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Title: Tacoma and Vicinity
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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                         TACOMA AND VICINITY.

               Nuhn & Wheeler, Publishers, TACOMA, WASH.

      A copy of this book will be forwarded by mail on receipt of
                          seventy-five cents.

                            COPYRIGHT 1888.

Tacoma and Vicinity.

Tacoma has well been called the “City of Destiny,” for never in the
history of our great republic has the finger of destiny so unerringly
pointed to the location of a large commercial and manufacturing
metropolis as it did to the shores of Commencement bay when the
Northern Pacific located here the terminus of its main line on Puget
sound. In its history, years have witnessed more life and growth, more
progress in business and wealth and the creation of more permanent
values of property, than decades in the history of older and admittedly
prosperous cities of the eastern states. Eight years ago, at the
beginning of the present decade, Tacoma had a population of but
seven hundred and twenty souls, its streets were ungraded and full
of stumps, and its business blocks were few and of but the cheapest
of frame structures. What mighty things have been wrought in the
brief time which has since elapsed! Now it has many miles of graded
streets, of water and gas mains, of telegraph, telephone and electric
light wires and street railways, solid blocks of brick and stone
business structures, large and commodious opera house, public schools,
seminaries and academies, elegant hotels, large factories, great and
expanding docks, warehouses and shipping facilities, a taxable property
of $6,555,400 and a population of twenty thousand souls. It is this
Tacoma of to-day, bustling, vigorous, full of life and business, and
advancing with prodigious strides, which is treated of in the following
pages of engravings and descriptive matter. These engravings, elegant
and artistic as they are, fall far short of doing justice to a city
whose prosperity, vitality and progressiveness it is impossible to
convey to paper. They are the Tacoma of to-day, but will be almost as
unlike the great city ten years from now which will bear that name, as
they are unlike that city of board shanties which occupied this site
eight years ago.



Tacoma has hitherto lacked one most essential feature of a city--an
opera house--and for this reason has been often denied the pleasure
of listening to some of the great dramatic stars who have visited
the coast. It will not be long before this will be remedied, as the
most elegant opera house north of San Francisco is now in course
of erection. Several of the public spirited citizens of this place
recently organized the Tacoma Opera House Company, with a capital stock
of $100,000.00, for the purpose of building an opera house such as the
growing needs of the city require. Plans were drawn for an elegant
building to cost $75,000.00, and this is now in course of construction
on the corner of Ninth and C streets. The first story is of stone and
the remainder of brick and terra cotta. It will have accommodations
for several stores on the ground floor, and for a number of offices
up stairs, and will be completed early in the spring of 1889. In all
its appointments it will be elegant, and will have a seating capacity
of twelve hundred. The stage settings, dressing rooms, mechanical
appliances and all the accessories of a theater will be of the best
pattern, and the opera chairs of the latest design. From the engraving
of the exterior given on the opposite page, it will be seen that this
structure will be one of the most imposing and ornamental architectural
features of the city. It is located convenient to the hotels, the
business portion of the city and the street car lines. With such an
opera house as this, and with a population of twenty thousand people
to give them patronage, the best attractions in the United States will
be drawn to Tacoma as one of the regular “show towns” of the grand
transcontinental circuit.

[Illustration: TACOMA THEATRE.]


Tourists unhesitatingly declare that in this city they find the only
really adequate and enjoyable hotel accommodations to be had on the
Pacific coast north of San Francisco, and to this one fact is due much
of the popularity of the city spread abroad by those who have enjoyed
its hospitalities. Recognizing the necessity for such an institution,
the Tacoma Land Company erected in 1884 the large and handsome stone
and brick hotel building shown in the engraving on the opposite page.
It stands on the bluff above the water front, overlooking the bay,
river, valley, foothills and mountains. From the veranda and lawn a
grand landscape may be seen, the great snowy mass of Mount Tacoma
standing out in bold relief against the sky. The possession of such
a house of entertainment, elegantly furnished and conducted in first
class style by Mr. W. D. Tyler, a most courteous and able manager,
renders the city a favorite summer resort and headquarters for those
who desire to spend a few weeks viewing the grand scenery of the
sound. On another page is given an engraving of the new and elegant
Hotel Fife, a large five-story brick structure, recently completed
at a cost of $125,000.00. It contains one hundred and twenty-six
rooms, and is supplied with all the modern conveniences of gas, water,
electric bells, elevator, etc. Hotel Fife is most elegantly furnished,
and is conducted on the European plan. Hotel Rochester, recently
erected on Tacoma avenue (see engraving on another page), is a large
brick edifice, four stories high, and cost $75,000.00. It occupies a
commanding site, and is designed for a family hotel, all its rooms
being _en suite_, with bath, electric light and water. It is heated
by steam, and has its own electric light plant, laundry and Turkish
bath. A number of smaller hotels add to the city’s accommodations for

[Illustration: “THE TACOMA”--TACOMA.]


Less than a year has passed since Tacoma entered regularly into the
shipping of grain and flour to foreign markets, though practically this
business began the present year, after the completion of the tunnel
through the mountains. During the year ending June 30, 1888, there
were shipped from this port eight hundred and thirty-eight thousand
two hundred and thirty-three bushels of grain, and the estimated
quantity for the current fiscal year is four million five hundred
thousand bushels, requiring a grain fleet of sixty vessels, being an
average of one cargo dispatched every six days. Owing to the fact that
vessels can enter Puget sound more cheaply than the Columbia river,
and can discharge and receive cargo and get to sea again cheaper,
charters are much lower here than at Portland, and the price of wheat
proportionately higher. For this reason the wheat along the line of
the Northern Pacific, which, before the completion of the road over
the mountains, was shipped to Portland, now comes to Tacoma. As the
Northern Pacific and its branches and connecting lines ramify the
entire wheat region east of the Cascades, where twenty million bushels
will be produced this year, it can be seen that an estimate of four
million five hundred thousand bushels for the present year is not a
large one. Wheat warehouses, with a capacity of five hundred thousand
bushels, have been built on the water front, and are being doubled
in size. The Northern Pacific Elevator Co. is erecting a four-story
elevator, with a capacity of a million bushels, and has elevators and
warehouses at all the principal shipping points in the interior. The
only steam flouring mill on Puget sound is located here. Not only is
this port superior to Portland as a general shipping point for grain
and flour, but it has special advantages in the China trade, which
consumes twenty-five hundred barrels per month of Pacific coast flour.
Recognizing this, gentlemen engaged largely in manufacturing flour
in Oregon are erecting an immense mill with a daily capacity of one
thousand barrels, which will begin grinding next season.

[Illustration: HOTEL ROCHESTER.




Coal shipments from the port of Tacoma average twenty-seven thousand
tons a month, being the product of mines situated in the region
immediately tributary to the city and along the line of the Northern
Pacific. These mines are owned and operated by the Carbon Hill Coal
Co., the Wilkeson Coal and Coke Co., the Tacoma Coal Co., the South
Prairie Coal Co., all in the Puyallup region, and the Bucoda Coal Co.,
south of the city. Nearly all these shipments go by sail and steamer
to the San Francisco market. The Durham coal mines, sixty miles east
of Tacoma, are just being opened, and provision is being made for a
daily output of three hundred tons. This is fine coking coal, and will
be used by the great iron smelters to be erected at Cle Elum. The mine
is the property of the Pacific Investment Co. At Roslyn, on the east
side of the mountains, are the mines of the Northern Pacific Coal Co.,
whose headquarters are in this city. Inexhaustible in quantity, and
much of it making the finest quality of coke, the coal deposits about
Tacoma must build up a very large city here. Iron ore of a superior
quality lies in immense and easily accessible deposits almost at the
city’s gate. Coal, coke and iron, with limestone in abundance, suggest
the great manufacturing possibilities, to take advantage of which an
immense enterprise is already on foot, in the form of a gigantic iron
smelting plant, to be erected at Cle Elum, near the Roslyn mines, by
the Moss Bay Iron Co., one of the largest institutions of its kind in
England, and the huge reduction works soon to be erected at Tacoma by a
company recently organized for that purpose.



Lumber is one of the chief products of Puget sound, and in the
lumbering industry Tacoma leads all other cities on the sound, or on
the Pacific coast. Mill capacity has more than doubled the present
season. In January four mills were cutting four hundred thousand feet
per day; since then five new mills have been built and two of the old
ones have increased their capacity, one of them, the Tacoma Mill Co.,
to five hundred thousand feet, making now a total output of eight
hundred and thirty-five thousand feet. This will be greatly increased
in a short time, as one of the mills, owned by the St. Paul & Tacoma
Lumber Co., is credited with only fifteen thousand feet, and is but a
temporary concern engaged in sawing timbers for an immense mill which
will be turning out five hundred thousand feet per day in a few weeks.
Another new mill will cut one hundred thousand feet, and still another
thirty-five thousand, while the capacity of another will be increased.
Thus, by the spring of 1889, Tacoma will have eleven mills cutting an
aggregate of more than one and one-half million feet of lumber per day.
On the opposite page is an engraving of the Pacific Mill, built this
year, and one of the most complete establishments of its kind in the
world, with a capacity of three hundred thousand feet a day. The larger
mills are all supplied with shingle and lath machines, and millions
of lath and cedar shingles are made daily. The output of shingles has
quadrupled within the past year. Sash and door factories have increased
in number and capacity, their product finding a market on the sound
and along the line of the Northern Pacific. Lumber is shipped from the
mills direct to California, Chili, Peru, Central America, Sandwich
islands, Australia, Japan and China, and ship timbers, spars and masts
are sent to Europe and the Atlantic coast of the United States. Often a
dozen ships are in port at one time loading lumber, and the scene along
the docks is a busy one. By rail, lumber is sent as far east as Denver
and Omaha.



Puget sound holds a leading position in the United States in the
magnitude of its logging operations. The quantity of logs put into the
water in 1888 was four hundred and thirty-four million five hundred
thousand feet. Logging is carried on to the best advantage in the
summer time, and logging railroads, sometimes several miles in length,
upon which locomotives draw cars of logs from the interior to the
sound, or to streams connecting with it, have been built by a number of
companies at great expense. In the huge size of the timber, the logger
of the west finds an obstacle to contend with that the logger of the
Michigan pineries does not encounter. Logs of six feet in diameter are
frequent, while they occasionally much exceed that figure. Ox teams
generally consist of six pairs of lusty animals, which are used to drag
the logs to the railroad or stream. In cutting down this huge timber,
the choppers use a novel device to avoid cutting through the swell near
the ground. A notch several inches deep is cut in the side of the tree,
and the end of a spring board, having an iron shoe, is put into the
notch in such a way that it is bound fast by the weight of the chopper
when he stands on it. If the first notch is not high enough, another is
cut higher up. By this method the stumps left standing are from six to
twelve feet high. When the tree is very large, two choppers work at a
time, as shown in the engraving on the opposite page.

[Illustration: LOGGING SCENES.]


At the edge of the bluff overlooking the harbor, and at the head of the
grade leading down to the water front, stands the elegant, commodious
building used for the general offices of the Northern Pacific. It is a
most substantial structure of brick and iron, cemented on the exterior
walls, having a basement, three stories and an attic, with asbestos
felt under each floor, and was completed in the fall of 1888 at a total
cost of $125,000.00. In all, the building contains fifty-three office
and store rooms, and nineteen commodious fire-proof vaults, one being
connected with every suite of rooms. It is heated by hot water, and
the interior finishing and furnishing is very elegant and ornamental.
In addition to the offices of the Northern Pacific, the building will
be occupied by the western office of the land department of the N.
P. R. R., managed by Mr. Paul Schulze, the Tacoma Land Company, Mr.
Isaac W. Anderson, manager, the Northern Pacific Coal Company, and the
Northern Pacific Express Company. This elegant and imposing structure,
occupying such a commanding site, will always be one of the most
striking architectural features of the city, proclaiming to the world
the confidence the officers of the Northern Pacific have in the future
of the great city springing up at its western terminus.



Not the least of the marvels of Tacoma’s history is the great business
blocks that have been erected, converting a forest wild into a city
of brick and stone in less than a decade. A suggestion of the massive
appearance of the buildings on a portion of one of the streets is
given by the first engraving in this volume, while on other pages are
presented engravings of a number of fine business blocks but recently
erected. Here is located the only chamber of commerce building north
of San Francisco. It is a substantial three-story stone and brick
structure, and in addition to the board of trade rooms contains
commodious offices and stores. Union block, on the corner of Eleventh
street and Pacific avenue, is a three-story and basement brick
structure, erected by Cogswell & Son and John S. Baker. It is one
hundred by one hundred and twenty feet in size, contains large stores
and office rooms and cost $55,000. Sprague Buildings is the title of
a large brick block four stories high, and extending three hundred
and eighteen feet on Pacific avenue, erected by Gen. J. W. Sprague.
It cost $75,000.00, and contains four stores for wholesale business,
each occupying four floors and basement. Germania hall is a frame
structure sixty-six by one hundred and twenty feet in size, erected by
the Germania Society, on E street, between thirteenth and fourteenth,
at a cost of $10,000.00. It contains a large hall for amusements and
meetings, with other rooms and basement. Ouimette block is a handsome
three-story brick structure on Pacific avenue. Mason block stands on
A street, one block from “The Tacoma,” and is a handsome three-story
brick edifice, with St. Louis pressed brick front and Bellingham bay
blue stone trimmings. It contains the post office, express office, a
store and many elegant office rooms. The buildings specially mentioned
are only those recently completed. Many other fine business structures
adorn the business thoroughfares and testify to the prosperity and
solid business interests of the city.





Electricity lights the business thoroughfares and many of the stores,
while gas illuminates other portions of the city. The gas works were
built in 1884, and the electric light plant, now having twenty miles of
wire, was put in by a responsible company in 1887. There is, also, an
excellent telephone service, with an extended circuit reaching Puyallup
valley. In its water works it is especially fortunate. The system was
built in 1884, at a cost of $300,000.00, and consists of eleven miles
of mains, supplied with pure water by an aqueduct ten miles in length.
The lower portion of the city is supplied by direct pressure from the
reservoir, two hundred and sixty-two feet above the harbor, while the
upper levels are served by powerful Holly pumps. A splendidly equipped
fire department gives the city ample protection from the destroying
element. In the matter of the improvement of its streets the city has
done more to show its progressive and metropolitan character than
in any other way. The leading thoroughfares are macadamized, and
throughout the entire city streets are graded and in good condition.
There are thirty-five miles of graded streets and fifty miles of
sidewalk within the city limits. A horse car line runs the entire
length of Pacific avenue from the water front, and a motor line runs
out to Division avenue and Tacoma avenue, and along the latter both
north and south for a long distance.

[Illustration: MASON BLOCK--TACOMA.]


Whenever so young a city as Tacoma is mentioned it is generally
spoken of as a prospective metropolis, whose present growth is based
largely upon the future. Great as Tacoma’s future is sure to be, its
present condition has not been reached by discounting it nor is its
great prosperity due to large drafts on future industries. It has now
many establishments which employ a large number of hands, pay many
thousands of dollars to workmen monthly, and turn out a manufactured
product valued at millions of dollars annually. One of these branches
of industry is the saw mills and sash factories spoken of elsewhere, in
which Tacoma is one of the leading cities of the world. Besides this
there are a furniture factory, iron foundry, machine shops, flouring
mills, car shops, and a number of smaller industries. The car shops
of the Northern Pacific are located here, and give employment to a
large number of hands. The huge reduction works being erected here,
the flouring mills, and the gigantic iron smelting enterprise at Cle
Elum, have been mentioned on other pages. The only coking ovens on the
coast are located near the city and are owned by Tacoma parties. These
enterprises are enough to account for the prosperous condition of the
city, yet they are but an index of the manufacturing which will be done
here in a few years. Situated in the midst of coal, iron, limestone,
and hard and soft wood timber, all of unlimited quantity and superior
quality; occupying the position of actual and operating terminus of a
great transcontinental railroad, which renders tributary to it a vast
empire producing cereals, stock, fruit, hops and other agricultural
products in abundance, and is the outlet for a dozen of the richest
mining districts in the west; and being already the largest shipping
port on the greatest inland harbor on the Pacific coast, its future as
a manufacturing city is assured beyond all question.




Rearing its great mass of snow and ice far above the surrounding
mountains, Mt. Tacoma is the most commanding object in every Puget
sound landscape, and is never seen to better advantage than from the
streets of Tacoma. Its height is fourteen thousand four hundred and
forty-four feet, exceeding that of any other of the numerous snow
peaks of the Cascades, and in beauty of form and location it stands
pre-eminent the monarch of the mountains. Captain George Vancouver,
the discoverer and original explorer of Puget sound, in May, 1792,
named this mountain “Rainier,” in honor of Rear Admiral Rainier, of
the English navy, but the people of Puget sound, who can see no reason
why the original and characteristic names given such objects by the
aborigines should be changed, have discarded that title and restored
the Indian name “Tacoma.” It is a beautiful name and most appropriate,
meaning “near to heaven.” Ascents of the mountain are very frequently
made by tourists, arrangements for which can be made in Tacoma. The
view from its summit is grand beyond description, and the wild and
rugged nature of its glaciers, gorges, canyons and rocky precipices
give the mountain climber all the excitement he can reasonably
desire. Mountain sheep and goats are hunted amid its glaciers by the
venturesome sportsman, and the forests of the surrounding mountains are
full of game that will try the nerve and skill of the most experienced
hunter, no matter from what quarter of the globe he may come.



Yearly the output of ores in the mines of Oregon, Washington and
Northern Idaho is increasing. Not only are the older mines enlarging
their yield, but new ones are constantly being developed. New mineral
discoveries are made frequently and the number of mining districts
increases every year. The remarkable mines being developed in the
Cœur d’Alene, Okanagan, Colville, Pine Creek, Cracker Creek and
other districts, have placed this region in the front rank of mining
interests in the United States, and point to a future of unbroken
prosperity for many years. At some point so situated as to reach
each of these districts with almost equal facility, and where all
the essentials for the reduction of ores, such as coal, iron, wood,
limestone, etc., exist or can be cheaply procured, will be established
immense reduction works. Such a point is Tacoma, and a project is
already well advanced to inaugurate this industry on an extensive
scale. A smelting company has been incorporated with a capital stock of
$1,000,000.00, and ground has been secured on the water front for the
extensive buildings required. The plant will have a daily capacity of
two hundred tons at first, but this will be enlarged after the business
is well established. President and chief promoter of this enterprise is
Mr. Dennis Ryan, proprietor of the famous Hotel Ryan, of St. Paul, and
extensively engaged in mining enterprises. The marvelously rich ores
of Alaska will be drawn upon largely, and will find here their nearest
market. All the indications point to Tacoma as the head of the mining
industry in this region not only because of its reduction works, but
because of the large investments its capitalists are making in mining



Parks are the adjuncts of cities of more mature years than this young
giant of Puget sound, but nature has provided here that which many
other cities acquire only by the outlay of much money and labor through
a series of years. Lying south of the city, and but a short distance
beyond its present limits, is a beautiful, level, gravelly plain,
studded with oak trees, in the midst of which are lakes of clear,
sparkling water. American lake, shown in the engraving opposite, where
it forms the foreground for a beautiful landscape, of which Mount
Tacoma is the central figure, attracts hundreds of pleasure seekers.
Its waters teem with trout, and its shining surface offers both the
oarsman and the yachtsman an opportunity to indulge in their favorite
amusement. The drive from the city to the park is one of keen enjoyment
to one whose eye drinks in the beauties of nature, and who delights
to fill his lungs with the pure air, fragrant with the odor of forest
and mountain. Other drives, in and about the city, offer the visitor
exhilarating pleasure and beautiful landscapes. Not the least of the
enjoyments of the tourist temporarily sojourning in the city is the row
or sail on the placid waters of the harbor, or the more exciting sport
of trolling for salmon in the bay. As many as a dozen fine salmon,
from five to fifteen pounds in weight, are often caught in a few hours
in the early morning. A boat house stands at the water’s edge, where
row and sail boats may be procured, and morning and evening and on
moonlight nights at a late hour, these little craft dart over the bay
with their loads of pleasure seekers.



Education in its higher forms was one of the first thoughts of the
intelligent and liberal men who founded Tacoma, and in this matter
Mr. C. B. Wright, formerly president, and still a director, of the
Northern Pacific railroad, has taken the lead. The Annie Wright
seminary, named in honor of the daughter of Mr. Wright, was endowed by
him with $50,000.00, and was erected in 1884 at a cost of $35,000.00,
with funds raised in the east by Rt. Rev. J. A. Paddock, D.D. It
stands at the corner of Tacoma and Division avenues, on two irregular
blocks of ground donated by the Tacoma Land Company. It is under the
charge of Mrs. L. H. Wells, principal, assisted by a corps of fifteen
instructors, and has an attendance of one hundred and thirty-five
young ladies. Washington college was also endowed by Mr. Wright with
$50,000.00, and was erected with funds raised by Bishop Paddock in
Tacoma and in the east. It occupies a commanding site donated by the
Tacoma Land Co., facing eastward upon Tacoma avenue. It is under the
charge of D. S. Pulford, A.M., head master, assisted by E. P. Young,
A.M., and a complete corps of instructors. Both of these institutions
are Episcopal in their origin and management. The Methodists have
selected Tacoma as the seat of a university to be under the auspices
of that denomination. Large and valuable grounds have been donated by
citizens, and buildings to cost $100,000.00 will soon be erected. These
institutions place Tacoma far in the lead in educational matters in the
northwest. The religious denominations are well represented in the city
by numerous church edifices, but sufficient time has not yet elapsed
for the erection of many very large or costly churches. A handsome
stone structure is St. Luke’s Memorial church, erected by Mr. Wright at
a cost of $25,000. Mention should also be made of the Fannie C. Paddock
Memorial hospital, dedicated to the memory of the wife of Bishop
Paddock who did such good work in founding the other institutions.





Quite as much praise should be bestowed upon the citizens of Tacoma
for the excellent public school system they have created as for the
wonders they have achieved in the construction of a substantial city
in so brief a period. Public schools have been recognized as one of
the fundamental necessities of society throughout the west generally,
and wherever the nucleus of a city has been planted, the public school
system has formed part of the seed. Especially in Tacoma is this regard
for the educational welfare of the rising generation exhibited in a
marked degree. Six school buildings have been erected, engravings of
which are given on the opposite page, and these will soon be inadequate
to accommodate the children applying for admission. In 1880 but one
hundred children attended the single school. By 1884 this had increased
to four hundred, to five hundred in 1885, and now, in 1888, no less
than fifteen hundred children are enjoying the advantages of free
instruction in the six school buildings. The schools are thoroughly
systematized and graded from the primary to the high school department,
and are under the charge of a competent superintendent, ably assisted
by a large corps of teachers. The enterprise, liberality and good
citizenship displayed in thus providing promptly and adequately for the
needs of the ever-increasing numbers of school children, is an evidence
of the energy and intelligence of the citizens, and explains much that
seems wonderful in the phenomenal growth of the city.






Great sport was made of Tacoma’s railroad aspirations a few years ago,
but now things have assumed a different aspect. This city is now not
only the theoretical, but the actual, terminus of the Northern Pacific
railroad. Here are located the company’s general offices, the offices
of the land department, the western car shops, and all the docks and
terminal facilities owned by the company on the Pacific coast. The
lines of this road not only extend east to St. Paul, and thus connect
with all the eastern trunk roads, but pass through the heart of the
region whose products reach market through the ports of the Pacific.
All of this vast interior region is now opened to Tacoma, and trade
relations are rapidly being established. In addition to this, the
Portland branch gives access to the rich section lying south of the
city. In addition to this line the merchants of Tacoma have direct
connection by steamer with the terminus of the Canadian Pacific,
and thus have another through route to the east. Lines now under
construction north will connect Tacoma with the Canadian Pacific by
rail. The extension to a Puget sound harbor of the Southern Pacific
railroad, now as far north as Portland, has been practically announced
by gentlemen connected with that company, and that the Union Pacific
will also seek a Puget sound terminus is quite certain. Both of these
roads, and in fact, any road building north from the Columbia, west of
the Cascades, will undoubtedly come to Tacoma. The Tacoma Southern is
being built south from Crocker, on the Northern Pacific, into a body of
timber fifteen miles distant. This is looked upon as a link in a line
to the Columbia. The Tacoma, Olympia & Chehalis Valley R. R. Co. has
been incorporated, to build a line from Gray’s harbor up the Chehalis
valley and across the Cascade mountains to the Columbia, with a branch
running north to Tacoma. This would give this city another line to
the Inland Empire, as well as a line to Gray’s harbor and the fertile
Chehalis valley.



Desiring to open the Northern Pacific to travel and traffic a year
earlier than was possible if they waited for the completion of the
huge tunnel through the Cascades, a great passage blasted through the
mountains ninety-eight hundred and fifty feet in length, the officers
decided to construct a line over the summit on the “switchback”
principle, at a cost of $300,000.00. It was completed early in the
summer of 1887, having seven miles of track and an average grade
of nearly three hundred feet to the mile. Huge decapod (ten drive
wheels) locomotives were built for this service, the most powerful
ever constructed. Two decapods are used, one at each end of the short
train. The bottom line of the diagram represents the main track at
the mouth of the tunnel. The train moves ahead until it passes the
switch S, and then moves backward and upward until it passes the next
switch, thus alternating until the summit is gained, when it descends
on the opposite side in the same manner. The general principle of the
“switchback” is clearly shown in the following diagram:


Since the completion of the tunnel, early in the summer of 1888, the
switchback has not been used for general traffic. The scenery of the
mountains is enchanting, the view from the line of the switchback being
grand beyond description.



Beautiful and costly residences, occupying commanding sites and
standing in the midst of green lawns ornamented with a profusion of
flowers and shrubs, are one of the noticeable features of Tacoma, and
they speak of the culture and refinement, as well as the material
prosperity of the people. In the topography of the ground upon which
the city is situated, an excellent opportunity is offered for elegant
and sightly residences. Rising in a gradual ascent from the business
portion, the residence area offers an unbroken view across the bay and
valley to the mountains, so that the windows of nearly every house in
the city command a view of the snow-crowned monarch of the Cascades,
set in a landscape of wonderful beauty. Many extremely elegant and
costly residences have been erected. Among these are the homes of
Gen. J. W. Sprague, J. M. Buckley, Esq., J. S. Baker, Esq., Isaac W.
Anderson, Esq., Geo. E. Atkinson, Esq., A. C. Smith, Esq., Allen C.
Mason, Esq., and E. Pierce, Esq., engravings of which are given on
the opposite and succeeding pages. For so young a city, and one whose
energies have been taxed to the utmost to provide facilities for its
expanding business, the number of beautiful homes is remarkable,
and indicates that its people recognize the advantages nature has
given them to build up here one of the most beautiful cities on the
continent. They are accomplishing this very rapidly.





Hops are the leading agricultural product of the Puget sound region,
and hop ranches are nearly all directly tributary to Tacoma. Puyallup
valley, whose fame as a hop producing section has encircled the world,
lies just east of the city, the line of the Northern Pacific passing
directly through it. Upwards of three thousand acres are now in vine,
which yielded twenty thousand bales in 1887, and twenty-five thousand
in 1888, when an average of one thousand seven hundred pounds per acre
of both old and young vines was secured. The superior quality of the
cones, the freedom from pests and disease, the enormous yield and the
rapid growth of young vines, combine to render this region foremost in
the world in its adaptability to this special crop. Not only does the
Puyallup valley produce hops, but other crops as well. Several thriving
villages and numerous highly cultivated farms attest the prosperity of
its people, as well as giving evidence of the valuable nature of the
agricultural area immediately tributary to Tacoma. Puyallup hops are
in demand in Japan, Europe and the eastern states of America, because
of their superior quality and appearance. In the picking season the
hop fields are the scene of great industry, and the numerous camps of
pickers present a pleasing picture as the train passes up the valley.

[Illustration: J. M. BUCKLEY.




A common expression of visitors is that “real estate is too high,” and
many decline to invest in property for that reason, only to repent not
many months later when values have advanced on all classes of property.
Six years ago the same opinion was expressed, and the prediction was
made that property values would take a tumble, and that the “boom”
would collapse. Even in the “hard times” of 1884-5 these predictions
were not realized. Values were fully sustained, and as soon as the
nation began to recover from its financial depression, Tacoma real
estate again started upward, and is still steadily advancing. The lot
that was “too high” at $50 in 1883, and again declared “too high” at
$200 in 1886, is now worth $500. The same opportunities exist to-day
to buy lots at $50 and $100 that will in a few years be worth ten
times their present value. Property in residence sections is a safe
investment. The Sawyer addition lies near the center of the residence
portion and contains one hundred and ninety lots, sixty-five of which
are sold. Water is on the ground and street cars are within two
blocks, while the Methodist university will be erected within one
block. Oakland addition lies in the southwestern portion of the city
overlooking the natural park, and is most desirable residence property.
Traver’s addition is but one-half mile from the city limits, easy of
access by good roads, and near the present terminus of the steam motor
line. This is most desirable property, and is selling at $100 per lot
on easy terms. White & Ouimette’s addition lies one and one-half miles
from the limits, near the line of Hart’s railroad, and lots are sold at
$50 each on the installment plan. Five years from now those who fail
to invest in this class of residence property will be regretting it as
keenly as do those now who made the same mistake about $50 and $100
lots five years ago. The increase in real estate values is best shown
by the city assessment roll. In 1880 it was but $517,927; in 1886,
$4,092,119; and in two years has increased to a total of $6,555,433.
There has been a general advance in all classes of property, and no
matter how high it has ever seemed to be, it is higher now and will be
still higher a year hence.

[Illustration: A. C. SMITH.




Many advantages are possessed by Tacoma which can not fail to result
in building up here a large commercial city. A very large wholesale
business is already established in many important lines of trade,
and some of the largest and most complete retail stores to be found
on the Pacific coast are located here. As an index of the condition
of trade here the banking statistics are valuable. There are four
national banks, one large private bank and a savings bank. The combined
capital stock of these institutions is $630,000. The four national
banks have $1,930,000 deposits, $1,892,000 discounts and $120,000
surplus and undivided profits. Such a showing of banking business
indicates a volume of trade of large proportions, and as deposits
have nearly doubled during the past year, the growth of trade is
certainly remarkable. Tacoma’s position as the terminus of a great
overland railway, as well as the terminal port on Puget sound for all
local and ocean steamer lines, is one that assures it an enormous
jobbing trade throughout the entire northwest. As a port of shipment
for the coal, lumber, grain, iron, minerals and manufactured and
agricultural products of an immense region, it must necessarily be
the chief commercial point of the same section, and this is the cause
of the marvelous increase in business during the first year after the
completion of the railroad across the mountains. Foreign commerce
already seeks this port for entrance into the United States. The sails
of a clipper ship from China and Japan is a common sight in the harbor,
and will be more frequent in the future. A line of steamers connecting
the Northern Pacific with the ports of China, Japan, Australia and New
Zealand is one of the certainties of a not distant future. Having the
advantage over San Francisco of a much shorter route to China, Tacoma,
as the chief port on Puget sound, can not fail to be a formidable rival
to that city for the Oriental trade.

[Illustration: ALLEN C. MASON.




Between the harbor of Tacoma as it was in 1880 and as it is to-day
there is as strong a contrast as between a wilderness and a walled
city, and yet the harbor of the city of ten years hence will present
a still stronger contrast. Along the western shore of Commencement
bay run the numerous tracks of the Northern Pacific, along which have
been erected most costly wharfs, warehouses, docks, coal bunkers and
numerous other commercial facilities. Saw mills have multiplied and
other factories are being located. On the opposite page is given an
engraving of a portion of the water front, showing coal bunkers, saw
mill and other features. Between the row of piles on the right of
the foreground and the city, which lies to the left, is the channel
of Puyallup river, not accessible to vessels at low tide. Here most
extensive improvements have been planned, consisting of dredging the
channel and constructing deep water docks along both sides of it. An
immense area of mud flats lies back of the row of piling mentioned,
which will be cut off from water by this work, and rendered available
for commercial purposes. Here will be located factories, warehouses
and wholesale stores of the future city. A mammoth saw mill is already
being constructed on the flats. By this means large additions will be
made to the water front, already six miles in length, and the docks
and channel will pierce the heart of the city. Objection has sometimes
been made to the fact that the harbor is so deep that vessels can not
anchor near the docks. There is good holding ground farther out in the
bay, and the docking facilities being provided will remove any possible
objection. In its harbor Tacoma has all that is required by the largest
city in the world.



One of the favorite summer resorts of the northwest is situated on
the line of the Northern Pacific, sixty-one miles east of Tacoma,
in the Cascade mountains. This is the celebrated Green River Hot
Springs, five in number, with a temperature varying from 118° to 122°
Fahrenheit, which were discovered four years ago. A comfortable hotel,
with accommodations for a large number of people, and ten cottages
have already been erected. Green river is the most beautiful mountain
stream in the west, and teems with trout and salmon. It derives its
name from the green hue of its clear, transparent waters, brilliant
in the sunlight and dark green in the shade. The mountains are full
of deer, bear, mountain sheep, grouse and other game. No shooting is
permitted within two hundred and fifty yards of the hotel, but the
hunter and angler has not far to go to find employment for his rod
and gun. Tourists will find this place the most delightful for a few
days’ rest in the whole extent of their journey through the west. This
has been recognized by hundreds, who have availed themselves of the
opportunity to enjoy the pleasure and sport here afforded. Invalids,
especially, find in the medicinal qualities of the water, the pure,
bracing atmosphere of the mountains, the wholesome food, and the sense
of rest and freedom from care, just the conditions necessary for their
restoration to health. The waters are a specific for rheumatism,
catarrh, kidney troubles, skin and blood diseases, etc., and their
virtue is attested by hundreds who have been benefited by them. A post
office and telegraph station have been established at the hotel, and
the sojourner there need not feel that he is completely isolated from
the world, while daily trains pass the hotel to carry him away in case
of urgent need. Persons desirous of securing accommodations in advance
of arrival should address, by mail or telegraph, I. G. McCain & Co.,
Hot Springs, W. T.



From a picturesque standpoint, Puget sound possesses attractions of a
high order. Its shores, which, in the main, come down in bluffy steeps
to the very margin of the waters, are lined with verdant firs. Here and
there the rolling hills are broken, where some stream pours down from
the mountains and flows through a fertile valley, covered with a rank
growth of forests of cedar, fir, maple, alder, cottonwood and creeping
vines, save where the hand of man has cleared a way for the plow, and
converted the forest wild into green meadows and fields of grain. Back
from the shores, the forests rise in successive terraces as they climb
the mountain sides, and soften their rugged outlines clear to their
summits, save where here and there some giant snow peak thrusts its
hoary head far above the green mantle of the mountains, and challenges
the traveler’s eye from whatever direction he may be approaching. On a
clear, warm, bracing day in early summer time, the traveler down the
sound has almost constantly in view one of these snowy summits. Mount
Tacoma to the southeast, Mount Baker to the northeast, and the long,
serrated ridge of the Olympic range to the west, all hold their snowy
crowns aloft for his inspection. The calm, deep waters of the sound,
like the bosom of a mountain tarn, reflect the sun’s rays by day, and
by night glisten under the shimmering light of the moon. A journey down
its winding channels, through its narrow passages, among its hundreds
of islands, past its cities, towns and busy mills, the eye constantly
greeted by new and ever-changing landscapes of beauty, is one never to
be forgotten by him who takes it when a clear sky and full moon combine
to reveal its beauties, both day and night. Tacoma’s location renders
it the best headquarters for tourists while enjoying the beauties of
the sound.

           *       *       *       *       *

                        “JUSTICE” IS OUR MOTTO!

                            GROSS BROTHERS,

                              LEADERS IN

                  Dry Goods, Clothing, Carpets, Etc.,

           906-908 PACIFIC AVENUE, 905-907 RAILROAD STREET,

                       Samples Sent to any part
                            of the Country.

                             TACOMA, W. T.

                        SQUARE DEALING TO ALL.

           *       *       *       *       *

                             IMPORTERS OF
                              JAPAN TEAS.

                          JNO. S. BAKER & CO.

                           WHOLESALE GROCERS
                         COMMISSION MERCHANTS.

           No. 914 Pacific Avenue, No. 913 Railroad Street,
                             TACOMA, W. T.

                       IMPORTERS AND JOBBERS OF
                         CIGARS AND TOBACCOS.

           *       *       *       *       *

                              C. LANGERT,

                            SOLE AGENT FOR

                             “OLD TAYLOR”

                                FOR THE
                         NORTH PACIFIC COAST.

           *       *       *       *       *

                              C. LANGERT,

                   Importer and Wholesale Dealer in
                       Wines, Liquors & Cigars.

                          Sole Agent for the
                      Celebrated “Camille” Clear
                            Havana Key West
                       Schlitz Milwaukee Bottled
                       Beer, and Piper Heidseick

                      EASTERN AND KEY WEST CIGARS
                             A SPECIALTY.

                    Nos. 710 & 712 PACIFIC AVENUE,
                             TACOMA, W. T.

           *       *       *       *       *

                              C. LANGERT,

                            SOLE AGENT FOR

                              FOREST KING
                              OLD BOURBON


                          THE PACIFIC COAST.

           *       *       *       *       *

                          WASHINGTON COLLEGE,
                        BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL
                          YOUNG MEN AND BOYS.

      FACULTY.--D. S. Pulford, A.M., of Racine College, Head Master,
      assisted by E. P. Young, A.M., late Superintendent of Public
      Schools of Tacoma, and a corps of other competent teachers.

      Strict discipline. Pleasant home life, comfortable rooms.
      Building heated with furnaces. Supplied with hot and cold
      water, baths, etc.

      For further particulars, address or call upon

      D. S. PULFORD, Head Master Washington College, Tacoma, W. T.

           *       *       *       *       *

                              HOTEL FIFE,
                             TACOMA, W. T.

      First Class in Every Respect. Conducted on the European Plan.
      W. H. FIFE, Proprietor.

           *       *       *       *       *

                       C. A. DARMER. WM. FARRELL

                           FARRELL & DARMER,


                          TACOMA, WASH. TER.

           *       *       *       *       *

                       THE GREAT OVERLAND ROUTE.


      The only line running Pullman Palace Sleeping Cars, Magnificent
      Day Coaches and Elegant Emigrant Sleeping Cars, with berths
      Free of Charge, from Washington and Oregon points to the East

                      SAINT PAUL AND MINNEAPOLIS.

      The only Transcontinental line running Palace Dining Cars
      (meals, 75 cents). Fastest time ever made from the Coast over
      the Northern Pacific Railroad to Sioux City, Council Bluffs,
      St. Joseph, Atchison, Leavenworth, Kansas City, Burlington,
      Quincy, St. Louis, Chicago and all points throughout the East
      and Southeast via St. Paul and Minneapolis. Emigrant Sleeping
      Cars are hauled on regular express trains over the entire
      length of The Northern Pacific Railroad. No change of cars of
      any class. Passengers can save $5.00 to $6.00 by buying through
      eastern tickets from agents at Tacoma.

      FAST EXPRESS TO THE EAST Leaves Tacoma, going east, at 8.55 a.
      m, daily. Arrive at Minneapolis or St. Paul at 5.05 p.m., third
      day. Connections made at St. Paul and Minneapolis to all points
      east, south and southeast.

      PACIFIC DIVISION. Trains leave Tacoma at 7.30 a.m. and 6.30
      p.m. daily. Arrive at Portland at 2.30 p.m. and 1.05 a.m. The
      7.30 a.m. train makes connections with O. R. & N. train and O.
      & C. train. Trains leave Portland for Tacoma at 2.00 a.m. and
      11.05 a.m. daily. Arrive at Tacoma at 8.35 a.m. and 6.30 p.m.,
      connecting with O. R. & N. Co’s boats for all points on Puget
      sound. Trains arrive from Seattle at 6.50 a.m. and 5.00 p.m.
      Trains leave for Seattle at 9.50 a.m. and 7.00 p.m.

        G. G. CHANDLER,
        Traveling Freight & Pass. Agt., 901½ Pacific Ave.

        W. H. HARRIS,
        Ticket Agent at Wharf, Tacoma.

        A. J. ODENEAL,
        Ticket Agent Pacific Avenue Depot.

        A. D. CHARLTON,
        Assistant General Passenger Agent, No. 2 Washington St., Portland.

           *       *       *       *       *

                      Traver’s Addition to Tacoma

      Is situated but a short distance west of the popular Oakes
      addition, which is reached by the new motor railroad, joining
      and north of the Cascade Park addition, with the streets
      conforming to the same. This desirable property is only
      one-half mile from the city limits, easy of access by good
      roads, one through the Cascade park, the other on the east line
      (new county) road. Bishop Paddock purchased ten acres of the
      above tract less than one year ago, which has been platted with
      this addition, as requested before his departure for Europe.
      The surveyors have just completed their work in platting.


      A few lots will be offered at $100.00 each; $50.00 cash,
      balance on easy terms. For particulars and plats, address or
      call on

                   GEO. W. TRAVER, Hotel Fife Block.

      Carriage in readiness to show the property at all times. Large
      list of business, residence, farm and addition properties.

           *       *       *       *       *

                       LAND, LOAN AND TRUST CO.

         Incorporated Under the Laws of Washington Territory.

                         CAPITAL, $300,000.00

      Debenture Bonds, Guaranteed Mortgages, Corporation Bonds and
      other Choice Investment Securities for Sale.

      Write for Pamphlets. Correspondence Solicited. Offices, No. 118
      South Tenth St., TACOMA, W. T.

           *       *       *       *       *

      S. A. WHEELWRIGHT, Pres. and Treas. COLIN McINTOSH, Sec’y and Supt.

                     TACOMA FOUNDRY & MACHINE CO.

                    TACOMA, W. T. Manufacturers of
                     STATIONARY & MARINE ENGINES,
                            Mill and Mining
                          Steamboat, Railroad
                           And all kinds of
                             Machine Work.

                       BRASS AND IRON CASTINGS.

      Repairing of Every Description Executed with Promptness and

           *       *       *       *       *

                 Cashier. R. J. DAVIS, Asst. Cashier.

                       MERCHANT’S NATIONAL BANK,
                        OLDEST BANK IN TACOMA.

   In their own building, corner Pacific Avenue and Eleventh Street.

      Paid Up Capital, $100,000. Surplus, OVER DIVIDENDS, $35,000


                           M. F. Hatch,
                           L. F. Thompson,
                           M. M. Harvey,
                           Geo. F. Orchard,
                           Henry Drum,
                           W. J. Thompson.

      Deposits, large or small, of Individuals, Firms or Banks
      receive careful attention. Collections made and proceeds
      promptly remitted. Interest on time deposits.

           *       *       *       *       *

      GEN. J. W. SPRAGUE, President. W. B. BLACKWELL, Vice President.
                          W. FRASER, Cashier.

                         TACOMA NATIONAL BANK,


              PAID UP CAPITAL, $100,000 SURPLUS, $50,000

                  DIRECTORS:--J. W. Sprague,
                              R. Wingate,
                              W. B. Blackwell,
                              Geo. E. Atkinson,
                              I. W. Anderson.

      This bank transacts a general Banking Business. Interest is
      allowed on Time Deposits. Sight Exchange and Telegraphic
      Transfers sold on New York, St. Paul, San Francisco, Portland,
      Walla Walla, Olympia, Seattle, Port Townsend, and other points
      in the United States and British Columbia. Foreign Exchange
      sold on London and the other principal cities of Europe, and on
      Hong Kong. Special attention paid to Collections.

           *       *       *       *       *

      Persons coming to Puget Sound with a view of making a home,
      or investing in real estate, should, before deciding upon
      a location, visit different points, study the geographical
      position of the several cities and towns, note the character
      of the population, and examine the relative business and
      commercial prospects of each, and then determine. ROSS &
      NAUBERT, Real Estate Agents, will take pleasure in showing the
      “City of Destiny” to any who may desire to avail themselves of
      the opportunity. Office, 1001 A street, Mason Block, Tacoma, W. T.

           *       *       *       *       *

                            ALLEN C. MASON,
                      REAL ESTATE & LOAN BROKER,
                              OF TACOMA,

      Has loaned upwards of one and one-half millions of dollars on
      Washington Territory real estate for his clients without the
      loss of a dollar to them in principal or interest.

      For desirable investments in real estate, or loans, call on or
      address him.

                1007 A ST., MASON BLOCK, TACOMA, W. T.

           *       *       *       *       *

                      INCORPORATED. $100,000.00.

                        TACOMA GROCERY COMPANY,
                            TACOMA, W. T.,
                          WHOLESALE GROCERS.

           Proprietors of the Puget Coffee and Spice Mills.

                       CHAS. E. HALE, President.
                       MATHEW M. SLOAN, Vice President.
                       JOHN G. CAMPBELL, Secretary.
                       JOHN S. BAKER, Treasurer.

                         Office and Warehouse,
                        1527-1541 PACIFIC AVE.

           *       *       *       *       *


                      NORTH PACIFIC NEWS COMPANY.

        Newspapers, Periodicals and Pamphlets, Office and Fine

                     DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED CIGARS.

         All the Latest Publications in Bound and Cheap form.


                 No. 930 Pacific Avenue, TACOMA, W. T.

           *       *       *       *       *


                        THOMPSON, PRATT & CO.,
                             IMPORTERS AND
                          WHOLESALE GROCERS,

                           OUR SPECIALTIES:
                   Teas, Coffees, Tobaccos, Cigars,
                       WOODENWARE, PURE SPICES,
                      PURE SILVER BAKING POWDER.

                      Nos. 709-711 Railroad St.,
                             TACOMA, W. T.

           *       *       *       *       *

                  London & Liverpool Clothing House,
           902-904 Pacific Avenue, Corner Ninth St., TACOMA.

            The Leading Clothiers, Hatters and Furnishers.


           Mail Orders filled with Promptness and Despatch.

                    CHAS. REICHENBACH, Proprietor.

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