur, Randolph,
Tucker, Hampshire, Hardy, Grant, Braxton, Lewis, Webster, Nicholas,
Roane, Fayette, Kanawha, Gilmer, Monongalia, Marshall, and in several
other counties. It is more abundant than the foregoing species of

=Habitat=.—With other hardwoods in rich soil of mountains and high

=Notes=.—The White Basswood is a valuable forest tree in West
Virginia, though the commercial size is now becoming rare in most
sections. It is a rapid grower and is easily propagated. This tree
is highly recommended for timber and for ornamental use. The most
noticeable difference between this species and the foregoing is found
in the leaf surface.

[Illustration: HERCULES CLUB]


=Aralia spinosa=, L.

=Form=.—A small tree or shrub sometimes attaining a height of 20-30
feet and a diameter of 6-8 inches. The trunk is usually without
branches for two-thirds of its length. Branches horizontal, stout, and
stubby. The trunk and branches are armed with large prickles.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, compound or doubly compound, often 3 feet long
and 2-2½ feet across; leaflets ovate, pointed, serrate; pale beneath.

=Flowers=.—June-August; polygamous; cream white, arranged in large,
spreading panicles made up of numerous small umbels.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn; an ovoid black berry about ¼ inch long
each terminated with a black persistent style.

=Bark=.—Smooth, except on old trunks which are roughened by shallow
furrows; brown outside, yellow inside, covered with stout prickles.

=Wood=.—Soft, brittle, weak, brown with yellow streaks.

=Range=.—New York to Missouri and southward.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common locally west of the

=Habitat=.—Often associated with grape vines in thickets on burnt
hillsides, and in rich soil of bottom lands and swamp borders.

=Notes=.—Hercules Club or Angelica-tree is often erroneously called
Prickly Ash. It has no commercial importance except as an ornament.
Whether in bloom or in fruit the tree is very attractive and should be
seen more often on the lawn. The fruit is eagerly eaten by birds.



=Cornus florida=, L.

=Form=.—Height 15-35 feet, diameter 4-12 inches; trunk short, not
often straight; crown broad and round-topped.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, simple, ovate, 3-5 inches long, tapered to an
acute apex, wedge-shaped at the base, wavy or entire on margin, bright
green above, paler beneath, smooth; mid-rib and primary veins prominent.

=Flowers=.—May; perfect; greenish, small, arranged in a dense cluster
and surrounded by a showy, white (or rarely pinkish), 4-bracted
corolla-like involucre. The white involucre and the cluster of small
flowers which it surrounds are frequently mistaken for a single flower.

=Fruit=.—Ripens in September or October; a scarlet ovoid drupe, with
a grooved stone, borne solitary or in clusters of 2-5 on a stalk.
Undeveloped pistillate flowers often persist at base of fruit.

=Bark=.—On old trunks broken into quadrangular scales, reddish-brown
to blackish.

=Wood=.—Hard, heavy, strong, tough, pale red-brown or pinkish, with
lighter sapwood.

=Range=.—Ontario, Michigan and Massachusetts to Florida, west to Texas
and Missouri.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common in all parts of the State.

=Habitat=.—Prefers moist, well-drained soils of slopes and bottoms.

=Notes=.—This well-known tree is prized for its wood which is used for
many purposes about the farm and is also manufactured into shuttles,
wedges, golf-stick heads, engravers’ blocks, brush blocks, tool handles
and for turnery. As an ornamental tree it beautifies the native woods
or the lawn by its clusters of white-bracted flowers, and later in the
season by its scarlet fruits.



=Cornus alternifolia=, L.

=Form=.—A small tree or shrub sometimes 20-30 feet high with a
diameter of 6-8 inches; trunk short; crown broad, flat-topped and
rather dense.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, or sometimes opposite, clustered at the ends of
the limbs, ovate, taper-pointed, acute at base, entire, whitish and
minutely pubescent beneath.

=Flowers=.—April-May; cream-colored, small, borne in broad open cymes.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn; a deep blue spherical drupe, about
one-third inch in diameter, on reddish stalks, in cymose clusters.

=Bark=.—Smooth or slightly roughened by longitudinal fissures on old
trunks. The smooth bark of branches is greenish.

=Wood=.—Hard, heavy, tough, close-grained, brown tinged with red.

=Range=.—Nova Scotia to Alabama, west to Minnesota.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found principally along the
Alleghanies and westward. Not common in the eastern part of the State.

=Habitat=.—Prefers stream borders, cool ravines, and moist rich soils
of hillsides.

=Notes=.—No uses are reported for the wood of the Alternate-leaved
Dogwood. Whether in bloom or in fruit the tree is very attractive in

[Illustration: BLACK GUM]


=Nyssa sylvatica=, Marsh.

=Form=.—Height 40-100 feet, diameter 2-4 feet; trunk usually long,
clear and straight when in close stands; crown cylindrical or rounded,
of numerous horizontal and ascending slender branches.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 2-5 inches long, oval-obovate; acuminate,
entire, firm, dark green and shining above, paler beneath, often hairy
when young.

=Flowers=.—April-May; polygamo-dioecious; greenish, the staminate
borne in many-flowered small heads on slender pedicels, the pistillate
sessile in several-flowered clusters.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn; an ovoid, blue-black, fleshy drupe, about
½ inch long and borne on long stalks in clusters of 1-3.

=Bark=.—Deeply furrowed, on old trunks, the ridges broken into
rectangular or hexagonal blocks; light brown to gray-black.

=Wood=.—Heavy, soft, strong, tough, difficult to split, not durable in
the soil, light yellow, with thick whitish sapwood.

=Range=.—Maine and Ontario to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—A common tree throughout the State.
Least common at high elevations and east of the Alleghanies.

=Habitat=.—Thrives best on low ground and borders of swamps, but is
common on dry slopes and ridges.

=Notes=.—Black Gum, also called Tupelo, Pepperidge, and Sour Gum, is
one of the less valuable of our forest trees, but its tough, light wood
is gaining in value and is used extensively for wheel hubs, boxes,
broom handles, wagon beds, ladders, ironing boards, rolling pins,
excelsior, baskets, and berry crates.

[Illustration: GREAT LAUREL]


=Rhododendron maximum=, L.

=Form=.—A shrub or small tree sometimes reaching a height of 20-25
feet; trunk short and usually twisted and bent, with contorted blanches
forming a flat irregular top.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, evergreen, mostly clustered at the ends
of branches, elliptical-oblong, 4-10 inches long, very thick, acute
apex, narrowed base, entire, smooth, dark green above, light green

=Flowers=.—June; perfect; pale rose to white, upper petals marked with
yellow-green dots, flowers arranged in umbel-like heads 4-5 inches in

=Fruit=.—Matures in late summer and persists through the winter;
a reddish-brown, 5-celled, many-seeded capsule, about ½ inch long,
terminated by a long persistent style.

=Bark=.—Roughened by thin, flaky scales, dark red-brown.

=Wood=.—Hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, light brown with lighter

=Range=.—Nova Scotia and Lake Erie south along the mountains to

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common locally throughout the State,
most abundant in the mountainous sections.

=Habitat=.—Rich soil of stream banks, rocky mountainsides and flats.

=Notes=.—The wood of Rhododendron is only occasionally used for tool
handles, engraving blocks, and other small articles, and is excellent
for fuel. On account of its small size the tree is not commercially
important. It is one of the most beautiful of our native species and
has been appropriately selected as the State flower.

[Illustration: MOUNTAIN LAUREL]


=Kalmia latifolia=, L.

=Form=.—A shrub or small tree occasionally attaining a height of 15-25
feet; trunk stout, usually forked and bearing stiff, divergent branches
which form an irregular, compact, rounded head.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, evergreen, oblong or ovate-lanceolate,
3-4 inches long, acute at both ends, entire, green above and below,
persistent for two seasons.

=Flowers=.—May-June; perfect, pink or white, in many-flowered terminal

=Fruit=.—Matures in early autumn; a globose, 5-valved, many-seeded
capsule, covered with viscid hairs and with persistent style and calyx.

=Bark=.—Roughened by narrow, thin scales which peel off, exposing
brownish inner bark.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, rather brittle, reddish-brown with
lighter sapwood.

=Range=.—New Brunswick, south to Florida and west to Arkansas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found locally in all parts of the

=Habitat=.—Growing usually in thickets, sometimes with Great Laurel,
on high mountain flats and rocky slopes. Common on thin hillsides.

=Notes=.—Mountain Laurel does not grow large enough to be of much
importance as a wood producer. Occasionally small articles, such as
bucket handles, penholders, pipes, etc. are made from it. Its rich
evergreen foliage and its copious pink and white flowers are scarcely
less attractive than those of _Rhododendron Maximum_.

[Illustration: SOURWOOD]


=Oxydendrum arboreum=, (L.) D. C.

=Form=.—Height 30-60 feet, diameter 12-18 inches; trunk medium long
and slender; crown narrow and round-topped.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, oblong-lanceolate, pointed, serrate,
smooth and shining, 5-7 inches long.

=Flowers=.—July; perfect; small, white, in long, one-sided racemes
clustered in an open, terminal panicle.

=Fruit=.—Matures in early autumn; a 5-valved capsule, often persistent
into the winter.

=Bark=.—Thick, roughened by fissures and broken, grayish ridges.

=Wood=.—Hard, heavy, close-grained reddish-brown with lighter sapwood.

=Range=.—Pennsylvania and Indiana southward mostly along the mountains
to Florida and Louisiana.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found in all sections west of the
Alleghanies, rare in the eastern part of the State.

=Habitat=.—Light, well-drained soils of hillsides and bottoms.

=Notes=.—Sour-wood, or Sour Gum, although quite common in most parts
of West Virginia, is not often used except for unimportant domestic
purposes. The tree is very ornamental when in bloom but is infrequently

[Illustration: COMMON PERSIMMON]


=Diospyros virginiana=, L.

=Form=.—Height 25-50 feet, diameter 8-14 inches; trunk usually short;
crown broad and rounded when not too much crowded.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, ovate-oblong, 4-6 inches long, smooth,
entire, dark-green and shining above, often somewhat hairy beneath.

=Flowers=.—May-June; polygamous, white or pale yellow; the staminate
in 2-3-flowered cymes; the pistillate solitary and borne on short

=Fruit=.—Matures after frost in autumn; a spherical yellowish,
plum-like berry, containing from 1-8 large seeds, and with large,
persistent calyx; astringent when green, sweet and edible when fully

=Bark=.—Rough on old trunks, with dark gray ridges which are broken
into somewhat rectangular sections.

=Wood=.—Hard, heavy, close-grained, taking a high polish, brown to
black with yellowish sapwood, sometimes streaked with black.

=Range=.—Connecticut to Florida and west to Texas and Iowa.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Not abundant but common locally
in scattered clumps throughout the State, most common east of the
Alleghanies. Not found at high elevations.

=Habitat=.—Thrives best in light sandy soils of bottoms and hillsides.

=Notes=.—This tree is not important as a wood-producer on account of
its small size and scattered distribution. It is well known because of
its peculiar fruit.

[Illustration: OPOSSUM WOOD]


=Halesia Carolina=, L.

=Form=.—A small tree, reaching a height in this State of 30-50 feet
with a diameter up to 10 or 12 inches. Farther south it reaches a much
larger size.

=Leaves=.—Alternate, simple, 4-6 inches long, oblong-ovate, finely
serrate, smooth above when old, slightly pubescent beneath.

=Flowers=.—Early spring with the leaves; perfect, white, about 1 inch
long, bell-shaped, drooping on slender pedicels in crowded fascicles or
short racemes.

=Fruit=.—Matures in autumn and persistent into the winter; a 4-celled,
4-winged, dry, drupaceous fruit, 1½-2 inches long, 1 inch wide;
greenish turning brown when mature.

=Bark=.—Somewhat roughened by shallow fissures and narrow ridges.

=Wood=.—Light, soft, close-grained, light brown, with thick lighter
colored sapwood.

=Range=.—Southern West Virginia to Florida, west to Texas, Arkansas
and Illinois.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common along the Great Kanawha and
New rivers from the eastern part of Kanawha County through Fayette and
Summers counties.

=Habitat=.—Rich slopes and banks of streams.

=Notes=.—The Opossum Wood has two other common names, Snowdrop,
and Silver-bell Tree, both names referring to the white bell-shaped
flowers. The tree is of no commercial importance here, but is very
attractive when planted as an ornament. Variety _monticola_, with
longer leaves and fruit, also occurs with this species.

[Illustration: WHITE ASH]


=Fraxinus americana=, L.

=Form=.—Height 50-100 feet, diameter 2-4 feet; trunk usually long and
free from branches for many feet; crown pyramidal and open.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, pinnately compound, 8-12 inches long; the 7-9
leaflets 3-5 inches long, ovate or lance-oblong, pointed, nearly or
quite entire, glabrous, dark green above, pale and either smooth or
pubescent beneath.

=Flowers=.—May; dioecious; the staminate in dense red-purple clusters;
the pistillate in loose panicles.

=Fruit=.—Matures in early autumn, and persists into the winter;
samaras 1-2 inches long in drooping paniculate clusters.

=Bark=.—Furrowed deeply, the ridges firm, narrow, flattened,

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, tough and elastic, brown
with thick sapwood.

=Range=.—Nova Scotia to Minnesota, southward to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common throughout the State.

=Habitat=.—Grows in many situations, but prefers rich moist loamy soil.

=Notes=.—The White Ash is one of our valuable timber trees, producing
wood which is manufactured into agricultural implements, wagons,
furniture, tool handles, and interior finish. It is by far the most
common Ash but is nowhere abundant.

[Illustration: RED ASH]


=Fraxinus pennsylvanica=, Marsh.

=Form=.—Height 30-65 feet, diameter 1-3 feet; trunk straight and clear
with many upright branches which form a compact, broad, irregular crown.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, pinnately compound, 10-12 inches long, with 7-9
leaflets 3-5 inches long, oblong-lanceolate, taper-pointed, almost
entire, pale or more or less pubescent.

=Flowers=.—May; dioecious; in downy panicles on shoots of the previous

=Fruit=.—Matures in early autumn and is persistent for several months;
samaras 1-2 inches long, borne copiously in drooping clusters.

=Bark=.—Twigs usually pubescent, on old trunks rough with scaly dark
gray-brown ridges.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, strong, brittle, light brown, with thick,
yellow-streaked sapwood.

=Range=.—Vermont and Minnesota south to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Collected along New River, Fayette
County; reported from Randolph, Upshur, Wood and Mason counties.

=Habitat=.—Prefers moist soils of river bottoms and borders of swamps.

=Notes=.—Red Ash is occasionally found along some of the streams of
the State but does not grow in sufficient quantities to be of any
commercial importance. It can usually be distinguished from the White
Ash by its pubescent twigs and petioles, and its somewhat different
fruits. A variety of this species, _lanceolata_, is also to be found in
some places along the streams.

[Illustration: BLACK ASH]


=Fraxinus nigra=, Marsh.

=Form=.—Height 60-90 feet, diameter 1-2 feet; trunk rather slender,
and straight, bearing a narrow-ovoid or rounded crown of upright

=Leaves=.—Opposite, pinnately compound, 12-16 inches long; leaflets
7-11, 3-5 inches long, sessile, except the terminal one, oblong to
oblong-lanceolate, taper-pointed, serrate, glabrous.

=Flowers=.—May; polygamo-dioecious; borne in loose drooping panicles.

=Fruit=.—Matures in early autumn; samaras 1-1½ inches long, in open
drooping clusters.

=Bark=.—Soft, ash-gray, and scaly on old trunks, not deeply fissured.
The outside corky bark is easily rubbed off with the hand.

=Wood=.—Heavy, coarse-grained, weak, rather soft, brown with thin
lighter sapwood.

=Range=.—Newfoundland and Manitoba south to Virginia and Arkansas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Not common. Found in Fayette, Preston
and Tucker counties. Reported from Randolph, Webster, Monongalia,
Summers, and Wirt counties.

=Habitat=.—Low river bottoms and swamps.

=Notes=.—This tree is only occasionally found in West Virginia and
cannot be considered as an important species. When in leaf it is easily
distinguished from the other Ashes by the leaflets which are sessile on
the main petiole.

[Illustration: FRINGE TREE]


=Chionanthus virginica=, L.

=Form=.—A small, slender tree sometimes reaching a height of 20-30
feet; trunk short, bearing numerous stout ascending branches which form
a deep, narrow crown.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, simple, ovate, 4-8 inches long, entire, acute at
apex, glabrous.

=Flowers=.—May-June; complete or polygamous; white, fragrant, borne in
loose and drooping graceful panicles 4-6 inches long.

=Fruit=.—Purple berry-like ovoid drupes, ½-¾ of an inch long, borne in
drooping clusters.

=Bark=.—Smooth, or somewhat scaly, thin, and reddish-brown.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, close-grained, brown with thick lighter-colored

=Range=.—New Jersey and southern Pennsylvania to Florida and Texas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found principally in the southern and
eastern parts of the State but nowhere common.

=Habitat=.—Rich, moist soil of stream banks and swamp borders.

=Notes=.—The Fringe-tree is valuable only as an ornament for which its
fringe-like flower clusters and dark purple fruits give it a decided

[Illustration: SWEET VIBURNUM]


=Viburnum lentago=, L.

=Form=.—A shrub or small tree sometimes 15-25 feet high; trunk short
and crown round-topped.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, simple 2½ inches long, ovate, long, abruptly
taper-pointed, finely and sharply serrate; petioles winged.

=Flowers=.—May-June; perfect; small, white, in large many-flowered
cymes which are usually 3-5 inches broad.

=Fruit=.—Black, ovoid, or ellipsoid drupe, which is sweet and juicy
and contains a flat, oval, stone; borne on reddish stalks in often
drooping clusters.

=Bark=.—On old trunks roughened by thin scales; reddish-brown.

=Wood=.—Heavy, hard, yellow-brown, with a disagreeable odor.

=Range=.—Quebec and Manitoba southward to Georgia and Missouri.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Found in Tucker and Grant counties
and reported from Randolph County.

=Habitat=.—Banks of streams and in swamps.

=Notes=.—This Viburnum can be most easily distinguished by its leaves
which are very finely serrate and are abruptly tapered into long
slender points. Its flowers, fruit and foliage make it very desirable
as an ornamental tree. Sheep-berry and Nanny-berry are also common
names by which the species is known.

[Illustration: BLACK HAW]


=Viburnum prunifolium=, L.

=Form=.—A small tree or shrub reaching a height of 20-30 feet in
favorable locations.

=Leaves=.—Opposite, simple, oval, obtuse or slightly pointed, 1-3
inches long, finely and sharply serrate, glabrous.

=Flowers=.—May; perfect; small, white, borne in large terminal cymes.

=Fruit=.—Dark blue, fleshy, sweet, persistent drupes with large flat
stones; borne on reddish stalks in few-fruited clusters.

=Bark=.—Roughened by plate-like scales, reddish-brown.

=Wood=.—Similar to that of Sweet Viburnum.

=Range=.—Connecticut and Michigan south to Georgia and Arkansas.

=Distribution in West Virginia=.—Common locally throughout the State.

=Habitat=.—Prefers dry, rocky hillsides and low ridges, growing in
thickets along fences.

=Notes=.—As a wood-producer this tree has no value. The bark of its
roots has a medicinal value and it deserves to be planted extensively
for ornamental purposes.


  1. Red Pine
  2. Scotch Pine
  3. Bald Cypress
  4. European Larch
  5. Norway Spruce
  6. White Willow
  7. Osage Orange


  1. Norway Maple
  2. Sycamore Maple
  3. Gray Birch
  4. Horse Chestnut
  5. Catalpa
  6. Tree of Heaven
  7. Kentucky Coffee Tree


 =Taxus canadensis=, Marsh. American Yew. Ground Hemlock. A rare
 red-berried evergreen. Randolph: Glady; Pocahontas: Cranberry Glades
 and Winterburn; Grant: Greenland Gap; Preston: Cranesville; Raleigh:
 Piney River.

 =Salix cordata=, Muhl. Heart-leaved Willow. Monongalia: Aaron’s Run,
 near Morgantown.

 =Salix humilis=, Marsh. Prairie Willow. Webster: near Upper Glade;
 Preston: near Terra Alta. (Millspaugh’s Flora).

 =Salix sericea=, Marsh. Silky Willow. Monongalia: Decker’s Creek.

 =Myrica asplenifolia=, L. Sweet Fern. Hampshire: Cacapon Creek. Rare.
 Morgan: Cacapon Mountain.

 =Corylus americana=, Walt. Hazelnut. A common shrub.

 =Corylus rostrata=, Ait. Beaked Hazelnut. Pocahontas: Cranberry
 Mountain; Mercer: Bluestone River; Hampshire: Little Cacapon.

 =Alnus rugosa=, (DuRoi) Spreng. Smooth Alder. Abundant along streams.

 =Alnus alnobetula=, (Ehrh.) K.K. Mountain Alder. Greenbrier: Columbia
 Sulphur Springs; Fayette: near Nuttallburg; Pocahontas: at Traveler’s
 Repose; Randolph: along Cheat River. (Millspaugh’s Flora.)

 =Alnus incana=, (L.) Moench. Hoary Alder (?). Rare. Pocahontas:
 Cranberry Glades.

 =Pyrularia pubera=, Michx. Oil-nut. Buffalo-nut. “Colic-nut.” Common
 in many sections.

 =Phoradendron flavescens=, (Pursh) Nutt. American Mistletoe. Evergreen
 parasite. On trees along southern rivers.

 =Aristolochia macrophylla=, Pam. Pine Vine. Dutchman’s Pipe. Woody
 vine. Frequent in rich mountain forests.

 =Zanthorhiza apiifolia=, L’Her. Shrub Yellow-root. Small shrub on
 banks of streams. Upshur: near Buckhannon; Webster: on Gauley River
 near Bolair.

 =Berberis canadensis=, Mill. American Barberry. Southern part of the
 State. Mercer: near Spanishburg.

 =Calycanthus floridus=, L. Sweet-scented shrub. Randolph, Webster,
 Nicholas, Fayette, and Summers counties. (Millspaugh’s Flora.)

 =Calycanthus fertilis=, Walt. Sweet Shrub. McDowell: back of R. R.
 water tank near Welsh. (Millspaugh’s Flora.)

 =Benzoin aestivale=, (L.) Nees. Spice-bush. Benjamin-bush. Abundant

 =Hydrangea arborescens=, L. Wild Hydrangea. Abundant throughout the

 =Ribes Cynosbati=, L. Prickly Gooseberry. Common in rocky woods.

 =Ribes rotundifolium=, Michx. Eastern Wild Gooseberry. Pendleton:
 Spruce Mountain.

 =Ribes prostratum=, L’Her. Fetid Currant. Pendleton: Spruce Knob;
 Hampshire: Ice Mountain.

 =Ribes floridum=, L’Her. Wild Black Currant. Randolph, Grant. Preston,
 Fayette, and Ohio counties. (Millspaugh’s Flora.)

 =Physocarpus opulifolius=, (L.) Maxim. Nine-bark. Common shrub along

 =Spiraea salicifolia=, L. Meadow-sweet. Pocahontas: Cranberry Glades;
 Randolph: Elkins.

 =Spiraea tomentosa=, L. Hard-hack. Steeple-bush. Infrequent. Randolph:
 Elkins; Pocahontas: Seebert.

 =Spiraea corymbosa=, Raf. Birch-leaved Meadow-sweet. Webster: near
 Upper Glade. Hardy: near Moorefield. (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Spiraea virginiana=, Britt. West Virginia Meadow Sweet. Monongalia:
 along the Monongahela River, near Morgantown. (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Pyrus melanocarpa=, (Michx.) Wild. Black Chokeberry. Frequent, in
 many sections.

 =Pyrus arbutifolia=, (L.) L.f. Chokeberry. Webster, Preston, Nicholas,
 Fayette, and Upshur counties. (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Amelanchier oligocarpa=, (Michx.) Roem. Oblong-fruited Juneberry.
 Rare. Pocahontas: Cranberry Glades; Tucker: Canaan Valley.

 =Robinia hispida=, L. Rose Acacia. Monongalia, Preston, and Summers
 counties. (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Rhus glabra=, L. Smooth Sumach. Common throughout the State.

 =Rhus canadensis=, Marsh. Fragrant Sumach. Infrequent. Hampshire:
 Little Cacapon.

 =Rhus Toxicodendron= var. =radicans=, L. Torr. Poison Ivy, Poison Oak.
 Abundant throughout the State.

 =Ilex verticillata=, Gray. Black Alder. Winterberry. Abundant in low
 grounds along rivers and in glades.

 =Ilex longipes=, Chapm. Long-stemmed Holly. Randolph: near Cheat
 Bridge. Collected Sept. 1915, by C. S. Sargent.

 =Nemopanthus mucronata=, (L.) Trel. Wild or Mountain Holly. Rare.
 Pendleton: Spruce Knob; Preston: Cranesville; Pocahontas: Head of
 Greenbrier River.

 =Evonymus atropurpureus=, Jacq. Burning Bush. Wahoo. Boone: near
 Madison; Monongalia: near Morgantown; Upshur: near Buckhannon.

 =Evonymus americanus=, L. Strawberry Bush. A common shrub.

 =Evonymus obovatus=, Nutt. Marshall: Cameron and Board Tree.
 (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Celastrus scandens=, L. Waxwork. Climbing Bitter-sweet. Frequent
 along streams and on dry hills.

 =Staphylea triloba=, L. American Bladder Nut. Not common. Monongalia:
 near Morgantown; Wayne: near Wayne; Greenbrier: near Ronceverte.

 =Rhamnus lanceolata=, Pursh. Lance-leaved Buckthorn. Rare. Hampshire:
 Little Cacapon.

 =Rhamnus alnifolia=, L’Her. Dwarf Alder. Rare. Pocahontas: head of
 east Fork of Greenbrier River.

 =Rhamnus caroliniana=, Walt. Indian Cherry. McDowell: Tug Fork.
 (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Ceanothus americanus=, L. New Jersey Tea. Common on dry gravelly

 =Vitis labrusca=, L. Northern Fox Grape. Infrequent. Upshur: French
 Creek; Monroe: Sinks Grove.

 =Vitis aestivalis=, Michx. Summer Grape. Frost Grape. Abundant in most

 =Vitis cordifolia=, Michx. Chicken Grape. Pigeon Grape. A common

 =Vitis vulpina=, L. Randolph, Summers, and Jefferson counties.
 (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Vitis bicolor=, LeConte. Winter Grape. Webster: Hacker Valley.
 (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Vitis rupestris=, Sch. Sand Grape. Fayette: near Nuttallburg.
 (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Vitis rotundifolia=, Michx. Muscadine. Randolph, Fayette, and Summers
 counties. (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Hypericum prolificum=, L. Shrubby St. John’s wort. Plentiful in glady

 =Hypericum densiflorum=, Pursh. St. John’s wort. Glades.

 =Dirca palustris=, L. Leatherwood. Wicopy. Infrequent. Webster: near
 Webster Springs; Randolph: Tygarts Valley River near Valley Head;
 Pocahontas: on Greenbrier River.

 =Cornus canadensis=, L. Dwarf Cornel. Bunchberry. A small shrubby
 plant. Rare. Pendleton: summit Spruce Knob; Randolph: near Osceola;
 Hampshire: Ice Mountain.

 =Cornus Amomum=, Mil. Silky Cornel. Kinnikinnik. Frequent along

 =Cornus paniculata=, L’Her. Panicled Dogwood. Rare. Grant: on Abram
 Creek; Preston: Reedsville.

 =Cornus circinata=, L’Her. Round-leaved Dogwood. Upshur: near Lorentz.
 (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Cornus stolonifera=, Michx. Red Osier. Ohio: near Wheeling.
 (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Clethera acuminata=, Michx. White Alder. Fayette: near Nuttallburg.
 (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Rhododendron catawbiense=, Michx. Lilac-colored Laurel. Mountain Rose
 Bay. Pendleton, Fayette, Greenbrier, and Summers counties.

 =Rhododendron viscosum=, (L) Torr. Clammy Azalea. White Swamp
 Honeysuckle. Frequent along mountain streams.

 =Rhododendron canescens=, (Michx.) G. Don. Mountain Azalea. Rare.
 Pendleton: summit Spruce Knob.

 =Rhododendron nudiflorum=, (L.) Torr. Purple Azalea. Pinxter Flower.
 Abundant in many sections.

 =Rhododendron calendulaceum=, (Michx.) Torr. Flame Azalea. Common in
 many sections.

 =Menziesia pilosa=, (Michx.) Pers. Alleghany Menziesia. Not common.
 Pendleton: Spruce Knob; Randolph: Point Mountain.

 =Kalmia angustifolia=, L. Sheep Laurel. Calhoun, Upshur, Nicholas,
 Randolph, and Hardy counties. (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Andromeda glaucophylla=, Link. (?) Bog Rosemary. Rare. Pocahontas:
 Cranberry Glades. Plants not in bloom or fruit when collected.

 =Andromeda floribunda=. Pursh. Mountain Fetter-bush. Infrequent.
 Pocahontas: Greenbank; Greenbrier: near Neola.

 =Lyonia lingustrina=, (L.) DC. Male Berry. Not common. Upshur: near
 Buckhannon; Webster: near Cowen.

 =Gaylussacia dumosa=, (And.) T. & G. Dwarf Huckleberry. Kanawha: near
 Charleston; Hardy: near Moorefleld. (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Gaylussacia frondosa=, (L.) T. & G. Dangleberry. Fayette: near Hawk’s
 Nest; Webster: Upper Glade. (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Gaylussacia baccata=, (Wang.) C. Koch. Black Huckleberry.
 “Buckberry”. Abundant on dry ground.

 =Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum=, var. =nigrum=, Wood. Low Black Blueberry.
 Common in many localities. Pendleton: Spruce Mountain; Monongalia:
 near Morgantown.

 =Vaccinium canadense=, Kalm. Sour-Top. Velvet-Leaf. Blueberry. Rare.
 Tucker: Canaan Valley; Preston: Cranesville.

 =Vaccinium vacillans=, Kalm. Late Low Blueberry. An abundant species.

 =Vaccinium corymbosum=, L. High or Swamp Blueberry. Common in some

 =Vaccinium erythrocarpum=, Michx. Southern Mountain Cranberry. Rare.
 Pendleton: summit Spruce Knob; Randolph: Shavers Mountain.

 =Vaccinium Oxyoccos=, L. Small Cranberry. In glades. Pocahontas and

 =Vaccinium macrocarpon=, Ait. Large or American Cranberry. In glades.
 Pocahontas and Webster.

 =Cephalanthus occidentalis=, L. Button Bush. Found in Greenbrier,
 Hampshire, Jefferson, Monongalia, and Wetzel. Doubtless occurs in many
 other sections.

 =Diervilla Lonicera=, Mill. Bush Honeysuckle. Rare. Pendleton: Spruce

 =Lonicera canadensis=. Marsh. American Fly Honeysuckle. Rare.
 Pendleton: Spruce Knob.

 =Viburnum alnifolium=, Marsh. Hobble-bush. Moosewood. “Hobble-rod.”
 Abundant in mountain regions.

 =Viburnum Opulus= var. =Americanum=. (Mill.) Ait. Cranberry-tree. High
 Bush Cranberry. Infrequent. Tucker: Canaan Valley.

 =Viburnum acerifolium=, L. Dockmackie. Arrow-wood. A common shrub.

 =Viburnum dentatum=, L. Arrow-wood. Infrequent. Pocahontas: Cranberry
 Glades; Randolph: near Elkins.

 =Viburnum cassinoides=, L. Withe-rod. Wild Raisin. Not common.
 Webster: Gauley River; Pendleton: Big Run; Monongalia: Deckers Creek.

 =Viburnum nudum=, L. Randolph: Middle Fork River. Webster: Upper
 Glade. (Millspaugh’s Flora)

 =Viburnum pubescens=, (Ait.) Pursh. Greenbrier: White Sulphur Springs.

 =Sambucus canadensis=, L. Common Elder. Abundant throughout the State.

 =Sambucus racemosa=, L. Red-berried Elder. Frequent in rocky woods.


  =Abortive=      That which is brought forth prematurely; coming to
   naught before it is completed.

  =Achene=      A small hard, dry, 1-celled, 1-seeded fruit which does not
   open by valves.

  =Acrid=      Sharp or biting to the taste.

  =Acuminate=      Decidedly tapering at the end.

  =Acute=      Tapering at the end.

  =Aesthetic=      Pertaining to the beautiful.

  =Alternate=      Not opposite to each other, but scattered singly along
   the axis.

  =Ament=      A peculiar, scaly, unisexual spike.

  =Anther=      The enlarged terminal part of a stamen which bears the

  =Apex=      The tip or end of a bud or leaf, i. e., the part opposite
   the base.

  =Apical=      Pertaining to the tip, end, or apex.

  =Appressed=      Lying tight or close against.

  =Arborescent=      Tree-like in appearance, size and growth.

  =Aromatic=      Fragrant; with a pleasing odor.

  =Astringent=      Contracting; drawing together; binding.

  =Awl-Shaped=      Tapering from the base to a slender or rigid point.

  =Axil=      The upper angle formed by a leaf or branch with the stem.

  =Axillary=      Situate in an axil.

  =Axis=      The central line of an organ; a stem.

  =Basal=      Pertaining to or situated at base.

  =Berry=      A fruit which is fleshy or pulpy throughout.

  =Bloom=      A powdery or somewhat waxy substance easily rubbed off.

  =Bract=      A modified leaf subtending a flower or belonging to an

  =Calyx=      The outer portion of a flower, usually green in color.

  =Cambium=      A thin-walled formative tissue between the bark and wood.

  =Capsule=      A dry fruit composed of more than one carpel and splitting
   open at maturity.

  =Catkin=      An ament or spike of unisexual flowers.

  =Ciliate=      Fringed with hairs on the margin.

  =Complete=      Said of flowers when all parts are present.

  =Compound=      Composed of two or more similar parts united in a whole.

  =Compressed=      Flattened, especially laterally.

  =Conical=      Cone-shaped.

  =Conifers=      A group of trees which usually produce their fruit in the
   form of a cone.

  =Coniferous=      Cone-bearing.

  =Contorted=      Twisted together or back upon itself.

  =Cordate=      Heart-shaped.

  =Corolla=      The inner portion of perianth, composed of petals. The
   bright colored part of most flowers.

  =Corymb=      A flat-topped or convex flower cluster, blooming first at
   the edges.

  =Corrugated=      Shaped into grooves, folds, or wrinkles.

  =Crenate=      Having rounded teeth.

  =Crown=      The upper mass of branches, also known as head.

  =Cyme=      A flower cluster blooming from apex or middle first, usually
   somewhat flat.

  =Cymose=      In a cyme; cyme-like.

  =Deciduous=      Falling off, usually at the close of the season.

  =Decurrent=      Extending down the stem below the insertion.

  =Defoliation=      Removal of foliage.

  =Dehiscent=      Splitting open.

  =Deltoid=      Delta-like, triangular.

  =Dentate=      Toothed, usually with the teeth directed outward.

  =Depressed=      Flattened from above.

  =Digitately-compound=      With the members arising at the same point
   at the end or top of the support.

  =Dioecious=      Unisexual, with the two kinds of flowers on different

  =Disseminated=      Scattered; thrown broadcast.

  =Divergent=      Pointing away; extending out. Said of buds which point
   away from the twigs.

  =Downy=      Covered with fine hairs.

  =Drupaceous=      Resembling or constructed like a drupe.

  =Drupe=      A fleshy fruit with a pit or stone.

  =Elongated=      Long drawn out.

  =Emarginate=      Having a shallow notch at the apex.

  =Entire=      Margin smooth, not cut or roughened.

  =Epidermis=      The outer layer or covering of plants.

  =Exotic=      Of foreign origin.

  =Exudation=      Oozing out of sap, resin, or milk.

  =Falcate=      Scythe-shaped.

  =Fascicle=      A cluster, usually dense.

  =Fetid=      Ill-smelling.

  =Fibrous=      Consisting of fibers; woven in texture.

  =Filament=      The stalk bearing the anther.

  =Fissures=      Grooves, furrows, or channels as in the bark.

  =Flora=      The complete system of plants found in a given area.

  =Fluted=      Grooved, corrugated, channeled.

  =Follicles=      A dry fruit of one carpel, splitting on one side only.

  =Forestry=      The rational treatment of woodlands for their products.

  =Fruit=      The seed-bearing product of a plant of whatever form.

  =Fungus=      A plant devoid of green color such as mushrooms and rots.

  =Genus=      A group of related species, as the pines or the oaks.

  =Glabrous=      Smooth, without hairs.

  =Glandular=      Bearing glands, or gland-like.

  =Glaucous=      Covered with a bluish or whitish waxy coating; a bloom.

  =Globose=      Ball-like, or nearly so.

  =Globular=      Ball-like.

  =Habitat=      The home of a plant.

  =Head=      A dense cluster of sessile flowers or the crown of a tree.

  =Heartwood=      The dead, central, usually highly colored portion of
   the trunk.

  =Herbaceous=      Herb-like, soft.

  =Imbricated=      Overlapping like the slate on a roof.

  =Impressed=      Hollowed or furrowed as if by pressure.

  =Incomplete=      Said of flowers in which one of the outer parts is

  =Indigenous=      Applied to plants that are native to a certain

  =Inflorescence=      The flowering part of a plant, and especially
   its arrangement.

  =Intolerant=      Not shade enduring. Requiring sunlight.

  =Involucre=      A circle of bracts surrounding a flower or cluster
   of flowers.

  =Irregular=      Said of flowers showing inequality in the size, form,
   or union of similar parts.

  =Keeled=      With a central ridge, like the keel of a boat.

  =Lanceolate=      Shaped like a lance; several times longer than wide.

  =Lateral=      Situated on the side, as the buds along the side of the

  =Leaflet=      One of the small blades or divisions of a compound leaf.

  =Lenticel=      A corky growth on young or sometimes older bark which
   admits air to the interior of the twig or branch.

  =Linear=      Line-like, long and narrow, with parallel edges.

  =Lobed=      Said of leaves that have the margins more or less cut or

  =Midrib=      The central or main rib or vein of a leaf.

  =Monoecious=      Bearing stamens and pistils in separate flowers on
   the same plant.

  =Mucronate=      Tipped with a short, sharp point.

  =Naval Stores=      Refers to tar, turpentine, resin, etc.

  =Nerve=      One of the lines or veins running through a leaf.

  =Node=      A place on a twig where one or more leaves originate.

  =Nut=      A dry, 1-seeded, indehiscent fruit with a hard covering.

  =Nutlet=      A small nut.

  =Ob-=      A prefix meaning inverted or reversed.

  =Oblique=      Slanting, uneven.

  =Oblong=      About twice as long as wide, the sides nearly parallel.

  =Obovate=      Reversed egg shaped.

  =Obtuse=      Blunt.

  =Odd-pinnate=      With an odd or unpaired leaflet at the tip of the
   compound leaf.

  =Opposite=      Said of leaves and buds directly across from each other.

  =Orbicular=      Circular.

  =Ovary=      The part of the pistil producing the seed.

  =Ovate=      Egg-shaped in outline.

  =Ovoid=      Egg-shaped or nearly so.

  =Palmate=      Hand-shaped; radiately divided.

  =Panicle=      A compound flower cluster, the lower branches of which
   are longest and bloom first.

  =Parasite=      Growing upon and obtaining its nourishment from some
   other plant.

  =Pedicel=      The stalk of a single flower.

  =Peduncle=      The stalk of a flower cluster or of a solitary flower.

  =Pendulous=      Hanging.

  =Perennial=      Lasting for more than one year.

  =Perfect=      A flower with both stamens and pistils.

  =Persistent=      Remaining after blooming, fruiting, or maturing.

  =Petal=      The part of a corolla, usually colored.

  =Petiole=      The stalk of a leaf.

  =Pinna=      A division, part, or leaflet of a pinnate leaf.

  =Pinnate=      With leaflets on both sides of a stalk.

  =Pistil=      The central part of the flower containing the prospective

  =Pistillate=      Bearing pistils but no stamens.

  =Pith=      The soft, central part of a twig.

  =Pod=      Any dry and dehiscent fruit.

  =Pollen=      The dust-like substance found in the anthers of a flower.

  =Polygamous=      With both perfect and imperfect, staminate or
   pistillate, flowers.

  _Pome_      A fleshy fruit with a core, such as the apple.

  =Prickle=      A sharp-pointed, needle-like outgrowth.

  =Psuedo-=      A prefix meaning false, not true.

  _Pubescent_      Hairy.

  =Pungent=      Ending in a sharp point; acrid.

  =Pyramidal=      Shaped like a pyramid with the broadest part near the

  =Raceme=      A simple inflorescence of flowers borne on pedicels of
   equal length and arranged on a common, elongated axis.

  =Reflexed=      Abruptly turned backward or downward.

  =Regular=      Said of flowers which are uniform in shape or structure.

  =Rugose=      Wrinkled.

  =Saccharine=      Pertaining to or having the qualities of sugar.

  =Samara=      An indehiscent winged fruit.

  =Sapwood=      The recently formed, usually light wood, lying outside of
   the heartwood.

  =Scales=      The small, modified leaves which protect the growing-point
   of a bud or the part of a cone which bears the seeds.
   The small flakes into which the outer bark of a tree

  =Scurfy=      Covered with small bran-like scales.

  =Sepal=      One of the parts of the calyx.

  =Serrate=      Having sharp teeth pointing forward.

  =Sessile=      Seated; without a stalk.

  =Sheath=      A tubular envelope or covering.

  =Shrub=      A low woody growth which usually branches near the base.

  =Silky=      Covered with soft, straight, fine hairs.

  =Simple=      Consisting of one part, not compound.

  =Sinuate=      Having a strongly wavy margin.

  =Sinus=      The cleft or opening between two lobes.

  =Species=      A group of like individuals as Red Oak, White Oak, etc.

  =Spike=      An elongated axis bearing sessile flowers.

  =Spine=      A sharp woody outgrowth.

  =Stamen=      The part of a flower which bears the pollen.

  =Staminate=      Said of flowers which bear only stamens. Sometimes
  spoken of as male.

  =Sterile=      Barren; unproductive.

  =Stigma=      The end of a pistil through which pollination takes place.

  =Stipule=      A leaf appendage at the base of the leaf-stalk.

  =Striate=      Marked with fine elongated ridges or lines.

  =Strobile=      A fruit marked by overlapping scales as in the Pine,
   Birches, etc.

  =Style=      The pin-like portion of a pistil bearing the stigma.

  =Sub-=      A prefix meaning under or nearly.

  =Sucker=      A shoot arising from an underground bud.

  =Suture=      A line of dehiscence.

  =Symmetrical=      Regular as to the number of parts. Having the same
   number of parts in each circle.

  =Terete=      Having a circular transverse section.

  =Terminal=      Pertaining to buds located at the end of twigs.

  =Thorn=      A stiff, woody, sharp-pointed projection.

  =Tolerant=      Applied to trees which endure certain factors,
   particularly shade.

  =Tomentum=      A dense layer of hairs.

  =Tomentose=      Densely pubescent; hairy.

  =Truncate=      Ending abruptly as if cut off at the end.

  =Tubercle=      A small tuber or tuber-like body.

  =Tufted=      Growing in clusters.

  =Umbel=      A flower-cluster with all the pedicels arising from the
   same point.

  =Valvate=      Said of buds in which the scales merely meet without

  =Vegetative=      Said of buds which do not contain reproductive organs.

  =Veins=      Threads of fibro-vascular tissue in leaves or other organs.

  =Viscid=      Glutinous; sticky.

  =Whorl=      A group of three or more similar organs, as leaves or buds,
   arranged about the same place of attachment.

  =Whorled=      Borne in a whorl.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Notes

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected. All other
variations in hyphenation spelling and punctuation remain unchanged.

Italics are represented thus _italic_ and  bold thus =bold=.

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