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Title: Thoughts on the Proposed Inclosure of Waltham (commonly called Epping) and Hainault Forests
Author: An Old Inhabitant
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Thoughts on the Proposed Inclosure of Waltham (commonly called Epping) and Hainault Forests" ***

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Transcribed from the 1818 edition by David Price, email ccx074@pglaf.org

                             SECOND EDITION.

                                  ON THE
                            PROPOSED INCLOSURE
                         (COMMONLY CALLED EPPING)
                            HAINAULT FORESTS;
                                 IN WHICH
                                A NEW PLAN
                               IS SUGGESTED
                       FOR DISAFFORESTING THE SAME:
          _The Heads of the Bill now proposed for that Purpose_.

                                * * * * *

    “Is not the separate Property of a Thing the great Cause of its
    endearment?  Does any one respect a Common as much as he does his


                                * * * * *

                         _BY AN OLD INHABITANT_.

                                * * * * *


                       OPPOSITE THE ROYAL EXCHANGE;
    And can be had of the Newsmen in the several Parishes of Barking,
   Chinkford, Dagenham, Epping, East Ham, Great Ilford, Little Ilford,
   Leyton, Loughton, Lambourne, Nazing, Theydon-Bois, Stapleford-Abbot,
     Stratford, West Ham, Wanstead, Walthamstow, Waltham Holy Cross,
          Woodford; and of Messrs. Chalk and Meggy, Chelmsford.


                         [_Price One Shilling_.]

                                * * * * *

_Waltham and Hainault Forests_.


_WHEN I took the liberty of addressing you_, _in January last_, _on the
subject of the projected inclosure of these Forests_, _I could not
foresee that the plan I submitted to general consideration would have
been adopted by the Commissioners of Woods and Forests_, _which it
appears_, _by the Heads of the Bill_, _they now propose bringing into
Parliament has been done_; _and the giving effect to a plan_, _on the
mere suggestion of a private individual_, _whose name was not even known
to them_, _shews_, _on their part_, _the strongest desire_, _in executing
the duties of their office_, _to afford every possible degree of
accommodation to the interest and convenience of the persons to be
affected by it_.  _Connected as I am with gentlemen who have considerable
property in these Forests_, _I do earnestly hope that the plan I have
suggested_, _and which has been_, _on the part of the Commissioners of
Woods and Forests_, _so liberally adopted_, _will be carried into
effect_; _and_, _at the request of several friends_, _I have been induced
to re-publish my Thoughts on the subject_, _in the hope that they may
have some weight_, _with my readers_, _in convincing them of the
expediency of giving their earnest support to the Bill now proposed_.

_I remain_, _Gentlemen_,

                          _With great respect_.

                                             _Your very obedient servant_,
                                                          _THOMAS STREET_,

_Philpot-Lane_, _London_,
      15_th_ _April_, 1818.

THOUGHTS, &c. &c.

THE local knowledge acquired by occasional residence, for many years
past, in the Forest of Waltham and the neighbourhood, and its having been
the favourite spot where I have indulged in occasional relaxation from
professional pursuits, my attention has been drawn to the notice given of
an intended application to Parliament for an inclosure of that and also
of Hainault Forest, and the controversy which has taken place respecting
such a proceeding has induced me to peruse the papers that have been
published on the subject, and to reduce to writing a few observations
thereon; and, although my remarks are intended to apply more particularly
to the neighbourhood of Woodford, yet I think they will be found not
inapplicable to the interests of the landed proprietors in general within
the precincts of these Forests.

I, some time since, understood, from authority, the correctness of which
I have no reason to doubt, that it was not the intention of the Crown to
press for a general inclosure of these Forests, but merely to obtain a
reasonable compensation (to be settled by the Commissioners under the
proposed Act) for disafforesting both Waltham and Hainault Forests, and
extinguishing the rights of the Crown therein.  I hare considered the
subject with much attention, and I confess that I could hardly have
pictured to myself any thing so desirable to the owners of landed
property in and adjoining to these Forests, as their being relieved from
the rights of the Crown, rights from which, in point of fact, the Crown
derives no sort of benefit; but, on the contrary, incurs an annual
expense of £300, (as appears by the 15th Report of the Commissioners of
Woods and Forests,) and which have been, for many years past, a continual
source of complaint on the part of the land-owners and inhabitants.  I
was, therefore, much surprised, on perusing the resolutions passed, on
the 26th November last, at a Meeting of the Freeholders and others,
possessing landed property in the parish of Woodford, to find them so
strongly deprecate the proposed inclosure.

As to the proposition respecting Hainault Forest:—the principal part of
it, which is occupied by the growth of timber, is so low and swampy, that
no human being would ever think of building in such a situation, and the
land could not be brought into cultivation without an enormous expense in
grubbing up the timber, and draining the soil.  If, therefore, we give
the Commissioners for the Inclosure credit for a reasonable degree of
judgment and discretion, it is within this part of the Forest, so well
calculated for the growth of timber, that they would undoubtedly
appropriate the 2,000 acres to be inclosed as a nursery for that purpose,
and for which it would be a situation peculiarly advantageous, on account
of its easy communication with water-carriage and the dock-yard at
Woolwich.  I really cannot discover what injury could be done to the
land-owners surrounding that spot, who, according to the plan proposed,
would have a thousand acres of uninclosed land left subject only to the
custom of the manor, within which their lands happen to lie, and totally
free from the intervention of the forty days court; the frequent and
inconvenient interference of which, in the exercise of the duty imposed
on them of protecting the rights of the Crown, and preventing the deer
being deprived of the herbage, has been so generally complained of by
persons within its jurisdiction.

At the meeting held at Woodford, on the 26th of November last, certain
resolutions were entered into, in which the persons passing them seemed
to have been impressed with an idea, that a general inclosure was meant
to be forced upon them, which, I believe, it never was in the
contemplation of the Commissioners of Woods and Forests to attempt; and,
in their eagerness to oppose such a measure, they have in my opinion,
overlooked the beneficial effect which must necessarily result from a
partial inclosure, and passed some resolutions founded on erroneous
principles; for instance, the first resolution asserts “that no injury is
sustained in the said parish by the depasturing of the deer.”  Now, it is
most extraordinary how such an allegation could be made and sanctioned by
the majority at such a meeting; for, to my certain knowledge, for upwards
of thirty years past, the depredations committed by the deer have been a
continual subject of complaint by the inhabitants of the parish of

In the next resolution it is stated, that, “at the date of the 15th
Report of the Commissioners of Woods and Forests, it appeared, by the
evidence of Bamber Gascoyne, Esq. that the utter destruction of his
Majesty’s deer had, at that time, almost taken place, and that the
persons present at that meeting had yet to learn that the number of deer
had so materially increased, since that Report was made, as to render a
total disafforestation or general inclosure necessary.”  If those
gentlemen are really disposed to learn what the state of the deer now is
in the Forest, they have only to ride about for a few hours in the
retired parts of it, and they will see such herds as will easily convince
them, that (presuming the Report, above alluded to, to be strictly
accurate in this respect) the numbers must have increased prodigiously
within the last twenty-five years; and this may be readily accounted for,
when it is admitted that only twenty one brace annually are killed, for
the use of persons claiming a right to venison from the Forests, (and I
believe not a single head is destroyed for his Majesty’s use,) and
consequently the increase of these animals, which, in various parts of
the Forests, may frequently be seen thirty or forty in a herd, must, in a
very great degree, exceed the annual destruction.  I will venture to
assume, and I am sure I shall be borne out, on inquiry, that there are
not less than 600 head of deer in Waltham and Hainault Forests; and,
allowing but one-half of these to be does, they would, on a moderate
calculation, now give an increase of 300 head annually, or at least of
200, allowing for those killed, destroyed, or lost, by various

It is not in the power of the Crown, in opposition to the proprietors of
land within any district, to enforce a general inclosure; and although,
from local circumstances, there may be such well-founded objections to
the measure as fully to justify the feelings of the gentlemen at that
meeting in the resolutions they passed, yet it seems to me that, on the
principle of commuting the rights of the Crown, and effecting inclosures
to such an extent, only, as would satisfy the Crown for a sacrifice of
those rights, they reject a proposal which it would be most desirable for
all the parishes within the Forests, and for the parish of Woodford in
particular, to have carried into effect.  The quantity of waste land in
the parish of Woodford is estimated at about 300 acres, and the Crown
claims for its interests therein about one-third of that number.  If a
bill were brought into Parliament for inclosing such proportion only as
the Commissioners should deem the Crown entitled to, or to allot a
certain proportion to be specified in the Act, it could be productive of
no advantage whatever to the parish of Woodford to have 100 acres of land
inclosed for the growth of timber, nor would it answer the purpose of the
Crown to have an inclosure of a similar, or, in many instances, a much
less quantity allotted in different parishes for that purpose; a very
different appropriation of such land would, I have no doubt, be much more
desirable; and the plan I would suggest is, that the Commissioners should
have a power of selling the lands allotted in lieu of the rights of the
Crown, and that the Bill should contain clauses, directing the
Commissioners to make their allotments in parcels of not less than two
acres, but not exceeding five or ten, and preferring those situations
where the proprietor of any dwelling-house or grounds should express to
the Commissioners his assent to the inclosure of waste lying near or
contiguous to such house or grounds, and that such owner should be
allowed a right of pre-emption of the allotment so inclosed, at a price
to be set thereon by two surveyors, one to be appointed on behalf of the
Crown, and the other on the part of the purchaser; such surveyors, in
case of disagreement, having power to elect a third, to decide between
them.  Now, supposing 100 acres to be so allotted, I would ask, if there
are not twenty houses in the parish of Woodford, the owners of which
would be glad to have an addition of five acres of contiguous waste
inclosed; and if there are not, in every other parish within the Forest,
proprietors of land who would be glad to have such a partial inclosure as
would afford them an addition of a like quantity of land.  It clearly
appears to me, that an inclosure, carried into effect upon this
principle, and to this extent, would be a most desirable measure for the
proprietors of houses and lands in every parish on the Forest: and there
should be a clause restraining the Commissioners from making inclosures
within a certain distance of any dwelling-house, without the consent of
the owner, so that no one should have the inclosure brought to his door,
without his own consent.  This plan would, in all probability, not
occasion a single additional building; the 36,000 paupers, of whom so
dreadful a picture has been drawn, (and whose numbers appear to have been
calculated upon the visionary foundation of some antient adage,) would
all vanish, and the new inclosures, which it is highly probable would, in
most instances, be converted into ornamental grounds, and be adorned with
new plantations, would add greatly to the bounty of the country; and a
very abundant portion of waste would still be left to preserve the rural
scenery, for which this district has been so much and so deservedly
admired.  The value of the landed properly, I have no doubt, instead of
being deteriorated, by pursuing this system, would be very considerably

Let us now look forward to the situation in which the proprietors of
houses and land, in these Forests, would stand as to the remaining waste,
which would become merely wastes of the respective manors, relieved from
any rights of the Crown over them, and from the paramount power of the
forty days court, which, of course, must cease with the extinction of the
Crown’s rights; and any proprietor wishing for an addition of one or two
acres to his premises, (which in many instances, no doubt, it would be
highly desirable to obtain,) might, on application to the Lord of the
Manor, with the consent of the Homage Jury, procure a grant thereof as
copyhold, an advantage not now to be obtained on almost any terms: the
right of Common, too, would be relieved from the necessity of withdrawing
the cattle during the fence months, and be general through the year.

There is another circumstance mentioned in the Commissioners’ Report,
about the state of the timber, in the year 1783, which, I think, must
have considerably changed since that period, namely, “that, out of 11,000
oaks, there were 2,700 fit for the use of the Navy.”  Now, I verily
believe that, at the present time, not one-fourth of the number could be
found fit for that purpose; and, as to the 7,000 young trees, mentioned
in the same Report, there are scarcely any of them that have not, as they
attained a certain age, been converted into, and are now become, old
pollards; for the right of cutting fire-wood is, in the ideas of the
lower sort of people, confirmed and increased, by preventing trees from
becoming timber, and converting them to pollards, of which it is the
common course of the country to cut the tops for fire-wood; and, in most
parts of the Forest, the beauty of the scenery and utility of the timber
are totally destroyed by the decapitation of the trees.

In the New Forest, in the Forest of Dean, and in Marlborough Forest,
there is a great deal of beautiful forest scenery, where the practice of
reducing the trees to pollards is not permitted; but, in much the greater
part of Waltham Forest, the beauty is totally destroyed by this practice;
and, therefore, it must be a most desirable measure, as regards the
appearance of the country, to have the rights of cutting fire-wood
totally abolished.

I have not entered into any wild speculations, but have confined myself
to a plain and, I hope, intelligible statement of a plan that I now see
reason to hope will be carried into effect, and, I have no doubt, will
prove of real advantage to the proprietors of houses and lands within
this district.

As many of my readers may not have seen the last Circular Letter, of the
Surveyor of Woods and Forests, on the subject of the inclosure, and the
Heads of the intended Bill, in which the plan submitted in the preceding
pages is meant to be adopted, I have added copies, by way of Appendix.

I cannot easily imagine on what grounds any serious opposition can be
attempted to the measure now proposed, unless the Commissioners of Woods
and Forests are to be told that they shall keep and preserve Royal
Forests and extensive and useless Wastes, with all the severity and
arbitrary spirit of the barbarous days of William Rufus, on the one hand;
or that, on the other, if they do adopt any species of inclosure, it
shall be in rood {17} allotments, for the accommodation of cottagers and
paupers,—the inevitable consequence of which would be that every parish
in the Forest would be inundated with persons dependent on daily labour
for subsistence, where employment for such numbers could not possibly be
found, and they must, of necessity, become burthens to the several
parishes in which they might thus be domiciled.

Viewing the subject, then, calmly and deliberately, with a mind wholly
unbiassed either by local prejudices or party-spirit, I cannot conceive a
more desirable medium than the plan intended to be carried into effect by
the Bill now proposed, as it seems not easy to devise one that can more
effectually meet the wishes, and bring to the very door of the
proprietors of houses and land within the Forests a degree of
accommodation and convenience—the want of which has been so long
lamented, owing to the insuperable difficulties of obtaining any small
inclosures or grants of land, under the existing system.

A clause was introduced into the Act of the 55th year of his present
Majesty, relative to Crown Lands, whereby the Commissioners of Woods and
Forests were enabled to sell the Rights of the Crown in any small parcels
of land, within any of the Royal Forests, which adjoined or lay
contiguous, or convenient to the lands of individuals, and were of little
value for the growth of timber, or to sell the Rights of the Crown in and
over lands belonging to any of his Majesty’s subjects, lying within the
limits aforesaid;—but the difficulties attending the procuring grants of
land under this power were so great that it has been very little acted

Whatever useful alterations or amendments in the proposed plan can be
suggested, I have no doubt will meet with a fair and candid investigation
by the Commissioners, and be made the subject of corrections, or
additional clauses, when the Bill is before a Committee of the House of

I have heard the question asked by a proprietor of land, in allusion to
the proposed plan, what do the Crown give us in lieu of the 9-32d parts,
or 2810 acres we are to give up?  The answer is plain; in the first
place, you give the Crown nothing but what it had a right to before, and
the Commissioners give up all the Rights of the Crown, over the remainder
of the 9000 acres; and one may compare it to the common case of an
agreement between the lord of a manor and the copyholders for an
inclosure and enfranchisement of the whole, would not the lord be fairly
entitled to one-third part, as a satisfaction for the rights he gave up,
and would not the copyholders be remunerated by getting their copyholds
converted to freeholds, and their commons to valuable inclosures; and, in
this case, the remaining 23-32d parts, or 6190 acres, being discharged
from the Rights of the Crown, may either be enjoyed as common, or may be
inclosed at any future time, if the proprietors of land should agree in
such a measure.—At present, the majority appear to be against a general
inclosure; and, as far as the beauty of the country is at stake, I think
they are right, for that certainly is an object of no small importance in
a district so near the metropolis; but that will not be affected by an
inclosure to the extent only proposed by the intended Bill.


                                                      Office of Woods, &c.
                                                         30th March, 1818.


I am directed by the Commissioners of His Majesty’s Woods, &c. to
acquaint you, that since the date of my Circular Letter, in November
last, stating the outlines of the measure then proposed for vesting in
his Majesty certain parts of Hainault, Waltham, or Epping Forests, they
have received various Memorials and Representations from, or on behalf
of, the Lords of Manors, Freeholders, and others, having or claiming
Rights over those Forests;—from those communications, it appears that an
opinion has been very generally entertained, that it was in contemplation
to COMPEL a Division and Inclosure in severalty of the whole of the
Wastes within the boundaries of the said Forests, and that the greatest
part of the objections, which have been stated to the proposals of the
Commissioners, are founded upon misapprehension;—the Commissioners are,
therefore, desirous that it should be distinctly understood, that it
never was their intention to urge the measure of a general Inclosure of
those Wastes contrary to the wishes of the majority of the Freeholders,
and that their only object will be, to obtain for His Majesty separate
Allotments of such extent in the whole, as shall be equivalent to his
Rights and Interests in that Property; leaving the residue to be occupied
by the Proprietors as they may think fit, freed and discharged from the
Jurisdiction of the Forest Courts, from the Controul of Forest Officers,
from the pasturage of the King’s Deer, and from all other Forestal Rights
of the Crown.

The Commissioners have, therefore, determined to confine their
Proceedings to this Object, and having given the best Consideration in
their power to the Communications and Suggestions contained in the
Memorials and Representations above referred to, I have received their
Commands to send, for your information, the inclosed Heads of the Bill
now intended to be proposed to Parliament, in which the Commissioners
have modified their former Proposals, with a view to the interests and
local convenience of the owners of Property in and adjoining those
Forests, as far as they deem to be compatible with their public Duty.

It having been mentioned, in my former Letter, that a Public Meeting
would probably be convened for the purpose of considering any details or
matters of local convenience which it might have been desirable to
settle, previous to the introduction of the Bill into Parliament, I am
directed to state, that as the Measure is now intended to be confined to
a separation of the Rights and Interests of the Crown from those of the
Proprietors, it seems to the Commissioners, that any question which may
arise respecting those Rights and Interests may be better discussed by
Communications with them, or with their Solicitor, than they could be at
any Public Meeting.

I have the honour to be,


                                               Your most obedient Servant,
                                                                 A. MILNE.


  _HEADS of the BILL proposed to be submitted to Parliament_, _in the
  present Session_, _for vesting in His Majesty certain Portions of the
  said Forests in lieu of his Forestal and other Rights_, _and for
  disafforesting the said Forests_.


1st.  THAT the Commissioners to be named as hereinafter mentioned shall
be empowered and directed to set out and allot two-third parts of that
portion of Hainault Forest, called “_King’s Woods_,” to be for ever held
by His Majesty in severalty, as a Nursery for Timber for the Navy, freed
and discharged from all Rights of Common, and other Rights whatever, as a
Compensation for the Right of Soil, and all Forestal and other Rights of
His Majesty, or of those holding any Office or Offices under the Crown,
in and over the other, or remaining third part of such Woods, except the
Timber and Underwood growing thereon, which are to be reserved to His
Majesty, and to be cut down and cleared away within three years after the
passing the Act.

2d.  THAT such remaining third part shall be possessed and enjoyed IN
COMMON by the several persons who are now, or would have been, entitled
to Rights of Common over the whole of the said Woods, if such proposed
severance had not been made, freed and discharged from all Rights of
Soil, and all Forestal and other Rights of His Majesty and his Successors
therein, or of those holding any Office or Offices under the Crown, save
as aforesaid.

3d.  THAT the Commissioners shall be authorized and directed to set out
and allot unto and for His Majesty in each and every of the other
Parishes or Manors situate within the Forests, over which the Forestal
Rights of His Majesty shall be found and ascertained to extend, so much
of the open and waste Lands within each and every of such Parishes or
Manors, (except the King’s Woods aforesaid) as shall, quantity, quality,
and situation considered, be equal to nine thirty-second parts of so much
of the Waste Lands in each and every of such Parishes or Manors
respectively as are within the Boundaries and Limits of the said Forest,
and subject to the Forestal Rights of His Majesty as aforesaid, in
satisfaction of such Forestal and other Rights in and over such Parishes

4th.  THAT the Timber and Underwood now growing on such of the Allotments
to be made to His Majesty, as are herein last described, shall be cut
down and removed by the Parties now entitled to the same within three
years after the passing of the Act, or shall be taken with the Allotment,
and paid for by the Crown, according to the Valuation of the
Commissioners under the Act, at the option of the party so entitled.

5th.  THAT all the remainder of the Waste Lands within the said Forest
not so alloted to His Majesty, shall remain for the benefit of the
several Lords of Manors, Owners of Soil, and other Persons entitled to
Rights of Common on the Forest, to be enjoyed IN COMMON as heretofore,
according to their respective Rights and Interests therein, freed and
discharged from the Jurisdiction of the Forest Court, all Rights of His
Majesty, and his Successors, or of those holding any Office or Offices
under the Crown.

6th.  THAT the Allotments to be made to His Majesty shall be freed and
discharged from all Rights of Common, of what nature or kind soever, and
shall be in full Compensation and Satisfaction of all Forestal Rights,
Claims, and Demands, whatsoever, of His Majesty, or of those holding any
Office or Offices under the Crown, over any of the open and inclosed
Grounds within the Limits or Perambulations of the Forest.

7th.  THAT the Rights of His Majesty and His Officers in and over the
Forest, and all Laws and Statutes now in force for protection of Deer,
and for punishing Persons guilty of any Offences in breach of such Laws
shall remain and continue in full force for the protection of the Deer
within the regard of the Forest, and for the punishment of offences
therein, until the 5th day of July, 1820.

8th.  THAT the Commissioners of His Majesty’s Woods, &c. shall, as soon
as conveniently may be, after the passing of the Act, and before the said
5th day of July, 1820, at furthest, cause all the Deer in the said Forest
to be destroyed or removed.

9th.  THAT from and after the said 5th day of July, 1820, all right of
keeping Deer, and all other Forestal rights and Privileges whatsoever,
either of His Majesty, or of those holding any Office or Offices under
the Crown, within, upon, and over, the said Forest, shall cease,
determine, and be for ever extinguished; and the whole of the said Forest
shall be thenceforth disafforested to all intents and purposes

10th.  THAT from thenceforth all Grants of any Offices, Bailiwicks,
Walks, and Lodges, and all Salaries, Gratuities, and Fees, payable or
allowed in respect of the same, shall cease or determine: and that the
several persons holding, or entitled to such Offices, shall be
compensated for the Abolition thereof, by or out of the Allotments to be
made to His Majesty, as aforesaid, the quantum and amount of which
compensations shall be settled by Referees.

11th.  THAT two Commissioners, one to be nominated on the part of His
Majesty, and the other on the parts of the Lords of Manors, Owners of
Soil, and other persons having rights of Common on the Forest, shall be
appointed for carrying the Act into execution, and all requisite
Provisions shall be comprised in the Act for the Appointment of
Successors to such Commissioners, and for the Nomination of Surveyors,

12th.  THAT the Commissioners of His Majesty’s Woods, &c. shall be
empowered to sell or exchange all or any of the Allotments so to be made
to or for His Majesty, as aforesaid, (except the Allotment of the King’s
Woods, as aforesaid).

13th.  THAT in the setting out the Allotments of the said Waste Lands for
His Majesty, the Commissioners for carrying the Act into execution shall,
in each and every Parish, select such Portions as shall least interfere
with the general range of Pasturage over the remaining Waste, and shall,
as far as may be, have regard to the convenience and accommodation of the
inhabitants; and, to that end, where notice shall be given within a time
to be limited in the said Act, by any Owner or Occupier of any House or
Land within the Forests to the said Commissioners, of his desire to have
any Portion of the King’s Allotment of the said Waste set out contiguous
to his House, Garden or Pleasure Grounds, with an intent that he may
become the Purchaser thereof at a fair Valuation, the said Commissioners
shall, if the same can be conveniently done, set out a portion not
exceeding five Acres of the Allotment for His Majesty in such Parish, as
near and contiguous to the House of the Person giving such Notice as may
be, and the same shall be sold to the Person so applying at a Valuation
to be made thereof by the Commissioners.  Or, if more than one Person
shall give notice of their desire to purchase the same Lot, then such Lot
shall be divided in portions to be ascertained, with reference to the
extent and value of the Property to which it is proposed to be laid, and
be offered to the Owners of such Property, in the portions so to be
ascertained as aforesaid.

14th.  THAT the Expenses of passing the Act shall be borne and paid by
the Commissioners of Woods, on behalf of His Majesty, and also one half
part of the Expenses of carrying the same into execution, and that the
other half part shall he borne and paid by the Lords of Manors,
Freeholders, and Parties entitled to Rights over the Waste, and shall be
raised by the sale of such an Allotment of their residue of the Waste as
shall be deemed sufficient for that purpose.

15th.  THAT the Commissioners for carrying the Act into execution shall
be required to complete their Award, and all Proceedings under the Act,
on or before the 5th day of July, 1820.

                                * * * * *

                                 THE END.

                                * * * * *


{17}  In allusion to every rood maintaining its man.

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