Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Fire-making Apparatus
Author: Hough, Walter
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Fire-making Apparatus" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



          Fire-making Apparatus in the U. S. National Museum.


                            By Walter Hough.

  Man in his originals seems to be a thing unarmed and naked, and unable
  to help itself, as needing the aid of many things; therefore
  Prometheus makes haste to find out fire, which suppediates and yields
  comfort and help in a manner to all human wants and necessities; so
  that if the soul be the form of forms, and the hand be the instrument
  of instruments, fire deserves well to be called the succor of succors,
  or the help of helps, that infinite ways afford aid and assistance to
  all labors and the mechanical arts, and to the sciences themselves.
    Bacon.—_Wisdom of the ancients, Prometheus_, Works, vol. iii. Lond.,
                                                            1825, p. 72.

There is a prevalent belief that to make fire by rubbing two pieces of
wood is very difficult. It is not so; the writer has repeatedly made
fire in thirty seconds by the twirling sticks and in five seconds with
the bow drill.

Many travelers relate that they have seen various peoples make fire with
sticks of wood. The most common way, by twirling one stick upon another
is well described by Pere Lafitau with reference to the Hurons and
Iroquois.

  They take two pieces of cedar wood, dry and light; they hold one piece
  firmly down with the knee and in a cavity which they have made with a
  beaver-tooth or with the point of a knife on the edge of one of these
  pieces of wood which is flat and a little larger, they insert the
  other piece which is round and pointed and turn and press down with so
  much rapidity and violence that the material of the wood agitated with
  vehemence falls off in a rain of fire by means of a crack or little
  canal which leaps from the cavity over a match [slow match]. This
  match receives the sparks which fall, and preserves them for a long
  time and from which they can make a large fire by touching it to other
  dry materials.[1]

All these descriptions omit details that are essential to the
comprehension of the reader. There is a great knack in twirling the
vertical stick. It is taken between the palms of the outstretched hands,
which are drawn backwards and forwards past each other almost to the
finger tips, thus giving the drill a reciprocating motion. At the same
time a strong downward pressure, is given which may be called a rotating
pressure. The hands move down the drill; when they nearly reach the
lower end they are brought back to the top with a quick, deft motion.
This is repeated as rapidly as possible. If the lower part of the drill
is observed when the motion begins it will be seen that powder is ground
off and is collecting in the canal cut into the cavity from the side of
the lower piece of wood. Soon, as the motion progresses, the powder
begins to increase and to get darker, the odor of burning wood is
noticed and the smoke is seen. Probably when the next motion ceases
there will be a little curl of peculiarly colored smoke, which shows
that active combustion has begun. The pellet of ground-off wood may now
be shaken out of the slot or canal. At first it is dark; a thin line of
smoke comes from it; gradually the fire spreads through it until it
glows. In this semi-charred dust the heat is held until it increases to
about 450°, or higher. Everything depends on keeping the dust in a heap;
it is impossible to make fire without doing this. This is true in all
kinds of wooden fire-making tools.

By examination of many specimens of aboriginal fire apparatus it is
found that both the drill and lower piece, which, for convenience, shall
be called the hearth, must be of dry, inflammable wood. Wood that is
soft from incipient decay is chosen; most often pieces riddled by worms.
This is the _felicis materia_ spoken of by Festus as used by the
Vestals. Wood of this kind is not only easier of ignition, but it is
ground off more easily and retains the heat generated until enough is
accumulated to ignite the powder. In strong, skillful hands fire can be
made from wood that does not wholly fulfill these conditions.

Woods vary in combustibility, depending on their density, coloring
matter, and, perhaps, their chemical constitution. Sap wood of juniper
and soft, white maple yield fire with the bow, but light mesquite is the
best of all. The vascular, starchy flowering stems of plants have always
been a favorite fire-generating material.

It will be seen that the Eskimo attachments to the simple drill enable
him to use wood ordinarily of no account for making fire. Sand is used
by Indians and other peoples to increase the friction.

From the material in the collection at the Museum, it is found that
nearly every method that is or was used in the world is represented. The
following classification, based upon the presumed order of development
of the invention, is followed in this paper:


  I.—Fire-making by reciprocating motion.
    1. _Simple, two-stick apparatus_: Indians of the two Americas,
          Ainos, Somalis, Kaffirs, Veddahs, Australians, etc.
    2. _Four-part apparatus_: Eskimo, some Indians, Hindoos, and Dyaks.
    3. _Weighted drill_, with spindle whorl; Iroquois and Chukchis.
  II.—Fire-making by sawing.
    Malays, Burmese, etc.
  III.—Fire-making by plowing.
    Polynesians, Australians, and Papuans.
  IV.—Fire-making by percussion.
    1. _With pyrites, or stone containing iron, and flint_: Eskimo and
          northern Indians.
    2. _With flint and steel_; General.



                I. FIRE-MAKING BY RECIPROCATING MOTION.


                     1. SIMPLE TWO-STICK APPARATUS.

This method may be said to have a world-wide distribution, and to have
had no narrow range in time. It is a very interesting study to observe
the many different practices that have been superadded to the simple
task of twirling two sticks with the design of creating fire. It is also
instructive to note how fixed have become tribal characters in so small
a thing as the shaping of the elements of the fire drill. It has well
been said by Dr. Schweinfurth, that—

  A people, as long as they are on the lowest step of their development,
  are far better characterized by their industrial products than they
  are either by their habits, which may be purely local, or by their own
  representations, which (rendered in their rude and unformed language)
  are often incorrectly interpreted by ourselves. If we possessed more
  of these tokens we should be in a position to comprehend better than
  we do the primitive condition of many a nation that has now reached a
  high degree of culture.[2]

This fact holds good with reference to tribes in a higher plane than the
learned writer included in this statement, in this way. There are many
little things that have not been subject to the modification of time,
intercourse, or environment, but co-exist with an art. To particularize:
Prof. E. S. Morse has shown the value of the simple act of releasing an
arrow from a bow-string as a classifier. Close attention to the minor
acts and arts will reveal much more than the nice measurements of man’s
practically unmodified skeleton.

Differences that have become functional in the arts have come down from
an early period; when they can be found they are of the greatest value
as aids in ethnology.

The ethnography of the simple fire drill is studied geographically,
beginning in North America with the most northerly tribes that use it,
and ranging from north to south in the different sections of the
country, among the tribes from which there are specimens in the Museum.
Other countries are examined from west to east.

The Sitkan fire-drill spindle is unusually long and thick (fig. 1). Both
hearth and drills are of the _Thuja gigantea_, a tree that enters so
largely into the life of the Indians along this coast. The wood grinds
off very well with much friction; at ordinary speed there is soon a
small heap of powder at the bottom of the fire slot. The latter is
deeply cut in from the side nearly to the center of the fire-hole. The
whole hearth has been charred at the fire. This repels moisture, and
also renders it easier to ignite the wood, charring being a process
somewhat analogous to the decay of wood by rotting. If kept carefully in
a dry place, this apparatus was perfectly adequate for the purpose of
the Sitkan, and in his skillful hands would no doubt give the spark in a
minute or so. The long drill would indicate that two worked at it
consecutively to keep up a continuous motion, as will be noted in the
use of the Aino drill (p. 551).

For tinder, the bark of the arbor vitæ was used. It is finely frayed,
and is much improved by being slightly charred. They also use,
preferably, a tinder made from a fungus, because it is “quicker,” _i.
e._, ignites more readily than the frayed bark.

The hearth is squared and measures 23 inches; the drill is of equal
length.

Going southward from Sitka the next fire-making set in the series is
from Bella-Bella, British Columbia. These Indians are of the Salishan
stock, and are called Bilhulas. The horizontal is a piece of cedar wood
dressed square on three faces. It is apparently a piece of an oar or
spear handle. The fire holes are shallow, and the fire slots are quite
narrow (fig. 2). The drills have been scored longitudinally near the
rubbing end; this may be a device to cause the wood to wear away more
rapidly, and furnish fuel to the incipient fire. Fire has evidently been
made with this set. Both parts are 1½ feet long; the drill is much
thinner than that of Sitka. The tinder is of frayed cedar bark.

From a southern family of the Salishan stock, called the Quinaielt
Indians, of Washington Territory, the museum has a complete set
collected by the late Charles Willoughby. It consists of a hearth, two
drills, and a slow-match. The hearth is a rounded piece of cedar wood;
opposite the fire-holes it is dressed flat, so as to rest firmly on the
ground. There are three fire-holes with wide notches. The drills taper
to each end, that is, are larger in the middle (fig. 3). The powder, a
fine brown dust, collects at the junction of the slot and fire-hole,
where they form a lip and there readily ignites. This side of the hearth
is semi-decayed. No doubt the slots were cut in that side for the
purpose of utilizing this quality. The drills are bulged toward the
middle, thereby rendering it possible to give great pressure and at the
same time rapid rotation without allowing the hands to slip down too
rapidly, a fault in many fire-drills. The slow-match is of frayed cedar
bark, about a yard long, folded squarely together, and used section by
section. Mr. Willoughby says:

  The stick with three cavities was placed upon the ground, the Indian
  kneeling and placing a knee upon each end. He placed one end of the
  smaller stick in one of the cavities, and, holding the other end
  between the palms of his hands, kept up a rapid half-rotary motion,
  causing an amount of friction sufficient to produce fire. With this he
  lighted the end of the braided slow-match of cedar bark. This was
  often carried for weeks thus ignited and held carefully beneath the
  blanket to protect it from wind and rain.

Fire is easily procured with this set. It takes but a slight effort to
cause a wreath of aromatic smoke to curl up, and the friction easily
grinds off a dark powder, which collects between the edges of the slot.
When this ignites it drops down the slot in a little pellet, and falls
upon the tinder placed below to receive it. Both drill and hearth are 18
inches long.

    [Illustration: Fig. 1. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No 74.379, U. S. N. M. Tlingit Indians, Sitka, Alaska.
    Collected by John J. McLean.)]

    [Illustration: Fig. 2. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No 20.644, U. S. N. M. Bella-Bella, B. C. Collected by James
    G. Swan.)]

    [Illustration: Fig. 3. Fire making Set and Slow Match.
    (Cat. No 127.866. U. S. N. M. Quinaielt Indians, Quinaielt,
    Washington. Collected by Charles Willoughby.)]

The Klamaths, of Oregon, of the Lutuamian stock, use a fire apparatus
that looks very much like that of the Utes. The hearth is a rounded
piece of soft wood thinned down at the ends (fig. 4). The drill is a
long, round arrow-stick, with a hard-wood point set in with resin and
served with sinew (see Ute drill, fig. 7). The holes in this hearth are
very small, being less than three-eighths of an inch in diameter. They
are in the center, and the fire slot being cut into the rounded edge
widens out below, so that the coal can drop down and get draught. The
wood is quite soft, apparently being sap-wood of yew or cedar, while the
drill-point is of the hardest wood obtainable. It is probable that sand
is used on the drill. The hearth is 13 inches long, and the drill 26.

The Chinooks, a tribe of Indians of a separate stock, called Chinookan,
formerly lived about the mouth of the Columbia River, in Oregon, but are
now nearly extinct. Hon. James G. Swan, the veteran explorer,
investigator, and collector among the Northwest coast tribes, says that
the Chinooks are the best wet-weather fire-makers he ever knew.[3]

  To kindle a fire the Chinook twirls rapidly between the palms a cedar
  stick, the point of which is pressed into a small hollow in a flat
  piece of the same material, the sparks falling on finely frayed bark.
  Sticks are commonly carried for the purpose, improving with use.[4]

    [Illustration: Fig. 4. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No 24096, U. S. N. M., Klamath Indians, Oregon, Collected by
    L. S. Dyar.)]

    [Illustration: Fig. 5. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 77193, U. S. N. M., Hupa Indians, California. Collected by
    Lieut. P. H. Ray, U S A.)]

Mr. Paul Kane[5] describes the hearth as a “flat piece of dry cedar, in
which a small hollow is cut with a channel for the ignited charcoal to
run over. In a short time sparks begin to fall through the channel upon
finely frayed cedar bark placed underneath, which they soon ignite.” The
Ahts and Haidas also use cedar fire-sticks of the usual Indian kind.

The Hupa Indians of California are of the Athapascan stock. Their
fire-drill is a carefully made piece of apparatus (fig. 5). The hearth
is of a reddish, punky piece, probably of mesquite, _Prosopis
juliflora_, somewhat harder than the drill, which is charred slightly
for some distance along the grinding end. Fire has been made in one of
the holes; the others show the rough, frayed cavities which have been
made to start the drill. The notches at each end of the hearth seem to
be to facilitate the tying of the pieces together as a precaution to
prevent their loss or separation. They are usually intrusted into the
hands of the most skillful fire-maker, who wraps them up to keep them
from becoming damp. The effectiveness of the sticks increases with use
and age; a stick and hearth that have been charred by the former making
of fire in most cases yields the spark in half the time required for new
apparatus. Another advantage is that the drill is softer from incipient
decay.

That this set is in the highest degree efficient is shown by the fact
that the writer repeatedly got a glowing coal, the size of a pea, from
it in less than twenty seconds. The hearth is 18 and the drill 21 inches
long.

The McCloud River Indians (Copehan stock) make the drill from the
buckeye tree.

The Indians of Washoe, Nevada, from their language, have been classed by
the Bureau of Ethnology as a separate stock, the Washoan. Stephen
Powers, many years ago collected a rather remarkable hearth from these
Indians. It has eight rather small holes, in every one of which fire has
been made. The wood is soft, well-seasoned pine. Apparently sand has
been made use of to get greater friction, as is the custom of the Zuñis
and Apaches. This device, in a measure, obviates the necessity of having
tinder-like wood, or wood in a state of partial decay. For the drill any
hardwood cylindrical stick might be employed. A strip of buckskin about
an inch wide is passed around the hearth over the fire holes to keep
them dry (fig. 6).

At the end of the hearth is a mass of cement made of the resin of a pine
mixed with sand, apparently; a kind of material used by the Indians over
a large area in the Great Basin and southward to fix their arrowheads,
pitch the water-bottles, and for other purposes. It is quite probable
that this stick was the property of an arrow-maker, whose need of fire
to melt the somewhat intractable cement, caused him to combine these
functions in one tool.

It has a better finish, and displays greater skill in its manufacture
than the fire-tools of the neighboring tribes of Shoshonian (Utes) and
Moquelumnian stocks. In fact, it has a close affinity in appearance to
those of the very near Athapascan (Hupa, etc.) stock. It is a matter of
very great interest to compare with this a stick from the Mackenzie
River. (See Fig. 28.) The resemblance is striking; it is as though one
found a word of familiar sound and import in an unexpected place. The
related tribes of the Indians dwelling on the Mackenzie have a wider
range than the distance between the localities whence the respective
sticks came; in fact, the Athapascans range about 50 degrees in latitude
and the southern colonies of this great family are only about 250 miles
southeast of the Washoans, while, as has been stated, the Hupas are
quite near.

It would be presumptuous to say at present that this tool is a remnant
of the influence of the Athapascan wave that swept along the Great
Interior Basin, leaving groups here and there in California and other
parts to mark its progress, but there is more to its credit than a
coincidence of form and function.

    [Illustration: Fig. 6. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 19640, U. S. N. M. Washoe Indians, Nevada. Collected by
    Stephen Powers.)]

    [Illustration: Fig. 7. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 17230, U. S. N. M. Pai-Ute Indians, Southern Utah.
    Collected by Maj. J. W. Powell.)]

The museum is in possession of a complete collection of fire-making
material from the tribes of the Shoshonian stock. They were collected by
Maj. J. W. Powell. The native name for the Ute fire set is _whu-tu
ni-weap_. While the lower member of the set—the hearth—differs among the
several tribes in point of material, shape, etc., the spliced drill is
characteristic of the whole stock. It has never been noticed outside of
the southern part of the Great Interior Basin but in one instance—among
the Klamaths of Oregon. The main part of the drill is either a reed, or
a straight sprout, usually the former. At one end a short piece of very
hard wood—greasewood, _sarcobatus vermiculatus_—is set in and lashed
with sinew. It resembles the Shoshonian arrows, which are foreshafted in
this way. They also use sand in common with other neighboring tribes.

The Pai-Utes, of Southern Utah, make their hearths of a short, rounded
piece usually of the sap-wood of juniper. It is tied to the drill with a
thong of buckskin when not in use (fig. 7). The drill is like the usual
one, just described. This is the common form of the Pai-Ute apparatus.
The small, two-holed hearth of rounded form, and the shortened, spliced
drill are for convenience of carrying, this kind being used by hunters
while away from the lodges. Mr. S. J. Hare says that the men do not
usually make the fire, except when out on a hunting excursion. At the
lodge it is the squaw’s duty to make the fire when it is needed.

    [Illustration: Fig. 8. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 11976, U. S. N. M. Pai-Ute Indians, Southern Utah.
    Collected by Maj. J. W. Powell.)]

    [Illustration: Fig. 9. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 22022, U. S. N. M. Shoshone Indians, Wind River, Wyoming.
    Collected by Maj. J. W. Powell.)]

The Pai-Ute is rarely at a loss to get fire; he is master of various
devices. Mr. Hare, who was among the Utes for some time, states that
when the Indian is in need of a light he uses either the flint and
steel, the drill, or, if these are not at hand, he takes two branches,
and rubs one up and down on the other, soon getting fire. The
Australians are said to have practiced fire-making by rubbing in the way
mentioned. This is the only observation collected of its occurrence in
America. It is, in all probability, a difficult, unusual way; only
practiced under pressure of necessity among the Utes. They take great
pride in their skill; to be a quick fire-maker is to achieve fame in the
tribe. They are fond of exhibiting their art to white travelers in the
hope of gain.

Another form of hearth (fig. 8) is made of yucca flower stalk, like
those of the Apache and Navajos. The drill is of tule reed, set with a
very hard wood head. It is suggested that the reason for splicing the
drill is that the hard wood of the kind used for the head (greasewood)
can not be procured in pieces long enough to make the whole drill. This
set is apparently one used as a fixture in the Ute domestic economy, the
squaws having to light the fire. The duty is mainly relegated to the
females in several other Indian tribes, and among the Eskimo. Mr. Catlin
says that the Sioux objected to letting the squaws have their portraits
painted, saying that their women had never taken scalps, nor done
anything better than make fires and dress skins.[6] The hearth and drill
last figured are respectively 20 and 23 inches long, while in the
hunting set (fig. 8) the length is 7 and 18 inches.

The Wind River Shoshones are also represented (fig. 9). The hearth is of
hard wood, rudely hacked out, and rounded. Upon the slanting edge are
eight holes, or shallow depressions, prepared for the drill, with
notches cut in to meet them from the sides. The drill is a willow
branch, 25 inches long, with a hard wood head mortised in, and served
with buckskin. It is most probable that sand was used with this set,
because, if the parts are not models, it would be necessary to use it on
sticks of equal hardness like these. I am inclined to believe that they
are models, from their appearance, and from the difficulty of setting up
a pyrogenic friction upon them even with sand. They were collected some
fifteen years ago by Maj. J. W. Powell.

The Mokis are the most differentiated members of the Shoshonian stock.
Mrs. T. E. Stevenson collected the two excellent fire-making sets in the
Museum from the Moki Pueblos. The hearth is a branch of the very best
quality of soft wood. In one hearth an end has been broken off, but
there still remain eighteen fire-holes, showing that it was in use for a
long time and highly prized (fig. 10). The drill is a roughly dressed
branch of hard wood. It is comparatively easy to make fire on this
apparatus. In the set numbered 126,694 these conditions are reversed;
the hearth is tolerably hard wood and the drill soft wood.

The Moki fire-tools are used now principally in the estufas to light the
sacred fire and the new fire as do the Zuñis, and the Aztecs of Mexico
did hundreds of years ago. They use tinder of fungus or dried grass
rubbed between the hands.

By their language the Zuñi people belong to a distinct stock of Indians.
Their fire-sticks are of the agave stalk, a soft, pithy wood with harder
longitudinal fibers, rendering it a good medium for the purpose of
making fire.

As to the plan pursued in grinding out fire, Col. James Stevenson
informed the writer that they make a slightly concave place where the
burnt holes are seen, cut the notch on the side, sprinkle a little fine
sand on the concavity, set the end of the round stick on the sand and
roll it rapidly between the palms of the hands, pressing down hard. The
“sawdust,” Colonel Stevenson called it, oozes out of the notch and forms
a small mass, which on blowing slightly becomes a burning coal, and the
application of a little tinder creates a blaze. For preserving the fire
for any length of time they use a piece of decayed wood. (Figs. 11 and
12.)

    [Illustration: Fig. 10. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 128694, U. S. N. M., Moki Indians, Arizona. Collected by
    Mrs. T. E. Stevenson.)]

    [Illustration: Figs. 11 and 12. Fire-making Set and Slow Match.
    (Cat. Nos. 127708 and 69850, U. S. N. M., Zuñi Indians, New Mexico.
    Collected by James Stevenson.)]

Viewed in another aspect than as an implement of necessary or common
use, this set is an important cult apparatus in the wonderfully
complicated religious worship of the Zuñis. These people make the sacred
fire that burns always in their estufas by friction of wood that has
been wet. New fire is made at the beginning of their new year with great
ceremony. The house is swept and everything is moved out of it until the
fire is made. Their regard for fire and their customs with reference to
it add them to the list of peoples who have held it in similar reverence
and have practiced similar customs all over the world, ranging widely in
time. The wetting of the drill, increasing their labor, may be done to
please their Gods.

This art must have been practiced for a long time in this region, for
Mr. Henry Metcalf found a hearth (Fig. 13) with three fire-holes in a
cave-dwelling at Silver City, New Mexico. It is apparently very ancient.
The wood is much altered and has become heavy by impregnation with some
salt, probably niter.

The Apaches and Navajos belong to the great Athapascan stock, that
ranges so widely in North America. Capt. John G. Bourke, U. S. Army,
collected the hearth of yucca wood shown (Fig. 14), and says:

  With the stick you now see, the Apache Indians in my presence made
  fire in not quite eight seconds by the watch, and one asserted that he
  could make it in a number of motions, which, on the watch, occupied
  exactly two seconds, that is, under most favorable circumstances. The
  experiments, made under my own observation, ran all the way from eight
  to forty-seven seconds; sand is generally used, although not essential
  to success.

Captain Bourke’s observation is very interesting, as it records the fact
that the Apache is the most skillful fire-maker in the world. Many other
tribes can make fire in less than a minute; I think by far the majority
of them, but there is no eight-second record, while if he could prove
his ability to do it in two seconds he would arrive at the facility of
striking a match.

    [Illustration: Fig. 13. Lower Stick of Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 35268, U. S. N. M. From a cave at Silver City, New Mexico.
    Collected by Henry Metcalf.)]

    [Illustration: Fig. 14. Lower Piece of Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 130672, U. S. N. M. Apache Indians, Arizona. Collected by
    Capt. John G. Bourke, U.S.A.).]

Mr. William F. Corbusier has noticed the fire-making of the Apache-Yumas
of Arizona (Yuman stock).[7] They use a drill about 2 feet long and
one-half inch thick, made of _o-oh-kad-je_, or “Fire-stick bush.” Its
end is dipped in sand and drilled on a soft piece of agave or yucca
stalk held down by the feet. They carry a slow torch of dead wood
(spunk) and also use a flint and steel. For tinder they use dry grass or
bark fiber. They use also a fungus, _polyporus_ sp., for the same
purpose.

Another reference to the fire making of this stock (Yuman) is found in
the translation by the late Dr. Charles Rau of the writings of Father
Baegert on the Californian Peninsula.[8] He says:

  To light a fire, the Californian makes no use of steel and flint, but
  obtains it by the friction of two pieces of wood. One of them is
  cylindrical and pointed at one end, which fits into a round cavity in
  the other, and by turning the cylindrical piece with great rapidity
  between their hands, like a twirling-stick, they succeed in igniting
  the lower piece if they continue the process for a sufficient length
  of time.

The Navajo fire-set looks very much like a mere makeshift. The hearth is
a piece of yucca stalk and the fire-holes have but a shallow side notch.
The drill is a broken arrow shaft, to which has been rudely lashed with
a cotton rag a smaller piece of yucca wood (fig. 15). This carelessness,
which it is rather than lack of skill, is characteristic of the Navajos
in their minor implements. They resemble the crude Apache in this. One
thinks of the Navajos only with regard to their fine blanket weaving and
silver working, so well presented by Dr. Washington Matthews in the
reports of the Bureau of Ethnology, and does not consider their arts in
other lines.[9]

    [Illustration: Fig. 15. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 9555, U. S. N. M. Navajo Indians, New Mexico. Collected by
    Edward Palmer.)]

Mr. Thomas C. Battey, a Friend, long missionary among the Indians,
kindly gives a description of the Kiowan fire-making process, not now
practiced among them, but shown to him as a relic of an abandoned art:

  A piece of very hard and coarse, rough-grained wood, perhaps 8 inches
  in length, 2 in width, and three-fourths of an inch in thickness is
  procured. In one side of this and near one edge several holes are
  made, about one-half an inch in diameter by five-eighths of an inch in
  depth, rounded at the bottom, but left somewhat rough or very slightly
  corrugated. In the edge nearest these holes a corresponding number of
  smaller and tapering holes are made, opening by a small orifice into
  the bottom of each of the larger ones. These are made very smooth.

  A straight stick, also of hard, rough-grained wood, about 8 or 10
  inches in length, about the size they usually make their arrows or
  larger, is provided. Both ends of this are rounded, but one end is
  made smooth, the other is left slightly rough. The dried pith of some
  kind of reed, or more probably of the yucca, some fibers of the same
  loosely prepared like hackled flax, some powdered charcoal, I think
  formed by charring the yucca, and a piece of hard thick leather
  similar to sole leather, completes the outfit, which is carried in a
  leather bag made for the purpose. The first described piece of wood is
  placed upon the knees of the operator with a quantity of the fibrous
  substance beneath it which has been powdered with charcoal dust; some
  of the latter is put into one of the holes and the rough end of the
  stick inserted, the other end is put into an indentation of the
  leather placed under the chin, so that a gentle pressure may be
  exerted. The spindle is then rapidly revolved by rolling it one way
  and the other between the hands. The friction thus produced by the
  rubbing of the roughened surfaces ignites the fine coal dust, which,
  dropping as sparks of fire through the orifice at the bottom of the
  hole, falls into the dry fibrous preparation, thus igniting that, then
  by the breath blowing upon it a flame is produced and communicated to
  some fine dry wood and a fire is soon obtained. The whole operation
  occupies but a few minutes.

    [Illustration: Fig. 16. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 15396. U. S. N. M. Natives of Talamanca, Costa Rica.
    Collected by Prof. W. M. Gabb.)]

One of the rudest fire-making appliances in the Museum was collected by
Prof. W. M. Gabb, at Talamanca, Costa Rica. The hearth is a rude billet
of charred, black wood, resembling mahogany. It has central holes, with
no gutter usually, though sometimes a shallow notch is cut on both sides
of the fire-hole. The drill is a light branch, rather crooked, but
dressed down roughly with a knife. Another hearth is of partly decayed,
worm-eaten wood; with this a hard wood drill can be used, the hearth
wasting away instead of the drill (fig. 16.) The absence of any fire
slot, that is, the use of the central fire-hole, is worthy of notice in
this locality. I have only observed its use in various parts of the
Eskimo area, from East Greenland to Kadiak; outside of this range I have
not noticed it anywhere else among the present tribes of the world. From
descriptions given it seems to have been practiced by the Caranchua
Indians, a recently extinct tribe in Texas and Mexico. (See below.)

These specimens from Costa Rica are the crudest fire tools, not to be
mere make-shifts, that have come to my notice or have been described in
the literature examined. The Costa Rican Indians are very interesting in
their preservation of several other arts that may justly be classed
among the most ancient. One may be mentioned, that of bark cloth making.
Professor Gabb made quite a collection from Talamanca, but has not left
any notes on these remarkable people, who are well worthy of the careful
study of ethnologists.

A curious modification of this central hole plan is figured and
described in Oviedo, folio 90, as occurring in Hispaniola; that is, the
West Indies, Hayti, San Domingo, etc. He says that “two dry light sticks
of brown wood were tied firmly together, and the point of the drill of a
particular hard wood was inserted between the two and then worked.” Mr.
H. Ling Roth[10] thinks that if one can judge from the illustration
(which is a miserable one) in Benzoni’s work, the natives of Nicaragua
also used three sticks in making fire. Benzoni, however, says:[11]

  All over India they light fire with two pieces of wood; although they
  had a great deal of wax, they knew no use for it, and produced light
  from pieces of wild pine wood.

From Oviedo’s description I am inclined to believe that the dust in
which the fire starts was allowed to fall below on tinder placed beneath
the hearth.

Through the kindness of Prof. F. W. Putnam, curator of the Peabody
Museum, at Cambridge, Mass., I have received an extract from a
manuscript written by Mrs. Alice W. Oliver, of Lynn, who, as a girl, in
1838 resided on Matagorda Bay, and learned the language and customs of
the Caranchua Indians, a separate stock, now thought to be extinct.

Mrs. Oliver says:

  After the hut is built a fire is made, the squaws usually begging fire
  or matches from the settlers, but, in case their fire is out and they
  have no other means of kindling it, they resort to the primitive
  method of producing it by friction of wood. They always carry their
  fire-sticks with them, keeping them carefully wrapped in several
  layers of skins tied up with thongs and made into a neat package; they
  are thus kept very dry, and as soon as the occasion for their use is
  over, they are immediately wrapped up again and laid away.

  These sticks are two in number. One of them is held across the knees
  as they squat on the ground, and is about two feet long, made of a
  close-grained, brownish-yellow wood (perhaps pecan), half round in
  section; the flat face, which is held upward, is about an inch across.
  Three cylindrical holes about half an inch in diameter and of equal
  depth, the bottoms slightly concave, are made in it. The three holes
  are equally distant apart, about 2 inches, and the first one is the
  same distance from the end of the stick, which rests upon the right
  knee. In one of the holes is inserted the slightly-rounded end of a
  twirling stick made of a white, softer kind of wood, somewhat less
  than the diameter of the hole, so as to turn easily, and about 18
  inches long.

  Holding the twirler vertically between the palms of the hands, a
  gentle but rapid alternating rotary motion is imparted. After
  continuing this for about five minutes the abrasion of the softer wood
  causes a fine, impalpable dust to collect in the hole, from which soon
  issues a thin, blue line of smoke.

  As soon as the Indian sees this he quickly withdraws his twirler with
  one hand, while with the other he catches up and crushes a few dry
  leaves previously placed on a dry cloth close by (having been produced
  from thin wrappings, in which they have been preserved for this very
  purpose, to serve as tinder), and quickly but lightly sprinkles them
  in and around the hole, over which both hands are now held
  protectingly, the head bent down, and the incipient fire fanned to a
  blaze with the breath. As soon as the blaze has fairly caught, the
  stick and tinder are deftly turned over upon a little pile of dry
  twigs and leaves, got ready beforehand, and the fire is started.

  This operation of getting fire is always performed by the men, and not
  by the squaws. The fire is invariably built in the center of the hut,
  upon the ground, and, is usually kept burning, for the Indians never
  slept regularly, but whenever they pleased, often asleep in the day
  time and awake nights, or _vice versa_, as they felt inclined.


                      3. IROQUOIS WEIGHTED DRILL.

The Iroquois are unique in America, and perhaps in the world, in making
fire with the pump-drill. Several other tribes in America use the pump
drill to pierce stone and shell, for which purpose it is an excellent
tool, but the mechanical difficulties lying in the way of making fire
with it have only been overcome by the Iroquois. Pump-drills are
intended for light, fine work, with uniform, light pressure; hence, with
little friction. The Iroquois have added this element by increasing the
size of the balance-wheel and stock. Mr. Morgan, in his “League of the
Iroquois,” p. 381, figures a fire drill with a wooden stock 4 feet long
and 1 inch in diameter. This stock has at the upper end a string and
bow, while near the lower end is a “small wheel.” Mr. Morgan says this
is “an Indian invention of great antiquity.”

Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, of the Bureau of Ethnology, has kindly given the
writer a set of apparatus and valuable information with reference to
fire-making among the Iroquois, especially the Onondagas and Tuscaroras.
He states that at times when there is disease among the people they say
it is because the fire is “old.” They then determine to make “new fire,”
so all fires are put out and two slippery-elm logs are selected and one
of these is laid on the ground and a V-shaped notch is cut on the upper
side. In this notch some tinder of dry slippery-elm is put and three
(mystic or sacred number) men at either end work the other log backward
and forward until fire is generated, and from this the fires are
lighted. He believes that the new fire is made at the winter feast of
the Iroquois. They say that the drill with the weight is their own
invention. They use elm for that also. In making the pump-drill they
sometimes cut an elm sapling and work out the drill, leaving the tap
root for the fore part, the knot for the weight, and part of the stem
for the top part of the drill.

It is not improbable that the Iroquois—the most advanced Indians in some
respects on the continent, invented this use of the widely diffused
pump-drill. It scarcely seems to be a practical way to make fire, and,
despite the assurances and belief of the Iroquois, is not very ancient,
but was perhaps suggested by the white man. Indeed, Pere Lafitau, that
keen and careful observer, in his “Moeurs des Sauvages Ameriquains,”
written in 1724, on page 242, gives a description of Indian fire-making
that includes the Iroquois. He says:

  The Hurons, the Iroquois, and the other peoples of North America do
  not make fire from the veins of flint, but rub two pieces of wood one
  against the other.

Then follows a description of fire-making, taken probably from the
Iroquois, that is as good an account of the Indian apparatus and the way
of working it as exists in the literature of the subject.

The drill was sufficient for its time for the reason that there was at
that period rarely necessity for generating fire; the art of fire
preservation was at its height.

The Cherokees, the most southerly of the Iroquois, Mr. James Mooney
states, kept fire buried in the mounds upon which the council houses
were built, so that if the house was destroyed by enemies the fire would
remain there for a year or so. The Cherokees use the simple rotation
apparatus, and, as far as Mr. Mooney can ascertain, never used the
pump-drill. They have a tradition that fire originally came out of an
old hollow sycamore tree (_Platanus occidentalis_).

Capt. John Smith tells how the Indians of Virginia made fire. He says:

  Their fire they kindled presently by chafing a dry pointed sticke in a
  hole of a little square piece of wood, that firing itselfe, will so
  fire mosse, leaves, or anie such like drie thing that will quickly
  burn.[12]

Writing in the first quarter of the next century, Beverley says:

  They rubbed Fire out of particular sorts of Wood (as the Ancients did
  out of the Ivy and Bays) by turning the end of a Piece that is soft
  and dry, like a Spindle on its Inke, by which it heats and at length
  burns; to this they put sometimes also rotten Wood and dry leaves to
  hasten the Work.[13]

Loskiel says of the Delawares:

  Formerly they kindled fire by turning or twirling a dry stick, with
  great swiftness on a dry board, using both hands.[14]

The Cherokees used for a drill the stalk of a composite plant (senecio),
and twirled it on a piece of wood. The art has long been out of common
use, but they employed the wooden drill to make fire for the Green Corn
Dance into the present century, though flint and steel was then in
vogue. Sometimes they passed the bow over drill. The tinder was of a
fungus or dried moss. Mr. James Mooney collected this information from
some of the older men of the tribe in North Carolina, who have retained
the ancient customs and traditions, which the part of the tribe removed
to the West has entirely lost.

The Creeks (Muskogean stock) had a regularly authorized fire-maker, who
early in the morning made fire for the Green Corn Dance. The apparatus
that he made use of was four sticks placed end to end to form a square
cross. This was oriented, and at the junction of the sticks new fire was
made by friction.[15]

The Choctaws (also Muskogean) of Mississippi, Mr. M. F. Berry writes,
make fire in the following way: One stick of dry wood that has a hole in
it, with a smaller hole at the bottom going through, is placed between
the feet. Another piece made round and about 3 feet long is made to
revolve rapidly back and forth between the hands in the hole, and the
fire drops through the small hole below. When new fire was wanted for
the Green Corn Dance, or other purposes, three men would place
themselves so that each in turn could keep the stick revolving without a
stop, until fire would drop down through the hole, which was nursed with
dry material into a flame.

This form of the fire hearth is not represented in the collections of
the Museum; the only other description of a process closely like it was
given by Mr. Thomas C. Battey, who observed it among the Kiowas. It was
shown him at that time as a revival of the ancient method (p. 543). The
pierced fire hearth is somewhat impracticable, except in the Malay
sawing method. In the rotary drill the small hole would come over the
axis of least friction and heat. Unless provision was made for the dust
to fall freely underneath by a double cone perforation worked from both
sides the dust is likely to become obstructed and smother the fire. It
will be seen, too, that it departs very much from the simplicity of the
usual fire drill in the fact that a hole must be made through the piece
of wood, a matter of some difficulty before the introduction of iron
awls.

The Seminoles of Florida, the most Southern Muskoki, have neglected the
art of fire making by simple friction, unless at the starting of the
sacred fire for the Green Corn Dance, says Mr. Clay MacCauley.[16] A
fire is now kindled either by the common matches, _ma-tci_, or by steel
and flint.

Thus it is seen that wherever in the earlier period of the exploration
in this country the observation has been made, the Indian, almost
without exception, was found to be using the friction apparatus,
consisting of two sticks of wood. Some tribes had improved on the
working of the invention, while a very few others had perhaps arrived at
the use of the higher invention of the flint and pyrites.

Returning to the tribes of the wide central plains of our country, we
find that the flint and steel soon displaced the fire-sticks, except for
religious purposes. The Mandans, of the great Siouan stock, were using
flint and steel at the time of Mr. Catlin’s visit in 1832.[17]

There seems to be a great misapprehension among some of the writers on
ethnology, as to the general use of the bow-drill among the Indians. In
mentioning that the Sioux use the bow-drill, Schoolcraft is quoted as
authority. As a matter of fact the reference is to a “made-up” figure of
a bow-drill set, marked “Dacota.” On the same plate there is a
representation of an Iroquois pump-drill that is obviously wrong. The
lower part of the plate is taken up by a picture of an Indian woman
(presumably Californian) pounding acorns in a mortar. To complete the
absurdity the whole plate is entitled “Methods of obtaining fire by
percussion,” and is placed in the text of a _questionnaire_ on the
Californian Indians, opposite a description of the Californian way of
making fire by twirling two sticks.[18]

Mr. Schoolcraft is not to blame for this state of affairs; in those days
illustrations were not ethnological, they were “padding” gotten up by
the artist. Nowhere in his great work does Mr. Schoolcraft describe
either the Dacota or Iroquois drill. Among the northern Indians in
central and northern Canada, however, the bow is used.

Sir Daniel Wilson, in his work on Prehistoric Man, notes that the Red
Indians of Canada use the drill bow. In August, 1888, at the meeting of
the American association, at Toronto, he gave an account of the facility
with which these Indians make fire. He said that at Nipissing, on the
north shore of Lake Superior, while he was traveling in a pouring rain,
and not having the means wherewith to light a fire, an Indian
volunteered to light one. He searched around for a pine knot and for
tinder, rubbed up the soft inner bark of the birch between the hands,
got a stick from a sheltered place, made a socket in the knot and
another piece of wood for a rest for the drill, tied a thong to a piece
of a branch for a bow. He put the tinder in the hole and rested his
breast on the drill and revolved it with the bow and quickly made fire.

It is perhaps true that some of the Dacotas did use the bow at times,
but it is not correct to place it as the customary tool of the whole
stock. On the contrary, there is evidence that they used the simple
means. Dr. J. Owen Dorsey writes:

  I was told in 1879 by the late Joseph La Flèche, that the Omahas,
  prior to the advent of the white men, made fire by using pieces of the
  “du-à-du-á-hi,” a grass (?) that grows in the Sand Hill region of
  Nebraska, near the sources of the Elkhorn River. One piece was placed
  horizontally on the ground, and a slight notch was cut at one end,
  wherein a few grains of sand were put. The other stick was held
  between the palms of the hands, with one end in the notch of the
  horizontal stick, and then rolled first in one direction then in the
  other till fire was produced. A fresh notch was made in the first
  stick whenever the old one became useless, and so on until it became
  necessary to procure a new stick.

In the Green Corn Dance of the Minitaries, another Siouan tribe, the
“corn is boiled on the fire, which is then put out by removing it with
the ashes and burying them. New fire is made by desperate and painful
exertion, by three men seated on the ground facing each other and
violently drilling the end of a stick into a hard block of wood by
rolling it between the hands, each one catching it in turn from the
others without allowing the motion to stop until smoke, and at last a
spark of fire is seen and caught in a piece of spunk, when there is
great rejoicing in the crowd.”[19] The desperate exertion was not
necessary, except in imitation of the Zuñi fashion of wetting the drill
to create sacred fire.

It will be seen from these references given that the Sioux used the
customary Indian method. Later, they may have used the bow to expedite
the drill when the wood was intractable. The bow may have been borrowed
from more northern tribes, the Algonquians are said to use it;[20] Mr.
Thomas C. Battey says that the Sac-Fox Indians (Algonquian stock) used a
soft wood drill and a hard wood hearth. “The drill was worked by a bow
and the fire caught on the end of the drill and touched to tinder.”

Throughout South America the art of fire-making with two sticks of wood
is found to be as thoroughly diffused as it is in North America. Many of
the tribes still use it; we may say that in all tribes the use of flint
and steel was preceded by that of the sticks of wood.

The Guanchos, a mixed tribe of herders on the Pampas of Venezuela,
practice a peculiar way of fire-getting. They select a pliant rod, place
one end against the breast and the other against the block forming the
hearth, _held on a line with the breast_. By pressing against the rod it
is bent and turned rapidly around like an auger. This impracticable and
no doubt very local method is described by Prof. E. B. Tylor.[21]

In Brazil, in the Province of Goyaz, the Chavantes, Cayapós, and
Angaytés, use the simple fire drill.[22] The Angaytés drill figured
looks somewhat like that of the Mokis. It is usually 28^cm. long for the
hearth, and for the drill 20^cm. They use the throat skin of the Nandu,
_Rhea Americana_, for a tinder sack. The Lenguas of the same province
use a strike-a-light consisting of a tinder horn, flint, and steel,
which is also figured in the cited report. This set is very interesting,
because from it, we can say with certainty where the Lengua got it. The
steel is the English “flourish,” and the flint is the oval, old English
shape, probably broken somewhat by blows. The Lenguas, being on the line
of travel, have adopted the method from English traders. In Rio Janeiro
the Indians had an angular recess at the back of their snuff mills for
the purpose of making fire by friction.[23]

The Ainos of Japan formerly used fire-sticks, and are said even yet to
resort to this method when they have no other means of getting fire.
They use also flint and steel, adopted from the Japanese. A specimen
(No. 22257) is figured and described on page 583 of this paper. The
fire-sticks of the Ainos of Yezo (No. 129970, fig. 17) were loaned to
the Museum by Prof. F. W. Putnam, who also secured the following letter
of Mr. D. P. Penhallow, who collected the sticks:

  At our request the chief brought several fire-sticks to my house,
  together with the necessary number of men to get fire in the approved
  style. Upon examination the sticks were found to be from 6 to 9 inches
  long, and very dry. Our informant stated that they were from the root
  of the elm _Ulmus campestris_, var. _lævis_, and that it was customary
  to keep a supply ahead, as the sticks require to be seasoned for about
  one year, by hanging them from the rafters of the house above the
  fire. To prepare them for the process of making fire, a shorter stick
  was cut flat on opposite sides, and about midway of one of the
  flattened sides a small hole was made with the point of the knife for
  the purpose of establishing the center of action. Another stick about
  9 inches long was then well sharpened at one end. Three men now seated
  themselves in a circle, facing inward, with the flattened stick
  notched side uppermost in the center.

  The point of the long stick was now placed in the notch, and with the
  stick in a vertical position and grasped between the extended palms of
  the hands, a steady and somewhat fast rotating pressure was brought to
  bear, exactly as in the use of the old-fashioned awl. As soon as the
  first man became weary, the second brought his hands to bear upon the
  upper end of the stick, and continued the motion without allowing it
  to cease. This was repeated as often as necessary until fire was
  obtained. Owing to the very dry character of the sticks used, the
  parts in contact rapidly wear away, so that the notch quickly becomes
  cup-shaped, and the pointed end is correspondingly rounded, while at
  the same time the powdery product is thrown out, forming a raised ring
  on all sides. Before long it is observed that the powder acquires a
  brownish tinge. This gradually deepens as the temperature rises until
  finally a delicate line of smoke warns the operator that the end is
  near.

  The motion is now continued until the smoke is well established, when
  the vertical stick is raised, disclosing a spark on its end. The mouth
  is applied to the opposite extremity, and by means of a few vigorous
  pulls as if smoking a cigar, owing to the porous nature of the stick,
  the spark is drawn into a flame.

  The actual operation as witnessed by us consumed about two hours, and
  the Ainos state that the process requires from one and one-half to two
  and one-half hours.

The sticks figured are the actual ones that were used in the operation
above described.

    [Illustration: Fig. 17. Fire-making Set with Touchwood.
    (Cat. No. 129970, U. S. N. M. Ainos of Yezo, Japan. Collected by D.
    P. Penhallow. Lent by Peabody Museum, through Prof. F. W. Putnam.)]

The Japanese formerly used the simple drill; a few are yet preserved in
the temples. Under the name of “Sacred fire drill” it is described[24]
as a board 1 foot wide, 1 foot 4 inches long, 1 inch thick, and with a
step 1 inch wide or over on one edge. It has holes and grooves like the
Eskimo hearth. The drill is a stick twirled between the hands. The parts
are of the _hi-no-ki_, or fire tree, _Chamæocyparis obtusa_. The drill
is called _hi-kiri-usu_, or fire drilling mortar. It was and perhaps is
yet used for the purpose of drilling fire at the four corners of the
temple inclosure to ward off the calamity of fire. They are said also to
have used the _rokuro_, or pump-drill. It is interesting to note that
the Japanese carpenter’s drill with the iron point is rotated between
the palms. They are still in use. The one figured is in the Tokio
Museum.

Prof. Romyn Hitchcock has kindly allowed a drawing to be made of a
photograph which he procured of a sacred fire drill preserved in the
temple called Oyashiro, at Idzumo, Japan (fig. 18). The hearth of this
set is made of _hi-no-ki_ wood and the drill of the _Ut-su-gi, Deutzia
scabra_.

    [Illustration: Fig. 18. Sacred Fire Drill.
    From photograph of specimen in Tokio Museum. Lent by Romyn
    Hitchcock.]

Professor Hitchcock says:

  The fire drill is used at the festivals of the Oyashiro to produce
  fire for use in cooking the food offered to the gods. Until the temple
  was examined officially in 1872, the head priest used it for preparing
  his private meals at all times. Since then it has been used only at
  festivals and in the head priest’s house on the eve of festivals, when
  he purifies himself for their celebration in the _Imbidous_, or room
  for preparing holy fire, where he makes the fire and prepares the
  food.

The art of fire-making by sticks of wood by the method of rotation is,
or has been, as far as we know, universal on the African continent as it
was in the two Americas at the time of the discovery. There is not a
clue as to how the ancient Egyptians generated fire.

The Somalis are a pastoral people of Arab extraction, inhabiting a large
maritime country south of the Gulf of Aden. Their fire-sticks (fig. 19)
are pieces of branches of brownish wood of equal texture, in fact the
hearth has formerly been used as a drill, as may be seen by its
regularly-formed and charred end. This is another proof that it is not
necessary that the sticks should be of different degrees of hardness.
The grain of the wood, that of the drill being against and the hearth
with the grain, in effect accomplishes what the use of wood of different
qualities results in. The hearth and drill are in the neighborhood of 12
inches long, the former with a diameter of three-eighths of an inch and
the latter one-fourth of an inch. They were collected by Dr. Charles
Pickering in 1843.

It is possible that the Somalis may have carried this method with them
from Arabia. They conquered this coast, driving back the earlier tribes
inhabiting the country in the early part of the fifteenth century. Long
since that time, and even now, some Arab tribes practice the drilling of
wooden sticks to produce fire.

    [Illustration: Fig. 19. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 129971, U. S. N. M. Somalis, E. Africa. Collected by Dr.
    Charles Pickering. Lent by Peabody Museum through Prof. F. W.
    Putnam.)]

    [Illustration: Fig 20. Taveita Africans Making Fire.
    After H. H. Johnston. (See Jour. Soc. Arts, June 24, 1887.)]

In eastern equatorial Africa the Wataveita, says Mr. H. H. Johnston,
generate fire in the common African way by rapidly drilling a
hard-pointed stick into a small hole in a flat piece of wood. An
interesting bit of custom comes out in connection with this art among
the people. “It is the exclusive privilege of the men, and the secret is
handed down from father to son, and never under any conditions (as they
say) revealed to women.” I asked one man why that was. “Oh,” he said,
“if women knew how to make fire they would become our masters.”[25] The
figure (fig. 20) shows how this people of the great Bantu stock make
fire; this tribe visited by Mr. Johnston lives on the slopes of the
beautiful Kilimanjaro Mountain.

Mr. R. W. Felkin[26], in a study of the Maidu or Moru negroes of Central
Africa, 5° north latitude, 30° 20′ east longitude, describes the
fire-making of that tribe. He says that one piece of wood about the size
and shape of a large pencil is rotated in a hole in a flat piece of hard
wood. One man holds the wood steady whilst two others take it in turn to
rotate the stick. This article of Mr. Felkin’s is commended to
ethnologists as a model ethnologic study in method and research.

That veteran and renowned explorer, Dr. Schweinfurth, gives the
following:

  The method of obtaining fire, practiced alike by the natives of the
  Nile lands and of the adjacent country in the Welle system, consists
  simply in rubbing together two hard sticks at right-angles to one
  another till a spark is emitted. The hard twigs of the _Avona
  senegalensis_ are usually selected for the purpose. Underneath them is
  placed either a stone or something upon which a little pile of embers
  has been laid; the friction of the upper piece of wood wears a hole in
  the lower, and soon a spark is caught by the ashes and is fanned into
  a flame with dry grass, which is swung to and fro to cause a draught,
  the whole proceeding being a marvel which might well-nigh eclipse the
  magic of my lucifer matches.[27]

Kaffir fire-making is described in some detail in the following:

  The Kaffir blacksmith never need trouble himself about the means of
  obtaining a fire. Should he set up his forge in the vicinity of a
  Kraal, the simplest plan is to send his assistant for a fire-brand
  from one of the huts. But if he should prefer, as is often the case,
  to work at some distance from the huts, he can procure fire with
  perfect certainty, though not without some labor. He first procures
  two sticks, one of them taken from a soft-wood tree and the other from
  an acacia or some other tree that furnishes a hard wood. Of course
  both sticks must be thoroughly dry, a condition about which there is
  little difficulty in so hot a climate. His next care is to shape one
  end of the hard stick into a point and to bore a small hole in the
  middle of the soft stick. He now squats down * * * places the pointed
  tip of the hard stick in the hole of the soft stick, and, taking the
  former between his hands, twirls it backwards and forwards with
  extreme rapidity. As he goes on the hole becomes enlarged and a small
  quantity of very fine dust falls into it, being rubbed away by the
  friction. Presently the dust is seen to darken in color, then to
  become nearly black, and presently a very slight smoke is seen to
  rise. The Kaffir now redoubles his efforts; he aids the effect of the
  revolving stick by his breath, and in a few more seconds the dust
  bursts into a flame. The exertion required by this operation is very
  severe, and by the time the fire manifests itself the producer is
  bathed in perspiration.

  Usually two men at least take part in fire-making, and by dividing the
  labor very much shorten the process. It is evident that if the
  perpendicular stick be thus worked, the hands must gradually slide
  down until they reach the point. The solitary Kaffir would then be
  obliged to stop the stick, shift his hands to the top, and begin
  again, thus losing much valuable time. But when two Kaffirs unite in
  fire-making, one sits opposite the other, and as soon as he sees that
  his comrade’s hands have nearly worked themselves down to the bottom
  of the stick he places his own hands on the top, continues the
  movement, and relieves his friend. Thus the movement of the stick is
  never checked for a moment, and the operation is consequently
  hastened. Moreover, considerable assistance is given by the second
  Kaffir keeping the dust properly arranged round the point of the stick
  and by taking the part of the bellows, so as to allow his comrade to
  expend all his strength in twirling.[28]

It is an anomaly that the African, to light the fire to smelt the iron
out of which he forges his remarkable weapons, should use sticks of
wood.


                     2. ESKIMO FOUR-PART APPARATUS.

The arts of the Eskimo yield more satisfactory results to students of
comparative ethnology than those of any other people.

In all their range the culture is uniform; one finds this fact forced
upon his observation who has examined the series of specimens in the
National Museum, where they are arranged in order by localities from
Labrador to southern Alaska. Prof. Otis T. Mason’s paper on Eskimo
throwing-sticks[29] gave a new interpretation to this fact and
powerfully forwarded the study of ethnology by showing the
classificatory value of the distribution of an art.

Professor Mason points out that though the Eskimo culture is uniform in
general, in particular the arts show the modification wrought by
surroundings and isolation—tribal individuality, it may be called—and
admit of the arrangement of this people into a number of groups that
have been subjected to these influences.

The Eskimo fire-making tools in the Museum admit of an ethnographic
arrangement, but in this paper it is not found necessary to make a close
study of this kind. From every locality whence the Museum possesses a
complete typical set, it has been figured and described.

The Eskimo are not singular in using a four-part apparatus, but are
singular in the method of using it. The mouth-piece is the peculiar
feature that is found nowhere else.

The drilling and fire-making set consists of four parts, viz:

The mouth-piece,—sometimes a mere block of wood, ivory, or even the
simple concave vertebra of a fish, or the astragalus of a caribou. More
often, they show great skill and care in their workmanship, being carved
with truth to resemble bear, seals, whales, and walrus. The seal is the
most common subject. The upper part is almost always worked out into a
block, forming a grip for the teeth. The extent to which some of these
are chewed attests the power of the Eskimo jaw. Frequently the piece is
intended to be held in the hand, or in both hands, hence it has no teeth
grip. In the under part is set a piece of stone, in which is hollowed
out a cup-shaped cavity to hold the head of the drill. These stones seem
to be selected as much for their appearance as for their anti-friction
qualities. They use beautifully-mottled stone, marble, obsidian, and
ringed concretions.

The drill is always a short spindle, thicker than any other drill in the
world. It is frequently of the same kind of wood as the hearth.

The thong is the usual accompaniment of the fire drill. It is rawhide of
seal or other animals. The handles have a primitive appearance; they are
nearly always made of bears’ teeth, hollow bones, or bits of wood.
Sometimes handles are dispensed with. Mr. Warren K. Moorhead found some
perforated teeth in an Ohio mound that in every respect resemble the
Eskimo cord handles. They have also been found in caves in Europe
decorated with concentric circles like those on the Eskimo specimens.

The bows are among the most striking specimens from this people. They
are pared down with great waste from the tusks of the walrus, taking the
graceful curve of the tusk. The Museum possesses one 24½ inches long. It
is on their decoration that the Eskimo lavishes his utmost art. The bow
does not lend itself well to sculpture, as does the mouth-piece; so he
covers the smooth ivory with the most graphic and truthful engravings of
scenes in the active hunting life in the Arctic, or he tallies on it the
pictures of the reindeer, whales, seals, and other animals that he has
killed.

Professor Baird was interested more with these bows than with any other
Eskimo products, and desired to have them figured and studied.

The distribution of the bow is remarkable. It is not found south of
Norton Sound, but extends north and east as far as the Eskimo range. The
Chukchis use it,[30] but the Ostyaks use the ancient breast drill.[31]

The bow is used by individuals in boring holes. It is presumed that its
use as a fire-making tool is secondary, the cord and handles being the
older. The difficulty of making fire is greatly increased when one man
attempts to make it with the compound drill; at the critical moment the
dust will fail to ignite; besides, there is no need of one man making
fire; a thing that is for the common good will be shared by all. Hence
the cord with handles, which usually requires that two men should work
at the drill, is as a rule used by the Eskimo.

Though the Sioux, and some other North American tribes, made use of the
bow to increase the speed of the drill, they did not use the thong with
handles, nor was the bow common even in tribes of the Siouan stock that
had attained to its use (see remarks p. 549). The bow may be termed a
more advanced invention, allowing one man with ease to bore holes.

The hearth is made of any suitable wood. It is commonly stepped and has
slots. The central hole with groove is also found. These hearths are
preserved carefully, and fire has been made on some of them many times.

The distribution of the central-hole hearth (see fig. 21, pl. LXXIV),
and the slot-and-step hearth (see fig. 36), is rather striking. The
central holes are found in the specimens observed from the north coast
of Alaska, Insular British America, and Greenland, exclusively. The
stepped hearth with edge holes and slots is by far the more common in
western Alaska, though the other method crops out occasionally; both
ways are sometimes used in the same tribe. More often, the central holes
are bored on a groove (fig. 34), which collects the ground-off particles
and facilitates ignition. Rarely fire is made by working the drill on a
plane surface, in single, non-connecting holes.


                              Plate LXXIV.

    [Illustration: Figs. 21, 22. Fire-making Set and Extra Hearth.
    Cat. No. 10258, U. S. N. M. Frobisher Bay. Collected by Capt. C. F.
    Hall.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 22.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 23. Moss in a Leathern Case.
    Cat. No. 10191, U. S. N. M. Collected by Capt. C. F. Hall.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 24. Boring-set.
    Cat. No. 34114, U. S. N. M. Cumberland Gulf. Collected by L.
    Kumlein.]

The difference between these features is, that it is found to be more
difficult to get fire by a single hole without groove, or slot, than
when the latter features are added. The powder forms a ring around the
edge of the hole, is liable to be dispersed, and does not get together
in sufficient amount to reach the requisite heat for ignition. Of course
this is obviated when a second hole is bored connecting with the first,
when the latter becomes a receptacle for the powder.

It is found that these different ways are due to environmental
modification, showing itself as remarkably in fire-making, as in any
other Eskimo art. Both the stepped and central-hole hearth are different
devices for the same end. The step on the hearth is to keep the pellet
of glowing powder from falling off into the snow, so universal in
Eskimo-land; hence, the simple hearth of primitive times and peoples of
warmer climates has received this addition. The same reason caused the
Eskimo to bore the holes in the middle of the block.

By following the distribution of the center hole method, a clew may
perhaps be gotten to the migrations of the Eskimo.

From Labrador to Norton Sound, by the collections in the Museum, the
center hole is alone used; south of Norton Sound both methods prevail,
with a preponderance of the stepped-hearth species. The step seems to be
an addition to the Indian hearth; the center is an independent
invention.

The operation of the drill is well told in the oft-quoted description by
Sir. E. Belcher. The writer can attest to the additional statement, that
the teeth of civilized man can scarcely stand the shock. He says:

  “The thong of the drill bow being passed twice around the drill, the
  upper end is steadied by a mouth-piece of wood, having a piece of the
  same stone imbedded, with a counter-sunk cavity. This, held firmly
  between the teeth, directs the tool. Any workman would be astonished
  at the performance of this tool on ivory; but having once tried it
  myself, I found the jar or vibration on the jaws, head, and brain,
  quite enough to prevent my repeating it.”[32]

The ethnographical study of the Eskimo fire-drill begins with Labrador,
including Greenland and following the distribution of the people among
the islands and around the North American coast, to Kadiak Island and
the Aleutian chain. The following is an interesting account from
Labrador, showing what a man would do in the exigency:

  He cut a stout stick from a neighboring larch, and taking out the
  leather thong with which his moccasins were tied, made a short bow and
  strung it. He then searched for a piece of dry wood, and having found
  it, cut it into shape, sharpened both ends, and twisted it once around
  the bowstring; he then took a bit of fungus from his pocket and put it
  into a little hole which he made in another dry piece of wood with the
  point of the knife. A third piece of dry wood was fashioned into a
  handle for his drill.[33]

Eskimo in other localities often use such make-shifts. Cup cavities are
often observed in the handles of knives and other bone and ivory tools
where they have used them for heads of the fire-drill.

Cumberland Gulf is the next locality to the northward. There are several
specimens in the collection from this part of Baffin Land, procured by
the famous explorer, Captain Hall, and the less known, but equally
indefatigable Kumlein. The fire-making implements from Cumberland Gulf
have a markedly different appearance from those of any other locality in
the Eskimo area. They have a crude look, and there is a paucity of
ornamention unusual among this people. The drill bow is one of the
things which the Eskimo usually decorates, but these bows have not even
a scratch.

It can be inferred that in Baffin Land, more unfavorable conditions
prevail than in southern Alaska. It must be this cause coupled with poor
food supply, that have conspired to make them the most wretched of the
Eskimo.

The hearth (fig. 21, pl. LXXIV) is of drift oak. It was collected at
Frobisher Bay by Capt. Charles F. Hall. It has central holes, and
appears to be very unfavorable wood for fire-making. The block hearth is
also from Frobisher Bay (fig. 22, pl. LXXIV). It is an old piece of
hemlock, with two central communicating holes. The mouth-piece is a
block of ivory. Another mouth-piece is a bit of hard wood soaked in oil;
it was used with a bone drill having an iron point. A very small, rude
bow goes with this set (fig. 24).

    [Illustration: Fig 25. Fire-making Set.
    (Angmagsalik Eskimo, E. Greenland. Copied from G. Holm’s Ethnologisk
    of Angmagsalikerne, 1887.)]

Our knowledge of eastern Greenland has been very much increased by the
explorations of Holm and Garde, who reached a village on the east coast
never before visited by a white man. Extensive collections were made,
both of information and specimens. In reference to fire-making, Mr. Holm
reports:

  “They make fire by turning a hard stick, of which the socket end is
  dipped in train oil, very rapidly around by means of a sealskin thong
  with handles. This stick is fixed at one end into a head set with
  bone, and the other end is pressed down into a cavity on the lower
  piece of wood (fig. 25). Therefore there must be two persons in order
  to make a fire. One turns the drill with the cord, while the other
  presses it down on the hearth; both support the block with their feet.
  As soon as the dust begins to burn they fan it with the hand. When it
  is ignited, they take it and put it into dried moss (_sphagnum_), blow
  it, and soon get a blaze. In this way they make a fire in an
  incredibly short time.”[34]

In the preliminary report, Mr. Holm gives the time at almost less than
half a minute. It was made by the Eskimo, Illinguaki, and his wife, who,
on being presented with a box of matches, gave up their drill, saying
that they had no farther use for it.

In the same report Mr. Holm gives an interesting note. He says:

  This fire apparatus is certainly better developed than that which has
  been described and drawn by Nordenskiöld from the Chukchis (Voy. of
  the _Vega_, II, p. 126). The principle is the same as the
  Greenlander’s drill, which they employ for making holes in wood and
  bone, and which is furnished with a bow and mouth-piece.[35] (fig.
  26.)

    [Illustration: Fig. 26. Boring Set.
    (Angmagsalik Eskimo, E. Greenland. G. Holm’s Ethnologisk of
    Angmagsalikerne.)]

The central holes of this hearth are worthy of note, occurring in the
farthest eastern locality of the Eskimo, and in Labrador.

_Western Greenland._—The material in the Museum from western Greenland
is very scanty. The southern coast has been settled for so long a time
that the Eskimo and many of their arts have almost become extinct. No
view of fire-making in Greenland would be complete without Davis’s
quaint description of it, made three hundred years ago, but it was the
upper end of the spindle that was wet in Trane. A Greenlander “begaune
to kindle a fire in this manner: He tooke a piece of a boord wherein was
a hole half thorow; into that hole he puts the end of a round sticke
like unto a bedstaffe, wetting the end thereof in Trane, and in a
fashion of a turner with a piece of lether, by his violent motion doeth
very speedily produce fire.”[36]

Eskimo graves and village sites yield evidence also that the fire-making
tools were not different from those at present used higher north along
the coast, and on the east coast.

Dr. Bessels, speaking of Itah Eskimo of Foulke Fiord in Smith Sound,
says: “The catkins of the arctic willow are used as tinder to catch the
sparks produced by grinding two pieces of stone. Also the widely
diffused ‘fire-drill’ is found here; the spindle is held between a piece
of bone and a fragment of semi-decayed wood, and is set in motion by the
well-known bow, and is turned until the wood begins to ignite.”[37]

The “fire-bag” is an accompaniment to all sorts of fire-making
apparatus. The fire-bag shown (fig. 27, pl. LXXV) was collected by
Captain Hall, at Holsteinberg, western Greenland in 1860. It is made of
sealskin, and is a good specimen of the excellent needlework of these
Eskimo. It was used to carry, more especially, the fire-drill and tinder
which require to be kept very dry.

There is a wide gap in the collections of the Museum between the
locality of the specimen just mentioned, and the fire hearth from the
Mackenzie River (fig. 28). This specimen is from Fort Simpson
presumably, where B. R. Ross collected. It is said to be difficult to
discriminate the Eskimo from the Indian on the lower Mackenzie. This
hearth may be Indian, as it has that appearance; besides, no Eskimo
hearth yet observed has side holes and slots like this without the step.
The Indians of this region are of the great Athapascan stock of the
North. The close resemblance of this stick to the one from the Washoans
of Nevada has been commented upon. (See fig. 6, p. 537.)

There is also a very fine old central-hole hearth from the Mackenzie
River, collected also by Mr. Ross. It is a rough billet of branch wood,
cut apparently with an axe, or hatchet (fig. 29). It is semi-decayed and
worm-eaten. It has ten central holes where fire has been made; they are
quite deep, forming a gutter in the middle of the hearth. There is, as
can be seen, no need of a groove, as the dust falls over into the next
hole, collects in a mass, and ignites.

    [Illustration: Fig. 28. Lower Part of Fire-making Set (on one end is
    gum for cement).
    (Cat. No. 1978, U. S. N. M. Mackenzie River, B. C. Collected by B.
    R. Ross.)]

    [Illustration: Fig. 29. Lower Part of Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 1963, U. S. N. M. Eskimo of Mackenzie River, B. C.
    Collected by B. R. Ross.)]


                              Plate LXXV.

    [Illustration: Fig. 27. Fire-bag.
    Cat. No. 10128, U. S. N. M. Eskimo of Holsteinberg, West Greenland.
    Collected by Capt. C. F. Hall.]

The Anderson River set is a very complete and interesting outfit. It was
collected many years ago by C. P. Gaudet. The parts are small for
convenience of carrying. It is the custom of those who live in
snow-covered regions to wrap the drill and hearth together very
carefully to keep them dry, as these are the essential parts of the
apparatus. It does not matter about the mouth-piece or bow. In this
example there is a groove cut along the bottom of the hearth in order to
facilitate tying the drill and hearth securely together. The hearth is a
square block of soft wood with three central holes (fig. 30).

The other parts of this set are also worthy of consideration. The
mouth-piece is set with a square piece of black stone. The part held in
the mouth is very much chewed. One of the wings has a hole for tying, as
has the hearth.

This is an usual Eskimo precaution to prevent small objects from being
lost in the snow. The drill is short, being only 7 inches long. The bow
is the fibula of a deer, pierced at each end for the frayed thong of
sealskin. It has a primitive look, but it admirably serves its purpose.

The Point Barrow set was collected by the most successful expedition
under charge of Lieut. P. H. Ray, U. S. Army. The knuckle-bone of a deer
serves as a mouth-piece, the cup cavity and its general shape fitting it
for the purpose admirably.

    [Illustration: Fig. 30. Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 1327 U. S. N. M. Eskimo of Anderson River, B. C. Collected
    by C. P. Gaudet.)]

The drill is regularly made of light pine wood; it is slightly smaller
in the middle. The hearth is a rudely rounded piece of pine. A fragment
has been split off, and on this surface a groove has been cut and three
fire-holes bored along it. The thong is without handles; it is used to
tie the parts together when they are not in use. A bunch of willow
twigs, the down of which is used as tinder, is also shown (fig. 31).

This set is especially interesting, because it shows the degeneration of
an art. The fire-drill is so rarely used at Point Barrow, Mr. John
Murdoch says, that it was not possible to get a full set devoted to that
purpose. Those here shown are a make-shift. The method only survives by
the conservatism of a few old men of the tribe, who still cling to old
usages. One of these made the drill for Lieutenant Ray, telling him that
it was the kind used in old times. It seems primitive enough; the
knuckle-bone might well have been the first mouth-piece. The Eskimo
farther east sometimes use a fish vertebra for the same purpose; one
from the Anderson River has this. The cord without handles is
undoubtedly the earliest form also.

The small wooden and bone mouth-pieces of the Eskimo east of Point
Barrow to Cumberland Gulf seem to be copies of the deer knuckle-bone.
Another primitive adaptation is found in an Anderson River bow, which is
made of the fibula of a deer (see fig. 30).

The fire-making drill collected from the Chukchis by the _Vega_
expedition in the Cape Wankerem region, in northeastern Siberia, about
the same latitude as Point Barrow, is figured in Nordenskiöld’s
Report.[38] It is worked by a bow, and the drill turns in a mouth-piece
of a deer astragalus like the Point Barrow specimen. The block has
central holes, with short grooves running into each one.

    [Illustration: Fig. 31. Fire-making Set (with mouth-piece of deer’s
    knuckle-bone, thong, and tinder of willow catkins).
    (Cat. No. 89822. U. S. N. M. Eskimo of Point Barrow, Alaska.
    Collected by Lieut. P. H. Ray, U. S. A.)]

Nordenskiöld’s description of the manner of making fire is very
detailed. He records that the “women appear to be more accustomed than
the men to the use of this implement.”

He gives also a most interesting observation on the use of a weighted
pump drill among the Chukchis. The Chukchis also use flint and
steel.[39]

The drilling set from Point Barrow (pl. LXXVI, fig. 32), will show the
appearance of the parts of the fire-drill if we substitute the round
stick for the flint drill. Some of the old drill stocks are pointed with
finely chipped flint heads. The length of these points varies from 2 to
4 inches; the transverse section of one would be a parabola. They are in
general more finely wrought than any of the prehistoric drills found in
various localities all over the world. Prehistoric man was an adept in
the art of drilling stone, bone, and shell; the stone tubes, some of
them 18 inches long, bored very truly, are triumphs of the American
Indians. Without doubt the prehistoric drill points were mounted like
the Eskimo specimen, and were, perhaps, twirled between the hands, the
almost universal method of using the fire-drill. Japanese carpenters
drill holes in this way.

The winged mouth-piece is also a good example of workmanship. It is set
with a mottled, homogeneous stone that is tolerably soft, which gives a
minimum friction. This stone is much affected by the tribes over quite
an extent of coast for labrets, etc. It is probably an article of trade
as are flints. The bow is of walrus tusk, accurately made, but poorly
engraved in comparison with the life-like art work of the southern
Eskimo.

Another drilling set is from Sledge Island (pl. LXXVII, fig. 33). The
Museum has no fire-making specimen from this locality. The drill stock
is set with a point of jadeite lashed in with sinew cord. The bow is of
walrus ivory; it is rounded on the belly and flat on the back. All
Eskimo bows of ivory have a like curve, no doubt determined by the shape
of the walrus tusk. In another, the most common form of the bow, its
section is nearly an isosceles triangle, one angle coming in the center
of the belly of the bow. The head is intended to be held in one or both
hands; it agrees in form with the rude St. Lawrence Island heads.

Mr. E. W. Nelson collected at Unalakleet, in Norton Sound, a fire-drill,
and the native names of the parts. The name of the set is
_ŏŏ-jŏŏ-gŭ-tat_; the mouth-piece, _nă-ghŏŏ-tuk_; the drill,
_ŏŏ-jŏŏ-ga-tuk_; the hearth of tinder-wood, _athl-uk_; the bow,
_arshu-lŏw-shuk-pish-ik-sin-uk_.


                              Plate LXXVI.

    [Illustration: Fig. 32. Boring-set.
    Cat. Nos. 89400, 89424, and 89630, U. S. N. M. Point Barrow, Alaska.
    Collected by Lieut. P. H. Ray, U. S. A.]


                             Plate LXXVII.

    [Illustration: Fig. 33. Drilling-set.
    Cat. Nos. 25021, 44978, and 45108, U. S. N. M. Sledge Island,
    Alaska. Collected by E. W. Nelson.]

This is a complete set (fig. 34) in first-rate order. The hearth has
central holes along a deep median groove. Its bottom is flat, and it is
rounded off on the sides and ends. All the parts are of pine wood,
decorated in places with red paint. The drill is quite long, much longer
than in any Eskimo set observed. It resembles more the Indian drill for
rubbing between the hands. The bow is of wood, which also is quite the
exception in other Eskimo regions, where it is of ivory. There are many
bows of antler from Norton Sound in the Museum, some of them skillfully
and truthfully engraved. The mouth-piece is plain; not very well made.
It is set with a square block of marble. It has the usual hole in one of
the wings for the passage of a thong.

    [Illustration: Fig. 34. Fire-making Set (hearth showing median
    groove).
    (Cat. No. 33166, U. S. N. M. Eskimo of Norton Sound, Alaska.
    Collected by E. W. Nelson.)]

    [Illustration: Fig. 35. Lower Piece of Fire-making Set (hearth).
    (Cat. No. 39601, U. S. N. M. Eskimo of Cape Vancouver, Alaska.
    Collected by E. W. Nelson.)]

Cape Vancouver is represented by a fine old hearth. This object has
evidently been prized by its owner; it has had two rows of fire-holes
(fig. 35), one row bored on the step in front of the first holes made;
some of the holes are bored clear through. The reason why this was
valued is, because the wood is so tindery that it is easy to make fire
upon it.

Chalitmute, in the Kuskokwim region, on the northern side of the bay of
that name, opposite Nunivak Island, is the next locality southward, to
be considered. The parts of this set are exceptionally well-finished.
The hearth is (pl. LXXVIII, fig. 36) stepped. It has four holes prepared
for use; on one, fire has been made. The drill is unusually thick. The
mouth-piece has no teeth-grip, and there is no evidence that it was ever
held in the mouth. It is intended to be held in the hand. This
mouth-piece is set with an oval socket-stone of black obsidian, ground
down into facets and polished. The cord handles are fine, large teeth of
the sea lion. The centers of the circles so characteristic of Eskimo
art, are inlaid with wood. The holes for the drill cord are narrow; they
must have been dug through with a sharp, narrow instrument. As before
remarked, this is the region where the hand rest is more used than the
mouth-piece, and the bow is not used at all.

The fire-making set from the Togiak River, was collected in 1886, by
Sergt. I. Applegate, of the U. S. Signal Corps. Kassianamute, from which
village it comes, is in the Bristol Bay region, but this set has a
different appearance from the former outfits (pl. LXXIX., fig. 37). The
hearth is a block of wood worked out at one end into a handle. It is
remarkable in having central holes not connecting, and with no
connecting grooves. In this it closely resembles the block from East
Greenland (fig. 25). This hearth is of soft, tindery wood, and doubtless
when the holes became too deep to allow the powder to mass around the
edge, the upper part of hearth was scarped down. The mouth-piece is
large, and is in the form of a seal. It has only a shallow, crescentic
teeth-grip; from the size of the mouth-piece, its shape, and the absence
of a block to fasten between the teeth, it must have been nearly always
held in the hand of one of the operators. It is set with a round pebble,
mottled with green. The cord is a thong of rawhide with handles of wood.

The next locality is Koggiung, on the southern shore of Bristol Bay,
near its head. Two sets are shown from this locality. From the hearths
it will be seen that both fire-slots on the side and center holes are
used here. These sets are called _nŭ-tshŭn_ (fig. 38). The apparatus
shown in figure 38 has the stepped hearth. Both drill and hearth
apparently have been made for sale. The mouth-piece is a good one, set
with a large socket-piece of a black stone with green mottlings. This
stone is tolerably soft. It is much used by the Bristol Bay Eskimo for
making labrets, etc. The teeth-grip is very shallow. The hearth (fig.
39) is of a very peculiar shape; only one other has been noticed like
it. The wood is of the best kind, and fire has been made on it a number
of times. In several places the holes have been bored clear through. The
mouth-piece bears no evidence that it has been held between the teeth.
It is highly probable that fire was made on these outfits more often by
two persons, one holding the mouth-piece, or rest, and fanning the
flame, the other pulling the cord. This must be the method in Bristol
Bay. Neither the true mouth-piece nor any bow has been procured by the
Museum from this interesting region, from whence there are copious
collections of ethnological objects. The cords without handles are
worthy of notice.


                             Plate LXXVIII.

    [Illustration: Fig. 36. Fire-making set.
    Cat. Nos. 36325 and 37961. U. S. N. M. Eskimo of Chalitmute
    (Kuskokwim Region), Alaska. Collected by E. W. Nelson.]


                              Plate LXXIX.

    [Illustration: Fig. 37. Fire-making Set.
    Cat. No. 127520, U. S. N. M. Eskimo of Kassianamute (Togiak Region),
    Alaska. Collected by S. Applegate.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 38. Fire-making Set (hearth with step and five
    slots).
    (Cat. No. 127819_a_, U. S. N. M. Koggiung, Bristol Bay, Alaska.
    Collected by W. J. Fisher.)]

    [Illustration: Fig. 39. Fire-Making Set (hearth with central holes
    and end step).
    (Cat. No. 127819b, U. S. N. M. Koggiung, Bristol Bay, Alaska.
    Collected by W. J. Fisher.)]


                              Plate LXXX.

    [Illustration: Fig. 40. Fire-making Set.
    Cat. No. 55938, U. S. N. M. Eskimo of Bristol Bay, Alaska. Collected
    by Charles McKay.]

Another set from Bristol Bay is said by its collector, Charles McKay, to
be used by both Eskimo and Indians. It is a very valuable outfit because
of its completeness (pl. LXXX, fig. 40). The hearth is a rounded piece
of wood with four large holes opening by slots onto the step. The drill
is a thick, tolerably hard piece of close-grained wood like the hearth.
The mouth-piece has no regular block for the teeth-grip, but has a
crescentic gash on each side instead. It is set with a socket of a rock
resembling marble. Nearly all the mouth-pieces south of Norton Sound are
in the shape of seals, or other long animals. Cord handles are used
attached to a thick thong of buckskin. Fungus is used for tinder and a
blaze is started with cones of the larch. These are kept in the box, the
lid of which is tied on with a thong.

Kadiak, the lowest limit of the western Eskimo, is as far south as the
four part fire-drill extends by specimens in the Museum (fig. 41). The
hearth is of cedar wood with three central holes with a connecting
groove. It is neatly finished. The drill is also of cedar and bears the
marks of the use of the thong; the top has also been used in the socket
of a rest. The drill approaches in length those used for twirling
between the hands by the Indians.

While the Aleutians use flint and steel, or a stone containing quartz
and pyrites, struck against another stone, they still make use of the
four-part drill at certain times. Hunting parties, says Mr. L. M.
Turner, carry the drill to use when their matches run out. It takes two
men to work it, one holding the hand rest and the other pulling the
thong. The spindle is made of harder wood, so as to wear the light dust
which ignites, from the hearth. A moment only is necessary to get fire;
this is fed with tinder made of willow catkins and powdered charcoal.
Sometimes, in order to get fire, they hold tinder at the mouth of a gun
and ignite it by firing off a light charge of loose powder.

    [Illustration: Fig. 41. Lower Piece and Spindle of Fire-making Set.
    (Cat. No. 72514, U. S. N. M. Eskimo of Kadiak Island, Alaska.
    Collected by W. J. Fisher.)]

Possessed of four methods of getting fire, the Aleutian is superior to
more fortunately situated people who depend wholly on matches.



                       II. FIRE-MAKING BY SAWING.


Prof. Alfred Russel Wallace has noted the method by sawing in his work
entitled “The Malay Archipelago,” p. 332: Two pieces of bamboo are used;
a sharp edge piece like a knife is rubbed across a convex piece in which
a notch is cut, nearly severing the bamboo (fig. 42); after sawing
across for awhile the bamboo is pierced, and the heated particles fall
below and ignite. The Ternate Malays and the Tungaras of British North
Borneo[40] have improved upon this by striking a piece of china with
tinder held with it against the outside of a piece of bamboo, the
siliceous coating of the latter yielding a spark like flint. Both of the
methods mentioned are in use at different points in the area affected by
Malay influence.

The Chittagong hill tribes, on the eastern frontier of British India,
use sand on the sawing knife to increase the friction.[41]

The Karens of Burma, Dr. R. M. Luther informs the writer, hollow out a
branch of the _Dipterocarpus_ tree like the lower piece of bamboo spoken
of, cut a transverse notch, and saw across in it with a rubber of
iron-wood. The wood fibers ground off form the tinder; the coal is
wrapped up in a dry leaf and swung around the head till it blazes. It
takes only two or three minutes to get a blaze this way.

Bearing upon the origin of this method of sawing in these localities,
nature is alleged to suggest the way and to repeat the process that
would give to tireless man the hint. Mr. W. T. Hornaday relates that
many fires are started in the jungle by bamboo rubbing together in a
high wind-storm. The creaking is indescribable; the noise of the rasping
and grinding of the horny stems is almost unendurable.

In many tribes it is found that often there is more than one method of
fire-making practiced. For instance, in Borneo, as we have seen, the
Tungaras use the sawing method, the Saribus Dyaks the _besiapi_, or fire
syringe, a most interesting fact,[42] other Dyaks the rotary drill,[43]
while the Rev. Dr. Taylor says that the Dyaks are acquainted with the
use of the bow and string and the upright stick and cord (pump drill).
In connection with all these methods probably flint and steel were used.

    [Illustration: Fig. 42. Malay Fire Sticks.
    (Cat. No. 129775, U. S. N. M. Models in bamboo made by Mr. Hough
    after Prof. A. R. Wallace’s description. The Malay Archipelago, p.
    332.)]

So in Australia, while the rotary drill is the usual way, some tribes
have acquired the art of producing fire with knife or rubber, that is,
the sawing method presumably under foreign influence.[44]



                      III.—FIRE-MAKING BY PLOWING.


One of the most marked of fire-making methods in its distribution is
that pursued by the Pacific Islanders, confined almost entirely to the
Polynesian cultural area. It has spread to other islands, however, being
met with among the Negritos of New Britain:

  They rub a sharpened piece of hard stick against the inside of a piece
  of dried split bamboo. This has a natural dust that soon ignites. They
  use soft wood when no bamboo can be procured, but it takes longer to
  ignite. The flame is fed with grass.[45]

There is a close connection between the Malay sawing method and this, as
there is a decided Malay preponderance in the make-up of the population
of the Islands.

The fire-sticks shown (fig. 43) were procured by Mr. Harold M. Sewall,
at Samoa, and deposited in the museum by him.

The wood is a light corky variety, probably of the _Hibiscus tiliacus_,
which is used for this purpose at Tahiti, or perhaps it is of the paper
mulberry. The rubber may be of some hard wood, although fire may be made
by means of a rubber of the same kind of wood as that of the hearth,
though no doubt it requires a longer time to make fire if this is done.
In the Sandwich Islands, Mr. Franklin Hale Austin, secretary of the
King, states that the rubber is of _koh_ or _ohia_, that is, hard wood
and the hearth of _hon_, or soft wood, and the friction is always in
soft woods; this is true, I believe, everywhere this method is
practiced, in spite of the fact that a soft rubber on hard wood will
answer as well.

Lieut. William I. Moore, U. S. Navy, gave the writer a complete
description of the manipulation of the Samoan fire-getting apparatus.

    [Illustration: Fig. 43. Fire-making Sticks (_a_ Showing Groove).
    (Cat. No. 130675, U. S. N. M. Samoa. Deposited by Harold M.
    Sewall.)]

The blunt pointed stick is taken between the clasped hands, somewhat as
one takes a pen, and projected forward from the body along the groove at
the greatest frictional angle consistent with the forward motion which
has been found to be from 40 to 45 degrees. Kneeling on the stick the
man forces the rubber forward, slowly at first, with a range of perhaps
6 inches, till the wood begins to be ground off and made to go into a
little heap at the end of the groove; then he gradually accelerates the
speed and moves with a shorter range until, when he pushes the stick
with great velocity, the brown dust ignites. This is allowed to glow and
if it is required to be transferred to dry leaves or chips of wood it is
done by means of a tinder made of frayed or worn tapa cloth.

The groove (fig. 43_a_) is the most characteristic feature of this
apparatus, there being apparently no definite form of implements for
this purpose. Fire is made on any billet of dry wood that is available.
It is not necessary to cut a slot, or even a groove, the hard wood
rubber will form one, so that there is no more need of apparatus than
among the Navajos, where two bits of yucca stalk collected near by form
the fire tools.

That making fire by this way is difficult to those inexperienced in it
is not strange. Mr. Darwin found it quite so, but at last succeeded. The
Samoan gets fire in forty seconds, and so great is the friction and the
wood so well adapted that Mr. Austin, before quoted, says it sometimes
actually bursts into flame.

The Australians in some parts use a method very much like the one
described. They rub a knife of wood along a groove made in another stick
previously filled with tinder.[46]



                            IV.—PERCUSSION.


                         1. FLINT AND PYRITES.

  Ac primum silici scintillam excudit Achates
  Suscepitque ignum foliis atque arida circum
  Nutrimenta dedit, rapuitque in fomite flammam.
                                                  (Æneid B. 1, 174-176.)

One of the oldest methods of fire-making that we know of is, that by the
percussion of flint and pyrites. It is believed to have been the
original discovery. If there is any difference in the difficulties of
conception and execution in either of the inventions, it lies in favor
of the sticks of wood.

The distribution of the flint and pyrites method, both in time and
place, is very interesting. Mr. Evans, in his epoch-making work,
“Ancient Stone Implements,” page 14, remarks that the name of pyrites
(πυρ, fire) is itself sufficient evidence of the purpose to which the
mineral was applied in ancient times. Whatever the fact is in Roman
history, the Eskimo calls pyrites firestone, some Indian tribes call
flint firestone, the German name for flint is _feuerstein_, and it is a
reasonable supposition that whatever people used flint or quartz,
pyrites, or other forms of iron ore for making fire, would call the
stone firestone The statement of Pliny that fire was first struck out of
flint by Pyrodé, the son of Cilix, Mr. Evans thinks, is a myth which
points to the use of silex and pyrites, rather than to steel.

Mr. Thomas Wilson calls my attention to a discovery of a pyrites nodule
by M. Gaillard, in a flint workshop on the island of Guiberon in
Brittany. The piece bore traces of use. Mr. Wilson thinks that the
curved flakes of flint like the one figured, found so numerously, were
used with pyrites as strike-a-lights. The comparative rarity of pyrites
is, perhaps, because it is easily decomposed and disintegrates in
unfavorable situations in a short time, so that the absence of pyrites
does not militate against the theory that it was used. A subcylindrical
nodule of pyrites 2½ inches long and bruised at one end was found in the
cave of Les Eyzies, in the valley of Vézère, Perigord, mentioned in
Reliquae Aquitanicæ, page 248. This is supposed to have been a
strike-a-light.

Prof. W. B. Dawkins thinks that—

  In all probability the Cave-man obtained fire by the friction of one
  piece of hard wood upon another, as is now the custom among many
  savage tribes. Sometimes, however, as in the Trou de Chaleux, quoted
  by M. Dupont (Le Temps Prehistorique en Belgique, second edition, page
  153), he may have obtained a light by the friction of a bit of flint
  against a piece of iron pyrites, as is usual with the Eskimos of the
  present day.[47]

Mr. Dawkins also says that fire was obtained in the Bronze Age by
striking a flint flake against a piece of pyrites, sometimes found
together in the tumuli. He figures a strike-a-light from Seven Barrows,
Lambourne, Berks, England, an outline of which is reproduced here for
comparison with the one from Fort Simpson, British Columbia (fig. 44_a_
and _b_). Pyrites has been found in a kitchen-midden at Ventnor, in
connection with Roman pottery.[48] Chambers’s Encyclopædia, article,
Pyrites,[49] is authority for the statement that pyrites was used in
kindling powder in the pans of muskets before the gun flint was
introduced.

It is thus seen that this art has a high antiquity, and that on its
ancient areas its use comes down nearly to the present day, the flint
and steel being its modern or allied form.

In North America this art is distributed among the more northerly
ranging Indian tribes, and the Eskimo of some parts. Its use was and is
yet quite prevalent among the Indians of the Athapascan (formerly Tinné)
stock of the north. By specimens in the Museum, and notes of explorers,
it is found to range from north of Dixon’s Sound to Labrador, the
following localities being represented, viz: Stikine River, Sitka,
Aleutian Islands, Kotzebue Sound, Point Barrow, the Mackenzie River
district, at Fort Simpson, and probably Hershel Island, Pelly Bay,
Melville Peninsula, Smith Sound, and Labrador. The Canadian and
Algonquins strike two pieces of pyrites (_pierres de mine_) together
over an eagle’s thigh, dried with its down, and serving instead of
tinder.[50] From other sources we know that the extinct Beothucs, of
Newfoundland, did the same.[51]

As far as can be ascertained, the Eskimo and Indians both use the
method, so that it is not characteristic of either, as the four-part
drill is of the Eskimo, as contrasted with the simple rotation sticks of
the Indians. A description of a flint and pyrites outfit, as at present
used, will give a general idea of the status of the invention. In
different localities the manipulation differs somewhat, as will be noted
farther on.

    [Illustration: Fig. 44. _a_ Strike-a-light.
    (Seven Barrows, Berks County, England. From Lubbock’s Early Man in
    Britain, p. 258.)
    _b_ Strike-a-light.
    (Cat. No. 1861, U. S. N. M. Indians of Fort Simpson, Mackenzie River
    district, B. C. Collected by B. R. Ross.)]

The strike-a-light (No. 128405) was collected by Capt. E. P. Herendeen
from natives who told him that it came from Cape Bathurst, hence he
assigned the specimen to this locality on the evidence. Mr. John Murdoch
has, with a great deal of probability, questioned this and thinks that
it came from Herschel Island with the rest of Mr. Herendeen’s collection
and did not come from as far east as Cape Bathurst. While there is no
improbability that this method is practiced at Cape Bathurst, yet the
specimen has the appearance of the Mackenzie River strike-a-lights,
hence it is deemed advisable to locate it in the Mackenzie River
district at Herschel Island.

    [Illustration: Fig. 45. 1. Tinder Pocket. 2. Fire Bag. (Part of
    Strike-a-light set).
    (Cat. No. 128405, U. S. N. M. Mackenzie River District, B. C.
    Collected by E. P. Herendeen.)]

The essential parts of the apparatus are a piece of pyrites, a piece of
flint and tinder. In the more northern parts of the Eskimo area, tinder
is made from the down from the stems and catkins of various species of
dwarf arctic willows. At present the natives often soak the tinder in a
strong solution of gunpowder and water to make it quick; an older way
was to mix powdered charcoal with it. This plan is like the charring of
the linen rags used in the old-fashioned tinder boxes of forty years
ago. The Eskimo then puts the tinder into a little round, flat pouch,
with a flap in the middle (fig. 45, 1).

    [Illustration: Fig. 46. 3. Pyrites. 4, 4_a_. Flint Striker and
    Handle. (Part of Strike-a-light set.)
    (Cat. No. 128405, U. S. N. M. Mackenzie River District, B. C.
    Collected by E. P. Herendeen.)]

The pyrites (fig. 46, 3) looks like a short pestle, too much of which
appearance the repeated scraping has no doubt given rise. The upper end
is concave, while the lower end has the original smooth surface of the
concretion. Pyrite is found at Point Barrow in spherical masses of
various sizes up to several pounds in weight. These spheres are nearly
always cracked in two and scraped on the plane surface for very obvious
reasons. This gives the shape seen in Fort Simpson and Long Barrows
specimen. Mr. Murdoch says that the Eskimo think that pyrites comes down
from above in meteors. They call it “firestone.” A native related that
in old times they did not use flint, but two pieces of pyrites, and got
“big fire.”

The flint (fig. 46, 4) is an oblong piece of chert, square at the base
and rounded at the forward end. It is more elaborately made than the
flakes so numerous in Europe, one of which was found with the piece of
pyrites in the English Barrows. The Mackenzie River scraper is more like
the curved ancient one (fig. 44_b_). In most cases the flints used are
not mounted in a handle; this specimen, however, is fixed in a handle
made of two pieces of wood held together by a thong of sealskin (fig.
46, 4_a_).

The bag (fig. 45, 2) is made of reindeer skin. The little bag that hangs
from the larger has a double use; it is a receptacle for reserve tinder,
but its chief use is for a toggle; being passed under the belt it
prevents the loss of the outfit, which is said to be carried by the
women.

An oblong pad, stuffed with deer hair, is sewed to the mouth of the
fire-bag to protect the hand from sparks and blows of the flint.

To get a spark, the Eskimo places (fig. 47) the piece of pyrites on the
pad held in the left hand over the curved forefinger, the large end down
and the thumb set in the cup shaped cavity in the top. The flap of the
tinder pocket is turned back and held on the forefinger under the
protecting pad. The flint is held in the right hand and by a scraping
motion little pieces of pyrites at a dull red heat fall down into the
tinder. The pellet that glows is transferred to the pipe or fire, and
the flap of the tinder pocket is turned down, serving to keep the tinder
dry and to extinguish it if necessary.[52]

    [Illustration: Fig. 47. Method of Using the Strike-a-light.
    (Cat. No. 128405, U. S. N. M. Drawing by W. H. Burger.)]

There comes in here appropriately a note of B. R. Ross on the burial
customs of the Kutchin Indians of the eastern Athapascan stock. He says:

  They bury with the dead a flint fastened to a stick, a stone to strike
  it on (pyrites) to make fire, and a piece of the fungus that grows on
  the birch tree for tinder and some touch-wood also.[53]

There is no mention of this process of fire-making by the older writers
on Greenland, Cranz and Egede, though they carefully note and describe
the plan by wood-boring. Later explorers going higher north in western
Greenland have found it. Dr. Emil Bessels, writing about the Itah Eskimo
of Smith Sound, says:

  The catkins of the arctic willow are used as tinder to catch the
  sparks which have been produced through the grinding of two pieces of
  stone.[54]

Dr. E. K. Kane gives a more complete account from nearly the same
locality, the Arctic Highlands of northwest Greenland. He says that the
Eskimo of Anoatok struck fire from two stones, one a plain piece of
angular milky quartz, held in the right hand, the other apparently an
oxide of iron [pyrites or iron ore?] They were struck together after the
true tinder-box fashion, throwing a scanty supply of sparks on a tinder
composed of the silky down of the willow catkins (_Salix lanata_) which
he held on a lump of dried moss.[55]

Very much farther west on Melville Peninsula Parry gives a complete and
interesting description of the primitive way. This account gives us a
link between the western and eastern Eskimo. He writes:

  For the purpose of obtaining fire, the Eskimo use two lumps of common
  pyrites, from which sparks are struck into a little leathern case (see
  fig. 25, pl. LXXIV) containing moss well dried and rubbed between the
  hands. If this tinder does not readily catch, a small quantity of the
  white floss of the seed of the ground willow is laid above the moss.
  As soon as a spark has caught it is gently blown till the fire has
  spread an inch around, when the pointed end of a piece of wick being
  applied, it soon bursts into a flame, the whole process having
  occupied perhaps two or three minutes.[56]

The Museum was in possession of a specimen catalogued, “Moss-bag and
lumps of pyrites used by Innuit for getting fire,” collected by Capt. C.
F. Hall at Pelly Bay, in latitude 69°, longitude 90°, several degrees
west of Melville Peninsula.

The only other record of the process under consideration among the
Eskimo is found in the Aleutian Islands. There is absolutely no evidence
had by the writer that the Eskimo south of Kotzebue Sound (Western
Eskimo) use the pyrites and flint for making fire. The latest
information about the Aleutian Islanders is given in a manuscript of the
careful explorer, Mr. Lucien M. Turner. His observation will serve to
explain the description of striking a light by earlier travelers.

  They use the four part drill but they also use pyrites. A stone
  containing quartz and pyrites is struck against another similar one,
  or a beach pebble, into a mass of sea bird down sprinkled with
  powdered sulphur. This ignites and is quickly caught on finely
  shredded blades of grass or beaten stalks of wild parsnips. This
  method prevails to this day on the islands west of Unalashka.

The people told Mr. Turner that this was the ancient way. There is a
doubt in the writer’s mind that Sauer’s (Billing’s Expedition, page 59),
and Campbell’s (Voyage, page 59) observations, brought together by
Bancroft,[57] were accurate with regard to the stones used. All the
other details are correct, but they say they took two pieces of quartz,
rubbed them with sulphur, and struck them together. It is well known
that pieces of quartz even when rubbed with sulphur will not strike a
spark of sufficient heat to cause ignition. The pieces used must have
been pyritiferous quartz as noticed by Mr. L. M. Turner.

To resume, the following facts arise out of the foregoing considerations
of the flint and pyrites method:

(1) It is very ancient, inferring from the few reliable finds of pyrites
and flint in juxtaposition.

(2) Its distribution is among high northern tribes, both Eskimo and
Indian.

(3) As far as known, its range is limited to this area, only one other
instance coming to our notice, that of the Fuegians.


                          2. FLINT AND STEEL.

The flint and pyrites method is the ancestor of the flint and steel. The
latter method came in with the Iron Age. It is found in the early
settlements of that period. A steel for striking fire was found in the
pile dwellings of the Ueberlinger See.[58] The Archæological Department
of the Museum has a specimen of a strike-a-light of the early age of
iron in Scandinavia. It is a flat, oval quartz stone with a groove
around the edge; it is thought to be for holding a strap by which it
could be held up and struck along the flat surface with the steel. It is
scored on these surfaces. The specimen in the Smithsonian is from the
national museum at Stockholm. In Egypt it is believed to have been used
for a long period, though there is no data at hand to support the
conclusion.[59] In China it has been in use for many centuries. Chinese
history, however, goes back to the use of sticks of wood. The _briquet_
must have been carried nearly everywhere by early commerce from the
ancient countries around the Mediterranean, as it was into new lands by
later commerce.

Many persons remember the tinder-box that was taken from its warm nook
beside the fire-place whenever a light was wanted; the matches tipped
with sulphur used to start a blaze from the glowing tinder are also
familiar to the older generation. The tinder-boxes in use in this
country were just like those in England from time immemorial down to
fifty years ago (fig. 48). Mr. Edward Lovett, of Croydon, England, who
has studied this matter thoroughly, calls attention to the resemblance
of the old English tinder-flints to the neolithic scrapers. These
scrapers, picked up at Brandon, can scarcely be discriminated from those
made at the present time at that place, and there is a suspicion that
the present tinder-flint has come down directly from neolithic times.
The old English steel, or “Flourish,” (fig. 48) is the characteristic
shape, and has been carried by English commerce into many places. A
picture of a strike-a-light used by the Lenguas of Brazil, seen lately,
shows the unmistakable old “flourish.”

    [Illustration: Fig. 48. English Tinder-box (with flint, “flourish,”
    and bundle of spunks.)
    (Cat. No 75516, U. S. N. M. England. Collected by Louis and Maurice
    Farmer.)]

The tinder-boxes had also a damper to extinguish the tinder of burnt
linen and to keep it dry. The lids were furnished often with a candle
socket. This feature, says Mr. Lovett, has led to their preservation as
candle-sticks long after they were superseded by matches.

    [Illustration: Fig 49. Wheel Tinder-box.
    (Cat No. 130431, U. S. N. M. Broadalbin, N. Y. Presented by F. S.
    Hawley.)]

Many devices were invented in order to improve on the crude way of
holding the flint and steel in the hands to strike the spark into the
tinder-box. One of these was the wheel tinder-box (fig. 49). The
compartment near the wheel held the tinder. The flint was placed in a
socket on the sliding lid, and the wheel was turned by unwinding a
string from off its axle with a sharp pull as in spinning a top. The
flint was pressed against the rapidly revolving wheel and a shower of
sparks fell into the tinder. The tinder pistol, whose name suggests its
use, was another device.[60]

Other devices were intended to be carried in the pocket, and were
probably brought out by the introduction of tobacco and the need of
smokers for a convenient light.

    [Illustration: Fig. 50. Strike-a-light (Briquet).
    (Cat. No 129693, U. S. N. M. Boulogne-sur-mer. France. Collected by
    Edward Lovett.)]

The pocket strike-a-light is still used. The one shown (fig. 50) was
bought in 1888 by Mr. E. Lovett, at Boulogne-sur-mer. They are still
used by the peasants and work-people of France. An old specimen in the
Museum of this character is from Lima. The roll of tinder, or “match,”
is made of the soft inner bark of a tree.

Among many of our North American tribes the flint and steel superseded
the wooden drills as effectually as did the iron points the stone
arrow-heads.

Some of these tribes were ripe for the introduction of many modern
contrivances. Civilized methods of fire-lighting appealed to them at
once. Among the Chukchis, Nordenskiöld says, matches had the honor of
being the first of the inventions of the civilized races that have been
recognized as superior to their own.[61] It was so among our Indian
tribes; the Mandan chief “Four Bears” lighted his pipe by means of a
flint and steel taken from his pouch when George Catlin visited him in
1832.[62]

The Otoes (Siouan stock) made use of the flint and steel shown in fig.
51. The flint is a chipped piece of gray chert, probably an ancient
implement picked up from the surface.

The steel is a very neatly made oval, resembling those of the Albanian
strike-a-lights,[63] or the Koordish pattern, (fig. 54). Here arises one
of the perplexities of modern intercourse, perhaps both of these steels
were derived from the same commercial center.

The flint, steel, and tinder were always carried in a pouch, usually
suspended from a belt as in specimen No. 8481 from the Assiniboins
(Siouan stock) of Dakota. This is a buckskin waist-belt, beaded and
fringed, ornamented with bells of tin. It supports a flapped pouch for
the flint, etc. The tinder used was fungus.

    [Illustration: Fig. 51. Flint and Steel.
    (Cat. No. 22431, U. S. N. M. Otoe Indiana, Kansas and Nebraska.
    Collected by J. W. Griest.)]

The pouch of the Cheyennes (Algonquian stock) is compact, and neatly
made of leather (fig. 52). The equipment is complete and of a superior
order. The bone cup is used to hold the tinder while striking a spark
into it. It is the tinder horn of early days, a cow’s horn which was
used to hold tinder before sheet-iron boxes came into use. The Lenguas
of Brazil use a horn for the same purpose.[64] In the Aino set, (fig.
57), and the Eskimo strike-a-light, (fig. 45), can be seen this feature.
The tinder with this set is rotten wood. Nearly all Indians know the
value of fungus tinder.

The Comanche Indian strike-a-light is a similar pouch to the one
described, but much poorer in equipment (fig. 53.) A broken rasp, a
piece of chert, and a piece of spunk, is enough for the purpose, and a
bag made from a saddle skirt to hold them, completes the outfit.

The flint and steel is still used nearly all over Mexico, Dr. Palmer
informs me. There is at present a manufacture of gun and strike-a-light
flints at Brandon, England, whence they are shipped to Spain, Mexico,
Italy, and other civilized countries. Doubtless this flint from
Guadalajara (fig. 54) came from Brandon. It is real calcareous flint,
such as does not exist in this country. The flint is the “swallow-tail”
pattern. The tinder is of prepared fungus sold in little packets.

    [Illustration: Fig. 52. Strike-a-light (flint, steel, tinder-horn,
    spunk, and pouch).
    (Cat. No. 22104, U. S. N. M. Cheyenne Indians, Arkansas. Collected
    by Dr. J. H. Barry.)]

The Koords of Bhotan, Eastern Turkey, carry a pipe pouch containing
besides flint, steel, and tinder, a pipe pick and a pair of pincers, to
transfer the lighted tinder to the pipe (fig. 55). The tinder is
prepared from a fungus, probably _polyporus_ species. The steel, shaped
like an old-fashioned bell pull, is a very good form for holding in the
hand.

    [Illustration: Fig. 53. Strike-a-light. (Pouch for holding flint and
    steel.)
    (Cat. No. 6972, U. S. N. M. Comanche Indians, Texas. Collected by
    Edward Palmer.)]

The Chinese strike-a-light is the customary appendage to the pipe pouch.
It is a very ingenious way of combining the steel with a pouch in which
to keep the flint and tinder (fig. 56). In Thibet they are made very
large and are finely decorated. One owned by Mr. W. W. Rockhill has a
curving steel between 5 and 6 inches long, finely carved. The pouch was
trimmed with encrusted silver set with jewels.

The Ainos of Japan use flint and steel for striking-a-light, this method
having supplanted the generation of fire by sticks (p. 551.) This outfit
shown (fig. 57, pl. LXXXI) is complete. The shoe-shaped steel is
attached by a piece of sinew to the cork of a small wooden bottle
containing the soft charcoal used as tinder. The flint is a small piece
of ferruginous silex. With this set is a piece of stick which retains
fire for a long time. It is the root of the _Ulmus campestris_, or
_lævis_, formerly used for the fire-drill (see fig. 17), but has come
into a secondary place since the introduction of the flint and steel.

    [Illustration: Fig. 54. Flint and Steel.
    (Cat. No 126576, U. S. N. M. Guadalajara Indiana, Mexico. Collected
    by Edward Palmer.)]

    [Illustration: Fig. 55. Smokers’ Pipe-lighting Outfit (showing
    flint, steel, pipe-pick, and pincers).
    (Cat. No. 130607, U. S. N. M. Koords of Bhotan, eastern Turkey.
    Collected by Rev. A. N. Andrus.)]

    [Illustration: Fig. 56. Strike-a-light.
    (Cat. No. 130311, U. S. N. M. China. Gift of George G. Fryer.)]


                              Plate LXXXI.

    [Illustration: Fig. 57. Strike-a-light. Flint, steel, tinder-box,
    and rush-pouch.
    Cat. No. 22257, U. S. N. M. Ainos of Yezo, Japan. Collected by B. S.
    Lyman.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 58.]

    [Illustration: Fig. 59. Tinder-Box (showing mounted steel, flint,
    and bundle of shaving matches; box one-third natural size).
    (Cat. No. 127137, U. S. N. M. Japan. Gift of the Japanese Department
    of Education, Tokio.)]

To strike a light the Aino takes out the cork with the steel attached
and stirs up the tinder with the sharp point. He then holds up the flint
in his hand over the box and strikes a spark down into it. He then
transfers the coal to his pipe, or material for fire, or fire-stick,
with the point of the steel. These articles are kept in a rush pouch of
twined weaving. A much ruder pouch of fishskin is in the Museum.

The Japanese tinder-box has two compartments, one with a damper for the
tinder, and the other larger one for the flint and steel. This box is a
familiar object in Japanese kitchens yet. The mounting of the steel in
wood is an improvement on holding it between the fingers (fig. 58 and
59). No one it seems ever thought of so mounting the steel in Western
countries. The matches are broad shavings tipped at both ends with
sulphur, and are the Japanese rendering of the “spunks” used with our
tinder-box.

    [Illustration: Fig. 60. Smokers’ Strike-a-light.
    (Cat. No. 128138, U. S. N. M. Tokio, Japan. Gift of the Japanese
    Department of Education.)]

Smokers in Japan carry a very small strike-a-light (fig. 60). The cloth
pouch with a long flap that can be rolled around several times and tied,
contains the three essentials, flint, steel, and tinder, the latter of
burnt cotton.


               _List of specimens described and figured._

               Catalog Name.           Localities and       Collector.
                   No.                 Tribes.

  Text fig. 1    74379 Fire-making set Sitkans, Alaska      John J. McLean.
            2    20644      do         Bella Bella,         James G. Swan.
                                       British Columbia.
            3   127866      do         Quinaielts,          Charles Willoughby.
                                       Washington
            4    24096      do         Klamaths, Oregon     L. S. Dyar.
            5    77193      do         Hupas, California    Lieut. P. H. Ray,
                                                            U. S. Army.
            6    19640 Hearth          Washoes, Nevada.     Stephen Powers.
            7    17230 Fire-making set Pai-Utes, Southern   Maj. J. W. Powell.
                                       Utah
            8    11976      do            do                    Do.
            9    22022      do         Wind River Shoshones     Do.
           10   128694      do         Mokis, Arizona       Mrs. Tilly E.
                                                            Stevenson.
           11   127708      do         Zuñi, New Mexico     Col. James
                                                            Stevenson.
           12    69850 Slow match,        do                    Do.
                       punk
           13    25268 Hearth from     Silver City, New     Henry Metcalf.
                       cave            Mexico
           14   130672 Hearth          Apaches, Arizona     Capt. Jno. G.
                                                            Bourke, U.S. Army.
           15     9555 Fire-making set Navajos, New Mexico  Dr. E. Palmer.
           16    15396      do         Costa Rica           W. M. Gabb.
           17   129970      do         Ainos, Japan         Peabody Museum, D.
                                                            P. Penhallow.
           18     [65] Sacred          Idzumo, Japan        R. Hitchcock.
                       fire-drill
           19   129971 Fire-making set Somalis, East Africa Peabody Museum, Dr.
                                                            Chas. Pickering.
           20          Taveita men
                       making fire.
    Pl. LXXIV  {10258} Fire tools      Frobisher Bay and    L. Kumlein.
                                       Cumberland Gulf.
           21
                {9833}
           22
               {10295}
           23                                               Capt. C. F. Hall.
               {14252}
           24   {34114 Boring set         do                L. Kumlein.
 Text fig. 25          Fire drill      East Greenland       From Holm and Garde.
           26          Boring set         do                    Do.
  Pl. LXXV 27    10128 Fire Bag        Holsteinberg, West   Capt. C. F. Hall.
                                       Greenland.
 Text fig. 28     1978 Hearth with     Mackenzie River      B. R. Ross.
                       cement
           29     1963 Hearth             do                    Do.
           30     1327 Fire drill      Anderson River       C. P. Gaudet.
           31    89822 Fire-making set Point Barrow, Alaska Lieut. P. H. Ray,
                                                            U.S. Army.
 Pl. LXXVI 32   {89500 Boring set         do                    Do.
                {89630
                {89424
   Pl. LXXVII   {25021      do         Sledge Island,       E. W. Nelson.
           33                          Alaska
                {44978
                {45108
 Text fig. 34    33166 Fire-making set Norton Sound, Alaska     Do.
           35    38601 Hearth          Cape Vancouver,          Do.
                                       Alaska
  Pl. LXXVIII   {37961 Fire-making set Chalitmute, Alaska       Do.
           36
                {36325
 Pl. LXXIX 37   127520  do             Kassianamute, Alaska I. Applegate.
 Text fig. 38  127819a      do         Koggiung, Bristol    W. J. Fisher.
                                       Bay, Alaska.
           39  127819b      do              do                  Do.
  Pl. LXXX 40    55938 Fire-making set Bristol Bay, Alaska  Charles L. McKay.
 Text fig. 41    72514 Hearth and      Kadiak Island,       W. J. Fisher.
                       drill           Alaska
           42   129775 Fire sticks     Malays               After Wallace.
                       (model)
           43   130675     do          Samoa                Harold M. Sewall.
           44     1861 Strike-a-light  Fort Simpson,        B. R. Ross.
                                       British Columbia.
          45}   128405      do         Mackenzie River      E. P. Herendeen.
                                       District
          46}
          47}
           48    75516 Tinder-box      England              L. and M. Farmer.
           49   130431 Wheel           Broadalbin, New York F. S. Hawley.
                       tinder-box
           50   129693 Strike-a-light  Boulogne-sur-mer,    Edward Lovett.
                                       France
           51   {22431 Flint and steel Otoes, Kansas        J. W. Griest.
                  Belt Assiniboins,    Dr. J. P. Kimball.
        {8481     with Dakota
                flint,
                steel,
                  etc.
           52    22104 Strike-a-light  Cheyennes, Arkansas  Dr. W. H. Barry.
           53     6972     do          Comanches, Texas     Dr. E. Palmer.
           54   126576 Flint and steel Guadalajara              Do.
                                       Indians, Mexico.
           55   130607 Pipe-lighting   Koords, East Turkey  Rev. A. N. Andrus.
                       outfit
           56   130311 Strike-a-light  China                George G. Fryer.
 Pl. LXXXI 57    22257   do            Ainos, Japan         B. S. Lyman.
    Text fig.   128137 Tinder-box      Japan                Japanese Department
          58}                                               of Education.
          59}
           60   128138 Strike-a-light      do                   Do.



                               Footnotes


[1]Lafitau.—Moeurs des Sauvages Ameriquains. Paris 1724. II p. 242, 243.

[2]Schweinfurth. The Heart of Africa. New York, 1874. I, p. 257.

[3]Swan.—Northwest Coast, p. 248.

[4]Bancroft.—Native Races. I., p. 237.

[5]Kane.—Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians. London, 1859.

[6]Smithsonian Report. 1885. Pt. ii, p. 723.

[7]American Antiquarian. Mendon, Illinois, September, 1886. VIII, p.
    283.

[8]Smithsonian Report. 1865. p. 367.

[9]Dr. Matthews’s mountain chant of the Navajos, in the fifth annual
    report (1883-’84) of the Bureau of Ethnology, gives some very
    striking ceremonial uses of fire. No ethnologist should fail to read
    this important contribution to science.

[10]The Aborigines of Hispaniola. J. Anthrop., Inst. Gt. Britain and
    Ireland, XVI, p. 282.

[11]G. Benzoni.—History of the New World. Hakluyt Society, XXI, p. 151.

[12]Smith.—The Natural Inhabitants of Virginia. English Scholars’
    Library. No. 16, p. 68.

[13]Beverley.—History of Virginia. 1722. 197, 198.

[14]Loskiel.—History of the Mission of the United Brethren. London,
    1794. p. 54.

[15]Benj. Hawkins’ Sketch of the Creek Country. 1798-’99. 68-72, cited
    in Pickett’s History of Alabama. I, p. 108.

[16]Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology. 1883-’84. p. 518.

[17]The George Catlin Indian Gallery. Smithsonian Report. 1885. II, p.
    456.

[18]Schoolcraft.—Indian Tribes. 1851-60. III, Pl. 28.

[19]Smithsonian Report. 1885. II, p. 315.

[20]Sir Daniel Wilson.—Prehistoric Man. II, p. 375.

[21]Darwin.—Narrative of the voyage of the Beagle. III, p. 458. Cited in
    Early History of Mankind. p. 241.

[22]Dr. Emil Hassler.—In Jahrbuch Mittelschweiz. Commerciel. Gesellsch.
    Arau, Zweiter Band. 1888. 114, 115.

[23]Harper’s Monthly Magazine. Nov. 1853. VII, p. 745.

[24]Trans. Asiat. Soc. Japan. 1878, vi. Pt. II, p. 223.

[25]J. Anthrop. Inst. Great Britain and Ireland. 1885. XV, p. 10.

[26]Proc. Royal Soc. Edinburgh. Session of 1883-’84. p. 309.

[27]Schweinfurth.—The Heart of Africa. New York, 1874. I, 531, 532.

[28]J. G. Wood.—The Natural History of Man. I, p. 101.

[29]Mason.—Throwing-sticks in the National Museum. Smithsonian Report.
    1884. II,  p. 279.

[30]Nordenskiöld.—Voyage of the _Vega_. London, 1881. II, p. 121.

[31]Seebohm.—Siberia in Asia. p. 109.

[32]Trans. Ethnol. Soc. London, 1861. p. 140.

[33]Hind.—Labrador. I, p. 149.

[34]Danish Umiak Expedition to Eastern Greenland, 1888. p. 28. Plate XIV
    contains the figure.

[35]Danish Umiak Expedition. Preliminary Report, p. 208. This seems
    scarcely what would be inferred from the development of these
    inventions.

[36]Hakluyt Society. III, p. 104.

[37]Die amerikanische Nordpol-Expedition. Leipzig. p. 358.

[38]Nordenskiöld.—Voyage of the _Vega_. London, 1881. II, 121, 122.

[39]Nordenskiöld.—Voyage of the _Vega_. London, 1881. II, 120, 121.

[40]D. D. Daly.—Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. 1888. p. 10.

[41]Capt. T. H. Lewis.—Hill tribes of Chittagong. Calcutta, 1869. p. 83.

[42]The American Anthropologist. Washington, 1888. I, No. 3, p. 294.

[43]J. G. Wood.—The Natural History of Man. II, p. 502.

[44]R. Brough Smith.—The Aborigines of Victoria. London, 1878. I, p.
    393.

[45]W. Powell.—Wanderings in a Wild Country, p. 206.

[46]R. Brough Smith.—The Aborigines of Victoria. London, 1878. I, p.
    394.

[47]Dawkins.—Early Man in Britain. London. p. 210.

[48]_Loc. cit._, p. 258.

[49]J. Anthrop. Inst. Great Britain and Ireland. VII, p. 83.

[50]Lafitan.—Moeurs des Sauvages Ameriquains. p. 272. An earlier account
    is found in Le Jeune, Relation de 1634, p. 24. Quebec, 1858.

[51]J. Anthrop. Inst. Great Britain and Ireland, v, p. 225.

[52]Extracted from an article by the author in Proceedings U. S.
    National Museum, XI, 1888,181-4.

[53]Smithsonian Report. 1860. p. 326.

[54]Die amerikanische Nordpol-Expedition. Leipzig, 1879. p. 358.

[55]Kane.—Arctic Explorations. I, p. 379.

[56]Parry.—Second Voyage. London, 1824. p. 504.

[57]Bancroft.—Native Races of the Pacific States. I, p. 91.

[58]Keller.—Swiss Lake Dwellings. Pl. xxviii, fig. 29.

[59]Sir J. W. Dawson gives an interesting account of the strike-a-light
    flints used in Egypt in 1844, in Modern Science in Bible Lands, p.
    30.

[60]See figure in D. Bruce Peebles’s address on Illumination, in Trans.
    Roy. Scottish Society of Arts, Edinburgh, XII., part I, p. 96.

[61]Nordenskiöld.—Voyage of the _Vega_, II, p. 122.

[62]The George Catlin Indian Gallery. Smithsonian Report. 1885. II, p.
    456.

[63]See figure in Jour. Anthrop. Inst. Great Britain, XVI, 1886, p. 67.

[64]See figure in Jahrbuch Mittelschweiz. Commercial. Gesellsch, Arau,
    Zweiter Band, 1888, pp. 114-115.

[65]From photograph.



                          Transcriber’s Notes


—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—Corrected a few palpable typographical errors.

—The “List of Specimens” was not consistent with figure captions; there
  was no obvious fix, and none was attempted.

—Added one section heading, “3. Iroquois Weighted Drill” to make section
  headings (but not section order) consistent with the introductory
  classification.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Fire-making Apparatus" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home