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Title: War Department Technical Manual TM 3-376 A, - Portable Flame Thrower M2-2
Author: Department, War
Language: English
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Transcriber’s Notes

The spelling, hyphenation and punctuation is as the original, with the
exception of apparent typographical errors.

  Italic text is denoted as _underscore_.
  Bold text is denoted as =equals sign=.
  Underlined text is also denoted as _underscore_, Generally used at
  beginning of paragraphs.



  _War Department Technical Manual_
  _TM 3-376A_


  PORTABLE
  FLAME THROWER
  M2-2

[Illustration: Printer’s mark]


_RESTRICTED_

  DISSEMINATION OF RESTRICTED MATTER. The information contained in
  restricted documents and the essential characteristics of restricted
  material may be given to any person known to be in the service of
  the United States and to persons of undoubted loyalty and discretion
  who are cooperating in Government work, but will not be communicated
  to the public or to the press except by authorized military public
  relations agencies. (See also par. 18b, AR 380-5, 28 Sep 1942.)


_War Department - 16 May 1944_

_Washington, D. C._



  WAR DEPARTMENT,
  Washington, 25, D. C. 16 May 1944

TM 3-376A, Portable Flame Thrower M2-2 is published for the information
and guidance of all concerned.

[A. G. 300.7 (21 March 44)]

By order of the Secretary of War:

  G. C. MARSHALL,
  _Chief of Staff_.

  Official:
  J. A. ULIO,
  _Major General_,
  _The Adjutant General_.


Distribution:

  R & H (5); Bn 2, 7, 17 (2); C & H 3 (5); IC & H 5 (5); C 2, 7, 17
  (2); X. ID: T/O & E 72T, Light Div; 17, Armd Div; IR: T/O 5-192, Hq
  & Hq Co, Engr Comb Gr; 5-171, Engr Comb Regt; IBn: T/O 5-15, Engr
  Comb Bn; 5-35, Engr Bn Sep; 5-175, Engr Bn, Comb Regt; 5-215, Armd
  Engr Bn; 5-475T, Engr Bn, Light Div; IC: T/O 5-16, Hq & Hq & Sv Co,
  Engr Combat Bn; 5-17, Engr Comb Co; 5-192, Hq & Hq Co, Engr Comb Gr;
  5-36, Hq & Hq & Sv Co, Engr Bn (Sep); 5-37, Co, Engr Bn (Sep); 5-176,
  Hq & Hq Det, Engr Bn, Engr Comb Regt; 5-216, Hq & Hq Co, Armd Engr
  Bn; 5-217, Co, Armd Engr Bn; 5-476T, Hq & Hq Co, Engr Bn, Light Div;
  5477-T, Co, Engr Bn, Light Div.

(For explanation of symbols see Par 26, FM 21-6)



TECHNICAL MANUAL

PORTABLE FLAME THROWER M2-2

  WAR DEPARTMENT
  WASHINGTON, 25, D. C., 16 May 1945


  CHANGES}
  No. 1  }


  TM 3-376A, 16 May 1944, is changed as follows:


=10. ITEMS WITH EACH FLAME THROWER.=

       *       *       *       *       *

  _b. Kit, spare parts, for portable flame thrower M2-2, assembly
  B81-6-=190=._

       *       *       *       *       *

  _g._ (Added). Army Service Forces Catalog CW 7-440114, Organizational
  Spare Parts and Equipment: 1st and 2d Echelons: for Flame Thrower,
  Portable, M2-2.

  Fig. 8. Contents of tool kit:

       *       *       *       *       *

    B. 1 Wrench, hex, * * * set screws, H22-49-12.

      =2 Wrench, hex, 5/32-inch across flats for 5/16-inch socket-head
      set screws, H22-49-140.=

       *       *       *       *       *

  Fig 9. Contents of spare parts kit:

    F. (Added). 3 Tubes, deflector, A81-1-501. (See fig. 39.)

    G. (Added). 3 Locknuts, pipe, hex, 1/8-inch, H98-5-382 (for use
        with deflector tube). (See fig. 39.)

    H. (Added). 1 Support, diaphragm, A81-1-428. (See fig. 47.)


=12. NEW EQUIPMENT.=

       *       *       *       *       *

_m._ (Added). New gun may be received with valve spring removed from
barrel and valve assembly. Spring comes tied to barrel. This is done to
prevent strain on valve diaphragm assembly caused by pressure of spring
in gun during storage and shipment. When weapon is being prepared for
operation, spring must be untied from barrel and installed in gun, as
described in paragraph 75.

_n._ (Added). Pressure regulator may be shipped at zero adjustment
to prevent possibility of strain on diaphragm during shipment and
storage. A regulator shipped in this condition has a tag (tied to the
tank coupling) stating that the regulator is not set. When weapon
is received in this condition, it must be adjusted as described in
paragraph 67 before it can be operated.


  Footnote:

  =*These changes supersede TB 3-376A-1, 19 October 1944.=


=15. TRAINING.=

       *       *       *       *       *

_b. Use of water in training._ Water may be used (instead of fuel)
for elementary practice firing. Ignition cylinders are * * * piece,
and lubricated (Par. 49). =Use of water, however, should always be
supplemented by firing ignited fuel because water does not give a
correct impression of stream and flame characteristics.=

       *       *       *       *       *


=17. CONNECTING TANK GROUP AND GUN GROUP.=

       *       *       *       *       *

_a._ Place the new * * * to 2 minutes. =Slight pressure sometimes
builds up in the fuel tanks, even though the pressure-tank valve has
not been opened, and causes some overflow of fuel when the coupling
plug is removed. This pressure may be relieved by—=

    =(1) Standing the tank group upright.=

    =(2) Slightly opening filling plug on top of fuel tanks to
    bleed the pressure.=

    =(3) Closing the opening at filling plug and tightening it
    with wrench.=

       *       *       *       *       *


=18. LOADING WITH IGNITION CYLINDER.=

       *       *       *       *       *

  _b. Precautions._ Care must be * * * front of gun. =Do not ignite
  the ignition cartridge until the weapon is to be fired at the
  target.=

       *       *       *       *       *


=30. AFTER FIRING.=

  When the firer * * * mission, he should:

_a._ =First=, remove and discard the ignition cylinder, =as the
ignition cylinder should never be present when blowing out fuel or
after blowing out fuel except when preparing for a new mission. To
remove cylinder, proceed= as follows:

       *       *       *       *       *

_b._ Close the pressure-tank valve by turning valve handle clockwise
(to conserve remaining pressure in pressure tank) =only if additional
shots are to be fired before refilling and recharging=.

_c._ =If no additional shots are to be fired before refilling
and recharging, open pressure-tank valve by turning handle
counterclockwise.= Point the gun away from personnel and blow out the
remaining fuel =and pressure=, if any, from the fuel tanks by squeezing
the valve lever and grip safety until there is no further discharge.
The trigger should not be used during this operation. =Then close the
pressure-tank valve to prevent entrance of foreign matter into the
pressure system.=

_d._ (Superseded). Carefully remove tank group from the back. This may
be done most easily by sitting or squatting with back to a tree stump,
flat rock, packing box, or other object. Release the body and shoulder
straps and ease tank group off the back. Avoid dropping equipment on
the ground as this may damage it.

       *       *       *       *       *


=31. IGNITION CYLINDER.=

       *       *       *       *       *

_c. Packing._ Ignition cylinders are * * * each flame thrower. Fifty
cans (100 ignition cylinders) are contained in each =ignition cylinder=
packing box. =Wooden packing box with contents weighs approximately 50
to 55 pounds. Outside dimensions of the box are approximately 16-1/4
inches by 14-3/4 inches by 10-1/4 inches. Cubage is 1-3/12 cubic feet.=

       *       *       *       *       *


=32. CHARGING PRESSURE TANK.=

       *       *       *       *       *

_b. Charging from air compressor._ Compressor, air, gasoline * * *
cylinders as well. Instructions for use of the compressor will be found
in =TM 3-377=.

       *       *       *       *       *

  =Figure 23.= Charging two pressure tanks, using charging and filling
  lines, and cylinders of compressed air or nitrogen. =As many as four
  pressure tank and valve assemblies, on or off tank groups, can be
  charged at one time from cylinders coupled as shown in figure 24.=


=33. PRECAUTIONS WHEN PRESSURE-CHARGING.=

       *       *       *       *       *

_m._ (Added). Inspect carefully to be certain that no traces of grease,
flame thrower fuel, oil, dirt, or other foreign matter are present in
flame thrower pressure tanks, outlets of air compressor, connections,
hose, or cylinders containing compressed air.

_n._ (Added). Hands and tools must be free of oil or grease when
charging or servicing flame thrower pressure systems.

_o._ (Added). Discharge any remaining compressed air in flame thrower
pressure tanks before recharging.

_p._ (Added). If compressed air is to be used, and if any grease, oil,
or flame thrower fuel is detected by sense of smell or sight within
pressure tank and valve assemblies or cylinders, return tanks or
cylinders for cleaning to the appropriate third-echelon maintenance
agency of Chemical Warfare Service.


=35.1 PEPTIZED FUELS= (Added).

_a. Characteristics._

(1) Pour more readily than usual thickened fuels.

(2) Give a larger diameter flame than thickened fuels.

(3) Give longer effective ranges than liquid fuels.

(4) Prepared more quickly in cool temperatures than thickened fuels.

_b. Preparation._

(1) Open 5-1/4-pound can or cans of thickener.

(2) Add 2 mess kit spoonfuls of water to each can of thickener. Stir
until the water disappears in the thickener. It is not necessary to mix
the water uniformly with all of the thickener.

(3) Proceed at once as directed in paragraph 35. Avoid accidental
addition of any water to the thickener or fuel other than that stated
in (2) above.

(4) Peptized fuels set a little more quickly than the usual thickened
fuels, but their general appearance after setting is the same. After
standing, however, peptized fuels spontaneously become thinner and
may be poured without use of pressure. The time it takes for thinning
to occur depends on the temperature of the fuel. At 75° Fahrenheit or
higher, thinning occurs in approximately 1 to 2 hours. At temperatures
below 60° Fahrenheit, thinning occurs several days after preparation of
the peptized fuel.

(5) If water has accidentally gotten into fuel before addition of
the thickener, peptizing action takes place, but the results are
unpredictable because the quantity of water added is not controlled.


=36. PREPARATION OF LIQUID FUELS.=

_a. Choice of ingredients._ Thin fuels are * * * reaching the target.
For this reason, liquid fuels should contain the lowest proportion of
gasoline and the highest proportion of heavier fuels that permit easy
ignition. In hot climates, * * * of great importance. =The gasoline
used can be any U. S. grade of motor fuel or aviation gasoline.=
Suitable blends are as follows:

       *       *       *       *       *

(3) (Added). By volume, 20 to 25 percent gasoline and 75 to 80 percent
light fuel oil.

       *       *       *       *       *


=40.1 USE OF PACKBOARDS= (Added).

Detachable pressure tank and valve assemblies (par. 66.1) make possible
the use of packboards for transporting pressure tanks, 5-gallon
cans of fuel, wrenches, and additional ignition cylinders close to the
front line of combat to troops using flame throwers. As packboards
are not manufactured specifically for servicing flame throwers, standard
quartermaster-issue packboards are used. Packboard transportation
is practicable only with pourable fuel. (Pourable fuels include
some thickened fuels and all liquid fuels.)

_a._ The following is a suggested procedure for packboard
transportation:

(1) Lash all necessary filling and charging supplies for one flame
thrower to packboard, using lashing rope and straps.

(2) Tie one pressure tank and valve assembly to top of one flat 5-gallon
fuel can so that flexible shaft and handle hang down parallel to
one side of the fuel can.

(3) Carry wrench with large enough opening to unscrew filling
plugs from tops of fuel tanks and to tighten plugs after filling.

(4) Carry extra ignition cylinders.

_b._ Return empty pressure tank and valve assembly along with empty
fuel can and wrench on packboard to flame thrower servicing point.

_c._ If a supply of flame thrower tank groups is available, they may
be preferred to the packboard method of transportation. Tank
groups are easy to carry, and a filled and charged tank group can
replace an emptied one as quickly as packboard method can be used to
service flame thrower.

       *       *       *       *       *


=48. SERVICE KIT.=

       *       *       *       *       *

_a. Tools._

       *       *       *       *       *

  1 Screw driver, common, * * * blade diameter, H22-50-6. (Fig. 8.)

  =2 Wrenches, hex, 5/32 inch across flats (for 5/16-inch socket-head
  set screws), H22-49-140. (See B, fig. 8.)=

  2 Wrenches, hex, * * * set screws), H22-49-91.

       *       *       *       *       *

_b. Accessories and spare parts._

       *       *       *       *       *

1 Tank and valve, pressure, assembly =(less valve shaft assembly,
B81-1-883) B81-1-879. (See fig. 35.2.)=

1 Shaft, valve, assembly =B-81-1-883. (See fig. 35.2.)=

2 Case, spring, assemblies B81-1-444. (Fig. 9.)

       *       *       *       *       *

1 Regulator, pressure, assembly =(Grove type) B81-1-778. (Fig.
35.2.)=

1 Compound, anti-seize, white * * * 1/4-pound can, H99-3-12.

2 Gages, pressure * * * assembly B81-6-90. (Fig. 32.)

=6 Tubes, deflector, A81-1-501. (See fig. 39.)=

=6 Locknuts, pipe, hex, 1/8-inch, H98-5-382. (See fig. 39.)=

=2 Supports, diaphragm, A81-1-428. (See fig. 47.)=

=6 Springs, R81-1-922 (for socket). (See fig. 35.8.)=

=6 Washers, backing, R81-1-924 (brass washer for socket).
(See fig. 35.8.)=

=12 Washers, B81-1-923 (synthetic rubber washer for
socket). (See fig. 35.8.)=

=6 Caps, plug, B81-1-926 (with chain) (dust cap for plug).
(See fig. 35.3.)=

=12 Nuts, wing, A81-1-877. (See fig. 35.4.)=

=2 Army Service Forces Catalogs CW 6-445115, Sets of Tools,
Equipment, and Similar Material: Kit, service, for Portable
Flame Thrower, M2-2.=

=2 Army Service Forces Catalogs CW 7-440114, Organizational
Spare Parts and Equipment: 1st and 2d Echelons:
for Flame Thrower, Portable, M2-2.=

=2 War Department Technical Manuals 3-376A, Portable
Flame Thrower M2-2.=


=49. LUBRICATION.=

_a. Gun group._

       *       *       *       *       *

(2) _Frequency of lubrication._ The surfaces of * * * lubricated
before reassembly. =Do not soak or wash the spring case
assembly in solvent because this may remove the grease
which is factory packed in the spring case assembly. This
grease cannot be replaced. To clean spring case assembly,
wide outside surfaces with cloth saturated with solvent.=

       *       *       *       *       *


=53. SERVICE WHEN FILLING AND CHARGING.=

       *       *       *       *       *

_d. Testing for leaks in pressure system._ After charging and
* * * to test pressure. (Fig. 32.) To install gage, unscrew
check-valve cap, =moisten end of check valve with water or saliva=,
and screw gage in check-valve body. =Use of water or saliva as
lubricant prevents cutting of the rubber washer by the check
valve.= If pressure has * * * and then retested.


=66. PRESSURE TANK AND VALVE ASSEMBLY.=

_a. Description and functioning._ The pressure tank * * * assembly
(Fig. 33) includes:

(1) _Pressure tank._ The pressure tank * * * the fuel tanks. =The
pressure-tank clamp may be adjusted to different outside diameters of
pressure tanks by means of a nut and screw tightening device (fig.
35.1) or by means of a stepped ring at end of clamp.=

[Illustration: FIGURE 35.1. (Added.) Adjustable pressure tank clamp,
showing use of nut and screw tightening device.]

       *       *       *       *       *

_b. Removal._ (Fig. 33.)

       *       *       *       *       *

(2) _Removal procedure._

       *       *       *       *       *

(_h_) (Added). To remove check valve, unscrew check valve cap and
check valve body, using wrenches.

_c. Installation._ (Figs. 33 and 39.)

       *       *       *       *       *

(7) (Added). To install check valve, apply thread compound lightly to
threads of cheek valve body and screw into opening in pressure-tank
valve. Tighten check valve body in position, using wrench. Screw check
valve cap on check valve body and tighten with wrench.

       *       *       *       *       *


=66.1 DETACHABLE PRESSURE TANK AND VALVE ASSEMBLIES= (Added).

Newly developed detachable pressure tank and valve assemblies provide
an improved and speedier method of servicing M2-2 portable flame
throwers in forward combat zones.

_a. Description and functioning._

(1) Detachable pressure tank and valve assemblies (figs. 35.2 and
35.3) are used in modified flame throwers. They make it unnecessary to
replace empty complete tank groups with filled and charged complete
tank groups.

(2) Replacement of complete tank group, however, may be preferred when
an extra supply of tank groups is available, or if thickened fuel is
too stringy and viscous to pour.

(3) Detachable pressure tank and valve assemblies can be attached only
to flame throwers which include sockets (figs. 35.2 and 35.3) and
shortened regulator tubes. Flame throwers produced recently include
this design modification.

(4) A plug and cap (fig. 35.3) on detachable pressure tank and valve
assembly replace tube elbow (fig. 33) used on nondetachable pressure
tank and valve assembly.

_b. Removal._ Care must be taken to prevent damage to connections
during removal and installation. The procedure for removal of pressure
tank and valve assembly is as follows:

(1) Close pressure-tank valve. Press valve lever and safety grip on gun
to release all pressure from fuel system and gun.

(2) Unscrew wing nut from valve flexible shaft. (See fig. 35.4.) Be
careful not to misplace wing nut.

(3) Pull clamp and shaft from stud which is welded on fuel tank.

(4) With one hand under pressure tank, unclamp but do not fully open
pressure-tank clamp.

(5) Supporting pressure tank valve with top of right hand, push knurled
socket in and away from pressure tank valve. Left hand may be placed
at back of regulator tube so that tube does not bend away from socket.
(See fig. 35.5.) Pull out pressure tank and valve assembly.

[Illustration: FIGURE 35.2. (Added.) Pressure system disassembled,
showing removable pressure tank and valve assembly, nomenclature, and
Chemical Warfare Service stock numbers.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 35.3. (Added.) Detachable pressure tank and valve
assembly, connected to modified regulator tube assembly.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 35.4. (Added.) Removing wing nut to free valve
flexible shaft.]

[Illustration: FIGURE 35.5. (Added.) Pushing knurled socket away from
pressure tank, permitting pressure tank and valve assembly to be
removed from tank group.]

(6) Put cap as far as it will go over opening of the plug. (See fig.
35.6.) This prevents dust and other foreign matter from entering empty
pressure tank.

(7) Flame thrower is now ready to receive a charged pressure tank and
valve assembly. (See fig. 35.7.)

_c. Installation._ To install a charged or replacement detachable
pressure tank and valve assembly, proceed as follows:

(1) Remove dust cap from plug of charged pressure tank and valve
assembly. (Never open pressure-tank valve with cap on plug.)

[Illustration: FIGURE 35.6. (Added.) Pressure tank and valve assembly
with dust cap over plug opening.]

(2) Support socket and tube with left hand and insert plug in socket
with right hand. If tube is not supported, it is difficult to lock the
plug in the socket and it is possible that tube may become bent. Press
bottom of tank until plug snaps into socket. Test by attempting to pull
tank and plug from socket. Plug must not pull out; if it does, insert
again and press bottom of tank. Grasp knurled collar of socket and test
for end play. If collar slides freely back and forth on socket, the
connection is not tight and plug should be pressed in farther.

[Illustration: FIGURE 35.7. (Added.) Tank group, ready to receive a
charged pressure tank and valve assembly.]

(3) Replace small clamp (valve-stem clamp) over stud projecting from
fuel tank, and screw wing nut on stud to secure valve flexible shaft in
place. Do not use wrench on wing nut.

_d. Maintenance._ Follow maintenance instructions given in paragraph
66. In addition, if leaks occur and signs of wear are visible, carry
out the following procedures:

(1) _Worn washer._ Replace synthetic rubber washer by disassembling
socket (fig. 35.8), prying out washer, placing new washer in position,
and reassembling socket.

[Illustration: FIGURE 35.8. (Added.) Cutaway view of socket
and plug. Disassembly is permitted only as directed in paragraph 66.1.]

(2) _Damaged plug._ Repair damaged or nicked end of plug by filing plug
end square and smooth. File off as little as possible. Test for leakage
at socket by installing pressure tank and valve assembly, as in c
above, and then opening pressure-tank valve. If leak persists at joint
between socket and plug, replace plug by unscrewing old plug, screwing
new plug in position, and tightening with wrench. Replace entire plug.
Do not attempt to unscrew the cylindrical portion from the square
portion.


=67. PRESSURE REGULATOR.=

       *       *       *       *       *

_e. Maintenance_ (Added).

(1) _Spring type (Hoke) pressure regulator._ Except for adjustment to
increase or decrease pressure, do not attempt to maintain or repair the
spring type (Hoke) pressure regulator. If damaged or defective, it must
be replaced by a dome type (Grove) pressure regulator.

(2) _Dome type (Grove) pressure regulator (B81-1-778)._ Replacement
parts for maintaining the dome type (Grove) regulator are available for
use by chemical maintenance companies, as shown in Army Service Forces
Catalog CW 9-440114, List of All Service Parts and Higher Echelon Spare
Parts for Flame Thrower, Portable, M2-2 (25 November 1944).


=74. VALVE GRIP.=

       *       *       *       *       *

_c. Installing valve grip._

(1) Place grip safety * * * right valve grip. (Fig. 48.) =Do not
accidentally place the lower forward extension of the grip safety
over the lower rear extension of the valve lever. If this overlapping
occurs, the small projection at the bottom of the grip safety may be
broken off.= Be sure the * * * of grip safety.

       *       *       *       *       *


=77. SHIPMENT AND STORAGE.=

       *       *       *       *       *

_c. Class of supply_ (Added). The portable flame thrower is a class IV
supply item.


=78. REFERENCES.=

Reference pertaining to * * * flame throwers include:

       *       *       *       *       *

  TM 9-850 Cleaning, Preserving, Lubricating * * * the Ordnance
  Department

  =TM 3-377, Compressor, Air, Gasoline Engine-driven, 7CFM, M1 (For
  Charging Flame Throwers and Cylinders)=

  =TB CW 18, Kit, Fuel Filling, Flame Thrower, E6 (for filling
  mechanized and portable flame throwers)[A]=

  =TB CW 20, Cleaning Interiors of Compressed Gas Cylinders, Tanks, and
  Accessories[A]=

  =TB ENG 39, Safe Handling of Compressed Gases[A]=

  =ASF Catalog CW 7-440114, Organizational Spare Parts and Equipment:
  1st and 2d Echelons: for Flame Thrower, Portable, M2-2 (25 November
  1944)=

  =ASF Catalog CW 9-440114, List of all Service Parts and Higher
  Echelon Spare Parts for Flame Thrower, Portable, M2-2=

  =ASF Catalog CW 6-445115, Sets of Tools, Equipment, and Similar
  Material: Kit, Service, for Portable Flame Thrower, M2-2=

  =ASF Catalog CW 9-445115, List of all Parts and Higher Echelon Spare
  Parts for Kit, Service, for Portable Flame Thrower, M2-2=

  =FS 3-33, Portable Flame Thrower M2-2, Part 1, Nomenclature and
  Operation.=


  Footnote:

  [A] Technical Bulletins are to be superseded by appropriate War
  Department manuals or changes to manuals.

[AG 300.7 (11 Apr 45)]

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:

OFFICIAL:

  G. C. MARSHALL
  _Chief of Staff_

  J. A. ULIO
  _Major General_
  _The Adjutant General_


DISTRIBUTION:

  AAF (Cml O) (10); AGF (Cml O) (10); ASF (2); T of Opn (Cml O) (10);
  Arm & Sv Bds (1); Def Comd (2); S Div ASF (1); Tech Sv (2) except
  CWS (45); SvC (Cml O) (4); PE (Attn: Cml O) (2); Sub-PE (Cml O) (2);
  PG (2); Ars 3 (2); ASF Dep (CW Sec) (2); ASF Dep (2); Dep 3 (2); Pro
  Dist 3 (2); Tech Sv C (2); USMA (20); Tng C (2); A (2); CHQ (5); B
  (1); R (5); Bn 2 (2), 3 (5), 7, 17 (2); C 2 (2), 3 (5), 7, 17 (2);
  AF (2); W (Cml O) (1); Five (5) copies to each of the following: T/O
  & E 5-15; 5-16; 5-17; 5-35; 5-36; 5-37; 5-171; 5-175; 5-176; 5-192;
  5-215; 5-216; 5-217; 5-235; 5-236; 5-238; 5-475T; 5-476T; 5-477T.

Refer to FM 21-6 for explanation of distribution formula.



TABLE OF CONTENTS


PART ONE

INTRODUCTION


                                                   _Paragraph_  _Page_

  SECTION I. GENERAL
    Scope                                               1         1
    Records                                             2         1


  SECTION II. DESCRIPTION AND DATA
    Uses of flame throwers                              3         1
    Characteristics and employment                      4         4
    Description and functioning                         5         6
    Identification information                          6         9
    Differences in models                               7         9
    Interchanging parts with M1 or M1A1 flame thrower   8         9
    Data                                                9         9


  SECTION III. TOOLS, PARTS, AND ACCESSORIES
    Items with each flame thrower                      10        11


PART TWO

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS


  SECTION IV. GENERAL
    Scope                                              11        14


  SECTION V. SERVICE UPON RECEIPT OF EQUIPMENT
    New equipment                                      12        14
    Used equipment                                     13        15


  SECTION VI. CONTROLS
    Controls                                           14        15


  SECTION VII. OPERATION UNDER USUAL CONDITIONS
    Training                                           15        16
    Charging, filling, and servicing                   16        16
    Connecting tank group and gun group                17        16
    Loading with ignition cylinder                     18        17
    Carrying the tank group                            19        21
    Carrying the gun                                   20        21
    Opening pressure-tank valve                        21        22
    Ranges                                             22        22
    Wind deflection                                    23        22
    Firing positions                                   24        23
    Aiming                                             25        23
    Firing                                             26        23
    Ceasing or interrupting fire                       27        26
    Additional bursts                                  28        26
    Soaking the target                                 29        26
    After firing                                       30        26


  SECTION VIII. AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT
    Ignition cylinder                                  31        27
    Charging pressure tank                             32        28
    Precautions when pressure-charging                 33        32
    Characteristics of fuels                           34        33
    Preparation of thickened fuels                     35        34
    Preparation of liquid fuels                        36        38
    Filling by pouring                                 37        39
    Filling by force pump                              38        40
    Filling by blowing                                 39        40
    Precautions with fuels                             40        43


  SECTION IX. OPERATION UNDER UNUSUAL CONDITIONS
    Wet conditions                                     41        44
    Dust and mud                                       42        44
    Heat                                               43        44
    Cold                                               44        45
    Wind                                               45        45


  SECTION X. DEMOLITION TO PREVENT ENEMY USE
    Destruction procedure                              46        45


PART THREE

MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS


  SECTION XI. GENERAL
    Scope                                              47        46


  SECTION XII. SPECIAL ORGANIZATIONAL TOOLS
    AND EQUIPMENT
    Service kit                                        48        46


  SECTION XIII. LUBRICATION
    Lubrication                                        49        49


  SECTION XIV. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SERVICES
    General                                            50        49
    Before-operation service of tank group             51        50
    Before-operation service of gun group              52        50
    Service when filling and charging                  53        52
    Service when firing                                54        53
    Service after firing                               55        53
    Service after six firing missions                  56        54


  SECTION XV. TROUBLE SHOOTING
    Precautions                                        57        55
    Fuel leaks                                         58        55
    Safety head “blows” (breaks)                       59        56
    Carrier uncomfortable                              60        56
    Short range                                        61        56
    Fuel-valve failure                                 62        57
    Failure of ignition cylinder to ignite             63        57
    Failure of fuel to ignite                          64        58


  SECTION XVI. TANK GROUP
    General                                            65        58
    Pressure tank and valve assembly                   66        59
    Pressure regulator                                 67        63
    Fuel-tank assembly                                 68        65
    Filling and safety-head plug assemblies            69        67
    Tank coupling                                      70        69
    Carrier                                            71        71


  SECTION XVII. GUN GROUP
    General                                            72        74
    Fuel-hose assembly                                 73        74
    Valve grip                                         74        75
    Barrel and valve-body assembly                     75        77
    Ignition head                                      76        82


APPENDIX


  SECTION XVIII. SHIPMENT AND STORAGE
    Shipment and storage                               77        86


  SECTION XIX. LIST OF REFERENCES
    References                                         78        87


INDEX


[Illustration: Fig 1. Portable flame thrower M2-2.]



PART ONE

INTRODUCTION



Section I GENERAL


1. SCOPE.

_a. Arrangement._ This manual is published to guide and inform
personnel using and maintaining flame thrower, portable, M2-2. Part One
contains general information; Part Two is a guide to operation; Part
Three gives maintenance procedures. The Appendix discusses shipment and
storage procedures, and applicable publications.

_b. References._ References are listed in the Appendix. The
list includes field manuals, technical manuals, and Army Regulations.


2. RECORDS.

Although no standard maintenance forms and records are furnished,
an improvised list should be kept of the number of times each flame
thrower has been fired. The list indicates when it is necessary to
provide the after-six-missions preventive maintenance and lubrication.
It should be tacked or glued to the inside surface of the packing-chest
lid and each flame thrower should always be returned to its own chest.



Section II DESCRIPTION AND DATA


3. USES OF FLAME THROWERS.

Flame throwers can:

_a. Penetrate openings_, such as embrasures
and gun ports, and fill the fortifications with flame and
smoke.

_b. Burn, asphyxiate, and blind enemy personnel_, causing casualties,
shock, panic, and abandonment of a fortified position.

_c. Ignite combustible parts of shelters and materiel_ and start
detonation of sensitive ammunition and explosives.

[Illustration: Fig 2. Firing with liquid fuel.]

[Illustration: Fig 3. Firing with thickened fuel. Thickened fuel
has longer range than liquid fuel and burns on target for several
minutes.]

_d._ “_Shoot around corners_,” when fuel is fired from dead or
blind angles. This is made possible by the billowing and swirling
movements of flaming gases. Blazing thickened fuels also
ricochet from wall to wall in fortifications.

_e. Cause the enemy to close ports_, temporarily putting the emplacement
out of action and thus protecting the demolition party.

_f. Mop up_ dug-in personnel.

_g. Eliminate enemy nests_ in street or jungle fighting.


4. CHARACTERISTICS AND EMPLOYMENT.

_a. Action._ Fuel is propelled into the target by a charge of
highly compressed air or nitrogen. As fuel leaves the gun of the
M2-2 portable flame thrower (Fig 1), it is ignited by contact with
flame from charges of incendiary mix held in an expendable ignition
cylinder.

_b. Bursts._ A continuous stream or separate bursts may be
fired for approximately 8 to 9 seconds, not including time between
the bursts. The five incendiary charges in the ignition cylinder
are controlled by the trigger and can ignite several bursts.

_c. Range._ Portable flame throwers are fired at extremely
close or point-blank range for best results. (Par 22) Effective
range for liquid fuels (Fig 2) is as far as 20 yards, and for thickened
fuels (Fig 3), 40 yards, but underbrush and adverse winds
can reduce the distances.

_d. Weight._ To keep the weight as light as possible and still
provide strength to withstand very high pressures, most parts
are made of aluminum or sheet steel.

_e. Tactics._ Two or more flame throwers are generally used
on a mission with other weapons of the assault squad. (See FM
31-50, “Attack on a Fortified Position and Combat in Towns.”)

_f. Firers and assistants._ One man carries and fires each
flame thrower. Well-armed assistants accompany firers to give
close protection and to serve as emergency replacements.
Whereas the M1A1 portable flame thrower may require the help
of an assistant to open the pressure-tank valve, the M2-2 flame
thrower pressure-tank valve is located within reach of the firer
and is operated by him without assistance. Firers and assistants
should be thoroughly trained in operation of the weapon.

[Illustration: Fig 4. Tank group.]

_g. Charging and filling._ In order to replace pressure tanks
(cylinders) of earlier types of flame throwers, it is necessary to
unscrew and screw threaded connections. Experience has shown that this
frequently resulted in damage to threads, leakage, loss of pressure,
and loss of range. It is also necessary to use tools to replace
each pressure tank (cylinder). The design of the M2-2 flame thrower
eliminates these difficulties. The tank group (Fig 4) may be charged
and filled as a unit with or without gun and hose. The quick-connecting
tank coupling permits rapid interchanging of empty and full tank groups
by the firers or assistants. This is done without tools, takes very
little time, and cannot cause leakage, loss of pressure, and loss of
range due to damaged threads.


5. DESCRIPTION AND FUNCTIONING.

The flame thrower consists of two major groups: tank group and
gun group. Detailed descriptions of assemblies and parts are
included in Paragraphs 66 through 76.

_a. Tank group._ (Figs 4 and 5) Carried upon the firer’s back,
the tank group holds fuel and pressure. The tank group may be
identified as tank, fuel, portable flame thrower, M2, assembly
D81-1-482. It consists principally of:

(1) _Two fuel tanks_, holding a total of 4 gallons of fuel, and
joined by a tank connector to form a single fuel reservoir.

(2) _Pressure tank_, charged with highly compressed air or
nitrogen used to propel fuel from the fuel tanks through the gun
to the target. The tank is large in capacity to assure ample pressure
and uniformly long range throughout the firing.

(3) _Pressure-tank valve_, which releases air or nitrogen
through the pressure regulator to the fuel tanks. The valve can
be opened by the firer without the assistance required in the case
of the M1A1 flame thrower.

(4) _Pressure regulator_, which automatically assures delivery
of air or nitrogen to the fuel tanks at the proper pressure. The
regulator is located in a position where it cannot easily be damaged.

(5) _Carrier_, which supports the tank group on the firer’s back
and shoulders and secures it to his body. It includes body and
shoulder straps and quick-releasing fasteners.

_b. Gun group._ (Fig 6) Carried, aimed, and operated by the
hands of the firer, the gun group ignites the fuel and directs the
flame into the target. It includes:

(1) _Fuel hose_, which conveys fuel from the tank group to the
gun. The fuel hose may be requisitioned as hose, fuel, portable
flame thrower, M1, assembly B81-1-498.

(2) _Gun_, which ignites the fuel and directs it to the target.
The gun may be identified as gun, portable flame thrower,
M2, assembly D81-1-405. It consists of:

(_a_) _Fuel valve_, which discharges fuel through the barrel.
The valve is operated by squeezing the valve lever and the grip
safety, which are on opposite sides of the valve grip. The valve
also includes a barrel from which the fuel is ejected. The ignition
head is supported on the front of the barrel.

(_b_) _Ignition head_, which ignites the fuel as it passes
from the nozzle of the barrel. With each pull of the trigger on the
front grip, one of five charges of incendiary mix in an ignition
cylinder is ignited. This pilot flame ignites the fuel as it is
propelled from the gun.

[Illustration: Fig 5. Tank group with carrier folded back to show
construction.]

[Illustration: Fig 6. Gun group of portable flame thrower M2-2.]


6. IDENTIFICATION INFORMATION.

The words “Chemical Warfare Service,” model numbers, serial
numbers, lot numbers, weight, cubage, manufacturers’ names,
contract number, and date of packing are indicated on the packing
chest or the equipment. The numbers and letters shown on the
equipment should be referred to when repairs are required. The
tank group and the gun (without the fuel hose) may each be marked
“M2” and the fuel hose may be marked “M1,” although all of
these are components of the M2-2 portable flame thrower.


7. DIFFERENCES IN MODELS.

_a. M2-2 and E3 portable flame throwers._ Portable flame
thrower M2-2 is identical in all important respects with portable
flame thrower E3. (The E3 flame thrower, when standardized
with some modifications, became the M2-2.) Operation and maintenance
of the M2-2 and E3 are in general the same, and the parts
are interchangeable.

_b. M2-2, M1, and M1A1 portable flame throwers._ Portable
flame thrower M2-2 has the same fuel capacity but differs in
construction from portable flame throwers M1 and M1A1. Parts
are not interchangeable except as stated in Paragraph 8.


8. INTERCHANGING PARTS WITH M1 OR M1A1 FLAME THROWER.

To use an M2-2 gun with tank group (fuel unit) of an M1 or M1A1
portable flame thrower:

_a._ Remove fuel hose from M2-2 gun.

_b._ Screw a 3/4-inch by 1/2-inch pipe bushing into the side
opening of the fuel-valve body. This bushing is furnished in the
spare parts kit of each M2-2 portable flame thrower. (Par 10)

_c._ Screw the fuel-hose assembly of the M1 or M1A1 flame
thrower into the 1/2-inch opening of the bushing, using a wrench
to make a tight connection.


9. DATA.

All data are approximate.

_a. Range._ See Paragraph 22.

_b. Duration of fire._

(1) _Fuel_.

(_a_) Continuous discharge of approximately 8 to 9 seconds,
or

(_b_) Several short bursts totalling approximately 8 to 9 seconds
(not including time between bursts).

(2) _Ignition cylinder._ Five charges in each cylinder, 8 to 12
seconds per charge.

_c. Weights._

                                                       _Pounds_
  Portable flame thrower M2-2, empty, in shipping
    chest (including the chest and all contents)        110
  Portable flame thrower M2-2, empty                     43
  Portable flame thrower M2-2, filled with fuel       68 to 72
  Tank group, empty                                      35
  Tank group, filled with fuel                        60 to 64
  Gun group                                               8

_d. Dimensions._

                                                     _Inches_
  Gun, length                                            30
  Fuel hose, length                                      37
  Tank group, height                                     27
  Tank group, width                                      20
  Tank group, breadth                                    11
  Packing chest                                  34 x 23 x 19
    (Cube of packing chest: 8-1/2 cubic feet)

_e. Capacity of weapon._

  Ignition cylinder (M1 or E1)     1 (which includes 5 incendiary
                                     charges)
  Fuel                             4 gallons plus void for air or
                                     nitrogen

_f. Pressures._

                                             _Pounds per sq. in._
  Pressure tank                                  1,700 to 2,100
  Fuel tanks                                          350

_g. Ratio of expended supplies._ For every 100 complete fillings
of the flame thrower, the following supplies are normally expended:

  (1) Nitrogen contained in fifteen 220-cubic-foot cylinders or an
  equivalent volume of compressed air. (Eleven cylinders are expended
  if the four-place arrangement described in Paragraph 32 is used.)

  (2) 450 gallons of fuel (400 gallons plus 50 gallons for spillage,
  spoilage, and evaporation).

  (3) 100 ignition cylinders.

  (4) If thickened fuel is used, 135 pounds (in cans of 5-1/4 pounds
  each) of U. S. Army fuel thickener.



Section III TOOLS, PARTS, AND ACCESSORIES


10. ITEMS WITH EACH FLAME THROWER.

The items listed below or their equivalents (Fig 7) are included
in each M2-2 flame-thrower packing chest, in addition to the flame
thrower. Numbers listed with items are Chemical Warfare Service stock
numbers.

_a. Kit, tool, for portable flame thrower M2-2, assembly B81-6-50._

_b. Kit, spare parts, for portable flame thrower M2-2, assembly
B81-6-52._

_c. Cylinder, ignition, portable flame thrower M1._ (6 cylinders, in 3
cans containing 2 each)

_d. Technical Manual 3-376A, “Portable Flame Thrower M2-2._”

_e. Gun mounting board._ (Fig 10)

_f. Plug, coupling, E81-1-514_ (for use in tank coupling when filling
tank group with gun detached).

[Illustration: Fig 7. Items packed in chest with each flame thrower:
A—Spare parts kit; B—Packing list; C—Three cans of ignition cylinders;
D—Tool kit; E—Coupling plug; F—TM 3-376A, “Portable Flame Thrower
M2-2.”]

[Illustration: Fig 8. Contents of tool kit:


  A. 1 Screw driver, cabinet, 4-1/2-inch blade length, 3/16-inch blade
    diameter, H22-50-13.
  B. 1 Wrench, hex, 1/8-inch across flats for 1/4-inch socket-head set
    screws, H22-49-12.
  C. 1 Wrench, engineers’, double head, 3/4-inch and 7/8-inch openings,
    9 inches approx length, H22-49-115.
  D. 1 Screw driver, common, 6-inch blade length, 5/16-inch blade
    diameter, H22-50-6.
  E. 1 Wrench, valve-adjusting, assembly, A81-6-48.
  F. 1 Wrench, heavy “S”, 1-3/8-inch and 1-1/2-inch openings, 12 inches
    approx length, H22-49-113.
  G. 1 Wrench, engineers’, single head, 1-1/8 inch opening, 10-1/2
    inches approx length, H22-49-31.
  H. 1 Wrench, adjustable, single end, 6 inches approx length (crescent
    type), H22-49-67.
  I. 1 Wrench, heavy “S”, 1-3/8-inch and 1-3/4-inch openings, 12 inches
    approx length, A81-6-49.]

[Illustration: Fig 9. Contents of spare parts kit:

  A. 1 Diaphragm, valve, assembly, A81-1-416.
  B. 1 Case, spring, assembly, B81-1-444.
  C. 1 Bushing, pipe, head, 3/4-inch by 1/2-inch (galvanized iron),
    H98-5-93.
  D. 2 Washers, coupling, A81-1-513.
  E. 3 Heads, safety, R81-1-561.]

[Illustration: Fig 10. Packing chest open, with gun on mounting board.
Tool kit, spare parts kit, and cans of ignition cylinders in boxes at
right.]



PART TWO

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS



Section IV GENERAL


11. SCOPE.

Part Two of this manual is for the guidance of operating personnel. It
includes information on the controls and on operation.



Section V SERVICE UPON RECEIPT OF EQUIPMENT


12. NEW EQUIPMENT.

Upon receipt of a new flame thrower, the following procedure should be
carried out:

_a._ Cut packing-chest steel straps and seals with pliers.

_b._ Remove the screws, if present, from top of chest.

_c._ Open two latches at front of chest.

_d._ Lift lid backward and connect chain from inside of chest to inside
of lid.

_e._ Remove moistureproof paper.

_f._ Remove gun from carton. After removing waterproofing tape from
ends of hose, connect hose and gun. (Par 17)

_g._ Remove mounting board and place gun with hose on the board as
shown in Figure 10.

[Illustration: Fig 11. Screwing deflector tube in safety head on left
fuel tank.]

[Illustration: Fig 12. Controls for operation of portable flame thrower
M2-2.]

_h._ Remove spare parts kit, tool kit, cans of ignition cylinders, and
other items from packing chest.

_i._ Compare contents with packing list found in or on packing chest.
Inspect all contents carefully for completeness, correct adjustment,
and good condition.

_j._ Insert deflector tube in safety head on left fuel tank. (Fig 11)
Outlet should face to rear and at a 45-degree angle to operator’s left
shoulder. (Fig 18) Screw in deflector tube by hand; do not use wrench
on deflector tube. Tighten lock nut with wrench.

_k._ Before use on a mission, test-fire the weapon. (Par 56 _b_)

_l._ Save the packing chest for storage of the equipment when flame
thrower is not being carried on a firing mission or serviced.


13. USED EQUIPMENT.

When they apply, the same steps should be taken as in Paragraph 12. Any
worn or damaged parts should be replaced. Areas where paint has worn
off should be touched up with fresh paint.



Section VI CONTROLS


14. CONTROLS.

The firer uses the pressure-tank valve handle, the trigger, and the
valve lever and grip safety (Fig 12) in succession as follows:

_a. Valve handle._ The pressure-tank valve is operated by turning
a handle on the valve flexible shaft within reach of the firer.
Counterclockwise operation of handle releases pressure to the
fuel tanks. Clockwise turning closes the valve.

_b. Trigger._ The trigger is at the front grip of the gun. Pulling
the trigger vigorously ignites an incendiary charge in the ignition
cylinder. This in turn ignites the fuel as it leaves the gun. The
trigger action also causes the ignition cylinder to revolve one-fifth
of a turn, presenting another charge for firing. Each of the
five charges may thus be used in rapid succession, if necessary,
by pulling the trigger vigorously as many as five times.

_c. Valve lever and grip safety._ The valve lever and grip safety
are mounted on opposite sides of the valve grip of the gun. When
both controls are compressed, fuel is propelled from the gun. If
either the valve lever or the grip safety is not compressed, the
fuel valve remains closed and the fuel remains in the weapon.



Section VII OPERATION UNDER USUAL CONDITIONS


15. TRAINING.

Effective use of the M2-2 portable flame thrower can be achieved only
by diligent practice with the weapon. Untrained firers or assistants
should never be sent on a mission.

_a. Practice._ Firers should practice under varying conditions of
wind, range, elevation, depression, and traverse. The shortness of the
total firing time (approximately 8 to 9 seconds) demands split-second
judgment and coordination.

_b. Use of water in training._ Water may be used (instead of fuel) for
elementary practice firing. Ignition cylinders are not used with water.
The water under pressure may cause serious injuries to personnel at 10
yards. After practice with water, the gun should be disassembled (Pars
73 through 76), cleaned and dried piece by piece, and lubricated. (Par
49)

_c. Use of fuel in training._ When using fuel in training, select or
prepare a practice field of fire which provides at least 125 yards for
range and 30 yards for spread. If the field contains dry grass, brush,
or other flammable material, a fire-fighting squad should be available
with equipment and source of water. Assistants and observers should
stay well behind the firer because of danger from wind shifts. See
Paragraph 40 for additional precautions.


16. CHARGING, FILLING, AND SERVICING.

Before use on missions or for training, flame throwers must be charged,
filled, and serviced. Charging with compressed air or compressed
nitrogen is described in Paragraphs 32 and 33; filling with fuel in
Paragraphs 34 through 40; and servicing in Paragraphs 50 through 56.
Test for pressure. (Par 53 _d_)


17. CONNECTING TANK GROUP AND GUN GROUP.

If a charged and filled tank group has been brought up to replace an
emptied one:

_a._ Place the new tank group on the ground with the tank coupling on
top. If the filling is thickened fuel, allow the tank group to rest in
this position for from 1 to 2 minutes.

_b._ Remove coupling plug from new tank group and disconnect gun group
from emptied tank group. Place unthreaded end of fuel hose in tank
coupling and lock in place. (Par 70)

_c._ Lock the coupling plug in the emptied tank group.


18. LOADING WITH IGNITION CYLINDER.

_a. General._ Just before the start of a mission, load an unused
ignition cylinder into the ignition head. (M1 and E1 ignition cylinders
are identical and may be used interchangeably.) Cylinders are packed
two to a can. Do not open cans until ready to load for a mission. The
second cylinder in the can should be used in another flame thrower on
the same mission or as soon as possible after opening the can. Partly
used cylinders may be employed in training.

_b. Precautions._ Care must be taken, whenever cylinders are handled,
to avoid any blows or pressure against the metal match ends. (Fig 13)
Face, hands, and other parts of the body should never be exposed to
front of cylinder or front of gun.

[Illustration: Fig 13. Ignition cylinder before use.]

_c. Procedure._ Loading procedure is as follows:

(1) Unscrew and remove ignition shield. (Fig 14)

(2) Place ignition cylinder on end of barrel (Fig 15), being careful
not to grasp cylinder by its ends.

(3) Raise nozzle end of gun so cylinder slides down against the spring
case of the ignition head. (Fig 16) If necessary, rotate cylinder so it
slips down all the way. Do not force cylinder into place as forcing may
prematurely ignite it.

(4) Rotate spring case and ignition cylinder clockwise as far as they
turn freely.

(5) Place ignition shield over cylinder. Engage the slot in the shield
on the spring-case pin.

(6) Turn shield, screwing it onto ignition-head body. Make sure the
threads engage during the first turn of the shield. When the slot on
the shield engages the latch on the ignition head (Fig 17), the gun is
loaded.

(7) If shield cannot be turned by hand tight enough to engage latch,
unscrew shield. Then turn shield backwards until threads engage and
repeat (6) above.

[Illustration: Fig 14. Unscrewing ignition shield, with pressure on
latch.]

[Illustration: Fig 15. Placing ignition cylinder on gun. Care must be
taken to avoid striking or pushing metal matches of cylinder.]

[Illustration: Fig 16. Ignition cylinder in place on gun before
replacement of ignition shield.]

[Illustration: Fig 17. Ignition head assembled for firing of gun.]

[Illustration: Fig 18. Tank group adjusted on firer.]


19. CARRYING THE TANK GROUP.

The tanks are supported on the firer’s back and secured to it by two
shoulder straps and two pairs of body straps. (Fig 18) The straps may
be adjusted by the buckles to fit the operator. The shoulder straps
pass over the shoulders and under the arm pits; the lower body straps
are clasped tightly in front of the body; and the upper body straps are
clasped across the chest to prevent the shoulder straps from slipping
and the tank group from rolling off the back. Adjustments to the
various straps should be made until the unit is carried with the bottom
of the fuel tanks at the small of the operator’s back. The tank group
should fit snugly so that it does not shift if the operator changes
position quickly.


20. CARRYING THE GUN.

[Illustration: Fig 19. Carrying the gun, with hands in position to
fire.]

The procedure for carrying the gun is as follows:

_a._ Carry the gun with the hose at the right side. (Fig 19)

_b._ Grasp the valve grip with the right hand and the front grip with
the left hand, being careful not to operate the controls until ready to
fire.

_c._ Keep the gun pointed away from friendly personnel at all times.

_d._ Do not face the front of the gun at any time. Even when no fuel
is being ejected, the incendiary charges of the ignition cylinder can
cause severe burns.

_e._ Keep the gun dry and clean if possible. Avoid getting dirt or
foreign matter into the weapon.

_f._ Avoid rough handling.

_g._ Wear gloves if available.

_h._ Carry any extra ignition cylinders only in metal containers.


21. OPENING PRESSURE-TANK VALVE.

The release of pressure into the fuel tank causes a hissing sound.
Therefore, open the pressure-tank valve while still out of hearing
range of the enemy. Do not, however, open it prematurely because of
the possibility of pressure leaks. To prevent frothing of the fuel,
keep the tank group in as nearly an upright position as possible when
opening pressure-tank valve. Be sure to turn the valve handle all the
way in a counterclockwise direction. Stiffening of the fuel hose occurs
when the pressure-tank valve is opened.


22. RANGES.

Firers and assistants should learn to judge ranges by frequent practice
under varying conditions. The firers should be trained to approach
as close as practicable to the target and to fire if possible at
point-blank range for the greatest results.

_a. Point-blank range._

(1) _Effects._ At very close (point-blank) range almost all of the
burning fuel can be fired at great velocity directly through ports and
openings into the target. Maximum casualties and damage are caused in
the hostile position.

(2) _Protection._ Common sense precautions are taken to prevent
casualties to friendly personnel from possible ricochet or rebounding
of flame. If the target includes a vertical wall at a right angle
to the firer or other friendly personnel, the weapon should not be
fired at closer than 7 to 10 yards. When the weapon is fired at small
openings in a bunker or pillbox, the firer and other members of the
assault squad should not approach closer than 7 to 10 yards from the
target.

_b. Other effective ranges._

(1) _Open fields of fire._ When thickened gasoline is used, portable
flame throwers may fire with considerable effect as far as 40 yards
under normal conditions, depending on wind direction and wind speed.
Under the same conditions, liquid fuel maybe effective at 20 yards.
Results and accuracy are not as great as at point-blank range.

(2) _Jungle or thick underbrush._ If the target is located in jungle or
thick underbrush without cleared fields of fire, the effective range of
the flame thrower is reduced by as much as one half, depending on the
nature and density of the vegetation.

_c. Ineffective ranges._ Although the flame may reach considerably
farther than the ranges stated in _b_ (1) above it may be useless
because of the steep angle of descent and because much of the fuel is
burned before it reaches the target.


23. WIND DEFLECTION.

Wind is an important factor because of the low velocity of the flaming
fuel. Wind can lengthen, shorten, or deflect the flame.

_a. Head winds._ Head winds of more than 5 miles per hour tend to carry
heat or even flame back toward the firer. Liquid fuel should not be
fired into a head wind of more than 5 miles per hour. The range and
accuracy of thickened fuels is reduced.

_b. Following winds or very light winds._ Best results are obtained
under these conditions.

_c. Cross winds._ When firing at or near maximum range, cross winds
deflect, breakup, and disperse the flame. They also reduce the range.


24. FIRING POSITIONS.

_a. Ease of aiming._ The flame thrower can be fired from any position
that permits sufficient freedom to aim the weapon, subject to the
conditions in _b_, _c_, and _d_, below. This includes standing,
kneeling, and prone. In some instances, flame throwers have been fired
with tank groups resting on the ground or on skids. If used in this
way, the tops of the fuel tanks must be propped up to conform to _b_,
below.

_b. Angles of the tanks._ When firing, the bottoms of the fuel tanks
must always be substantially lower than the tops. The tops of both
tanks must also each be the same distance above the horizontal and
neither tank should be tilted to one side. Otherwise, only a small part
of the fuel may be blown from the tanks.

_c. Recoil._ Stability must be sufficient to withstand the recoil from
the gun. If possible, the firer should hold the gun snugly against his
right side to support it and to absorb its recoil.

_d. Protection._ Full advantage should be taken of cover and
concealment, such as shell craters and vegetation.


25. AIMING.

_a. Sighting._ There are no sights on the gun because of the short
range from which it is fired, the variety of fuels used, and the marked
effects of wind. (Par 23)

_b. Fortifications._ When firing at a fortified position, flame must be
directed _into openings_ (gun ports, firing slits, ventilation screens,
doorways). Flame inside gives the desired effects, but flame on the
outside has little effect on personnel within.

_c. Thickened fuel._ (Figs 3 and 20) When firing at or near maximum
range, it may take several seconds for a burst of thickened fuel to
carry through the air to the target area. Short bursts may result in
misses at long range for this reason. Skill in aiming is particularly
important with thickened fuel.

_d. Liquid fuel._ With liquid fuel, the greatest effect may be obtained
by placing the flame directly on the target. (Fig 21)

[Illustration: Fig 20. Thickened fuel flame hitting and clinging to
target. Fuel burns for several minutes.]

[Illustration: Fig 21. Flame (liquid fuel) hitting target.]


26. FIRING.

With pressure-tank valve open:

_a. Pull trigger._ Pull the trigger rapidly and vigorously. A flash
should appear at the front of the gun. This shows that an incendiary
charge of the ignition cylinder has been ignited. Release the trigger.
(If the flash does not appear, pull the trigger again, or as often
as necessary up to five times, until a flash appears.)

_b. Squeeze fuel valve._ Immediately after pulling trigger, compress
the valve lever and grip safety vigorously with the right hand. Burning
fuel will be propelled from the gun.

_c. Adjust fire._ Direct the flaming fuel at the target. Continue to
squeeze the valve lever and grip safety throughout the burst. When
thickened fuel is fired, follow the fuel with eyes to the side of the
stream in order to observe and correct aim. (If eyes are directly
behind the stream, the flame may obscure the target.)


27. CEASING OR INTERRUPTING FIRE.

To cease or interrupt firing, release the controls.


28. ADDITIONAL BURSTS.

To fire additional bursts, repeat procedure followed in Paragraphs
26 and 27, keeping in mind that there are five incendiary charges in
the ignition cylinder and that the total firing time, not including
time between bursts, is approximately 8 to 9 seconds. Each of the five
incendiary charges in the ignition cylinder burns for from 8 to 12
seconds.


29. SOAKING THE TARGET.

When liquid fuel is used, it may be desirable to soak the target with
fuel first and ignite it afterward. To do this, fire one or two short
bursts without pulling the trigger. Then follow with an ignited burst,
as in Paragraph 26.


30. AFTER FIRING.

When the firer has returned from his mission, he should:

_a._ Remove and discard the ignition cylinder, as follows:

(1) Point gun at the ground.

(2) Press latch. (Fig 14)

(3) Unscrew the ignition shield and allow ignition cylinder to fall
out. (Be careful to keep the hands away from the front of the cylinder.)

(4) Save the partly used cylinder for training use or destroy it by
firing from gun after fuel tanks have been emptied. For information on
care, handling, and storage of cylinders, see Paragraph 31.

_b._ Close the pressure-tank valve by turning valve handle clockwise
(to conserve remaining pressure in pressure tank).

_c._ Point the gun away from personnel and blow out the remaining
fuel, if any, from the fuel tanks by squeezing the valve
lever and grip safety until there is no further discharge. The
trigger should not be used during this operation.

_d._ Take off tank group from the back.

_e._ Inspect, clean, and maintain the flame thrower (Pars 55 and 56)
or, if experienced maintenance personnel is close at hand, turn the
weapon over to them for servicing.

_f._ After servicing, place the weapon in the packing chest (Par 77)
for protected storage, or prepare it for the next mission. (Pars 50
through 53)



Section VIII AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT


31. IGNITION CYLINDER.

_a. Description and functioning._ (Figs 13 and 22) Either the M1 or
E1 ignition cylinder may be used. It fits over the fore part of the
barrel assembly and is revolved by the spring case. (Par 76) The five
incendiary charges in the cylinder are spaced sufficiently far apart
in the plastic body to prevent their igniting one another. Lead-foil
seals, plastic closure plates, and waterproof cement make the unit
comparatively waterproof.

[Illustration: Fig 22. Cutaway view of ignition cylinder (M1 or E1).]

_b. Action._ When the trigger rod is pushed forward, one of five metal
matches tipped with red phosphorus scratches an igniting mixture. The
ignition carries to a starter mix and to a few grains of black powder
on top of the incendiary charge. The black powder blows the foil seal
and closure plate clear of the flame thrower, and the incendiary
charge ignites the fuel as it is discharged from the nozzle. The
incendiary charge burns for from 8 to 12 seconds.

_c. Packing._ Ignition cylinders are packed two per waterproof can.
Three cans are furnished with each flame thrower. Fifty cans (100
ignition cylinders) are contained in each packing box of extra
cylinders.

_d. Care, handling, and storage._ Ignition cylinders contain hazardous
incendiary material and must be handled with due care. The following
precautions should be observed.

(1) _Opening cans._ Do not open cans containing cylinders until ready
to load for a mission. (Par 18) If an extra cylinder remains in an
opened can, use it as soon as possible. Any defective cylinders, such
as those with damaged closure plates, should be destroyed. (Pars 30 and
46) Moisture may affect the cylinders and all possible care should be
taken to avoid exposing them to dampness.

(2) _Handling cylinders._ Pressure on any of the five metal matches
(Fig 13) may ignite an incendiary charge in the cylinder. Care must
be exercised to avoid putting pressure on the projecting ends of the
matches except when firing the weapon. Ignition cylinders and cylinder
containers should be protected against shock. Boxes and cans containing
cylinders must not be thrown or dropped.

(3) _Storing containers._ Containers of ignition cylinders are best
stored in a dry, well-ventilated place, out of the direct rays of the
sun, well protected against excessive temperatures. Smoking is not
permitted and matches are not used where ignition cylinders are stored.


32. CHARGING PRESSURE TANK.

_a. General._ The pressure tank of the flame thrower must be fully
charged with compressed air or compressed nitrogen before the start of
a mission. For the M2-2 flame thrower, a pressure of at least 1,700
pounds per square inch is required. This may be provided either by the
use of an air compressor capable of producing a pressure of at least
1,700 pounds per square inch, or by the use of commercial cylinders.
The filling and charging lines from the service kit are used in
conjunction with the cylinders. Before and after charging, follow the
procedures described in Paragraphs 51 and 55.

_b. Charging from air compressor._ Compressor, air, gasoline engine
driven, 7CFM, M1, is a self-contained, skid-mounted machine designed
for use with flame throwers. It is capable of charging pressure tanks
of flame throwers and large 200- or 220-cubic-foot commercial cylinders
as well. Instructions for use of the compressor will be found in the
manual accompanying it.

_c. Charging from cylinders._ If an air compressor is not available,
it is necessary to use cylinders containing nitrogen or air.

(1) _Volume and pressure._ Cylinders come charged with 200 to 220 cubic
feet of air or nitrogen. Since cylinders with 220 cubic feet of air or
nitrogen have a higher initial pressure, it is recommended that they
be procured, if obtainable. All cylinders used must have a pressure of
at least 600 pounds per square inch. One or more of the cylinders must
have a pressure of at least 1,800 pounds per square inch. Two or more
cylinders, preferably at least four, should be used, if available.

(2) _Charging capacity._ Fully charged cylinders, if properly used in
rotation, have capacity for charging pressure tanks approximately as
follows:

  1 cylinder (used alone)           2 pressure tanks
  2 cylinders (in combination)      6 pressure tanks
  4 cylinders (in combination)     24 pressure tanks
  5 cylinders (in combination)     36 pressure tanks
  6 cylinders (in combination)     48 pressure tanks

(3) _Apparatus._ The apparatus for charging two pressure tanks by
the use of cylinders consists of a filling line, two charging lines,
and two cylinders. (Fig 23) The filling line and charging lines are
obtained from the service kit. (Par 48) Plugs are provided to close off
either half of the filling line when only one flame-thrower tank group
is to be charged.

(4) _Warning._ Oxygen is sometimes shipped in cylinders having the same
threads as nitrogen cylinders. If oxygen not mixed with nitrogen, as in
air, is introduced into the fuel tanks of the portable flame thrower,
a violent explosion may result. Therefore, the greatest care must be
exercised to see that only air or nitrogen is used. _Before a cylinder
is connected, it should be tested to determine that it does not
contain straight oxygen or some combustible gas._ This may be done by
introducing a burning splint into a jet of the contents. Oxygen causes
the splint to burn quickly, whereas nitrogen extinguishes the flame. To
make the test:

(_a_) Fasten a thin splint of wood to a wire at least a foot long.

(_b_) Ignite the splint.

(_c_) Stand aside and hold it before the cylinder outlet.

(_d_) Crack the valve slightly to permit a small stream of gas to
emerge.

(_e_) If the flame flares up, the gas is oxygen and _MUST NOT_ be used.

(_f_) If the gas itself catches fire, it may be hydrogen, acetylene, or
some other combustible gas, which also must not be used.

(5) _Attaching lines to cylinders._ (Fig 23) The procedure for charging
two flame thrower pressure tanks from two cylinders of nitrogen or
compressed air begins as follows:

(_a_) Remove the valve-protection caps from the cylinders.

[Illustration: Fig 23. Charging two pressure tanks, using charging and
filling lines, and cylinders of compressed air or nitrogen.]

(_b_) Place the cylinders side by side with both outlets facing in the
same direction. (If the ground is not level enough for the cylinders to
stand up side by side, lay them horizontally with both outlets face up.)

(_c_) Before attaching the filling line to the cylinders, blow out
dust. (Par 33) Then connect, using wrenches to make the joints pressure
tight. Do not kink or bend the flexible hose. Cylinders must be close
enough together to prevent strain on the flexible hose.

(_d_) Attach a charging line to each of the two couplings on the
filling line.

(6) _Attaching charging lines to pressure tanks._

(_a_) Close pressure-tank valves.

(_b_) Unscrew caps from check valves.

(_c_) Screw the charging-line fittings onto the check valves.

(_d_) Close bleeders.

(7) _Charging._ The operation of charging two pressure tanks from two
cylinders is as follows:

(_a_) Close both filling-line valves.

(_b_) Open cylinder valves.

(_c_) Determine which cylinder has the lower pressure by the gages.
Open the filling-line valve at the gage showing the lower pressure and
fill the pressure tanks to the pressure shown by the gage. Close the
valve. Then open the other filling-line valve and fill the pressure
tanks until they reach pressures of at least 1,700 pounds per square
inch as shown by the gage.

(_d_) When the pressure tanks have been filled, close the filling-line
valves. Open the bleeders on the charging lines and leave them open
until the pressure in the charging lines is released. Then close
bleeders. Remove the charging-line fittings from the check valves.
Screw the threaded caps on the check valves and tighten caps with a
wrench.

(_e_) Repeat steps in (_a_) through (_d_) above for as many pairs of
empty flame-thrower tanks as require charging.

(8) _To insure proper pressure._ Care should be taken to make certain
that the compression delivered to the flame-thrower pressure tank is a
full 1,700 pounds per square inch.

(_a_) If a filling-line valve leaks, tighten the packing nut on the
valve with a wrench.

(_b_) When the higher pressure shown on the filling-line gages is less
than 1,700 pounds per square inch, close the filling-line valve and the
cylinder valve on the cylinder having the lower pressure. Remove and
replace this cylinder with a fully charged cylinder. With chalk, mark
the pressure on the cylinder which has been withdrawn.

(9) _After charging._ When charging has been completed:

(_a_) Close the filling-line valves. Observe the pressure indicated on
each gage and mark the pressure on each cylinder using crayon, chalk,
or pencil.

(_b_) Close the valves on the cylinders.

(_c_) Remove the charging-line fittings from the check valves, replace
the threaded caps on the check valves, and tighten caps with a wrench.

(_d_) Remove the filling lines from the cylinders. Use two wrenches and
take care not to twist or kink the flexible hose. Support the lines
during the operation so that their full weight does not hang on the
flexible hose during removal.

[Illustration: Fig 24. Arrangement of cylinders and lines for charging
four flame throwers. Flexible hose (assembly E81-3-6) from service kit
is used to connect two filling lines.]

(10) _Use of four-place lines._ (Fig 24) The filling and charging lines
found in two or more service kits may be combined for more efficient
charging of large numbers of pressure tanks. An additional flexible
hose is provided in each service kit for connecting two filling lines.
The procedure for charging is similar to that described above for
the two-place line. Air or nitrogen is taken first from the cylinder
with the lowest pressure and last from the cylinder with the highest
pressure. See _a_ (2) above.


33. PRECAUTIONS WHEN PRESSURE-CHARGING.

Personnel will familiarize themselves with the following precautions:

_a. Handling._ Handle all cylinders and flame throwers carefully;
never drop them and never subject them to shocks or blows. Keep
valve-protection caps secured when cylinders are being handled, except
when such handling is incident to the use of the nitrogen or air.

_b. Storage._ Keep all cylinders and charged flame throwers or tank
groups (Par 77) in open or closed storage. They must, however, be
protected from dampness and excessive rise in temperature caused by the
direct rays of the sun or other source of heat. Avoid storing them near
highly flammable substances, or in places where they may be struck by
moving objects. Segregate empty cylinders to avoid confusion.

_c. Personnel._ Do not attempt to use compressed gases unless trained
in this work. Use gases only for the purposes for which they are
intended.

_d. Cylinder valves._ Do not tamper with safety devices in cylinder
valves. If available, use the proper replacement parts for safety
devices which are in need of repair. If such parts are not available,
do not attempt to use makeshifts or nonstandard parts.

_e. Opening of valves._ Open valves slowly and fully each time nitrogen
or compressed air is transferred from a cylinder. When a wrench is
used, be sure it is one that fits properly, and that it is kept ready
for instant use while the compressed gas is being released.

_f. Threads._ See that threads match before making connections. Some
valves are provided with special threads which must be matched by the
threads in the equipment being connected.

_g. Correct equipment._ Use gages, regulators, hose, pipe, and tubing
of the type manufactured or specified for the particular apparatus or
compressed gas.

_h. Repair._ Never attempt to alter or repair a cylinder.

_i. Flames and sparks._ Do not permit flames, sparks, or ignition from
the flame thrower or other source to touch hose.

_j. Blowing out dust._ Immediately before coupling an attachment to the
pressure tank or cylinder valve, open it for an instant to blow out any
dust or dirt. Never stand where gas or dirt may be blown into the eyes
or face. If the valve is difficult to open, apply more force gradually.

_k. Special devices._ Do not attempt to use any special connections or
equipment without the approval of a qualified expert.

_l. Keeping valves closed._ Keep the valve of each cylinder closed when
its contents are not actually being released from or admitted to the
cylinder. This applies alike to all cylinders, whether they contain a
compressed gas or are empty.


34. CHARACTERISTICS OF FUELS.

Thickened fuels give up to twice the range of liquid fuels. The stream
of thickened fuel is comparatively narrow. Most of the glue-like fuel
clings to and burns in or on the target for as long as 6 minutes.
Liquid fuels, on the other hand, are largely consumed in flight to the
target. If the location of small openings in the target is known, the
stream of thickened fuel can be spotted by accurate aiming so that
most of the fuel enters directly into the openings. While it does not
billow around corners as does liquid fuel, thickened fuel strikes the
target with force enough to ricochet inside. It clings to skin and
clothing while burning. It also has excellent incendiary effects. The
initial flame and smoke are less from thickened fuel than from liquid
fuel, but the lower visibility, greater range, and much longer burning
period of thickened fuel compensate for its smaller screening effect.
Liquid fuels are easier to pour when filling than are thickened fuels.


35. PREPARATION OF THICKENED FUELS.

_a. Ingredients._ Thickened fuels consist of U.S. Army fuel thickener
mixed with fuel.

(1) _Thickener._ U.S. Army thickener is supplied in airtight cans, each
containing 5-1/4 pounds of the material.

(2) _Gasoline and fuel oil._ Gasoline alone is often used with
thickener, but mixtures of gasoline and light fuel oil may be used
satisfactorily. The light fuel oil can be either No. 1 fuel oil, No.
2 fuel oil, automotive diesel oil, or kerosene. These mixtures give
more heat and do not form crusts. Except in hot climates, 75 percent
or more of the mixture by weight or volume should be gasoline. (If too
much light fuel oil is included, the fuel tends to separate into two
layers.) In tropical theaters, a thickened blend of 50 percent gasoline
and 50 percent light fuel oil has been reported to give favorable
results. Storage qualities are not known, however. Another mixture
which has been well recommended in field reports is 15 gallons of
gasoline to 5 gallons of diesel fuel oil. Issue gasoline may be used,
but locally procured gasolines which contain alcohol are not suitable.

_b. Proportion of thickener to fuel._ Less thickener is recommended
than formerly. A low ratio of thickener gives a thickened fuel with
many of the characteristics of liquid fuel. One can of thickener to 20
U.S. gallons of gasoline, or gasoline and light fuel-oil mixture, gives
good results. This is a 4.2 percent by weight mixture. Except in hot
weather, a fuel mixture of less than 3 percent thickener requires such
long stirring that its preparation is impractical.

_c. Equipment._ An open-head 55-gallon or 42-gallon drum and an
improvised wooden mixing paddle are used. Five-gallon cans may
be employed to transfer the ingredients. The paddle should be
approximately 5 feet long, 2 inches wide, and 1 inch thick. If a
standard 55-gallon, open-head drum with an internal diameter of 27-7/16
inches is used, the improvised paddle should be marked to indicate
gallons as follows:

  _Gallons_       _Inches_
      40           23-1/2
      20           11-3/4

Do not use a metal paddle because of the danger of striking a spark
from the drum. Never use galvanized containers for mixing and storing
thickened fuels. These may cause the fuel to break down and become
excessively thin. An improvised funnel may be helpful in filling drums
with prepared fuel for aging or transporting.

_d. Temperatures._

(1) _Below 50 degrees._ If the temperature is below 50 degrees
Fahrenheit, it is helpful to prepare thickened fuel indoors, in a
heated room. All precautions should be particularly observed. (Par 40)

(2) _Above 90 degrees._ When the fuel is hotter than 90 degrees
Fahrenheit, the thickener reacts very rapidly. In this case, it is
easier to prepare batches of 20 gallons each, but any number of batches
may be prepared in succession.

_e. Moisture._

(1) _Effect of moisture._ Water in thickened fuel breaks down or
reduces the viscosity of the gel and thereby reduces the range of the
flame thrower. This effect may not be noticeable at once, but the
stability of the fuel is affected.

(2) _Dryness of thickener._ Dry thickener is extremely hygroscopic,
that is, it absorbs moisture from the atmosphere very rapidly. For this
reason, thickener is shipped in hermetically sealed tin cans containing
the exact quantity of powder required for mixing with 20 gallons
of fuel to prepare a 4.2 percent mixture. It is important that the
gasoline or fuel oil and gasoline be measured out before the thickener
container is opened. The powder then should be poured immediately into
the liquid.

(3) _Dryness of containers._ It is important that all containers used
in mixing and handling the fuel be dry.

(4) _Keeping water out of gasoline._ Gasoline, especially when it has
been stored in vented containers, frequently includes free water.
Therefore, when using gasoline from a bulk-storage tank or an open
drum, first place it in a clean, dry drum; allow it to stand quietly
for at least an hour; then carefully pour off the gasoline from the top
and discard the last gallon or two.

_f. Pouring and stirring._ (Fig 25) The liquid fuel is poured into the
open drum; a pail or a paddle (Par 35 _c_) is used for measuring. One
man then stirs the fuel vigorously. Another takes a can of thickener,
splits it with a machete, bayonet, or ax, and pours it immediately
into the fuel. Any large lumps of powder are broken by hand before the
powder is added to the fuel. When mixing 40 gallons at a time, the
two cans of thickener should be opened and added to the fuel in rapid
succession. If the contents of the first can are permitted to gel
before adding the second can, it will be difficult to obtain a uniform
mix. Continue to stir.


[Illustration: Fig 25. Measuring fuel ingredient into mixing drum.
Paddle for measuring and stirring is improvised.]

[Illustration: Fig 26. Transferring newly mixed thickened fuel from
mixing drum to storage or shipping container for aging.]

_g. Examining fuel._ Lift the paddle quickly. If the mixture drops
or runs from the paddle, additional stirring is necessary. When the
paddle comes out clean, except for an adhering film, stirring should be
stopped, provided there is no further visible

settling of particles of thickener.

_h. Loading shipping drums._ When stirring is completed, the mix is
immediately bucketed (Fig 26) through a funnel into the shipping drum.
The second bung hole should be open, if possible, to provide a vent
to aid in pouring. Two men do the bucketing, each handling one pail
so that the funnel may be kept loaded with mix and the shipping drum
filled as rapidly as possible. Finally, the open-end drum should be
picked up and its contents poured into the funnel. Not more than 50
gallons of thickened fuel should be loaded into a 55-gallon drum. The
funnel should then be removed and replaced by a plug. The vent opening
of the drum should also be closed. (See Paragraph 39 for pressure
method of filling storage drums.)

_i. Unused thickener._ Any thickener remaining in opened cans should be
discarded. Since moisture in the air can quickly ruin its properties,
no attempt should be made to save it.

_j. Aging and storing._ Newly mixed fuel has the appearance of tapioca
pudding. (Fig 27) It should preferably be stored overnight before
use. It may, however, be fired within 1 hour after mixing. To keep
fuel in good condition, drums for shipping and storing must be clean,
moistureproof, dry, strong, and unrusted, but not galvanized. They must
be kept tightly closed and should be laid on their sides so that rain
water will not collect around the bungs.

_k. Testing fuel._ Before use on missions, all fuels should be tested
by being fired from a flame thrower. This is advisable because the
characteristics of the fuel ingredients often vary.

[Illustration: Fig 27. Contrasting newly mixed thickened fuel (right)
with aged fuel (left).]


36. PREPARATION OF LIQUID FUELS.

_a. Choice of ingredients._ Thin fuels are easy to ignite, but they
lack range and are largely burned in flight before reaching the target.
For this reason, liquid fuels should contain the lowest proportion
of gasoline and the highest proportion of heavier oils that permits
easy ignition. In hot climates, less gasoline is needed than in cold
climates. Exactness of proportion, however, is not of great importance.
Suitable blends are as follows:

(1) Equal parts by weight or by volume of gasoline, light fuel oil, and
heavy (bunker) fuel oil. The light fuel oil can be either No. 1 fuel
oil, No. 2 fuel oil, automotive diesel oil, or kerosene.

(2) One part gasoline to four parts of cleaned crankcase drainings.
(Par 36_e_) Unused motor lubricating oil can be employed in place
of crankcase drainings, but usually it will be unavailable for
flame-thrower use.

_b. Preparation of ingredients._ Before mixing blends, the following
steps should be taken:

(1) _Gasoline, diesel oils, and fuel oils._ These fuel materials should
be allowed to stand quietly for at least 30 minutes to permit any small
quantity of water present to settle to the bottom. When transferring
the fuel to another container, remove the fuel carefully so that no
water is remixed with it.

(2) _Crankcase drainings._ If possible, crankcase drainings should
be allowed to stand quietly in a container for at least 1 day. When
pouring, take care to prevent the transfer of any of the sludge which
may have settled in the bottom of the container.

_c. Equipment._ An open-head 55-gallon or 42-gallon drum and an
improvised wooden mixing paddle are used. The paddle should be
approximately 5 feet long, 2 inches wide, and 1 inch thick. A metal
paddle should not be provided because of the danger of striking a spark
from the drum. Five-gallon cans may also be furnished for measuring and
transferring ingredients. Clean, unrusted, steel storage drums should
be at hand. They should be at least 16-gage to have sufficient strength
to withstand the internal vapor pressure of the fuel.

_d. Stirring._ All the ingredients should be stirred in the drum with
the paddle until they appear to form a uniform mixture. This should
require approximately 2 minutes.

_e. Crankcase-draining blends._ If crankcase drainings are used as
an ingredient (Par 36_b_), it is preferable to allow the prepared
mixture to settle for 24 hours after stirring, because the gasoline in
the mixture may cause additional sludge to be deposited. Even after
this settling period, it is recommended that the mixture be poured
through cheesecloth or some similar fabric before the flame thrower
is filled. Crankcase-draining blends should be allowed to stay in the
flame thrower only long enough for completion of a mission, because
additional sludge which may form from standing will clog the weapon.

_f. Transferring._ The mixture should be transferred either directly
into the flame-thrower fuel tanks (Pars 37 through 40) or into storage
drums. (Par 35_h_)

_g. Emergency mixing in fuel tanks._ In an emergency, mixing can be
done in the flame-thrower fuel tanks by adding the ingredients in
correct proportions and then shaking or stirring.

_h. Testing fuel._ Before fuel is used on a mission, it should be
tested, if possible, by being fired from a flame thrower.

_i. Storage._ Fuels may be used immediately after preparation. If
the blend contains crankcase oils, the fuel should be fired as soon
as practicable after filling. Other liquid blends may be stored
indefinitely until required for use. For storage precautions see
Paragraph 40. The storage drums also should be kept tightly closed to
prevent loss of gasoline through evaporation and to prevent moisture
from entering the fuel. If stored in the open, the drums should be laid
on their sides so that rain water will not collect adjacent to the
bungs. An unrusted and undamaged 16-gage or 18-gage drum has sufficient
strength to withstand the internal vapor pressure of the fuel.


37. FILLING BY POURING.

[Illustration: Fig 28. Filling fuel tanks by pouring. Any clean
container may be used. A funnel may be improvised.]

(Fig 28) This method is the simplest and quickest for liquid fuel,
but it may be too slow for some thickened fuels. The procedure is as
follows:

_a._ Stand the tank group on the ground or a platform. If the tank
group is not connected to the gun group, lock coupling plug in tank
coupling. (Par 70)

_b._ Using a 1-3/4-inch wrench, unscrew the filling plug and the
safety-head plug.

_c._ Inspect interior of tanks to see if clean and free from foreign
matter. If not clean, flush with gasoline.

_d._ Using an improvised funnel, fill to within 2 inches of the top of
both plug openings. This allows sufficient void. The tanks will then
contain approximately 4 gallons of fuel.

_e._ Wipe the fuel-tank plug seats and the plug threads with a clean,
dry cloth. (Fig 29) If plug has a tendency to freeze to seat, lubricate
(Par 49 _b_) before screwing in the filling and safety-head plug
assemblies. Tighten with wrench.

[Illustration: Fig 29. Wiping plug seat.]

_f._ Wipe any spilled fuel from weapon.


38. FILLING BY FORCE PUMP.

A force pump, if available, may be installed with a short length of
pipe in the top opening of a drum of fuel for filling flame-thrower
fuel tanks. Keep working parts of pump clean.


39. FILLING BY BLOWING.

Thickened fuel may be readily forced into the fuel tanks of flame
throwers by the use of extremely low pressures of compressed air or
nitrogen. Flame thrower fuel filling kit E6 or equivalent may be used.
When equipment is available, filling by blowing is more efficient for
filling large numbers of flame throwers with thickened fuel. Pouring
or pumping are more time-consuming, depending on the consistency of
the gel. The consistency may vary among batches even when the same
proportion of thickener is used. The amount of moisture in the fuel
seems to cause this variation. The precautions listed in Paragraph 40
should be observed.


[Illustration: Fig 30. Blowing thickened fuel into fuel tanks by use of
cylinders of compressed air or nitrogen.]

_a. Source of pressure._ When the pressure in cylinders of compressed
air or nitrogen has fallen too low to be of further use in filling
pressure tanks of flame throwers, the remaining pressure may be used
to blow fuel into fuel tanks if the regulator valve can reduce pressure
down to 20 pounds per square inch. For precautions, see Paragraph 33.
An air compressor or a hand air pump (tire pump) may be used in place
of a cylinder if the latter is not available. Pressure of _no more than
15 to 20 pounds_ per square inch should be used on the fuel drums. Only
a diaphragm-type regulator valve can be used safely. This valve must be
capable of regulating any pressure that may be applied to it.

_b. Drums._ Clean, noncorroded, steel, 55-gallon drums should be used.
Drums of United States manufacture which meet requirements will be
stamped ICC-5 or ICC-5A, followed by three numbers in sequence, for
example, “14-55-44.” The number “14” indicates the gage of the metal;
“55” indicates the capacity in gallons; and “44” indicates the year
of manufacture. A steel drum of 14 gage, or heavier, is preferable,
but lighter drums (of 16 or 18 gage) may be used. Drums made of gages
lighter than 18 gage (20-or 22-gage) must not be used. Drums should
never be moved while under pressure.

_c. Connections._ The source of pressure (see _a_ above), the drum
of fuel, the fuel-filling line, the air hose, and other parts, are
connected as shown in Figure 30. Threaded adapters are used, as
necessary, to fit lines to the drum. All threaded connections should
be made tight by the use of wrenches on the joints. The drum and the
pressure cylinder (if the latter is used) should be laid on their sides
on the ground or a platform. The opening of the drum connected to the
fuel-filling hose should be close to the ground or platform. If tank
group is filled without gun group, lock coupling plug (Par 70) in tank
coupling.

_d. Procedure._ To fill fuel tanks:

(1) Remove both the filling and safety-head plugs.

(2) Inspect interior of tanks to see if clean and free from foreign
matter. If not clean, flush with gasoline.

(3) Place end of fuel-filling hose in either one of the two fuel-tank
plug holes, using a nipple as a spout.

(4) Start air compressor or pump, or open the valve on the cylinder of
compressed air or nitrogen. Open regulator valve on filling line by
turning handle _slowly_ until gage shows 15 to 20 pounds pressure, but
no more. _Caution_: “Cracking,” or opening a cylinder valve without
using the proper regulator valve (Par 39 _a_), may result in explosive
pressure in the drums.

(5) Both tanks must be filled to within 2 inches of their tops. Close
valve on fuel-filling hose to halt flow at this level.

(6) If no additional flame throwers are to be filled, close
pressure-cylinder valve, or stop compressor or pump. Then, using
wrench, slightly loosen the air line at the drum, allowing pressure
to bleed. When the pressure in the drum has fallen to that of the
atmosphere, close regulator valve.

(7) Roll drum slightly and gently until fuel-filling hose is at top of
drum.

(8) If there are valves on each end of the fuel-filling hose, use
wrench to slightly loosen hose, allowing gradual escape of pressure.
Stand away from, and at the side of, the connection. Keep hose pointed
away from other personnel. When all pressure has been released,
complete unscrewing of hose.

(9) Wipe fuel-tank plug seats and the plug threads with a clean, dry
cloth. Then screw in filling plug and safety-head plug assemblies,
applying grease (Par 49 _b_) if plug tends to freeze to seat. Tighten
with wrench. Wipe any spilled fuel from weapon.


40. PRECAUTIONS WITH FUELS.

_a. Flammability._ All fuels used in flame throwers obviously are
highly flammable and must be handled, stored, and used with extreme
care. Diesel oil, fuel oil, and kerosene require the same care as does
gasoline.

_b. Indoor storage._ When it becomes necessary to handle gasoline in
a room or building, the windows and doors should be open and care
taken that no unprotected flame which might ignite the fumes is in the
vicinity. The doors and windows should remain open for a sufficient
length of time afterward to allow any vaporized gasoline to escape.

_c. Flames and sparks._ The presence of open flames, heated stoves,
electrical tools and apparatus, and other equipment likely to cause
sparks must not be permitted. Even nails and metal cleats in shoes are
a potential hazard in the presence of combustible fumes.

_d. Smoking._ “No Smoking” signs must be posted in prominent places
about the premises and the rule against smoking must be strictly
enforced.

_e. Ventilation and cleaning._ The buildings in which fuel is stored
or used must be well ventilated and thoroughly cleaned every day. No
rubbish or other flammable material should be permitted to remain in or
near such buildings.

_f. Spillage._ Care should be taken that fuel is not spilled. Any
spillage should be removed promptly.

_g. Safety cans._ Safety cans should be used, if possible, for storing
small quantities of gasoline, as they have covers that must be forcibly
held open to remove or add gasoline.

_h. Rags._ Metal receptacles with metal lids should be provided for
discarded, oily, or gasoline-soaked rags. These rags must be disposed
of daily.

_i. Electrical apparatus._ Vaporproof incandescent electric lamps,
switches, and other appliances of approved type should be used. Open
switches, relays, and similar apparatus, or motors with commutators,
must not be used where gasoline fumes may be encountered.

_j. Hose._ Flexible metal, rubber, and rubber-metal hose should be
inspected regularly (at least four times a year) and discarded when
noticeably deteriorated.

_k. Toxic fumes._ Gasoline fumes are somewhat toxic and should not be
inhaled.

_l. Leaks._ Leaks must never be neglected, and the fact that gasoline
is a dangerous liquid must always be kept in mind. Inspections for
leaks should be made frequently, particularly at pipe and hose joints.

_m. Fire extinguishers._ Carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, or
foam-type fire extinguishers should be provided and located where they
will be accessible in the event of fire. Sand, not water, should be
thrown on burning fuel if suitable extinguishers are not available.

_n. Leaded gasoline._ Gasoline often contains a poisonous lead
compound. Such gasoline, or fuel containing leaded gasoline, should not
be allowed to touch the body, especially the lips, eyes, open cuts, and
sores.



Section IX OPERATION UNDER UNUSUAL CONDITIONS


41. WET CONDITIONS.

The M2-2 flame thrower may be carried and fired successfully in the
rain or even after short immersion in water. After use when wet, it
should be dried to prevent rusting, cleaned, and lubricated. (Pars 49
and 55) Areas where paint has worn off should be touched up with fresh
paint. The weapon should be stored in a dry place. Moisture must not be
allowed to enter fuel, ingredients of fuel, or containers of ignition
cylinders.


42. DUST AND MUD.

Keep all possible dust, earth, and mud out of the flame thrower;
particles may interfere with the operation of spring case, valves,
bearings, and pressure regulator. Store weapons and auxiliary equipment
in closed chests and boxes when not in use. (Par 77) Clean before use.
(Pars 51 and 52)


43. HEAT.

A hot climate or exposure to the sun makes the fuel thinner when in
containers. Thin fuel has shorter range; it is largely consumed in the
air before it reaches usual effective ranges. Where the climate is
torrid, less gasoline or other thinning agents should be used in a fuel
blend than normally. (Pars 34 through 36)


44. COLD.

Cold weather reduces total heat produced at target but seldom enough
to seriously lower value of a firing mission. Incendiary effects may
be decreased because materiel is less flammable when cold. The weapon
may be used at temperatures as low as minus 20 degrees Fahrenheit. To
improve ignition, use more gasoline in fuel than normally. (Pars 34
through 36)


45. WIND.

Flame throwers should not be fired into strong head winds or across
strong side winds. (Par 23)



Section X DEMOLITION TO PREVENT ENEMY USE


46. DESTRUCTION PROCEDURE.

If circumstances should force abandonment of chemical warfare materiel
in the field, it is destroyed or rendered useless to prevent its use or
study by the enemy. The following methods are recommended:

_a. Flame thrower._ One or more small-arms bullets through the fuel
tanks will prevent any immediate use of the flame thrower. Additional
rounds may be put through the pressure tank. If the pressure tank is
charged, the pressure-tank valve should be opened for a few seconds,
thus permitting the contents to dissipate. This is necessary if rounds
are to be fired point-blank. The gun may be rendered useless by bending
it over a hard object. A sledge or ax will demolish valves and tubes. A
fragmentation grenade will also achieve demolition.

_b. Filling and charging apparatus._ The flexible tubing, gages, and
valves may be destroyed by blows with an ax, sledge, or other heavy
instrument. The large pressure cylinders are rendered useless by
releasing the contents and then destroying the valves by blows with an
ax or sledge. Cylinders can be stacked like cordwood in groups of five
and demolished by the detonation of four 1/2-pound blocks (2 pounds) of
TNT in their midst. The air compressor may be destroyed by a similar
procedure.

_c. Fuel._ Burn.

_d. Mixing apparatus._ Containers and filling lines may be rendered
useless by ax or sledge blows, or by small-arms fire.

_e. Thickener._ Cans of thickener should be broken open. Contents
should be thrown into a fire or into a body of water.

_f. Ignition cylinders._ Burn to destroy. Personnel should stay
several yards from the fire because the cylinders ignite with a slight
detonation.



PART THREE

MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS



Section XI GENERAL


47. SCOPE.

Part Three contains information for the guidance of the personnel of
the using organizations responsible for the maintenance (1st and 2nd
echelon) of this equipment. It contains information needed for the
performance of the scheduled lubrication and preventive maintenance
services as well as descriptions of the major systems and units and
their functions in relation to other components of the equipment.



Section XII SPECIAL ORGANIZATIONAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT


48. SERVICE KIT.

One service kit for portable flame thrower M2-2 will be furnished
for each six M2-2 portable flame throwers. The kit includes tools,
equipment, and spare parts for second echelon maintenance and for
pressure-tank charging. Adjustable wrenches may be included in place of
the plain-end wrenches listed. Numbers listed with items are Chemical
Warfare Service stock numbers. Approximate contents are as follows:

_a. Tools._

  1 Screwdriver, cabinet, 4-1/2-inch blade length, 3/16-inch blade
  diameter, H22-50-13. (Fig 8)

  1 Screw driver, common, 6-inch blade length, 5/16-inch blade
  diameter, H22-50-6. (Fig 8)

  2 Wrenches, hex, 3/16 inch across flats (for 3/8-inch socket-head set
  screws), H22-49-91.

  2 Wrenches, hex, 1/8 inch across flats (for 1/4-inch socket-head set
  screws), H22-49-12. (Fig 8)

  1 Wrench, valve-adjusting, assembly A81-6-48. (Fig 8)

  1 Wrench, heavy “S”, 1-3/8-inch and 1-1/2-inch openings, 12 inches
  approx length, H22-49-113. (Fig 8)

  1 Wrench, engineers’, double head, 3/4-inch and 7/8-inch openings, 9
  inches approx length, H22-49-115. (Fig 8)

  1 Wrench, heavy “S”, 1-3/8-inch and 1-3/4-inch openings, 12 inches
  approx length, A81-6-49. (Fig 8)

  1 Wrench, engineers’, single head, 1-1/8-inch opening, 10-1/2 inches
  approx length, H22-49-31. (Fig 8)

  1 Wrench, adjustable, single end, 6 inches approx length
  (crescent-type), H22-49-67. (Fig 8)

_b. Accessories and spare parts._

  1 Line, filling, pressure cylinder, assembly C81-3-4. (Fig 23)

  1 Hose, flexible, assembly E81-3-6. (Fig 24)

  2 Lines, charging, pressure cylinder, assembly B81-3-29. (Fig 23)

  1 Tank and valve, pressure, assembly (less shaft and handle)
  B81-1-374. (Fig 33)

  1 Shaft, flexible, valve, assembly E81-1-470. (Fig 33)

  1 Handle, valve, A81-1-473. (Fig 33)

  1 Nut, machine-screw, hex, 5/16-inch, 24NF-2, H22-93-55. (Fig 33)

  2 Case, spring, assemblies B81-1-444. (Fig 9)

  2 Diaphragm, valve, assemblies A81-1-416. (Fig 9)

  1 Hose, fuel, flame thrower, M1, assembly B81-1-498. (Fig 48)

  2 Plugs, coupling, E81-1-514. (Fig 7)

  6 Heads, safety, R81-1-561. (Fig 39)

  1 Gage, fuel tank testing, assembly E81-6-57. (This assembly includes
  a plug drilled, tapped, and fitted with a 0-500-pound pressure gage.)

  3 Washers, coupling, A81-1-513. (Fig 9)

  2 Cord, cotton, seine, No. 4 hard braided, mildewproof, O.D.,
  (1/8-inch diameter by 25-feet skeins), H100-4-5.

  6 Bushings, pipe, head, 3/4 inch by 1/2 inch, (galvanized iron),
  H98-5-93. (Fig 9)

  1 Regulator, pressure, assembly B81-1-438. (Figs 33 and 37)

  1 Compound, anti-seize, white lead base, (for threaded fittings)
  1/4-pound can, H99-3-12.

  2 Gages, pressure cylinder testing, assembly B81-6-90. (Fig 32)

  1 Catalog CW7-440114, Army Service Forces, “Portable Flame Thrower
  M2-2.”

  1 Technical Manual 3-376A, “Portable Flame Thrower M2-2.”

[Illustration: Fig 31. Lubrication order.

  To requisition a replacement Lubrication Order address Office of the
  Chief, Chemical Warfare Service, Washington 25, D. C.

  NOT TO BE REPRODUCED
  in whole or in part without permission of the Office of the Chief,
  Chemical Warfare Service.

NO. 4001

               ----------- KEY -----------

  +-------------------------+-------------------------+
  |      LUBRICANTS         |     INTERVALS           |
  +-------------------------+-------------------------+
  |                         |                         |
  | CG-GREASE,              |   1-AFTER EACH MISSION  |
  |    GENERAL PURPOSE      |   6-AFTER SIX MISSIONS  |
  |   NO. 1 (ABOVE + 32°F)  |       OR MORE OFTEN     |
  |   NO. O (BELOW + 32°F)  |                         |
  |                         |                         |
  +-------------------------+-------------------------+

  THIS ORDER IS TO BE FASTENED TO INSIDE LID OF FLAME THROWER
  PACKING CHEST.

  Copy of this Lubrication Order will remain with the equipment at all
  times; instructions contained therein are mandatory and supersede all
  conflicting lubrication Instructions dated prior to =5 MAY 1944=

  By order of the Secretary of War:

  G. C. Marshall, Chief of Staff.

  Official:

  J. A. Ulio,
  Major General,
  The Adjutant General.]



Section XIII LUBRICATION


49. LUBRICATION.

_a. Gun group._ War Department Lubrication Order No. 4001 (Fig 31)
shows the parts which require lubrication, the lubricants, and the
intervals.

(1) _Lubricants._ Grease, general purpose, No. 1 is used, except for
temperatures below freezing, when grease, general purpose. No. 0 is
used. The bearing surfaces should be lightly coated with the grease.

(2) _Frequency of lubrication._ The surfaces of the ignition-head body
which touch the spring case should be lubricated after each use of
the weapon. Other parts are lubricated after six firing missions, six
training sessions, or oftener. All should be thoroughly cleaned (Pars
52, 55, and 56) with gasoline, dry cleaning solvent, or other solvent,
then dried before lubrication. If the gun is disassembled for any other
reason, it should be lubricated before reassembly.

(3) _Records._ To ascertain when six missions have been fired, a record
of firing (Par 2) should be kept with each flame thrower.

_b. Tank group._ The tank group ordinarily requires no lubrication.
However, it may under the following exceptional circumstances:

(1) If the tank group has been immersed in water for several hours,
the flexible shaft of the pressure valve may have lost its lubricant.
If so, remove the shaft (Par 66 _b_) and inspect. If lubricant is not
present, as indicated by difficulty of movement after removal, dip
the shaft in solvent to clean and then dip in warmed grease, general
purpose, No. 1. Replace shaft in valve.

(2) If filling or safety-head plugs (Figs 39 and 40) tend to stick
to fuel tanks, apply grease, general purpose, No. 1 (No. 0 if below
freezing temperatures) before replacing plugs.



Section XIV PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SERVICES


50. GENERAL

Preventive maintenance services, as prescribed by Army Regulations,
are a function of using organization echelons of maintenance. These
services consist of:

_a._ Before, during, and after operation services performed by the
firers and assistants.

_b._ Scheduled services performed by organizational maintenance
personnel (service when filling and charging, and service after six
firing missions).


51. BEFORE-OPERATION SERVICE OF TANK GROUP.

The following services are to be performed before filling, charging,
and loading the flame thrower with pressure, fuel, and ignition
cylinder:

_a. Pressure-tank valve._ Open and close pressure-tank valve to test
for ease of operation.

_b. Threaded connections._ Check all threaded connections for
tightness, using appropriate wrenches.

_c. Tank coupling._ Examine coupling for cleanliness and ease of
movement of lock and cams. (Par 70) Clean if necessary. If washer is
broken, replace, using screw driver to pry out.

_d. Plugs._ Check filling plug and safety-head plug for completeness
of parts (Par 69 _a_) and cleanliness of threads and seats. Clean, if
necessary, with cloth. If rod or rod and chain have broken off and
fallen in tank, turn tank upside down and remove. Remove deflector
tube from head (using hand, not wrench). Inspect to see if diaphragm
is intact. If diaphragm is ruptured, replace the safety head with an
unbroken head. (Par 69 b, c) Reassemble plug, head, and deflector tube
in left fuel tank. (Fig 11) Tube should face to rear and at a 45-degree
angle to operator’s left shoulder. (Fig 18) Screw in deflector tube by
hand; do not use wrench on deflector tube. Tighten lock nut with wrench.

_e. Pressure-tank clamp._ The clamp should hold the pressure tank
tightly in place. If tank is loose, a wooden splint or wedge under the
clamp may be used as a temporary expedient.

_f. Carrier-frame bolts._ Check tightness. Use wrench.

_g. Carrier._ (Par 71) Examine all canvas, webbing, and cord for signs
of mildew, rot, or wear. Replace defective parts. Move flame thrower to
dryer storage if mildew occurs.

_h. Cord (lashing)._ Check for tightness. If necessary, make tighter
and use secure, slip-proof knots. When the tank group is filled with
fuel and adjusted on the firer, its weight should be carried chiefly by
the canvas and webbing, not by the metal frame.

_i. Shoulder and body straps._ Adjust straps to fit firer. (Pars 19 and
71) A loose tank group can cause discomfort or injury when the wearer
changes positions while on a mission. Check presence and condition of
the two pins and two cotter pins which hold shoulder straps to steel
support. Check fasteners.


52. BEFORE-OPERATION SERVICE OF GUN GROUP.

The following services are to be performed before filling, charging,
and loading with pressure, fuel, and ignition cylinder:

_a. Hose nipple, tank end._ Examine to be sure nipple is clean and
not badly nicked. If badly nicked, the nipple may not make a tight
seal at the tank coupling. A leak and loss of pressure may result. See
Paragraph 73 _d_ for repair of the nipple.

_b. Fuel hose._ Examine surface of hose for cracks or other signs of
deterioration. Special attention should be paid to portions adjacent to
the gun and tank coupling, which are subjected to severe flexing. If
hose is defective, replace. (Par 73 _b_, _c_) Do not patch.

_c. Hose nipple, gun end._ Check tightness of threaded connection
between hose and fuel-valve body, using hand or very light wrench
pressure.

_d. Shield._ Remove ignition shield. Check cleanliness of threads
on shield and on ignition-head body. If not clean, use cloth. When
reassembling (Par 18 _c_), shield should turn freely until it locks in
correct position.

_e. Valve lever and needle._

(1) There should be some play in the valve lever. To test, remove
ignition shield. Compress grip safety and valve lever slowly,
observing the motion of the valve needle. The valve lever should move
approximately 1/16 inch before the needle begins to move.

(2) Valve needle should be seated firmly in the barrel nozzle. After
the valve lever is pulled back and released, no play should occur in
the needle. For adjustment of needle, see Paragraph 75 _d_.

_f. Screws._ Use screw driver to test tightness of all screws.

_g. Spring retainer and plug._ Check tightness of spring retainer and
plug (Fig 47) by using hand or very light wrench pressure.

_h. Ignition head._ All exposed surfaces of the shield, nozzle, needle,
and other parts of the ignition head, or adjacent to it, should be
clean. If not, use cloth.

_i. Atomizer hole._ With the fuel valve held fully open, insert a
fine wire in the atomizer hole of the nozzle to clean the hole. Then
use cloth-wrapped splint to remove from the inside of the nozzle any
foreign matter pushed through the atomizer hole. If such matter is not
removed, it may interfere with the closing of the fuel valve needle at
the nozzle. Repeat procedure in _e_ (2) above.

_j. Spring case._ Spring case should turn freely on ignition head. If
it does not, clean any grease or dirt from, surfaces with cloth and
relubricate. (Par 49)

_k. Trigger._ Pull trigger once or twice to find whether it operates
easily and whether it returns to position. If not, clean and lubricate
trigger. (Par 49) Check condition of trigger spring.

_l. Trigger rod._ Check position of the trigger rod when trigger
is pulled back all the way as when firing. The rod should extend
approximately 1/16 inch beyond the end of the lug in the ignition head.
If it does not, bend the rod slightly, reverse position of bearing, or
replace worn parts.


53. SERVICE WHEN FILLING AND CHARGING.

_a. Inspection of fuel tanks._ Just before filling and charging, remove
plugs (Par 69 _b_) and examine interior of fuel tanks to see whether
they are clean and free from foreign matter. If not clean, flush with
gasoline until clean.

_b. Fuel level._ When filling (Pars 37 through 40), see that fuel
reaches the same level in both tanks. If leveling does not occur,
the tank connector may be clogged with foreign matter. If so, clean,
as in _a_, above. After filling, wipe plug seats with a cloth before
replacing plugs. Wipe any spilled fuel from weapon.

_c. Pressure-tank valve._ Before charging the tank group with air or
nitrogen, open and close the pressure-tank valve several times by hand
to be sure it operates freely. If it does not, adjust as described in
Paragraph 66 _d_.

[Illustration: Fig 32. Testing pressure tank and valve, using
0-3,000-pound testing gage from service kit.]

_d. Testing for leaks in pressure system._ After charging, and as few
hours as possible before a mission, use an 0-3,000-pound gage furnished
in service kit to test pressure. (Fig 32) To install gage, unscrew
check-valve cap and screw gage in check-valve body. If pressure has
fallen below that to which the tank was charged (Par 32), a leak is
indicated. Remove gage, replace check-valve cap, and check for leaks
at joints between pressure tank and valve and between tank valve and
check valve. (A wrench should be used to tighten cap on check-valve
body so as to avoid producing an additional leak.) Large leaks can
be felt or heard. Small leaks can be detected by coating joints with
soap-and-water solution. Bubbles indicate leaks. If a leak is revealed
between pressure tank and pressure-tank valve, or between check valve
and pressure-tank valve, replace all three as a unit. If tests do not
show up the leak the tank may have been improperly charged. It should
be recharged and then retested.


54. SERVICE WHEN FIRING.

_a. Failure to ignite._ Pull trigger repeatedly. If ignition cylinder
still fails to ignite, dirt may be wedged in ignition head. Unscrew
shield one-half turn. Screw it back, rapping shield with the hand while
turning. This should dislodge foreign matter. Pull trigger again.
Repeat procedure, if necessary.

_b. Safety head “blows” (breaks)._ If safety head breaks, firing
mission cannot be carried out. On return, have head replaced. (Par 69)
Follow test procedure. (Par 56 _b_)


55. SERVICE AFTER FIRING.

_a. Unloading._ Remove ignition cylinder (Par 30), close pressure-tank
valve, and blow out remaining fuel and pressure. (Par 30)

_b. Removal of equipment._ Release the body straps, then the shoulder
straps. If prone, lie on side and allow tank group to roll off onto
ground. If standing or kneeling, take care that tank group does not
drop on feet or legs.

_c. Correcting or reporting._ Correct any failures or difficulties or
report them as soon as possible to service or maintenance personnel.

_d. Gun._ Remove shield (Par 18) and clean interior of shield with
cloth. Clean holes in shield with wire or wooden splint. Clean external
surfaces of barrel, nozzle, needle, and other parts. Check cleanliness
and adjustment of needle. (Par 75 _d_) Check trigger for operation.
Lubricate. (Par 49)

_e. Fuel tanks and passages._ Remove plugs (Par 69 _b_). Drain
any remaining fuel. Use gasoline to remove residues of thickened
fuels before they have a chance to harden and obstruct passages. If
necessary, fill tanks with gasoline and allow to stand for several
hours, shaking occasionally. Drain and repeat if necessary.

_f. Safety head._ Check head to see if it is ruptured; if it is,
replace. (Par 69) Follow test procedure. (Par 56 _b_)

_g. Pressure-tank valve._ If weapon is to be stored, open pressure-tank
valve and leave it open until next charging.

_h. Carrier._ Scrub, if necessary, with soap and water, or gasoline.

_i. Exterior metal surfaces._ Scrub exterior metal surfaces clean of
fuel to prevent fire hazard. Allow to dry before using again.

_j. General inspection._ Carefully examine all other parts, adjust as
necessary, and replace any which are damaged.


56. SERVICE AFTER SIX FIRING MISSIONS.

After the flame thrower has been used on six firing missions or the
equivalent in training work, experienced personnel should follow these
directions:

_a. Before-operation and after-operation service._ Follow the same
procedures as in Paragraphs 52, 53, and 55.

_b. Test firing (or simulated firing)._

(1) If tactical conditions permit test firing at a suitable test range
(Par 15), fill the fuel tanks with fuel. (Pars 37 through 40)

(2) If test firing with fuel is impracticable, fill fuel tanks with
clean water. (Be sure to dry all parts after test.)

(3) _Remove filling-plug assembly._ (Par 69) Fish out the retainer rod
and chain by means of a bent wire.

(4) Do not unscrew the safety-head plug.

(5) Insert the testing plug with 0-to 500-pound pressure gage (plug and
gage are from service kit) in the filling-plug opening. Tighten testing
plug in seat with wrench.

(6) Fully charge pressure tank. (Par 32)

(7) If test firing with fuel, load ignition cylinder. (Par 18)

(8) Open pressure-tank valve and simultaneously observe pressure in
fuel tanks by reading gage. The gage indicates the pressure in both
tanks. It should be between 350 and 390 pounds per square inch.

(9) Read the gage at the expiration of not less than 5 minutes. The
tanks should have a pressure reading of not more than 390 pounds. If
the pressure continues to increase beyond 390 pounds and the safety
head blows, replace the safety head and the pressure regulator.

(10) Fire by operating controls (or simulate firing if tanks are filled
with water). The burst should last 3 seconds, during which time the
pressure should not drop below 260 pounds.

(11) If the pressure does not conform to the requirements stated in
(8), (9), and (10), adjust the pressure regulator upward or downward.
(Par 67 _d_)

(12) While the above test firing is proceeding, check for leaks at all
joints and connections on the tank group. The pressure system should
be checked by painting the joints with soap-and-water solution and by
looking for bubbles which indicate leaks. For replacement of parts
where pressure leaks, see Paragraph 66. Fuel leaks may be seen without
soap and water. For repair of fuel leaks, see Paragraph 75 _e_. The
nozzle should be observed by removing the ignition shield. Nozzle
leaks are corrected by cleaning, adjusting needle (Par 75 _d_), or by
regrinding. (Par 75 _e_) If this is not successful, replace both needle
and barrel as a unit.

_c. Fuel valve._ Discharge all pressure from the gun by operating the
fuel valve. Carefully remove the valve grip and grip support. (Par
74) Look for signs of leakage at the valve diaphragm. If a leak is
present, replace valve-diaphragm assembly. (Pars 75 _b_ and 75 _c_)

_d. Valve grip._ Disassemble the valve grip (Par 74) and lubricate.
(Par 49)

_e. Carrier._ Tighten the carrier cord.

_f. Gun interior._ If thickened fuel has been fired, disassemble the
gun. All parts should be cleaned of accumulations of dried fuel.
Lubricate (Par 49) and reassemble. If liquid fuel has been fired,
flush gun with clean gasoline. Disassemble only enough to lubricate.
Reassemble.



Section XV TROUBLE SHOOTING


57. PRECAUTIONS.

First, remove the ignition cylinder. Then, before disassembling,
servicing, or repairing parts which may be under pressure, be sure to
release the pressure. Remove fuel, when necessary.


58. FUEL LEAKS.

          _Trouble_                       _Remedy_
  _a._ Defective or damaged    If leak is observed in valve grip,
  valve-diaphragm assembly.      disassemble. (Par 74) If diaphragm
                                 is torn, or damaged in
                                 any other way, remove and replace.
                                 (Par 75)

  _b._ Defective threaded      Disconnect, using wrenches. If
  connections on fuel lines.     thread is stripped or badly damaged,
                                 replace the threaded part.
                                 If threads appear to be sound,
                                 clean them and reconnect. If
                                 leak is between tank coupling and
                                 tank connector or between hose
                                 and fuel-valve body, apply anti-seize
                                 compound before rescrewing.
                                 Tighten joint with wrenches.

  _c._ Dirt or foreign matter  Clean parts carefully with cloth before
  on seats or threads.           reassembling.

  _d._ Leak at nozzle.         Adjust needle. (Par 75 _d_) If leak
                                 persists, either replace needle
                                 and barrel as a unit or use lapping
                                 compound on parts. Turn
                                 needle in seat until parts make a
                                 tight connection when seated.
                                 Remove lapping compound and
                                 reassemble.

  _e._ Worn body of hose.      Replace fuel-hose assembly. (Par 73)

  _f._ Leak at tank coupling.  Remove and replace coupling washer
                                 if damaged. (Par 70) If hose
                                 nipple, tank end, is damaged, repair
                                 nipple (Par 73 _d_) or replace
                                 fuel-hose assembly.


59. SAFETY HEAD “BLOWS” (BREAKS).

         _Trouble_                        _Remedy_
  _a._ Defective safety head.  Replace with new safety head.
                                 (Par 69 _b_)

  _b._ Defective pressure      If replacement safety head also
  regulator.                     breaks, follow test procedure in
                                 Paragraph 56 _b_ to determine
                                 whether pressure regulator
                                 needs adjustment or is defective.


60. CARRIER UNCOMFORTABLE.

         _Trouble_                        _Remedy_
  _a._ Cord becomes loose      Use only hard-braided seine cord
  or breaks.                     furnished in service kit for
                                 replacements. Lace tightly as
                                 shown in Figure 46, using slip-proof
                                 knots at ends.

  _b._ Straps not adjusted to  Adjust straps to fit each new wearer.
  fit wearer.                    Tank group must be high
                                 on back and snug on body. (Pars
                                 19 and 71)

  _c._ Carrier frame           Cord is too loose. Tighten cord.
  presses on wearer’s back.      Use slip-proof knots at ends.


61. SHORT RANGE.

         _Trouble_                        _Remedy_
  _a._ Stream of burning fuel  Fuel valve is not fully open because
  issues at an angle or in a     of:
  very broad spray.            (1) Faulty operation. Be sure to
                                   compress controls all the way
                                   when firing. (Par 26)

                               (2) Improper adjustment or assembly
                                   of valve. To correct,
                                   see Paragraphs 74 and 75.

  _b._ Rapid drop of range     Pressure-tank valve is not fully
  during a burst.                  open. Open all the way. If this
                                   is not effective, test pressure
                                   regulator. (Par 67 _d_)

  _c._ Shorter range in each   Pressure tank is not fully charged.
  successive burst.            (1) Before firing be sure tank is

                                   charged to at least 1,700 pounds
                                   per square inch. (Par 32)

                               (2) Check for leaks to make sure
                                   pressure has not decreased
                                   since charging. (Par 53 _d_)

  _d._ Short range with        Dried fuel or other foreign matter
  longer time of discharge       is in fuel lines. Disassemble and
  than 8 to 9 seconds.           clean.


62. FUEL-VALVE FAILURE.

         _Trouble_                        _Remedy_
  Valve fails to close when    (1) Work the grip safety to trip
  controls are released.           the valve lever.

                               (2) Foreign matter may be in barrel,
                                   or barrel may be dented.
                                   If dented, replace barrel and
                                   needle as a unit. If not dented,
                                   disassemble and clean. (Pars
                                   74 and 75)


63. FAILURE OF IGNITION CYLINDER TO IGNITE.

         _Trouble_                        _Remedy_
  _a._ Match in cylinder       Pull trigger repeatedly. If cylinder
  moves but incendiary           does not ignite, remove cylinder
  charge does not ignite.        (Par 30) and examine.

                               (1) If matches have been pushed
                                   flush with inner surface of cylinder
                                   body, the cylinder is
                                   defective. Destroy. (Par 30)
                                   Replace.

                               (2) If matches project 1/16 inch
                                   or more from cylinder, ignition
                                   head is defective. Disassemble
                                   ignition head (Par 76 _b_) and
                                   examine. Replace parts as
                                   necessary. (Par 76 _c_)

  _b._ Cylinder does not       (1) Spring case is not free to rotate
  rotate to bring new charge       because of dirt. Clean and lubricate.
  into position.                   (Par 49)

                               (2) Cylinder is improperly loaded.
                                   (Par 18)

                               (3) Ignition cylinder binds on barrel
                                   because of dirt or excessive
                                   warping of ignition cylinders
                                   from heat of firing. Remove
                                   and destroy (Par 30) ignition
                                   cylinder. Reload.

                               (4) Spring case is defective. Replace
                                   as a unit. (Par 76 _b_, _c_)

  _c._ Trigger does not        (1) When on a mission, use fingers
  return to normal position        on trigger to pull back to normal
  (with ignition cylinder in       position.
  place).                      (2) If time permits, remove trigger
                                   rod. (Par 76 _b_) Clean rod
                                   and hole in which rod slides.
                                   Lubricate. (Par 49) Reassemble.
                                   (Par 76 _c_)

  _d._ Lack of spring tension  Trigger spring is off hook of trigger,
  at trigger.                    off spring screw, or broken.
                                 Replace where necessary.


64. FAILURE OF FUEL TO IGNITE.

         _Trouble_                        _Remedy_
  _a._ Atomizer hole clogged.  Clean  with fine wire. (Par 52 _i_)

  _b._ Fuel troubles at low    (1) At temperatures below minus
  temperature.                     20 degrees Fahrenheit, ignition
                                   of any standard fuel is uncertain.
                                   Operation at these temperatures
                                   should be avoided unless tests
                                   of fuels by firing with flame
                                   throwers are first made.

                               (2) At temperatures above minus
                                   20 degrees Fahrenheit, no difficulty
                                   should be experienced with
                                   thickened gasoline. When
                                   blended fuels are used, the
                                   ratio of gasoline content should
                                   be increased as temperature
                                   decreases.

  _c._ Failure of ignition     See Paragraph 63.
  cylinder.



Section XVI TANK GROUP


65. GENERAL.

The tank group stores fuel and pressure. The fuel is placed under
pressure when the pressure-tank valve is opened. The tank group is
supported upon the firer’s back and shoulders by the carrier.


66. PRESSURE TANK AND VALVE ASSEMBLY.

_a. Description and functioning._ The pressure tank and valve assembly
(Fig 33) includes:

(1) _Pressure tank._ The pressure tank is a lightweight, airplane-type
cylinder, able to withstand the great pressure which it contains. The
tank is charged with air or nitrogen at 1,700 to 2,100 pounds per
square inch pressure by use of auxiliary equipment as described in
Paragraphs 31 and 32. This pressure stays in the pressure tank until
the weapon is ready to be fired. Opening of the pressure-tank valve
releases air or nitrogen through the pressure regulator to the fuel
tanks. Oxygen or combustible gases are never used in the tank because a
violent explosion may result. The tank is large in capacity to assure
ample pressure, and hence full range, for the entire load of fuel.
The pressure-tank clamp (Fig 39), a steel-strap device with hinge and
toggle-type latch, holds the pressure tank in place on the fuel tanks.

(2) _Pressure-tank valve._ (Figs 33 and 34) This valve is screwed
into the bottom of the pressure tank. The valve stem slides into the
valve end of the valve flexible shaft. When opened by means of the
valve handle and valve flexible shaft, the valve permits passage of
compressed air or nitrogen through tubes and the pressure regulator to
the fuel tanks. The valve is of the quick-opening, packless, diaphragm
type.

(3) _Pressure-valve handle and valve flexible shaft._ (Figs 33 and 34)
The pressure-valve handle is held by a small nut on the end of the
valve flexible shaft, which in turn is connected to the pressure-tank
valve by means of the valve stem and a large hex nut. The handle and
shaft extend to the right of the tank group, enabling the firer to open
and close the valve without assistance when carrying the weapon. The
handle slips over the end of the shaft and is held to it by a nut. The
shaft is held to one of the fuel tanks by a clamp, nut, and bolt welded
to the tank.

(4) _Check valve._ (Figs 33 through 35) The check valve has the same
function as the valve on a vehicular tire tube, but it is much heavier
in construction and different in design because the pressure in the
flame thrower is 50 times greater than that in an automobile tire tube.
Connected by threads to the pressure valve, the check valve permits
compressed air or nitrogen to enter the pressure tank during charging
(Pars 31 and 32) but prevents its escape when the outside source of
pressure is removed. The cap is removed from the check valve only for
charging or testing.

_b. Removal._ (Fig 33) To prevent damage to threads, leaks, and loss of
pressure and range, remove pressure tank and valve assembly only when
necessary.


[Illustration: Fig 33. Pressure system disassembled, showing
nomenclature and Chemical Warfare Service stock numbers for
requisitioning spare parts.]

(1) _Release of pressure._ Be sure all pressure has been released
from the pressure system before disassembling or removing any part or
assembly of the pressure system. To release pressure, operate fuel
valve (Par 26) and hold open until pressure is exhausted. As an
added precaution, personnel should avoid facing the connections when
disconnecting parts or assemblies.

(2) _Removal procedure._ After release of all pressure:

  (_a_) Loosen the clamp from the valve flexible shaft.

  (_b_) Using wrench, unscrew the large hex nut which holds the
  flexible shaft on the pressure-tank valve.

  (_c_) Pull the valve flexible shaft and handle free of the valve.

  (_d_) Using wrench, unscrew the flared tube nut on the regulator tube
  adjacent to the pressure-tank valve.

  (_e_) Open pressure-tank clamp (Fig 39) and swing clamp strap outward.

  (_f_) Remove the pressure tank together with the pressure-tank valve
  and check valve.

  (_g_) To remove valve handle, use the adjustable-end wrench to loosen
  and remove nut from threaded outer end of valve flexible shaft. Slide
  out the valve handle.

[Illustration: Fig 34. Lower portion of pressure system, assembled.]

[Illustration: Fig 35. Check valve (cross section).]

_c. Installation._ (Figs 33 and 39) To install:

  (1) Insert pressure tank (with pressure-tank valve and check valve
  mounted on the tank) through the pressure-tank clamp. Be sure to
  aline the regulator tube, elbow, and pressure-tank valve threads
  carefully so that they cannot be damaged when connecting.

  (2) Close the pressure-tank clamp.

  (3) Start the threaded connections by hand to be sure they are well
  alined. Do not force. Use wrench for final tightening, but do not
  apply great torque to the wrench.

  (4) Insert the valve flexible shaft through small clamp into the
  pressure-tank valve. Using wrench, tighten the large hex nut located
  between shaft and valve.

  (5) Tighten the clamp on the valve flexible shaft.

  (6) Place pressure-valve handle on threaded end of the shaft. Place
  nut on threaded end and tighten with adjustable-end wrench.

_d. Adjustment._ If valve handle cannot be turned by hand:

  (1) Remove flexible shaft and handle. Never apply a wrench to these
  parts.

  (2) Turn end of pressure-valve stem with wrench to open valve.

  (3) If stem will not turn, replace the tank and valve.

  (4) If stem turns, work it back and forth with wrench.

  (5) Reconnect flexible shaft and handle.

  (6) If handle does not turn easily, repeat the process until handle
  turns, or replace tank and valve.

  (7) Close valve before charging tank.

_e. Maintenance._

  (1) If either pressure tank, pressure-tank valve, or check valve
  are damaged or defective, all three must be replaced as a unit.
  No attempt may be made to repair any of these parts or their
  connections. If makeshift repairs or improvised parts are devised,
  serious accidents can result because of the extremely high pressures
  to which the equipment is subjected.

  (2) Keep all threaded connections tightened. If a leak is suspected
  at any threaded connection, follow procedure in Paragraph 53 _d_.


67. PRESSURE REGULATOR.

_a. Description and functioning._ The regulator automatically reduces
the variable pressure of air or nitrogen in the pressure tank to a
constant operating pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch
in the fuel tanks. The regulator is located at a protected position
in the tank group of the M2-2 portable flame thrower, where it is not
readily subject to tampering or damage from the outside. The regulator
tube with fittings connects the pressure-tank valve and pressure
regulator. (Fig 33) Its outlet is connected to the fuel tanks by the
diffusion-pipe assembly. (Par 68 _a_) Either of two interchangeable
types of regulators is furnished: the spring type (Figs 33, 36, and
37), and the dome type (Fig 38).

[Illustration: Fig 36. Rear of tank group, with carrier removed to show
pressure regulator (spring-type) and connections.]

_b. Removal of pressure regulator._ After release of all pressure:

  (1) Remove carrier (Par 71 _b_), if necessary.

  (2) Using wrench, unscrew the flared tube nuts and other fittings.

  (3) Lift out the pressure regulator.

_c. Installation of pressure regulator._ Line up pressure regulator,
regulator tube, diffusion-pipe assembly, and fittings carefully so they
will not be damaged when threads are tightened. Start threads with the
hands. Apply only moderate wrench pressure to complete tightening.
Replace carrier or carrier pack if either has been removed.

_d. Adjustment of pressure regulator._ The pressure regulator
ordinarily requires no attention other than checking and tightening
connections with the regulator tube and the diffusion-pipe assembly.
If a defect in the regulator is indicated by falling off of the range
of the weapon or by frequent breakage of the safety-head diaphragm (Par
56 _b_), the following procedure should be carried out. (When using
wrenches, do not apply excessive force.)

  (1) Remove the filling plug (Par 69 _b_) and ignition cylinder. (Par
  30 _a_)

  (2) Fill the fuel tanks with 4 gallons of water (or fuel).

  (3) Connect the 0-to 500-pound fuel-tank testing gage, found in the
  service kit, to the filling-plug hole. Tighten plug of gage with
  wrench.

  (4) Charge the pressure tank to a pressure of 1,800 pounds per square
  inch. (Pars 32 and 33)

  (5) Open the pressure-tank valve.

  (6) Read the pressure on the gage. If 350 to 390 pounds is indicated,
  omit steps (7) through (10).

  (7) _To increase the pressure of a spring-type regulator_:

    (_a_) Pry off the protective cap.

    (_b_) Turn a set-screw wrench clockwise in the adjusting screw and
    read pressure on gage.

  (8) _To decrease the pressure of a spring-type regulator_:

    (_a_) Turn the set-screw wrench counterclockwise more than is
    considered sufficient to effect the desired reduction.

    (_b_) Turn the pressure-tank valve off.

    (_c_) Relieve pressure in the fuel tanks by compressing the fuel
    valve until the pressure is below that desired.

    (_d_) Release the fuel valve.

    (_e_) Open the pressure-tank valve and allow the system to reach a
    state of equilibrium, which occurs when the hissing sound ceases.

    (_f_) Repeat the steps described above in (6) and (7).

  (9) _To increase the pressure of a dome-type regulator_:

    (_a_) Open needle valve No. 1 one full turn. (Fig 38)

    (_b_) Open needle valve No. 2 one full turn. (There will be slight
    leakage around the needle-valve thread.)

    (_c_) Open needle valve No. 3 very slowly, watching pressure gage
    closely. (As pressure builds up in fuel tanks there will be slight
    leakage through needle valve No. 1.)

    (_d_) When the pressure gage indicates 350 pounds, close needle
    valve No. 3 tight.

    (_e_) Close needle valve No. 2 tight.

    (_f_) Close pressure-tank valve.

    (_g_) When gage indicates zero, close needle valve No. 1 tight.

  (10) _To decrease the pressure of a dome-type regulator_:

    (_a_) Open needle valve No. 1 one full turn. (Fig 38)

    (_b_) Open needle valve No. 3 very slightly, which will lower the
    pressure.

    (_c_) When 350 pounds is reached, close valve No. 3 tight.

[Illustration: Fig 37. Pressure regulator, spring-type.]

[Illustration: Fig 38. Pressure regulator, dome-type, showing needle
valves and wrenches.]

    (_d_) Close pressure-tank valve.

    (_e_) When gage indicates zero, close needle valve No. 1 tight.

  (11) Open pressure-tank valve and press the fuel valve to observe the
  pressure with the weapon operating.

  (12) After final adjustment:

    (_a_) Close the pressure-tank valve.

    (_b_) Open the fuel valve and release the pressure from the fuel
    tanks.

    (_c_) Remove the pressure gage and plug from the fuel tank.

    (_d_) Install filling plug.

    (_e_) Tighten filling plug with wrench.

    (_f_) If regulator is spring-type, replace its protective cap.


68. FUEL-TANK ASSEMBLY.

_a. Description and functioning._ (Figs 4, 5, and 39) The fuel-tank
assembly includes:

  (1) _Fuel tanks._ Two alloy steel fuel tanks hold the fuel before it
  is propelled to the target. They have a combined capacity, including
  void, of 4-1/2 gallons. A void of approximately 1/2 gallon is left
  in tanks when filling to allow for expansion and to permit entry of
  the compressed nitrogen or air. To speed filling and cleaning of
  the tanks, two openings are provided on top of the fuel tanks. The
  openings are threaded to receive the filling-plug assembly and the
  safety-head plug assembly, which are interchangeable in the openings.
  Filling operations involve the use of auxiliary equipment and are
  described in Paragraphs 34 through 40. The carrier and the pressure
  system are supported on the fuel tanks.

[Illustration: Fig 39. Fuel system of tank group and related parts
disassembled, showing nomenclature and Chemical Warfare Service stock
numbers for requisitioning spare parts.]

  (2) _Tank connector._ This open passageway between the fuel tanks
  makes them, in effect, a single container. The location of the
  tank connector and its large diameter permit easy flow of fuel and
  pressure between the two tanks.

  (3) _Hose connector._ The hose connector is the outlet for fuel
  from the fuel tanks. It is located so that nearly all the fuel is
  propelled from the weapon if firing positions are correct. (Par 24)
  One end is welded to an opening in the tank connector. The other end
  is threaded into the tank coupling.

  (4) _Frame clamp._ This small metal clamp, with bolt, nut, and
  washer, holds the hose connector to the carrier frame.

  (5) _Diffusion-pipe assembly._ This T-shaped tubing carries
  compressed air or nitrogen from the pressure regulator to each of the
  fuel tanks. A flared tube connection and elbow connect the stem of
  the T to the pressure regulator. The horizontal tubes of the T extend
  into the fuel tanks and are welded to the fuel tank walls. Within the
  fuel tanks these tubes are perforated with holes which permit ready
  escape of the compressed nitrogen or air into the fuel tanks when the
  pressure-tank valve is open.

_b. Removal and installation._ The tank connector, hose connector,
diffusion-pipe assembly, and the two fuel tanks are welded together and
cannot be disassembled from each other. No attempt should be made to
remove any of these parts or assemblies.

_c. Maintenance._ Other than cleaning (Pars 51 _d_ and 55 _e_),
repainting, and tightening of threaded joints, no repairs will be
attempted by the first or second echelon on the fuel tanks, tank and
hose connectors, or diffusion-pipe assembly. Emergency repairs may be
made only by the third or fourth echelon. No attempt should be made to
weld or patch any part of the fuel tanks.


69. FILLING AND SAFETY-HEAD PLUG ASSEMBLIES.

_a. Description and functioning._

  (1) _Filling-plug assembly._ (Fig 39) This assembly fits into the
  1-3/8-inch threaded opening at the top of either one of the fuel
  tanks. It permits filling and cleaning of the tanks, and seals the
  opening when the tank is not being filled or cleaned. The assembly
  includes the filling plug proper and a plug-retainer assembly. The
  latter is a metal rod which hangs from the plug on a metal chain. The
  rod and chain prevent accidental loss of the plug.

  (2) _Safety-head plug assembly._ (Figs 39 and 40) This assembly is
  screwed into the threaded opening on top of either fuel tank. It
  serves the same functions as the filling-plug assembly and moreover
  protects the firer and other personnel. It includes:

    (_a_) _Safety-head plug._ This plug is similar to the filling plug
    except for the threaded hole which receives the safety head.

    (_b_) _Safety head._ This metal head screws into the safety-head
    plug. It includes a soft metal diaphragm which bursts when the
    pressure in the fuel tanks exceeds 500 pounds per square inch. It
    prevents the building up of dangerous pressures in the fuel tanks.

[Illustration: Fig 40. Safety-head plug assembly (cross section).]

[Illustration: Fig 41. Unscrewing safety head from safety-head plug,
using wrench.]

    (_c_) _Deflector tube._ This short, curved piece of 1/8-inch pipe
    deflects fuel and pressure away from the firer if the safety head
    bursts. A lock nut holds the tube in position. (Par 12 _j_)

    (_d_) _Plug-retainer assembly._ This assembly consists of a metal
    rod and chain which hang from the plug and prevent accidental loss
    of the plug when filling or inspecting.

_b. Removal of plugs._

  (1) Before removing the filling plug, the safety-head plug, or an
  unbroken safety head, operate the fuel valve until any pressure which
  may have accumulated in the fuel tanks is eliminated. If the coupling
  plug is in the tank coupling, very slightly loosen the threads of
  either the filling plug or the safety-head plug, using the 1-3/4-inch
  wrench, to eliminate pressure in the fuel tanks. Keep face and eyes
  away from the threads.

  (2) The plug-retainer assemblies should not be lifted completely out
  of the tanks unless required.

  (3) If either the rod or the rod and chain breaks from one of the
  plugs and falls into the tank, upend the tank group to permit removal
  of the parts.

  (4) To replace burst safety head, unscrew lock nut and deflector
  tube. (Fig 11) Using wrench (Fig 41), unscrew safety head. Never
  disassemble the safety head.

_c. Installation of plugs._ The filling plug, safety-head plug, and
safety head are screwed in by hand and then tightened with wrenches. No
substitution will be made for the safety head, which is manufactured
to burst at the safe limit of pressure. The plug threads and seats
should be cleaned with a cloth (Fig 29) before installing plugs. Screw
in deflector tube, using hand pressure. The tube outlet should face to
the rear and at a 45-degree angle to operator’s left shoulder. (Fig 18)
Replace lock nut and tighten with wrench. (Use wrench on lock nut, not
on deflector tube.)

_d. Maintenance of plugs._ Replace safety head if damaged or blown.
Never repair safety head or use an improvised head.


70. TANK COUPLING.

_a. Description and functioning._ This quick-connecting coupling (Fig
42) connects and locks the fuel hose or the coupling plug to the tank
group. The coupling cams, lock, and washer provide a secure and tight
joint. The tank coupling makes possible rapid replacement of emptied
tank groups with filled and charged tank groups in the field. No tools
are needed for this operation.

[Illustration: Fig 42. Tank coupling and end of fuel-hose assembly.]

_b. Removal._

  (1) To remove the tank coupling from the hose connector, apply a
  wrench and unscrew.

[Illustration: Fig 43. Closing cams of tank coupling to connect gun and
tank group. This is done before locking. (See below.)]

[Illustration: Fig 44. Closing lock of tank coupling to secure gun to
tank group. This also provides a fuel-tight seal.]

  (2) To disconnect the tank coupling from the fuel hose or the
  coupling plug:

    (_a_) Release pressure from fuel tanks by operating the fuel valve
    or by opening very slightly the filling plug.

    (_b_) Using hands, pivot the coupling lock back on the coupling
    body.

    (_c_) Using hands, pivot the two coupling cams back on the coupling.

    (_d_) Slide out the fuel hose or the tank coupling.

    (_e_) If coupling washer is to be removed, pry out with a screw
    driver.

_c. Installation of tank coupling._ Proceed as follows:

  (1) If coupling washer has been removed, replace.

  (2) Insert coupling plug or hose nipple, tank end, in the coupling as
  far as it will reach. Close the two cams. (Fig 43)

[Illustration: Fig 45. Coupling plug in place in tank coupling. This
arrangement is used when fuel tanks are brought back for filling with
gun detached.]

  (3) Close the coupling lock (Fig 44), being sure to push it all the
  way, until it covers the ends of both cams. (Figure 45 shows coupling
  lock correctly locked on coupling plug.)

  (4) If the tank coupling has been removed from the hose connector,
  screw it on hand tight. Anti-seize compound should be applied lightly
  to the threads to assure a tight joint. Use wrench to tighten the
  coupling until it is in the position shown in Figure 34.

_d. Maintenance of tank coupling._ The coupling washer, made of
synthetic rubber, should be inspected frequently. If it is damaged or
swollen, remove it and replace. If the coupling leaks, inspect, and if
necessary, remove and replace the washer.


71. CARRIER.

_a. Description and functioning._ (Fig 46) The tank group is securely
carried on the firer’s back and chest by the carrier, which includes
the metal carrier frame, the canvas carrier pack, webbing straps, and
cord, all of which are parts of the tank group.

  (1) _Carrier frame._ This lightweight, tubular-metal frame is bolted
  to two pairs of brackets (upper and lower) on the fuel tanks. It is
  also bolted to the hose connector by the frame clamp, which helps
  support the connector. The frame is pierced by two parallel series of
  holes, through which the cord (lashing) of the carrier is laced.

  (2) _Carrier pack._ This is a sheet of heavy canvas, reinforced on
  the tank side with strips of webbing. The smooth side of the carrier
  pack rests against the firer’s back and cushions the back from
  contact with the metal tanks. A series of eyelets is located on each
  side of the pack.

  (3) _Seine cord (lashing)._ The carrier pack is fastened to the
  carrier frame by means of hard-braided cord which is laced through
  the eyelets in the pack and the holes in the frame. The cord that
  comes on the flame thrower stretches very little under load.

  (4) _Straps._ The straps, made of wide cotton webbing, are
  adjustable to fit the wearer. (Fig 18) They are provided with snap
  release, hook-and-eye, and snap fasteners. The shoulder straps have
  quick-release fasteners for rapid removal, if necessary, of the tank
  group from the firer. The upper ends (steel loops) of the shoulder
  straps are secured by pins to the steel support which connects the
  two fuel tanks. Each of the pins is held in position by a split
  cotter pin, which is inserted through a hole in the pin and is
  then spread. The lower ends of the shoulder straps snap onto metal
  loops at the bottom of the carrier frame. The upper body straps are
  attached to metal loops on each side of the carrier frame. The lower
  body straps are fastened to one of the lower two pairs of eyelets of
  the carrier pack.

_b. Removal of carrier._

  (1) To remove carrier or carrier frame, use screw driver and
  adjustable-end wrench to take off frame clamp, bolt, nut, and lock
  washer. (Fig 34) Then remove two pairs of bolts, nuts, and lock
  washers which hold the carrier frame to bottom and top of the fuel
  tanks. Lift off the carrier.

  (2) To remove body straps, unsnap ends and lift out of holes. To
  remove shoulder straps, unsnap lower ends and remove from holes. Pull
  out cotter pins, then pins, from upper ends of shoulder straps, and
  lift out straps.

  (3) To remove carrier pack, unknot and unlace cord.

_c. Installation of carrier._

  (1) To install carrier frame (or a complete carrier) place frame in
  position adjacent to fuel tanks (Fig 46), insert bolts in holes,
  place lock washers and nuts on bolts, and tighten with screw driver
  and wrench. Replace frame clamp on fuel connector and frame. Insert
  bolt in holes, place lock washer and nut on bolt. Tighten with screw
  driver and wrench.

  (2) If carrier pack has been removed, use cord to relash. Lace tight
  and use slip-proof knots. (Fig 46)

  (3) To install straps, snap ends of body straps and lower ends of
  shoulder straps into positions shown in Figure 46. Place upper ends
  (steel loops) of shoulder straps in steel support between fuel tanks.
  Insert two pins through any two of the holes in the support and
  through the shoulder strap loops. Insert cotter pins in holes in pins
  and spread cotter pins to lock pins in place.

_d. Adjustment of carrier._ Carrier must be carefully adjusted to fit
the individual firer so the load will not shift during sudden, rapid
changes of firer’s position. Adjustments are as follows:

  (1) _Cord and carrier pack._ Cord must be tight at all times. The
  cord furnished with the equipment has very little tendency to
  stretch. However, pull cord tight when lacing and use slip-proof
  knots at ends. Tighten cord periodically.

[Illustration: Fig 46. Carrier assembled on tank group.]

  (2) _Straps._ Adjust straps to fit each firer, moving slides on
  straps as necessary. Straps must fit snugly to prevent shifting of
  load and to keep tank group high on firer’s back. Lower body straps
  may be fastened in second pair from the bottom of carrier eyelets to
  conform to firer’s physique. Pins, which hold top ends of shoulder
  straps to steel support between the fuel tanks, may be moved to any
  two of the three holes so as to provide the best balance in the load.

_e. Maintenance of carrier._ Keep carrier dry and clean. If flame
thrower becomes wet or muddy, clean and dry carrier thoroughly. Store
in a dry place. If rotted, mildewed, or damaged, replace affected
parts. If cord frays or breaks, use special seine cord from service kit
as replacement.



Section XVII GUN GROUP


72. GENERAL

The gun group consists of the fuel-hose assembly and the gun. The gun
includes the fuel valve, which controls the ejection of fuel, and the
ignition head, which ignites the fuel.


73. FUEL-HOSE ASSEMBLY.

_a. Description and functioning._ (Fig 47) Hose, fuel, flame thrower,
M1, assembly, provides a flexible connection between the fuel tanks and
the gun.

  (1) _Hose._ Made of synthetic rubber and reinforced with a cover of
  metal wire and cotton braid, the hose resists the action of gasoline
  and oil, and withstands a pressure of approximately 1,000 pounds per
  square inch. Its inside diameter is 7/8 inch; its outside diameter is
  approximately 1-1/4 inches.

  (2) _Nipples._ The hose nipple, tank end, connects the hose to
  the tank coupling on the tank group. The hose nipple, gun end, is
  a threaded connector between the other end of the hose and the
  fuel-valve body.

_b. Removal of fuel-hose assembly._ Remove the hose from the gun only
when necessary for maintenance. The threads in the fuel-valve body will
be damaged by frequent screwing and unscrewing of the hose because the
body is a lightweight aluminum casting. Fuel hose is replaced as a unit
and is not disassembled in the second echelon. To disconnect from tank
group, see Paragraph 70 _b_.

_c. Installation of fuel-hose assembly._

  (1) To install in tank group, see Paragraph 70 _c_.

  (2) To install in gun, apply anti-seize compound (from service kit)
  lightly to threads and screw hose in fuel-valve body by hand. Use
  wrench only enough to make a secure connection.

_d. Maintenance of fuel-hose assembly._ If the hose nipple, tank end,
is badly nicked and does not provide a tight connection with a new
coupling washer (Par 70):

  (1) File the end surface, being careful to keep the surface at a
  right angle to the sides of the nipple.

  (2) Couple hose nipple, tank end, to tank coupling. If coupling
  closes very easily, indicating washer is not being compressed,
  replace the washer and recouple. If coupling still closes too freely,
  the nipple has been filed too short, and the fuel-hose assembly
  should be replaced as a unit.


74. VALVE GRIP.

_a. Description and functioning._ (Fig 47) The valve grip is part of
the fuel valve. It includes the controls and is held by the firer in
his right hand to support the gun group. Parts of the valve grip are:

  (1) _Left and right valve grips._ A pistol-type grip is formed by two
  aluminum housings designated as the left valve grip and the right
  valve grip. The two parts are held together by four screws and four
  lock washers.

  (2) _Grip support._ This aluminum housing is mounted above the left
  and right valve grips and connected to them by two screws and lock
  washers.

  (3) _Valve lever._ This control is made to fit the fingers and is
  mounted in front of and between the two parts of the valve grip. A
  pin at the top of the lever fits into holes in left and right valve
  grips and serves as a pivot, governing the movement of the lever.
  When the lever and the grip safety are compressed simultaneously by
  the operator, the valve is thereby opened and fuel is ejected from
  the gun.

  (4) _Grip safety._ This control is grasped by the hand simultaneously
  with the valve lever. It is mounted back of and between left and
  right valve grips. A pin at the base of the safety fits into holes
  in the left and right valve grips and serves as a pivot in a manner
  similar to the pin on the valve lever. The fuel cannot be discharged
  unless both the valve lever and the grip safety are compressed
  simultaneously.

  (5) _Rocker arm._ The rocker arm, a boat-shaped metal part, is
  mounted near its center on a pin. It is held in contact with the
  valve lever by means of a valve-grip spring and spring pin. At its
  top end, the rocker arm touches the yoke shaft of the valve-diaphragm
  assembly. When the valve lever and the grip safety are compressed,
  the rocker arm pushes the valve diaphragm assembly forward.

  (6) _Valve-grip spring._ When the firer’s hand releases the valve
  grip, the valve-grip spring forces the valve lever, the grip safety,
  and the rocker arm back to their normal, nonoperating positions.

_b. Removal of valve grip._

  (1) Unscrew the four screws and lock washers that hold the grip
  support to the valve body. Remove the valve grip as a unit.

[Illustration: Fig 47. Fuel valve (disassembled) and fuel hose,
showing nomenclature and Chemical Warfare Service stock numbers for
requisitioning spare parts.]

[Illustration: Fig 48. Location of parts in right valve grip before
covering them with left valve grip.]

[Illustration: Fig 49. Using screw driver to push long end of
valve-grip spring into groove in grip safety.]

  (2) To disassemble valve grip, remove screws and lock washers from
  the grip. Lift off the left valve grip, exposing contents of grip.
  Lift out the following parts: valve-grip spring, rocker arm, grip
  safety, and valve lever.

_c. Installing valve grip._

  (1) Place grip safety, valve lever, and rocker arm in position in
  right valve grip. (Fig 48) Be sure the shorter end of rocker arm is
  at the top. Place grip spring over spring pin. Slip short end of grip
  spring in groove of rocker arm. Place long end of grip spring on
  outside of grip safety.

  (2) Put left valve grip in place and insert the two lower lock
  washers and screws. Tighten the two screws enough to hold parts in
  place and still leave space for moving long end of spring into the
  groove in grip safety. Push spring into groove with a screw driver.
  (Fig 49)

  (3) With spring in place, fully tighten the two screws with screw
  driver.

  (4) Place grip support in position, and insert the two upper lock
  washers and screws. Tighten screws, using screw driver.

  (5) Attach valve grip to valve body, using the four lock washers and
  inserting the four screws through the grip support. Make sure that
  the yoke shaft of the valve-diaphragm assembly is in front of rocker
  arm.

_d. Maintenance of valve grip._ No maintenance is required for the
valve grip other than replacement of worn or damaged parts, tightening
of screws, cleaning, and lubrication. (Par 49)


75. BARREL AND VALVE-BODY ASSEMBLY.

_a. Description and functioning._ (Fig 47) This assembly is part of the
fuel valve. It includes the barrel, valve body, and operating parts
contained in the barrel and valve body. The assembly consists of:

  (1) _Valve body_, an aluminum housing, located at the rear of the
  gun and mounted on the grip support by means of four screws and lock
  washers. The valve body has four large threaded openings. The lower
  opening leads into the valve grip. The side opening, which forms a
  Y with the main portion of the body, is connected to the fuel-hose
  assembly. The front opening is screwed on the barrel. The rear
  opening is closed by the spring retainer and plug.

  (2) _Valve-diaphragm assembly_, which transmits and reverses the
  movement imparted to it by the rocker arm of the valve grip. (Par 74
  _a_) It also serves as a seal, keeping fuel from entering the valve
  grip. The valve-diaphragm assembly includes:

    (_a_) _Yoke shaft_, on which the rocker arm bears at the lower end
    of the shaft.

    (_b_) _Yoke_, a Y-shaped metal part which fits on the upper end of
    the yoke shaft and is held to it by a steel pin. The yoke transmits
    motion from the shaft to the yoke block, and is located within the
    valve body when the valve is assembled.

    (_c_) _Diaphragm_, a synthetic-rubber diaphragm held in a steel
    sleeve, which fits snugly in the lower opening of the valve body.
    The yoke shaft passes through the diaphragm.

  (3) _Diaphragm support, washer, and cap_, which hold the
  valve-diaphragm assembly in place in the valve body.

  (4) _Spring retainer_, a brass, hollow bushing which screws into the
  rear opening of the valve body, and which is threaded internally
  to receive the plug. The retainer has a hexagonal head to take a
  1-3/8-inch wrench. As its name implies, the retainer holds the valve
  spring in position.

  (5) _Plug_, a brass part, resembling a cap screw, which fits into
  the spring retainer, closing off the rear end of the gun. It permits
  adjustment of the needle (see _d_ below) without removing the valve
  spring and spring retainer.

  (6) _Valve spring_, a coil spring located in the valve body between
  the spring retainer and the yoke block. The spring keeps the needle
  seated in the nozzle until compression of the grip safety and valve
  lever forces back the yoke block, spring, and needle.

  (7) _Yoke block_, a steel piece, 1 inch long, which fits into the
  arms of the yoke Y. It is secured by an internal thread to the valve
  needle. Movement of the yoke in turn moves the yoke block and the
  valve needle.

  (8) _Lock nut_, on the valve-needle thread at the rear of the yoke
  block, which locks the block on the needle.

  (9) _Valve-needle_, a pointed rod, which extends through the inside
  of the barrel from the yoke block to the nozzle. The valve needle is
  seated in the nozzle except when firing. It controls the ejection
  of fuel from the nozzle. Two sets of three fins each, known as
  needle guides, are mounted on the front and rear of the needle,
  respectively. These guides keep the needle centered in the barrel.
  The rear end of the valve needle is threaded to hold the yoke block
  and permit adjustment of the needle by means of the lock nut which
  screws on the threads. (See _d_ below.)

  (10) _Barrel_ (Figs 47 and 54), which carries the fuel to the
  ignition head. It also supports or contains other components of the
  gun. The barrel assembly is replaced as a unit with the needle. It
  consists of a tube, made of thin metal, with a threaded fitting at
  the back end, and a nozzle brazed into the front end of the tube. The
  nozzle ejects the fuel from the barrel through the ignition head. The
  fuel emerges from two holes in the nozzle:

    (_a_) _Atomizer hole_, a small opening which sprays a fine, readily
    ignited mist of fuel. This helps ignite the main stream of fuel.

    (_b_) _Main hole_, which is tapered inside, and which conveys the
    main stream of fuel from the barrel. When the gun is not being
    fired, the valve needle is seated in the main hole of the nozzle.
    When the gun is being fired, the needle is withdrawn from the
    nozzle seat, permitting the fuel to be forced from the gun.

_b. Removal of barrel and valve-body assembly._ If gun group and
tank group are connected, release any pressure in the fuel tanks by
compressing the valve lever and the grip safety. Then disassemble as
follows:

  (1) Unscrew the fuel-hose assembly from the fuel-valve body only if
  this is necessary for maintenance.

  (2) Remove spring retainer and plug from end of fuel-valve body and
  remove valve spring.

[Illustration: Fig 50. Valve needle, yoke block, and lock nut ready for
installation in fuel-valve body.]

  (3) Unscrew diaphragm cap and pull out washer, support, and
  valve-diaphragm assembly. To prevent loss of valve-needle adjustment
  (Fig 54), do not disturb position of yoke block by turning the needle.

[Illustration: Fig 51. Placing diaphragm assembly in position in
fuel-valve body.]

[Illustration: Fig 52. Installing parts in fuel-valve body.]

  (4) Slide the valve needle out of barrel; the yoke block and the lock
  nut may then be unscrewed from the valve needle, but adjustment (see
  _d_ below) will be necessary when reinstalling.

_c. Installation of barrel and valve-body assembly._

  (1) To install valve needle, screw the yoke block and lock nut on the
  needle (Fig 50). Insert needle in valve body and barrel.

  (2) Insert valve-diaphragm assembly into valve body (Fig 51), making
  sure that the yoke slips into the flat notches of yoke block.

[Illustration: Fig 53. Installing spring retainer in fuel-valve body.]

  (3) Slip the diaphragm support, washer, and cap over the yoke shaft.
  (Fig 52) Screw on the diaphragm cap by hand. Do not use a wrench.
  Install valve grip. (Par 74 _c_)

  (4) Place valve spring over end of needle and install spring
  retainer. (Fig 53) Apply wrench very lightly to tighten spring
  retainer.

  (5) Adjust needle (see _d_ below), and screw plug into the spring
  retainer.

  (6) If hose has been removed, apply anti-seize compound lightly
  to the threads. Screw hose into fuel-valve body. Wrench should be
  applied very lightly to tighten.

_d. Adjustment of valve needle._ Needle is adjusted after installation
of parts in barrel and valve assembly. Use care when resetting needle,
as smooth operation of the weapon depends on accurate adjustment.

  (1) Remove ignition shield (Par 18) and plug from gun.

  (2) Use the valve-adjusting wrench (Fig 8) to hold the lock nut and
  apply a cabinet (narrow-bladed) screw driver (Fig 8) in the end of
  the needle. Turn needle until it makes a snug fit in the nozzle
  opening.

  (3) Compress the valve lever and grip safety. The needle should draw
  back into the nozzle with the tip of the needle at the smallest
  diameter opening in the nozzle. (Fig 54)

  (4) When the needle has been correctly adjusted, as in (3) above,
  tighten the lock nut with the valve-adjusting wrench, keeping the
  needle from turning with the screw driver. This will lock the
  adjustment. Screw plug into the spring retainer.

  (5) Replace ignition shield. (Par 18)

_e. Maintenance of barrel and valve body._

[Illustration: Fig 54. Valve-needle adjustment. Solid lines show needle
in correct open position with point at smallest diameter of nozzle.
Broken lines show needle in closed position.]

  (1) _Damaged parts._ Replace worn or damaged parts. If the diaphragm
  shows evidence of tears or separation, or if leaks occur at the
  diaphragm, replace the valve-diaphragm assembly.

  (2) _Valve spring._ If valve spring has lost resiliency, grasp it by
  the ends and stretch slightly, or replace.

  (3) _Nozzle leaks._ If valve leaks at nozzle, and cleaning (Par 55
  _d_) does not remedy the leak, adjust needle (see _d_ above). If
  leak persists, either replace barrel and needle, or lap seat. To
  lap, place lapping compound on seat (in nozzle) and on needle point.
  Turn needle in seat until parts make a tight connection when seated.
  Remove lapping compound, reassemble, adjust needle, and test fire.

  (4) _Atomizer hole._ If atomizer hole is clogged, clean with fine
  wire. (Par 52 _i_)


76. IGNITION HEAD.

_a. Description and functioning._ (Fig 55) The ignition head ignites
the fuel when the flame thrower is fired. It is mounted on the fore
part of the barrel. It consists of:

  (1) _Ignition-head body_, which includes half of the front grip.
  Three set screws serve to tighten the ignition-head body to the
  barrel. The ignition-head body is made of aluminum.

  (2) _Trigger and trigger bearing_, held between the ignition-head
  body and the coverplate by the trigger screw.

  (3) _Trigger rod_, one end of which is held in the trigger bearing,
  the other extending through the ignition-head body. Pulling the
  trigger shoves the trigger rod forward, causing it to push a match in
  the ignition cylinder. The match ignites an incendiary charge in the
  ignition cylinder.

  (4) _Trigger spring_, which hooks over a projection of the trigger
  and is held at its lower end by a screw, which is held in the
  ignition-head body. This spring pulls the trigger rod back from the
  firing position after the firer releases the trigger.

  (5) _Latch_, located in the ignition-head body, in front of and above
  the trigger guard. The latch, set on a pin, engages the notch of the
  ignition shield, locking it in place. A latch spring holds latch in
  position.

  (6) _Coverplate_, an aluminum casting which constitutes the left
  section of the front grip and covers the working parts seated in the
  ignition head body. The coverplate and body are held together by four
  screws and four lock washers.

  (7) _Spring case_, which turns the ignition cylinder when the trigger
  is pulled.

    (_a_) Four projections on the inner spring case are bent over the
    outer spring case to hold the two parts together.

    (_b_) The inner-case pin (Fig 56) engages a stop on the inside of
    the ignition cylinder. The five projecting metal matches on the
    inside of the ignition cylinder are each in turn stopped by the lug
    on the forward-facing surface of the ignition-head body.

[Illustration: Fig 55. Ignition head disassembled, showing nomenclature
and Chemical Warfare Service stock numbers for requisitioning spare
parts.]

    When the trigger is pulled, the trigger rod pushes a match forward,
    causing an incendiary charge in the ignition cylinder to ignite.
    The spring in the case rotates the ignition cylinder until another
    match is stopped by the lug.

[Illustration: Fig 56. Parts of ignition head and ignition cylinder.]

    (_c_) The outer-case pin (on the outside surface of the outer
    spring case) fits into the notch in the ignition shield and holds
    the spring case as the shield is screwed into position. This action
    winds the spring in the case.

    (_d_) A snap ring holds the spring case on the ignition-head body.

  (8) _Ignition shield_, a cylindrical, thin-metal tube with a conical
  front end. The shield guides the flame and protects the firer. Eight
  holes around the base of the cone provide an air intake for burning
  the fuel. The base of the shield is threaded, and it screws onto
  the ignition-head body. A notch (Fig 56) in the base of the shield
  receives the latch and the outer-case pin of the spring case.

_b. Removal of ignition head._ To remove the ignition head, proceed as
follows:

  (1) Remove shield by lifting latch and unscrewing shield
  counterclockwise. (Fig 14) Keep hands and face away from front of
  barrel.

  (2) If ignition cylinder has not been removed, remove it or allow it
  to fall off barrel.

  (3) Pry off snap ring which holds spring case in position, using
  screw driver. (Fig 57) Be careful not to damage or break the
  ignition-head body by applying too much leverage.

  (4) Remove the four screws and lock washers which hold ignition-head
  body and coverplate together. Lift off coverplate.

  (5) Trigger, trigger spring, trigger rod, latch, and latch spring may
  be removed.

  (6) Using a hex wrench, loosen set screws (Fig 58) and withdraw
  barrel from ignition head.

_c. Installation of ignition head._ To install ignition head, proceed
as follows:

  (1) Insert barrel in ignition-head body, pushing it as far forward as
  the shoulder on the barrel permits.

  (2) Aline front grip and valve grip.

  (3) Using hex wrench, tighten set screws on barrel enough to hold but
  not so tight that barrel is dented.

  (4) Place latch, latch spring, trigger and bearing, trigger rod, and
  trigger spring in position.

  (5) Put coverplate on ignition-head body and replace the four lock
  washers and screws.

  (6) Slip spring case over barrel, and lock by forcing snap ring into
  the groove.

  (7) When weapon is to be used on a mission, fit ignition cylinder
  and ignition shield in place on nozzle end of barrel as described in
  Paragraph 18.

_d. Maintenance of ignition head._

  (1) _Servicing._ The ignition head should be cleaned and lubricated
  each time it is disassembled. (Par 49)

  (2) _Spring-case assembly._ If outer case rotates and inner case does
  not, and no spring action occurs, spring is broken and spring case
  should be replaced as a unit. Do not disassemble or repair this part.

  (3) _Trigger rod and lug._ When trigger is pulled all the way, end
  of trigger rod should extend 1/16 inch beyond lug on forward-facing
  surface of ignition-head body. If end of trigger rod is worn, replace
  rod. Lug on the ignition-head body should be approximately 7/32 inch
  high. If lug is worn or broken, replace ignition head body.

[Illustration: Fig 57. Prying snap ring from ignition head to remove
spring case.]

[Illustration: Fig 58. Loosening set screws with wrench so ignition
head may be lifted off barrel.]



APPENDIX



Section XVIII SHIPMENT
AND STORAGE


77. SHIPMENT AND STORAGE.

The flame thrower is shipped and stored in a wooden packing case (Fig
59), which measures approximately 34 inches by 23 inches by 19 inches.
Cubage of the case is approximately 8-1/2 cubic feet.

[Illustration: Fig 59. Opened packing chest showing flame thrower and
other contents as received.]

_a. Storage procedure._ After use and servicing (Pars 55 and 56), if
the weapon is not to be promptly reused on another mission, it should
be returned to the packing case. Before disconnecting the gun group
from the tank group and storing the weapon, the ignition cylinder
should be removed, the fuel discharged, and the pressure released.
Operate fuel valve to release any residual pressure in the fuel tanks.
The deflector tube must be removed from the safety head (Fig 11) to
permit the tank group to fit into the chest. The deflector tube should
be kept in the spare parts kit or tool kit until the next use of the
weapon. The spare parts kit, the tool kit, the extra cans of cylinders,
TM 3-376A, and the coupling plug (Fig 7) should remain in the chest
except when they are being used. Wooden fittings hold the tank group in
place, with the pressure tank up. The gun group is disconnected from
the tank group and is kept with fuel hose connected to the gun on the
gun mounting board in the chest. (Fig 10)

_b. Rust prevention._ If the flame thrower, parts, and tools are to be
stored for a considerable length of time, especially in a damp climate,
all exposed metal surfaces should be covered with a rust-preventive
compound. Store in a dry place.



Section XIX LIST OF REFERENCES


78. REFERENCES.

References pertaining to the care and use of flame throwers include:

  AR 850-20  Precautions in Handling Gasoline

  AR 850-60  Compressed Gas Cylinders; Safe Handling,
               Storing, Shipping, Using

  FM 31-50   Attack on a Fortified Position and Combat in
               Towns

  FM 100-5   Operations

  TM 3-220   Decontamination

  TM 9-850   Cleaning, Preserving, Lubricating, and Welding
               Materials and Similar Items Issued by
               the Ordnance Department



INDEX


                                                     _Paragraphs_

- A -

  Adjustable-end wrench,                             10_a_, 48_a_

  Adjustment of fire,                                   25, 26_c_

  After firing,                                        30, 55, 56

  After six missions,                                          56

  Aging of fuel,                                            35_j_

  Aiming,                                           25, 26_c_, 34

  Air compressor,                             32_a_, 32_b_, 39_a_

  Alcohol,                                                  35_a_

  Angles of tanks when firing,                              24_b_

  Anti-seize compound
    source of,                                              48_b_
    use of,                                   58_b_, 70_c_, 73_c_

  Assistants,                                            4_f_, 15

  Atomizer hole
    cleaning,                                               52_i_
    description,                                            75_a_


- B -

  Barrel
    adjustment,                                      52_e_, 75_d_
    cleaning,                                        55_d_, 55_i_
    damage to,                                          62, 75_e_
    description,                                            75_a_
    maintenance,                                        62, 75_e_

  Barrel and valve-body assembly,                              75

  Bleeders,                                                 32_c_

  Burning time of fuels,                                       34

  Bursts,                               4_b_, 9_b_, 25_c_, 28, 29

  Bushing, pipe, 3/4 inch by 1/2 inch,            8, 10_b_, 48_b_


- C -

  Cap, diaphragm,                                              75

  Capacity, fuel,                                     9_e_, 68_a_

  Carrier
    adjustment,                                 19, 56_e_, 60, 71
    description,                                      5_a_, 71_a_
    installation,                                           71_c_
    maintenance,                                            71_e_
    preventive maintenance,                             51, 55_h_
    removal,                                                71_b_

  Carrier frame,                                               71

  Carrier pack,                                                71

  Carrying the flame thrower,        19, 20, 55_b_, 56_e_, 60, 71

  Catalog,                                                  48_b_

  Charging of pressure tank,           4_g_, 32, 33, 61_c_, 66_a_

  Check valve
    description,  66_a_
    installation,  66_b_
    operation,                                      31, 32, 53_d_
    removal,                                                66_b_
    replacement,                                            66_e_

  Cleaning
    gun,             49_a_, 55, 56_f_, 58_c_, 74_d_, 75_e_, 76_d_
    tank group,                           55, 58_c_, 68_c_, 71_e_

  Cold weather,                                 34-36, 44, 49, 64

  Compound, anti-seize
    source of,                                              48_b_
    use of,                                   58_b_, 70_c_, 73_c_

  Compound, pipe thread (anti-seize),  48_b_, 58_b_, 70_c_, 73_c_

  Compressed air
    charging apparatus,                         32, 33, 46, 48_b_
    leaks,                                           56_b_, 61_c_
    release of,                                             66_b_
    volume required,                                  9_g_, 32_c_

  Compressor, air,                                   32_a_, 32_b_

  Controls,                                14, 21, 26, 61, 74, 76

  Cord
    description,                                            71_a_
    installation,                                           71_c_
    replacement,                                 48_b_, 60, 71_e_
    tightening,                                  51_h_, 60, 71_d_

  Cotter pins,                                                 71

  Coupling plug,                      10_f_, 17, 39_c_, 48_b_, 70

  Coupling washer,                 10_b_, 48_b_, 58_f_, 70, 73_d_

  Coverplate,                                                  76

  Cubage,                                                    9_d_

  Crankcase drainings,                                         36

  Cylinders
    destruction,                                               46
    number required,                                  9_g_, 32_b_
    use of, in charging,                                   32, 33
    use of, in filling,                                        39

- D -

  Dampness
    effect on fuel,                                         35_e_
    effect on ignition cylinder,                           31, 41
    effect on thickener,                                    35_e_
    effect on weapon,                     41, 51_g_, 71_e_, 77_b_

  Deflector tube,                                12_j_, 69, 77_a_

  Description of flame thrower,                          5, 65-76

  Destruction
    accessories,                                       46_b_, _d_
    flame thrower,                                          46_a_
    fuel,                                                   46_c_
    ignition cylinders,                              30_a_, 46_f_
    thickener,                                              46_e_

  Diaphragm,                                                   75

  Diaphragm cap,                                               75

  Diaphragm support,                                           75

  Diaphragm, valve, assembly,  10_b_, 48_b_, 56_e_, 58_a_, 74, 75

  Diaphragm washer,                                            75

  Diesel oil,                                          35, 36, 40

  Differences in models,                                        7

  Diffusion-pipe assembly,                                 67, 68

  Dimensions,                                                9_d_

  Discharge time,                                            9_b_

  Dome-type regulator,                                      67_d_

  Drums,                                                    35-40

  Duration of fire,                                      9_b_, 34

  Dust
    blowing out,                                            33_j_
    effect on operation,                                       42


- E -

  E1 ignition cylinders,                                18_a_, 31

  E3 portable flame thrower,                                 7_a_

  Engineers’ wrenches,                               10_a_, 48_a_


- F -

  Filling fuel tanks
    by blowing,                                                39
    by force pump,                                             38
    by pouring,                                                37
    service when filling,                                      53

  Filling plug,                      37, 39, 49, 51_d_, 56_b_, 69

  Filling with fuel,                                  4_g_, 34-40

  Fire precautions,                                 15_c_, 40, 55

  Firers,                                                4_f_, 15

  Firing technique,                              26-30, 54, 56_b_

  Flexible shaft, valve
    adjustment,                                             66_d_
    description,                                            66_a_
    installation,                                           66_c_
    lubrication,                                               49
    removal,                                                66_b_

  Frame clamp,                                          68_a_, 71

  Fuel
    capacity,                                         9_e_, 68_a_
    characteristics,                                           34
    destruction,                                            46_c_
    left in tanks,                                          24_b_
    per 100 fillings,                                        9_g_
    precautions,                                        35-40, 41
    preparation,                                           35, 40
    ranges,                                                    22
    weight,                                                  9_c_

  Fuel-filling hose,                                           39

  Fuel-filling line,                                    39, 46_b_

  Fuel hose
    description,                                            70_a_
    installation,                                70_c_, 73_c_, 75
    length,                                                  9_d_
    maintenance,                                 40_j_, 52, 73_d_
    removal,                              40_j_, 70_b_, 73_b_, 75
    replacement,                          5_b_, 48_b_, 58, 70, 73
    stiffening of,                                             21

  Fuel oils,                                           35, 36, 40

  Fuel tanks
    angle when firing,                                      24_b_
    cleaning,                                        53_a_, 53_b_
    description,                                      5_a_, 68_a_
    fuel level,                                      53_b_, 68_a_
    inspection,                                             53_a_
    installation,                                           68_b_
    maintenance,                                            68_c_
    removal,                                                68_b_

  Fuel valve
    adjustment,                                             61_a_
    cleaning,                                        56_f_, 61_d_
    description,                               5_b_, 74_a_, 75_a_
    effects of dirt,                                           42
    failure to close,                                          62
    installation,                             61_a_, 74_c_, 75_c_
    leaks,                                                 56, 58
    lubrication,                                               49
    operation,                  14_c_, 26_b_, 61_a_, 74_a_, 75_a_
    removal,                                         74_b_, 75_b_
    testing,                                                56_c_

  Funnel,                                                   35-37


- G -

  Gage, fuel-tank testing,                    48_b_, 56_b_, 67_d_

  Gage, pressure testing,              48_b_, 53_d_, 56_b_, 67_d_

  Gasoline, in fuels,                               34-40, 43, 44

  Gloves,                                                   20_g_

  Grease,                                                      49

  Grip safety,                           14_c_, 49, 56_d_, 62, 74

  Grip support,                                                74

  Gun
    assembling,                                             74-76
    carrying,                                                  25
    cleaning,            55_d_, 55_i_, 56_f_, 74_d_, 75_e_, 76_d_
    description,                              5_b_, 14, 72, 74-76
    disassembling,                                          74-76
    length,                                                  9_d_
    lubrication,                                               49
    mounting board,                                         10_e_
    preventive maintenance,                         50, 52, 54-56
    requisitioning,                                          5_b_
    storage,                                                12_g_

  Gun group
    assembling,                                             72-76
    connecting to tank group,                          17, 70, 73
    description,                                  5_b_, 14, 72-76
    disassembly,                                            72-76
    lubrication,                                               49
    maintenance,                                            72-76
    preventive maintenance,                         50, 52, 54-56
    storage,                                                12_g_
    weight,                                                  9_c_


- H -

  Heat, effect on fuel,                             34-36, 40, 43

  Hex wrenches,                 10_a_, 48_a_, 67_d_, 76_b_, 76_c_

  Hose connector,                                           68_a_

  Hose, fuel
    description,                                            73_a_
    installation,                                70_c_, 73_c_, 75
    length,                                                  9_d_
    maintenance,                                     40_j_, 73_d_
    removal,                              40_j_, 70_c_, 73_b_, 75
    replacement,                          5_b_, 48_b_, 58, 70, 73
    stiffening of,                                             21


- I -

  Identification,                                               6

  Ignition action,                               14_b_, 44, 76_a_

  Ignition cylinders
    action,                                      14_b_, 31, 76_a_
    description,                                        31, 76_a_
    destruction,                                     30_a_, 46_f_
    discarding,                                             30_a_
    duration of fire,                                        9_b_
    failure,                                        54_a_, 63, 64
    loading of gun,                                     18, 76_a_
    packing,                                            10_c_, 31
    precautions,                                       18, 20, 31
    storing,                                               31, 41
    use in training,                          15_b_, 18_a_, 30_a_

  Ignition failure,          18, 26, 31, 44, 54_a_, 63, 64, 76_d_

  Ignition head
    assembling,                                             76_c_
    cleaning,                                49, 52, 54_a_, 76_d_
    description,                                      5_b_, 76_a_
    disassembling,                                      18, 76_b_
    effects of dirt,                                       42, 52
    failure,                                 54_a_, 63, 64, 76_d_
    installation,                                           76_c_
    loading,                                            18, 76_a_
    lubrication,                                        49, 76_d_
    maintenance,                                            76_d_
    removal,                                                76_b_

  Ignition-head body,                                          76

  Ignition shield,                    18, 52_d_, 54_a_, 55_d_, 76

  Immersion,                                      effects of,  41

  Incendiary effects,                                   3, 34, 44

  Interchanging with E3,                                     7_a_

  Interchanging with M1 or M1A1,                          7_b_, 8


- J -

  Jungle ranges,                                               22


- K -

  Kerosene,                                      35_a_, 36_a_, 40

  Kit
    tool,                                               10, 77_a_
    spare parts,                                        10, 77_a_
    service,                                                   48


- L -

  Lapping needle and nozzle,                                75_e_

  Latch,                                                       76

  Leaded gasoline,                                          40_n_

  Leaks
    fuel,                             56, 58, 66_b_, 68-70, 73-75
    pressure,               21, 51_b_, 53_d_, 56_b_, 61_c_, 66_b_

  Left valve grip,                                             74

  Line, fuel-filling,                                          39

  Lines, charging and filling
    destruction,                                               46
    source,                                                 48_b_
    use,                                                   32, 33

  Liquid fuels
    aiming,                                                    25
    characteristics,                                           34
    filling,                                               37, 38
    precautions,                                            36-40
    preparation,                                           35, 40
    ranges,                                                22, 34

  Loading ignition cylinder,                            18, 76_a_

  Lubrication,                                                 49


- M -

  Marking,                                               6, 18_a_

  M1 and M1A1 portable flame throwers,                    7_b_, 8

  Moisture
    effect on fuel,                                         35_e_
    effect on ignition cylinder,                           31, 41
    effect on thickener,                                    35_e_
    effect on weapon,                     41, 51_g_, 71_e_, 77_b_

  Mounting board,                                           12_g_


- N -

  Needle
    adjustment,                                      52_e_, 75_d_
    cleaning,                                           52, 55_d_
    description,                                            75_a_
    installation,                                           75_c_
    leaks,                                                     58
    removal,                                                75_b_

  Nitrogen
    charging apparatus,                         32, 33, 46, 48_b_
    leaks,                                           56_b_, 61_c_
    release of,                                             66_b_
    volume required,                                  9_g_, 32_c_

  Nozzle
    adjustment,                               52_e_, 56_b_, 75_d_
    cleaning,                                           52, 55_d_
    description,                                            75_a_
    leaks,                                       56_b_, 58, 75_e_


- O -

  Oxygen, hazard from use,                                  32_c_


- P -

  Packing chest
    cubage,                                                  9_d_
    dimensions,                                              9_d_
    opening,                                                   12
    use of,                                                12, 30
    weight,                                                  9_c_

  Paddle,                                                  35, 36

  Painting,                                         13, 41, 68_c_

  Pins, (carrier)                                              71

  Plug, coupling,                     10_f_, 17, 39_c_, 48_b_, 70

  Plug, filling,                     37, 39, 49, 51_d_, 56_b_, 69

  Plug-retainer assembly,                                      69

  Plug, safety-head,                        37, 39, 49, 51_d_, 69

  Plug, testing,                                     56_b_, 67_d_

  Point-blank range,                                           22

  Positions, firing,                                           24

  Precautions
    in training,                                               15
    when charging,                                             33
    when filling with fuel,                                 37-40
    when firing,                                     22_a_, 24_d_
    when preparing fuel,                               35, 36, 40
    when servicing,                                            57
    with cylinder,                                     18, 31, 57
    with gun,                                                  20

  Pressure
    charging,                                              32, 33
    charging apparatus,                         32, 33, 46, 48_b_
    lack of,                                            56_b_, 61
    leaks,                                           56_b_, 61_c_
    pounds of,                                    9_f_, 32, 56_b_
    release of,                                             66_b_
    testing for,                                     53_d_, 56_b_

  Pressure regulator
    adjustment,                                  56_b_, 59, 67_d_
    description,                                      5_a_, 67_a_
    effects of dirt,                                           42
    installation,                                    66_c_, 67_c_
    removal,                                                67_b_
    replacement,                             48_b_, 56_b_, 59, 67
    testing,                                  56_b_, 61_b_, 67_d_

  Pressure tank
    charging,                                              32, 33
    description,                                      5_a_, 66_a_
    installation,                                           66_c_
    removal,                                                66_b_
    replacement,                                      4_g_, 48_b_

  Pressure tank and valve assembly
    adjustment,                                             66_d_
    description,                                      5_a_, 66_a_
    installation,                                           66_c_
    maintenance,                                            66_e_
    removal,                                                66_b_
    testing for leaks,                                      53_d_

  Pressure-tank clamp
    description,                                            66_a_
    installation,                                           66_c_
    removal,                                                66_b_
    repair,                                                 51_e_

  Pressure-tank valve
    description,                                      5_a_, 66_a_
    effects of dirt,                                           42
    installation,                                           66_c_
    operation,                            14_a_, 21, 55_g_, 61_b_
    removal,                                                66_b_
    replacement,                                     48_b_, 66_e_
    testing,                                         51_a_, 53_c_

  Pressure-tank valve handle,                14_a_, 21, 48_b_, 66

  Preventive maintenance services,                          50-56

  Pump
    force,                                                     38
    air,                                                    39_a_


- R -

  Rain, effect on firing,                               41, 77_b_

  Ranges,                       4_c_, 15_b_, 15_c_, 22, 61, 67_d_

  Recoil,                                                   24_c_

  Records,                                               2, 49_a_

  References,                                            1_b_, 78

  Regulator tube,                                          66, 67

  Removal of tank group,                             55_b_, 66-71

  Right valve grip,                                            74

  Rocker arm,                                       49, 74, 75_a_


- S -

  Safety, grip,                                     14_c_, 62, 74

  Safety-head plug,                             37, 39, 51_d_, 69

  Safety head, replacement,    51_d_, 54_b_, 55_f_, 56_b_, 59, 69

  Screening effect,                                         3, 34

  Screw drivers,         10_a_, 48_a_, 52_f_, 74_c_, 75_d_, 76_b_

  Seine cord
    description,                                            71_a_
    installation,                                           71_c_
    replacement,                                 48_b_, 60, 71_e_
    tightening,                                  51_h_, 60, 71_d_

  Service kit,                                                 48

  Service, on receipt of equipment,                        12, 13

  Set-screw wrenches,           10_a_, 48_a_, 67_d_, 76_b_, 76_c_

  Shield, ignition,                   18, 52_d_, 54_a_, 55_d_, 76

  Shipment,                                                    77

  Short range, causes of,                                      61

  Sighting,                                                    25

  Skids, use of,                                               24

  Smoke,                                                    3, 34

  Smoking,                                              15, 40_d_

  Snap ring,                                                   76

  Soaking the target,                                          29

  Spare parts in service kit,                           48, 77_a_

  Spare parts kit,                                          10_b_

  Spray of fuel,                                            61_a_

  Spring case
    cleaning,                                        52_j_, 76_d_
    description,                                               76
    effects of dust,                                    42, 52_j_
    general,                                    10_b_, 18, 31, 76
    lubrication at,                              49, 52_j_, 76_d_
    maintenance,                                            76_d_
    replacement,                              48_b_, 63_b_, 76_d_

  Spring retainer and plug,                             52_g_, 75

  Spring, trigger,                                      63_d_, 76

  Spring-type regulator,                                    67_d_

  Spring, valve,                                               75

  Spring, valve-grip,                                          74

  Stem, pressure valve,                                     66_d_

  Storage
    charging lines,                                            42
    cylinders,                                          33, 77_a_
    filling lines,                                             42
    flame thrower,                          12, 30_f_, 41, 42, 77
    fuel,                                        35_j_, 36_i_, 40
    ignition cylinders,                                        31

  Straps, adjustment,                     19, 51_i_, 60_b_, 71_d_

  Sun, exposure of flame thrower to,                       40, 43

  Support, diaphragm,                                          75


- T -

  Tactics,                                                3, 4_e_

  Tank connector,                                           68_a_

  Tank coupling
    cleaning,                                               70_d_
    description,                                            70_a_
    installation,                                           70_c_
    leaks,                                              58, 70_d_
    maintenance,                       51_c_, 70_c_, 70_d_, 73_d_
    operation,                                      17, 70, 73_a_
    removal,                                                70_b_
    testing,                                                51_c_

  Tank group
    adjustment,                                             66-71
    carrying,                                   19, 24, 55_b_, 71
    connecting to gun,                               4_g_, 17, 70
    description,                                      5_a_, 65-71
    dimensions,                                              9_d_
    interchanging,                                   4_g_, 17, 70
    installation,                                           66-71
    maintenance,                                            66-71
    preventive maintenance,                         50, 51, 53-56
    removal,                                         55_b_, 66-71
    requisitioning,                                          5_a_
    weight,                                                  9_c_

  Targets,                                                  3, 25

  Temperature, effects of,              34-36, 40, 43, 44, 49, 64

  Test firing,                         12_k_, 35_k_, 36_h_, 56_b_

  Thickened fuel
    aiming,                                          25_c_, 26_c_
    characteristics,                                           34
    filling,                                                37-39
    precautions,                                       35, 39, 40
    preparation,                                           35, 40
    ranges,                                                22, 34

  Thickener
    destruction,                                            46_e_
    quantity,                                            9_g_, 35
    storage,                                                   35
    use,                                                       35

  Time of discharge,                                         9_b_

  Tool kit,                                          10_a_, 77_a_

  Training,                                             15, 30_a_

  Trigger,                           14_b_, 26_a_, 49, 52, 63, 76

  Trigger rod
    description,                                            76_a_
    lubrication,                                               49
    maintenance,                                     52_l_, 76_d_

  Trigger screw,                                               76

  Trigger spring,                                52_k_, 63_d_, 76


- U -

  Underbrush,                                               22_b_

  Uses of flame throwers,                                       3


- V -

  Valve-adjusting wrench
    source,                                                 48_a_
    use,                                                    75_d_

  Valve, pressure-tank,                                        75

  Valve-diaphragm assembly,       10, 48_b_, 56_c_, 58_a_, 74, 75

  Valve flexible shaft
    adjustment,                                             66_d_
    description,                                            66_a_
    installation,                                           66_c_
    lubrication,                                               49
    removal,                                                66_b_

  Valve grip
    action,                                          14_c_, 74_a_
    description,                                            74_a_
    effects of dirt,                                           42
    installation,                                           74_c_
    leaks,                                                  58_a_
    lubrication,                                 49, 56_d_, 74_d_
    maintenance,                                            74_d_
    removal,                                                74_b_

  Valve-grip spring,                                           74

  Valve lever
    description,                                            74_a_
    installation,                                           74_c_
    lubrication,                                               49
    operation,                                   14_c_, 62, 74_a_
    play,                                                   52_e_
    removal,                                                74_b_

  Valve needle
    adjustment,                                      52_e_, 75_d_
    cleaning,                                           52, 55_d_
    description,                                            75_a_
    installation,                                           75_c_
    leaks,                                                     58
    removal,                                         75_b_, 75_e_

  Valve, fuel
    adjustment,                                             61_a_
    cleaning,                                        56_f_, 61_d_
    description,                               5_b_, 74_a_, 75_a_
    effects of dirt,                                           42
    failure to close,                                          62
    installation,                             61_a_, 74_c_, 75_c_
    leaks,                                              56_c_, 58
    lubrication,                                               49
    operation,                  14_c_, 26_b_, 61_a_, 74_a_, 75_a_
    removal,                                         74_c_, 75_c_
    testing,                                                56_c_

  Valve pressure-tank
    description,                                      5_a_, 66_a_
    effects of dirt,                                           42
    installation,                                           66_c_
    operation,                            14_a_, 21, 55_g_, 61_b_
    removal,                                                66_b_
    replacement,                                     48_b_, 66_e_
    testing,                                         51_a_, 53_c_

  Valve spring,                                                75

  Void in fuel tanks,                                53_b_, 68_a_


- W -

  Washer, coupling,                       10_b_, 48_b_, 70, 73_d_

  Washer, diaphragm,                                           75

  Water
    and ignition cylinder,                                 31, 41
    effect on fuel,                                         35_e_
    effect on thickener,                                    35_e_
    effect on weapon,                            41, 51_g_, 71_e_
    use in testing,                                  56_b_, 67_d_
    use in training,                                           15

  Weights,                                             4_d_, 9_c_

  Wind, effects of,                                        23, 45

  Wrenches,                                   10_a_, 48_a_, 67_d_


- Y -

  Yoke,                                                        75

  Yoke block,                                                  75

  Yoke shaft,                                                  75



_NOTES_



  REPRODUCTION PLANT
  CHEMICAL WARFARE SCHOOL
  EDGEWOOD ARSENAL MD
  1944





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