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Title: Common Trees of Pennsylvania
Author: Mickalitis, A. B., Aughenbaugh, J. E., Morris, C. L., Ibberson, J. E.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Common Trees of Pennsylvania" ***

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                           COMMON TREES _of_
                              PENNSYLVANIA


  J. E. Ibberson, A. B. Mickalitis, J. E. Aughanbaugh and C. L. Morris

                            ILLUSTRATIONS BY
                             J. M. Francis


                      COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA
                                  · ·
                 DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES
                        HARRISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA


 [Illustration: DIAGRAM SHOWING FUNCTIONS OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF A TREE
    Courtesy of the _New Tree Experts Manual_ by Richard R. Fenska]

  MEDULLARY RAYS
    CONDUCT FOOD AND WATER RADIALLY, SERVE IN FOOD STORAGE
  PITH
  ANNUAL RINGS
    INDICATE GROWTH, NORMALLY ONE RING PER YEAR
  LEAVES
    THE AIR SUPPLIES CARBON, THE PRINCIPAL FOOD OF THE TREE, WHICH IS
          TAKEN IN ON THE UNDER SURFACE OF THE LEAVES.
  HEARTWOOD (INACTIVE CELLS)
    ADDS STRUCTURAL SUPPORT
  SAPWOOD
    CARRIES FOOD AND WATER UPWARD
  CAMBIUM
    GROWING LAYER, CELLS DIVIDE HERE TO FORM BOTH BARK AND WOOD.
  INNER BARK
    CARRIES FOOD MADE IN THE LEAVES DOWNWARD TO CAMBIUM AND STORAGE
          CELLS.
  OUTER BARK
    INACTIVE CELLS FORM PROTECTION FOR INNER BARK
  SOIL
    BACTERIA AND FUNGI MAKE AVAILABLE SOIL NUTRIENTS
  ROOTS
    ABSORB FOOD ELEMENTS THROUGH THE TINY ROOT HAIRS, ALSO PROVIDE
          ANCHORAGE



                                FOREWORD


The purpose of this booklet is to make the reader’s life more enjoyable
by being able to identify, through leaf, twig and bark characteristics,
the important trees of Pennsylvania at various seasons of the year.

Today, more than ever before, trees play an increasingly important part
in our lives.

Trees produce wood, one of the essentials of our everyday life. The uses
for wood are rapidly increasing.

Trees provide shade and solace for man; they help to beautify the places
where we live; help purify the air we breathe and the water we drink;
enrich the soil and retard the earth from sliding into our streams, and
provide food and shelter for wildlife.

In a few words: Trees live to give.

We sincerely hope the brief study of tree features described in this
publication will help you to develop a closer feeling for our mutual
friends of the plant kingdom—the trees of our land.

  Many a tree is found in the wood,
  And every tree for its use is good;
  Some for the strength of the gnarled root,
  Some for the sweetness of flower or fruit;
  Some for shelter against the storm,
  And some to keep the hearthstone warm,
  Some for the roof and some for the beam,
  And some for a boat to breast the storm;
  In the wealth of the wood since the world began
  The trees have offered their gifts to man.
                                                         —HENRY VAN DYKE


                      COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA
                 Department of Environmental Resources
                            Harrisburg, 1971



                              INTRODUCTION


Pennsylvania, with its unique geographical position, has 102 kinds of
trees native to the State, although there are numerous introduced
species growing and thriving in this latitude and climate. In addition,
at least 21 large native shrubs sometimes grow to tree size and form.

Less than half of these native trees are presently classified as
important timber species. But research in wood uses is rapidly
progressing and some of the so-called “weed trees” may assume
considerable importance in the future.

The selection of 50 native trees and 4 introduced species described in
this booklet was based chiefly on numerical occurrence and value for
timber, shade or ornamental purposes.

The first two plates (pages iv and v) show the types and arrangements of
leaves. Outstanding features of individual trees are described in
simplified wording and illustrated by accompanying sketches.

Interesting is the fact that pine cones and acorns of the “red or black”
oaks ripen in two seasons while fruit from all other trees discussed
herein mature in one season.

It is commonly known that no two persons are exactly alike in physical
makeup. This is also true of trees since there is some variation in the
features within each species.



                 EXPLANATION OF WORDS, TERMS AND SIGNS
                   WHICH MAY BE UNFAMILIAR TO READERS


Common and scientific names are from “Standardized Plant Names, 1942.”

  _Capsule._ A dry fruit which contains more than one seed and splits
          open when ripe.
  _Catkin._ A compound bloom consisting of scaly bracts and flowers
          usually of one sex.
  _Downy._ With very short and weak soft hairs.
  _Drupe._ A fleshy one-seeded fruit, with the seed enclosed by a hard
          covering.
  _Evergreen_ (leaves). Remaining green throughout the year (older
          leaves die after 2-15 years).
  _Fissure._ _Furrow._ A groove or crack.
  _Leaflet._ A leaflike part or blade of a compound leaf.
  _Leaf Scar._ A mark or impression at the point where a leaf had been
          attached.
  _Lenticel._ A pore on young trunks and branches through which air
          passes to interior cells.
  _Lobe_ (of a leaf). A division or projecting part.
  _Pith._ The spongy material in the center of twigs and young trunks.
  _Stalked._ Having a stem.
  _Witches’-broom._ Abnormal bushy growth of small branches.
  _Whorl._ Three or more leaves or other parts encircling a stem at
          about the same point.

  _Small-sized tree._ Usually not over 40′ in height when mature.
  _Medium-sized tree._ Usually not over 60′ in height when mature.
  _Large-sized tree._ Usually over 60′ in height when mature.

  ″ Inch or inches.
  ′ Foot or feet.


                    [Illustration: Types of Leaves]

                            _NON-EVERGREEN_
  SIMPLE
    ALL SPECIES INCLUDED IN TEXT, AND NOT LISTED ON THIS PLATE, HAVE
          SIMPLE LEAVES
  COMPOUND
    ASH, BLACK
    ASH, WHITE
    BUTTERNUT
    HICKORY, BITTERNUT
    HICKORY, MOCKERNUT
    HICKORY, PIGNUT
    HICKORY, SHAGBARK
    HICKORY, SHELLBARK
    HONEYLOCUST, COMMON
    LOCUST, BLACK
    WALNUT, EASTERN BLACK
  PALMATELY COMPOUND
    HORSECHESTNUT, COMMON
                              _EVERGREEN_
    HEMLOCK, EASTERN
    LARCH, EASTERN (_Non-evergreen, single needles arranged in
          spirals.—See text._)
    SPRUCE, NORWAY
    SPRUCE, RED
    REDCEDAR, EASTERN
    PINE, RED
    PINE, VIRGINIA
    PINE, PITCH
    PINE, EASTERN WHITE


        [Illustration: Arrangement of Leaves and Buds on Twigs]

  OPPOSITE
    ASH, BLACK
    ASH, WHITE
    DOGWOOD, FLOWERING
    HORSECHESTNUT, COMMON
    MAPLE, NORWAY
    MAPLE, RED
    MAPLE, SILVER
    MAPLE, SUGAR
  ALTERNATE
    ASPEN, BIGTOOTH
    ASPEN, QUAKING
    BEECH, AMERICAN
    BIRCH, GRAY
    BIRCH, PAPER
    BIRCH, RIVER
    BIRCH, SWEET
    BIRCH, YELLOW
    BLACKGUM
    BUTTERNUT
    CHERRY, BLACK
    ELM, AMERICAN
    ELM, SLIPPERY
    HACKBERRY, COMMON
    HICKORY, BITTERNUT
    HICKORY, MOCKERNUT
    HICKORY, PIGNUT
    HICKORY, SHAGBARK
    HICKORY, SHELLBARK
    HONEYLOCUST, COMMON
    LINDEN, AMERICAN
    LOCUST, BLACK
    MAGNOLIA, CUCUMBERTREE
    OAK, BLACK
    OAK, CHESTNUT
    OAK, EASTERN RED
    OAK, PIN
    OAK, SCARLET
    OAK, WHITE
    PAWPAW, COMMON
    PERSIMMON, COMMON
    PLANETREE, AMERICAN
    SASSAFRAS, COMMON
    TULIPTREE
    WALNUT, BLACK
    WILLOW, BLACK
  WHORLED
    CATALPA, NORTHERN


                     [Illustration: EASTERN HEMLOCK
                         (_Tsuga canadensis_)]

Leaves:    _Evergreen needles_ occur singly, spirally arranged on twigs
but appear 2-ranked; flattened, about ½″ long; dark green, glossy and
often grooved above: light green with 2 white lines below.

Twigs:    Slender, rough, yellowish brown to grayish brown. _Buds_
egg-shaped, ¹/₁₆″ long, reddish brown.

Fruit:    A _cone_, ¾″ long, egg-shaped; hangs singly from the tips of
the twigs; usually remains attached all winter after ripening in the
fall. Under each rounded scale are 2 small winged seeds.

General:    _Bark_ on young trees flaky, thick and roughly grooved when
old, grayish brown to reddish brown; used in tanning; inner bark
cinnamon-red. A _large_ tree, long-lived; shade-enduring. _Wood_ is
important for construction lumber.


_The_ Eastern Hemlock _is the official State Tree of the Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania_.


                   [Illustration: EASTERN WHITE PINE
                           (_Pinus strobus_)]

Leaves:    _Evergreen needles_ in clusters of 5, soft, flexible,
3-sided, 2½″-5″ long, bluish green in appearance due to whitish lines.
This is the only 5-needle pine native to Pennsylvania.

Twigs:    Slender, flexible, with rusty hairs when young, finally
smooth. _Buds_ egg-shaped, usually less than ½″ long; gray-brown.

Fruit:    A _cone_, 5″-8″ long, about 1″ thick, no prickles, stalked,
drooping, slightly curved, resinous, remains attached for one to several
months after ripening in autumn of second season. Each scale usually
bears 2 winged seeds which is characteristic of all native pines.

General:    _Bark_ on young trees and branches greenish brown and
smooth, later darker, grooved and scaly. Produces one whorl of about 3
to 7 side branches each year, a feature which is useful in estimating
age. A _large_ and _very important_ timber tree. _Wood_ probably has
more uses than that of any other species.


                       [Illustration: PITCH PINE
                           (_Pinus rigida_)]

Leaves:    _Evergreen needles_ in clusters of 3, stiff, 2½″-5″ long,
yellowish green.

Twigs:    Stout, brittle, rough, angled in cross-section, golden-brown.
_Buds_ egg-shaped, about ½″ long, resinous, red-brown.

Fruit:    A _cone_, 1½″-3½″ long with short stiff prickles, nearly
stalkless, often remains attached for 5 years or more after ripening.

General:    Thick, rough, grayish brown _bark_ on older trees. A
_medium-sized_ tree. Common on poor, sandy soils and areas where forest
fires have killed most other trees. _Wood_ used chiefly for railroad
ties, mine props, construction lumber, posts and fuel.


                      [Illustration: VIRGINIA PINE
                         (_Pinus virginiana_)]

Leaves:    _Evergreen needles_ in clusters of 2, twisted, stout,
relatively short (1½″-3″ long), not numerous on twigs.

Twigs:    Slender, curved, flexible, brown to purple with bluish white
coating. _Buds_ egg-shaped, usually less than ½″ long, brown, resinous.

Fruit:    A _cone_, 2″-3″ long, prickles small but sharp, edge of scales
with darker bands; usually without a stalk; remains attached for 3 or 4
years.

General:    Smooth, thin, reddish brown, scaly _bark_. A _small_ tree;
able to grow on poor, dry soils. Common on abandoned farm lands where
shale soils predominate. Usually grows in dense pure stands. Often
called _scrub pine_. _Wood_ used chiefly for paper pulp, fuel and mine
props.


                        [Illustration: RED PINE
                          (_Pinus resinosa_)]

Leaves:    _Evergreen needles_ in clusters of 2, slender, 4″-6″ long,
dark green, borne in dense tufts at the ends of branchlets; snap easily
when bent double.

Twigs:    Stout, ridged, yellow-brown to red-brown. _Buds_ egg-shaped,
about ½″ long, brown at first and later silvery.

Fruit:    A _cone_, about 2″ long, without prickles, nearly stalkless,
remains attached until the following year.

General:    Comparatively smooth, reddish brown _bark_. Like white pine,
it develops one horizontal whorl of side branches each year. A medium to
_large_-sized tree. _Valuable_ timber tree in the northern part of the
State; _wood_ used chiefly for construction lumber.


                      [Illustration: NORWAY SPRUCE
                            (_Picea abies_)]

Leaves:    _Evergreen needles_ occur singly, spirally arranged on twigs,
sharp-pointed, four-sided, usually ¾″ long, dark green.

Twigs:    Bright, golden-brown. _Buds_ egg-shaped, darker than twigs.

Fruit:    A cylindrical _cone_, 4″-7″ long, light brown; scales with
finely toothed margin, broader than long.

General:    _Bark_ relatively thin, reddish brown, scaly, becoming
gray-brown but seldom furrowed on old trees. Branchlets on older trees
droop. A _large_ tree with a dense, conical crown. A European species
that has become a valuable naturalized member of our forests, and
extensively planted as an ornamental. _Wood_ used chiefly for paper
pulp, boxes, crates and lumber.


                       [Illustration: RED SPRUCE
                           (_Picea rubens_)]

Leaves:    _Evergreen needles_ occur singly, spirally arranged on twigs,
stiff, four-sided, usually ½″ long, dark green; less sharp than Norway
spruce.

Twigs:    Orange-brown with very fine hairs. _Buds_ egg-shaped, about ⅓″
long, red-brown.

Fruit:    A _cone_, 2″ or less in length, reddish brown, remains
attached for one to several months after ripening in the fall.

General:    _Bark_ red-brown, rough, scaly. A _medium_ to _large_-sized
tree. _Wood_ used chiefly for paper pulp, boxes, crates and lumber.
Frequents swamps; chiefly in northeastern parts of the State. Black
spruce (P. mariana) is a similar but smaller native tree.


                      [Illustration: EASTERN LARCH
                          (_Larix laricina_)]

Leaves:    _Needles_ not evergreen; occur singly near the ends of the
twigs, elsewhere in clusters of 10 or more; about 1″ long, pale green,
turning yellow and falling from the tree during the autumn.

Twigs:    At first covered with a bluish white coating, becoming dull
brown and with numerous short spurs. _Buds_ round, small, ¹/₁₆″ long,
dark red.

Fruit:    A _cone_, about ¾″ long, egg-shaped, upright, often remains
attached for several years after ripening in the fall.

General:    _Bark_ smooth at first, later becoming scaly, dark brown. A
_medium_-sized tree. Only cone-bearing tree native to Pennsylvania that
loses its needles annually. Found locally in moist situations. _Wood_
used chiefly for paper pulp, lumber, posts and railroad ties. European
larch (L. decidua) and Japanese larch (L. leptolepis) are more commonly
planted in the State. _Eastern larch is also known as tamarack._


                    [Illustration: EASTERN REDCEDAR
                       (_Juniperus virginiana_)]

Leaves:    _Evergreen_, opposite, two types (often on the same tree):
the older more common kinds are scale-like and only ¹/₁₆″-³/₃₂″ long,
while the young sharp-pointed ones may be up to ¾″ in length; whitish
lines on the upper surface.

Twigs:    Slender, usually 4-sided, becoming reddish brown. _Buds_ small
and not readily noticeable.

Fruit:    Bluish _berry-like_, covered with a whitish powder, about ¼″
in diameter; flesh sweet and resinous: contains 1-2 seeds. Ripens the
first year.

General:    _Bark_ reddish brown, peeling off in stringy and flaky
strips. Usually has a conical crown. Prefers limestone and shale soils.
A _small_ to _medium_-sized tree. _Wood_ used chiefly for fence posts
and “cedar chests.” Slow of growth; long-lived.


                        [Illustration: WHITE OAK
                           (_Quercus alba_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 6″-9″ long, 5-9 _rounded lobes_, not
bristle-tipped, smooth above and below. Violet-purple in autumn.

Twigs:    Red-gray, often with a grayish coating. _Buds_ rounded,
reddish brown, smooth, small; end bud about ⅛″ long, often with gray
margins on the scales.

Fruit:    A sweet acorn, ¾″-1″ long; _cup_ bowl-like, enclosing ¼ of the
nut; _cup scales_ warty.

General:    _Bark_ gray, usually with shallow fissures and flat scaly
ridges but occasionally roughly ridged without scales. A _large_ and
valuable tree. _Wood_ uses similar to those of red oak; in addition,
used extensively for liquid containers, including whiskey barrels.


                      [Illustration: CHESTNUT OAK
                          (_Quercus montana_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 4″-8″ long, thick; _large rounded teeth_,
decreasing in size toward the leaf tips; dark green and smooth above,
paler and occasionally downy beneath.

Twigs:    Orange-brown to red-brown. _Buds_ light brown, edges of scales
lighter colored, sharp-pointed, ¼″-½″ long.

Fruit:    An _acorn_, 1″-1½″ long. _Cup_ thin, enclosing ⅓ of the shiny
nut; _cup scales_ knobby. Kernel moderately sweet.

General:    _Bark_ at first gray and smooth, later brownish gray to dark
gray, thick, tough, deep-fissured; rich in tannin. A _medium_-sized
tree, found mainly on poorer soils of hillsides and rocky ridges. _Wood_
of better-formed trees has same uses as the other oaks. Also known as
_rock oak_.


                     [Illustration: EASTERN RED OAK
                      (_Quercus borealis maxima_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 5″-8″ long, 7-11 lobes, bristle-tipped;
smooth above and below, but occasionally with small tufts of reddish
brown hair beneath.

Twigs:    Greenish brown to reddish brown. _Buds_ pointed, light brown,
smooth.

Fruit:    An _acorn_, ¾″-1¼″ long; _cup_ usually saucer-shaped, about an
inch in diameter, covers only ¼ of the nut; _cup scales_ reddish brown,
narrow, tight, sometimes fuzzy on the edges. Kernel bitter as is true of
the next 3 species of oaks.

General:    _Bark_ brown and gray, with smooth flat-topped ridges
separated by shallow fissures when older. A _large_ and rapid-growing
tree. Often planted for shade. _Wood_ has many uses; principally
utilized for flooring, railroad ties and construction lumber.


                       [Illustration: SCARLET OAK
                         (_Quercus coccinea_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 4″-7″ long, 7-9 rather narrow,
bristle-tipped lobes; smooth except for small tufts of hair beneath.
Very deep spaces between lobes. Generally turn scarlet in autumn.

Twigs:    Reddish brown, smooth when mature. _Buds_ blunt-pointed,
usually round in cross section, dark reddish brown; _upper half wooly_.

Fruit:    An _acorn_, ½″-1″ long, kernel white; _cup_ thin, bowl-like,
covering about ½ of the nut; _cup scales_ sharp-pointed, smooth, tight.

General:    _Bark_ on young trees, smooth, light brown; on older trunks
ridged, darker. _Inner bark reddish._ Drooping dead lower branches
persist for many years. A _medium_ to _large_-sized tree, commonly found
on dry soils. _Wood_ inferior to red oak, but often sold under that
name.


                        [Illustration: BLACK OAK
                         (_Quercus velutina_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 5″-9″ long, 5-7 lobes, bristle-tipped;
dark green and usually shiny above; paler, _more or less covered with
rusty-brown fuzz beneath_. Yellowish brown in autumn. Often confused
with those of scarlet oak.

Twigs:    Reddish brown, usually fuzzy. _Buds_ blunt-pointed, ridged,
yellow-gray, wooly.

Fruit:    An _acorn_, about ¾″ long, kernel yellow; _cup_ bowl-like,
covering from ⅓ to ½ or more of the nut; _cup scales_ sharp-pointed,
form a loose fringe at the rim, covered with whitish wooly hairs.

General:    _Bark_ on young stems smooth, dark brown; on older trunks
dull black, furrowed, forming irregular blocks. _Inner bark
orange-yellow._ A _medium_ to _large_-sized tree. _Wood_ has the same
uses as that of red oak.


                         [Illustration: PIN OAK
                         (_Quercus palustris_)]

Leaves:    Similar to those of scarlet oak but generally smaller,
fewer-lobed, with more narrow and deeper spaces between lobes. Smooth on
both surfaces.

Twigs:    Dark red-brown, shiny, slender, _often thorn-like_. _Buds_
rounded, smooth, smaller than those of scarlet oak.

Fruit:    An _acorn_, about ½″ long, often striped with dark lines;
_cup_ thin, saucer-shaped, encloses about ⅓ of nut; _cup scales_ tight,
dark-margined.

General:    _Bark_ grayish brown, rather smooth for many years; old
trunks with shallow fissures and narrow flat ridges. _Medium_-sized and
highly valued street tree. Frequents wet woodland sites. Has the
smallest leaves, buds and acorns of _all_ native _oaks_. Drooping dead
lower branches persist for many years. _Wood_ has same uses as red oak
but is less desirable because of numerous branch knots.


                     [Illustration: AMERICAN BEECH
                         (_Fagus grandifolia_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 3″-4″ long, sharp-toothed, leathery; light
green and glossy above, yellow-green with silky hairs below; veins
prominent, parallel. Some leaves often cling to the branches all winter.

Twigs:    Slender, brownish gray. _Buds_ reddish brown, sharp-pointed,
_cigar-shaped_; end bud ¾″-1″ long.

Fruit:    A shiny brown _triangled_ nut, ½″-¾″ long, usually two
enclosed in a stalked prickly bur which splits into 4 parts when ripe;
edible.

General:    _Bark_ smooth, never furrowed, bluish gray throughout life,
with dark blotches when older. A _large_ tree. Most numerous in the
northern part of the State. _Wood_ used mainly for railroad ties, paper
pulp, boxes, furniture and flooring.


                       [Illustration: SUGAR MAPLE
                          (_Acer saccharum_)]

Leaves:    Simple, opposite, 5-lobed, about 4″ in diameter; smooth,
bright green, paler below; margin with few large teeth.

Twigs:    Reddish brown to light brown. _Buds_ brown, _sharp_-pointed;
narrowly cone-shaped.

Fruit:    Consists of 2 winged seeds on a stalk; borne in clusters,
brown, seed wings ½″ to 1″ long, almost parallel to each other; matures
in autumn. Fruit stalks and sometimes the seeds persist into the winter.

General:    _Bark_ grayish, on older trunks ridged or with long, thick,
curled plates. A _large_, long-lived, desirable timber and shade tree.
_Wood_ used for furniture, flooring; “tapped for sap for making maple
syrup.” Often called _hard maple_.


                        [Illustration: RED MAPLE
                            (_Acer rubrum_)]

Leaves:    Simple, opposite, generally 3-lobed; about 4″ in diameter;
margin with many small teeth.

Twigs:    Shiny, green when young, becoming red, with numerous light
spots (lenticels). _Leaf buds_ dark red, blunt-pointed; _flower buds_
round, clustered.

Fruit:    Paired winged seeds suspended on a slim stem; reddish brown;
wing 1″ or less in length; matures in late spring.

General:    _Bark_ on young trees gray and smooth, on older trees
becoming darker and with long scaly ridges. A _medium_-sized tree.
Common on both swampy and dry sites. A showy tree, usually with reddish
flowers and reddish fruit in the spring, and crimson leaves in autumn.
_Wood_ has uses similar to those of sugar maple except where strength
and hardness are of importance. Often called _soft maple_.


                      [Illustration: SILVER MAPLE
                         (_Acer saccharinum_)]

Leaves:    Simple, opposite, 5-lobed, very deep spaces between lobes,
teeth coarse; about 5″ in diameter, _silvery_ below.

Twigs:    Green in early spring, turning orange-brown, with many light
colored dots (lenticels). Distinctive odor when broken. _Buds_ of two
distinct types: the small pointed leaf buds toward end of twig, and
rounded, clustered flower buds below. Lower branches with up-turned
tips.

Fruit:    Largest of the native maples; wings may be 2″ long, curving
inwards; matures in spring.

General:    _Bark_ on young trees smooth and gray; on older trees broken
into long, narrow loose strips. A _medium_-sized tree usually found
along streams. Sometimes planted as a shade tree. _Wood_ has uses
similar to those of red maple. This species is classed as a soft maple.


                      [Illustration: NORWAY MAPLE
                         (_Acer platanoides_)]

Leaves:    Simple, opposite, generally 7-lobed, 4½″-5″ in diameter.
_Milky sap_ is evident after breaking the _leaf stem_. Leaves are
heavier and thicker than those of sugar maple.

Twigs:    Stout, reddish brown. _Buds_ red and green, blunt; end bud
much larger than side ones; _bud scales_ with keel-like ridges.

Fruit:    Wings wide-spreading, larger than those of sugar maple.
Matures in autumn.

General:    _Bark_ on young tree light brown, smooth; on older trees it
becomes closely fissured but not scaly, dark in color. A tree of
_medium_-size. _Imported_ from Europe and planted extensively as a
street tree. The leaves are often attacked by an aphid insect which
produces quantities of a sticky substance, spotting vehicles and
sidewalks. This species is classed as a soft maple.


                        [Illustration: BUTTERNUT
                          (_Juglans cinerea_)]

Leaves:    Compound, alternate; _leaflets_ 11 to 17, each 3″-5″ long,
small-toothed; dark yellow-green above, paler, hairy below. End leaflet
same size as side leaflets. Main _leaf-stem_ with conspicuous sticky
hairs. One of the last trees to unfold its leaves in spring, and the
first to shed them in autumn.

Twigs:    Stout, greenish-gray to tan, rough, brittle. _Pith
chocolate-brown, chambered._ _Buds_ light brown, hairy, not covered with
scales; end bud ½″-¾″ long, side buds smaller. Fringe of short hairs
between leaf-scar and bud.

Fruit:    An oblong _nut_, 1½″-2½″ long, covered with a hairy, _sticky
husk_. Nut pointed at one end, shell rough, oily kernel _sweet_.

General:    _Bark_ on young trunks rather smooth, light-gray; later
darker, deeply furrowed with wide, smooth, flat-topped ridges. A _small_
to _medium_-sized tree. _Wood_ used chiefly for furniture, instrument
cases, and boxes. Also called _white walnut_.


                  [Illustration: EASTERN BLACK WALNUT
                           (_Juglans nigra_)]

Leaves:    Compound, alternate; leaflets 15 to 23, each 3″-4″ long,
small-toothed; dark yellow-green above, paler, hairy below. _End leaflet
absent or very small._ Main _leaf-stem_ with very fine hairs.

Twigs:    Stout, orange-brown to dark brown, roughened by large leaf
scars, easily broken; pith pale brown, chambered. _Buds_ gray, downy;
side buds ⅙″ long, end bud larger.

Fruit:    A round _nut_, 1″-2″ in diameter, shell rough, covered with a
thick, almost smooth, green _spongy husk_; oily kernel _sweet_.
_Flowers_ in drooping green catkins, appearing with the unfolding
leaves, which is also true of butternut.

General:    _Bark_ dark brown to gray-black, with narrow ridges. A
_large_-sized tree, found locally on rich soils mainly in the southern
part of the State. _Wood_ valuable for quality furniture, veneer, gun
stocks and musical instruments.


                    [Illustration: SHAGBARK HICKORY
                            (_Carya ovata_)]

Leaves:    Compound, alternate; _leaflets_ usually 5, each 4″ to 7″
long, the lower pair smallest, margins fine-toothed; fragrant when
crushed. Larger than those of pignut hickory, with which it is sometimes
confused.

Twigs:    Stout, often hairy, gray-brown to reddish brown, with numerous
light spots (lenticels). _Buds_ large, with 3-4 outer dark brown,
loosely fitting, nearly smooth scales; inner scales velvety; _end buds_
½″-¾″ long.

Fruit:    Nearly round, 1″-2½″ in diameter; husk thick, splits into 4
pieces when ripe; _nut_ white, _4-ridged_, pointed at one end, usually
_thin-shelled_; kernel _sweet_.

General:    _Bark_ at first smooth and gray, soon breaking into long and
loosely-attached plates that gives the trunk a shaggy appearance. A
_medium_-sized tree found on a variety of sites but most common on good
soils; grows slowly. _Wood_ used principally for tool handles. The wood
of all hickories is valuable to the farmer for fuel and smoking meat.


                    [Illustration: SHELLBARK HICKORY
                          (_Carya laciniosa_)]

Leaves:    Compound, alternate; _leaflets_ usually 7, each 4″-7″ long,
hairy beneath, margins fine-toothed. Dried _leaf-stems_ often cling all
winter.

Twigs:    Somewhat stouter than shagbark hickory, usually hairy, often
angled, orange-brown, with numerous orange spots (lenticels). _Buds_
very large, with 6-8 outer dark brown, loosely fitting keeled scales;
_end buds_ ¾″-1″ long. Prominent orange-colored _leaf scars_.

Fruit:    Nearly round to almost egg-shaped, 1¾″-2¾″ long; _husk_ thick,
splits into 4 pieces when ripe; _nut_ yellowish white to reddish brown,
_4- to 6-ridged_, pointed at both ends, usually _thick-shelled_; kernel
_sweet_. _Flowers_ appear in catkins, as do all the hickories, when
leaves are mature.

General:    _Bark_ like that of shagbark hickory but often with
straighter plates (less shaggy). A _medium_-sized tree that prefers wet
soils. _Wood_ has same uses as shagbark hickory.


                    [Illustration: MOCKERNUT HICKORY
                          (_Carya tomentosa_)]

Leaves:    Compound, alternate; _leaf-stems with fine hairs_; _leaflets_
7 to 9, each 4″-8″ long, margins finely to coarsely toothed; golden
glandular dots beneath; _very fragrant_ when crushed.

Twigs:    Stout, hairy, reddish brown to brownish gray, with numerous
pale spots (lenticels). _Buds_ large, egg-shaped, with 3-5 outer
yellowish brown, densely hairy scales; _end buds_ ½″-¾″ long. _Leaf
scars_ distinctly 3-lobed.

Fruit:    Nearly round to egg-shaped, 1½″-2″ long; husk thick, splits
into 4 pieces when ripe; _nut_ reddish brown, _slightly ridged_,
_thick-shelled_; kernel _sweet_.

General:    _Bark_ gray to dark gray, tight; irregularly
shallow-fissured when older. A _medium_-sized tree found mostly in the
southern part of the State. _Wood_ has same uses as shagbark hickory.


                     [Illustration: PIGNUT HICKORY
                           (_Carya glabra_)]

Leaves:    Compound, alternate; _leaflets_ usually 5, each 3″-6″ long;
margins fine-toothed. Entire leaf smooth. Averages smaller than shagbark
hickory.

Twigs:    Medium-stout, not hairy, reddish brown, with numerous pale
spots (lenticels). _Buds_ egg-shaped and pointed, smallest of the native
hickories, with more than 6 scales; outer scales often fall off during
the winter, _end buds_ ¼″-½″ long.

Fruit:    Usually pear-shaped, 1″-2½″ long; _husk_ thin, remains closed
or splits partly when ripe; _nut_ brownish white, _not ridged_, usually
_thick-shelled_; _kernel sweet but with bitter after-taste_.

General:    _Bark_ gray to dark gray, usually tight; shallow fissured
when older. A _medium_-sized tree of drier locations. _Wood_ has same
uses as shagbark hickory.


                    [Illustration: BITTERNUT HICKORY
                         (_Carya cordiformis_)]

Leaves:    Compound, alternate; _leaf-stem_ slender, somewhat downy;
_leaflets_ 7-11, each 3″-6″ long, narrow margins finely to coarsely
toothed.

Twigs:    Medium-stout, smooth, orange-green to gray-brown, with
numerous pale spots (lenticels). _Buds_ covered with 4 _sulphur-yellow_,
gland-dotted scales, _end buds_ ⅓″-¾″ long, _flattened_.

Fruit:    Nearly round, ¾″-1½″ in diameter; _husk_ thin, yellowish
gland-dotted, splits about to the middle into 4 sections when ripe;
_nut_ light reddish brown or gray-brown, not ridged, _thin-shelled_;
kernel with red-brown skin, _bitter_.

General:    _Bark_ gray, tight; remains rather smooth for many years;
with narrow ridges when older. A _medium_-sized tree, usually found near
streams; grows more rapidly and its wood is lighter than any of the
other native hickories. _Wood_ has same uses as shagbark hickory.


                       [Illustration: SWEET BIRCH
                           (_Betula lenta_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, about 3½″ long, unevenly saw-toothed; dull
green above, yellow-green beneath, with some white hairs at the points
where veins join; usually heart-shaped at the base.

Twigs:    Green and somewhat downy when young, becoming red-brown,
smooth and shiny. _Strong wintergreen flavor._ _Buds_ reddish brown,
sharp-pointed, shiny.

Fruit:    A very small winged _nut_. These nuts, together with small
scales, form a cone-like structure about 1½″ long. Sketch shows twig in
spring with male and female flowers. All birches have similar fruiting
structures.

General:    _Bark_ on young trees dark reddish brown, tight, marked with
pale horizontal lines (lenticels), resembling bark of young black
cherry; becoming black and breaking into large plates. _Medium_-sized
tree. _Wood_ used chiefly for furniture, boxes, and other containers.
Distillation of the bark and twigs produces “oil-of-wintergreen.” Also
known as _black birch_.


                      [Illustration: YELLOW BIRCH
                           (_Betula lutea_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate; similar to sweet birch but base usually
rounded.

Twigs:    Like sweet birch but paler, and more downy when young.
_Wintergreen flavor faint._ _Buds_ slightly downy, dull, yellowish
brown. Sketch shows winter twig with lateral buds and partially grown
female flowers.

Fruit:    Similar to sweet birch.

General:    _Bark_ on very young trees golden gray, shiny; later yellow,
forming ragged ends which curl and can be readily peeled in thin, narrow
strips, highly inflammable, and ideal to start a fire under wet
conditions. On very old trunks bark becomes darker, coarse and platy. A
_medium_ to _large_ tree. Found mostly in the northern part of the
State. _Wood_ principally used for furniture, interior finish, boxes and
other containers.


                       [Illustration: RIVER BIRCH
                           (_Betula nigra_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 1½″-3″ long, dark green above,
yellow-green below, wedge-shaped at the base, margins usually with large
teeth.

Twigs:    Slender, at first greenish and hairy, later turning reddish
brown, smooth; with pale horizontal lines (lenticels). _Buds_
sharp-pointed and shiny, smooth or slightly fuzzy.

Fruit:    Similar to sweet birch.

General:    _Bark_ reddish brown or cinnamon, peeling off in curled,
shaggy strips; on older trunks becoming dark colored and rough.
_Medium_-sized tree; found almost entirely along the lower reaches of
our larger streams. _Wood_ lighter, softer, and less valuable than sweet
birch and yellow birch.


                       [Illustration: PAPER BIRCH
                         (_Betula papyrifera_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 2″-3″ long, oval, sharply toothed, dark
green above, lighter below.

Twigs:    At early age greenish and fuzzy, later turning dark gray;
irregularly marked with raised orange colored dots (lenticels). _Buds_
dark brown, sticky. Immature male catkins at the ends of the twigs in
autumn and winter, as is true of all the birches.

Fruit:    Similar to sweet birch. Mature in July.

General:    _Bark_ creamy, to chalky white, peeling easily. Once the
bark is removed, it is not renewed. A _small_ to _medium_-sized tree.
Often found with several stems growing together, occurring naturally
only in the northern part of the State. Also called _canoe birch_ and
_white birch_. _Wood_ has uses similar to those of yellow birch, but
principally used for spools, clothes-pins, toothpicks and paper pulp.


                       [Illustration: GRAY BIRCH
                        (_Betula populifolia_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, triangular in shape, with long tapering
point, 2½″-3″ long, smooth above and below, tremulous. Leaf-stems very
slender. Turn yellow in autumn, as is true of all birches.

Twigs:    Slender, greenish brown, rough due to small warty glands.
_Buds_ sharp-pointed, gummy.

Fruit:    Similar to sweet birch but shorter (¾″ long).

General:    _Bark_ dull white, not peeling into thin paper-like layers
as is the case with paper birch; dark colored on the branches; orange
inner bark. Usually with triangular-shaped black patches on the trunk. A
_small_ short-lived tree, usually growing in clumps. Occurs chiefly in
the northeastern counties. _Wood_ of little commercial value; chiefly
used for fuel.


                      [Illustration: BLACK LOCUST
                       (_Robinia pseudoacacia_)]

Leaves:    Compound, alternate; _leaflets_ 1″-2″ long, margins smooth.

Twigs:    Angled, somewhat zigzag, brittle, with short stout prickles;
no end bud, side _buds_ small and hidden in winter.

Fruit:    A thin, flat _pod_, 2″-4″ long; usually with 4-8 seeds; splits
into halves when ripe. Flowers white, showy, very fragrant in drooping
clusters, appearing in May and June.

General:    _Bark_ rough, furrowed, thick. A _medium_-sized tree. Often
seen along farm fences and roads. _Wood_ is durable in contact with the
soil and in demand for posts, poles, railroad ties, and mine timbers.
Unfortunately, several insects and wood rots often cause heavy damage,
especially to trees on poor soils.


                   [Illustration: COMMON HONEYLOCUST
                       (_Gleditsia triacanthos_)]

Leaves:    Compound and doubly-compound, alternate; _leaf-stem_ grooved
above, hairy; _leaflets_ 1″ long, usually fine-toothed on margins.

Twigs:    Medium stout, shiny, greenish brown to reddish brown, zigzag,
smooth, often with long branched thorns; no end bud, very small side
_buds_.

Fruit:    A leathery pod, 10″-18″ long, flat, usually twisted, with
numerous seeds; often of high sugar content; eaten by some animals. Does
not split into 2 halves, as does the pod of black locust.

General:    _Bark_ on young trees greenish brown with many long, raised,
horizontal lines (lenticels); later brown to nearly black, fissured and
with thick plates. A _medium_-sized tree; usually found as a native near
streams; also planted as a shade tree. Branched thorns on the trunk and
limbs make it easy to identify in winter. There is a thornless variety.
_Wood_ is mainly used for fence posts, general construction, and
furniture.


                        [Illustration: WHITE ASH
                        (_Fraxinus americana_)]

Leaves:    Compound, opposite; _leaflets_ 5-9, each 3″-5″ long, stalked,
somewhat silvery beneath; margins entire or with few rounded teeth
toward the tip.

Twigs:    Stout, usually smooth, gray-brown, with few large pale spots
(lenticels). _Buds_ blunt, dark brown. _Leaf scars_ half-circular but
notched at top.

Fruit:    A _winged seed_, 1″-2″ long, ¼″ wide, shaped like a canoe
paddle, in hanging clusters which often remain attached for several
months after ripening in autumn.

General:    _Bark_ gray-brown, with _diamond-shaped_ fissures when
older. A _large_ tree; trunk usually long and straight; commonly
occurring on rich soils. _Wood_ important for such special uses as
handles, vehicle parts and athletic equipment (practically all baseball
bats); valuable for curved parts in furniture.


                        [Illustration: BLACK ASH
                          (_Fraxinus nigra_)]

Leaves:    Compound, opposite; _leaflets_ 7-11, each 3″-5″ long, _not
stalked_ except end one, dark green above, lighter green beneath with
some rusty hairs; margins saw-toothed.

Twigs:    Stout, at first somewhat hairy, becoming smooth, gray or
red-brown, with many large pale spots (lenticels). _Buds_ dark brown to
black, end bud pointed. _Leaf scars_ nearly circular, with raised
margins; not notched at the top.

Fruit:    Resembles that of white ash but is usually smaller (1″-1¾″
long and ⅜″ wide).

General:    _Bark_ grayish, when older becoming corky-ridged or scaly;
knobs frequent on the trunk. A _medium_-sized tree that prefers cool,
_swampy sites_. _Wood_ is generally lighter in weight and weaker than
white ash but used for the same purposes.


                        [Illustration: TULIPTREE
                      (_Liriodendron tulipfera_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 4″-6″ in diameter, generally 4-lobed,
bright green, turning yellow in autumn.

Twigs:    In spring and summer, green, sometimes with purplish tinge;
during winter reddish brown, smooth, shiny. _Buds_ large, smooth,
flattened, “duck-billed.”

Fruit:    At first green, turning light brown when ripe in autumn;
_cone-like_, 2½″-3″ long, made up of winged seeds. Greenish yellow
_tulip-like_ flowers in May or June.

General:    _Bark_ at first dark green and smooth; whitish vertical
streaks soon appearing; later dark gray and furrowed. A _large_ tree,
the _tallest_ of the eastern hardwoods. It grows rapidly and is an
important timber and shade tree. The _wood_ is valuable for veneer and
many other uses. Also known as _tulip poplar_.


                  [Illustration: CUCUMBERTREE MAGNOLIA
                        (_Magnolia acuminata_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 4″-12″ long, smooth above, downy beneath;
margins smooth or sometimes wavy.

Twigs:    Reddish brown, shiny, with peppery smell and taste. _Buds_
covered with greenish white silky hairs; _end buds_ ½″-¾″ long. _Leaf
scars_ horseshoe shaped.

Fruit:    When young, like a small green cucumber. When mature in
autumn, 3″-4″ long, a cluster of small red pods, each containing two
scarlet seeds; often remains attached all winter. _Flowers_ large (3″
long), greenish yellow, single, upright; appear from April to June.

General:    _Bark_ gray-brown to brown, developing long narrow furrows
and loose scaly ridges. A _medium_-sized tree, found mainly in the
western half of the State. _Wood_ used mainly for interior finish,
furniture and containers.


                      [Illustration: AMERICAN ELM
                          (_Ulmus americana_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 4″-6″ long, unequal at the base, rather
rough on the upper surface; usually _soft-hairy below_; veins prominent;
margin coarsely toothed. _Leaf-stem_ short.

Twigs:    Slender, zigzag, brown, smooth or slightly hairy. _Leaf buds_
⅛″-¼″ long, flattened. _Flower buds_ larger, below leaf buds. _Bud
scales_ red-brown, smooth or downy; margins dark.

Fruit:    A seed surrounded by an oval, thin papery wing, ½″ long,
deeply notched at the tip; ripening in spring and borne in clusters;
wing with scattered hairs along margin. _Flowers_ and fruit appear
before the leaves, as is true of slippery elm.

General:    _Bark_ dark gray to gray-brown, with long corky ridges; on
older trees separated by diamond-shaped fissures. A _large_ and highly
prized shade tree. The drooping crown often gives it a _vase-shaped_
appearance. Found locally throughout Pennsylvania, mainly on moist
areas. The hard, tough _wood_ has many uses, including the manufacture
of boxes, barrels and furniture.


                      [Illustration: SLIPPERY ELM
                            (_Ulmus fulva_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 5″-7″ long; _usually larger than those of
American elm, rough on both sides_ or soft-hairy below; margin coarsely
toothed. _Leaf-stem_ short.

Twigs:    Stouter than on American elm, _grayish and rather rough_.
_Buds_ slightly larger than those of American elm, and more round—seldom
flattened. _Bud scales_ brown to almost black, rusty-haired.

Fruit:    Like that of American elm but somewhat larger (¾″ long); wing
margin not hairy and slightly notched at the tip.

General:    _Bark_ similar to American elm but of lighter color, softer,
and fissures not diamond-shaped in outline. _Inner bark sticky and
fragrant._ A _medium_-sized tree usually found near streams. Crown does
not droop like that of American elm. The _wood_ is commonly marketed
with the preceding species.


                    [Illustration: COMMON HACKBERRY
                        (_Celtis occidentalis_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 2″-4″ long, slender pointed; margin sharp
toothed; base unequal; often rough above, slightly hairy and veins
prominent on undersides; _3-veined at base_. _Leaf-stem_ somewhat downy
and grooved; fairly long (compared to elm).

Twigs:    Slender, reddish brown, _with chambered white pith_. _Buds_
small, sharp-pointed, closely pressed to the twig.

Fruit:    Resembles a cherry, dark purple in color, ¼″-½″ diameter,
sweet but with very little flesh covering the pitted stone; borne singly
on a long slender stem; ripens in autumn.

General:    _Bark_ gray-brown with characteristic warty projections or
irregular ridges. A _small_ tree. “Witches-brooms” are common. Most
common on limestone soils in moist locations. Sometimes mistaken for
elm. _Wood_ used principally for furniture, boxes and other containers.


                      [Illustration: QUAKING ASPEN
                        (_Populus tremuloides_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 1½″-3″ in diameter, light green, smooth
above and below, nearly circular; margins with fine teeth; leaf-stems
thin and flattened, causing the leaves to tremble in the slightest
breeze. Yellowish-green when unfolding in spring.

Twigs:    Slender, reddish brown, smooth, shiny. _Pith_ star-shaped,
white. _Buds_ sharp-pointed, smooth, shiny, often curved inward.

Fruit:    A small (¼″ long) _capsule_ containing 10-12 seeds; capsules
spirally arranged on a 4″ long drooping stalk, maturing in early summer.
Each tiny cottony seed surrounded by long silky threads.

General:    _Bark_ thin, pale yellow-green to silvery gray when young,
eventually becoming dark brown or gray and rough. A _small_ to
_medium_-sized tree, of rapid growth but short-lived. Often one of the
first forest trees to become established on recently burned areas; the
most widely distributed tree of North America. Most common in northern
Pennsylvania. _Wood_ used chiefly for paper pulp.


                     [Illustration: BIGTOOTH ASPEN
                       (_Populus grandidentata_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 3″-4″ long, dark green above, paler below,
margins with coarse teeth; _leaf-stems_ flattened; silvery when
unfolding in spring.

Twigs:    Rather stout, brownish gray, sometimes with a coating of pale,
wooly down. _Buds_ blunt-pointed, dull, seldom curved, _often wooly_.

Fruit:    Similar to quaking aspen. _Flowers_, in the form of hanging
catkins, appear before the leaves in the spring, as is the case with
quaking aspen.

General:    _Bark_ similar to that of quaking aspen, but usually darker.
A _small_ to _medium_-sized tree; short-lived. Most common in southern
Pennsylvania. _Wood_ used chiefly for paper pulp.


                      [Illustration: BLACK WILLOW
                            (_Salix nigra_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, long and narrow, short-stemmed, sharp
pointed, fine teeth on the margin, average length 3″; dark green above,
much lighter below. The _stipules_ (“small leaves” at the base of
leaf-stems of the main leaves) remain through most of the summer.

Twigs:    Slender, brittle at the base, bright reddish brown to
orange-green. _Buds_ covered by a single scale, small, cone-shaped,
sharp-pointed.

Fruit:    Small brown _capsule_, ¼″ long, borne in long hanging
clusters; ripens in May or June. Each tiny _seed_ surrounded by tufts of
long silky hair.

General:    _Bark_ thick, dark brown, separating into broad, flat plates
or ridges as the tree grows older. A _small_ to _medium_-sized tree.
Only native willow which grows to a fair size. Found mainly in moist
situations. Often several trunks arise from the same root system.
Weeping willow (S. babylonica) and brittle willow (S. fragilis) are
introduced trees often planted for ornamental purposes.


                      [Illustration: BLACK CHERRY
                          (_Prunus serotina_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, narrow, with tapering tip, shiny above,
paler below and usually with reddish brown hairs near the base; 2″-5″
long, margins with short incurved teeth.

Twigs:    Smooth, reddish brown, often covered with a thin gray coating
which peels or rubs off easily; bitter when chewed; with minute, rounded
gray lenticels. _Buds_ smooth, shiny, sharp-pointed, same color as twigs
but often tinged with green.

Fruit:    Round, black with a purplish tint, ⅓″-½″ in diameter,
containing a single round, stony seed. Arranged in hanging clusters.
Flowers white, in 4″-long upright clusters in June.

General:    _Bark_ on young trunks smooth, dark red-brown, marked with
numerous raised horizontal lines (lenticels), somewhat resembling that
of sweet birch; later breaking into thick irregular plates with upturned
edges. A _large_ tree in the northern part of the State; _medium_-sized
in the southern counties. _Wood_ used chiefly for quality furniture and
interior finish.


                        [Illustration: BLACK GUM
                          (_Nyssa sylvatica_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 2″-4″ long, entire or wavy margin; dark
green and shiny above, often downy on the underside; turning a vivid red
in early autumn.

Twigs:    Smooth, grayish to reddish brown; the white pith separated by
dark lines. _Buds_ rounded in cross section, pointed, reddish brown, ¼″
long.

Fruit:    Cherry-like, ⅓″-⅔″ long, dark blue, 1-seeded, with thin flesh;
borne singly or in 2’s or 3’s in a cluster; ripens in autumn.

General:    _Bark_ on young trees smooth or scaly, light gray; on older
trunks dark gray, broken into blocks and resembling alligator hide. A
_medium_-sized tree, often flat-topped, with horizontal branches and
short spur-like twigs. Grows mainly on swampy lands, but found
elsewhere. _Wood_ very difficult to split; used chiefly for boxes, fuel
and railroad ties.


                   [Illustration: AMERICAN PLANETREE
                       (_Platanus occidentalis_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 3-5 lobed, 4″-7″ across, generally wider
than long; light green above, paler and wooly beneath. Base of
_leaf-stem_ hollow, enclosing next year’s bud.

Twigs:    At first green and hairy, later brownish, smooth; zigzag.
_Buds_ cone-like with a single smooth, reddish brown scale.

Fruit:    A round “button-ball,” single or occasionally in 2’s on a
tough slender stalk. These fruit clusters are light brown, 1″-1¼″ in
diameter, consist of many seeds, each surrounded at the base by silky
hairs; usually hang throughout the winter.

General:    _Bark_ of two layers, the outer peeling in brown flakes, the
inner whitish, yellowish or greenish; on base of old trunks dark brown
and fissured. A tree of _large_ size; mature trees often very _massive_.
Prefers stream banks. _Wood_ used for furniture, crates, butcher blocks,
and flooring. Also known as American _sycamore_. The London planetree
(P. acerifolia), with 2, sometimes 3, “button-balls” on a stalk, is more
commonly planted as a shade tree.


                  [Illustration: COMMON HORSECHESTNUT
                      (_Aesculus hippocastanum_)]

Leaves:    Palmately compound, opposite; usually with 7 _leaflets_, each
4″-9″ long, wedge-shaped, long-pointed, smooth when full-grown; turning
a rusty yellow in autumn.

Twigs:    Stout, usually not hairy. _Buds_ blackish brown, sticky,
large; _end bud_ ½″-1″ long.

Fruit:    Roundish _capsule_, 1½″-2½″ in diameter, green husk with
prickles; breaks into three parts when ripe releasing 1 or 2 large,
shiny brown, non-edible seeds. _Flower_ ¾″ long; showy-white and spotted
with yellow and red. _Flower clusters_ erect, 8″-12″ long.

General:    _Bark_ grayish, broken into thin plates. A _medium_ to
_large_-sized tree. _Introduced_ from Europe and is a common _shade
tree_ in the State. Leaves are often browned by diseases. Also known as
_European buckeye_. Two rather similar trees are native to southern
Pennsylvania—Ohio buckeye (A. glabra) and yellow buckeye (A. octandra).


                     [Illustration: AMERICAN LINDEN
                          (_Tilia americana_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, somewhat heart-shaped, 4″-7″ long, shiny
dark green on top, smooth beneath except for tufts of rusty hair;
sharply toothed on margin.

Twigs:    Green or reddish when young, turning brownish red; usually
zigzag. _Buds_ deep red to greenish, usually lopsided, with 2-3 visible
scales.

Fruit:    Nutlike, thick-shelled, downy, about the size of a pea; borne
in groups from a long stem attached to narrow leaflike blade or _bract_.
The clustered fruit and bracts may remain on the tree until late winter.
_Flowers_ yellowish white, fragrant.

General:    _Bark_ on young trunks smooth, tough, dark gray; on older
trees broken into narrow, scaly ridges. A _large_ tree; usually found in
mixture with other hardwoods on moist, rich valley soils. _Wood_ is used
for a variety of products including boxes, venetian blinds, sashes,
doors, picture frames, and furniture. Also known as _basswood_.


                    [Illustration: NORTHERN CATALPA
                         (_Catalpa speciosa_)]

Leaves:    In whorls of 3 or more, occasionally opposite, heart-shaped,
8″-12″ long and 6″-8″ wide; margin entire or wavy; smooth above, hairy
beneath.

Twigs:    Stout, yellow-brown; no buds at the ends. Side _buds_ small,
appear to be hidden in bark. Large, nearly round, depressed _leaf scars_
are characteristic.

Fruit:    Bean-like, 8″-18″ long, narrow; pod separates into two halves
when ripe, hang on tips of branches all winter; many _seeds_, each with
long white hairs on both ends. _Flowers_ in July, arranged in terminal
clusters about 8″ long; each showy flower white with yellow and purple
spots, 2″-3″ in diameter.

General:    _Bark_ light brown, scaly; slightly furrowed on older trees.
A _medium_ to _large_-sized tree. Native to the Mississippi Valley.
Usually planted for _shade purposes_ in this State but its _wood_ is
durable and useful for posts. The less hardy Southern catalpa (C.
bignonioides) with slender pods has also been planted in Pennsylvania.


                    [Illustration: COMMON PERSIMMON
                       (_Diospyros virginiana_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 4″-6″ long, dark green and glossy above,
paler and often wooly below; margins smooth or wavy.

Twigs:    Grayish brown, smooth, sometimes velvety. _No end bud_; each
_side bud_ covered by 2 glossy dark brown scales.

Fruit:    Fleshy _berry_, large (¾″-2″ in diameter), plum-like, orange
to red, parts of the flower remain attached to the base (see sketch);
seeds 1-8, flat, rather large. Edible but often _astringent_ when fully
ripe in autumn.

General:    _Bark_ dark gray to dark brown, separated into small blocks
by cinnamon-red bottomed furrows. A _small_ to _medium_-sized tree
native to the southern part of the State. _Wood_ hard, tough, used
chiefly for special products such as shuttles for weaving, spools, and
golf-club heads.


                      [Illustration: COMMON PAWPAW
                          (_Asimina triloba_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 5″-12″ long, drooping; somewhat like the
leaf of cucumbertree magnolia; dark green above, light green below;
margins smooth or wavy.

Twigs:    Olive-brown, enlarged at points where leaves are attached,
somewhat hairy toward tips. _Buds_ brown, hairy, not covered with
scales.

Fruit:    Looks like a short stubby banana, greenish yellow at first,
brown when ripe in autumn, 3″-5″ long, edible; contains numerous brown,
shiny _seeds_ imbedded in the fragrant outer pulp. _Flowers_
greenish-brown to purple, 1″ across, solitary, appear before the leaves.

General:    _Bark_ dark brown, thin, slightly fissured on older trees,
often marked with white blotches. A _small_ tree. Generally found in the
understory of the forest in the southern half of the State on rich moist
soil. The fruit is of more value than its _wood_ which is sometimes used
for fuel.


                    [Illustration: COMMON SASSAFRAS
                         (_Sassafras albidum_)]

Leaves:    Simple, alternate, 4″-6″ long, characteristically _aromatic_
when crushed. Usually three types can be found on a tree: entire,
2-lobed and 3-lobed (rarely 5-lobed). Smooth, dark green above, much
lighter beneath.

Twigs:    Bright green, sometimes reddish, smooth and shiny; large white
pith. _End bud_ much larger than side ones, with many loose scales.

Fruit:    Cherry-like, dark blue, shiny, about ½″ in diameter, on a red
stem enlarged at the point of attachment. Borne in clusters. Yellow
_flowers_ appear before the leaves unfold.

General:    _Bark_ on young trees soon becomes furrowed, the greenish
bark changing to brown; inner bark salmon colored; older trees show deep
fissures extending long distances up the trunk. A _small_ to
_medium_-sized tree, with crooked branches; often spreading by root
suckers. Its roots, leaves, twigs and fruit have a spicy odor; the oil
contained in these parts is used for a “tea,” in medicines, perfumes,
etc. _Wood_ used chiefly for fuel and fence posts.


                    [Illustration: FLOWERING DOGWOOD
                          (_Cornus florida_)]

Leaves:    Simple, opposite, 3″-5″ long; clustered toward tips of twigs;
margins smooth or wavy; veins prominent and curved like a bow. Foliage
bright red in autumn.

Twigs:    Red tinged with green, often with a bluish white powdery
coating; marked with rings; tips curve upward. _End leaf bud_ covered by
2 reddish scales; _side leaf buds_ very small; _flower buds_
conspicuous, silvery, button-shaped, at ends of twigs.

Fruit:    An egg-shaped _drupe_, ½″-⅗″ long; coat red; flesh yellowish;
stone grooved, 2-celled; usually in clusters of 2-5; persist after the
leaves fall. _Flowers_ greenish white or yellowish, small, in
flat-topped clusters; _four showy white bracts_ underneath; open before
the leaves.

General:    _Bark_ red-brown to reddish gray, broken by fissures into
small blocks, like _alligator_ hide. A _small_ native tree with low
spreading crown, especially valued for ornamental planting. _Wood_ used
primarily for textile weaving shuttles. There is a variety with red or
pink bracts.



                                 INDEX


                                   A
  Ash, black                                                          36
    white                                                             35
  Aspen, bigtooth                                                     43
    trembling                                                         42

                                   B
  Basswood                                                            49
  Beech, American                                                     16
  Birch, black                                                        28
    canoe                                                             31
    gray                                                              32
    paper                                                             31
    river                                                             30
    sweet                                                             28
    white                                                             31
    yellow                                                            29
  Buckeye, Ohio                                                       48
    yellow                                                            48
  Butternut                                                           21

                                   C
  Catalpa, northern                                                   50
    southern                                                          50
  Cherry, black                                                       45

                                   D
  Dogwood, flowering                                                  54

                                   E
  Elm, American                                                       39
    slippery                                                          40

                                   G
  Gum, black                                                          46

                                   H
  Hackberry, common                                                   41
  Hemlock, eastern                                                     1
  Hickory, bitternut                                                  27
    mockernut                                                         25
    pignut                                                            26
    shagbark                                                          23
    shellbark                                                         24
  Honeylocust, common                                                 34
  Horsechestnut, common                                               48

                                   L
  Larch, eastern                                                       8
    European                                                           8
    Japanese                                                           8
  Linden, American                                                    49
  Locust, black                                                       33

                                   M
  Magnolia, cucumbertree                                              38
  Maple, hard                                                         17
    Norway                                                            20
    red                                                               18
    silver                                                            19
    soft                                                      18, 19, 20
    sugar                                                             17

                                   O
  Oak, black                                                          14
    chestnut                                                          11
    eastern red                                                       12
    pin                                                               15
    rock                                                              11
    scarlet                                                           13
    white                                                             10

                                   P
  Pawpaw, common                                                      52
  Persimmon, common                                                   51
  Pine, eastern white                                                  2
    pitch                                                              3
    red                                                                5
    scrub                                                              4
    Virginia                                                           4
  Planetree, American                                                 47

                                   R
  Redcedar, eastern                                                    9

                                   S
  Sassafras, common                                                   53
  Spruce, black                                                        7
    Norway                                                             6
    red                                                                7
  Sycamore, American                                                  47

                                   T
  Tamarack                                                             8
  Tuliptree                                                           37
  Tulip poplar                                                        37

                                   W
  Walnut, eastern black                                               22
    white                                                             21
  Willow, black                                                       44
    brittle                                                           44
    weeping                                                           44



                                 NOTES


                       [Illustration: White Oak]


                      [Illustration: Chestnut Oak]


                    [Illustration: Eastern Red Oak]


                      [Illustration: Scarlet Oak]


                      [Illustration: Sugar Maple]


                       [Illustration: Red Maple]


                      [Illustration: Yellow Birch]


                      [Illustration: Paper Birch]


                     [Illustration: Bigtooth Aspen]



                          Transcriber’s Notes


--Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

--Corrected a few palpable typos.

--In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.

--Included a transcription of the text within some images.

--The “Notes” section (blank pages in the printed edition) illustrates
  leaves collected and pressed by a prior owner of the book.





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