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Title: Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa, in the Seventeenth Century, Vol. I
Author: Çelebi, Evliya
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa, in the Seventeenth Century, Vol. I" ***

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                         NARRATIVE OF TRAVELS

                                  IN

                       EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA,

                                  IN

                       THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY,

                                  BY

                            EVLIYÁ EFENDÍ.

                      TRANSLATED FROM THE TURKISH

                                  BY

                     THE RITTER JOSEPH VON HAMMER,
                        F.M R.A.S, &c. &c. &c.

                       [Illustration: Colophon]

                                LONDON:
               PRINTED FOR THE ORIENTAL TRANSLATION FUND
                     OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND;

                                SOLD BY
               PARBURY, ALLEN, & Co., LEADENHALL STREET.

                             M.DCCC.XXXIV.



                                LONDON:
         Printed by J. L. COX and SON, 75, Great Queen Street,
                         Lincoln’s-Inn Fields.



ADVERTISEMENT.


The narrative of an Asiatic traveller, enthusiastically fond of seeing
foreign countries, and unwearied in his investigation of their history,
condition, and institutions, is in itself so great a singularity, and
so deserving of attention, that no apology seems requisite for thus
presenting Evliyá Efendí in an English dress: and the name of the
Ritter von Hammer, by whom this work was abridged and translated, is
a sufficient voucher for its intrinsic merit and the accuracy of the
version.

It is requisite to inform the reader, that throughout the work the
Asiatic words and proper names are spelt according to the system of
orthography adopted by Sir William Jones and Sir Charles Wilkins, which
gives to the consonants the sound they have in our own, but to the
vowels that which they have in the Italian and German languages; and
by assigning to each Arabic character its appropriate Roman letter,
enables the Oriental student to transfer the word at once from one mode
of writing to the other.

 _London, 20th Jan. 1834._



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE AUTHOR.


Evliyá, the son of Dervísh Mohammed, chief of the goldsmiths of
Constantinople, was born in the reign of Sultán Ahmed I., on the 10th
of Moharrem 1020 (A.D. 1611). He records the building of the mosque
of Sultán Ahmed, which was begun when he was six years old, and the
gate of which was executed under the superintendance of his father,
who in his youth had been standard-bearer to Sultán Suleïmán. His
grandfather was standard-bearer at the conquest of Constantinople, by
Sultán Mohammed, on which occasion the house within the _Un-kapán_
(flour-market), on the ground attached to the mosque of Sághirjílar,
was the portion of spoil allotted to him. On this spot he erected one
hundred shops, the revenues of which he devoted to the mosque. The
administration of the mosque, therefore, remained in the hands of the
family. He mentions more than once, as one of his ancestors, the great
Sheikh Ahmed Yesov, called the Turk of Turks, a resident of Khorásán,
and who sent his disciple, the celebrated Hájí Bektásh,[1] to Sultán
Orkhán. Evliyá’s mother was an Abáza, and when a girl, had been sent
along with her brother to Sultán Ahmed, who kept the boy as a page, and
presented the girl to Mohammed Dervísh, the chief of the goldsmiths.
The brother had, or received, the Sultán’s name, with the sirname
_Melek_ (angel), and is mentioned in history as the Grand Vezír Melek
Ahmed Pashá, in whose suite Evliyá performed a great part of his
travels.

 [1] This Hájí Bektásh gave the Yení-cherí (Janissaries) their name.

Evliyá attended the college of Hámid Efendí, in the quarter of the
town called Fíl Yúkúshí, where for seven years he heard the lectures
of Akhfash Efendí. His tutor in reading the Korán was Evliyá Mohammed,
a learned man, after whom it appears our traveller was named.
Distinguished by his acquirements, his melodious voice, and, as it
seems, by a fine person, he performed the duty of Móazzin at Ayá Sófíya
on the Lailat al Kadr of 1045 (1635), on which occasion, as he himself
relates, he attracted the particular attention of Sultán Murád IV. He
was then twenty-five years old; and under the care of his master had
made such progress in the art of reading the Korán, that he could read
the whole in seven hours, and was perfectly versed in the seven modes
of reading. His uncle Melek Ahmed was at this time sword-bearer to the
Sultán, and it seems that Evliyá was in some degree indebted to his
interest for the favour of being immediately admitted as a page of the
_Kílár-oda_. The Sultán was not less pleased with his melodious voice
and his witty remarks, which evinced much information, than with his
handsome person, in consequence of which he was initiated into all the
profligacies of the royal pages, the relation of which, in more than
one place, leaves a stain upon his writings. He, however, continued his
studies in caligraphy, music, grammar, and the Korán, the latter still
under the direction of Evliyá Mohammed, who was then imperial chaplain
(_Khúnkár Imámí_).[2]

 [2] Evliyá Mohammed died the same year.

His stay in the imperial palace was, however, very short, as he was
removed from it previously to the Persian expedition, undertaken the
same year (1045) against Eriván, when he was enrolled among the
Sipáhís, with a stipend of forty aspres _per diem_. Whatever importance
Evliyá may have attached to the honour of having been for a short time
an inmate of the seraglio, it seems to have produced no change in his
life, which was that of a traveller all his days. To this vocation, he
conceived he had a special call in a dream on the anniversary of his
twenty-first birth-day (the 10th of Moharrem). He fancied himself in
the mosque of Akhí-Chelebí, where the Prophet appeared to him in full
glory, surrounded by all the saints of the Islám. When he wished to
pray for the intercession (_shifáa’t_) of the Prophet, by mistake he
asked for travelling (_siyáhat_), which was granted to him, together
with permission to kiss the hands of the Prophet, the four Imáms, and
of the saints. His friends the Sheikhs, from whom he requested the
interpretation of this dream, assured him that he should enjoy the
favour of monarchs, and the good fortune of visiting in his travels
the tombs of all the saints and great men whom he had seen. From this
moment he formed the resolution of passing his life in travelling,
and visiting the tombs of the saints; thus his name _Evliyá_ (saints)
became significant, as he was all his life _Mohibbi Evliyá_, that
is, the friend of the saints. This circumstance accounts for the
predilection he evinces in visiting the tombs and monuments of the
saints, as he often dwells with particular pleasure on the description
of places of pilgrimage. Evliyá (the friend of saints), Háfiz (knowing
the Korán by heart), and Siyyáh (the traveller), are the names by which
he styles himself, although he is more commonly known by the name of
Evliyá Chelebí or Efendí; and his work is called _Siyyáh Námeh_, or the
History of the Traveller.

Having received his call by a vision of the Prophet, he commenced his
travels by excursions through Constantinople and its environs, his
topographical descriptions of which, as to the latter, are perhaps
the best extant, and occupy the whole of the first volume. The most
valuable portion of it is that towards the end, in which he gives a
detailed account of the various corporations of tradesmen, and the rank
they held in the solemn processions.

He travelled, as he frequently mentions, for forty-one years, so that
he must have completed his travels in the year 1081 (A.D. 1670), when
he was sixty-one years of age, and he seems to have devoted the rest of
his life to repose, and to the writing of his travels, which extended
to all parts of the Ottoman empire, in Europe, Asia, and Africa,
except Tunis, Algiers, and Tripolis, which he never visited, and which
he therefore passes over in his statistical account of the Ottoman
empire. Besides travelling in Rumelia, Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt,
he accompanied the Turkish Embassy to Vienna in 1664, as secretary,
whence he proceeded to the Netherlands and Sweden, and returned by the
Crimea. Though generally employed in diplomatic and financial missions,
he was sometimes engaged in battles, and mentions having been present
at twenty-two; the first of which was the expedition to Eriván, which
took place the same year in which he entered and left the Seraglio
(1645). His father, who had been standard-bearer at the siege of Siget
(1564), and must at this time have been nearly ninety years of age, was
ordered, together with some other veterans who had served under Sultán
Suleïmán, to accompany the expedition in litters, merely to encourage
the Janissaries. This was Evliyá’s first campaign, but he has left no
account of it.

His second journey was to Brousa, in 1640, with the account of which
he commences his second volume. This journey he undertook, together
with some friends, without his father’s consent, and having visited
all the baths, monuments, mosques, and public walks, he returned to
Constantinople, where he was well received by his father.

In the beginning of Rebi-ul-evvel he set out on his third journey,
which was to Nicomedia. On his return he visited the Princes’ Islands,
and arrived at Constantinople a month after he had left it.

Ketánjí Omar Páshá having been appointed to the government of
Trebisonde, he made his old friend, Evliyá’s father, his agent
at Constantinople, and took Evliyá along with him. They left
Constantinople in the beginning of Rebi-ul-ákhir, and proceeded to
Trebisonde, coasting by Kefken, Heraclea, Amassera, Sinope, Samsún, and
Kherson. From Trebisonde he was ordered to attend the _zemburukchís_
(camel-artillery) of Gonia to the siege of Azov in 1051. He proceeded
along the shores of the Black Sea through the country of the Abáza,
the history and description of which form the most interesting part of
Evliyá’s travels. The fleet destined for Azov reached Anapa shortly
after the arrival of Evliyá. He immediately waited upon the commander,
Delí Husain Páshá, who received him into his suite, and placed him on
board the galley of his kehiyá. They sailed for Azov on the 12th of
Sha’bán. Evliyá was present at the siege, which being unsuccessful, was
raised, and he accompanied the Tatár Khán’s army, which returned to the
Crimea by land. At Bálakláva he embarked for Constantinople, but was
wrecked, and escaped with only two slaves out of the many whom he had
collected in his travels through Abáza and Mingrelia. He was thrown on
the coast of Kilyra, whence he proceeded to Constantinople.

In 1055 (1645) the fleet was fitted out, as was generally rumoured, for
an expedition against Malta, and Evliyá embarked on board the ship of
the Capudán Páshá, Yúsuf Páshá, in the capacity of _Móazzin-báshí_.[3]
The expedition, however, having touched at the Morea, suddenly turned
upon Candia, where Evliyá was present at the reduction of the castle of
St. Todero, and the siege of Canea; after which he attended several
military excursions to Dalmatia and Sebenico.

 [3] _Moazzin-báshí_, the chief of the proclaimers of prayers.

On his return to Constantinople he made arrangements for his sixth
journey, with Defterdár Zádeh Mohammed Páshá, who was at that time
appointed governor of Erzerúm, and whom Evliyá accompanied as clerk
of the custom-house at Erzerúm. Their route lay through Nicomedia,
Sabanja, Bólí, Túsia, Amásia, Nígísár, and they reached Erzerúm,
having made seventy stages. Shortly afterwards the Páshá sent him on a
mission to the Khán of Tabríz, with a view to facilitate a commercial
intercourse. This was Evliyá’s first journey into Persia. On his way
he visited Etchmiazin, Nakhcheván, and Merend; and returned by Aján,
Erdebíl, Eriván, Bakú, Derbend, Kákht, the plain of Chaldirán, and the
fortress of Akhíska. Ten days after he was again despatched to Eriván,
on returning from which he resumed his duties at the custom-house. He
was, however, scarcely settled, when the Páshá sent him on a mission to
the governor of the Sanjaks of Jánja and Tortúm, in order to collect
the troops which had been ordered by a _Khatt-i-sheríf_. With this
commission he visited the towns of Baiburd, Jánja, Isper, Tortúm,
Akchekala’, and Gonia, of which latter the Cossacks had at that time
taken possession. Evliyá witnessed its reduction, and was the first to
proclaim on its walls the faith of the Islám.

The Mingrelians having revolted on the occasion of one of the Cossack
inroads, a predatory expedition into Mingrelia was undertaken by Seidí
Ahmed Páshá; and Evliyá having over-run the country with his plundering
party, returned to Erzerúm, whence, on the 18th of Zilka’da, he set out
on his return to Constantinople. His Páshá, Defterdár Zádeh Mohammed,
having openly rebelled against the Porte, he followed him from Erzerúm
through Kumákh, Erzenján, Shínkara-hisár, Ládík, Merzifún, Koprí,
Gumish, Jorúm, and Tokát. He once fell into the hands of robbers, but
fortunately effecting his escape, he followed his master to Angora.
The inhabitants of this town not permitting the Páshá to shut himself
up in the castle, he was again obliged to take the field. His great
ally Várvár Páshá, on whose account he had rebelled, though he had
beaten and made prisoners several Páshás (amongst whom was Kopreilí,
afterwards celebrated as the first Grand Vezír of the family), was at
last defeated, and killed by Ibshír Páshá. Defterdár Zádeh Mohammed
Páshá, however, managed his affairs so well, that he obtained not only
his pardon but a new appointment. Evliyá was with him at Begbázár, when
he received the intelligence of his father’s death, and that all his
property had fallen to his step-mother and his sisters. On hearing this
he took leave of Defterdár Zádeh, and proceeded by Turbelí, Taráklí,
and Kíva, to Constantinople, where he arrived at the time of the
great revolution, by which Sultán Selím was deposed, and Mohammed IV.
raised to the throne. Evliyá’s account of this revolution, and of the
principal actors in it, is so much the more interesting, that the chief
favourite of Ibrahím, the famous Jinjí Khoajeh, of whose ignorance he
makes mention, had been Evliyá’s school-fellow. Evliyá, however, had
been well treated by him, and received as an old school-fellow, shortly
before his own fall, and that of his royal master, Ibrahím, which
happened in the year 1058 (1648).

Evliyá next attached himself to Silihdár Murtezá Páshá, who was
appointed Governor of Damascus, as _Moazzin-báshí_ (an office which,
as before mentioned, he had held under Yúsuf Páshá, in the expedition
against Canea), and as _Imám Mahmil_, or priest of the caravan of
pilgrims to Mecca. He left Constantinople in the beginning of Sha’bán
1058 (1648).

The third volume commences with an account of his seventh great
journey, which was to Damascus. He had scarcely arrived at this place
when he was sent by Murtezá Páshá on a mission to Constantinople. This
journey was performed very rapidly, and he gives no particular account
of it, only mentioning that he met some of the robbers belonging to the
party of Kátirjí Oghlí.

He returned with the same despatch to Damascus, whence he set out on
his pilgrimage to Mecca, through Egypt. Of this pilgrimage no account
is given in our manuscript copy, as it seems he died before he had
completed the work. There is no question, however, as to the time at
which it was undertaken, since in his account of the reign of Sultán
Murád IV. he states that he was just in time, after his return from
Mecca through Egypt, to share in the glory of the victory gained by
Murtezá Páshá over the Druzes, in the year 1059. Now Evliyá’s account
of this expedition commences in the month of Moharrem 1059, from which
it may be supposed that he had just returned from Mecca, where the
annual ceremonies of the pilgrimage take place in Zilhijeh, the last
month of the year.

Evliyá was employed by Murtezá on various missions, the object of which
was to collect debts and exact money. On such errands he was sent to
Mount Lebanon, Karak, Balbek, Akka, Yaffa, and Haleb, whence he took a
journey to Rakka, Roha, Bális, Meraash, Kaisari, and over Mount Arjísh
(Argaus) to Ak-seráï, Sívás, Díárbekr, and in the year 1060 (1650)
returned to Constantinople by Ainehbázár, Merzifún, Kanghrí, Kastemúni,
and Táshkoprí.

He now entered the service of his uncle, Melek Ahmed Páshá, who, after
having been Grand Vezír for some time, was removed to the government of
Oczakov, and afterwards to that of Silistria, in the year 1061 (1651).
Evliyá accompanied him, and this was his ninth journey, reckoning
each journey by his return to Constantinople. He travelled over the
whole of Rumelia, and made some stay at Adrianople, of which he gives
a detailed account, and thus completes his description of the three
Ottoman capitals, _viz._ Constantinople, Brousa, and Adrianople. He
left Adrianople with his uncle and patron, Melek Ahmed, who was now
raised to the rank of a Vezír of the Cupola at Constantinople; but
being unable, notwithstanding his marriage to a Sultána, to maintain
his credit in the Ottoman court during these revolutionary times, he
was obliged to accept the government of Ván, to which he proceeded
with great reluctance. Evliyá, who had been left behind, followed him
a few days after, having been despatched by the Sultána, the lady of
Melek Ahmed. He travelled through Sívás, Malátía, Díárbekr, Márdín,
Sinjár, Míáfarakain, Bedlís, and Akhlát. A considerable portion of
his narrative is devoted to the history of the warfare between Melek
Ahmed Páshá and the Khán of Tiflís, the latter of whom was beaten and
deposed; and his account of the Kurds, and their different tribes, is
not less interesting than that in his second volume of the Abázas on
the eastern coasts of the Black Sea.

Having already given proofs of his abilities in diplomatic affairs when
employed by Defterdár Zádeh Mohammed Páshá, on missions to Tabríz and
Eriván, and by Murtezá Páshá in his Syrian missions, Evliyá was now
entrusted by Melek Ahmed with several missions to the Persian Kháns of
Tabríz and Rúmia, with the view of reclaiming seventy thousand sheep,
and the liberation of Murtezá Páshá, who was kept a prisoner by the
Khán of Dembolí. From Tabríz he went through Hamadán to Baghdád, his
description of which, and its environs, of Basra and of the ruins of
Kúfa, contains some most important geographical notices. From Basra
he travelled to Hormuz and the Persian Gulf, and returned to Baghdád
by Basra, Váset, and Kala’i Hasan. In a second excursion he visited
Háver, Arbíl, Sheherzor, Amadia, Jezín, Husnkeif, Nisibin, and returned
to Baghdád by Hamíd, Mousul, and Tekrít. With the account of these
the author concludes his fourth volume; and notwithstanding every
endeavour, and the most careful search in all the markets and sales, no
more of the work has been discovered. It may, therefore, be taken for
granted that he never wrote any continuation of it. The fourth volume
ends with the year 1066 (1655), and these four volumes embrace only
a period of twenty-six years of the forty-one which Evliyá spent in
travelling. Of the events of the remaining fifteen, the following notes
may be collected from his own work.

In the year 1070 (1659) Evliyá accompanied the expedition into
Moldavia, and assisted at the conquest of Waradin. The Ottoman armies
extended their inroads as far as Orsova and Cronstadt in Transylvania,
and Evliyá received twenty prisoners as his share of the booty. He
then joined his uncle and patron, Melek Ahmed Páshá, then governor of
Bosnia, who on the 12th of Rebi-ul-evvel 1071 (1660), was appointed
governor of Rúmeili. With him, in the following year, Evliyá made the
campaign into Transylvania, which was then disturbed by the pretenders
to the crown, Kemeny and Apasty. He was at Saswár when the news arrived
of the death of the Grand Vezír, Mohammed Kopreïlí, in 1071 (1660).
After the battle of Forgaras he left Transylvania, and took up his
winter quarters with Melek Ahmed Páshá at Belgrade. Melek Ahmed was
shortly afterwards recalled to Constantinople in order to be married
(his first Sultána having died) to Fátima, the daughter of Sultán
Ahmed. He died after he had been a Vezír of the Cupola three months;
and thus “poor Evliyá” (as he generally calls himself) was left without
a protector. He, however, remained in the army, then engaged in the
Hungarian war, till the year 1075 (1664), when Kara Mohammed Páshá was
sent on an embassy to Vienna, and Evliyá, by the express command of the
Sultán, was appointed secretary of the embassy. The ambassador returned
in the ensuing year to Constantinople, as may be seen by his own
report, published in the Ottoman Annals of Rashíd; but Evliyá having
obtained an imperial patent, continued his travels through Germany
and the Netherlands, as far as Dunkirk, through Holland, Denmark, and
Sweden, and returned through Poland, by Cracovie and Danzig, to the
Crimea, after a journey of three years and a half, thus finishing, on
the frontiers of Russia, as he himself states, his travels through “the
seven climates.”

Although he repeatedly mentions his travels through Europe, it is
doubtful whether he ever wrote them; from doing which he was probably
prevented by death, when he had completed his fourth volume. It appears
that after having travelled for forty years, he spent the remainder of
his days in retirement at Adrianople, where he probably died, and where
his tomb might be looked for. It also appears that the last ten years
of his life were devoted to the writing of his travels, and that he
died about the year 1090 at the age of seventy.

This supposition is borne out by his mentioning, in his historical
account of the reign of Sultán Mohammed IV., the conquest of Candia
which took place in 1089 (1678); and further by his speaking of his
fifty years’ experience since he commenced the world, which must refer
to the year 1040, when, at the age of twenty, he entered upon his
travels; during which he declares he saw the countries of eighteen
monarchs, and heard one hundred and forty-seven different languages.

The motto on his seal, which he presented to a Persian Khán of his own
name, was: “Evliyá hopes for the intercession of the chief of saints
and prophets.”[4]

 [4] از رأس اتقيا وانبيا دارد اميد شفاعت اوليا

Judging from the chronographs and verses which he inscribed on several
monuments, and the errors into which he frequently falls respecting
ancient history, Evliyá must be considered as but an indifferent
poet and historian. But in his descriptions of the countries which
he visited he is most faithful, and his work must be allowed to be
unequalled by any other hitherto known Oriental travels. Independent
of the impression made upon him by his dream, that by the blessing of
the Prophet he was to visit the tombs of all the saints whom he had
seen in their glory, he found that his lot was to travel; and besides
the name of _Háfiz_ (knowing the Korán by heart), he well deserved _par
excellence_ that of _Siyyáh_ or _the_ traveller.



CONTENTS.


                                                                    Page

  BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE AUTHOR                                  iii

  INTRODUCTION                                                         1


  SECTION I.

  Sayings (hadís) of the Prophet respecting Constantinople             5


  SECTION II.

  An Account of the Foundation of the ancient
  City and Seat of Empire of the Macedonian
  Greeks, _i.e._ Constantinople                                      ib.


  SECTION III.

  Concerning the Conquest of the Black Sea                             6

  Concerning the Canal from the river Dóná
  (Danube)                                                             8


  SECTION IV.

  Concerning Constantine, the ninth Builder, who
  erected the Walls and Castle of Constantinople                      10

  The Discovery of the true Cross                                    ib.

  Names of Constantinople in different tongues                        11


  SECTION V.

  Concerning the Circumference of Constantinople                      12

  The number of paces between each of the
  twenty-seven Gates                                                  14


  SECTION VI.

  Of the wonderful Talismans within and without
  Kostantíneh                                                         16

  Talismans relating to the Sea                                       19


  SECTION VII.

  Concerning the Mines within and without the
  city of Kostantín                                                   20


  SECTION VIII.

  Sieges of Constantinople                                            23

  The second siege                                                   ib.

  The third siege                                                     24

  The fourth siege                                                   ib.

  The fifth siege                                                    ib.

  The sixth siege                                                     25

  The seventh siege                                                  ib.

  The eighth siege                                                   ib.

  The ninth siege                                                     26


  SECTION IX.

  Concerning the sieges of Constantinople by the
  Ottoman Emperors                                                    27

  Account of the rise of Mohammed II., the Father
  of Victory                                                          31


  SECTION X.

  The last siege of Kostantaniyyeh by Mohammed
  II., the conqueror                                                  32


  SECTION XI.

  An explanation of the relationship between the
  house of Osmán and the King of France                               40

  An account of the heroic deeds and misfortunes
  of Jem-sháh, son of the Emperor Mohammed
  Abú-l Fat-h (the conqueror)                                         41

  Eulogium on Yá Vadúd Sultán                                         44

  Of the glorious conquest of the Ok-meïdán
  (archery ground)                                                    46


  SECTION XII.

  Description of the New Seráï, the Threshold
  of the Abode of Felicity                                            49


  SECTION XIII.

  Description of the Old Seráï                                        50

  Eulogium on the living water of the Old
  Palace (Eskí Seráï)                                                 51


  SECTION XIV.

  On the Public Officers established at Islámból
  at the time of the Conquest                                         52


  SECTION XV.

  On the Imperial Mosques in the Mohammedan
  City of Kostantaniyyeh                                              55

  On the Dimensions, Builders, &c. of the ancient
  place of worship, Ayá Sófiyah                                       56

  A Description of the four Minárehs (Minarets)                       57

  The Servants (Khuddám) of the Mosque                                59

  Stations and Places in this Mosque visited as
  peculiarly fitted for Devotion                                      59

  Narrative of Gulábí V                                               60

  Virtues of the Golden Ball                                          64

  The Spectacle of the resplendent Stones                             65

  The Mosque of Zírek Báshí                                          ib.

  Description of the Mosque of Mohammed the
  Conqueror                                                           66

  Form of this Mosque                                                ib.

  Appeal of the Mi’már Báshí (Head Builder)
  to the Law of the Prophet against the Conqueror                     68

  Description of the Mosque of Sultán Báyazíd II.                     70

  Description of the Mosque of Sultán Selim I.                        73

  Description of the Fifth Imperial Mosque;
  that of Sultán Suleïmán                                             74

  In praise of the Writing of Karah Hisárí                            76

  Description of the Court (Harem)                                    77

  A Description of the Imperial Mausoleum                             79

  Description of the Outer Court                                     ib.

  Description of the Mosque of Prince Mohammed                        82

  Description of the Mosque of the Válideh                            83

  Description of the Mosque of Mehr-máh Sultáneh                     ib.

  Begler-begs in the reign of Sultán Suleïmán                         85

  Capudán Pashas in the reign of Suleïmán                             86

  Defterdárs and Nishánjis of the Reign of Sultán
  Suleïmán                                                            87

  Begs of Sultán Suleïmán’s Reign                                    ib.

  Some of the Illustrious Divines of the Reign
  of Sultán Suleïmán                                                 ib.

  The Kanún-námeh, or Statistical Code of the
  Empire, drawn up by Sultán Suleïmán                                 88

  The Khás, or Revenues of the Begler-begs                            89

  Names of the Sanjaks of each province                               90

  Sanjaks of the province of Anádólí                                 ib.

  Sanjaks of the province of Karamán                                 ib.

  Sanjaks of Sívás                                                    91

  Sanjaks of Bosna                                                   ib.

  The province of the Capúdán Páshá                                  ib.

  Sanjaks of the Morea                                               ib.

  Sanjaks of Búdín (Bude)                                            ib.

  Sanjaks of the province of Kaníza                                  ib.

  Sanjaks of Uivár (Neuhausel)                                        92

  The province of Temiswar                                           ib.

  The province of Varasdin                                           ib.

  Transylvania                                                       ib.

  Valachia and Moldavia                                              ib.

  Oczakov, or Silistria                                              ib.

  Krim (the Crimea)                                                  ib.

  The province of Kaffa                                               93

  The province of Cyprus                                             ib.

  The province of Candia                                             ib.

  The province of Damascus                                           ib.

  The province of Trabalús (Tripoli)                                 ib.

  The province of Adna                                               ib.

  The province of Haleb (Aleppo)                                      94

  The province of Díárbeker                                          ib.

  The province of Kars                                               ib.

  The province of Childer or Akhíchkeh                                95

  The province of Gúrjistán or Georgia                               ib.

  The province of Tarabafzún (Trebizonde)                            ib.

  The province of Rika                                               ib.

  The province of Baghdád                                            ib.

  The province of Basra                                              ib.

  The province of Lahsa                                               96

  The province of Yemen                                              ib.

  The province of Abyssinia                                          ib.

  The province of Mecca                                              ib.

  The province of Egypt                                              ib.

  The province of Mosul                                               97

  The province of Wán                                                ib.

  The province of Erzerúm                                            ib.

  The province of Sheherzúl                                          ib.

  Of the ranks of Sanjak-begs                                        ib.

  Of the khás, or revenue of the Sanjak-begs, the Kehiyás of
  the Defter and the Defterdárs of Tímárs                             98

  Rumeili                                                            ib.

  Bosnia                                                             ib.

  The Archipelago                                                     99

  The province of Bude                                               ib.

  The province of Temiswár                                           ib.

  The province of Anatolia                                           ib.

  The province of Karamán                                            ib.

  The province of Kubrus (Cyprus)                                    ib.

  The province of Tripoli (in Syria)                                 ib.

  The province of Haleb (Aleppo)                                     100

  The province of Zulkadrieh or Mera’ish                             ib.

  The province of Sivás                                              ib.

  The province of Erzerúm                                            ib.

  The province of Kars                                               ib.

  The province of Childer or Akhichka                                ib.

  The province of Trebizonde                                         ib.

  The province of Díárbekr                                           ib.

  The province of Rakka                                              101

  The province of Baghdád                                            ib.

  The province of Wán                                                ib.

  The province of Mosul                                              ib.

  Statement of the number of swords or men brought into the
  field by the possessors of Tímárs and Ziámets                      ib.

  The province of Rúmeili                                            ib.

  Number of Ziámets and Tímárs in each of the
  Sanjaks in Rúmeïli                                                 ib.

  Number of Ziámets and Timars in Anatolia                           102

  The province of the Kapúdán Pasha, or
  islands of the Archipelago                                         103

  The province of Karamán                                            ib.

  The province of Rúm or Sivás                                       ib.

  The province of Mara’ish                                           ib.

  The province of Haleb (Aleppo)                                     104

  The province of Shám (Damascus)                                    ib.

  The province of Cyprus                                             ib.

  The province of Rakka                                              ib.

  The province of Trebizonde                                         ib.

  The province of Díárbekr                                           ib.

  The province of Erzerúm                                            ib.

  The province of Childer                                            105

  The province of Wán                                                ib.

  The order of the Diván                                             ib.

  The Conquests and Victories of Soleïmán                            106

  The Reign of Sultán Selím II.                                      108

  Defterdárs and Nishánjís                                           ib.

  Physicians                                                         109

  Mesháiekh or Learned men                                           ib.

  Conquests, &c. in the reign of Sultan Selim II.                    ib.

  Conquests, &c. in the reign of Murád                               ib.

  Sons of Sultán Ahmed                                               111

  Grand Vezírs of Sultán Ahmed                                       ib.

  Vezírs of the Kubba (Cupola)                                       ib.

  Celebrated Divines                                                 ib.

  Mesháiekh or Learned Men                                           ib.

  Conquests, &c. of the reign of Sultán Ahmed                        ib.

  Description of the Mosque of Sultán Ahmed                          112

  The Imperial Expedition against Hotín                              115

  Description of the Gul-Jámi’                                       118

  Chronological account of the principal events
  during the reign of Sultán Murád IV.                               119

  A curious Anecdote                                                 127

  Account of the humble Evliyá’s admission into
  the imperial Harem of Sultán Murád, and
  of some pleasant conversation which he enjoyed
  with the Emperor in 1046 (1635)                                    132

  The Muftís and Ulemá during the reign of
  Sultán Murád                                                       143

  Chief Judges of Rumeïlí                                            ib.

  Chief Judges of Anatolia                                           144

  Defderdárs during the Reign of Sultán Murád                        ib.

  Aghás of the Janissaries during the Reign of
  Sultán Murád                                                       ib.

  Sultán Murád’s expedition against Malta                            ib.

  Account of the Death of Sultán Murád                               145

  Vezírs of Sultán Ibráhím                                           146

  The Vezír who rebelled against Sultán Ibráhím                      ib.

  Conquests, &c. during the reign of Sultán
  Ibráhím                                                            147

  Defeat of Tekelí Mustafá Páshá                                     149

  Character of Sultán Ibráhím                                        ib.

  Reign of Sultán Mohammed IV., which may
  God perpetuate!                                                    151

  Personal description of Sultán Mohammed                            ib.

  History of the Vezírs                                              152

  The cause of his fall                                              153

  Vezírs of Provinces in the time of Sultán Mohammed
  IV.                                                                157

  Prince of Sultán Mohammed IV.                                      ib.

  Monuments of Sultán Mohammed IV.                                   ib.

  Victories and Conquests at which Sultán Mohammed
  IV. was present in person                                          ib.

  Defeat of the Druses in Syria by Murtezá Páshá                     ib.

  Conquest of Selina and Retino in Candia                            158

  Defeat of the Infidel Fleet by Kapudán Chavush Zádeh               ib.

  Attack on the Cossacks, by Mohammed Gheráï
  Khán, at Oczakov                                                   158

  Defeat of Rakoczy                                                  159

  Description of the Mosque of the Válideh                           164

  Description of the Mosque of Abul-vafá                             166

  Description of the Mosque of Emír Najárí                           ib.

  The Fat’híeh Mosque                                                ib.

  SECTION XVI.

  Of the Mosques of the Vezírs at Constantinople                     166

  The Old Mesjids, or small Mosques of Constantinople                170


  SECTION XVII.

  Of the Medreseh, or Colleges                                       171


  SECTION XVIII.

  Of the Dár-ul-kira of Constantinople                               173


  SECTION XIX.

  Of the Mekteb, or Boys’ Schools                                    173


  SECTION XX.

  Of the Dár-ul-hadíth, or Tradition Schools                         ib.


  SECTION XXI.

  Of the Tekíeh, or Convents of Dervíshes                            ib.


  SECTION XXII.

  Of the Imáret, or Refectories                                      174


  SECTION XXIII.

  Of the Tímáristán and Moristán, or Hospitals                       174


  SECTION XXIV.

  Of the principal Palaces of Constantinople                         175


  SECTION XXV.

  Of the Grand Kháns for Merchants                                   176


  SECTION XXVI.

  Of the Cáravánseráis                                               177


  SECTION XXVII.

  Of the Barracks (Bekár oda)                                        ib.


  SECTION XXVIII.

  Of the Fountains ornamented with Chronographs                      178


  SECTION XXIX.

  Of the Sebíl-khánehs, or Water-houses                              179


  SECTION XXX.

  Of the principal Baths                                             ib.

  NOTES                                                              183



                                  THE

                                TRAVELS

                                  OF

                            EVLIYA EFENDÍ.


IN THE NAME OF GOD, THE ALL-CLEMENT, THE ALL-MERCIFUL!

To GOD, who ennobles exalted minds by travels, and has enabled me
to visit the holy places; to Him who laid the foundations of the
fortresses of legislation, and established them on the groundwork of
prophecy and revelation, all praise be given: and may the richest
blessings and most excellent benedictions be offered to the most noble
and perfect of all creatures, the pattern of prayer, who said, “Pray as
you see me pray;” to the infallible guide, Mohammed; because it is in
his favour that God, the Lord of empires and Creator of the heavens,
made the earth an agreeable residence for the sons of Adam, and created
man the most noble of all his creatures. Praise to Him, who directs all
events according to His will, without injustice or incongruity! And,
after having offered all adoration to God, let every pious aspiration
be expressed for the prosperity of his shadow upon earth, the ruler of
terrestrial things, the Sultán son of a Sultán, the victorious Prince
Murád Khán, fourth son of Sultán Ahmed Khán, and eighth in descent
from Sultán Mohammed Khán, the Conqueror, the mercy of God rest upon
them all! but most especially on Sultán Murád Gházi, the conqueror of
Baghdád, the great Monarch with whose service I was blessed when I
began to write an account of my travels.

It was in the time of his illustrious reign, in the year A.H. 1041
(A.D. 1631), that by making excursions on foot in the villages and
gardens near Islámbúl (Constantinople), I began to think of extensive
travels, and to escape from the power of my father, mother, and
brethren. Forming a design of travelling over the whole earth, I
entreated God to give me health for my body and faith for my soul;
I sought the conversation of dervíshes, and when I had heard a
description of the seven climates and of the four quarters of the
earth, I became still more anxious to see the world, to visit the Holy
Land, Cairo, Damascus, Mecca and Medina, and to prostrate myself on
the purified soil of the places where the prophet, the glory of all
creatures, was born, and died.

I, a poor, destitute traveller, but a friend of mankind, Evliyà, son
of the dervísh Mohammed, being continually engaged in prayer and
petitions for divine guidance, meditating upon the holy chapters and
mighty verses of the Korán, and looking out for assistance from above,
was blessed in the night _’Ashúrá_, in the month of _Moharrem_, while
sleeping in my father’s house at Islámbúl, with the following vision:
I dreamt that I was in the mosque of Akhí chelebí, near the Yemish
iskeleh-sí (fruit-stairs or scale), a mosque built with money lawfully
gotten, from which prayers therefore ascend to heaven. The gates were
thrown open at once, and the mosque filled with a brilliant crowd who
were saying the morning prayers. I was concealed behind the pulpit,
and was lost in astonishment on beholding that brilliant assembly. I
looked on my neighbour, and said, “May I ask, my lord, who you are,
and what is your illustrious name?” He answered, “I am one of the ten
evangelists, Sa’d Vakkás, the patron of archers.” I kissed his hands,
and asked further: “Who are the refulgent multitude on my right hand?”
He said, “They are all blessed saints and pure spirits, the spirits of
the followers of the Prophet, the Muhájirín, who followed him in his
flight from Mecca, and the Ansárí who assisted him on his arrival at
Medína, the companions of Saffah and the martyrs of Kerbelá. On the
right of the _mihráb_ (altar) stand Abú Bekr and ’Omar, and on the left
’Osmán and ’Ali; before it stands Veis; and close to the left wall of
the mosque, the first Muezzin, Belál the Habeshí. The man who regulates
and ranks the whole assembly is Amru. Observe the host in red garments
now advancing with a standard; that is the host of martyrs who fell in
the holy wars, with the hero Hamzah at their head.” Thus did he point
out to me the different companies of that blessed assembly, and each
time I looked on one of them, I laid my hand on my breast, and felt my
soul refreshed by the sight. “My lord,” said I, “what is the reason of
the appearance of this assembly in this mosque?” He answered, “The
faithful Tátárs being in great danger at Azák (Azof), we are marching
to their assistance. The Prophet himself, with his two grandsons Hasan
and Hosaïn, the twelve _Imáms_ and the ten disciples, will immediately
come hither to perform the appointed morning service (_sabáh-namáz_).
They will give you a sign to perform your duty as _Muezzin_, which
you must do accordingly. You must begin to cry out with a loud voice
‘_Allah Ekber_’ (God is great!) and then repeat the verses of the
Throne (Súrah II. 259). Belál will repeat the ‘_Subhánullah_’ (Glory to
God!), and you must answer ‘_Elhamdu-li-llah_’ (God be praised!) Belál
will answer, ‘_Allah ekber_,’ and you must say ‘_Amín_’ (Amen), while
we all join in the _tevhíd_ (i.e. declaration of the divine unity). You
shall then, after saying ‘Blessed be all the prophets, and praise to
God the Lord of both worlds,’ get up, and kiss the hand of the prophet,
saying ‘_Yá resúlu-llah_’ (O Apostle of God!).”

When Sa’d Vakkás had given me these instructions, I saw flashes of
lightning burst from the door of the mosque, and the whole building
was filled with a refulgent crowd of saints and martyrs all standing
up at once. It was the prophet overshadowed by his green banner,
covered with his green veil, carrying his staff in his right hand,
having his sword girt on his thigh, with the Imám Hasan on his right
hand, and the Imám Hoseïn on his left. As he placed his right foot on
the threshold, he cried out “_Bismillah_,” and throwing off his veil,
said, “_Es-selám aleik yá ommetí_” (health unto thee, O my people).
The whole assembly answered: “Unto thee be health, O prophet of God,
lord of the nations!” The prophet advanced towards the _mihráb_ and
offered up a morning prayer of two inflexions (_rik’ah_). I trembled
in every limb; but observed, however, the whole of his sacred figure,
and found it exactly agreeing with the description given in the
_Hallyehi khákání_. The veil on his face was a white shawl, and his
turban was formed of a white sash with twelve folds; his mantle was
of camel’s hair, in colour inclining to yellow; on his neck he wore
a yellow woollen shawl. His boots were yellow, and in his turban was
stuck a toothpick. After giving the salutation he looked upon me, and
having struck his knees with his right hand, commanded me to stand up
and take the lead in the prayer. I began immediately, according to
the instruction of Belál, by saying: “The blessing of God be upon our
lord Mohammed and his family, and may He grant them peace!” afterwards
adding, “_Allah ekber_.” The prophet followed by saying the fátihah
(the 1st chap. of the Korán), and some other verses. I then recited
that of _the throne_. Belál pronounced the _Subhánu’llah_, I the
_El-hamdulillah_, and Belál the _Allah ekber_. The whole service was
closed by a general cry of “_Allah_,” which very nearly awoke me from
my sleep. After the prophet had repeated some verses, from the _Suráh
yás_, and other chapters of the Korán, Sa’d Vakkás took me by the hand
and carried me before him, saying: “Thy loving and faithful servant
Evliyà entreats thy intercession.” I kissed his hand, pouring forth
tears, and instead of crying “_shifá’at_ (intercession),” I said, from
my confusion, “_siyáhat_ (travelling) O apostle of God!” The prophet
smiled, and said, “_Shifá’at_ and _siyáhat_ (_i.e._ intercession
and travelling) be granted to thee, with health and peace!” He then
again repeated the _fátihah_, in which he was followed by the whole
assembly, and I afterwards went round, kissed the hands, and received
the blessings of each. Their hands were perfumed with musk, ambergris,
spikenard, sweet-basil, violets, and carnations; but that of the
prophet himself smelt of nothing but saffron and roses, felt when
touched as if it had no bones, and was as soft as cotton. The hands
of the other prophets had the odour of quinces; that of Abú-bekr had
the fragrance of melons, ’Omar’s smelt like ambergris, ’Osmán’s like
violets, Alí’s like jessamine, Hasán’s like carnations, and Hoseïn’s
like white roses. When I had kissed the hands of each, the prophet had
again recited the _fátihah_, all his chosen companions had repeated
aloud the seven verses of that exordium to the Korán (_saba’u-l
mesání_); and the prophet himself had pronounced the parting salutation
(_es-selám aleïkom eyyá ikhwánún_) from the _mihráb_; he advanced
towards the door, and the whole illustrious assembly giving me various
greetings and blessings, went out of the mosque. Sa’d Vakkás at the
same time, taking his quiver from his own belt and putting it into
mine, said: “Go, be victorious with thy bow and arrow; be in God’s
keeping, and receive from me the good tidings that thou shalt visit
the tombs of all the prophets and holy men whose hands thou hast now
kissed. Thou shalt travel through the whole world, and be a marvel
among men. Of the countries through which thou shalt pass, of their
castles, strong-holds, wonderful antiquities, products, eatables and
drinkables, arts and manufacturers, the extent of their provinces,
and the length of the days there, draw up a description, which shall
be a monument worthy of thee. Use my arms, and never depart, my
son, from the ways of God. Be free from fraud and malice, thankful
for bread and salt (hospitality), a faithful friend to the good,
but no friend to the bad.” Having finished his sermon, he kissed my
hand, and went out of the mosque. When I awoke, I was in great doubt
whether what I had seen were a dream or a reality; and I enjoyed for
some time the beatific contemplations which filled my soul. Having
afterwards performed my ablutions, and offered up the morning prayer
(_saláti fejrí_), I crossed over from Constantinople to the suburb of
Kásim-páshá, and consulted the interpreter of dreams, Ibráhím Efendí,
about my vision. From him I received the comfortable news that I should
become a great traveller, and after making my way through the world,
by the intercession of the prophet, should close my career by being
admitted into Paradise. I next went to Abdu-llah Dedeh, Sheïkh of the
convent of Mevleví Dervíshes in the same suburb (Kásim-páshá), and
having kissed his hand, related my vision to him. He interpreted it in
the same satisfactory manner, and presenting to me seven historical
works, and recommending me to follow Sa’d Vakkás’s counsels, dismissed
me with prayers for my success. I then retired to my humble abode,
applied myself to the study of history, and began a description of my
birth-place, Islámbúl, that envy of kings, the celestial haven, and
strong-hold of Mákedún (Macedonia, _i.e._ Constantinople).



SECTION I.


Infinite praise and glory be given to that cherisher of worlds, who
by his word “BE,” called into existence earth and heaven, and all
his various creatures; be innumerable encomiums also bestowed on the
beloved of God, Mohammed Al-Mustafà, Captain of holy warriors, heir of
the kingdom of law and justice, conqueror of Mecca, Bedr, and Honaïn,
who, after those glorious victories, encouraged his people by his noble
precepts (_hadís_) to conquer Arabia (Yemen), Egypt (Misr), Syria
(Shám), and Constantinople (Kostantiniyyeh).


_Sayings_ (hadís) _of the Prophet respecting Constantinople_.

The prophet said: “Verily Constantinople shall be conquered; and
excellent is the commander (emír), excellent the army, who shall take
it from the opposing people!”

Some thousands of proofs could be brought to shew, that Islámbúl is
the largest of all inhabited cities on the face of the earth; but the
clearest of those proofs is the following saying of the prophet, handed
down by Ebú Hureïreh. The prophet of God said: “Have you heard of a
town, one part of it situated on the land, and two parts on the sea?”
They answered, “yea! O prophet of God;” he said, “the hour will come
when it shall be changed by seventy of the children of Isaac.” From
(Esau) Aïs, who is here signified by the children of Isaac, the nation
of the Greeks is descended, whose possession of Kostantiniyyeh was thus
pointed out. There are also seventy more sacred traditions preserved by
Mo’áviyyah Khálid ibn Velíd, Iyyúb el-ensárí, and ’Abdu-l-’azíz, to the
same effect, _viz._ “Ah! if we were so happy as to be the conquerors
of Kostantiniyyeh!” They made, therefore, every possible endeavour
to conquer Rúm (the Byzantine empire); and, if it please God, a more
detailed account of their different sieges of Kostantiniyyeh shall be
given hereafter.



SECTION II.

 _An Account of the Foundation of the ancient City and Seat of Empire
 of the Macedonian Greeks_ (_Yúnániyyáni Mákedúniyyah_), i.e. _the
 well-guarded Kostantiniyyeh, the envy of all the Kings of the Land of
 Islám_.


It was first built by Solomon, and has been described by some thousands
of historians. The date of its capture is contained in those words of
the Korán, “The exalted city” (_beldah tayyibeh_), and to it some
commentators apply the following text: “Have not the Greeks been
vanquished in the lowest parts of the earth?” (Kor. xxx. 1.) and
“An excellent city, the like of which hath never been created.” All
the ancient Greek historians are agreed, that it was first built by
Solomon, son of David, 1600 years before the birth of the Prophet;
they say he caused a lofty palace to be erected by Genii, on the spot
now called Seraglio-Point, in order to please the daughter of Saïdún,
sovereign of Ferendún, an island in the Western Ocean (_Okiyúnús_).

The second builder of it was Rehoboam (_Reja’ím_), son of Solomon; and
the third Yánkó, son of Mádiyán, the Amalekite, who reigned 4600 years
after Adam was driven from Paradise, and 419 years before the birth of
Iskender Rúmí (Alexander the Great), and was the first of the Batálisah
(Ptolemies?) of the Greeks. There were four universal monarchs, two
of whom were Moslims and two Infidels. The two first were Soleïmán
(Solomon) and Iskender Zú’l karneïn (the two-horned Alexander), who is
also said to have been a prophet; and the two last were Bakhtu-n-nasr,
that desolation of the whole face of the earth, and Yánkó ibn Mádiyán,
who lived one hundred years in the land of Adím (Edom).



SECTION III.

_Concerning the Conquest of the Black Sea._


This sea, according to the opinion of the best mathematicians, is only
a relic of Noah’s flood. It is eighty fathoms (_kúláj_) deep, and,
before the deluge, was not united with the White Sea. At that time the
plains of Salániteh (Slankament), Dóbreh-chín (Dobruczin), Kej-kemet
(Ketskemet), Kenkús and Busteh, and the vallies of Sirm and Semendereh
(Semendria), were all covered with the waters of the Black Sea, and at
Dúdushkah, on the shore of the Gulf of Venice, the place where their
waters were united may still be seen. Parávádí, in the páshálik of
Silistirah (Silistria), a strong fortress now situated on the highest
rocks, was then on the sea-shore; and the rings by which the ships were
moored to the rocks are still to be seen there. The same circumstance
is manifested at Menkúb, a days journey from Bághcheh seráï, in the
island of Krim (Crimea). It is a castle built on a lofty rock, and yet
it contains stone pillars, to which ships were anciently fastened. At
that time the island of Krim (Crimea), the plains of Heïhát (Deshti
Kipchák), and the whole country of the Sclavonians (Sakálibah), were
covered with the waters of the Black Sea, which extended as far as
the Caspian. Having accompanied the army of Islám Giráï Khán in his
campaign against the Muscovites (Moskov), in the year——, I myself have
passed over the plains of Haïhát; at the encampments of Kertmeh-lí,
Bím, and Ashim, in those plains, where it was necessary to dig wells
in order to supply the army with water, I found all kinds of marine
remains, such as the shells of oysters, crabs, cockles, &c., by which
it is evident that this great plain was once a part of the Black Sea.
Verily God hath power over every thing!

The fourth builder of Constantinople was Alexander the Great, who
is also said to have cut the strait of Sebtah (Ceuta), which unites
the White Sea (Mediterranean) with the ocean. Some say the Black Sea
extends from Azák (Azof), to the straits of Islámbúl (the canal of
Constantinople), the sea of Rúm (Greece), from thence to the straits of
Gelíbólí (Gallipoli, _i.e._ the Hellespont), the key of the two seas,
where are the two castles built by Sultán Mohammed the Conqueror, and
that all below this forms the White Sea. Having often made an excursion
in a boat, when the sea was smooth and the sky clear, from the Cape of
the Seven Towers (_Yedí kullah búrunú_), near Islámbúl, to the point
of Kází Koï (called Kalámish), near Uskudár (Scutari), I have observed
in the water a red line, of about a hand’s breadth, drawn from one of
these points to the other. The sea to the north of the line is the
Black Sea; but to the south of it, towards Kizil Adá, and the other
(Princes’) islands, is called, on account of its azure (_níl_) hue,
the White Sea; and the intermixture of the two colours forms, by the
command of God, as wonders never fail, a red seam (_ráddeh_), which
divides the two seas from each other. This line is always visible,
except when strong southerly winds blow from the islands of Mermereh
(Marmora), when it disappears, from the roughness of the sea. There is
also a difference in the taste of the waters on each side of this line;
that towards the Black Sea being less salt and bitter than that towards
the White Sea: to the south of the castles (of the Dardanelles), it
is still more bitter, but less so than in the ocean. No sea has more
delicious fish than the Black Sea, and those caught in the Strait of
Islámbúl are excellent. As that strait unites the waters of the Black
and White Seas, it is called, by some writers, the confluence of two
seas (_mereju’l bahreïn_).

The fifth builder of Constantinople was a king of Ungurús (Hungary),
named Púzantín (Byzantinus), son of Yánkó Ibn Mádiyán, in whose time
the city was nearly destroyed by a great earthquake, nothing having
escaped except a castle built by Solomon, and a temple on the site of
Ayá Sófiyyah. From Púzantín, Islámbúl was formerly called Púzenteh
(Byzantium).

The sixth builder was one of the Roman emperors; the same as built
the cities of Kóniyah, Níkdeh and Kaïsariyyah (Cæsarea). He rebuilt
Islámbúl, which, for seventy years, had been a heap of ruins, a nest
of serpents, lizards, and owls, 2288 years before its conquest by
Sultán Mohammed.

The seventh builder of the city of Mákedún was, by the common consent
of all the ancient historians, Vezendún, one of the grandsons of Yánkó
Ibn Mádiyán, who, 5052 years after the death of Adam, being universal
monarch, forced all the kings of the earth to assist him in rebuilding
the walls of Mákedún, which then extended from Seraglio point (_Seráï
búrunú_), to Silivrí (_Selymbria_), southwards, and northwards as far
as Terkós on the Black Sea, a distance of nine hours’ journey.

Both these towns were united by seven long walls, and divided by seven
ditches a hundred cubits wide. The remains of these walls, castles,
and ditches, are still visible on the way from Silivrí to Terkós; and
the kháns, mosques, and other public buildings in the villages on that
road, as Fetehkóï, Sázlí-kóï, Arnáúd-kóï, Kuvúk-dereh, ’Azzu-d-din-lí,
Kiteh-lí, Báklálí, and Túrk-esheh-lí, are all built of stones taken
from these walls; the remains of some of their towers and seven ditches
appearing here and there. Chatáljeh, which is now a village in that
neighbourhood, was then a fortified market-town close to the fortress
of Islámbúl, as its ruins shew. The line of fortifications which
then surrounded the city may still be traced, beginning from Terkós
on the Black Sea, and passing by the villages of Bórúz, Tarápiyah
(_Therapia_), Firándá near Rum-ili hisár, Ortahkóï, Funduklí, to the
point of Ghalatah, and from thence to the lead-magazines, St. Johns
fountain (_Ayá Yankó áyázmah-sí_), the Ghelabah castle, the old
arsenal, the castle of Petrínah, the Arsenal-garden-Point, the castle
of Alínah, the village of Súdlíjeh, and the convent of Ja’fer-ábád. All
these towns and castles were connected by a wall, the circuit of which
was seven days’ journey.


_Concerning the Canal from the river Dóná_ (Danube).

King Yánván, wishing to provide water for the great city of Islámbúl,
undertook to make a canal to it from the Danube. For that purpose he
began to dig in the high road near the castles of Severin and Siverin,
not far from the fortress of Fet’h-islám, on the bank of that river;
and by those means brought its waters to the place called Azád-lí, in
the neighbourhood of Constantinople. He afterwards built, in the bed of
the river, a barrier of solid stone, with an iron gate, which is still
to be seen, as the writer of these sheets has witnessed three different
times, when employed there on the public service. The place is now
called the iron gate of the Danube (_Dóná demir kapú-sí_), and is much
feared by the boat-men, who sometimes unload their vessels there, as,
when lightened of their cargoes, they can pass over it in safety.

He also built another wear or barrier in the Danube, now called
Tahtah-lú sedd, upon which many ships perish every year. It was when
that river overflowed in the spring, that king Yánván opened the iron
gate and the barrier, to allow the stream to pass down to Islámbúl,
where it discharges itself into the White Sea, at the gate called
Istirdiyah kapú-sí (the Oyster-gate), now Lan-ghah kapú-sí. All this
was done by king Yánván during the absence of king Vezendún, who was
gone on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. On his return, his uncle Kójah
Yánván went over to Scutari to meet him; and as soon as they met:
“Well, my uncle,” said Vezendún, have you succeeded in your undertaking
with regard to the Danube?”—“I dragged it, O king,” said he, “by the
hair, like a woman, into Mákedúniyyah (Constantinople), through which
it now runs.” Scarcely had he uttered this haughty answer, when, by the
command of God, the river suddenly returned, deserting its new bed, and
bursting forth in a large fountain, at a place called Dóna-degirmánlerí
(the Mills of the Danube), between Várnah and Parávádí, where a mighty
stream turns a great number of mills, which supply all the people of
Dóbrújah with flour. Another branch of the Danube bursts forth near
Kirk Kilisá (the Forty Churches), from the rocks of Bunár-hisár (Castle
of the Source). A third branch broke out in the lakes of Buyúk and
Kuchúk Chekmejeh, whence it unites with the Grecian (Rúmí) sea. The
proof that all these streams have their source in the Danube is that
they contain fish peculiar to that river, such as tunnies, sturgeons,
&c., as I myself have more than once witnessed, when observing what
the fishermen caught in the lakes just named. It is also mentioned in
the historical work entitled _Tohfet_, that Yilderim Báyazíd (Bajazet)
when he conquered Nigehbólí (Nicopolis) and Fet-h-islám, having heard
of the ancient course of the Danube, caused straw and charcoal to be
passed into it through the iron gate, and that they afterwards appeared
again at the above-named lakes Bunár-hisár and Dónah-degirmánlerí. When
travelling with the Princess Fatimah, daughter of Sultán Ahmed, and
Suleïmán Beg, we stopped at the village of Azád-lí, between Chatáljeh
and Islámbúl, where there are evident marks of the ancient channel
of the Danube, cut by art through rocks towering to the skies. We
penetrated into those caverns on horseback, with lighted torches, and
advanced for an hour in a northerly direction; but were obliged to
return by bad smells, and a multitude of bats as big as pigeons. If
the sultáns of the house of ’Osmán should think it worth their while,
they might, at a small expense, again bring the waters of the Danube by
Yeníbághcheh and Ak-seráï to Islámbul.

The eighth builder of that city was a king of the name of Yaghfur,
son of Vezendún, who placed no less than three hundred and
sixty-six talismans (one for every day in the year) near the sea at
Seraglio-Point, and as many on the hills by land, to guard the city
from all evil, and provide the inhabitants with all sorts of fish.

The ninth builder was Kostantín (Constantine), who conquered the
ancient town and gave his name to the new city. He built a famous
church on the place where the mosque of Mohamed II. now stands, and a
large monastery, dedicated to St. John, on the hill of Zírek-báshí,
with the cistern near it; as well as the cisterns of Sultán Selím,
Sívásí tekiyeh-sí, near Ma’júnjí Mahal-leh-si, and Kedek-Páshá. He
erected the column in the _táúk-bázár_ (poultry market), and a great
many other talismans.



SECTION IV.

_Concerning Constantine, the ninth Builder, who erected the Walls and
Castle of Constantinople._


He was the first Roman emperor who destroyed the idols and temples of
the Heathens, and he was also the builder of the walls of Islámbúl.
’Isá (Jesus) having appeared to him in a dream, and told him to send
his mother Helláneh (Helena) to build a place of worship at his
birth-place Beïtu-l-lahm (Bethlehem), and another at the place of
his sepulchre in Kudsi Sheríf (Jerusalem), he despatched her with an
immense treasure and army to Felestín (Palestine); she reached Yáfah
(Jaffa), the port of Jerusalem, in three days and three nights, built
the two churches named above, and a large convent in the town of
Nábulús.


_The Discovery of the true Cross._

By the assistance of a monk called Magháriyús (Macarius), she found
the place where the true cross was buried. Three trees in the form of
crosses were found in the same grave, and the moment, as the Christians
relate, a dead body was touched by them, it came to life again: this
day was the 4th of Eïlúl (September), which is therefore celebrated by
the Christians as the feast of the Invention of the Cross, and has ever
since been held as a great festival by the Greeks. Helláneh also built
the convent of the Kamámeh (_i.e._ the church of the holy sepulchre) on
the spot where the dead body had been restored to life, spent immense
sums of money in repairing and adorning the mosque of Al-aksá built on
the site of the temple of Solomon, restored Bethlehem, and did many
other charitable and pious works. She then returned to Islámbúl, and
presented the wood of the cross to her son Constantine, who received
it with the greatest reverence, and carried it in solemn procession
to the convent on the summit of Zírek-báshí. The noblest monuments of
his power and resolution to surpass all other princes in the strength
and durability of his works, are the walls of Constantinople. On the
land side of the city, from the Seven Towers at its western extremity
to Iyyúb Ansárí, he built two strongly fortified walls. The height of
the outer wall is forty-two cubits, and its breadth ten cubits; the
inner wall is seventy cubits high and twenty broad. The space between
them both is eighty cubits broad, and has been converted into gardens
blooming as Irem; and at present, in the space between the Artillery
(Tóp-kapú) and Adrianople gates (Edreneh-kapú), are the summer-quarters
(_yáïlák_) of the Zagharjíes, or 64th regiment of the Janissaries.

Outside of the exterior wall he built a third, the height of which,
measured from the bottom of the ditch, is twenty-five cubits, and its
breadth six cubits; the distance between this and the middle wall
being forty cubits: and beyond the third wall there is a ditch one
hundred cubits broad, into which the sea formerly passed from the Seven
Towers as far as the gate of Silivrí; and being admitted on the other
side from the gate of Iyyúb Ansárí to the Crooked gate (Egrí-kapú),
the town was insulated. This triple row of walls still exists, and
is strengthened by 1225 towers, on each of which ten watchful monks
were stationed to keep watch, day and night. The form of Islámbúl is
triangular, having the land on its western side, and being girt by the
sea on the east and north, but guarded there also by a single embattled
wall, as strong as the rampart of Gog and Magog. Constantine having,
by his knowledge of astrology, foreseen the rise and ascendancy of the
Prophet, and dreading the conquest of his city by some all-conquering
apostle of the true faith, laid the foundation of these walls under
the sign of Cancer, and thus gave rise to the incessant mutinies by
which its tranquillity has been disturbed. It is eighteen miles in
circuit; and at one of its angles are the Seven Towers pointing to the
Kiblah (Meccah). The Seraglio-point (Seráï-búruní) forms its northern,
and the gate of Iyyúb its third and north-western angle. Constantine
having taking to wife a daughter of the Genoese king (Jenúz Králí),
allowed him to build some strong fortifications on the northern side of
the harbour, which were called Ghalatah, from the Greek word _ghalah_
(γάλα, milk), because Constantine’s cow-houses and dairy were situated
there.


_Names of Constantinople in different Tongues._

Its first name in the Latin tongue was Makdúniyyah (Macedonia); then
Yánkóvíchah in the Syrian (Suryání), from its founder Yánkó. Next
in the Hebrew (’Ibrí) Alkesándeïrah (Alexandria) from Alexander;
afterwards Púzenteh (Byzantium); then for a time, in the language
of the Jews, Vezendúniyyeh; then by the Franks Yaghfúriyyeh. When
Constantine had rebuilt it the ninth time, it was called Púznátiyám
in the language of the Greeks, and Kostantaniyyeh; in German
Kostantín-ópól; in the Muscovite tongue Tekúriyyah; in the language
of Africa, Ghiránduviyyeh; in Hungarian, Vizendú-vár; in Polish,
Kanátúryah; in Bohemian, Aliyáná; in Swedish (Esfaj), Khiraklibán;
in Flemish, Isteghániyyeh; in French, Aghrándónah; in Portuguese,
Kósatiyah; in Arabic, Kostantínah; in Persian, Kaïsari Zemín; in
Indian, Takhti Rúm (the throne of Rome); in Moghól, Hákdúrkán; in
Tátár, Sakálibah; in the language of the ’Osmánlús, Islámbúl. Towards
the sea it was never defended by a ditch, which is there superfluous,
but by a single wall; but to guard the entrance of the Bosporus and
Hellespont, and to increase the security of the city, the castles
called Kilídu-l-bahreïn (_i.e._ the key of the two seas), were built.
It is said to have had three hundred and sixty-six gates in the time of
Constantine, who left only twenty-seven open, and walled up the rest,
the places of which are still visible.



SECTION V.

_Concerning the circumference of Constantinople._


In the year 1044 (1634) when I was first come to years of manhood, and
used to walk with my friends all over Islámbúl, at the time that Sultán
Murád IV. had marched against (Riván) Eriván, and Kójah Baïrám Páshá
was left as Káyim-makám (viceroy), he used to visit my late father;
and, in the course of conversation, inquire about the history of
Islámbúl. “My lord,” said my father, “it has been built nine times, and
nine times destroyed; but had never, since it has been in the hands of
the house of ’Osmán, fallen into such decay as now, when waggons might
be any where driven through the walls.” He then suggested to the Páshá,
that this city, being the envy of the kings of the earth, and the royal
residence of the house of ’Osmán, it would be unworthy him to suffer
its walls to remain in that ruinous condition during the period of his
government; and that when the Sultán returned victorious from Riván, he
would be overjoyed on seeing “the good city,” his nest, as brilliant
as a pearl, and compensate this service by large remunerations, while
the name of the Páshá would also be blessed by future generations for
so meritorious a work. All who were present applauded what my father
had said, and he concluded by repeating the _Fátihah_. The Mólláhs
of Islámbúl, Iyyúb, Ghalatah, and Uskudár (Scutari), the Shehr emíní
(superintendent of the town), four chief architects, Seybánbáshí (the
third in rank among the officers of the Janissaries), and all other men
in office were immediately summoned together, with the Imáms of the
4,700 divisions (mahallah) of the city, for the purpose of giving aid
in repairing the fortifications. Many thousands of masons and builders
having been assembled, the great work was begun, and happily finished
in the space of one year, before the return of the Sultán from his
victorious campaign at Riván.

On receiving intelligence of the conquest of that fortress the joy
was universal, and the city was illuminated for seven days and seven
nights. It was then that a causeway, twenty cubits broad, was formed
at the foot of the wall, along the sea-shore, from Seraglio-Point to
the Seven Towers; and on it a high road was made for the convenience of
the sailors, who drag their vessels by ropes round the point into the
harbour. Close to the wall, all the houses, within and without, were
purchased by government, and pulled down to make room for the road, and
I then was enabled to measure the circumference of the city, by pacing
it round as I shall now explain.

Having said a _bismillah_ on setting out, and going along the edge
of the ditch, from the Seven Towers to Abú Iyyúb Ensárí, I found the
distance measured 8,810 paces, exclusive of the eight gates. From the
little gate of Iyyúb to the Garden-gate (Bághcheh kapú), including
the Martyrs gate (Shehíd kapú-sí), a space comprehending fourteen
gates, there are 6,500 paces. The new palace (Yení seráï), which is
the threshold of the abode of felicity (Asitánehi Dáru-s-se’ádet),
beginning from the barley-granary (Arpá-enbárí), which is near the
head-lime-burners gate (kirej-chí báshí kapú-sí), has, in its whole
circumference, sixteen gates, ten of which are open, and six closed,
except on extraordinary occasions. The entire circuit of this new
palace, built by Mohammed (II.) the conqueror, is 6,500 paces. The
distance from the Stable gate (Akhór-kapú), along the new-made high
road to the angle of the Seven Towers, measures 10,000 paces, and
comprehends seven gates. According to this calculation, the whole
circumference of Islámbúl measures 30,000 paces, having ten towers in
every thousand paces, and four hundred towers in the sum total; but,
taking into the account those in the triple wall on the land side,
there are altogether 1,225 large towers; of which, some are square,
some round, some hexagonal. When Baïrám Páshá had undertaken a complete
repair of the fortifications, he ordered the walls to be measured by
the builders’ ell (arshín), and the whole circumference of the city was
found to be exactly 87,000 ells or cubits (zirá’).

In the time of Kostantín (Constantine), there were five hundred cannons
planted on the arsenal (Tóp-khánah) near the lead-magazine, of which
the iron gates are still visible; the same number was planted near
Seraglio-Point, and a hundred round the foot of the Maiden’s Tower
(Kiz kulleh-sí, _i.e._ the Tower of Leander). Not a bird could cross
without being struck from one of these three batteries, so secure
was Islámbúl from any hostile attack. There was then a triple chain
drawn from Ghalatah to Yemish Iskeleh-sí, upon which a large bridge
was built, affording a passage for comers and goers, and opening when
necessary to allow the ships to go through. There were two other
bridges also across the sea, from Balát kapú-sí (Palace gate) to
the garden of the arsenal (Ters-kháneh-bághcheh-sí), and from Iyyúb
to Súdlíjeh. In the time of Yánkó Ibn Mádiyán, also, a triple chain
of iron was drawn across the straits of the Black Sea (Karah deniz
bóghází), at the foot of the castle called Yórúz (_i.e._ the castle of
the Genoese), in order to prevent the passage of the enemy’s ships.
I have seen fragments of these chains, which are still preserved at
Islámbúl in the magazines of the arsenal, each ring of which is as
wide across as a man’s waist, but they now lie covered with sand and
rubbish. Islámbúl was then in so flourishing a state, that the whole
shore to Silivrí one way, and to Terkóz on the Black Sea the other,
was covered with towns and villages to the number of twelve hundred,
surrounded by gardens and vineyards, and following each other in
uninterrupted succession. Constantine, having reached the summit of
greatness and power, could easily have conquered the world, but he
preferred employing the remainder of his life in the embellishment of
his capital. On the great festivals, such as the Red-egg-days (Kizil
yúmurtah gúnlerí, _i.e._ Easter), Mother Meryem’s days (the Feasts
of the Virgin), Isvat Nikólah (St. Nicolas), Kásim (St. Demetrius),
Khizr Ilyás (St. George), Aúsh-dús, (i.e. the Feast of the Exaltation
of the Cross, on the 14th of September), the casting of the crosses
into the water (the Epiphany), the days of Karah-kóndjólóz (probably
days on which evil spirits were exorcised), and on all Sundays (Bázár
gúnlerí, _i.e._ market days), the walls of Constantinople were covered
with scarlet cloth, and the emperor himself, having his beard adorned
with pearls, and the Kayanian crown of Alexander on his head, walked in
solemn procession through the streets of the city.


_The number of Paces between each of the twenty-seven Gates._

  From the Kóshk (Kiosk) to the gate of the Seven Towers    1,000 paces.

  From thence to the Silivrí-gate                           2,010

  To the Yení-kapú (New-gate)                               1,000

  To the Tóp-kapú (Cannon-gate)                             2,900

  To the Adrianople-gate                                    1,000

  To the Egrí-kapú (Crooked-gate)                             900

These six gates are all on the west side of the city, looking towards
Adrianople.

  From thence to the Iyyúb Ensárí-gate                      1,000 paces.

  To the Balát kapú-sí (the gate of the Palatium)             700

  Fánús-kapú-sí (Fanal-gate)                                  900

  To the Petrah-kapú                                          600

  To the Yení-kapú (New-gate)                                 100

  To the Ayà-kapú                                             300

  To the Jubálí-kapú                                          400

  To the Un-kapání-kapú (Flour-market-gate)                   400

  The Ayázmah-kapú (Fountain-gate)                            400

  To the Odún-kapú (Timber-gate)                              400

  To the Zindán-kapú-sí (Prison-gate)                         300

  To the Báluk-bázárí-kapú (Fish-market-gate)                 400

  To the Yení jáma’-kapú-sí (New Mosque-gate)                 300

This, which is also called the Válideh kapú-sí (Queen Mothers-gate),
was erected in order to give access to the new mosque built by that
princess.

  From thence to Shehíd kapú-sí (Martyr’s-gate)               300 paces.

These fourteen gates, from Iyyúb-kapú-sí to Shehíd-kapú-sí, all open
to the sea-shore, and face the north. The gates in the circuit of
the imperial palace (_seráï humáyún_) are all private, and are, 1.
the Kirech-jí (lime-burners); 2. the Oghrún, from which the corpses
of criminals executed in the seraglio are thrown into the sea; 3.
the Bálukchí (fishmongers); 4. the Ich ákhór (privy stable gate),
looking southward; and 5. the gate of Báyazíd khán, which also faces
the south, but is not always open. 6. The imperial (Bábi humáyún) or
gate of felicity (Bábi Sa’ádet), also open to the south, and within
it there are three gates in the same line: one of them is the (7.)
Serví-kapú-sí (the cypress gate), by which the Sultán issues when he
visits Sancta Sophia, or takes his rounds through the city in disguise;
another is (8.) Sultán Ibráhím’s gate, also opening to the south,
near the cold spring (_sóúk cheshmeh_); a third is (9.) the Sókóllí
Mohammed Páshá kapú-sí, a small gate near the Aláï-kóshk, looking
to the west; a fourth, also facing westward, is (10.) Suleïmán Khán
kapú-sí, a small gate now always shut. (11.) The iron gate (Demir kapú)
is a large portal facing the west, and appropriated to the use of the
Bóstánjís and imperial favourites (Musáhibler, _i.e._ Ἑταίροι). The
above-mentioned eight private gates, from the Akhór kapú to the Demir
kapú, all open into the city; but there are nine other private gates
opening to the sea on the Seraglio-Point, and facing the north.

  The whole circuit of the Seraglio measures                6,500 paces.

  From the Privy Stable to the Public Stable-gate
  (kháss-ú-’ám ákhór kapú-sí), there are                      200

  From thence to the Chátládí (Broken-gate)                 1,300

  To the Kúm-kapú (Sand-gate)                               1,200

  To the Lánkah-gate                                        1,400

  Thence to the gate of Dáúd Páshá                          1,600

  To the Samátíyah-gate                                       800

  To the Nárlí-gate                                         1,600

  To the gate of the inner castle of the Seven Towers       2,000

Seven of these gates open towards the east, and as the winds blow from
the south-east with great violence, the quay built by Baïrám Páshá
was soon destroyed, so that when I paced the circuit, as mentioned
above, in the reign of Ibráhím Khán, I was obliged to pass between the
Stable-gate and the Seven Towers, within the walls. I then found the
whole circuit to be 29,810 paces; but, in Baïrám Páshá’s time, when I
went outside the walls, it measured exactly 30,000 paces, or 87,000
builders’ cubits (_mïmár arshúní_).



SECTION VI.

_On the wonderful Talismans within and without Kostantíneh._


First talisman. In the ‘Avret-Bázárí (female-slave-market), there is a
lofty column (the pillar of Arcadius) of white marble, inside of which
there is a winding staircase. On the outside of it, figures of the
soldiers of various nations, Hindustánies, Kurdistánies, and Múltánies,
whom Yánkó ibn Mádiyán vanquished, were sculptured by his command; and
on the summit of it there was anciently a fairy-cheeked female figure
of one of the beauties of the age, which once a year gave a sound, on
which many hundred thousand kinds of birds, after flying round and
round the image, fell down to the earth, and being caught by the people
of Rúm (Romelia), provided them with an abundant meal. Afterwards,
in the age of Kostantín, the monks placed bells on the top of it, in
order to give an alarm on the approach of an enemy; and subsequently,
at the birth of the Prophet, there was a great earthquake, by which
the statue and all the bells on the top of the pillar were thrown down
topsy-turvy, and the column itself broken in pieces: but, having been
formed by talismanic art, it could not be entirely destroyed, and part
of it remains an extraordinary spectacle to the present day.

Second talisman. In the Táúk-Bázár (poultry-market) there is another
needle-like column (the pillar of Theodosius), formed of many pieces
of red emery (_súmpáreh_) stone, and a hundred royal cubits (_zirá’
melikí_) high. This was also damaged by the earthquake which occurred
in the two nights during which the Pride of the World was called into
existence; but the builders girt it round with iron hoops, as thick as
a man’s thigh, in forty places, so that it is still firm and standing.
It was erected a hundred and forty years before the era of Iskender;
and Kostantín placed a talisman on the top of it in the form of a
starling, which once a year clapped his wings, and brought all the
birds in the air to the place, each with three olives in his beak and
talons, for the same purpose as was related above.

Third talisman. At the head of the Serráj-kháneh (saddlers’ bazar), on
the summit of a column stretching to the skies (the pillar of Marcian),
there is a chest of white marble, in which the unlucky-starred daughter
of king Puzentín (Byzantius) lies buried; and to preserve her remains
from ants and serpents was this column made a talisman.

Fourth talisman. At the place called Altí Mermer (the six marbles),
there are six columns, every one of which was an observatory, made by
some of the ancient sages. On one of them, erected by the Hakím Fílikús
(Philip), lord of the castle of Kaválah, was the figure of a black fly,
made of brass, which, by its incessant humming, drove all flies away
from Islámból.

Fifth talisman. On another of the six marble columns, Iflátún (Plato)
the divine made the figure of a gnat, and from that time there is no
fear of a single gnat‘s coming into Islámbúl.

Sixth talisman. On another of these columns, the Hakím Bokrát
(Hippocrates) placed the figure of a stork, and once a year, when it
uttered a cry, all the storks which had built their nests in the city
died instantly. To this time, not a stork can come and build its nest
within the walls of Islámból, though there are plenty of them in the
suburbs of Abú Iyyúb Ensárí.

Seventh talisman. On the top of another of the six marble columns,
Sokrát the Hakím (_i.e._ Socrates the sage) placed a brazen cock, which
clapped its wings and crowed once in every twenty-four hours, and on
hearing it all the cocks of Islámbúl began to crow. And it is a fact,
that to this day the cocks there crow earlier than those of other
places, setting up their _kú-kirí-kúd_ (_i.e._ crowing) at midnight,
and thus warning the sleepy and forgetful of the approach of dawn and
the hour of prayer.

Eighth talisman. On another of the six columns, Físághórát (Pythagoras
the Unitarian), in the days of the prophet Suleïmán (Solomon), placed
the figure of a wolf, made of bronze (_túj_), the terror of all other
wolves; so that the flocks of the people of Islámból pastured very
safely without a shepherd, and walked side by side with untamed wolves
very comfortably.

Ninth talisman. On another of these columns were the figures in brass
of a youth and his mistress in close embrace; and whenever there was
any coolness or quarrelling between man and wife, if either of them
went and embraced this column, they were sure that very night to have
their afflicted hearts restored by the joys of love, through the power
of this talisman, which was moved by the spirit of the sage Aristatálís
(Aristotle).

Tenth talisman. Two figures of tin had been placed on another of the
six columns by the physician Jálínús (Galen). One was a decrepit old
man, bent double; and opposite to it was a camel-lip sour-faced hag,
not straighter than her companion: and when man and wife led no happy
life together, if either of them embraced this column, a separation was
sure to take place. Wonderful talismans were destroyed, they say, in
the time of that asylum of apostleship (Mohammed), and are now buried
in the earth.

Eleventh talisman. On the site of the baths of Sultán Báyazíd Velí
there was a quadrangular column, eighty cubits high, erected by an
ancient sage named Kirbáriyá, as a talisman against the plague, which
could never prevail in Islámból as long as this column was standing. It
was afterwards demolished by that sultán, who erected a heart-rejoicing
_hammám_ in its place; and on that very day one of his sons died of the
plague, in the garden of Dáúd Páshá outside of the Adrianople-gate, and
was buried on an elevated platform (_soffah_) without: since which time
the plague has prevailed in the city.

Twelfth talisman. In the Tekfúr Seráï, near the Egrí kapú, there was a
large solid bust of black stone, on which a man named Muhaydák placed
a brazen figure of a demon (_’afrít_), which once a year spit out fire
and flames; and whoever caught a spark kept it in his kitchen; and, as
long as his health was good, that fire was never extinguished.

Thirteenth talisman. On the skirt of the place called Zírek-báshí there
is a cavern dedicated to St. John, and every month, when the piercing
cold of winter has set in, several black demons (_kónjólóz_) hide
themselves there.

Fourteenth talisman. To the south of Ayá Sófiyah there were four lofty
columns of white marble, bearing the statues of the four cherubs
(_kerrúblir_), Gabriel (Jebráyíl), Michael (Míkáyíl), Rafael (Isráfíl),
and Azrael (Azráyíl), turned towards the north, south, east, and west.
Each of them clapped his wings once a year, and foreboded desolation,
war, famine, or pestilence. These statues were upset when the Prophet
came into existence, but the four columns still remain a public
spectacle, near the subterraneous springs (_chukúr cheshmeh_) of Ayá
Sófiyah.

Fifteenth talisman. The great work in the Atmeïdán (Hippodrome), called
Milyón-pár (Millium?), is a lofty column, measuring a hundred and fifty
cubits (_arshún_) of builders measure. It was constructed by order of
Kostantín, of various coloured stones, collected from the 300,000
cities of which he was king, and designed to be an eternal monument of
his power, and at the same time a talisman. Through the middle of it
there ran a thick iron axis, round which the various coloured stones
were placed, and they were all kept together by a magnet, as large as
the cupola of a bath (_hammám_), fixed on its summit. It still remains
a lasting monument; and its builder, the head architect, Ghúrbárín by
name, lies buried at the foot of it.

Sixteenth talisman. This is also an obelisk of red coloured stone,
covered with various sculptures, and situate in the At-meïdán. The
figures on its sides foretell the different fortunes of the city. It
was erected in the time of Yánkó ibn Mádiyán, who is represented on
it sitting on his throne, and holding a ring in his hand, implying
symbolically, ‘I have conquered the whole world, and hold it in my
hands like this ring.’ His face is turned towards the east, and kings
stand before him, holding dishes, in the guise of beggars. On another
are the figures of three hundred men engaged in erecting the obelisk,
with the various machines used for that purpose. Its circumference is
such that ten men cannot span it; and its four angles rest on four
brazen seats, such that, when one experienced in the builders art has
looked at it, he puts his finger on his mouth.

Seventeenth talisman. A sage named Surendeh, who flourished in the days
of error, under king Púzentín, set up a brazen image of a triple-headed
dragon (_azhderhá_) in the Atmeïdán, in order to destroy all serpents,
lizards, scorpions, and such like poisonous reptiles: and not a
poisonous beast was there in the whole of Mákedóniyyah. It has now the
form of a twisted serpent, measuring ten cubits above and as many below
the ground. It remained thus buried in mud and earth from the building
of Sultán Ahmed’s mosque, but uninjured, till Selím II., surnamed
the drunken, passing by on horseback, knocked off with his mace the
lower jaw of that head of the dragon which looks to the west. Serpents
then made their appearance on the western side of the city, and since
that time have become common in every part of it. If, moreover, the
remaining heads should be destroyed, Islámból will be completely eaten
up with vermin. In short, there were anciently, relating to the land
at Islámból, three hundred and sixty-six talismans like those now
described, which are all that now remain.


_Talismans relating to the Sea._

First talisman. At the Chátládí-kapú, in the side of the palace of
an emperor whom the sun never saw, there was the brazen figure of a
demon (_dív_) upon a square column, which spit fire, and burnt the
ships of the enemy whenever it was they approached from the White Sea
(Archipelago).

Second talisman. In the galley-harbour (_kadirghah límání_) there was
a brazen ship, in which, once a year, when the cold winter-nights had
set in, all the Witches of Islámból used to embark and sail about till
morning, to guard the White Sea. It was a part of the spoils captured
with the city by Mohammed II. the conqueror.

Third talisman. Another brazen ship, the counterpart of this, was
constructed at the Tóp-khánah (cannon-foundery), in which all the
wizards and conjurors kept guard towards the Black Sea. It was broken
in pieces when Yezíd Ibn Mo’áviyyah conquered Ghalatah.

Fourth talisman. At Seraglo-Point there was a triple-headed brazen
dragon, spitting fire, and burning all the enemy’s ships and boats
whichever way they came.

Fifth talisman. There were also, near the same place, three hundred
and sixty-six lofty columns bearing the figures of as many marine
creatures; a White sun fish (_khamsín bálighí_) for example, which,
when it uttered a cry, left not a fish of that kind in the Black Sea,
but brought them all to Makedún, where all the people got a good
bellyful of them.

The sixth talisman was, that, during all the forty days of Lent, all
kinds of fish were thrown ashore by the sea, and caught without any
trouble by the people of Rúm (Turkey).

All these talismans having been overthrown by the great earthquake on
the night of the prophets birth, the columns which bore them still lie
strewed like a pavement along the Seraglio-Point, from the Selímiyyeh
Kóshk, to the castle of Sinán Páshá, and are manifest to those who
pass along in boats. Though upset they still retain their talismanic
virtues, and every year bring many thousand fishes to the shore.

There were also twenty-four columns round Islámból, each bearing a
talisman. All could be visited by a man in one day, provided it was a
day of fifteen hours: now the longest day at Islámból, from sun-rise
to sun-set, is fifteen hours and a half. That city is situated in the
middle of the fifth climate, and therefore enjoys excellent air and
water.



SECTION VII.

_Concerning the Mines within and without the City of Kostantín._


By God’s will there was anciently a great cavern in Islámból, below
the Sultán’s mosque (Sultán jámi’-sí), filled with sulphur, nitre, and
black powder, from which they drew supplies in time of need. Having,
by the decree of heaven, been struck by lightning in the time of
Kostantín, or, according to our tradition, at the time of the taking of
the city by the conqueror, all the large buildings over the cavern were
blown up, and fragments of them scattered in every direction; some may
still be seen at Uskudár (Scutari), others at Salájak búruní, and Kází
kóï (Chalcedon); one large piece, particularly, called the Kabá-tásh,
and lying in the sea before the chismehler tekkiyeh, to the north of
the village of Funduk-lí, near Tóp-khánah, was probably thrown there
when the city was blown up.

In the neighbourhood of the castle of Kúm-búrghaz, half a days journey
from the Seven Towers, to the south of Islámból, a fine white sand is
found, in great request among the hour-glass makers and goldsmiths of
Islámból and Firengistán (Europe).

Near the privy-garden of Dáúd Páshá, outside of the Adrianople-gate,
there are seven stone quarries, which appear to be inexhaustible. It is
called the stone of Khizr, because it was pointed out by that prophet
for the construction of Ayá Sófiyah.

A kind of soft clay (_tín_) like electuary (_ma’jún_), found near the
suburb of Abú Iyyúb ansárí, is called tín ansárí; it has a sweet scent
like terra sigillata (_tiní makhtúm_), from the island of Alimání
(Jezírehi Alimání, i.e. Lemnos); and it is used for the sigillate earth
found at Lemnos; making jugs, a draught from which refreshes like a
draught of the water of life.

From a pool (_buheïreh_) between the suburbs of Iyyúb Sultán and
Khás-kóï, divers bring up a kind of black clay, which is excellent for
making jugs, cups, plates, and all kinds of earthenware.

The springs of Jendereh-jí, in the delightful promenade (_mesíreh-gáh_)
called Kághid Khánah (Kïahet-haneh, or les eaux douces, _i.e._
fresh-water springs), are famous all over the world. The root of a kind
of lign-aloes (_eker_) is found there superior to that of Azák (Assov),
the city of Kerdeh, or the canal of the castle of Kanizzhah. One of
its wonderful properties is, that when a man eats of it it occasions a
thousand eructations; it fattens tortoises marvellously, and the Franks
of Ghalatah come and catch them, and use them in all their medicines
with great advantage.

At Sárí Yár, north of Kághid Kháneh, a kind of fermented clay is found,
which smells like musk, and is used in making jugs and cups, which are
much valued, and offered as presents to the great.

At the village of Sári Yár, near the entrance of the strait of the
Black Sea, there is a lofty mountain of yellow-coloured earth, covered
with gardens and vineyards up to its summit. On its outside, near to
the sea-shore, there is a cavern containing a mine of pure gold, free
from any alloy of Hungarian (Ungurús) Búndúkání brass. From the time
of the infidels till the reign of Sultán Ahmed, it was an imperial
domain, farmed out for one thousand yúk of aspers (loads, each equal
to 100,000). The Defterdár, Ekmek-ji-zádeh Ahmed Páshá, closed it, as
bringing little into the treasury; it is now, therefore, neglected, but
if opened again by the Sultán’s order would be found a very valuable
mine.

From this mountain in the valley of Gók-sú, near the castles (_hisár_)
on the Bosphorus, a kind of lime is obtained which is whiter than snow,
cotton, or milk, and cannot be matched in the world.

In the same favourite place of resort, the valley of Gók-sú, a kind of
red earth is found, of which jugs, plates, and dishes are made; and the
doctors say, that pure water drunk out of vessels made of this earth
cures the básuri demeví (blood-shot eyes?).

In the mountains near the town of Uskudár (Scutari), is found a kind of
fossil whetstone (_kayághán_), which breaks in large slabs, and is much
used for tombstones.

Beneath the palace known by the name of Ghalatah-seráï, above the
suburb of Tóp-khánah, is an iron mine, called the mine of old Islámból,
and the ore extracted from it is known by that name all over the world.
Not a soul in the universe knew any thing of it till Khizr pointed it
out, in the time of king Ferendú, for the building of Ayá Sófiyah; and
all the ironwork of that edifice, as well as the iron hoops round the
column in Táúk-bázár [Forum Theodosii], were made of iron from Eskí
Stámból. The mine was worked till the time of Sultán Báyazíd Velí, who
was much pleased with the air and water of the place, and often spent
some time there; and having been admonished in a dream by the Prophet,
founded a hospital and college on the spot; and having finally made
it a school for pages of the seraglio, the mine was abandoned. The
humble writer of this remembers, in the time of his youth, when ’Osmán
the Martyr was on the throne, there was between the lead-magazine
(_kúrshúnlí makhzen_) and Tóp-kapú a manufactory of Damascus blades,
made from the iron of this mine, where Mohamed the Conqueror, who
established it, had most excellent blades made. I myself have seen
Mustafá, the head sword-maker of Sultán Murád IV., and master of little
David, working in that manufactory. It was a large building, outside of
the walls, on the sea-shore. Afterwards, when Sultán Ibráhím ascended
the throne, Kara Mustafá Páshá became a martyr, and every thing was
thrown into confusion; this building was turned into a house for the
Jews, by ’Alí Aghá, superintendant of the custom-house, and neither the
name, nor any trace of the mine or the sword manufactory, are to be
found.

The thirteenth mine is that mine of men, the Good City, _i.e._
Kostantiniyyeh, which is an ocean of men and beautiful women, such as
is to be found no where else. It is said, that if a thousand men die
and a thousand and one are born, the race is propagated by that one.
But Islámból is so vast a city, that if a thousand die in it, the want
of them is not felt in such an ocean of men; and it has therefore been
called Káni Insán, a mine of men.



SECTION VIII.

_Sieges of Constantinople._


In the forty-third year of the Hijreh (A.D. 663), Mo’áviyyah became
Commander of the Faithful; and in the course of his reign sent his
commander in chief Moslemah, son of ’Abdu-l-malik, at the head of a
hundred thousand men of the Syrian army, with two hundred ships, and
two hundred transports laden with provisions, ammunition, &c. from the
port of Shám-Tarah-bólús (Tripoli in Syria), and trusting in God, first
against the island of Máltah, which at that time was Rodós (Rhodes),
and of which they made a conquest almost as soon as they disembarked.
They next proceeded to the islands of Istánkóï (Cos), Sákiz (Scio),
Medellí (Mitylene), Alimániyah (Lemnos), and Bózjah (Tenedos), which
were taken in a few days; and they immediately afterwards laid siege
to Kostantaniyyeh, having taken four hundred ships in their passage,
and intercepted all vessels laden with provisions coming from the White
or Black Sea. The infidels soon sued for peace, on condition of paying
the annual tribute of a galley laden with money; and the victorious
general returned to Arabia with joy and exultation, carrying with him
the impure son of that erring king (_királ_) Herkíl (Heraclius) as a
hostage, with treasures to the amount of some millions of piastres.

_Second Siege._ In the fifty-second year of the Hijrah of the pride
of the world (A.D. 671), Ebú Iyyúb Ansárí, the standard-bearer of
the Prophet, and ’Abdullah ibn ’Abbás ibn Zeïd, proceeding with some
thousands of the illustrious companions of the Prophet, and 50,000
brave men, in two hundred ships, followed by reinforcements under the
command of Moslemah, first carried supplies to the warriors of Islám in
garrison at Rodós, and then, casting anchor before the Seven Towers and
landing their men, laid siege to Islámból by sea and land. Thus, for
six months, did this host, which had the fragrance of Paradise, contend
day and night with the infidels. By the wise decree of God. Ebú Iyyúb
their leader suffered martyrdom in one of these assaults, by an arrow
from a cross-bow: but, according to a sure tradition, he was received
into mercy (_i.e._ he died) of a disorder in his bowels.

_Third Siege._ In the year of the Hijrah 91 (A.D. 710), by order of the
khalif Suleïmán, son of ’Abdu-llah of the Bení Ummayyah, his nephew
’Omar ibn ’Abdu-l-’azíz marched by land against Islámból with 87,000
men, who ravaged Ghalatah with fire and sword, and having carried
off an immense booty, crossed over into Anátólí (Natolia); and after
having laid siege to Sínób, which made its peace at a great price, and
Kastemúní, the capture of which likewise it did not please God to make
easy to him, he returned to Syria (Shám).

_The fourth Siege._ In A.H. 97 (A.D. 716), the same khalif again sent
his nephew ’Omar ibn ’Abdu-l-’azíz against Islámból, with an army of
120,000 men by land, and 80,000 embarked in three hundred ships at
sea. They established their winter-quarters that year in the town
of Belkís-Aná, near Aïdinjik (Cyzicus), in the district of Brúsah,
and in the following spring they laid siege to Islámból, and reduced
the inhabitants to the greatest distress, by laying waste all the
surrounding fields and meadows.

_The fifth Siege._ In the year of the Hijrah——, ’Omar ibn
’Abdu-l-’azíz, having become khalif of Shám (Syria), sent an army of
100,000 men, by land and by sea, against Islámból, and crossing the
Strait of the Black Sea at Ghalatah, conquered it, and built the mosque
of the lead magazines; and the mosque of the Arabs (’Arab jámi’sí)
in that suburb was likewise named from its having been built by him.
Having erected a lofty heaven-aspiring tower at Ghalatah, he called it
Medíneto-l Kahr (the City of Oppression). He made peace with the Tekkúr
of Islámból on condition that Mohammedans should be allowed to settle
in that city, from the Crooked (Egrí) and Adrianople gates, and the
hill on which the Suleïmániyyah stands, to that of Zírek-báshí, and
from thence by the flour-market (ún-kapání) as far as Iyyúb Ensárí.
He built the rose-mosque (Gul-jámi’í) in the market of Mustafá Páshá,
erected the court of justice near the Sirkehjí-tekiyeh, and formed a
new district of the town at the summer-quarters of Kójah Mustafá Páshá,
near the Seven Towers. Another condition on which this unilluminated
Tekkúr (emperor) obtained peace, was the annual payment of a tribute
(kharáj) of 50,000 pieces of gold. ’Omar ibn ’Abdu-l-’azíz fixed
his winter-quarters at Ghalatah for that year, having received the
tribute due for three hundred years in consequence of a former treaty,
departed, leaving Suleïmán ibn ’Abdu-l Malik governor of Ghalatah,
and appointing Moselmah his Grand Vizír. His fleet having met near
Rodostò one of two hundred sail, sent by the infidels to succour the
Tekkúr, a great battle ensued; and just as the infidels were about to
be destroyed, a stormy wind sprung up and drove both fleets on shore,
notwithstanding all the cherubims in heaven emulated the zeal of the
true believers on earth. The Moslims disembarked, laid waste all the
villages round about, carried away more than 3,000 horses, asses, and
mules, and 23,000 prisoners. The treasures taken from the ships which
were sunk, were so great, that God only knows their amount; and the
number of the dust-licking infidels passed over the edge of the sword
such that their bones lie piled up in heaps in a well known valley,
called even now ‘Omar Kírdúghí Jórdú, _i.e._ ‘the camp broken up by
‘Omar.’ After gaining another signal victory by sea and land, he
returned into Syria (Shám).

_The sixth Siege._ In the year of the hijrah 160 (A.D. 777) Merván
ibnu-l Hakem besieged Islámból with an army of 150,000 Moslims and a
fleet of a thousand ships during six months, added three new districts
and built a mosque in the Mahommedan part of the city, and compelled
Mesendún, son of Herakíl (Heraclius), to pay a yearly tribute of
500,000 golden tekyánúses, (_i.e._ coins called Decianus).

_The seventh Siege._ Seventy-four years after the peace made with
Merván, in the year of the hijrah 239 (A.D. 853-4), after the conquest
of Malatíyyah, Islámból was pillaged by the khalif Yahyá son of ’Ali,
who returned to Kharrán (Charrhæ) after having smote 20,000 infidels
with the edge of the sword.

_The eighth Siege._ Sixteen years afterwards, A.H. 255 (A.D. 869),
I’liyá (Elias) son of Herakíl being king (királ) of Islámból,
Harúnu-r-rashíd marched from his paradisiacal abode at the head of
50,000 troops; but finding it difficult to effect the conquest of the
city, he made peace on condition of receiving as much ground within
the walls as a bulls hide would cover. He therefore cut the hide into
strips, so as to enclose space enough in the district of Kójah Mustafá
Páshá for building a strong castle, and he fixed the annual tribute at
50,000 fulúrí (florins). He then returned to Baghdád, having levied the
tribute (kharáj) due for the last ten years.

About this time the infidels, taking advantage of the dissensions which
prevailed among the Muselmáns respecting the khalífat, massacred all
those established in Islámból and Ghalatah, not however without great
loss on their own side, the king and royal family being all slain;
in consequence of which Ghirándó Mihál (Grando Michael), a grandson
of Herakíl who had come from Firengistán, was made king; and on that
very day Seyyid Bábá Ja’fer, one of the descendants of Imám Hoseïn,
and Sheïkh Maksúd, one of the followers of Veïsu-l-Karní, sent by
Hárúnu-r-rashíd as ambassadors, entered Islámból. They were attended by
three hundred fakírs and three hundred followers, and were received by
the new king with innumerable honours. The Sheïkh asked and obtained
permission to bury the remains of the many thousand martyrs who had
been slain in the late massacre, which lasted seven days and seven
nights. He immediately set to work, and with the aid of his own three
hundred fakírs and Bábá Ja’fer’s three hundred followers, buried those
many thousand martyrs in the places where they had died. In the ancient
burying ground behind the arsenal, there are large caverns and ancient
vaults, where, from the time of ’Omar ibn ’Abdu-l-’azíz, some thousand
companions (of the Prophet) had been buried. To that place Sheïkh
Maksúd carried some thousand bodies of these martyrs, and buried them
there, where, on a hewn stone, there is written in large and legible
characters, so that it may be easily read, this inscription, said to be
by the Sheïkh’s own blessed hand:

    These are the men who came and went!
    In this frail world (_dári fenà_) what have they done?
    They came and went, what have they done?
    At last to th’ endless world (_dári bakà_) they’re gone.

It is to this day celebrated throughout the world as an extraordinary
inscription, and is visited by travellers from Rúm (Greece), ’Arab
(Arabia), and ’Ajem (Persia). Some of them, who, in the expectation of
finding hidden treasures, began to work at these ancient buildings with
pickaxes like _Ferhád’s_, perished in the attempt, and were also buried
there. Some holy men make pilgrimages to this place barefoot on Friday
nights, and recite the chapter entitled Tekásur (Korán, chap. 102); for
many thousands of illustrious companions (of the Prophet) _Mohájirín_,
(who followed him in his flight), and _Ansárs_ (auxiliaries) are buried
in this place. It has been also attested by some thousands of the
pious, that this burial ground has been seen some thousands of times
covered with lights on the holy night of _Alkadr_ (_i.e._ sixth of
_Ramazán_).

In short, Seyyid Bábá Ja’fer, Hárúnu-r rashíd’s ambassador, having been
enraged, and taking offence at his not having been well received by the
king Ghirándó Míhál, reproached him bitterly, and suffered martyrdom
by poison in consequence of it. He was buried by Sheïkh Maksúd, who
received an order to that effect, in a place within the prison of
the infidels, where, to this day, his name is insulted by all the
unbelieving malefactors, debtors, murderers, &c. imprisoned there. But
when (God be praised!) Islámból was taken, the prison having likewise
been captured, the grave of Seyyid Ja’fer Bábá Sultán, in the tower of
the prison [the Bagno], became a place of pilgrimage, which is visited
by those who have been released from prison, and call down blessings in
opposition to the curses of the unbelievers.

_The ninth Siege._ Three years after that great event related above,
Hárúnu-r-rashíd marched from Baghdád with an immense army, to require
the blood of the faithful from the infidels of Rúm (Asia Minor and
Greece), and having reached Malatiyyah, which was conquered by Ja’fer
Ghází, surnamed Seyyid Battál, that hero led the vanguard of the army
into Rúm; and Hárún himself brought up the rear with reinforcements.
Having taken possession of the straits, they blockaded the city,
cut off all its supplies, gave no quarter, slew 300,000 infidels,
took 70,000 prisoners, and made an immense booty, which they sent to
Haleb (Aleppo) and Iskenderún, and then returned laden with spoils to
Baghdád. Yaghfúr (void of light), the king at that time, was taken
prisoner and carried before Hárún, who gave him no quarter, but ordered
him to be hung in the belfry of Ayá Sófiyyah (Sancta Sophia). Having
been from my infancy desirous of seeing the world, and not remaining in
ignorance, I learned the Greek and Latin languages of my friend Simyún
(Simeon) the goldsmith, to whom I explained the Persian glossary of
Sháhidí, and he gave me lessons in the Aleksanderah (Alexandra), _i.e._
the History of Alexander. He also read to me the history of Yanván,
from which these extracts are taken. But after the race of the Cæsars
(Kayásirah) became extinct in Kanátúr, Kostantiniyyah fell into the
hands of various princes, till the house of ’Osmán arose in A.H. 699
(A.D. 1300), and, at the suggestion of ’Aláu-d-dín the Seljúkí, first
turned its attention to the conquest of that city.



SECTION IX.

_Concerning the Sieges of Constantinople by the Ottoman Emperors._


The first portion of the descendants of Jafeth which set its foot
in the country of Rúm (Asia Minor) was the house of the Seljúkians,
who, in alliance with the Dánishmendian Emírs, wrested, in A.H. 476
(A.D. 1083), the provinces of Malatiyyah, Kaïsariyyah, ’Aláiyyah,
Karamán, and Kóniyah from the hand of the Greek emperors (Kaïsari
Rúm Yúnániyán). They first came from Máveráu-n-nehr (Transoxiana).
On the extinction of the Seljúkian dynasty, A.H. 600 (A.D. 1204),
Suleïmán-sháh, one of the begs (lords) of the town of Máhán in
Túrán, and his son Ertoghrul, came into Rúm, to the court of Sultán
’Aláu-d-dín. The latter having been set on his feet as a man
(er-toghrílúb), and made a beg by that prince, made many brilliant
conquests, and, at the death of ’Aláu-d-dín, was elected sovereign in
his stead, by all the great men (a’yán) of the country. He died at
the town of Sukúdjuk, and was succeeded by his son ’Osmán, who was
the first emperor (pádisháh) of that race. He resided at ’Osmánjik,
from whence the dazzling beams of the Mohammedan faith shed their
light over Anátólí, Germiyán, and Karamán. In the time of his son and
successor, the victorious Órkhán, seventy-seven heroes, friends of God
(evliyáu-llah, _i.e._ saints) fought under the banners of the Prophet.

It was in his reign, that the holy (velí) Hájí Begtásh, who had been
in Khorasán, one of the followers of our great ancestor, that Túrk of
Túrks, Khójah Ahmed Yaseví, came over to his camp with three hundred
devout (sáhibi sejjádeh) fakírs carrying drums and standards, and, as
soon as they had met Órkhán, Brúsah was taken. From thence he proceeded
to the conquest of Constantaniyyeh. His son, Suleïmán Beg, joined by
the permission and advice of Begtásh and seventy great saints (evliyà),
with forty brave men, such as Karah Mursal, Karah Kójah, Karah Yalavà,
Karah Bíghà, Karah Síghlah, in short forty heroes (bahádur) called
_Karah_ (black), crossed over the sea on rafts, and set foot on the
soil of Rúm, shouting Bismillah, the Mohammedan cry of war. Having
laid waste the country on all sides of the city, they conquered, on a
Friday, the castle of Ip-salà (it is called Ip-salà by a blunder for
Ibtidà salà, _i.e._ the commencement prayer), and having offered up the
Fridays prayer there, they pushed on to the gates of Adrianople, taking
Gelíbólí (Galipoli), Tekir-tághí (Rodosto), and Silivrì (Selymbria) in
their way, and returned victorious, laden with spoils and captives,
after an absence of seven days, to Kapú-tághí on the Asiatic shore,
from whence they marched with their booty into Brúsah. The brain of the
whole army of Islám being thus filled with sweetness, the shores of Rúm
were many times invaded, all the neighbouring country was laid waste,
nor were the infidels (káfirs) able to make any resistance; while the
Moslim heroes found means of raising a noble progeny by being tied with
the knot of matrimony to the beautiful virgins whom they carried off.
Sultán Murád I., who succeeded Órkhán, following the advice formerly
given by Aláu-d-dín Sultán and Hájí Begtásh, made himself master of the
country round Kostantaniyyeh before he attempted the conquest of the
city itself. He therefore first took Edreneh (Adrianople), and filled
it with followers of Mohammed coming from Anátólí, while the infidels
could not advance a step beyond Islámból. However, they contrived to
assemble an army of 700,000 men in the plain of Kós-óvà (Cossova),
near the castle of Vechteren in Rúm-ílí (Romelia), where, by the
decree of the Creator of the world, they were all put to the sword by
the victorious Khudávendikár (Murád); but while walking over the dead
bodies in the field of battle, praising God, and surveying the corpses
of the infidels doomed to hell (dúzakh), he was slain by a knife
from the hand of one Velashko, who lay among the slain. The assassin
was instantly cut to pieces, and Murád’s son, Yildirim Báyazíd Khán,
mounted the throne. In order to avenge his father’s death, he fell
like a thunderbolt on Káfiristán (the land of the unbelievers), slew
multitudes of them, and began the tenth siege of Kostantaniyyeh.

Yildirim Báyazíd wisely made Edreneh (Adrianople) the second seat of
empire, and besieged Islámból during seven months with an army of
a hundred thousand men, till the infidels cried out that they were
ready to make peace on his own terms, offering to pay a yearly tribute
(kharáj) of 200,000 pieces of gold. Dissatisfied with this proposal,
he demanded that the Mohammedans (ummeti Mohammed) should occupy, as
of old in the days of ’Omar ibn ’Abdu-l-’azíz, and Hárúnu-r-Rashíd,
one half of Islámból and Ghalatah, and have the tithe of all the
gardens and vineyards outside of the city. The Tekkúr king (_i.e._
the Emperor) was compelled of necessity to accept these terms, and
twenty thousand Musulmáns having been introduced into the town, were
established within their former boundaries. The Gul jámi’í, within the
Jebálí kapú-sí, was purified with rose-water from all the pollutions of
the infidels, whence it received its name of Gul-jámi’í (_i.e._ Rose
mosque). A court of justice was established in the Sirkehjí Tekiyeh
in that neighbourhood; Ghalatah was garrisoned with six thousand men,
and half of it, as far as the tower, given up to the Mohammedans.
Having in this manner conquered one half of Islámból, Báyazíd returned
victorious to Edreneh. Soon afterwards Tímúr Leng issuing from the
land of Írán with thirty-seven kings at his stirrup, claimed the
same submission from Báyazíd, who, with the spirit and courage of an
emperor, refused to comply. Tímúr, therefore, advanced and encountered
him with a countless army. Twelve thousand men of the Tátár light-horse
(eshkinjí), and some thousands of foot soldiers, who, by the bad
counsels of the vazír, had received no pay, went over to the enemy;
notwithstanding which Báyazíd, urged on by his zeal, pressed forwards
with his small force, mounted on a sorry colt, and having entered the
throng of Tímúr’s army, laid about him with his sword on all sides,
so as to pile the Tátárs in heaps all around him. At last, by God’s
will, his horse that had never seen any action fell under him, and he,
not being able to rise again before the Tátárs rushed upon him, was
taken prisoner, and carried into Tímúr’s presence. Tímúr arose when
he was brought in, and treated him with great respect. They then sat
down together on the same carpet (sejjádeh) to eat honey and yóghúrt
(clotted cream). While thus conversing together, “I thank God,” said
Tímúr, “for having delivered thee into my hand, and enabled me to eat
and discourse with thee on the same table; but if I had fallen into
thy hands, what wouldst thou have done?” Yildirim, from the openness
of his heart, came to the point at once, and said, “By heaven! if thou
hadst fallen into my hand, I would have shut thee up in an iron cage,
and would never have taken thee out of it till the day of thy death!”
“What thou lovest in thy heart, I love in mine,” replied Tímúr, and
ordering an iron cage to be brought forthwith, shut Báyazíd up in it,
according to the wish he had himself expressed. Tímúr then set out
on his return, and left the field open for Chelebí Sultán Mohammed
to succeed his father Yildirim. He immediately pursued the conqueror
with 70,000 men, and overtaking him at Tashák-óvá-sí, smote his army
with such a Mohammedan cleaver, that his own men sheltered themselves
from the heat of the sun under awnings made of the hides of the slain,
whence that plain received the ludicrous name by which it is still
known. But, by God’s will, Yildirim died that very night of a burning
fever, in the cage in which he was confined. His son Mohammed Chelebí,
eager to avenge his father, continued to drive Tímúr forwards, till
he reached the castle of Tókát, where he left him closely besieged.
He then returned victorious, carrying the illustrious corpse of his
father to Brúsah, where it was buried in an oratory in the court before
his own mosque. His brothers ’Ísá and Músá disputed his right to the
empire; but Mohammed, supported by the people of Rúm, was proclaimed
khalífah at Edreneh (Adrianople), where he remained and finished the
mosque begun by his father. On hearing of these contentions for the
empire, the king (tekkúr) of Islámból danced for joy. He sent round
cryers to make proclamation that, on pain of death, not a Muselmán
should remain in the city of Kostantín, allowing only a single day
for their removal: and he destroyed a great number of them in their
flight to Tekirtágh (Rodostó) and Edreneh (Adrianople). The empire,
after the demise of Chelebí Mohammed, was held first by Murád II.,
and then by Mohammed (II.) the conqueror, who during his father’s
lifetime was governor (hákim) of Maghnísá (Magnesia), and spent his
time there in studying history, and in conversing with those excellent
men ’Ak-Shemsu-d-dín, Karah-Shemsu-d-dín, and Sívásí, from whom he
acquired a perfect knowledge of the commentaries on the Korán and the
sacred traditions (hadís). While he was at Maghnísá, having heard that
the infidels from Fránsah (France) had landed at ’Akkah (Acri), the
port of Jerusalem, on the shore of the White Sea, and in the dominions
of Keláún, Sultán of Egypt, and taken possession of ’Askelán and
other towns, from which they had carried off much plunder and many
prisoners to their own country, he was so much grieved at the thoughts
of thousands of Muselmáns being carried into captivity, that he shed
tears. “Weep not, my Emperor,” said Ak-shemsu-d-dín, “for on the day
that thou shalt conquer Islámból, thou shalt eat of the spoils and
sweetmeats taken by the unbelievers from the castle of ’Akkah: but
remember on that day to be to the faithful an acceptable judge as well
as victor (_kúzí ve-ghází rází_), doing justice to all the victorious
Moslims.” At the same time taking off the shawl twisted round his
Turban, he placed it on Mohammed’s head, and announced the glad tidings
of his being the future conqueror of Islámból. They then read the
noble traditions (_hadís_) of what the Prophet foretold relative to
Islámból, and observed that he was the person to whom these traditions
applied. Mohammed on this, covering his head with Ak-Shemsu-d-din’s
turban (_’urf_), said: “Affairs are retrieved in their season!” and,
recommending all his affairs to the bounty of the Creator, returned to
his studies.

On the death of his father Murád II., ambassadors to congratulate
him were sent by all monarchs, except Uzún Hasan, Prince (Sháh) of
Azerbáïján, of the family of Karah Koyúnlí; against him, therefore, he
first turned his arms, and defeated him in the field of Terján.


_Account of the Rise of Mohammed II., the Father of Victory._

He mounted the throne on Thursday the 16th Moharrem 855 (A.D. 1451),
at the age of twenty-one years. My great grandfather, then his
standard-bearer, was with him at the conquest of Islámból. He purchased
with the money arising from his share of the booty, the houses within
the U’n kapání, on the site of the mosque of Sághirjílar, which he
built after the conquest of the city by Mohammed II., together with
a hundred shops settled on the mosque as an endowment (_vakf_). The
house in which I was born was built at the same time, and with money
so acquired. The patents (_baráts_) for the mosques and the shops,
however, were made out in the conquerors name, and signed with his
cypher (_tughrà_), the administration of the endowment being vested
in our family. From the deeds relative to it now in my hands, I am
well acquainted with the dates of all the events of his reign. He
was a mighty but bloodthirsty monarch. As soon as he had mounted the
throne at Adrianople, he caused Hasan, his younger brother by the same
mother, to be strangled, and sent his body to Brúsah, to be interred
there beside his father. He conquered many castles in the country round
Brúsah, built those called the key of the two seas, on the strait of
the White Sea, and two likewise on that of the Black Sea, and levied
a tribute on Islámból. According to the peace made by Yildirim, a
tithe of the produce of all the vineyards round was to be paid to the
Sultán, before any infidel could gather a single grape. After the lapse
of three years, some grapes having been gathered by the infidels in
violation of this article of the treaty, in the vineyards of the Rúmílí
hisár (_i.e._ the European castle on the canal of Constantinople), a
quarrel ensued, in which some men were killed. Mohammed, when this
was reported to him, considered it as a breach of the treaty, and
immediately laid siege to Islámból, with an army as numerous as the
sand of the sea.



SECTION X.

_The last Siege of Kostantaniyyeh by Mohammed II. the Conqueror._


In the year of the Hijrah 857 (A.D. 1453), Sultán Mohammed encamped
outside of the Adrianople gate, with an immense army of Unitarians
(Muvahhedín); and some thousands of troops from Arebistán, who crossed
the Strait of Gelíbólí (Gallipoli), and having joined the army of
Islám, took up their quarters before the Seven Towers. All the troops
from Tokát, Sívás, Erzrúm, Páï-búrt, and the other countries taken
from Uzún Hasan, crossed the strait near Islámból, and encamped on the
’Ok-meïdán in sight of the infidels. Trenches, mines, and guns were
got ready, and the city was invested by land on all sides; it was only
left open by sea. Seventy-seven distinguished and holy men beloved by
God (Evliyáu-llah) followed the camp; among them were Ak-Shemsu-d-dín,
Karah-Shemsu-d-dín, Sívásí, Mollá Kúrání, Emír Nejárí, Mollá Fenárí,
Jubbeh ’Alí, Ansárí-Dedeh, Mollá Púlád, Ayà Dedeh, Khorósí Dedeh,
Hatablí Dedeh, and Sheïkh Zindání. The Sultán made a covenant with
them, promising that one-half of the city (devlet) should belong to
them, and one-half to the Muselmán conquerors; “and I will build,”
said he, “for each of you a convent, sepulchral chapel, hospital,
school, college, and house of instruction in sacred traditions
(Dáru-l-hadís).” The men of learning and piety were then assembled in
one place; proclamation was made that all the troops of Islám should
renew their ablutions, and offer up a prayer of two inflections. The
Mohammedan shout of war (Allah! Allah!) was then thrice uttered, and
according to the law of the Prophet, at the moment of their investing
the city, Mahmúd Páshá was sent with a letter to the Emperor (Tekkúr)
of Constantaniyyeh. When the letter had been read and its contents
made known, relying on the strength of the place and the number of
his troops, the Emperor proudly sent the ambassador back, saying, “I
will neither pay tribute, nor surrender the fortress, nor embrace
Islám.” On one side, the troops of Islám surrounded the walls like
bees, crying out Bismillah, and beginning the assault with the most
ardent zeal; on the other, the besieged, who were twice one hundred
thousand crafty devils of polytheists, depended on their towers and
battlements by land, and feared no danger by sea, the decrees of fate
never entering into their thoughts. They had five hundred pieces of
ordnance at Seraglio Point, five hundred at the Lead-magazines (on the
Ghalatah-side), and one hundred, like a hedge-hog’s bristles, inside
and outside of the Kíz kulleh-sí (Tower of Leander), so that not a
bird could fly across the sea without being struck from these three
batteries. The priests (pápás), monks, and patriarchs encouraging those
polluted hosts to the battle, promised some useless idols, such as Lát
and Menát, to each of the infidels. The ’Osmánlús, in the mean time,
began to batter the walls, and received reinforcements and provisions;
while the Greeks, who were shut out of the canals of Constantinople and
the Dardanelles by the castles built there, could obtain none. After
the siege had been carried on for ten days, the Sultan assembled his
faithful sheiks, saying, “See to what a condition we are reduced! The
capture of this fortress will be very difficult, if the defence of it
is thus continued from day to day.” Ak-Shemsu-d-dín told him that he
must wait for a time, but would infallibly be conqueror: that there was
within the city a holy man named Vadúd, and that as long as he lived
it could not be taken; but that in fifty days he would die, and then
at the appointed hour, minute, and second, the city would be taken.
The Sultán therefore ordered Tímúr-tásh Páshá to employ 2,000 soldiers
in constructing fifty galleys (kadirghah), in the valley near Kághid
kháneh, and some villages were plundered to provide them with planks
and other timber for that purpose. Kójah Mustafá Páshá had previously
constructed, by the labour of all his Arab troops, fifty galleys and
fifty horse-boats (káyik), at a place called Levend-chiftlik, opposite
to the Ok-meïdán. The galleys built at Kághid kháneh being also ready
on the tenth day, the Sultán went on that day to the Ok-meïdán, with
some thousands of chosen men, carrying greased levers and beams to move
the said ships. By the command of God, the wind blew very favourably;
all sails were unfurled, and amidst the shouts of the Moslims crying
_Allah! Allah!_ and joyful discharges of muskets and artillery, a
hundred and fifty ships slid down from the Ok-meïdán into the harbour.
The terrified Káfirs cried out “What can this be?” and this wonderful
sight was the talk of the whole city. The place where these ships were
launched is still shown, at the back of the gardens of the arsenal
(Ters kháneh), at the stairs of Sháh-kulí within the Ok-meïdán.

The millet (dárú, _i.e._ sorghum) which was scattered there under the
ships (in order to make them slide down more readily) grew, and is to
this day growing in that place. All the victorious Moslims went on
board armed cap-à-pie, and waited till the ships built by Tímúr-tásh
at Kághid kháneh made their appearance near Iyyúb (at the extremity of
the harbour), in full sail, with a favourable wind. They soon joined
the fleet from Ok-meïdán, amid the discharge of guns and cannons,
and shouts of _Hóï Hóï!_ and _Allah! Allah!_ When the Káfirs saw
the illustrious fleet filled with victorious Moslims approach, they
absolutely lost their senses, and began to manifest their impotence
and distress. Their condition was aptly expressed in that text (Kor.
II, 18): “They put their fingers in their ears, because of the noise
of the thunder, for fear of death!” and they then began to talk of
surrendering on the twentieth day. Pressed by famine and the besieging
army, the inhabitants deserted through the breaches in the walls, to
the Moslims, who, comforted by their desertion, received them well. On
that day, the chiefs (báïs) of Karamán, Germiyán, Tekkeh-ílí, Aïdin,
and Sáríkhán, arrived with 77,000 well-armed men, and gave fresh life
to the hearts of the faithful. Tímúr-tásh having passed over with his
fleet to the opposite side, landed his troops on the shore of Iyyúb,
where he attacked the gates of Iyyúb and Sárí-Sultán; Mulá Pulád, a
saint who knew the scripture by heart and worked miracles, attacked
that of Pulád; and Sheikh Fanárí took post at the Fener kapú-sí (the
Fanal-gate). The Káfirs built a castle there in one night, which
would not now be built in a month, and which is actually standing and
occupied. A monk named Petro having fled from that castle with three
hundred priests, all turned Moslims, and that gate was called from him
Petró kapú-sí. Having by God’s will conquered the newly-built castle
that night, he received a standard and the name of Mohammed Petro.
Ayà-dedeh was stationed with three hundred Nakshbendí Fakírs before
the gate of Ayá, where he fell a martyr (to the faith), and was buried
within the walls, at our old court of justice the Tekiyéh (convent)
of Sirkehjí; in the same manner, the gate at which Jubbeh ’Alí was
posted, was called the Jebálí gate, in memory of him, Jebálí being
erroneously written for Jubbeh ’Alí. He was the sheikh (i.e. spiritual
guide) of Keláún, Sultán of Egypt, and having come to Brúsah for the
purpose of being present at the taking of Islámból, became a disciple
of Zeïnu-d-dín Háfí, and was called Jubbeh ’Alí, from his always
wearing a jacket (jubbeh) made of horse-cloth; he was afterwards, when
Mohammed marched against Islámból, made chief baker (ekmekchí-báshí),
and provided, no creature knows how, from one single oven the whole
army, consisting of many hundred thousand servants of God, with bread
as white as cotton. He did not embark at the Ok-meïdán, but with three
hundred Fakírs, disciples of Zeïnu-d-dín Háfí, who, having spread
skins upon the sea near the garden of the arsenal, employed themselves
in beating their drums and tambours, and singing hymns in honour of
the unity (tevhíd) of God. They then, unfurling the standard of Háfí,
passed over the sea clearer than the sun, standing on their skins as
on a litter, to the terror of the infidels doomed to hell! Jubbeh
’Alí having taken up his from the sea, was posted at the Jebálí gate.
After the conquest he voluntarily fell a martyr, and was interred in
the court of the Gul-jámi’í (the rose-mosque), where an assemblage of
Fakírs afterwards found a retreat from the world. Khorós dedeh was
engaged at the Un-kapání gate, which therefore bears his name; and
below it, on the left hand as one enters, there is a figure of a cock
(khorós). He was a Fakír, and one of the disciples of my ancestor
Ahmed Yeseví. He came from Khurasán, when old and sickly, with Hájí
Begtásh, in order to be present at the siege of Islámból, and got the
nickname of Khorós-dedeh (father cock), from his continually rousing
the faithful, by crying out, “Arise, ye forgetful!” Yáúzún Er, who
was a very pious man, built within the Un-kapání a mosque in honour
of him; it is now in the Sighirjílar chárshu-sí (beast market), and
named afterwards the mosque of Yáúzún Er. Khorós-dedeh died sometime
afterwards near the gate called after his name, and was buried near
the high-road, outside of the Un-kapání gate, beside my ancestor. A
conduit for religious ablutions has been erected near it, and is now
visited as a place of pilgrimage. ’Alí Yárík, Bey of Ayázmánd, a nephew
of Uzún-Hasan, of the Karákoyúnlí family, attacked the Ayázmah gate.
He dug a well there for the purpose of renewing his ablutions; hence
the gate received the name Ayázmah (Ἁγίασμα) kapú-sí: the water is
pure spring-water, though on the edge of the sea. Sheïkh Zindání was a
descendant of Sheïkh Bábá Ja’fer, who having come as ambassador in the
time of Hárúnu-r-Rashíd, was poisoned by the king (_i.e._ emperor), and
buried within the Zindán kapú-sí (prison-gate). Sheïkh Zindání visited
this place, having come from Edirneh (Adrianople) with “the conqueror,”
at the head of 3,000 noble Seyyids (descendants of Mohammed), who
gave no quarter, soon made the Zindán kapú-sí his castle, and having
entered it, made a pilgrimage to his ancestor’s tomb, and laid his
own green turban on the place where Bábá Ja’fer’s head rested. He
continued for seventy years after the conquest as Turbehdár (warden
of the sepulchre) and built a convent there. The Emperor, as he had
made a prison in that place, called it Zindán kapú-sí (the Bagnio),
and it was conquered by Zindání. The Sheïkh having appointed in his
stead a Sayyid of the same pure race, to take charge of the tomb of
Ja’fer Bábá, accompanied Sultán Báyazíd in his expedition against Kilí
(Kilia) and Ak-kirmán, in the year 889 (A.D. 1484). He died at Edirneh
(Adrianople), after his return with Báyazíd from those conquests, and
on that occasion the Sultán caused all the prisoners in the public
prison there to be set at liberty for the good of the Sheïkh’s soul,
and erected a chapel (turbeh) over his tomb, outside of the Zindán
Kulleh-sí, having attended his funeral in person. His turbeh is now a
great place of pilgrimage, and all his children are buried there. It
is called the Ziyáret-gáh of ’Abdu-r-ruuf Samadání. The wardens of the
tomb of Bábá Ja’fer at Islámból are still members of his family, and
their genealogical tree is as follows: ’Abdu-r-ruuf Samadání (otherwise
called Sheïkh Zindání) son of Sheïkh Jemálu-d-dín, son of Bint-Emír
Sultán, son of Eshrefu-ddín, son of Táju-d-dín, son of the daughter of
Seyyid Sikkín (buried near Ak-Shemsu-d-dín, at Túrbahlí Kóï), son of
Ja’fer Bábá (buried at Islámból), the son of Mohammed Hanifí, from whom
my ancestor Ahmed Yeseví was also descended; our genealogical trees
were therefore well known to me.

Kámkár Beg, of Kútáhiyeh, was one of the Germiyán-óghlú (_i.e._ the
children of Germiyán). He, with three thousand young heroes, assailed
the Shehíd kapú-sí (martyrs-gate). As it is near Ayá Sófiyah, the
Christians assembled there in great multitudes, opened the gate, and
sallying forth with great fury, made all their Muselmán assailants
martyrs. In the time of Hárúnu-r-rashíd, also, some of the illustrious
auxiliaries of the Prophet (_ansár_) quaffed the cup of martyrdom
there, hence it has been named the Martyrs (Shuhúd) gate, though
incorrectly called by the vulgar, Jews’ (Juhúd) gate. The gates of the
royal palace (Khúnkár seráï) sustained no siege; but the gate near the
Seven Towers was attacked by Karamán-óghlú with the new reinforcements.
The troops from Tekkehbáï were posted before Silivrí-gate; those from
Aïdín, before the new gate (Yení kapú); those from Sárúkhán, before
the Cannon-gate (Tóp kapú-sí), where they were slain, and replaced
by those from Munteshá. The force from Isfendiyár was ordered to
besiege the Adrianople-gate (Edirneh kapú-sí), and that from Hamíd, the
Crooked-gate (Egrí kapú). So that Islámból was besieged on two sides,
and nothing but the Kúm kapú (Sand-gate) on the sea-shore, and the wall
from the Seven Towers to Seraglio-Point, remained free from attack. At
the Seven Towers, the poet Ahmed Páshá, disregarding the fire of the
infidels made several breaches. At the Silivrí-gate, Haïder Páshá’s
fire gave not a moments respite to the infidels. At the new gate (Yení
kapú), Mahmúd Páshá, commander of the troops from Aïdín, stormed the
wall which he had battered three times without success. The commander
at the Tóp kapú-sí was Nishání, also called Karamání Mohammed Páshá,
a disciple of Jellálu-d-dín Rúmí. He had given devilish (_khabelí_)
proofs of his valour in the war against Uzún Hasan. While he stood
at the Cannon-gate, not a cannon could the Káfirs discharge. At the
Edirneh-gate (Adrianople), the commander was Sa’dí Páshá, who having
dwelt along with Jem-Sháh in Firengistán, had learned many thousand
military arts. Being united heart and soul with the valiant men from
Isfendiyár stationed at that gate, they vied with him in their heroic
deeds, remembering the prophetic tradition that says “We shall be the
conquerors of Kostantaniyyeh” (Constantinople). Seven places are yet
shewn near that gate where they battered down the wall. Hersek-Oghlú
Ahmed Páshá had the command at the Crooked-gate (Egrí-kapú), where by
many straight-forward blows he sidled himself into the midst of the
infidels till he reduced them all to a mummy.

In this way Kostantaniyyeh had been besieged for twenty days, without
any signs of its being conquered. The Moslem warriors, the seventy
Unitarians, and three thousand learned ’Ulemás, favourites of God
(Evliyá-llah), masters of the decrees of the four orthodox sects, began
to be afflicted by the length of the siege, and with one accord offered
up their prayers to the Creator for his aid, when suddenly there was
darkness over Islámból, with thunder and lightning; a fire was seen
to ascend to the vault of heaven from the Atmeïdán; the strongest
buildings flew into the air, and were scattered over sea and land. On
that day three thousand infidels fled from the city, through alarm and
terror. Some were honoured by the profession of Islám, and admitted
into the emperors service; others fled to different countries; but the
rest, who would not abandon the faith of the Messiah, set to work to
repair the breaches, and continued firm in their resistance. They were
much pressed, however, by want of food and ammunition.

On the thirtieth day of the siege, Sultán Mohammed having placed the
’Urf (_i.e._ the judicial turban) on his head, and sky-coloured boots
on his feet, mounted a mule which might rival Duldul (Mahomet’s steed),
made the round of the walls, and distributed largesses among his
troops. He then passed over with many thousand men from Iyyúb to Kághid
khánah, and crossing the streams of Alí Beg Kóï and Kághid Khánah came
to the place called Levend-chiftlik, where forty ships (firkatah)
had also been built. These, like the former, they moved on rollers
to the Ok-meïdán, and launched them at the Sháh-kúlí stairs into the
sea, filled with some thousand scarlet scull-capped Arabs, burning as
brandy, and sharp as hawks.



SECTION XI.


There appeared off Seraglio Point ten large admirals’ ships and ten
frigates, completely armed and equipped, with the cross-bearing ensign
flying, drums beating, and music playing; and casting anchor there,
they fired their guns with indescribable demonstrations of joy, while
the Moslims advanced from the Ok-meïdán in two hundred boats and
skiffs, embarked on board their own vessels, rushed on these ten ships
like bees swarming upon a hive, and enthralled them, head and stern,
with their ropes like a spiders web. The infidels, supposing that they
were only come on a parley, stood quietly without stretching out a hand
against them. The Moslims, in the mean time, shouting “Allah! Allah!”
began to tie their hands behind their backs, and to plunder their
ships; when the infidels, speaking in their own language, said “_Chi
parlai_,” that is to say, “What do you say?” The Káfirs discovered by
the answer who they were, and cried out, “These Turks have entered
our ships like a plague, we can make no resistance.” On entering the
harbour they had fired all their guns as signals of joy, and were now
so crowded together that they could not use their arms, they were
therefore all taken. The infidels within the town, seeing this sad
event, those who were coming to succour them having been thus taken,
tore their hair and beards, and began a heavy fire from the batteries
at Seraglio Point, the Lead Magazines at Ghalatah, and the Kíz
Kulleh-sí (Tower of Leánder). The undaunted Moslims, however, in spite
of the enemy’s batteries, lowered the cross-bearing flag on the twenty
ships which they had taken, put all the prisoners on board of their
own vessels, and came to an anchor before the garden of the arsenal,
firing their guns repeatedly from joy and exultation. The serden-gechdí
(_i.e._ mad caps) immediately disembarking from the vessels, brought
the glad tidings to the Sultán and Ak-Shemsu-d-dín, in the garden of
the arsenal; when the latter, turning to Mohammed, said: “When your
majesty, being then a prince at Maghnísá, heard of the taking of ’Akkà,
Saïdá, and Berût (Acrí, Sidon, and Beïrút) in Egypt, by the infidels,
and grieved at the thoughts of what the captives, women, and children
must suffer, I comforted you by saying, that when you conquered
Islámból you would eat of the sweetmeats taken in the plunder of
’Akkà. Lo! those sweetmeats are now presented to you, and my prophetic
prayer, that the city might be conquered on the fiftieth day, has
been answered!” There were found by the Musulmáns on board the twenty
ships, three thousand purses of coins (fulúrí) of Tekiyánús (Decianus),
one thousand loads of pure gold, two thousand loads of silver, eight
thousand prisoners, twenty captains of ships, a French princess (a
kings daughter, a yet unexpanded blossom), a thousand Muselmán damsels,
brilliant as the sun, noble and ignoble, and some thousand-times a
hundred thousand warlike stores; all of which the Sultán confided to
the care of Ak-Shemsu-d-dín, while he himself was entirely engaged in
continuing the siege.

The complete account of the affair is this: Kostantín, the late King
of Islámból, being betrothed to a daughter of the King of Fránsah,
the latter, in order to send her with an escort worthy of her rank,
equipped a fleet of six hundred ships, and sent them to ravage the
coasts of Arabia (’Arabistán). In that unhappy year they had plundered
’Akkah, Saïdah, Berút, Tarábulus (Tripoli), Ghazzah, and Ramlah, as far
as the land of Hásán (Haúrán?), and carried off more than two thousand
Húrí-like damsels from ’Arabistán, with spoils to the amount of
millions. Of this fleet, ten galeons and ten frigates were dispatched
to carry the Princess to Islámbúl. When they reached the straits of the
White Sea (the Dardanelles), they discovered that the Túrks had built
castles there; but these accursed fellows, by disguising themselves,
taking advantage of a fresh southerly breeze, and sending forwards five
empty ships to receive the fire from the castles, in two hours got
twenty miles beyond them. Having by this stratagem reached Islámból,
they were taken, thank God! as has been related. This French princess
afterwards gave birth to Yildirím Báyazíd; but other historians tell
the story differently, and say that she was taken by the father of
Mohammed the Conqueror, and gave birth to him, but he was in truth
the son of ’Alímeh Khánum, the daughter of Isfendiyár Oghlú. The
correctness of the first account maybe proved thus: My father, who died
an old man, was with Sultán Suleïmán at the sieges of Rhodes, Belgrade,
and Sigetvár, where that prince died. He used to converse much with
men advanced in years: among his most intimate friends there was one
who was grey-headed and infirm, but more eloquent than Amrïo-l-kaïs
or Abú-l-ma’álí. He was chief secretary to the corps of Janissaries,
and his name was Sú-Kemerlí Kójah Mustafà Chelebí. This gentleman was
certainly related to this daughter of the King of Fránsah, from whom
he continually received presents; and I remember that when I was a boy
he gave me some curious pictures which had been given to him by her.
During the siege of Sigetvár, before the death of Suleïmán was known to
the army, the silihdár (sword-bearer) Kúzú ’Alí Aghá, by the desire of
the Grand Vizír Sokól-lí Mohammed Páshá, assembled a council of war, at
which the corpse of the Sultán was seated on his throne, and his hands
were moved [by some one concealed] behind his ample robe (khil’ah). To
this council all the vizírs, vakíls, and senior officers of the army
were summoned. Among them were the rikábdár (stirrup-holder) Julábí
Aghá, the metbakh emíní (clerk of the kitchen) ’Abdí Efendí, my father,
and the abovementioned Sú-kemerli Kójáh Mustafá. He was at that time so
old, that when he accompanied the army he was always carried about in
a litter (takhti-reván). He had been one of the disciples of the great
Muftí Kemál Páshá-zádeh, and was deeply read in divinity and history.
Being one of the servants of Kemál Páshá-zádeh, “I was,” he used to
say, “when a youth of twenty-five years of age, present at the conquest
of Cairo by Sultán Selím I.” A.H. 923 (A.D. 1517); and the writer of
these pages was lost in astonishment when he heard him give an account
of the great battles of Merj Dábik and Kákún, of Sultán Ghaúrí’s
quaffing the cup of destiny, of his son Mohammed’s being deposed by the
soldiery on account of his youth, of Túmán-Báï’s succeeding him, of
his continued war and twenty-three battles with Selím, till at length
Caïro was taken. He was a most faithful man, and one whose word could
be taken with perfect security; and having heard him relate the story
of the abovementioned French princess from beginning to end, I write it
down here.


_An Explanation of the Relationship between the House of ’Osmán and the
King of France._

Sú-Kemer-lí Mustafá Chelebí gave this narrative: “My father was the son
of a King of France, named——. When the treaty had been made by which
he engaged to give his daughter (my father’s sister) to the Tekkúr
(the Emperor of Constantinople), a fleet of six hundred vessels was
dispatched to ravage the coasts near the castle of ’Akkah, in order
to furnish her with a dowry. It returned home laden with an immense
booty, and a vast number of captives, male and female, and having
reached Párisah, the ancient capital of our country, great rejoicings
were made. Among the female captives there was a young Seyyideh (_i.e._
one of the prophetic race), who was given by the King of France to my
father, and from whom I was born. When I was three years old, the king
my grandfather sent my father with his sister, and vast treasures, to
Islámból, and having been captured at Seraglio Point, we were delivered
up to Sultán Mohammed, in the garden of the arsenal. After the city was
taken, my father was honoured by admission into Islám (the Mohammedan
faith), having been instructed by Ak-Shemsu-d-dín, and all the
victorious Moslims having reverently presented his sister the princess
to the Sultán, she was also instructed in Islám by the same holy man,
but refused to embrace it. The Sultán upon this said, “We will give
her an excellent education,” and did not trouble himself to insist
much on that point. I was then five years old, and being taught the
doctrines of Islám by Ak-Shemsu-d-dín, received the honour of Islámism
(God be praised!) without any hesitation. My father was made one of
the kapújí-báshís (lord-chamberlains), and I was brought up in the
seráï kháss (_i.e._ the Grand Seignor’s palace) by my aunt, my father’s
sister. Mohammed Khán having afterwards formed a close attachment for
my aunt, she became the mother of Sultán Báyazíd (II) Velí, and the
princes Jem and Núru-d-dín.” “When my aunt,” he added, “died, as she
had never embraced Islám, Sultán Mohammed II. caused a small sepulchre
(kubbeh) to be erected beside the sepulchral chapel (turbeh) which he
had built for himself, and there she was buried. I myself have often,
at morning-prayer, observed that the readers appointed to read lessons
from the Korán [in these turbehs] turned their faces towards the bodies
of the defunct buried in the other tombs while reading the lessons, but
that they all turned their backs upon the coffin of this lady, of whom
it was so doubtful whether she departed in the faith of Islám. I have
also frequently seen Franks of the Fránsah tribe (_i.e._ French), come
by stealth and give a few aspers to the turbeh-dárs (tomb-keepers) to
open this chapel for them, as its gate is always kept shut. So that
there can be no doubt, according to the account given by Srí Kemer-lí
Mustafá Chebebí, that a daughter of the King of France became the wife
(khátún) of Mohammed the Conqueror (Abú-l Fat-h), and the mother of
Sultán Báyazíd.”


_An Account of the heroic Deeds and Misfortunes of Jem-Sháh, son of the
Emperor Mohammed Abú-l Fat-h (the Conqueror)._

When Báyazíd Velí was khalífah, his brother Jem-Sháh (these two being
princes of a high spirit) contended with him for the possession of this
foul world, and having been worsted in a great battle on the plains of
Karamán, fled to Kalávún Sultán of Egypt. From thence as he was going
on a pilgrimage to Meccah, he was driven by the buffetting of the
sea on the shores of Yemen and ’Aden, whence he visited the tomb of
Veïso-l Karní, performed the pilgrimage, and travelling through Hijáz,
returned to Egypt, from which country he went by sea to Rhodes and
Malta, and from thence to France to visit his grandmother (the Queen of
France), one of the most exalted sovereigns of that time, accompanied
by 300 Muselmán followers: he spent his time like a prince, in hunting
and all sorts of enjoyment. One of his most favoured companions and
counsellors was his _defterdár_ (secretary) Sivrí Hisárí; another was
’Ashik-Haïder. Seventeen sons of báns (princes) stood before him [as
slaves] with their hands crossed upon their breasts [ready to receive
and execute his orders]. He was always followed by this suite in all
his travels through Káfiristán (the land of the infidels). He composed
some thousand penj-beïts mukhammases, and musaddeses (odes), together
with kásáyids (elegies), which form a díván (collection of poems),
praised by all the world.

_A Stanza by Jem-Sháh._

    Bird of my soul, be patient of thy cage,
    This body, lo! how fast it wastes with age.
    The tinkling bells already do I hear
    Proclaim the caravans departure near.
    Soon shall it reach the land of nothingness,
    And thee, from fleshy bonds delivered, bless.

In this kind of elegies he was an incomparable poet. Sultán Báyazíd at
length sent an ambassador to the King of France and claimed Jem-Sháh.
On this the ill-complexioned Frank caused a sallow-faced fellow to
cut his throat while shaving him with a poisoned razor. The corpse of
Jem, together with his property, amongst which was an enchanted cup,
which became brimful as soon as delivered empty into the cup-bearers
hand, a white parrot, a chess-playing monkey, and some thousands of
splendid books, were delivered up to Sa’dí Chelebí (Sivrí Hisárí) and
Haïder Chelebí, that they might be conveyed to the Sultán. Jem’s Sa’dí
[_i.e._ Sivrí Hisárí], being a learned and acute man, first dyed the
parrot black, and taught him to say, “Verily we belong to God, and
to Him shall we return! Long live the Emperor!” He then returned to
him with the remains of his master, and delivered over his property
to the imperial treasury. But when Báyazíd asked “where is the white
parrot?” the bird immediately repeated the above-mentioned text, and
added: “Sire, Jem-Sháh having entered into the mercy of his Lord, I
have put off the attire of the angel clad in white, and clothed myself
in the black of mourning weeds.”—“How!” said the Sultán, addressing
himself to Sivrí Hisárí, “did they kill my brother Jem?” “By Heaven! O
Emperor!” replied he, “though he indulged in wine, yet he never drank
it but out of that enchanted cup, nor did he ever mingle with the
infidels, but spent all his time in composing poetry; so by God’s will
there was a certain barber named Yán Oghlí (John’s son), who shaved
him with a poisoned razor, which made his face and eyes swell, and
he was suffocated.” Báyazíd ordered the remains of Jem to be buried
at Brúsah, beside his grandfather Murád II. While they were digging
the grave there was such a thunder-clap and tumult in the sepulchral
chapel, that all who were present fled, but not a soul of them was
able to pass its threshold till ten days had passed, when this having
been represented to the Sultán, the corpse of Jem was buried by his
order in his own mausoleum, near to that of his grandfather. Prince Jem
Sháh died in A.H. 900, after having spent eleven years in travelling
through Egypt, Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia, and in Firengistán, through
Spain and France, and having escaped from his brother’s den, and
drunk of the cup of Jem, he at last was intoxicated by drinking of
the cup of Fate. According to the French account, however, another
person was killed by the poisoned razor, and his corpse was sent to
Rúm (Turkey) instead of the remains of Jem, who in fact became King
of France, and was the forefather of the present sovereign of that
country. On enquiring into this report, and hearing what had happened
at the tomb, _viz._ that Murád would not allow the corpse to be buried
in his mausoleum, he ordered it to be interred elsewhere. After the
taking of Uïvár (Raab) in the year 1073 (A.D. 1662-3), Mohammed Páshá
was sent as ambassador the following year, 1074 (1663-4), into Germany
(Alámán Díarí), in order to conclude a peace with the emperor of
that country (Nemseh-Chásárí): having accompanied him I spent three
years in visiting, under the protection of a passport (pátentah)
written by him, the seven kingdoms of Káfirístán. Having set foot on
the land of Dúnkárkeïn (Dunkirk), situated on the shore of the ocean
which separates the eastern side of the New World from France, I
passed the Ramazán of the year 1075 (March 1665) there, and having an
acquaintance with some well-informed priests (pápáslar), I asked them
about the history of Jem-Sháh. They answered, that when the order came
from the ’Osmánlí (Sultán) to kill Jem, the French king spared him
out of pity, as being a relation to the ’Osmánlí (family) and his own
sister’s son, and that having caused another person who resembled Jem
to be poisoned, they sent his corpse to Islámból, saying it was that
of Jem: that having been afterwards made king of the country on the
borders of France (tísh Fránsah) at the time of the conquest of Egypt
by Sultán Selím, he sent him presents with letters of congratulation on
his victory. They also confirmed the account of the near relationship
between the House of ’Osmán and the Kings of France through the mother
of Sultán Báyazíd and the progeny of King Jem. He is buried, they
added, in a mausoleum (kubbah) in a garden like Irem, outside of the
city of Paris, where all the Musulmáns his companions and slaves have
been entombed. It is on account of this relationship between the house
of ’Osmán and the French kings, that when the foreign ambassadors are
assembled in the díván the Frank ambassadors stand below, because
their sovereigns are not Moslems; but the French is placed above the
Persian ambassador, below whom the German envoy is seated, so that
the ambassador from Persia has an infidel on each side. Murád IV.,
conqueror of Baghdád, altered this regulation, and gave precedence to
the French ambassador over all others, and the Russian (Moskov) then
taking the right hand of the Persian; an arrangement which offended
the German ambassador, but he was obliged to acquiesce in it. This
distinguished honour was granted to France because a French princess
was the mother of Sultán Báyazíd.

Let us now return from this digression to the siege of the castle of
Kostantín. Sultán Mohammed Khán having taken the daughter of the King
of France out of the booty of the captured fleet, and by the advice
of the captors, placed the rest in the hands of Ak-Shémsu-d-dín to
be divided among the army, continued to encourage the besiegers. At
length the fiftieth day came. It was manifest that all was terror and
confusion within the city, and these graceless Christian infidels
planting a white flag on the ramparts, cried out, “Quarter, O chosen
House of ’Osmán! we will deliver up the city.” A respite of one day was
therefore given to all the unbelievers, to go by land or sea to any
country that they would. The Sultán then having the pontifical turban
on his head, and sky-blue boots on his feet, mounted on a mule, and
bearing the sword of Mohammed in his hand, marched in at the head of
70,000 or 80,000 Muselmán heroes, crying out, “Halt not, conquerors!
God be praised! Ye are the vanquishers of Kostantaniyyeh!” He led
them directly to the palace of Constantine (Takfúr Seráï), where he
found some thousands of infidels assembled and prepared to defend it
resolutely. A great battle ensued, and in that contest Kostantín, the
king, was slain, and buried with the rest of the faithless (káfirs) in
the Water Monastery (Súlú Menastir). The treasures in the king’s palace
were so great that God only knows their amount. They were amassed by
this Kostantín, who was a merchant, and as rapacious as a griffin
(’anká), and had rebuilt Islámbúl the ninth time. Mohammed proceeded to
the church of Ayá Sófiyah in order to express his thanks by saying a
prayer, accompanied by two inclinations of the head (_rik’at_). Twelve
thousand monks who dwelt within and all around it, having closed its
doors, threw from the roof, towers, turrets, and belfries, arrows and
burning pitch, and naptha on the Moslems. Mohammed having invested the
church with the armies of Islám, like a swarm of hornets, for three
days and three nights, at length took it on the fifty-third day. He
then having slain a few monks, entered the church, bearing the standard
of the Prophet of God in his hand, and planting it on the high altar
(_mihráb_), chaunted, for the first time, the Mohammedan ezán (call
to prayers). The rest of the Muselmán victors having put the monks to
the edge of the sword, Ayá Sófiyah, was deluged with the blood of the
idolaters. Mohammed, in order to leave them a memorial of his skill in
archery, shot a four-winged arrow into the centre of the cupola, and
the trace of his arrow is still shown there. One of the archers of the
Sultán’s guard having killed an infidel with his left hand, and filled
his right with his blood, came into the Sultán’s presence, and clapping
his hand red with blood on a white marble column, left the impression
of a hand and fingers, which is still seen near the turbeh-kapú-sí. It
is on the opposite corner as one enters, at the height of five men’s
stature above the ground.


_Eulogium on Yá Vudúd Sultán._

While Sultán Mohammed was going in solemn procession round Ayá Sófiyah
a flash of lightning was seen to strike a place called Terlú-direk,
and on going thither they found a body lying with its face turned
towards the kibleh, and written on its illuminated breast in crimson
characters, the name Yá Vudúd (O All-loving). Ak-Shemsu-d-dín,
Karah-Shemsu-d-dín, and the other seventy holy men, exclaimed, “This,
O Emperor! was the cause of Islámból’s falling on the fiftieth day.”
Having prayed that it might fall in fifty days, on that very day
he resigned his soul and bore his prayer to heaven. Then while all
those learned, righteous and excellent men were making the necessary
preparations for washing that noble corpse, a voice was heard from the
corner of the Terlú-direk (the sweating column), saying: “He is washed
and received into mercy, now therefore inter him.” All were breathless
with astonishment: and those venerable sheïkhs having placed the
illustrious corpse of Yá Vudúd Sultán on a bier, and intending to bury
him near Shehíd-kapú-sí, proceeded to the stairs of Emír Oní, where
the bier was put into a boat, which instantly, without an oar plyed or
a sail set, flew like lightning, and did not stop till it came near
[the tomb of] Abú Iyyúb Ensárí. There the holy man was buried, and the
neighbouring landing-place was thence called Yá Vudúd Iskeleh-sí.

Sultán Mohammed Khán, Father of Victory (_i.e._ the Conqueror), a
Sultán son of a Sultán of the Islamitic sovereigns of the House of
’Osmán, entered Islámból victoriously on Wednesday the 20th day of
Jumázíu-l-ákhir, in the year of the Prophet’s flight 867 [1st July,
A.D. 1453], as was expressed by the prophetic and descriptive letters
of the text _beldetun tayyibetun_ (a good city), and in the day, hour,
and minute, which had been foretold to the Sultán by Ak-Shemsu-d-dín.
Several poets and men of learning have made other lines and technical
words containing the date of this victory of victories; but the date
found in the exalted Korán is complete, if the last letters are
counted as they are pronounced. Sultán Mohammed II. on surveying more
closely the church of Ayá Sófiyah, was astonished at the solidity
of its construction, the strength of its foundations, the height of
its cupola, and the skill of its builder, Aghnádús. He caused this
ancient place of worship to be cleared of its idolatrous impurities
and purified from the blood of the slain, and having refreshed the
brain of the victorious Moslems by fumigating it with amber and
lign-aloes, converted it in that very hour into a jámi’ (a cathedral),
by erecting a contracted mihráb, minber, mahfil, and menáreh, in that
place which might rival Paradise. On the following Friday, the faithful
were summoned to prayer by the muëzzins, who proclaimed with a loud
voice this text (Kor. xxxiii. 56): “Verily, God and his angels bless
the Prophet.” Ak-Shemsu-d-dín and Karah Shemsu-d-dín then arose, and
placing themselves on each side of the Sultán, supported him under his
arms; the former placed his own turban on the head of the conqueror,
fixing in it a black and white feather of a crane, and putting into
his hand a naked sword. Thus conducted to the minber he ascended it,
and cried out with a voice as loud as David’s, “Praise be to God the
Lord of all worlds,” (Kor. i. 1.) on which all the victorious Moslems
lifted up their hands and uttered a shout of joy. The Sultán then
officiating as khatíb pronounced the khutbeh, and descending from the
minber, called upon Ak-Shemsu-d-dín to perform the rest of the service
as Imám. On that Friday the patriarch and no less than three thousand
priests who had been concealed underneath the floor of the church,
were honoured by being received into Islám. One of them, who was three
hundred years old, they named Bábá Mohammed. This man pointed out a
hidden treasure on the right side of the mihráb, saying it was placed
there by Suleïmán (Solomon), the first builder of this ancient place
of worship. The Sultán having first offered up prayer there for the
prosperity and perpetuity of the place, caused the ground to be dug
up beneath it, and during a whole week many thousand camel-loads of
treasure in coins of Tekiyánús and Okí-yúnus (Decianus and——), were
carried away and deposited in the royal treasury and in the garden of
the arsenal.


_On the glorious Conquest of the Ok-meïdán (Archery-ground)._

When the Sultán had distributed all the booty among the victors, he
caused the idols like Vudd, Yághús, Ya’úf, Suvá’, and Nesr, which were
found set with jewels in Ayá Sófiyah to be carried to the Ok-meïdán,
and set up there as marks for all the Muselmán heroes to shoot their
arrows at; and from thence an arrow which hits the mark, is to this
day called by archers an idol’s arrow (púteh ókí). One of those idols
was standing till knocked to pieces in the time of Sultán Ahmed Khán.
Another was called Azmáïsh, because it stood on the south side, and
the arrows hit it when shot with a northerly wind; the spot on which
it stood is now called Tóz-kópárán-áyághí (Dust-maker’s Foot). Another
idol called Hekí, placed near Kháss-kóï, was most easily hit from
the north; hence the phrase “a hekí-shot.” Another called Písh-rev,
placed on the north-west side, and most easily hit from the south-east
(kibleh), still gives its name to such a shot. From Pelenk, placed on
the west side and hit from the east, the term pelenk is derived. In
short, having placed twelve different idols on the four sides of the
Ok-meïdán, a grand archery-match was made, and all the old archers,
each shewing his skill in taking aim at them, made glad the soul of the
illustrious Sa’d Vakkás, and hence arose the custom among the people
of Islámból of meeting there on holidays for the purpose of trying
their skill in archery. Sultán Mohammed II. having gone thence to the
garden of the arsenal, gave a banquet for three days and three nights
to all the Moslem conquerors, himself appearing like the cháshnegír
báshí (chief butler), with his skirts girt up round his loins and a
handkerchief in his girdle, offering them bread and salt, and providing
them with a splendid dinner. After the repast he carried round the
ewer, and poured out water for the learned and excellent to wash their
noble hands; thus for three days and three nights breaking his spirit
by performing these services.


_Distribution of the Booty._

After this splendid feast, which lasted three days and three nights,
the Sultán accompanied by the three imperial defterdárs and all the
clerks of the army, proceeded to pile up in the garden of the arsenal,
the treasures taken on board of the French fleet, with those pointed
out in the Ayá Sófiyah by Mohammed Bábá, and those taken from the
seven thousand monasteries, convents, and palaces within the city.
The first to whom their share was allotted were the physicians,
oculists, surgeons, washers of the dead and grave-diggers serving in
the army; next the sherífs (_i.e._ members of the Prophet’s family);
then the learned and pious ’ulemá and sulehá (_i.e._ doctors of law);
then the imáms, khatíbs, and sheïkhs; after them the móllás and
kázies (judges); then the serden gechdis (dread-noughts); next the
Arab marines who dragged the ships overland, from the village thence
called Levend-chiftlik; after them the janissaries; then the sipáhíes,
za’íms, tópchís, jebehjís, lághemjís, eshekchís, horsekeepers, and
camp-servants, respectively forming together one hundred and seventy
thousand men, to whom sixty-three thousand houses were allotted,
besides their legal share of the spoils. Out of this the victors paid
during their lives the tenth appointed by God’s law, to the Sultán,
whose own share was three thousand eight hundred captives, twenty
thousand purses of gold, coins of Tekiyánús and Yánkó son of Mádiyán,
three thousand palaces, two bezestáns, and seven thousand shops. They
also gave to the Sultán the mosque of Ayá Sófiyah, with seven great
convents, and fixed the rent to be paid by him for the New Seráï at one
thousand aspers a day. A Jew, who offered one thousand and one aspers,
was put to death. In the karamán-ward of the city three hundred lofty
palaces were given to the ’ulemá, one hundred and sixty-two to the
janissaries, seventy to the vezírs, seven to each of the seven kubbeh
vezírs. In short, all the houses in Islámból were thus distributed
among the victors, and the daughter of the French King mentioned above,
was given to the Emperor. Thus was every duty which the law required
fulfilled. Ak-Shemsu-d-dín then standing up, thus spoke: “Know and
understand ye Moslem conquerors, that it is you of whom the last of
the prophets, the joy and pride of all creatures, spoke, when he said:
‘Verily they shall conquer Kostantaniyyeh; the best of commanders is
their commander; the best of armies is that army!’ Squander not away
then these treasures, but spend them on good and pious foundations
in Islámból; be obedient to your Emperor; and as from the days of
’Osmán down to the present time, you called your Emperor Beg, so from
henceforth call him Sultán; and as at the feast he girded up his loins,
and served you himself, in return for his bounty, call him Khúnkár.”
He then fastened to the head of the Sultán a double black and white
heron’s plume (aigrette), saying: “Thou art now, O Emperor, become the
chosen Prince of the House of Osmán, continue to fight valiantly in
the path of God!” A shout of victory was then made, and the Muselmán
warriors took possession of their new habitations. It was at that
time that, with the permission of Ak-Shemsu-d-dín and the other holy
men, a coin was first struck bearing this legend: “The Sultán, son
of a Sultán, Sultán Mohammed Khán, son of Sultán Murád Khán, be his
victory exalted; coined in Kostantaniyyeh in the year 757.” On the
following day, when the Sultán, as he came out of the harem, received
Ak-Shemsu-d-dín in the Arsenal-Garden: “Did you not eat some sweetmeats
last night, Sire?” said the latter. “No,” replied the Sultán, “we eat
none!”—“Do you not remember,” replied the holy man, “that when you
were so much grieved while governor of Maghnísá, on hearing of the
capture of ’Akkah by the Franks, I told you that you would eat some
of their sweetmeats when you had taken Islámból? And did you not last
night enjoy the society of the French princess? Was not that tasting a
sweetmeat won from the Franks? Henceforward let that unexpanded rose
be called ’Akídeh (sugar-candy) Khánum, and be thou thyself styled
Khúnkár (blood shedder). Let this day be a day of rejoicing, but let it
likewise be a day of justice! Of the three thousand blooming Mohammedan
virgins who came in the suite of ’Akídeh your spouse (khássekí), let
not one be touched, but send to ’Akkah, Ghazzah, Ramlah, Khaúrán, all
the countries whence they were taken, a register containing their
names, and order their parents, relations, and friends to repair to
Islámból, that each of them may, with the consent of their parents, be
joined in lawful marriage with one of the Moslem warriors, and the city
of Islámból be thus made populous.” The counsels of Ak Shemsu-d-dín
were followed; and in a short time ten thousand fathers, mothers,
relations, and connexions, hastened to the city, and three thousand
heroes were made happy by being joined in lawful matrimony to three
thousand virgins. Orders were then issued to all the vezírs who were
Páshás in Europe and Asia, to send all the sons of Adam from each
district to Islámból. Thus the ward of Uskúblí was peopled by the
inhabitants of Uskúb; the Yení Mahallah by the people of Yení-shehr;
that of Ayá Sófiyah by the people of Sófiyah; that of Tenes by the Urúm
(Greeks) from Mórah (the Morea); the neighbourhood of Tekkúr-serái and
Shahíd-kapú-si by the Jews of fifty communities brought from Seláník
(Thessalonica); Ak-Seráï by the people from Anátólí (Natolia); the ward
below the castle by the Syrians and Arabs; the Persians were settled
in Khójah-khán near Mahmúd Páshá; the Gypsies (Chingáneh) coming from
Balát Shehrí are established in the Balát-mahalleh-sí; the U’luch from
’Akl-bend in the ’Akl-bend ward; the Arnáúts (Albanians) near the
Silivrì-gate; the Jews from Safat in Kháss Kóï; the Anatolian Turks at
Uskudár (Scutari); the Armenians of Tókát and Sívás near Súlú Monástir;
the Magnesians in the Ma’júnjí ward; the Ekirdir and Ekmidir people
at Egrí kapú; the———— in Iyyúb Sultán; the Karamanians in the Buyúk
Karamán ward; the inhabitants of Kóniyah in that of Kuchúk Karamán;
those of Tirehlí in Vefà; the people of the plain of Chehár-shenbeh in
the bázár so called; the inhabitants of Kastemúní in the Kazánjílar
(brazier’s) ward; the Láz from Tirábuzún (Trebizonde) near the mosque
of Sultán Báyazíd; the people of Gelíbólí (Gallipoli) at the Arsenal;
those of Izmír (Smyrna) in Great Ghalatah; the Franks in Little
Ghalatah (Pera); the inhabitants of Sínób and Sámsún at Tóp-kháneh. In
short, the Mohammedan inhabitants of all the large towns in the land
of the House of ’Osmán were then brought to people Islámból, called on
that account Islámí ból (i.e. ample is its Islám!).

By God’s decree, Islámból was taken in the month of Temmúz (July), and
the sea was then dyed with the blood of some thousands of martyrs. Now
it happens, that for forty days, every year at that season, the sea
is still blood-red, from the gate of Iyyúb Ensár to the Martyr’s-gate
(Shehíd kapú-sí). This is a marvellous thing and one of God’s secrets.
“Verily God hath power over all things!”



SECTION XII.

_Description of the new Seráï, the Threshold of the Abode of Felicity._


The conqueror having thus become possessed of such treasures,
observed that the first thing requisite for an Emperor is a permanent
habitation. He therefore expended three thousand purses on building
the new Seráï. The best of several metrical dates inscribed over the
Imperial gate, is that at the bottom in conspicuous gold letters on a
white marble tablet, Khalled Allahu azza sáhibihi. May God make the
glory of its master eternal! (_i.e._ A.H. 876, A.D. 1471-2). Never
hath a more delightful edifice been erected by the art of man; for,
placed on the border of the sea, and having the Black Sea on the North,
and the White Sea on the East, it is rather a town situated on the
confluence of two seas than a palace. Its first builder was that second
Solomon, the two-horned Alexander. It was, therefore, erected on the
remains of what had been built by former princes, and Mohammed the
Conqueror added seventy private, regal, and well-furnished apartments;
such as a confectionary, bake-house, hospital, armory, mat-house,
wood-house, granary, privy-stables without and within, such that each
is like the stable of ’Antar, store-rooms of various kinds round a
garden delightful as the garden of Irem, planted with twenty thousand
cypresses, planes, weeping-willows, thuyas, pines, and box-trees, and
among them many hundred thousands of fruit trees, forming an aviary
and tulip-parterre, which to this day may be compared to the garden of
the Genii (Jin). In the middle of this garden there is a delightful
hill and rising ground, on which he built forty private apartments,
wainscoted with Chinese tiles, and a hall of audience (Arz-ódá) within
the Port of Felicity, and a fine hippodrome, on the east side of which
he erected a bath, near the privy treasury; close to which are the
aviary, the pantry, the treasurers chamber, the Sultán’s closet, the
Imperial mosque, the falconer’s chamber, the great and small pages’
chamber; the seferlí’s and gulkhan’s chamber, the mosque of the
Buyúk-ódá, and the house of exercise, which joins the bath mentioned
above. The privy chambers (kháss-ódá), mentioned before, were occupied
by three thousand pages, beautiful as Yúsuf (Joseph), richly attired in
shirts fragrant as roses, with embroidered tiaras, and robes drowned in
gold and jewels, having each his place in the Imperial service, where
he was always ready to attend. There was no harem in this palace; but
one was built afterwards, in the time of Sultán Suleïmán, who added a
chamber for the black eunuchs (_taváshí aghá-lar_), another for the
white eunuchs (_teberdárán khásseh_, _i.e._ privy halbardiers), a
cabinet (_kóshk_) for recreations, and a chamber for the díván, where
the seven vezírs assembled four days in the week. Sultán Mohammed,
likewise, surrounded this strongly-fortified palace with a wall that
had 366 towers, and twelve thousand battlements; its circumference
being 6,500 paces, with sixteen gates, great and small. Besides all
the other officers before enumerated, there were in this palace twelve
thousand Bóstánjís, and, including all, forty thousand souls lodged
within its walls.



SECTION XIII.

_Description of the Old Seráï._


Sultán Mohammed the Conqueror also determined to place his honourable
harem in Islámból. In an airy and elevated position, on the side of
the city which overlooks the canal, there was an old convent, built
by King Púzantín, and placed in the midst of a delightful grove,
full of all sorts of beasts and birds. This convent, in the time of
Púzantín and Kostantín, had been occupied by twelve thousand monks
and nuns. The occasion of its being built was, that Simon, one of the
apostles of Jesus, having engaged in devotion, and in maintaining
a friendly intercourse with all sorts of wild animals, dug a pit in
the ground in order to supply them with water, on which a spring
of truly living water burst forth. Simon afterwards built a small
oratory there, which, in process of time, was replaced by the convent
which Mohammed destroyed, when he built upon its site the old palace
(_Eskí Seráï_) begun in the year 858 (A.D. 1454), and finished in the
year 862 (A.D. 1458). The wall has neither towers, battlements, nor
ditch; but is very strong, being cased with azure-coloured lead. Its
circumference was then twelve thousand arshíns (25,000 feet). It is a
solid square building, one side of which stretched from the brazier’s
(_kazánjílar_) quarter, near the mosque of Sultán Báyazíd, down to
the Miskí-sábún (Musk-soap) gate, from whence another extended to the
palace of Dellák Mustafá Páshá. Thence a third rested against the wall
and cistern of the little bázár. The site of the palaces of the Aghá
of the janissaries, and of Siyávush Páshá, now occupies that of the
Old Seráï. From thence the fourth side, passing above the quarter of
Tahta-l kal’ah, came again to the Brazier’s bázár. Within this palace
there were many courts, cabinets, cisterns, and fountains; a kitchen
like that of Kei-kávus, a private buttery, chambers for three thousand
halbardiers (_teberdár_), servants without ringlets, one apartment
(_ódá_) for the white, and one for the black Aghá (of the eunuchs),
who were both subordinate to the (_Kizlar Aghá_) Aghá of the Porte
(_Dáru-s-sa’ádeh_, _i.e._ the house of felicity). Having placed in this
all his favourites (_khássekí_), together with the French Princess,
he came twice every week from the new palace to the old, and on those
nights did justice there.


_Eulogium on the living water of the old palace (Eskí Seráï)._

Abú-l fat-h Mohammed, being a wise and illustrious Emperor, assembled
all his learned men in order to enquire which was the best water in
Islámból, and they all unanimously pointed out to him the spring
of Shim’ún (Simon), within the Eskí Seráï, as the lightest, most
temperate, and copious of all; which was proved by dipping a miskál
of cotton in a certain quantity of each different kind of water, then
weighing each parcel, and after drying it in the sun, weighing it a
second time. The Sultán, therefore, resolved to drink of no other water
than this, and to this time it is the favourite source from which all
his successors drink. Three men come every day from the Kilárjí-báshí,
and three from the Sakká-báshí of the Seráï, and fill six silver
flaggons, each containing twenty ounces, with this limpid water, seal
the mouths of them in presence of the inspector of water with seals of
red wax, and bring them to the Emperor. At present this fountain is in
front of the Inspector’s-gate (Názir kapú-sí) on the eastern side of
the Eskí Seráï, where Sultán Mohammed the Conqueror caused the water
to run outside of the palace, and erected the building over it; it is
now the most celebrated water in the town, and is known by the name of
the fountain of Shim’ún. In the year——, Sultán Suleïmán having enlarged
this old palace to the extent of three miles in circumference, built
three gates. The Díván kapú-sí towards the east, Sultán Báyazíd kapú-sí
to the south, and the Suleïmániyyeh kapú-sí towards the west. On the
outside of this gate Sultán Suleïmán built the mosque bearing his name
from the booty of the conquest of Belgrade, Malta, and Rhodes; and
near it colleges for science, and teaching the traditions and art of
reciting the Korán, a school for children, an alms-house, a hospital,
a cáravánseráï, a bath, and market for boot-makers, button-makers, and
goldsmiths; a palace for the residence of the late Siyávush Páshá,
another for the residence of the Aghá of the janissaries, a third for
Lálá Mustafà Páshá, a fourth for Pír Mohammed Páshá Karamání, a fifth
for Mustafà Páshá, builder of the mosque at Geïbiz, a sixth for his
daughter Esmahán Sultán, and a thousand cells, with pensions annexed,
for the servants of the mosque. The four sides, however, of the old
Seráï, were bordered by the public road, and, to this time, are not
contiguous to any house. The abovementioned palaces are all built
on the site of the old Seráï, which was erected by Sultán Mohammed
Khán, who afterwards constructed barracks for 160 regiments (Bulúks
and Jemá’ats) of janissaries, and 160 chambers (_ódás_) for the
Segbáns (_Seïmens_), a mosque for himself, chambers for the armorers
(_jebeh-jís_), powder magazines at Peïk-khánah, Kalender-khánah,
Ters-khánah, Top-khánah, Kághid-khánah, and many other similar public
buildings within and without Islámból; the sums thus expended, having
been drawn from the treasures amassed in his conquests.



SECTION XIV.

_On the Public Officers established at Islámból at the time of the
Conquest._


Within three years the city of Islámból became so populous, and
contained such a sea of men, that it was impossible to restrain its
inhabitants without public authority. The assistants first granted to
the Grand Vezír Mahmúd Páshá, were five executioners, a regiment (ódá)
of janissaries, with a Muhzir Aghá (colonel), cháúshes (apparitors)
of the Tópjís and Jebehjis, a captain (_ódábáshí_) of the Bóstánjís,
and a túfenkjí (musketeer), and matarahjí (water-carrier) taken from
the janissaries, with whom he took his rounds through the city on the
fourth day of every week, in order to punish by the falákah (bastinado)
all transgressors of the law. He went first to the Díván-khánah
(Court-house) of the tradespeople at the U’n-kapán (flour-market),
and held a díván there; he next visited the stairs (_iskeleh_) of the
fruit-market, and held a díván to fix the price of fruit; from thence
he proceeded to the green-market and shambles (Salkh-khánah), where
he settled the rate at which greens and mutton should be sold, and he
afterwards returned to the Seráï.

The second public officer was the Segbán Báshí (commander of the
Seïmens), to whom the falákah was entrusted, but he had no executioners.

The third was the judge and Móllá of Islámból, who could inflict the
bastinado (falákah), and imprison for debt.

The fourth, the Móllá of Iyyúb, who could inflict the same punishments.

The fifth, the Móllá of Ghalatah, and

The sixth, the Móllá of Uskudár, possessing the same power within their
respective jurisdictions.

The seventh, the Ayák Náïbí, or superintendant of the markets, who
punished all who sold above the legal prices, or used false weights and
measures.

The eighth, the Mohtesib Aghá-sí (inspector of shops), by whom all
defaulters in buying and selling were punished, according to their
offences, with imprisonment and torture; such as covering their heads
with the entrails of beasts, or nailing their ears and noses to a plank.

The ninth, the ’Asas-báshí, and

The tenth, the Sú-báshí, two police-officers attended by executioners
provided with whips and scourges, but not with rods and stocks
(_falákah_). They made domiciliary visits, took up offenders, and
attended at the execution of criminals condemned to death.

The eleventh, the Islámból-Aghá-sí, or commandant of Constantinople.

The twelfth, the Bóstánjí-báshí, who constantly, from night till
morning, takes the round of all the villages on the sea-shore, punishes
all whom he finds transgressing; and if any are deserving of death,
throws them into the sea.

The thirteenth, Chórbájís (colonels of the janissaries), who
continually go round, from night till morning, with five or six hundred
of their soldiers in quest of suspicious persons, whom they send
prisoners to the Porte, where they receive their due.

The fourteenth, the forty Judges appointed, according to the law of the
Prophet, to preside over the forty Courts of Justice (_mehkemeh_) in
Islámból, under the four Móllás mentioned above. They also have power
to imprison and inflict punishment.

The fifteenth, the Sheïkho-Islám or Mufti (head of the law). He can
only give the legal answer to questions submitted to him, _viz._ “It
is,” or “It is not.” “God knows!” “Yes,” or “No.”

The sixteenth, the Anátólí Kází-askerí (military judge of Anatolia),
has no right to punish, but sits in the díván as chief and president of
all the Asiatic judges.

The seventeenth, the Rúm-ílí Kází-’askerí (military judge of Romelia),
has likewise no power of punishing, but decides all lawsuits brought
into the díván from the country, and is the head of all the European
judges. He is likewise appointed, by the canons of Sultán Mohammed the
Conqueror, to write all the imperial patents (_beráts_).

The eighteenth, the Commander (Dizdár) of the Seven Towers.

The nineteenth, the chief Architect; if any building be erected in
Islámból without his permission it is pulled down, and the builders are
punished.

The twentieth, the Kapúdán-Páshá (Lord High Admiral) established in the
Arsenal (Ters-khánah); who commands by sea night and day.

The twenty-first, the Kyayà (_ket-khodà_) of the Arsenal (Ters-khánah),
who, if any thieves are found by day or night in the district called
Kásim Páshá, can inflict the severest punishment, even death, if
necessary.

The twenty-second, the Ta’lím-khánehjí Báshí (adjutant-general,
commander of the 54th regiment of janissaries), and of the kórújís
(invalids), whose barracks are within the boundaries of Ok-meïdán, take
their rounds there, and if they meet with any suspicious vagabonds,
carry them to their commander, the Atíjí Báshí (Chief of the Archers),
who, punishing them according to their deserts, orders them to be
suspended from a tree by the string of the bowmen, and assailed by a
shower of arrows.

It was ordained by the regulations of Sultán Mohammed the Conqueror,
and that ordinance has been renewed by a khatisheríf (imperial
rescript) from all his successors, that any offender whom these
officers shall apprehend, if he be a soldier, shall receive no mercy,
but be hung upon a tree forthwith. In fine, in the districts on
both sides of the Strait of the Black Sea, there are thirty-three
magistrates, and thirty-five local judges, deputies of the Móllá, in
the city. But the town of Bey-kós has a separate jurisdiction, the
judge of which is appointed by the Munejjim Báshí (astronomer royal).
Besides the judges and magistrates already enumerated, there are also
166 District Judges, subordinate to the four Móllás of Islámból, 360
Subáshís, eighty-seven guards of janissaries, with their commanding
officers (serdárs), and forty Subáshís of the free vakfs (charitable
foundations). In short, the whole number of Kázís and Súbáshís within
the precincts of Islámból, established by the code (_kánún_) of
Mohammed the Conqueror, amounts to twelve hundred. There are also
within the same jurisdiction the governors and magistrates of 150
corporations of tradesmen; but these governors have no legal authority
to imprison and punish; they can only determine questions respecting
the statutes of the corporations over which they preside.



SECTION XV.

_On the Imperial Mosques in the Mohammedan City of Kostantaniyyeh._


The first, and most ancient of these places of worship dedicated to
the almighty and everlasting God, is that of Ayá Sófiyah, built, as
mentioned in the seventh Section, in the year 5052 after the fall of
Adam. It was finished by Aghnádús (Ignatius?), a perfect architect,
well skilled in geometry, under the direction of the Prophet Khizr;
and forty thousand workmen, seven thousand porters, and three thousand
builders, were employed in raising its domes and arches on three
thousand pillars. Every part of the world was ransacked to find the
richest marbles, and the hardest stones for its walls and columns.
Stones of various hues, fit for the throne of Belkís, were brought
from Ayá Solúgh (Ephesus) and Aïdinjik; marbles of divers colours were
removed from Karamán, Shám (Syria), and the island of Kubrus (Cyprus).
Some thousands of incomparable columns, wasp and olive-coloured, were
imported from the splendid monuments of the skill of Solomon, standing
in the neighbourhood of Átineh (Athens). After working at the building
for forty years, Khizr and Aghnádús disappeared one night when they
had finished half the dome. Seven years afterwards they appeared again
and completed it. On its summit they placed a cross of gold an hundred
Alexandrian quintals in weight, visible at Brúsah, Keshísh-dágh (Mount
Olympus), ’Alem-dághí, and Istránjeh dághí. On the birth-night of the
Prophet there was a dreadful earthquake, by which this and many other
wonderful domes were thrown down; but it was afterwards restored by
the aid of Khizr, and by the advice of the Prophet, to whom the three
hundred patriarchs and monks, presiding over the church, were sent by
him. As a memorial of the restoration of the dome by the aid of the
Prophet and Khizr, Mohammed the Conqueror suspended in the middle of
it, by a golden chain, a Golden Globe, which can hold fifty kílahs of
grain, Roman measure; it is within reach of a man’s hand, and beneath
it Khizr performed his service to God. Among the pious, many persons
have chosen the same place for offering up their orisons; and several
who have persevered in saying the morning prayer there for forty days,
have obtained the blessings, temporal and spiritual, for which they
prayed: it is, therefore, much frequented by the pious and necessitous
for that purpose.


_On the Dimensions, Builders, &c. of that ancient place of worship, Ayá
Sófiyah._

This mosque is situated on elevated ground at the eastern end of the
city, a thousand paces (_ádim_) distant from the Stable-gate (ákhór
kapú) near the sea, and a thousand from Seraglio Point. The great
cupola which rears its head into the skies is joined by a half-cupola,
beneath which is the mihráb (sacred recess), and to the right of it a
marble pulpit (_minber_). There are altogether on the whole building
no less then 360 gilt cupolas, the largest of which is the great one
in the middle; they are ornamented with broad, circular, and crystal
glasses, the number of which in the whole mosque amounts to 1,070. The
abovementioned cupolas (_kubbehs_) are adorned within by wonderful
paintings, representing cherubims and men, the work of Monástir, a
painter, skilful as Arzheng. These figures seem even now, to a silent
and reflecting observer, to be possessed of life and thought. Besides
them, there are, at the four angles supporting the great cupola, four
angels, no doubt the four archangels, Jebráyíl (Gabriel), Míkáyíl
(Michael), Isráfíl, and ’Azráyíl, standing with their wings extended,
each 56 cubits high. Before the birth of the Prophet, these four
angels used to speak, and give notice of all dangers which threatened
the empire and the city of Islámból; but since his Highness appeared,
all talismans have ceased to act. This cupola is supported by four
arches (_ták_) that excel the arch of the palace of Kesra (Chosroes)
(Táki Kesra), the arch of Khavernak; that of Kaïdafà; that of Káf, and
that of Sheddád. The large columns, of the richest colours and most
precious marble, are forty Mecca-cubits high; those of the second story
are not less beautiful, but are only thirty cubits high. There are
two galleries running round three sides of this mosque, and forming
upper mosques for the worshippers; there is an ascent to them on both
sides, which may be ascended on horseback; it is a royal road paved
with white marble. The mosque has altogether 361 doors, of which 101
are large gates, through which large crowds can enter. They are all
so bewitched by talismans, that if you count them ever so many times,
there always appears to be one more than there was before. They are
each twenty cubits high, and are adorned with goldsmith’s work and
enamel. The middle gate towards the Kiblah, which is the highest of
all, is fifty cubits high. It is made of planks from the ark which Noah
constructed with his own hand. Over this central southern gate there is
a long coffin of yellow brass, which contains the body of Aï Sóf, who
caused Ayá Sófiyáh to be built; and though many emperors have tried at
different times to open this coffin, an earthquake and a horrible crash
immediately heard within the mosque, have always prevented them from
compassing their designs.

Above it, in a niche, supported on small columns, stands a picture of
Jerusalem (the ancient Kibleh), in marble; within it there are jewels
of inestimable value, but it is also talismanic, and cannot be touched
by any body. In this place there stood likewise upon a green column
an image of Mother Meryem (the Virgin Mary), holding in her hand a
carbuncle as big as a pigeons egg, by the blaze of which the mosque was
lighted every night. This carbuncle was also removed in the birthnight
of the Prophet, to Kizil Almà (Rome), which received its name (Red
Apple) from thence. The Spanish infidels were once or twice masters of
Islámból, and thence that egg (the carbuncle) came into their hands.
The walls of this mosque, as well as the extremities of the columns,
are carved like various flowers, with the most exquisite workmanship.
The Mihráb and Minber are of white marble highly ornamented.


_A Description of the four Minárehs (Minarets)._

While Mohammed the Conqueror was residing as Viceroy at Edreneh
(Adrianople), there was a great earthquake at Islámból, which made
the northern side of Ayá Sófiyah bend, and threatened its ruin. The
infidels were much alarmed; but Prince Mohammed, in a friendly manner,
sent the old architect, ’Alí Nejjár, who had built the great mosques
at Brúsah and Edreneh for Yildirim Báyazíd, and was then living, to
the Greek king, in order to repair Ayá Sófiyah. It was he who erected
for the support of the building four strong buttresses, every one of
which is like the barrier of Yájúj (Gog). The architect having made a
staircase of two hundred steps in the buttress on the right side of
Ayá Sófiyah, among the shops of the turban-makers (_sárikchí_), the
king asked for what purpose this staircase was intended? The architect
answered, “For going out upon the leads in case of need?” When the
work was completed the king bestowed rich presents on the architect,
who returning to Edreneh, said to Sultán Mohammed, “I have secured the
cupola of Ayá Sófiyah, O emperor, by four mighty buttresses; to repair
it depended on me, to conquer it depends on thee. I have also laid
the foundation of a mináreh for thee, where I offered up my prayers.”
On that very foundation, three years afterwards, by the will of God,
Sultán Mohammed built a most beautiful six-sided mináreh. Sultán Selím
II. afterwards, in the year——, added another at the corner opposite
to the gate of the Imperial palace (Bábi humáyún, the Sublime Porte),
which is more ornamented, but a little lower than that of Mohammed the
Conqueror. Sultán Murád III. built subsequently two other minárehs on
the north and west side, each with only one gallery.

The ensigns (’alems, _i.e._ the crescents) on the top of these four
minárehs are each of twenty cubits, and richly gilt; but that on the
great dome is fifty cubits long, and the gilding of it required fifty
thousand pieces of gold coin. It is visible at the distance of two
farasangs by land, and a hundred miles off by sea. Murád III. also
brought from the island of Mermereh (Marmora) two princely basons
of white marble, each of them resembling the cupola of a bath, and
so large that neither Jemshíd nor Dárá ever possessed such an one.
Each of them can contain a thousand kílehs. They stand inside of the
mosque, one on the right hand and the other on the left, full of
living water, for all the congregation to perform their ablutions and
quench their thirst. The same Sultán caused the walls of the mosque
to be cleaned and smoothed; he encreased the number of the lamps, and
built four raised stone platforms (_mahfil_) for the readers of the
Korán, and a lofty pulpit on a slender column for the muëzzins. Sultán
Murád IV. the conqueror of Baghdád, raised upon four marble columns a
throne (_kursì_) of one piece of marble, for the preacher (_vá’iz_),
and appointed eight sheïkhs as preachers of the mosque: the Efendís
Kází-zadeh, Uskudárlí Mahmúd, Ibráhím sheïkh to Jerráh Páshá, Sivásí,
Kudsí, Terjimán Sheïkhí ’Omar, and the great sheïkh, Emír Ishtíbí,
who was so learned and skilful in answering questions and solving
difficulties respecting the law, God be praised! We had the happiness
and advantage of enjoying the exalted society of all these doctors
and hearing their instructions. Sultán Ahmed I. built, on the left
of the mihráb, a private recess (_maksúrah_) for the exclusive use
of the emperor. In short this mosque, which has no equal on earth,
can only be compared to the tabernacle of the seventh heaven, and its
dome to the cupola of the ninth. All those who see it, remain lost
in astonishment on contemplating its beauties; it is the place where
heavenly inspiration descends into the minds of the devout, and which
gives a foretaste even here below of the garden of Eden (‘Aden).
Sultán Murád IV., who took great delight in this incomparable mosque,
erected a wooden enclosure in it within the southern door, and when he
went to prayers on Fridays, caused cages, containing a great number
of singing-birds, and particularly nightingales, to be hung up there,
so that their sweet notes, mingled with the tones of the muëzzins’
voices, filled the mosque with a harmony approaching to that of
Paradise. Every night (in the month of Ramazàn) the two thousand lamps
lighted there, and the lanterns, containing wax-tapers perfumed with
camphor, pour forth streams of light upon light; and in the centre of
the dome a circle of lamps represents in letters, as finely formed
as those of Yákút Musta’simí, that text of the Scripture, “God is
the light of the heavens and the earth.” There are also, on the four
sides of the mosque, some thousands of texts in beautiful characters;
and there, likewise, by command of Sultan Murád IV., the celebrated
writer Etmekjí-zádeh Chelebí wrote the names of the Most High, of the
prophet Mohammed and his four companions, in Kara Hisárí hand, so
large that each elif measures ten arshíns (10 ells = 23¼ feet),
and the rest of the letters are formed in the same proportion. Ayá
Sófiyah is the Ka’beh of all Fakírs, and there is no larger mosque in
Islámból. It possesses all the spiritual advantages to be obtained in
any other, whether it be El Aksà at Kuds (Jerusalem), or the mosque of
the Ommaviyyeh (Ommiades), at Shám (Damuscus), or that of El Ez-her at
Misr (Cairo). It is always full of holy men, who pass the day there in
fasting and the night in prayer. Seventy lectures (on theology) well
pleasing to God are delivered there daily, so that to the student it is
a mine of knowledge, and it never fails to be frequented by multitudes
every day.


_The Servants (Khuddám) of the Mosque._

They are the Imáms (reciters of the Form of Prayer); the Khatíbs
(reciters of the Khotbah, bidding-prayer on Friday); Sheïkhs
(preachers); Devrkhán (Scripture readers); Ders-’ámils (lecturers);
Talabah (students); Muëzzins (cryers, who call to prayers from the
Minárehs); Ejzá kháns (lesson readers); Na’t kháns (reciters of the
praises of the prophet and his associates); Bevvábs (door-keepers); and
Káyims (sextons): in all full two thousand servants, for the revenues
of the mosque settled upon it by pious bequests (evkáf) are very large.


_Stations and Places in this Mosque visited as peculiarly fitted for
Devotion._

First. Ayá Sófiyah is, in itself, peculiarly the house of God.

Second. The station (Makám) of Moslemah, in a place called U’ch Búják
(the three corners), where he, who was commander of the forces in the
Khalifate of Mo’áviyyeh, is said to have offered up prayer.

Third. The station of Iyyúb Ansárí, who, after the peace made in the
year of the Hijrah 52, entered Ayá Sófiyah and performed a service of
two inflections on the spot called Makámi Iyyúb Sultán, south of the
Sweating Column. There is now a Mihráb there much frequented at all the
five services.

Fourth. The station of ’Omar Ibn ’Abdo-l-’aziz, who being commander at
the peace in the year of the Hijrah 97, offered up prayers on the west
side of Ayá Sófiyah, at the foot of the green Mihráb. This place goes
now by his name.

Fifth. The station of Hárúnu-r-rashíd, who, at his coming a second time
to Kostantaniyyeh, in the year of the Hijrah 58, having crucified King
Yaghfúr in the belfry of Ayá Sófiyah, offered up prayers within the
mosque in the kiblah of the prophet Solomon, on the south-east side,
within the gate of the Defunct (Meyyit-kapú-sí).

Sixth. The station of Seyyid Battál Ghází in the sky-smiting belfry of
the church.

Seventh. The station of Bábá Ja’fer Sultán, Ambassador of
Hárúnu-r-rashíd.

Eighth. The station of Sheïkh Maksúd Sultán, the companion of Bábá
Ja’fer. These two, with the king’s (_i.e._ the Greek emperor’s)
permission, both offered up prayers on the eastern side of the mosque,
within the sepulchral gate (Turbeh-kapú-sí), at the places now bearing
their name.

Eighth. The station of Salomon, who is said to have offered up prayer
on the ground where Ayá Sófiyah now stands, at the place called the
Green Mihráb, to the right of the Minber.

Ninth. The station of Khizr, beneath the gilt ball in the centre of the
cupola, is a place where some thousands of holy men have enjoyed the
happiness of discoursing with that great prophet.

Tenth. The station of the forty, to the south of the platform of the
Muëzzins, is a place where the ground is paved with forty stones of
various colours, and where forty holy men stood when the extraordinary
accident which happened to Gulábí Aghá took place.


_Narrative of Gulábí Aghá._

Gulábí Aghá, Rikáb dár (stirrup-holder) of Sultán Suleïmán, a pious
man, who died at the age of 151 years, relates that in consequence of
the great plague in the reign of Sultán Selím II., which at Islámból
carried off three thousand souls every day, that prince ordered the
prayer Istiská to be proclaimed during three days; and that the mosque
being much crowded on the holy night Kadr, in order to hear the sermon
of the Sheïkh (_i.e._ Doctor) of the order of Beshiktásh Evliyá Efendí,
the Sultán ordered the people present to be numbered. This Sheïkh, who
was born at Tareb-afzún (Trapezonde), was a foster-brother of Sultán
Suleïmán. The throng to hear his sermon was so great that all the
people of Islámból filled the mosque three days before he preached.
Sheïkh Yahyá being now in the middle of his sermon, and the whole
multitude listening to his admonitions with their utmost attention,
Gulábí Aghá, who was in the midst of the crowd, felt himself much
distressed by a necessity of withdrawing. His body began to swell like
the kettle-drum of Bagdad; he stood up two or three times on tip-toes
to see whether there was no possibility of making his way through the
multitude, but saw that a man must needs be engulfed in this ocean of
men. He was ready to die for shame when he addressed himself to the
forty, on the station of whom he was then standing, and begged of them
to save him from being disgraced by exposure to the crowd. At that
moment he saw a stately man standing near him, in the dress of a Sipáhí
(soldier), who said to him, “I will release thee from thy pain;” and
thus saying, stretched his sleeve over Gulábí’s head, who instantly
found himself transported into a meadow on the bank of the stream
near Kághid-khánah. His pain and distress were removed forthwith; and
in a moment afterwards he was again in the same place in the mosque.
When the sermon was finished all the hundred and one gates were shut
except the large one at the south side, where the Defterdár Dervísh
Chelebí, son of the Sheïkh Bábá Nakkásh, placed himself with his
attendants in order to count all those who were then present in the
mosque and its three stories of galleries, whose numbers amounted to
fifty-seven thousand men. Gulábí Aghá not having the least doubt that
the Sípáhí, who had transported him so charitably into the meadows of
Kághid Khánah, was no other than the prophet Khizr himself, laid hold
of the skirt of his robe, saying, “I am thy slave, O King! and will
never again quit thee.” The Sipáhí answered him very roughly, “Be gone,
man! We are not the man of whom thou speakest.” Gulábí Aghá, however,
laid hold of him the faster; and the Sipáhí twice boxed his ears, and
thus they made their way through the crowd. Gulábí, however, would
not lose sight of him, and following him very close, saw him enter a
place of retirement near Ayá Sófiyah. Gulábí waited for some time at
the door, when, lo! it opened, and there came out a young cook of the
Janissaries, elegantly dressed, with his official knife and silver
chains. Gulábí instantly laid hold of him; but the Janissary cried
out, “Begone, man, thou art mad!” Gulábí, notwithstanding, would not
loose his hold; on which the cook of the Janissaries gave him a good
thump, and entered a Búzah khánah in the market of Ayá Sófiyah, where
he ate some kabábs and bread and drank búzah (a kind of beer), without
taking the least notice of Gulábí. The Janissary went out and Gulábí
followed him into a narrow street, where finding they were alone, he
threw himself down at his feet, and entreated him, saying, “Be gracious
to me, O Prophet, and grant me thy love!” The Janissary answered, “O
seeker! although thou art a faithful lover, thou art not yet ripe, but
wantest much of perfection, and must still undergo many trials; but as,
notwithstanding my rebuffs, thou followedst me with unabated zeal, I
will now bring thee to an old man, in whose company thou shalt remain
forty days without opening thy lips or asking concerning any men or
things that shall pass under thine eye.” He then, in that solitary
place, knocked at a low and dirty gate, which was opened by an old
camel-lipped negro, who pushed them both into the house. Gulábí, when
he had recovered his senses, found himself in an assembly of men, who
saluted him and received his salutations in return. The Janissary
changed dress, and took the chief seat, after having kissed the hand of
the old man, to whom he related Gulábí’s adventures. The Sheïkh said,
“If he has renounced the world and all the pleasures of the senses, he
is welcome in this assembly of Forty.” Gulábí then remained three days
and three nights without eating or drinking. His house, family, and
relations at U’n-kapání came into his mind; but he put his trust in
the Almighty and resigned himself to his will. On the fourth, the old
man said, “Now look to the business entrusted to you by God.” At the
same time the man, who had first assumed the shape of a Sipáhí and then
of a Janissary, stood up and brought out from a closet thirty-eight
kinds of weapons, one of which he laid before thirty-eight of the men
in company, placing before himself a Janissary’s basin with water in
it. Gulábí being eager to drink, his guide said, “Have patience, we
shall this day see whether this place be attainable by thee.” Some
time afterwards there appeared on the opposite side, a male child; and
one of the company, taking his sword, immediately cut off its head.
“Friend,” said Gulábí, “why did you kill that boy? Did not I say, do
not be curious?” replied his companion, the Janissary. Next appeared
two men pursued by a lion, who tore one of them to pieces and eat him
up, while the other saved himself by taking shelter behind the Sheïkh.
Gulábí asking for an explanation, received the same answer. Next came
an innocent little child pursued by a wolf. One of the men, sitting
on the prayer-carpet (sejjádeh), took his bow and arrow and shot the
beast dead; after which the child vanished in a corner. Three men then
appeared on the other side, two of whom were hanged by the Sheïkh’s
permission; and the third was about to be hanged, when Gulábí begun to
intercede with the Sheïkh for his life. The Janissary seizing Gulábí
by the collar, made him sit down in his place, and said, “Did I not
tell you to have patience for forty days?” At that moment the water
in the basin before the Janissary began to boil and bubble, and two
small ships appeared upon it, one of which, by the Janissary’s aid,
was saved, but the other perished with all its crew and passengers,
except a little boy and girl who escaped to the edge of the basin. The
Janissary pushing the innocent boy into the water, he was drowned; but
the girl he drew out of the basin. Gulábí crying out, “Why didst thou
drown that innocent boy, and why were all those Muselmáns lost in that
ship?” The Sheïkh, from his seat as President, said, “Let us give a
bit of bread to this man; and come let us offer up a prayer for him in
the presence of these Forty.” So they all treated him with kindness
and gave him a loaf of bread, an akchah, a piece of gold, a bunch of
grapes, a date, and an olive; and prayed for him that he might continue
in good health till his happy end, be honoured among the angels,
preserved from misfortunes, heavenly and earthly, and die, after a long
and prosperous life, under the shadow of the banner of the prophet of
God. The whole company, at the termination of the prayer, said “Amen!”
The Janissary and the negro door-keeper then laying hold of Gulábí’s
collar, said, “Close thy eyes!” He closed his eyes, and on opening
them again, suddenly found himself in one of the taverns at Ghalatah,
where a crowd of drunken Janissaries hailed him; saying, “Come, old
man, and drink a pot with us!” Gulábí, who had fasted three days, and
supposed these Janissaries to be of the same kind as that who had been
his guide, removed his hunger by partaking of the food prepared in
the tavern. At length, when sunset was near, he took a boat to return
to the U’n-kapání. On coming into a narrow street he was assailed by
two drunken Janissaries, who stripped him of his turban and his sable
robe, and said they would kill him if he did not drink another cup of
wine. Whether he would or not, he was compelled to drink it. So he
returned home naked, and never afterwards left his house again, having
abandoned the world and given himself up to a spiritual life, in which
he soon became a great man. He dwelt within the U’n-kapání among the
goldsmiths, bestowing great liberalities on all comers and goers,
to the astonishment of all men. Having heard the account of these
extraordinary events which befel the late Gulábí Aghá (to whom God has
granted mercy and pardon) at the station of the Forty, in Ayá Sófiyah,
from his own mouth, it appeared proper to insert it here. The proof of
it rests with the relater. One of the traditions of the Prophet says,
“A liar is he who makes a story out of everything he hears.” We now
return to our description of the stations in Ayá Sófiyah.

Eleventh. The station of the Apostles on the eastern side of the
gallery.

Twelfth. The station of Ak Shemsu-d-dín, near the Sweating Column,
which stands on the western side of the South gate. It is a square
marble pillar eleven cubits high, and cased to a mans height with
brass. It sweats day and night, winter and summer.

Thirteenth. The station of the South-East gate (Kiblah kapú-sí). This
gate being made of the wood of Noah’s ark, all merchants who travel
by sea, and sailors, are accustomed to offer up a prayer, accompanied
by two inclinations of the body, and touch the wood with their hands,
saying a Fátihah (_i.e._ the first chapter of the Korán) for the rest
of Noah’s soul before they set sail.


_Virtues of the Golden Ball._

If any man have a bad memory which he wishes to improve, he should
place himself beneath the Golden Ball suspended in the middle of the
cupola, and say the morning prayer seven times; three times repeat the
words Allahumma Yá káshifo-l mushkilát Yá ’álimu-s-sir va-l khafiyyát
(_i.e._ O God who openest all difficult things and knowest all secret
and hidden things), and each time eat seven black grapes, and then
whatever he hears will remain fixed in his memory as if engraven
on stone. A most noted example of this was Hamdí Chelebí, son of
Ak-Shemsu-d-dín, who lived in the village of Turbahlí Góïnuk. He was
so foolish and forgetful, that if any one gave him the Selám he was
obliged to write the word Selám on a piece of paper and read it before
he could comprehend that he ought to answer ‘Ve aleïkum es-selám.’
No doctors could do him any good, so that at last he was completely
a prey to forgetfulness, till he went, by Ak-Shemsu-d-dín’s advice,
to Ayá Sófiyah, where, after saying the requisite prayers, and eating
the grapes as prescribed above, beneath the Golden Ball, he was so
completely cured of his stupidity, that he began immediately to compose
his poem of Yusuf and Zuleïkhá, which he finished in seven months;
after which he wrote his Kiyáfet-námeh (Treatise on Physiognomy), which
is known all over the world as a wonderful poem on the nature of the
Sons of Adam.

Fourteenth. The station of the cool window, on the south-east side
(Kibleh) of Ayá Sófiyah, on the inner side of the Imperial Gate, is a
window opening to the north, where fragrant breezes and songs of the
nightingales from the garden outside refresh the soul. It is there
that Ak-Shemsu-d-dín, immediately after the conquests, delivered his
Lectures on Joreïri’s Commentary on the Korán; and having prayed that
all students who pursued their studies there should be blessed with
success, that spot has ever since been a delightful place. It was there
also that our instructor, the Sheïkh of Sheïkhs, Evliyá Efendí, that
master of the art of reading the Korán, delivered his lectures on that
science to some thousands of hearers.

Fifteenth. The station of the Lord Jesus’s cradle, in a corner on the
eastern side of the upper gallery, is a hollow trough of reddish marble
like a cradle, where the Christian women used to place their children
when sick in order to obtain their recovery.

Sixteenth. The station of the Washing Place of the Lord Jesus. Near
the cradle just mentioned above, there is another square trough of
stone, where the Prophet Jesus was washed immediately after he was
delivered from the womb of his mother Meryem. Kostantín the Ancient,
mentioned above, is said to have brought both the cradle and the font
from Beïtu-l-lahm to the south of Kudsi Sheríf, but the humble writer
of these lines saw the washing-trough of Jesus at Beïtu-l-lahm. That
children who are crooked and sickly, when washed in the trough in Ayá
Sófiyah immediately become straight and healthy, as if revived by the
breath of Jesus, is known to all the world.

Seventeenth. The station of the Gate of the Seven. On the east side of
the upper gallery there is a large door, the folds of which are not of
wood, but of white marble adorned with sculpture. It is visited and
admired by all travellers and architects as not having its fellow on
the face of the earth. It is a favourite place of worship.


_The Spectacle of the resplendent Stones._

On the east side of the upper gallery there are five or six smooth
flat slabs of various coloured stones, which reflect the rays of the
rising sun with so bright a light that the eye of man cannot look
stedfastly on them. In short, there are some thousands of holy places
of pilgrimage in Ayá Sófiyah, which is a Ka’beh for Fakírs, but the
writer of these pages has only described those which he knew. The whole
of this mosque is also covered with lead, which has remained uninjured
for so many thousand years from its being mixed up with some thousand
quintals (kantár) of gold. All architects are lost in astonishment at
the solidity of the foundations of this vast building, and no tongue or
pen is capable of adequately describing it. We have seen the mosques
of all the world; but never one like this. Mohammed the Conqueror,
after having repaired this mosque, also repaired that called Little Ayá
Sófiyah, near the Kadirghah límání (galley harbour), which had been
previously a church built by Elínah, mother of Kostantín.


_The Mosque of Zírek Báshí._

This is also a large mosque, built by Kostantín for the benefit of
the soul of the Lord Yahyá (St. John), and called, in the time of the
Nasárá (Christians) Menastir Sanjovaniyyeh (Monastero San Giovanni).
The holy body of that Saint is now at Malta, which is, therefore,
called Sanjovanniyyeh (_i.e._ Malta di San Giovanni). It was carried
away by the Maltese infidels from a convent in the village of Beït
Sabástiyyeh (Σεβαστὴ), near Kudsi Sheríf. His head is still preserved
in a golden dish in a cavern in the middle of the mosque of the Bení
Ommayyeh in Shám (Damascus). The Maltese having removed the body of
St. John from Beït Sabástiyyeh, carried it to ’Akkah, and there
enclosing it in a chest adorned with jewels, conveyed it to their
own country; having ever since made all their conquests in the name
of St. John, whose name and figure they now bear, together with the
cross, upon their banners. As St. John was nearly related to Jesus,
on his mother the Virgin Marys side, the mother of Constantin built
this mosque as a convent to the honour of his spirit. It was enclosed
by a very strong wall, had a cistern of its own, and cells for three
thousand monks. After the conquest, Mohammed the Conqueror converted it
into a mosque, and it has forty-six cupolas great and small, and many
beautiful columns. All its cupolas are gilt, and as it stands upon a
hill, it is much admired and extremely conspicuous. In short, Mohammed
the Conqueror, in the course of his reign, converted no less than
6,670 large monasteries (deïr) into places of worship for Musulmáns.
He afterwards began to build a splendid mosque on his own account. He
began by building the Irghát hammámí (workmen’s bath) in the Karamán
chárshú-sí (Karamanian market), that the workmen might perform their
ablutions every day before they began to work at the mosque. This was
finished in forty days, and still bears the same name.


_Description of the Mosque of Mohammed the Conqueror._

The foundations of it were laid in the year 867 (A.D. 1463), and it
was finished A.H. 875 (A.D. 1470). The date of its commencement is
expressed by the Arabic words Sheyyed-allahu erkánehá. It is situated
on high ground, in the midst of Islámból, on the site of a convent
which bore the name of king Vezendún (Byzantium). This convent having
been entirely destroyed by an earthquake its site was fixed upon for
this new mosque by the conqueror.


_Form of this Mosque._

The ascent to it is by a flight of stone steps on the right and left;
and its height from the ground to the roof is 87 builders cubits, four
cubits being the height from the ground, of the platform on which it
stands. It has a large cupola in the centre, and semi-cupolas over
the Mihráb. The Mihráb, Mimber, and Mahfils, for the Muëzzins and the
Emperor, are of white marble and of ancient workmanship. The cupola
has two rows of galleries adorned with lamps. On the left side of the
Mihráb stands an ancient banner in long strips, made of Alí’s doublet
(jubbeh). There is nothing suspended in this mosque except lamps; but
it possesses great spiritual advantages, and prayers offered up in it
are sure to be answered, because the workmen employed in building it
were all Musulmáns; and to this day neither Jews nor Christians are
allowed to enter its blessed doors. Its spirituality was secured by
the workmen, who never began their work till they had performed their
ablutions, and it was built from the wealth obtained in the Conquest.

On issuing from its southern (kiblah) gate, there is seen on the right
hand, a square white marble column, on which the following traditional
saying of the Prophet is inscribed in blue and gold and in large
Jellí characters, by Demirjí Kúlí:—“Verily, Kostantaniyyeh shall be
conquered! How excellent a commander is that commander! How excellent a
host is that host!” It is approached on the southern side, also, by two
stone staircases on the right and left; and on the four sides of its
court (harem) there are stone benches (soffahs) and variegated columns,
the sculptures on which astonish the beholder. On a needle-like pillar,
within the southern gate of the court, there is a figure representing a
Mevleví Dervísh, with his cap and fan (mirvahah). In the centre of this
court there is a large basin, covered by a leaden cupola, supported by
eight columns. Round this basin there are verdant cypresses towering
to the sky like minárehs, and each appearing like a green angel. On
the right and left of the mosque there are lofty minárehs, with a
single gallery. The cloisters round the court are covered with leaden
cupolas, and the floor is paved with variegated marble. On the outside
border of the windows of the court the Súrah Fátihah (1st chap. of the
Korán) is inscribed in white marble letters on a green ground, in the
character invented by Yákút Mosta’simí, which is not equalled by any
thing of the kind in all Islámból. The architect, to shew his skill
in the construction of this basin in the centre of the court, placed
over it a brazen cage like a net, which is also itself a masterpiece.
The water rushing out, day and night, from the pipes of this basin,
affords abundantly wherewith to quench the thirst of the devout, and
enable them to perform their ablutions. The great cupola of the mosque
seems also to hang without support, like the vault of heaven. Before
the Mihráb is the monument of Mohammed the Conqueror and his family.
Besides which, on the sides of the mosque there is a great court which
has eight gates, and fine gardens on both sides. Outside of it there
are the eight celebrated colleges (Semániyyeh), filled with students,
on both sides of which are their apartments and stables. There is
also a refectory (Dáru-z-ziyáfet), a hospital (Dáru-sh-shifá), a
cáravánseráï for guests, an ancient bath, and an A B C school for
children. When all these buildings, crowded together, are seen from a
height above, they alone appear like a town full of lead-covered domes.


_Appeal of the Mi’már Báshí (Head Builder) to the Law of the Prophet
against the Conqueror._

Mohammed being, like Jem, a very passionate Emperor, severely rebuked
the architect for not having built his mosque of the same height as
Ayá Sófiyah, and for having cut down the columns, which were each
worth the whole tribute of Rúm (Asia Minor). The architect excused
himself by saying, that he had cut down two columns three cubits each
on purpose to give his building more solidity and strength against the
earthquakes, so common in Islámból, and had thus made the mosque lower
than Ayá Sófiyah. The Emperor, not satisfied with this excuse, ordered
both the architects hands to be cut off, which was done accordingly.
On the following day the architect appeared with his family before the
tribunal of the Kází, styled Islámból-Mollá-sí, to lay his complaint
against the Emperor and appeal to the sentence of the law. The Judge
immediately sent his officer (Kiahyà) to cite the Emperor to appear in
court. The Conqueror, on receiving this summons, said, “The command
of the Prophet’s law must be obeyed!” and immediately putting on his
mantle and thrusting a mace into his belt, went into the Court of Law.
After having given the selám aleïk, he was about to seat himself in the
highest place, when the Kází said, “Sit not down, Prince, but stand
on thy feet, together with thine adversary, who has made an appeal to
the law. The Mi’már Báshí (head architect) thus made his complaint:
“My Lord (Sultánum)! I am a perfect master builder and a skilful
mathematician; but this man, because I made his mosque low and cut
down two of his columns, has cut off my two hands, has ruined me, and
deprived me of the means of supporting my family. It is thy part to
pronounce the sentence of the noble law.” The Judge then said to the
Emperor, “What sayest thou, Prince? Have you caused this man’s hands to
be cut off innocently?” The Emperor immediately replied, “By heaven! my
Lord (Sultánum), this man lowered my mosque; and for having cut down
two columns of mine, each of which was worth the tribute from Misr
(Egypt), and thus robbed my mosque of all renown, by making it so low,
I did cut off his hands: it is for thee to pronounce the sentence of
the noble law.” The Kází immediately answered: “Prince (Begum), Renown
is a misfortune! If a mosque be upon a plain, and low and open, worship
in it is not thereby prevented. If thy stone had been a precious stone,
its value would have been only that of a stone; but of this man, who
has now for these forty years subsisted by his skilful workmanship, you
have illegally cut off the hands. He can henceforward do nothing more
than cohabit with his wife. The maintenance of him and his numerous
family necessarily, by law, falls upon thee. What sayest thou, Prince
(Begum)?” Sultán Mahommed answered: “Thou must pronounce the sentence
of the law!” “This is the legal sentence,” replied the Kází, “that if
the architect requires the law to be strictly enforced, your hands
be cut off; for if a man do an illegal act which the noble law doth
not allow, that law decrees that he shall be requited according to
his deeds.” The Sultán then offered to grant him a pension from the
public treasury of the Musulmáns. “No!” returned the Móllá; “it is not
lawful to take this from the public treasury: the offence was yours;
my sentence, therefore, is, that from your own private purse you shall
allow this maimed man ten aspers (akchahs) a-day.” “Let it be twenty
aspers a-day,” said the Conqueror; “but let the cutting off of his
hands be legalized.” The architect, in the contentment of his heart,
exclaimed, “Be it accounted lawful in this world and the next!” and,
having received a patent for his pension, withdrew. Sultán Mohammed
also received a certificate of his entire acquittal. The Kází then
apologized for having treated him as an ordinary suitor; pleading the
rigid impartiality of law, which requires justice to be administered
to all without distinction; and entreating the Emperor to seat himself
on the sacred carpet (sejjádeh). “Efendí,” said the Sultán, somewhat
irritated, and drawing out his mace from under the skirt of his robe,
“if thou hadst shewn favour to me, saying to thyself, ‘This is the
Sultán,’ and hadst wronged the architect, I would have broken thee
in pieces with this mace!” “And if thou, Prince (Begum),” said the
Kází, “hadst refused to obey the legal sentence pronounced by me, thou
wouldst have fallen a victim to Divine vengeance; for I should have
delivered thee up to be destroyed by the dragon beneath this carpet.”
On saying which he lifted up his carpet, and an enormous dragon put
forth its head, vomiting fire from its mouth: “Be still,” said the
Kází, and again laid the carpet smooth; on which the Sultán kissed his
noble hands, wished him good day, and returned to his palace.

Subsequently, Abdál Sinán, when Mi’már Báshí, added some embellishments
to this mosque, and, at a later period, ’Alí Kúshjí, the celebrated
astronomer, erected a school for the instruction of Muselmán children
in the Korán within the precincts (harem) of this mosque, near the
Dyer’s gate (Bóyájíler kapú-sí) opposite to the great dome. The same
astronomer also placed there a sun-dial, which has not its equal in
the whole world. It is engraved on a square marble tablet, according
to that text of the Korán:—“Dost thou at all know how thy Lord hath
extended the shadow?”

After these events, in the reign of Báyazíd Velí, there was a great
earthquake at Islámból for seven days and six nights. The castle
of Ghalatah was damaged in many places; but it was repaired by
the architect, Murád, who recorded the date of the repairs in an
inscription engraved in the Jellí character on a square marble tablet.
The reparations of the city were finished in sixty days. It is written,
that this was the severest earthquake since the time of Yánkó ibn
Mádyán. Báyazíd afterwards built a bridge of fourteen arches over
the river Sakariyah, at the town of Keïveh, in the Sanják of Izmít
(Nicomedia); another of nineteen arches, over the river Kizil Irmák, at
the city of ’Osmánjik; and a third of nineteen arches, over the Gedúz
(Hermus), in the province of Sárú khán; after which he began to build
the mosque that bears his name, near the old palace in Islámból. Its
foundations were laid in the year 903 (A.D. 1498), and it was finished
in A.H. 911 (1505-6). It is built nearly in the same style as the
mosque of his father Mohammed the Conqueror; but its two minarets are
contiguous, not to it, but to the two rows of houses built on each side
for the accommodation of strangers, which were subsequently added to
the mosque.


_Description of the Mosque of Sultán Báyazíd II._

It is a square building supporting a large dome, flanked by semi domes
on the south-eastern (Kiblah), and opposite sides. On the right and
left of the mosque there are two purple columns of porphyry, of which
the like are to be found only in the mosque of Sultán Kaláún, in
Caïro; and there is suspended from these a double row of lamps. On the
right side of the mosque an elevated gallery has been constructed for
the use of the Sultáns of the house of ’Osmán at the public service
on Fridays. Sultán Ibráhím subsequently enclosed three sides of the
gallery with gilt gratings, so that it resembles a beautiful cage, or
net-work, or rather a palace of the immortals. The Mihráb, Minber,
and Mahfil, though made of marble, are simple and unornamented; and
on the first are inscriptions written in beautiful characters. The
mosque has five gates, and the outer court (harem) is adorned with
stone benches (soffahs), and on each side a cloister, supported by
variegated columns; and in the centre there is a large basin, where
all the congregation renew their ablutions. A cupola, supported by
eight white marble columns, was placed over the basin by Sultán Murád
IV., the Conqueror of Baghdád. On different sides of it four lofty
cypresses have been planted. When the foundations of this noble mosque
were laid, the Mi’már Báshí having asked the Sultán where he should
place the mihráb, was desired by his Majesty to tread upon his foot;
having done which, he immediately had a vision of the noble Ka’bah,
and knew, consequently, where to place the mihráb. He, therefore,
prostrated himself at the Sultán’s feet and began the work, the Sultán
having previously offered up a prayer, accompanied by two inclinations
of the body, for its happy completion. On the first Friday after
it was finished, when there was an assembly of some thousands, the
congregation, knowing that the Sultán had never in his life failed to
offer up the afternoon (’asr) and evening (’ashà) prayers, insisted
on his performing the functions of Imám. The Sultán, being aware that
no one present was so well acquainted with those services as himself,
consented to perform them. As this mosque was entirely built with
lawful money, it has great spiritual advantages; and being situated
in the centre of the markets of Islámból, is crowded day and night
by thousands of devout Muselmáns, who are offering up their prayers
there without ceasing; so that it has often happened that before one
party has got through the afternoon (’asr) service, as far as the
Ayetu-l Kursí (the verse of the throne, Kor. ii. 256), another coming
in prevents the first from finishing. The pipes of the basin in the
court are never closed, but pour forth streams of water day and night,
because the congregation never fails. This mosque is always illuminated
by flashes of light; and before the window of the mihráb there is a
garden like that of Irem, adorned with various fruits and flowers,
where, beneath a monument of white marble, covered with lead, rest
the remains of its founder. Round the inner and outer courts of this
mosque there are shops of all kinds of trades, with a public kitchen,
a refectory, and hostel for travellers; a school for instructing the
poor and rich in the Korán; and a college for lectures on the art of
reciting it. This court has six gates; and is adorned, externally,
with lofty trees, most of them mulberries, under the shades of which
some thousands of people gain a livelihood by selling various kinds
of things. Outside of this court there is a large valley, called the
Meïdán of Sultán Báyazíd, adorned on its four sides with shops; and on
one side by the great college of the same Sultán, which has seventy
cupolas. The superintendent (Názir) of this mosque is the Sheïkhu-l
Islám (_i.e._ the Muftí); he also gives the public lectures in this
college. He delivers his lectures once a week, and the students receive
a monthly stipend, besides an allowance for meat and wax-lights: this
is a very well-endowed foundation. This mosque has altogether 2,040
servants; and none has a better salary than the Muvakkit, or Regulator
of Time; because all the seamen and mariners in the empire of Islám
depend, for the regulation of time, on the Muvakkit of Sultán Báyazíd
Khán; and as the mihráb of this mosque was miraculously placed in the
true position of Kiblah: all sea-captains regulate their compasses by
it; and all the infidel astronomers in Firengistán, as is universally
known, correct their watches and compasses by the mosque of Sultán
Báyazíd. Besides this mosque, that Emperor built sixty other places of
worship in the countries which he conquered. The mosque and convent of
Emír Bokhárí, as well as the mosque of Ghalatah-seráï, were built by
him. May God reward all his pious works! His conquests are as follows:
The castles of Motón and Korón, Arkáriyah, Kalámitah, Kalávertah,
Holómích, Tiribólíchah (Tripolizza), Bállí-Bádrah (Palæ Patræ, _i.e._
Patras), and Anávárín (Navarino), in the year 906 (1500-1). All the
above castles are in the southern and western parts of the Peninsula
(Morea). He also conquered the castle of Ainah-bakhtí (Naupaktus or
Lepanto), A.H. 905 (A.D. 1499, 1500). The fortresses of Kilì and
Ak-kirmán were taken in the 889 (A.D. 1484). The castles Várnah,
Avlóniyah, and in Arnáútluk (Albania) Durráj (Durazzo), were captured,
and a tribute imposed upon Karah Boghdán (Moldavia), in the year 918
(A.D. 1512). After having conquered these and many other castles, he
was defeated in a second engagement with his son Selím I., at Chórló
(Τούρουλος or Τζορλοῦ), where he was deserted by all his servants,
who followed Selím to Islámból and proclaimed him Emperor. Báyazíd
Khán was immediately ordered to retire to Dímah-tókah (Dymóticho for
Didymótichon); but having reached Hávusah, a small town one days
journey distant from Edreneh (Adrianople), died there. Various reports
were circulated respecting the cause of his death. Some say that he
died sighing, and crying out, “O King Jem!” Others, that having been
poisoned by his son, he exclaimed, “May thy life be short, but thy
victories many!” His corpse was buried within the precincts of his
mosque. He reigned thirty-three years, and was succeeded by his son
Selím I., who began his victorious course by a signal defeat of Sháh
Ismá’íl, King of Írán, on the plains of Cheldir, beneath the castle
of Ak hichkah, where 200,000 Kizil-báshes (Persians) were put to the
sword. The Sháh himself escaped with difficulty, accompanied by only
seven horsemen, and his Queen Tájlí Khánum was taken prisoner, together
with three hundred female captives, who were entrusted to the care of
the Defterdár Tájir-zádeh Ja’fer Chelebí, and conducted by him to the
threshold of Felicity (the Sublime Porte). In this victorious campaign
the following castles were conquered:—Kars, Ak-hichkah, Erdehán,
Hasan, Erz Rúm, Baïbúd, Iánijah, Kumákh, Karah-Hamíd, Diyár-Bekr, and
forty other castles with their dependencies. Sultán ’Aláu-d-daulah,
of the Zúl-kadriyyeh family, Lord of Mer’ash, was also defeated and
killed, and his head, together with those of seventy other great
chiefs (Bóï Beg), was sent to Ghaurí, Sultán of Egypt, against whom
a campaign was immediately commenced: in the course of which Súltán
Selím conquered Halebu-sh-shuhbá (the bright), with its twenty, Shám
(Damascus), with its forty-two castles; Tarábulu-Shám (Tripoli), with
its seventy castles, occupied by the Durúzí (Druzes); Beïtu-l-mokaddas
(Jerusalem), Ghazah, and Ramlah, with seventeen castles. In that
paradisiacal country, Shám (Syria), he took up his winter-quarters;
and in the ensuing year he fought, on the plain of Kákún, the great
battle in which Sultán Ghaúrí was routed and slain. The wreck of the
army of the Cherákis (Circassians) fled to Misr (Caïro), with Selím
Khán at their heels; and after one continued battle for a whole month,
the province of Misr (Egypt), with its three hundred cities and seven
thousand villages, was given up to the conqueror in the year 922
(A.D. 1516). Híreh Beg was appointed Governor of Misr (Caïro); and
Kemàl Páshà-zádeh Ahmed Efendí, Military Judge. Possession was taken
of Mekkah and Medínah, and Selím assumed the title of Servant of the
two noble Mosques, and exalted his victories to the skies. On his
returning to Islámból, he laid the foundation of the mosque which
bears his name, but did not live to finish it. He was buried in the
kubbeh, opposite the Mihráb. He was born in Tarabefzún (for Tarábuzún,
_i.e._ Trebizonde), of which he was Governor while a Prince. He reigned
nine years, during which the Khotbah was said in his name in one
thousand and one mosques. He was succeeded by his son, the determined
supporter of the faith, and the breaker of the heads of the people
who contemplated rebellion, the tenth of the Sultáns of the house of
’Osmán, Sultán Suleïmán Khán el Ghází, who finished the mosque begun by
his father.


_Description of the Mosque of Sultán Selím I._

He began it as a monument to the illustrious memory of his father, in
the year 927 (A.D. 1521), and finished it in the year 933 (A.D. 1527).
It is a lofty mosque, in the interior of Islámból, on the summit of
one of the hills which overlook the canal; but it has no fine columns
within it like the other mosques. It is only an elevated dome supported
by four walls, but such as to raise the admiration of all who are
masters in mathematics, and to be pointed at as a proof of the great
skill of the old architect Sinán. On examining it, all mathematicians
are astonished; for its dome is found, on admeasurement, to be one
span wider than that of Ayá Sófiyah. It appears, in truth, to be an
azure vault, like the vault of the sky; but is not so high as that
of Ayá Sófiyah, since it measures only fifty-eight builder’s cubits
in height. The cause of its not having been made more lofty, is the
elevation of the hill upon which it stands. On the right side of its
precincts (harem) there is a deep cistern, made in the time of the
infidels; and on the north side is the ascent called the Forty Stairs,
though there are fifty-four steps. The declivity on each side is very
steep and precipitous; the architect Sinán, therefore, with a prudent
foresight, in order to avoid all risk from earthquakes, gave a very
moderate height to the mosque. The platform (mahfil) for the Muëzzins
is placed upon marble columns, adjoining to the wall on the right hand;
the Minber and Mihráb are of white marble, in a plain style. On the
left side of the mosque there is a gallery supported by columns for the
use of the Emperor: this was enclosed like a cage, with a gilt grating,
by Sultán Ibráhim. Round the cupola there is a gallery where lamps
are lighted on the blessed nights. The mosque is ornamented with some
thousand trophies suspended around it, but has no other distinction on
the inside. Opposite to the windows on the side of the Mihráb, is the
sepulchre of Selím Khán, in a delightful garden, where the sweet notes
of nightingales are heard. It is a hexagonal building, surmounted by
a cupola. This mosque has three gates, of which that looking towards
the Kiblah is always open. On the right and left of the mosque there
are hostels for travellers; and there are also, on the right and left
side, two minárehs, with one gallery each; but they are not so high as
other minárehs. The court of the mosque (harem) is paved with white
marble, has three gates, and stone benches (soffahs) all round. There
is a basin in the centre of the court, which constantly supplies the
Muselmán congregation with fresh and running water for their ablutions.
Sultán Murád IV. placed a pointed dome over it, supported by eight
columns, and there are four cypresses on the different sides of it.
Outside of this court is a large enclosure (harem), planted with trees
of various kinds, and entered by three gates. On the south (Kiblah) is
the gate of the mausoleum (Turbeh); on the west, that of the market; on
the north, that of the Forty Stairs. Below the market, looking towards
the Chukúr Bóstán there is a large school for boys, a public refectory
(Mehmán-seráï), and lodgings for men of learning and students. The bath
(hammám) is three hundred paces beyond this enclosure; but there are no
other colleges nor hospitals.


_Description of the Fifth Imperial Mosque; that of Sultán Suleïmán._

It was begun in the year 950 (A.D. 1543), and finished in the year——,
and is beyond all description beautiful. The learned, who composed the
metrical inscriptions, containing the date of its erection, confess
that they are not able duly to express its praise; a task which I, the
contemptible Evliyà, am now striving to perform as far as my ability
will allow. This incomparable mosque was built by Sultán Suleïmán
on one-half of the unoccupied half of the summit of the lofty hill
on which had been erected, by Mohammed II, the old Seráï. Suleïmán
having assembled all the thousands of perfect masters in architecture,
building, stone-hewing, and marble-cutting, who were found in the
dominions of the house of ’Osmán, three whole years were employed
in laying the foundations. The workmen penetrated so far into the
earth, that the sound of their pickaxes was heard by the bull that
bears up the world at the bottom of the earth. In three more years the
foundations reached the face of the earth; but in the ensuing year the
building was suspended, and the workmen were employed in sawing and
cutting various-coloured stones for the building above the foundations.
In the following year the Mihráb was fixed in the same manner as that
of Sultán Báyazíd’s mosque; and the walls, which reached the vault
of heaven, were completed, and on those four solid foundations they
placed its lofty dome. This vast structure of azure stone is more
circular than the cupola of Ayá Sófiyah, and is seven royal cubits
high. Besides the square piers which support it, there are, on the
right and left sides, four porphyry columns, each of which is worth ten
times the amount of the tribute (Kharáj) from Misr. These columns were
brought from the capital of Misr, along the Nile, to Iskanderiyyeh,
and there embarked on rafts, by Karinjeh Kapúdán, who in due time
landed them at Ún-kapání; and having removed them from thence to the
square called Vefà-méïdán, in the neighbourhood of the Suleïmániyyeh,
delivered them up to Suleïmán Khán; expressing his wish that they
might be received as a tribute from Karinjah (_i.e._ the Ant), just
as a gift was graciously received from the Queen of Ants by Solomon.
The Emperor, to shew his gratitude, immediately settled upon him the
Sanjaks of Yilánlí-jezíreh-sí, and the island of Ródós. God knows, that
four such columns of red porphyry, each fifty cubits high, are to be
found no where else in the world. On the side next to the Mihráb, and
on that opposite to it, the dome is joined by two semi-domes, which do
not, however, rest on those columns, as the architect was afraid of
overloading them. Sinán opened windows on every side to give light to
the mosque. Those over the Mihráb and Minber are filled with coloured
glass, the brilliance of whose colours within, and the splendour of the
light reflected from them at noon, dazzle the eyes of the beholders,
and fill them with astonishment. Each window is adorned with some
hundreds of thousands of small pieces of glass, which represent either
flowers, or the letters forming the excellent names (_i.e._ the Divine
attributes); they are, therefore, celebrated by travellers all over
the world. Though the Mihráb, Minber, and Mahfil of the Muëzzins are
only formed of plain white marble, yet the last is of such exquisite
workmanship, that it seems to be the Mahfil of Paradise; the Minber is
also made of plain marble, but is surmounted by a conical tiara-like
canopy, the like of which is no where to be found; and the Mihráb is
like that of his Majesty Solomon himself. Above it there is engraved
in letters of gold, on an azure ground, from the hand-writing of
Karah-hisárí, this text of the Korán (iii. 32), “Whenever Zakariyyà
(Zacharias) went into the chamber (mihráb) to her.” On the right and
left of the Mihráb there are spirally-twisted columns, which appear
like the work of magic. There are also candlesticks of a mans stature,
made of pure brass, and gilt with pure gold, which hold candles of
camphorated bees’-wax, each 20 kantárs (quintals) in weight. The ascent
to each of them is by a wooden staircase of fifteen steps, and they
are lighted every night. In the left corner of the mosque is a gallery
(mahfil) raised on columns, for the private use of the Sultán; and
it also contains a special Mihráb. Besides this gallery, there are
four others, one on each of the large piers, for the readers of the
lessons from the Korán. On both sides of the mosque there are benches
(soffahs), supported by low columns, and outside of it, parallel with
these benches within, galleries, supported on columns, one of which
looks upon the sea, and the other on the market. When the mosque is
very much crowded, many persons perform their devotions on these
benches. There are also, round the cupola, within the mosque, two rows
of galleries supported by columns, which, on the blessed nights, are
lighted with lamps. The total number of the lamps is 22,000; and there
are likewise some thousands of other ornaments suspended from the roof.
There are windows on all the four sides of the mosque, through each of
which refreshing breezes enter and revive the congregation; so that
they seem to be enjoying eternal life in Paradise. This mosque is also,
by the will of God, constantly perfumed by an excellent odour, which
gives fragrance to the brain of man, but has no resemblance to the
odour of earthly flowers. Within the mosque, beside the southern gate
(kibleh), there are two piers, from each of which springs a fountain of
pure water, in order to quench the thirst of the congregation; and in
the upper part of the building there are certain cells for the purpose
of keeping treasures, in which the great people of the country and some
thousands of travellers keep their money, to an amount which the Great
Creator alone knows!


_In Praise of the Writing of Karah Hisárí._

There never has been to this day, nor ever will be, any writing which
can compare with that of Ahmed Karah Hisárí, outside and inside of
this mosque. In the centre of the dome there is this text of the Korán
(xxiv. 35): “God is the light of heaven and earth; the similitude of
his light is as a niche in a wall wherein a lamp is placed, and the
lamp enclosed in a case of glass:” a text justly called the Text of
Light, which has been here rendered more luminous by the brilliant
hand which inscribed it. The inscription over the semi-dome, above
the Mihráb, has been already given. On the opposite side, above the
southern gate, there is this text (vi. 79): “I direct my face unto him
who hath created the heavens and the earth: I am orthodox.” On the
four piers are written, “Allah, Mohammed, Abú Bekr, ’Omar, ’Osmán,
’Alí, Hasan, and Hoseïn. Over the window to the right of the Minber:
“Verily, places of worship belong to God; therefore, invoke not any
one together with God.” Besides this, over the upper windows, all the
excellent names (of God) are written. These are in the Shikáfí hand;
but the large writing in the cupola is in the Guzáfí hand, of which
the Láms, Elifs, and Káfs, each measure ten ells; so that they can be
read distinctly by those who are below. This mosque has five doors. On
the right, the Imám’s (Imám kapú-sí); on the left the Vezír’s (Vezír
kapú-sí), beneath the imperial gallery, and two side doors. Over that
on the left is written (Kor. xiii. 24), “Peace be upon you, because ye
have endured with patience! How excellent a reward is Paradise!” Over
the opposite gate this text: “Peace be upon you! Ye are righteous;
enter in and dwell in it for ever!” Beneath this inscription, on the
left hand, is added, “This was written by the Fakír Karah Hisárí.”


_Description of the Court (Harem)._

The court of this mosque has three gates, to which there is an ascent
and descent by three flights of steps. It is paved with white marble,
and is as smooth and level as a carpet. Though very spacious, the
body of the mosque is still larger. Round its four sides there are
benches (soffahs) of stone, forty feet broad, upon which columns of
coloured stones rest, supporting arches of different hues, as various
as those of the rainbow. The windows of this court are guarded by
iron gratings, the bars of which are as thick as a man’s arm, and so
finely polished, that even now not an atom of rust is seen upon them,
and they shine like steel of Nakhjuván. In the centre of this court
there is a beautiful fountain worthy of admiration, but it is not
calculated for ablutions, being only designed for the refreshment of
the congregation. Its roof is a low, broad, leaden cupola; but the
wonderful thing is this, that the water from the basin springs up as
though shot from a bow, to the centre of the cupola, and then trickles
down its sides like another Selsebíl. It is, indeed, a wonderful
spectacle. Over the windows on each side of this court there are texts
from the Korán inscribed in white letters on blue tiles. The door
opposite to the kibleh (_i.e._ the north door) is the largest of all;
it is of white marble, and has not its equal on earth for the beauty
and skill with which it is carved and ornamented. It is all built of
pure white marble, and the different blocks have been so skilfully
joined together by the builders that it is impossible to perceive any
crevice between them. Over the sill of the door there are sculptured
flowers and festoons of filagree work, interlaced with each other with
a skill rivalling the art of Jemshíd. On each side of this gate there
are buildings four-stories high, containing chambers for the muvakkits
(hour-cryers), porters, and sextons. At the entrance of this gate there
is a large circular block of red porphyry, which is unparalleled for
its size and the fineness of its polish. It is as large as a Mohammedan
simát (_i.e._ dinner-tray). Within the gate, on the right side of
the court, there is a square slab of porphyry, on which a cross was
sculptured, the traces of which are still visible, though it was erased
by the masons. The infidels offered a million of money for it in vain:
at length a royal ball was fired from a galleon of the infidels, lying
before Ghalatah, purposely at this slab, which was struck; but being on
the ground, it received no damage. So that the infidels, with all their
rancour, and skill in gunnery, could not break this stone, which had
become a threshold of the Suleïmániyyeh; but the mark of the ball still
remains, and raises the astonishment of all beholders.

On the pedestals of the columns round the four sides of this court
(harem) there are brass plates, on which the dates of memorable events,
such as great fires, earthquakes, revolts and tumults, are engraven.
This mosque has four minarets, the galleries of which are ten in
number, as a record that Sultán Suleïmán Khán was the tenth Sultán of
the House of ’Osmán. The two minarets adjoining to the body of the
mosque have each three galleries, to which there is an ascent by a
staircase of two hundred steps; the two minarets at the inner angles of
the court are lower, and have but two galleries each. Of the two lofty
minarets which have three galleries, that on the left is called the
Jewel Minaret, for the following reason:—Sultán Suleïmán, when building
this mosque, in order to allow the foundations to settle, desisted, as
has been already observed, for a whole year, during which the workmen
were employed on other pious works. Sháh Tahmás Khán, King of ’Ajem
(Persia), having heard of this, immediately sent a great Ambassador to
Suleïmán, with a mule laden with valuable jewels, through friendship,
as he said, for the Sultán, who, from want of money, had not been
able to complete this pious work. The Ambassador presented the Sháh’s
letter to the Sultán while surrounded with the innumerable builders
and workmen employed about the mosque; and the latter, incensed on
hearing the contents of the letter, immediately, in the Ambassador’s
presence, distributed the jewels which he had brought to all the Jews
in Islámból, saying, “Each Ráfizí, at the awful day of doom changed
to an ass, some Jew to hell shall bear! To them, therefore, I give
this treasure, that they may have pity on you on that day, and be
sparing in the use of their spurs and whips.” Then giving another
mule laden with jewels to Sinán, the architect, he said, still in the
Ambassador’s presence, “These jewels, which were sent as being so
valuable, have no worth in comparison with the stones of my mosque;
yet, take them and mingle them with the rest.” Sinán, in obedience to
the Sultán’s command, used them in building the six-sided basis of this
mínaret, which derives its name from thence. Some of the stones still
sparkle when the sun’s rays fall upon them; but others have lost their
brilliance from exposure to excessive heat, snow, and rain. In the
centre of the arch, over the Kibla gate, there is a Níshábúrí turquoise
(pírúzeh), as large in circumference as a cup. There are on the two
sides of this mosque forty different places where ablutions can be
renewed.


_A Description of the Imperial Mausoleum._

At the distance of a bow-shot from the Mihráb, in the midst of a
delightful garden, is the sepulchre of Suleïmán, itself an unparalleled
edifice, being crowned by a double cupola, so that one is placed over
the other, the smaller below and the larger above. There is not, in the
whole civilized world, a building so richly ornamented with wonderful
sculptures and carvings in marble as this!


_Description of the Outer Court._

The outer court of this mosque is a large sandy level planted with
cypresses, planes, willows, limes, and ashes; and surrounding three
sides of the building. It has ten gates: two on the Kibla side; _viz._
that of Merá, and that of the old Serái; on the south side, the Mekteb
(school gate), chàrshù (market), medreséh (college), and Hakím-Báshi
(Head Physicians) gates. On the west, the Imareh (alms-house),
Táv-kháneh (hospital), and Aghá’s gate (Aghá kapú-sí). On the north
side a stone staircase of twenty steps to the gate of the dome of one
thousand and one nails, so called because that number of nails was
used in constructing it. There is also the Hammám kapú-sí (bath-gate)
looking eastwards, whence there is a descent of twenty steps to the
bath. On this side the court (harem) is not enclosed by a wall, but
merely by a low parapet, that the view of the city of Islámból may not
be interrupted. There the congregation remains and enjoys a full view
of the imperial palace, Uskudár (Scutari), the castle of the Canal
(Bógház Hísárí) Beshik-tásh, Tóp-khaneh, Ghalatah, Kásim Páshá, the
Okmeidán, and the harbour (khalíj) and strait (Bogház) traversed by a
thousand boats and barges and other kinds of vessels—a spectacle not
to be equalled in any other place in the world! The circumference
of this outer court (harem) is one thousand paces. There is also a
smaller court called the Pehliván Demir meïdání (_i.e._ wrestlers’
iron ground) between this mosque and the walls of the old serai. It
is a valley where wrestlers from all the convents exercise themselves
when afternoon-prayer is over (ba’de-l’asr). To the right and left of
this mosque there are four great colleges for the education of lawyers
in the four (orthodox) sects, which are now filled with men of the
most profound learning. There is likewise a Dár ul-hadís, or school
for instruction in the traditional law; a Dár-ul-karrà, or school for
instruction in the recitation or chaunting of the Korán; a college for
the study of medicine; a school for children; a hospital, a refectory,
an alms-house, a hospital for strangers (Táv-kháneh), a karbánserái for
comers and goers, a market for goldsmiths and button and boot makers,
a bath, with apartments for the students, and thousands of chambers
for their servants; so that within the precincts of the mosque there
are altogether not less than 1001 cupolas. Seen from Ghalatah the
Suleïmániyyeh seems like one vast plain covered with lead. The whole
number of servants attached to the mosque is three thousand. They
are maintained by secure and liberal endowments, all the islands in
the White Sea, as Istankoi (Stanco), Sákiz (Chios), Ródós (Rhodes),
&c. having been settled on it by Sultan Suleïmán. Its revenues are
collected by five hundred men under the direction of the mutevellí
(commissioner). There is no building in the whole empire of Islám
stronger or more solid than this Suleïmániyyeh; nor has any cupola
ever been seen which can be compared to this. Whether the solidity
of its foundation, or the wonderful beauty and perfection of its
different parts, be considered, it must be allowed to be, both within
and without, the finest and most durable edifice which the world ever
beheld. When it was finished, the architect Sinán said to the sultan:
“I have built for thee, O emperor, a mosque which will remain on the
face of the earth till the day of judgment: and when Halláj Mansúr
comes, and rends Mount Demavund from its foundation, he will play at
tennis with it and the cupola of this mosque.” Such were the terms in
which he extolled its strength and durability; and indeed, standing
on a lofty hill surrounded and strengthened below by various walls
and bulwarks, its foundations are peculiarly solid. First, there is
the upper wall of the Tahtu-l kal’ah; then, that of Siyávush Pashá’s
palace; next, that of the Yenícherí Aghá’s; afterwards, that of the
cistern in the little market: then those of the Aghá’s school, the
warm bath, the lead magazine, and hospital. The foundations of all
these buildings may be considered as the outworks of the foundation
of this mosque. The humble writer of these lines once himself saw ten
Franc infidels skilful in geometry and architecture, who, when the
door-keeper had changed their shoes for slippers, and had introduced
them into the mosque for the purpose of shewing it to them, laid their
finger on their mouths, and each bit his finger from astonishment
when they saw the minarets; but when they beheld the dome they tossed
up their hats and cried Maryah! Maryah! and on observing the four
arches which support the dome on which the date A.H. 944 (A.D. 1537)
is inscribed, they could not find terms to express their admiration,
and the ten, each laying his finger on his mouth, remained a full hour
looking with astonishment on those arches. Afterwards, on surveying the
exterior, the court, its four minarets, six gates, its columns, arches
and cupolas, they again took off their hats and went round the mosque
bareheaded, and each of the ten bit his fingers from astonishment, that
being their manner of testifying the greatest amazement. I asked their
interpreter how they liked it, and one of them who was able to give an
answer, said, that nowhere was so much beauty, external and internal,
to be found united, and that in the whole of Fringistán there was not
a single edifice which could be compared to this. I then asked what
they thought of this mosque compared with Ayá Sófiyah; they answered,
that Ayá Sófiyah was a fine old building, larger than this, and very
strong and solid for the age in which it was erected, but that it
could not in any manner vie with the elegance, beauty, and perfection
of this mosque, upon which, moreover, a much larger sum of money had
been expended than on Ayá Sófiyah. Indeed, it is said, that every ten
Miskáls of stone used in this mosque cost a piece of gold (a ducat).
The entire sum expended in this building amounted to 890,883 yuks
(74,242,500 piastres).

Another of Sultan Suleïmán’s monuments at Islámból is the Forty
Fountains. Desirous of bringing into the city some sweet water which
had been discovered at a considerable distance, he consulted the
famous architect Sinán, who replied, that an undertaking so difficult
would require enormous sums of money. Suleïmán promised to provide the
necessary funds; the work was commenced, and in the course of seven
years 3,700 arches were constructed, thus forming an aqueduct, and
joining that of Yánkó Mádiyán near the horse-market. By this means the
delicious water was circulated throughout the city, and the souls of
the thirsty were made glad. In some parts the arches rise two or three
stories high.

Suleïmán also commenced the bridge of Chekmejeh, which was completed
by Selim II. He also built the mosques of Shehzádeh, Jehángír, and
Khásseki; the new arsenal; and the college of Selim I., founded
at the Koshk of the Khaljiler, and dedicated to the memory of his
father; a mosque at Uskudár, called after his illustrious daughter
Mehrebán, and two Kháns. In Rumeïli the monuments of his bounty are
almost innumerable: amongst them may be enumerated the fortresses
of Segdin, Sigeth, and Ouzi (Oczakow), on the frontiers. At Edreneh
(Adrianople) he constructed an aqueduct, a bridge, and a mosque and
refectory near the bridge of Mustafa Pasha. In Anátolí he built at
Konea, near the tomb of Jelál-ud-dín-Rúmi (may God sanctify his secret
state), a splendid mosque with two minárets, a college, a music-room
for the Dervíshes, a dining-room for the poor (_imaret_), a refectory,
and numerous cells for the poor Dervíshes. At Damascus, an extensive
mosque and a college. At Kaf and Iznik (Nice) he converted two churches
into mosques; a plan which he put into execution in all the towns
and palankas which were conquered during his long and victorious
reign. The cupola of the mosque of Solomon’s temple was also built
by this Emperor, and he adorned the cupola of the sacrificial stone
(_sakhra-i-sherif_) with ceilings of carved wood and stone, so that it
equals the gallery of Chinese paintings, and resembles paradise. After
the conquest of Baghdád, he erected over the tomb of the great Imám,
Noamán-ben-Thábet, a castle, and a mosque with a refectory; and over
the tomb of the Sheikh, Abdul-káder Jilani, a lofty cupola, a mosque,
a refectory and other buildings for pious purposes. For the benefit of
the holy cities (Mecca and Medina) he instituted the Surra, a present
of 62,000 ducats, which is annually transmitted to those places by the
Surrá-Emini; and the annual distribution of wearing apparel. He also
repaired the aqueduct built by Hárún-ur-rashíd, adding four fountains
to it, and conducting a stream to Mount Arefat. He moreover built at
Mecca four colleges in the same style as those of Rumeïli, and endowed
them in the same manner. He also rebuilt the cupola of Khadijeh, the
Mother of the Faithful, with numerous other pious foundations which we
shall have occasion to mention hereafter in the course of our travels:
our present object being only to describe those of Islámból. All these
pious works were effected by means of the prizes taken at Malta, Rodós,
Bodin, Kizil-álma (Rome), Belgrade on the Danube, Baghdád, and other
places; the whole amount of which is computed to have been 896,383
fulúrí (florins), which, according to the present value of money, would
be 53,782,009 aspres, or 74,666,666 paras, or 1,866,666 piastres.
During the reign of Suleimán Khán four aspres weighed one dirhem of
pure silver, and one hundred ducats weighed 118 dirhems.


_Description of the Mosque of Prince Mohammed._

According to the opinion of all architects and mathematicians, this
mosque is situated in the centre of the triangle of Islámból. It ranks
as the sixth imperial mosque, and was built by Suleimán Khán for his
favourite son Mohammed, who died at Magnesia, and was buried here. Its
cupola is an elegant piece of workmanship, and though not so large as
that of the Suleïmániyyeh, it rears its head majestically into the
skies: it is supported by rectangular pillars and four semi-domes. The
mihráb and minber are both of exquisite workmanship. The mahfil is
supported by eight columns, and on its left is the Sultán’s mahfil,
also supported by columns. This mosque has no large columns, but is
adorned with a double row of lamps amounting to eight thousand. It is
lighted by windows on every side, and has three gates, over one of
which, that opposite to the mihráb, is placed the chronogram: “The
place of prayer for the Prophet’s people, 955” (A.D. 1548), in which
year the foundation was laid. This also is of Sinán’s architecture.
It was commenced on the 1st of Rabi’-ul-avul, 955 (10th April 1548),
and was finished in the month of Rajab, 965 (April 1558). It cost
15,000,000 aspres. Facing the mihráb, in a most delightful garden
beneath a lofty cupola, is the tomb of Prince Mohammed, and beneath
another, that of his brother Jehángír, who died at Halep (Aleppo), and
was buried in this place. The court is adorned with numerous columns,
and in the centre there is a fountain, beneath a cupola supported by
eight columns, which was built by Murád IV. The two minarets, with
their double galleries, have not their equal in Islámból, Edreneh,
or Brusa, for ornaments and sculptures. The lead-covered roof is a
piece of art likewise well worthy of admiration. On three sides it
is surrounded by a large plain planted with trees, underneath one of
which, on the left-hand side of the mosque, is buried the Sheikh, Ali
Tabl, who was drummer in Iyyúbs expedition against Islámból. Round this
large court stand the college, refectory, and hospital for strangers
(Tav-khaneh); it has neither a bath nor a common hospital.

The mosque at Fundukli, dedicated to the memory of the prince Jehángír,
was also built by Suleimán. But this shall be described in its proper
place.


_Description of the Mosque of the Valideh._

This mosque, which is commonly called Khasseki-evret (the favourite of
the women), and is situated near the Evret-bazar, is not so large as
other mosques, and has only one mináreh. It has a common kitchen, a
refectory, a hospital, a college, and a school for children.


_Description of the Mosque of Mehr-máh Sultáneh._

It is a lofty mosque within the Adrianople-gate, and was built by
Sultán Suleimán Khán for his daughter Mehr-máh. Its mihráb, minber,
and mahfil, are remarkably neat; but there is no royal mahfil. It is
surrounded by the apartments of the college, a bath and a market. There
is neither refectory nor hospital.

In short, Sultán Suleimán Khán, during a reign of forty-eight years,
established order and justice in his dominions; marched victoriously
through the seven quarters of the globe, embellished all the countries
which were vanquished by his arms, and was successful in all his
undertakings; because, mindful of the sacred text, “Take advice in your
affairs,” he always consulted with his Ulemá.

The Vezirs during his reign were:—

Pír Mohammed Pasha, who was confirmed in his office on the accession of
the Sultán.

Ibrahim Pasha, who was educated in the imperial harem, built the seven
towers at Cairo, and hanged Ahmed Pasha, the rebellious governor of
that city.

Ayás Pasha, a native of Albania, but brought up in the harem.

Lutfí Pasha, also brought up in the harem. He had the Sultán’s sister
given him in marriage, but was dismissed from office for speaking
against a woman who was related to his wife.

Suleimán Pasha, a white eunuch, who took Dív-abád, Ahmed-abád, and
several other fortresses from the Portuguese, and gave them to the
Raï of India. He also conquered ’Aden, in Yemen (Arabia), and Habesh
(Abyssinia), assisted by Oz-demir-beg.

Rustam Pasha, a Khiroad (Croatian) by birth, and an Aristotle in wisdom.

Ahmed Pasha, a judicious, brave, and accomplished minister. He began
by being Chamberlain in the Serai, and was gradually promoted to the
office of Aghá of the Janissaries, Governor of Rumeïli, and Grand
Vezir. He once conducted a night attack against Sháh Tahmas of Persia,
and conquered Temesvar.

Kalen Ali Pasha, a native of the village of Parcha, in Hersek
(Herzegovina). He was first Chamberlain, then Aghá of the Janissaries,
Governor of Egypt, and Grand Vezir. He was a very corpulent man.

So-kolli Khojeh, Ali Pasha, a native of the village Sokol, now called
Shahín, in Bosnia, having held various inferior offices, was raised to
that of Vezir, which he held for forty years under three monarchs.

The Vezirs of the _kubbeh_ (cupola) who did not attain the rank of
Grand Vezir were:—Mustafa Pasha, the Bosnian; Ferhád Pasha, the
Albanian; Khaïn Ahmed Pasha, a rebellious Albanian who was hanged at
Cairo; Gózlujeh Kásím Pasha, who conquered Anabóli (Napoli), in the
Morea, and built the mosque bearing his name opposite Islámból; Hájí
Mohammed Pasha, poisoned at Bodin (Buda) by a Jew who boasted that he
had poisoned no less than forty Moslems; Khosru Pasha, the brother of
Khojeh Lála Mustafa Pasha; Khádem Ibrahím Pasha, a man of a brave and
generous disposition, who built the mosque bearing his name within the
Silivrí-gate; Khádem Heider Pasha, who was chief of the white eunuchs
in the harem, but was dismissed on suspicion of having been accessory
to the murder of the Prince Mustafa: he was an eloquent and learned
man, and died Governor of Hersek (Herzegovina); Balak Mustafa Pasha,
a Bosnian, Balak, in the Albanian language, signifying ‘old’: he was
Governor of Egypt and Capudan of the fleet, and was buried at Iyyúb;
Dámád Ferhád Pasha,—he was brother-in-law of Prince Mohammed, and was
an excellent calligrapher: a copy of the Korán of his penmanship may
even now be seen at the mausoleum of Sultán Báyazíd; Mustafa Pasha, who
was descended from Khaled, son of Valíd, and younger brother of Shemsi
Pasha: he was educated in the imperial harem, made Chakirji-bashi,
commanded the expedition against Malta when Governor of Rumeïli, died
on the pilgrimage to Mecca, and was buried by my father.


_Begler-begs in the reign of Sultán Suleimán._

Behram Pasha; Davúd Pasha, who died Governor of Egypt; Oveis Pasha,
Governor of Shám (Damascus); Dukakin Zádeh Gházi Mohammed Pasha,
Governor of Egypt; Oveis Pasha, Governor of Yemen (Arabia), he quaffed
the cup of martyrdom at the hand of Pehlevan Hassan, the robber;
Oz-demir Pasha, a relation of Ghori, the last Sultán of Egypt, a
Circassian by birth, and Conqueror of Habush (Abyssinia); Gházi Omer
Pasha, who built a mosque and imaret at Belgrade; Gházi Kásim Pasha,
who when Suleimán raised the siege of Pech (Vienna), headed the party
which made an excursion into Germany, and came round by Venedik
(Venice) to Essek with only three hundred men, the others having fallen
martyrs in the expedition: I visited many of their tombs in different
places in Germany; Gozlujeh Rustam Pasha, Aga of the Janissaries, and
afterwards Governor of Bodin (Buda); Suleimán Pasha, educated in the
harem: he died at Astúli (Stuhlweissenburg), of which he was Governor,
and was buried before its gate; Othmán Pasha, a Circassian, educated
in the Seraï, who was rewarded with the government of Rumeïli for a
night attack upon the Persian camp at Nakhchéván; Gházi Hassan Pasha,
who was in Arabia and Abyssinia, whence he went to Temeswar, of which
he was made Governor; Solak Ferhád Pasha, Governor of Baghdád, where
he died; Baltaji Mohammed Pasha, a Bosnian, who was dismissed from the
governorship of Baghdád, and died at Islámból; Harem Pasha, a Bosnian;
Pír Pasha, of the family of Ramezan; Kobad Pasha, step-brother of the
preceding; Músá Pasha, of the family of Isfendiyár,—he was Governor
of Erzerúm, and died in the war against the Georgian infidels; Khádem
Ali Pasha, who died whilst Governor of Cairo; Arslan Pasha, the son of
Sokolli Mohammed Pasha: he built the powder-magazine at Bódin (Buda),
and was executed on suspicion of having given up Tátá and Pápá to the
infidels; Ayás Pasha, brother of the Grand Vezir, Sinán Pasha: he was
beheaded; Behrám Pasha, Governor of Baghdád; Jenáblí Ahmed Pasha, who
was twenty years Governor of Anatóli, and built a mulevi (convent) and
bath at Angora; Olama Pasha, who was taken prisoner by the Persians,
amongst whom he became a Khán, but afterwards deserted them, and
returning to Rumeïli obtained the Sanják of Lippova, where he was
killed, after having sustained a siege of forty days. Yorksa Pasha,
educated in the harem; Shemsí Pasha, of the family of Kuzil Ahmedli,
and brother of the Vezir Mustafa Pasha: he was the confidential
minister of three Sultáns; Hájí Ahmed Pasha, of the same family; Damád
Hassan Pasha, the Sultan’s brother-in-law: he was sent as Ambassador
to Persia on account of the flight of the Prince Báyazíd, and suffered
martyrdom at Sivás: I have visited his tomb; Iskender Pasha, first
Bóstánjí báshí, and then Governor of Anatoli; Cherkess Iskender Pasha,
for fifteen years Governor of Díárbekr, where he died; Temerrúd Ali
Pasha, a native of Bosnia; Kara Mustafa Pasha, he was taken from the
chamber of pages; Khizr Pasha, a man of dignified manners, who was
educated in the harem; Kara Murád Pasha; Sufi Ali Pasha, who died
at Cairo, of which he was Governor; Gulábí Pasha, a man who loved
retirement, and conversed much with my father; it was he who related
the anecdote of himself, already mentioned in the Description of the
Mosque of Ayá Sófiyah: he was indeed a holy man; Mohammed Khán Pasha,
who was of the family of Zulkadr, and went over to Sháh Ismaïl, but
returning to the Ottomans, was made Governor of Rumeïli and Anatoli,
and was distinguished with the title of Jenáb (Excellency).


_Capudán Pashas of the Reign of Suleïmán._

Sinán Pasha, from the harem, a great tyrant.

Khairu-d-din Pasha (Barbarossa), born at Medelli (Mitylene), and
created Capudán in the year 940 (A.D. 1533). He died A.H. 970 (A.D.
1562), and was buried at Beshiktásh.

Saleh Pasha, a native of Kaz-tagh (Mount Ida), was Pasha of Algiers;
and, like his predecessor, a most active Admiral.

Yahia Pasha, Grand Admiral, and died Pasha of Algiers.

Torghúd Pasha, who suffered martyrdom at the siege of Malta.

Mohammed Pasha, who was Pasha of Egypt, and, like Khairu-d-din,
extended his devastations even to the islands of Ingleterra (England).


_Defterdárs and Nishánjis of the Reign of Sultán Suleïmán._

Defterdár Iskender Chelebi; Hyder Chelebi, of Gallipoli; Lufti Beg, of
the harem; Abulfazl Efendí; Abdi Chelebi, son of Jevizádeh’; Mustafa
Chelebi, who, though afflicted with palsy, continued to attend the
Diván, because he was an excellent penman; Mohammed Chelebi, who
was also called Egri Abdi Zádeh; Ibrahím Chelebi, who was the chief
Defterdár; Hasan Chelebi; Murád Chelebi, Jemáli Zádeh Mustafa Chelebi,
who in his prose and poetical compositions assumed the name of Nisháni:
he is the author of an historical work, entitled “Tabakátu-l-mamálek,”
and a statistical one, called “Kanún Námeh;” Ramazán Zádeh Mohammed
Chelebi, who was Nishánji, and author of a small historical work.


_Begs of Sultán Suleïmán’s Reign._

Kochek Báli Beg, son of the Grand Vezir, Yahia; Khosrú Beg, descended
from the daughter of Sultán Báyazíd: he built at Seráï, a mosque, a
khán, a bath, an imáret, a college, and a school, and achieved some
thousands of victories; Kara Othmán Sháh Beg, son of Kara Mustafa Beg
by the sister of Sultán Suleïmán: he built at Tarkhaleh a wonderful
mosque with a college and an imaret; Ali Beg Ibn Malkoch Beg, who
rendered himself famous in Croatia; Núbehar Zádeh, who was a disciple
of Jelál Zádeh, and was afterwards made Defterdár; Cherkess Kassim Beg,
who was Governor of Kaffa, in the Crimea, but afterwards went on an
expedition to Azhderhán (Astrachan) through the desert; Hájí Beg, who,
as Governor of Nablús, kept down the Arabs; Kurd Beg; Ján-búlád Beg, of
an illustrious Kurd family; Husein Beg, who was distinguished with the
title Jenáb (Excellency).


_Some of the Illustrious Divines of the Reign of Sultán Suleïmán._

Khairu-d-din Efendí, his Majesty’s Khojah; Seidi Chelebi, of Kastemúni;
Sheikh Mohammed Jiví-zádeh; Mollah Sheikh Mohammed Ben Kotbu-d-din;
Mollah Mohammed Ben Ahmed Ben ’Adíl-pasha, an excellent historian and
a good Persian poet; Mollah Abdul-fattáh Ebn Ahmed ’Adíl Pasha, a
native of Berdá, in Persia, and an amiable and intelligent man; Sheikh
Mohammed, of Tunis, an excellent reader of the Korán, the whole of
which he knew by heart; Zehíru-d-din, who came from Tabríz, and was
hanged at Cairo with the traitor Ahmed Pasha; Mollah Mohammed, a pupil
of Kemál Pasha-zádeh; Mevlená Yakúb, commonly called Ajéh Khaliféh,
professor at Magnesia, where he died, A.H. 969 (A.D. 1562); ’Ala’ud-dín
Jemáli, Sheikhu-l-Islám (_i.e._ Grand Mufti), which office he held
also under Sultan Selím I.; the Sheikhu-l-Islám Kemál Pasha-zadéh
Ahmed, who was Kázi-asker of Egypt under Selím I., and is celebrated
for his literary productions; the Sheikhu-l-Islam Abú-u-ssaod Efendí,
who wrote nearly a thousand treatises, and whose Commentary on the
Korán is highly valued: a volume might be written in his praise;
Mevlena-Mohíu-d-dín Arab-zédeh, who was drowned on his passage
to Egypt; Mevlena Ali, who wrote the Humáyiún Námeh (the Turkish
translation of Pilpay’s Fables); he was buried at Brusá.


_The Kanún-námeh or Statistical Code of the Empire, drawn up by Sultán
Suleïmán._


Section I.

The Province of Rúmeïli contains 24 Sanjaks, 1,227 Ziámets, 12,377
Timárs.

  Bodin           17 Sanjaks,   278 Ziámets,  2,391 Timárs.
  Ozi (Oczakov),   6 ditto      188 ditto     1,186 ditto
  Bosnia,          7 ditto      150 ditto     1,792 ditto
  Temesvar         6 ditto      190 ditto     1,090 ditto
  Archipelago     15 ditto       73 ditto     1,884 ditto
  Egra             9 ditto    1,081 ditto     4,000 ditto
  ——               7 ditto       77 ditto     2,007 ditto
  Kaffa            9 ditto (It has neither Ziámets nor Timárs).
  Morea            5 ditto, but no Ziámets or Timárs.
  Varadin          5 ditto.

Ardil (Transylvania) pays an annual tribute of 3,000 purses; as do also
Aflák (Wallachia), and Bóghdán (Moldavia). The Crimea has no Ziámets
or Timárs, but is governed by Kháns. Rodós (Rhodes) has five Sanjaks;
Kubrus (Cyprus) seven, and Candia thirteen Sanjaks; making, in all, 167
Sanjaks, 3,306 Ziámets, and 37,379 Timárs.

  Anatóli has        14 Sanjaks, 399 Ziámets, 5,589 Timárs.
  Karman              7 ditto     68 ditto    2,211 ditto
  ——                  7 ditto    108 ditto    3,699 ditto
  Miráish             4 ditto     29 ditto      215 ditto
  Shám (Damascus),    2 ditto    138 ditto    1,865 ditto
  Trabalós            4 ditto     63 ditto      571 ditto
  Seida (Sidon)       4 ditto     94 ditto      995 ditto
  Halep (Aleppo), has 5 Sanjaks,  99 Ziámets,   833 Timárs.
  Adna                5 ditto     43 ditto    1,659 ditto
  Roha                2 ditto      4 ditto    6,026 ditto
  Díárbekr           12 ditto    926 ditto      926 ditto
  Erzerúm             9 ditto    133 ditto    5,159 ditto
  Trebizonde          2 ditto     56 ditto      398 ditto
  Gurjístán (Georgia) has no Sanjaks, Ziámets, or Timárs.
  Kars                6 Sanjaks,   1 Ziámet,  1,363 Timárs
  Jíldir             13 ditto     49 ditto      689 ditto
  Ván                24 ditto     46 ditto    2,695 ditto
  Mosúl               3 ditto     66 ditto    1,004 ditto
  Sheherzúl          21 ditto     15 ditto      806 ditto

Baghdád has no ziámet or timár, but is held on an annual lease, as are
also Basrah and Lahsa: Yemen is governed by an Imám; Habesh (Abyssinia)
is subject to a tributary Sultán; Mesr (Egypt), Jezáïr (Algiers), Tunis
and Trabalos (Tripoli), are held by annual leases. There are in all 151
sanjaks, 1,571 ziámets, 41,286 timárs.

All the land of the Ottoman empire is divided into three parts: the
khás humáyún, or crown lands; the lands given to the vezírs and
begler-begs; and the lands divided into ziámets and timárs.


Section II.

_The Khás, or Revenues of the Begler-begs._

Rumeïli, 1,100,000 aspres; Anadolí, 1,000,000; Karamán, 60,671; Shám
(Damascus), 1,000,000; Sivás, 900,000; Erzerúm, 1,214,600; Díárbekr,
1,200,600; Ván, 1,132,200; Búdín (Bude), 880,000; the islands of the
Archipelago, 885,000; Haleb (Aleppo), 817,760; Mera’ish, 628,450;
Bosna, 650,000; Temiswár, 806,790; Kars, 827,170; Jíldir, 925,000;
Tarab-afzún (Trebizonde), 734,850; Rika, 681,056; Mosúl, 682,000;
Sheherzúl, 1,100,000; Trabalós Shám (Tripoli in Syria), 786,000; Ozí
(Oczakov), 988,000; Krím (Crimea), 12,000,000; Kaffa, the revenues of
this province are derived from the custom-house; the Páshá receiving
679,000 aspres; Egra (Erla), 800,080; Kanisa, 746,060; the Morea,
656,000; Baghdád, 1,200,200; Basrah, 1,000,000; Lahsa, 888,000; Habesh
(Abyssinia), 1,000,080; Egypt, 487 purses of Egypt; the revenues of
Tunis, Algiers, Tripoli, Cyprus, and Rhodes, which belong to the
Capúdán Páshás, amount to 1,200,700 aspres; Candia yielded 11,990
aspres: this island has since then been entirely conquered, but
during the reign of Suleïmán it was allotted with that small sum.
According to the constitutional laws of Suleïmán, the gradation of
the revenues of the governors followed the chronological order of the
conquest; thus the páshás of the provinces first conquered had greater
revenues than those conquered at a later period; and the old vezírs
at that time received an additional sanjak, under the name of Arpalík
(barley-money); thus the sanjak of Adna was given to old Mahmúd Páshá
with a revenue of 116,000 aspres. According to the Kánún, the Sultan
of Egypt has the privilege of wearing two aigrettes, and the Vezír
of Abyssinia is allowed to have two royal tents. The precedence of
the vezírs at public festivals, divans, &c. is as follows: The Vezír
of Egypt, of Baghdád, Abyssinia, Buda, Anatolí, Mera’ish, and the
Kapúdán-Páshá, if the scene is in Anadolí (Asia); but if in Rumeïlí
(Europe) it is as follows: the Vezír of Buda, Egypt, Abyssinia,
Baghdád, Rumeïlí, and then the other governors according to the
chronological order of the conquest. For every 500 aspres of revenue
one armed man is to be provided for the field.


Section III.

_Names of the Sanjaks of each Province._

Rumeïli has two Defterdárs, one of the treasury-office (mál), and of
the feudal tenures (tímár) a Kehiyá of Chávushes, an inspector of the
Defter (rolls), a Kehiyá of the Defter; an Aláï-beg (colonel of the
feudal militia); a Cherí-báshí (lieutenant-colonel); a Voinók-ághá, and
seven Yúrúk-begs. The twenty-four sanjaks are: 1. Sofia, the residence
of the Páshá. 2. Kústendíl. 3. Skutari. 4. Terkhaleh. 5. Ukhrí. 6.
Avlona. 7. Delvina. 8. Yánína. 9. Elbessán. 10. Chermen. 11. Saloník.
12. Askúb (Scopi). 13. Dúkágín. 14. Vídín. 15. Alájeh Hisár. 16.
Perzerín. 17. Vejterín. 18. Silistria. 19. Nicopolis. 20. Kirk-kílseh.
21. Bender. 22. Ak-kermán. 23. Ozí (Oczakov). 24. Kílbúrún.


_Sanjaks of the Province of Anádólí._

There is a Kehiyá, an Emín (inspector), and Muhásibjí (comptroller of
the defter or rolls), an Emín and Kehiyá of the Chávushes, a colonel
and captain of the feudal militia, four Begs called Musellim, and
eleven Yáyá Begs. 1. Kútáhieh. 2. Saríkhán. 3. Aïdía. 4. Kastamúni.
5. Bólí. 6. Munteshá. 7. Angora. 8. Kara-hisár. 9. Tekkeh. 10.
Hamid-sultán. 11. Ogí-karasí.


_Sanjaks of the Province of Karamán._

This province has a Defterdár of the treasury, and of the feuds, an
Emín of the Defter and of the Chávushes; a Kehiyá of the Defter and of
the Chávushes; an Aláï-beg (colonel), and Cherí-báshí (captain). 1.
Konia, the residence of the Páshá. 2. Kaiserieh (Cæsarea). 3. Níkdeh.
4. Yení-sheherí. 5. Kír-sheherí. 6. Ak-seráï.


_Sanjaks of Sívás._

The Defter (treasury) has a Kehiyá, and Emín, the Chávushes have the
same; there is besides a captain and Defterdár of the feuds. 1. Sívás,
the seat of the Páshá. 2. Deverbegi. 3. Khúrúm. 4. Keskín. 5. Búzouk.
6. Amasia. 7. Tokát. 8. Zíla. 9. Janík. 10. Arab-gír.


_Sanjaks of Bosna._

The officers are, the Defterdár of the treasury, the Kehiyá and Emín of
the rolls; the Kehiyá and Emín of the Chávushes, the Aláï-beg and the
Cherí-báshí. 1. Seráï, the seat of the Páshá. 2. Hersek. 3. Kilís. 4.
Zvorník. 5. Poshega. 6. Záchina. 7. Kírka. 8. Ráhovícha. 9. Banalúka.


_The Province of the Capúdán Páshá._

The officers are, the Kehiyá and Emín of the Defter and Chávushes,
the Aláï-beg and Cherí-báshí, the Aghás of the Arabs, and the Dáïs
of the Yúz-báshís. 1. Gallipoli, the seat of the Pasha. 2. Aghribúz
(Negropont). 3. Karlí-eilí (Acarnania). 4. Ainabakht (Naupaktus or
Lepanto). 5. Rodós (Rhodes). 6. Mytylini. 7. Kójá-eilí. 8. Bíghá. 9.
Izmit (Nicomedia). 10. Izmír (Smyrna).


_Sanjaks of the Morea._

Here there is neither Kehiyá nor Emín of the Defter. The Sanjaks are:
1. Misistra. 2. Mania. 3. Corone; Ayá Maura. 4. Napoli di Romania. The
sanjaks Sákiz (Chios), Naksha (Naxos), and Mahdia (in Africa), have
recently been added to the government of the Capudán-páshá.


_Sanjaks of Búdín (Bude)._

The number of officers attached to each province in this district
is complete, because it always has a grand diván. They are: 1. The
Defterdár of the treasury. 2. The defterdár of the Tímárs or feuds. 3.
The Kehiyá or deputy of the defter. 4. The Kehiyá of the Chávushes.
5. The Emín or inspector of the defter. 6. The Emín of the Chávushes.
7. The Aláï Beg, or colonel. 8. The Cherí-báshí or lieutenant-colonel
of the feudal militia. 9. The Pashá who resides at Bude. The Sanjaks
are: 1. Bude. 2. Segdin. 3. Sonluk. 4. Hetwán. 5. Sihún. 6. Germán. 7.
Filek. 8. Erla.


_Sanjaks of the Province of Kaniza._

This province was separated from the principality of Bude, and there
is no Defterdár either of the treasury or of the feudal militia. The
sanjaks are: 1. Siget. 2. Kopán. 3. Valiova, 4. Sokolofja.


_Sanjaks of Uivár (Neuhausel)._

This province was conquered only in the time of Mohammed IV., by
Kopreïlí Zádeh Ahmed Páshá. It is a well cultivated district. The
sanjaks are: 1. Litova. 2. Novígrád. 3. Húlichk. 4. Boyák. 5. Shaswár.


_The Province of Temiswar._

Here the usual offices were established during the reign of Mohammed
IV., at the time of its second conquest by Kopreïlí Ahmed Páshá. The
fortress of Yanova was then the seat of the Páshá. The sanjaks are: 1.
Lipova. 2. Kíánad. 3. Jíulei. 4. Mode. 5. Lugos. 6. Facias Arad. 7.
Five churches, the wakf (or pious bequest) of Sokollí Mohammed Páshá.


_The Province of Varasdin._

This province was conquered by Kozí Alí Páshá in the time of Mohammed
IV. Sanjaks: 1. Slanta. 2. Debrechin. 3. Khalmas. 4. Seus Giorgi.
The inhabitants of this country being all infidels, the tribute is
collected by Hungarian chiefs who forward it to Constantinople.


_Transylvania._

This principality was conquered during the reign of Sultan Mohammed
IV. by the arms of the brave Seïdí Ahmed Páshá; and Michael Apasty was
made viceroy on condition that he should pay an annual tribute of one
thousand purses besides certain presents. The population is composed of
native Transylvanians, of Siklev, and of Saxons; the latter have always
been disaffected towards the Osmánlí government.


_Valachia and Moldavia._

These are also infidel principalities governed by princes appointed
by the Ottoman government, and pay an annual tribute of two thousand
purses; they are considered as belonging to the province of Silistria.


_Oczakov or Silistria._

Here there are no public officers as in the other provinces, having
been detached from the government of Rúmeïlí. Its sanjaks are: 1.
Nikopolis. 2. Chermen. 3. Viza. 4. Kirk Kilisia (or forty churches). 5.
Bender. 6. Akkermán. 7. Oczakov. 8. Kilbúrún. 9. Dúghún. 10. Silistria,
which is the seat of the Páshá.


_Krim (the Crimea)._

This territory is governed by a Khán, who has the privilege of coining,
and of having the Khotba read in the mosques, his name being mentioned
immediately after that of the Osmánlí Emperor, who has the right of
appointing and changing the Kháns. The residence of the Khán is at
Baghcheseráï, and that of the Sultan at Ak-mesjid. The subordinate
officers are styled Shírín-begs and Másúr-begs; the former are selected
from the Nakhcheván family, and the latter from the Manik.


_The Province of Kaffa._

Its sanjaks are ruled by Voivodas, immediately appointed by the Osmánlí
Sultan and not by the Kháns. These sanjaks are: 1. Bálikláva. 2.
Kirej. 3. Támán. 4. Cherkess-shagha. 5. Balisira. 6. Azov. Besides the
Defterdár, there are no public officers.


_The Province of Cyprus._

There are here, a Defterdár of the treasury and of the feuds; a Kehiyá
and Emín of the Defter and Chávushes, an Aláï-beg, and a Cherí-báshí.
The sanjaks are: 1. Itshilí. 2. Társús. 3. Aláyí. 4. Sís or Khás. The
following have a Sáliáneh, or annual allowance from the treasury:
Kerina, Paphos, Tamagusta, and Nicosia. It is a large island, and
contains 30,000 Moslem warriors, and 150,000 infidels.


_The Province of Candia._

Canea was conquered in the reign of Sultán Ibrahím, by Yúsuf Páshá;
and twenty-six years afterwards Candia was taken by Kopreïlí Zádeh the
second, after a protracted siege of three years. The sanjaks are: 1.
Canea. 2. Retimo. 3. Selina. This island, being so extensive, has the
complement of public officers, and maintains a force of 40,000 men.


_The Province of Damascus._

Some of the sanjaks of this province are khás (_i.e._ yield a land
revenue); and others are Sáliáneh (_i.e._ have an annual allowance
from government). Of the former are: 1. Jerusalem. 2. Gaza. 3. Karak.
4. Safet. 5. Náblús. 6. Aajelún. 7. Lejún. 8. Bokoa. Of the latter:
Tadmor, Saida, and Bairút.


_The Province of Trabalús (Tripoli)._

Its sanjaks are: 1. Trabalús (Tripoli) the seat of the Páshá. 2. Hama.
3. Homs. 4. Salamieh. 5. Jebella. 6. Latakia. 7. Husnábád. It has also
forty Begs of the Drúzís in the mountains which belong to it.


_The Province of Adna._

Having been separated from the government of Haleb, it has no diván
officers. The sanjaks are: 1. Sís. 2. Tarsús. 3. Karatásh. 4.
Selfekeh. It has also seven Bóï-begs. Being a mountainous country it is
very turbulent.


_The Province of Haleb (Aleppo)._

Two of its sanjaks which receive a stipend, have no ziámet nor tímár.
The sanjaks are: 1. Akrád Kilís. 2. Bírejek. 3. Maura. 4. Azir. 5.
Bális. 6. Antakia (Antioch). Those which receive the allowance are
Massiaf, and the sanjak of the Turkomans, who are very numerous in this
province.


_The Province of Díúrbeker._

In this province there are nineteen sanjaks, and five hakúmets (or
hereditary governments). Eleven of the nineteen sanjaks are the same as
the others in the Ottoman provinces, but the remaining eight were, at
the time of the conquest, conferred on Kurdish Begs with the patent of
family inheritance for ever. Like other sanjaks, they are divided into
ziámets and tímárs, the possessors of which are obliged to serve in
the field; but if they do not, the ziámet or timár may be transferred
to a son or relation, but not to a stranger. The hakúmets have neither
ziámets nor timárs. Their governors exercise full authority, and
receive not only the land revenues, but also all the other taxes which
in the sanjaks are paid to the possessor of the ziámet or timár,
such as the taxes for pasturage, marriages, horses, vineyards, and
orchards. The Ottoman sanjaks are: 1. Kharpút. 2. Arghání. 3. Siverek.
4. Nissibin. 5. Husunkeïf. 6. Miafarakain. 7. Akchékala’. 8. Khapúr.
9. Sinjár. The Kurdish are: 1. Síghmán. 2. Kúláb. 3. Mehrásí. 4. Aták.
5. Bertek. 6. Chapakchúr. 7. Chermek. 8. Terjíl. The independent
governments: 1. Jezíreh. 2. Akíl. 3. Kenj. 4. Palwá. 5. Hezzú. These
are extensive provinces, and their governors have the title of Janáb
(excellency). The officers of the diván of Díárbeker are: the defterdár
of the treasury with a rúz-námjí (journal-writer); a defterdár of the
feudal forces, an inspector (Emín), and a lieutenant (Kehiyá) of the
defter, and another for the Chávushes; a secretary (Kátib), a colonel,
and a lieutenant-colonel of the militia.


_The Province of Kars._

Before the conquest this district belonged to Erzrúm, but it was
afterwards made a separate province, and had the sanjak of Yásín joined
to it. It has a colonel and lieutenant-colonel, but no officers of the
defter. Its sanjaks are: 1. Little Erdehán. 2. Hújuján. 3. Zárshád. 4.
Kechrán. 5. Kághizmán. 6. Kars, the seat of the Páshá.


_The Province of Jíldir or Akhíchkeh._

Of the civil officers of the diván there is here only a defterdár
of the treasury; and of the military, there is a colonel and a
lieutenant-colonel of the feudal militia. The sanjaks are: 1. Oultí. 2.
Harbús. 3. Ardinj. 4. Hajrek. 5. Great Ardehán. 6. Postkhú. 7. Mahjíl.
8. Ijareh-penbek. Besides these there are four hereditary sanjaks: 1.
Púrtekrek. 2. Lawaneh. 3. Nusuf Awán. 4. Shúshád. During the reign
of Sultán Mohammed Khán, the castle of Kotátis was captured by Kara
Mortezá, and was added to this province.


_The Province of Gúrjistán or Georgia._

The sanjaks are: 1. Achikbásh. 2. Shúshád. 3. Dádián. 4. Gúríl. The
Begs of Megrelistán (Mingrelia) are all infidels; but Murád IV. reduced
them, and having placed Sefer Pasha as their governor, made the castle
of Akhickha the seat of government. To this day they send the annual
presents.


_The Province of Tarabafzún (Trebisonde)._

1. Gomish-kháneh. 2. Jankha. 3. Wíza. 4. Gúnia. 5. Batúm. Though this
province is small it has a defterdár of the Tímárs, a Kehiyá of the
defter, an Aláï-beg, and a Cherí-báshí.


_The Province of Rika._

The sanjaks of Rika and Rohá are: 1. Jemása. 2. Khárpud. 3. Deïr-rahba.
4. Bení Rebia. 5. Sarúj. 6. Kharán. 7. Rika. 8. Rohá or Urfa, which is
the seat of the Páshá; it has no officers.


_The Province of Baghdád._

Seven of the eighteen sanjaks of this province are divided, as in other
parts of the empire, into ziámets and timárs. They are: 1. Hilla. 2.
Zeng-ábád. 3. Javazar. 4. Rúmáhía. 5. Jangula. 6. Kara-tágh. 7.——.
The other eleven sanjaks which are called Irák, have neither ziámets
nor tímárs. They are: 1. Terteng. 2. Samwat. 3. Bíát. 4. Derneh. 5.
Deh-balád. 6. Evset. 7. Kerneh-deh. 8. Demir-kapú. 9. Karanieh. 10.
Kilán. 11. Alsáh. These have no ziámets or tímárs, and are entirely in
the power of their possessors.


_The Province of Basra._

This was formerly a hereditary government (mulkiat), but was reduced to
an ordinary province (eyálet) when conquered by Sultán Mohammed IV. It
has a defterdár and Kehiyá of the Chávushes, but neither Aláï-beg nor
Cherí-báshí, because there are no ziámets or tímárs; the lands being
all rented by the governor.


_The Province of Lahsa._

This being a hereditary government, has neither ziámets nor tímárs,
but the governor sends a monthly present to the governor of Baghdád.
Formerly its governors were installed as Begler-begs, but they now hold
their authority without a patent.


_The Province of Yemen._

This too, since the time of Mohammed Khán IV., has been unlawfully
occupied by the Imáms.


_The Province of Abyssinia._

This province is also without ziámets or tímárs. Once in three years
an officer is sent from the Sublime Porte, to claim it as a government
province (Mulk). There are no private leases (iltizám).


_The Province of Mecca._

Mecca is divided between the Sheríf and the Páshá of Jidda. There are
no revenues but those derived from the aqueducts.


_The Province of Egypt._

Here there are neither ziámets nor tímárs. Its villages are registered
either as belonging to the crown (Mír Mál), or to pious foundations
(Wakf), or to the Káshif, or as rented by the inhabitants of towns
(Iltizám-beledí). There is a defterdár of the treasury, a journal
keeper (Rúznámehjí), seven clerks of the leases (Mokata’jí), a
comptroller (Mokábelejí) on the part of the Páshá, forty Begs and seven
commanders of the seven military bodies. The sanjaks held by Begs are
the following: 1. Upper Egypt. 2. Jirja. 3. Ibrim. 4. Alwáhát. (the
Oasis). 5. Manfelút. 6. Sharakieh (the eastern part of the Delta). 7.
Gharabieh (the western part). 8. Manúfieh. 9. Mansúrieh. 10. Kalúbieh.
11. Bakhair. 12. Damiat (Damietta). These are all governed by Begs. The
first in rank of the Begs of Egypt is the Emír-ul-haj, or chief of the
caravan to Mecca, who by the Arabs is called Sultán-al-barr, or lord
of the continent. His Kehiyá or deputy has the privilege of wearing an
aigrette.

As I have not travelled through the kingdoms of Algiers, Tunis, and
Tripoli, I do not give any account of them, but it is well known that
they are extensive territories.


_The Province of Mosul._

This has no officers of the Diván, but a colonel and a
lieutenant-colonel. Its sanjaks are: 1. Bájwánlí. 2. Tekrit. 3. Eskí
Mosul (Nineveh). 4. Harú.


_The Province of Wán._

The officers are, the defterdár of the treasury and of the tímárs,
the inspector and deputy of the rolls and Chávushes, a clerk of the
Chávushes, a colonel and lieutenant-colonel. Its sanjaks are: 1.
Adaljewáz. 2. Arjish. 3. Músh. 4. Bárgerí. 5. Kárkár. 6. Kesání. 7.
Zíríkí. 8. Asa’bard. 9. Aghákís. 10. Akrád. 11. Bení-kutúr. 12. Kala’
Báyazíd. 13. Burdú’. 15. Khalát. In the governments of Tiflis, Hakkárí,
Majmúdí, and Peniánish, there are ziámets and tímárs; the tribute
received from them is appropriated to the pay of the garrison of Wán.
All other fees and duties are received by the Kháns who hold these
governments in hereditary possession.


_The Province of Erzerúm._

This has twelve sanjaks; its officers are, a defterdár of the treasury,
an inspector and deputy of the rolls and Chávushes, and a clerk of
the Chávushes. The sanjaks are: 1. Kara-hisár. 2. Keïfí. 3. Pásín. 4.
Ispír. 5. Khanís. 6. Malázgír. 7. Tekmán. 8. Kuzúján. 9. Túrtúm. 10.
Lejengerd. 11. Mámar. 12. Erzerúm, the seat of the Páshá.


_The Province of Sheherzúl._

This province has the full number of diván officers. Its sanjaks are:
1. Sarújek. 2. Erbíl. 3. Kesnán. 4. Sheher-bázár. 5. Jengúleh. 6.
Jebel-hamrin. 7. Hazár-mardúd. 8. Alhúrán. 9. Merkáreh. 10. Hazír.
11. Rúdín. 12. Tíltárí. 13. Sebeh. 14. Zenjír. 15. Ajúb. 16. Abrúmán.
17. Pák. 18. Pertelí. 19. Bílkás. 20. Aúshní. 21. Kala’ Ghází. 22.
Sheherzúl, which is the seat of the Páshá. There are some tribes in
this province who are not governed by begs invested with a drum and
banner; more than one hundred chiefs of such tribes, who hold their
lands as ziámets, but by a hereditary right, accompany the Páshá, when
required, to the field of battle.



Section IV.

_Of the ranks of the Sanjak-begs._


According to the constitutional laws of Sultán Soleïmán, the
sanjak-begs rank according to their pay, except when there is a deposed
grand vezír amongst them, who in such case takes precedence over
them all. The pay of a sanjak-beg is at first 200,000 aspres, which
is increased in proportion to the period of his service, until he
becomes begler-beg, or mír mírán. Should, however, one of the aghás or
commanding generals of the military corps at Constantinople be made a
sanjak-beg, his pay from the first is more than 200,000 aspres. Thus,
the Aghá of the Janissaries, when he is appointed a sanjak-beg, at
once receives 500,000 aspres. The nishánjí-báshí (lord privy seal),
the mír alem (standard bearer of the empire), the chamberlain, and the
grand master of the horse, receive an increase of 100,000 aspres. The
cháshní-gír-báshí (comptroller of the kitchen), the mutafarrek-báshí
(chief of the couriers), the under-master of the horse, the Aghá of
sipáhís and silihdárs, of the ságh-ulúfejíán and sól-ghurebá (two
bodies of cavalry), all become sanjak-begs with a salary of 300,000
aspres. The segbán-báshí (a general of the Janissaries), the Kehiyá
(deputy) of the defter, the defterdárs of the tímárs and yáyá-begs,
and all whose ziámets amount to more than 500,000 aspres, receive an
addition of 100,000 aspres, as sanjak-begs. Such begs as distinguish
themselves by good conduct are rewarded with vacant tímárs; each
sanjak-beg furnishes for every 5,000 aspres of his revenues one armed
man. The smallest income of a sanjak-beg being 200,000 aspres, he
brings forty armed men into the field; if he has 500,000 aspres he
furnishes 500 men, and so on in proportion.


Section V.

_Of the Khás, or revenue of the Sanjak-begs, the Kehiyás of the Defter
and the Defterdárs of Tímárs._

_Rumeili._

Khás of the sanjak-begs of the Morea 5,776 aspres; Scutari, 59,200;
Avlonia, 39,000; Silistria, 89,660; Nicopolis, 40,000; Okhrí, 35,299;
Yanina, 20,260; Terhala, 50,885; Gústendíl 42,400; Elbesán, 1,963;
Chermen, 4,000; Víza, 34,465; Delvina, 7,132; Salonik, 80,832;
Skopí, 40,000; Dúkagín, 27,500; Widín, 3,000; Alájeh-hisár, 20,399;
Weljeterín, 50,000; Perzerín, 28,146; Ziámet of the kehiyá of the
defter, 1,426; of the defterdárs, 2,000; of the beg of the Yúrúks
(wandering tribes) of Víza, 2,000; of the yúrúk-beg of Rodosto, 60,000;
of the yurúk-beg of Yánbolí, 3,470; of the yúrúk-beg of Okchebóli,
3,494; of the yúrúk-beg of Koja, 4,000; of the yúrúk-beg of Salonik,
41,397; of the yúrúk-beg of Naldúkín, 3,500; of the capudán of Cavala,
4,314; of the beg of the Voinoks, 5,052.


_Bosnia._

Khás of the beg of Kilís, 42,500; Hersek, 10,515; Zvorník, 35,793;
Poshega, 66,230; Zachina, 70,000; Karak, 30,000; Rahovicha, 70,000.

Ziámet of the kehiyá of the defter, 46,000; of the defterdár, 5,530.


_The Archipelago._

Khás of the Beg of Negropont, 40,000; Karlíeïlí (Acarnania), 3,000;
Einabakht (Lepanto), 30,000; Rodós (Rhodes), 77,004; Mytylini, 40,000;
Kojaeïlí, 6,526; Bígha, 13,088; Sighla, 30,000; Misistra, 19,000.

Ziámet of the kehiyá, 8,390; of the defterdár, 22,077.


_The Province of Bude._

Khás of Semendria, 40,260; Becheví (Fünf-kirchen or Fife-churches),
40,000; Oustúnbelgrade (Stuhl-weissenburg), 26,000; Osterghún (Gran),
10,000; Segdín, 40,000; Sirem, 25,675; Essek, 20,000; Shamtorna,
40,000; Kopán and Filek, 20,000; Nigisár, 34,000; Novigrád, 33,940;
Sonlí, 40,000; Míhaj, 92,000; Siget, 4,230; Segsár, 34,000; Míján,
40,260.

Khás of the Defterdár, 5,520; ziámet of the kehiyá of the defter,
3,240; of the kehiyá of the tímárs, 8,940.


_The Province of Temisvár._

Lippova, 10,000; Kiánád, 20,792; Gúla, 28,945; Madava, 60,080; Yánova,
2,420; Ishbesh, 1,945; Ziámet of the defterdár of the treasury, 60,000;
of the Kehiyá, 4,880; of the defterdár of the tímárs, 60,000.


_The Province of Anatolia._

Khás of the beg of Sárukhán, 40,000; Aïdín, 34,600; Kara Hisár Afíún,
40,299; Angora, 64,300; Brúsa, 18,089; Bolí, 20,122; Kastamúní, 50,000;
Muntesha, 40,800; Tekkeh, 28,000; Hamíd, 24,000; Jánkrí, 48,081;
Karasí, 3,000; Sultánógí, 5,000.

Ziámet of the kehiyá, 10,912; of the defterdár, 4,596.


_The Province of Karamán._

Khás of the beg of Kaisarieh (Cæsarea), 5,000; Begshehrí, 90,000;
Akseráí, 35,000; Aksheher, 1,000; Kírsheher, 7,540.

Khás of the defterdár, 5,000; of the kehiyá, 5,000.


_The Province of Kubrus (Cyprus)._

Khás of Icheïlí, 27,000; Aláíeh, 50,000; Tarsús, 45,260; Sís, 60,299.

Khás of the defterdár of the treasury, 20,000; of the defterdár of the
ziámets, 70,000; of the kehiyá, 42,000.


_The Province of Tripoli (in Syria)._

Khás of Homs, 20,290; Jebellieh, 34,180; Salamieh, 9,000; Hamá, 94,030.

Khás of the defterdár of the treasury, 13,000; of the kehiyá, 64,800;
of the defterdár of the timárs, 40,000.


_The Province of Haleb (Aleppo)._

Khás of the beg of Adna, 95,000; Kilís, 2,827; Bírejek, 5,220; Makra,
30,000; Azíz, 20,000; Balís, 20,000.

Khás of the defterdár of the treasury, 27,826; of the kehiyá, 6,930; of
the defterdár of the tímárs, 1,146.


_The Province of Zulkadrieh or Mera’ish._

Malatieh, 50,000; Eintáb, 5,130; Mera’ish, 25,300.


_The Province of Sivás._

Khás of the beg of Amasia, 30,000; Chorum, 30,000; Búzouk, 300,275;
Dívergí, 50,360; Jáník, 7,024; Arabgír, 21,000.

Ziámet of the kehiyá, 80,200; of the defterdár, 2,550.


_The Province of Erzerúm._

Khás of the beg of Karahisár Sharakí, 3,000; Keïfí, 3,000; Básín,
94,000; Ispír, 30,000; Khanís, 80,440; Malázgír, 50,000; Turkmán,
4,929; Okúzján, 20,702; Túrtúm, 97,000; Lejengird, 40,000; Mámerván,
3,000.

Khás of the defterdár of the treasury, 42,900; of the defterdár of the
tímárs, 20,200.


_The Province of Kars._

Khás of Erdehán Kúchuk, 9,030; Hújú-ján, 2,500; Rúshád, 40,000;
Kázmaghán, 2,000; Kecherán, 2,000.


_The Province of Childer or Akhichka._

Khás of Oultí, 2,017; Pertek, 2,190; Erdenúh, 70,000; Erdehán Buzúrg,
2,000; Shúshád, 56,000; Livána (two hereditary sanjaks), 65,000;
Kharbús, 2,500; Sahrek, 65,000; Pústúkh, 6,500; Mánjíl, 3,229; Penbek,
40,000.


_The Province of Trebisonde._

Ziámet of the kehiyá of Bátúm, 3,000 apres; ziámet of the defterdár of
the tímárs, 42,290.


_The Province of Díárbeker._

Khás of Kharpút, 9,999; Arghaní, 20,515; Súrek, 3,043; Aták, 47,200;
Nesíbín, 30,000; Terjíl, 45,200; Jermík, 3,140; Husn-keïf, 2,955; Akíl,
9,675; Chapík-júd, 7,000; Jemishgezek, 4,223; Samsád, 9,057; Sha’ir,
3772; Akchakala’, 20,000; Sinjár, 1,517; Mufarakín, 20,000; Lisán and
Búzbán, 6,000; Khákenj, 7,834.

Khás of the defterdár, 40,395; ziámet of the kehiyá of the defter,
10,924; khás of the defterdár of the timárs, 8,000.


_The Province of Rakka._

Khás of Jemáseh, 5,122; Dair Rahba, 8,000; Kápúr, 10,000; Así Rabia’,
40,000; Sarúj, 20,000; Ana, 82,215.


_The Province of Baghdád._

Khás of Zangábád, 70,000; Helleh, 51,000; Javázer, 20,000; Rúmnáhieh,
45,000; Jengúleh, 20,000; Kara (an hereditary government), 4,287;
Derteng, 20,000; Samvát, 55,000; Derneh, 6,931; Dehbálá, 60,000; Váset,
20,000; Kerend, 29,260; Tapúr, 20,000; Karanieh, 20,000; Kílán, 20,000;
Al Ságh, 200,000; Ziámet of the kehiyá of the defter, 10,000; of the
defterdár of the tímárs, 80,000.


_The Province of Wán._

Khás of Adeljaván, 50,346; Arjís, 30,000; Músh, 1,000; Bárgerí, 20,000;
Kárkár, 20,000; Keshán, 25,000; Ispághird, 20,000; Aghákís, 50,000;
Akrád, 90,000; Wádí Bení Kutúr, 70,000; Kala’ Báyazíd, 1,044; Bardú’,
20,000; Wáwjik, 95,000.

Ziámet of the kehiyá of the defter, 60,999; of the defterdár of the
timárs, 3,870.


_The Province of Mosul._

Khás of Bájuvánlí, 15,000; Tekrít, 7,284; Harún, 20,000; Bána, 30,000.


Section VI.

_Statement of the number of swords or men brought into the field by the
Possessors of Tímárs and Ziámets._

_The Province of Rumeili._

The number of its swords or armed men is 9,274, of which 914 are
ziámets, the rest tímárs, with and without tezkerehs (commissions).
The Zái’ms, or possessors of the ziámets, for every 5,000 aspres of
their revenues provide one armed man. Tímárís, or possessors of the
tímárs, of from 10,000 to 20,000, find three men. Thus the militia of
Rúmeïlí consists of Zái’ms, Tímárs, and Jebellís, or guards, amounting
in all to 20,200 men. The sanjak-beg, the kehiyá of the defter, and
the defterdár of the timárs, for every 5,000 aspres of their revenues
provide one man: the number of men found by these being 2,500, the
troops of Rúmeïlí amount to 33,000 men; and, including the servants, to
40,000 men.


Section VII

_Number of Ziámets and Tímárs in each of the Sanjaks in Rúmeïlí._

Sofia, the seat of the Páshá, has 7,821 ziámets and tímárs; Kustandíl
48 ziámets, 1,018 tímárs; Terkhaleh 32 ziámets, 539 tímárs; Yánina 62
ziámets, 34 tímárs; Uskúb 57 ziámets, 340 tímárs; Ohrí 20 ziámets, 529
tímárs; Avlonia 38 ziámets, 489 tímárs; Morea 200 ziámets; Eskenderieh
75 ziámets, 422 tímárs; Nicopolis 20 ziámets, 244 tímárs; Chermen 20
ziámets, 130 tímárs; Elbesán 18 ziámets, 138 tímárs; Víza 30 ziámets,
79 tímárs; Delvina 34 ziámets, 1,155 tímárs; Saláník (Salonica) 36
ziámets, 762 tímárs; Kirk-kilisá 18 tímárs; Dúkagín 10 ziámets, 52
tímárs; Widín 12 ziámets, 25 tímárs; Alaja-hisár 27 ziámets, 509
tímárs; Wejterín, 10 ziámets, 17 tímárs; Perzerín 17 ziámets, 225
tímárs; Akchebólí, an Oják of the Yúrúks or wandering tribes, 188; of
the Yúrúks of Teker Tághí or Rodosto 324; of the Yúrúks of Saláník
128; of Koják 400; of Na’ldúkín 314; of the Musselmans of Rúmeïlí
400; of the Musselmans of Kuziljeh 300; of the Musselmans of Chermen
301; of Chinganeh (Gypsies or Bohemians) 198; of Víza 178;—in all
1,019 hereditary ojáks or families. In the government registers thirty
persons of these Yúrúks or Musselmans are called an _oják_, or family.
In the time of war these Yúrúks and Musselmans constitute the flying
troops (ishkenjí), and in their turn twenty-five of these perform the
duties of yamáks, or servants, to the other five. During war the Yamáks
are obliged to pay 55 aspres per head in lieu of all diván duties,
but in time of peace they are exempt from all taxes. The ishkenjí or
flying-troops (voltigeurs) pay no farm-taxes when they go to war; but
should they become sipáhís or feudatory tenants, they are not exempt
from the duties of Yúrúks. To the Musselmans a portion of land is
allotted, which is registered as a tímár, and of which they pay no
tithes. Their duties are to drag the artillery in the time of war, to
clear the roads, and to carry the necessary provisions for the army.


Section VIII.

_Number of Ziámets and Timárs in Anatolia._

There are 7,313 swords, of which 195 are ziámets and the other tímárs;
they provide 9,700 jebellí or armed men, and others, amounting in all
to 17,000 men. Their annual revenue amounts to 37,317,730 aspres. The
ziámets and tímárs are as follows: Kútáhieh 79 ziámets, 939 tímárs;
Sarúkhán 41 ziámets, 674 tímárs; Aídín 19 ziámets, 572 tímárs;
Karahisár, 15 ziámets, 616 tímárs; Angora 10 ziámets, 257 tímárs; Brúsa
30 ziámets, 1,005 tímárs; Bolí 14 ziámets, 551 tímárs; Kostamúní 24
ziámets, 587 tímárs; Munteshá 52 ziámets, 381 tímárs; Tekkeh 7 ziámets,
392 tímárs; Hamíd 9 ziámets, 585 tímárs; Karasí 7 ziámets 381 tímárs;
Sultán-ogí 7 ziámets, 182 tímárs. In Anatolia there are also Musselmans
(freemen) and Píádeh or Yáyá (pioneers), who to the number of 900 men
go to war; these with the Yamáks amount to 26,500 men; their duties
are to drag the guns, clear the roads, and carry provisions. They have
lands (chiftlik) like the Yúrúks of Rúmeïlí, which are registered as
tímárs. This was the establishment in the reign of Sultán Soleïmán, but
at present they are all enrolled as rayás, and the possessors of these
tímárs are obliged to accompany the Kapúdán Páshá when he goes to sea.
Formerly there were in this province 1,280 volunteering Arabs, who, for
every ten men providing one armed-man, sent 128 men into the field.
They are now disbanded.


_The Province of the Kapúdán Páshá, or the islands of the Archipelago._

This formerly provided 1,618 swords; but Ja’fer Páshá, who was formerly
Bóstánjí Báshí, during the reign of Murád IV. increased their number
to 9,900: of these 106 were ziámets and the rest were tímárs; adding
to them the jebellís the entire number was 12,067 men. The Arabs, the
volunteers of the Arsenal, and the men of sixty galleys, also formed
a body of 10,000 men. The annual revenue of their ziámets and tímárs
amounted to 1,800,000 aspres. The following are the ziámets and tímárs:
Negropont 12 ziámets, 188 tímárs; Einabakht (Lepanto) 13 ziámets, 287
tímárs; Mytylini 83 tímárs; Kojaeïlí 25 ziámets, 187 tímárs; Sighla
32 ziámets, 225 tímárs; Kárlieïlí 11 ziámets, 19 tímárs; Gallipolí 14
ziámets, 132 tímárs; Ródós (Rhodes) 5 ziámets, 785 tímárs; Bíghá 6
ziámets, 136 tímárs; Misistra 10 ziámets, 91 tímárs.


_The Province of Karamán._

This province supplies 1,620 men, 110 of which are ziámets, the rest
tímárs; with the jebellís they amount to 4,600 men. Their annual
revenue is 1,500,000 aspres. Konia has 13 ziámets, 515 sanjaks;
Kaisaria (Cæsarea) 12 ziámets, 200 tímárs; Níkdeh 13 ziámets, 255
tímárs; Begshehrí 12 ziámets, 244 tímárs; Akshehrí 9 ziámets, 22
tímárs; Kirkshehrí 4 ziámets, 13 tímárs; Akseráï 12 ziámets, 228 tímárs.


_The Province of Rúm or Sivás._

This has 3,130 swords or men, of which 109 are ziámets, the rest
tímárs. The begs, záims, and tímariots with their jebellís amount to
9,000 men. Their annual revenue amounts to 3,087,327 aspres. Sivás has
48 ziámets, 928 tímárs.


_The Province of Mara’ish._

2,169 swords, of which 29 are ziámets, and the rest tímárs. The begs,
záims, tímariots, and jebellís amount to 55,000 men. Their annual
revenue amounts to 9,423,017 aspres. Mara’ish has 3 ziámets, 1,120
tímárs; Kars 2 ziámets, 656 tímárs; Eintáb 2 ziámets, 656 tímárs;
Malatea 8 ziámets, 276 tímárs.


_The Province of Haleb (Aleppo)._

933 swords, of which 104 are ziámets, the rest tímárs; the whole number
of troops with the jebellís is 2,500 men. Haleb 18 ziámets, 1,295
tímárs; Adna 11 ziámets, 190 tímárs; Kilís 17 ziámets, 295 tímárs;
Ma’kra 9 ziámets, 890 tímárs; Azíz 2 ziámets, 190 tímárs; Balís 6
ziámets, 57 tímárs.


_The Province of Shám (Damascus)._

996 swords, of which 28 are ziámets and the rest tímárs; it has with
the jebellís 1,600 men. Kuds-Sheríf (Jerusalem) 9 ziámets, 16 tímárs;
Aajelún 4 ziámets, 21 tímárs; Lajún 9 ziámets, 26 tímárs; Safed 5
ziámets, 133 tímárs; Gaza 7 ziámets, 108 tímárs; Náblús 7 ziámets, 124
tímárs.


_The Province of Cyprus._

1,667 swords, of which 40 are ziámets, and the rest tímárs. The begs,
záims, tímariots and jebellís amount to 4,500 men. Cyprus 9 ziámets, 38
tímárs; Aláíeh 9 ziámets, 152 tímárs; Tarsús 13 ziámets, 418 tímárs;
Sís 2 ziámets, 52 tímárs; Ich-eïlí 16 ziámets, 602 tímárs.


_The Province of Tripoli (in Syria)._

614 swords, with the jebellís, 1,400 men. Tripoli 12 ziámets, 875
tímárs; Homs 9 ziámets, 91 tímárs; Jebellieh 9 ziámets, 91 tímárs;
Salamieh 54 ziámets, 52 tímárs; Hama 27 ziámets, 171 tímárs.


_The Province of Rakka._

654 swords, with their jebellís, 1,400 men. Rakka 3 ziámets, 132
tímárs; Roha 9 ziámets, 291 tímárs; Birehjík 15 ziámets, 109 tímárs;
A’na 6 ziámets, 129 tímárs.


_The Province of Trebizonde._

454 swords, with their jebellís, 8,150 men. Trebizonde 43 ziámets, 226
tímárs; Batúm 5 ziámets, 72 tímárs.


_The Province of Díárbekr._

730 swords, with their jebellís, 1,800 men. In the reign of Sultán
Murád IV. this province provided 9,000 men. Amed has 9 ziámets, 1,129
tímárs; Kharpút 7 ziámets, 123 tímárs; Argháneh 9 ziámets, 123 tímárs;
Sívrek 4 ziámets, 123 tímárs; Nesíben, 15 ziámets and tímárs; Berehjík
4 ziámets, 123 tímárs; Chermik 6 ziámets, 13 tímárs; Husnkeïf 45
ziámets and tímárs; Chabákchúr 5 ziámets, 30 tímárs; Jemeshgezek 2
ziámets, 7 tímárs; Sinjár 6 ziámets, 21 tímárs.


_The Province of Erzerúm._

5,279 swords, with the jebellís 8,000 men. Erzerúm 5 ziámets, 2,215
tímárs; Túrtúm 5 ziámets, 49 tímárs; Bámerwán 4 ziámets, 92 tímárs;
Keïfí 8 ziámets, 229 tímárs; Malázgír 9 ziámets, 281 tímárs; Khanís 2
ziámets, 425 tímárs; Tekmán 1 ziámet, 253 tímárs; Kara-hisár 4 ziámets,
94 tímárs.


_The Province of Childer._

650 swords, with the jebellís, 8,000 men. Oultí 3 ziámets, 132 tímárs;
Erdehán 8 ziámets, 45 tímárs; Ezerbúj 4 ziámets, 49 tímárs; Hajrek 2
ziámets, 12 tímárs; Kharnús 13 ziámets, 35 tímárs; Pústú 1 ziámet, 18
tímárs; Benek 8 ziámets, 54 tímárs; Básín 9 ziámets, 14 tímárs; Alúrí
9 ziámets, 10 tímárs; Oustjeh 8 ziámets, 17 tímárs; Cháklik 33 tímárs;
Jetla 13 ziámets, 14 tímárs; Ispír 1 ziámet, 4 tímárs; Petek 3 ziámets,
98 tímárs.


_The Province of Wán._

Regulars and jebellís 1,300 men. Wán has 48 ziámets, 45 tímárs;
Shevergír 47 ziámets, 33 tímárs; Júbánlú 2 ziámets, 26 tímárs; Wedáleh
7 ziámets, 21 tímárs; Kala’ Báyazíd 4 ziámets, 125 tímárs; Arjísh
14 ziámets, 86 tímárs; Aduljeváz 9 ziámets, 101 tímárs; Kúrládek 7
ziámets, 67 tímárs.

In the reign of Sultán Soleïmán the feudal force of Rúmeïlí amounted
to 91,600 men. On so firm a foundation had he established the Ottoman
empire, that when he made war in Europe he required not the troops
of Asia; and when he took the field in Asia, he had no occasion for
the forces of Europe. His victorious wars in Germany and Persia, were
carried on solely with his regular troops. His whole army having
been numbered amounted to 500,000 men. Of these there were 40,000
janissaries and 20,000 cavalry or sipáhís, who with their servants
amounted to 40,000 men. After the conquest of Yánova, Mohammed IV.
increased the army by 3,000 men, and after the conquest of Uivár by
8,000 men. Keríd (Candia) also, having been conquered and divided into
ziámets and timárs, gave 100,000 rayás and 20,000 troops.

In the year 1060 (A.D. 1649) during the reign of Sultán Mohammed IV.
my noble lord Melek Ahmed Páshá being grand vezír, a royal firmán was
issued to review the whole of the Ottoman army. Every soul receiving
pay in the seven climates was registered, and the result was 566,000
serving men, the annual pay of whom amounted to 43,700 purses, and with
the pay of the troops in Egypt to 90,040 purses (45,020,000 piastres):
thus the army far exceeded that of Soleïmán’s time.


Section X.

_The order of the Diván._

Before the time of Sultán Soleïmán there was no regular diván. He
held a grand diván on four days during the week, composed of the
seven vezírs of the cupola, the two judges of the army, the Aghá of
the Janissaries and of the six bodies of cavalry. The Chávush-báshí
(marshal of the court); and the Kapíjílár Kehiyásí (chief chamberlain)
were required to attend on such days with their silver staffs of
office. The grand vezír gave judgment on all law-suits; and the Kapúdán
Páshá, seated without the cupola, decided all matters relating to the
navy. On Wednesdays the chief of the eunuchs decided causes relating to
Mecca and Medina. It was Sultán Soleïmán who established the regular
dress of the diván. The vezírs and the Kapúdán Páshá wore the turban
called the _selímí_, and so did the Aghá of the Janissaries provided
he were a vezír. The Chávúsh-báshí (marshal), the Kapíjílár Ketkhodásí
(the chief chamberlain), the Mir-alem (the standard-bearer of the
state), the Chakirjí-báshí (superintendent of the household), the Mír
Akhor (master of the horse), the Cháshnígír-báshí (comptroller of the
kitchen), and the Mutaferrika-báshí (chief of the couriers) wore the
_mujavera_, or high round turban, and Khaláts of atlas or satin called
_oust_. The generals of the Janissaries and Sipáhís, the Chávushes of
the diván, and the seventy heads of the offices of the treasury, all
stood in their places dressed in their _mujavera_ and _oust_ ready to
transact business. On these days the Janissaries were served by the
Aghá with 3,000 dishes of wheat broth, which if they would not touch,
the emperor at once knew that they were dissatisfied. On such occasions
he repaired to the Adálet Koshkí (kiosk of equity), where he in person
decided some of their most important questions. In the evening they all
sat down to a sumptuous repast, which was served by the Zulflí-báltají
to the vezírs, and by the tent-pitchers to the rest of the company.
After the repast the seven vezírs, the Kapúdán Páshá and the Aghá of
the Janissaries with the two great judges were introduced by the gate
of the Harem, to the presence of the emperor. They then returned to
the diván, where the Chávush-báshí taking the seal of the grand vezír,
sealed the treasure, and then returned it to the vezír.


_The conquests and victories of Soleïmán._

His first conquest was the defeat of the Circassian governor of Syria,
Ján Yazdí Ghazálí Khán, whose rebellious head Ferhád Páshá severed
from its body, and sent to the Sublime Porte in 927 (A.D. 1520). The
conquest of Yemen and death of Iskender the rebel 927 (1520). The
reduction of Belgrade and Tekúrlen, of Slankement and Kópanik in
the same year. The conquest of Rodos (Rhodes) in 928 (1521); of the
fortresses of Iskaradín, Helka, Eiligí, the island of Injírlí, the
fortress of Takhtalú, Istankoi (Cos), Bodrúm (Halicarnassus), in the
same year. The victory of Mohacz, followed by the fall of Waradin,
Oïlúk, Koprik, Eïlúk, Dimúrjeh, Irek, Gargofja, Lúkán, Sútan, Lakwár,
Wárdúd, Rácheh, Essek, Bude and Pest, in the year 932 (1525). The siege
of Kizil Alma (the Red Apple or the capital of Germany), and in the
following year the release of Yánush (John Zapolia) by Yehiyá Páshá
Zádeh. The conquest of Sokolofja, Kapúlieh, Shíla, Balwár, Lotofjí,
Túsh, Zákán, Kaniza, Kaporník, Balashka Chopanija, Shárwár, Nimetogur,
Kemendwár, Egersek, Moshter, and Moshtí in 939 (1532). Conquest of the
eastern provinces of Irák, Kazwín, Karákán, Baghdád, Eriván, Sultánieh,
Tabríz, and Hamadán, in 941 (1534). Wán, Adeljúváz, Arjísh, Akhlát,
Bárgerí, Amik, Khúsháb, Sultán, Sabádán, Jerem-bidkár, Rúsíní, Hella,
and Tenúr, in 941 (1534), Tabríz in the same year. An expedition into
Georgia and Appulia; with the conquest of Kilís in Bosnia, in the year
943 (1536). The conquest of Uivárin, Nadín, Sín, Kádín, Oporja, and
the expedition against Korfuz (Corfu) in the same year. The conquest
of Poshega, and the defeat of Sorkújí John near Essek in 944 (1537).
The expedition into Moldavia, the conquest of Yássí, Bassra, and
Bosnia, in 945 (1538). The relief of Nureh in Hersek, the conquest of
Yemen and Aden, the naval expedition against India and Díú; and the
conquest of Abyssinia in the same year, by the Eunuch Soleïmán Páshá.
Bude twice before besieged was now reduced, and Gházi Soleïmán Páshá
made governor, and Khair-ad-dín Efendí first judge. The conquest of
Stuhlweissenburg, Lippova, Grán, Tátá, Pápá, Vesperim, Poláta, and
Chargha in 950 (1543).

The death of the prince Mohammed happened in the same year. The capture
of Vishegráde near Grán, Khutwán, Shamtorna, Walifa in Bosnia, and of
the castle of Cerigo in 951 (1544). In 954 (1547) Alkás Mirzá, the
governor of Shírván and brother of Sháh Thamás took refuge at the
court of Soleïmán; and in the following year the towns of Kóm, Káshán
and Ispahán, were sacked by the emperors expedition. The conquest of
Pechevi (Five Churches) Pechkerek, Arát, Jenád (Cianad) Temesvár;
the battle of Khádem Alí Páshá in the plains of Segedin. Temesvár
was conquered in 959 (1551) by the second vezír, Ahmed Páshá; the
conquest of Solnuk; and the siege of Erla raised in the same year. The
expedition against Nakhcheván; the death of the prince Jehángír whilst
in winter quarters at Haleb (Aleppo) in 960 (1552). The conquest of
Sheherzúl and Zálim, with the castles belonging to it. The conquest of
Kapúshwár, Farúbeneh, and the Crimea. The victory of Malkúch Beg at
Kilís in Bosnia in 961 (1553). The contest between the princes Selím
and Báyazíd in the plains of Kóníya, in which Báyazíd was defeated and
took refuge with the Sháh of Persia, who gave him up, after which he
was put to death with his children at Sivás, 966 (1558). Expedition
against Siget, during the siege of which Pertev Páshá conquered, on
the Transylvanian side, the castles of Gúla, Yanova, and Dilághosh. Ten
days previous to these victories the Emperor Soleïmán bade farewell to
his transitory kingdom and removed to his never fading dominions. This
event happened during the siege of Siget, but the vezír Asif concealed
his illness and death so well for seventy days that even the pages
of the Khás óda were ignorant of it. On this account it is said that
Soleïmán conquered the towns of Siget, Gúla, and Kómár after his death.
Thus died Soleïmán after a reign of forty-eight years, having attained
the highest glory. His conquests extended over all the seven climates;
and he had the Khotba read for him in 2,060 different mosques. His
first victory was in Syria over the Circassian Khán Yezdí Ghazálí, and
his last that at Siget: he died seven days before the reduction of this
fortress. His death, which happened at nine o’clock on Wednesday the
22d of Sefer, was kept concealed till the arrival of his son Selím from
Magnesia. His body was carried to Constantinople and buried before the
Mihráb of the mosque which bears his name.


_The Reign of Sultán Selím II._

Sultán Selím the son of Sultán Soleïmán Khán was born in 931, and
ascended the throne in 974 (1566). He was an amiable monarch, took much
delight in the conversation of poets and learned men, and indulged in
pleasure and gaiety. His vezírs were,—the grand vezírs Sokollí Mohammed
Páshá, Ahmed Páshá (the conqueror of Temisvár), Piáleh Páshá, (the
Kapúdán Páshá), Zál Mahmúd Páshá, Láleh Mustafá Páshá, and Tútúnsez
Husain Páshá. These were vezírs endowed with the wisdom of Aristotle.

The Mír-mírán, or Begler-begs, who adorned his reign were,—Kapúdán Alí
Páshá, Súfi Alí Páshá, Yetúr Husain Páshá, Mahmúd Páshá, Mohammed Páshá
the son of Láleh Mustafa Páshá, Abd-ur-rahmán Páshá, Dávud Páshá, Rús
Hasan Páshá, Murád Pashá, Khádem Ja’fer Páshá, Dervísh Alí Páshá, Arab
Ahmed Páshá.


_Defterdárs and Nishánjís._

Murád Chelebí, Dervísh Chelebí the son of Bábá the painter, Lálá-zádeh,
Mohammed Chelebí, Memí Chelebí, Abd-ul-ghafúr Chelebí, Moharrem
Chelebi: Fírúz-beg the Nishánjí (lord privy seal), Mohammed Chelebí,
nephew of the late Nishánjí Jelál-zádeh Beg.

The most distinguished of the Ulemá in his reign were,—Yehíá
Efendí from Beshiktásh; Mevlena Mohammed Ben Abd-ul-waháb; Mevlena
Musalih-ud-din; Mevlena Ja’fer Efendí; Mevlená Ata-allah Efendí;
Mevlena Mohammed Chelebí; Ahmed Chelebí; Abd-ul-kerím Ben Mohammed, the
son of the Shaikh-ul-Islám (grand muftí) Abú-sa’úd.


_Physicians._

Mevlená Hakím Sinán, Hakím Othmán Efendí, Mevlená Hakím Isá, Hakím
Is’hák, Hakím Bder-ud-dín Mohammed Ben Mohammed Kásúní, Tabíb Ahmed
Chelebí.


_Mesháiekh or Learned Men._

The Sheïkh Ala-ud-dín (may God sanctify his secret state!) was of
Akseráï in Karamánia, and celebrated for his proficiency in the Ilm
Jefer, or cabalistic art, Sheikh Abd ul Kerím, Sheikh Arif billah
Mahmúd Chelebí, Sheikh Abú Sa’íd, Sheikh Hakím Chelebí, Sheikh Ya’kúb
Kermání, Serkhosh Bálí Efendí, Sheikh Ramazán Efendí, surnamed
Beheshtí, and Sheikh Mohammed Bergeví, who died in 981 (1573).


_Conquests &c. in the reign of Sultán Selím II._

The tribe of Alián of Basra having rebelled was subjugated in 975
(1567). The expedition to Azhderhán (Astrachan) in 977 (1569). The
conquest of Dasht Kipchák in 976 (1568). The conquest of Yemen and
Aden, a second time, by Sinán in 977. Arrival of the Moors banished
from Spain 978 (1570). Conquest of Cyprus with all its fortresses by
Lálá Kara Mustafa Páshá, in the same year. Of Tunis and the African
coast, by Kilij Alí Páshá in 977 (1569). Defeat of the grand imperial
fleet at Lepanto in 979 (1571). Flight of Tátár Khán to Moscow.
Renovation of Mekka in the same year. The recovery of Bosnia from the
infidels in 982 (1574).

Sultán Selím died on the 18th of Sha’bán 982. He left many monuments
of his grandeur, but none of them can be compared to the mosque which
he erected at Adrianople: in truth there is not one equal to it even
in Islámbol. He was succeeded by his own son Sultán Murád III., who
ascended the throne in 982 (1574). His sons were the princes,—Mustafa,
Osmán, Báyazíd, Selím, Jehángír, Abdullah, Abd-ur-rahmán, Hasan,
Ahmed, Ya’kúb, A’lem-sháh, Yúsuf, Husain, Korkúd, Alí, Is’hak, Omar,
Ala-ad-dín Dávud Khán. He had also twenty-four fair daughters, in all
one hundred and twenty-seven children, who were killed after his death
and buried beside him at Ayá Sofiá. May God have mercy upon them all!
Sultán Murád built the Koshk called Sinán Páshá’s Koshk in 992 (1584).


_Conquests &c. in the Reign of Murád._

Lálá Kara Mustafa Páshá’s grand battle on the plain of Childer, 983
(1575), followed by the fall of the fortresses of Childer, Tomek,
Khartín, Dákhil, Tiflís, Shebkí, Demir Kapú or Derbend, and the
reduction of the province of Shirván, which was given to Ozdemir Zádeh
Osmán Páshá. All these conquests were achieved in 991 (1583). The
first royal expedition was in 990. The defeat of Imám Kúlí Khán in 991.
In the same year the government of Magnesia was given to the Prince
Mahmúd Khán, and in the following year Mohammed Gheráï, Khán of the
Crimea, was deposed and put to death. In 992 the castle of Tabríz was
rebuilt, the fortress of Ganja was taken, and the expedition against
Baghdád under Jegháleh Zádeh. The conquest of Despúl, Nahávund, and
Guhardán, in 995 (1586). The grand battle of Khádem Ja’fer Páshá, in
the neighbourhood of Tabríz, 997 (1586). A peace concluded with the
Sháh (of Persia), who sent one of his sons as a hostage, 1000 (1591).
Capture of Bihka, and a new fortress built upon the Save in the same
year; also the defeat of the grand army in Bosnia, and the conquest
of Besperin and Polata. Defeat of the Mussulmán army near Istúlíní
(Stuhlweissenburg). Conquest of Tátá and Set-Martín (Saint Martin).
Commencement of the siege of Raab (which was reduced some time after by
Sinán Páshá), in 1003 (1594), when Sultán Mohammed Khán III. ascended
the throne (being on a Friday the 16th of Jemází ul evvel). In 1002
Sultán Murád Khán, resigned the reins of government and joined the
divine clemency. May God have mercy upon him!

Sultán Mohammed Khán son of Sultán Murád Khán was born at Magnesia in
976. The principal events and conquests of his reign are the following:
In 1004 (1595) the Tátár Khán arrived in Walachia and subdued the
rayás. In the same year Ja’fer Páshá delivered Temisvár from the
infidels. In the following year Egra (Erla) was taken, and the army
of the infidels routed in the plain of Shatúsh near Erla. In 1006 the
infidels recover Yánuk (Raab). Wárad besieged by Satúrjí Hasan Páshá in
1007 (1698). Yemishjí Páshá was deposed and killed, and Jegháleh Zádeh
died after having been defeated by the Persians in 1011 (1602). In the
following year the Persians took possession of Ganja and Shirwán; and
Mohammed died on the 18th of Rajab. He built a mausoleum for himself
in Islámból, and left numerous monuments in other towns of the empire,
particularly at Mecca and Medina. The sending of two ship-loads of corn
from Egypt to Mecca and Medina annually originated with him.

Sultán Ahmed Khán I., was born at Magnesia in 998 (1589). He was a fair
child of four years, when he ascended the throne on the 18th of Rajab
1012 (1603). I, the humble writer of these pages, Evliya the son of
Dervísh Mohammed, was born in the reign of this Sultán on the 10th of
Moharrem 1020 (1611). Six years after my birth, the building of the
new mosque (of Ahmed) was commenced, and in the same year the Sultán
undertook the expedition to Adrianople: God be praised that I came
into the world during the reign of so illustrious a monarch.


_Sons of Sultán Ahmed._

Othmán; Mohammed, who was murdered by his brother Othmán, in the
expedition to Hotín. Othmán was however unsuccessful and was also
slain; thus was verified the sacred text, “as you give so shall you
receive”. Murád, afterwards the fourth Sultán of that name; Báyazíd,
Soleïmán; these two were both strangled whilst Sultán Murád IV. was
engaged in the expedition to Eriván. Ibrahím was the youngest son of
Sultán Ahmed. May God extend his mercy to them all!


_Grand Vezírs of Sultán Ahmed._

Yávuz Alí Páshá, was promoted from the government of Egypt to the rank
of grand vezír. Mohammed Páshá, called also Sháhín Oghlí. Dervísh
Páshá. Ghází Khoajeh Páshá; who exterminated the rebels in Anadolí.
Nasúh Páshá. Dámád Mohammed Páshá was twice grand vezír, as was also
Khalíl Páshá.


_Vezírs of the Kubba (Cupola)._

Káïmmakám Kásim Páshá. Khádem Ahmed Páshá. Háfiz Sárikjí Mustafá Páshá.
Súfí Sinán Páshá. Khezr Páshá. Gúrjí Khádem Mohammed Páshá, who was
made grand vezír in the time of Sultán Mustafa. Etmekjí Zádeh Ahmed
Páshá. Kúrd Páshá. Gúzeljeh Mahmúd Páshá. Jegháleh Zádeh Sinán Páshá.
Jegháleh Zádeh Mahmúd Páshá, son of Sinán Páshá.


_Celebrated Divines._

Mollá Mustafa Efendí, was Shaikh ul Islám, when the Sultán ascended
the throne. Mollá Sana’allah Efendí. Mollá Mohammed Efendí, son of
Sa’d-ud-dín Efendí, known by the name of Chelebí Muftí. Mollá Shaikh
ul Islám Asa’d Efendí. Mollá Mustafa Efendí, tutor to the Sultán.
Mollá Káf Zádeh Efendí. Mollá Yehíá Efendí. Mollá Dámád Efendí. Mollá
Kemál Efendí, better known by the name of Tásh Koprí Zádeh. Mollá
Kehiyá Mustafá Efendí. Mollá Bostán Zádeh Mohammed Efendí. Mollá Husain
Efendí. Mollá Ghaní Zádeh Mohammed Efendí.


_Masháiekh or Learned Men._

Mahmúd of Uskudár (Scutari). Abdulmajíd of Sívás. Omar, known better
by the name of Tarjumán Shaikh (interpreter). Shaikh Emír Ishtipí.
Ibrahím, otherwise Jerráh Páshá, a disciple of the last-mentioned;
Mussaleh ud-dín Nakshbendí, the Imám or chaplain of the Sultán.


_Conquests &c. of the reign of Sultán Ahmed._

The grand vezír dies at Belgrade, and Bochkái appears in Hungary in
the year 1012 (1604). Conquest of Osterghún (Gran); and Bochkái and
Serkhúsh Ibrahim Páshá extend their depredations to the very walls
of Vienna. Engagement between the rebels in Anadólí and Nasúh Páshá;
the Káïm-makám Mustafa Páshá is executed. The grand vezír Sufí Sinán
Páshá is deposed, 1014 (1605). Nasúh Páshá is appointed to conduct the
expedition against Aleppo; Koja Mohammed Páshá is appointed to lead the
expedition against the Persians and is afterwards created grand vezír.
Murád Páshá, Dervísh Páshá, Bostánjí Ferhád Páshá, and Jelálí Murád
Páshá, are all alternately made vezírs; and the execution of Dervísh
Páshá, in 1015 (1606). Kapújí Murád Páshá is appointed commander of
the forces sent to Haleb against Jánpúlád Zádeh; the country about
Brúsa is laid waste by the rebel Kalender Oghlí; capture of Haleb by
Murád Páshá; defeat of Kalender Oghlí; and the appearance of the rebel
Múmjí, 1016 (1607). Yúsuf Páshá killed at Uskudár (Scutari) by the
rebels; and the grand vezír sacks Tabríz and seventy other Persian
towns 1019 (1610). Death of Murád Páshá at Chulenk near Díárbekr;
Nasúh Páshá is made commander-in-chief in 1021 (1612). Betlen is
installed king of Transylvania, which country is taken possession of,
and 200,000 prisoners are carried off, besides immense plunder. In the
same year the illustrious emperor undertook a journey to Adrianople.
The cossacks of the black sea plunder and burn Sinope, and Nasúh
Páshá being suspected is put to death, 1023 (1614). Mahmúd Páshá, his
successor, returns without success from the siege of Eriván, in 1024
(1616). In 1026 (1616) Khalíl Páshá is created grand vezír, and the
illustrious Sultán Ahmed dies in the month of Zilkadeh. During his
auspicious reign Islámból enjoyed the greatest tranquility. One of
his grandest monuments is the mosque which he built in the At-maidán
(Hipodrome), which we are now about to describe and thus resume the
description of the imperial mosques with which we commenced. It is
situated on an elevated spot, its Kibla side being near the Chateldí
gate, and commanding a view of the sea. Sultán Ahmed purchased five
vezírs’ palaces which stood on this spot, pulled them down, and with
the blessed Mahmúd Efendí, of Scutari, and our teacher Evliya Efendí,
laid the foundations of this mosque. The Sultán himself took a quantity
of earth, and threw it upon the foundation. Evliya Efendí performed the
functions of the Imám of the foundation-ceremony; Mahmúd Efendí those
of the Kází (judge); Kalender Páshá those of the Mo’tamid (counsellor);
and Kemán-kesh Alí Páshá those of the Názir (inspector). In three years
they commenced the dome.


_Description of the Mosque of Sultán Ahmed._

The cupola is seventy feet high and is supported by four massive
pillars, and four demi cupolas. It has no large columns within like
those of Ayá Sofíá and the Soleïmánieh. Along three sides of it runs
a gallery (tabaka) for the congregation, supported by small columns,
and over that a second gallery, from which is suspended a treble row
of lamps reaching half way to the first gallery. The mahfil of the
Moazzíns is supported by small pillars like the mahfil of the emperor.
The minber, or pulpit, is of variegated marble and sculptured in the
most tasteful manner. On the top of it is a most magnificent crown, and
over that is suspended a golden banner. The pen fails in attempting
to describe the beauty of the mehráb, on both sides of which are
candlesticks, containing lighted candles each weighing twenty quintals.
On the left side of the mehráb between two windows there is a fine
view of a most extraordinary square rock, which is certainly one of
the wonders of creation. All the windows are ornamented with painted
glass; and behind the two pillars, as in the Soleïmánieh, there are
fountains of ever-flowing water, where the faithful may perform their
ablutions or satisfy their thirst. The mosque has five gates. On the
right-hand corner is the gate of the Khatíb (or reader of the Khotba).
On the left-hand corner, beneath the mehráb of the Sultán, is the gate
of the Imám. Two lofty gates open on both sides of the building. The
ascent to these four gates is by a flight of marble steps. The fifth
and largest gate is that of the Kibla, facing the mehráb. No mosque can
boast of such precious hanging ornaments as those of this, which by the
learned in jewels are valued at one hundred treasuries of Egypt; for
Sultán Ahmed being a prince of the greatest generosity and the finest
taste, used all his jewels, and the presents which he received from
foreign sovereigns, in ornamenting the mosque. The most extraordinary
ornaments are the six emerald candelabra which are suspended in the
emperor’s mehráb, and which were sent as a present by Ja’fer Páshá,
the governor of Abyssinia. The sockets, each of which weighs eight
_okkas_, are suspended by golden chains, and terminate in golden feet
with green enamel. The experienced and learned have estimated the value
of each of these candelabra equal to one year’s tribute of Rúmeïlí. In
short, it is a most wonderful and costly mosque, and to describe it
baffles the eloquence of any tongue. Some hundred copies of the Korán
lying near the mehráb, on gilt desks inlaid with mother-o’-pearl, are
presents from sultáns and vezírs. The library consists of 9,000 volumes
marked with the toghra of the Sultán, the care of which is entrusted
to the Mutavellí (curator) of the mosque. On the outside, facing
the mehráb, is a most delightful garden, where the sweet notes of a
thousand nightingales give life to the dead-hearted, and the fragrant
odour of its flowers and fruits gratifies the senses of the faithful
assembled to prayer. The size of the mosque is the same as that of the
princes of Soleïmán. The court is a square paved with marble, and has
stone benches running along the four sides. The windows are guarded
with brass gratings: in the centre of the square plays a fountain of
the purest water, for the use of the faithful: it is however only
used for drinking, not for ablutions. The court has three gates. The
kibla gate, facing the chief entrance and mehráb of the mosque, is a
masterpiece of art, being of solid brass, twelve feet high, and the
astonishment of all who behold it. On the brass plates which form this
gate are carved oranges and arabesques, intermingled with flowers
of pure silver and with precious stones, and ornamented with rings,
locks, and bars of silver. It is indeed a most wonderful gate. Some
say that it was brought from Osterghún (Grán), where it adorned the
Roman church; but this is a mistake, for the famous gate at Osterghún
was carried off when the infidels retook that city, and it now adorns,
as the chief-door, the church of St. Stephen at Vienna. The gate of
this mosque was made under the superintendence of my father, Dervísh
Mohammed, at the time when he was chief of the goldsmiths. The two
inscriptions on brass were engraved by his own hand. On the outside of
the windows of the court there are several covered porches supported by
small columns, in which, when the assembly within is too great, many
of the faithful perform their devotions; and the Hindú fakírs find
shelter. The six lofty minárs of this mosque are divided into sixteen
stories, because it is the sixteenth royal mosque of Islámból, and the
founder of it, Sultán Ahmed, was the sixteenth of the Ottoman emperors.
Two minárs rise on the right and left of the mehráb, two others on the
north and south gates of the court, each three stories high, which
make in all twelve stories. The roofs and gilded crescents, which are
twenty cubits high, dazzle the eye with their splendour. The two minárs
on the corners of the court are lower and have only two stories; their
roofs are covered with lead. On the sacred nights these six minárs
are lighted up with 12,000 lamps, so that they resemble as many fiery
cypresses. The cupolas are all covered with lead. This mosque being
richly founded, has seven hundred and fifty attendants attached to it.
The tribute of Ghalata and many other pious bequests (wakf) constitute
its revenue. The outside of the court is a large sandy level planted
with trees, and surrounded by a wall which has eight gates. On the
north is the gate of the college, and near it is the mausoleum of
Sultán Ahmed. Three gates open towards the At-maidán (Hippodrome).
All these gates are made of iron like those of a fortress. On the
south-east of the At-maidán are the pious establishments belonging
to the mosque, the kitchen for the poor (imáret), the dining-hall
(dár-uz-zíáfat), the hospital (tímár-kháneh), and the fountain-house
(sebíl-kháneh).

Sultán Ahmed died before the outer court, the mausoleum, and the
college were completed. They were finished by his brother and
successor Sultán Mustafá, who, however, being very weak-minded, was
soon compelled to abdicate the throne in favour of his nephew Othmán
Khán, the eldest of Sultán Ahmed’s sons. He ascended the throne in
the year 1027 (1617). In the same year Mohammed Gheráï Khán of the
Crimea effected his escape from the Seven Towers, and fled to Právádí,
where however he was retaken. The Moslem army marched to Eriván, and
a peace was concluded with the Persians. In 1028 (1618) Súfí Mohammed
Páshá became grand vezír, and in the following year he was succeeded
by Kapúdán Alí Páshá. In the year 1030 the Bosphorus was frozen over;
Othmán killed his brother; and Husain Páshá was made grand vezír.


_The Imperial Expedition against Hotín._

Sultán Othmán having in 1030 (1620) failed in his attempt to reduce the
fortress of Hotín, returned to Islámból, and in the following year he
ordered the banners to be raised at Uskudár, as a sign of his marching
to the southern provinces of the empire, to Syria and to Egypt. This
caused a revolt amongst the troops, and the emperor finding no support,
either in the seráï (palace) or in the barracks of the Janissaries,
was thrust into a cart by the wrestler Bunyán and strangled within the
walls of the Seven Towers. The Jebbehjí-báshí cut off one of his ears
and carried it with the news of his murder to Dávud Páshá. His body was
buried in the At-maidán in the mausoleum of Sultán Ahmed Khán. He was
cut off by fate before he could leave any monument of his reign.

Sultán Mustafá now ascended the throne a second time, and commenced
his reign by executing all those who had taken any share in the murder
of Sultán Othmán. Khoaja Omar Efendí, the chief of the rebels, the
Kizlar-ághá Soleïmán Aghá, the vezír Diláver Páshá, the Káïm-makám
Ahmed Páshá, the defterdár Bákí Páshá, the segbán-báshí Nasúh Aghá,
and the general of the Janissaries Alí Aghá, were cut to pieces.
Dávud Páshá was created grand vezír because he was the son of Sultán
Mustafá’s sister. He was afterwards killed by Murád IV. In the same
night the white eunuchs also cut their ághá into pieces, threw the body
out, and afterwards suspended it by the feet on the serpent-column in
the At-maidán.

The most distinguished divines during the reign of Sultán Othmán were:
The Shaikh al Islám Asa’d Efendí; the Nakíb ul Ashraf or head of the
Emírs Ghobárí Efendí; Zekeriá Zádeh Yahíá Efendí; and Arzí Zádeh Háletí
Efendí.

The Mesháiekh, or learned men, were: Omar Efendí; Sívásí Efendí, and
Dervísh Efendí.

Dávud Páshá was nominated grand vezír, but was instantly deposed
because that on the very day of his appointment the rebels plundered
some thousands of respectable houses. Lefkelí Mustafá Páshá received
the seals, and kept them two months and eighteen days, he was
subsequently appointed to the governments of Kastamúní and Nicomedia.
He was of a gentle disposition, and unable to check the rebellious
spirit of the times. The office of grand vezír was next conferred
upon Kara Husain Páshá. This vezír assembled a diván of all the
Mollás in the mosque of Mohammed II., but they were all murdered by
the rebellious populace, and their bodies thrown into the wells in
the court of the mosque. The rebellion increased every day, and every
one disregarded the laws. Abáza Páshá also raised the standard of
rebellion at Erzerúm; and the vezír Mahmúd Páshá was sent against him.
The Persians took possession of Baghdád and Mosúl. Háfiz Ahmed Páshá
returned without succeeding in taking Baghdád from the Persians. The
Arabian tribe of Táï plundered the Persian camp. Kara Husain Páshá had
the seals of office taken from him: they were transferred to Kemán-kesh
Alí Páshá in 1032 (1622). After a reign of one year and four months,
Sultán Mustafá was deposed a second time, and was succeeded by Sultán
Murád IV. He was tall and corpulent, round-faced, with a black beard,
open eye-brows, and grey eyes. He had large shoulders and a thin waist,
strong arms, and a hand like the paw of a lion. No monarch of the
Ottomans was ever so powerful in subduing rebels, maintaining armies,
and in dealing justice. Being aware that the vezír Kemán-kesh Alí Páshá
secretly favoured the rebels, he slew him without mercy. This vezír
was a native of Hamíd, and left the royal harem when he was appointed
governor of Baghdád and Díárbekr, whence he returned as successor to
Kara Husain the grand vezír. He fell a victim to his own avarice,
and was succeeded by Cherkess Mohammed Páshá, who died at Tokát in
1034 (1624). After him Háfiz Ahmed Páshá was made grand vezír. The
Georgian Beg Máúro killed the Persian Khán Kárchegháï, and subdued
Georgia. Háfiz Ahmed Páshá besieged Baghdád, but to no purpose, in
1035 (1625). Khalíl Páshá received the seals of office a second time,
and was appointed commander-in-chief against Abáza. Díshlenk Husain,
who had marched against Kars to rescue it from the infidels, fell a
martyr, and his whole army was put to rout. Khosrau Páshá was next made
grand vezír, and took Erzerúm from the rebel Abáza, and Akhiska from
the Persians. He brought Abáza before Sultán Murád in 1038 (1628),
and obtained the royal pardon for him. He then marched to Sheherzúl,
built the castle of Erkek Hamíd on the frontiers of Sheherzúl, reduced
Mehrebán, plundered the Persian provinces and twenty castles near
Báerján, and laid waste the suburbs of Hamadán and Dergezín in the
year 1039 (1629). The year after, Khosrau Páshá succeeded in opening
the trenches before Baghdád, but it being the middle of winter, he
was obliged to raise the siege and to retreat to Hella and Mosúl. He
was then deposed, and his office was given a second time to Háfiz
Ahmed Páshá, whilst he himself was executed at Tokút. Rajab Páshá was
made grand vezír; and the defterdár Mustafá Páshá was hanged with his
head downwards in the At-maidán. Háfiz Ahmed Páshá was stabbed in the
Sultán’s presence, and cut to pieces. The Aghá of the Janissaries,
Hasan Khalifeh, and Músá Chelebí the emperor’s favourite, were both
put to death. Yassí Mohammed Páshá was created a vezír in 1041 (1631).
Sultán Murád had a dream in which he received a sword from the hand
of Omar, with which he slew the Shaikh al Islám Husain, and then with
a bismillah (in the name of God) fell upon the rebels and killed them
all. In 1044 Sultán Murád marched to Eriván, and took Tabríz and the
town of Eriván in seven days; he left Murtezá Páshá with a garrison
of 40,000 men, and returned to Islámbol. His entrance was celebrated
in 1045 (1634) by a festival of seven days. The ill-favoured Sháh (of
Persia) however returned and laid siege to Eriván, which being left
without sufficient strength, after a siege of seven months fell into
the hands of the infidels, who put the whole of the garrison to the
sword. Sultán Murád, on receiving the melancholy news, took the seals
from Mohammed Páshá and appointed him governor of Silistria. The seals
were transferred to Bairám Páshá, who however died soon after, and
was succeeded by Tayyár Páshá. To him was entrusted all the necessary
preparations for the expedition against Baghdád, which was undertaken
by the emperor in person. Tayyár Páshá was killed during the siege,
which lasted forty days. He was succeeded by the Kapúdán Kara Mustafá
Páshá. Melek Ahmed Páshá, late salihdár, or sword-bearer of the
Sultán, was appointed to the command of Díárbekr, and Kúchúk Hasan
Páshá to that of Baghdád, with a garrison of 40,000 men. By the decree
of God, when after the fall of Baghdád a great number of Kizilbáshes
(red-heads or Persians) had assembled and were preparing to make an
attack at one of the gates, a large powder magazine exploded, and thus
the blood of the true believers which had been shed at Eriván was
fully avenged. Kara Mustafá Páshá the grand vezír, and my lord Melek
Ahmed Páshá, were sent to Derneh and Derteng, to conclude the treaty
with the Persians, and to fix the boundary lines. Sultán Murád Khán,
next went to Díárbekr, where in one day he put to death the daughter
of Kímájí Ma’án Oghlí, and the Shaikh of Rúmieh. He then returned to
the Porte of Felicity (Constantinople), on which occasion seven days
were spent in general festivity. About this time Sultán Murád, having
repented of his wine-drinking propensity, by way of expiation, resolved
upon an expedition against the infidels of Malta, and ordered five
hundred galleys, two large máonas, and one admiral’s ship (báshtirda)
to be built. This same year the grand vezír Mustafá Páshá returned to
Constantinople, and the emperor, forgetting his vows of repentance,
again fell into the vice of drunkenness, and his royal constitution
being thoroughly weakened, he died after having been lord of the
carpet (_i.e._ confined to bed) fourteen days. May God have mercy upon
him! He was buried in the mausoleum of his illustrious grandfather
Sultán Ahmed, in the At-maidán. Several chronograms of his death are
inscribed by Júrí, on the walls of the inner apartments in the seráï.
He had thirty-two children, of whom only one, the Sultána Esmahán
Kíá, remained alive at his death. She too died after her marriage
with Melek Ahmed Páshá, and was buried at Ayá Sofía between Sultán
Ibráhím and Sultán Mustafá. Sultán Murád’s reign having been extremely
turbulent, and being constantly engaged in warlike preparations in
every quarter, he had no opportunity of raising to himself any monument
of importance in Islámbol. The only public work executed in his reign
was the repairing of the walls of Islámbol, which was undertaken by
his express orders during his absence at the siege of Eriván by the
Káïm-makám Bairám Páshá. He repaired the castles of Mosúl, Sheherzúl,
Chengí-ahmed, Tenedos, and of the Bosphorus, and at Islámból the
Gul-jámi’ (rose-mosque).


_Description of the Gul-Jámi’._

This is a very ancient mosque, and was known in the times of
Harún-ur-rashíd, Omar ben ’Abdu-l-’azíz, Moslemah, Sultán Yelderím
Báyazíd, and Sultán Mohammed the conqueror. In the reign of Sultán
Murád Khán a great earthquake so shook it that its foundations were
completely destroyed, and the emperor immediately undertook to repair
it. Several thousand workmen were employed upon it, and in seven years
it was completed. Several small cupolas were added to the principal
one, whence it assumed the appearance of a rose, and thence its name.
It was also washed with an hundred measures of rose-water. The mehráb
and minber are extremely plain. There are no granite columns in it
as in the other mosques. On account of the great antiquity of this
mosque, prayers in distress for rain and on extraordinary occasions
are offered up in it. On both sides of the gate of the Kibla (facing
the mehráb) there are benches. There is no court-yard. The mosque has
only one minár of but one story high; for the original building having
been destroyed by an earthquake, they were afraid to erect any lofty
building upon the spot.

Besides the above mosque, Murád built two new castles on the
Bosphorus, near the entrance to the Black Sea, with an arsenal and a
mosque proportionate to their size. At Kandillí-bághcheh he built a
large koshk, another at Istávros, and one in the gardens of Uskudár
(Scutari), which was called the koshk of Eriván.


_Chronological account of the principal Events during the Reign of
Sultán Murád IV._

Sultán Mustafá Khán ascended the throne on the deposition of his
brother the unfortunate Othmán, who though he was considered
weak-minded, was rather an intelligent prince, but unfortunately had
not sufficient strength to extinguish the fire of sedition which had
been kindled in his time, nor to subdue the revolutionary spirit of
his troops. The Janissaries at the instigation of one of their ághás,
Kara Mazák, gave the seals to Dávud Páshá, afterwards to Kara Husain
Páshá, and then to Lefkelí Mustafa Páshá. The latter having also failed
in quelling the riots, was deposed after having been seventy-eight
days in office: and the rebels then transferred the seals to Gúrjí
Mohammed Páshá. But as he was detected in making an improper use of
the public money, the seals were returned to Kara Husain Páshá. This
person was a great tyrant, and having in a royal diván, in the presence
of the two great judges, ordered two hundred lashes of the bastinado
to be inflicted upon a Mollá, the whole body of the Ulemá, with the
Shaikh-al-Islám, assembled in the mosque of Sultán Mohammed II. The
mufti, however, made his escape, under the pretence that he was going
to remonstrate with the grand vezír, who in the mean time having heard
of this assemblage, ordered his own servants, those of the treasury,
and some troops, to assail the assembled Ulemá. The result was that
many hundreds of the Ulemá were slain, and the wells in the court of
the mosque of Sultán Mohammed were filled with dead bodies. These
affairs having become known in the provinces, Abáza Páshá rebelled at
Erzerúm, and Háfiz Ahmed Páshá at Díárbekr. It having been rumoured
that, in order to avenge the innocent blood of Sultán Othmán, Abáza had
killed all the Janissaries at Erzerúm, Jegháleh Zádeh was appointed
commander against Abáza, and Kara Mazák ághá of the Janissaries; but
they proceeded no farther than Brúsa, fearing they had not sufficient
strength to meet the rebel. The Persians taking advantage of these
favourable opportunities, made an inroad with 30,000 men, and with
the assistance of Chopúr Bekirzádeh took possession of Baghdád and
Mosúl, in the year 1033 (1623). Kemán-kesh Alí Páshá was raised to
the rank of grand vezír. He had been one of the lower officers of the
Janissaries, and had raised himself to the honour of an alliance with
one of the daughters of Sultán Ahmed. The Janissaries and Sipáhís now
united, and Kemán-kesh was made the tool of their bloody designs. The
principal inhabitants, however, of the city, the Ulemá, and the people
of the seráï, were afraid to appear either at the mosques or at the
baths. At last the chiefs of the troops began to meditate the change of
their emperor; but as the public treasury had been exhausted by three
general donations to the troops since the time of Sultán Ahmed’s reign,
they swore amongst themselves to dispense with the usual largess, and
raised Sultán Murád to the throne, on the 14th of Zilka’deh 1032. A new
aspect was now given to the capital, and old and young rejoiced in the
auspicious event. On the following day Sultán Murád repaired to the
mosque of Ayiúb, where two swords were girded on him; one being that
of Sultán Selím, and the other that of the blessed Prophet (on whom be
the peace of God!): no monarch was ever girt in this manner. On his
return he entered by the Adrianople gate, and in passing he saluted
the people who had assembled in crowds on his right and left, and
received him with loud acclamations. He then proceeded to the seráï,
in the inner apartment of which he saluted the Khirka-sheríf, or cloak
of the Prophet; placed on his head the turban of Yúsúf or Joseph, (on
whom be peace!) which had been brought to Islámbol from the treasure
of the Egyptian Sultán Ghúrí; he then offered up a prayer of two
inclinations, in which he prayed that he might be acceptable to God and
the people, and be enabled to perform important services to religion
and to the state. Though young in years (being only four years), he was
remarkable for prudence and intelligence. The Khás-oda-báshí (master
of the inner chamber), the Khazíneh-dár-báshí (chief treasurer), the
Khazíneh Kátibí (secretary of the treasury), and the Khazíneh Kehiyásí
(deputy of the treasurer) now approached his presence, and invited
him, as is usual on such occasions, to visit the treasury. Dervísh
Mohammed Zelellí, the father of the humble author, happening to be
present at the time, entered the treasury with them. There were no
golden vessels to be seen, and besides a quantity of lumber, there were
found only six purses of money (30,000 piastres), a bag of coral, and
a chest of china-ware. On seeing this, Sultán Murád filled the empty
treasury with his tears, and having made two prostrations in prayer, he
said “Inshallah, please God! I will replenish this treasury with the
property of those who have spoiled it, and establish fifty treasuries
in addition.” He contrived, however, the same day to raise 3,040
purses for the usual largess, which was distributed amongst the troops
notwithstanding their oath not to accept of it. That same night Sultán
Murád had a dream, in which he saw Omar, who girt a sword about him,
and unsheathing it, put it into his hand, and said: “Fear not Murád!”
On awakening from his sleep, he banished his uncle Sultán Mustafá to
Eskí Seráï, telling him at the same time to pray for his (Murád’s)
prosperity. Sultán Murád made many excursions in disguise throughout
the city, accompanied by Melek Ahmed Aghá his sword-bearer, and Vujúd
the Bostánjí Báshí, on which occasions many riotous persons and robbers
were executed and their heads stuck upon poles. Murád was the most
bloody of the Ottoman Sultáns. He prohibited all the coffee, wine,
and búza-houses, and every day some hundreds of men were executed for
transgressing this order.

In Anatolia, Abáza Páshá reduced the strength of the disaffected
Janissaries and Sipáhís by numerous executions. The remainder of the
rebels desiring to be enrolled amongst the troops, were sent into the
provinces, where they gradually disappeared: some having been executed,
others became students, porters or dervíshes, and others migrated. In
the year 1033 (1623) the Shaikh ul Islám Yehiyá Efendí was degraded
at the instigation of the grand vezír Kemán Kesh Alí Páshá, and Ahmed
Efendí was appointed to succeed him. The vezírs Khalíl and Gúrjí
Mohammed were imprisoned in the same year, but were liberated on the
Sultán’s being convinced that they were not concerned in the rebellion
of Abáza Páshá. But Kemán Kesh, presuming upon his having been the
means of raising the Sultán to the throne, lost sight of the respect
due to his sovereign, and engaged in many disputes with him: he was
therefore imprisoned in a part of the palace, called the Sircheh-seráï,
and afterwards put to death. Cherkess Mohammed Páshá was named
commander-in-chief against Abáza Páshá, and marched towards Wán. He
was a most faithful and amiable man, and was unequalled by any vezír.
The same year he gave battle to Abáza Páshá near Cæsarea, and forced
him to retreat to Erzerúm, where he took up his residence. Cherkess
Mohammed died in 1034, and was buried at Márdín. His successor, Háfiz
Ahmed Páshá, appointed Khosrau Páshá Aghá of the Janissaries. In the
same year Karchagháï Khán was routed by the prince of Georgia, and
brought before Háfiz Ahmed Páshá, then at Díárbekr, whence he was sent,
with all the drums and standards which had been taken, to Sultán Murád.
Mauro, the prince of Georgia, was invested with a robe of honour.

The siege of Baghdád having commenced, the Moslem troops had the
city before them, and behind, the camp of the prince I’ísá, the son
of the Persian Sháh. The latter found means to throw twenty thousand
Mazanderání rotops into the castle, and made a night attack upon the
Moslems. The Ottoman army being thus between two fires, suffering
from the greatest scarcity of provisions, and surrounded by deserts,
was glad to avail itself of an opportunity to make a safe retreat
to Díárbekr. The Sultán being highly displeased at this movement,
dismissed Háfiz Páshá, and gave the seals a second time to Khalíl
Páshá. Whilst the troops were in winter quarters at Tokát, intelligence
was received that Akhiska had fallen into the hands of the enemy.
Khalíl Páshá immediately despatched Díshlen Husain Páshá with ten
thousand chosen men, and wrote at the same time by the express orders
of the emperor to Abáza Páshá, directing him to march with Husain Páshá
to relieve Akhiska. Abáza, however, fearing the whole was a plot, and
supposing that Husain was sent against him, invited him to a feast
in the castle, where he murdered him, and attacked his troops, many
thousands of whom quaffed the cup of martyrdom, and the remainder fled
naked and in the greatest distress to Tokát. The news having reached
Constantinople, and Abáza’s rebellion being evident, an imperial
order was issued to all the vezírs and Páshás to besiege Abáza Páshá
in Erzerúm, under the direction of the grand vezír Khalíl Páshá. As,
however, they had not much artillery, the Ottoman army suffered great
inconvenience from the frequent attacks of Abáza from the city, and
many thousands of the Janissaries fell. In this state, a tremendous
storm of snow buried the tents, and a general disaffection arising
among the troops, the siege was raised, and they retreated, pursued by
Abáza’s men. At Habs and Mámákhátún they were overtaken by the enemy,
who cut off the hands and feet of many thousands of the Ottomans, and
threw them into a well, which to this day is called the well of hands
and feet (Cláh Dast ú Pá). This well is near the tomb of Mámákhátún.
Sultán Murád was greatly displeased with this news, and in 1038 (1628)
transferred the seals of office to Khosrau Páshá the Bosnian. Abáza
Páshá (not the rebel, but the salihdár or sword-bearer of the Sultán)
was named ághá of the Janissaries, and sent against Abáza the rebel,
to demand the evacuation of Akhiska. He stopped before Erzerúm to
prevent any communication, and to guard the trenches, lest Abáza, when
hard pressed, should evince any inclination to deliver the fortress
to the Persians. Forty thousand brave warriors were employed in
attacking it, with seven batteries of heavy guns. Many of the garrison
now began to come over to the Ottoman camp, where they were received
with great kindness. This kind treatment had so good an effect, that
the whole garrison surrendered, and claimed the powerful protection
of the Osmánlís. The ulemá and all the inhabitants now came out of
the city and implored Khosrau Páshá to spare them, according to the
saying, “Pardon is the choicest flower of victory.” On the 9th of
Moharrem the victorious army entered the city, and before winter set
in they repaired all the walls. Kana’án Páshá was left to keep it with
a garrison of fifty thousand men. By the assistance of Mauro Khán the
fortress of Akhiska was also reduced; and the government of Childer was
given to Sefer Páshá.

When the news of these splendid victories reached the imperial ear,
orders were given to bring the rebel Abáza Páshá before the imperial
stirrup. It was on the day of a grand diván, when many thousands
were assembled before their august emperor. The emperor said: “O thou
infidel! wherefore hast thou for so many years cruelly oppressed the
faithful, and by thy obstinacy and rebellion caused the destruction of
so many thousands of brave men?” Abáza Páshá kissed the ground three
times, and said: “My emperor! for the sake of the holy prophet, and by
the souls of thy illustrious ancestors, I beseech thee to show favour
to me, and pardon me whilst I lay before thee the grief of my heart.”
The emperor having graciously granted this request, Abáza proceeded
as follows: “My emperor! at the time your brave brother Othmán of
glorious memory, actuated by a zeal for the true faith, undertook
the campaign of Hotín, in order to be avenged on his enemies, he saw
that the Janissaries, though few in number, were well paid. He wished
to review them, but they would not consent. Afterwards, when with a
thousand difficulties the emperor opened the trenches, the Janissaries
made it as plain as day that they were the enemies of the faith,
inasmuch as they constantly associated with the infidels, to whom
they sent food, and received wine in return. The governor of Bude,
Kara Kásh Páshá, was killed, and his army dispersed, without their
offering the least assistance; and they even sent to the Tátár Khán,
who was coming to the assistance of the imperial army, requesting him
to slacken his march instead of accelerating it. Some of the vezírs
seized several spies who were paid by the Janissaries, brought them
into the presence of your brother Othmán, and killed them before his
eyes. It was in this manner that the siege of so small a fortress as
Hotín was abandoned by their taking to flight. Seven thousand purses,
and many hundred thousands of Ottoman subjects were lost, together with
the glory of the Sultán, against whom they rebelled on his return to
Islámbol. When Sultán Othmán went to their mosque, the Orta-jáme’, he
was assailed with the most abusive language; and when he held by one
of the windows on the left side of the mehráb, whilst he earnestly
appealed for assistance from the people of Mohammed, an abject wretch,
worse than an infidel, and of the ignominous name of Pehleván, thus
insulted him: ’Othmán Chelebí! you are a fine boy; come along with
us to Yúsuf Sháh’s coffee-house or to our barracks.’ Othmán Khán not
accepting this impudent invitation, the audacious fellow struck the
arm with which the emperor held the window a blow which broke it.
From the mosque they carried him in a cart to the Seven Towers, where
he was barbarously treated, and at last most cruelly put to death by
Pehleván. Whilst his sacred body was exposed upon an old mat, the
Jebbehjí-báshí, Káfir Aghá cut off his right ear, and a Janissary one
of his fingers, for the sake of the ring upon it. The former brought
the ear and the finger to Dávud Páshá, who rewarded the bearer of
such acceptable news with a purse of money. The Jebbehjí-báshí said
to Dávud Páshá: ’My lord, may your name be everlasting in the world,
and may the family of the Dávuds always be in power. For this wish he
was rewarded with the place of ághá of the Janissaries, and actually
entered into a plan to raise his own son, Soleïmán Beg, to the throne
of the Ottomans; and promised the Janissaries that, instead of the
blue cloth of Salonik, they should wear fine scarlet cloth. This story
having circulated throughout the city, it raised the indignation and
excited the greatest grief in the hearts of all true believers and
faithful subjects. A mob of Ajem-oghláns and Janissaries assembled at
the mosque of Sultán Mohammed II., and there killed many thousands of
the learned and worthy divines, and threw their bodies into the wells:
the houses also of many honest men were entirely pillaged. On hearing
of these dreadful events, I endeavoured to alleviate the grief of my
heart, caused by the martyrdom of such a monarch as Sultán Othmán. It
was then that a zeal to show I was deserving of his bread and salt,
took possession of your lálá (tutor) Abáza, and I instantly resolved
upon avenging the innocent blood of Sultán Othmán. Having at that time
been appointed governor of Erzerúm by your uncle Sultán Mustafá, I was
in the habit of offering up my daily prayers in the mosque of the late
Láleh Páshá. I heard the rebellious Janissaries saying, ‘Abáza Láleh,
you go to the kilísíá (church) of your nearest relation Láleh.’ Thus
they dared to call that noble mosque a church! When I went through
the city, they cried out ‘oush! oush!’ as if they were speaking to
barking dogs; but it was intended for me. I pretended, however, to
take no notice of it, and continued to show them many favours. Still,
my emperor, I was insulted in a thousand ways. They brought kabáb
(roast meat) and wine to the diván, and said, ‘Abáza, we are come to
your play-house to make a feast, to dance and sing to your music.’ I
suffered even this profanation of the imperial diván, and provided them
with refreshments. They then began to plunder the houses and shops of
the wealthy, and I have, my emperor, the legal attestations of the
depredations they committed in this way.” Here Abáza handed over to the
Sultán the legal documents. “My emperor,” he continued, “this mutinous
state of the Janissaries did not escape the notice of the Persian
sháh, who taking advantage of it, besieged the fortress of Akhiska. I
immediately resolved to relieve it: but not a single Janissary would
move from the wine tavern, or the buzá-house; and the consequence was,
that the Persians took possession of this noble fortress, which had
been so gloriously taken by Sultán Selím. My beglerbegs being like
myself disgusted with the dastardly conduct of the Janissaries, united
themselves with me by solemn oath to avenge the blood of Sultán Othmán,
and each swore to subdue the Janissaries under him. On an appointed
day I fulfilled my oath, took possession of the interior fortress of
Erzerúm, subdued the Janissaries, and became their master. In the mean
time the begs and vezírs, who had taken the same obligation, deserted
me. From that hour my affairs have every day become worse. This, my
emperor, is a true statement of my conduct. Whatever I have done has
been from a pure zeal, for the best interests of the Sublime Porte.
Your servant Abáza, a poor slave bought for seventy piastres, is not
ambitious to obtain dominion in the world through rebellion.”

Thus did Abáza, without fear, boldly detail all the particulars of his
conduct, in the presence of the emperor and many thousand spectators.
He then kissed the ground, crossed his hands over his breast, bowed
his head, and was silent. The emperor listened to his discourse with
the greatest attention, and when reminded of the melancholy martyrdom
of Sultán Othmán he shed tears of blood, and sighed so deeply, that
all who were present lost their senses. The Sultán proceeded to ask
him: “But after the battle with my lálá Cherkess Mohammed Páshá at
Cæsarea, when I not only pardoned you, but gave you the government of
Erzerúm, why did you kill so many excellent men that were sent with
Díshlen Husain Páshá? why did you make war against my lálá, Khalíl
Páshá? and why did you not give up the castle, and come to rub your
forehead on my stirrup? Abáza replied: “My Sultán! not one of those
generals who were sent against me, knew how to keep their troops
in proper discipline. They plundered wherever they went, like the
notorious rebels, Yázíjí Kalender Oghlí and Sa’íd Arab; they crowded
every day round the tent of their general with some new claims; they
were all a seditious set, to whom I was afraid to trust myself; and
instead of devoting myself to a rebellious multitude, who knew no law,
I thought it much safer to oppose them as open enemies. When, however,
I heard that Lálá Khosrau Páshá was coming from Tokát with an imperial
commission, and my spies unanimously bearing witness to his justice,
and his determined opposition to the villains, I knew that he was a
perfect man, and I was overawed by his power and dignity. He came to
Erzerúm like a wolf against a sheep, opened the trenches, and attacked
the fortress with seven batteries. Night and day I kept my eyes on the
trenches, but never saw a single man leave them to go to plunder the
villages, the camp being abundantly supplied with provisions by the
peasants in the surrounding villages. I saw none of the villages on
fire; but every evening the fátihat (the first chapter of the Korán)
was read in every tent, and the prayers were offered up at the five
appointed hours. Former commanders never maintained any discipline in
their camp; the neighbouring villages were destroyed by fire; and when
after three months they effected an entrance into the trenches, they
fired a few guns and returned to riot in their tents, from which were
heard, night and day, the sound of musical instruments, and the shouts
of Armenian women and boys. Observing this state of affairs, I made
numerous nocturnal excursions, from which I generally returned with
plenty of plunder, and a great number of Janissaries heads with which I
adorned the towers of the castle. As winter came on they deserted their
commander, and returned to their homes. When, however, I saw the just
and upright character of Khosrau Páshá, I said, “Here is a commander
who justly deserves the name!” and I hastened to his camp to offer my
obeisance. Praise be to God, I was not mistaken in my good opinion of
him, for after so long a stay in the midst of an army numerous as the
waves of the sea, I have been conducted in safety to the presence of
my emperor, whose commands I now wait. “Behold what my zeal for your
glory has urged me to do! The sword hangs over my neck: I have come
from Erzerúm as your devoted victim!” Saying this, he knelt down with
his face directed towards the kibla, and began to recite the confession
of faith. When the whole court, the vezírs, the ulemá, the muftí
Yahia, and the grand vezír Khosrau Páshá, perceived that the emperor
was pleased with Abáza’s humble submission, and that his anger had
subsided, they threw themselves at the foot of the throne, beseeching
pardon for Abáza. This intercession had the desired effect: the emperor
not only pardoned Abáza, but appointed him governor of Bosnia. The
vezírs, emírs, and senior officers of the army that had undertaken the
expedition against Abáza, were rewarded with robes of honour. Abáza was
soon after removed from the government of Bosnia, to that of Silistria.
After an unsuccessful expedition against Kamienik he was recalled to
Islámból, where he soon became the most confidential adviser of the
Sultán. One day when the Janissaries were dissatisfied with the Sultán
and would not eat their soup, Abáza said, “Give me leave, my emperor,
and I will make them eat not only their soup, but even the dishes.”
Sultán Murád having given him permission, he appeared in the diván; on
which a murmur was heard from the ranks of the Janissaries, who began
to eat their soup with such avidity as if they would have swallowed
the very dishes: so great was the awe which his appearance and name
excited amongst the Janissaries. When an expedition against Erzerúm was
proposed, a report was spread amongst the Janissaries that Abáza was
kept only to ruin them. “If the emperor wishes to conquer Erzerúm,”
said they, “let him do so with Abáza.” This mutinous spirit of the
Janissaries at last forced the Sultán to submit to them, and to give
up Abáza, who was one morning dressed in a white shirt and delivered
over to the Bostánjí Báshí, by whom he was put to death. His body was
publicly interred near the mosque of Sultán Báyazíd, not far from
the ink-makers’ row in the district of Murád Páshá. Thus he received
according to his actions. May God have mercy upon him!


_A curious Anecdote._

In the year 1056 (1646), when Soleïmán Páshá was governor of Erzerúm,
and I, the humble Evliyá, was with him, Abáza Páshá again made his
appearance on his return from Persia. Soleïmán Páshá immediately
assigned him an allowance, and reported the case to the Sublime Porte.
Abáza began to find out his old acquaintances, and soon became the
chief of a party to whom he related all his remarkable adventures.
According to his account, Sultán Murád being obliged to yield to the
Janissaries, who refused to march to Erzerúm so long as Abáza was
in the camp, took another man, whom he dressed in a white shirt,
and had him executed instead of Abáza, by the Oják Bostánjí-báshí.
Abáza himself was taken in a galley to Gallipolí, whence he sailed
on board an Algerine ship-of-war. He soon afterwards obtained the
command of that ship, and for seven years was a formidable pirate in
the Archipelago. On the very day on which Sultán Murád died, he was
beaten at the Cape of Temenis by a Danish ship, and remained seven
years a prisoner amongst the Danes. He was then sold to the Portuguese,
with whom for three years he sailed about in the Indian ocean, and
touched at the Abyssynian coast, where he lost his ship. He thence
went to India, China, the country of the Calmucks, Khorásán, Balkh,
Bokhárá, Isfahán, and Erzerúm, to the governor of which town he related
the whole of his adventures, in a manner which excited my greatest
astonishment. Soleïmán Páshá’s report having reached the emperor Sultán
Ibrahím, he asked the Oják Bostánjí Báshí (the chief executioner)
whether he recollected having executed Abáza in the time of Sultán
Murád. The executioner replied that he had executed a person in a
white shirt whose name was said to be Abáza, that the usual ablutions
after his death were performed by the imám of the imperial garden, and
that the body was interred at the monument of Murád Páshá. A thousand
strange reports having been raised by this story, a Kapíjí-báshí was
immediately dispatched with a khat-sheríf (imperial warrant); and
on his arrival at Erzerúm, he seized Abáza at the gate of the music
chamber of the lower diván, severed his head from his body, and carried
it to Constantinople. Soleïmán Páshá was removed from Erzerúm, and his
government was given to Mohammed Páshá, the son of Mustafá Páshá, who
was hanged. Derzí Mustafá Aghá came in his stead as Musallim, and he
appointed me the inspector of the charcoal to a caravan proceeding to
Eriván, for which place I set out. Farewell.

Abáza Páshá having been subdued in the year 1038 (1628), the grand
vezír Khosrau Páshá marched with an immense army to plunder the
provinces of Persia, and never even thought of Baghdád. Whilst he
was on his way, and had even resolved upon attacking Isfahán, he
received an imperial order to the following effect: “Shouldst thou
bring the Sháh himself in chains to my imperial stirrup, I should not
be satisfied; if thou considerest thy head necessary to thee, conquer
Baghdád, the ancient seat of the Khalifat, and deliver from the hands
of the despicable Persians, the tombs of No’amán ben Thábet, the great
imám and founder of our sect, and of the Shaikh Abdul Kádir Jílání.”
On account of this imperial command, the trenches of Baghdád were
opened on the 17th of Sefer 1040 (1630); and the siege was continued
for forty days. The winter however having set in, the Ottoman army was
obliged to raise the siege, and to retire to Hella, Mosúl, and Márdín.
In the beginning of spring, whilst Khosrau Páshá was on his march to
Eriván, he received an imperial firmán recalling him to Constantinople,
and Murtezá Páshá was appointed governor of Díárbekr. Khosrau Páshá
fell sick on his arrival at Tokát, and was murdered whilst in bed
by Murtezá Páshá, in the month of Sha’bán 1041 (1631). On the 18th
of Rajab in the same year, Háfiz Páshá was again appointed grand
vezír. In the same month the Janissaries mutinied at Islámból, and
attacked the grand vezír Háfiz Páshá within the imperial gate near the
hospital. He retreated into the hospital, the gate of which he closed,
and thence fled to the imperial garden, took the turban and robes of
ceremony of the Bostánjí-báshí, and appeared before the Sultán, to
whom he stated that some villains had attacked him, but that by urging
his horse against them, he had dispersed them all. Next day, however
the rebellion assumed a more serious aspect; the Janissaries began
by taking Háfiz Páshá from the emperor’s presence, and in order to
avenge the death of Khosrau Páshá, they stabbed him in the cheek with
a dagger, and then tore him into a thousand pieces. In the month of
Rajab 1040 (1630) Rajab Páshá was made grand vezír; and Husain Efendí,
Shaikh-ul-Islám or muftí. Rajab Páshá was a Bosnian by birth, had been
created Bostánjí-báshí with the rank of vezír, and afterwards Kapúdán
Páshá. He took three large English ships in the Mediterranean, and
attacked three hundred Cossack boats in the black sea, and upsetting
the crosses, brought all the boats to Islámbol. When Khalíl Páshá, the
grand vezír, was appointed commander of the expedition against Abáza,
Rajab was Káïm-makám of Constantinople, and Hasan Páshá performed the
duties of Kapúdán Páshá. He built a castle near the mouth of the river
Ouzí (Dneiper), and added a square fort to the castle of Oczakov. He
was also Káïm-makám during the vezírship of Khosrau Páshá, and was the
cause of Háfiz Páshás being killed by the Janissaries. Músá Chelebí,
one of the Sultán’s favourites, was also attacked at his instigation
by the rebels; he was killed and his body thrown out on the At-maidán
in 1041 (1631). Hasan Chelebí, the Aghá of the Janissaries, having
been found concealed in a corner, was put to death by the imperial
executioner. In the beginning of Ramazán the rebels discovered the
place where the defterdár Borák Mustafá Páshá was concealed, killed
him, and hanged him on a tree in the At-maidán. It being evident that
Rajab Páshá was a traitor, having taken the part of the rebels who
killed Músá Chelebí, he was therefore hanged on his entering the diván.
On that day I, the poor Evliya, was present with my father. The office
of grand vezír was given to Tabání Yassí Mohammed Páshá, who had just
returned from Egypt. He was an Albanian by birth, and a dependant of
Mustafá Aghá, the chief eunuch of Sultán Othmán. He left the imperial
harem to go as governor of Egypt, whence he was recalled to receive
the seals, and was at last killed whilst grand vezír, because he had
not hastened to the relief of Eriván, and had been found concerned
in the disturbances of Moldavia and Valachia. He was buried near the
monument of Eyyúb. Bairám Páshá was made grand vezír in his place.
He had been brought up as a Janissary at Constantinople. During the
vezírship of Tabání Yassí Mohammed Páshá, Sultán Murád, following
the custom of his ancestors, went to Adrianople, to enquire into the
state of the provinces, and to receive the renewed treaty of peace
with the emperor of Germany. When Tabání Yassí Mohammed Páshá received
his appointment as commander in the expedition to Eriván, Bairám
Páshá was Káïm-makám. On this occasion the Sultán himself repaired to
Uskudár (Scutari), and began to reign with the wisdom of Solomon. My
father, an old and experienced man, who had been present at the siege
of Siget, received the imperial command to join the army, and I, the
humble Evliya, accompanied him. Besides my father there were several
other old men, who had witnessed the victories of Sultán Soleïmán;
such as Gulábí Aghá, who lived in the Unkapáni (flour-market), and
whose story has been related above in the description of the mosque
of Ayá Sofiá; Abdí Efendí, the inspector of the kitchen, who lived
in the house of Brinjí Zádeh at Zírek Básh; Kozú Alí Aghá; and Isá
Aghá. Aged and respectable men like these were carried in litters, and
were consulted during the march on all important questions. The army
marched from Konia to Kaisería (Cæsarea), and thence to Sívás, where
the feast of the Korbán (sacrifice) was celebrated. Here Mustafá Páshá,
the emperor’s favourite, was promoted to the rank of second vezír, and
called into the diván. The army then continued its march to Erzerúm.
Besides the guns provided by the commander-in-chief, there were forty
large guns dragged by two thousand pairs of buffaloes. The army entered
the castle of Kázmaghán, and halted under the walls of Eriván in the
year 1044 (1634). The trenches were opened the same day on seven sides;
the batteries were raised against the place called Mahánat Báïrí,
and for seven days not a moment’s rest was given either to the camp
or fortress. This was most successful, and filled the hearts of the
faithful army with joy. By the favour of God, the victory was certain:
the khán of Eriván Emírgúneh Oghlí, surrendered by capitulation, and
was appointed as a vezír of two tails to the government of Haleb
(Aleppo). The breaches in the walls were repaired, and Murtezá Páshá
was left in garrison with 40,000 men. Khoaja Kana’án was appointed
commander against Akhiska, which was reduced in the same month; and
the Sultán left Eriván to plunder the Persian provinces. On the sixth
day he entered the beautiful city of Tabríz, where the Tátárs of the
Ottoman army caused terrible havock, making the inhabitants slaves,
and levelling the houses with the ground so that not a stone was left
upon another. The lowest servants of the Ottoman army, such as the
muleteers, camel-drivers, grooms, tent-pitchers, flambeau-bearers, and
water-carriers, became rich as Afrásíáb with the public and private
treasures. Sultán Murád visited the beautiful gardens and koshks of
Tabríz, particularly the garden celebrated by the name of Khíábání. By
his orders the army entered this garden, and in a moment brought to
the ground all its houses and koshks, not leaving a single atom upon
the page of existence; they also cut down all the trees as if they had
been armed with the hatchet of Ferhád or the battle-axe of Moslem. The
beautiful valley was changed into a desert, in which not the smallest
vestige of cultivation could be seen, as if it had remained a barren
wilderness ever since the descent of Adam upon the earth.

From Tabríz the Sultán returned, and laid waste the countries to the
right and left of Azerbáïján, such as Khóí, Manand, Tesú, Barúd,
Dúmbolí, Rúmieh, and after a few days arrived safe and sound at the
castle of Kotúr. This castle, one of the strongest belonging to the
Persians, though fiercely attacked, did not surrender, and as winter
was approaching they abandoned it. Hence the army entered the country
of the Mahmúdí Kurds, where they had a slight fall of snow. They then
passed through Amik, Bárgerí, Arjísh, Adaljuváz, Akhlát, Khántakht,
and lastly Ván. All these fortresses are situated on the borders of
the lake of Ván. Thence the army marched to Tiflís, Kefender, Huzzú,
Míáfarakaïn, Díárbekr, Malátieh, Sívás, Tokát, Amásia, Othmánjik,
Túsieh, Bólí, and on the sixth day reached Izmít (Nicomedia). On the
19th of Rajab 1045 (1635) the illustrious emperor made his entry
into Constantinople with a splendour and magnificence which no tongue
can describe nor pen illustrate. The populace who poured out of the
city to meet the emperor had been dissatisfied with the Káïm-makám
Bairám Páshá, but, gratified by the sight of their emperor, they
became animated by a new spirit. The windows and roofs of the houses
in every direction were crowded with people, who exclaimed, “The
blessing of God be upon thee O conqueror! Welcome, Murád! May thy
victories be fortunate!” In short, they recovered their spirits,
and joy was manifest in every countenance. The Sultán was dressed
in steel armour, and had a threefold aigrette in his turban, stuck
obliquely on one side in the Persian manner: he was mounted on a
Nogháï steed, followed by seven led horses of the Arab breed, decked
out in embroidered trappings set with jewels. Emírgúneh, the khán of
Eriván, Yúsuf Khán, and other Persian kháns walked on foot before
him, whilst the bands with cymbals, flutes, drums, and fifes, played
the airs of Afrásíáb. The emperor looked with dignity on both sides
of him, like a lion who has seized his prey, and saluted the people
as he went on, followed by three thousand pages clad in armour. The
people shouted “God be praised!” as he passed, and threw themselves
on their faces to the ground. The merchants and tradesmen had raised
on both sides of the way pavilions of satin, cloth of gold, velvet,
fine linen, and other rich stuffs, which were afterwards distributed
amongst the Soláks, Peiks, and other servants of the Sultán. The old
Solák báshí told me that his guards alone had carried home silk tents
to the value of 7,000 piastres. During this triumphant procession to
the seráï all the ships at Seraglio-point, at Kizkala’ (Leander’s
tower), and at Topkháneh, fired salutes, so that the sea seemed in a
blaze. The public criers announced that seven days and nights were
to be devoted to festivity and rejoicing. During this festival such
a quantity of rich presents were brought to the Sultán that not only
the treasury but even the koshk-kháneh (garden house) was filled with
them. The next day being Friday, the Sultán repaired to the mosque of
Eyyúb, and was much gratified to see the new buildings as he went along
the harbour, and on his return by the Adrianople gate. Pleased with
the improvements which he saw, he pardoned the Káïm-makám Páshá the
discontent which he had occasioned among the people, and bestowed upon
him a robe of honour. On his arrival at the mosque of the conqueror
he offered up a prayer of two inclinations, and being pleased with
the manner in which the mosque was illuminated, he conferred a second
robe of honour on the Káïm-makám. He then visited the tomb of the
conqueror, the mosque of the princes, and their monument, the mosque
and mausoleum of Sultán Báyazíd, and the mosque and mausoleum of his
own father. Observing the good repair in which these mosques were kept,
he expressed his satisfaction, and returned to the palace. In this
month very unfavourable reports were received from the grand vezír
Tabání Yassí Mohammed Páshá. The Sháh had taken Eriván, and owing to
the severity of the winter it was impossible to send it any relief.
The seals were therefore immediately given to Baïrám Páshá, and an
expedition to Baghdád was resolved upon. All the necessary arrangements
were completed, and the imperial firmáns were issued to summon troops
from every quarter to the number of one hundred thousand men, to be
ready by spring for the imperial expedition. Kapújí-báshís, Khásekís,
and Musáhibs were despatched in every direction with imperial orders,
and an army numerous as the waves of the ocean began to assemble.


 _Account of the humble Evliyá’s admission into the imperial harem of
 Sultán Murád, and of some pleasant conversation which he enjoyed with
 the Emperor, in 1045 (1635)._

It was in this year that I completed, under my tutor Evliyá Efendí,
the study of the Korán, according to the seven various readings by
Shátebí, and commenced a course according to the ten readings. By the
advice of my father, Dervísh Mohammed Aghá, on the sacred night of
Kadr, when several thousand individuals were assembled in the mosque
of Ayá Sofia, I took my place on the seat of the Moazzins, and after
the prayer Teravih, began to repeat from memory the whole of the Korán.
When I had finished the Súra Ena’ám, Guzbegjí Mohammed Aghá and the
Salihdár Melek Ahmed, came up to the seat, and putting on my head,
in the presence of thousands, a tūrban wrought with gold, informed
me that the emperor desired to see me. They then took me by the hand
and led me into the mahfil of the emperor. On beholding the dignified
countenance of Sultán Murád I bowed and kissed the ground. The emperor
received me very graciously, and after the salutations, asked me in
how many hours I could repeat the whole of the Korán. I said, if it
please God, if I proceed at a quick rate I can repeat it in seven
hours, but if I do it moderately, without much variation of the voice,
I can accomplish it in eight hours. The Sultán then said, “Please
God! he may be admitted into the number of my intimate associates in
the room of the deceased Músá.” He then gave me two or three handfuls
of gold, which altogether amounted to 623 pieces. Though I was then
only a youth of twenty-five, I was sufficiently well educated, and my
manners were polished, having been accustomed to associate with vezírs
and muftís, in whose presence I had more than once repeated the As’har
and the Na’t of the sacred volume. Murád left the mosque in the usual
style with flambeaux and lanterns. I mounted a horse, and entered the
imperial seráï by the cypress gate. The emperor next repaired to the
Khás oda, and recommending me to the chief, directed him to invest me
with the kaftán, in the chamber of the Kílárjí báshí. He then retired
to the inner harem. Next morning he surrendered me to the Kílárjí báshí
Safíd Aghá, and a room was assigned to me in the apartments of the
Kílár. The Túrshíjí báshí was appointed my governor (lálá). My masters
were: of writing, the Gógúm báshí; of music, Dervísh Omar; of grammar,
Gejí Mohammed Efendí; and of reading the Korán, my old master Evliyá
Efendí. Khorús Imám was my companion in the reciting of the Korán,
and Táyeh Zádeh Khandán, Ferrokh Oghlí Asaf Beg, Mo’án Oghlí, Gejejí
Soleïmán, and Amber Mustafá were my fellow Mu’azzíns. A great part of
my time was spent in the Meshk-kháneh or gymnasium, near the private
bath, in practising music. One day they invested me with an embroidered
dress, put an amber-scented tuft of artificial hair upon my head, and
wishing me a thousand blessings, told me I had the crown of happiness
on my head. Sometimes also they put on me a fur cap like that worn
by my companions. The Salihdár Melek Ahmed Páshá never lost sight of
me, and as I was related to him on my mother’s side, he made me many
presents. He, the Rúznámehjí Ibrahím Efendí, and the calligrapher Hasan
Páshá, were the means of my obtaining an introduction into the seráï.
On the day I was dressed as above related, with the splendid turban,
two mutes came, and with many curious motions led me into the Khás oda
(inner chamber), to Melek Ahmed Aghá and his predecessor Mustafá. These
greatly encouraged me and taught me several expressions and ceremonies,
which I was to observe in the presence of the emperor. I now found
myself in the Khás oda, and had an opportunity of examining it. It is
a large room with a cupola; in each corner there are raised seats or
thrones; numerous windows and balconies; fountains and water-basins,
and the floor is paved with stone of various colours, like a Chinese
gallery of pictures. The emperor now made his appearance, like the
rising sun, by the door leading to the inner harem. He saluted the
forty pages of the inner chamber and all the Musáhib (associates),
who returned the salutation with prayers for his prosperity. The
emperor having with great dignity seated himself on one of the
thrones, I kissed the ground before it, and trembled all over. The
next moment, however, I complimented him with some verses that most
fortunately came into my mind. He then desired me to read something.
I said, “I am versed in seventy-two sciences, does your majesty wish
to hear something of Persian, Arabic, Romaic, Hebrew, Syriac, Greek,
or Turkish? Something of the different tunes of music, or poetry in
various measures?” The emperor said, “What a boasting fellow this is!
Is he a Revání (a prattling fellow), and is this all mere nonsense, or
is he capable to perform all that he says?” I replied, “If your majesty
will please to grant me permission to speak freely as a Nadím (familiar
companion), I think I shall be able to amuse you.” The emperor asked
what the office of a Nadím was: “A Nadím,” said I, “is a gentleman
who converses in a pleasing manner: but if he is permitted to drink
with the emperor, he is called Nadím náb, or companion of the glass.
Nadím is derived from Monadamat, and by a transposition of letters we
have Mudám, which in Arabic signifies pure wine. If such a Nadím is
permitted to enjoy the company of the emperor, he is called Musáhíb
(intimate companion).” “Bravo! said the Sultán, “he understands his
business and is no Revání.” “Revání indeed!” replied I, looking at the
same time towards Yúsuf Páshá, the late Khán of Reván (Eriván). The
emperor struck his knees with his hand, and burst out in such a fit of
laughter that his face became quite red; then addressing Emírgúneh,
his favourite musician, he said: “What do you think of this devil of a
boy?” Yúsuf Páshá said, “Mark this youth, he will very soon astonish
all Irán and Túrán, for his eyes are constantly dancing.” “Yes,”
said I, “the eyes of Turkish boys dance in order to excite mirth in
strangers.” I alluded to Emírgúneh, who, when he was in a good humour
frequently danced and played. The emperor laughed and said, “The boy
has ready answers,” and being full of good humour, he ordered some
chákír to be brought. Chákír in his metaphorical language signified
wine. He drank a glass, and said, “Evliyá, thou art now initiated into
my secrets; take care not to divulge them. I replied by the following
verses.

    “Deep in thy breast be love’s sweet secret hid—
      Forbid thy soul to feel its presence there,—
    And when death hovers o’er thy dark’ning lid,
      Still in that knowledge let no other share!”

I also quoted the saying, “He who keeps silence escapes many
misfortunes;” and added, “my emperor, he who is admitted to your
secrets ought to be a magazine of secrecy.”—“Evliyá,” said the
Sultán, “having spoken so much of science, let us now hear some of
your performances in music.” I enumerated all the different tunes,
and having made many allusions to the taste of Emírgúneh for wine,
the Sultán was so much pleased with my ready wit that he said, “Now,
Evliyá, I shall no more call thee to account, or ask thee any reason
for what thou sayest: I appoint thee a Musáhib;” and he then ordered
me to be dressed in a fur robe. Seeing that it was too long for me, he
said, “Send it to thy father that he may remember me in his prayers;”
and he directed that another should be given to me. He next with his
own hands put on my head a sable-fur kalpak. Before this I had only
a plain Tátár kalpak. He then desired me to sing a wársikí. At one
time my music-master was a Dervísh Omar, a disciple of the famous
Sheikh Gulshaní, with whom he became acquainted in the reign of Sultán
Soleïmán, and with whom he passed seventeen years in Egypt, performing
all manner of menial services, such as valet, groom, cook, &c. One
day Gulshaní, perceiving the worth that was concealed under the garb
of this poor Dervísh, advised him to repair to Turkey, where he was
wanted by Sultán Soleïmán. On his departure Gulshaní gave him his own
carpet, and on this carpet Dervísh Omar had the honour to associate
with all the Sultáns, from Soleïmán to Murád. Having arrived in Turkey
with seventy followers, he was present at the siege of Siget, and
at the death of Soleïmán. From that time he enjoyed the confidence
and patronage of all the Sultáns. He was well skilled in the science
of music, in which he gave me lessons. In obedience to the Sultán’s
orders, I took up a _dáyara_ (tambourine) and kissed the ground before
the Sultán. On looking at the dáyara, he observed that it was set with
jewels, and said, “I make thee a present of this dáyara, but take
care thou dost not go beyond this circle.”[5] I leaped in a sprightly
manner, kissed the foot of the throne, prayed for a blessing on Dervísh
Omar, and said, “If it please God, I shall never be debarred from this
circle of the Ottoman court, for I know my limits too well to overstep
them.

 [5] _Dáyara_ is the word here used, which signifies “a circle” as well
 as a tambourine.

    “It is very necessary for every one to know his bounds,
    Whether he be poor, or whether he be rich.”

I then seated myself on my heels as is usual, offered up a short prayer
for assistance from God, and after several symphonies, I exclaimed,
“O thou Sheikh Gulshaní, tutor of my tutor Dervísh Omar Raushaní,
hail!” I now began to sing and dance, turning round in the manner
of the Dervíshes, and accompanying with the dáyara, the following
wársikí (mystic song) composed by Dervísh Omar for the late Músá, whose
situation I had just entered; with a low and plaintive voice I sang:

    “I went out to meet my beloved Músá; he tarried and came not.
    Perhaps I have missed him in the way; he tarried and came not.”

On hearing this plaintive song, the Sultán took up his pocket
handkerchief, and when I approached him, he turned round and said:
“The boy has brought to life the spirit of Músá Chelebí! Now tell
me the truth instantly; who told thee to sing this song, which I
have forbidden to be sung in my presence, and who taught thee it?” I
replied, “My emperor, may your life be prolonged! My father had two
slaves who learnt the song from the writings of Irmaghán Mohammed
Efendí, who died during the late plague, and from them I learnt it.
I have heard it from no one else, nor did any one tell me to sing it
in the presence of my emperor.” The Sultán said, “The boy is very
ingenious; he quotes the authority of dead men, that he may not
compromise the living.” He then said, “Mayest thou live long,” and
desired me proceed with my performance. I accordingly put my hand on
the dáyara and sang:

    “The mouth of my beloved betrays the hidden secret,
    When he speaks he utters magic spells;
    Should he look in anger, even Rustam would be overcome,
    For his eyebrows resemble the bow, and his lashes the arrows.”

I then stood silent, and having kissed the ground before the emperor,
he praised me highly, and gave me several pieces of gold. The emperor
then addressing Emírgúneh, said: “The first verses sung by Evliyá were
composed by myself, on the death of my favourite companion Músá, whom
I had sent on a message to Rajab Páshá, when he was assaulted by the
rebels, who threw his murdered body into the At-maidán. O! Emírgúneh,
hadst thou but known what an amiable and intelligent youth that was!
I have hitherto found no servant like him; and that innocent boy died
a martyr!” “My emperor,” replied Emírgúneh, “have you not opened the
life-veins of those who shed his innocent blood?” “Yes,” said the
Sultán, “it is to avenge the murder of my favourite, and the violent
death of my brother Othmán, that I have made the heads of 307,000
rebels to roll in the dust.” “May God prosper all your undertakings,”
replied Emírgúneh; “the 307,000 heads did not indeed belong to men,
but to so many rebels, who sprung from the ground like mushrooms.
Your armies however, in avenging the blood of their companions, did
so sufficiently in taking the fortress of Eriván out of my hands,
and cutting up the root and branch of the Persian army.” The Sultán,
pleased with this reply, called for wine and drank a glass. In the
evening he ordered me to read a tenth of the Korán; I commenced where
I had left off on the holy night of Kadr at Ayá Sofiá, that is,
at the Súra Aa’ráf, and read two hundred and four verses, divided
into two _mákam_, twenty-four _sha’ba_, and forty-eight _tarkíb_. I
then repeated the names of the Sultáns Ahmed, Othmán, and all their
illustrious ancestors, to whom I transferred any merit I might have
from this reading of the Korán, and concluded with the Fatihat (first
chapter of the Korán). The Sultán then presented me with a fish-bone
belt set with jewels, which he had in his hand; and asked Emírgúneh
whether they read the Korán so well in Persia. Emírgúneh replied
that the Persians cared little to conform their actions to the Korán,
and much less to read it properly. “It is only to the piety of your
majesty, that we are indebted for such reading, which reminds us
of the assemblies of Husain Bhikará.” At this moment the Mu’azzins
began to call to prayers at the head of the staircase, which looks
toward the court-yard of the palace. The emperor ordered me to assist
them; I flew like a peacock to the top of the staircase, and began
to exclaim, “_Hai a’la’-as-saláh!_ _i.e._ Ho! to good works!” Before
the commencement of prayers, I was observed by my good master Evliyá
Efendí, the imperial Imám, who meeting the emperor in the oratory,
outside of the imperial mosque, close to the Khás-oda, thus addressed
him: “My gracious emperor, this boy, the darling of my heart, has not
attended my lectures since the sacred night of Kadr, when you took him
to the Harem. He has already learnt by heart the whole of the Korán,
according to the seven readings; he is thoroughly acquainted with the
Shátabíeh treatise on that subject, and was beginning the study of the
ten different readings; allow him, then, to perfect himself in these
studies, after which he may return to your majesty’s service.” The
emperor, not in the least regarding these requests, said, “Efendí! do
you suppose that our palace is a tavern, or a den of robbers? Three
thousand pages are here devoted night and day to the study of the
sciences, besides attending to the seven general lectures, and the
two which your reverence delivers twice a week. He may attend your
lectures as before; but I cannot leave him to your disposal, for he is
a lively and intelligent youth, and must remain with me as my son. His
father, the chief of the goldsmiths, is my father; but he may come as
often as he pleases to see his son.” Evliyá Efendí seeing there was no
hope of obtaining what he wished, said: “Well, my gracious sovereign,
allow him at least the books that are necessary for his education.”
The Sultán immediately called for pen and ink, directed the treasurer
to be in attendance, and with his own hand he wrote the following
imperial order: “Thou, chief of the treasury, shalt immediately supply
Evliyá with the following works: the Káfiah, the commentary of Jámí,
the Tafsír Kází, the Misbáh, the Díbácheh, the Sahíh Moslem, the
Bokhárí, the Multeka-al-Abhar, the Kadúrí, the Gulistán and Bostán, the
Nisáb-sabiyán, and the Loghat Akhtarí.” The kehiyá or deputy treasurer
immediately brought me these valuable works, which had been written
for the use of sovereigns, and the Sultán presented me with a copy of
the Korán, in the hand-writing of Yákút Musta’samí, which he was in
the habit of reading himself; also a silver inkstand set with jewels,
and a writing-board inlaid with mother-o’-pearl. At the same time he
gave instructions to the Kílárjí-báshí respecting my accommodation.
Thus three times a week I read the Korán with Evliyá Efendí, and also
had lessons in Arabic, Persian, and writing. In this manner it was
but seldom I could attend in the service of the emperor, but whenever
I came into his presence he was always delighted, and treated me so
graciously, that I never failed to shew my wit and pleasantry. I should
never have been tempted to repeat any of my witty sayings, but for the
express commands of the Sultán. Kara Hisárí, the great calligrapher
my writing-master, and many other witnesses are still living, who can
attest that, versed as I then was in every branch of science, I enjoyed
the greatest favour of the Sultán, who liked a joke or a laugh as well
as any plain dervísh.[6] I had frequently the honour of conversing
familiarly with this great monarch, and were I to relate all the
conversation that passed between us I should fill a volume. In short,
Sultán Murád was a man who had the nature of a Dervísh, but he was
brave and intelligent. His fingers were thick, but well proportioned,
and the strongest wrestler could not open his closed fist. He generally
dressed in blue coloured silk, and liked to ride very fast. Neither the
Ottoman nor any other dynasty of Moslem princes ever produced a prince
so athletic, so well-made, so despotic, so much feared by his enemies,
or so dignified as Sultán Murád. Though so cruel and bloodthirsty, he
conversed with the rich and poor without any mediator, made his rounds
in disguise night and day to be informed of the state of the poor, and
to ascertain the price of provisions, for which purpose he frequently
went into cookshops and dined incognito. No monarch, however, was
guilty of so many violent deeds. On the march to Baghdád, when he
left Cæsarea, a wild goat was started in the mountains of Develí Kara
Hisár. The emperor immediately gave it chase, struck it with his spear,
followed it up amongst the rocks, and divided his prey amongst his
vezírs. The whole army was surprised to see him dismount and climb up
the craggy mountain in pursuit of his game. On another occasion I saw
him seize his Salihdárs Melek Ahmed and Músá Aghá, both remarkably
stout men, take them by their belts, lift them over his head, and
fling them one to the right and the other to the left. Ahmed Páshá,
Hasan Páshá the calligrapher, Delí Husain Páshá, and Pehleván Díshlenk
Soleïmán, were all athletic men who were fond of playing and wrestling.
The Sultán frequently stripped himself and wrestled with these men, on
a spot of the seráï called Chemen-sofa. It was I who on such occasions
read the usual prayer of the wrestlers. It is as follows: “Allah!
Allah! For the sake of the Lord of all created beings—Mohammed Mustafá,
for the sake of Mohammed Bokhárá of Sárí Sáltik, for the sake of our
Sheikh Mohammed who laid hold of the garments and the limbs, let there
be a setting-to of hand upon hand, back upon back, and breast upon
breast! And for the love of Alí the Lion of God, grant assistance O
Lord!” After this prayer the Sultán began to wrestle either with Melek
Ahmed or Delí Husain. They met according to the rules of wrestling,
laying hold of each other, and entwining themselves like serpents.
But when the emperor grew angry he knelt down upon one knee, and
endeavouring to master his opponent from beneath, it was difficult to
resist him. He generally succeeded in bringing his antagonist to the
ground. All the early heroes of Islamism, such as Ma’di Karb, Okail
Ben Abú Táleb, Sohail Rúmí, Sa’íd, Kháled Ben Walíd, Asa’d Ben Mokdád,
Haddád, Omar, Alí, Hamza, and Malek, used to wrestle in the presence
of the Prophet, who was himself a great wrestler, and at different
times vanquished his enemies, the cursed Abúlahab and Abújahal. Thus
wrestling became one of the favourite exercises of the Moslems; and Pír
Mahmúd became the patron saint of the art, which was made to consist
of forty arts, seventy rounds, and one hundred and forty tricks, and
with all of which a good wrestler must be thoroughly acquainted.
Wrestlers are forbidden to engage in karakosh, boghma, and jeríd,
because wrestling is an exercise on foot, and not a contest with an
enemy. If in battle an enemy lays hold on another to wrestle, he may
take advantage of the karakosh, boghma, or jeríd. He may even cut off
the head of his adversary. Murád, when a stout young man, was never
satisfied until he brought his antagonist to the ground. One day he
came out covered with perspiration from the hammám (bath) in the
Khás-oda, saluted those present, and said, “Now I have had a bath.”
“May it be to your health,” was the general reply. I said, “My emperor,
you are now clean and comfortable, do not therefore oil yourself for
wrestling to-day, especially as you have already exerted yourself
with others, and your strength must be considerably reduced.” “Have I
no strength left?” said he, “let us see;” upon which he seized me as
an eagle, by my belt, raised me over his head, and whirled me about
as children do a top. I exclaimed, “Do not let me fall, my emperor,
hold me fast!” He said, “Hold fast yourself,” and continued to swing
me round, until I cried out, “For God’s sake, my emperor, cease, for
I am quite giddy.” He then began to laugh, released me, and gave me
forty-eight pieces of gold for the amusement I had afforded him.
Sometimes he would take his two sword-bearers, Melek Ahmed and Músá,
both stout men, and carrying them in his hands would make the circuit
of the Chemen-sofa several times. He was a man who ate much, and indeed
he was a hero surpassing Sám, Zál, Narímán, Afrásíáb and Rustam.
One day he pierced with a jeríd the shield of an Albanian, which was
composed of seven layers of the root of the fig-tree, and sent it to
Cairo, where it is suspended in the díván of Sultán Ghúrí. Hasan the
calligrapher wrote the toghra of the Sultán in gold and purple on
Chinese paper five cubits square. This is also preserved in the díván
of Ghúrí. When I was there, I inscribed underneath it the names of the
four associates of the prophet (Abúbekr, Omar, Othmán and Alí), also in
the manner of a toghra (monogram), imploring the blessing of God upon
them.

 [6] A passage is omitted here on account of its grossness.

On another occasion Murád, in the presence of the German and Dutch
ambassadors, pierced some shields composed of ten camel-hides, which
they had brought with them as presents. He returned these shields,
and the spear with which he had pierced them, as presents to the
emperor of Germany. I saw them suspended in the archway of the inner
gate at Vienna. Ten other shields, sent as presents by the emperor of
Germany, he pierced in the same manner, and sent them to Músá Páshá
when governor of Bude, where I saw them suspended. When he was at Halep
(Aleppo) he threw a jeríd from the castle, which passing over the
ditch and a considerable space beyond, fell in the market-place of the
stirrup-makers, where a column inscribed with a chronogram marks the
spot where it fell.

One day while he was exercising himself in the old palace, he saw
a crow on the crescent of the left minareh of Sultán Báyazíd. He
immediately rode to the At-maidán, and throwing his jeríd to the
height of the mosque, struck the crow, which fell dead at his feet.
The At-maidán of the old palace is distant one mile from the minareh
of Sultán Báyazíd. If the jeríd had not hit the raven, but had pursued
its course, it would certainly have fallen in the poultry-market. On
the spot where the crow fell there now stands a white marble column of
the height of a man, with a chronogram by Júrí inscribed with letters
in gold. A similar monument of the extraordinary distance to which a
jeríd was thrown stands in the garden of Beykos, also inscribed with a
chronogram by Júrí.

Sultán Murád was taught the science of archery by Pehleván Hájí
Soleïmán and Sárí Solák. There is still to be seen in the Ok-maidán
near the Tekieh of the archers, a marble column indicating the spot
where an arrow shot by Sultán Murád fell. This shot surpassed that of
all the former Pehleváns excepting Túzkoparán, and left far behind
the aims of Karalandha, Báyazíd Khán, Khattát Sheikh, Demirdilisí and
Meserlí Dúndár. In the gardens of Tokát, Sultán Murád once cut an ass
in two with one stroke of his sword. In the game of the mace (gúrz)
he could wield with the greatest ease a mace weighing two hundred
okkas, and perform all the tricks of the art. And so did he distinguish
himself in the exercises of wrestling and boxing. Our master in these
exercises, Dervísh Omar, on hearing several slang expressions of
the art, such as, “Cut not! strike not! hold not!” used by Sultán
Murád, exclaimed, “Look at that master-butcher!” in reference to his
cruel disposition, which was never satisfied without shedding blood.
The Sultán was pleased with the joke, and smiled at it. He was also
expert in the game of matrak, in which balls are struck with clubs,
and which has no less than one hundred and sixty _band_ or tricks. He
used to strike the ball with such force that it struck the head of
his partner. His master in this game was Toslák Kapúdán, the juggler
of the admiral’s galley, who was an expert marine (levend), and whose
name is recorded in the elegy composed by Júrí Chelebi Sheikh in twelve
languages. This Toslák Kapúdán, though considered one of the most
skilful in this play, did not equal Sultán Murád.

Finally, the emperor was a good poet, equal to Nafa’í and Júrí; and his
diván or collection of odes, consists of three hundred leaves; but it
wants the odes ending in the letters Ta and A’in. These were to have
been supplied by Vahabí Othmán Chelebí, but he died before he could
complete them.

During the winter he regulated his assemblies as follows: On Friday
evening he assembled all the divines, Sheiks, and the readers of the
korán, and with them he disputed till morning on scientific subjects.
Saturday evening was devoted to the singers who sang the Iláhí, the
Na’t, and other spiritual tunes. Sunday evening was appropriated to the
poets and reciters of romances, such as Nafa’í, Júrí, Nadímí, Arzí,
Nathárí, Beyání, Izzetí, &c. On Monday evening he had the dancing
boys, Sárí Chelebí, Chakmak Chelebí, and Semerjí-zádeh; and the
Egyptian musicians Dabágh Oghlí, Parpúr Kúlí, Osmán Kúlí, Názlí Kúlí,
Ahmed Kúlí, and Sheher Oghlání. This assembly sat till daybreak, and
resembled the musical feast of Husain Bhikará. On Tuesday evening he
received the old experienced men who were upwards of seventy years,
and with whom he used to converse in the most familiar manner. On
Wednesdays he gave audience to the pious saints; and on Thursdays
to the Dervíshes. In the mornings he attended to the affairs of the
Moslems. In such a manner did he watch over the Ottoman states, that
not even a bird could fly over them without his knowledge. But were we
to describe all his excellent qualities we should fill another volume.

Praise be to Allah, that my father was the chief of the goldsmiths from
the time of Sultán Soleïmán till that of Sultán Ibrahím; and I was
honoured with the society of so glorious a monarch as Sultán Murád IV.
Previously to his Majesty’s undertaking the expedition to Baghdád I
left the imperial Harem, and was appointed a Sipáhí, with an allowance
of forty aspres per day.


_List of the Kapúdán Páshás during the Reign of Sultán Murád IV._

The first was Rajab Páshá, who, as we have before related, captured
three hundred Cossack boats in the Black Sea, and brought them to
Constantinople. His successor, Khalíl Páshá, an Albanian by birth, took
near the rocks of Flúra in the Mediterranean, a famous ship of the
infidels which was called Kara-jehennem (black-hell), and which had a
large mill within it, and a garden on the quarter-deck.

Hasan Páshá, the son of a Janissary of Tahtáljeh, near Constantinople.
In the year 1035 (1625) he built two castles on the Dneiper. He was
afterwards degraded, and died suddenly at Yenísheher in 1041 (1631).

Vezír Jánpúlád Zádeh Mustafá Páshá, married Fatima the sister of Sultán
Murád, and was made Kapúdán Páshá in 1041. His name spread terror over
the whole of the Mediterranean even as far as the straits of Gibraltar;
he built a castle at Athens; and even before that was finished he was
appointed governor of Rúmeïlí. In this capacity he was ordered to
undertake the expedition against Eriván, and so many troops did he
assemble, that the suburbs of Constantinople were filled with them; and
three months were required to have them passed over the Bosphorus to
Scutari on flat-bottomed boats.

Ja’fer Páshá resigned the office of Bostánjí Báshí for that of Kapúdán
Páshá in 1043 (1633). He spread terror amongst the infidels. That same
year, on the Feast of Victims, he met three English men-of-war in the
Mediterranean, between the castles of Kesendreh and Kolúz. The English
being fire-worshippers, according to the sacred text, “They were burnt
and the men drowned;” they set fire to two of the vessels. The third,
with two hundred guns, was taken before they could set fire to it, and
was brought with immense booty to Sultán Murád.

After Ja’fer Páshá, Delí Husain Páshá was made Kapúdán Páshá, in which
capacity he took the field against Eriván. He was afterwards appointed
governor of Egypt.

His successor was Kara Mustafá Páshá, an Albanian by birth, and
educated a Janissary. During the siege of Baghdád, he was the deputy
of Píáleh at the Ters-kháneh (arsenal), and cruised in the Black Sea
with two hundred ships of the imperial fleet. In this expedition he
encountered two hundred Cossack boats, of which he captured seventy,
with the hetman. The rest made their escape during the night, and
secured themselves, in the reeds and marshes of the river Kúbán.
Píáleh Páshá pursued them, and closed the entrance of the river; but
the infidels carried their boats overland, whilst Píáleh waited for
their appearance in vain. At last he was informed by Khoajeh Kana’án
Páshá, the governor of Oczakov, and by the khán of the Tátárs, of the
scheme of the infidels; upon which he weighed anchor, came round to
the island of Tamán, and shut up the channel by which the Cossacks had
intended making their escape. Being now surrounded on land by Khoajeh
Páshá, and the Tátár Khán, the Cossacks made a camp with their boats
in the mouth of the river, and defended themselves for seven days and
nights. This battle is even now memorable by the name of Adakhún.
Finally, not one of their boats escaped, but they were all carried
in triumph to Constantinople, with the crosses of their flags turned
downwards, and the whole fleet anchored opposite the arsenal. The news
of this victory gave fresh courage to the troops engaged at the siege
of Baghdád.

The other Kapúdán Páshás were, Salihdár Mustafá Páshá, and Síávush
Páshá. The latter was an Abází by birth, and being a man of the
strictest honour, he was disliked by the people of the arsenal, and was
consequently dismissed from office.


_The Muftís and Ulemá during the Reign of Sultán Murád._

Yehiyá, the son of Zekeríá, was Sheikh al Islám when Sultán Murád
ascended the throne; in the year 1034, he was succeeded by Khoajeh
Zádeh Isa’d Efendí, and in 1041 by Husain Efendí, who was slain in the
rebellion and thrown into the sea. Yehiyá was then made Sheikh al Islám
a third time. I was then the first Mu’azzin at the mosque of the eunuch
Mohammed Aghá, when he appointed me his reader of the Na’át, in which
capacity I attended him every Friday.

The chief judges of Constantinople were, Kehiyá Mustafa Efendí;
Bostan-zádeh Efendí, and his brother; Azmí Zádeh Efendí; Sáleh Efendí;
Cheshmí Mahmúd Efendí; Hasan Efendí; and Cheshmí Efendí, a third time.


_Chief Judges of Rúmeïlí._

Abdul-ghaní Mohammed Efendí; Sheríf Mohammed Efendí; Kara Chelebí Zádeh
Efendí; Husain Efendí in the year 1037; Azmí Zádeh Mustafá Efendí 1038;
Hasan Efendí 1039; Bostánjí Zádeh Yehiyá Efendí 1039; Abú Sa’íd Efendí
1039; Husain Efendí, a third time chief judge of Rúmeïli; Cheshmí
Efendí; Husain Efendí, a fourth time judge of Rúmeïlí; Kara Chelebí
Zádeh Mohammed Efendí, a third time 1042; Abdullah Efendí 1042.


_Chief Judges of Anatolia._

Azmí-zádeh Efendí 1032; Sheríf Mohammed Efendí, a second time, and his
son Chelebí Zádeh Abdullah, 1037; Abú Sa’íd Efendí, 1039; Abú Sa’úd
Zádeh Efendí, 1040; Cheshmí Mohammed Efendí, 1041; Ahmed Efendí Zádeh;
Núh Efendí.


_Defterdárs during the Reign of Sultán Murád._

Cheshmí Mohammed Efendí, 1032; Sáleh Efendí; Hedáyet-allah Efendí,
1033; Oshákí Zádeh Efendí, 1035; Abú Isa’d Efendí, 1035; Otlokjí Hasan
Efendí, 1035; Abú Sa’úd Zádeh Efendí, 1036; Abu Sa’íd Efendí; Núh
Efendí, 1039; Rajab Efendí, 1040; Músá Efendí, 1041; Jeví-zádeh Efendí
1042; Makhdúm Husain Efendí 1043; Azíz Efendí Kara Chelebí Zádeh 1043.


_Aghás of the Janissaries during the Reign of Sultán Murád._

Cheshlejí Alí Aghá; Kara Mustafá Aghá; Bairám Aghá; Khosrau Aghá;
Mohammed Kehiyá Aghá; Alí Aghá; Khalíl Aghá; Soleïmán Aghá; Hasan Aghá;
Hasan Khalífeh Aghá; Mustafá Aghá; Kosseh Mohammed Aghá; Mohammed Aghá.


_Sultán Murád’s Expedition against Malta._

When Sultán Murád had returned from Baghdád crowned with victory,
he was obliged to undertake an expedition in person against Malta,
an island in the Mediterranean. The causes which led him to this
determination are as follows. Complaints were made by the Musulmáns in
every direction of the depredations committed by the Maltese Christians
in every port of the Mediterranean, particularly on the African coast.
Trade of every sort was at a stand, and the pilgrims to the holy cities
were molested in their passage. But above all, the Mainotes had become
very troublesome in the Archipelago. These had been subdued in the
time of Sultán Mohammed II., and at the time of this rebellion they
amounted to fifty thousand men. They had about one hundred vessels with
which they plundered the islands, intercepted the ships of merchants
and pilgrims, and every year took thousands of prisoners. Since the
time that the Kapúdán Púlád-zádeh had scoured the coast of Sicily,
Corsica, and Sardinia no imperial fleet had made its appearance in
those quarters, the infidels raised their heads, their audacity knew no
bounds, and they plundered on the shores of the Ottoman empire.

These complaints were at length laid before the Sultán in a report
by Kara Mustafá Páshá. A council was immediately held consisting of
the grand vezír Kara Mustafá Páshá, the Kapudán Síávush Páshá, the
Kehiyá of the arsenal Píáleh, and seventy begs of the sea (captains
of war-ships), and the most experienced officers of the arsenal; the
result of which was that the building of a _báshtirdeh_ (admirals
ship) and of twenty galleys, each eighty cubits long, was immediately
commenced by the express order of the emperor. Two thousand purses (one
million of piastres) were allotted to the Kapúdán Páshá, to the Kehiyá,
and to the inspector of the arsenal. Five docks near the arsenal were
pulled down, and three new ones were built in their stead each as
large as a caravanserai; and in them a báshtirdeh for the emperor, and
two green _máonas_ were constructed in the space of three months. The
máonas had seventy benches and one hundred and forty oars, each of
which was moved by eight men. At the stern and bow of each there was
a large gun, weighing from forty to fifty okkas, besides hundreds of
guns on each side. They were indeed such vessels that even Noah might
have considered himself secure in them. In short, on the return of
spring, two hundred ships of war, consisting of báshtirdehs, galleys,
and others were ready for sea, with arms, men, and provisions three
times the quantity required. The galleys of all the islands of the
Archipelago of Egypt and of the Morea, amounted to five hundred, which
were followed by the same number of transport ships. They had besides
some huge vessels called _Káruváns_ because they made a voyage to
Egypt only once a-year, requiring six months to load and six months
to discharge. Each of these carried fifteen hundred serving men and
two thousand troops. Besides these, there were five hundred smaller
vessels of every description; _viz._ Barja (barges), Kalíún (galleys),
Perk, Porton, Shika, and Kara-mursál which were hired by government.
In short the whole fleet amounted to eleven thousand seven hundred
vessels, which being prepared for sailing, were moored in the harbour
of Constantinople.


_Account of the Death of Sultán Murád._

The _Togh_ (tails) and _Seráperdeh_ (tents) were already raised at
Dávud Páshá preparatory to a new expedition, when the emperor enfeebled
by sickness found it impracticable to set out. According to the Arabic
text: “Every one must perish,” and the Persian verse: “If any person
could remain for ever upon the earth, Mohammed would have remained; if
beauty could secure immortality, Yúsuf (Joseph) would not have died,”
no one is exempt from destiny. And Sultán Murád being obedient to the
call, “Return to thy lord,” bade farewell to this perishable world and
entered on his journey to the everlasting kingdom. The whole of the
Mohammedan nation were thrown into the deepest affliction, and lamented
his loss. Horses hung with black were let loose in the At-Maidán, where
his Majesty was buried close to Sultán Ahmed.

The new emperor, Sultán Ibráhím, gave the seals to Kara Mustafá
Páshá. Kara Hasan Páshá was made Defterdár; Abd-ur-rahím Efendí,
Shaikh-ul-Islám; and in order that the fleet prepared by Sultán Murád
against Malta should not lie useless, it was sent to the Mediterranean,
where a máona was lost, nothing of consequence effected, and the
whole fleet with its troops returned to Islámbol after the autumnal
equinox. One of the máonas was moored off the arsenal and painted black
to represent the mourning for the death of Sultán Murád, an event
which gave the Maltese infidels an opportunity of recommencing their
hostilities. “Man proposes, but God disposes.” I have since heard from
the pearl-shedding lips of my worthy lord, Kara Mustafá, that had God
spared Murád but six months longer, the whole of the infidels would
have been reduced to the capitation tax. The Ragusians came forward as
mediators for the infidels of Malta and Spain, stipulating on the part
of the former to give up the island of Malta, and on the part of the
latter, the Red-apple (Rome). But fate had otherwise decreed.

Ibráhím, the youngest of Sultán Ahmed’s seven sons, ascended the throne
in the year 1049 (1639). He was then twenty-five years old; but not
very intelligent.


_Vezírs of Sultán Ibráhím._

Kara Mustafá Páshá was vezír when Ibráhím came to the throne, and was
confirmed in his office. Fearing he should fall a victim to the rebels,
he fled from the garden of the Seráï to his own palace, and changed his
dress, but he was shot by a bústánjí opposite the palace of Músá Páshá.
He was buried in his own mausoleum at the Pármak-kapú. He was followed
by Juván Kapújí-báshí, who died at the siege of Candia. Sáleh Páshá,
a Bosnian by birth, from the village of Lúbin in Herzegovina, was
put to death by the intrigues of Tezkerehjí Ahmed Páshá. Ahmed Páshá
succeeded him, but he too was intimidated by the rebels, which being
discovered by Mohammed Páshá, he was strangled, his body thrown into
the At-Maidán, and instantly torn to pieces by the rebels. The same day
Pezavenk, and the emperor’s mosáhib, Khoajeh Jenjí, were also torn to
pieces by the permission of the Ulemá.


_The Vezír who rebelled against Sultán Ibráhím._

Várvár Alí Páshá, the governor of Sívás, having refused to give to
Mavrúl for Sultán Ibráhím, his daughter, the wife of Ibshír Páshá, on
the ground that such a demand was contrary to law, he was dismissed
from his office; after which he placed himself at the head of a party
of troops to maintain his cause against the order issued for his death.
Kopreilí Mohammed Páshá took the field against him; but he vanquished
Kopreilí, and on his arrival at Cherkesh, he was assailed and put to
death by Ibshír Páshá, on whose account he had rebelled.

Ibráhím built several koshks in the New Seráï, on which many
chronograms were composed.


_Conquests, &c. during the reign of Sultán Ibráhím_.

Nasúh Páshá Zádeh was defeated in the plains of Scutari by Kara
Mustafá Páshá. The Cossacks became masters of Azov, the khán of the
Tatars having been tardy in affording it the necessary succours; in
consequence of which, seven hundred vessels were sent to besiege
Azov. The siege continued two months, during which time the Moslems
reduced the walls of the fortress to dust; but the infidels held out,
by subterraneous trenches, a month longer, when, on account of the
approach of winter, the brave army of Moslems was obliged to return
without victory. In the following year Juván Kapújí Báshí equipped
three hundred ships, and filling them with Moslem warriors, renewed
the siege of Azov. The Cossacks, being much alarmed, left the castle
without the least attempt to defend it; and hence the well-known
proverb, “Husain Páshá gave battle, but Mohammed Páshá conquered
without battle.” Mohammed Páshá kept the whole army of Moldavia,
Valachia, Circassia, and the Ottoman troops, in order to rebuild the
fortress, which was effected in the space of seven months. I, the
humble Evliyá, saw it in the fourth campaign when I remained in the
Crimea, and the Tátár Khán wintered with his army in Azov. The grand
vezír at the same time returned with the imperial fleet to the Sublime
Porte.

The second conquest of Sultán Ibráhím is that of Valachia and Moldavia
by the khán of the Tátárs. Mátí Voivode, the prince of Valachia, and
Lipúl, the prince of Moldavia, having reigned twenty years and acquired
the wealth of Kárún (Crœsus), they cherished a deadly enmity against
each other. Lipúl gave one of his daughters in marriage to the Hettman
of the Cossacks, Prince Khmelentski, who assisted him with 20,000
Cossacks; whilst Mátí Voivode collected an army of 100,000 men at
Bucharest. The accounts of this quarrel having reached Constantinople,
the troops of Rúmeilí and of the Tátár Khán were ordered out to prevent
their coming to battle. The armies of the two infidels, however, met at
Fokshán, on the frontiers of Moldavia and Valachia. Lipúl was beaten,
and upwards of 70,000 men were killed on both sides. The Ottoman army
and the Tátár troops availed themselves of this opportunity to make
numerous inroads into the countries of Moldavia and Valachia, whence
they carried off more than 100,000 prisoners, besides many thousands
of cattle. They, moreover, wasted the country, reduced the towns to
ruins, and carried the Voivode Lipúl to Constantinople, where he was
imprisoned in the Seven Towers. The Voivode of Valachia was pardoned
for the sum of two thousand purses (a million of piastres), and
confirmed in his principality. Heaven be praised that I was in the
Tátár army at the time of this splendid victory; and after sharing
plentifully in the plunder, returned to the Crimea.

The third conquest is that of Canea in the island of Candia, by
Salihdár Yúsuf Páshá. This glorious victory must be ascribed to the
piety of Sultán Ahmed Khán, who prayed that he might obtain that island
from the Venetians, with the view of appropriating its revenues to the
endowment of two mosques. Another cause, however, of the conquest was,
that a large caravella, carrying 3,000 pilgrims, with the late chief
of the eunuchs Sunbul Aghá, to Egypt, was attacked off Degirmenlik by
six Maltese vessels. After a fierce battle of two days, in which Sunbul
Aghá, and the master of the caravella were killed, the Maltese became
masters of it, and carried it to Canea in Candia, where they anchored;
although this was contrary to the treaty entered into by Khair-ud-dín
Páshá, according to which the infidels were not allowed to shelter in
their harbour any vessels taken by the enemies of the Ottoman empire.
The Venetians however favoured the Maltese, and even allowed all the
horses and property of the deceased chief of the eunuchs to be sold
at Canea. Sultán Ibráhím, displeased with this proceeding, feigned an
expedition against Malta, and appointed Salihdár Yúsuf Páshá to the
command of seven hundred ships. These first sailed as far as Navarino,
where they took in water, left twenty of the slowest sailing vessels
behind, filled the others with troops, and sailed directly for the
castle of San Todors on Candia, which immediately surrendered. They
then laid siege to Canea, which was the sixth conquest, and shall be
described shortly. Thank God! I was present at this sixth conquest,
being on board the frigate of Dúrák-beg, who plundered the islands
of Cerigo and Cerigotto. Yúsuf Páshá, the conqueror of Canea, having
returned to Constantinople, as a reward for his services, was killed at
the instigation of Jinjí Khoájeh.

The fourth victory was that over Várvár by Ibshír Páshá the traitor.
Várvár Alí preferred losing his place to giving up his daughter, the
wife of Ibshír Páshá, to Sultán Ibráhím. The infamous traitor Ibshír
joined his father-in-law at Tokát, and persuading him that he would
accompany him to Constantinople, there to seek redress for the outrage
committed on their family, lulled him into a sleep of security; and on
arriving at a place called Cherkess, attacked him suddenly, sent his
head to Constantinople, and as a reward, received the government of
Síwás.


_Defeat of Tekelí Mustafá Pashá_.

The Venetians having ravaged the native country of Yúsuf Páshá, the
conqueror of Canea, who was a Croatian by birth, and having brought
over to their interests the Uskoks, the inhabitants of those countries,
Tekelí Páshá was nominated commander, and besieged the castle of
Sebenico in the Adriatic sea for forty days. On the fortieth day they
were driven from the trenches by a dreadful storm, after which they
assembled in the plain of Vanul near Sebenico. The next morning they
found themselves surrounded by many thousands of banners bearing the
cross, and a bloody engagement ensued, in which 22,000 Moslems were
slain, 18,000 made prisoners, and the whole camp fell into the hands
of the infidels. I, the humble Evliyá, was present at this unfortunate
battle, being in one of the regiments of Janissaries; and in order to
save myself, I fled on horseback towards the mountains of Ghulámúj,
where I left my horse, entered a thick forest, and remained concealed
seven days and nights, living upon roots and herbs. The infidels then
advanced to Kilisa, where they pitched the Ottoman tents, and the
commander-in-chief even put on the turban of Tekelí Mustafá Páshá. The
garrison, deceived by this stratagem, came out without fear to meet the
diván, whilst the infidels rushed in, and thus became masters of that
strong hold. Such misfortunes never befel the Ottoman empire as those
which followed the defeat at Sebenico. The ships with pilgrims were
captured by the Venetians, as was also the imperial fleet on its annual
cruise in the Mediterranean; and the whole were carried to Venice.


_Character of Sultán Ibráhím._

Kara Mustafá Páshá, the brave and sagacious vezír, being put to death,
the Sultán fell into the hands of all the favourites and associates of
the harem, the dwarfs, the mutes, the eunuchs, the women, particularly
Jinjí Khoájeh, and the vezír Ahmed Hazár-pára Páshá, who corrupted
him to such a degree that he received bribes from his own vezírs. He
lavished the treasures of Egypt on his favourite women Políeh, Sheker
Pára, Tellí, and Sájbághlí Khásekí; and squandered his revenues in
circumcision feasts, building koshks lined with sable, and in presents
to his favourite Jinjí Khoájeh, who at last, with the vezír Ahmed, fell
under the displeasure of the public. So loud was the cry for vengeance,
that the vezír was obliged to call to his assistance the Ottoman troops
who had served in Candia under the command of Delí Husain Páshá. Jinjí
Khoájeh, the favourite, was constantly about the person of the Sultán,
the vezír, or the válideh; and whenever the latter went out in the
carriage or the chair, he always accompanied her. When any gave good
advice he laughed in their faces, and by his flattering conversation,
he kept the Sultán in a state of constant lethargy: in short, he knew
nothing of state affairs. He was originally called Shaikh-zádeh, and
attended with me at the college of Hámid Efendí. I was then reading the
Káfiyeh with Jámí’s commentary, under my worthy tutor Akhfash Efendí,
when this boy was taken from his grammar into the presence of the
Sultán, whose favour he obtained by reading several tales, and lulled
him into the sleep of carelessness. He then received the name of Jinjí
Khoájeh. As I was well acquainted with him, I knew that he had no taste
for the secret sciences; and that the rise of his brilliant star would
only tend to his own misfortune and that of the empire.

At length Murád Aghá arrived from Candia to the assistance of the
Sultán; but the latter having demanded of him a present of one
thousand purses, seventy sable skins, and two female slaves, he put
himself at the head of the Sipáhís and Janissaries, who turned out
in the At-maidán in open rebellion. Sultán Ibráhím was confined in
a part of the palace called Sircheh-seráï, and his son Mohammed IV.
was proclaimed emperor. The divines and vezírs made obeisance to
him; Dervísh Mohammed was named grand vezír, and Murád, ághá of the
Janissaries. The day after, Ahmed Páshá, the late vezír, who had
concealed himself, was discovered and torn to pieces by the populace,
as were also Yani Sireh and Jinjí, and their bodies were thrown out
upon the At-maidán. The rest of the favourites were either killed or
exiled. Of the favourite women, Sheker-pára was banished to Ibrím, the
rest were confined in the old Seráï, or distributed amongst the vezírs.
On the morning of the 25th of Rajab, Sultán Mohammed proceeded in state
to the mosque of Eyúb, to be invested with the sword. On his return, he
visited the tomb of his ancestor Mohammed II. and then took his seat in
the Khás-ódá. In the mean time a report was circulated through the city
that Sultán Ibráhím had escaped from his confinement, and that he was
supported by a party of the Bóstánjís. In consequence of this report,
many thousands were in an uproar, and proceeded armed to the At-maidán,
where they received a _fetvá_, or warrant for the execution of Ibráhím
Abdu-r-rahmán Efendí. The grand vezír, Murád, Emír-Páshá, and some of
the first officers of government, also assembled in the Sircheh Seráï.
The vezír, with many blows, obliged Kara Alí, the executioner, to
enter the Sircheh Seráï and do his work. Ibráhím asked: “Master Alí,
wherefore art thou come?” He replied, “My emperor, to perform your
funeral service.” To this, Ibráhím replied, “We shall see.” Alí then
fell upon him; and whilst they were struggling, one of Alí’s assistants
came in, and Ibráhím was finally strangled with a garter. This happened
in 1058 (1648). Kara Alí received a reward of five hundred ducats, and
was urged to remain no longer at Constantinople, but to proceed on a
pilgrimage to Mecca. The corpse of the emperor was washed before the
Khás-ódá, and the last prayers were read under the cypresses before
the Díván-Kháneh, in the presence of all the vezírs, and of Sultán
Mohammed himself, the Shaikh-ul-Islám acting as Imám. The vezírs wore
black veils, and horses covered with black were led before the coffin,
which was deposited in the mausoleum of Sultán Mustafá I., the uncle of
Sultán Ibráhím.


_Reign of Sultán Mohammed IV., which may God perpetuate!_

This emperor ascended the throne on Saturday the 18th of Rajab 1058
(1648), being then seven years old. Not a single _falús_ was found in
the treasury, and it was evidently necessary to collect some money
by executing those who had squandered it away in the time of Sultán
Murád, to make the usual largess to the troops. From the property of
Jinjí were realized 3,000 purses; from that of the late vezír, 5,000;
and from that of Sheker-pára, 1,000; so that on Tuesday the 5th of
Sha’bán, 3,700 purses were distributed as presents, and 7,000 purses as
arrears of pay. Three thousand Janissaries, who had been proscribed and
ordered to march to Baghdád, and the same number of Sepáhís destined
for Candia, although they had no claim to the largess, received 1,000
purses; and the whole army were highly satisfied. On the 11th of
Sha’bán, the largess was distributed amongst the servants of the Seráí.
The cooks and confectioners, not having received any thing, rebelled,
on which account the Kilárjí-báshí was disgraced.


_Personal description of Sultán Mohammed._

Though very weak when he mounted the throne, he acquired strength when,
at the age of twenty, he took to field sports. He had broad shoulders,
stout limbs, a tall figure, like his father Ibráhím; a powerful fist,
like his uncle Murád, open forehead, grey eyes, a ruddy countenance,
and an agreeable voice, and his carriage was princely, in short, that
of an emperor. The astrologers had predicted to Sultán Ibráhím that he
should have a son called Yúsuf (Joseph), and possessing the beauty of
a Joseph, who would subdue the nations from the east to the west, and
quell all external and internal commotions. When his mother was near
her time, Ibráhím took an oath, that if it were a male child, he would
name him after the person who should first bring him the good news. By
the decree of God, he received the intelligence from Yúsuf, the Imám of
the palace, who at the same time read the confession of faith over the
young prince, calling him Yúsuf, which name he had only seven hours;
the favourites and women of the palace having insinuated that Yúsuf
was a slave’s name, and that Mohammed would sound much better, he was
accordingly named Mohammed, though in truth he grew up beautiful as
Yúsuf. He had a small beard, large mustaches, and was much devoted to
field sports.


_History of the Vezírs_.

Mevleví Khoájeh Dervísh Mohammed Páshá retired from the office of
defterdár with the rank of a Páshá of three tails, and resided in
a monastery of Mevlevís. He was appointed grand vezír when Sultán
Mohammed IV. came to the throne; but having made immense confiscation
of property in order to raise funds for the payment of the troops, he
was obliged to retire to Malagra, where he was strangled. He was a
just and valuable servant of the state. His successor was Kara Murád
Páshá, who was born in Albania, and was brought up as a Janissary. Like
his predecessor, he was dismissed from office for having spent too
much money in organizing the imperial navy and army. He was succeeded
by my lord Melek Ahmed Páshá, who was born at Constantinople; but at
the age of three years was sent to the country of Abáza, where he
was educated till he was fifteen. He was then, along with my mother,
sent as a present to Sultan Ahmed. He was consigned to the pages in
the harem, and my mother was given to my father, shortly after which
union, the humble writer was born. Melek Ahmed’s father was the
kehiyá of the kapújís of Ozdemir-oghlí Osmán Páshá; and having been
present in the battles of Shírwán, Ganjeh, and Derbend, died at the
age of one hundred and forty years. Melek then became the sword-bearer
and confidential attendant of Sultán Murád IV., and on the day of
the conquest of Baghdád, he received the government of Díárbekr. He
subsequently enjoyed all the high offices in the state; and having held
the governments of Cairo and Budin, and become an old and experienced
statesman, he was at last raised to the rank of grand vezír. He sent
3,000 Sipáhís to aid Delí Husain Páshá in Candia, and a togh (tail) to
Biklí Mustafá Páshá. By this assistance, Delí Husain was enabled to
take the castles of Selina and Retimo. The following year Hasám Oghlí
Alí Páshá was made Kapúdán Páshá, and sailed to the Mediterranean
with a fleet of 300 vessels, equal to the famous fleet of Kílí Alí
Páshá. After an engagement with the infidels, in which the latter were
defeated, the fleet anchored in the harbour of Kara Khoájehler, and the
troops having carelessly gone on shore, the infidels came upon them
and set fire to forty galleys and eleven galeons. When the news of
this calamity reached the vezír, he offered to give up the seals, but
the emperor would not accept his resignation, and thus he remained in
office with a salary of 700 purses.


_The cause of his fall._

The garrison at Azov having mutinied for want of pay, and murdered
some of their officers, three hundred purses of money were changed
into ducats, and were sent off by messengers on horseback, it being
impossible to forward them by sea in the winter season. These three
hundred purses were levied upon the merchants and tradesmen of
Constantinople, to whom the Defterdár Emír Páshá, Kadda Kehiyá, and
the inspector of the customs Hasan Chelebí, distributed linen, red
and blue Morocco leather, and drugs, the confiscated property of many
Musulmáns. One morning all the guilds of Constantinople assembled in
arms on the At-Maidán, and with cries of “Alláh! Alláh!” proceeded to
the royal Seráï to make their complaints against the three officers
above mentioned. The Sultán sent three times for Melek Ahmed, who,
fearing the violence of the mob, refused to come. At last the kapújílar
kehiyásí (chief chamberlain), and the khás oda báshí (chief of the
pages), came and insisted that he should either come to the presence or
give up the seals. With the latter proposal he at once complied, and
was afterwards appointed governor of Silistria, though he continued to
reside some time at a house called the Topjílar Seráï in the vicinity
of Constantinople.

The grand vezír who succeeded him was Síávush Páshá, an Abáza by
birth. He was first chokadár to Sultán Murád IV., then Kapúdán Páshá,
and passed through all the offices in Egypt. The kizlar-ághá, Dív
Soleïmán Aghá, having strangled the mother of Sultán Murád, Kosem
Sultáneh, with her own hair, and killed the ághá of the Janissaries,
their lieutenant-general and their secretary, was one day boasting
of his feats, when he suddenly gave Síávush a blow on the face, and
taking the seals from him, gave them to Gúrjí Mohammed Páshá. Gúrjí
had formerly obtained some repute as jebbehjí báshí (chief of the
armoury) in the war of Hotín. He succeeded in raising a large fleet,
and sent two thousand Janissaries and three thousand Sipáhís to Candia;
but was dismissed from office on the pretext of being imbecile. His
successor Tarkhúnjí Ahmed Páshá had been kehiyá to the vezírs Músá and
Hazár-páreh Ahmed Páshá. He was subsequently made grand vezír of Egypt
and of the Cupola; and though he raised the means of supporting the
navy and army, and kept both in an excellent state, he was put to death
on the plea of being a traitor.

Kapúdán Bíklí Dervísh Mohammed Páshá was a slave of Mustafá, the
kizlar-ághá of Sultán Othmán, and a native of Circassia. He was a man
possessed of great ability, and took a great interest in the affairs
of state; but by the decree of God, he was attacked by a paralytic
stroke, which confined him six months. During this period, the business
of his office was transacted by Melek Ahmed Páshá, as káïm-makám or
lieutenant. His disease proved fatal, and the seals were consigned a
second time to Melek Ahmed Páshá; but after a consultation of all the
Ulemá, which lasted for seven hours, on the suggestion of Melek Ahmed
himself, it was resolved that the seals should be sent to Ibshír Páshá,
a relation of the famous rebel Abáza Páshá, then governor of Haleb,
and already noticed for the treacherous manner in which he killed his
father-in-law, Várvár Páshá. He accepted the office; but not wishing to
come to Constantinople, he excused himself by pleading the necessity
of quelling some disturbances on the Persian frontier, whither he
marched with a hundred thousand men. After repeated invitations, and
having been presented with Aisha Sultáneh, the widow of Voinok Ahmed
Páshá, as his wife, he at last, after a march of seven months, arrived
at Scutari, but would not enter Constantinople. The kizlar ághá, and
Sheikh-ul-Islám, then waited upon him at his palace at Scutari; and,
presenting him with a sable pelisse and a dagger set with jewels,
invited him in the name of the emperor to visit Constantinople,
proposing at the same time to leave several páshás and Ulemá as
hostages in his camp. To this he consented, and had an audience with
the emperor; but the day after he was on the point of returning, and it
was with great difficulty that he was prevailed upon to make a public
entry into Constantinople at the head of his army of eighty thousand
men. His first measure was to insist upon the necessity of sending the
káïm-makám, Ahmed Páshá, to Ván, on the Persian frontier, on account
of the disturbances in that quarter. The emperor remonstrated that
it was not a proper province for so old and meritorious a vezír; but
Ibshír replied, that it was a fine province of twenty-seven sanjaks
and an annual revenue of a hundred thousand piastres. The diploma of
the Páshá was therefore instantly made out and sent to Melek Ahmed by
a chamberlain and ten chávushes, who pressed his immediate departure.
Melek Ahmed, on ascertaining the object of their visit, raised the
firmán, without kissing it, to his head, and presented three purses
with a sable pelisse to the chamberlain, and fifty piastres to each
of the chávushes. He however remained five days longer in making the
necessary arrangements for his journey. On the fifth day, Ibshír
complained to the emperor of Melek’s delay, and urged the emperor to
put him to death for his disobedience. The day after, the emperor sent
a chamberlain to call Melek, and on his appearing was asked why he
delayed going to so desirable a province as Ván, which, according to
the account of Ibshír, had an income of a hundred thousand piastres.
Melek boldly declared that what Ibshír stated was false; that Ibshír
had no means of knowing, having never been admitted into the citadel
by the mutinous garrison, and that the revenue scarcely amounted to
seven thousand piastres. The emperor immediately called for pen and
ink, and with his own hand wrote a khatisheríf, by which the power
of appointing all the governors from Scutari to Egypt and Baghdád,
together with the title of governor general, was conferred upon Melek
Ahmed. Besides that, five hundred purses of gold, one hundred strings
of mules, as many camels, an imperial tent, and two sable pelisses were
given to him; and the emperor addressing him said: “Proceed now, my
Lálá, and, if it please God, I propose some day to visit that country.”
At this Ibshír became pale as death, whilst Melek, after having offered
up prayers for his Majesty’s prosperity, went out, and, escorted by
the bostánjí-báshí, he and his retinue passed over to Scutari in one
hundred and fifty boats. Here he remained a week in the palace of
Kíá-Sultáneh, making preparations for his journey. After a march of
one hundred and seventeen days he entered Ván; and on the same day a
messenger, named Yeldrim (lightning), having travelled with the speed
of lightning, arrived bringing the news of the murder of Ibshír at
Constantinople.

Murád Páshá was made grand vezír a second time; but the troops not
being satisfied with him, he was dismissed from office; and dying
shortly after in the palace of Arnáúd Páshá, he was buried in the
tomb which the latter had built for himself. It is related as a well
known story that, that when Murád Páshá, heard that Arnáúd Páshá was
building a tomb for himself, he said: “Please God! he shall not have
the satisfaction of being buried in it, but I will bury a black hog in
it.” The event was, that he himself was buried in it.

Silihdár Soleïmán Páshá was appointed governor of Rumeïlí, after having
been for some time sword-bearer to the emperor. He was born at Malátieh
and educated in the imperial harem, and was an amiable and worthy
vezír. He was dismissed on some slight pretext, and was succeeded by
Zúrnázen Mustafá Páshá, an Albanian by birth, and educated in the
imperial harem. He was defterdár during the vezírat of Melek Ahmed
Páshá, but was degraded on account of his great avarice, and filled
several inferior offices. The seals were conferred upon him merely to
tantalize him, for he had to return them one hour after he received
them: thus he had the pleasure of enjoying only a faint shadow of the
dignity of grand vezír. The seals were then sent by the khásekí, Sipáhí
Mohammed, to Delí Husain, who was engaged in the siege of Candia. But
the khásekí, having been delayed by contrary winds on his passage from
Menkesheh to Candia, was overtaken by another messenger, who brought
back the seals. They were then sent to Síávush, the governor of Ouzí
(Oczakov), who became grand vezír a second time. At this time Melek
Ahmed Páshá, having been recalled from the government of Ván, was
delayed at Erzerúm, by the winter, on his return to Constantinople.
Here he received the news of the death of the vezír Síávush, and of
Defterdár Zádeh, who was strangled under the false accusation of
having been concerned in the death of Síávush. Boiní Egrí Mohammed
Páshá was next nominated grand vezír, and in his absence his duties
were performed by Haider Aghá-Zádeh, as káïm-makám. Boiní Egrí,
however, immediately sent to Melek Ahmed, inviting him to return to
Constantinople, whilst Haider Aghá-Zádeh was appointed governor of
Oczakov. On the very day that Melek Ahmed took his seat amongst the
vezírs of the Cupola, Haider, who was setting out for Silivria from
Silistria, was murdered, and his province was conferred upon Melek
Ahmed Páshá. Boiní Egrí Páshá having through his avarice lost his
office, Kopreïlí Válí Mohammed Páshá was appointed his successor. This
man being invested with absolute power, and being ambitious to bring
glory to the Ottoman power, killed in Anatolia four hundred thousand
rebels, seventeen vezírs, forty-one beglerbegs, seventy sanják begs,
three mollahs, and a moghrebín sheikh. He proportioned the expenditure
of the empire to its revenues, which he considerably enlarged by
several conquests. The astrologers and cabalists call this Kopreïlí
_Sáhib Kharúj_, _i.e._ Expenditor. He is buried in the mausoleum, near
the poultry-market (Táúk-bázár). He was an Albanian by birth, but most
zealous and active in the cause of the true faith. He was educated
in the imperial harem, and when Khosrau Páshá left it with the rank
of Aghá of the Janissaries, Kopreïlí was promoted to the office of
Khazíneh-dár. After him his son, Fázil Ahmed Páshá, was named grand
vezír. He was not of a blood-thirsty disposition like his father, but
shewed himself a virtuous, upright, prudent, and honourable governor.
He was born in the village of Koprí in the province of Sivás, and at
first devoted himself to the study of the law, but was afterwards
appointed governor of Erzerúm, then káïm-makám, and lastly grand vezír.
He was the first instance of a son’s holding the seals in succession
from the father. Of the castles which he reduced, may be mentioned
those of Kamenick and Candia. He died between Adrianople and Rodosto,
on the _chiftlik_ (estate) of Kara Bovir, and was buried beside his
father.

His successor was Kara Mustafá Páshá, who was also educated in the
harem of the Kopreïlís, and at different periods held the offices
of chief master of the horse, governor of Silistria, kapúdán páshá,
káïm-makám, and lastly, grand vezír. He was the son of a Sipáhí of
Merzífún, and was a most excellent and prudent minister.


_Vezírs of Provinces in the time of Sultán Mohammed IV._

During the rebellion in which Sultán Mohammed was raised to the throne,
when the Janissaries were beaten by the Sipáhís, and loads of dead
bodies were thrown into the sea, when Haider-Aghá-Zádeh, unable to make
Seraglio-point, lost a great number of his gallies, on that same day,
Murtezá Páshá was appointed governor of Damascus; Melek Ahmed Páshá was
transferred from Díárbeker to Baghdád; Zilelí-Chávush-Zádeh Mohammed
Páshá made governor of Jerusalem; Emír Páshá, governor of Egypt; Noghái
Oghlí, governor of Haleb (Aleppo); Hamálí Arnáúd Mohammed Páshá, of
Tripoli; and Afrásíáb Oghlí, of Basra.


_Prince of Sultán Mohammed IV._

The Prince Mustafá was born in the year 1071 (A.D. 1660).


_Monuments of Sultán Mohammed IV._

He built a mosque at Cairo, on the spot called Ibráhím Páshá
Kadam-áltí. Over the gate there is a chronograph by Zekí Chelebí, in
the Talík hand. He also built the koshks of Jámlíjeh, Kara Aghach,
Ak-bikár, and the Adálet, which was rebuilt after the fire in the
imperial palace; all in the year 1071 (1660).


_Victories and Conquests, at which Sultán Mohammed IV. was present in
person._

The first was the execution of the rebels in the At-maidán. In the same
month the rebel Haider Oghlí was defeated in Anatolia, and carried
prisoner to Constantinople by the Aghá of the Turcomans, Kara Abáza.
The vezír, Khoajeh Mevleví, seeing that his thigh-bone was broken by
a musket-ball, and that there was no hope of his recovery, ordered
him to be executed immediately. He was therefore hanged at the gate
called Parmak-kapú, where his body remained three days, and was
afterwards thrown into the sea. In the same year, Emír Páshá defeated
twenty thousand rebellious Arabs off Algiers; and Gúrjí Ibní and
Katerjí-oghlí were defeated by the vezír, Kara Mustafá Páshá. The first
of these, at the head of eighty thousand men, had ravaged Anatolia as
far as Scutari, and had taken up his position on the heights opposite
Constantinople, called Bolghúrlí Jámlíjeh. He demanded seventy heads,
and the government of Haleb (Aleppo). Defterdár-zádeh Mohammed Páshá
led out his troops against him, and a battle was fought at Ziljámlíjeh.
Murád Páshá arriving in person to the aid of the imperial troops; the
rebels were completely routed.


_Defeat of the Druses in Syria by Murtezá Páshá._

Yúváshjí Mohammed Aghá and Na’lband Alí Aghá, the commanders of Safet,
owed one thousand purses which were to be paid by the Druses; but as
the payment was delayed, Murtezá Páshá took the field against them with
seventy banners. A great battle took place at Nákúra, where the Druses
were beaten; and instead of one thousand purses, were now obliged to
pay three thousand. I, the humble writer, had this year (1059) made
the pilgrimage to Mecca by way of Egypt, and on my return to Syria was
present at this battle, which I commemorated by a chronograph.


_Conquest of Selina and Retimo in Candia._

In the same year Dashnik and Hainafí, two rebels who were offended
with Melek Ahmed Páshá because they had not received the appointment
of Aghás of the Turcomans, assembled a number of troops at Scutari,
ravaged Anatolia, pillaged a caravan, and pitched their camp between
Lefkeh and Súgúd. Melek Páshá, with the troops of some other Páshás,
attacked them in this place, reduced their strength, and chased the
greater part of them into the mountains. Dashnik Emerza and Hainafi
Khalífeh were made prisoners, and on their way to Constantinople,
were met at Jisrí (or Koprí) by the Bostánjí Báshí, who carried an
imperial _firmán_ for their execution. They were accordingly beheaded,
and their heads were thrown down before the imperial gate. By the
divine permission a stream of light rested that night on the head of
Hainafí Khalífeh, which was witnessed by several hundreds of persons.
Seventeen days after this, a rebellion broke out, by which Ahmed Páshá
was obliged to resign the seals and retire to the government of Ouzí
(Oczakov).


_Defeat of the Infidel Fleet by Kapudán Chávush Zádeh._

This Kapudán brought to Constantinople three gallies and a gallion,
which he had taken from the fleet of the despicable infidels.


_Attack on the Cossacks, by Mohammed Gheráï Khán, at Oczakov._

The result of this expedition by this brave Tátár, was the capture of
one hundred and fifty thousand prisoners. In the same year, Kalghá
Sultán made an inroad upon Moldavia, penetrating as far as Yassy,
Fokshan, and Hotín, and carrying off one hundred and fifty thousand
prisoners, and one hundred thousand head of cattle of various kinds.
The Cossacks were also defeated near Varna by Melek Ahmed Páshá, who,
attacking their boats which had been left upon the shore, took twenty
of them, but the rest escaped. Of the men who were on shore, seven
hundred were made prisoners and a thousand killed. This took place in
the year 1064 (1650). The castle Gúnieh, on the mouth of the river
Júrúgh on the Black Sea, was delivered by Ketánjí-zádeh Mohammed Páshá
in the year 1065. In the same year the Khán of Betlís, Abdál Khán,
was subdued by Melek Ahmed Páshá, who also, in the following year,
delivered the castle of Oczakov from the Cossacks. The castle of
Tenedos was delivered from the Venetians by Kopreïlí Mohammed Páshá.


_Defeat of Rakoczy._

Rakoczy, who had been named King of Poland by the grand vezír Boyúní,
Egrí, but was not acknowledged as such by his successor Kopreïlí,
assembled two hundred thousand men, in order to support his claim
against the Poles, who had sent an envoy to request the assistance of
the Ottoman arms. In consequence of this application, the Tátár Khán,
Melek Mohammed Gheráï, and Melek Ahmed Páshá, the governor of Oczakov,
took the field against Rakoczy, who was defeated, and fled with three
hundred horsemen to the mountains of Szeklers in Transylvania. In
the engagement, forty thousand infidels were slain, and seventeen
princes, with Rakoczy’s minister, taken prisoners, after which, the
armies of the Tátár Khán, and Melek Ahmed Páshá, marched victoriously
to Ak-kermán. I, the humble Evliyá, who composed a chronograph for
this occasion, received seventeen prisoners, twenty horses, ten sable
pelisses, a pair of silver stirrups, and other silver articles, as
my share of the booty. The Hungarians seeing the defeat of Rakoczy,
assembled an immense army composed of various nations, with which they
attacked Temisvar, Lippa, Cianad, Gulia, and Fecsat. Complaints from
these places having reached the Porte, the governor of Buda, Kana’án
Páshá, received orders to march against the invading enemy. On the
banks of the Maros, between Lippa and Arád, the Páshá encountered
eighty thousand of the hostile army and was routed, but saved himself
and some thousands of his cavalry by a flight to Slankament. In this
defeat the Ottoman army lost no less than eleven thousand men. Kana’án
Páshá was in consequence removed from Buda, and the government was
given to Seidí Ahmed Páshá of Bosnia; whilst the government of Bosnia
was conferred upon Melek Ahmed Páshá. In the same year, Seidí Ahmed
Páshá, with twelve thousand brave horsemen, entered the province of
Transylvania by Demir-kapú (the Iron Gate), gave battle to the detested
Rakoczy’s army, who defended the castle of Koljovar, and defeated them,
with the assistance of Husain Páshá, the brother of the governor of
Temisvar, Síávush Páshá. The white bodies of the infidels were strewed
upon the white snow; and the carriages, cannon, and tents were sent to
Constantinople; where, however, no thanks were voted to Seidí Páshá for
the victory, nor was even a “well done” said on the occasion, although
it was a victory not less brilliant than that of Erla by Mohammed III.;
for Seidí Páshá had no more than eleven thousand men opposed to a
hundred and sixty thousand infidels, now inhabitants of hell. The vile
Rakoczy escaped to the castle of Koljovar, where he began to collect a
new army.

The emperor having heard of the depredations committed by the infidels
in Bosnia, appointed Melek Ahmed to the command of an army against
Zara. The Páshá assembled his troops under the walls of this fortress,
but not being able to reduce it, he plundered the neighbouring country,
attacked the castle of Rinjisi, which he took after a storm of seven
hours, and carried off the inhabitants.

In the same year Rakoczy having refused to pay the tribute due by
Transylvania, and having encamped with two hundred thousand men under
Koljovar, was attacked a second time by Seidí Páshá with forty thousand
chosen troops of Buda, Erla, Temisvar, and Kanisa. Rakoczy was beaten,
wounded, and obliged to fly to Kalova, where he expired, calling out,
“Receive me, O Jesus!” Jesus however would not receive him, but he
was seized by the angel Azraïl. Seidí Páshá carried an immense booty,
with several thousand heads to Constantinople; but even by this signal
exploit he could not gain the emperor’s favour.

The fortresses of Lippa, Jeno, and Lugos were conquered by Kopreïlí
Mohammed Páshá, who also repaired the fortifications of Arad and
Jeno, and was on the eve of undertaking an expedition against the
Transylvanian fortresses, when he received repeated imperial rescripts,
intimating that it was not the emperors wish to continue the war any
longer in that country, and that should the Páshá even bring the king
of Transylvania or the emperor of Germany prisoners to Constantinople,
it would not meet his Majesty’s approbation; but he was desired to
proceed with all possible speed to the Porte, because Kara Husain
Páshá in Anatolia, Sárí Kana’án Páshá, Sayár Mohammed Páshá, and forty
rebellious Begs were marching against Brúsa. Kopreïlí, on receiving
this _khatisheríf_, exclaimed, “Well done, Kara Husain, to come at
this moment to the aid of the Hungarian infidel; may the result be
fortunate!” Preparations for departure were immediately commenced, and
it was proclaimed that all who valued their bread and honour should
repair to Constantinople in order to engage in the religious war
(_ghazá_). Sinán Páshá and Seidí Páshá were left to protect the castle
of Jeno, whilst Kopreïlí marched with the greatest possible haste
towards Constantinople, in the vicinity of which, at Kiaght-Kháneh,
he encamped. The troops were daily paid, and three thousand Sipáhís
and seven thousand Janissaries, who were absent from the review, had
their names struck off the lists. The emperor of the seven climates
then moved his camp to Scutari; fetvás of the muftis of the four
orthodox sects were circulated throughout Anatolia, and firmáns were
sent to Kara Murtezá Páshá, the governor of Díárbekr, to Gúrjí Mustafá
Páshá, governor of Erzerúm; and to Tútsák Alí Páshá, governor of Haleb
(Aleppo), who were all summoned to march against Abáza Kara Hasan
Páshá. The latter in the same year defeated Murtezá Páshá, the governor
of Díárbekr, in the field of Ulghún, and obliged him to fly to Haleb.
He then collected his Segbáns and Saríjehs, and excited such a terror
in the four vezírs, who were, besides, much distressed by a scarcity
of provisions, that they sent messengers to Constantinople to obtain
pardon for the rebels, who, at the same time, had taken possession of
Aleppo.

In the same year Melek Ahmed Páshá of Bosnia sent seven thousand heads
to the Porte, and announced the reduction of the fortresses of Kámín,
Kirád, and Rinja. Alí Páshá, who had the government of the Dardanelles,
was removed, and sent against the castle of Arad, which surrendered.

The rebellion of Mehneh Beg in Valachia being evident, Fazlí Páshá,
Ján Arslán Páshá, and several Begs were sent against him. The two
armies met at Gurgivo, and the Ottoman army was defeated. At the same
time the prince of Moldavia, Búrúnsiz Kostantin (Constantine without
a nose) erected the standard of rebellion at Yassy, began to coin new
_zolotas_ (money), and took possession of Moldavia. The Tátár Khán of
the Crimea, and the Tátárs of Búják, were ordered against him; whilst
young Stefano, son of Lipul, the late prince of Moldavia, a prisoner
in the Seven Towers, was nominated prince. On this occasion Kemán-kesh
Ahmed Aghá was appointed _Iskemla-Aghá_ (aghá of the chair), and
Siláhshúr Ahmed Aghá, the Sanjak-ághá (ághá of the banner.[7]) The
army reached Yassy on a severe winter day, when a battle ensued, the
result of which was the flight of Búrúnsiz Kostantin, the loss of ten
thousand men on the part of the infidels, and the establishment of
prince Stefano. The flying Moldavians were pursued by the Tátárs as far
as Valachia, and the whole country was ravaged by fire. Fazlí Páshá
and Ján Arslán Páshá, who at this time were shut up in the fortress of
Gurjivo, were in the greatest distress, and had already resolved to
drown themselves, when the infidels being afraid of the Tátárs, left
the trenches and fled to Bucharest. The Ottomans pursued them, and
took a great number of prisoners and immense booty. The Tátárs, also,
continued their pursuit after the infidels as far as the mountains of
Prashova (Kronstadt) on Irshova (Orsova), and took prisoners twenty
thousand Valachians and sixty-seven thousand Moldavians. Thus, God be
praised! in twenty days Valachia and Moldavia were reduced; and I,
the humble writer, who was present, received as my share the value of
twenty prisoners. Young Stefano presented me with a purse of gold, six
saddle-horses, and a robe; and Ghazá-Zádeh, the Aghá of the Sanjak,
gave me a purse, one horse, and a fine boy. On the forty-second day
we entered Adrianople. God be praised that I was in this brilliant
expedition! I then proceeded to join my lord, Melek Ahmed Páshá, whom
I found at Háluna. Were I, however, to describe the Bosnian victories,
my list would be extended to an inconvenient length. To be brief, my
lord, Melek Ahmed Páshá, was removed from the government of Bosnia,
and on a Monday, the 12th of Rabiul-evvel 1071 (1660), was promoted
to the government of Rúmeïlí. The province of Bosnia was given to
Alí Páshá, the conqueror of Arad, who, in the year 1072 (1661) was
also appointed commander of the army against Kemeny, in Transylvania.
Seventy sanjaks, twenty odas of Janissaries and artillerymen, and four
Búlúks, altogether amounting to eighty-seven thousand men, assembled on
the plains of Temesvar, and headed, after the death of Alí Páshá, by
Seidí Páshá, entered Transylvania by the Demir-kapú, and encamped on
the plain of Hájak. On the twentieth day they were joined by Sháh Púlád
Aghá, with forty thousand Tátárs, who had been sent to distress Kemeny,
and had obtained useful information of the movements of the enemy, and
taken several thousands of prisoners. The Vezír of Bude, Ismail Páshá,
had the command of the vanguard, and Transylvania was ravaged for
eight months, as far as the Teiss, which Husain Páshá, the brother of
Síávush Páshá was ordered to pass. He advanced with his chosen troops
as far as Kasha and Hasswar, and proposed the son of Zulúmí as king
of Transylvania. The people, however, having declared that they would
have no other king but Kemeny, with whom they were satisfied, Husain,
after encountering a thousand difficulties, repassed the Teiss. Ismail
Páshá having been appointed commander against the Szeklers, returned
to the imperial camp with seventeen thousand prisoners. He then moved
his camp to Odvarhel, where he proclaimed the infidel, Apasty Michel,
king, and collected two thousand purses (a million of piastres), being
the arrears of tribute which had been due for three years. This year
(1071), during our stay near the castle of Sázmajár, at Sibín, we
received intelligence of the death of Kopreïlí Mohammed, and of the
promotion of his son to the vazírat. A great battle, also, on a severe
winters day, was fought at Forgrash: the army returned by the Demir
kapú, with forty thousand waggons and a hundred thousand prisoners, and
were sent into winter quarters. My lord, Melek Ahmed Páshá, took up
his winter quarters at Belgrade, whence, by the express command of the
emperor, he repaired to Constantinople, to be present at the marriage
of Fátima, the daughter of Sultán Ahmed. My lord had been a vezír
of the cupola for three months when he died, and was buried in the
burial-ground of Eyúb, at the feet of his late master, Kechí Mohammed
Efendí. Thus the unfortunate Evliya was left without a patron; but God
is merciful!

 [7] Two officers requisite at the installation of the princes of
 Valachia and Moldavia.

The following castles were also conquered: Uivár, Litra, Novígrád,
Lowa, Sikíán, Kermán, Deregil, Holáúk, and Boyák, and many thousands of
prisoners were taken. But forty-seven days earlier the famous victory
of Gran was won, which might be compared to the victories of Erla
and Moháj. It was followed by the fall of the castles of Kiskúivár,
Kemenvár, Egervád, Egerzek, Balashka, Washún, and forty others, which
were all burnt. All these belonged to Zerín Oghlí (Zriny). Before
Kiskúivár was conquered, it was necessary to deliver from the hands of
the infidels the castles of Essek, Lippova, Siklos, Beks, Kapushvár,
Kopen, Nadas, Berebisinj, Siget, and Kaniza, which were all besieged
by the German Electors. When, however, they heard of the arrival of
the grand vezír, they raised the siege of Kanisa, and fled to the new
castle (Kiskúivár), which was also subsequently conquered. Croatia was
ravaged, thirty-six castles were burnt, and the inhabitants carried
away captives.

Elated with such success, the Moslem army advanced to the river
Raab, where, after the conquest of Kiskúivár, it was defeated by the
mismanagement of the grand vezír, Ismail Páshá, and Gurjí Mohammed
Páshá. Many thousands of Moslems were drowned in the Raab; the Sipahís
were deceived by a retrograde motion of the Janissaries, and these,
seeing the retreat of the Sipahís, also took to flight, in consequence
of which the bridge broke down, and an immense number of men were
drowned. The vezír defended himself bravely for twenty-four hours
longer, but at last retreated to Stuhlweissenburg, whence he sent
proposals of peace. He then took up his winter quarters at Belgrade,
and an envoy having been sent from the German emperor, Kara Mohammed
Páshá was dispatched as ambassador to Vienna, and the humble author
received orders to accompany him in the embassy. The peace being
concluded at Vienna, I travelled, with the emperor’s patent, through
Germany to Dunkirk, thence to Denmark, Holland (where I saw Amsterdam),
Sweden, and Cracovie, in Poland, making, in three years and a half, the
tour of the countries of the seven infidel kings (the seven Electors).
In the year 1668, on the night of the Prophets ascension, I found
myself on the Ottoman frontier, at the castle of Toghan-kechid, on
the Dneister. Conducted by my guides, who were Kozaks, I saw lights
in the minaret, and, for the first time, after so long an absence,
I heard the sound of the Mohammedan call to prayer. As the gates of
the castle are closed after sunset, I spent the night in one of the
Búza houses outside, and in the morning crossed the river to Sháhín
Germán, whence in three days I reached the Crimea, and continued my
journey through Dághistán to Russia. Here, God be praised, I completed
my travels through the seven climates. I then travelled seventy days
with the Russian envoy, and joining Ak Mohammed Páshá and his deputy, I
returned to the Crimea. Here I received presents from the Tátár Khán,
Chobán Gheráï Oghlí, and travelling with Ak Mohammed Páshá, who had
been deprived of his governorship, I reached Constantinople in eighty
days. Thence I proceeded to Adrianople, and afterwards to Candia,
which surrendered to Kopreïlí Zádeh Fázil Ahmed Páshá in 1080 (1669),
after a struggle of three years. This was followed by the conquest of
Maina, and the building of the castle of Zarenta in 1081 (1670). In the
same year Kamienik, in Poland, one of the strongest fortresses of the
infidels, was reduced, and mosques were erected in it. For this, and
several other places, the King of Poland paid tribute to the Porte. The
victorious sultan then proceeded to his second capital, Adrianople, and
fixed his winter quarters at Hájí Oghlí Pasání, whilst the grand vezír
remained at Bábátághí. The sultan subsequently removed to Yassi, and
the vezír remained where he was.

All the fortresses and castles conquered were adorned with mosques,
wherein divine worship was performed according to the true faith, and
in the name of Sultan Mohammed IV., whose reign may God perpetuate.

Here I conclude my historical account of the sultáns, and their vezírs
and muftís, from Mohammed II. to Murád IV., who are all buried at
Constantinople.

Having digressed a little, by giving an account of the statistics and
principal historical events, I shall now resume my description of the
imperial mosques of Constantinople.


_Description of the Mosque of the Válideh._

This building was undertaken, at an immense expense, by the Sultáneh
Válideh, the mother of Mohammed II.; but at her death it remained
unfinished, and fell into decay. It was then called _zulmíeh_ (the
dark); but, when the Válideh was travelling in the country, after
the burning of Constantinople, the foundations were cleared of the
rubbish, and the sultán, devoting five thousand purses from his own
treasury, ordered the building to be completed. It was then called
_a’dlíeh_ (the just). It is now the tenth of the imperial mosques of
Constantinople, and is situated between the Shahíd Kapú-sí (gate of
martyrs) and the Bálik Bázár (fish market), in the quarter of the Jews,
whose houses, by the divine permission, being burnt down, themselves
were banished from the spot, and the ground occupied by their houses
was added to the court and market of the mosque, which was completed
in ten years, and was properly called a’dlíeh instead of zulmíeh.
The north of the building looks towards the walls of the city, and
on the south is the great court (haram). The cupola, from its base
to the top, measures no less than seventy yards. The whole is built
upon an elevated pavement, which is ascended on four sides by flights
of steps. The mosque is built in the same style as the mosque of the
Princes, and that of Sultán Ahmed I. in the At-maidán; four small
semi-cupolas support the centre one, which is besides supported by
four large columns. The mahfil of the moazzíns is elevated by small
columns; and the mahfil of the emperor is on the left hand, made of the
most exquisite marble-work. One of its columns occasioned the death
of Yúsuf Páshá, the conqueror of Egypt. Some informers accused him of
having in his possession a pillar of pure gold, which, however, upon
examination was found to be only of yellow stone; but this discovery
was made when it was too late; and this valuable column, which shines
brighter than gold, was put under the emperors mahfil. The building
is well lighted by a great number of windows, and at night by lamps.
The mehráb (recess) and mimber (pulpit) are of fine variegated stone.
The gates are five in number; two side gates, one for the imám, one
for the khatíb, and the fifth facing the mehráb. The rich trappings
and ornaments suspended in the mosque are unequalled, not only in any
mosque in Constantinople, but throughout the dominions of the Islám.
The doors and window-shutters are all inlaid with mother-o’-pearl; and
the Persian and Egyptian carpets, with which the floor is covered,
give the mosque the appearance of a Chinese picture gallery. No where
else is there to be seen so great a number of beautiful inscriptions.
Over every window are verses from the sacred word, inscribed by
Teknéjí-Zádeh Mustafá Chelebí, in the Karahisárí hand. The sheikhs of
this place were the celebrated preachers Vaní, and Isperí Efendí. In
the time of Sultán Mohammed IV. it was the resort of the most renowned
doctors, professors, and readers of the Korán. The great gate is
ornamented with a beautiful chronograph in golden letters, expressing
the date 1074. The large court-yard, which lies before the principal
gate, is paved with marble and surrounded by stone benches. The cupolas
are covered with lead, and the windows are of glass. In the centre of
the yard are a fountain and basin. The harem or court-yard has two side
gates and one grand gate, which opens into a second or outer court,
planted with different sorts of trees. On the kibla side is a mausoleum
intended for the Sultáneh Válideh, to whom may God grant long life!
In the garden before the harem Sultán Mohammed built, on the bulwark
called Komliklí Kalla’, a koshk resembling those in Paradise. On the
south and west sides of the great court are built about a thousand
shops of stone (the Egyptian market). This grand court has four gates,
and two lofty minárehs, the tops of which being covered with bronze,
dazzle the eyes of the beholders by their brightness. They are both of
three stories.


_Description of the Mosque of Abul-vafá._

The eleventh imperial mosque is that of the sheikh Abul-vafá, built by
Sultán Mohammed, on a small scale, but eminent on account of its age
and sanctity. It has one mináreh, a court, a school, and a bath.


_Description of the Mosque of Emír Najárí._

This, like the former, is a small mosque, built by Sultán Mohammed the
Conqueror. It has a mináreh and an imáret (refectory).


_The Fat’híeh Mosque._

This mosque was formerly a large convent, and was converted into a
mosque by Sultán Mohammed the Conqueror, who also built the Orta-jámi’,
or the mosque of the Janissaries, in the middle of their barracks. It
was destroyed by fire, but rebuilt by Soleïmán Kehiyá.

The above are the imperial mosques within the walls of Constantinople;
the most remarkable of those in the suburbs are the following: The
mosque of Eyúb; the mosque of Jehángír at Top-kháneh; the mosque
of Mohammed II. in the castle of Rúmeïlí; the mosque of Murád IV.
in the upper castle of Rúmeïlí, called Kawák, near Búyúkdereh; the
mosque of the same sultán in the castle opposite, Kawák Anadoli, or
Majár; the mosque of the conqueror in the delightful valley of Kok-sú
(the Aretas); the mosque of Sultáneh Mehrmáh, the daughter of Sultán
Soleïmán, in the harbour of Scutari; and a second mosque at Scutari, of
the Válideh of Sultán Murád IV., Kosem Sultáneh.

These are the imperial mosques in the suburbs of Constantinople; but
there are many more in the villages on the shores of the Bosphorus,
which, if it please God, shall be described in their proper place.



SECTION XVI.

_Of the Mosques of the Vezírs at Constantinople._


The most ancient of these is the mosque of Mahmúd Páshá, near the
new bezestán, as large as an imperial mosque. It has three cupolas,
three gates, and a spacious court. Over the principal gate there is
written in Arabic: “May God sanctify this good place to us,” which is a
chronograph.

The second is the mosque of Mollá Khair-ad-dín within the Corn-market,
and, like the former, was built in the time of Sultán Mohammed II.
When Khair-ad-dín was building it, he was one day disturbed in his
meditations by the noise of a stork; he exclaimed, “Begone ye noisy
birds; fly without the town;” and since that time no stork has ever
been seen within the walls of Constantinople, though numbers of them
are to be found in the suburbs and neighbouring villages.

The mosque Kahríeh, near the Adrianople gate, was originally a church.
Khoajeh Mustafá Páshá, the vezír of Sultáns Mohammed and Báyazíd II.,
built the large mosque near the Selivrí gate in the year 950 (1548).
It is surrounded by a yard, in which, it is said, are buried all the
heroes who fell during the siege of Constantinople by Hárún-ar-rashíd.
It is a mosque of great sanctity. The chained fig-tree (zinjírlí
injír), which stands in the court, was so called, because, when nearly
split and decayed, it was chained up by a pious man. The imáret,
convent, and college of this mosque, are well attended.

The mosque of Fírúz-ághá near the At-maidán, has one cupola, and is
also well attended.

In the Chehár-shenbeh bázár (Wednesday market) is the mosque of
Mohammed, the ághá of Sultán Murád IV.

In the Uzún-chárshí (long market) is the mosque of Ibráhím Páshá, the
cupola of which is constructed of wood.

The mosque of Yúnus Beg Terjimán is near the Fat’híeh, and has a
chronograph, giving the date of its erection and the name of its
founder.

The Ouch Básh (three heads), near Zinjírlí Kapú, is so called because
it was built by a barber who shaved three heads for one small piece
of money, and, notwithstanding, grew so rich that he was enabled to
build this mosque. It is a small but peculiarly sanctified mosque; the
inscription expresses the date 929 (A.D. 1522).

The mosque of Sana’allah Efendí, near the Kirk-chesmeh (forty
fountains), was destroyed by fire, but was restored in 1013 (1662).

The mosque of Kúrekjí-báshí, near the Silivrí gate, has, in the
south-east corner, a dial (míkát) which points out the time with the
greatest exactness both in summer and winter.

The Balát-jámi’ (of the palace), within the Balát Kapú, was built
in the time of Sultán Suleïmán, by Farrukh Kehiyá, Sinán being the
architect. On the exterior of the south-east wall, an able artist
has painted all the difficult passes and stations on the road from
Jerusalem to Egypt, and thence to Mecca and Medina.

Near the mosque of Sultán Selím is that of the convent of Sívársí
Efendí. It has a cistern supported by six columns, but having no water
it is now used by the silk spinners.

The Ak-shems-ad-dín, near the custom-house, on the land side, is a
mosque in which the prayers offered up are always accepted by Heaven;
it is on that account frequented day and night.

The mosque of the Azabs, within the Corn-market, was built by Elwán
Chelebí, in the time of the Conqueror. It is commonly called the
Shiftálú Jámi’ (peach mosque), because a peach tree grew out of the
south-east wall, which was afterwards destroyed by fire.

The mosque of A’áshik Páshá is also much frequented.

The Altí-boghácheh Jámi’ (six cakes mosque), near the hammám of the
muftí, was built by the chief baker of Mohammed II., Jibbeh Alí, who
used to supply the emperor, as he did Sultán Báyazíd, with six cakes
daily.

The mosque of Kara Pír Páshá, near the Zírek-báshí, on an elevated
spot: this has a cistern, supported by three hundred columns, and
containing water delicious as that of Paradise.

The mosque near the At-bázár (horse-market) was that in which, during
the reign of Mohammed II., the twelve Janissary colonels, who every
night patroled the city, assembled for evening prayers.

The mosque of the mír-ákhor (master of the horse), near the Seven
Towers and the Súlúmonástir, was also formerly a convent, built by the
architect Sinán.

The mosque of Khádim Ibráhím, the grand vezír of Suleïmán, within the
Selivrí gate. The court is full of trees. It is a fine mosque.

The mosque of Dávud Páshá, near the Altí-marmar (six marbles), was
built by one of the vezírs of Sultán Báyazíd II. It has a spacious
court, and a hall of justice attached to it.

The mosque of Jerráh Mohammed Páshá, with six minárehs, was built by
one of the vezírs of Sultán Ahmed I., near the Evret-bázár (women
market).

The mosque of Khosrou Páshá, near the Ak-seráï, is a neat mosque.

The mosque of old Alí Páshá, near the column of Táúk-bázár (the
poultry), is very commodious.

The mosque of Nishánjí Páshá is situate near the Kúm-kapú (sand gate).

The mosque of Ahmed Páshá, the grand vezír of Sultáns Selim and
Suleïmán, is very large, like an imperial one, and is built upon a
small hill within the Top-kapú (cannon-gate).

The mosque of Bairám Páshá, the vezír of Sultán Murád IV., is on an
elevated spot, near that of the conqueror, and ascended by a flight of
steps.

The mosque of the great Nishánjí Páshá, near Keskíndedeh, is built in
an elegant style like those of the Sultáns. The founder is buried in an
adjoining vault.

The mosque of Háfez Páshá, near that of Mohammed II. The founder of
this mosque had a dream, in which the conqueror appeared to him, and
demanded of him how he dared to erect a mosque so near his own, thus
taking away the people who attended it? The conqueror was then about
to kill him, when Háfez Ahmed awoke. He died seventy days after this
dream, and, as he was carried to the tomb, a stone fell upon him from
the mosque of Sultán Mohammed, and cut his head as if it had been
severed by the sword.

The mosque of Khalíl Páshá is also near that of Sultán Mohammed II.

The mosque of Tavásh Mesíh Páshá is also near the above, in the market
of Alí Páshá. Its founder was taken from the chamber of cellar-pages
(kílár), in the time of Murád III., and made governor of Egypt, and
afterwards grand vezír.

The mosque of Bálí Páshá is a lofty building, near the mosque of Emír
Najárí, and was built by Sinán.

The mosque of Rustam Páshá, the vezír of Soleïmán, in that part of
the town called Takht-ul-kala’, is ornamented with glazed tiles. It
is beautiful beyond the powers of description. On all sides it is
surrounded with shops.

The mosque of Yavursár, in the corn-market, has one cupola, but no
chronograph. It was built by my grandfather.

The mosque of the corn-market was built by the lieutenant of police in
the time of Sultán Soleïmán. It is situate without the corn-market, on
the sea-shore, and was built by Sinán. Being decayed, it was repaired
by Kara Chelebí Zádeh. It stands on an elevated spot, has a lofty
cupola, six shops, several warehouses, and a minaret, which in point of
elegance surpasses all others in Constantinople.

The mosque of the Válideh of Sultán Othmán II. is near the Ak-seráï,
and was built by the famous architect Khoajeh Sinán.

The mosque of the famous architect himself is near that of Sultán
Báyazíd.

The mosque of the Kádhí Asker Abdu-r-rahmán Efendí, by Sinán.

The mosque of Hájí Evhad Allah, at the Seven Towers, by the same
architect.

The mosque of Khádim Mahmúd Aghá, the kapú ághá, or chief of the white
eunuchs, is near the Akhor-kapú (stable-gate). He was the ághá of
Sultáns Soleïmán and Selím II.

The mosque of Khoajeh Khosrou Beg, is near that of Khoajeh Mustafá
Páshá, and was built by Sinán.

The Khátún-jámi’ (mosque of the lady) is near the Hammám of Súlí
Monástir; also the work of Sinán.

Near the fountain Oskoplí, at the place where seven streets meet (which
is not the case in any other part of Constantinople), stands the square
built mosque of Defterdár Soleïmán Chelebí.

The mosque of Harem Chávush, near the new garden, built by Sinán; who
also built the mosque near the Kádhí-cheshmeh (fountain of the judge),
and called it after his own name.

The mosque of Akhí-chelebí is in the fruit market, and was built by
Sinán.


_The Old Mesjids, or small Mosques of Constantinople._

Sultán Mohammed II. alone consecrated one hundred and seventy mesjids
at Constantinople.

The mesjid of the Crimea, near the old barracks; that of Mohí-ad-dín,
near the mosque of Mohammed II.; Khárájí Beg, near the corn-market,
over the door of which the architect has formed most ingeniously,
with red and white bricks, “There is no god but God; Mohammed is his
Prophet.” The mesjid of Sáleh Páshá, near the corn-market; of Haider
Páshá, in the same neighbourhood; of Hájí Hasan, near the last, built
by Sinán; of Demír Khán, near the cold-well; of Hámid Efendí, with a
chronograph expressing 985; the Arabajílar, near the corn-market; of
Pápás Oghlí, within the corn-market; the Bárhisár, within the gate
Jebbeh Alí; the Revání, near the Forty Fountains.

The mesjids built by Sinán are: the Rustam Páshá, at Yení-bághcheh;
the Sinán Páshá, in the same place; the Muftí Cheví Zádeh, at the
Cannon-gate; that of his own name, at Yení-bághcheh; that of Emír Alí,
near the custom-house, on the land side; the Uch-básh (three heads),
near the above; the Defterdár Sheríf Zádeh; the Sirmákesh, at the top
of Yení-bághcheh, near Lutfí Páshá; the Khoajehgí Zádeh, near Mohammed
II.; the Takíájí Ahmed Chelebí, near the Selivrí-gate; the Dabbágh Hájí
Hamza, at the Aghá’s meadow; the mesjid of the lady of Ibrahim Páshá,
near the Kúm-kapú; the mesjids of the goldsmiths; of the tailors;
of the Aghá, at St. Sophia; of Sheikh Ferhád, near Lanka-bostán;
of Kurekjí Báshí, without the Kúm-Kapú; of Yáyá Báshí, within the
Fener-gate; of Abd-sú Báshí, near the mosque of Selím I.; of Husain
Chelebí; of Hájí Eliás; of La’l Zádeh Dámád Chelebí; of Dokhání-Zádeh,
near old Mustafá Páshá’s mosque; of Kádhí-Zádeh, near Chokúr-hammám;
of the gun factory, in the corn-market; of the Seráï Aghásí, without
the Adrianople-gate; of Eliás-Zádeh, without the Cannon-gate; of the
Sarráf-Zádeh, in the same quarter; and of Hamdullah Hamídí Chelebí, at
Súlí Monástir. All these mesjids were built by the famous architect,
old Sinán, the builder of the mosque of Sultán Soleïmán, who erected
no fewer than three thousand and sixty buildings, consisting of kháns,
mosques, imárets, colleges, schools, palaces, &c. It was he who built
the round cupola, entirely of marble, for his monument, near the mosque
of Sultán Soleïmán, in the corner of the palace of the ághá of the
Janissaries, adjoining the Fountain-house. He died one hundred and
seventy years old. On the stone placed at his head is an inscription in
letters of gold, in the Kara-hisárí Hasán Chelebí hand, which is a most
exquisite performance.

There are many other mosques and mesjids in Constantinople, but those
which we have described are the most remarkable for their architecture.



SECTION XVII.

_Of the Medresehs or Colleges._


The first college founded at Constantinople after its conquest by
Sultán Mohammed was that of Ayá Sofía; the next was the foundation of
the eight colleges on the right and left, that is, on the north and
south of Sultán Mohammed’s mosque; these eight colleges may be compared
to eight regions of Paradise. The Sultán also founded a school for
the reading of the Korán on a spot adjoining the college, and on the
east a hospital for the poor. This hospital is a model for all such
foundations. On the north and south of the eight colleges are the cells
of the students (_sokhté_), three hundred and sixty-six in number,
each inhabited by three or four students, who receive their provisions
and candles from the trust (_wakf_). There is also a conservatory
(_dár-uz-ziáfat_), and a kitchen lighted by seventy cupolas, which may
be compared to the kitchen of Kaikáús, where the poor are fed twice a
day. Near this refectory there is a cárávanseráï, and a large stable
capable of holding three thousand horses and mules.

The medreseh of Sultán Báyazíd is situate on the south side of the
grand court of his mosque. The Sheikh-ul-Islám is the chief lecturer,
and superintends its affairs.

The medreseh of Sultán Selím, near Yení-bághcheh, at the Koshk of
Khaljílar, was built by Sultán Soleïmán, but dedicated to the memory
of his father. Its revenue was derived from the Yení-bághcheh (new
garden), which originally was one mile long and half a mile broad.
On this very spot Sultán Selím pitched his camp when he came to the
empire, and received the act of obeisance.

The medreseh of Sultán Soleïmán, on the north and south of this mosque,
consists of four schools, one for the traditions (_dár-ul-hadíth_), one
for reading the Korán (_dár-ul-kiráa’t_); a separate one for medicine,
with an hospital and an asylum for the insane, numerous baths, a
cáravánseráï, a stable, and a boys’ school.

The college of the Prince Mohammed was built by Sinán, and is famous
for its learning.

The college of Sultán Ahmed I. adjoins the mosque of the same name.

The college of Kara Mustafá Páshá is near Parmák-kapú (finger-gate).

The college of Mo’íd Efendí is near the Kádhí Cheshmeh.

The college of Hámid Efendí, at the Fílyúkúshí (Elephant’s hill).

The college of Hasan Páshá, near the palace of Jánpúlád Zádeh, is a
fine lofty building, and the lower part of it is ornamented with shops.

The college of Esmakhán Sultán, is within the Adrianople gate.

The colleges of Kadhí Mahmúd Efendí; of Murád Páshá; of Dávud Páshá;
of old Alí Páshá; of Mesíh Páshá; of Rustam Páshá; of Chevízádeh;
of Kapenkejí; of Báshjí Ibrahím Beg; of Altí-marmar; of Nishánjí
Mohammed Beg; of Kúrekjí-báshí; of Kara Pírí Páshá, near Soúk-koyú;
of Afzal Zádeh; of Mardumíeh, near the Kizil Maslak; of Mollá Kúrání,
the khoájeh of Sultán Mohammed II.: being offended with the Sultán he
left him and went to Egypt, but subsequently returned at the Sultán’s
request, and was present at the siege of Constantinople; the college of
Revání, an eloquent man of the time of Sultáns Selím I. and Soleïmán,
a native of Adrianople, and was buried near the Kirk Cheshmeh (Forty
Fountains) before his own mosque; the college of Etmekjí Zádeh Ahmed
Páshá, the Defterdár of Sultán Ahmed I.; of Sunnat Khatún; of Fatima
Sultáneh; of Uch Básh (three heads); of Núr-ad-dín Hafr, within the
Adrianople gate, built by Sinán; of Farrúkh Kehiyá; of Mená; of
Ak-hesám-ad-dín, near the bath of Sultán Selím; of old Ibrahím Páshá;
of Khásekí Sultán; of Kahriéh, built by Sinán; of Khásekí, in the
women-market, also built by Sinán, at the expense of Sultán Soleïmán;
of the Válideh of Sultán Othmán II. near the Ak-seráï; of Makbúl Ahmed
Páshá; of Iskender Páshá; of Súfí Mohammed Páshá; of Ibrahím Páshá,
near the Isá-kapú (gate of Jesus); of Ja’far Aghá; of the Treasurer,
Ahmed Aghá; of Moavil Emír; of Omm-valad; of the Kádhí Asker Dervísh
Efendí; of Khoajehkí Zádeh, near the Sultán Mohammed II.; of Aghá
Zádeh; of Defterdár Abd us-salám Beg; of Tútí Kádhí; of Sháh Kúlí Hakím
Mohammed Chelebí; of Husain Chelebí; of Emír Sinán Chelebí; of Daraghán
Yúnus; of Kárjí Soleïmán; of Hárjí Khatún; of Defterdár Sherífeh Zádeh;
of Kádhi Hakím Chelebí; of Bábá Chelebí; of Germástí Zádeh; of Segbán
Alí; of Bezestán Kehiyásí; of Kowájilar; of Imám Zádeh; and of Kor
Ahmed Páshá. Fifty of these colleges were built in the time of Sultáns
Selím I. and Soleïmán, by the famous architect Sinán.



SECTION XVIII.

_Of the Dár-ul-kirá of Constantinople._


Each grand mosque has a _dár-ul-kirá_, or school for the reading of
the Korán, the most remarkable of which is the _dár-ul-kirá_ of Sultán
Soleïmán. Those of Khosrou Kehiyá, near the mosque of Etmekjí Zádeh
Ahmed Páshá; of Sa’dí Chelebí; of Muftí Zádeh; and of Bosnalí Ahmed
Páshá, were all built by the celebrated architect Sinán.



SECTION XIX.

_Of the Mekteb, or Boys’ Schools._


Each imperial mosque has a school attached to it. There are besides
these, the schools of Kara Mustafá Páshá, opposite the monument of the
same name: it is a large establishment; the school of Khosrou Páshá,
near the Yeníbághcheh; of Aghá Kapú-sí, near the mosque of Sultán
Soleïmán, which is attended by three or four hundred boys; of Pápás
Oghlí, near the corn-market; of Aáshik Páshá; of Alí Jemálí, at Zírek;
and of Mohammed Páshá, in the quarter of Khoájeh Páshá.



SECTION XX.

_Of the Dár-ul-hadíth, or Tradition Schools._


The traditions are read at all the Imperial mosques according to the
principles of _Moslem_ and _Bokhárí_. The schools built especially for
that object are: the dár-ul-hadíth of Hasan Efendí, near Keskindeh; of
Mollá Is’hák Chelebí, built A.H. 926; and of Dámád Mohammed Efendí,
near the mosque of Sinán.



SECTION XXI.

_Of the Tekíeh, or Convents of Dervíshes._


The most ancient of these is the one founded by Mohammed II.,
within the grand gate of Ayá Sófíya, and is called Sirkejí Tekíeh.
It was founded when Moslema and Eyúb besieged Constantinople, and
was afterwards turned into a nunnery; but on Mohammed’s conquering
Constantinople he again made it a convent. Its first Sheikh was
Oveis, who had the charge of seventy-four disciples. He was buried at
Damascus, near Belál the Abyssinian: may God sanctify his secret state!
The other tekíehs are those of Ak-shems-ud-dín, near Alí Páshá; of
Emír Najárí; of Sofílar; of Khoájeh Mustafá Páshá; of Umm-sinán; of
Sívásí; of Táváshí Mohammed Aghá, near Ayá Sófiya; of Erdebílí; of
Sunbul Efendí; and of Gulshení at Ak-Seráï.



SECTION XXII.

_Of the Imáret, or Refectories._


Praise be to God! who, according to the sacred text of the Korán:
“There is no beast on the earth for which God hath not made a
provision,” has provided a plentiful supply for the poor by the
foundation of Sultán Mohammed II. at the new palace, in which food
is distributed to them three times a day; at the Imáret of Sultán
Báyazíd twice; the same at the imárets of Sultán Selím I.; Soleïmán;
Prince Mohammed; Ahmed; Eyúb; Khasekí Sultán, near the women-market;
Vafá Sultán; Prince Jehángír, near the Top-kháneh; Mehrmáh Sultán, at
Scutari; Válideh of Murád IV.; Ibráhím Khán; and of Othmán Khán. May
God extend His mercy to them all! Besides these there are some hundreds
of kitchens attached to the various convents; but the above are the
old establishments of the Sultáns and Princes, where the poor receive
a loaf of bread and a dish of soup every day. I, the humble Evliyá,
who during a period of fifty-one years have visited the dominions of
eighteen different monarchs, have no where seen such establishments.



SECTION XXIII.

_Of the Tímáristán and Moristán, or Hospitals._


The Tímár-kháneh of Mohammed II., which consists of seventy rooms,
covered with eighty cupolas, is attended by two hundred servants,
a physician-general, and a surgeon. All travellers who fall sick
are received into this hospital, and are well attended to. They
have excellent food twice a day; even pheasants, partridges, and
other delicate birds are supplied. If such are not at hand in the
hospital, it is provided by the charter of foundation that they shall
be furnished from the imárets of Sultán Soleïmán, his son Prince
Mohammed, Sultán Ahmed I., Khásekí Sultán, Vafá Sultán, Eyúb Sultán,
Prince Jehángír, Mehrmáh Sultáneh, and of the Válideh’s mosque at
Scutari. There are musicians and singers who are employed to amuse
the sick and insane, and thus to cure their madness. There is also a
separate hospital for infidels. The hospital of Sultán Soleïmán is an
establishment so excellent, that the sick are generally cured within
three days after their admission, it being provided with most able
physicians and surgeons. The mosques of Báyazíd and Selím have no
hospitals attached to them. The hospital of Sultán Ahmed is chiefly for
the reception of insane persons, on account of the purity of its air.
The attendants are remarkable for their patience and good-nature, the
reason of which is, that they are under the immediate inspection of the
Kizlar-ághásí, who himself attends to inquire into the state of the
sick. The hospital of the Khásekí, near the women-market, is also an
excellent institution.



SECTION XXIV.

_Of the principal Palaces of Constantinople._


One of the grandest of these is that of Ibráhím Páshá, the Vezír of
Sultán Soleïmán, on the At-maidán, in which two thousand pages of
the seráï were formerly educated. It is next in point of magnitude
to the imperial seráï. The Seráï of Mehrmáh, near the mosque of
Sultán Báyazíd, consists of seven hundred separate apartments. But
even larger than this is the seráï of Siyávush Páshá, to the north
of the mosque of Sultán Soleïmán, which has three hundred rooms,
seven baths, fifty shops, and stables more extensive than those of
the imperial palace. The others are: the seráï of the ághá of the
Janissaries, near the mosque of Sultán Soleïmán; the seráï of Tekelí
Mustafá Páshá; of Dallák Mustafá Páshá; of the Defterdár (who was
hanged) Mustafá Páshá, near the Soleïmániyeh; of Pertev Páshá at the
Vafá; of Sevgelún Moslí Sultáneh, within the corn-market; of Perinjí
Zádeh, at Zírekbáshí; of Korshúnlí Sultáneh, in the same place; of
Moralí Mustafá Páshá, near the place of the Ajemoghláns; of Kapújí
Murád Páshá, near the ink-makers’ row; of Silihdár Mustafá Páshá,
near the mosque of Soleïmán; of Khoájeh Vezír Mohammed Páshá, near
the mosque of the Sháhzádeh; of Kana’án Páshá, near the old Seráï; of
Músá Páshá, near Khoájeh Páshá; of Kara Mustáfá Páshá, near Ak-Seráï;
of Sokollí Mohammed Páshá, near the Aláï Koshk; of Melek Ahmed Páshá,
near Ayá-Sófiya, with three baths and two hundred apartments; of Reís
Ismáíl, near Mahmúd Páshá; of Khán Zádeh Sultán, or Bairám Páshá,
near Ayá-Sófiya; of Wárwár Alí Páshá, near Sultán Ahmed’s mosque;
of Emírgúneh Zádeh Yúsuf Páshá, near the stable-gate; of Mokábilijí
Hasan Efendí; of the Kapúdán Hasan Páshá, near Ayá-Sófiya; of Aísha
Sultáneh, near Ak-Seráï; of Ján Pulád Zádeh Husain Páshá; of Juván
Kapijí the Vezír, otherwise the Seráï of Rustam Páshá, near the convent
of Khoájeh Ahmed Sultán; of Ankabút Ahmed Páshá; of Khoájeh Ibrahím,
better known by the name of Jinjí Khoájeh; of Sáleh Páshá, near Mahmúd
Páshá; of Kapúdán Síávush Páshá, near the harbour of galleys; of
Ak-Mohammed Páshá, near the Jinjí Maidán; of Balátlí Solák Chelebí;
of Husain Aghá, near the mosque of Sultán Selím; the barracks of the
Janissaries, near the Orta Jámi’; the palace of Ibrahím, the inspector
of the arsenal, near the Vafá, for which the humble writer composed a
chronograph.

The following palaces were built by the architect Sinán during the
reigns of Sultáns Selím I. and Soleïmán: The imperial palace of Sultán
Mohammed II. having been burnt down, it was rebuilt by Sultán Soleïmán,
who also restored the Galata Seráï, which was built by Sultán Báyazíd.
Sinán also built the palace of Yení-kapú; of Mohammed Páshá, in the
galley-harbour; of Mohammed Páshá, at Ayá Sófíya; of Rustam Páshá,
Vezír of Sultán Soleïmán; of Kojeh Alí Páshá; in the place of Gúzel
Ahmed Páshá’s palace, in the Hippodrome, was built the mosque of
Sultán Ahmed I.; the seráï of Ferhád Páshá, near Sultán Báyazíd; of
Pertev Páshá, on the Vafá; of Kojeh Sinán Páshá, at the Hasán place;
of Súfí Mohammed Páshá, near Khoájeh Páshá; of Mohammed Aghá, near
Yení-bághcheh; of Sháh Khúbán, near the fountain of Kásim Páshá.



SECTION XXV.

_Of the Grand Kháns for Merchants._


The first is the Khoájeh Khán, near the Mahmúd Páshá, in which all
the great Persian merchants have their establishments. It has seventy
rooms. The khán of Mahmúd Páshá has one hundred and twenty rooms; the
Kebejílar Khán one hundred rooms: this is the residence of the rich
Bulgarian merchants; the khán of Pírí Páshá, eighty rooms; Eskí Khán,
two hundred rooms: it was built by Bairám Páshá, the Vezír of Sultán
Murád IV., and is called the khán of the captives (_asír_), because
all captives are bought and sold here: it has seventy apartments, and
an office for receiving the _penjek_ or slave duty, a fifth of the
value; the khán of Angora, for the dealers in woollen goods (_súf_),
one hundred rooms; the khán of Pertev Páshá, two hundred rooms; the
khán of Ferhád Páshá, near the Bezestán, two hundred rooms; Kilíd Khán,
two hundred rooms; the khán of the Valídeh Kosím, mother of Murád
IV., was originally the palace of Jarráh Mohammed Páshá, but having
fallen into decay it was rebuilt by the Válideh, and consists of three
hundred warehouses, so that this khán, and that of Mahmúd Páshá, are
the largest in Constantinople. In one corner is a koshk, which raises
its head to the skies, and commands a magnificent view: its stables
are capable of holding one thousand horses and mules: it has a mosque
in the centre; the Kiaghid Khán, near Mahmúd Páshá; Kátir Khán, near
Takht-ul-kala’; the khán of the honeymarket, inhabited by Egyptian
merchants; Ketán Khán; Katá Khán; the khán of Rustam Páshá; the khán
of old Yúsuf Páshá; the khán of the Muftí; Chokúr Khán; Súlú Khán; the
khán of the tallow-market; and the khán of the Zendán-kapú. All these
kháns are in that quarter of the town called Takht-ul-kala’: they are
extensive buildings, and are covered with lead. The Juván Kapújí Khán
is in the centre of the raisin-market. The new khán of Kara Mustafá
Páshá, Grand Vezír to Sultán Mohammed IV., near Khoájeh Páshá, is a
small but strong building. The khán of Kopreilí Mohammed Páshá, Grand
Vezír to Mohammed IV., though, like the last mentioned, a new building,
near the poultry-market, is not inferior, as regards solidity, to the
Válideh Khán. It has upwards of two hundred and twenty apartments.



SECTION XXVI.

_Of the Cárávánseráis._


The Elchí Khán (Ambassador’s Khán), even in the time of the infidels,
was a khán for strangers, but it was endowed after the conquest by
Ikbál Páshá; the cárávánserái of Mohammed II.; of Báyazíd II.; of Selím
I.; of Soleïmán; of Khásekí Sultáneh; of Ahmed I.; of the Kapújílar,
near Ayá-Sófiya, where two great kháns stand opposite to each other; of
Kojeh Mohammed Páshá; of the Vafá; of the At-Maidán; of Sinán Páshá;
Báklálí Khán, near the palace of Melek Ahmed Páshá; and of Alí Páshá,
near the Bít-bázár (louse-market). These were all built by Sinán Páshá.



SECTION XXVII.

_Of the Barracks (Bekár oda)._


The most extensive barracks are those called _Yolgechen_, which
consist of four hundred rooms, and, in case of necessity, can hold one
thousand armed men. The odas of Sultán Murád IV. are eight in number,
and, like the former, have their officers and inspectors. Sultán
Soleïmán one day being offended with the Janissaries, said to them: “Be
silent, or I will subdue you by the shoe-makers at Merján-chárshu (the
coral-market). This threat having spread, forty thousand Janissaries
assembled instantly, armed with clubs and bludgeons, and with cries
of “Allah! Allah!” entered the imperial court. The Emperor, roused by
these shouts, came out, and said, “Well, my brave fellows, what is the
matter?” They replied, “You have this day declared your intention of
putting down the Janissaries by the shoe-makers, and we now wait for
your orders. We have on the instant assembled forty thousand men, but
if you will wait till to-morrow we shall have forty thousand more.”
Pleased with their bravery, the emperor told them they might ask for a
favour. They, therefore, asked that the price of a pair of _pápújes_
and _mests_ (slippers and leather-socks) should be fixed at between one
and two hundred akcha, which was immediately granted.

The odas of the armoury are near the Mahmúd Páshá; those of Pertev
Páshá and Hiláljí, near the Soleïmáníeh; forty odas for unmarried men
on the At-maidán; forty at Búyúk Karamán; the odas of Yedek Páshá; and
seven odas of Gharíbs, near the corn-market. Each of these barracks can
contain from one to two thousand men.



SECTION XXVIII.

_Of the Fountains ornamented with Chronographs._


In the times of the infidels there was no other fountain except that
called Kirk-chesmeh (supplied by the aqueduct of Valens). In other
parts of the town they collected the water in cisterns, five of which
were filled partly with rain-water, and partly from the aqueduct.
Sultán Mohammed II., having finished his mosque, built two hundred
fountains; Báyazíd built seventy, and Soleïmán seven hundred. Their
number was shortly increased to thousands by the vezírs. Sultán
Soleïmán repaired the aqueduct, and increased the quantity of water
carried to Constantinople. The principal fountains are the following:
the fountain of Haider Páshá, near the bath of the same name; that
of the Beglerbegs, beyond the ditch between the Aderneh-kapú and the
Top-kapú; of the Imáms, erected to the memory of Hasan and Husain, who
died of thirst in the plain of Kerbelá; the fountain of Skander Beg,
without the gate leading to Eyúb; of Sultán Murád III., without the
gate of Eyúb, on the sea-shore, beneath the _sháhneshín_ (projecting
window) of the palace of Fátima Sultána; the Souk-chesmeh (cold
fountain), near the Alái koshk; the fountain of Kara Mustafá Páshá,
near his sepulchral monument; of Hasan Beg, the son of Fátima Sultána,
near the Okjílar Báshí; of the Kehiyá of the Janissaries, Soleïmán
Aghá, near the Sernáj Khán; of Alí Páshá, near the custom-house on
the land side; of Kátib Husain, near the convent of Oghlán Sheikh at
Ak-seráï; of Hájí Mansúr, near the monument of Aáshik Páshá; of the
Válideh Kosum, near the Yení-kapú; of Ibrahím Páshá, near the mosque
of the princes; of Hasan Páshá, near the palace of Jánpúlád Zádeh; of
Kharájí Mohí-ad-dín, before his mosque, near that of Sultán Mohammed
II.; of Mahmúd Páshá, near the new Bezestán; of Mesíh Páshá, near the
market of Alí Páshá; and of Hasan Aghá, the chief of the Khás-oda,
within the corn-market, in the quarter of the Arabajílar.[8]

[8] We have left the chronographs of these fountains untranslated, as
they possess no poetical merit.



SECTION XXIX.

_Of the Sebíl-khánehs, or Water Houses._


The Sebíl-khánehs were built to the memory of Hasan and Husain, who
suffered martyrdom from thirst on the plain of Kerbelá. They are all
adorned with chronographs. The Sebíl of Músá Páshá, near the Aláï
Koshk; the Sebíl of Kana’án Aghá, opposite the grand gate of Ayá
Sófiyah; of A’áishá Sultána, at the Okjílar-báshí; of Mustafá Aghá, the
chief of the treasury, near the mosque of Ayá Sófiyah; of Erdebílí,
near Ayá Sófiyah; of Kapúdán Kosse Alí Páshá, in the corn-market; of
Abbás, the Kizlar Aghá, near the fountain of Lálalí; of Ibrahím Páshá,
the Kehiyá of Kopreïlí Zádeh, near the Vafá; and the Sinán Páshá, the
conqueror of Yemen, near the factory of the Sirma-kesh (gold-wire).



SECTION XXX.

_Of the Principal Baths._


The bath is a legal establishment of the Islám, founded on the text
of the Korán: “If you are polluted, purify yourselves.” The two baths
which existed in Constantinople before the conquest were those of
the Azabs and the Takhtáb. The first bath built after the conquest
was that at the mosque of Sultán Mohammed II., for the use of the
workmen employed in the building of the mosque. Afterwards the bath
of the Azabs was converted to the use of the Moslems. The baths next
built were those of Vafá, Eyúb, and Chokúr. All these baths are still
kept up and repaired by the endowment (_wakf_) of Sultán Mohammed.
I have preferred assigning each of the principal baths to a certain
class of men in the following amusing way: For the sick, the bath of
Ayúb Sultán; for the Sheikhs, that of Ayá Sófiyah; for the Súfís,
that called by the same name; for strangers, that called the bath of
strangers (_gharíb_); for the Bostánjís, the garden-bath (_bóstán_);
for the market-people, that called the Friday-market (Juma’ bázár); for
debauchees, the Chokúr (the pit); for painters, the Chínlí (Chinese);
for the women, the khátún (lady); for sportsmen, the Kojeh Mohammed
Páshá; for the Janissaries, the bath of the new barracks (yení oda);
for the workmen, that so called (irghát); for the surgeons, the Jerráh
(surgeon) Alí Páshá; for the men of the Seráï, that of the Ak-seráï;
for the black Arabs, that called the mice (Sichánlí); for the saints,
that of Sultán Báyazíd II., the saint; for the insane, the variegated
bath (Alájeh); for cruel tyrants, that of Zinjírlí-kapú (chained-gate);
for the oppressed, that of Sultán Selím the Just; for the porters, the
Sort-hammám; for poets, that of Sultán Suleïmán; for Dervíshes, that of
Haider Páshá; for the children of the Arabs, the Takht-ul-kala’; for
the favourites, that of the Khásekí; for astronomers, the Yeldiz-hammám
(star bath); for merchants, that of Mahmúd Páshá; for mothers, that
of the Válideh; for horsemen (_jinjí_), that in the Hippodrome; for
Muftís, that of the Muftí; for the Zaims, that of Gedek Páshá; for the
armourers, that of Dávud Páshá; for Khoajas, that of the same name; for
Sultáns, the bath so called; for Mollás, the bath of Mollá Korání; for
the Greeks, the Fener bath (in their quarter); for singers, the Balát
(Palatium) bath; for villains, the Khanjarlí (armed with a dagger);
for musicians, the Lúnja (or parade); for sailors, the bath of the
port of galleys (kádirga límán); for the _imáms_, or chiefs of the
baths, that of Little Ayá Sófiyah; for the members of the Díván, the
bath of Bairám Páshá; for the eunuchs (_khádim_), that of the eunuch
Mohammed Aghá; for the vezírs, that of Alí Páshá; for the generous,
that of Lutfí Páshá; for the gardeners, that of Yení-bághcheh (new
garden); for the Albanians, that of the Adrianople-gate; for the
Mevlevís, that of the Yení-kapú (new-gate); for the stone-masons, that
of the Silivrí-gate; for the magicians, that of the Seven Towers; for
beggars, that of Chár-ták; for clerks, that of Nishánjí Páshá; for the
Drogománs, the bath so called; for invalids, that of Lanka; for miners,
that of Sárígurz; for doctors, the Majúnjí-hammam (medicine-makers);
for the Kádíaskers, the bath of the same name; for the Persians, the
bath of the Ajem-oghláns; for the sellers of weights and scales, that
of the Veznejilár (weighers); for the Shátirs (foot-guards), that of
Pertev Páshá; for gamblers, the painted bath (Tesvírlí-hammám); for
the Sháfeís, that of the mint (Dharab-kháneh); for lovers, that of
the cage (kafeslí); for the Aghás, that of the Little Aghá; for the
barley-merchants, that of the Arpa-amíní (the inspector of barley);
for the Seids (descendants of the Prophet), that of Abbás Aghá; for
women, that of the women-market (Evret-bázár); for the Jews, that
of the Jehúd-kapú (Jews-gate); for grooms, that of the Akhor-kapú
(stable-gate); for the infirm (Maatúh), that of Koja Mohammed Páshá;
for buffoons, that of Shengel; for Kapudáns, the Deníz-hammám
(sea-bath); for the Ehl-touhíd (unitarians), the bath of Koja Mustafá
Páshá; for dwarfs, that of the Little Aghá; for the elegant, that of
the Chelebí (_petit maître_).

In the same manner we allotted the baths in the suburbs, which, with
those within, amount to one hundred and fifty-one, all of which I have
visited. Seventeen more were built during my travels, but these I have
not seen. The most elegant and commodious is the Chokúr-hammám, built
by Mohammed II. It is paved with granite, and can accommodate five
thousand men. Next in rank may be noticed the baths of Mahmúd Páshá, of
Takht-ul-kala’, of Báyazíd, and of Koja Páshá; the best lighted up are
those of Haider Páshá, the Suleïmáníeh, and the Válideh; the cleanest,
those of Ayá Sófiyah, of the Súfis, of Abbás Aghá, and of Mohammed
Páshá, in the Chehár Shemba-bázár.

When I was received into the haram of Sultán Murád IV., on the night
that I read the Korán, I had the good fortune to see the imperial
bath, with which no other in the world can be compared. The four sides
of it are assigned to the use of the pages, and in the centre there
is an inclosed bath for the emperor. Water rushes in on all sides
from fountains and basins, through pipes of gold and silver; and the
basins which receive the water are inlaid with the same metals. Into
some of these basins, hot and cold water run from the same pipe. The
pavement is a beautiful mosaic of variegated stones which dazzle the
eye. The walls are scented with roses, musk, and amber; and aloes is
kept constantly burning in censors. The light is increased by the
splendour and brilliancy of the windows. The walls are dry, the air
temperate, and all the basins of fine white marble. The dressing rooms
are furnished with seats of gold and silver. The great cupola of the
first dressing-room, all of bright marble, may be equalled by that
at Cairo only. As this bath stands upon a rising ground it towers to
the heavens: its windows all look towards the sea, to Scutari, and
Kází-koi. On the right of the door of the dressing-room is the room for
the musicians (motrib-khán) and on the left, the cupola of the inner
treasury (khazáneh khás). I have no where seen so splendid a bath,
except that of Abdál, the Khán of Tiflís, in the province of Ván.

Most of the above baths are adorned with chronographs; and they are
all double (chifteh), that is, consist of two rooms, except that of
Mohammed Páshá, in the Little-market. In the afternoon women are
admitted. If to the great public baths we add the smaller ones,
the number would exceed three hundred; and if the private ones are
reckoned, they will amount to the number of four thousand five hundred
and thirty-six.


END OF PART I.



NOTES.


_Note 1, p. 6, Section III._—_Pillars and Rings._

The existence of these pillars and the rings fixed in them is noticed
in Dr. Clarke’s Travels. It is a curious fact that similar iron rings
are found not only in the rocks at Parávádí in Romeilí, but also at
Jáník and Natolia, as is mentioned by the great Turkish geographer Hájí
Khalífah in both his works, the Jehánnamá (p. 627), and the Description
of Romeilí: (Rumeli und Bosna geographisch beschrieben von Mustafa
Ben Abdallah Hadschi Chalfa, p. 32). We must refrain from giving any
judgment whatever on these curious facts till the rocks of Jáník and
Parávádí shall have been the objects of the researches of European
travellers, none of whom have yet directed their attention that way.


_Note 2, p. 9._—_Caverns._

Though the Danube never passed through this channel, these caverns,
which no European travellers have noticed, are deserving of attention.
They are also mentioned by Hájí Khalífah in his account of the village
of Injighiz, near the mountain of Chatáljah (Rumelí und Bosna, p. 17);
and may be easily visited, as they are not much out of the way in going
from Adrianople to Constantinople.


_Note 3, p. 17._—_Altí Mermer._

In the present day nothing is seen on the spot of Altí Mermer except
the mosque of that name. Some of these columns, which were probably
used to ornament it, may perhaps be seen in the interior.


_Note 4, p. 23._—_Sieges of Constantinople._

It is here necessary to rectify some of the author’s mistakes by the
more correct chronology of Hájí Khalífah and the Byzantines. Evliyá
states that the first siege took place in the year 34 of the Hijreh:
this, however, is probably only a mistake of the copyist. He confounds
the second siege, which took place in the year 47 (A.D. 667). _Vide_
Theophanes and Cedrinus, who call the Arab general Yezid, (Ἵζεδ), with
the third in 53 (A.D. 672), and in which Ayyúb was killed. No mention
is made either by Hájí Khalífah or the Byzantine historians of the
third siege. Theophanes merely records the siege of Tyane in the year
91 (A.D. 710). The fourth also, in 97, seems to refer to the fifth,
which by Hájí Khalífah and Theophanes is recorded as having happened
two years later, _i.e._ 99, in the first year of the reign of Leo I.,
the Isaurian, when the Arabs are said to have built the mosque of
Galata, which bears their name, and that called the Gul-jámi (rose
mosque) in Constantinople. This tradition seems to be derived from
the ancient names of the churches; that at Galata having been built
by one Areobinthus, which to the Turks sounded like _Arab_; and the
Gul-jámi having been called the rose-church because it was formerly a
house belonging to a person of the name of Triantaphyllus (a rose),
and was afterwards converted into a church by Romanus Argyropulos in
the year 1031: _vide_ Cedrinus. Evliyá takes no notice of the siege by
the Bulgarians, under their chief Paganus, in the year 764. Bullardus
erroneously reckons this the fifth siege, it being in fact the sixth
after the five preceding ones by the Arabs; and the eighth, if the two
sieges of the ancient Byzantium are reckoned. The sixth and seventh
sieges are also erroneously stated by Evliya. The former of these,
which he states to have been in the year 160 of the Hijreh, ought to be
four years later, _viz._ 164 (A.D. 780), as it is evidently the same
as that of Hárún-ur-rashíd, which took place then, and not, as Evliyá
gives it, in the year 255, which is too late by a century, as is also
his seventh siege.

The tenth siege (p. 28) ought to be the sixteenth, if, according to
Bullardus, Constantinople was again besieged by the Arabs in the year
798; by the Bulgarians a second time, in 822; by the Sclaves in 895
(_vide_ Abulfarage, A.H. 282); by the Bulgarians a third time, in 914;
by Tornicius in 1048; and by the Venetians and French in 1204.


_Note 5, p. 29._—_Báyazíd in the Iron Cage._

The truth of this story has been often questioned by European writers;
but it is so generally recorded by the most authentic Turkish
historians, that there seems no reason to doubt it any longer.


_Note 6, p. 35._—_Abd-ur-ruúf Zindání._

This personage, who was buried at the prison-gate at Adrianople,
is the saint of the prisoners, as Ja’far Bábá is at the Bagnio at
Constantinople. It was probably this Abd-ur-ruúf who furnished a
Turkish poet with one of the best tales in Turkish literature. _Vide_
the German Annual “Minerva,” Leipzig 1814.


_Note 7, p. 39._—_Sú-Kemerlí Mustafá Chelebí._

If Mustafá was three years old at the siege of Constantinople in 1453,
he must have been fifty-four at the conquest of Cairo in 1517 (and
not twenty-five as he is made to say), and consequently a hundred and
thirteen years of age at the siege of Siget.


_Note 8, p. 53._—_Falakah._

Falakah properly means the wooden block in which the feet of the
culprit who receives the bastinado are confined.


_Note 9, p. 54._—_Sheikh-ul-Islám or Muftí._

Sultán Mohammed II. was the first who gave precedence to the Muftí or
head of the law over the two Kází-asker, or military judges of Rúmeilí
and Anadolí.


_Note 10, p. 110._—_Sultán Ahmed._

Sultán Ahmed was the fourteenth and not the sixteenth of the Ottoman
Sultáns. There are no means of accounting for this mistake, as Suleimán
Kánúní is the tenth Sultán by the unanimous consent of all historians.


_Note 11, p. 123._—_Abáza’s speech._

This speech is remarkable as it attributes all the rebellions which
shook the Ottoman empire after the death of Sultan Othmán II. to the
mutinous spirit of the Janissaries, who, until the beginning of the
present reign, baffled all the attempts of the Sultáns who attempted to
subdue them.


_Note 12, p. 126._—_Confession of faith._

“There is no God but God, and Mohammed is his prophet.” Abáza himself
performed all the preliminaries for his execution, in the hope of
preventing it by the appearance of resignation.


_Note 13, p. 137._—_Káfíah, Jámí, &c._

This passage is interesting as giving a good account of the nature of
the education received by the imperial pages, and of the books used by
the professors in the colleges. It may be useful here to give a short
notice of these works from Hájí Khalífah’s Bibliographical Dictionary:—

 _Káfíah_ is a celebrated Arabic grammar, by Ebn Hájeb. It has been
 printed at Rome, and two editions with a commentary have appeared at
 Constantinople.

 _Jámí_, the great Persian poet, is known to most Oriental scholars.
 But the work here mentioned is his famous commentary on the preceding
 work of Ebn Hájeb. It is considered the best amongst more than a
 hundred commentaries which have been written on this work.


 _Tefsír Kází_ is an extensive commentary upon the Korán by Kází Khán,
 one of the most celebrated Turkish divines.

 _Misbáh_, the lamp, is a small grammatical work by Imám Násir Abdullah
 Altarazí.

 _Díbácheh_ is a commentary by Soyútí on a collection of traditions of
 the prophet, commonly called Sahíh Moslem.

 _Jáma-ul-Bokhára_, another collection of traditions by Bokhárá. It is
 considered the best of the kind.

 _Multeka-al-bahr_, a very large work on Mohammedan jurisprudence,
 compiled by Ibrahim Halebí.

 _Kudúrí_, another treatise on jurisprudence. This work has lately been
 printed at Constantinople.

 _Sa’dí’s_ works are too well known to require any remark.

 _Nisáb-us-sibyán_, a short Arabic vocabulary in verse.

 _Loghat Akhterí_, a Persian and Turkish vocabulary.


  LONDON:
  Printed by J. L. COX and SON, Great Queen Street,
  Lincoln’s-Inn Fields.


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Notes

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected.

There are many variations in the spelling, hyphenation and accents of
proper names and other Arabic terms. Except in cases where there is an
obvious dominant spelling and a variant that may legitimately be seen
as a typographical error, these remain unchanged.

There is no Section IX among the sub-sections of SECTION XV.

Italics are represented thus _italic_.





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