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Title: Foster's Complete Hoyle - An encyclopedia of games
Author: Foster, R. F.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                           FOSTER’S COMPLETE
                                 HOYLE

                       AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GAMES

                        Revised and Enlarged to
                             October, 1914

            INCLUDING ALL INDOOR GAMES PLAYED TO-DAY. WITH
             SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY, ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS
                                  AND
                       ALL OFFICIAL LAWS TO DATE

                                  BY
                              R.F. FOSTER

            _Author of “Royal Auction Bridge with Nullos,”
                    “Cooncan,” and many other books
                            on card games_

                  ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS DIAGRAMS
                            AND ENGRAVINGS

                               NEW YORK
                      FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY
                              PUBLISHERS

                          Copyright, 1914, by
                      FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY

                          Copyright, 1909, by
                      FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY

                          Copyright, 1897, by
                      FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY

                         _All Rights Reserved_

                         FASC _October, 1914_



PUBLISHERS’ NOTE.


_=This book is entirely original.=_ It is the work of a single author,
who has made the subject of games a life-long study, who keeps in touch
with all new games, and with changes in old games. He has written the
description of each game expressly for this book.

The treatment is systematic and uniform. The description of each game
begins with the apparatus and the players, and then follows the natural
course of play, step by step, until the end. Each part of the game is
described in a separate paragraph, and every paragraph is preceded by
catch-words in heavy-faced type, so that the entire work is in the
nature of a dictionary, in which any part of any game can be found
immediately.

All technical terms are accompanied by a full definition of their
meaning, and are printed in full-face type.

All disputed points have been settled in an entirely original manner.
Instead of taking any one person as an authority, the history of each
game has been traced from its source to its present condition, and its
rules have been carefully compared with those of other members of the
same family. The times and the reasons for the various changes have
been ascertained, and the rules given are not only in strict accord
with the true spirit of the game, but are based upon common sense and
equity. When official laws for any game exist they are given in full.

The list of technical terms is the most complete ever published.



CONTENTS.


                   page

  A list of terms, 674

  Ace in the Pot, _dice_, 617

  All Fours Family, 324
    All Fives, 329
    Auction Pitch, 330
    Blind All Fours, 325
    California Jack, 330
    Cinch, 334
    Commercial Pitch, 330
    Dom Pedro, 334
    Double Pedro, 334
    High Five, 334
    Old Sledge, 325
    Pedro, 333
    Pedro Sancho, 333
    Sell-out, 330
    Seven-up, 325
    Shasta Sam, 330
    Smudge, 333
    Snoozer, 334

  Ambigu, 259

  American Billiard Laws, 627

  American Laws of Bridge, 48

  American Pyramid Pool, 631

  American Skat, 434

  Auction Binocle, 407

  Auction Bridge, xxv
    Cards Played in Error, xxxi
    Declarer’s Play, 22
    Discarding, 21
    Ducking, 25
    Dummy, xxx
    Eleven Rule, 13
    Encouraging Discards, 22
    Exposed Cards, xxxi
    Finessing, 24
    Fourth-hand Play, 21
    Illustrative Auction Hands, 27
    Irregularities in Declaring, xxix
    Irregularities in the Deal, xxvii
    Leading High Cards, 6
    Leading Out of Turn, xxxi
    Leading Second Round, 9
    Leading Short Suits, 8
    Leading Small Cards, 9
    Leading Trumps, 11
    Making the Trump, xxvii
    No-trump Leads, 11
    Nullo, 26
      Scoring, 26
      Suggestions for Bidding, 26
      Suggestions for the Play, 26
    Opening Leads, 5
    Penalties, 1
    Playing against Dummy, 14
    Playing to the Score, 21
    Pone’s Lead, 11
    Rank of the Bids, xxviii
    Returning Suits, 14
    Revoke, xxx
    Scoring, xxxii
    Second-hand Play, 17
    Selecting the Suit to Lead, 6
    Suggestions for Good Play, 3
    Third-hand Play, 12, 19

  Auction Cinch, 340

  Auction Euchre, 279

  Auction Hearts, 354

  Auction Pitch, 330

  Authors, 500

  Baccara, 521
    Baccara Chemin de Fer, 526

  Backgammon, 590
    Opening Throws, 595
    English Game, 598
    American Game, 599
    The Laws, 601
    Russian Backgammon, 602

  Banking Games, 516

  Bank-shot Billiards, 626

  Base-ball with dice, 617

  Baulk-line Billiards, 625

  Bergen Game, _dominoes_, 609

  Bézique Family, 374
    Bézique, 375
    Chinese Bézique, 394
    Chouette Bézique, 394
    Penchant, 384
    Rubicon Bézique, 386
    Cinq-Cents, 383
    Four-handed, 382
    Polish Bézique, 382
    Three-handed, 382

  Bid Euchre, 287

  Bid Whist, 687

  Bierspiel, 319

  Billiards and Pool, 620
    American Game, 624
    Amer. Pyramid Pool, 631
    Baulk-line Billiards, 625
    Black Pool, 642
    Books on Billiards, 650
    Bottle Pool, 649
    Chicago Pool, 633
    Colour-ball Pool, 639
    Continuous Pool, 632
    Cow-boy Pool, 634
    Cushion Caroms, 626
    English Billiards, 643
    English Pool, 639
    English Pyramid Pool, 632
    English Billiard Laws, 644
    Fifteen-ball Pool, 629
    Forty-one Pool, 633
    High-low-jack Game, 633
    Laws of Billiards, American, 627
    Little Corporal, 648
    Pin Pool, 647
    Shell Out Pool, 632
    Snooker Pool, 636
    Spanish Game of Billiards, 649

  Binochle, 395
    Melds, 398
    Auction Binochle, 407
    Gaigel, 406
    Three-handed, 405
    Four-handed, 407

  Black Jack or Lady, 356

  Black Pool, English, 642

  Blind All Fours, 325

  Blind Cinch, 340

  Blind Euchre, 278

  Blind Hookey, 527

  Block Game, _dominoes_, 606

  Bluff, _poker_, 245

  Boodle, 507

  Books on Billiards, 650

  Boston, 165
    Payments, 171
    French Boston, 179
    Russian Boston, 183

  Boston de Fontainebleau, 174

  Bottle Pool, 649

  Bouillotte, 254

  Bowling Alley Laws, 662

  Brag, _poker_, 250

  Brelan, 254

  Bridge, xxv, 28

  Bridge Laws, 41

  Bridge Tactics, 28
    Doubling, 32
    Illustrative Hand, 34
    Making the Trump, 28, 31
    Opening Leads, 33
    Text Books, 59

  Bridge, Varieties of, 35
    Auction Bridge, xxv
    Bridge for Three, 36
    Bridge for Two, 36
    Double Dummy Bridge, 39
    Draw Bridge, 40
    Duplicate Auction, 35
    Duplicate Bridge, 38
    King’s Bridge, 40
    Misery Bridge, 37
    Pivot Bridge, 37
    Progressive Bridge, 38
    Reversi Bridge, 40
    Short Bridge, 40
    Six-hand Bridge, 39
    Three-hand Auction, 35

  Calabrasella, 489

  California Jack, 330

  Call-ace Euchre, 287

  Canfield, 693

  Cartomancie, 513

  Cassino, 478
    Spade Cassino, 485
    21 Point Cassino, 484
    Royal Cassino, 485
    Draw Cassino, 485

  Catch the Ten, 159

  Cayenne, 138

  Centennial, _dice_, 618

  Chance, and its Laws, 651
    Concurrent Events, 654
    Conflicting Events, 654
    Dice Probabilities, 655
    Distribution of Suits, 656
    Distribution of Trumps, 656
    Doubling up Bets, 657
    Luck, 651
    Martingales, 657
    Maturity of the Chances, 652
    Playing Progression, 658
    Poker Probabilities, 655
    Successive Event, 652
    Whist Probabilities, 656

  Checkers, 577
    The Openings, 580
    The Four Positions, 582
    Theory of the Move, 584
    Illustrative Games, 586
    Devil and Tailors, 587
    Checker Laws, 588
    Losing Game, 587
    Polish Draughts, 587

  Chemin de fer, 526

  Chess, 546
    The Openings, 557
    The Endings, 567
    Games at Odds, 565
    Knights’ Tour, 570
    American Laws, 571

  Chicago Pool, 633

  Chinese Bézique, 394

  Chinese Fan Tan, 528

  Chinese Whist, 184

  Chouette Bézique, 394

  Chuck Luck, 540

  Cinch, 334
    Auction Cinch, 340
    Blind Cinch, 340
    Progressive Cinch, 340
    Sixty-three, 340
    Widow Cinch, 341
    Illustrative Hands, 342
    Cinch Laws, 344
    Razzle-Dazzle, 340

  Cinq-Cents, 383

  Colour-ball Pool, 639

  Commerce, 252

  Commercial Pitch, 330

  Commit, 503

  Compass Whist, 113

  Continuous Pool, 632

  Conquian, 486

  Cow-boy Pool, 634

  Cushion Carroms, 626

  Craps, _dice_, 614

  Cribbage, 442
    Five-card Cribbage, 460
    Six-card Cribbage, 444
    Seven-card Cribbage, 462
    Solitaire Cribbage, 700
    Three-hand Cribbage, 461
    Four-hand Cribbage, 461

  Cut-throat Euchre, 277

  Dice Games, 611
    Ace in the Pot, 617
    Base-Ball, 616
    Centennial, 618
    Chuck-Luck, 540
    Crap Shooting, 614
    Going to Boston, 617
    Help Your Neighbour, 619
    Law of Chances, 613
    Multiplication, 618
    Passe Dix, 619
    Poker Dice, 615
    Probabilities, 655
    Raffles, 613
    Round the Spot, 618
    Sweat, 540
    Ten Pins, 616
    Throwing Dice, 612
    Under and Over Seven, 543
    Vingt-et-un, 618

  Discard Hearts, 356

  Distribution of Suits, Whist, 657

  Distribution of Trumps, Whist, 657

  Division Loo, 319

  Doctrine of Chances, 651

  Domino Hearts, 357

  Dominoes, 605
    All Fives, 609
    All Threes, 610
    Bergen Game, 609
    Block Game, 606
    Draw Game, 608
    Domino Pool, 609
    Matadore, 608
    Muggins, 609
    Sebastopol, 609

  Dom Pedro, 334

  Double Dummy Bridge, 39

  Double Dummy Whist, 130

  Double Pedro, 334

  Doubling-up Bets, 657

  Draughts, 577

  Draw Bridge, 47

  Draw Cassino, 485

  Draw Game, _dominoes_, 608

  Draw Poker, 208

  Drive Whist, 687

  Dummy, 127

  Duplicate Bridge, 45

  Duplicate Whist, 100
    Apparatus Necessary, 102
    Club against Club, 103
    Compass Whist, 113
    Foster’s Pair System, 115
    Gilman’s Team System, 109
    Howell Pair System, 114
    Individual against Individual, 114
    Laws of Duplicate Whist, 119
    Married Couples System, 118
    Memory Duplicate, 110
    Pair against Pair, 110
    Safford’s Systems, 116
    Team against Team, 105

  Dutch Bank, 527

  Earl of Coventry, 502

  Ecarté, 293
    Jeu de règle, 299
    Pool Ecarté, 306

  Enflé, 370

  English Billiards, 643

  English Billiard Laws, 644

  English Following Pool, 639

  English Pyramid Pool, 632

  English Whist Laws, 196

  Euchre Family of Games, 263

  Euchre, 264
    Auction Euchre, 279
    Bid Euchre, or 500, 287
    Blind Euchre, 278
    Call-ace Euchre, 287
    Cut-Throat, 277
    Five-handed, 286
    French Euchre, 279
    Jambone, 283
    Jamboree, 283
    Laps, 283
    Laws of Euchre, 288
    Military Euchre, 281
    Penalty Euchre, 279
    Progressive Euchre, 280
    Railroad Euchre, 282
    Set-Back Euchre, 278
    Seven-handed Euchre, 284
    Slams, 283

  Fan Tan, 528

  Fan Tan with Cards, 509

  Farmer, or Ferme, 520

  Faro, 529

  Favourite Whist, 99

  Fifteen-ball Pool, 629

  Five-card Cribbage, 460

  Five-card Loo, 323

  Five-handed Euchre, 286

  Five Hundred, 287

  Five and Ten, 316

  Five or Nine, 509

  Flat Poker, 229

  Following Pool, 639

  Fortune Telling, 513

  Forty-five, 316

  Forty-one Pool, 633

  Four-ball Billiards, 626

  Four-handed Cribbage, 461

    ”    ”   Bézique, 382

    ”    ”   Binocle, 407

    ”    ”   Sixty-six, 413

  Four Jacks, 369

  Freeze-out, _poker_, 228

  French Boston, 179

  French Carrom Game, 624

  French Dummy, 133

  French Euchre, 279

  French Games:--
    Ambigu, 259
    Baccara, 521
    Bouillotte, 254
    Cinq-Cents, 383
    Ferme, 520
    Humbug Whist, 132
    Impérial, 476
    Macao, 520
    Mort, 133
    Nain Jaune, 505
    Rouge et Noir, 534
    Roulette, 536
    Trente et Quarante, 534
    Vingt-et-un, 517

  Frog, 441

  Gaigel, 406

  General Laws, Card Games, 671

  German Games:--
    Binocle, 395
    Kreutz Mariage, 413
    Schwellen, 370
    Sixty-six, 408
    Skat, 415
    Solo, 493

  Go-bang, 604

  Going to Boston, _dice_, 617

  Halma, 604

  Hazard, _dice_, 540, 614

  Hearts:--, 349
    Auction Hearts, 354
    Black Jack, 356
    Black Lady, 356
    Discard Hearts, 356
    Domino Hearts, 357
    Heartsette, 357
    Howell’s Hearts, 352
    Illustrative Hands, 366
    Joker Hearts, 355
    Laws of Hearts, 371
    Progressive Hearts, 356
    Spot Hearts, 355
    Sweepstake Hearts, 352
    Three-handed Hearts, 354
    Two-handed, 354

  Heart Solo, 498

  Heartsette, 357

  Help Your Neighbour, _dice_, 619

  High Five, 334

  High-low-jack, 325

    ”   ”    ”  Pool, 633

  Howell Pairs, Whist, 114

  Howell’s Hearts, 352

  Humbug Whist, 132

  I Doubt It, 695

  Impérial, 476

  Irish Loo, 323

  Jack Pots, _poker_, 223

  Jambone, _euchre_, 283

  Jamboree, _euchre_, 283

  Jass, 696
    Two-hand Jass, 697

  Jeu de Règle, _écarté_, 299

  Jink Game, _spoil five_, 315

  Joker Hearts, 355

  Keno, or Lotto, 539

  King’s Bridge, 40

  Klondike, 512

  Kreutz Mariage, 413

  Lansquenet, 543

  Laps, _euchre_, 283

  Law of Chances, 651

  Laws of all Games, 671

  Laws, Official Codes for:--
    Backgammon, 601
    Billiards, American, 627
    Billiards, English, 644
    Bowling, or Ten Pins, 662
    Bridge, 41
    Chess, 571
    Checkers, 588
    Cinch, 344
    Euchre, 288
    Hearts, 371
    Poker, 238
    Skat, 435
    Ten Pins, or Bowling, 662
    Whist, American, 186
    Whist, Duplicate, 119
    Whist, English, 196

  Laws of Probabilities, 651

  Lift Smoke, 502

  Little Corporal, 648

  Loo, or Division Loo, 319
    Five-card Loo, 323
    Irish Loo, 323

  Losing Game, _draughts_, 587

  Lotto, 539

  Luck, 651

  Macao, 520

  Man-of-war Billiards, 644

  Martingales, 657

  Matadore, _dominoes_, 608

  Matrimony, 504

  Maturity of the Chances, 652

  Memory Duplicate, 110

  Military Euchre, 281

  Misery Bridge, 37

  Mistigris, _poker_, 216

  Monte Bank, 542

  Monte Carlo Betting Limit, 658

  Morelles, 604

  Mort, 133

  Muggins, _dominoes_, 609

  Multiplication, _dice_, 618

  My Bird Sings, 253

  My Ship Sails, 253

  Nain Jaune, 505

  Napoleon, 307

  National Games:--, 414
    America, Cassino, 478
    England, Cribbage, 442
    Germany, Skat, 415
    France, Piquet, 463
    Italy, Calabrasella, 489
    Mexico, Conquian, 486

  Newmarket, 507

  Nine Men’s Morris, 604

  Norwegian Whist, 688

  Odd Games, 497

  Old Maid, 501

  Old Sledge, 325

  Patience Games, 510

  Patience Poker, 698

  Pedro, 333

  Peep Nap, 312

  Penalty Euchre, 279

  Penchant, 384

  Pinochle, 395

  Pin Pool, 632

  Piquet, 463
    Piquet Normand, 473
    Piquet Voleur, 473
    Piquet a Ecrire, 474
    Rubicon Piquet, 475

  Pitch, 325

  Pivot Bridge, 37

  Playing Progression, 658

  Pochen, 508

  Poker Family of Games, 207

  Poker, 207
    Bluff, 245
    Bluffing, 237
    Cheating, 229
    Draw Poker, 208
    Eccentric Hands, 215
    Flat Poker, 229
    Freeze Out, 228
    Going In, 232
    Good Play, 231
    How to Win, 236
    Jack Pots, 223
    Joker Poker, 216
    Mistigris, 216
    Odds against Hands, 216
    Patience Poker, 698
    Poker Gin, 692
    Poker Rum, 691
    Poker Laws, 238
    Probabilities, 217, 233, 655
    Progressive Poker, 248
    Rank of Hands, 213
    Schnautz, 248
    Show-down Poker, 229
    Straight Poker, 245
    Stud Poker, 246
    Table Stakes, 227
    Text-books, 262
    Thirty-one, 248
    Whiskey Poker, 247

  Poker Dice, 615

  Polignac, 369

  Polish Bézique, 382

  Polish Draughts, 587

  Pool Games:--
    Amer. Pyramid Pool, 631
    Black Pool, English, 642
    Bottle Pool, 649
    Chicago Pool, 633
    Colour-ball Pool, 639
    Continuous Pool, 632
    Cow-boy Pool, 634
    English Pyramid Pool, 632
    Eng. Following Pool, 639
    Fifteen-ball Pool, 629
    Following Pool, 639
    Forty-one Pool, 633
    High-low-jack Pool, 633
    Little Corporal, 648
    Pin Pool, 647
    Shell Out, 632
    Spanish Pool, 649

  Pool with Dominoes, 609

  Pool Ecarté, 306

  Pope Joan, 505

  Preference, 496

  Probabilities, 651

  Progressive Bridge, 38

  Progressive Cinch, 340

  Progressive Euchre, 280

  Progressive Hearts, 356

  Progressive Poker, 248

  Progressive Whist, 119

  Prussian Whist, 98

  Purchase Nap, 311

  Pyramid Pool, 631

  Quatre Valets, 369

  Quinze, 521

  Raffles, _dice_, 613

  Railroad Euchre, 282

  Rams, 317

  Ranter Go Round, 508

  Razzle-Dazzle, 340

  Reversi, 603

  Reversi Bridge, 40

  Rondeau, 541

  Rouge et Noir, 534

  Roulette, 536

  Rounce, 319

  Round the Spot, _dice_, 618

  Royal Cassino, 485

  Rubicon Bézique, 386

  Rubicon Piquet, 475

  Rum, 689
    Double-pack Rum, 692
    Single-pack Rum, 689
    Poker Gin, 692
    Poker Rum, 691

  Russian Backgammon, 602

  Russian Boston, 183

  Sancho Pedro, 333

  Saratoga, 507

  Scat, see Skat, 415

  Schnautz, 248

  Schwellen, 370

  Scotch Whist, 159

  Sebastopol, _dominoes_, 609

  Sell Out, 330

  Set-back Euchre, 278

  Seven-handed Euchre, 284

  Seven-card Cribbage, 462

  Seven-up, 325

  Shasta Sam, 330

  Shell-out Pool, 632

  Shooting Craps, 614

  Short Bridge, 47

  Show-down Poker, 229

  Shuffle Board, 619

  Six-card Cribbage, 444

  Six-hand Bridge, 39

  Sixty-four Card Binocle, 375

  Sixty-three, _cinch_, 340

  Sixty-six, 408
    Four-handed, 413
    Kreutz Mariage, 413
    Three-handed, 413

  Skat, 415, 434
    Game Values, 421
    Scoring, 427
    Illustrative Hands, 432
    Skat Laws, 435

  Slams, _euchre_, 283

  Slobberhannes, 368

  Smudge, 333

  Snip-snap-snorem, 502

  Snooker Pool, 649

  Snoozer, 334

  Solitaires, 510, 693, 698, 700

  Solo, 498
    Three-handed Solo, 499

  Solo Whist, 144

  Spade Cassino, 485

  Spanish Monte, 542

  Spanish Pool, 649

  Speculation, 501

  Spin, 507

  Spoil Five, 312

  Spot Hearts, 355

  Stops, 507

  Straight Poker, 245

  Stud Poker, 246

  Sweat, _dice_, 540

  Sweepstake Hearts, 352

  Table Games, 544

  Table Stakes, _poker_, 227

  Technical Terms, 674

  Telling Fortunes, 513

  Ten Pins, or Bowling, 660
    American Ten Pins, 662
    Battle Game, 665
    Cocked Hat, 664
    Cocked Hat & Feather, 665
    “Don’ts” for Players, 669
    Duck Pin Game, 669
    Five Back, 668
    Four Back, 667
    Head Pin; four back, 666
    Head Pin Out, 667
    Kinsley Candle Pin, 669
    Newport Game, 668
    Nine Up and Nine Down, 666

  Ten Pins with Dice, 616

  Three-card Monte, 542

  Thirty-one, _poker_, 248

  Three-cushion Carroms, 626

  Three-handed Auction, 35

    ”     ”    Bézique, 382

    ”     ”    Bridge, 36

    ”     ”    Cribbage, 461

    ”     ”    Hearts, 354

    ”     ”    Binocle, 405

    ”     ”    Sixty-six, 413

  Throwing Dice, 612

  Trente et Quarante, 534

  Tric-trac, 590

  Twenty-one Point Cassino, 484

  Two-handed Bridge, 36

   ”    ”    Hearts, 354

  Under and over Seven, 543

  Varieties of Bridge, 42

  Vingt-et-un, 517

  Vingt-et-un with Dice, 518

  Vint, 493

  Whiskey Poker, 247

  Whist Family of Games, xvii

  Whist, 60
    American Laws, 186
    Auction Bridge, xxv
    Bridge, xxv, 28
    Bid Whist, 687
    Cayenne Whist, 138
    Chinese Whist, 184
    Double Dummy, 130
    Dummy, 127
    Dummy Laws, 206
    Drive Whist, 687
    Duplicate Whist, 100
    English Laws, 196
    Favourite Whist, 99
    French Whist, 164
    German Whist, 183
    Humbug Whist, 131
    Memory Duplicate, 110
    Mort, 133
    Norwegian Whist, 688
    Probabilities, 656
    Progressive Whist, 119
    Prussian Whist, 98
    Scotch Whist, 159
    Solo Whist, 144
    Text Books, 99
    Thirteen and the Odd, 132
    Whist Family Laws, 186

  Whist Tactics, 70
    Albany Lead, 86
    American Game, 94
    American Laws, 186
    American Leads, 88
    Conventional Plays, 70
    Deschapelles Coups, 91
    Discarding, 80
    Discard Signals, 90
    Echo in Plain Suits, 90
    Echo in Trumps, 86
    Eleven Rule, 79
    False Cards, 92
    Finessing, 92
    Forcing, 80
    Four-signal, 86
    Fourth-hand Play, 84
    General Directions, 60
    General Principles, 68
    High-card Leads, 72
    How to Study, 70
    Illustrative Hands, 97
    Inferences, 93
    Inviting a Ruff, 88
    Leader’s Partner, 78
    Leading Plain Suits, 72
    Leading Short Suits, 91
    Leading Trumps, 71
    Low Card Leads, 74
    Low’s Signal, 90
    Methods of Cheating, 67
    Method of Playing, 61
    Minneapolis Lead, 89
    Partner’s Duties, 78
    Placing the Lead, 92
    Plain-suit Echo, 90
    Playing to the Score, 92
    Returning Partner’s Suits, 80
    Scoring, 64
    Second-hand Play, 81
    Short-suit Game, 91-94
    Short-suit Leads, 74-61
    Signal Game, 85
    Stacking Tricks, 63
    Suggestions for Good Play, 67
    Tenace Positions, 91
    Third Hand Play, 78
    Trump Signals, 85
    Unblocking, 90
    Underplay, 91
    Using the Markers, 66
    Works on Whist, 99

  Widow Binocle, 408

  Widow Cinch, 341

  Yerlash, _see_ Vint, 493



INTRODUCTION.


The word “Hoyle” has gradually come to stand as an abbreviation for
an “Encyclopedia of Indoor Games.” The common expression, “played
according to Hoyle,” usually means “correctly played,” or “played
according to the standard authorities.” The original Edmund Hoyle wrote
on very few games, but his work was the first attempt to put together
the rules for the most popular indoor games in one volume. Although
Hoyle died more than a hundred years ago, his work has been constantly
added to as new games came into vogue, which has led many to believe
that he is the authority for games that he never heard of, such as
pinochle and poker.

Persons who have never given the subject much attention may be
surprised to learn how little authority there is for the rules
governing the majority of our popular games. If we except the table
games, such as chess, checkers, billiards, backgammon and ten pins, and
such card games as whist, bridge, auction, and skat, all of which are
regulated by well-defined codes of laws, agreed upon by associations
of prominent clubs, to govern championship contests, etc., we have
very few games left which are not played in different ways in various
localities.

This is undoubtedly because such games are learnt at the card table and
not from books. A person who is shown a new game cannot remember all
its details, some of which may not have been explained to him even. If
he tries to teach it to others while his knowledge is in this imperfect
state, he will naturally invent rules of his own to cover the points he
has forgotten, or has never learnt, usually borrowing ideas from games
with which he is more familiar.

The pupils of such a teacher pass on to others the game thus
imperfectly learnt, and in a short time we have a number of corruptions
creeping in, and the astonishing part of it is the insistence with
which some persons will maintain that they alone have the right idea of
the rules, just because so-and-so showed them the game, or because they
and their immediate friends have “always played it that way.”

This does not alter the fact that the fundamental principles of every
game are known and can be readily found if one knows where to look for
them. The author is in possession of several hundred works in various
languages--English, French, German and Italian--on nothing but indoor
games, comprising probably everything ever printed on the subject that
is worth preserving.

By tracing the history of a game and its development through the
various books in which it is described, the game will always be found
to belong to some distinct family, which has certain well-defined
traits which must be preserved, no matter how much they may be altered
in minor details. All games follow certain general principles, and the
surest mark of error in the local rules of any game is inconsistency.

Pinochle is a striking example of this. In many places the players will
not allow the same cards to be counted twice in the trump sequence,
so as to meld 190; but they will count them twice in four kings and
queens. They insist on the rule of at least one fresh card from the
hand for each additional meld in one case, but totally disregard it in
another, as when they meld 240 for the round trip, instead of only 220.

These local errors have crept into many of the Hoyles now upon the
market, the works having probably been compiled from the individual
knowledge of the author, limited by his experience in a certain
locality. Many of these works devote much space to a certain game,
which is evidently the compiler’s pet, and which is accurately
described; while other and equally important games are full of errors
and omissions, betraying a lamentable want of care in consulting the
literature of the subject.

While the author of this work does not believe it possible to compile a
work that shall be universally accepted as the authority on all games,
as a dictionary would be on spelling, he deems it at least possible to
select what seems the most common usage, or the best rule, preserving
the true spirit of the game, and to describe it accurately and bring
the whole up to date.



THE WHIST FAMILY.


The most popular card games of the present day undoubtedly belong to
the whist family, which embraces all those played with a full pack of
fifty-two cards, ranking from the ace to the deuce, one suit being
trumps, and the score being counted by tricks and honours, or by tricks
alone.

The oldest and most important of the group is whist itself. The game
appears to be of English origin, its immediate parent being “ruff and
honours.” This was an old English game in which twelve cards only were
dealt to each player, the uppermost of the remaining four being turned
up for the trump suit. Whoever held the ace of trumps could “ruff”
or take in these four cards, discarding in their place any four he
chose. As the game developed into whisk, or whist, this ruffing feature
disappeared. There was no stock, the four deuces being discarded from
the pack instead. Twelve cards were dealt to each player, and the last
was turned up for the trump.

About 1680 a variation of the game known as “swabbers” came into vogue.
The swabbers were the heart ace, club jack, and the ace and deuce of
trumps. The players to whom these cards were dealt were entitled to a
certain share of the stakes or payments, independent of the play for
tricks and honours. This variety of the game did not long remain in
favor, but gave way to make room for one of the most important changes,
the restoration of the deuces to the pack, which introduced the feature
of the odd trick. This took place early in the last century, and seems
to have so much improved the game that attention was soon drawn to its
possibilities for scientific treatment.

About this time whist was taken up by a set of gentlemen who met at the
Crown Coffee House in Bedford Row, London; chief among whom was Sir
Jacob de Bouverie, Viscount Folkestone. After considerable experiment
and practice this little whist school laid down the principles of the
game as being: “to play from the strong suit; to study the partner’s
hand; never to force partner unnecessarily, and to attend to the
score.” It is generally believed that Edmond Hoyle was familiar with
the proceedings of this set, and on their experiences based his
celebrated “Short Treatise on the Game of Whist,” which was entered at
Stationers’ Hall in London Nov. 17, 1742.

The only works previous to Hoyle touching upon whist were the “Compleat
Gamester” of Cotton, which first appeared in 1674, and the “Court
Gamester,” of Richard Seymour, 1719. One of Hoyle’s great points was
his calculation of the probabilities at various stages of the rubber.
This seems to have been looked upon as most important in guiding
persons in their play, for we find that Abraham de Moivre, a famous
mathematician, used to frequent the coffee houses, and for a small fee
give decisions on questions of the odds at whist.

Bath seems to have been the great rallying-point for the whist-players
of the last century; but the passion for the game soon spread all over
Europe. In 1767 Benjamin Franklin went to Paris, and it is generally
believed that he introduced the American variety of the game known
as Boston, which became the rage in Paris some time after the war of
independence.

So popular did whist become in Italy that we find the boxes at the
opera in Florence provided with card tables in 1790. The music of the
opera was considered of value chiefly as, “increasing the joy of good
fortune, and soothing the affliction of bad.”

A code of laws was drawn up about 1760 by the frequenters of White’s
and Saunders’ in London. These seem to have remained the standard until
“Cælebs” published, in 1851, the code in use at the Portland Club. In
1863 John Loraine Baldwin got together a committee at the Arlington,
now the Turf Club, and they drew up the code which is still in use all
over the world for English whist. In the United States, laws better
suited to the American style of play were drawn up by the American
Whist League in 1891, and after several revisions were finally adopted,
in 1893, as the official code for League clubs.

The literature of whist saw its palmiest days at the beginning of this
century. 7,000 copies of Bob Short’s “Short Rules for Whist” were sold
in less than a year. Mathews’, or Matthews’, “Advice to the Young
Whist-Player,” went through eighteen editions between 1804 and 1828.
After these writers came Admiral Burney, who published his “Treatise”
in 1821; Major A. [Charles Barwell Coles,] gave us his “Short Whist”
in 1835. Deschapelles published his “Traité du Whiste” in 1839, but
it gave little but discussions on the laws. “Whist, its History and
Practice” by Amateur, appeared in 1843. General de Vautré’s “Génie du
Whiste,” in 1847. “Cælebs” [Edward Augustus Carlyon] wrote his “Laws
and Practice” in 1851. Then in rapid succession came “Cavendish” in
1863, James Clay in 1864, Pole and “Cam” in 1865. Campbell-Walker’s
“Correct Card” in 1876; Drayson’s “Art of Practical Whist,” with its
new theories of trumps; Fisher Ames, “Modern Whist,” in 1879; “Whist,
or Bumblepuppy?” by “Pembridge” [John Petch Hewby], in 1880; G.W.P.
[Pettes], in 1881; Proctor’s “How to Play Whist,” in 1885; and the
“Handbook of Whist,” by “Major Tenace,” 1885. Then began the long list
of American authors (Pettes has already been mentioned): “Foster’s
Whist Manual,” by R.F. Foster, appeared in 1890; “Practical Guide
to Whist,” by Fisher Ames, in 1891; Hamilton’s “Modern Scientific
Whist,” in 1894, and in the same year, Coffin’s “Gist of Whist,”
and “Foster’s Whist Strategy.” In 1895, Milton C. Work’s “Whist of
To-day,” and “Foster’s Whist Tactics,” giving the play in the first
match by correspondence; and in 1896, Val Starnes’ “Short-suit Whist,”
and Howell’s “Whist Openings.” In 1897, Mitchell’s “Duplicate Whist.”
In 1898, Foster’s “Common Sense in Whist,” and in 1900, Fisher Ames’
“Standard Whist.” Since then whist literature has given place to bridge.

In periodical literature we find whist taken up in the pages of the
“Sporting Magazine” in 1793. The London “Field” has had a card column
since December 6, 1862. Proctor’s work first appeared in “Knowledge.”
The “Westminster Papers” devoted a great deal of space to whist games
and “jottings” every month for eleven years, beginning in April, 1868.
“Whist,” a monthly journal devoted exclusively to the game, began
publication in Milwaukee in 1891; but gave it up when bridge supplanted
whist in popular favor.

Whist rapidly became a “newspaper game.” The New York Sunday Sun
devoted two columns every Sunday to the discussion and illustration
of moot points in whist tactics, and the analysis of hands played in
important matches. In a series of articles begun February 23, 1896,
this paper gave to the world the first systematic statement of the
theory and practice of the short suit game. In 1898 there were at least
forty whist columns published in the United States. Two magazines
devoted to whist and bridge are now published, one in Boston and the
other in New York.

While the parent game has been pursuing this prosperous course, many
variations have been introduced. One of the most radical changes in
the game itself has been cutting down the points from ten to five,
which occurred about 1810. Mathews mentions it in 1813 as having
occurred since the publication of his first edition in 1804, and
Lord Peterborough, the unlucky gambler, for whose benefit the change
was introduced, died in 1814. Another great change took place in
America, where they played for the tricks alone, the honours not being
counted at all. Turning the trump from the still pack was first tried
by a Welsh baronet, and is mentioned by Southey in his “Letters of
Espriella.” This custom was revived for a time by the Milwaukee Whist
Club, and is still sometimes seen in Europe under the name of “Prussian
Whist.”

Altogether we can trace nineteen games which are clearly derived from
whist. Duplicate, Drive, and Progressive whist are simply changes
in the arrangement of the players and in the methods of scoring.
Prussian whist introduces the cutting of the trump from the still
pack. Dummy and Double-dummy are simply whist with a limited number
of players, necessitating the exposure of one or more hands upon
the table. The French game of Mort is dummy with a better system of
scoring introduced. Favourite Whist simply changes the value of the
tricks in scoring, according to the trump suit. Cayenne and Bridge
introduce the first changes of importance. In Cayenne, the dealer and
his partner have the privilege of changing the trump from the suit
turned up; in Bridge they name the trump suit without any turn-up, and
play the hands as at dummy. In Boston, and Boston de Fontainebleau, in
addition to making the trump suit instead of turning it up, further
departures are introduced by naming the number of tricks to be played
for, allowing the player to take all or none without any trump suit,
and by ‘spreading’ certain hands, without allowing the adversaries to
call the exposed cards. French and Russian Boston are simply varieties
of Boston. Solo Whist is an attempt to simplify Boston by reducing the
number of proposals and the complications of payments, and eliminating
the feature of ‘spreads.’ Scotch Whist introduces a special object in
addition to winning tricks--catching the ten of trumps; that card and
the honours having particular values attached to them. This variety of
whist may be played by any number of persons from two to eight; and its
peculiarity is that when a small number play, each has several distinct
hands, which must be played in regular order, as if held by different
players. Humbug Whist is a variety of double-dummy, in which the
players may exchange their hands for those dealt to the dummies, and
the dealer may sometimes make the trump to suit himself. German Whist
is played by two persons, and introduces the element of replenishing
the hand after each trick by drawing cards from the remainder of the
pack until the stock is exhausted. Chinese Whist is double-dummy for
two, three, or four persons, only half of each player’s cards being
exposed, the others being turned up as the exposed cards are got rid of
in the course of play.

All these varieties have been entirely supplanted and overshadowed by
bridge. When they play whist at all, the English think there is nothing
better than the original whist, counting honours, and playing to the
score. The Americans think Duplicate superior to all other forms,
especially when two tables are engaged, and four players are opposed
by four others for a specified number of deals. We are inclined to
agree with Clay that the French game of Mort is “charming and highly
scientific.” He says English dummy is a “very slow game.”

Whether it is because the game has been found ‘slow,’ or because its
more attractive forms are little known, it is certainly true that
writers on whist pay little or no attention to dummy. The English
authors mention it only in connection with laws and decisions. No
American text-book makes any allusion to the game, and there is no
reference to it in the American Whist League’s code of laws.

In the first edition of this work, written in 1895, the author ventured
to prophesy that the day was not far distant when dummy would supersede
all other varieties of whist among the most expert players; either
in the form of the charming Mort or the fascinating Bridge. Very
few persons who have played either of these games sufficiently to
appreciate their beauties care to return to the platitudes of straight
whist.

At that time, bridge was unknown in America except to the members of
The Whist Club of New York and their friends. In the short space of ten
years it has become the card game of the world; but in spite of its
present popularity it has its defects, and it would not be surprising
to see its place usurped by another game, not a member of the whist
family, which has been steadily gaining ground among those who have the
intellectual capacity for card games of the highest class, and that is
skat.

The first text-book on bridge was a little leaflet printed in England
in 1886, which gave the rules for “Biritch, or Russian Whist.” “Boax”
came out with a little “Pocket Guide” in 1894, followed by “The Laws
of Bridge” in 1895. The Whist Club of N.Y. published the American laws
of bridge in 1897, and “Badsworth” came out with the English laws in
1898. In the following year, 1899, Archibald Dunn, Jr., gave us “Bridge
and How to Play It,” and John Doe published “Bridge Conventions,” A.G.
Hulme-Beaman’s “Bridge for Beginners” appearing in the same year.
In 1900, “Foster’s Bridge Manual” appeared in America, reprinted in
England under the title of “Foster on Bridge.”

In the years following, text-books on bridge came from the press by
the dozen, the most notable authors being Dalton and “Hellespont” in
1901; Elwell and Robertson in 1902; Street and Lister in 1903. Many of
the writers already mentioned published later and more complete works,
embodying the results of time and experience. Foster’s Self-playing
Bridge Cards were brought out in 1903. Elwell’s “Advanced Bridge”
appeared in 1904 and Foster’s “Complete Bridge” in 1905.

While bridge has never been such a popular “newspaper game” as whist
was in America, it has been much more so in England. Articles on
bridge, for beginners chiefly, were published in 1905 and 1906 by the
San Francisco Call, Pittsburgh Post Despatch, Cincinnati Commercial
Tribune, Chicago Journal, St. Paul Despatch, Milwaukee Journal,
Baltimore American, Houston Post, Indianapolis Star, and the N.Y.
Globe. These were all edited by R.F. Foster.

Bridge Tournaments, offering prizes for the best play of certain hands
were run by the N.Y. Evening Telegram, the N.Y. Globe, the N.Y. Evening
Mail, and the Chicago Journal. A number of the weekly magazines offer
similar competitions in England, but as a rule the problems in that
country are of very poor quality.

About 1910 it became the fashion not to play spades, it being
considered a waste of time to play a hand for such a small amount as
2 points a trick, so the dealer was allowed to score 2 for the odd
and 4 for honours, regardless of how the cards were distributed, the
hand being abandoned. The objection to this practice was that many
hands were worth much more than 2 points, and in some cases the spade
make would have gone game at the score. This led to the practice of
playing “royal spades,” which were played at 10 and then at 9 a trick,
sometimes with a penalty of 20 if the declarer failed to make the odd.

Shortly after this, later in 1910, there developed a decided rebellion
against the dealer’s monopoly of the make, and in order to allow any
player at the table who held good cards to get the benefit of them,
whether he was the dealer or not, bidding for the privilege of making
the trump came into vogue. This was the starting point of auction, its
chief difference from the older game being that only the side that
made the highest bid for the declaration could score toward game. The
full number of tricks bid had to be made, and if they were not made,
the adversaries scored in the honour column for penalties, the penalty
being always the same, regardless of the trump suit.

The great disparity in the values of the suits as then played
practically confined the bidding to the hearts and royal spades. This
soon brought about another change, which was to raise the values of all
the suits except spades and to cut down the no-trumper. This was done
in 1912, and made it possible for any suit to go game on the hand. All
the well known writers on whist and bridge came out with text-books on
auction, and the newspapers took up the subject in weekly articles.

Although to many the game now seemed perfect, there were those that
felt the helplessness of weak hands to offer any defence in the bidding
against a run of no-trumpers or hearts and royals. To remedy this,
F.C. Thwaites of the Milwaukee Whist Club suggested the introduction
of the nullo. This was a bid to lose tricks, at no trump only, and its
value was to be minus 10, that is, it was to be outranked only by a
no-trumper to win. At first, this bid was largely used simply as an
additional game-going declaration, and was strongly objected to by many
leading players. But as its true place as a defensive bid became better
understood it soon came into favour. In the nullo there are no honours,
and the declarer scores the tricks over the book made by his opponents,
which he forces them to take. Many interesting card problems have been
built upon the nullo.

Toward the end of 1913 still another change seems to have suggested
itself to some of the English players who were familiar with the
Russian game of vint, and that is to play auction just as it is played
up to the point of the lead to the first trick, but that no dummy is
exposed, the four players holding up their cards and following suit
just as they would at whist. Whether or not this game will ever become
as popular as the combination of dealer and dummy, it is difficult to
say, but appearances are against it.

There seems to be a growing tendency in America to adopt the English
rule of cutting out the spade suit at 2 a trick, and making it always
a royal spade, worth 9. The dealer is allowed to pass without making a
bid, the lowest call being one club. If all pass, the deal goes to the
left.


BRIDGE.

There are two principal varieties of this game; straight bridge, in
which the dealer or his partner must make the trump, their opponents
having nothing to say about it except to double the value of the
tricks. The dealer’s partner is always the dummy, and either side may
score toward game by making the odd trick or more. Auction bridge, in
which the privilege of making the trump is bid for, the highest bidder
playing the hand with his partner as dummy, regardless of the position
of the deal, and his side being the only one that can score toward
game, the adversaries scoring nothing but penalties in the honour
column if they defeat the contract.

As this is the more popular form of bridge at the present time, it will
be given first. Since the adoption of the higher value for the spade
suit under the name of royal spades, and the change in the value of the
suits, the game gradually came to be known as royal auction, but as
that change is now universal, the name has slipped back to its original
title.


AUCTION BRIDGE, OR AUCTION.

_=CARDS.=_ Auction is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards,
ranking A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2, the Ace being the highest in play,
but ranking below the deuce in cutting. Two packs should be used, the
one being shuffled while the other is dealt.

_=MARKERS=_ suitable for scoring the various points made at Bridge have
not yet been invented. Some persons use the bézique marker; but it is
not a success. The score is usually kept on a sheet of paper, and it
should be put down by each side, for purposes of verification.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Auction is played by four persons, and the table is
complete with that number. When there are more than four candidates for
play, the selection of the four is made by cutting. These cut again for
partners, and the choice of seats and cards.

_=CUTTING.=_ The usual method of cutting for partners, etc., at
auction, is to shuffle the cards thoroughly, and “spread” them face
downwards on the table; each candidate drawing a card, and turning it
face upwards in front of him. The four cutting the lowest cards playing
the first game, or rubber.

[Illustration: SPREADING THE PACK.]

The four having been selected, the cards are again shuffled and spread,
and partners are cut for; the two lowest pairing against the two
highest; the lowest of the four is the dealer, and has the choice of
cards and seats.

_=TIES.=_ As between cards of equal value in cutting, the heart is the
lowest, diamonds next, then clubs and then spades.

_=POSITION OF THE PLAYERS.=_ The four players at the bridge table are
indicated by letters; A and B are partners against Y and Z; Z always
represents the dealer, who always makes the first bid, A being the
second bidder, Y the third and B the fourth.

[Illustration:

  +-----+
  |  Y  |
  |A   B|
  |  Z  |
  +-----+
]

_=DEALING.=_ The cards having been properly shuffled the dealer, Z,
presents them to the pone, B, to be cut. At least four cards must be
left in each packet. Beginning at his left, the dealer distributes the
cards one at a time in rotation until the pack is exhausted. When two
packs are used, the dealer’s partner shuffles one while the other is
dealt, and the deal passes in regular rotation to the left until the
rubber is finished.

_=IRREGULARITIES IN THE DEAL.=_ If any card is found faced in the pack,
or if the pack is incorrect or imperfect, the dealer must deal again.
If any card is found faced in the pack, or is exposed in any manner;
or if more than thirteen cards are dealt to any player, or if the last
card does not come in its regular order to the dealer, or if the pack
has not been cut, there must be a new deal. Attention must be called to
a deal out of turn, or with the wrong cards, before the last card is
dealt, or the deal stands.

There are no misdeals in auction. That is to say, whatever happens the
same dealer deals again. Minor irregularities will be found provided
for in the laws.

The cards being dealt, each player sorts his hand to see that he has
the correct number, thirteen; and the player or players keeping the
score should announce it at the beginning of each hand.

_=STAKES.=_ In auction, the stake is a unit, so much a point. The
number of points won or lost on the rubber may be only two or three,
or they may run into the hundreds. The average value of a rubber at
auction is about 400 points. Any much larger figure shows bad bidding.
In straight bridge the average is about 180. In settling at the end of
the rubber, it is usual for each losing player to pay his right-hand
adversary.

_=MAKING THE TRUMP.=_ In auction, the dealer begins by naming any
one of the four suits, or no trumps, for any number of tricks he
pleases. Each player in turn to the left then has the privilege of
passing, bidding higher, or doubling. When three players pass a bid,
it is the highest made and is known as the _=Winning Declaration=_ or
_=Contract=_.

In order to understand the principles that govern the players in
their declarations, one should be thoroughly familiar with the values
attached to the tricks when certain suits are trumps. The first six
tricks taken by the side that has made the winning declaration do not
count. This is the “book,” but all over the book count toward making
good on the contract, according to the following table:

  When Spades       are trumps, each trick counts 2 points.
   ”   Clubs         ”    ”      ”     ”     ”    6   ”
   ”   Diamonds      ”    ”      ”     ”     ”    7   ”
   ”   Hearts        ”    ”      ”     ”     ”    8   ”
   ”   Royal Spades  ”    ”      ”     ”     ”    9   ”
   ”   there are no trumps,      ”     ”     ”   10   ”

The game is 30 points, which must be made by tricks alone, so that
three over the book, called three “by cards,” will go game from love
at no trump, or four by cards at hearts or royals. These are called
the _=Major=_ or _=Winning Suits=_. As it takes five by cards to go
game in clubs or diamonds, and on account of the difficulty of such an
undertaking, these are called the _=Minor=_ or _=Losing Suits=_. An
original bid of one spade can be made only by the dealer, and it simply
means, “I pass.” That is, the dealer has nothing to declare on the
first round of the bidding. [See note at foot of page 58.]

_=RANK OF THE BIDS.=_ In order to over-call a previous bid, whether
of the partner or the opponent, the bidder must undertake to win the
same number of tricks in a suit of higher value, or a greater number of
tricks having the same aggregate value as the preceding bid. Players
should restrict themselves to the same form of expression throughout,
and all bids, even passing, must be made orally and not by gesture.

Let us suppose this to be the bidding: The dealer, Z, begins with
“One spade,” second player, A, says, “I pass,” or simply, “No.”
Third bidder, Y, says, “One club,” fourth player, B, “No trump.” The
dealer, starting on the second round, says, “Two clubs,” supporting
his partner’s declaration. Next player, A, who passed the first time,
says, “Two royals.” Both Y and B pass, but the dealer, Z, says, “Three
clubs.” Observe that while three clubs is worth no more than two
royals, 18, the club bid offers to win more tricks than the royals and
therefore ranks as a higher bid. A doubles three clubs. Y passes and B
says, “Two no trumps.” As will be explained presently, doubling does
not affect the value of the declaration in bidding, so two no trumps,
worth 20, over-calls three clubs. Z, A and Y all pass, so two no trumps
becomes the winning declaration and B is the declarer, A being the
dummy, with Z to lead for the first trick.

In this example, had the bid been left at three clubs, doubled or not,
that would have been the winning declaration, and the partner who first
named that suit, Y, would be the declarer, Z being the dummy, although
Z actually made the highest bid. It is only when the two players that
have both named the winning suit are not partners that the higher
bidder becomes the declarer.

_=DOUBLING.=_ No player may double his partner, but he may redouble
an opponent who has doubled. All doubling must be strictly in turn,
like any other bid. Doubling does not affect the value of the bids,
but simply doubles the value of the tricks or penalties when they are
scored at the end of the hand. Suppose A bids two royals and Y doubles.
B can take A out with three clubs, because, so far as the bidding goes,
two royals are still worth only 18.

Any over-call annuls the double, or redouble. Suppose A says two
hearts, Y doubles, B redoubles, and Z says two royals. The doubling is
all knocked out, and if A were to go three hearts and get the contract,
hearts would be worth only 8 a trick in the scoring unless Y doubled
all over again. A double reopens the bidding, just the same as any
other declaration, allowing the player’s partner, or the player himself
in his turn, to take himself out of the double by bidding something
else.

_=IRREGULARITIES IN DECLARING.=_ If any player declares out of turn,
either in bidding a suit or in doubling, either opponent may demand
a new deal, or may allow the declaration so made to stand, in which
case the next player to the left must bid, just as if the declaration
had been in turn. If a player pass out of turn there is no penalty,
and the player whose turn it was must declare himself. The player who
has passed out of his proper turn may re-enter the bidding if the
declaration he passed has been over-called or doubled.

If a player makes an insufficient or impossible declaration, either
adversary may call attention to it. Suppose the last bid is three
royals, and the next player says four clubs. This is not enough, as
three royals is worth 27 and four clubs only 24. Unless the player in
error correct himself at once, and make it five clubs, either adversary
may demand that it be five clubs, and the partner of the corrected
player cannot bid unless this five-club bid is over-called or doubled.
A player correcting himself must stick to the suit named, not being
allowed to say four diamonds when he sees that four clubs is not enough.

If an insufficient declaration is passed or over-called by the player
on the left, it is too late to demand any penalty, and the insufficient
bid stands as regular. Suppose A bids three royals and Y says four
clubs, B and Z passing. A can repeat his bid of three royals if he
likes, as that is enough to over-call four clubs.

If a player makes an impossible declaration, such as calling six
diamonds over five no trumps, when it is clearly impossible to make any
diamond declaration worth 50, either adversary may demand a new deal,
or may insist that the last bid made by his own side, five no trumps,
shall be the winning declaration, or he may force the player in error
to declare a grand slam in diamonds and play it, his partner being
forbidden to take him out.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The winning declaration settled, whether doubled
or not, the player on the left of the declarer leads for the first
trick, and dummy’s cards go down, the declarer playing the combined
hands. The declarer gathers the tricks for his side, but either
adversary may gather for the other. The first six tricks taken by the
declarer make a book, and all over the book count toward his contract.
The adversaries have a book as soon as they reach the limit of the
tricks they may win without “setting” the contract. If the contract is
four hearts, the declarer must win ten tricks, so that his opponents
have a book when they get home three tricks. All tricks should be laid
so that they may be readily counted by any player at the table.

_=DUMMY.=_ Until a card is led by the proper player, the declarer’s
partner has all the rights of any other player, but as soon as the
player to the left of the declarer leads and dummy’s cards are laid on
the table, dummy’s duties and rights are restricted to the following:

He may call attention to few cards played to a trick; correct an
improper claim of either adversary; call attention to a trick taken by
the wrong side; ask his partner if he have none of a suit to which he
renounces; correct an erroneous score; consult with the declarer as to
which penalty to exact for a revoke; and, if he has not intentionally
overlooked the hand of another player, he may call his partner’s
attention to an established revoke made by the adversaries, or to a
card exposed by them or a lead out of turn made by them.

_=The Revoke.=_ Should a player fail to follow suit when able to do so,
it is a revoke, and the revoke is established when the trick in which
it occurs is turned down and quitted by the side that won it, or when
the revoking player, or his partner, in his right turn or otherwise,
has led or played to the following trick. If a player ask his partner
if he has none of the suit led, before the trick is turned down, the
revoke may be corrected, unless the player in error replies in the
negative, or has led or played to the next trick.

Dummy cannot revoke under any circumstances.

The penalty for the revoke depends on the side in error. If the
declarer revokes he cannot score anything but honours as actually held,
while the adversaries take 100 points penalty in the honour column, in
addition to any they may be entitled to for defeating the declaration.
If an adversary revokes, they score honours only, and the declarer may
either take the 100 points, or he may take three actual tricks and add
them to his own. If he takes the tricks, they may aid him in fulfilling
his contract, as the score is then made up as the tricks lie, but the
declarer will not be entitled to any bonus in case he was doubled.

Suppose Z is the declarer, and is playing three hearts doubled. He wins
the odd trick only, but detects a revoke, for which he takes three
tricks. This gives him four by cards, doubled, worth 64 points toward
game, but he does not get any bonus for making his contract after being
doubled, or for the extra tricks, because they were taken in penalty
and not in play.

_=Exposed Cards.=_ After the deal but before the winning declaration
is settled, if any player exposes a card his partner is barred from
bidding or doubling, and the card is subject to call. Should the
partner of the offending player prove to be the leader to the first
trick, the declarer may prohibit the initial lead of the exposed suit.

All cards exposed by the declarer’s adversaries after the original lead
are liable to be called and must be left on the table, face upward.
Exposed cards are those played two at a time, dropped on the table face
up, or so held that the partner might see them, or cards mentioned as
being in the hand of the player or his partner. The declarer is not
liable to any penalty for exposed cards.

_=Leading Out of Turn.=_ If either adversary leads out of turn, the
declarer may call the card exposed, or call a suit when it is the turn
of either adversary to lead. If the declarer leads out of turn, from
his own hand or dummy’s, there is no penalty, but he may not correct
the error unless directed to do so by an adversary. If the second hand
plays to the false lead, it must stand. If the declarer plays from his
own hand or from dummy to a false lead, the trick stands. In case the
dealer calls a suit and the player has none, the penalty is paid.

_=Cards Played in Error.=_ If any player but dummy omits to play to a
trick, and does not correct the error until he has played to the next
trick, the other side may claim a new deal. If the deal stands, the
surplus card at the end is supposed to belong to the short trick, but
is not a revoke.

_=OBJECT OF THE GAME.=_ The object in auction is for the declarer to
fulfil his contract, and for the adversaries to defeat it. The highest
card played to the trick, if of the suit led, wins the trick, and
trumps win all other suits. At the end of the hand the declarer counts
up the tricks he has won over the book and if he has made good on his
contract he scores the value of those tricks toward game. As soon as
either side reaches 30, it is a game, but the hands are played out, and
all the tricks counted.

_=RUBBERS.=_ Three games, 30 points or more each, make a rubber, but
if the first two are won by the same partners the third game is not
played. The side that first wins two games adds 250 rubber points to
its score.

_=SCORING.=_ Apart from the game score, which is made entirely by
tricks won on successful declarations, there are several additional
scores that have no influence in winning or losing the game, although
they may materially affect the ultimate value of the rubber. These are
all entered under the head of “honour scores,” or “above the line.”

_=Honours=_ are the five highest cards in the trump suit, A K Q J 10;
when there is no trump, they are the four Aces. The partners holding
three, four or five honours between them, or four honours in one hand,
or four in one hand and the fifth in the partner’s, or all five in one
hand, are entitled to claim and score them, according to the following
table. It will be seen that their value varies according to the trump
suit; and it must be remembered that this value cannot be increased by
doubling.


TABLE OF HONOUR VALUES.

Royal spades are indicated by “R.”

  -------------------------------+---+---+---+---+---+-------
  Declaration                    | ♠ | ♣ | ♢ | ♡ | R |  No
                                 |   |   |   |   |   | trump
  -------------------------------+---+---+---+---+---+-------
  Each Trick Above 6             | 2 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10
  -------------------------------+---+---+---+---+---+-------
  H { 3 Honours                  | 4 |12 |14 |16 |18 | 30
  O { 4 Honours                  | 8 |24 |28 |32 |36 | 40
  N { 4 Honours (All in 1 hand)  |16 |48 |56 |64 |72 |100
  O { 5 Honours                  |10 |30 |35 |40 |45 |
  U { 5 Honours (4 in 1 hand)    |18 |54 |63 |72 |81 |
  R { 5 Honours (All in 1 hand)  |20 |60 |70 |80 |90 |
  S {

  Rubber 250, Grand Slam 40, Little Slam 20.

When one side has nothing but the odd honour, three out of the five, it
is called _=simple honours=_. The value of simple honours is always the
same as two tricks.

_=Slams.=_ Little Slam is made by taking twelve of the thirteen tricks;
it counts 20 points. Grand Slam is made by taking the thirteen tricks,
and it counts 40. Either score must be exclusive of revoke penalties.

_=PENALTIES.=_ If the declarer succeeds in making his contract, he
scores below the line for tricks and above the line for honours
according to the table of values already given, and he scores for as
many tricks as he wins, regardless of the smaller number he may have
bid.

But if the declarer fails to make good on his contract he scores
nothing but honours as actually held, while his adversaries score
50 points penalty in the honour column for every trick by which the
declaration falls short, no matter what the declaration was, but they
never score anything toward game, no matter how many tricks they win,
because they are not the declarers. They may, however, score slams.

If we suppose the winning declaration to be three hearts, and the
declarer makes the odd trick only, holding simple honours, he scores 16
above the line, while the other side scores 100 points above the line
for defeating the contract by two tricks, worth 50 each.

If the dealer is left in with one spade, he cannot lose more than 100
points, even if he is doubled, provided neither he nor his partner
redouble. If the adversaries set the contract for one trick, the
declarer loses 50 only, and even if he is set for six tricks, he can
lose only the 100.

If any other declaration is doubled and fails, the adversaries score
100 points, instead of 50, for every trick by which they defeat the
contract. If it is redoubled, they score 200. But if the declarer
succeeds after being doubled, he not only scores double value for the
tricks toward game, but he gets 50 points for fulfilling a doubled
contract and 50 more for any tricks over his contract if he makes them.
These figures are 100 in each case if he redoubles.

Suppose the declaration is three no trumps, doubled, and the declarer
makes five by cards. He scores 5 times 20 toward game, aces as held,
and then 150 in penalties, 50 of which is for fulfilling his contract
and twice 50 for the two tricks over his contract.

_=KEEPING SCORE.=_ Two styles of score-pad are now in general use. In
one the tricks and honours are entered in the same vertical column,
one above the other, and are all added in one sum at the end. In the
other style of pad the tricks are in one column and the honours and
penalties in another, so that four additions are required to find the
value of the rubber, which is always the difference between the total
scores after giving the winners of two games 250 points. The following
illustration will show both styles of pad:

        WE ||THEY
           ||  36
           ||  30
        18 || 100
        16 ||
       ====++====
         8 ||
           ||  40
       ----++----
           ||  36
       ----++----
           || 250
       ----++----
        42 || 492
           ||  42
           |+----
           || 450

     WE    ||  THEY
    8 | 16 ||    |
      | 18 ||    | 100
      |    || 40 |  30
  ----+----++----+-----
      |    || 36 |  36
  ----+----++----+-----
    8 | 34 || 76 | 166
      |  8 ||    |  76
      +----+|    | 250
      | 42 ||    +-----
      |    ||    | 492
      |    ||    |  42
      |    ||    +-----
      |    ||    | 450

The scoring on which this rubber is won and lost was as follows: WE
started with a contract to win one heart and made it, with simple
honours, scoring 8 toward game and 16 above for honours. Then THEY set
a contract for two tricks, getting 100 in penalties, against simple
honours in royals, scored as 18 above for WE and 100 for THEY. Then
THEY made four odd at no trump and 30 aces, winning the first game,
under which a line is drawn.

On the next deal THEY made four odd in royals, with four honours, 36
each way, winning the second game and also the rubber, for which they
add 250 points. Both scores are now added up and the lower deducted
from the higher, showing that THEY win 450 points on the balance.

_=CUTTING OUT.=_ At the conclusion of the rubber, if there are more
than four candidates for play, the selection of the new table is made
by cutting; those who have just played having an equal chance with the
newcomers. The reason for this is that a Bridge table is complete with
four, and that a rubber is usually too long, with its preliminaries of
making the trump, and its finalities of settling the score, for players
to wait their turn. A rubber at Short Whist is often over in two hands;
but a carefully played rubber at Bridge sometimes occupies an hour.

_=CHEATING.=_ Most of the cheating done at the bridge table is of such
a character that it cannot be challenged without difficulty, although
there is enough of it to be most annoying.

Some players will place an ace about four cards from the top when
they shuffle the cards, so that when the pack is spread for the cut
they can draw it and get the first deal. Second dealing is a common
trick, especially on ocean steamers, marking the aces and slipping them
back if they would fall to an adversary dealing them to the partner
instead, who can go no trumps and score a hundred aces several times
in an evening. Women are great offenders in trifling matters, such as
asking the dealer if she passed it, when nothing has been said; looking
over the adversaries’ hands as dummy, and then pushing dummy’s cards
forward, as if arranging them, but in reality indicating which one to
play. A great deal of petty cheating is done in putting down the score,
and also in balancing it by cancellation. In large charity games, some
women are so eager to win a prize that they will stoop to all manner
of private signals, and some go so far as to make up a table and agree
to double everything, so that some one of the four shall have a big
score. Another common trick in so-called social games is to have a
stool pigeon to overlook the hand of another and signal it up to the
confederate who is playing.

There may be some remedy for this sort of thing, but so far no one
seems to have found it; or at least they lack the courage to put it in
practice and expose the offenders.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ The great secret of success in auction
lies in sound bidding, so that no bid shall have a double meaning and
the partner may be able to rely absolutely on the information which
the bid should convey. The complications of the situation are so
numerous, owing to the variations introduced by each succeeding bid
as the players over-call one another, that it would be impossible to
cover them in a work of this kind, and the student would do well to
consult some such work as “Whitehead’s Conventions,” which covers every
situation that could possibly arise in the bidding.

A few general hints may be of assistance in showing the principles that
govern the more common situations.

_=The Dealer’s Bids=_ may be divided into four parts; a spade, a losing
suit, a winning suit, and no trumps. The one-spade bid simply means, “I
pass,” but it does not signify that he will not be willing to bid on
the second round. It has nothing whatever to do with the spade suit.

The dealer should never call any suit on the first round of bids unless
he has two sure tricks in it. If it is a losing suit, he may have just
those two tricks and nothing else, and the shorter the suit the better,
but the tricks must be A K, or K Q J, or A Q J. If it is a winning
suit he must have at least five cards of it and a trick or two in some
other suit to back it up.

If the dealer bids two spades, he shows two sure tricks in a short
spade suit and a sure trick outside. If he bids three spades he shows
five or more spades and strength enough outside for royals, but denies
two sure tricks in the spade suit itself. The dealer should bid no
trumps when he has not length enough to bid hearts or royals, but has a
hand as good as three aces, well protected in three suits.

_=The Second Hand=_ should declare just as if he were the dealer when
the dealer starts with one spade. He may even go no trump on a lighter
hand. When the dealer bids a suit, second hand should over-call only
when he can make his contract or wishes to indicate a lead in case
third hand should go to no trumps. Second hand should never take the
dealer out of a losing suit with a winning suit unless he has seven
tricks in his own hand. If the dealer bids no trump, second hand should
pass, unless he is prepared to over-call any further bid for three
tricks.

_=Third Hand=_ is not obliged to take the dealer out of a spade, and
should not do so unless he is a trick or two stronger than he would
have to be to declare as dealer. But the dealer must never be left in
with a two or three spade bid. If third hand cannot do any better,
he should declare a royal. When the dealer bids no trump, third hand
should take him out with any weak five card suit and nothing else,
simply to warn him that there are no winning cards in the hand. Always
take him out with five cards in a winning suit, no matter how strong
the rest of the hand.

Take the dealer out of one suit with another suit only to deny his
suit. Take him out of a winning suit with no trump, only to deny his
suit and show strength in each of the three other suits. If the dealer
bids no trump and second hand calls a suit, double if you can stop the
suit twice, otherwise show any good suit of your own, but do not go
two no-trumps unless you can do it all yourself. Leave that to your
partner. Do not assist your partner’s suit bids with less than three
tricks if second hand over-calls.

_=Fourth Hand=_ bids on the bidding much more than on his cards. He
should never take the dealer out of a spade that both second and third
hand have passed unless he can go game. If the dealer bids a losing
suit, second and third hands passing, leave him in unless you can go
game and are not afraid of a shift. If the dealer bids a winning suit,
second and third hands passing, make any sound declaration. If the
dealer starts with no trumps, show any suit that might save the game
if led at once by your partner.

_=Subsequent Bids.=_ Any suit bid on the second round but not on the
first, shows length without the tops. When a winning suit is taken out
by the partner, a losing suit bid on the second round shows tops in it.
Any suit rebid on the second round, without waiting for the partner’s
assistance, shows six or seven sure tricks in hand.

Never bid a hand twice, unless its strength is greater than indicated
by the first bid. Having bid a club on ace king alone, that is the end
of it. If you have an outside ace, which the club bid did not show,
you can assist your partner once on that trick, but no more. Having
assisted your partner’s suit bid with three tricks, do not bid again
unless you have a fourth trick in hand, but if he rebids his suit
without waiting for you, you may assist on one trick, especially a high
honour in trumps.

Do not double unless you have a certainty and are not afraid of a
shift. Do not give up a fair chance for going game yourself just to
double an adversary, unless you are sure of 200 in penalties at least,
and do not give up the rubber game for less than 300. Always remember
that a double may enable an adversary to go game, and will often show
the declarer which hand to finesse against.

_=Free Doubles=_ are opportunities to double when the declarer will go
game anyhow if he makes his contract, but they should never be made if
there is any chance that he may shift.

_=Free Bids=_ are anything better than a spade by the dealer, or
anything that over-calls a previous bid, because no one is forced to
bid on the first round. A _=Shout=_ is a bid that is a trick more than
necessary to over-call the previous bid. It shows a solid suit, or five
or six sure tricks in hand. In a losing suit it is a loud call for the
partner to go no trumps if he can. A free bid in a losing suit shows
the high cards; in a winning suit it shows the tricks in hand.

_=A Forced Bid=_ is one that is necessary to over-call, such as two
diamonds over a heart. This does not mean that the caller would have
bid two diamonds originally. A player who must indicate a lead against
a no-trumper makes a forced bid.

_=The Original Lead.=_ The first card must be played before dummy’s
hand is exposed.

_=OPENING LEADS.=_ The position which we have first to consider is that
of the eldest hand, usually designated by the letter “A,” who sits on
the declarer’s left.

[Illustration:

          Pone
        +-------+
        |   B   |
  Dummy |Y     Z| Declarer
        |   A   |
        +-------+
         Leader
]

_=Selecting the Suit to Lead.=_ If your partner has declared a suit,
lead the best card you hold of it, regardless of number, unless you
have an ace-king suit of your own, in which case lead the king first
and have a look at dummy. If partner has not declared anything, lead
your own suit. With high cards not in sequence, such as ace-queen,
king-jack, or even queen-ten, in every suit but trumps, lead the trump.

There is a great difference between playing against a trump declaration
and against no-trumpers; because in the first case the leader is
opposed to unusual trump strength and his object must be to make what
he can of his winning cards, before the declarer gets into the lead
and discards his weak suits, so as to be ready to trump them. But in
the second case, there being no trumps, the leader’s object should
be to get a suit established against the dealer, if he can, and the
longer the suit is, the better. The dealer’s strength in a no-trumper
is usually scattered, and he may often be found with a weak or missing
suit, which is generally the suit in which the eldest hand or his
partner is long.

We shall first consider the leads against trump declarations, because
they are more common and are also the more useful. If a player makes
a trump-hand lead against a no-trump declaration, he will not do
nearly so much harm as if he make a no-trump-hand lead against a trump
declaration. For that reason, if a player cannot master both systems of
leading, it is better for him to learn the leads against trumps than
those against no-trumps.

_=Rules for Leading High Cards.=_ With such a suit as A K Q 2, no one
need be told not to begin with the deuce. Whenever a player holds two
or more of the best cards of a suit he should play one of them. If he
holds both second and third best, playing one of them will force the
best out of his way, leaving him with the commanding card.

The cards which are recognised by bridge players as high, are the A K Q
J 10, and if we separate the various combinations from which a player
should lead each of them, a study of the groups so formed will greatly
facilitate our recollection of them.

In the first group are those containing two or more of the best cards.
In this and all following notation, the exact size of any card below a
Ten is immaterial.

[Illustration:

  🂡 🂮 🂭 🂫 | 🂱 🂾 🂻 🂷
  🃁 🃎 🃍 🃆 | 🃑 🃞 🃔 🃓
]

So far as trick-taking is concerned, it is of no importance which of
the winning cards is first led; but good players lead the _=King=_ from
all these combinations in order that the partner may be informed, by
its winning, that the leader holds the Ace also.

In the second group are those containing both the second and third
best, but not the best.

[Illustration:

  🂮 🂭 🂫 🂪 | 🂾 🂽 🂺 🂸
  🃎 🃍 🃋 🃄 | 🃞 🃝 🃗 🃖
]

The _=King=_ is the proper lead from these combinations. If it wins,
the partner should have the Ace; if it loses, partner should know the
leader holds at least the Queen.

Both these groups, which contain all the King leads, may be easily
remembered by observing that the King is always led if accompanied
by the Ace or Queen, or both. Beginners should follow this rule for
leading the King, regardless of the number of small cards in the suit.

There is only one combination from which the _=Queen=_ is led,

[Illustration:

  🃝 🃛 🃗 🃖
]

when it is accompanied by the Jack, and there is no higher card of the
suit in the hand. Whether the ten follows the Jack or not, does not
matter. With any two high cards in sequence, the lead is a high card
when playing against a declared trump.

The _=Jack=_ is never led except as a supporting card. It is always the
top of the suit, and the suit is usually short. The object of making
such an opening is to avoid leading suits headed by two honours which
are not in sequence. These are good Jack leads:

[Illustration:

  🂻 🂺 🂹 🂴

  🂫 🂧
]

The _=Ten=_ is led from one combination only:--

[Illustration:

  🃎 🃋 🃊 🃆
]

The _=Ace=_ should not be led if it can be avoided; but it is better
to lead it from suits of more than four cards, so as to make it at
once. If the Ace is accompanied by the King, the King is the card to
lead, not the Ace. If the Ace is accompanied by other honours, such as
the Queen or Jack, it is better to avoid opening the suit, unless you
have five or more cards of it. But if you do lead a suit headed by the
Ace, _=without the King=_, be sure that you lead the Ace, when playing
against a trump declaration, or you may never make it.

All such combinations as the following should be avoided, if possible,
as more can be made out of them by letting them alone:--

[Illustration:

  🃑 🃝 🃚 🃔 | 🃞 🃛 🃘 🃔
  🂱 🂻 🂺 🂴 | 🂽 🂻 🂶 🂴
  🂮 🂨 🂧 🂤 | 🂫 🂪 🂩 🂤
  🃍 🃆 🃅 🃄 | 🃊 🃉 🃈 🃄
]

But with three honours, A Q J, the Ace should be led.

_=Rules for Leading Short Suits.=_ It will sometimes happen that the
only four-card suit in the leader’s hand will be trumps or a suit
headed by honours not in sequence, which it is not desirable to lead.
In such cases, if there is no high-card combination in any of the
short suits, it is usual to lead the highest card, unless it is an Ace
or King. Many good players will not lead the Queen from a three-card
suit, unless it is accompanied by the Jack. All such leads are called
_=forced=_, and are intended to assist the partner, by playing cards
which may strengthen him, although of no use to the leader. The best
card should be led from any such combinations as the following:--

[Illustration:

  🃝 🃛 🃖 | 🃊 🃉 🃄
  🃋 🃊 🃅 | 🃙 🃘 🃔
  🂫 🂥 🂣 | 🂷 🂶 🂴
]

_=Small-card Leads.=_ If the suit selected for the lead does not
contain any combination of high cards from which it would be right
to lead a high card, good players make it a rule to begin with the
fourth-best, counting from the top of the suit. This is called the
“card of uniformity,” because it indicates to the partner that there
are remaining in the leader’s hand exactly three cards higher than the
one led.

Should the player be forced to lead any of the undesirable combinations
shown on the last page, he would begin with the Ace if he held it;
otherwise he would lead the fourth-best. In each of the hands shown
this would be the four, and this card would be led, even if there were
five or six cards in the suit. From this hand, for instance, the five
is the proper lead:--

[Illustration:

  🃎 🃈 🃆 🃅 🃄 🃃 🃂
]

_=Rules for Leading Second Round.=_ If the leader wins the first trick,
having the best of the suit in his hand, he should follow with the
winning card; but if he has several cards which are equally winning
cards, he should lead the lowest of them. This is an indication to the
partner that the card led is as good as the best; therefore the leader
must hold the intermediate cards. When a King wins, your partner knows
you have the Ace, if he does not hold it. Then tell him what he does
not know, that you have the Queen also.

Suppose you have led the King from these combinations:--

[Illustration:

  🂱 🂾 🂽 🂻 | 🂡 🂮 🂭 🂢
]

Your partner knows you have the Ace, because your King wins. From the
first, go on with the Jack, which is just as good as the Ace, but tells
your partner you have not only the Ace but the Queen, still in your
hand. From the second, go on with the Queen, the card your partner does
not know, which tells him you still have the Ace, _=but not the Jack=_.
If you have not the Queen, you will have to go on with the Ace, and
your leading the Ace _=will deny the Queen=_.

If you have not the best, lead one of the second and third-best, if you
hold both:--

[Illustration:

  🃞 🃝 🃛 🃚 | 🂾 🂽 🂻 🂲
]

From the first of these, having led the King, if it wins, go on with
the ten, whether you have any smaller cards or not. From the second,
if the King wins, go on with the Jack, which denies the ten, but tells
your partner you still have the Queen. No mistake is more common
among beginners than leading a low card on the second round, on the
assumption that the partner must have the Ace. If you have led from
King and Queen only, you must go on with the fourth-best; because you
have not both the second and third-best. This fourth-best is the card
that was the fourth-best originally. Having led the King from this:--

[Illustration:

  🃎 🃍 🃈 🃆 🃅 🃃
]

the card to follow the King is the six, if the King wins the first
trick.

_=The Fourth-best.=_ From any combination of cards, if you have not the
best, or both the second and third-best, in your hand for the second
round, lead your original fourth-best. From all the following, the
proper lead on the second round would be the fourth-best, in each case
the four of the suit:

[Illustration:

  🂡 🂭 🂧 🂤 🂢 | 🂾 🂽 🂸 🂴
  🃁 🃋 🃉 🃄 🃃 | 🂮 🂭 🂧 🂤
  🃑 🃙 🃘 🃔 🃓 | 🃎 🃋 🃊 🃄
]

_=Leading Trumps.=_ A trump lead is sometimes adopted when all the
plain suits are bad ones to lead away from, such as A Q, or A J, or K
J in each and no length. If a player holds high cards which are not in
sequence, such as the major tenace, ace and queen, it is very probable
that the declarer holds the king. By refusing to lead such suits, and
waiting for them to come up to the tenace, the declarer’s high card may
be caught and a valuable trick saved. When a good player opens his hand
with a trump, right up to the declaration, his partner should lead his
best supporting cards boldly up to dummy’s weak suits.

_=The Pone’s Leads.=_ When the pone gets into the lead, if he does not
return his partner’s suit, he should open his own suits according to
the rules already given for all the high-card combinations. If he has
no high-card combination, it is usually better for him to lead some
card that will beat Dummy than to lead his fourth-best. Suppose he
wishes to lead a diamond, in which he holds Q 10 8 4 3; Dummy having
the 9 and 6 only. It is better to lead the ten of diamonds than the
fourth-best, because if the declarer does not follow with an honour,
your partner will not have to sacrifice an honour to keep Dummy from
winning the trick with the 9.

After the opening lead, when Dummy’s cards are exposed, the knowledge
of his cards may change the aspect of the game greatly; but the proper
cards to lead to and through Dummy will be better understood in
connection with the play against no-trumpers.

_=No-trump Leads.=_ The chief difference in the leads against
no-trumpers is, that there is no hurry to make your aces and kings, the
chief thing being to make some of the smaller cards good for tricks.
When you are long in a suit, if you lead out the winning cards first,
your partner may have none to lead you later on, and if you cannot make
every trick in the suit before you lose the lead, you may never make
anything but your one or two high cards.

The difference in the leads at no-trump is covered by a very simple
rule; if you have only two honours in sequence, do not lead either of
them, but begin with the fourth-best, even if your honours are the Ace
and King. But if you have three honours in the suit, two of them in
sequence, always lead an honour against a no-trumper.

The exception to this rule is, that when you are so long in the suit
that you may catch some high cards with your high cards, you lead them
first. With six or seven in suit to the A K, for instance, lead the
King, on the chance of dropping the Queen. With seven in suit headed
by the Ace, lead the Ace, but never with less than seven without the
King. With six in suit, you may lead the King from K Q, without either
Jack or 10; but with less than six in suit never lead the King from K Q
unless you have the 10 or the J also.

_=THIRD HAND PLAY.=_ The leader’s partner must do his best to inform
his partner as to the distribution of his suit. The method of doing
this is entirely different when there is a trump from that which is
adopted when there is no trump. In the first case, all your partner
wants to know is, who is going to trump his suit if he goes on with it.
In the second case, what he wants to know is his chance for getting his
suit cleared or established.

_=With a Trump.=_ When third hand makes no attempt to win the trick,
either because his partner’s or Dummy’s card is better than any he need
play, he plays the higher of two cards only, the lowest of three or
more. This is called playing _=down and out=_. Suppose third hand holds
7 and 2 only, and the lead is a King. The 7 is played. The leader goes
on with the Ace, denying the Queen, and the third hand plays the deuce.
If the Queen is not in the Dummy, the declarer must have it. In any
case, the leader knows that if he goes on, his partner, the third hand,
can trump that suit.

With three cards, the lowest falling to the first round, followed by a
higher card, will show the leader that the third hand still has another
of that suit.

It is not necessary to play down and out with an honour, because the
leader can read the situation without it. Suppose third hand holds the
J 5. He plays the 5 to the first round, because one of his two cards is
an honour. The leader goes on with the Ace, and the Jack falls. Now
the third hand must have the Queen or no more, and no matter which it
is he can win the third round, with the Queen or with a trump.

_=Against No-Trumpers.=_ When there is no trump, the third hand uses
what is called the _=Foster echo=_. This consists in playing always the
_=second-best=_ of the suit, when no attempt is made to win the trick.
Suppose the leader begins with the King. Third hand holds 10 8 7 4, and
plays the 8. This marks him with only one card higher than the 8, and
is a great exposer of false cards played by the declarer.

On the second round, the rule is, always to keep the lowest card of the
suit until the last. If third hand held four originally, 10 8 7 4, his
play to the second round is the 7, keeping the 4. If he held 10 8 7
only, his play to the second round would be the 10, keeping the 7. This
makes it clear to the leader how many and what he holds.

_=High Cards Third Hand.=_ When the third hand tries to win his
partner’s lead, he does so as cheaply as possible. That is, holding
both King and Queen, he plays the Queen, not the King. If his cards are
not in sequence, he should always play the best he has. With Ace and
Queen, for instance, he must play the Ace if the King is not in the
Dummy. To play the Queen would be to throw it away if the declarer has
the King. If the leader has the King, third hand gets out of his way by
giving up the Ace.

_=FOSTER’S ELEVEN RULE.=_ In trying to win tricks as cheaply as
possible, third hand may often be guided by the Eleven Rule, which can
be applied to any lead of a small card.

By deducting from eleven the number of pips on any low card led by his
partner, the pone may ascertain to a certainty how many cards there are
_=higher than the one led=_, which are not in the leader’s hand. This
rule, which was invented by R.F. Foster in 1881, in connection with the
game of whist, is now used by everyone with any pretensions to being a
bridge player. The rule itself is this:--

When the eldest hand leads any card which is not an honour, deduct the
spots on it from eleven. From the remainder thus found, deduct the
number of cards, _=higher than the one led=_, which are not in your own
hand nor in Dummy’s in that suit. This final remainder is the number
of cards which are in the declarer’s hand which are higher than the
card led. The principal thing to remember is, that it is only the cards
higher than the one led that you need trouble about. To illustrate:--

Suppose you are third hand, and your partner leads the seven of clubs,
Dummy lays down the Q 9 2, and you hold A J 3, thus:--

[Illustration:

         🃗
    Leader

         Dummy 🃝 🃙 🃒

  Third hand.
    🃑 🃛 🃓
]

Deducting seven from eleven, you find it leaves four. These four cards,
higher than the one lead, are all in sight, Q 9 in Dummy; A J in your
own hand, therefore the declarer cannot have any card higher than the
seven. If he has, your partner’s lead is not his fourth-best, as you
will see if you lay out the cards.

_=RETURNING SUITS.=_ When the third hand returns his partner’s suit, he
should lead the higher of two cards, and the lowest of three, unless
he has a card which will beat anything Dummy may hold in the suit, in
which case he should _=always beat Dummy=_.

_=PLAYING AGAINST DUMMY.=_ Some of the fine points in bridge arise in
situations which require a careful consideration of the Dummy’s cards.

There are three great principles in playing against Dummy:--

1st. Lead through the strong suits, and up to the weak.

2nd. Do not lead through a fourchette.

3rd. Do not lead up to a tenace.

These rules must not be blindly followed in every instance. They are
simply general principles, and some of the prettiest _=coups=_ arise
from the exceptional cases.

_=Leading Through Dummy.=_ The eldest hand, when he does not deem it
advisable to go on with his own suit, may be guided in his choice by
the strength or weakness of certain suits in Dummy’s hand. The play
against Dummy is especially important at no trumps.

Suits which it is good policy to lead through are A x x x, K x x x, or
any broken sequences of high cards.

Suits in which Dummy is long, or holds any of the regular high-card
combinations, should be avoided; winning or high sequences being
especially dangerous. To lead such suits through Dummy’s strength is an
invitation to partner to force you in the suit led.

It is not necessary for you to be strong in a suit which you lead
through Dummy; and if you are both weak, is often advantageous;
especially if it avoids leading one of his strong suits.

With A Q 10 x; Dummy having J x x x; play the 10. If partner has the
King you make every trick in the suit.

With A Q 10 x; Dummy having K x x; play the Q. If Dummy passes, you
make two tricks; if he covers, you have tenace over the Jack.

With A 10 9 x; Dummy having J x x x; play the 10. If partner has the K,
your A 9 is tenace over the Q.

With A J 10 x; Dummy having Q x x x; if the suit must be led, play the
Jack; but such positions should be avoided, except in the end game, or
when you play for every trick.

With A J 10 x; Dummy having no honour in the suit; if you must lead the
suit, play the 10.

In trumps, with K Q x x; Dummy having A J x x; play the Queen. If Dummy
wins with A, play a small card for the second round, and he may refuse
to put on the J. The declarer not having the 10, would make Dummy
cover; but nothing is lost if he does, and it marks the 10 with your
partner.

With King and others of a suit in which Dummy has not the Ace; avoid
leading the suit until the Ace has fallen.

With King alone, play it if Dummy has the Ace; keep it if he has not.

_=Trumps.=_ If a player in this position is strong in trumps, he should
keep quiet about it and let the maker of the trumps develop the suit.
False-carding is perfectly legitimate in trumps, and will deceive the
declarer more than your partner.

_=End Games.=_ There are cases in which it is necessary to play as if
partner was known to possess a certain card, for unless he has it the
game is lost. For instance: You want one trick, and have Q 10 x x,
Dummy having K x x, of an unplayed suit. The Queen is the best play;
for if partner has any honour you must get a trick; otherwise it is
impossible.

You have K x in one suit, a losing card in another, and a winning card.
You want all four tricks to save the game. Play the King, and then the
small card; for if your partner has not the Ace and another winning
card you must lose the game.

You have a losing trump, and Q x x of a suit in which Dummy has K 10
x. If you want one trick, play the losing trump, counting on partner
for an honour in the plain suit. If you must have two tricks, lead the
Queen, trusting your partner to hold Ace.

_=Leading up to Dummy.=_ The best thing for the third hand, or pone, to
do, when he does not return his partner’s suit, and has no very strong
suit of his own, is to lead up to Dummy’s weak suits, and to lead a
card that Dummy cannot beat, if possible.

The general principle of leading up to weakness suggests that we should
know what weakness is. Dummy may be considered weak in suits of which
he holds three or four small cards, none higher than an 8; Ace and one
or two small cards; or King and one or two small cards. In leading up
to such suits, your object should be to give your partner a finesse,
if possible; and in calculating the probabilities of success it must
be remembered that there are only two unknown hands, so that it is an
equal chance that he holds either of two unknown cards. It is 3 to 1
against his holding both, or against his holding neither. Of three
unknown cards, it is 7 to 1 against his holding all three, or none of
them; or about an equal chance that he holds two of the three; or one
only.

If Dummy holds any of the weak suits just given, you holding nothing
higher than the Ten, you should lead it. Suppose you have 10 9 6; Dummy
having A 3 2. The K Q J may be distributed in eight different ways, in
any of which your partner will pass your Ten if second hand does not
cover. In four cases, second hand would cover with the King, and in one
with the Queen and Jack. In the remaining three your partner’s hand
would be benefited.

If Dummy has King and one or two small cards, it is not so
disadvantageous to lead up to the King as would at first appear;
because it is forced out of his hand on the first round, unless
declarer plays Ace, and it is usually good policy to force out Dummy’s
cards of re-entry early in the hand.

In leading from high-card combinations, the usual bridge leads should
be followed; but exceptions must be made on the second round when
certain cards are in Dummy’s hand. For instance: With A K J and others,
it is usual to stop after the first round, and wait for the finesse
of the Jack. This is obviously useless if the Queen is not in Dummy’s
hand. So with K Q 10, unless Dummy has the Jack; or K Q 9, unless Dummy
has the 10. The lead from A Q J should be avoided if Dummy has the King.

With A Q 10 and others, J in Dummy’s hand, begin with the Queen.

With A J 9 and others, 10 in Dummy’s hand, lead the Jack.

With A J 10, Dummy having K Q x, play the Jack, and do not lead the
suit again.

In trumps, with K Q and others, if Dummy has the J singly guarded,
begin with the King as usual, but follow it with the Queen instead of
the smallest; for declarer may have passed in the hope of making a Bath
coup with both Ace and Jack. In plain suits this is a dangerous lead,
as declarer having Ace, and wishing to force Dummy, would hold his Ace
as a matter of course.

With short suits, such as K x, Q x; or even with King or Queen alone,
the honour is a good lead if Dummy has no court cards in the suit. The
Queen is rather a better lead than the King, the only danger being that
second hand holds fourchette.

With Q J x, or J 10 x, one of the high cards should be played. With Q
10 x, Dummy having Ace or King, the Queen should be led.

With K 10 x, Dummy having Jack, the suit should not be led.

With such combinations as K x x x, Dummy having Q x, the suit should
not be led.

When you have a suit which is both long and strong, such as A K x x
x, and Dummy has no honour in the suit, it is a common artifice to
underplay, by beginning with the smallest, if playing against no-trumps
and you have a card of re-entry. This should not be done unless you
have the general strength to justify such a finesse.

If you open a long suit, Dummy having only small cards, and your
partner wins with Q, J, or 10, and does not return it, he has evidently
a finesse in the suit and wants it led again.

_=End Games.=_ In the end game there are several variations which are
made possible by the fact that the cards on your right are exposed.

With A J x, Dummy having Q x x, the small card should be led.

With Q x, and an odd card, Dummy having K x x of the first suit; it is
better to play the odd card; but if for any reason this should not be
done, lead the Q, hoping to find A 10 with your partner.

The state of the score must be a constant guide in all end games. For
instance: You hold Q 10 x, Dummy having J 9 x. If you want only one
trick, play the Queen; but if you want two, play the small card.

_=SECOND HAND PLAY.=_ The easiest position to play as second hand, is,
of course, with the Dummy on your left, because Dummy’s cards will
show what is best to be done. If a small card is led, you having King,
put it on if Dummy has not the Ace; unless you want partner to get the
lead. If Dummy has only two cards of the suit, neither of them the Ace,
always play your King.

When the declarer leads a suit it is often important to count how many
he and your partner can possibly hold. For instance: You have four, K
x x x; Dummy has four, A J 10 x, and declarer leads the Queen. It is
useless to play your King; for either the Queen is a singleton, and
the declarer cannot continue the suit, which will compel Dummy to lead
it to you eventually; or, the third round will be trumped, perhaps by
your partner. If you have only two small cards with the King, put it on
the Queen. You cannot save it, but you may establish your partner’s 9.

In the last three tricks, if you find yourself with a doubtful card,
and the best and a small card of a suit which the declarer leads
through you, win the trick and lead the doubtful card, for if the
declarer held the best of that suit he would have led it first, to be
sure of a trick.

_=Dummy on the Right.=_ When Dummy leads through you, your skill in
avoiding any traps the declarer may be setting for you will depend on
your knowledge of how he manages his hand, and your ability to infer
what he holds.

As a general principle, it may be assumed that any high card led by
Dummy forms part of a combination, the unseen part of which is in the
declarer’s hand. If Dummy leads a Queen from Q x x, you holding A J x,
it is almost a certainty that the declarer holds the King. If you have
A K x, the dealer must have J 10 and several others. If you have K x x,
the declarer probably holds Ace, or a long suit headed by J 10.

When Dummy leads strengthening cards, they must be to give the declarer
a finesse. If he leads a small card from small cards, some high-card
combination must be in the declarer’s hand. In such cases it is useless
for you to finesse. If you have any sequence superior to the card
led, cover with the lowest. There should be no false-carding in this,
because your partner is the only one that can be deceived.

With A K and others, play the King, whatever Dummy leads.

With A Q and others, Dummy having nothing higher than the 9, play the
Ace.

With K Q 10, play the Queen on a small card led, unless Dummy has the
Jack.

With A J 10 x, play Ace if Dummy has no honour in the suit. But if
Dummy leads the 9, cover with the 10; if it loses, you lie tenace over
the declarer.

With A J x, play the Jack on a 9 led. This prevents the finesse of the
9, and retains command of the suit. If Dummy has both K and Q, play
your Ace. It is useless to play the Bath coup, for the declarer knows
your cards, and your partner only is deceived.

With K x x, if Dummy has not the Ace, do not play the King, no matter
what is led.

With Q x x, unless Dummy has both A and K, do not play the Queen. If
your partner has the Jack guarded, one of you must make a trick. If
Dummy has A J, and leads J, put on the Queen; it may make the 9 or 10
good in your partner’s hand.

With A x x, Dummy leading Jack, play the Ace.

With any fourchette, cover the card led.

If Dummy remains with one or two small cards of a suit that has been
led, and you have the best, play it on the second round. Dummy’s play
is evidently for the ruff, and if the declarer has not the second best,
your partner has.

If you have King, and only one or two small cards, Dummy leading Queen
from Q 10 x x, play your King. You cannot save yourself; but you may
make the 9 good in partner’s hand. If you have three or more small
cards, do not play the King, for either partner or the declarer must be
short in the suit. So if Dummy leads Jack from J 10 and others, play
the King with a short suit. If partner has Queen you establish it; if
not, you cannot make a trick in the suit.

With short suits it is usually best to cover an honour with an honour;
but with several small cards, such as K x x x, Dummy leading a
singleton Queen, you should pass.

With K 10 x, Dummy having J and others, play honour on honour; small
card on small card, whichever Dummy leads.

It is often important for the second hand to cover with what is called
an _=imperfect fourchette=_. A true fourchette is the card immediately
above and below the one led; such as K J over the Q, or Q 10 over the
J. An imperfect fourchette is the card above the one led, and another
next but one below it; such as K 10 over a Q led, or Q 9 over a J led.
Covering forces the opponents to play two honours to win one trick, and
will often make an intermediate card good in your partner’s hand.

_=THIRD HAND PLAY.=_ In addition to the methods of _=echoing=_ on the
partner’s leads of high cards in the suit first opened, third hand must
be ready to adapt himself and his play to any change of suit and will
require constant practice in putting himself in his partner’s place,
asking himself what the object is in leading certain cards through
Dummy’s hand. The inferences from the conventional leads should be
sufficiently familiar to need no further explanation; but even good
players occasionally overlook indications that partner holds certain
cards. For instance: A leads a small card; Y, Dummy, holds Q x x, and
plays Q. You play the King and win the trick. This marks not only the
Ace, but the _=Jack=_ in partner’s hand; because the declarer would not
play a twice guarded Queen from Dummy’s hand if he had the Jack guarded
himself.

False cards should be avoided by the third hand as much as possible.
The declarer will give your partner enough to puzzle over without your
adding to the confusion. There are some exceptions in trumps. For
instance: You have K Q x; Dummy has A J x x, and your partner leads.
Unless Dummy plays Ace, you should put on the King, and change the suit.

If you hold Ace and others in a plain suit, partner leading Jack, pass
it if Dummy has no honour. Perhaps by winning the second round you can
give the invited force. With any other honours than the Ace, pass a
partner’s Jack led.

If partner leads you a suit of which he knows, or should know, you have
not the best, he must have a good finesse in the suit which he does not
lead, and you should take the first opportunity to lead that suit to
him.

In returning partner’s suits, some modification may be suggested by the
condition of Dummy’s hand. For instance: With K x x; Dummy having A Q
J x; if you win, third hand, on Dummy’s finesse, you may be sure your
partner’s lead was a weak suit. If Dummy is weak in the two other plain
suits, your partner may have a good finesse in one or both of them.

When your partner wins the first round of an adverse suit, and
immediately returns it, he is inviting a force.

_=Dummy on the Left.=_ When the player is third hand with Dummy on his
left, his chief care will be to divine his partner’s object in leading
certain cards up to Dummy.

The general principles of inference are the same as in the preceding
case, and cards may often be inferred in the same manner from the
evident intention of partner. For instance: You hold K x x; partner
leads J, declarer covering with Queen. A glance at Dummy’s cards shows
him to have 10 x x; so your partner may be credited with A 9. You have
x x; your partner leading Q, covered by declarer with K, and Dummy
having J x x. You may credit your partner with A 10. You have x x; your
partner leads Q and declarer wins with Ace; Dummy holding 10 x x. Your
partner must have J 9 and others, and the declarer has the King.

There are several cases in which you should not allow Dummy to win the
trick. If you have only one card of a suit in which your partner leads
Ace then Queen, and Dummy has the King twice guarded, trump at once, if
you can to prevent Dummy from getting into the lead. Your partner leads
Queen; you holding A 10 x, and Dummy having K x x. Let the King make on
the first round.

If your partner leads a small card up to strength in Dummy’s hand, he
is either inviting a force, or trying to establish a long suit. Under
such circumstances, if you have the Ace, play it, and lead a second
round of the suit immediately, which will settle the question.

If you have Q J 10 of a suit in which partner leads King, play the
Jack, so that he will count you for Q or no more, and will not go on
with the Ace.

_=IN GENERAL.=_ Both the adversaries of Dummy should adopt the usual
tactics for unblocking, etc., especially in no-trumpers, and in some
cases Dummy’s exposed cards will make the matter more simple. For
instance: You hold A Q alone, of a suit which partner leads. If you are
the pone, and Dummy has not the King, play Ace and return the Queen.

_=FOURTH HAND.=_ There is only one difference from the usual methods
in playing fourth hand, and that is in indicating sequences by winning
with the best and returning the lowest to show the intermediate
cards. For instance: Fourth player, holding K Q J x, wins with King
and returns the Jack. Or with A K Q, wins with Ace and returns the
Queen. The reason for this is that the declarer gains nothing by the
information, for he knows from the first what cards are out against
him; but the information may be valuable to your partner, the second
hand. If it is not the intention to return the suit at once, the lowest
of the sequence should be played.

_=PLAYING TO THE SCORE.=_ This is a most important element, and
there is no surer indication of a careless or weak player than his
inattention to the score.

One cannot be too early impressed with the importance of saving the
game before trying to win it; although great risks may be taken to win
a game that cannot be lost that hand.

Never risk a sure contract in the hope of making more; unless the two
will win the game, and the odd trick will not win it. Never risk a
trick that will save the game in the hope of winning more, and always
set a contract while you can.

_=DISCARDING.=_ This is one of the still unsettled questions of bridge
tactics, some believing in discarding the weak suit always; others
the strong suit always, and others one or the other according to the
declaration. Against a trump declaration almost every one agrees that
it is best to discard the best suit, so that if your partner gets in
before you do, he may have something to guide him as to what your best
chance is for any more tricks.

Against no-trumpers, the majority of players hug every possible trick
in their long suit and discard their weak suits, on the ground that
it is folly to throw away cards that might win tricks. While this is
true, it is also true that in discarding their weak suit they too
often enable the declarer to win tricks that they might have stopped.
For this reason, many players _=discard the suit they are not afraid
of=_; that is, their best protected suit, and keep what protection they
have in the weak suits, even if it is nothing but three to a Jack or
ten. Unfortunately, no one has yet been able to advance any argument
sufficiently convincing for either system to demonstrate that it is
better than the other. Some of the best teachers of the game advocate
the discard from strength against no-trumps; others teach the weak
discard.

_=ENCOURAGING DISCARDS.=_ In order to distinguish between discards
from weakness and those from strength, many players use what is called
an encouraging card. This is anything higher than a six, if they have
protection in the suit, or want it led. A player with an established
suit, and A 8 2 of another suit, for instance, would discard the 8, to
encourage his partner to lead that suit and put him in. In case there
is no card higher than the six, the _=reverse discard=_ is used. With
A 4 2, the play would be the 4 and then the 2. Some use this reverse
or encouraging card to induce the partner to continue the suit he is
leading, but the practice is confusing.

_=THE DECLARER’S PLAY.=_ The chief difference between the play of the
Dummy and partner, and that of their adversaries, is that there is no
occasion for the former to play on the probability of partner’s holding
certain cards, because a glance will show whether he holds them or
not. There is no hoping that he may have certain cards of re-entry, or
strength in trumps, or that he will be able to stop an adverse suit,
or anything of that sort, for the facts are exposed from the first.
Instead of adapting his play to the slowly ascertained conditions of
partner’s hand, the declarer should have it mapped out and determined
upon before he plays a card. He may see two courses open to him; to
draw the trumps and make a long suit, or to secure such discards as
will give him a good cross-ruff. A rapid estimate of the probable
results of each line of play, a glance at the score, and his mind
should be made up. Several examples of this foresight will be found in
the example hands.

Another point of difference is, that the declarer should play false
cards whenever possible. He has not a partner who, if he plays the
King, might jump to the conclusion that he can trump a suit, or has
not the Queen. The more thoroughly the adversaries are confused, the
greater the advantage to the declarer, especially in the end game.

_=With a Trump.=_ When the winning declaration is a suit for trumps,
the declarer’s first consideration upon getting into the lead must be
whether or not to lead trumps. As a rule, the trumps should be led
at once, so as to exhaust the adversaries; but there are exceptional
cases, the principal ones being:--

Do not lead trumps from the strong trump hand if it would be to your
advantage to put the other hand in the lead with a plain suit, so as to
let the trump lead come from the weaker hand to the stronger, as when a
finesse in trumps is desirable.

Do not lead trumps if you have no good plain suit, and can make more
tricks by playing for a cross-ruff.

Do not lead trumps if the weaker hand can trump some of your losing
cards first. It often happens that a _=losing trump=_ can be used to
win a trick before trumps are led.

_=At No-trump.=_ The declarer’s first care in a no-trumper must be to
select the suit that he will play for. Four simple rules cover this
choice:--

1. Always lead from the weak hand to the strong if the suit is not
already established.

2. Play for the suit in which you have the greatest number of cards
between the two hands, because it will probably yield the greatest
number of tricks.

3. If two suits are equal in number, play for the one in which you have
the greatest number of cards massed in one hand. That is, if you have
two suits of eight cards each, select the one that has six of those
cards in one hand, in preference to the suit with four in each hand.

4. Everything else being equal, play for the suit which is shown in the
Dummy, so as to conceal from the adversaries as long as possible the
strength in your own hand.

A suit is said to be _=established=_ when you can win every remaining
trick in it, no matter who leads it. As it is very important that the
hand which is longer in the suit should be able to lead it without
interruption when it is established, good players make it a rule always
to _=play the high cards from the shorter hand=_ first, so as to get
out of the way. With Q 10 and three others in one hand, K J and one
other in the other hand, the play is the K and J from the short hand,
keeping the Q 10 in the long hand.

If there is any choice, that suit should be selected which contains the
longest sequence, or the sequence with the fewest breaks. It should be
noticed that the sequence need not be in one hand; for it is almost
as valuable if divided, and it is especially advantageous to have the
higher cards concealed in the declarer’s hand. Its continuity is the
chief point. For instance: Declarer and Dummy hold between them one
suit of K J 9 7 5 4 3, and another of Q J 10 9 8 7 5. The latter should
be selected, because two leads must establish it.

In establishing a long suit it is very important to note the fall
of the missing cards in the sequences. In the first of the two
combinations just given, the declarer should be as careful to watch for
the fall of the 8 and 6 as for the A Q and 10.

_=Leading.=_ It is quite unnecessary to follow any system of leads,
further than to distinguish between the combinations from which high
or low cards are led. But it is important to remember that although
a high-card combination may be divided, it should be played as if in
one hand. For instance: The declarer holds Q J x x x of a suit; Dummy
having A x x. By leading Q or J, Dummy is enabled to finesse, as if he
held A Q J. The declarer holds K J x x x; Dummy having Q x x. The play
is to force the Ace, as if the combination of K Q J x x were in one
hand.

Many opportunities arise for leading the Ace first from a short suit,
in order to secure a ruff on the second or third round.

_=Second Hand Play.=_ If any card is led by the adversaries which the
fourth hand cannot win, the second hand should cover it if possible;
for unless he does so, his weakness will be exposed, and the suit will
be continued. This is especially true of cases in which the second hand
holds single honours, such as Jack and others, or Queen and others.
Even the King should be played second hand in such cases, unless it is
so well guarded that the Ace must fall before the King can be forced
out.

If the fourth hand can win the card led, it is seldom necessary to
cover second hand. For instance: If the Jack of trumps is led, the
dealer holding Q 9 7 4, and Dummy having A 6 3 2; there is no need to
play the Queen. If the King is in third hand, such play would establish
the Ten. If the King is with the leader, it or the Ten must make. If
Dummy were second hand with the same cards, Jack being led, he should
not play the Ace, for third hand must play the King to shut out the
Queen.

With A Q 9, partner having K and others, it is best to play A on J led.

If the dealer has Ace and several others of a suit led, Dummy having
only two small cards, a force may be certainly secured by passing the
first round. If Dummy has the Ace, and passes second hand, the dealer
failing to win the trick, the adversaries will of course see that the
play is made in order to force the dealer on the third round.

If Dummy is weak in trumps, and has only one card of a suit in which
the dealer has Ace and others, the Ace should be played, and Dummy
forced, unless there is a better game.

It is a disadvantage to play in second hand from suits in which each
has a guarded honour. If the dealer has Q x x, and Dummy has J x, they
must make a trick in that suit if they play a small card second hand,
and avoid leading the suit. The same is true of the adversaries; but
they must play on the chance that the partner has the honour, whereas
the dealer knows it.

_=Finessing.=_ This is a very important part of the strategy of the
game for the dealer. The adversaries of the dealer never finesse in
bridge; but the dealer himself relies upon finessing for any extra
tricks he may want.

A finesse is any attempt to win a trick with a card which is not the
best you hold, nor in sequence with it. Suppose you have Ace and Queen
in the hand which is longer in the suit and lead from the shorter hand
a small card. If you play the Queen, that is a finesse, because you
hope to take a trick with it, although the King is against you.

It is usually bad play to finesse when there are nine cards of the suit
between the two hands, dealer’s and Dummy’s, because there is a good
chance that the card you wish to finesse against may fall.

When it will be necessary to take two finesses in the same suit, the
lead must come twice from the weaker hand. Suppose the dealer holds A
Q J and others. If the first finesse of the Jack wins, he should put
Dummy in again, so as to take a second finesse of the Queen. Suppose
the dealer holds A J 10, and finesses the ten the first time. If it
falls to the Queen, he should get Dummy in again, so as to take the
second finesse with the Jack. The idea is to take advantage of the
fact that the odds are against both King and Queen being in one hand.
If they are both on the right, one of them will be played on the small
card led from Dummy, and then the dealer can win it with the Ace and
force out the other high card with his Jack, which will have become one
of the second and third-best of the suit.

_=Re-entry Cards.=_ After a suit has been _=cleared=_, or established,
it will be necessary to get into the lead with it. For this purpose the
dealer must be careful to preserve a re-entry card in the hand which is
longer in the suit. Suppose that Dummy’s long suit is clubs, but that
the Ace is against him, and that his only winning card outside is the
Ace of diamonds. If diamonds are led, and the dealer has the Queen,
he must let the lead come up to his hand so as to keep Dummy’s Ace of
diamonds for a re-entry to bring the clubs into play after the Ace has
been forced out and the suit established. Many of the prettiest plays
in bridge are in the management of re-entry cards.

_=Underplay.=_ When the dealer is afraid of a suit which is opened
against him, and has only one winning card in it, such as the Ace, he
should hold up that card until the third hand has no more of the suit
to lead to his partner. The original leader will then have to get in
himself, because his partner cannot help him; but if the dealer gave up
the Ace on the first trick, it would not matter which partner got into
the lead, they would return to the suit first opened.

_=Ducking.=_ This is a method of play by which the dealer hopes to make
his own suit even when the hand that is longer in it has no re-entry
card. Suppose Dummy holds six clubs to the Ace King, and not another
trick in his hand. The dealer has two small clubs only to lead. If the
two winning clubs are led right out, it is impossible to catch the Q J
10, no matter how those cards lie, therefore the dealer leads a club,
but makes no attempt to win the first round. No matter what is played
by the adversaries he _=ducks=_ the first round, keeping his Ace and
King. Next time the dealer gets in, he leads another club, and now
he is able to win the second and third rounds of the suit, and will
probably catch all the adverse cards and establish it.

The dealer’s play always requires careful planning of the whole hand in
advance.

_=THE NULLO.=_ Although not yet in the official laws of the game, this
bid seems to be a popular one with many players. It is a contract to
lose tricks instead of winning them, and is primarily a defence against
overwhelmingly strong no-trumpers. A bid of three nullos means that the
declarer will force his opponents to win nine tricks, he winning four
only, so that each trick _=under=_ seven counts for the nullo player on
his side.

_=SCORING.=_ There is some difference of opinion as to the proper value
for the nullo, but the general verdict seems to be to put it just below
the no-trumper at 10 a trick, no honours. Two no-trumps will outbid two
nullos. If the adversaries of a nullo revoke, the declarer can give
them three of his tricks, or take 100 in honours as penalty. If he
revokes, they take 100 penalty as usual.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR BIDDING.=_ The dealer should never bid a nullo
originally, as it gives his partner no information as to the
distribution of the suits. When any player has one long suit good for
either no trumps or nullos, such as A K Q 6 4 2, he should “shout,”
bidding a trick more than necessary. Singletons and missing suits
are valuable parts of a nullo hand, as they afford opportunities for
discards. It is always dangerous to bid a nullo without the deuce of
the longest suit. If the dealer bids a spade, his partner may safely
bid one nullo, because the contract is seldom or never obtained for
less than two or three, but he should not persist in the nullo if
his partner does not assist it. The greater the opposition from a
no-trumper, the more probable that the nullo will succeed, but it is a
dangerous declaration in any case. The player with aces and kings is
sure to win tricks, regardless of his partner’s hand, but deuces and
treys are not sure to lose, as the partner may have all high cards,
although not the tops.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR THE PLAY.=_ The declarer should count up the tricks
he must win, and as a rule win them early, bunching his high cards as
much as possible. Suits with two small cards and two high ones must
win one trick, but should escape with that. The great point is to lead
losing cards from one hand and discard dangerous cards in other suits
from the other hand whenever possible.

The opponents of a nullo should lead their shortest suits, so as to
get discards later, keeping their eyes on the dummy and forcing it to
win tricks whenever possible, but never allowing it to get a discard.
The partner’s leads should be returned unless a singleton can be led
at once. It is usual to lead the top of two cards, the intermediate of
three or more, and to avoid leading suits that are safe, with small
cards at the bottom.


ILLUSTRATIVE AUCTION HANDS.

Z is the dealer in both instances, but Y makes the winning declaration,
so that B leads for the first trick. The first illustration is straight
auction; the second is a nullo. The underlined card wins the trick and
the card under it is the next one led.

  +------+-----+-----+----+    +------+-----+-----+-----+
  |   A  |  Y  |  B  |  Z |    |   A  |  Y  |  B  |  Z  |
  +------+-----+-----+----+    +------+-----+-----+-----+
  |  _Q♠_|  2♠ |  9♠ |♣2  |  1 |  _A♢_|  Q♢ |  J♢ |  9♢ |
  |  _A♠_|  6♠ |  8♠ |♡3  |  2 |  _K♢_|  6♢ |  8♢ |  5♢ |
  |  _K♠_| 10♠ |  4♠ |♡7  |  3 | _10♢_|  4♢ | ♡A  |  3♢ |
  |   5♠ | _J♠_|  3♠ |♡J  |  4 |   J♠ |  3♠ |  9♠ | _A♠_|
  |   2♢ | _Q♢_|  4♢ | 5♢ |  5 |   5♠ |  Q♠ | _K♠_|  6♠ |
  |  10♢ |  9♢ |  7♢ |_J♢_|  6 |  ♣Q  | ♣6  | ♣J  |_♣K_ |
  | ♡ 4  |  3♢ |  8♢ |_A♢_|  7 |   7♢ |_♡J_ | ♡5  |♡10  |
  |   7♠ | ♡5  |♡ 9  |_K♢_|  8 |  10♠ | ♡7  |_♡Q_ |♡ 9  |
  | ♡ 8  | ♣3  |♡ 2  |_6♢_|  9 |_♣ 5_ | ♣4  | ♣2  |♣ 3  |
  | ♣ 4  |_♣Q_ |♣10  |♣9  | 10 |  _7♠_|  2♠ |  4♠ |♡ K  |
  | ♣ 5  |_♣A_ |♡ 6  |♣7  | 11 | ♣10  | ♡4  |_♣A_ |♡ 8  |
  | ♣ 8  |_♣K_ |♡10  |♡Q  | 12 | ♣ 8  | ♡3  |_♣9_ |♡ 6  |
  |_♣ J_ | ♣6  |♡ A  |♡K  | 13 | ♣ 7  |  2♢ |  8♠ |♡ 2  |
  +------+-----+-----+----+    +------+-----+-----+-----+

In the first example the dealer, Z, bids a heart. A says one royal
and Y two clubs. This bid of Y’s denies any support for his partner’s
hearts, but shows a supporting minor suit, in case Z is strong enough
to go on with the hearts. B bids two royals as he can stop the hearts
twice and ruff the clubs. Z cannot pursue the hearts, but shows his
supporting minor suit, bidding three diamonds. This says to Y, “Go no
trumps if you can stop the spades.” When A passes, having bid his hand
on the first round, Y goes two no trumps and makes game. B leads the
top of his partner’s declared suit, and A leads a fourth round, hoping
to get in with the club jack. At tricks 8 and 9, B signals control in
hearts. A keeps the protection in clubs to the end and saves a trick by
it. Y keeps two clubs in dummy, so that if club is led, he will have
one to return after he has made his diamonds.

In the second example, they are playing nullos, Y declaring. The points
in the play are holding the spade queen, so as to lead a diamond or
a spade at trick 6. This B prevents, hoping to force two clubs on Y
and Z and set the contract. At trick 7, if the hearts are split, the
queen must win the ten. If not, Z must win one heart trick. Y makes his
contract, losing four odd.


BRIDGE.

The difference between straight bridge, as it is sometimes called,
and auction is in the method of selecting the trump, which must be
declared by the dealer or his partner, the opponents having nothing to
say except to double the declaration if they think it will not win the
odd trick. Another point is that either side can score toward game by
getting the odd trick or more, there being no penalties for failure to
make the odd except losing the value of the tricks because the dealer
never declares to make any given number of tricks on the hand.

There are some irregularities which are peculiar to straight bridge
that would not apply to auction. These are fully covered by the
following description of the game, all other matters, such as the
correct card to lead and the manner of combining the hands, have been
fully described in connection with auction.

_=MAKING THE TRUMP.=_ This is the chief peculiarity in bridge. The
trump is not turned up, but the suit is named by the dealer or his
partner, after they have examined their cards. In order properly to
understand the considerations which guide them in making the trump, one
should first be familiar with the values attached to the tricks when
certain suits are trumps. The first six tricks taken by one side do not
count; but each trick above that number counts toward game according to
the following table:--

  When Spades     are trumps, each trick counts 2 points.
   ”   Clubs       ”    ”      ”    ”      ”    4    ”
   ”   Diamonds    ”    ”      ”    ”      ”    6    ”
   ”   Hearts      ”    ”      ”    ”      ”    8    ”
   ”   there is no trump,      ”    ”      ”    12   ”

Better to understand the importance of this variation in value, it
should be noticed that the game is 30 points; so that if two partners
won 3 by cards with no trump, or 4 by cards with hearts for trumps,
they would win the game in one deal. On the other hand, if either of
the black suits were trumps, they could not lose the game, even if a
slam were made against them.

It will thus be evident that two considerations influence the player
whose privilege it is to make the trump: First, to win as much as
possible, if he has the cards to do it. Second, to save himself, if he
is weak; or the game, if it is in danger. As a general proposition,
it may be said that his decision will be indicated by the colour of
the trump he names. If it is red, he is strong, and plays to win; if
it is black, he is taking to the woods. A further element may enter
into his calculations, the state of the score. If he feels sure of the
few points necessary to win the game or the rubber with a black trump,
there is no necessity to risk making it red. This is a part of the
subject which we shall go into further when we come to the suggestions
for good play.

The dealer has the first say in making the trump. If he does not feel
himself strong enough to make it no trump, or red, although his hand
may be black enough to promise a good score in clubs or spades, he
should transfer to his partner the privilege of making the trump by
saying: “I leave it to you, partner.” Guided by this indication, his
partner must fix on some suit for the trump or go no-trumps, and must
announce it.

Either the dealer or his partner may elect to play without a trump, if
he has sufficient strength in all the suits to do so.

_=IRREGULARITIES IN DECLARING.=_ If the dealer’s partner makes a
declaration before being asked to do so, either adversary may demand
that the declaration shall stand, or that there shall be a new deal.
In England, only the eldest hand, A, may exact the penalty. If the
dealer’s partner passes the declaration to the dealer, either adversary
may claim a new deal or may insist that the player in error shall make
the declaration. In England, the eldest hand exacts this penalty.

Should an adversary of the dealer make a declaration, the dealer may,
after looking at his own hand, either have a new deal or proceed as if
nothing had been said.

_=SETTLING THE VALUE OF THE TRICKS.=_ The trump suit having been
announced, the first hand or leader, A, before he plays a card, has
the privilege of doubling the value of the tricks if he thinks the
opponents cannot win the odd trick with the trump named. To do this,
he simply says: “I double.” If he does not feel justified in doubling,
he transfers the opportunity to his partner, by asking him: “Shall I
play?” That is to say, “shall we play without doubling?” If his partner
will not double, he answers: “Yes.” Either A or B having doubled, it
becomes the privilege of the player who made the trump to double him
again; making the value of the trick four times greater than that given
in the table. If he does not do so, he says: “I pass”; and his partner
then has the privilege. If either the dealer or his partner doubles,
the adversary who first doubled may repeat it; or if he passes, his
partner may double. This doubling may be continued until the value of
each trick over the book is 100 points, when it must cease.

_=IRREGULARITIES IN DOUBLING.=_ If the pone doubles before his partner
has asked him “Shall I play?” the maker of the trump shall say whether
or not the double shall stand. If he allows it to stand it may be
redoubled. Should a player redouble out of turn, the one whom he
redoubles shall have the right to say whether or not the redouble shall
stand.

Any consultation between partners as to doubling or redoubling will
entitle their adversaries to insist on a new deal.

If the eldest hand leads without asking his partner’s permission to
play, the pone cannot double without the consent of the maker of the
trump. Should the pone ask the eldest hand, “Shall I play?” that does
not deprive the eldest hand of the right to double.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The trump suit and the value of the tricks
settled, the player on the dealer’s left begins by leading any card he
pleases. After he has played, the second player, Y, lays his hand face
up on the table, and takes no further part in the play beyond availing
himself of the privilege of asking his partner if he has none of a suit
to which he renounces. From the moment that Y’s cards are exposed the
game becomes Dummy, the dealer, Z, playing Y’s cards for him.

The dealer gathers the tricks for his side; either adversary may gather
for the other. The first six tricks taken by one side make a “book” and
all over six count toward game. The tricks should be so laid that they
can be readily counted by any player at the table.

_=The Revoke.=_ Should a player fail to follow suit when able to do
so, it is a revoke. Dummy cannot revoke under any circumstances; but
the penalty for any other player is the loss of three tricks for each
revoke made, which are taken from the side in error at the end of the
hand. In England, the penalty may be exacted in any of three ways;
three tricks, or the value of three tricks in points, or the addition
of a like amount to opponent’s score. A slam cannot be scored if the
tricks necessary to make it were taken for the revoke penalty. The
side making a revoke cannot win the game that hand, no matter what
they score; but they may play the hand out, and count all they make to
within two points of game, or 28. Players cannot score a slam in a hand
in which they have revoked.

_=Exposed Cards.=_ If the dealer or his partner exposes a card before
the declaration has been made, either adversary may claim a new deal.
If any player exposes a card before the first card is led, his partner
forfeits the right to double or redouble. If the pone exposes a card in
this manner, the dealer may call it an exposed card, or he may require
the eldest hand not to lead that suit.

If, during the play of the hand, either adversary of the dealer exposes
a card, by playing two cards at once, dropping one face up on the
table, or holding it so that his partner can see any portion of its
face, the card so exposed must be left face upward on the table, and is
liable to be called.

Exposed cards can be called by the dealer at any time, but he cannot
compel the play of a card which would constitute a revoke.

_=Leading Out of Turn.=_ If either of the dealer’s adversaries lead
out of turn, the dealer may either call the card exposed, or may call
a suit when it is the turn of either adversary to lead. If the dealer
leads out of turn, there is no penalty, but he cannot correct the error
if the second hand has played.

_=Cards Played in Error.=_ If any player but the Dummy omits to play
to a trick and does not correct the error until he has played to the
next trick, his adversaries may claim a new deal. If any one, excepting
Dummy, plays two cards to a trick and does not discover it, he is
responsible for any revokes that he may make in consequence of not
having the card in his hand.

_=OBJECT OF THE GAME.=_ As in all members of the whist family, the
object in Bridge is to win tricks, the highest card played of the suit
led winning, and trumps, if any, winning against all other suits. At
the end of each hand the side that has won any tricks in excess of the
book, scores them, after multiplying their number by the unit of value
settled upon by the doubling, if any took place. As soon as either side
reaches or passes 30, they win the game; but the hand must be played
out, and all tricks taken must be counted. The total is written on the
score-sheet; the score of the losers standing to their credit until the
final accounting at the end of the rubber.

_=RUBBERS.=_ Three games, of 30 points each, constitute a rubber; but
if the first two are won by the same players, the third is not played.
The side winning the majority of the games adds 100 (rubber) points to
its score.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ The points which the beginner may
profitably study in Bridge are chiefly in making the trump, and in the
methods by which the hands of the partners are combined, so as to work
together.

_=Making the Trump.=_ The bridge player’s first consideration should be
the state of the score, which will show how many points he needs to win
the game. Let us suppose this number to be 12, he having already scored
18. These 12 points can be made by winning six by cards with spades for
trumps; three by cards with clubs; or two by cards with diamonds or
hearts. But if the hand can be played without a trump, the odd trick
wins the game.

It is hardly necessary to say that a player would be very foolish to
engage himself to win six by cards if the odd trick would equally
answer his purpose; nor would he undertake to win three by cards with
clubs for trumps, if he had as good a chance of making two by cards
with diamonds or hearts. In other words, the player should not make the
trump which promises the greatest number of tricks, but should select
that which will yield the largest number of points.

It is for this reason that every good player first considers
the advisability of making it “no-trump,” and if he thinks that
injudicious, hearts or diamonds, leaving the black suits as a last
resort.

It is the custom invariably to make it no-trump with three Aces, unless
the hand is strong enough for a heart make, or holds great honour value
in red.

In estimating the probabilities of trick-taking, it is usual to count
the partner for three tricks on the average. Conservative players do
not depend on him for more than two. Generally speaking, the maker of
the trump should have four pretty certain tricks in his own hand.

The dealer should seldom announce a black trump unless he has a
certainty of the game in his own hand, without any assistance from
his partner, or unless he has such a poor hand that he must make it
a “defensive spade.” If he cannot safely make it no-trump or red, he
should pass, and allow his partner the chance. With such a hand as
seven clubs, including four honours, and absolutely worthless cards
otherwise, the dealer should make it clubs, except when the adversaries
have won the first game, and are about 20 points in the second. This
makes it not unlikely that they will win the rubber on the next hand
with their deal. Under such circumstances the dealer must invariably
leave it to his partner, in the hope that he can save the rubber by
making it no-trump.

The dealer’s partner should be aware that there cannot be any
reasonable hope of four tricks in red in the leader’s hand, or a red
trump would have been announced; and unless he has at least five
probable tricks in his own hand he should not make it red. With three
Aces he should make it no-trump. Four Aces is always a no-trumper,
no matter what the rest of the hand may be. If he is obliged to make
it black, and has three or four probable tricks, he should announce
whichever suit he is best in. Attention should be paid to the score;
for in many instances the suit must be selected so that the adversaries
cannot win the game with the odd trick, even if they double.

_=Doubling.=_ The dealer or his partner having announced the trump,
the adversary should carefully consider the score before doubling or
playing. Most players consider themselves justified in doubling when
they have six reasonably certain tricks in their own hands, trusting
partner for one only. Great caution should be used in doubling
no-trumpers, the position of the lead being carefully studied; because
the odd trick usually settles the fate of the game when a no-trumper is
doubled. While a player with the lead, and seven certain tricks in one
suit, should double a no-trumper, his partner would be very foolish to
do so, unless he had, in addition to his long suit, the heart ace; for
it is a conventionality of the game for A to lead hearts if B doubles a
no-trumper.

The original maker of the trump should be very strong to justify him in
redoubling the adversary. If he had four probable tricks originally, he
may count the adversary who doubles for five, and of the four doubtful
tricks remaining, the odds are against partner having the three which
would be necessary to win the odd trick.

_=Opening Leads.=_ The first lead must necessarily be made in the dark,
but the selection of the suit will often depend on the trump, and
whether it was named by the dealer or by his partner.

If the dealer has made it red, and A has the A K of any plain suit, he
should play the King, so as to retain the lead until Dummy’s hand is
exposed.

If the dealer passes it to his partner, he is probably weak in red. If
Y makes it hearts, A should lead a supporting diamond, unless he has
strength in another suit. If Y has made it diamonds, A should lead a
supporting heart. But in either case, if A has in his hand such cards
as A K, even of a black suit, he should play the King, and wait to see
the Dummy’s hand. If Y has made it black, A must be guided by his own
cards, but should give a red suit the preference for his opening lead.

Details as to the correct card to lead and the play after the opening
lead have been fully covered in connection with auction bridge, which
see.

The discard is usually coupled with the system of opening against a
doubled no-trumper. If your partner says he is “_=heart and strong=_”
he means that if you double a no-trumper and he is eldest hand, he will
lead you his best heart, and that he will discard his strong suit when
playing against a no-trumper. If he says he is “_=heart and weak=_,”
he will lead the top heart; but he will discard his weak suit. If he
says he is “_=weak and weak=_,” he means that he will lead the shortest
or weakest suit in his hand, if you double no-trumps, that being the
almost universal custom in England.

All the situations which have been covered in the play of the second,
third and fourth hands at auction can be studied with advantage by
the bridge player, as the manner of securing the best results from
certain distributions of the cards is the same in both games. The chief
difference lies in the value of the tricks, because at bridge the
opponents of the declaration can score toward game, and it is therefore
frequently advisable to take a finesse or make a play that would be
quite unjustifiable at auction, if there is any chance that such a play
may win a game that would be otherwise impossible.

Close attention to the score is an important factor in bridge which
does not operate in auction, because in that game any previous score
toward game is seldom of any use, eighteen out of every twenty deals
being game hands or nothing, and the dealer having no more advantage in
the selection of the trump than any other player. In bridge, one always
calculates that the dealer will go out if he is 18 or 20 up on the
score, as almost any suit will do. This prompts the side that has the
deal, or a chance to go game, to lose no opportunity to win at once,
before the other side gets a chance at it.


ILLUSTRATIVE BRIDGE HANDS.

The dealer is Z in both instances. In the first example, he makes it
no-trump. In the second, Dummy, Y, makes it no-trump. A leads in both
cases:--

  ------------------------------+  +------------------------------
     A       Y      B       Z   |  |   A       Y       B      Z
  +------+------+-------+-------+--+-------+-------+------+------+
  |  7♢  |   3♢ |   J♢  |  _K♢_ | 1|  ♡6   | _♡A_  |  ♡7  |  ♡3  |
  | ♣Q   |  ♣2  | _♣K_  |  ♣J   | 2|  ♣5   | _♣K_  |  ♣3  |  ♣2  |
  | _A♢_ |   8♢ |   6♢  |   2♢  | 3|  ♣8   |  ♣10  |  ♣7  | _♣J_ |
  |  4♢  |  _Q♢_|   2♠  |   5♢  | 4|   5♢  |   3♢  | _♣A_ |  ♣4  |
  | ♣4   |  ♣3  | _♣A_  |  ♣10  | 5| _♡K_  |  ♡2   |  ♡9  |  ♡J  |
  | ♡3   |  ♡5  |  ♡J   | _♡A_  | 6|  ♡5   |  ♡4   |   6♢ | _♡Q_ |
  |  8♠  | _♣9_ |  ♡2   |  ♣8   | 7|   5♠  |   3♠  |   6♠ | _♣Q_ |
  |  9♠  | _♣7_ |   3♠  |  ♡4   | 8|   7♢  |   4♠  |   8♠ | _♣9_ |
  | ♡6   | _♣6_ |   4♠  |  ♡Q   | 9|   9♢  |   4♢  |  10♠ | _♣6_ |
  | ♡9   | _♣5_ |  ♡8   |   7♠  |10|  _A♠_ |   9♠  |   J♠ |   7♠ |
  |  9♢  |  J♠  |   5♠  |  _Q♠_ |11| _♡10_ |   Q♠  |   8♢ |   2♠ |
  | 10♢  |  ♡7  |   6♠  |  _A♠_ |12| _♡8_  |   K♠  |  10♢ |   2♢ |
  | ♡K   |  ♡10 |  _K♠_ |  10♠  |13|   K♢  |  _A♢_ |   Q♢ |   J♢ |
  +------+------+-------+-------+--+-------+-------+------+------+


The first of these examples shows the importance of playing for the
suit which is longest between the two hands. Observe that the dealer
plays the high cards from the hand which is shorter in the suit, and
on the second round of clubs is careful to give up the higher of two
cards, so as to get out of Dummy’s way and clear, or establish, the
suit. B, hoping to get his partner into the lead again, leads a heart
up to Dummy’s weakness, and leads a heart which will beat Dummy’s best
heart. At the eleventh trick, unless the dealer can make two tricks in
spades by the finesse, he cannot win the game.

The second example shows the importance of preserving a re-entry card
in the hand which is longer in the suit the dealer intends playing for.
If the dealer lets the heart come up to him, it is true that he will
make win the first trick with the Jack; but he will never win a trick
with the Queen, and therefore he can never get in to make his clubs,
even if he establishes them. By putting up the Ace of hearts, and
keeping both Q and J in his own hand, he is certain of a re-entry in
hearts. On the second round of clubs, the adversary still holding up or
underplaying, the dealer must be careful to overtake Dummy’s ten with
his own Jack, so as to continue the suit without losing the lead.


VARIETIES OF BRIDGE.

_=THREE HAND AUCTION.=_ This is a game for three active players only,
but four may form a table. Each player is for himself, there being no
partnerships except the temporary combination against the declarer for
each deal. The player who cuts the lowest card chooses his seat and
cards and the player with the next lower cut sits on his left, the
other on his right.

The cards are dealt one at a time into four packets, of thirteen
each, just as in the ordinary game of auction, the odd hand remaining
untouched until the winning declaration is decided. The dealer
makes the first bid and then each bids in turn until two pass. The
penalty for bidding out of turn is 50 points added to the score of
each opponent, for doubling out of turn it is 100. If both pass the
irregularity there is no penalty, but if only one passes, the third may
call attention to it.

The highest bidder takes up the dummy hand, sorts it and lays it on the
table opposite him, face up, as soon as the eldest hand leads a card.
If there is a player sitting opposite the highest bidder, he moves to
the vacant seat.

The game is 30 points, and the winner of a game adds 125 points to his
score at once. The first player to win two games not only adds the 125
for the second game, but 250 more for winning the rubber. Honours are
scored by each player separately, every honour being worth as much as a
trick in that suit. Four or five in one hand count double. At no trump,
the aces count for 10 each to the holders, four in one hand 100. The
declarer scores his dummy’s honours.

At the end of the rubber, each wins from or loses to each of the
others. The score is usually made up in this way, the final amounts to
the credit of each being shown in the top line:

   A, 240    B, 980    C, 456
  ----------------------------
     -740      +740      +215
     -215      +524      -524
     ----      ----      ----
     -955     +1264      -309

_=DUPLICATE AUCTION.=_ This game may be played in any of the ways
described for the movement of trays and players under the head of
duplicate whist. Tricks and honours are scored as usual, but there are
no games or rubbers. Should the declarer make 30 or more points on a
single hand he gets 125 points bonus in the honour column. This game is
now covered by the official laws for auction, which see.

_=BRIDGE FOR THREE.=_ Sometimes called _=Dummy Bridge=_, or
_=Cut-Throat=_. The lowest cut deals the first hand and plays the
Dummy. If the dealer will not declare on his own cards, he passes,
and Dummy must declare according to a fixed schedule. With three or
four aces; no-trumps, no matter what the rest of the hand may be.
With less than three aces, Dummy cannot make it no-trumps under any
circumstances; but must name the longest suit. If two suits are equal,
the pips on each are counted, reckoning aces as 11 each, other honours
at 10 each, and the larger number of pips is the suit. If this is still
equal, the more valuable suit must be declared.

No one but the eldest hand may double, and no one but the dealer may
redouble. In order to make this fair for both sides, it is usual to let
the pone sort and declare on Dummy’s cards, so that the dealer shall
not see them until the first card is led.

No matter what points are made for tricks, the dealer only can score
them below the line, to count toward game. If the adversaries make the
odd trick, they score above the line, in the honour column, so that no
one can go out except on his own deal.

After the deal is finished and scored, the players move, so as to
bring about a change of partners. The one on the left of the vacant
place moves into it, and the player on his right deals. Three of these
movements bring about the original position.

Each player’s score is kept individually, and when one of the three has
won two games, the scores are added up and balanced, after giving the
winner 100 rubber points. Each then pays the difference to the others.
Suppose the winner to be A, with 320; B having 80 and C 64. A wins 240
from B and 256 from C; while B wins 16 from C.

_=BRIDGE FOR TWO.=_ Sometimes called “_=Chinese Bridge=_.” The dealer
gives his adversary four cards face down, and then deals four to
himself, also face down. He then distributes the remainder of the pack
by dealing to his adversary and himself alternately, one card at a
time, keeping them separate from the first four. Without lifting or
looking at any of these twenty-two cards, each player places eleven of
them in two rows, face down, and then the other eleven on the top of
the first, but face up. This gives each player eleven cards face up on
the table, covering eleven face down under them, and a separate hand of
four cards.

The dealer looks at his four cards, without showing them to his
adversary, and after due consideration of what he sees on the table,
declares. His adversary can double if he likes, or he can simply play a
card. Tricks and honours count as in the ordinary rubber.

The declaration made, the non-dealer leads any card he pleases, from
the four in his hand or from the eleven face up on the table, and
the dealer must follow suit if he can, either from his hand or from
the table. The moment a card is played from the table, the card under
it must be turned face up, and becomes playable; but no card which is
on the top of another card can be shifted, so that the card under it
cannot be turned up until its covering card is legitimately played away.

The second player having played to the trick, the original leader must
play to it in his turn, and then his adversary plays the fourth card,
completing the trick. The winner of the trick takes it in, turns it
down, and leads for the next trick, and so on until all thirteen tricks
have been played. The winner of the rubber scores 100 points extra.

_=MISERY BRIDGE.=_ This is a game for two players, who sit opposite
each other. Four hands of thirteen cards each are dealt, the dealer
beginning on his left. Before declaring, the dealer may discard any
number of cards from one to four, laying them on the table at his left,
but face up, where they so remain during the play of the hand.

In place of this discard, the dealer takes an equal number of cards
from the top of the hand on his left. These are not shown to the
adversary. Having discarded and drawn, the dealer declares. There is no
doubling; but the dealer himself may undertake to win at least eight of
the thirteen tricks, and if he announces “eight tricks,” he can score
them at double value if he succeeds. If he fails to get the full eight,
his adversary scores ten points penalty, the dealer scoring nothing at
all. No matter what the trump suit, the penalty of ten points remains
the same.

After discarding, drawing and declaring, the stock hand is laid aside,
still face down, and the non-dealer takes up and sorts the hand on his
left, turning it face up on the table, like a Dummy. This hand belongs
to the non-dealer, who leads first and plays both hands, so that the
dealer is practically opposed to two hands of thirteen cards each.

If the dealer does not want to discard and draw, he can play
_=misery=_, which is a no-trumper, but played to lose tricks, instead
of to win them. If the dealer takes more than one trick, his adversary
scores five points penalty for each so taken. But if the dealer
succeeds in taking only one trick, or none at all, he scores five
points for every trick his adversary has taken over the book of six.

_=PIVOT BRIDGE.=_ This is simply a movement of the players, very
popular in social games, which requires that the four originally
seated at a table shall remain at that table until the game is ended,
and shall not cut for partners after the first rubber, but change in
regular order. The usual way is for the first dealer to sit still all
the time, the three other players moving round her in a circle at the
end of each rubber. This will compel the player on her left to pass
behind her and take the seat on her right. At the end of three rubbers,
each will have had each of the others for a partner. When there are
a number of tables in play, it will be necessary to have a prize for
each, giving the first choice to the player who has the highest score
in the room.

When this method is adopted, it is not necessary to deduct the lower
score from the higher at the end of each rubber, so that each player
can keep what she gets, the comparative result being the same if the
players remain at the same table. This method is open to the objection
that if two strong players are opposed to weak ones all the time, it is
a great advantage. It is also liable to abuse, if four players agree to
double everything, so that some one at the table shall be high score.

_=PROGRESSIVE BRIDGE.=_ This is simply a movement of the players from
table to table, much as described under the heading of _=compass
whist=_. The players may either agree that all the N & S pairs shall
sit still, all the E & W pairs moving one table; or they may arrange
for the winners to move in a certain direction. In all progressive
games, sometimes called _=Drive Bridge=_, there are no rubbers or
games, as one table would keep all the others waiting. An even number
of deals, usually four, is the rule for each round before moving.

_=DUPLICATE BRIDGE.=_ This is bridge with the hands kept separate and
put into trays to be carried from table to table. The methods will be
found fully described under the titles for duplicate whist. In order
to prevent the players from giving too much attention to the honours
in declaring, it is sometimes the rule to add a certain number of
points to the trick scores, as a bonus. This is called _=Bridge to the
Score=_. Four deals is a round, before changing adversaries, and fifty
points are added to the score of the side having the greater trick
score. Another method is to add fifty points to the side winning a
game, if a game is won before moving, and then to add a definite number
of points for every trick point that one side may be ahead of the other
on unfinished games; or as many points as the higher score below the
line.

None of these methods have proved attractive enough to be popular,
however, although the first is the one commonly adopted for club
tournaments, adding fifty points bonus for the higher trick score,
regardless of any games or rubbers. All the additions of percentages
require special score cards and the services of some alleged expert to
run the game, and even then they are not attractive. The problem of
duplicate bridge remains as yet unsolved, so far as a popular game is
concerned.

_=SIX-HAND BRIDGE.=_ This is played by six persons, sitting with two
card tables pushed together so as to make one. Each dealer sits at the
long end of the table, the two dealers being partners. On each side of
one sits a pair of adversaries so that the initial arrangement, if pair
A had the deal, would be this:--

[Illustration:

       B     C
    +-----+-----+
    |  5  |  6  |
    |     |     |
  A |1    |    4| A
    |     |     |
    |  2  |   3 |
    +-----+-----+
       B     C
]

Numbers are placed on the tables to indicate the positions to which the
players shall move after each deal. The player at 6 goes to 5; 4 to 3;
3 to 2; 2 to 1, and 1 to 6. Each pair of partners, as they fall into
the end seats, have the deal.

If the dealer at either end will not declare on his own cards, he
passes it, and the Dummy hand opposite him must be handed to the dealer
that sits at the other end of the long table, who must declare for his
partner. The usual four hands are dealt and played at each table, and
scored as usual.

Three scores must be kept, because there are three separate rubbers
going on at once,--that between A and B; between A and C, and between
B and C. If one pair wins its rubber against one of the others, three
players will be idle at one end of the table for one deal, but then all
will come into play again, for the next deal. Some persons think this
is better than four playing a rubber while two look on.

_=DOUBLE DUMMY BRIDGE.=_ In this form of the game, the dealer always
deals for himself. His adversary sits next him on the left for the
first deal, and leads for the first trick before the Dummies are
exposed. There is no doubling. On the next deal, the adversary must
sort his Dummy’s hand and must lead from it, before looking at his own.
If the declaration is passed, Dummy must make it on the lines laid down
for passed makes in Bridge for Three, which has already been described.
There is no penalty for a revoke made by either Dummy; but otherwise
the laws of bridge govern.

_=DRAW BRIDGE.=_ This is double Dummy; but instead of laying Dummy’s
cards face up on the table, each player is provided with a holder in
which he places his partner’s cards in such a manner that his adversary
cannot see them. As it comes to Dummy’s turn to play to each trick,
a card is drawn from the holder. All four hands are responsible for
revokes.

_=KING’S BRIDGE.=_ This is sometimes called _=Four Hand Bridge=_, each
player being for himself. The movements of the players are the same as
those described in Pivot Bridge, one player sitting still all the time,
while each of the others in turn becomes his partner for four deals.

The dealer declares. If he passes, the player sitting opposite him must
make it according to the mechanical rules given in Bridge for Three.
There is no doubling. The score of each player is kept in a separate
column, and the trick and honour score is put down in one lump, plus or
minus, the new score being added to or deduced from the previous one.
It is simpler, however, to put down nothing but the plus scores, so
that when the declaration is defeated, the points are credited to each
of the three other players. Suppose the dealer wins 16 and 16. He is
put down as 32 plus. If he should lose 12 and 30, his score would not
be touched, but each of the others would be put down 42 plus.

There are no games or rubbers. At the end of four deals the players
change partners by the pivot system. At the end of twelve deals, each
has played four deals with each of the others. The scores are then
added up and balanced by the method described in connection with the
game of Skat.

_=REVERSI BRIDGE.=_ This is playing bridge to lose, and the object of
the declaration is to pick out the make which is likely to win the
least tricks. At the end of the hand, each side scores what the other
makes; so that if the dealer declares no-trumps, and loses two by
cards, and finds thirty aces against him, he scores 24 and 30 to his
own credit. The adversaries can double if they wish to, and all the
rules of regular bridge apply, except that if a revoke is made the
usual penalty is reversed, the player in error taking three tricks
instead of losing them.

_=SHORT BRIDGE.=_ This is bridge without any doubling or rubbers,
and is played for so much a game instead of for so much a point, the
winners being the side that has the higher score for tricks and honours
combined when either side reaches thirty points below the line. It is
a good game for occasions upon which the players may be interrupted at
any time, or have not time to finish a full rubber.


THE AMERICAN LAWS OF BRIDGE.

REVISED TO NOVEMBER, 1913.

_Reprinted and Copyrighted, 1913, by permission of The Whist Club of
New York._


THE RUBBER.

1. The partners first winning two games win the rubber. When the first
two games decide the rubber, a third is not played.


SCORING.

2. Each side has a trick score and a score for all other counts,
generally known as the honour score. In the trick score the only
entries made are points for tricks won (see Law 3), which count both
toward the game and in the total of the rubber.

All other points, including honours, penalties, slam, little slam, and
under-tricks, are recorded in the honour score, which counts only in
the total of the rubber.

3. When the declarer wins the number of tricks bid or more, each above
six counts on the trick score; two points when spades are trumps, six
when clubs are trumps, seven when diamonds are trumps, eight when
hearts are trumps, nine when royal spades are trumps, and ten when the
declaration is no trump.

4. A game consists of thirty points made by tricks alone. Every deal
is played out, whether or not during it the game be concluded, and any
points made (even if in excess of thirty) are counted.

5. The ace, king, queen, knave, and ten of the trump suit are the
honours; when no trump is declared, the aces are the honours.

6. Honours are credited to the original holders; they are valued as
follows:

_When a Trump is Declared._

  3[1] honours held between partners equal value of 2 tricks.
  4      ”     ”      ”        ”       ”     ”      4    ”
  5      ”     ”      ”        ”       ”     ”      5    ”
  4      ”     ”  in 1 hand            ”     ”      8    ”
  4      ”     ”   ” 1  ” { 5th in  }  ”     ”      9    ”
  5      ”     ”   ” 1  ” {partner’s}  ”     ”     10    ”

_When No Trump is Declared._

  3  aces held between partners count 30
  4   ”    ”      ”        ”      ”   40
  4   ”    ”      in one hand     ”  100

7. Slam is made when partners take thirteen tricks.[2] It counts 40
points in the honour score.

8. Little slam is made when partners take twelve tricks.[3] It counts
20 points in the honour score.

9. The value of honours, slam, or little slam, is not affected by
doubling or redoubling.

10. At the conclusion of a rubber the trick and honour scores of each
side are added and 250 additional points added to the score of the
winners of the rubber. The size of the rubber is the difference between
the completed scores. If the score of the losers of the rubber exceed
that of the winners, the losers win the amount of the excess.

11. When a rubber is started with the agreement that the play shall
terminate (_i.e._, no new deal shall commence) at a specified time,
and the rubber is unfinished at that hour, the score is made up as it
stands, 125 being added to the score of the winners of a game. A deal
if started must be finished.

12. A proved error in the honour score may be corrected at any time
before the score of the rubber has been made up and agreed upon.

13. A proved error in the trick score may be corrected at any time
before a declaration has been made in the following game, or, if it
occur in the final game of the rubber, before the score has been made
up and agreed upon.


CUTTING.

14. In cutting the ace is the lowest card; between cards of otherwise
equal value the heart is the lowest, the diamond next, the club next,
and spade the highest.

15. Every player must cut from the same pack.

16. Should a player expose more than one card, the highest is his cut.


FORMING TABLES.

17. Those first in the room have the prior right to play. Candidates of
equal standing decide their order by cutting; those who cut lowest play
first.

18. Six players constitute a complete table.

19. After the table has been formed, the players cut to decide upon
partners, the two lower play against the two higher. The lowest is
the dealer, who has choice of cards and seats, and, having made his
selection, must abide by it.[4]

20. The right to succeed players as they retire is acquired by
announcing the desire to do so, and such announcements, in the order
made, entitle candidates to fill vacancies as they occur.


CUTTING OUT.

21. If, at the end of a rubber, admission be claimed by one or two
candidates, the player or players who have played the greatest number
of consecutive rubbers withdraw; when all have played the same number,
they cut to decide upon the outgoers; the highest are out.[5]


RIGHT OF ENTRY.

22. At the end of a rubber a candidate is not entitled to enter a table
unless he declare his intention before any player cut, either for
partners, for a new rubber, or for cutting out.

23. In the formation of new tables candidates who have not played at an
existing table have the prior right of entry. Others decide their right
to admission by cutting.

24. When one or more players belonging to an existing table aid in
making up a new one, which cannot be formed without him, he or they
shall be the last to cut out.

25. A player belonging to one table who enters another, or announces a
desire to do so, forfeits his rights at his original table, unless the
new table cannot be formed without him in which case he may retain his
position at his original table by announcing his intention to return as
soon as his place at the new table can be filled.

26. Should a player leave a table during the progress of a rubber, he
may, with the consent of the three others, appoint a substitute to
play during his absence; but such appointment becomes void upon the
conclusion of the rubber, and does not in any way affect the rights of
the substitute.

27. If a player break up a table, the others have a prior right of
entry elsewhere.


SHUFFLING.

28. The pack must not be shuffled below the table nor so the face of
any card be seen.

29. The dealer’s partner must collect the cards from the preceding
deal and has the right to shuffle first. Each player has the right to
shuffle subsequently. The dealer has the right to shuffle last, but
should a card or cards be seen during his shuffling or while giving the
pack to be cut, he must reshuffle.

30. After shuffling, the cards, properly collected, must be placed
face downward to the left of the next dealer, where they must remain
untouched until the end of the current deal.


THE DEAL.

31. Players deal in turn; the order of dealing is to the left.

32. Immediately before the deal, the player on the dealer’s right cuts,
so that each packet contains at least four cards. If, in or after
cutting and prior to the beginning of the deal, a card be exposed,
or if any doubt exist as to the place of the cut, the dealer must
reshuffle and the same player must cut again.

33. After the pack has been properly cut, it should not be reshuffled
or recut except as provided in Law 32.

34. Should the dealer shuffle after the cut, his adversaries may also
shuffle and the pack must be cut again.

35. The fifty-two cards must be dealt face downward. The deal is
completed when the last card is dealt.

36. In the event of a misdeal, the same pack must be dealt again by the
same player.


A NEW DEAL.

37. There _must_ be a new deal:

    (_a_) If the cards be not dealt, beginning at the dealer’s left
    into four packets one at a time and in regular rotation.

    (_b_) If, during a deal, or during the play the pack be proved
    incorrect.

    (_c_) If, during a deal, any card be faced in the pack or
    exposed, on, above, or below the table.

    (_d_) If more than thirteen cards be dealt to any player.[6]

    (_e_) If the last card does not come in its regular order to
    the dealer.

    (_f_) If the dealer omit having the pack cut, deal out of turn
    or with the adversaries’ cards, and either adversary call
    attention to the fact before the end of the deal and before
    looking at any of his cards.

38. Should a correction of any offence mentioned in 37 _f_ not be made
in time, or should an adversary who has looked at any of his cards be
the first to call attention to the error, the deal stands, and the
game proceeds as if the deal had been correct, the player to the left
dealing the next. When the deal has been with the wrong cards, the
next dealer may take whichever pack he prefers.

39. If, prior to the cut for the following deal, a pack be proved
incorrect, the deal is void, but all prior scores stand.[7]

The pack is not incorrect when a missing card or cards are found in the
other pack, among the quitted tricks, below the table, or in any other
place which makes it possible that such card or cards were part of the
pack during the deal.

40. Should three players have their proper number of cards, the
fourth, less, the missing card or cards, if found, belong to him,
and he, unless dummy, is answerable for any established revoke or
revokes he may have made just as if the missing card or cards had been
continuously in his hand. When a card is missing, any player may search
the other pack, the quitted tricks, or elsewhere for it.

If before, during or at the conclusion of play, one player hold more
than the proper number of cards, and another less, the deal is void.

41. A player may not cut, shuffle, or deal for his partner if either
adversary object.


THE DECLARATION.

42. The dealer, having examined his hand, must declare to win at least
one odd trick,[8] either with a specified suit, or at no trump.

43. After the dealer has declared, each player in turn, beginning on
the dealer’s left, must pass, make a higher declaration, double the
last declaration, or redouble a declaration which has been doubled,
subject to the provisions of Law 54.

44. A declaration of a greater number of tricks in a suit of lower
value, which equals the last declaration in value of points, is a
higher declaration; _e.g._, a declaration of “three spades” is higher
than “one club.”

45. A player in his turn may overbid the previous adverse declaration
any number of times, and may also overbid his partner, but he cannot
overbid his own declaration which has been passed by the three others.

46. The player who makes the final declaration[9] must play the
combined hands, his partner becoming dummy, unless the suit or no trump
finally declared was bid by the partner before it was called by the
final declarer, in which case the partner, no matter what bids have
intervened, must play the combined hands.

47. When the player of the two hands (hereinafter termed “the
declarer”) wins at least as many tricks as he declared, he scores the
full value of the tricks won (see Law 3).[10]

47_a_. When the declarer fails to win as many tricks as he declares,
neither he nor his adversaries score anything toward the game, but his
adversaries score in their honour column 50 points for each under-trick
(_i.e._, each trick short of the number declared). If the declaration
be doubled, the adversaries score 100 points; if redoubled, 200 points
for each under-trick.

48. The loss on the dealer’s original declaration of “one spade” is
limited to 100 points, whether doubled or not, unless redoubled.
Honours are scored as held.

49. If a player make a declaration (other than passing) out of turn,
either adversary may demand a new deal, or may allow such declaration
to stand, in which case the bidding shall continue as if the
declaration had been in turn.

If a player pass out of turn, the order of the bidding is not affected,
_i.e._, it is still the turn of the player to the left of the last
declarer. The player who has passed out of turn may re-enter the
bidding in his proper turn if the declaration he has passed be overbid
or doubled.

50. If a player make an insufficient or impossible declaration,
either adversary may demand that it be penalized. The penalty for an
insufficient declaration is that the bid is made sufficient in the
declaration named and the partner of the declarer may not further
declare unless an adversary subsequently bid or double. The penalty for
an impossible declaration is that the bid is made seven in the suit
named and the partner of the declarer may not further declare unless
an adversary subsequently bid or double. Either adversary, instead of
penalizing an impossible declaration, may demand a new deal, or that
the last declaration made on behalf of his partnership become the final
declaration.

50_a_. If a player who has been debarred from bidding under Laws 50 or
65, during the period of such prohibition, make any declaration (other
than passing), either adversary may decide whether such declaration
stand, and neither the offending player nor his partner may further
participate in the bidding even if the adversaries double or declare.

50_b_. A penalty for a declaration out of turn (see Law 49), an
insufficient or impossible declaration (see Law 50), or a bid when
prohibited (see Law 50_a_) may not be enforced if either adversary
pass, double, or declare before the penalty be demanded.[11]

50_c_. Laws which give to either adversary the right to enforce a
penalty, do not permit unlimited consultation. Either adversary may
call attention to the offence and select the penalty, or may say,
“Partner, you determine the penalty,” or words to that effect. Any
other consultation is prohibited,[12] and if it take place, the right
to demand any penalty is lost. The first decision made by either
adversary is final and cannot be altered.

51. At any time during the declaration, a question asked by a player
concerning any previous bid must be answered, but, after the final
declaration has been accepted, if an adversary of the declarer inform
his partner regarding any previous declaration, the declarer may
call a lead from the adversary whose next turn it is to lead. If the
dummy give such information to the declarer, either adversary of the
declarer may call a lead. A player, however, at any time may ask what
declaration is being played and the question must be answered.

52. A declaration legitimately made cannot be changed after the next
player pass, declare, or double. Prior to such action a declaration
inadvertently made may be corrected. If, prior to such correction, an
adversary call attention to an insufficient or impossible declaration,
it may not thereafter be corrected nor may the penalty be avoided.


DOUBLING AND REDOUBLING.

53. Doubling and redoubling doubles and quadruples the value of each
trick over six, but it does not alter the value of a declaration;
_e.g._, a declaration of “three clubs” is higher than “two royal
spades” doubled or redoubled.

54. Any declaration may be doubled and redoubled once, but not more;
a player may not double his partner’s declaration nor redouble his
partner’s double, but he may redouble a declaration of his partner
which has been doubled by an adversary.

The penalty for redoubling more than once is 100 points in the adverse
honour score or a new deal; for doubling a partner’s declaration, or
redoubling a partner’s double it is 50 points in the adverse honour
score. Either adversary may demand any penalty enforceable under this
law.

55. Doubling or redoubling reopens the bidding. When a declaration has
been doubled or redoubled, any one of the three succeeding players,
including the player whose declaration has been doubled, may, in his
proper turn, make a further declaration of higher value.

56. When a player whose declaration has been doubled wins the declared
number of tricks, he scores a bonus of 50 points in his honour score,
and a further 50 points for each additional trick. When he or his
partner has redoubled, he scores 100 points for making the contract
and an additional 100 for each extra trick.

57. A double or redouble is a declaration, and a player who doubles or
redoubles out of turn is subject to the penalty provided by Law 49.

58. After the final declaration has been accepted, the play begins; the
player on the left of the declarer leads.


DUMMY.

59. As soon as the player on the left of the declarer leads, the
declarer’s partner places his cards face upward on the table, and the
declarer plays the cards from that hand.

60. The partner of the declarer has all the rights of a player
(including the right to call attention to a lead from the wrong hand),
until his cards are placed face upward on the table.[13] He then
becomes the dummy, and takes no part whatever in the play, except that
he has the right:

    (_a_) To call the declarer’s attention to the fact that too
    many or too few cards have been played to a trick;

    (_b_) to correct an improper claim of either adversary;

    (_c_) to call attention to a trick erroneously taken by either
    side;

    (_d_) to participate in the discussion of any disputed question
    of fact after it has arisen between the declarer and either
    adversary;

    (_e_) to correct any erroneous score;

    (_f_) to consult with and advise the declarer as to which
    penalty to exact for a revoke;

    (_g_) to ask the declarer whether he have any of a suit he has
    renounced.

The dummy, if he have not intentionally looked at any card in the hand
of a player, has also the following additional rights:

    (_h_) To call the attention of the declarer to an established
    adverse revoke;

    (_i_) to call the attention of the declarer to a card exposed
    by an adversary or to an adverse lead out of turn.

61. Should the dummy call attention to any other incident in the play
in consequence of which any penalty might have been exacted, the
declarer may not exact such penalty. Should the dummy avail himself
of rights (_h_) or (_i_), after intentionally looking at a card in
the hand of a player, the declarer may not exact any penalty for the
offence in question.

62. If the dummy, by touching a card or otherwise, suggest the play of
one of his cards, either adversary may require the declarer to play or
not to play such card.

62_a_. If the dummy call to the attention of the declarer that he is
about to lead from the wrong hand, either adversary may require that
the lead be made from that hand.

63. Dummy is not subject to the revoke penalty; if he revoke and the
error be not discovered until the trick be turned and quitted, whether
by the rightful winners or not, the trick must stand.

64. A card from the declarer’s hand is not played until actually
quitted, but should he name or touch a card in the dummy, such card
is played unless he say, “I arrange,” or words to that effect. If he
simultaneously touch two or more such cards, he may elect which to play.


CARDS EXPOSED BEFORE PLAY.

65. After the deal and before the declaration has been finally
determined, if any player lead or expose a card, his partner may not
thereafter bid or double during that declaration,[14] and the card is
subject to call.[15] When the partner of the offending player is the
original leader, the declarer may also prohibit the initial lead of the
suit of the exposed card.

66. After the final declaration has been accepted and before the lead,
if the partner of the proper leader expose or lead a card, the declarer
may treat it as exposed or may call a suit from the proper leader. A
card exposed by the leader, after the final declaration and before the
lead, is subject to call.


CARDS EXPOSED DURING PLAY.

67. After the original lead, all cards exposed by the declarer’s
adversaries are liable to be called and must be left face upward on the
table.

68. The following are exposed cards:

    (1) Two or more cards played simultaneously;

    (2) a card dropped face upward on the table, even though
    snatched up so quickly that it cannot be named;

    (3) a card so held by a player that his partner sees any
    portion of its face;

    (4) a card mentioned by either adversary as being held in his
    or his partner’s hand.

69. A card dropped on the floor or elsewhere below the table, or so
held that it is seen by an adversary but not by the partner, is not an
exposed card.

70. Two or more cards played simultaneously by either of the declarer’s
adversaries give the declarer the right to call any one of such cards
to the current trick and to treat the other card or cards as exposed.

70_a_. Should an adversary of the declarer expose his last card before
his partner play to the twelfth trick, the two cards in his partner’s
hand become exposed, must be laid face upward on the table, and are
subject to call.

71. If, without waiting for his partner to play, either of the
declarer’s adversaries play or lead a winning card, as against the
declarer and dummy and continue (without waiting for his partner to
play) to lead several such cards, the declarer may demand that the
partner of the player in fault win, if he can, the first or any other
of these tricks. The other cards thus improperly played are exposed.

72. If either or both of the declarer’s adversaries throw his or their
cards face upward on the table, such cards are exposed and liable to be
called; but if either adversary retain his hand, he cannot be forced to
abandon it. Cards exposed by the declarer are not liable to be called.
If the declarer say, “I have the rest,” or any words indicating the
remaining tricks or any number thereof are his, he may be required
to place his cards face upward on the table. He is not then allowed
to call any cards his adversaries may have exposed, nor to take any
finesse not previously proved a winner unless he announce it when
making his claim.

73. If a player who has rendered himself liable to have the highest or
lowest of a suit called (Laws 80, 86, and 92) fail to play as directed,
or if, when called on to lead one suit, he lead another, having in his
hand one or more cards of the suit demanded (Laws 66, 76, and 93), or
if, when called upon to win or lose a trick, he fail to do so when he
can (Laws 71, 80, and 92), or if, when called upon not to play a suit,
he fail to play as directed (Laws 65 and 66), he is liable to the
penalty for revoke (Law 84) unless such play be corrected before the
trick be turned and quitted.

74. A player cannot be compelled to play a card which would oblige him
to revoke.

75. The call of an exposed card may be repeated until it be played.


LEADS OUT OF TURN.

76. If either adversary of the declarer’s lead out of turn, the
declarer may either treat the card so led as exposed or may call a suit
as soon as it is the turn of either adversary to lead. Should they lead
simultaneously, the lead from the proper hand stands, and the other
card is exposed.

77. If the declarer lead out of turn, either from his own hand or
dummy, he incurs no penalty, but he may not rectify the error unless
directed to do so by an adversary.[16] If the second hand play, the
lead is accepted.

78. If an adversary of the declarer lead out of turn, and the declarer
follow either from his own hand or dummy, the trick stands. If the
declarer before playing refuse to accept the lead, the leader may be
penalized as provided in Law 76.

79. If a player called on to lead a suit have none of it, the penalty
is paid.


CARDS PLAYED IN ERROR.

80. Should the fourth hand, not being dummy or declarer, play before
the second, the latter may be required to play his highest or lowest
card of the suit led, or to win or lose the trick. In such case, if the
second hand be void of the suit led, the declarer in lieu of any other
penalty may call upon the second hand to play the highest card of any
designated suit. If he name a suit of which the second hand is void,
the penalty is paid.[17]

81. If any one, except dummy, omit playing to a trick, and such error
be not corrected until he has played to the next, the adversaries or
either of them may claim a new deal; should either decide that the deal
stand, the surplus card (at the end of the hand) is considered played
to the imperfect trick, but does not constitute a revoke therein.[18]

82. When any one, except dummy, plays two or more cards to the same
trick and the mistake is not corrected, he is answerable for any
consequent revokes he may make. When the error is detected during the
play, the tricks may be counted face downward, to see if any contain
more than four cards; should this be the case, the trick which contains
a surplus card or cards may be examined and such card or cards restored
to the original holder.[19]


THE REVOKE.[20]

83. A revoke occurs when a player, other than dummy, holding one or
more cards of the suit led, plays a card of a different suit. It
becomes an established revoke when the trick in which it occurs is
turned and quitted by the rightful winners (_i.e._, the hand removed
from the trick after it has been turned face downward on the table),
or when either the revoking player or his partner, whether in turn or
otherwise, leads or plays to the following trick.

84. The penalty for each established revoke is:

    (_a_) When the declarer revokes, he cannot score for tricks and
    his adversaries add 100 points to their score in the honour
    column, in addition to any penalty which he may have incurred
    for not making good his declaration.

    (_b_) When either of the adversaries revokes, the declarer
    may either add 100 points to his score in the honour column
    or take three tricks from his opponents and add them to his
    own.[21] Such tricks may assist the declarer to make good his
    declaration, but shall not entitle him to score any bonus in
    the honour column in case the declaration has been doubled
    or redoubled, nor to a slam or little slam not otherwise
    obtained.[22]

    (_c_) When, during the play of a deal, more than one revoke is
    made by the same side, the penalty for each revoke after the
    first is 100 points.

The value of their honours is the only score that can be made by a
revoking side.

85. A player may ask his partner if he have a card of the suit which he
has renounced; should the question be asked before the trick be turned
and quitted, subsequent turning and quitting does not establish a
revoke, and the error may be corrected unless the question be answered
in the negative, or unless the revoking player or his partner have led
or played to the following trick.

86. If a player correct his mistake in time to save a revoke, any
player or players who have followed him may withdraw his or their cards
and substitute others, and the cards so withdrawn are not exposed. If
the player in fault be one of the declarer’s adversaries, the card
played in error is exposed, and the declarer may call it whenever he
pleases, or he may require the offender to play his highest or lowest
card of the suit to the trick, but this penalty cannot be exacted from
the declarer.

87. At the end of the play the claimants of a revoke may search all the
tricks. If the cards have been mixed, the claim may be urged and proved
if possible; but no proof is necessary and the claim is established
if, after it is made, the accused player or his partner mix the cards
before they have been sufficiently examined by the adversaries.

88. A revoke cannot be claimed after the cards have been cut for the
following deal.

89. Should both sides revoke, the only score permitted is for honours.
In such case, if one side revoke more than once, the penalty of 100
points for each extra revoke is scored by the other side.


GENERAL RULES.

90. A trick turned and quitted may not be looked at (except under Law
82) until the end of the play. The penalty for the violation of this
law is 25 points in the adverse honour score.

91. Any player during the play of a trick or after the four cards are
played, and before the trick is turned and quitted, may demand that the
cards be placed before their respective players.

92. When an adversary of the declarer, before his partner plays, calls
attention to the trick, either by saying it is his, or, without being
requested to do so, by naming his card or drawing it toward him, the
declarer may require such partner to play his highest or lowest card of
the suit led, or to win or lose the trick.

93. An adversary of the declarer may call his partner’s attention to
the fact that he is about to play or lead out of turn; but if, during
the play, he make any unauthorized reference to any incident of the
play, the declarer may call a suit from the adversary whose next turn
it is to lead.

94. In all cases where a penalty has been incurred, the offender is
bound to give reasonable time for the decision of his adversaries.


NEW CARDS.

95. Unless a pack be imperfect, no player has the right to call for one
new pack. When fresh cards are demanded, two packs must be furnished.
When they are produced during a rubber, the adversaries of the player
demanding them have the choice of the new cards. If it be the beginning
of a new rubber, the dealer, whether he or one of his adversaries call
for the new cards, has the choice. New cards cannot be substituted
after the pack has been cut for a new deal.

96. A card or cards torn or marked must be replaced by agreement or new
cards furnished.


BYSTANDERS.

97. While a bystander, by agreement among the players, may decide any
question, he should not say anything unless appealed to; and if he make
any remark which calls attention to an oversight affecting the score,
or to the exaction of a penalty, he is liable to be called upon by the
players to pay the stakes (not extras) lost.


[1] Frequently called “simple honours.”

[2] Law 84 prohibits a revoking side from scoring slam, and provides
that tricks received by the declarer as penalty for a revoke shall not
entitle him to a slam not otherwise obtained.

[3] Law 84 prohibits a revoking side from scoring little slam, and
provides that tricks received by the declarer as penalty for a revoke
shall not entitle him to a little slam not otherwise obtained. If a
declarer bid 7 and take twelve tricks he counts 20 for little slam,
although his declaration fails.

[4] He may consult his partner before making his decision.

[5] See Law 14 as to value of cards in cutting.

[6] This error, whenever discovered, renders a new deal necessary.

[7] A correct pack contains exactly fifty-two cards, one of each
denomination.

[8] One trick more than six.

[9] A declaration becomes final when it has been passed by three
players.

[10] For amount scored by declarer, if doubled, see Laws 53 and 56.

[11] When the penalty for an insufficient declaration is not demanded,
the bid over which it was made may be repeated unless some higher bid
have intervened.

[12] The question, “Partner, will you select the penalty, or shall I?”
is a form of consultation which is not permitted.

[13] The penalty is determined by the declarer (see Law 66).

[14] See Law 50_a_.

[15] If more than one card be exposed, all may be called.

[16] The rule in Law 50_c_ as to consultations governs the right of
adversaries to consult as to whether such direction be given.

[17] Should the declarer play third hand before the second hand, the
fourth hand may without penalty play before his partner.

[18] As to the right of adversaries to consult, see Law 50_a_.

[19] Either adversary may decide which card shall be considered played
to the trick which contains more than four cards.

[20] See Law 73.

[21] The dummy may advise the declarer which penalty to exact.

[22] The value of the three tricks, doubled or redoubled, as the case
may be, is counted in the trick score.


ETIQUETTE OF AUCTION.

In the game of Auction slight intimations convey much information. The
code succinctly states laws which fix penalties for an offence. To
offend against etiquette is far more serious than to offend against a
law; for in the latter case the offender is subject to the prescribed
penalties; in the former his adversaries are without redress.

1. Declarations should be made in a simple manner, thus: “one heart,”
“one no trump,” “pass,” “double”; they should be made orally and not by
gesture.

2. Aside from his legitimate declaration, a player should not show by
word or gesture the nature of his hand, or his pleasure or displeasure
at a play, bid, or double.

3. If a player demand that the cards be placed, he should do so for his
own information and not to call his partner’s attention to any card or
play.

4. An opponent of the declarer should not lead until the preceding
trick has been turned and quitted; nor, after having led a winning
card, should he draw another from his hand before his partner has
played to the current trick.

5. A card should not be played with such emphasis as to draw attention
to it, nor should a player detach one card from his hand and
subsequently play another.

6. A player should not purposely incur a penalty because he is willing
to pay it, nor should he make a second revoke to conceal a first.

7. Conversation during the play should be avoided, as it may annoy
players at the table or at other tables in the room.

8. The dummy should not leave his seat to watch his partner play. He
should not call attention to the score nor to any card or cards that he
or the other players hold.

9. If a player say, “I have the rest,” or any words indicating that the
remaining tricks, or any number thereof, are his, and one or both of
the other players expose his or their cards, or request him to play out
the hand, he should not allow any information so obtained to influence
his play.

10. If a player concede, in error, one or more tricks, the concession
should stand.

11. A player having been cut out of one table should not seek admission
in another unless willing to cut for the privilege of entry.

12. A player should not look at any of his cards until the end of the
deal.


THE LAWS OF THREE HAND AUCTION.

The Laws of Auction govern the three-hand game except as follows:

(1) Three players take part in a game and four constitute a complete
table. Each plays for himself; there are no partners, except as
provided in Law 7.

(2) The player who cuts lowest selects his seat and the cards with
which he deals first. The player who cuts next lowest sits on the
dealer’s left.

(3) The cards are dealt in four packets, one for each of the three
players and one for the dummy.[23] The dummy hand is not touched until
after the final declaration has been made.

(4) The dealer declares, and the bidding continues as in Auction,
except that each player bids exclusively on his own account.

(5) The penalty for a declaration out of turn is that each of the
other players receives 50 points in his honour score. A declaration
out of turn does not affect the right of the player whose turn it is
to declare, unless both he and the other player, either by passing or
declaring, accept the improper declaration.

(6) If a player declare out of turn, and the succeeding player either
pass or declare, the third player may demand that the mistake be
corrected as is provided in Law 5. In such case the player who first
declared out of turn is the only one penalized.

(7) The player making the final declaration, _i.e._, a declaration that
has been passed by both of the others, plays his own hand and that of
the dummy against the two others, who then, and for that particular
hand, assume the relationship of partners.

(8) It is advisable that the game be played at a round table so that
the hand of the dummy can be placed in front of the declarer without
obliging any player to move; but, in the event of a square table being
used, the two players who become the adversaries of the declarer should
sit opposite each other, the dummy being opposite the declarer. At the
end of the play the original positions should be resumed.

(9) If, after the deal has been completed and before the conclusion
of the declaration, any player expose a card, each of his adversaries
counts 50 points in his honour score, and the declarer, if he be not
the offender, may call upon the player on his left to lead or not to
lead the suit of the exposed card. If a card be exposed by the declarer
after the final declaration, there is no penalty, but if exposed by
an adversary of the declarer, it is subject to the same penalty as in
Auction.

(10) If a player double out of turn, each of his adversaries counts
100 points in his respective honour score, and the player whose
declaration has been doubled may elect whether the double shall stand.
The bidding is then resumed, but if the double shall be disallowed, the
declaration may not be doubled by the other player.

(11) The rubber continues until two games have been won by the same
player; it may consist of two, three, or four games.

(12) When the declarer fulfils his contract, he scores as in Auction.
When he fails to do so, both of his adversaries score as in Auction.

(13) Honours are scored by each player separately, _i.e._, each player
who holds one honour scores the value of a trick; each player who holds
two honours scores twice the value of a trick; a player who holds three
honours scores three times the value of a trick; a player who holds
four honours scores eight times the value of a trick; and a player who
holds five honours scores ten times the value of a trick. In a no-trump
declaration, each ace counts ten, and four held by one player count
100. The declarer counts separately both his own honours and those held
by the dummy.

(14) A player scores 125 points for winning a game, a further 125
points for winning a second game, and 250 points for winning a rubber.

(15) At the end of the rubber, all scores of each player are added
and his total obtained. Each one wins from or loses to each other the
difference between their respective totals. A player may win from both
the others, lose to one and win from the other, or lose to both.

[23] This hand is generally dealt opposite to the dealer.


THE LAWS OF DUPLICATE AUCTION.

Duplicate Auction is governed by the Laws of Auction, except in so far
as they are modified by the following special laws:

A. _Scoring._ In Duplicate Auction there are neither games nor rubbers.
Each deal is scored just as in Auction, with the addition that whenever
a pair makes 30 or more for tricks as the score of one deal, it adds as
a premium 125 points in its honour column.

B. _Irregularities in the Hands._ If a player have either more or
less than his correct number of cards, the course to be pursued is
determined by the time of the discovery of the irregularity.

    (1) When the irregularity is discovered before or during the
    original play: There must be a new deal.

    (2) When the irregularity is discovered at the time the cards
    are taken up for overplay and before such overplay has begun:
    It must be sent back to the table from which it came, and the
    error be there rectified.

    (3) When the irregularity is not discovered until after the
    overplay has begun: In two-table duplicate there must be a new
    deal; but in a game in which the same deals are played at more
    than two tables, the hands must be rectified as is provided
    above and then passed to the next table without overplay at
    the table at which the error was discovered; in which case,
    if a player have less than thirteen cards and his adversary
    the corresponding surplus, each pair takes the average score
    for that deal; if, however, his partner have the corresponding
    surplus, his pair is given the lowest score and his opponents
    the highest score made at any table for that deal.

C. _Playing the cards._ Each player, when it is his turn to play, must
place his card, face upward, before him and toward the centre of the
table. He must allow it to remain upon the table in this position until
all have played to the trick, when he must turn it over and place it
face downward, nearer to himself; if he or his partner have won the
trick, the card should point toward his partner and himself; otherwise
it should point toward the adversaries.

The declarer may either play dummy’s cards or may call them by name
whenever it is dummy’s turn to play and have dummy play them for him.

A trick is turned and quitted when all four players have turned and
ceased to touch their respective cards.

The cards must be left in the order in which they were played until the
scores of the deal have been recorded.

D. _The Revoke._ A revoke may be claimed at any time before the last
trick of the deal in which it occurs has been turned and quitted and
the scores of that deal agreed upon and recorded, but not thereafter.

E. _Error in Score._ A proved error in the trick or honour score may
be corrected at any time before the final score of the contestants for
the deal or deals played before changing opponents has been made up and
agreed upon.

F. _A New Deal._ A new deal is not allowed for any reason, except
as provided in Laws of Auction 36 and 37. If there be an impossible
declaration some other penalty must be selected.[24] A declaration
(other than passing) out of turn must stand;[25] as a penalty, the
adversaries score 50 honour points in their honour column and the
partner of the offending player cannot thereafter participate in the
bidding of that deal.

The penalty for the offence mentioned in Law 81 is 50 points in the
adverse honour score.

G. _Team Matches._ A match consists of any agreed number of deals, each
of which is played once at each table.

The contesting teams must be of equal size, but each may consist of any
agreed number of pairs (not less than two). One half of each team, or
as near thereto as possible, sits north and south; the other half east
and west.

In case the teams are composed of an odd number of pairs, each team, in
making up its total score, adds, as though won by it, the average score
of all pairs seated in the positions opposite to its odd pair.

In making up averages, fractions are disregarded and the nearest whole
numbers taken, unless it be necessary to take the fraction into account
to avoid a tie, in which case the match is won “by the fraction of a
point.” The team making the higher score wins the match.

H. _Pair Contests._ The score of a pair is compared only with other
pairs who have played the same hands. A pair obtains a plus score for
the contest when its net total is more than the average; a minus score
for the contest when its net total is less than the average.

NOTE.--Some players in America are adopting the English rule, which
allows the dealer to pass, without making any declaration. The usual
expression is, “No bid.” Each player to the left may then pass in
turn, and if no bid is made the deal passes to the left. The lowest
declaration is one club, as spades have a constant value of nine and
are always “royals.”

The English rule is to score 50 for little slam and 100 for grand slam,
and some American players have adopted that rule.

[24] See Law 50. The same ruling applies to Law 54.

[25] This includes a double or redouble out of turn. See Law 57.


TEXT BOOKS.

  Bridge, and How to Play It, by A. Dunn, Jr., 1899.
  Foster’s Bridge Manual, by R.F. Foster, 1900.
  Foster on Bridge, by R.F. Foster, 1900.
  The Bridge Manual, by John Doe, 1900.
  Bridge Abridged, by W. Dalton, 1901.
  Elwell on Bridge, by J.B. Elwell, 1902.
  Foster’s Bridge Tactics, by R.F. Foster, 1903.
  Foster’s Self-playing Bridge Cards, 1903.
  The Bridge Book, by A. Dunn, Jr., 1903.
  Bridge Up to Date, by C.S. Street, 1903.
  Sixty Bridge Hands, by C.S. Street, 1903.
  Laws and Principles of Bridge, by “Badsworth,” 1903.
  Bridge Whist in Brief, by Fisher Ames, 1904.
  Bridge at a Glance, by W. Dalton, 1904.
  The Gist of Bridge, by R.F. Foster, 1904.
  Bridge Developments, by Robertson and Wallaston, 1904.
  Advanced Bridge, by J.B. Elwell, 1904.
  Auction Bridge, by John Doe, 1904.
  Bridge that Wins, by A. Metcalfe, 1905.
  Foster’s Complete Bridge, by R.F. Foster, 1905.
  Foster’s Bridge Maxims, by R.F. Foster, 1905.
  The Bridge Blue Book, by P.F. Mottelay, 1906.
  Good Bridge, by C.S. Street, 1907.
  Practical Bridge, by J.B. Elwell, 1908.
  Auction Bridge Up to Date, by W. Dalton, 1909.
  Principles of Auction Bridge, by “Badsworth,” 1910.
  Auction Bridge Up to Date, by R.F. Foster, 1910.
  Advanced Auction Bridge, by R.F. Foster, 1911.
  Auction Bridge, by “Bascule,” 1911.
  New Auction and Dummy Play, by J.B. Gleason, 1912.
  Fine Points of Bridge, by Florence Irwin, 1912.
  Auction Bridge, by J.B. Elwell, 1912.
  Royal Auction Bridge, by R.F. Foster, 1912.
  Scientific Auction Bridge, by E.V. Shepard, 1913.
  Auction of To-day, by Milton Work, 1913.
  Royal Auction and Nullos, by R.F. Foster, 1914.
  Auction Developments, by Milton Work, 1914.
  Whitehead’s Conventions of Auction Bridge, by Wilbur C. Whitehead, 1914.


WHIST.

_=CARDS.=_ Whist is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, ranking
A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2; the Ace being the highest in play, but
ranking below the deuce in cutting. Two packs are generally used, the
one being shuffled while the other is dealt.

_=MARKERS=_ are necessary to keep the score. The most common are red
and white circular counters; the white being used for the points
in each game, and the red for the games themselves, or for rubber
points. It is better to have two sets, of different colours, each set
consisting of four circular and three oblong counters, the latter being
used for the rubber points, or for games.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Whist is played by four persons. When there are more than
four candidates for play, five or six may form a “table.” If more than
six offer for play, the selection of the table is made by cutting.

The table being formed, the four persons who shall play the first
rubber are determined by cutting, and they again cut for partners, and
the choice of seats and cards.

_=CUTTING.=_ The methods of cutting are the same as those described in
connection with Bridge, and ties are decided in the same manner.

_=PLAYERS’ POSITIONS.=_ The four players at a whist table are usually
distinguished by the letters A, B, Y, Z; the first two letters of the
alphabet being partners against the last two, and their positions at
the table being indicated as follows:--

[Illustration:

       Y
    +-----+
    |     |
  A |     | B
    |     |
    +-----+
       Z
]

Z is always the dealer; A the original leader, or first hand; Y the
second hand; B the third hand; and Z the fourth hand. After the first
trick, some other player may become the leader; the one on his left
being the second hand; his partner the third hand, and the player on
his right the fourth hand. B is the pone.

_=DEALING.=_ The cards having been properly shuffled, the dealer
presents them to the _=pone=_ to be cut. The American laws require that
after separating the pack, the pone shall place the cut part, which
he lifts off, nearer the dealer. Beginning at his left, the dealer
distributes the cards one at a time in rotation, until the pack is
exhausted. The last card is turned face up on the table, and the suit
to which it belongs is the trump for that hand.

When two packs are used, one is shuffled by the dealer’s partner while
the other is dealt, and the shuffled pack is placed on the left of the
player whose turn it will be to deal next. Each player deals in turn
until the conclusion of the game or rubber.

_=IRREGULARITIES IN THE DEAL.=_ The following rules regarding the deal
should be strictly observed:--

If any card is found faced in the pack, the dealer must deal again.
Should the dealer turn over any card but the trump, while dealing, the
adversaries may, if they please, demand a new deal. A player dealing
out of turn may be stopped before the trump card is turned; but after
that, the deal must stand, afterwards passing to the left in regular
order. On the completion of the deal, each player should take up and
count his cards to see that he has thirteen; if not, it is a misdeal,
and unless the pack is found to be imperfect, the deal passes to the
player on the misdealer’s left. The dealer loses the deal:--if he
neglects to have the pack cut; if he deals a card incorrectly, and
fails to remedy the error before dealing another; if he counts the
cards on the table, or those remaining in the pack; if he looks at the
trump card before the deal is complete; or if he places the trump card
face down, on his own or on any other player’s cards.

_=STAKES.=_ When stakes are played for, it should be distinctly
understood at the beginning whether the unit is for a game, for
a rubber, for rubber points, or for tricks. The English game is
invariably played for so much a rubber point; sometimes with an extra
stake upon the rubber itself. In America, it is usual to play for so
much a game; but in some cases the tricks are the unit, deducting
the loser’s score from seven, or playing the last hand out and then
deducting the loser’s score. A very popular method is to play for a
triple stake: so much a trick, playing each hand out; so much a game;
and so much a rubber. These three stakes are usually in the proportion
of 10, 25, and 50. In clubs it is customary to have a uniform stake
for whist, and to fix a limit for all betting on the game beyond the
“club stake.” Good usage demands that those at the table should have
the refusal of any bet made by a player, before it is offered to an
outsider.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The player on the dealer’s left begins by
leading any card he chooses, and the others must all follow suit if
they can. Failure to follow suit when able is called _=revoking=_; the
penalty for which, under the American laws, is the loss of two tricks;
under the English laws, three tricks or points. Any player having none
of the suit led may either trump it or throw away a card of another
suit, which is called _=discarding=_. When it is the dealer’s turn to
play to the first trick, he should take the trump card into his hand.
After it has been taken up it must not be named, and any player naming
it is subject to a penalty, (see Laws;) but a player may ask what the
trump _=suit=_ is. If all follow suit, the highest card played wins
the trick; trumps win against all other suits, and a higher trump wins
a lower. The winner of the trick may lead any card he pleases for the
next trick, and so on until all thirteen tricks have been played.

_=Cards Played in Error=_, or dropped face upward on the table, or
two or more played at once, are called _=exposed cards=_, and must be
left on the table. They can be _=called=_ by the adversaries; but the
fact of their being exposed does not prevent their being played when
the opportunity offers. Some persons imagine that the adversaries can
prevent an exposed card from being played; but such is not the case.

_=Leading out of Turn.=_ Should a player lead out of turn, the
adversaries may call a suit from the player in error, or from his
partner, when it is next the turn of either of them to lead. American
laws require the call to be made by the player on the right of the one
from whom the suit is called. The English laws give the adversaries
the option of calling the card played in error an exposed card. If
all have played to the trick before discovering the error, it cannot
be rectified; but if all have not played, those who have followed the
false lead must take back their cards, which are not, however, liable
to be called.

_=Revoking Players=_ cannot win the game that hand, no matter what they
score; but they may play the hand out, and score all points they make
to within one point of game.

Any player may ask the others to _=draw cards=_ in any trick, provided
he does so before they are touched for the purpose of gathering them.
In answer to this demand, each player should indicate which of the
cards on the table he played.

In the English game, any player may look at the last trick turned and
quitted; in the American he may not.

_=Taking Tricks.=_ As the tricks are taken, they should be neatly laid
one upon the other in such a manner that any player at the table can
count them at a glance. There are several methods of stacking tricks;
the first shown being probably the best.

[Illustration]

When six have been taken by one side they are usually gathered together
to form a _=book=_; any subsequently taken being laid apart, as they
are the only ones that count. It is customary for the partner of the
player winning the first trick on each side to gather the tricks for
that deal. In some places it is the custom for the partner of the
winner of each trick to gather it, so that at the end of the hand each
player has tricks in front of him. Although this method saves time,
the practice is not to be recommended, as it hinders the players in
counting the tricks already gained by each side.

Immediately upon the completion of the play of a hand, the score should
be claimed and marked. Any discussion of the play should be postponed
until this has been attended to. The adversaries must detect and claim
revokes before the cards are cut for the following deal.

The laws of whist should be carefully studied.

_=OBJECT OF THE GAME.=_ The object of all whist play is to take tricks,
of which there are thirteen in each hand or deal. The first six tricks
taken by one side are called a _=book=_, and do not count; but each
trick above that number counts one point towards game. The seventh
trick is called the _=odd=_; and two or more over the book are called
_=two=_, _=three=_, etc., _=by cards=_. At the conclusion of each hand,
the side that has won any tricks in excess of the book, scores them;
the opponents counting nothing. As soon as either side has scored the
number of points previously agreed upon as a game, which must be 5,
7, or 10, the cards are again shuffled and spread for the choice of
partners, etc., unless it has been agreed to play a rubber.

_=SCORING.=_ There are several methods of scoring at whist. The English
game is 5 points, rubbers being always played. Besides the points
scored for tricks, honours are counted; the games have a different
value, according to the score of the adversaries; and the side winning
the rubber adds two points to its score.

In scoring, the revoke penalty counts first, tricks next, and honours
last.

_=The Revoke.=_ Should the adversaries detect and claim a revoke before
the cards are cut for the following deal, they have the option of three
penalties: 1st. To take three tricks from the revoking player, adding
them to their own. 2nd. To deduct three points from his game score.
3rd. To add three points to their own game score. The penalty cannot be
divided. A revoke may be corrected by the player making it before the
trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted. The card played
in error must be left face up on the table, and must be played when
demanded by the adversaries, unless it can be got rid of previously, in
the course of play. In America, the revoke penalty is two tricks.

_=The Honours=_ are the four highest trumps, A, K, Q, and J; and
_=after tricks have been scored=_, partners who held three honours
between them are entitled to count two points towards game; four
honours counting four points. If each side has two honours, neither can
count them. It is not enough to score them; after the last card has
been played, they must be claimed by word of mouth. If they are not
claimed before the trump is turned for the following deal, they cannot
be scored. Partners who, at the beginning of a deal, are at the score
of four, cannot count honours; they must get the odd trick to win the
game. Should one side be out by tricks, and the other by honours, the
tricks win the game, the honours counting nothing.

_=Rubber Points.=_ At the conclusion of each game, the rubber points
are scored, either with the oblong counters, or on the small keys of
the whist-marker. If the winners of a game are five points to their
adversaries’ nothing, they win a _=treble=_, and count three rubber
points. If the adversaries have scored, but have one or two points
only, the winners mark two points, for a _=double=_. If the adversaries
have reached three or four, the winners mark one, for a _=single=_. The
rubber points having been marked, all other scores are turned down. The
side winning the rubber adds two points to its score for so doing. The
value of the rubber is determined by deducting from the score of the
winners any rubber points that may have been made by their adversaries.
The smallest rubber possible to win is one point; the winners having
scored two singles and the rubber, equal to four; from which they
have to deduct a triple made by their adversaries. The largest rubber
possible is eight points, called a _=bumper=_, the winners having
scored two triples and the rubber, to their adversaries’ nothing.

It is sometimes important to observe the order of precedence in
scoring. For instance: if, at the beginning of a hand, A-B have three
points to Y-Z’s nothing, and A-B make two by honours, Y-Z winning three
by cards, Y-Z mark first; so that A-B win only a _=single=_, instead
of a _=treble=_. On the contrary, should A-B make two by cards, Y-Z
claiming four by honours, A-B win a treble; as their tricks put them
out before it is Y-Z’s turn to count.

In America, where rubbers are played without counting honours, it is
not usual to reckon rubber points; but simply to add some agreed value
to the score of those winning the odd game.

Where single games are played, whether 5, 7, or 10 points, some persons
consider the game as finished when the agreed number of points is
reached. Others play the last hand out, and count all the tricks made;
so that if two partners were at the score of 6 in a 7-point game, and
made five by cards, they would win a game of 11 points. When this is
done, it is usual to deduct the score of the losers from the total,
and to call the remainder the value of the game. In the American Whist
League, the rule is to stop at seven points, and to determine the value
of the game by deducting the loser’s score from seven.

When long sittings occur without change of partners or adversaries,
it is a common practice to count the tricks continuously, and on the
conclusion of the play, to deduct the lower score from the higher, the
winners being credited with the difference.

_=CUTTING OUT.=_ If rubbers are played, there is no change of partners,
or of rotation in the deal, until one side has won two games, which
ends the rubber. If the first two games are won by the same partners,
the third is not played. If more than four players belong to the table,
those who have just played cut to decide which shall give place to
those waiting; those cutting the highest cards going out. If six belong
to the table, there will be no further cutting out; as those who are
out for one rubber re-enter for the next, taking the places of those
who have played two consecutive rubbers. If five belong to the table,
the three who remained in for the second rubber must cut to allow the
fifth player to re-enter. At the end of the third rubber, the two cut
that have not yet been out; and at the end of the fourth rubber, the
one who has played every rubber goes out without cutting. After this,
it is usual to spread the cards, and to form the table anew. In all the
foregoing instances, partners and deal must be cut for, after the cut
has decided which are to play.

_=MARKING.=_ There are various methods of using the counters. At
the beginning of the game they may be placed at the left hand, and
transferred to the right as the points accrue. Another method is to
stack the four circular counters one upon the other at the beginning
of the game, and to count a point by placing one of them beside the
others; two points by placing another upon the first; three points by
placing a third beyond these two, and four points by placing them all
in line.

[Illustration: Nothing. One. Two. Three. Four.]

In the seven point game, the score is continued by placing one counter
above, and to the right or left of the other three, to indicate five
points; and above and between them to indicate six.

[Illustration: Five. Or this. Six.]

When counters are not used, one of the standard forms of whist-marker
is employed, the most legible and convenient being the “Foster Whist
Marker,” in which the counting keys are always level with the surface
and can be seen equally well from any position at the table.

[Illustration: The Foster Whist Marker.]

The four large keys on one side are used to count single points, the
single large key on the opposite side being reckoned as five. The three
small keys are used for counting rubber points, or games.

In ten point games, the scoring to four points is the same; but beyond
four, a single counter placed _=below=_ two or more others, is reckoned
as three; and _=above=_ two or more others, as five.

[Illustration: Five. Six. Seven. Eight. Nine.]

When proper markers are not obtainable, many persons cut eight slits in
a visiting card, and turn up the points.

[Illustration: Visiting-Card Marker.]

Whatever the apparatus employed, it should be such that every player
at the table can distinctly see the state of the score without drawing
attention to it.

_=METHODS OF CHEATING.=_ Whist offers very few opportunities to the
card-sharper. When honours are counted, he may be able to keep one on
the bottom of the pack until the completion of the deal by _=making
the pass=_ after the cards have been cut. A _=greek=_ who possessed
sufficient skill to do this without detection would be very foolish to
waste his talents at the whist table; for, however large the stakes,
the percentage in his favour would be very small.

When whist is played with only one pack, a very skillful shuffler may
gather the cards without disturbing the tricks, and, by giving them a
single _=intricate=_ shuffle, then drawing the middle of the pack from
between the ends and giving another single intricate shuffle, he may
occasionally succeed in dealing himself and his partner a very strong
hand in trumps, no matter how the cards are cut, so that they are not
shuffled again. A hand dealt in this manner is framed on the walls of
the Columbus, Ohio, Whist Club; eleven trumps having been dealt to
the partner, and the twelfth turned up. In this case the shuffling
dexterity was the result of fifteen years’ practice, and was employed
simply for amusement, the dealer never betting on any game, and making
no concealment of his methods.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ Although whist is a game of very simple
construction, the immense variety of combinations which it affords
renders it very complicated in actual practice; there being probably
no game in which there is so much diversity of opinion as to the best
play, even with the same cards, and under similar conditions. It has
been repeatedly remarked that in all the published hands at whist which
have been played in duplicate, or even four times over, with the same
cards, no two have been alike.

It would be useless to formulate rules intended to cover every case
that might arise, because the conditions are frequently too complicated
to allow the average human intellect to select the exact rule which
would apply. All that can be done to assist the beginner is to state
certain general principles which are well recognised as fundamental,
and to leave the rest to experience and practice at the whist table.

_=GENERAL PRINCIPLES.=_ Nothing obstructs the progress of the beginner
so much as his attempts to cover all the ground at once. The more
ambitious he is, the greater his necessity for keeping in view the
maxim; “One thing at a time: all things in succession.” One must master
the scales before he can produce the perfect melody.

The novice should first thoroughly understand the object, and the
fundamental principle of the game.

_=The Object=_ is to win tricks. Not to give information, or to count
the hands, or to remember every card played; but simply and only to win
tricks.

_=The Principle=_ is to secure for certain cards a trick-taking value
which does not naturally belong to them; either by getting higher cards
out of the way of lower, or by placing the holder of intermediate cards
at a disadvantage with regard to the lead.

If any person will take the trouble to deal out four hands, and after
turning them face up on the table, count how many tricks each side
will probably take with its high cards and trumps, he will find that
the total will hardly ever be exactly thirteen tricks. Let us suppose
the following to be one of the hands so dealt; Z turning up the ♡6 for
trumps:--

[Illustration:

                    ♡Q J 8
                    ♣6
                    ♢K J 6 5 3
                    ♠A 9 8 6
  ♡4 3 2          +-------+   ♡A K 10 5
  ♣A K Q 8 7 4 3  |   Y   |   ♣J 9
  ♢7              |A     B|   ♢A 8 4
  ♠Q 7            |   Z   |   ♠K 5 4 2
                   +-------+
                    ♡9 7 6
                    ♣10 5 2
                    ♢Q 10 9 2
                    ♠J 10 3
]

On looking over this hand it would appear that A could only make one
trick in Clubs, of which the second round would be trumped. His
partner can count on five tricks: the two best and the fourth trumps;
the ♢A, and the ♠K; a total of six tricks. On counting the adversaries’
probable tricks, Y should make one of his three trumps, and the ♠A.
Diamonds will not go round twice without being trumped, so we cannot
count on his ♢K. We cannot see any sure tricks for Z. Where are the
five other tricks necessary to bring our total up to thirteen? They
must be there, for there are thirteen tricks taken in every hand played.

If we play over the hand, we shall find that A-B may make six, seven,
nine, or ten tricks, according to their good management, and the good
or bad play of their adversaries. In _=Foster’s Whist Tactics=_,
Illustrative Hand No. 13, may be found the various ideas of sixteen of
the best players in the American Whist League with regard to the proper
management of this hand. They played it in four different ways, and
with very different results in the score.

This must show that the accidental distribution of the Aces, Kings,
and trumps is not everything in whist, and that there must be ways and
means of securing tricks which do not appear on the surface.

There are four ways of taking tricks at whist:

1st. By playing high cards, the suit of which the others must follow.
This A does, in the example, on the first round of the Club suit.

2nd. By playing low cards, after the higher ones have been exhausted,
and the adverse trumps are out of the way. This Y will do with his
Diamonds, or A with his Clubs, according to circumstances.

3rd. By trumping winning cards played by the adversaries. This Y will
do if Clubs are led a second time, or A will do if Diamonds are led
twice.

4th. By being able to take tricks with cards which are not the best
of the suit, the player who holds better cards having already played
smaller. This B will do with the ♡10 if A leads trumps, and Y does not
play either Q or J. If B leads trumps he will lose this advantage.

These four methods of winning tricks suggest four systems of play,
which are those in common use by experts at the present day:

1st. Playing high cards to the best advantage, so as to secure the best
results from such combinations as may be held. This is the basis of all
_=systems of leading=_.

2nd. Leading from the longest suit, in order that higher cards may
be forced out of the way of smaller ones, leaving the smaller ones
“established,” or good for tricks after the adverse trumps are
exhausted. This is called the _=long-suit game=_.

3rd. Trumping good cards played by the adversaries. This is called
_=ruffing=_. When two partners each trump a different suit, it is
called a _=cross-ruff=_, or _=saw=_.

4th. Taking advantage of the _=tenace=_ possibilities of the hand by
placing the lead with a certain player; or by avoiding the necessity of
leading away from tenace suits. For example: A player holds A Q 10 of
a suit, his right hand adversary holding K J 9. These are known as the
_=major=_ and _=minor=_ tenaces. Whichever leads makes only one trick;
but if the holder of the major tenace can get the suit led twice, he
makes all. This is called the _=short-suit game=_, or _=finesse and
tenace=_. Its resources may be added to by finessing against certain
cards. For example: Holding A Q 3 of a suit led by the partner, to play
Q is a finesse against fourth hand having the King.

Each of these systems has its advantages, and almost every hand will
offer opportunities for practice in all of them.

The most important thing to impress on the beginner is that whist
cannot be played by machinery. Some authorities would have us believe
that certain theories alone are sound; that certain systems of play
alone are good; and that if one will persevere in following certain
precepts, in such matters as leading, management of trumps, etc., that
the result will be more than average success at the whist table.

Nothing can be further from the truth. As in all other matters largely
controlled by chance, there is no system, as a system, which will win
at whist. One cannot succeed by slavish adherence to either the long or
the short-suit game; by the invariable giving of information, or the
continual playing of false cards. The true elements of success in whist
lie in the happy combination of all the resources of long and short
suits, of finesse and tenace, of candour and deception, continually
adjusted to varying circumstances, so as to result in the adversaries’
losing tricks.

_=HOW TO STUDY WHIST.=_ Any person, anxious to become an expert whist
player, may attain to considerable proficiency in a short time, if he
will content himself with mastering the following general principles
one at a time; putting each into practice at the whist table before
proceeding to the next.

The science of modern whist may be divided into two parts: 1st.
_=Tactics=_; or the purely conventional rules for leading, second and
third hand play, returning partner’s suits, etc., all of which may be
learnt from books, or gathered from more experienced players. 2nd.
_=Strategy=_; or the advantageous use of the information given by the
conventional plays. This is largely dependent on personal ability to
judge the situation correctly, and to select the methods of play best
adapted to it.

_=CONVENTIONAL PLAYS.=_ These may be divided into two parts: those used
by the partners who attack, either with their strong suits, or by
leading out trumps; and those employed by their adversaries, who are
defending themselves against such suits, or wishing to prevent their
trumps being drawn. We shall first consider the conventionalities used
in attack.

_=Leading.=_ The player with the original lead should have a double
object in view; to secure the best results for his own hand, and to
indicate to his partner where he is in need of assistance.

The first matter for his consideration will be whether to begin with a
trump or with a plain suit. There are two principal uses for trumps.
The most attractive to the beginner is that of ruffing the adversaries’
winning cards; and the most important to the expert is leading trumps
to prevent this. No matter how strong or well established a plain
suit may be, it is of uncertain value as long as the adversaries have
any trumps with which to stop it. A suit is established when you can
probably take every trick in it. If a player with a good established
suit is sufficiently strong to make it probable that he can, with
his partner’s assistance, exhaust the adverse trumps, he should do
so by leading trumps. If they are probably stronger than he, he must
_=force=_ them, by leading the established suit which they will be
compelled to trump, weakening their hands and gradually reducing their
trump strength until it is possible to exhaust what remains by leading.
It being to the advantage of the player with a good suit to exhaust
the trumps, it must be desirable to his adversaries to keep theirs, if
possible, for the purpose of ruffing this good suit.

Trumps are also useful as cards of re-entry, when a player has an
established suit, but has not the lead; their most important use,
however, is in defending or stopping established suits.

_=Rules for Leading Trumps.=_ With five or more trumps, the beginner
should always begin by leading them, regardless of the rest of his
hand. With three or less he should never lead them, unless he has very
strong cards in _=all=_ the plain suits. With four trumps exactly, he
should lead them if he has an established suit and a card of re-entry
in another suit. A card of re-entry in plain suits is one which is
pretty sure to win a trick, such as an Ace, or a guarded King. The
following are examples of hands from which trumps should be led
originally by a beginner;--

Hearts are trumps in every case.

  ♡ J 8 6 4 2; ♣ K 3 2; ♢ 10 9 2; ♠ 7 5.
  ♡ Q 10 2; ♣ A K 5; ♢ K Q 10 9; ♠ A Q 3.
  ♡ K J 8 3; ♣ A K Q 10 7 3; ♢ 3; ♠ A 7.

The following are examples of hands from which trumps should not be
led:--

  ♡ A K Q; ♣ J 8 7 5 3; ♢ Q 4; ♠ K 4 2.
  ♡ Q J 10 2; ♣ 5 2; ♢ A K Q 2; ♠ 6 4 3.
  ♡ A Q 5 4; ♣ K Q J 6 3; ♢ A 9 2; ♠ K.

If at any later stage of the hand, a player finds himself with an
established suit and a card of re-entry, he should lead trumps if he
has four. For instance: The player with the last example should lead
trumps if the first round of Clubs either forced the Ace out of his
way, or found it with his partner.

_=Rules for Leading Plain Suits.=_ It is safest for the beginner
to select his longest suit for the original lead; unless he has a
four-card suit which is much stronger. Length and high cards, the two
elements of strength, are often very nearly balanced. In the following
examples the player should begin with the longest suit:--

  ♡ A 4 3; ♣ J 10 9 8 3; ♢ A K Q; ♠ K 2.
  ♡ K 10 8 3; ♣ 4 2; ♢ K Q 10 8 2; ♠ A Q.

In the following the four-card suit should be selected:--

  ♡ J 3; ♣ 6 5 4 3 2; ♢ J 10 5 3; ♠ Q 8.
  ♡ Q 4 2; ♣ 7; ♢ 10 6 4 3 2; ♠ A K Q 10.

The principle which should guide in the selection of a plain suit for
the original lead is, that if there are a number of small cards in one
suit, and a few high cards in another, by leading the long suit first,
the higher cards in it are forced out of the way, and the high cards in
the shorter suit will then bring the holder of the established small
cards into the lead again. But if the high cards of the short suit are
first led, the long suit of small cards is dead.

Having determined whether to lead the trump or the plain suit, the next
point is to select the proper card of the suit to lead. At first the
beginner need not trouble himself about making any distinction between
trumps and plain suits; that will come later.

_=Rules for Leading High Cards.=_ Having a strong suit, but without
cards of re-entry or trump strength to support it, the best policy
is to make tricks while you can. With such a suit as A K Q 2, no one
need be told not to begin with the deuce. Whenever a player holds two
or more of the best cards of a suit he should play one of them. If he
holds both second and third best, playing one of them will force the
best out of his way, leaving him with the commanding card.

The cards which are recognised by whist players as high, are the A K Q
J 10, and if we separate the various combinations from which a player
should lead each of them, a study of the groups so formed will greatly
facilitate our recollection of them.

In the first group are those containing two or more of the best cards.
In this and all following notation, the exact size of any card below a
Ten is immaterial.

[Illustration:

  🂡 🂮 🂭 🂫 | 🂱 🂾 🂻 🂷
  🃁 🃎 🃍 🃆 | 🃑 🃞 🃔 🃓
]

So far as trick-taking is concerned, it is of no importance which of
the winning cards is first led; but for the past hundred years it has
been the custom for good whist players to lead the _=King=_ from all
these combinations, in order that the partner may be informed, by its
winning, that the leader holds the Ace also.

In the second group are those containing both the second and third
best, but not the best.

[Illustration:

  🂮 🂭 🂫 🂪 | 🂾 🂽 🂺 🂸
  🃎 🃍 🃋 🃄 | 🃞 🃝 🃗 🃖
]

The _=King=_ is the proper lead from these combinations. If it wins,
the partner should have the Ace; if it loses, partner should know the
leader holds at least the Queen.

Both these groups, which contain all the King leads, may be easily
remembered by observing that the King is always led if accompanied
by the Ace or Queen, or both. Beginners should follow this rule for
leading the King, regardless of the number of small cards in the suit,
unless they hold the sequence of K Q J, and at least two other cards.

[Illustration:

  🂮 🂭 🂫 🂪 🂤 | 🃎 🃍 🃋 🃄 🃃
]

From this combination the _=Jack=_ is the usual lead, in order to
invite partner to put on the Ace, if he has it, and get out of the
way, thus establishing the suit in the leader’s hand. This is the only
high-card combination from which the Jack is led.

There is only one combination from which the _=Queen=_ is led,
regardless of the number of the small cards.

[Illustration:

  🂭 🂫 🂪 🂦 🂥
]

This may be remembered by observing that there is no higher card in the
suit than the one led, and that it contains a sequence of three cards,
Q J 10. This lead is an indication to the partner that the leader holds
neither Ace nor King.

There is only one combination from which the _=Ten=_ is led, regardless
of the number of small cards.

[Illustration:

  🂾 🂻 🂺 🂵
]

The Ten led is an indication to partner that both Ace and Queen are
against the leader.

Combinations from which the _=Ace=_ is led contain at least five cards
in suit, or both Queen and Jack.

[Illustration:

  🂱 🂷 🂶 🂴 🂲 | 🃑 🃝 🃛 🃖
]

This lead is an indication to partner that the leader has not the King,
and that the suit is either long, or contains three honours.

_=Rules for Leading Low Cards.=_ If the suit selected for the lead
contains none of the combinations from which a high card should be led,
it is customary with good players to begin with the 4th-best, counting
from the top of the suit. This is called the card of uniformity;
because it indicates to the partner that there are remaining in the
leader’s hand exactly three cards higher than the one led. From any of
the following combinations the proper lead would be the Four:--

[Illustration:

  🃞 🃛 🃘 🃔 🃓 | 🃑 🃝 🃚 🃔
  🂽 🂻 🂶 🂴 🂲 | 🂱 🂻 🂺 🂴
]

[Illustration:

  🂫 🂪 🂩 🂤 🂢 | 🂮 🂨 🂧 🂤
  🃊 🃉 🃈 🃄 🃃 | 🃍 🃆 🃅 🃄
]

_=Rules for Leading Short Suits.=_ It will sometimes happen that the
only four-card suit in the leader’s hand will be trumps, which it
is not desirable to lead. In such cases, if there is no high-card
combination in any of the short suits, it is usual to lead the highest
card, unless it is an Ace or King. Many good players will not lead the
Queen from a three card suit, unless it is accompanied by the Jack.
All such leads are called _=forced=_, and are intended to assist the
partner, by playing cards which may strengthen him, although of no use
to the leader. The best card should be led from any such combinations
as the following:--

[Illustration:

  🃝 🃛 🃖 | 🃊 🃉 🃄
  🃋 🃊 🃅 | 🃙 🃘 🃔
  🂫 🂥 🂣 | 🂷 🂶 🂴
]

All these rules for leading apply equally to any position at the table
when a player opens his own suit for the first time.

_=Rules for Leading Second Round.=_ On the second round of any suit,
the player holding the best card should play it; or having several
equally the best, one of them. If he is Fourth Hand, he may be able to
win the trick more cheaply.

If the original leader has several cards, equally the best, such as
A Q J remaining after having led the King, he should continue with
the lowest card that will win the trick. This should be an indication
to his partner that the card led is as good as the best, and that
therefore the leader must have the intermediate cards.

_=Following King=_, which has been led from these combinations:--

[Illustration:

  🂡 🂮 🂭 🂫 | 🂱 🂾 🂻 🂷
  🃁 🃎 🃍 🃆 | 🃑 🃞 🃔 🃓
]

Leading the Jack on the second round would show both Ace and Queen
remaining. Leading Queen would show Ace, but not the Jack. Leading Ace
would show that the leader had not the Queen.

In combinations which do not contain the best card, the lead may be
varied in some cases to show the number remaining in the leader’s hand,
or to indicate cards not shown by the first lead.

_=Following King=_, which has been led from these combinations:--

[Illustration:

  🃎 🃍 🃋 🃊 | 🃞 🃝 🃛 🃖
]

Leading the Ten on the second round would show both Queen and Jack
remaining. Leading the Jack would show the Queen; but not the ten.

_=Following the Jack=_, led from this combination:--

[Illustration:

  🂾 🂽 🂻 🂷 🂶
]

Leading King on the second round would show five cards in the suit
originally. Leading the Queen would show more than five.

_=Following the Queen=_, led from this combination:--

[Illustration:

  🃍 🃋 🃊 🃄 🃃
]

Leading Jack on the second round shows the suit to have originally
contained only four cards; the Ten would show more than four.

_=Following the Ace=_, led from these combinations:--

[Illustration:

  🃑 🃝 🃛 🃖 | 🂡 🂭 🂫 🂦 🂥
]

Leading the Queen shows the suit was short. Leading the Jack shows that
it contained at least five cards.

When a player holds both the second and third-best of a suit on the
second round, he should always play one of them, whether he is First,
Second, or Third Hand. This protects him, by forcing the command of
the suit, if it does not win the trick. Having led the Ten from K J 10
x, if the Ace or Queen wins the first trick, the K should be next led.
Having led the Four from Q J 6 4 2, if Ace or King falls to the first
trick, the Queen should be led. If the Jack, Queen, and Ace fall to the
first trick, a player holding both Ten and Nine should lead the Ten.

After leading high cards from some combinations, and winning the trick,
they may no longer contain either the best or the second and third
best. Such are the following:--

[Illustration:

  🂡 🂭 🂧 🂤 🂢 | 🂾 🂽 🂺 🂴
  🃁 🃋 🃉 🃄 🃃 | 🂮 🂭 🂧 🂤
  🃑 🃙 🃘 🃔 🃓 | 🃎 🃋 🃊 🃄
]

The rule in all such cases is to follow with the card of uniformity,
the original fourth-best.

If the combinations are those from which the fourth-best had been led
originally, and the leader has neither the best, nor both second and
third best to go on with, he should continue with the lowest card in
his hand, unless he had six or more in suit; in which case he may go on
with the remaining fourth-best.

_=AVOID CHANGING SUITS.=_ A player having once begun with a suit,
either for the purpose of establishing it, or of taking tricks in
it, should not change it until he is forced to do so. Running off to
untried suits is one of the beginner’s worst faults. There are five
good reasons for changing suits, and unless one of them can be applied,
the suit should be continued:

1st. In order to lead trumps to defend it.

2nd. In order to avoid forcing partner.

3rd. In order to avoid forcing both adversaries.

4th. Because it is hopeless, and there is some chance in another.

5th. To prevent a cross ruff, by leading trumps.

_=Simple Inferences=_ from the fall of the cards usually supply the
best guide in the matter of changing suits.

If the Jack is led from K Q J x x, and wins the trick, partner may be
credited with the Ace; and if the original leader has four trumps,
and a card of re-entry, he should quit his established suit, and lead
trumps to defend it.

If the King and Ace have been led from A K x x, partner dropping
the Queen on the second round, the suit should be changed, unless
the original leader is strong enough to risk weakening his partner
by forcing him to trump the third round. Four trumps are generally
considered to be sufficiently strong to justify a force in this
position. Some players will force, even with a weak hand, if the two
cards played by the partner are small, and he has not availed himself
of an artifice known as _=calling for trumps=_, which we shall consider
presently.

If the King and Ten have been led from K Q J 10, and on the second
round one adversary has dropped the Eight, the other the Nine; the
suit should be changed, as partner must have the Ace, and neither of
the adversaries have any more. To lead such a suit again is called
_=forcing both adversaries=_; as it allows one to make a small trump
and the other to get rid of a losing card.

If the Four has been led from J 8 6 4, and the adversaries have won the
first trick with the Nine or Ten, A K Q must be against the leader and
his partner, and the suit should be abandoned as hopeless, unless it is
feasible to force the partner.

If at any time there is a strong indication that the adversaries will
have a cross-ruff, it is usually best to stop leading plain suits, and
attempt to get out the trumps.

_=THE LEADER’S PARTNER=_, or the Third Hand, has several conventional
plays to remember; the most important of which are the following:

_=When Partner Leads High Cards=_, the Third Hand has usually little to
do but to play his lowest of the suit. The exceptions are:

If he holds A J alone, on a King led, the Ace should be played.

If he holds A Q alone on a Ten led, the Ace should be played. With
A Q x, the Ten should be passed. With Ace and small cards, the Ace
should be played on the Ten. With Queen and small cards the Ten should
be passed. When Third Hand plays Queen on a Ten led, it should be a
certainty that he has no more of the suit.

If he holds A K and only one small card, the King should be played on a
Queen led.

If he holds Ace and only one small card, the Ace should be played on
the Jack led. If Third Hand has four trumps and a card of re-entry, the
Ace should be played on Jack led, regardless of number, in older to
lead trumps at once, to defend the suit.

_=When Partner Leads Low Cards=_, the Third Hand should do his best
to secure the trick. If he has several cards of equal trick-taking
value, such as A K Q, or K Q J, he should win the trick as cheaply
as possible. The only _=finesse=_ permitted to the Third Hand in his
partner’s suit, is the play of the Queen, when he holds A Q and others;
the odds being against Fourth Hand having the King.

_=Foster’s Eleven Rule.=_ By deducting from eleven the number of pips
on any low card led, the Third Hand may ascertain how far his partner’s
suit is from being established. For instance: if the card led is the
Seven, Second Hand playing the Eight, and Third Hand holding A J 6 3,
from which he plays Ace, Fourth Hand playing the Five; the only card
against the leader must be the King or Queen; he cannot have both, or
he would have led one. If the Second Hand has not the missing card, he
has no more of the suit. The number of inferences which may be made in
this manner by observant players is astonishing. A great many examples
and exercises in them are given in _=Foster’s Whist Manual=_.

_=Third Hand having None of the Suit=_, should trump anything but an
Ace or a King on the first round. On the second round, if there is only
one card against the leader, his partner should pass with four trumps,
and allow the suit to be established. For instance: If the leads have
been Ace, then Jack, Third Hand holding only one of the suit; he should
pass if the Second Hand does not play King.

_=Third Hand on Strengthening Cards.=_ Unless Third Hand has both Ace
and King of the suit, he should pass any forced or strengthening lead
which is not covered by the Second Hand. This obliges the Fourth Hand
to open another suit, or to continue at a disadvantage.

Third Hand winning first round has the choice of four lines of play:

1st. To lead trumps, if he is strong enough.

2nd. To return the best card of his partner’s suit if he has it. This
is imperative before opening any other suit but trumps.

3rd. To lead his own suit, if he can do anything with it. It is
considered better play for the Third Hand to return the original
leader’s suit than to open a long weak suit of his own such as one
headed by a single honour.

4th. To return his partner’s suit even with a losing card, in
preference to changing.

When the original lead is a trump, it should be returned in every case,
either immediately, or as soon as the player can obtain the lead.

The same reasons for changing suits as those given for the original
leader will apply to the Third Hand.

_=RULES FOR RETURNING PARTNER’S SUITS.=_ When the original leader’s
suit is returned by his partner, either immediately or upon his
regaining the lead, it is usual to show, if possible, how many cards
remain in the Third Hand, so that by adding them to his own, the leader
may estimate the number held by his adversaries. This consideration is
secondary to the return of the best, or one of the second and third
best; but in the absence of such cards, the Third Hand should always
return the higher of only two remaining, and the lowest of three or
more, regardless of their value.

In addition to the foregoing conventionalities, which are proper to
the leader of a suit and his partner, there are two usages which apply
equally to any player at the table. These are discarding and forcing.

_=Discarding.=_ When a player cannot follow suit, and does not wish to
trump, his safest play is to discard whatever seems of least use to
him. It is not considered good play to unguard a King or to leave an
Ace alone; but this may be done if the partner is leading trumps, and
there is a good established suit to keep. Beginners should be careful
to preserve cards of re-entry, even if they have to discard from their
good suit in order to do so.

When the adversaries have shown strength in trumps, or are leading
them, there is little use in keeping a long suit together. It is much
better to keep guard on the suits in which they are probably strong,
letting your own and your partner’s go.

A player having full command of a suit, may show it to his partner
by discarding the best card of it. Discarding the second-best is an
indication that the player has not the best; and in general, the
discard of any small card shows weakness in that suit.

_=Forcing.=_ We have already observed that a player who is weak himself
should not force his partner. An exception may be made in cases where
he has shown weakness, or has had a chance to lead trumps and has not
done so. On the contrary, an adversary should not be forced unless he
has shown strength, or the player forcing him is weak. The hope of a
player with a good suit is to defend it by leading and exhausting the
trumps. His adversary tries to keep his trumps in order to stop that
suit; at the same time forcing the strong hand, by leading cards which
he must trump, hoping that such a force may so weaken him that he will
be unable to continue the trump lead.

It is usually very difficult to convince the beginner that the weaker
he is himself, the more reason he has for forcing the adversaries
to trump his good cards. He is constantly falling into the error of
changing from a good suit, which the adversaries cannot stop without
trumping, to a weak suit, which allows them to get into the lead
without any waste of trump strength. If an adversary refuses to trump
a suit, it is imperative to keep on with it until he does; for it is
always good play to force an adversary to do what he does not wish to
do.

Any person may convince himself of the soundness of this theory of
forcing, by giving himself the six highest cards in any suit, three
small cards in the others, and four trumps; giving another player the
four best trumps, and nine of the highest cards in two suits. If the
first player forces the second with his good suit, and continues every
time he gets the lead, he must win six tricks; if he does not, the
second player makes a slam.

A deliberate force from a partner should always be accepted, if he is a
good player.

We may now turn our attention to the conventionalities used by players
who are opposed to the establishment of suits in the hands of the
leader and his partner. These are divided between the Second and the
Fourth Hand, the former being the more important. Generally speaking,
they are the tactics of defence.

_=SECOND HAND PLAY.=_ The player who is second to play on any trick
is called the Second Hand. It is his duty to protect himself and his
partner, as far as possible, in the adversaries’ strong suits. The
chief point for the beginner to observe in Second Hand play, is the
difference between the circumstances requiring him to play high cards,
and those in which he should play low ones.

_=High Cards Led.=_ When a card higher than a Ten is led on the first
round of a suit, the Second Hand has usually nothing to do but to play
his lowest card, and make what inference he can as to the probable
distribution of the suit. But if he holds the Ace, or cards in sequence
with it, such A K, he should cover any card higher than a Ten. If he
holds K Q he should cover a J, 10, or 9 led; but it is useless for him
to cover an honour with a single honour, unless it is the Ace.

_=Low Cards Led.=_ High cards are played by the Second Hand when he
has any combination from which he would have led a high one if he had
opened the suit. The fact that a player on his right has already laid
a small card of the suit on the table should not prevent the Second
Hand from making the best use of any combinations he may hold. The only
difference between leading from such combinations, and playing them
Second Hand, is that in the latter case no attempt is made to indicate
to the partner the exact nature of the combination held. The general
rule is to win the trick as cheaply as possible, by playing the lowest
of the high cards which form the combination from which a high card
would be led. Such are the following:--

[Illustration:

  🂡 🂮 🂭 🂫 | 🂾 🂽 🂻 🂸
  🂱 🂾 🂽 🂳 | 🃞 🃝 🃘 🃔
  🃑 🃞 🃕 🃒 | 🃎 🃋 🃊 🃅
  🃁 🃍 🃋 🃂 | 🂭 🂫 🂪 🂣
]

The beginner must be careful with these:--

[Illustration:

  🂡 🂮 🂫 🂢 | 🃎 🃍 🃊 🃆
]

The combination which makes the first of these a high-card lead is the
A K, and the King must be played Second Hand. The Jack has nothing
to do with it. In the second, the Ten does not form any part of the
combination, and the Queen is the card to play Second Hand. Some
players will not play a high card second hand with K Q x x unless weak
in trumps.

An exception is generally made with these combinations, from which the
proper lead is the Ace.

[Illustration:

  🃑 🃝 🃘 🃔 🃓 | 🂡 🂩 🂨 🂧 🂤
]

Many will not play Ace Second Hand in any case, and will play the Queen
with the first combination only when they are weak in trumps. The
reason for this exception is the importance of retaining command of the
adverse suit as long as possible.

_=On the Second Round=_, the Second Hand should follow the usual
rule for playing the best of the suit if he holds it; or one of the
second and third best, if he holds them. He should also be careful
to estimate, by the eleven rule, how many cards are out against the
leader, which will sometimes guide him to a good finesse. For instance:
first player leads Ace, then Eight. If the Second Hand holds K J 9 2,
instead of playing the best card to the second round, which would be
King, he should finesse the Nine.

_=With Short Suits.=_ When Second Hand holds such short-suit
combinations as:--

[Illustration:

  🂽 🂻 🂷 | 🂻 🂺 🂵
]

and a small card is led, his proper play is one of the high cards,
because he cannot save both of them.

_=On Strengthening Cards Led.=_ This is a difficult point for the
beginner, and his best plan is to follow the rules already given for
covering cards higher than the Ten. One of the most common errors is
to cover a Jack led with a Queen, when holding A Q and others. The Ace
should be put on invariably. To play the Queen in such a position is
called _=finessing against yourself=_.

_=Singly Guarded Honours.=_ Many players put on the King Second Hand,
if they hold only one small card with it, and a small card is led. This
will win the trick as often as it will lose it; but it betrays the hand
to the adversary, and enables him to finesse deeply if the suit is
returned. It may be done in order to get the lead, and in trumps the
practice is very common, and generally right. With Queen and only one
small card, it can be demonstrated that it is useless to play the Queen
Second Hand, except as an experiment, or to get the lead in desperate
cases.

With any combination weaker than J 10 x, it is useless to attempt to
win the trick Second Hand, and only makes it difficult for the partner
to place the cards correctly.

_=The Fourchette.=_ When the Second Hand has cards immediately above
and below the one led, he should cover. The beginner may have some
difficulty in recognising the fact that he holds fourchette if the suit
has been round once or twice, and the intermediate cards have been
played. Such cards as a Queen and a Seven may be fourchette over a
Nine, if Jack, Ten and Eight have been played.

_=Second Hand Having None=_ of the suit led, on either first or second
round, must decide whether or not to trump it. If the card led is the
best of the suit, he should certainly do so; but if it is not, and
there is any uncertainty as to who will win the trick, it is usual for
the Second Hand to pass when he has four trumps. With five trumps,
there should be some good reason for keeping the trumps together, as a
player with so many can usually afford to trump. If he does not trump,
his play comes under the rules for discarding.

_=FOURTH-HAND PLAY.=_ The Fourth Hand is the last player in any trick.
He is the partner of the Second Hand, but has not so many opportunities
for the exercise of judgment, his duties being simply to win tricks
if he can, and as cheaply as possible. If he cannot win the trick, he
should play his lowest card.

A bad habit of Fourth-Hand players is holding up the tenace A J when
a King or Queen is led originally. This is called the _=Bath Coup=_,
and the suit must go round three times for it to succeed in making two
tricks. The holder of the tenace should equally make two tricks by
playing the Ace at once, provided he does not lead the suit back.

_=The Turn-up Trump.=_ When trumps are led by the adversaries, it is
a common practice to play the turn-up as soon as possible, unless it
is a valuable card. On the contrary, it is usual to keep it as long as
possible when the partner leads trumps.

_=Changing Suits.=_ If the Second or Fourth Hand wins the first or
second round of the adversaries’ suit, it is seldom right to return
it, as that would probably be playing their game. The player should
open his own suit, as if he were the original leader. If he is strong
enough to lead trumps under ordinary circumstances, he may be deterred
from so doing if the adversaries have declared a strong suit against
him. The same consideration may prevent his leading trumps in the hope
of making a suit of his own, as the adversaries might reap the benefit
by bringing in their suit instead. On the contrary, when the Second or
Fourth Hand holds command of the adverse suit, they may often risk a
trump lead which would otherwise be injudicious. Having once started a
suit, it should not be changed, except for one of the reasons already
given for the guidance of the First Hand.

_=When the Adversaries Lead Trumps=_, and the Second Hand has a chance
either to establish a suit against them or to force his partner, he
should stop the trump lead if he can. If his partner has led trumps,
the Second Hand should generally play his winning cards on his right
hand opponent’s plain-suit leads, to stop them; and continue the trumps.

These are about all the conventionalities necessary for the beginner.
After at least a year’s practice with them, he will either discover
that he has no aptitude for the game, or will be ready to go into
further details. A beginner who attempts to handle the weapons of the
expert simply plays with edged tools, which will probably cut no one
but himself and his partner.

       *       *       *       *       *

_=THE SIGNAL GAME.=_ Having become thoroughly familiar with the
elementary conventionalities of the game, so that they can be used
without the slightest hesitation at the whist table, the player may
proceed to acquaint himself with the details of what is commonly
known as the Signal Game, which comprises all the various methods of
signalling up hands between partners, according to certain arbitrary
and pre-arranged systems of play. Many players object to these methods
as unfair; but they are now too deeply rooted to yield to protest; and
the best thing for a player to do is to familiarise himself with his
adversaries’ weapons.

_=The Trump Signal.=_ A player anxious to have trumps led, but who has
no immediate prospect of the lead, may call on his partner to lead
trumps at the first opportunity, by playing any two cards of a suit
led, the higher before the lower. Let us suppose him to hold five good
trumps, with the Six and Two of a suit of which his partner leads King,
then Jack. By playing first the Six, and then the Two, he calls upon
his partner to quit the suit, and lead a trump.

Among some players, the lead of a strengthening card when an honour is
turned, is a call for trumps to be led through that honour at the first
opportunity, but it is not good play.

Passing a certain winning card is regarded by most players as an
imperative call for trumps.

The discard of any card higher than a Seven is known as a
single-card-call. Even if it was not so intended, it is assumed that a
trump lead cannot injure a player with nothing smaller than a Nine in
his hand.

_=Answering Trump Signals.=_ In response to partner’s call, a player
should lead the best trump if he holds it; one of the second and third
best if he holds them; the highest of three or less; the lowest of
four; and the fourth-best of more than four. Holding any of the regular
high-card combinations in trumps, he should lead them in the regular
way in answer to a call.

_=After a Force.=_ If the player is forced before he can answer the
call, he may indicate the number of trumps originally held by playing
them in this manner:--

With 3 or less; trumping with the lowest; leading the highest.

With 4 exactly; trumping with the 3rd-best; leading the highest.

With 5 or more; trumping with the 3rd-best; leading the 4th-best.

These methods of taking the force must not be carried to extremes.
For instance: A player holding K J 10 2, would hardly be justified in
trumping with the 10 to show number. Some experts, holding the best
trump with at least four others, will not lead it; preferring to show
number first, by leading the fourth-best. Others, holding four, lead
the lowest after trumping with the third-best.

_=The Echo in Trumps.=_ When the partner leads high trumps, the Third
Hand should echo with four or more, by signalling in the trump suit.
The universal form of the echo is to play first the third-best, then
the fourth-best. When a player has called, and his partner leads, it
is unnecessary for the caller to echo. Players seldom echo on adverse
trump leads, even with five trumps.

_=The Four-Signal.=_ There are several ways of showing four or more
trumps without asking partner to lead them. Among some players the
original lead of a strengthening card is an evidence of four trumps,
and is called an _=Albany Lead=_. A player holding three cards of any
plain suit, such as the 3, 4, 5, may show the number of his trumps by
playing these small cards as follows:--

  No of trumps.   1st trick.   2nd trick.   3rd trick.
    3 or less            3           4           5
    4 exactly            4           5           3
    5   ”                4           3           5
    6   ”                5           3           4
    7 or more            5           4           3

The second of these is the four-signal; the last three are trump
signals. They are used only in following suit.

The four-signal is sometimes used in the trump suit as a _=Sub-echo=_,
to show three trumps exactly.

Apart from signalling, trump strength may often be inferred, especially
from player’s passing doubtful tricks, forcing their partners, etc.

_=Trump Suit Leads.=_ When trumps are not led for the purpose of
exhausting them immediately, but simply as the longest suit, the
fourth-best may be led from the following:--

[Illustration:

  🂱 🂾 🂷 🂶 🂴 | 🃎 🃍 🃆 🃅
  🂡 🂨 🂧 🂤 🂢 | 🃞 🃛 🃚 🃖
]

If the Ten accompanies the King and Queen, in the third combination, it
is best to adhere to the usual lead of the King.

In leading trumps from combinations containing a winning sequence, such
as the following:--

[Illustration:

  🂱 🂾 🂽 🂻 🂷 | 🃁 🃎 🃍 🃄 🃃
]

many players begin with the lowest of the winning cards, continuing
with the next above it.

_=Speculative Trump Leads.=_ The whist player will often find himself
with a single good suit, a card of re-entry, and few trumps. Certain
conditions of the score may prompt him to make a speculative trump
lead from such a hand. If his trumps are high, such as A K x, he may
safely begin by leading them; but if they are weak, and he is depending
largely on his partner’s possible strength, he should show his suit
first by leading it once.

_=Over-trumping=_ is generally regarded as bad policy when a player has
a good suit, and sufficient trump strength to justify him in hoping
to do something with it. The refusal to over-trump, unless the trump
played is a high one, should be regarded by the partner as a call.

It is sometimes necessary to over-trump partner in order to get the
lead. For instance: A player holds the two best trumps, and all winning
cards of a plain suit, while the player on his right has a losing
trump. In such a position the player with the two best trumps should
trump any winning card his partner leads, or over trump him if he
trumps, so as to prevent the adversary from making that losing trump.

_=Under-trumping, or the Grand Coup=_, is playing a low trump on a
trick that partner has already trumped with a higher, in order to avoid
the lead. For instance: A player holds major tenace in trumps with a
small one, and knows that the minor tenace is on his right. Four cards
remain in each hand. The player on the left leads; Second Hand trumps;
Third Hand follows suit. If the Fourth Hand keeps his three trumps, he
must win the next trick, and lose the advantage of his tenace.

A player will sometimes have the best card in two suits, and a small
trump, and will know that the two best trumps and an unknown card are
on his right. If the missing suit is led, and the player on the right
trumps, his unknown card must be one of the two other suits, and the
player with the command of them should keep both, and throw away his
small trump. The discards on the next trick may enable him to determine
the suit of the losing card on his right.

_=The Last Trump.=_ If two players have an equal number of trumps, each
of them having an established suit, it will be the object of both to
remain with the last trump, which must bring in the suit. The tactics
of each will be to win the third round of trumps; and then, if the best
trump is against him, to force it out with the established suit, coming
into the lead again with the last trump. So often is it important
to win the third round of trumps that few good players will win the
second round, unless they can win the third also. With an established
suit, a card of re-entry, and four trumps King high, a player should
lead trumps; but if his partner wins the first round and returns a
small trump, the King should not be put on, no matter what Second Hand
plays, unless the card next below the King is fourchette. Some of the
most brilliant endings in whist are skirmishes for the possession of
the last trump; the player who is at a disadvantage often persistently
refuses the fatal force, hoping the leader will be compelled to change
his suit, or will lose the lead.

_=Drawing the Losing Trump.=_ It is usually best to draw losing trumps
from the adversaries, unless a player can foresee that he may want the
best to stop a strong adverse suit.

_=A Thirteenth Card=_, played by the partner, is usually considered an
invitation to put on the best trump. The Second Hand should not trump a
thirteenth card unless he is weak in trumps.

_=AMERICAN LEADS.=_ Advanced players, who have had so much practice
that they can infer the probable position of the cards without devoting
their entire attention to it, have adopted a new system of leading from
the four combinations following, in order to show the number of small
cards in the suit:--

[Illustration:

  🃑 🃞 🃝 🃛 🃖 | 🂱 🂾 🂶 🂴 🂲
  🃁 🃎 🃍 🃆 🃅 | 🂮 🂭 🂧 🂤 🂢
]

From these the King is never led if there are more than four cards in
the suit. Having more than four, the lowest of the sequence of high
cards is led. From the first this would be the Jack; from the second
the Queen; from the third the Ace, (because the King is barred;) and
from the fourth the Queen. The Ten is not ranked among the high cards
in American Leads.

On the second round, with the first two combinations, the difference
between a suit of five or one of six cards may be indicated by
following with the Ace if five were held originally; the King, if more
than five. Seven cards may be shown with the first combination, by
leading the Queen on the second round.

The chief difference these leads make in the play of the Third Hand is
that he should not trump any court card led, even if weak in trumps.
The misunderstanding as to the meaning of the first lead, especially if
it is a Queen, often occasions confusion and loss; but this is claimed
to be offset by the value of the information given. Some lead 10 from Q
J 10; 4th-best from K J 10.

To the adversaries these leads are often of value, as they are
frequently enabled to place the cards very accurately from the
information given by the lead itself, regardless of the fall of the
cards from the other hands. For instance: Second Hand holds A J of a
suit in which King is led; Third Hand plays the Four; Fourth Hand plays
the Nine. The leader remains with Q 3 2; Third Hand still has 8 7 6 5;
and if he has also the 10, Fourth Hand has no more. Again: The leader
shows a suit of six; Second Hand holding two only. If the suit is led
a third time it is a doubtful trick, and with four trumps the Second
Hand should pass. If the leader shows the exact number of the suit
originally led, and then changes to a four-card suit, the adversaries
know at least nine of his cards.

So obvious is this that it is an almost invariable rule for a player,
on quitting his suit, to conceal the length of the second suit led by
leading the highest card of a short suit.

If it were allowable to exercise some judgment in using these leads,
they might not be open to so many objections; but they are worse than
useless unless the partner can depend on their being uniformly adopted.

_=The Minneapolis Lead.=_ This is another variation in the leads, which
is confined to one combination; that of Ace and any four other cards,
not including the King. With strength in trumps the fourth-best is led
instead of the Ace, the theory being that the Ace is more likely to be
valuable on the second or third round of such a suit than on the first,
and that the trump strength justifies the finesse of the original lead.
With weak trumps the Ace is led. Some players extend this principle to
the Second Hand, and play Ace on a small card led, when holding A x x
x x with weak trumps. This is open to the objection that it gives up
command of the adverse suit too early in the hand; but it saves many a
trick.

_=The Plain-suit Echo.=_ This is another device for giving information
as to number. When the original leader begins with a high card, the
Third Hand should play his third-best if he holds four or more; and
on the second round his second best, always retaining his fourth-best
and any below it. The value of this echo is much disputed, and the
adversaries can usually render it ineffective by holding up small
cards; a practice very much in vogue with advanced players.

_=Low’s Signal.=_ This is the latest system of indicating to the leader
the number of cards in his suit held by the Third Hand. With four or
more of the suit, the third-best is played to the lead of a high card,
or when no attempt is made to win the trick. In retaining the suit, the
second-best is led if three or more remain, and on the third round, or
in a discard, the highest is played, always retaining the fourth-best
and those below it. For instance: With the 8 7 5 2 of a suit which
partner leads, the 5 is played to the first round. If the suit is
returned, the 7 is played; and next time the 8. Holding only three
originally, the lowest is played to the first round, and the higher of
two returned, in the usual way. The chief value of this signal is that
the return of the lowest of a suit shows absolutely no more, instead of
leaving the original leader in doubt as to whether it is the only one,
or the lowest of three remaining. It is also a great exposer of false
cards.

_=Discard Signalling=_ is another method of indicating plain suits.
When a player is known to have no trumps, and therefore cannot be
calling for them, he may use the trump signal in any plain suit which
he wishes led to him. As a general rule, a player should not use this
signal unless he has a certain trick in the suit in which he signals.
Some players use what is called the reverse discard; a signal in one
suit meaning weakness in it, and an invitation to lead another. This
avoids the necessity for using the good suit for signalling purposes.

_=Unblocking.=_ When the original leader shows a suit of five cards,
and the Third Hand has four exactly, the latter should keep his lowest
card, not for the purpose of echoing, but in order to retain a small
card which will not block the holder of the longer suit. If the Third
Hand has three cards of the suit led, and among them a card which
may block his partner, he should give it up on the second round. For
instance: Holding K 4 3, and partner showing a five-card suit by
leading Ace then Jack, Third Hand should give up the King on the second
round. Again: Holding Q 9 3, partner leading Ace then Eight; Second
Hand playing King second round, Third Hand should give up the Queen.
Again: Holding K Q, partner leading the 8 originally, won by Fourth
Hand with Ace; the King should be discarded or otherwise got rid of at
the first opportunity.

_=Short-suit Leads.=_ Many players will not lead a long weak suit
unless they have sufficient strength to justify them in hoping to
establish, defend, and bring it in, with _=reasonable=_ support from
the partner. With a long suit, headed by a single honour, weak trumps,
and no cards of re-entry, they prefer selecting a strengthening card
for the original lead, hoping it may be of some assistance to partner
by affording a successful finesse. It is claimed that it is better for
a person, especially with a strong hand, to play with the knowledge
that his partner is weak, than under the impression that he may be
strong. Such an opening lead should warn the Third Hand to finesse
deeply, to hold any tenaces he may have, and to let nothing pass him
which might be too much for his weak partner to attend to. This is a
very difficult game to play well, and is seldom resorted to except by
the most expert.

_=Deschapelles Coups.=_ It often happens that after the adverse trumps
are exhausted, a player will find himself with the lead, but unable
to give his partner a card of his established suit. In such cases the
best course is to sacrifice the King or Queen of any suit of which he
has not the Ace, in the hope that it may force the best of the suit,
and leave partner with a card of re-entry. For instance: The leader
has established the Club suit; his partner has exhausted the trumps,
Hearts; and having no Clubs, leads the King of Spades from K x x x. If
the holder of the Club suit has Spade Queen, and the King forces the
Ace, the Club suit will be brought in. If he has not the Queen, the
Clubs are probably hopeless. The _=coup=_ risks a trick to gain several.

Players should be careful not to fall into this trap in the end-game;
and it is generally right to hold up the Ace if the circumstances are
at all suspicious.

_=Tenace Positions.=_ Many expert players will not lead away from a
suit in which they hold tenace. Having two suits, one containing a
tenace, and the other without it, they will select the latter, although
it may be much weaker. It is noteworthy that players who disregard the
value of holding a tenace in the opening lead, are well aware of its
importance toward the end of the hand. When one player holds tenace
over another, the end game often becomes a struggle to place the lead;
and players frequently refuse to win tricks in order to avoid leading
away from tenaces, or to compel another player to lead up to them.

_=Underplay=_ is often resorted to by the Fourth Hand in suits in which
the Third Hand has shown weakness. For instance: A small card is led;
Third Hand playing the Ten, and Fourth Hand holding A Q J x. It is
a common artifice to win with the Queen, and return the small card.
When the original leader is underplayed in his own suit, he should
invariably put up his best card.

_=Finessing.=_ The expert may finesse much more freely than the
beginner. Having led from such a suit as K J x x and partner having
won with Ace and returned a small card, the Jack may be finessed with
strong trumps. If the adversaries lead trumps, and the Ace wins the
first round, a player holding the King second hand on the return, may
finesse by holding it up, trusting his partner for the trick.

In all cases that mark the best of the suit against a player, and on
his left, he may finesse against the third best being there also. For
instance: A player leads from K 10 x x x. Third Hand plays Queen and
returns a small card. The Ten should be finessed, regardless of trump
strength, as the Ace must be on the left, and the finesse is against
the Jack being there also. Many varieties of this finesse occur.

_=Placing the Lead.=_ This is usually a feature of the end-game A
player may have an established suit, his adversary being the only
person with any small cards of it. If the lead can be placed in the
hand of this adversary, he must eventually lead the losing cards.

A player begins with a weak suit of four cards, on the first round
of which it is evident that his partner has no more, the adversaries
having all the high cards. The suit is not played again, and for the
last six tricks the original leader finds himself with three cards of
it, and the Q x x of another suit. If the adversaries play King and Ace
of the latter suit, the Queen should be given up, trusting partner for
the Jack, for the Queen will force the holder of the three losing cards
into the lead. It is sometimes necessary to throw away an Ace in order
to avoid the lead at critical stages of the end-game.

_=False Cards.=_ It requires more than ordinary skill to judge when a
false card will do less harm to the partner than to the adversaries.
There are some occasions for false-card play about which there is
little question. Having a sequence in the adverse suit, the Second or
Fourth Hand may win with the highest card, especially if the intention
is to lead trumps. Holding K Q only, Second Hand may play the King,
especially in trumps. Holding A K x, the Fourth Hand should play Ace
on a Queen led by an American leader. With such a suit as K J 10 x,
after trumps have been exhausted, the Ten is not a safe lead; Jack or
fourth-best is better. Holding up the small cards of adverse suits
is a common stratagem; and it is legitimate to use any system of
false-carding in trumps if it will prevent the adversaries who have led
them from counting them accurately.

_=Playing to the Score.=_ The play must often be varied on account of
the state of the score, either to save or win the game in the hand. If
the adversaries appear to be very strong, and likely to go out on the
deal, all conventionalities should be disregarded until the game is
saved; finesses should be refused, and winning cards played Second Hand
on the first round. If the adversaries are exhausting the trumps, it
will often be judicious for a player to make what winning cards he has,
regardless of all rules for leading, especially if they are sufficient
to save the game.

It often happens that the same cards must be played in different ways
according to the state of the score, and the number of tricks in front
of the player. A simple example will best explain this. Hearts are
trumps; you hold two small ones, two better being out against you, but
whether in one hand or not you cannot tell. You have also two winning
Spades, one smaller being still out. The game is seven-point whist. The
importance of playing to the score will be evident if you consider your
play in each of the following instances, your score being given first:

  Score 6 to 6; you have 5 tricks in front of you.
  Score 6 to 6; you have 4 tricks in front of you.
  Score 6 to 5; you have 4 tricks in front of you.
  Score 5 to 4; you have 5 tricks in front of you.

_=INFERENCES.=_ The great strength of the expert lies in his ability to
draw correct inferences from the fall of the cards, and to adapt his
play to the circumstances.

Inferences from the various systems of leads and returns are too
obvious to require further notice; but attention may be called to some
that are often overlooked, even by advanced players:

If a suit led is won by Third Hand with King or Ace; and the original
leader wins the second round with King or Ace, the adversaries must
have the Queen.

If the Third Hand plays Ace first round, he has neither King nor Queen.
If he plays Queen on a Ten led, he has no more. If he plays Ace on a
King led, he has the Jack alone, or no more.

If the Second Hand plays King first round on a small card led, he has
Ace also, or no more. If he plays Ace under the same conditions, he has
no more. [See Minneapolis Lead.]

If a suit is led, and neither Third nor Fourth Hand has a card in it
above a Nine, the original leader must have A Q 10, and the second
player K J. When neither Third nor Fourth Hand holds a card above the
Ten, the major and minor tenaces are divided between the leader and the
Second Hand. If it can be inferred that the leader held five cards in
the suit originally, he holds the minor tenace.

When a player, not an American leader, begins with a Jack and wins the
trick, the adversaries may conclude that his partner had two small
cards with the Ace, and had not four trumps and another winning card.

When a good player changes his suit, he knows that it will not go
round again, or that the command is against him. This is often a
valuable hint to the adversaries. When he quits his original suit and
leads trumps, without his partner having called, the adversaries may
conclude that the suit has been established.

When a player puts Ace on his partner’s Jack led, and does not lead
trumps, the adversaries may count on him for only one small card of the
suit led.

When an adversary finesses freely, he may be credited with some
strength in trumps.

When a player changes his suit, the adversaries should note carefully
the fall of the cards in the new suit. As already observed, the leader
almost invariably opens the new suit with the best he has. Suppose a
player to lead two winning cards in one suit, and then the Eight of
another, which the Second Hand wins with the Ten; The four honours in
the second suit must be between the Second and Fourth Hands.

Having won the first or second round of the adverse suit, and having no
good suit of his own, the Second or Fourth Hand may be able to infer a
good suit with his partner, by the play. For instance: A player opens
Clubs, showing five, his partner wins second round, and opens the
Diamond suit with the Jack, on which Second Hand plays Ace, his partner
dropping the 9. Having now the lead, and no good suit, it is evident
that the play should be continued on the assumption that partner is all
Spades and trumps.

       *       *       *       *       *

_=THE AMERICAN GAME.=_ Since the revolt against the invariable opening
from the longest suit, which was the style of game advocated by the old
school of Pole and “Cavendish,” many systems have been tried out by
the various clubs that meet at our national tournaments. E.C. Howell
was the first to attempt to set the short-suit game in order, but his
methods have long since been superseded by more elastic tactics.

The fundamental principle of the short-suit game, as first explained to
the world by the New York _Sun_, is to use the original or opening lead
to indicate the general character of the hand rather than any details
of the individual suit. In the long-suit game the original leader is
always assuming that his partner may have something or other, and
playing on that supposition. The short-suit player indicates the system
of play best adapted to his own hand, without the slightest regard to
the possibilities of his partner. It is the duty of the partner to
indicate his hand in turn, and to shape the policy of the play on the
combined indications of the two.

This does not mean that the player shall always lead a short suit,
but that he should combine the best features of both systems, without
slavish adherence to either. This idea has been brought to perfection
in practice by the famous American Whist Club of Boston, and under the
able leadership of its captain, Harry H. Ward, it has demonstrated that
he can take any kind of a team and beat any of the old style long-suit
players, no matter how skilful they may be. The following is a brief
outline of the American game, as given by Captain Ward in _Whist_ for
May, 1906:--

_=Five-trump Hands.=_ With five trumps, and the suits split, 3, 3, 2,
we always open a trump, unless we have a tenace over the turn-up card.
From five trumps and a five-card plain suit, we open the suit if it is
one that will require some help to establish; otherwise the trump. From
five trumps with a four-card plain suit, we open the trump with hands
of moderate strength; otherwise the plain suit.

_=Four-trump Hands.=_ From four-trump hands we invariably open a suit
of five cards or more, but prefer to avoid a four-card suit headed by
a single honor. These are the suits in which the best chance for a
single trick usually occurs when the suit is led by some one else. For
example: Hearts trumps:--

  ♡ 8 7 6 3      ♣ 9 8      ♢ K 8 3 2      ♠ K 4 2

The best opening from such a hand is the club nine.

When forced to open single-honor suits, the lead of the lowest card
shows an honor as good as the Queen, while the lead of an intermediate
card denies such an honor, as in the following examples: hearts
trumps:--

  ♡ 10 8 3 2      ♣ K 6      ♢ Q 7 6 4      ♠ Q 5 4

From this we should lead the four of diamonds; but holding

  ♡ 10 8 3 2      ♣ K 6      ♢ J 8 7 4      ♠ Q 5 4

we should lead the seven of diamonds.

From hands containing four trumps and three three-card suits, we use
our own judgment, sometimes leading the trump, and sometimes a plain
suit. We prefer the plain suit if it is a desirable one to open, such
as hearts trumps:--

  ♡ K 8 3 2      ♣ J 10 4      ♢ A 10 3      ♠ 8 4 3

From this we would open the Jack of clubs; but from

  ♡ K 8 3 2      ♣ J 3 2      ♢ A 10 3      ♠ Q 6 3

we should lead the deuce of trumps. If in this hand the club suit were
Q J 3, the Queen of clubs would be the best opening.

It may seem paradoxical that a weaker hand should call for a trump
lead; but the opening is not an attack. It is a move to await
developments.

_=Three-trump Hands.=_ From hands containing three trumps or less, our
opening leads vary from the ordinary player’s game more than in any
other particular. We always open a long suit from three-trump hands
if the suit is a good one, such as A K and others, K Q and others, or
even Q J and others. But without such strength in the long suit, we let
it severely alone, and develop the hand with a short-suit or “gambit”
opening.

With three trumps and a five-card suit containing two honors not in
sequence, we still open the long suit if we have a sure re-entry in
another suit. This, for example, hearts trumps:--

  ♡ K 6 2      ♣ 8 6 2      ♢ A Q 6 4 3      ♠ A 10

The trey of diamonds is the best opening. If there were no re-entry,
such as only 10 2 of spades instead of A 10, we should open the 10 of
spades.

Although we open a great many short suits, we avoid weak three-card
suits except in rare instances.

While our system, like all others, entails losses at times, it seems to
avoid many of the pitfalls that confront the player who always opens
his long suit, regardless of the possibilities of ever bringing it
in. In many instances we find he places himself in the worst possible
position for any chance to make even one trick in the suit he opens.

We admit that if a team adopts straight American leads, it is much
easier for them to count the partner’s hand accurately; but it seems
to me that this advantage is more than overcome by the fact that in
our openings we have a clear idea as to the general character of the
partner’s hand while there is still time to take advantage of the
knowledge. In the long-suit game this element is entirely wanting.

_=IN CONCLUSION.=_ The first-class whist-player is usually developed
gradually. If he possess the faculty of paying close attention to the
game while he is playing, nothing should prevent his rapid progress.
At first he may care little or nothing for “book” whist, but after
some experience with book players, he is rather in danger of running
to the other extreme, and putting more book into his game than it
will carry. Having passed that stage, his next step is usually to
invent some system of his own, and to experiment with every hand he
plays. By degrees he finds that all special systems of play have
some serious defects which over-balance their advantages, and this
discovery gradually brings him back to first principles. If he gets
so far safely, his game for all future time will probably be sound,
common-sense whist, without any American leads, plain-suit echoes, or
four-signals, and free from any attempts to take fourteen tricks with
thirteen cards.

When a whist-player reaches that point, he is probably as near the
first class as the natural limitations of his mental abilities will
ever permit him to go.

_=THE LAWS=_ will be found at the end of the Whist Family of Games.


ILLUSTRATIVE WHIST HANDS.

A and B are partners against Y and Z. A is always the original leader,
and Z is the dealer. The underlined card wins the trick, and the card
under it is the next one led.

      _=No. 1. Long Suits=_;      | T|     _=No. 3. Short Suits=_;
           ♡5 turned.             | R|           ♡Q turned.
                                  | I|
  --------------------------------+ C+--------------------------------
      A       Y       B      Z    | K|   A       Y       B       Z
  +-------+-------+-------+-------+--+-------+-------+-------+-------+
  | _♣K_  |  ♣5   |  ♣7   | ♣3    | 1|   Q♢  |   K♢  |  _A♢_ |   2♢  |
  |  ♡10  |  ♡J   | _♡Q_  | ♡5    | 2|   2♠  |  _A♠_ |   J♠  |   5♠  |
  | _♣Q_  |  ♣J   |  ♣2   | ♣10   | 3|   4♢  |  10♢  |   3♢  |  _J♢_ |
  |   ♡7  |  ♡3   | _♡9_  | ♡8    | 4|  ♡2   |  ♡5   |  ♡3   |  ♡Q   |
  |  _J♠_ |   9♠  |   2♠  |  5♠   | 5|  ♡6   | _♡A_  |  ♡4   |  ♡J   |
  |  ♣A   |  ♡4   | _♡6_  |  5♢   | 6|  ♣8   |  ♣2   |  ♣3   |  ♣K   |
  |   4♠  | _♡K_  |   A♠  |  6♠   | 7| _♡7_  |   8♢  |   5♢  |   7♢  |
  |   J♢  |   7♢  |   2♢  | _K♢_  | 8| _♡K_  |   4♠  |   6♢  |  ♡9   |
  | _♡2_  |   3♢  |   4♢  |  A♢   | 9|  _K♠_ |   7♠  |   6♠  |   8♠  |
  | _♣9_  |   6♢  |   3♠  |  8♢   |10|  _Q♠_ |  ♣4   |  ♣5   |  10♠  |
  | _♣8_  |   9♢  |   7♠  |  8♠   |11|   9♠  |  ♣Q   |  ♣6   |  ♡10  |
  | _♣6_  |  10♢  |   K♠  | 10♠   |12| _♡8_  |   9♢  |  ♣7   |  ♣J   |
  | _♣4_  |   Q♢  | _♡A_  |  Q♠   |13|  _3♠_ |  ♣A   |  ♣10  |  ♣9   |
  +-------+-------+-------+-------+--+-------+-------+-------+-------+
  --------------------------------+  +--------------------------------
    _=No. 2. American Game=_;     | T|   _=No. 4. Play to Score=_;
           ♡8 turned.             | R|         ♡J turned.
                                  | I|
  --------------------------------+ C+--------------------------------
      A       Y       B       Z   | K|   A       Y       B       Z
  +-------+-------+-------+-------+--+-------+-------+-------+-------+
  |   6♢  |   J♢  |  _A♢_ |   9♢  | 1|   K♠  |   4♠  |   3♠  |  _A♠_ |
  | _♡3_  |   3♢  |   2♢  |  10♢  | 2|  ♡3   |  ♡9   | _♡Q_  |  ♡2   |
  |  ♣9   |  ♣K   | _♣A_  |  ♣3   | 3|   2♠  |   7♠  |   5♠  | _♡4_  |
  | _♡6_  |   4♢  |   5♢  |  ♣4   | 4|  ♣2   | _♣K_  |  ♣6   |  ♣3   |
  | _♣Q_  |  ♣8   |   ♣2  |  ♣7   | 5|  ♡5   |   ♡7  |  ♡8   | _♡J_  |
  |  ♣6   |  ♡4   | _♡9_  |  ♣10  | 6|  ♡10  |   ♣5  |  ♡K   | _♡A_  |
  | _♡10_ |   7♢  |   8♢  |  ♣J   | 7|  ♣8   | _♣J_  |   3♢  |  ♣4   |
  |  ♣5   |  ♡K   | _♡A_  |   7♠  | 8|   5♢  |   J♢  |  _A♢_ |   2♢  |
  |   4♠  |   Q♢  | _♡Q_  |  ♡5   | 9|  10♠  |   9♠  |   8♠  | _♡6_  |
  |   2♠  |   5♠  | _♡J_  |  ♡7   |10|  ♣Q   |  ♣7   |   4♢  | _♣A_  |
  |  _A♠_ |   6♠  |   Q♠  |   K♠  |11|   Q♠  |   J♠  |   6♠  | _♣10_ |
  |  _J♠_ |   9♠  |   3♠  |  10♠  |12|  10♢  |   7♢  |   6♢  | _♣9_  |
  |  _8♠_ |   K♢  |  ♡2   | _♡8_  |13|   Q♢  |   8♢  |   9♢  |   K♢  |
  +-------+-------+-------+-------+--+-------+-------+-------+-------+

_=No. 1.=_ This is a fine example of the _=Long-suit Game=_. The leader
begins with one of the high cards of his long suit. Missing the 2, he
knows some one is signalling for trumps, and as it is very unlikely
that the adversaries would signal while he was in the lead, he assumes
it is his partner, and leads his best trump. His partner does not
return the trump, because he holds major tenace over the king, which
must be in Y’s hand. At trick 5 B still holds major tenace in trumps,
and leads a small card of his long suit to try to get A into the lead
again. If A leads trumps again, his only possible card of re-entry for
his club suit is gone. At trick 7, if B draws Y’s king, he kills A’s
card of re-entry at the same time.

_=No. 2.=_ This is an excellent example of the _=American Game=_. A has
a three-trump hand, but his long suit is not headed by two honors in
sequence, and the Queen of clubs cannot be considered as a re-entry,
so A makes the gambit opening of the singleton diamond. His partner,
having nothing in plain suits, immediately returns the diamond. A now
leads an intermediate club, and B forces him again. At trick 6, A
avoids changing suits. If the long spade suit is opened, and Z returns
the diamond 10, A-B will make four tricks less on this hand.

_=No. 3.=_ This example of the _=Short-suit Game=_ is from Val Starnes’
Short-Suit Whist. This is sometimes called the Gambit opening. The
leader, having no reason to lead trumps, even with five, and not having
three honours in his long suit, prefers the gambit opening of the
singly guarded queen. Y holds what is called a potential or imperfect
fourchette, and covers, in order to make A-B play two honours to get
one trick. B also makes a gambit opening by returning a supporting
spade. Three tricks are gained by the two leads of the supporting
cards, and five would have been made but for Y’s covering on the first
trick.

_=No. 4.=_ This is an example of _=Playing to the Score=_. The game is
English Whist, 5 points, counting honours. The first lead of trumps
shows Z that honours are divided, and that he must make 11 tricks to
win the game. At trick 3, he must trump; to discard clubs would be
inconsistent with refusing to trump in order to bring them in. At trick
4, if Y cannot win a trick in clubs and give Z a finesse in trumps, Z
cannot win the game. At trick 7, both black queens are against Z, and
he must take the best chance to win if the diamond ace is also against
him. The adversaries cannot place the club ace, and so Z underplays in
clubs as his only chance for the game.

       *       *       *       *       *

_=PRUSSIAN WHIST.=_ This is the ordinary 5, 7 or 10 point whist, with
or without honours, except that instead of turning up the last card for
trump, the player to the left of the dealer cuts a trump from the still
pack, which is shuffled and presented to him by the dealer’s partner.

_=FAVOURITE WHIST.=_ This is the regular 5, 7 or 10 point whist, with
or without honours, except that whichever suit is cut for the trump on
the first deal of the rubber is called _=the favourite=_. Whenever the
suit turns up for trump, after the first deal, tricks and honours count
double towards game. There must be a new favourite at the beginning of
each rubber, unless the same suit happens to be cut again.

A variation is to attach a progressive value to the four suits; tricks
being worth 1 point when Spades are trumps; when Clubs 2; when Diamonds
3; and when Hearts 4. Honours do not count, and the game is 10 points,
made by tricks alone. The hands are played out; the winners score all
tricks taken, and the winners of the rubber add 10 points for bonus.
The value of the rubber is the difference between the scores of the
winners and that of the losers. For instance: If the rubber is in A-B’s
favour with the score shown in the margin A-B win a rubber of 8 points.

  1st game;   10 to  6
  2nd game;    4 to 16
  3rd game;   14 to  8
  Rubber;     10
              --------
  Totals      38 to 30

This is a good game for superstitious people, who believe that certain
trump suits are favourable to them.


TEXT-BOOKS.

The following list of works on _=whist=_, alphabetically arranged,
contains the principal standard text-books on the game. Those marked *
are especially for the beginner. Those marked x are chiefly devoted to
the Short-suit game.

    Art of Practical Whist, by Major Gen. Drayson.
  * Foster’s Whist Manual, by R.F. Foster.
  * Foster’s Whist Tactics, by R.F. Foster.
  x Foster’s Common Sense in Whist, by R.F. Foster.
  * Foster’s Self-Playing Cards, by R.F. Foster.
  x Foster’s Duplicate Whist, by R.F. Foster.
    Foster’s American Leads, by R.F. Foster.
  * Foster’s Whist at a Glance, by R.F. Foster.
  * Gist of Whist, by C.E. Coffin.
  x Howell’s Whist Openings, by E.C. Howell.
    Laws and Principles of Whist, by “Cavendish.”
    Modern Scientific Whist, by C.D.P. Hamilton.
    Philosophy of Whist, by Dr. W. Pole.
  * Practical Guide to Whist, by Fisher Ames.
  x Short-Suit Whist, by Val. W. Starnes.
  * Short Whist, by James Clay.
  * Theory of Whist, by Dr. W. Pole.
  * Whist, or Bumblepuppy, by “Pembridge.”
    Whist Developments, by “Cavendish.”
  * Whist of To-day, by Milton C. Work.
  * _Whist à Trois_, by Ch. Lahure. [Dummy.]
  x Whist, and its Masters, by R.F. Foster.
  * Whist, A monthly journal; pub. Milwaukee, Wis., U.S.A.


DUPLICATE WHIST.

Duplicate whist is not a distinct game, but is simply the name given to
that manner of playing whist in which a number of hands are played over
again with the same cards, but by different persons.

_=CARDS.=_ The cards have the same rank as at whist; they are dealt in
the same manner, and the same rules apply to all irregularities in the
deal, except that a misdealer must deal again. The objects of the game
are the same, and so are all the suggestions for good play. The only
differences that require attention are the positions of the players,
the manner of counting the tricks, and the methods of keeping and
comparing the scores.

_=THEORY.=_ It may briefly be stated that duplicate proceeds upon the
principle that if two partners have made a certain number of tricks
with certain cards, under certain conditions with respect to the lead,
distribution of the other cards in the adversaries’ hands, etc., the
only way to decide whether or not two other players could have done
better, or cannot do so well, is to let them try it, by giving them the
same cards, under exactly similar conditions.

This comparison may be carried out in various ways; but in every
instance it depends entirely upon the number and arrangement of the
players engaged. The most common forms are: club against club; team
against team; pair against pair; or man against man. The reason for
the arrangement of the players will be better understood if we first
describe the method.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ There is no cutting for partners, and choice of
seats and cards as at whist, because the players take their places and
deal according to a pre-arranged schedule.

The player to the left of the dealer begins by placing the card he
leads face up on the table, and in front of him. The second player
follows by placing his card in front of him in the same manner; and so
the third, and so the fourth. The four cards are then turned face down,
and the dealer takes up the trump. The partners winning the trick place
their cards lengthwise, pointing towards each other; the adversaries
place theirs across. At the end of the hand, the number of tricks taken
by each side can be seen by glancing at any player’s cards. If there is
any discrepancy, a comparison of the turned cards will show in which
trick it occurs, and the cards can be readily faced and examined.

[Illustration:

             +--------+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
             |        | | | | | | | | | | | | |
             |        | | | | | | | | | | | | |
             +-------++-+-+-+ +-+ | | +-+-+ | |
                     |        |   | | |     | |
                     +--------+---+-+ +-----+-+

                              N
  +-------+                                   +----------+
  |       |                                   |          |
  +-------+                                   |          |
  |       |                                   |          |
  +-------+--+                                +----------+
  |          |                                |          |
  +----------+                                +----------+
  |          |                                |          |
  +-------+  |                                +----------+
  |       |  |                                |          |
  +-------+  |                                +--+-------+
  |       |  |                                |  |       |
  +-------+  |                                |  +-------+
  |       |  |                                |          |
  +-------+--+ W                            E +--+-------+
  |          |                                |  |       |
  +-------+  |                                |  +-------+
  |       |  |                                |  |       |
  +-------+--+                                |  +-------+
  |          |                                |X         |
  +----------+                                +----------+
  |          |                                |          |
  +----------+                                +----------+
  |          |                                |          |
  +----------+                                +--+-------+
  |          |                                   |       |
  |          |                                   +-------+
  |          |                                   |       |
  +----------+                                   +-------+
                              S

             +-+-----+-+-+---+--------+
             | |     | | |   |        |
             | | +-+-+ | | +-+ +-+-+-++-------+
             | | | | | | | | | | | | |        |
             | | | | | | | | | | | | |        |
             +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+--------+
]

N & S 6; E & W 7. East has made a mistake in turning the fifth trick.

_=COUNTERS.=_ In some places 13 counters are placed on the table,
the winner of each trick taking down one. This system often leads to
disputes, as there can be no check upon it, and there is nothing to
show in which trick the error occurred.

_=COUNTING TRICKS.=_ At the end of each hand, the players sitting North
and South score the _=total=_ number of tricks they have taken; instead
of the number in excess of a book. Their adversaries, sitting East and
West, do the same. Each player then slightly shuffles his 13 cards;
so as to conceal the order in which they were played, and the four
separate hands of 13 cards each are then left on the table, face down;
the trump being turned at the dealer’s place.

_=TRAYS.=_ When any apparatus is used for holding the cards, such
as trays, boxes, or envelopes, each player puts his 13 cards in the
compartment provided for them. Each tray has a mark upon it, usually
an arrow, showing which end of the tray should point toward a given
direction, usually the North. The pocket into which the dealer’s cards
go is marked “dealer,” and it is usual to provide a trump slip for
each tray. When the hand is first dealt, the trump is recorded on this
slip, which travels round the room with the tray. After the dealer has
turned up the designated trump, he places the trump slip in the tray,
face down. When the play of the hand is finished and the cards replaced
in the tray, the dealer puts his trump slip on the top of his cards.
The four hands can then be conveniently carried or handed to any other
table to be overplayed.

[Illustration: VARIOUS APPARATUS FOR DUPLICATE.]

_=SCORING.=_ There should be two score-cards at each table. The various
methods of putting down and comparing the scores can best be described
in connection with the variety of competition to which they belong. It
is a common practice to note the trump card on the score sheets.

_=POSITION OF THE PLAYERS.=_ The four players at each table are
distinguished by the letters N S E W; North and South being partners
against East and West. West should always be the dealer in the first
hand, North having the original lead. In all published illustrative
hands, North is the leader, unless otherwise specified.

The deal passes in rotation to the left, and the number of hands played
should always be some multiple of four, so that each player may have
the original lead an equal number of times. 24 hands at each table
is the usual number, and is the rule at all League tournaments. The
partners and adversaries should be changed after each eight hands.
Three changes in 24 hands will bring each member of a set of four into
partnership with every other member for an equal number of hands.

[Illustration:

               N leads
            +---------+
            |         |
  Dealer, W |         | E
            |         |
            +---------+
                 S
]

If two teams of four on a side, A B C D, and W X Y Z, play against
each other, the arrangement in a League tournament would be as
follows:--that A B C D should represent the players of the visiting
club, or challengers, and W X Y Z the home club, or holders; and that
the positions of the players should be changed after every four hands.
It is usual to play 24 hands in the afternoon, and 24 more at night.

    A   |   A   |   A   |   A   |   A   |   A   |
  W   X | Y   Z | W   Y | X   Z | X   Y | W   Z |
    B   |   B   |   C   |   C   |   D   |   D   |
        |       |       |       |       |       |
   1st. |  2nd. |  3rd. |  4th. |  5th. |  6th. |
        |       |       |       |       |       |
    Y   |   W   |   X   |   W   |   W   |   X   |
  C   D | C   D | B   D | B   D | B   C | B   C |
    Z   |   X   |   Z   |   Y   |   Z   |   Y   |

If more than four players are engaged on each side, this arrangement
must be repeated with every additional four; the tables being always in
sets of two each, but in such cases, and in fact in anything but League
matches, it is usual to play only the 1st, 3rd and 5th sets.

_=CLUB AGAINST CLUB.=_ The smaller club should put into the field as
many multiples of four as it can; the larger club presenting an equal
number to play against them. The opposing sides are then so arranged
that half the members of each club sit North and South, the other half
East and West. If we distinguish the clubs by the marks O and X, and
suppose 16 to be engaged on each side, they would be arranged at 8
tables, thus:--

     O    |    O    |    O    |    O
   X 1 X  |  X 3 X  |  X 5 X  |  X 7 X
     O    |    O    |    O    |    O
          |         |         |
  1st set | 2nd set | 3rd set | 4th set
          |         |         |
     X    |    X    |    X    |    X
   O 2 O  |  O 4 O  |  O 6 O  |  O 8 O
     X    |    X    |    X    |    X

If apparatus is used, the players may sit still for four hands, putting
the trays aside, and then exchanging them for the four trays played at
the other table in their set. If not, the cards are left on the table,
as already described, and the fours change places; those at table No. 1
going to table No. 2, while those at No. 2 go to No. 1, the other sets
changing in the same manner. This brings them into this position:--

    X   |   X   |   X   |   X
  O 1 O | O 3 O | O 5 O | O 7 O
    X   |   X   |   X   |   X
        |       |       |
    O   |   O   |   O   |   O
  X 2 X | X 4 X | X 6 X | X 8 X
    O   |   O   |   O   |   O

The two O’s that have just played the N & S hands at table No. 1,
proceed to play at table No. 2, the N & S hands which have just been
played by two X’s; while the two O’s that played the E & W hands at
table No. 2, overplay at table No. 1, the E & W hands just held by the
two X’s.

It is now evident that the four O’s have held between them all the 52
cards dealt at each table; for the first pair have held all the N & S
hands dealt at both tables, and the second pair have held all the E &
W hands. The same is true of the four X players; and if there is any
difference in the number of tricks taken by the opposing fours, it is
supposed to be due to a difference in skill, other matters having been
equalised as far as the limitations of the game will permit.

The overplay finished, the cards are gathered, shuffled, cut, and dealt
afresh, East now having the original lead. It must be remembered that
the deal can never be lost, and that no matter what happens, the player
whose proper turn it is to deal must do so.

_=NUMBERING HANDS.=_ The hands simultaneously played are scored under
the same number, but distinguished by the number of the table at which
they are first dealt. Each pair of partners in a team play two No. 1
hands, in one of which they are N & S; in the other E & W.

_=SCORING.=_ The result of the hand is entered upon the score sheets,
which the opposing players at each table should then compare, and turn
them face down, leaving them on the table when they change places.

Let us suppose the N & S partners of the O team to make 7 tricks at
table No. 1; the E & W partners of the X team making 6. Each pair
enters on its own score-card the number it makes. The E & W partners
of the O team now come to table No. 1, and play the 26 cards which the
other members of their team did not hold. They are not permitted to
look at the score-card until the hand has been overplayed. Then they
enter the result, which should be 6 tricks. If the total of the tricks
taken by the same team on the N & S and the E & W hands is not 13, it
must be a loss or a gain. At the end of the 24 hands, the result of the
match can be immediately ascertained by laying side by side the score
cards of the East and West hands played at the same table. The North
and South scores are not compared, because the laws say they may be
incorrect, but the East and West must be, officially, right.

We give on the two preceding pages an illustration of the full score of
a match. The check marks in the 6th column show that the N & S players
compared the score with the E & W before turning down their cards.
The figures in the 2nd column are the gains on the various hands. The
figures in the 7th column show which of the four players whose names
appear at the top of the score-card were partners for that series of
hands. The result shows that the O team had a majority of one trick at
table No. 1, while the X team had a majority of three tricks at table
No. 2, leaving them the winners of the match by two tricks.

If sixteen players were engaged, it would be necessary to institute
a similar comparison between each set of tables, and there would be
sixteen score-cards to compare, two at a time, instead of four.

_=TEAM AGAINST TEAM.=_ The methods just described for a match of
club against club are identical with those which are used in a
contest between two teams of four; the only difference being that of
proportion. In the latter case there will be only one set, of two
tables, and only four score-cards to compare.

The change of partners should be exhaustive in team matches; which will
require six sets.

_=TEAMS AGAINST TEAMS.=_ When several quartette teams compete with one
another, Howell’s system of arrangement will be found the best. There
are two methods; for odd and for even numbers of teams.

_=Odd Numbers of Teams.=_ This is the simplest form of contest. Let us
suppose five teams to offer for play, which we shall distinguish by the
letters, _=a=_, _=b=_, _=c=_, _=d=_, _=e=_, arranging each at its own
table thus:--

    N       a       b       c       d       e
  W + E   a 1 a   b 2 b   c 3 c   d 4 d   e 5 e
    S       a       b       c       d       e

[Illustration:

  +---------------------------------+ +---------------------------------+
  |  MANHATTAN WHIST CLUB           | |  MANHATTAN WHIST CLUB           |
  |Table No 1         May 6 1895    | |Table No 1         May 6 1895    |
  |           O Team                | |           X Team                |
  | 1 Chinery        3 Bullock      | | 1 D. Jones       3 M. Boyce     |
  | 2 Lewis          4 Izard        | | 2 E. Wilson      4 H. Jones     |
  +---+----+-----+----+---+-----+---+ +---+----+-----+----+---+-----+---+
  |E-W|Gain|Trump|HAND|N-S|Check|   | |E-W|Gain|Trump|HAND|N-S|Check|   |
  +---+----+-----+----+---+-----+---+ +---+----+-----+----+---+-----+---+
  | 6 |    | DK  |  1 | 7 |  ✓  |   | | 6 |    | DK  |  1 | 7 |  ✓  |   |
  | 8 |    | H7  |  2 | 4 |  ✓  |1&2| | 9 |  1 | H7  |  2 | 5 |  ✓  |3&4|
  | 2 |    | HJ  |  3 | 9 |  ✓  |   | | 4 |  2 | HJ  |  3 |11 |  ✓  |   |
  | 6 |  1 | S4  |  4 | 8 |  ✓  |---| | 5 |    | S4  |  4 | 7 |  ✓  |---|
  | 3 |    | S9  |  5 |10 |  ✓  |   | | 3 |    | S9  |  5 |10 |  ✓  |   |
  | 8 |  1 | D3  |  6 | 6 |  ✓  |1&3| | 7 |    | D3  |  6 | 5 |  ✓  |2&4|
  |10 |  1 | C5  |  7 | 4 |  ✓  |   | | 9 |    | C5  |  7 | 3 |  ✓  |   |
  | 8 |    | HQ  |  8 | 4 |  ✓  |---| | 9 |  1 | HQ  |  8 | 5 |  ✓  |---|
  | 5 |  1 | DK  |  9 | 9 |  ✓  |   | | 4 |    | DK  |  9 | 8 |  ✓  |   |
  | 4 |  1 | SA  | 10 |10 |  ✓  |1&4| | 3 |    | SA  | 10 | 9 |  ✓  |1&4|
  | 7 |    | S3  | 11 | 5 |  ✓  |   | | 8 |  1 | S3  | 11 | 6 |  ✓  |   |
  |11 |  1 | C2  | 12 | 3 |  ✓  |---| |10 |    | C2  | 12 | 2 |  ✓  |---|
  |   |--- |     | 13 |   |     |   | |   |--- |     | 13 |   |     |   |
  |   | +6 |     | 14 |   |     |   | |   | +5 |     | 14 |   |     |   |
  |   |    |     | &c |   |     |   | |   |    |     | &c |   |     |   |
  +---+----+-----+----+---+-----+---+ +---+----+-----+----+---+-----+---+
]

[Illustration:

  +---------------------------------+ +---------------------------------+
  |  MANHATTAN WHIST CLUB           | |  MANHATTAN WHIST CLUB           |
  |Table No 2         May 6 1895    | |Table No 2         May 6 1895    |
  |           O Team                | |           X Team                |
  | 1 Chinery        3 Bullock      | | 1 D. Jones        3 M. Boyce    |
  | 2 Lewis          4 Izard        | | 2 E. Wilson       4 H. Jones    |
  +---+----+-----+----+---+-----+---+ +---+----+-----+----+---+-----+---+
  |E-W|Gain|Trump|HAND|N-S|Check|   | |E-W|Gain|Trump|HAND|N-S|Check|   |
  +---+----+-----+----+---+-----+---+ +---+----+-----+----+---+-----+---+
  | 5 |  1 | CJ  |  1 | 9 |  ✓  |   | | 4 |    | CJ  |  1 | 8 |  ✓  |   |
  | 8 |    | S3  |  2 | 5 |  ✓  |1&2| | 8 |    | S3  |  2 | 5 |  ✓  |3&4|
  | 5 |  2 | CA  |  3 |10 |  ✓  |   | | 3 |    | CA  |  3 | 8 |  ✓  |   |
  | 7 |    | HQ  |  4 | 6 |  ✓  |---| | 7 |    | HQ  |  4 | 6 |  ✓  |---|
  |10 |  3 | D4  |  5 | 6 |  ✓  |   | | 7 |    | D4  |  5 | 3 |  ✓  |   |
  |10 |    | D7  |  6 | 2 |  ✓  |1&3| |11 |  1 | D7  |  6 | 3 |  ✓  |2&4|
  | 4 |    | C6  |  7 | 7 |  ✓  |   | | 6 |  2 | C6  |  7 | 9 |  ✓  |   |
  | 5 |    | S4  |  8 | 7 |  ✓  |---| | 6 |  1 | S4  |  8 | 8 |  ✓  |---|
  | 1 |    | C7  |  9 |11 |  ✓  |   | | 2 |  1 | C7  |  9 |12 |  ✓  |   |
  | 8 |    | S4  | 10 | 2 |  ✓  |1&4| |11 |  3 | S4  | 10 | 5 |  ✓  |1&4|
  | 9 |    | D3  | 11 | 4 |  ✓  |   | | 9 |    | D3  | 11 | 4 |  ✓  |   |
  | 4 |    | DQ  | 12 | 8 |  ✓  |---| | 5 |  1 | D2  | 12 | 9 |  ✓  |---|
  |   |--- |     | 13 |   |     |   | |   |--- |     | 13 |   |     |   |
  |   | +6 |     | 14 |   |     |   | |   | +9 |     | 14 |   |     |   |
  |   |    |     | &c |   |     |   | |   |    |     | &c |   |     |   |
  +---+----+-----+----+---+-----+---+ +---+----+-----+----+---+-----+---+
]

The names of the N & S and the E & W members of each team should first
be entered on the score-cards; then all the N & S players move to the
next table East; those at table 5 going to table 1; and each table
dealing and playing four hands, afterwards putting them away in trays.

            e     |    a     |    b     |    c     |    d
          a 1 a   |  b 2 b   |  c 3 c   |  d 4 d   |  e 5 e
            e     |    a     |    b     |    c     |    d
                  |          |          |          |
  Hands:--1 to 4  |  5 to 8  | 9 to 12  | 13 to 16 | 17 to 20

The peculiarity of this system is in the movement of the trays; those
at the middle table always going to the extreme West of the line, the
others moving up as many tables at a time as may be necessary to follow
them. In this instance the trays at table 3 go to 1, all others moving
up two tables. At the same time the N & S players all move one table
further East, bringing about this position:--

  2nd set.   d    |    e     |    a     |    b     |    c
           a 1 a  |  b 2 b   |  c 3 c   |  d 4 d   | e 5 e
             d    |    e     |    a     |    b     |    c
                  |          |          |          |
  Hands:--9 to 12 | 13 to 16 | 17 to 20 |  1 to 4  | 5 to 8

This movement of the trays and players is continued for two more sets,
which completes the round:--

  3rd set.   c    |    d     |     e    |     a    |    b
           a 1 a  |  b 2 b   |   c 3 c  |   d 4 d  |  e 5 e
             c    |    d     |     e    |     a    |    b
                  |          |          |          |
  Hands:--17 to 20|  1 to 4  |  5 to 8  |  9 to 12 | 13 to 16

  4th set.   b    |     c    |     d    |     e    |    a
           a 1 a  |   b 2 b  |   c 3 c  |   d 4 d  |  e 5 e
             b    |     c    |     d    |     e    |    a
                  |          |          |          |
  Hands:--5 to 8  |  9 to 12 | 13 to 16 | 17 to 20 | 1 to 4

If we now take any two of the teams engaged, _=a=_ and _=d=_ for
instance, we shall find that the E & W _=a=_ and the N & S _=d=_ pairs
of those teams have played hands 9 to 12 at table 1, in the 2nd set;
and that N & S _=a=_ and E & W _=d=_ pairs have overplayed the same
hands at table 4, in the 3rd set; so that we have really been carrying
out a number of matches simultaneously, between five teams of four
players each.

If there are 5, 7, 9 or 11 tables in play, the movement of the trays
must be 2, 3, 4 or 5 tables at a time; but the movement of the players
remains the same; one table at a time, in the direction opposite to the
trays.

_=Gilman’s System.=_ Another method, recommended by Charles F. Gilman,
of Boston, which prevents any possibility of players giving hints to
their friends as they pass the trays, is to have each team play at its
own table first, so as to get an individual score. The E & W players
then move to the next table but one, in either direction, going from 11
to 9; from 9 to 7, etc., the N & S players sitting still. This movement
is continued until the E & W players have gone _twice_ round. The trays
move in the _same direction as the players_, but only one table at a
time; going from 11 to 10, 9 to 8, etc. This brings about the same
result as the Howell’s system.

_=Even Numbers of Teams.=_ The present method of arranging even numbers
of teams is also Gilman’s; but it requires considerable care in the
movement of the trays, because half of them lie idle during each round,
which is the same as skipping a table in other methods.

Suppose we have ten tables, arranged in two rows thus, with a team of
four players at each:

  1   2   3   4   5
  6   7   8   9  10

Taking 30 deals as the number to be played, we place trays No. 1, 2,
3, to be played and overplayed by tables 1 and 6, which are opposite
each other in the rows. Trays 4, 5, 6, we lay aside. Trays 7, 8, 9,
are to be played and overplayed by tables 2 and 7; while 10, 11, 12,
are laid aside, and so on until we get to tables 5 and 10, which play
and overplay trays 25, 26, 27. The easiest way to manage this is to
give tray No. 2 to table 6, while tray 1 is at table 1, and then to let
table 1 take tray 2, while table 6 plays tray 3. Then table 1 will get
tray 3, while table 6 overplays tray 1. This will make all the trays
come in numerical order to table 1, and will act as a check.

The play of the first round, three deals, finished, the E & W players
all move one table, 2 going to 1, 3 to 2, etc. The umpire now brings
into play the trays that were idle, giving trays 4, 5, 6, to tables 1
and 6; trays 10, 11, 12, to tables 2 and 7, and so on down the line,
all the trays that were used in the first round lying idle.

Again the players move, and now table 1 gets the 7, 8, 9, set of trays
to overplay with table 6, and so on; so that all the sets move up a
table after each intervening round, and table 1 will get all the trays
from 1 to 30 in order.

_=SCORING.=_ In both the foregoing systems, each pair should have its
own score-card, and should mark the name of the team it plays against
for each series of four hands. These score-cards are more for private
reference than anything else in tournaments; because there is always
a professional scorer, for whose use small slips are filled out and
collected from the tables at the end of each round. The winner is
the team that wins the most matches; not the one that gains the most
tricks. In case of ties, the number of tricks won must decide. If the
number of tricks taken by each side is a tie in any match, the score
is marked zero, and each team counts half a match won. We give an
illustration of the final score in a match between five teams. The
_=c=_ and _=d=_ teams are tied for a second place in the number of
matches; but the _=c=_ team takes third place, because it has lost one
more trick than the _=d=_ team. The _=b=_ and _=c=_ teams score a half
match; so do the _=c=_ and _=e=_ teams.

[Illustration:

  +-----+----+----+----+----+----++-------+------+
  |Teams|  a |  b |  c |  d |  e ||Matches|Tricks|
  +-----+----+----+----+----+----++-------+------+
  |  a  |  \ | +5 | -1 | +1 | +4 ||   3   |  +9  |
  +-----+----+----+----+----|----++-------+------+
  |  b  | -5 |  \ |  0 | -1 | +2 ||   1½  |  -4  |
  +-----+----+----+----+----|----++-------+------+
  |  c  | +1 |  0 |  \ | -2 |  0 ||   2   |  -1  |
  +-----+----+----+----+----|----++-------+------+
  |  d  | -1 | +1 | +2 |  \ | -2 ||   2   |   0  |
  +-----+----+----+----+----|----++-------+------+
  |  e  | -4 | -2 |  0 | +2 |  \ ||   1½  |  -4  |
  +-----+----+----+----+----+----++-------+------+
]

_=PAIR AGAINST PAIR.=_ This is the most interesting form of
competition, especially for domestic parties, as the arrangement of the
players will allow of great latitude in the number engaged, table after
table being added as long as players offer to fill them.

_=Two Pairs.=_ When only four players are engaged at a single table,
the game is called Memory Duplicate; which is forbidden in all
first-class clubs. The players retain their seats until they have
played an agreed number of hands, which are laid aside one by one in
trays. No trump is turned in Memory Duplicate; one suit being declared
trumps for the entire sitting.

Instead of the players changing positions for the overplay, the trays
are reversed. If the indicators pointed N & S on the original deals,
they must lie E & W for the overplay.

[Illustration:

        A                                 A
   +---------+                       +---------+
   |    ^    |                       |         |
   |    |    |                       |         |
  B|    |    |B                     B| DE ---> |B
   |         |                       | AL      |
   |   DEALER|                       | ER      |
   +---------+                       +---------+
        A                                 A

  ORIGINAL POSITION OF TRAYS.   POSITION FOR OVERPLAY.
]

_=Scoring.=_ The E & W hands only are scored, the card being laid aside
after the original play is completed, and a new card used for the
overplay. The difference in the totals of these two sets of score-cards
will show which pair gained the most tricks.

_=Four Pairs.=_ These should be arranged at two tables, changing
adversaries after every 8 hands. The third set will exhaust the
combinations, and it will then be found that each pair has played and
overplayed an equal number of hands against every other pair.

         1st set | 2nd set | 3rd set
                 |         |
           b     |    c    |    d
          a a    |   a a   |   a a
           b     |    c    |    d
                 |         |
  Hands:--1 to 8 | 9 to 16 | 17 to 24
                 |         |
           d     |    b    |    c
          c c    |   d d   |   b b
           d     |    b    |    c

Four hands are dealt at each table in each set, and then exchanged. The
trump card is turned for every original deal.

_=Scoring.=_ Each pair carries its own score-card with it from table to
table, until the 24 hands have been played. The 7th column is used to
designate the pair played against. The pairs at the second table should
begin scoring with hands Nos. 5, 13 and 21 respectively; as they will
presently receive from the first table the series beginning 1, 9 and
17 respectively. Eight hands complete a match, and the result must be
tabulated in the same manner as for teams of four, ties being decided
by the majority of tricks won. We give an example.

[Illustration:

  +-------+----+----+----+----++---------+--------+
  | Pairs |  a |  b |  c |  d || Matches | Tricks |
  +-------+----+----+----+----++---------+--------+
  |   a   |  \ | +3 | -2 | +5 ||    2    |  +6    |
  |       |----+----+----+----++---------+--------+
  |   b   | -3 |  \ | +4 | -1 ||    1    |   0    |
  |       |----+----+----+----++---------+--------+
  |   c   | +2 | -4 |  \ | -2 ||    1    |  -4    |
  |       |----+----+----+----++---------+--------+
  |   d   | -5 | +1 | +2 |  \ ||    2    |  -2    |
  +-------+----+----+----+----++---------+--------+
]

The _=a=_ pair wins the tie with _=d=_, being 6 tricks plus.

_=Six Pairs.=_ This is a very awkward number to handle, and should
be avoided if possible. The whole could be played at three tables
simultaneously; but such a course would necessitate their changing
places ten times, following a very complicated schedule in so doing.
The simplest way to handle six pairs is to arrange them at three
tables, two of which are constantly in play, the third only half the
time. This is the first position:--

    b                   d                  f
  a 1 a               c 2 c              e 3 e
    b                   d                  f

Tables 1 and 2 deal and play two hands each, and then exchange trays
with each other. At table 3, two hands are dealt and played, both being
left in the trays.

The players at tables 1 and 2 then change adversaries; dealing, playing
and exchanging two fresh hands. The players at the third table remain
idle, or look on.

          c                   d         |         f
        a 1 a               b 2 b       |       e 3 e
          c                   d         |         f
                                        |
  Hands 5 and 6 played and exchanged.   |   None.

The _=b=_ and _=c=_ pairs now give way to _=e=_ and _=f=_:--

          e                   d         |         b
        a 1 a               f 2 f       |       c 3 c
          e                   d         |         b
                                        |
  Hands 7 and 8 played and exchanged.   |    3 and 4.

While tables 1 and 2 are playing two fresh hands, the trays containing
hands Nos. 3 and 4 which were left at table 3 are overplayed by the
_=b=_ and _=c=_ pairs, which makes a match between them and the _=e=_
and _=f=_ pairs.

Again the pairs at the first two tables change adversaries; dealing,
playing and exchanging two more hands; the third table remaining idle.

          f                  d          |     b
        a 1 a              e 2 e        |   c 3 c
          f                  d          |     b
                                        |
  Hands 9 and 10 played and exchanged.  |   None.

The pairs _=a=_ and _=d=_ now give way to _=b=_ and _c_, and the _=b=_
_=c=_ _=e=_ _=f=_ pairs play two hands and exchange them; then change
adversaries for two more hands; _=a=_ and _=d=_ remaining idle all the
time. All the pairs have now been matched but _=a=_ and _=d=_, and they
take seats E & W at two tables, the N & S positions being filled up by
any of the other players in the match.

    any                     any
  a  1  a                 d  2  d
    any                     any

No notice is taken of the scores made by the N & S hands in the last
set; as it is simply a match between the a and _d_ pairs.

_=Scoring.=_ Each pair against each is considered a match, and the
winner of the most matches wins, tricks deciding ties.

_=Compass Whist.=_ When we come to handle large numbers, the changes of
position become too complicated, and the simplest plan is to arrange
them at as many tables as they will fill, and to place on each table an
equal number of trays. At the Knickerbocker Whist Club, New York, which
is still famous for its compass games, they play a minimum of 24 trays,
or get as near that number as possible. If there are 14 tables, they
play two deals at each. If there are only 10 tables, they play 30 trays.

All the N & S players sit still, and at the end of each round, two
or three deals as the case may be, all the E & W players move up one
table, 2 going to 1, 3 to 2, etc. Each pair keeps its own score card,
on which is put down the number of the tray, the number of the pair
played against, which is always the number of the table at which they
started; one of the pairs remaining there being No. 3 N & S, the other
moving away, being No. 3 E & W.

Each pair adds up its score card at the end, and puts down the total
number of tricks they have won. The names of the players having been
previously written on the blackboard, their scores are put down
opposite their names, each side, N & S and E & W, is then added up in
order to find the average, and all scores above average are plus, while
all below average are minus.

The following is an example of the averaging of a game in which five
tables took part, playing 30 deals:--

        N & S                               E & W

  a      201   -6                     f      189   +6
  b      204   -3                     g      186   +3
  c      211   +4                     h      179   -4
  d      207    =                     j      183    =
  e      212   +5                     k      178   -5
  ---------------                     ---------------
  5    |1035                          5     |915
       +----                                +---
  Aver.  207, N & S.                  Aver.  183, E & W.

The _=e=_ and _=f=_ pairs make the best scores N & S and E & W
respectively; the _=f=_ pair, having won the greatest number of tricks
above the average of the hands, would be the winners.

_=Howell Pair System.=_ A very popular system of managing pairs in club
games, and also in the national tournaments for the Minneapolis trophy,
is called the Howell Pairs. Indicator cards are placed on the tables,
which show each player the number of the table and the position at that
table to which he should move next. Sometimes he will sit N, sometimes
S, and sometimes E or W, but he always finds his partner opposite him,
and at the end of the game he will have had every other pair in the
game for an adversary once, and will have played all the hands dealt.

A different set of indicator cards is required for every different
number of tables in the game. They are the invention of the late E.C.
Howell of Washington, D.C., and have been arranged for any number of
pairs from four to thirty-four.

_=INDIVIDUALS.=_ When four play memory duplicate, one of the four,
usually S, retains his seat and keeps the score, the others changing
places right and left alternately, each playing with S as a partner for
8 hands. These changes successively bring about the three following
positions:--

             c      |     b      |     a
          a     b   |  a     c   |  c     b
             S      |     S      |     S
                    |            |
  Hands:--1 to 4    |  5 to 8    |  9 to 12

For the overplay, the trays are reversed, the hands originally dealt
N & S being placed E & W; but the players continue to change right
and left alternately. This brings the same partners together, but on
different sides of the table.

             c     |     b     |     a
          b     a  |  c     a  |  c     b
             S     |     S     |     S
                   |           |
  Hands:--1 to 4   |  5 to 8   |  9 to 12

_=Scoring.=_ The names of the four players should be written at the
head of each score-card, and as there is no trump turned in memory
duplicate, the third and seventh columns can both be used for the
numbers of the players that are partners, and the sixth column for the
N & S gains.

When the match is finished, a tabulation of the tricks lost or won by
each player will readily show which is the winner. In the illustration
which we give, No. 3 finishes plus 6; No. 4 plus 2; No. 1 minus 4; and
No. 2 minus 4.

[Illustration:

  MANHATTAN WHIST CLUB

  Table No.          31 May 1896

  1. Chinery         3. Bullock
  2. Lewis           4. Izard

  +-----+------+--------+------+-----+------+--------+
  | E-W | Gain | Part’s | HAND | N-S | Gain | Part’s |
  +-----+------+--------+------+-----+------+--------+
  |   8 |      |        |   1  |  10 |   2  |        |
  +-----+------+--------+      +-----+------+--------+
  |   4 |      | 1 & 2  |   2  |   5 |   1  | 3 & 4  |
  +-----+------+--------+      +-----+------+--------+
  |   6 |   1  |    -4  |   3  |   5 |      |    +4  |
  +-----+------+--------+      +-----+------+--------+
  |   3 |      |        |   4  |   5 |   2  |        |
  +-----+======+========+      +-----+======+========+
  |   7 |      |        |   5  |   8 |   1  |        |
  +-----+------+--------+      +-----+------+--------+
  |   6 |   2  | 1 & 3  |   6  |   4 |      | 2 & 4  |
  +-----+------+--------+      +-----+------+--------+
  |   3 |      |    +1  |   7  |   4 |   1  |    -1  |
  +-----+------+--------+      +-----+------+--------+
  |  10 |   1  |        |   8  |   9 |      |        |
  +-----+======+========+      +-----+======+========+
  |   5 |      |        |   9  |   6 |   1  |        |
  +-----+------+--------+      +-----+------+--------+
  |   9 |      | 1 & 4  |  10  |  10 |   1  | 2 & 3  |
  +-----+------+--------+      +-----+------+--------+
  |  10 |   2  |    -1  |  11  |   8 |      |    +1  |
  +-----+------+--------+      +-----+------+--------+
  |   2 |      |        |  12  |   3 |   1  |        |
  +----------+----------+---------+----------+-------+
  | Summary  | 1 to 4   | 5 to 8  | 9 to 12  | Total |
  +----------+----------+---------+----------+-------+
  |   No 1   |     -4   | +1      |      -1  |    -4 |
  |          +----------+---------+----------+-------+
  |      2   |     -4   |     -1  | +1       |    -4 |
  |          +----------+---------+----------+-------+
  |      3   | +4       | +1      | +1       | +6    |
  |          +----------+---------+----------+-------+
  |      4   | +4       |     -1  |      -1  | +2    |
  +----------+----------+---------+----------+-------+
]

It must be remembered that the hands which are here scored N & S, in
the 5th column, were E & W when originally dealt; so that the 1st and
5th columns are really the same hands. The score-card should be folded
down the middle during the overplay, so that the original scores cannot
be seen. It is even better to use a new card.

_=Foster’s System=_ of playing two pairs at one table, which was used
at all the matches for the Utica Trophy, in which one pair from a club
challenged the pair that held the trophy for another club, consisted
in having an umpire to transpose the suits between the original and
the overplay of the deals. The trays containing the hands were sent in
to the umpire’s room, and he had an extra pack of cards, from which
he duplicated each hand of thirteen cards as he took it out of the
pocket to which it belonged, but changed the suits, making clubs trumps
instead of hearts, etc. This system was found to do away with the
memory part of the game, it being very difficult to recognize a hand
unless it had some startling feature.

Coupled with the present practice of throwing out all hands in which
there is found to be a suit of more than six cards, and dealing it over
again, Foster’s system for two pairs is the best so far suggested.

_=Eight Individuals.=_ This form of contest is seldom used, because
players dislike the continual changing of position, and the delay in
arriving at the results of the score. It would require seven sets to
exhaust the combinations; and at each table two hands should be dealt,
played, and exchanged with the other table in the set, before the
players change positions. This would require 28 hands to complete the
match.

_=Safford’s System=_ for arranging the players is to have indicator
cards on the tables:--

[Illustration:

        N                   N
   +---------+         +---------+
   |    4    |         |    3    |
  W|8       7|E       W|1       5|E
   |    6    |         |    2    |
   +---------+         +---------+
        S                   S
]

The players take their seats in any order for the first set; after
which they go to the next higher number; 8 keeping his seat, and 7
going to 1.

_=Scoring.=_ Each individual must keep his own score, adding up the
total tricks taken in each set of four hands. These totals must then be
compared with those of the player occupying the same position, N, S, E,
or W, at the other table in the set; and it will save time in the end
if these are tabulated at once, on a sheet prepared for the purpose.
For instance: Let this be the arrangement of eight players in the first
set:--

    b                             f
  a 1 c      Hands 1 to 4.      e 2 g
    d                             h

If _=a=_ and _=c=_ take 34 tricks E & W; _=e=_ and _=g=_ taking only
30 with the same cards, either _=a=_ and _=c=_ must have gained them,
or _=e=_ and _=g=_ must have lost them. It is a waste of time to put
down both losses and gains, and all that is necessary is to call the
top score zero, and charge all players with the loss of as many tricks
as their total is short of the top score. In this case we charge _=e=_
and _=g=_ with a loss of 4 each. It must be obvious that _=f=_ and
_=h=_ have also made 4 more tricks than _=b=_ and _=d=_; and that the
latter must be charged with a loss of 4 on the same hands that _=e=_
and _=g=_ lose on.

We give as an illustration a sheet balanced in this way, showing the
losses of the various players. The totals at the end of the match show
that _c_ is the winner, losing less tricks than any other player.

[Illustration:

  +-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |Players|  a |  b |  c |  d |  e |  f |  g |  h |
  |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |Set 1  |  - |  4 |  - |  4 |  4 |  - |  4 |  - |
  |       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |    2  |  - |  2 |  - |  2 |  - |  2 |  - |  2 |
  |       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |    3  |  5 |  5 |  - |  - |  - |  - |  5 |  5 |
  |       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |    4  |  1 |  - |  - |  1 |  1 |  - |  - |  1 |
  |       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |    5  |  - |  - |  3 |  3 |  - |  - |  3 |  3 |
  |       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |    6  |  - |  - |  - |  - |  3 |  3 |  3 |  3 |
  |       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |    7  |  4 |  - |  - |  4 |  - |  4 |  4 |  - |
  +-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |Totals | 10 | 11 |  3 | 14 |  8 |  9 | 19 | 14 |
  +-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
]

_=Large Numbers of Individuals.=_ Several ingenious methods have been
devised for handling large numbers of players, especially in domestic
parties; Safford and Mitchell having both distinguished themselves in
this line. The simplest form has been suggested by Mitchell, and is
especially adapted for social gatherings of ladies and gentlemen.

As many tables as possible are filled; all the ladies sitting N & E;
the gentlemen S and W.

[Illustration:

              LADY                        L
           +---------+               +---------+
           |    N    |               |    N    |
  GENTLEMAN|W       E|LADY          G|W       E|L
           |    S    |               |    S    |
           +---------+               +---------+
            GENTLEMAN                     G
]

The number of hands dealt at each table must be adjusted to the number
of tables filled, and the time to be devoted to play. The trays
containing the hands are passed to the West, and all the gentlemen move
one table to the East, the ladies sitting still. In all the changes
each gentleman keeps to his original point of the compass, South
or West. When he arrives at the table he started from, the round is
finished. If an odd number of tables are engaged in play, the changes
may take place in regular order to the end. If even, a dummy must be
put in; but as that is objectionable in a social gathering, it is
better to adopt one of the two systems following, unless half the
number of tables is an odd number, when the method already described
may be used.

_=1st Method.=_ Some table in the series, which must not be either the
first or the last, deals no original hands, but overplays all the hands
coming from the other tables to the East of it. The four players sit
still, taking no part in the progression; thus obliging those whose
turn it would be to play at their table to pass on to the next.

_=2nd Method.=_ Each gentleman should carefully note the number of the
hand originally dealt at the table from which he starts. He progresses
until he meets this hand again. The first to observe this should give
notice to the company by a bell tap, as all the gentlemen must meet
their original hands at the same time. Instead of stopping at the table
at which this tray is encountered, all the gentlemen move on to the
next, leaving the trays as they are. This skip enables each to finish
the round without playing any of the hands twice.

_=Scoring.=_ There must be four winners; the ladies with the best
scores for the N & E hands respectively, and the gentlemen with the
best S & W scores. If a choice is necessary, the lady and the gentleman
taking the greatest number of tricks above the average should be
selected as the winners.

_=MARRIED COUPLES.=_ Safford has an ingenious schedule for eight
married couples, so arranged in two sets that no husband and wife
are ever in the same set at the same time. When seven sets have been
played, every lady will have overplayed four hands against every other
lady and gentleman, including four held by her husband. The same will
be true of every man. Indicators are placed on the tables to show
players their successive positions. The numbers represent the husbands,
and the letters the wives, the couples being a-1, b-2, etc. The couple
a-1 always sit still; the ladies go to the next higher letter of the
alphabet, and the men to the next higher number; _=h=_ going to _=b=_,
as _=a=_ sits still; and 8 to 2.

[Illustration:

      N            N            N            N
   +-----+      +-----+      +-----+      +-----+
   |  6  |      |  3  |      |  f  |      |  c  |
  W|a 1 2|E    W|d 2 8|E    W|1 3 b|E    W|4 4 h|E
   |  g  |      |  e  |      |  6  |      |  5  |
   +-----+      +-----+      +-----+      +-----+
      S            S            S            S
]

One hand is dealt at each table, and overplayed at each of the others.
A different point of the compass should deal at each table, in order to
equalise the lead.

_=Scoring.=_ The score of each four hands should be added up by each
individual player, and the results tabulated at the end of every four
hands, in the manner described for eight individuals. The winner is the
player who loses the fewest tricks. This is the only known system for
deciding whether or not a man can play whist better than his wife.

_=PROGRESSIVE DUPLICATE WHIST=_ is the generic name by which those
systems of duplicate are known in which the purpose is to have as many
as possible of the players meet one another during the progress of the
match. Most of the systems we have been describing belong to this class.

       *       *       *       *       *

There are at present only two works on Duplicate Whist; but a number of
articles on the subject may be found in “_Whist_.”

Duplicate Whist; by John T. Mitchell, 1896.

Foster’s Duplicate Whist; 1894.

Whist; Jan., 1892; Jan., 1894; Aug., 1894; Oct., 1894; Jan., 1895:
Mar., 1895; May, 1895; July, 1895; Oct., 1895.


THE LAWS OF DUPLICATE WHIST.

_The Laws of Duplicate Whist as Amended and Adopted at the Whist
Congress, Niagara Falls, New York, July, 1900; as amended at the
Twelfth Congress, June, 1902; as amended at the Thirteenth Congress,
July, 1903; Fourteenth A.W.L. Congress, July, 1904; Fifteenth Congress,
July, 1905; Sixteenth Congress, July, 1906; Twentieth Congress, July
1910._


DEFINITIONS.

The words and phrases used in these laws shall be construed in
accordance with the following definitions unless such construction is
inconsistent with the context:

(a) The thirteen cards received by any one player are termed a “hand.”

(b) The four hands into which a pack is distributed for play are
termed a “deal;” the same term is also used to designate the act of
distributing the cards to the players.

(c) A “tray” is a device for retaining the hands of a deal and
indicating the order of playing them.

(d) The player who is entitled to the trump card is termed the
“dealer,” whether the cards have or have not been dealt by him.

(e) The first play of a deal is termed “the original play;” the second
or any subsequent play of such deal, the “overplay.”

(f) “Duplicate Whist” is that form of the game of whist in which each
deal is played only once by each player, and in which each deal is so
overplayed as to bring the play of teams, pairs of individuals into
comparison.

(g) A player “renounces” when he does not follow suit to the card led;
he “renounces in error” when, although holding one or more cards of
the suit led, he plays a card of a different suit; if such renounce in
error is not lawfully corrected it constitutes a “revoke.”

(h) A card is “played” whenever, in the course of play, it is placed or
dropped face upwards on the table.

(i) A trick is “turned and quitted” when all four players have turned
and quitted their respective cards.


LAW I.--SHUFFLING.

SEC. 1. Before the cards are dealt they must be shuffled in the
presence of an adversary or the umpire.

SEC. 2. The pack must not be so shuffled as to expose the face of any
card; if a card is so exposed the pack must be reshuffled.


LAW II.--CUTTING FOR THE TRUMP.

SEC. 1. The dealer must present the cards to his right hand adversary
to be cut; such adversary must take from the top of the pack at least
four cards and place them toward the dealer, leaving at least four
cards in the remaining packet; the dealer must reunite the packets by
placing the one not removed in cutting upon the other. If, in cutting
or in reuniting the separate packets, a card is exposed, the pack must
be reshuffled and cut again; if there is any confusion of the cards or
doubt as to the place where the pack was separated, there must be a new
cut.


LAW III.--DEALING.

SEC. 1. When the pack has been properly cut and reunited, the cards
must be dealt, one at a time, face down, from the top of the pack, the
first to the player at the left of the dealer, and each successive card
to the player at the left of the one to whom the last preceding card
has been dealt. The last, which is the trump card, must be turned and
placed face up on the tray, if one is used; otherwise, at the right of
the dealer.

SEC. 2. There must be a new deal--

(a) If any card except the last is faced or exposed in any way in
dealing;

(b) If the pack is proved incorrect or imperfect;

(c) If either more or less than thirteen cards are dealt to any player;

(d) If, after the first trick has been turned and quitted on the
original play of a deal, one or more cards are found to have been left
in the tray.


LAW IV.--THE TRUMP CARD.

SEC. 1. The trump card and the number of the deal must be recorded,
before the play begins, on a slip provided for that purpose, and must
not be elsewhere recorded. Such slip must be shown to an adversary,
then turned face down and placed in the tray, if one is used.

SEC. 2. The dealer must leave the trump card face up until it is his
turn to play to the first trick; he must take the trump card into his
hand and turn down the trump slip before the second trick is turned and
quitted.

SEC. 3. When a deal is taken up for overplay, the dealer must show the
trump slip to an adversary, and thereafter the trump slip and trump
card shall be treated as in the case of an original deal.

SEC. 4. After the trump card has been lawfully taken into the hand and
the trump slip turned face down, the trump card must not be named nor
the trump slip examined during the play of the deal; a player may,
however, ask what the trump suit is.

SEC. 5. If a player unlawfully looks at the trump slip, his highest
or lowest trump may be called; if a player unlawfully names the trump
card, or unlawfully shows the trump slip to his partner, his partner’s
highest or lowest trump may be called.

SEC. 6. These penalties can be inflicted by either adversary at any
time during the play of the deal in which they are incurred before the
player from whom the call can be made has played to the current trick;
the call may be repeated at each or any trick until the card is played,
but cannot be changed.

SEC. 7. When a deal has been played the cards of the respective
players, including the trump card, must be placed in the tray face down
and the trump slip placed face up on top of the dealer’s cards.

SEC. 8. If on the overplay of a deal, the dealer turns a trump card
other than the one recorded on the trump slip, and such error is
discovered and corrected before the play of the deal is commenced, the
card turned in error is liable to be called.

SEC. 9. If such error is not corrected until after the overplay has
begun and more than two tables are engaged in play, the players at
that table shall take the average score for the deal; if less than
three tables are in play there must be a new deal.

SEC. 10. Should a player record on the trump slip a different trump
from one turned in dealing and the error be discovered at the next
table, there must be a new deal. If the deal has been played at one or
more tables with the wrong trump, the recorded trump must be taken as
correct and the players at the original table take the average score
for the deal; if less than three tables are in play, there must be a
new deal.

SEC. 11. By the unanimous consent of the players in any match, a trump
suit may be declared and no trump turned.


LAW V.--IRREGULARITIES IN THE HAND.

SEC. 1. If, on the overplay, a player is found to have more than his
correct number of cards or the trump card is not in the dealer’s hand,
or any card except the trump card is so faced as to expose any of the
printing on its face, and less than three tables are engaged, there
must be a new deal. If more than two tables are in play, the hands must
be rectified and then passed to the next table; the table at which the
error was discovered must not overplay the deal but shall take the
average score.

SEC. 2. If after the first trick has been turned and quitted on the
overplay of a deal, a player is found to have less than his correct
number of cards, and the others have their correct number, such player
shall be answerable for the missing card or cards and for any revoke or
revokes which he has made by reason of its or their absence.


LAW VI.--PLAYING, TURNING AND QUITTING THE CARDS.

SEC. 1. Each player when it is his turn to play, must place his card
face up before him and towards the center of the table and allow it
to remain in this position until all have played to the trick, when
he must turn it over and place its face down and nearer to himself,
placing each successive card as he turns it, so that it overlaps the
last card played by him and with the ends towards the winners of the
trick. After he has played his card and also after he has turned it, he
must quit it by removing his hand.

SEC. 2. The cards must be left in the order in which they were played
and quitted until the scores for the deal are recorded.

SEC. 3. During the play of a deal a player must not pick up or turn
another player’s card.

SEC. 4. Before a trick is turned and quitted any player may require any
of the other players to show the face of the card played to that trick.

SEC. 5. If a player names a card of a trick which has been turned and
quitted or turns or raises any such card so that any portion of its
face can be seen by himself or his partner he is liable to the same
penalty as if he had led out of turn.


LAW VII.--CARDS LIABLE TO BE CALLED.

SEC. 1. The following cards are liable to be called:

(a) Every card so placed upon the table as to expose any of the
printing on its face, except such cards as these laws specifically
provide, shall not be so liable.

(b) Every card so held by a player as to expose any of the printing on
its face to his partner or to both of his adversaries at the same time.

(c) Every card, except the trump card, named by the player holding it.

SEC. 2. If a player says. “I can win the rest,” “The rest are ours,”
“It makes no difference how you play,” or words to that effect, or if
he plays or exposes his remaining cards before his partner has played
to the current trick, his partner’s cards must be laid face up on the
table and are liable to be called.

SEC. 3. All cards liable to be called must be placed face up on the
table and so left until played. A player must lead or play them when
lawfully called, provided he can do so without revoking; the call may
be repeated at each or any trick until the card is played. A player
cannot, however, be prevented from leading or playing a card liable to
be called; if he can get rid of it in the course of a play no penalty
remains.

SEC. 4. The holder of a card liable to be called can be required to
play it only by the adversary on his right. If such adversary plays
without calling it, the holder may play to that trick as he pleases.
If it is the holder’s turn to lead, the card must be called before the
preceding trick has been turned and quitted, or before the holder has
led a different card; otherwise he may lead as he pleases.


LAW VIII.--LEADING OUT OF TURN.

SEC. 1. If a player leads when it is the turn of an adversary to lead,
and the error is discovered before all have played to such lead, a suit
may be called from him or from his partner, as the case may be, the
first time thereafter it is the right of either of them to lead. The
penalty can be enforced only by the adversary on the right of the one
from whom a lead can lawfully be called, and the right thereto is lost
unless such adversary calls the suit he desires led before the first
trick won by the offender or his partner subsequent to the offence is
turned and quitted.

SEC. 2. If a player leads when it is his partner’s turn and the error
is discovered before all have played to such lead, a suit may at once
be called from the proper leader by his right-hand adversary. Until
the penalty has been exacted, waived or forfeited, the proper leader
must not lead; should he so lead, the card led by him is liable to be
called.

SEC. 3. If a player when called on to lead a suit has none of it, he
may lead as he pleases.

SEC. 4. If all have not played to a lead out of turn when the error is
discovered, the card erroneously led and all cards played to such lead
are not liable to be called, and must be taken into the hand.


LAW IX.--PLAYING OUT OF TURN.

SEC. 1. If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth hand may
also play before the second.

SEC. 2. If the third hand has not played and the fourth hand plays
before the second, the latter may be called upon by the third hand to
play his highest or lowest card of the suit led, and, if he has none
of that suit, to trump or not trump the trick; the penalty cannot be
inflicted after the third hand has played to the trick. If the player
liable to this penalty plays before it has been inflicted, waived or
lost, the card so played is liable to be called.


LAW X.--THE REVOKE.

SEC. 1. A renounce in error may be corrected by the player making it,
except in the following cases, in which a revoke is established and the
penalty therefore incurred:

(a) When the trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted.

(b) When the renouncing player or his partner, whether in his right
turn or otherwise, has led or played to the following trick.

SEC. 2. At any time before the trick is turned and quitted a player may
ask an adversary if he has any of a suit, to which such adversary has
renounced in that trick, and can require the error to be corrected in
case such adversary is found to have any of such suit.

SEC. 3. If a player, who has renounced in error, lawfully corrects his
mistake, the card improperly played by him is liable to be called, and,
if he be the second or third hand player and his left hand adversary
has played to the trick before attention has been called to the
renounce, he may be required by such adversary to play his highest or
his lowest card to the trick in which he has renounced, and shall not
play to that trick until such adversary has inflicted or waived the
penalty. Any player who has played to the trick after the renouncing
player, may withdraw his card and substitute another; a card so
withdrawn is not liable to be called.

SEC. 4. The penalty for a revoke is the transfer of two tricks from
the revoking side to their adversaries. If more than one revoke during
the play of a deal is made by one side, the penalty for each revoke,
after the first, is the transfer of one trick only. The revoking
players cannot score more, nor their adversaries less than the average
on the deal in which the revoke occurs; except that in no case shall
the infliction of the revoke penalty deprive the revoking players of
any tricks won by them before their first revoke occurs.

In Pair Matches the score shall be recorded as made, independently
of the revoke penalty, which shall be separately indicated as plus
or minus revoke (“-R” for the revoking side, and “+R” for their
adversaries). In such matches, the penalty for a revoke shall not
increase the score of the opponents of the revoking players above the
maximum, as made at the other tables, on the deal in which the revoke
occurs; provided, however, that if the opponents win more tricks than
such maximum, independently of the revoke penalty, their score shall
stand as made. Nor shall the score of the revoking players be reduced,
by the infliction of the revoke penalty, below the minimum so made at
the other tables until the averages for the match and the relative
scores of the other players have been determined; the score of the
revoking players shall then, if necessary, be further reduced, so that
in all cases they shall suffer the full penalty as provided in the
first paragraph of this section.

SEC. 5. A revoke cannot be claimed if the claimant or his partner has
played to the following deal, or if both have left the table at which
the revoke occurred. If the revoke is discovered in season, the penalty
must be enforced and cannot be waived.

SEC. 6. At the end of the play of a deal the claimants of a revoke can
examine all of the cards; if any hand has been shuffled the claim may
be urged and proved if possible; but no proof is necessary and the
revoke is established if, after it has been claimed, the accused player
or his partner disturbs the order of the cards before they have been
examined to the satisfaction of the adversaries.


LAW XI.--MISCELLANEOUS.

SEC. 1. If any one calls attention in any manner to the trick before
his partner has played thereto, the adversary last to play to the trick
may require the offender’s partner to play his highest or lowest of the
suit led, and, if he has none of that suit, to trump or not to trump
the trick.

SEC 2. A player has the right to remind his partner that it is his
privilege to enforce a penalty and also to inform him of the penalty he
can enforce.

SEC. 3. A player has the right to prevent his partner from committing
any irregularity, and for that purpose, may ask his partner whether or
not he has a card of a suit to which he has renounced on a trick which
has not been turned and quitted.

SEC. 4. If either of the adversaries, whether with or without his
partner’s consent, demands a penalty to which they are entitled, such
decision is final; if the wrong adversary demands a penalty or a wrong
penalty is demanded, or either adversary waives a penalty, none can be
enforced except in case of a revoke.

SEC. 5. If a player is lawfully called upon to play the highest or
lowest of a suit, to trump or not to trump a trick, to lead a suit or
to win a trick, and unnecessarily fails to comply, he is liable to the
same penalty as if he had revoked.

SEC. 6. If any one leads or plays a card, and then, before his partner
has played to the trick, leads one or more other cards, or plays
two or more cards together, all of which are better than any of his
adversaries hold of the suit, his partner may be called upon by either
adversary to win the first or any subsequent trick to which any of said
cards are played, and the remaining cards so played are liable to be
called.

For the Rules of Etiquette of Duplicate Whist, see page 85.


SINGLE TABLE, OR MNEMONIC DUPLICATE.

The laws of Duplicate Whist govern where applicable, except as follows:

Each player plays each deal twice, the second time playing a hand
previously played by an adversary. Instead of turning the trump, a
single suit may be declared trumps for the game. On the overplay, the
cards may be gathered into tricks instead of playing them as required
by law (Law VIII, Sec. 1). In case of the discovery of an irregularity
in the hands, there must always be a new deal.


MNEMONIC DUPLICATE FOR MORE THAN ONE TABLE.

Except a contest played in comparison with a progressive match, the
replaying of the cards by the same players--“up and back,” as it
is sometimes called--is the only possible method of approximating
to Duplicate Whist for one table; but where eight or more players
participate, this form of the game is extremely undesirable, from the
element of memory entering into the replay and destroying the integrity
of the game and its value as a test of Whist skill. It has been well
described as “a mongrel game--partly Whist and partly Dummy, but
lacking in the best features of each.”

In the early days of Duplicate Whist, Mnemonic Duplicate was, to some
extent, played even when several tables of players were participating.
It still survives in a few circles, chiefly where Duplicate Whist has
never been tried. It can be played under any of the Duplicate Whist
schedules by playing them through twice--the second time with the North
and South hands given to the East and West players, and vice versa. As
each deal is played twice by each pair, double the time is required to
play the same number of deals, as at Duplicate Whist. Allowance must be
made for this in fixing the number of deals to be played.

The Snow System of movement, where practicable, is preferable. Where
the Howell pair system of movement is used, the scores do not require
“equating”, as they are equalised on the replay. Under other systems,
only the North and South scores need be kept, as the comparison can be
made quite as readily as by direct comparison of these scores.


DUMMY.

There are three forms of Dummy: The English game, for three players;
the French game, for three or four: and the game now generally known
as Bridge, or Bridge Whist. Dummy is not recognized in any form by the
American Whist League, and there are no American Laws governing it. We
shall describe each variety of the game in its turn; beginning with the
English.

_=Cards.=_ _=ENGLISH DUMMY=_, is played with a full pack of fifty-two
cards, ranking as at whist both for cutting and playing. Two packs are
generally used.

_=Markers=_ are necessary, and are of the same patterns as those used
in whist.

_=Players.=_ According to the English usage, Dummy is played by three
persons, and the table is complete with that number.

They cut for partners and for the deal; the player cutting the lowest
card takes dummy for the first rubber; the one cutting the next lowest
takes dummy for the second rubber; and the one cutting the highest
takes it for the last rubber. It is considered obligatory to play three
rubbers, in order that each may have whatever advantage or disadvantage
may be supposed to attach to the dummy. The three rubbers so played are
called a Tournée. It is sometimes agreed that one player shall take
dummy continuously, on condition that he concedes to his adversaries
one point in each rubber. When this is done, the largest rubber that
the dummy’s partner can win is one of seven; and he may win nothing;
whereas his adversaries may win a rubber of nine, and must win at least
two. This concession of a point is not made, as many imagine, because
it is an advantage to have the (dummy) partner’s hand exposed; but
because it is an advantage to have the player’s hand concealed. He
knows the collective contents of the adversaries’ hands; each of them
knows only the contents of dummy’s hand and his own.

_=Cutting.=_ The player cutting the lowest card has the choice of
seats and cards; but he must deal the first hand for his dummy; not
for himself. The methods of spreading, cutting, deciding ties, etc.,
described in connection with whist, are those employed in dummy.

_=Position of the Players.=_ The players are distinguished, as at
whist, by the two first and last letters of the alphabet, and their
positions at the table are indicated in the same manner. There is no
mark to distinguish the dummy hand; a defect which is remedied in the
French system.

_=Dealing.=_ At the beginning of a rubber, dummy’s partner presents the
pack to his _=left-hand=_ adversary to be cut, and deals from right to
left, beginning with the player on his right, and turning up the last
card for dummy’s trump. When two packs are used, there is no rule as to
which player shall collect and shuffle the still pack. On this point
the French rules are very explicit.

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are the
same as at whist.

The cards having been dealt, it is usual for dummy’s partner to take up
and sort the dummy first. There are several ways of laying out dummy’s
hand; the most common being to run the suits down in rows, with the
turn-up across and to the right of the other trumps, if any.

[Illustration:

  🂡    🃊    🃞    🂽
   🂪    🃉    🃝    🂺
    🂥    🃄    🃖           🂸
             🃃               Trump.

  METHOD OF SPREADING DUMMY’S CARDS.
]

_=Stakes.=_ The remarks made on this subject in connection with whist
apply equally to dummy. Dummy’s partner must pay to, or receive from
each adversary the amount agreed.

_=Method of Playing.=_ The general method of playing is identical with
that of whist, with the following exceptions:--

When it is dummy’s turn to play, his partner selects the card.

_=The Revoke.=_ For this dummy is not liable to any penalty, as his
adversaries can see his cards. Even should the revoke be occasioned
by dummy’s cards being disarranged, or one of them covered up, the
adversaries should be as able to detect the error as the partner.
Should dummy’s hand revoke, it cannot be remedied after the trick in
which it occurs has been turned and quitted; and the game must proceed
as if no revoke had occurred. All the penalties for a revoke may be
enforced against dummy’s partner, should he renounce in error, and
not correct it in time. There being no American laws for dummy, the
English penalty of three tricks or three points may be enforced, and
the revoking player cannot win the game that hand.

_=Cards Played in Error.=_ Dummy’s partner is not liable to any penalty
for cards dropped face upwards on the table, or two or more played at
once, because it is obvious that Dummy cannot gain any advantage from
such exposed cards.

_=Leading out of Turn.=_ Should either dummy or his partner lead out
of turn, the adversaries may call a suit from the one that should have
led. It should be noticed that if it was not the turn of either to
lead, there is no penalty; for neither can have gained any advantage
from knowing what suit the other wished to lead, or from the exposed
card. Should all have played to the erroneous lead, the error cannot be
corrected, and no penalty remains.

The methods of _=Taking Tricks=_; _=Scoring=_; _=Claiming and Counting
Honours=_; _=Marking Rubber Points=_, etc., are the same as in whist,
and the counters are used in the same manner.

_=Cutting Out.=_ As already observed, there is no change of partners,
or of the rotation of the deal, until the completion of a rubber;
but at the beginning of each rubber, dummy must deal the first hand.
Should one side win the first two games in any rubber, the third is not
played. At the end of the tournée, should any player wish to retire,
and another offer to take his place, the cards must be shuffled and cut
as at the beginning; a player’s position in one tournée giving him no
rights in the next. There is nothing in the English game to recognize
that there may be more than three candidates for dummy; as it is
supposed that if four were present, they would prefer playing whist.

_=Suggestions for Good Play.=_ As these are equally proper to any form
of dummy, we shall postpone their consideration until we have described
the other varieties of the game; French dummy, and Bridge; giving them
all at the end of the chapter on “Bridge.”


DOUBLE DUMMY.

_=CARDS.=_ Double Dummy is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards,
ranking as at whist both for cutting and playing. Two packs are
generally used.

_=MARKERS=_ are necessary, and are of the same description as those
used in whist.

_=PLAYERS.=_ According to the English usage, double dummy is played by
two persons, and the table is complete with that number.

_=CUTTING.=_ The players cut for the deal; the player cutting the
lowest card deals for his dummy first, and has the choice of sitting
to the right or left of his opponent. It is usual to select the seat
on the right of the living player, because it is possible that one may
forget whether or not certain cards have been played, and under such
circumstances it is better to lead up to an exposed hand than to one
whose contents you are not sure of.

The methods of spreading, cutting, deciding ties, etc., are the same as
those employed at whist.

_=POSITION OF THE PLAYERS.=_ It is not usually considered necessary to
distinguish the players further than to indicate which hand had the
original lead. For this purpose the whist notation is used, A being the
leader, and Z the dealer.

[Illustration:

                      Y
                    +---+
  ORIGINAL LEADER, A|   |B
                    +---+
                      Z
]

_=DEALING.=_ When two packs are used, the still pack should be shuffled
by the non-dealer, and placed on the left of the player or dummy whose
turn it will be to deal next.

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are the
same as in whist.

The cards being dealt, it is usual to sort the dummy hands first,
running the suits down in rows, with the turn-up trump across, and to
the right of the others.

_=STAKES.=_ The remarks already made on this subject in connection with
whist and dummy, apply equally to double dummy, except that there is
no double payment; but each player wins from or loses to his living
adversary the unit agreed upon.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ This so closely resembles dummy as to need no
further description. Neither dummy can revoke, and there are no such
things as exposed cards, or cards played in error. It is very common
for one player to claim that he will win a certain number of tricks,
and for his adversary to admit it, and allow him to score them, without
playing the hand out.

_=LEADING OUT OF TURN.=_ Should either of the dummies or the players
lead out of turn, the adversary may call a suit from the one that ought
to have led; but if it was the turn of neither, there is no penalty. If
all four have played to the trick, the error cannot be corrected, and
no penalty remains.

The methods of _=Taking Tricks=_; _=Scoring=_; _=Claiming and Counting
Honours=_; _=Marking Rubber Points=_, etc., are the same as in whist,
and the counters are used in the same manner.

_=RUBBERS.=_ If the first two games are won by the same player and
his dummy, the third is not played. Tournées are not played, and the
completion of the rubber breaks up the table.

_=CUTTING IN.=_ The table being complete with two, at the end of a
rubber a new table must be formed.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ The player should first carefully
examine the exposed hands, and by comparing them with his own, suit by
suit, should fix in his mind the cards held by his living adversary.
This takes time, and in many places it is the custom to expose the
four hands upon the table. Players who have better memories than their
opponents object to this, for the same reason that they prefer sitting
on the right of the living player. It is not at all uncommon for a
player to forget that certain cards have been played, to his very
serious loss.

The hands once fixed in the mind, some time should be given to a
careful consideration of the best course to pursue; after which the
play should proceed pretty rapidly until the last few tricks, when
another problem may present itself.

There is nothing in the game beyond the skilful use of the tenace
position, discarding, and establishing cross-ruffs. Analysis is the
mental power chiefly engaged. There are no such things as inferences,
false cards, finesse, underplay, speculative trump leads, or judgment
of human nature. The practice of the game is totally different from any
other form of whist, and much more closely resembles chess.

The laws of Dummy will be found at the end of the English Whist Laws.


HUMBUG WHIST.

This is a variation on double dummy, in which two players sit opposite
each other. The deal and seats are cut for in the usual manner; four
hands of thirteen cards each are dealt, and the last card is turned for
trump.

Each player examines the hand dealt to him, without touching those to
his right or left. If he is content with his hand, he announces it, if
not, he may exchange it for the one on his right. In case of exchange,
the discarded hand is placed on the table face down; and the other
taken up and played. If a player retains the hand originally dealt him,
he must not look at the others. If the dealer exchanges, he loses the
turn-up card, but the trump suit remains the same. Each player deals
for himself in turn, there being no deal for the dead hands. Whist laws
govern the deal and its errors.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The dealer’s adversary has the first lead; the
other must follow suit if he can, and the highest card of the suit led
wins the trick. Trumps win all other suits.

_=SCORING.=_ Each trick above six counts one point towards game. Of
the four honours, A K Q J of trumps, if each player holds two, neither
can count. But if one player has only one honour, or none, the other
counts 2 points for two honours, if he holds them; 3 points for three;
and 4 points for four. The honours count towards game as in whist. The
penalty for a revoke is three tricks, and it takes precedence of other
scores; tricks count next, honours last. Five points is game.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ It is considered best for a player not
finding four reasonably sure tricks in his hand to exchange; for there
is a certain advantage to be gained by knowing thirteen cards which
cannot be in the adversary’s hand. Before changing, the player should
fix in his memory the exact cards of each suit in the hand which he
is about to discard. By combining his knowledge of them with his own
cards, he may often be able to direct his play to advantage. Beyond
this there is little skill in the game.

A variation is sometimes made by the dealer announcing a trump suit
after he has examined his hand, instead of turning up the last card.
His adversary then has the right either to play his hand, or to
exchange it for the one on his right; but the dealer must play the hand
dealt to him.


THIRTEEN AND THE ODD.

This is Humbug Whist without the discard. The dealer gives thirteen
cards to his adversary and to himself, one at a time, and turns up
the next for the trump. The trump card belongs to neither player. The
winner of the odd trick scores a point. Five points is game.


MORT. WHIST À TROIS; OR FRENCH DUMMY.

_=MORT=_ means simply the dead hand; and is the equivalent of the
English word Dummy; the partner being known as _=Vivant=_, or the
living hand. In these words the English usually sound the _=t=_, as
they do in such words as _=piquet=_, and _=valet=_.

_=CARDS.=_ Mort is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, ranking
as at whist for cutting and playing. Two packs are generally used.

_=MARKERS=_ are necessary to count the game points only. Four circular
counters for each side, preferably of different colours, are employed,
or the ordinary whist markers may be used. At the end of each game, the
score of the points won or lost by each player must be transferred to a
score-sheet, kept for that purpose.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Mort is played by three persons; but the table is usually
composed of four. If there are more than four candidates, the methods
described in connection with whist are adopted for deciding which four
shall play the first tournée.

The table being formed, the cards are again shuffled and spread to cut
for partners and deal.

_=TIES=_ are decided in the same manner as at whist.

_=CUTTING.=_ If there are three players, the one cutting the lowest
card takes dummy for the first game; he also has the choice of seats
and cards, and may deal the first hand for himself or for Mort, as he
pleases; but having once made his choice, he must abide by it. The
player cutting the intermediate card takes dummy for the second game;
and the player cutting the highest card takes it for the third game;
each in turn having the choice of seats and cards. These three games
finish the rubber or tournée, each having once had the advantage or
disadvantage of playing with Mort. It is obligatory to finish the
tournée, no player being allowed to withdraw and substitute another
without the consent of the other players. In Mort it is very unusual
for one person to take dummy continuously.

If there are four players, the one cutting the highest card of the four
sits out, and takes no part in the first game. It is customary for him
to take Mort’s seat, and to make himself useful in sorting dummy’s
cards for him. He plays in the three following games, taking Mort in
the fourth, or last. Four games complete the tournée for four players.

_=POSITION OF THE PLAYERS.=_ The players or hands are distinguished by
the letters, M, V, L, and R; which stand respectively for Mort, Vivant,
Left, and Right. The Mort is the dead hand, which is turned face up on
the table. The Vivant is his partner, who sits opposite him, and plays
his cards for him. The Left and Right are the adversaries who sit on
the left and right of _=Mort=_.

Special attention must be called to the use of the term _=adversaries=_
in any description of Mort. It is used exclusively to designate the
two partners opposed to the Mort and Vivant. In all other cases where
opposition is implied, the term _=opponents=_ must be used.

When necessary to distinguish the dealer from the first, second, or
third hand, it is usual to add the letters employed for that purpose in
whist; placing them inside the diagram of the table, thus:--

[Illustration:

         V
    +---------+
    |    z    |
  L | b     a | R
    |    y    |
    +---------+
         M
]

This diagram shows that Vivant dealt, and that the adversary on the
Right of Mort had the original lead.

_=With Three Players.=_ Vivant having selected his seat and cards,
the adversaries may select their seats. It is usual for the strongest
adversary to sit Right.

_=With Four Players=_, we can best describe the arrangement by
numbering them 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, the lowest number, 1,
having cut the lowest card, and the others having the right to play
Vivant in their numerical order. The initial arrangement would be as
follows:--

[Illustration:

         4                                   4
    +---------+                         +---------+
    |  Mort.  |                         |  Mort.  |
  2 |         | 3     or this:--      3 |         | 2
    | Vivant. |                         | Vivant. |
    +---------+                         +---------+
         1                                   1

]

For the three succeeding games the arrangement would be:--

[Illustration:

         1                      2                      3
    +---------+            +---------+            +---------+
    |  Mort.  |            |  Mort.  |            |  Mort.  |
  3 |         | 4        4 |         | 1        1 |         | 2
    | Vivant. |            | Vivant. |            | Vivant. |
    +---------+            +---------+            +---------+
         2                      3                      4
]

It will be seen that each player, immediately after being Vivant, sits
out, or takes Mort’s place, for the next game.

_=DEALING.=_ It is usual for Vivant to deal the first hand for
himself, as the disadvantage of exposing fourteen cards is more than
compensated for in compelling the adversary to open the game by leading
up to an unknown hand. If Vivant deals the first hand for Mort, he must
present the pack to the player on dummy’s right to be cut, and deal
the cards from right to left, turning up the trump at Mort’s place. If
he deals for himself, he presents the pack to the pone to be cut, and
proceeds as in whist.

When two packs are used, the French laws require that if the deal is
for Mort, the Right shall gather and shuffle the still pack; and that
if Vivant deals for himself, the pone shall gather and shuffle. I have
found this to be awkward, because the player who is gathering and
shuffling the cards of one pack is called upon to cut the other. For
this reason I recommend that whichever adversary is the pone for the
deal in hands should allow his partner to gather and shuffle the still
pack. When either adversary deals, his partner will, of course, gather
and shuffle the still pack.

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are the
same as at whist, with the following exceptions:--

A misdeal does not lose the deal unless the opponents so elect; they
may prefer a new deal by the same dealer. The reason for this is that
the deal is a disadvantage, especially for Mort.

If Vivant or Mort offers the pack to one adversary to cut, and
then deals as if the other had cut, it is a misdeal; and it is not
admissible to shift the packets in order to remedy matters.

It might be imagined that a card exposed in dealing, if dealt to Mort,
would make no difference, as all his cards will presently be exposed.
But the laws give the opponents of the dealer the option of either
allowing the deal to stand, or having a new deal, or calling it a
misdeal.

According to the French laws, if there is any discussion in progress
with regard to the previous hand or play, the dealer may lay aside the
trump card, face down, until the discussion is finished. If this law
prevailed in America, I think the trump would very seldom be turned
immediately.

_=STAKES.=_ In Mort the stake is a unit, so much a point. It may assist
players in regulating the value of the stake to remember that six is
the smallest number of points that can be won or lost on a single game,
and that thirty-seven is probably the highest, although fifty, or even
a hundred is not impossible. The average is about twelve. The same
customs as at whist prevail with regard to outside betting.

The Vivant must pay or receive double, as he has to settle with each
adversary. If four play, the one sitting out has nothing to do with the
stakes; but he may make outside wagers on the result of the game.

_=THE METHOD OF PLAYING=_ is practically the same as at whist, with the
following exceptions:--

When it is the turn of Mort to play, Vivant selects the card for him.

_=The Revoke.=_ The rules governing this are the same as those already
given for English Dummy. Mort is not liable to penalty under any
circumstances. If any other player revokes, his opponents may take
three points from the score of his side; or add three points to their
score; or take three of his tricks. The penalty cannot be divided; but
if two or more revokes are made by the same side, the penalty for each
may be enforced in a different manner. For instance: If the score is
3 to 2 in favor of the adversaries, Vivant may take three points from
their score for one revoke, and add three to his own score for the
other. It is not permissible to reduce the revoking player’s _=tricks=_
to nothing. At least one must be left in order to prevent slams being
made through revoke penalties.

_=Cards Played in Error.=_ Vivant is not liable to any penalty for
dropping his cards face up on the table; but if he or Mort plays two
cards at once to a trick, the adversaries may select which they will
allow to be played. The adversaries are subject to the same penalties
as in whist for all cards played in error.

_=Leading Out of Turn.=_ If Vivant or Mort lead out of turn, the
adversaries may let the lead stand, or demand it be taken back. If it
was the turn of neither, no penalty can be enforced, and if all have
played to the trick, the error cannot be corrected.

_=Taking Tricks.=_ The methods of taking tricks, and placing them
so that they can be easily counted, have been fully described in
connection with whist.

_=OBJECT OF THE GAME.=_ As in whist, the object is to take tricks; the
highest card played of the suit led wins, and trumps win against all
other suits. The first six tricks taken by one side, and forming a
_=book=_, do not count; but all above that number count toward game.
At the end of each hand, the side that has taken any tricks in excess
of the book scores them, their opponents counting nothing. As soon as
either side reaches five points, they win the game, but the concluding
hand must be played out, and the winners are entitled to score all the
points over five that they can make on that hand. For instance: The
score is 4 to 3 in favor of Vivant and Mort. They win the first seven
tricks, which makes them game; but they do not cease playing. If they
succeed in gaining eleven tricks out of the thirteen, they win a game
of 9 points, instead of 5.

As already observed, Vivant loses or gains double the value of the
points in each hand. In the three-handed game this must be so; but in
my opinion it would be a great improvement in the four-handed game to
allow the player sitting out to share the fortunes of the Vivant, as in
Bridge, and in many German games of cards, notably Skat.

_=SLAMS.=_ The two great differences between French and English Dummy
are that honours are not counted in Mort, and that a special value is
attached to slams. A slam is made when one side takes the thirteen
tricks. These must be actually won, and cannot be partly made up of
tricks taken in penalty for revokes. Players cannot score a slam in a
hand in which they have revoked.

A slam counts 20 points to the side making it; but these 20 points
have nothing to do with the game score. For instance: The score is 4
all. Vivant and Mort make a slam. This does not win the game; but the
20 points are debited and credited on the score-sheet; the deal passes
to the left, and the game proceeds with the score still 4 all, as if
nothing had happened.

_=SCORING.=_ The number of points won on each game are put down on
the score-sheet, each side being credited with the number of points
appearing on their markers when the game is finished. To the winners’
score is added: 3 points, for a triple game, if their opponents have
not scored; 2 points, for a double game, if their opponents are not
half way, or 1 point, for a simple game, if their opponents are 3
or 4. In addition to this, the winners add 4 points, for bonus or
consolation, in every instance. From the total thus found must be
deducted whatever points have been scored by the losers, whether game
points, slams, or both. For instance: Vivant and Mort win a game with
the score 8 to 2 in their favor, which is a double. This is put down on
the score sheets thus:--

8 + 2 for the double, + 4 consolation, = 14, minus 2 scored by the
opponents; making 12 the net value of the game. Vivant therefore wins
24 points, and each of the adversaries, R and L, lose 12. Again:--

R and L win a simple with a score of 5 to 4, V and M having made a
slam. 5 + 1 for the simple, + 4 for consolation, = 10, minus 4 points
scored, and 20 for the slam = 24; showing that R and L lose 14 points
each, although they won the game. Again:--

V and M win a triple, with a score of 8 to 0; R and L having revoked.
8, + 3, + 4, + 3 for the revoke = 18, from which there is nothing to
deduct.

The greatest number of points that can be made on a game, exclusive of
slams and revokes, is 17; and the least number is 6.

_=MARKING.=_ The methods of using the counters in scoring the game
points have already been described in connection with whist.

_=CUTTING OUT.=_ If there are more than four candidates for play at the
conclusion of a tournée, the selection of the new table must be made as
if no tournée had been played; all having equal rights to cut in.

_=CHEATING.=_ Mort offers even less opportunity to the greek than
whist, as the deal is a disadvantage, and nothing is gained by turning
up an honour, beyond its possession.


CAYENNE, OR CAYENNE WHIST.

_=CARDS.=_ Cayenne is played with two full packs of fifty-two cards,
which rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing.

_=MARKERS=_ are necessary, and must be suitable for counting to ten
points. A sheet of paper is used for scoring the results of the games.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Cayenne is played by four persons. When there are more
than four candidates for play the selection of the table must be made
as at Whist. Partners and deal are then cut for.

_=CUTTING.=_ One of the packs having been spread on the table, face
down, each of the four players draws a card; the two lowest pairing
against the two highest. The lowest of the four is the dealer, and has
the choice of seats and cards. Ties are decided in the same manner as
at Whist.

_=POSITION OF THE PLAYERS.=_ The partners sit opposite each other, and
the players are distinguished, as at Whist, by the letters A-B and Y-Z.
Z is the dealer, and A has the original lead.

_=DEALING.=_ One pack of cards is shuffled and cut as at Whist. The
dealer then gives four cards to each player, beginning on his left;
then four more, and finally five, no trump being turned. In many places
six cards are first dealt to each player, and then seven; but the 4-4-5
system is better, and is the rule in the very similar game of Boston.

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are the
same as at Whist; except that a misdeal does not lose the deal. The
misdealer must deal again, and with the same pack.

_=CAYENNE.=_ After the cards are all dealt, the player to the left of
the dealer cuts the still pack, which is shuffled and presented to him
by the dealer’s partner, and the top card of the portion left on the
table is turned up for Cayenne. This card is not a trump, but is simply
to determine the rank of the suits.

_=STAKES.=_ In Cayenne the stake is a unit, so much a point. The
largest number of points possible to win on a rubber is 24, and the
smallest, 1. The result of the rubber may be a tie, which we consider
a defect in any game. In settling at the end of the rubber it is usual
for the losers to pay their right-hand adversaries.

_=MAKING THE TRUMP.=_ The trump suit must be named by the dealer or his
partner, after they have examined their cards. The dealer has the first
say, and he may either select cayenne or any of the other suits; or he
may announce _=grand=_, playing for the tricks without any trump suit;
or he may call _=nullo=_, playing to take as few tricks as possible,
without a trump suit. If the dealer makes the choice, his partner must
abide by it; but if he has not a hand to justify him in deciding, he
should leave the selection to his partner, who must decide one way or
the other.

The considerations which should guide players in their choice are the
scoring possibilities of their hands, in tricks and in honours. As in
Whist, the first six tricks taken by one side do not count; but each
trick above that number counts one, two, etc., _=by cards=_. There are
five honours in the trump suit in Cayenne; A K Q J 10; and the partners
holding the majority of them count 1 for each honour that they hold
in excess of their opponents, and 1 in addition, for _=honours=_. For
instance: If A-B have three honours dealt them, they must have one more
than their adversaries, and 1 for honours; entitling them to score 2.
If they have four, they have 3 in excess, and 1 for honours, a total of
4. If they have five, they count 6 by honours.

At the end of the hand the points made by cards and by honours are
multiplied by the value of the trump suit. This value varies according
to the suit which is cayenne, which is always first preference. If
cayenne is also the trump suit the points made by cards and honours are
multiplied by 4. If the trump suit is the same colour as cayenne, the
multiplier is 3. If it is a different colour the multiplier is 2 or 1,
according to the suit. The rank of the suits as multipliers will be
readily understood from the following table:--

  If Cayenne is   | ♡ | ♢ | ♣ | ♠ | If trumps, multiply by 4.
  Second color is | ♢ | ♡ | ♠ | ♣ | If trumps, multiply by 3.
  Third color is  | ♣ | ♣ | ♡ | ♡ | If trumps, multiply by 2.
  Fourth color is | ♠ | ♠ | ♢ | ♢ | If trumps, multiply by 1.

Better to understand the importance of considering this variation
in value when making the trump, it should be noticed that although
the game is 10 points, several games may be won in a single hand, as
everything made is counted, and any points over 10 go to the credit of
the second game. If more than 20 points are made, the excess goes on
the third game, and so on. Another important point is the great value
attached to honours, and the maker of the trump should never forget
that he can better afford to risk his adversaries winning 2 by cards
with a trump in which he has three honours, than he can to risk a trump
in which they may have three honours, and he can probably win only the
odd trick.

A further element may enter into his calculations, the state of the
score. Tricks count before honours, and if he feels certain of making,
by cards, the few points necessary to win the rubber, he may entirely
disregard the honours.

With such a hand it would be better to play without a trump, and to
announce a _=grand=_, in which there are neither trumps nor honours,
and every trick over the book is multiplied by 8. Two by cards at grand
is worth more than two by cards and two by honours with any trump but
cayenne.

There is still another resource, to announce _=nullo=_, in which
there is no trump, and the object of the players is to take as few
tricks as possible. In nullo, every trick over the book counts for the
adversaries, and is multiplied by 8. A peculiarity of nullo is that the
Ace of each suit ranks below the deuce, unless the player holding it
wishes to declare it higher than the King. In the latter case he must
announce it when he plays it, and before his left-hand adversary plays
to the trick.

If the dealer transfers the right of making the trump to his partner,
he must use the phrase, “You make it, partner.” If a player makes the
trump out of turn, his adversaries may consult as to the propriety of
demanding a new deal.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The trump suit, grand, or nullo having been
announced, the player on the dealer’s left begins by leading any card
he pleases, and the others must all follow suit if they can. The
penalty for a revoke is the loss of three tricks; or the value of three
tricks in points; or the addition of a like amount to the adversaries’
score. The side making a revoke cannot win the game that hand, no
matter what they score; but they may play the hand out, and count all
they make to within one point of game, or 9. Revoking players cannot
count points for slams.

The rules for cards played in error, leading out of turn, and all such
irregularities, are the same as in Whist. The last trick turned and
quitted may be seen.

The methods of gathering and stacking the tricks is the same as at
Whist.

_=OBJECTS OF THE GAME.=_ The chief object in Cayenne, either with a
trump or in a grand, is to take tricks; in a nullo it is not to take
them. In any case the highest card played of the suit led wins the
trick, and trumps, if any, win against all other suits. At the end of
each hand the side that wins any tricks in excess of the book scores
them, after multiplying their number by the unit of value settled upon
by the announcement. If a nullo is played the adversaries score them.
Honours are then claimed; but the game cannot be won by honours alone,
as at Whist; those holding honours must stop at the score of 9, unless
they also win the odd trick. As soon as either side reaches or passes
10 points, they win a game; but the hand must be played out, and all
tricks taken must be counted. If one side goes out by cards, the other
cannot score honours. Thirteen tricks taken by one side is called a
_=slam=_, and it counts 6 points. Twelve tricks is a _=little slam=_,
and it counts 4. Either of these must be made exclusive of revoke
penalties.

_=RUBBERS.=_ The rubber is won by the side that first wins four games
of ten points each; and the winning side adds 8 points to its score.

_=SCORING.=_ The game score should be kept on a whist marker, using the
four large keys on one side for single points, and the single large key
on the opposite side for five points. The three small keys are used to
show how many games of the rubber have been won by that side.

[Illustration: TWO GAMES WON, AND 2 POINTS SCORED ON THE THIRD.]

The method of using counters for scoring 10-point games has already
been described in connection with Whist.

In addition to either markers or counters, there must be a sheet of
paper to keep the final results of the games.

In scoring, the revoke penalty counts first, tricks next, and honours
last.

The side first reaching 10 points wins a _=quadruple=_, or game of 4,
if their adversaries have not scored; a _=triple=_, or game of 3, if
their adversaries have not reached 4; a _=double=_, or game of 2, if
the adversaries have not reached 7; and a _=single=_, or game of 1,
if their adversaries are 8 or 9 up. These game points are put down on
the score-sheet, and all the points on the _=adversaries’=_ marker are
then turned down. If the winners make any points in excess of 10, such
points are left to their credit on the marker, and count toward the
next game. For instance: The score is A-B, 6; and Y-Z, 8; shown on the
markers thus:--

[Illustration: A-B 6 POINTS. Y-Z 8 POINTS.]

Let us suppose that Z announces cayenne, and makes 2 by cards; A-B
claiming two by honours. Y-Z multiply by 4, making them 8, and bringing
their total score on the marker to 16; that is, a game, and 6 points
to their credit on the second game. This must now be put down on the
score-sheet. A-B’s honours not counting, as Y-Z went out by cards,
the game is a double; A-B not having reached 7 points. The score and
markers now stand:--

         A-B | 0 |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  Score:     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
         Y-Z | 2 |   |   |   |   |   |   |

[Illustration: A-B’S, NOTHING. Y-Z’S, 1 GAME, 6 POINTS.]

Let us suppose A-B to announce grand on their deal, and to make four
by cards, which, multiplied by 8, gives them 32 points; that is,
three games, and 2 points to their credit on the marker. The first of
these games is a double, Y-Z having 6 points up. The two others are
quadruples, put down on the score-sheet thus:--

         A-B | 0 | 2 | 4 | 4 |   |   |   |
  Score:     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
         Y-Z | 2 | 0 | 0 | 0 |   |   |   |

[Illustration: A-B’S, 3 GAMES, 2 POINTS. Y-Z’S, 1 GAME, 0 POINTS.]

In the next hand let us suppose clubs to be cayenne. Y deals, and plays
in colour, spades. Y-Z win 6 by cards, and 4 by honours; 10 points
multiplied by 3, = 30. For this they score three games, the first
being a triple, and the others quadruples. These three games win the
rubber, for which they add 8 points, and 4 points for the little slam.
This is all put down on the score-sheet:--

         A-B | 0 | 2 | 4 | 4 | 0 | 0 | 0 |     = 10
  Score:     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
         Y-Z | 2 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 3 | 4 | 4 | 8 4 = 25

Both scores being added up, the value of the rubber won by Y-Z is found
to be 15, after deducting the 10 points made by A-B.

_=CUTTING IN.=_ If there are more than four persons belonging to the
table, those waiting cut in, as at Whist.

_=METHODS OF CHEATING.=_ In all games in which the cards are dealt in
bulk, four or six at a time, there is more or less temptation for the
greek to gather desirable cards in the pack, leaving them undisturbed
in the shuffle. If he can pick up two tricks of the previous deal with
eight good cards of the same suit in them, by placing any two tricks
of other cards between them, and dealing six at a time, he can tell
exactly how many of the eight located cards are in his partner’s hand.
For this reason a player who does not thoroughly shuffle the cards
should be carefully watched; and an immediate protest should be made
against any disarrangement of the tricks as they are taken in during
the play, such as placing the last trick taken under the first. If
the player doing this is to be the next dealer, any one observing the
movement should insist upon his right to shuffle the cards thoroughly;
if not to leave the game.

We are strongly opposed to dealing the cards in bulk at Cayenne, and
see no reason why the methods that prevail in the very similar game of
Bridge should not be adopted.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ There is little to add to the rules
already given for Whist. The principles that should guide in the making
of the trump have been given in connection with the more important
game of Bridge; and the suggestions for playing nullo will be fully
discussed in the games in which it is a prominent characteristic: Solo
Whist, and Boston. Grand is practically Whist after the trumps are
exhausted.

For the Laws of Cayenne see Whist Family Laws.


SOLO WHIST, OR WHIST DE GAND.

_=CARDS.=_ Solo Whist is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards,
which rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing. Two packs are
generally used, the one being shuffled while the other is dealt.

_=MARKERS=_ are not used in Solo Whist, every hand being a complete
game in itself, which is immediately settled for in counters
representing money. At the beginning of the game each player should be
provided with an equal number of these counters. They are usually white
and red, the red being worth five times as much as the white. Twenty
white and sixteen red is the usual allotment to each player when the
game begins. Some one player should be the banker, to sell and redeem
all counters.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Solo Whist is played by four persons. If there are five
candidates for play, they all sit at the same table, each taking his
turn to sit out for one hand while the four others play. The dealer is
usually selected to sit out. If there are only three players, one suit
must be deleted from the pack, or the 2, 3, and 4 of each suit must be
thrown out.

_=CUTTING.=_ The table being formed, the players draw from an outspread
for the deal, and choice of seats and cards. The player drawing the
lowest card deals the first hand, and it is usual for him to dictate
to the other players what seats they shall occupy with relation to
himself. Ties are decided in the same manner as at Whist.

_=POSITION OF THE PLAYERS.=_ The four players at Solo Whist are usually
distinguished by the letters A B Y Z.

[Illustration:

       Y
    +-----+
    |     |
  A |     | B
    |     |
    +-----+
       Z
]

Z is the dealer, and A is known as the _=eldest hand=_. The position
of the players does not imply any partnership; for, as we shall see
presently, any player may have any one of the others for a partner,
without any change taking place in their positions at the table.

The players having once taken their seats are not allowed to change
them without the consent of all the others at the table.

_=DEALING.=_ The cards having been properly shuffled, are presented to
the pone to be cut. Beginning on his left, the dealer distributes the
cards three at a time, until only four remain. These he deals one at a
time, turning up the last for the trump. When two packs are used, the
player sitting opposite the dealer shuffles the still pack while the
other is dealt. The deal passes in regular rotation to the left.

When three play with a pack of forty cards, the last card is turned up
for trumps, but it does not belong to the dealer, and is not used in
play.

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are the
same as at Whist; except that a misdeal does not pass the deal. The
misdealer must deal again, and with the same pack.

The cards dealt, each player sorts and counts his hand to see that
he has the correct number of cards, thirteen. If not, he should
immediately claim a misdeal; for a player having more or less than his
right proportion of cards cannot win anything on that hand, but will
have to stand his proportion of all losses incurred by him or his side.

_=OBJECTS OF THE GAME.=_ There are seven distinct objects in the
Solo Whist, and before play begins each player has an opportunity of
declaring to which of these objects he proposes to attain. They are:--

1st. To win 8 of the 13 tricks, with the assistance of a partner. This
is called a _=Proposal=_; the partner’s share is an _=Acceptance=_.

2nd. To win 5 of the 13 tricks, against the three other players
combined. This is called a _=Solo=_.

3rd. To take no tricks, there being no trump suit, and the three other
players being opposed. This is called _=Misère=_, or Nullo.

4th. To win 9 of the 13 tricks against the three other players
combined; the single player to name the trump suit. This is called
_=Abundance=_.

5th. To win 9 of the 13 tricks against the three other players
combined, with the trump suit that is turned up. This is called
_=Abundance in Trumps=_.

6th. To take no tricks, there being no trump suit, and the three other
players being opposed; the single player’s cards being exposed face up
on the table after the first trick is complete. This is called Misère
sur table, or _=A Spread=_.

7th. To win all 13 tricks against the three other players combined; the
single player to name the trump suit, and to have the original lead
whether eldest hand or not. This is called Abundance Déclarée, or _=A
Slam=_.

While the object of the proposing player is to win or lose the declared
number of tricks, that of his adversaries is to prevent him from doing
so, if possible. There are no honours, and the only factor in the
count is the number of tricks actually taken. The highest card played
of the suit led wins the trick, and trumps, if any, win against all
other suits.

_=METHOD OF DECLARING.=_ The eldest hand has the first say, and after
examining his cards he may make any of the several propositions just
enumerated. The smallest proposal he can make is to take 8 tricks with
the assistance of a partner. To do this he should have four reasonably
sure tricks in his own hand. Some players say he should be strong in
trumps; while others claim that the eldest hand should propose only
on general strength. The former is the better plan. No other player
should propose on trumps alone. This announcement is made by saying
“_=I propose=_.” If a player thinks he can take five tricks against the
combined efforts of the three other players, he announces: “_=Solo=_.”
If he feels equal to a misère, he calls: “_=Misère=_;” and so on,
according to the strength of his hand. If he does not feel justified in
making a call, he says “_=I pass=_;” and the next player on his left
has the opportunity; and so on, until some player has proposed to do
something, or all have passed.

If any player has proposed for a partner, any of the others, in their
proper turn, may accept him by simply saying “_=I accept=_.” By so
doing, a player intimates that he has four probable tricks also, but
in the plain suits, and that he is willing to try for eight tricks
with the proposer for a partner. All the other calls are made by a
single player with the intention of playing against the three others.
Any player except the eldest hand having once said, “I pass,” cannot
afterwards make or accept any proposal. The eldest hand, after passing
once, can accept a proposal, but he cannot make one.

It is the custom in some places, when no one will make a proposal of
any sort, to turn down the trump, and play the hands without any trump
suit, each man for himself, the winner of the last trick losing to each
of the others the value of a solo. This is called a _=Grand=_.

_=RANK OF THE PROPOSALS.=_ The various calls outrank one another in the
order in which we have given them. If one player says, “I propose,” and
another calls “Solo,” the solo call shuts out the proposal, even though
it has been accepted by a second player. The call of a misère would
in turn shut out a solo; abundance would take precedence of misère;
and abundance in trumps would be a better call than simple abundance.
The slam of course outranks all other bids. This making of a better
proposition than one already made is known as “_=Over-calling=_.”

A player who has made a call of any kind, or has accepted a proposal,
may amend his proposition to a better one, only in case he is
over-called; or a player who can not get a partner to accept him may
amend his call to solo. For instance: A player may have a hand which
he feels sure is good for 8 tricks, perhaps 9. To be safe, he calls
solo, and hopes to make three or four over-tricks. If he is outbid by
some player over-calling him with a misère, he may be tempted to amend
his call to abundance.

No call is good until every player who has not already passed does so,
by saying distinctly, “I pass.”

_=STAKES.=_ The losses and gains of the players are in proportion to
the difficulties of the tasks they set themselves.

The most popular method of settling is to pay or take red counters for
the various calls, and white counters for the tricks under or over the
exact number proposed. If the callers succeed in their undertakings,
their adversaries pay them; if they fail, they pay their adversaries. A
red counter is worth five white ones.

  Proposal and Acceptance wins or loses      1 red counter.
  Solo wins or loses                         2 red counters.
  Misère, or Nullo, wins or loses            3 red counters.
  Abundance, of any kind, wins or loses      4 red counters.
  Open Misère, or Spread, wins or loses      6 red counters.
  Declared Abundance, or Slam, wins or loses 8 red counters.
  Each Over or Under-trick wins or loses     1 white counter.

In Proposal and Acceptance, each of the partners pays one of his
adversaries. In all cases in which a single player is opposed to the
three others, he wins or loses the amount shown in the foregoing table
with each of them individually; so that a single player calling a solo
would win or lose 6 red counters. If he lost it, making only four
tricks, he would also have to pay to each of his three adversaries a
white counter. If he won it, making seven tricks, each of them would
have to pay him two red and two white counters.

Misères, Spreads, and Slams pay no odd tricks. The moment a Misère
player takes a trick, or a Slam player loses one, the hands are
abandoned, and the stakes paid.

The usual value attached to the counters in America is 25 cents for the
red, and 5 cents for the white. In England the proportion is sixpence
and a penny.

_=POOL SOLO.=_ When players wish to enhance the gambling attractions
of the game, a pool is introduced. For this purpose a receptacle is
placed upon the table, in which each player puts a red counter at the
beginning of the game. Any person playing alone against the three
others, wins this pool if he is successful; if he fails, he must double
the amount it contains, besides paying each of his adversaries in
the regular way. In some places it is the custom for each player to
contribute a red counter when he deals. The proposals and acceptances
do not touch the pool.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ If a proposal is accepted, and no one over-calls
it, the proposer and acceptor are partners; but make no change in their
positions at the table. The eldest hand, sitting to the left of the
dealer, begins by leading any card he pleases, and the play proceeds
exactly as at Whist, the tricks being so stacked that they may be
readily counted at any time.

If a single player has called solo, misère, or abundance, the eldest
hand still has the original lead, and there is no change in the
positions of the players. The position of the lead is often a serious
consideration with a player calling a solo or a misère.

In all calls except misères and slams, the hands must be played out, in
order to give each side an opportunity to make all the over-tricks they
can. The moment a misère player takes a trick, or a slam player loses
one, the hands are thrown up, and the stakes paid.

When a spread is called, the trump is taken up, and the eldest hand
leads. As soon as all have played to the first trick, the caller
spreads his remaining twelve cards face upward on the table, so that
each of his adversaries may see them; but they have no control of
the order in which they shall be played. The adversaries play their
hands in the usual manner, with no further guidance than that possible
by inference from the play and the exposed hand. The caller plays
according to his best judgment.

When a slam is called, the player proposing it has the original lead;
but that does not alter the position of the deal for the next hand.

_=REVOKES.=_ A revoke is a serious matter in Solo Whist. The penalty
for it is the loss of three tricks, and the revoking players must pay
the _=red=_ counters involved in the call whether they win or lose;
but they may play the hand out to save over-tricks. For instance: A
proposer and acceptor make 11 tricks; their adversaries having claimed
a revoke. After deducting the revoke penalty, 3 tricks, the callers
still have 8 tricks left, enough to make good the call. They each lose
a red counter; but no white ones, having saved their over-tricks.
Had they taken only 8 tricks altogether, the penalty for the revoke
would have left them only 5, and they would each have had to pay one
red and three whites. If either adversary of the callers revokes, the
individual player in fault must pay for all the consequences of the
error. If the player in fault can show that the callers would have won
in spite of the revoke, his partners must pay their share; but the
revoking player must settle for the three tricks lost by the revoke.
For instance: Z calls solo; A revokes; Z makes 6 tricks, which it can
be shown he must have done in spite of the revoke. A, Y, and B each
pay Z 1 red and 1 white counter, and then A pays Z 9 white counters in
addition for the tricks taken as revoke penalty.

If the single player revokes, either on solo or abundance, he loses
the red counters involved, and must pay whatever white counters are due
after three of his tricks have been added to those of the adversaries
as penalty for the revoke. For instance: A calls solo, and revokes, but
wins 6 tricks in all. He pays two red counters to each adversary. They
then take three of his tricks, leaving him three only, and demand two
white counters each, for the two under-tricks. If a player revokes who
has called a misère or a slam, he immediately loses the stakes. If a
revoke is made by any adversary of a player who has called misère or
slam, the player in fault must individually pay all the stakes.

_=CARDS PLAYED IN ERROR.=_ In the simple proposal and acceptance, the
rules with regard to cards played in error, or led out of turn, are
the same as at Whist. In the case of a single player against three
adversaries, the caller is not liable to any penalty for cards played
in error, or led out of turn; but his adversaries are subject to the
usual whist penalties for all such irregularities, such as having the
cards laid on the table as exposed, or a suit called, or the highest or
lowest of a suit led demanded from an adversary who has followed suit
out of turn.

For the better protection of the single player, who is much more liable
to be injured by irregularities than partners would be, he is allowed
to prevent the use of an exposed trump for ruffing, and to demand or
_=to prevent=_ the play of any exposed card in plain suits. If a suit
is led of which an adversary has an exposed card on the table the
single player may call upon him to play his highest or lowest of that
suit.

If any adversary of a misère player leads out of turn, or exposes a
card, or plays before his proper turn in any trick, the caller may
immediately claim the stakes, and the individual player in fault must
pay for himself, and for his partners.

_=METHODS OF CHEATING.=_ While the practice of dealing three cards at a
time gives a little more opportunity to the greek than would occur if
they were dealt as at Whist, there is little to be feared if two packs
are used, unless two greeks are in partnership. When such partners sit
next each other, there is more or less danger, if only one pack is
used, that one may shuffle so that the other may cut understandingly;
or that a good shuffler may run up six cards for a dealer that is not
embarrassed by the cards being cut. A shrewd greek can often help a
silent partner who is playing under the disguise of a single caller,
especially in misère. Persons who play in the many public cafés of
Europe should be especially careful to avoid this style of partnership,
where it is very common.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ Apart from the general principles common
to all forms of Whist, such as the play of high or low cards, trumps
or plain suits, etc., there are several points peculiar to Solo Whist
which require attention.

_=Proposing.=_ It is better to propose on two or three sure tricks,
with strong probabilities of several more, than on a certainty of four
only. For instance: The two highest trumps and two suits containing
Aces, with no other trick probable, is not such a good hand for a
proposal as one containing four average trumps, with one plain suit
of K Q J x x, and another of K Q x x. It is not improbable that the
latter may be good for seven or eight tricks. Nothing but experience
will teach a player what combinations of cards are “probably” good for
tricks; but K x x, or Q J 10 x or K Q, may be counted on.

There should be some intelligible system of proposing, so that the
players may understand each other. The eldest hand should not propose
except on strong trumps, and this should be a warning to other players
not to accept him on trump strength alone.

Four trumps with two or three honours may be called strong; or five
trumps, even without an honour. Five trumps with two or more honours is
great strength.

Any player other than the eldest hand should propose on general
strength and the player accepting him should do so on trump strength.
Some such distinction should be clearly understood, in order that there
may be no such contretemps as two players proposing and accepting on
trumps alone and finding themselves without a trick in the plain suits
after the trumps are drawn.

If the eldest hand is strong in trumps, but has not four sure tricks,
he should pass, which will give him an excellent opportunity to accept
a player proposing on general strength in the plain suits. If the
proposal should be accepted before it comes to his turn, the eldest
hand should be in a good position to defeat it.

If any player, other than the eldest hand, has sufficient trump
strength to justify a proposal, he will usually find that he can risk
a solo; or by passing, defeat any proposal and acceptance that may be
made.

_=Accepting.=_ A proposal by the eldest hand should not be accepted
by a player with only one strong suit. The probability of tricks in
several suits is better than a certainty in one suit; but if one strong
suit is accompanied by a card of re-entry, or by four trumps, it should
prove very strong, particularly in partnership with the eldest hand.

When the partners will sit next each other, proposals may be accepted
on slightly weaker hands than would be considered safe otherwise.

_=Playing Proposals and Acceptances.=_ If the eldest hand has proposed,
and his partner sits next him on the left, the commanding trumps
should be first led, in order to secure as many rounds as possible. If
the eldest hand has no high-card combination in trumps, it is sometimes
better to lead a small card from a weak suit, hoping to put the partner
in. If successful, the partner will first show his suit, and then lead
trumps through the adversaries. If the acceptor sits on the right of
the proposing eldest hand, trumps should be led immediately, and the
highest of them first, no matter what they are. The Q or J at the head
of five trumps may be of great use to a partner with an honour. When
the eldest hand has proposed, and his partner sits opposite him, trumps
should be led at once, and all combinations played as at Whist.

The foregoing principles equally apply when the eldest hand has
accepted a proposal, if the player can be depended on to have proposed
on general strength.

When partners sit opposite each other, the general principles of
leading, establishing, defending, and bringing in suits, are the same
as at Whist, and the usual trump signals and echoes are made use of.
The game is practically Whist, with the additional knowledge that both
proposer and acceptor have strong hands.

When partners sit next each other, there are many opportunities for
leading strengthening cards through the adversaries, especially in the
partner’s known or inferred strong suit.

_=Finesse.=_ If neither proposer nor acceptor is the eldest hand, they
should make no finesses; but get into the lead as soon as possible,
and exhaust the trumps. The greatest danger of defeat for a proposal
and acceptance is that the adversaries, with the original lead, may
establish a cross-ruff, or get six tricks with their winning cards
before the calling players get a lead.

It is a common artifice for the proposer and acceptor, after they
have exhausted the adversaries’ trumps, each to show a strong suit by
leading it once, and then to lead the highest card of a weaker suit;
thus offering each other chances for successful finesse.

If a partner sitting on the right leads a suit, there should be
no finesse; and in general, finessing should be avoided until the
declaration is assured. It may then be used to secure probable
over-tricks.

_=Adversaries’ Play.=_ The players opposed to the call are always
designated as the adversaries.

Players opposed to a proposer and acceptor should make no finesses that
they are not certain will win more tricks if successful than they will
lose if they fail. If the adversaries sit together, and are the last
to play on any trick, the third hand should not trust anything to his
partner that he can attend to himself, unless he is very anxious to be
the last player on the next trick.

When the adversaries sit opposite each other, their play will
differ very little from that in Whist, except that they will make no
efforts to establish long suits, and will not lead small cards from
combinations containing an Ace. Every trick possible should be made
sure of at once, before the calling players get any chance to discard.
Weak suits should be protected, as they are in Whist when opposed to
strong hands.

If an adversary has the first lead, it is usually best for him to make
what winning cards he has at once, unless he is pretty sure that the
proposal will be defeated.

It is very seldom right for the adversaries to lead trumps. Some
exceptions will naturally present themselves, such as an eldest hand
leading to his partner’s turned-up King. In the middle or end game, it
may be advantageous to bring down the caller’s trumps together, or to
draw two for one.

If an adversary finds himself with a pretty strong hand, he should
utterly disregard his partner, and play as false as he can; for if the
callers have eight probable tricks between them, it is impossible for
the fourth player to have anything, unless there has been some mistake
in the call.

_=In General.=_ There are one or two exceptions to the methods of
playing sequences at Whist, dependent on the position of the players
holding them. For instance: If first or second hand holds any sequence
of high cards, he should play the highest if his partner sits next him
on the left, and the adversaries are to play after him; otherwise the
partner might think the higher cards of the sequence were against the
leader. If a caller should hold K Q x second hand, and play the Q as at
Whist, his partner following him, and holding Ace, would have to play
it, thinking the King might be beyond.

_=SOLO.=_ In speaking of the players in a solo, misère, or abundance,
it is usual to distinguish those opposed to the single player by
calling them respectively, Left, Right, and Opposite.

[Illustration:

       Opposite
      +--------+
      |        |
  Left|        |Right
      |        |
      +--------+
      The Caller
]

This arrangement does not affect the use of the letters A Y B Z,
and the terms first, second, third, and fourth hand; indicating the
position of the deal, and of the lead.

_=Calling.=_ Those solos are easiest which are declared by the eldest
hand, or by the dealer; the hardest being those called by second hand.
The safest solos are those called on trump strength; but average
trumps and winning cards in the plain suits are more advantageous if
the caller is not eldest hand. To call a solo on plain suits alone,
with only one or two trumps, is extremely dangerous; and a solo called
on a single suit must have at least five or six good trumps in order to
succeed.

_=PLAYING.=_ When a call has been made entirely upon trump strength, it
is much better to make tricks by ruffing, than by leading trumps. There
is little use for a solo player to hold a tenace in trumps, hoping it
will be led to him. If he has good suits, he should make sure of two
rounds of trumps by leading the Ace.

When the solo player is depending on the plain suits for tricks, and
has one long suit, he should make what winning cards he has in the
other plain suits in preference to leading trumps, for his only danger
is that his long suit will be led often enough to give his adversaries
discards in the other suits.

If a proposal was made before the solo was called, it is better for the
solo player to sit on the left of the player that proposed.

The caller should never play single honours second hand, unless he has
only one small card of the suit, or the honour is the Ace.

With A Q x, second or third hand, the Q must be finessed if the caller
has counted on both A and Q for tricks. If he can probably win without
the finesse, he should play Ace. If he has tricks enough to win without
either A or Q, he should play neither of them.

A solo player should be very sure of his call before finessing for
over-tricks.

_=Adversaries’ Play.=_ The player to the left of the caller should
not lead trumps; but if the solo player has had a lead, and has not
led trumps himself, the player on his right should take the first
opportunity to lead them through him.

The player to the left of the caller should not lead from suits headed
only by the King; nor from those containing major or minor tenaces. The
best leads are from suits headed by Q J or 10, even if short.

With such high-card combinations as can be used to force the command
in one round, such as K Q, or K Q J, the regular whist leads should be
used. With suits headed by winning sequences, held by the player on
the left, it is often right to lead them once, in order to show them,
and then to lead a weaker suit to get rid of the lead. It is sometimes
better to play winning sequences as long as it seems probable that the
caller can follow suit.

Many persons use the Albany lead to indicate a wish for trumps to be
led through the caller. In response to such a signal the best trump
should be led, whatever it is.

When the adversary who leads in any trick is not on the left of the
solo player, the caller will, of course, not be the last player, as at
least one adversary must play after him. In such cases it is best to
lead the longest suits.

_=MISÈRE.=_ The great difficulty in Misère is not in playing it; but in
judging what hands justify such an undertaking.

_=Calling.=_ As a general proposition it may be stated that misère
should not be called with a long suit not containing the deuce. But
the longer the suit the less the danger there is for a player who is
determined to risk it; because the deuce is more likely to be found
alone in some adversary’s hand. Short suits may be risked, even with no
card smaller than a 5 or 6, and it is of course a great advantage to
have a suit altogether missing.

_=Leading.=_ The lead is a disadvantage to the caller, because he must
begin with a small card, and the adversaries can play their highest.
The only satisfaction to the caller is that he can usually locate the
high cards of the suit under such circumstances. For instance: Suppose
he originally leads a 4; second hand playing the 9; third hand the Ace;
and fourth hand the 10. The third hand is marked with whatever cards of
the sequence K Q J are not in the caller’s hand.

Many players fall into the error of leading the highest card of a
losing sequence, such as a 6 from 6 5 4 3. This accomplishes nothing,
and only discloses to the adversaries the fact that the caller is safe
in that suit. The three is the better lead.

_=Following Suit.=_ The caller should usually play a card as little
inferior as he can to the highest already on the trick. When he has
cards of equal value, such as the 5 and 2, the 3 and 4 being already
on the table, he should play the lower card of the fourchette; for
although it may be said that the fourth player must take the trick,
there is no certainty that he will follow suit.

When second hand, if there is a choice between two cards, such as the 6
and 2, an intermediate card having been led, it is often a nice point
to decide whether or not to risk covering and keeping the deuce. If the
deuce is played, it must be remembered that the adversaries will follow
with their highest cards, leaving two cards out against the caller,
both smaller than the 6.

_=Discarding.=_ The misère player should never discard from his long
suits. The high cards of short suits, and single intermediate cards,
such as 5’s and 6’s, should be got rid of at every opportunity.

_=Adversaries of the Misère.=_ In playing against a misère the chief
difficulty is to prevent the caller from discarding, and to place the
lead with the player who can probably do him the most harm.

It is an axiom with solo-whist players that every misère can be
defeated, if the weak spot in it can be found; because if the misère
was absolutely safe, it would be played as a spread, which would pay
the caller twice as much. This is not true, however, for it often
happens that the cards are so distributed in the other hands that the
call cannot be defeated, however risky it may have been.

The weak point in a misère is usually a short suit with one high card
in it; or a suit of intermediate length, without the deuce.

As it is probable that the caller is short in suits in which the
adversaries are long, and long in those in which they are short, he is
less likely to get a discard if they lead their shortest suits first.
If the misère player has over-called a proposal or a solo, he is likely
to be short in the trump suit, or at least safe in it. It is not good
play to lead a single Ace; but a King may be very effective; for if
no one plays the Ace on it, that card may be absolutely marked in the
caller’s hand. In such a case the adversary with the greatest number of
that suit should keep it for the attack. If this player can get into
the lead, he is not only sure of preventing the caller from discarding,
but of allowing the other adversaries to discard to advantage.

With an honour and one small card, a player on the left should lead the
small card first; if on the right, the honour should be led first. A
long suit containing the deuce should be avoided as long as possible.

The caller’s cards may sometimes be inferred if there has been a
previous call on the hand. For instance: A misère may be a forced call;
that is, the player first called a proposal, and not being accepted,
was forced to amend his call, choosing misère in preference to solo.
This would indicate a long weak suit of trumps. If the dealer calls
misère, the turn-up trump should be carefully noted.

It is useless to persevere in suits in which the caller is evidently
safe. If he plays a very low card to a trick in which there is already
a high card, that suit should be stopped.

_=Discarding.=_ An adversary should get rid of some one suit, if
possible; for when that suit is afterwards led he will have free choice
of his discards in the other suits. Short suits should be discarded in
preference to high cards in long suits, unless the cards in the short
suit are very low. Discards give great information to the adversaries
if the rule is followed to discard the highest of a suit; because
all cards higher than those discarded must be between the two other
adversaries and the caller, and each adversary is thus furnished with
a guide. It is useless to discard a suit of which the caller is void;
and it is best to keep discarding from one suit until it is exhausted,
or only the deuce remains. The trump signal is frequently used in
discarding to indicate that the signaller wishes to get into the lead.

_=Returning Suits.=_ Whether or not to return a partner’s lead may
often be decided by inferences from the fall of the cards. It is
frequently an easy matter to locate the cards in the various suits, if
it is borne in mind that adversaries who play after the caller get rid
of their highest cards. For instance: Right leads the 9; caller plays
the 5; left the 10; and the last player finds he holds K Q J 6 of the
suit. He should know that the caller has nothing between the 5 and the
9, and must have the Ace; so his cards were probably A 5 4 3 2. While
it is manifestly impossible to catch him on that suit, it may still be
led three times, in order to give the partners discards, as both of
them must be short. If this estimate of the caller’s cards is wrong
in anything, it is not with regard to the Ace, so there is not the
slightest danger in continuing the suit.

As a general rule, the suit first led by an adversary should be
returned, unless the player winning the trick has a singleton in
another suit, when he should lead that.

The suit led by the caller, if he was eldest hand, should not be
returned.

Some judgment of character must be used in playing on a caller’s own
lead. An adventurous player will sometimes call a misère on a hand
which contains a singleton 5 or 6, and will lead it at once; trusting
that second hand will imagine it to be safe, and cover it. Players
should be aware of this trap, and never cover a misère player’s own
lead if they can help it, unless the card led is below a 4.

_=ABUNDANCE.=_ Very few persons will risk calling an abundance which
they are not pretty certain of; but a player may be forced to the call
on a doubtful hand, especially if he is over-called on his original
proposal to play a solo. The lead is a great advantage, because trumps
can be exhausted immediately, and the suits protected. If the caller
has not the lead he must calculate in advance for trumping in, and if
his plain suits are not quite established, he will require more trumps
than would otherwise be necessary. The greatest danger to an abundance
player who has not the original lead, is that his best suit will be
led through him, and trumped, either on the first or second round. The
caller is often trapped into unnecessarily high trumping when suits are
led through him a second or third time.

_=The Adversaries=_ have little chance to defeat an abundance unless
they can over-trump the caller, or ruff his good cards before he can
exhaust the trumps. It is best for the Right to lead his longest suit,
and for the Left to lead his shortest. A guarded King suit should
not be led under any circumstances; nor a short suit Ace high. If an
adversary has a single trump of medium size, such as a J or 10, it is
often good play to trump a partner’s winning cards, so as to be sure of
preventing the caller from making a small trump. If an adversary has
trumped or over-trumped, it is very important to lead that suit to him
again as soon as possible.

The rules for discarding that are given in connection with Whist should
be carefully observed; especially in the matter of showing command of
suits.

_=SPREADS.=_ These should not be called except with hands in which
every suit contains the deuce, and all the cards are low enough to
insure the player that nothing short of extraordinary circumstances
will defeat him. Open sequences, or Dutch straights, as they are
sometimes called, in which the cards are all odd or all even, such as 2
4 6 8 10, are quite as safe as ordinary sequences, provided the deuce
is among the cards.

The player calling a spread must remember that it will be impossible
for him to get any discards after the first trick without the consent
of the adversaries; for they will not lead a suit of which they see
he is void. In order to reduce the caller’s chances of a discard on
the opening lead, before his cards are exposed, the adversaries should
select their shortest suits, unless they have a bottom sequence to the
deuce.

_=THE SLAM.=_ This feature of Solo Whist is even rarer than the _grand
coup_ at Whist. It is not very marvellous for an abundance player to
make twelve or thirteen tricks; but to announce thirteen tricks before
a card is played is something phenomenal. All the adversaries can do
against such a call is to show each other, by their discards, in which
of the suits they have a possible trick. It is very annoying to have
a player succeed in making a slam just because two of his adversaries
keep the same suit.


SOLO WHIST FOR THREE PLAYERS.

The best arrangement is to play with a pack of forty cards, deleting
the 2, 3, and 4 of each suit. The last card is turned up to determine
the trump, but it is not used in play.

There is no proposal and acceptance, solo being the lowest call. If all
three players pass, the trump card is turned down, and each player in
turn has the option of calling a six-trick abundance, naming his own
trump suit. In some places it is the custom to allow the players to
over-call each other, after the trump is turned down, each increasing
the number of tricks he proposes to take. A misère over-calls eight
tricks.

_=Kimberly Solo=_ is for four players, without any proposal and
acceptance, solo being the lowest call. If all pass, a six-trick solo
with a different trump is allowed.


TEXT BOOKS.

  Solo Whist, by R.F. Green.
  How to Play Solo Whist, by Wilks & Pardon.

For the Laws of Solo Whist, see Whist Family Laws.


ILLUSTRATIVE SOLO WHIST HANDS.

The dealer, Z, turns up the heart 3 in both hands, and A leads. The
underlined card wins the trick, and the card under it is the next one
led.

                                  | T|
            _=A Solo.=_           | R|        _=A Misère.=_
                                  | I|
  --------------------------------+ C+-------------------------------
      A       Y       B       Z   | K|   A      Y       B        Z
  +-------+-------+-------+-------+--+-------+-------+-------+------+
  |  10♢  |   8♢  |   Q♢  |  _K♢_ | 1|  _K♠_ |  7♠   |  J♠   |  10♠ |
  |   3♢  |   9♢  |  _A♢_ |   2♢  | 2|  _Q♠_ |  5♠   |  9♠   |   8♠ |
  |  ♡6   |  ♡2   | _♡A_  |  ♡3   | 3|   Q♢  |  5♢   | _A♢_  |   J♢ |
  |  ♣8   |  ♡4   |  ♡Q   | _♡K_  | 4|   9♢  |  4♢   | _K♢_  |  10♢ |
  |  ♣9   | _♣A_  |  ♣4   |  ♣7   | 5|  ♡6   |  3♠   | _6♠_  |   8♢ |
  |  _A♠_ |   9♠  |   K♠  |   4♠  | 6|  ♡7   |  2♠   | _4♠_  |  ♣A  |
  | _♣K_  |  ♣2   |  ♣6   |  ♣5   | 7|  ♣10  | ♣8    | ♣7    | _♣K_ |
  |   7♠  |   2♠  |  _Q♠_ |   6♠  | 8|  ♣9   | ♣6    |  7♢   | _♣Q_ |
  |   5♢  |  ♣3   |  ♣Q   | _♡8_  | 9|  ♣5   | ♣4    |  6♢   | _♣J_ |
  |   6♢  |   3♠  | _♡5_  |   J♢  |10|  ♡8   | ♣2    | ♡K    | _♣3_ |
  |   7♢  |  ♡10  |  ♡9   | _♡J_  |11| _♡A_  | ♡2    | ♡Q    |  ♡3  |
  |   8♠  |   5♠  | _♡7_  |   4♢  |12|   2♢  | _3♢_  | ♡9    |  ♡4  |
  |   J♠  |  ♣J   |  ♣10  |  10♠  |13|  ♡J   | _A♠_  | ♡10   |  ♡5  |
  +-------+-------+-------+-------+  +-------+-------+-------+------+

         _Solo player wins._               _Misère player loses._

In the first example, A and Y pass, and B calls Solo. A follows the
modern practice of leading the top of his long weak suit, as a card of
warning and support for his partners. Z knows Y must have 9 or Ace of
diamonds, or no more, and he avoids the error of opening another suit,
especially a weak one. B continues with the trump Queen, hoping to drop
King and Jack together. At trick 5, Z cannot give up the command of
trumps, and as A’s lead and discard indicate that he wants spades led
up to him, Z’s best chance is that Y has some clubs. Y leads to A. At
trick 9, Z knows B cannot have 10 and 9 of trumps, or he would have led
one of them to prevent the J and 8 both making, so Y must have one of
those trumps. At trick 11, if B leads the club, he loses his call. He
must again take the chance of bringing the trumps down together.

In the second example A proposes, or calls Solo, and Y over-calls him
with Misère. The great point in playing against Misère is to continue
leading suits in which he is known to be long, so as to give your
partners discards. This B does with the two long spades, the caller
being marked with the ace and others on the second trick. Then Z allows
B to discard his high diamonds on the clubs.


SCOTCH WHIST, OR CATCH THE TEN.

_=CARDS.=_ Scotch Whist is played with a pack of 36 cards, which rank
in plain suits, A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6; the Ace being highest both in play
and in cutting. In the trump suit the Jack is the best card, the order
being, J A K Q 10 9 8 7 6.

_=MARKERS.=_ There are no suitable counters for Scotch Whist, and the
score is usually kept on a sheet of paper.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Any number from two to eight may play. When there are five
or seven players, the spade 6 must be removed from the pack. In some
places this is not done; the thirty-fifth card being turned up for the
trump, the thirty-sixth shown to the table, and then laid aside.

_=CUTTING.=_ Whatever the number of persons offering for play, the
table is formed by cutting from the outspread pack for partners, seats,
and deal.

When two play, the one cutting the lowest card has the choice of seats
and cards, (if there are two packs).

When three play, the lowest deals, and chooses his seat and cards. The
next lowest has the next choice of seats.

When four play, partners are cut for; the two lowest pairing against
the two highest; the lowest of the four is the dealer, and has the
choice of seats and cards.

When five play, each for himself, the lowest cut deals, and has the
first choice of seats and cards. The next lowest has the next choice of
seats, and so on.

When six play, they cut for partners, the two lowest pairing together;
the two highest together; and the two intermediates together. The
player cutting the lowest card of the six has the choice of seats and
cards, and deals the first hand. If the six play, three on a side, the
three lowest play against the three highest; the lowest cut of the six
taking the deal, and choice of seats and cards.

When seven play, each for himself, the lowest deals, and has the choice
of seats and cards; the others choosing their seats in the order of
their cuts.

When eight play, they may form two sets of four each, or four sets of
two each. In either case the partnerships are decided by cutting, and
the lowest cut of the eight has the deal, with choice of seats and
cards.

_=TIES=_ are decided in the manner already described in connection with
Whist.

_=POSITION OF THE PLAYERS.=_ Two players sit opposite each other.
Three, five or seven sit according to their choice. Four sit as
at Whist, the partners facing each other. Six, playing in two
partnerships, sit alternately, so that no two partners shall be next
each other. Six, playing in three partnerships of two each, sit so
that two adversaries shall be between each pair of partners. Eight,
playing in two sets of four each, or as four pairs of partners, arrange
themselves alternately. If we distinguish the partners by the letters
A, B, C, D, the diagram will show the arrangement of the tables.

[Illustration:

    B    C           A    B            A    B
   +------+         +------+          +------+
   |      |        D|      |C        B|      |A
  A|      |A        |      |          |      |
   |      |        C|      |D        A|      |B
   +------+         +------+          +------+
    C    B           B    A            B    A

  THREE PAIRS.    FOUR PAIRS.        TWO FOURS.
]

The player to the left of the dealer is the original leader.

_=DEALING.=_ The method of dealing varies with the number of players
engaged. When only one pack is used, any player may shuffle, the dealer
last. The pack must be presented to the pone to be cut, and the entire
pack is then dealt out, one card at a time.

When two play, the dealer gives each six cards, one at a time. These
two hands are kept separate, and two more are dealt in the same manner,
and then a third two, the last card being turned up for the trump.
When the deal is complete, there will be six hands on the table, three
belonging to each player.

[Illustration:

   +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
   |     |     |     |     |     |
   |     |     |     |     |     |
   |     |     |     |     |     |
   +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
  1ST HANDS.  2ND HANDS.  3RD HANDS.
   +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
   |     |     |     |     |     |     +------+
   |     |     |     |     |     |     |Trump.|
   |     |     |     |     |     |     +------+
   +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
]

When three play, the cards are dealt in much the same manner; two
separate hands of six cards being given to each player.

When four, five, six, seven, or eight play, the cards are dealt in
rotation from left to right until the pack is exhausted, the last card
being turned up for the trump. When five or seven play, either the
spade 6 must be thrown out of the pack, or the thirty-sixth card must
be shown, after the dealer has turned the thirty-fifth for the trump.
When eight play, all four sixes are deleted.

The deal passes to the left, each player dealing in turn until the game
is finished.

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are the
same as at Whist.

_=STAKES.=_ When stakes are played for, they are for so much a game.
Rubbers are not played. It is usual to form a pool, each player
depositing the stake agreed upon, and the winner taking all. In
partnership games, each losing player pays the successful adversary who
sits to his right. If three pairs were engaged, and A-A won, C and B
would each pay the A sitting next him. Before play begins, it should be
understood who pays for revokes; the side or the player.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The player on the dealer’s left begins by
leading any card he chooses, and the others must all follow suit if
they can. Failure to follow suit when able is a revoke, the penalty for
which, if detected and claimed by the adversaries, is the immediate
loss of the game. When there are more than two players or two sets
of partners, the revoking player or side must pay the two or more
adversaries as if each had won the game. In some places the individual
is made to pay, not the side. This should be understood before play
begins. If seven are playing, and one is detected in a revoke, his
loss is equal to six games. Any player having none of the suit led may
either trump or discard. The dealer should take up the trump card when
it is his turn to play to his first trick; after which it must not
be named, although a player may be informed what the trump suit is.
If all follow suit, the highest card played of the suit led wins the
trick, trumps win all other suits. The winner of the trick may lead any
card he chooses for the next; and so on, until all the cards have been
played.

It is not necessary to keep the tricks separate, as at Whist; but one
player should gather for his side.

When two or three play, the hands must be played in the order in which
they were dealt. For instance: If these are the hands:--

[Illustration:

                +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
                |     |     |     |     |     |
  Adversary’s:--|  1  |     |  3  |     |  5  |
                |     |     |     |     |     |
                +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
                1ST SET.    2ND SET.    3RD SET.
                +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
                |     |     |     |     |     |   +------+
  Dealer’s:--   |  2  |     |  4  |     |  6  |   |Trump.|
                |     |     |     |     |     |   +------+
                +-----+     +-----+     +-----+
]

The players first take up hands Nos. 1 and 2; a card is led from No.
1, the dealer follows suit from No. 2, or trumps, or discards, and the
play continues until these two hands are exhausted. The second set
are then taken up and played in the same manner; the player who won
the last trick in one set having the first lead in the next. Finally,
the third set are played in the same manner; all the cards taken by
each side being gathered into one pile by the player who has won them.
The trump card must remain on the table until the dealer takes up the
last hand. When three play, the set of hands first dealt must be first
played, and then the second set taken up.

The rules for cards played in error, leading out of turn, etc., are the
same as at Whist.

_=OBJECTS OF THE GAME.=_ The side first scoring 41 points wins the
game; and the chief object is to secure tricks containing cards to
which a certain value is attached. These all belong to the trump suit,
and are the following:--

  The Jack of trumps counts        11
  The Ace of trumps counts          4
  The King of trumps counts         3
  The Queen of trumps counts        2
  The Ten of trumps counts         10

The other trumps, and the plain suit-cards, have no counting value.

The Jack of trumps, being the best, must be taken in by the player to
whom it is dealt; but any court card in trumps will win the Ten, so
that one of the principal objects in Scotch Whist is to _=catch the
ten=_.

At the end of each hand the players count the number of cards they have
taken in tricks, and they are entitled to score one point for each
above the number originally dealt to them. For instance: If four play,
nine cards were originally dealt to each, so each pair of partners held
eighteen. If at the end of the hand they have taken in eight tricks, or
thirty-two cards, they score 14 points toward game, in addition to any
score they may have made by winning honours in trumps, or catching the
Ten. If five play, beginning with seven cards each, and at the end of
the hand one player has taken in fifteen, and another ten; they score 8
and 3 respectively, for cards.

_=SCORING.=_ At the end of each hand, each player or side should claim
all honours won, and cards taken in. One player should keep the score,
and announce it distinctly, in order that it may be known how many
points each player or side requires to win the game.

In the case of ties, the Ten counts out first; then cards; then A K Q
of trumps in their order, and the Jack last. A revoke, if detected and
claimed before the cards are cut for the next deal, immediately ends
the game.

_=METHODS OF CHEATING.=_ When only one pack is used, the greek can
often succeed in dealing himself the Jack of trumps, and usually loses
no time in marking the Ten, so that he can at least distinguish the
player to whom it is dealt. A player should be carefully watched who
keeps his eyes on the pack while shuffling, or who rivets his attention
on the backs of the cards as he deals. Two packs should be used in all
round games of cards.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ The chief counting elements that are
affected by the play being the trump Ten and the cards, it is usual to
devote particular attention to winning them. With J A of trumps, or A
K, it is best to lead two rounds immediately; but with a tenace, such
as J K, or A Q it is better to place the lead on your left if possible.
The high cards in the plain suits are capable of being very skilfully
managed in this matter of placing the lead. It sometimes happens that a
player with the Ten may be fourth hand on a suit of which he has none;
or he may catch the Ten with a small honour if it is used in trumping
in. The partnership games offer many fine opportunities for playing the
Ten into the partner’s hand, especially when it is probable that he has
the best trump, or a better trump than the player on the left.

In calculating the probabilities of saving the Ten by trumping in, it
must be remembered that the greater the number of players, the less
chance there is that a suit will go round more than once, because there
are only nine cards of each suit in play.

Many players, in their anxiety to catch the Ten, overlook the
possibilities of their hands in making cards, the count for which often
runs into high figures.

Close attention should be paid to the score. For instance: A wants
4 points to win; B wants 10; and C wants 16. If A can see his way
to win the game by cards or small honours, he should take the first
opportunity of giving C the Ten; or allowing him to make it in
preference to B. As the Ten counts first, cards and honours next, B may
be shut out, even if he has the Jack.

_=LAWS.=_ There are no special laws for Scotch Whist. The whist laws
are usually enforced for all such irregularities as exposed cards,
leading out of turn, etc. The most important matter is the revoke, and
it should be clearly understood before play begins whether the revoke
penalty is to be paid by the individual in fault, or by the side to
which he belongs. Some players think there should be some regulation
for penalties in such cases as that of a player taking up the wrong
hand, when two or more are dealt to each player; but as no advantage
can be gained by the exchange, it is hard to see what right the
adversary would have to impose a penalty.

ILLUSTRATIVE SCOTCH WHIST HAND.

We give a simple example hand, as an illustration of the manner of
playing with four persons; two being partners against the other two.

  _Z deals and turns heart 8_

    +-------+-------+-------+-------+
    |   A       Y       B      Z    |
    +-------+-------+-------+-------+
  1 |   Q♢  |  _K♢_ |   8♢  |  9♢   |
  2 | _♣A_  |  ♣K   |  ♣J   | ♣8    |
  3 |  ♣7   | _♣9_  |  ♣6   |  6♠   |
  4 |   8♠  |   J♠  |   K♠  | _A♠_  |
  5 |   J♢  |   9♠  |   A♢  | _Q♠_  |
  6 |   7♢  | _10♠_ |  ♣Q   |  7♠   |
  7 | _♡A_  |  10♢  |   6♢  | ♡Q    |
  8 |  ♡9   |  ♡6   | _♡K_  | ♡7    |
  9 |  ♣10  |  ♡10  | _♡J_  | ♡8    |
    +-------+-------+-------+-------+

  _A-B win 30 by honours._

  _Y-Z win 2 by cards._

_=Trick 1.=_ _=Y=_ plays King second hand, hoping it will be taken by
the Ace, so that he may become third or fourth player, and perhaps save
his Ten. _=B=_, with the minor tenace in trumps, plays to avoid the
lead as long as possible.

_=Trick 2.=_ _=Y=_ gets rid of another winning card; _=B=_ keeping a
small card to avoid the lead.

_=Trick 3.=_ _=A=_ returns the Club, reading _=B=_ for the Q or no
more. _=B=_ still avoids the lead, and _=Z=_ is marked as not having
the trump Ten, or he would have saved it.

_=Trick 4.=_ _=Z=_ plays to win what cards he can.

_=Trick 5.=_ _=B=_ throws ♢A to avoid the lead, knowing _=Y=_ has the
trump Ten; for _=A=_ would have made it on the second round of Spades.
_=A=_ also marks it with _=Y=_, as _=B=_ does not save it.

_=Trick 6.=_ _=B=_ is not sure whether _=Y=_ has a Diamond or a Club
left, and discards the winning card.

_=Trick 7.=_ _=Z=_ plays Queen to shut out the Ten, if with _=A=_.
_=A=_ knows each player has two trumps left, and that as the turn-up is
still with _=Z=_, _=B=_ must have J or K; for if he held only 7 and 6
he would have trumped in to make cards.

_=Trick 8.=_ _=A=_ leads trumps. If _=Y=_ does not play the Ten, and
_=B=_ has not the Jack, _=B=_ must make four cards and the King by
passing. If _=B=_ has the Jack, he must catch the Ten, no matter how
_=Y=_ and _=Z=_ play.

       *       *       *       *       *

_=FRENCH WHIST=_ is the name given to a variety of Scotch Whist in
which the Ten of Diamonds counts ten to those winning it, whether it is
a trump or not.


BOSTON.

_=CARDS.=_ Boston is played with two packs of fifty-two cards each,
which rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing.

_=MARKERS=_ are not used in Boston, every hand being immediately
settled for in counters. These are usually of three colours; white,
red, and blue; representing cents, dimes, and dollars respectively. At
the beginning of the game each player should be provided with an equal
number, the general proportion being 20 white, 18 red, and 8 blue for
each. Some one player should be selected to act as the banker, selling
and redeeming all counters.

_=STAKES.=_ The stakes in Boston depend upon the value of the counters.
One cent for a white counter is considered a pretty stiff game; because
it is quite possible for a single player to win or lose a thousand
white counters on one hand, and the payments very seldom fall short of
fifty.

_=THE POOL.=_ In addition to the counters won and lost on each hand,
it is usual for the players to make up a pool at the beginning of
the game by each of them depositing one red counter in a small tray
provided for the purpose. This pool may be increased from time to time
by penalties; such as one red counter for a misdeal; four for a revoke,
or for not having the proper number of cards, etc. The whole amount in
the pool may be won or lost by the players, according to their success
or failure in certain undertakings, which will presently be described.
When empty, the pool is replenished by contributions from each player,
as at first.

The pool proper is usually limited to 25 red counters. When it exceeds
that amount, the 25 are set aside, and the surplus used to start a
fresh pool. Any player winning a pool is entitled to 25 red counters at
the most. It will often happen that several such pools will accumulate,
and each must be played for in its turn. At the end of the game any
counters remaining in the pool or pools must be divided among the
players.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Boston is played by four persons. If more than four
candidates offer for play, five or six may form a table; if there are
more than six, the selection of the table must be made by cutting, as
at Whist.

_=CUTTING.=_ The four persons who shall play the first game are
determined by cutting, and they again cut for the deal, with the
choice of seats and cards. The player drawing the lowest card deals,
and chooses his seat; the next lower card sits on his left, and so on,
until all are seated. Twelve deals is a game, at the end of which the
players cut to decide which shall go out, as at Whist.

It is usual to count the deals by opening the blade of a pocket-knife,
which is placed on the table by the player on the dealer’s right. When
it comes to his turn to deal, he partly opens one blade. When he deals
again he opens it entirely, and the third time he closes it; that being
the third round, and the last deal of the game.

[Illustration: FOURTH DEAL. EIGHTH DEAL.]

_=POSITION OF THE PLAYERS.=_ The four players at Boston are
distinguished by the letters A Y B Z.

[Illustration:

       Y
   +-------+
   |       |
  A|       |B
   |       |
   +-------+
       Z
]

Z is the dealer, and A is known as the _=eldest hand=_. There are no
partnerships in Boston, except that of three players combined against
the fourth, who is always spoken of as _=the caller=_. The players
having once taken their seats are not allowed to change them without
the consent of all the others at the table.

_=DEALING.=_ At the beginning of the game the two packs are thoroughly
shuffled; after which they must not again be shuffled during the
progress of the game. If a hand is dealt and not played, each player
must sort his cards into suits and sequences before they are gathered
and dealt again.

At the beginning of each deal, one pack is presented to the players to
be cut; each having the privilege of cutting once, the dealer last.
Beginning on his left, the dealer gives four cards to each player, then
four more, and finally five; no trump being turned.

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are the
same as at Whist, except that a misdeal does not lose the deal. The
misdealer must deal again with the same pack, after the players have
sorted their cards into suits. It is a misdeal if the dealer fails to
present the pack to the other players to cut, or neglects to cut it
himself. Should the dealer expose any of his own cards in dealing, that
does not invalidate the deal. The deal passes in regular rotation to
the left, each pack being used alternately.

_=MAKING THE TRUMP.=_ The deal being complete, the player opposite
the dealer cuts the still pack, and the player on his right turns up
the top card for the trump. The suit to which this card belongs is
called _=First Preference=_, and the suit of the same colour is called
_=Second Preference=_, or _=Colour=_. The two remaining suits are known
as _=Plain Suits=_ for that deal.

The cards having been dealt, and the trump turned, each player
carefully sorts and counts his cards, to see that he has the correct
number, thirteen. A player having more or less than his right
proportion should at once claim a misdeal; for if he plays with a
defective hand he cannot win anything that deal, but must stand his
proportion of all losses incurred, besides paying a forfeit of four red
counters to the pool.

_=OBJECTS OF THE GAME.=_ In Boston, each player has an opportunity to
announce that he is willing to undertake to win a certain number of
tricks, if allowed the privilege of naming the trump suit; or to lose
a certain number, there being no trumps. In either case, he proposes
to play single-handed against the three other players. The player
proposing the undertaking which is most difficult of accomplishment is
said to _=over-call=_ the others, and must be allowed to try. If he is
successful, he wins the pool, and is paid a certain number of counters
by each of his adversaries. If he fails, he must double the amount in
the pool, and pay to each of the other players a certain number of
counters.

_=ANNOUNCEMENTS.=_ The bids rank in the following order, beginning with
the lowest. The full-faced type shows the words used by the players in
calling their bids:--

To win five tricks; _=Boston=_.

To win _=Six Tricks=_.

To win _=Seven Tricks=_.

To lose twelve tricks, after having discarded a card which is not to be
shown; _=Little Misère=_.

To win _=Eight Tricks=_.

To win _=Nine Tricks=_.

To lose every trick; _=Grand Misère=_.

To win _=Ten Tricks=_.

To win _=Eleven Tricks=_.

To lose twelve tricks, after having discarded a card which is not to be
shown; the single player’s remaining twelve cards being exposed face up
on the table, but not liable to be called; _=Little Spread=_.

To win _=Twelve Tricks=_.

To lose every trick; the single player’s cards exposed on the table,
but not liable to be called; _=Grand Spread=_.

To win Thirteen Tricks; _=Grand Slam=_.

The object of the proposing player, if successful in his bid, is to
win or lose the proposed number of tricks; while that of his three
adversaries is to combine to prevent him from so doing. There are no
honours, and the only factor in the count is the number of tricks
taken. The highest card played of the suit led wins the trick; and
trumps, if any, win against all other suits.

_=METHOD OF BIDDING.=_ The eldest hand has the first say, and after
examining his cards, and estimating the number of tricks he can
probably take, making the trump to suit his hand, he bids accordingly.
It is not necessary for him to state which suit he wishes to make the
trump; but only the number of tricks he proposes to win. If he has
no proposal to make, he says distinctly; “_=I pass=_,” and the other
players in turn have an opportunity to bid. If any player makes a
bid, such as six tricks, and any other player thinks he can make the
same number of tricks with a trump of the same colour as the turn-up,
that is, Second Preference, he over-calls the first bidder by saying
“_=I keep=_;” or he may repeat the number bid, saying “_=Six here=_.”
This is simply bidding to win the number of tricks _=in colour=_. The
original caller may hold his bid, or a third player may overbid both,
by saying; “_=I keep over you=_,” or “_=Six here=_.” This means that
he will undertake to win the number of tricks already bid, with the
_=turn-up=_ suit for trumps. In order to over-call such a bid as this,
any other player would have to announce a greater number of tricks. For
instance; Z deals, and turns a heart. A calls six tricks, intending to
name hearts trumps; but not saying so. B passes; Y says “I Keep.” This
announces to the table that Y will play with a red trump, and A knows
he is bidding on diamonds. Z passes, and A says; “I keep over you.” B
then bids seven tricks, and if A will not risk seven tricks in hearts,
B will be the successful bidder. If A should bid seven tricks by
keeping over B, the latter must know that it is useless for him to bid
again unless he can make more tricks in diamonds than A can in hearts;
for A’s bid, being in first preference, will always outrank B’s for the
same number of tricks.

A player once having passed cannot come into the bidding again, except
to call one of the misères. In the example just given, either Y or
Z, after having twice passed, might have outbid the seven tricks by
calling a little misère. Such a bid can, of course, be entertained only
when it outranks any bid already made.

A player is not compelled to bid the full value of his hand; but it is
to his interest to go as near to it as he can with safety; because,
as we shall see presently, the more he bids the more he is paid. For
instance: If he can make ten tricks, but bids seven only, he will be
paid for the three over-tricks, if he makes them; but the payment for
seven bid and ten taken, is only 22 counters; while the payment for ten
bid and ten taken is 42. As he receives from each adversary, a player
who underbid his hand in this manner would lose 60 counters by his
timidity.

It sometimes happens that no one will make a proposal of any sort. It
is very unusual to pass the deal. The trump is generally turned down,
and a _=Grand=_ is played, without any trump suit. This is sometimes
called a _=Misère Partout=_, or “all-round poverty”; and the object of
each player is to take as few tricks as possible.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ No matter who is the successful bidder, the
eldest hand always leads for the first trick, and the others must
follow suit if they can, the play proceeding exactly as at Whist. The
tricks should be carefully stacked, so that they can be readily counted
by any player without calling attention to them. The laws provide a
severe penalty for drawing attention to the score in this manner.
Suppose a player has called eight tricks. An adversary hesitates in
his play, and another reaches over and counts the tricks in front of
the caller, finding he has seven. This is tantamount to saying to the
player who hesitates: “If you don’t win that trick, the call succeed.”
In such a case, the single player may at once demand the play of the
highest or lowest of the suit; or that the adversaries trump or refrain
from trumping the trick.

In all calls except misères and slams, the hands should be played out,
in order to allow the players to make what over-tricks they can; but
the moment a misère player takes a trick, or a slam player loses one,
the hands are thrown up, and the stakes paid. It is usual to show the
cards to the board, in order to satisfy each player that no revoke has
occurred.

When Little Misère is called, each player discards one card, which must
not be shown, and the hand is then played out with the remaining twelve
cards.

When Spreads are called, the caller’s cards must be placed face upwards
on the table before a card is played. If it is a Little Spread, the
discard of each player must remain unknown. The adversaries have no
control of the manner of playing the exposed cards, which cannot be
called, and may be played in any manner suited to the judgment of the
single player, provided he follows suit when able.

_=REVOKES.=_ If a player opposed to the caller revokes, but discovers
his mistake in time to save himself, he may be called upon by the
single player for his highest or lowest of the suit led; or the card
played in error may be claimed as an exposed card. If the highest or
lowest of the suit is called, the card played in error is taken up.

If the caller revokes, and discovers his mistake in time, he is not
liable to any penalty, unless an adversary has played to the next
trick. In that case the revoking card must be left on the table, and
is liable to be called. When the single player revokes, he loses the
call in any case, and at least one trick besides. He must also double
the pool, and add to it a revoke forfeit of four red counters. For
instance: A bids eight tricks, and his adversaries detect and claim a
revoke. As he is supposed to have lost his bid, and one trick more, he
may be said to have bid eight, and taken only seven; losing 23 white
counters to each of his adversaries, doubling the pool, and then paying
a forfeit of four red counters. In some places the forfeit is omitted,
and in others it takes the place of doubling the pool. It is not usual
to play the hand out after a revoke is claimed and proved.

If an adversary of the single player revokes, he and his partners must
each pay the caller just as if he had been successful, and must also
pay him for three over-tricks as forfeit, provided his bid was not more
than nine tricks; for the bid and the over-tricks together must not
exceed thirteen tricks. In addition to this, the individual player in
fault must pay four red counters as forfeit to the pool. In some places
he is made to double the pool; but this is manifestly unfair, as he
could not win the amount in the pool in any case, and therefore should
not lose it.

In a Misère Partout, the revoking player pays five red counters to each
adversary, and deposits a forfeit of four red counters in the pool. The
hands are immediately thrown up if the revoke is claimed and proved.

_=CARDS PLAYED IN ERROR.=_ The single player is not liable to any
penalty for cards played in error, or led out of turn, except those
taken back to save a revoke; but his adversaries are liable to the
usual whist penalties for all such irregularities. The single player
can forbid the use of an exposed trump for ruffing, and can demand or
prevent the play of an exposed card in plain suits, provided he does
not ask the adversary to revoke. If a suit is led of which an adversary
has an exposed card on the table, the single player may call upon him
to play his highest or lowest of that suit.

If a player has announced Little Misère, and one of the adversaries
leads before the others have discarded, the caller may immediately
claim the pool and stakes. If any adversary of a misère player leads
out of turn, or exposes a card, or plays before his proper turn in any
trick, the bidder may at once claim the pool and stakes. In all such
cases it is usual for the individual in fault to pay a forfeit of four
red counters toward the next pool.

In Misère Partout, there is no penalty for cards played in error, or
led out of turn.


_=PAYMENTS.=_ If the caller succeeds in winning the proposed number of
tricks, he is paid by each of his adversaries according to the value
of his bid, and the number of over-tricks he wins, if any. The various
payments are shown in this table:--

  ------------------------+-------------------------------------------
  Number of tricks bid by |      Number actually taken by him.
         player.          +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+---
                          |  5 |  6 |  7 |  8 |  9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13
  ------------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+---
  Five                    | 12 | 12 | 13 | 13 | 14 | 14 | 14 | 15 | 15
  Six                     |    | 15 | 16 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 20
  Seven                   |    |    | 18 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 26
  Eight                   |    |    |    | 23 | 24 | 26 | 28 | 29 | 31
  Nine                    |    |    |    |    | 32 | 34 | 36 | 39 | 41
  Ten                     |    |    |    |    |    | 42 | 45 | 48 | 52
  Eleven                  |    |    |    |    |    |    | 63 | 68 | 72
  Twelve                  |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |106 |114
  Thirteen                |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |166
  ------------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+---

The American system is not to pay the successful bidder for any
over-tricks. This is to make him bid up his hand, and to save time; as
hands need not be played out when the bidder has made or can show the
number of tricks bid.

  Tricks bid  |  5 |  6 |  7 |  8 |  9 | 10 | 11 |  12 |  13 |
  ------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----+-----+
  Amount.     | 10 | 15 | 20 | 25 | 35 | 45 | 65 | 105 | 170 |

If the caller fails in his undertaking, he must pay each adversary
according to the number of tricks by which he failed to reach his bid.
For instance: A player bidding eight, and taking only seven, is said to
be “_=put in for=_” one trick, and he would have to pay each adversary
23 white counters. These payments are shown in this table:--

  -----------+---------------------------------------------------
  Tricks bid | Number of tricks by which the player falls short
   by the    |               of his declaration.
   player.   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---
             |  1|  2|  3|  4|  5|  6|  7|  8|  9| 10| 11| 12| 13
  -----------+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---
  Five       | 11| 21| 31| 41| 50|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  Six        | 15| 24| 35| 45| 55| 66|   |   |   |   |   |   |
  Seven      | 19| 29| 40| 50| 60| 72| 82|   |   |   |   |   |
  Eight      | 23| 34| 46| 56| 67| 78| 89|110|   |   |   |   |
  Nine       | 33| 44| 57| 68| 82| 92|103|115|127|   |   |   |
  Ten        | 44| 56| 70| 82| 94|107|119|132|145|157|   |   |
  Eleven     | 67| 80| 95|109|123|138|151|165|180|194|208|   |
  Twelve     |113|130|148|165|182|200|217|234|252|270|286|304|
  Thirteen   |177|198|222|241|262|284|305|326|348|369|390|412|433
  -----------+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---

We give the same table reduced to the American decimal system, in which
form it is commonly found in the clubs. It may be remarked in passing
that the table is very illogical and inconsistent, the payments bearing
no relation to the probabilities of the events. Some of them provide
for impossibilities, unless the player has miscalled the trump suit,
and is held to it, but we have no authority to change them.

  --------+----------------------------------------------------
          |        Number of tricks bidder is “put in for.”
   Tricks +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+----
    bid.  | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10| 11| 12| 13
  --------+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+----
  Five    | 10| 20| 30| 40| 50|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  Six     | 15| 25| 35| 45| 55| 65|   |   |   |   |   |   |
  Seven   | 20| 30| 40| 50| 60| 70| 80|   |   |   |   |   |
  Eight   | 25| 35| 45| 55| 70| 85|100|115|   |   |   |   |
  Nine    | 35| 45| 55| 65| 80| 95|110|125|140|   |   |   |
  Ten     | 45| 55| 70| 80| 95|110|125|140|155|170|   |   |
  Eleven  | 70| 80| 95|110|125|140|155|170|185|200|220|   |
  Twelve  |120|130|145|160|180|200|220|240|260|280|300|320|
  Thirteen|180|200|220|240|260|280|300|320|340|360|390|420|450
  --------+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+----

If a misère is bid, the caller wins from, or loses to each adversary
according to the following table, there being no over-tricks:--

  Little Misère,    20 white counters.
  Grand Misère,     40 white counters.
  Little Spread,    80 white counters.
  Grand Spread,    160 white counters.

It may be observed that each of these is twice the amount of the next
lower.

When misère partout is played, the person winning the largest number of
tricks is the only loser, and he must pay each of the other players the
difference between the number of his tricks and theirs in red counters.
The number of red counters lost will always be found to be three times
the number of tricks taken, minus the number of tricks not taken. For
instance: A wins 4 tricks, three times which is 12; from which he
deducts 9, the number he did not take, and finds his loss to be 3 red
counters. Again; A wins 7 tricks; three times which is 21; minus 6
tricks not taken, a net loss of 15. No matter in what proportion the
other tricks may be divided between the three other players, this total
payment will always be found correct. For instance: A wins 6 tricks; Y
2; B 5; and Z none. A loses 6 x 3 = 18-7 = 11, of which he gives 4 to
Y; 1 to B; and 6 to Z.

If two players tie for the greatest number of tricks taken, they
calculate their losses in the same manner; but each pays only half the
total. For instance: A and Y each take 5 tricks; B taking 1, and Z 2.
The 7 red counters lost by A and Y being divided, shows a loss of 35
white counters for each of them. If three players take four tricks
apiece, they each pay the fourth man a red counter.

_=WINNING THE POOL.=_ Besides the white counters won and lost by the
players individually, the successful caller takes the pool, provided
he has made a bid of seven tricks or better, which is called _=a pool
bid=_. Any lower bid does not entitle him to the pool, unless the other
players compel him to play the hand out. In order to save the pool,
it is usual for the adversaries, before playing to the second trick,
to say: “_=I pay.=_” If all agree to pay, the bidder must accept the
amount of his bid without any over-tricks, and the pool is not touched.
If a player has made a pool bid, and the adversaries, before playing
to the second trick, agree to pay, they cannot prevent the caller from
taking the pool; but they save possible over-tricks. The agreement of
the adversaries to pay must be unanimous.

Misère Partout does not touch the pool.

If the hand is played out, and the caller fails, he must double the
pool, whether he has made a pool bid or not. If there is more than one
pool, he must double the first one, which will of course contain the
limit. This will simply have the effect of forming an additional pool
to be played for.

When there are several pools on the table, a successful caller takes
any of those that contain the limit. When there is only one pool on the
table, he must be satisfied with its contents, however small.

At the end of the game, after the twelfth hand has been settled for,
it is usual to divide the pool or pools equally among the players. But
sometimes a grand is played without trumps, making a thirteenth hand,
and the pool is given to the player winning the last trick.

_=METHODS OF CHEATING.=_ There being no shuffling at Boston, and each
player having the right to cut the pack, the greek must be very skilful
who can secure himself any advantage by having the last cut, unless he
has the courage to use wedges. But Boston is usually played for such
high stakes that it naturally attracts those possessing a high degree
of skill, and the system adopted is usually that of counting down. The
greek will watch for a hand in which there is little changing of suits,
and will note the manner of taking up the cards. The next hand does
not interest him, as he is busy studying the location of the cards in
the still pack. When this comes into play on the next deal, he will
follow every cut, and finally cut for himself so that the desired
distribution of the suits shall come about. Even if he fails to secure
an invincible hand for bidding on himself, he knows so nearly the
contents of the other hands that he can bid them up, and afterwards
play against them to great advantage.

It is unnecessary to say that if a greek can mark the cards, the game
becomes a walkover, even if he can recollect only the hand on his left.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ Boston so closely resembles Solo Whist
in such matters as bidding, and playing single-handed against three
others, that the reader may be referred to that game for the outlines
of the principles that should guide him in estimating the probable
value of his hand, playing for tricks or for misères, and combining
forces with his partners for the purpose of defeating the single player.

For laws, see Whist Family Laws.


BOSTON DE FONTAINEBLEAU.

This game is sometimes, but incorrectly, called French Boston. The
latter will be described in its proper place.

_=CARDS.=_ Boston de Fontainebleau is played with a full pack of
fifty-two cards. Two packs are generally used. The cards rank as at
Whist, both for cutting and playing.

_=MARKERS=_ are not used, counters taking their place. These are
usually of the colours and values, and are distributed among the
players as already described in Boston.

_=STAKES.=_ As a guide in settling upon the unit value, it may be noted
that the largest amount possible to win or lose on a single hand is
2,400 white counters; the smallest amount being 30. The average is
about 300.

_=THE POOL.=_ In addition to the counters won or lost on each hand,
a pool is formed by each dealer in his turn placing five counters in
a small tray provided for the purpose. This pool may be increased
by penalties, etc., and the whole amount may be won under certain
conditions, as at Boston. There is no limit to the amount of a single
pool.

_=PLAYERS.=_ The number of players, methods of _=Cutting=_, _Dealing_,
etc., are the same as those already described in connection with
Boston, except that no trump is turned for first preference, the suits
always having a determined rank; diamonds being first, hearts next,
then clubs, and last spades. No-trump, or “grand,” outranks diamonds.

Twelve deals is a game; after which the players cut out if there
are more than four belonging to the table, or if other candidates are
waiting to play.

_=PENALTIES=_, for playing with more or less than the proper number of
cards, etc., are the same as at Boston.

_=OBJECTS OF THE GAME.=_ These are identical with Boston, but instead
of doubling the pool, the player who is unsuccessful in his undertaking
pays into the pool the same amount that he loses to each of the other
players.

_=ANNOUNCEMENTS.=_ The bids rank in the order following; beginning with
the lowest. The full-faced type show the words used by the players
in calling their bids. It will be noticed that the order is not the
same as in Boston, and that an additional bid is introduced, called
Piccolissimo.

To win 5 tricks, _=Boston=_.

To win _=Six Tricks=_.

To lose 12 tricks, after having discarded a card which is not to be
shown; _=Little Misère=_.

To win _=Seven Tricks=_.

To win one trick, neither more nor less, after having discarded a card
which is not to be shown, there being no trump suit; _=Piccolissimo=_.

To win _=Eight Tricks=_.

To lose every trick, no trump suit, _=Grand Misère=_.

To win _=Nine Tricks=_.

To lose 12 tricks, after having discarded a card which is not to be
shown; the single player’s remaining twelve cards being exposed face up
on the table, but not liable to be called; _=Little Spread=_.

To win _=Ten Tricks=_.

To lose every trick, no trump suit, the single player’s cards being
exposed on the table, but not liable to be called; _=Grand Spread=_.

To win _=Eleven Tricks=_.

To win _=Twelve Tricks=_.

To win 13 tricks; _=Slam=_.

To win 13 tricks, the single player’s cards exposed face up on the
table, but not liable to be called; _=Spread Slam=_.

The object of the bidder, if successful in securing the privilege of
playing, is to win or lose the proposed number of tricks, against the
combined efforts of his adversaries. Having once made a bid, he must
play it unless he is over-called.

_=METHOD OF BIDDING.=_ The eldest hand has the first say, and after
examining his hand, and deciding on the bid most appropriate to it, if
any, he makes his announcement. If his proposal is to win a certain
number of tricks with a certain suit for trumps, he must name the
suit, saying, “Eight Spades,” or “Seven Diamonds,” as the case may be.
If he proposes to play without any trump suit, he announces, “Seven
Grand,” or whatever the number may be. Such a bid over-calls one of the
same number in diamonds. If the eldest hand has no proposal to make,
he says, “I pass,” and the others in turn have an opportunity to bid.
The bids outrank one another according to their order in the foregoing
table, and the rank of the suits in which they are made. The players
bid against one another, until all but one declare to pass, he then
becomes the single player against the three others.

A player having once passed cannot come into the bidding again, even to
call a misère. In this respect the game differs from Boston. A player
is not compelled to bid the full value of his hand, but it is to his
interest to do so, and he should make the full announcement the first
time he bids, because if he has had a good hand for ten tricks, and
begins with a bid of seven, he cannot increase his proposal unless some
player bids over him.

_=PARTNERS.=_ Before playing, the successful bidder may call for a
partner if he chooses to do so. The player accepting him undertakes
that the two together shall win three tricks more than the number bid.
For instance: A has successfully bid seven in diamonds, and asks for a
partner. If Y accepts him they make no change in their positions at the
table, but play into each other’s hands, just as at Solo Whist, B and Z
being partners against them. A and Y together must win ten tricks, with
diamonds for trumps.

If no one makes a proposal of any sort, _=Misère Partout=_ is played;
there being no trump suit. The player or players taking the least
number of tricks win or divide the pool. There are no other losses or
gains in Misère Partout.

_=HONOURS.=_ In any call in which there is a trump suit, the A K Q and
J of trumps are honours, and may be counted by the successful bidder
if he carries out his proposal. If the single player, or a caller and
his partner have all four honours dealt them, they score as for four
over-tricks; if three, as for two over-tricks. Honours do not count for
the adversaries under any circumstances.

In bidding on a hand, it must be remembered that although honours will
count as over-tricks in payments, they cannot be bid on. If a player
has nine tricks and two by honours in his hand, he cannot bid eleven.
If he bids nine and fails to make so many, he cannot count the honours
at all. It is growing less and less the custom to count honours in
America.

A player making a bid can be compelled to play it; but it is usual to
allow him to pay instead of playing, if he proposes to do so, either
because he has overbid his hand or for any other reason.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ No matter who is the successful bidder, the
eldest hand always leads for the first trick, and the others must
follow suit if they can, the play proceeding exactly as in Whist.
Tricks should be carefully stacked, there being the same penalties as
in Boston for calling attention to the score. The methods of playing
misères and spreads have already been described in connection with
Boston. When piccolissimo is played, the moment the single player takes
more than one trick the hands are thrown up, and the stakes paid.

_=REVOKES.=_ The rules governing these and cards played in error, are
the same as at Boston. In piccolissimo, the penalties are the same as
in misère.

_=PAYMENTS.=_ If the caller succeeds in winning the proposed number of
tricks, he is paid by each of his adversaries according to the value
of his bid, as shown in Table No. 1. Over-tricks if any, and honours,
if played, are always paid at the uniform rate of five white counters
each. If the caller fails, he must pay each adversary the amount he
would have won if successful, with the addition of five white counters
for every trick that he falls short of his proposal. For instance: He
bids nine hearts, and wins six tricks only. He must pay each adversary
115 white counters.

TABLE No. 1.

  ----------------------+--------+-----------------+---------+
                        |        | The trump being |         |
                        |  No    +-----+-----+-----+ Extra   |
                        | trump. | ♣♠  |  ♡  |  ♢  | tricks. |
  ----------------------+--------+-----+-----+-----+---------+
  Boston, five tricks   |        |  10 |  20 |  30 |    5    |
  Six tricks            |        |  30 |  40 |  50 |    5    |
    Little misère       |   75   |     |     |     |         |
  Seven tricks          |        |  50 |  60 |  70 |    5    |
    Piccolissimo        |  100   |     |     |     |         |
  Eight tricks          |        |  70 |  80 |  90 |    5    |
    Grand misère        |  150   |     |     |     |         |
  Nine tricks           |        |  90 | 100 | 110 |    5    |
    Little spread       |  200   |     |     |     |         |
  Ten tricks            |        | 110 | 120 | 130 |    5    |
    Grand spread        |  250   |     |     |     |         |
  Eleven tricks         |        | 130 | 140 | 150 |    5    |
  Twelve tricks         |        | 150 | 160 | 170 |    5    |
  Slam, thirteen tricks |        | 400 | 450 | 500 |         |
  Spread slam           |        | 600 | 700 | 800 |         |

TABLE No. 2.

In America, the last two items are usually reduced, and are given as
follows:--

                        |        | ♣♠  |  ♡  |  ♢  |         |
  Slam, thirteen tricks |        | 250 | 300 | 350 |         |
  Spread slam           |        | 350 | 400 | 450 |         |
  ----------------------+--------+-----+-----+-----+---------+

Why a player should be paid more for spreads than for eleven or twelve
tricks while the trick bid outranks the spreads, is difficult to
understand; but we have no authority to change the tables.

Misère Partout wins nothing but the pool.

If partners play, it is usual for the losers to pay the adversaries on
their right; or, if partners sit together, to pay the adversary sitting
next.

_=THE POOL.=_ Besides the white counters won and lost by the players
individually, the successful player takes the pool. Successful partners
divide it equally, regardless of the number of tricks bid or taken by
each. If the partners fail, they must contribute to the pool an amount
equal to that which they pay to one adversary. For instance: A calls
seven diamonds, and asks for a partner. Y accepts him, and the pair win
only nine tricks. Each pays 135 counters to the adversary sitting next
him, and then they make up 135 more between them for the pool.

Asking for a partner is not a popular variation of the game, and is
seldom resorted to unless the successful bid is very low, or has been
made on a black suit.

If the adversaries of the caller declare to pay, before playing to the
second trick, they can save nothing but possible over-tricks. The pool
goes with every successful play.

If the single player is unsuccessful, he does not double the pool,
as in Boston, but pays into it the same amount that he loses to each
adversary, over-tricks and all; so that he really loses four times the
amount shown in the table.

At the end of the game, or on the twelfth hand, if the caller does not
succeed, he pays the pool as usual, and his adversaries then divide it
amongst themselves.

The _=Suggestions for Good Play=_, etc., are given in connection with
Solo Whist and need no further amplification for Boston de Fontainbleau.

The _=Laws=_ vary so little from those used in the regular game of
Boston that it is not necessary to give an additional code, either for
Fontainbleau or for French Boston, which follows.


FRENCH BOSTON.

_=CARDS.=_ French Boston is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards,
which rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing; except that the
diamond Jack is always the best trump unless diamonds are turned up, in
which case the heart Jack becomes the best trump, and the diamond Jack
ranks next below the diamond Queen.

_=COUNTERS=_ are used as in Boston, their value being a matter of
agreement before play begins.

_=THE POOL=_ is made up by the dealer’s contributing ten counters for
the first eight rounds, and twenty for the last two. It is increased
from time to time by penalties, and is won or lost by the players, just
as in Boston. There is no limit to the pool. If any player objects to
dividing it at the end of the game, it must be played for until some
player wins it.

_=PLAYERS.=_ The number of players, their arrangement at the table,
etc., is precisely the same as at Boston.

_=CUTTING.=_ Instead of cutting for the first deal, any one of the
players takes a pack of cards, and gives thirteen to each player in
succession, face up. The player to whom he gives the diamond Jack deals
the first hand, and has the choice of seats and cards. The others sit
as they please.

_=DEALING.=_ The cards are shuffled before every deal. The player on
the left of the dealer cuts, and cards are given first to the player on
the dealer’s right, dealing from right to left. The cards may be dealt
one at a time, or three at a time, or four at a time, always dealing
the last round singly, and turning up the last card. A misdeal loses
the deal. Other irregularities are governed by the same laws as in
Boston.

The deal passes to the right, and the next dealer is indicated by the
position of the tray containing the pool, which the dealer always
passes to the player on his right, after putting in his ten or twenty
counters.

Forty deals is a game; the first thirty-two of which are called
“simples,” and the last eight “doubles.” In the doubles, all stakes
and contributions to the pool are doubled. If anything remains in the
pool at the end, it is divided equally, unless a player demands that it
shall be played for until won. Such extra deals are simples.

_=RANK OF THE SUITS.=_ The suit turned on the first deal is called
“belle” for that game. The suit turned on each succeeding deal is
called “petite.” If belle turns up again, there is no petite for that
deal. The suits are not first and second preference, as in Boston, but
are used only to determine the value of the payments, and to settle
which suits partners must name for trumps. The rank of the suits is
permanent, as in Boston de Fontainbleau, but the order is, hearts,
diamonds, clubs, and spades; hearts being highest. In France, the suits
rank in this order in Boston de Fontainbleau, but in America diamonds
outrank hearts.

_=OBJECTS OF THE GAME.=_ Each player in turn has an opportunity to
announce that he is willing to undertake to win a certain number of
tricks, if allowed the privilege of naming the trump suit; or to lose
a certain number, there being no trump suit. If he proposes to play
alone, he may select any suit for trumps; but if he takes a partner
the trump suit must be belle or petite. The announcements outrank
each other in certain order, and the player making the highest must
be allowed to play. If he succeeds in his undertaking, he wins the
pool, and is also paid a certain number of counters by each of his
adversaries. If he fails, he must double the pool, and pay each of his
adversaries. The table of payments will be given later.

_=ANNOUNCEMENTS.=_ The proposals rank in the order following, beginning
with the lowest. The French terms are given in _=italics=_:--

Five tricks; or eight with a partner, in petite. _=Simple in petite=_.

Five tricks; or eight with a partner, in belle. _=Simple in belle=_.

Six tricks solo, in any suit. _=Petite independence=_.

Little misère. _=Petite misère=_.

Eight tricks solo in any suit. _=Grand independence=_.

Grand misère. _=Grand misère=_, or _=misère sans ecart=_.

Misère with four aces. _=Misère des quatre as=_.

Nine tricks in any suit. _=Neuf=_.

Nine tricks in petite. _=Neuf en petite=_.

Nine tricks in belle. _=Neuf en belle=_.

Little spread. _=Petite misère sur table=_.

Grand spread. _=Grand misère sur table=_.

_=METHOD OF BIDDING.=_ The player to the right of the dealer has the
first say. If he proposes to take a partner as in Solo Whist, he says,
“Je demande,” at the same time placing one of his cards face downward
on the table. This card must not be shown or named, but must be of
the suit which he proposes to make the trump. He is not allowed to
announce the suit, so that any player accepting him as a partner does
so in ignorance as to whether he will play in belle or in petite. If
the demand is accepted, the proposer and his partner make no change in
their positions at the table, but must make eight tricks, just as in
Solo Whist.

If a player cannot propose, he says: “Je passe,” and each of the others
in turn from right to left have the opportunity to make a proposal.
When any player proposes, any player in turn after him may accept,
although such a one may have already passed. If the fourth player
proposes, the three others having passed, and no one will accept him he
is bound to play solo against three such weak adversaries, and must
make five tricks, either in belle or in petite. He is not allowed to
play in a plain suit if he has made a simple “demand.”

The only solo bids allowed are those for six, eight, or nine tricks,
which outrank one another. A player cannot bid seven to over-call six;
he must go to eight; and a player cannot _=bid=_ five tricks without a
partner, although, as we have just seen, he may be forced to _=play=_
in that manner.

When six, eight, or nine tricks are bid, the suits outrank one another
for equal numbers of tricks; but as the suit called need not be the
bidder’s true intention, nor the same as the card laid on the table,
the proposer must be careful that his play will be as good as his bid.
For instance: He intends nine tricks in spades, but proposes eight in
diamonds. He cannot bid nine in diamonds, for that would be a better
bid than he intends to play; but the ruse may succeed in inducing a
player not to bid against him, hoping diamonds is the true suit. It is
a common artifice to bid the true suit, because few will believe it to
be such.

If clubs are belle, and diamonds petite, and a player who “demands”
is over-called by a demand in belle, or a call of six tricks, the
first caller cannot advance his bid to six tricks except in the suit
which he has already laid on the table; but he may accept the player
over-calling him, instead of bidding against him. After a player has
once accepted or passed, he cannot bid misère.

If no one makes a proposition of any kind, the hands are thrown up; the
next dealer contributes to the pool, and a fresh hand is dealt.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ As in Boston, the eldest hand has the first
lead, and the others must follow suit if they can, except in the misère
des quatre as. When this is played, the bidder may renounce at pleasure
for the first ten tricks.

_=GATHERING TRICKS.=_ When a partnership is formed, each gathers the
tricks he takes. If the partnership loses, the one who has not his
complement of tricks must pay the adversaries and double the pool. If
the demander has not five, and the acceptor has three, the demander
pays. If the proposer has five, and the acceptor has not three, the
acceptor pays; but they both win if they have eight tricks between
them, no matter in what proportion. If neither has taken his proper
share, they must both pay. When they are successful, they divide the
pool.

_=SLAMS.=_ If a player has demanded, and not been accepted, and has
been forced to play alone for five tricks, but wins eight, it is called
a slam. But as he did not wish to play alone, his only payment, besides
the pool, is 24 counters from each player if he played in petite; 48 if
in belle; double those amounts if the deal was one of the last eight in
the game.

If two partners make a slam, thirteen tricks, they take the pool, and
receive from each adversary 24 counters if they played in petite; 48
if in belle; double if in one of the last eight hands in the game.

_=EXPOSED CARDS.=_ The laws governing these are almost identical with
those in Boston, with the additional rule that a player allowing a card
to fall upon the table face up before play begins, can be forced to
play independence in that suit.

_=REVOKES.=_ The individual player who is detected in a revoke must
double the pool, and pay both adversaries.

_=PAYMENTS.=_ Payments are made according to the table. The player
holding diamond Jack receives two counters from each of the other
players in a simple; four in a double; except in misères, in which the
card has no value.

Misères are paid for according to the trump turned in the deal in which
they are played. If a heart is turned, and little misère is played, the
payment is 64 counters to or from each player. If a spade was turned,
the payment would be 16 only.

Three honours between partners count as three: four as four. Being all
in one hand does not increase their value.

  ------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  The Bid.                            |  ♠  |  ♣  |  ♢  |  ♡  |
  ------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  Five tricks alone, or partners’ 8   |   4 |   8 |  12 |  16 |
  Three honours                       |   3 |   6 |   9 |  12 |
  Four honours                        |   4 |   8 |  12 |  16 |
  Each extra trick                    |   1 |   2 |   3 |   4 |
  ------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  Six tricks, or petite independence  |   6 |  12 |  18 |  24 |
  Three honours                       |   4 |   8 |  12 |  16 |
  Four honours                        |   6 |  12 |  18 |  24 |
  Each extra trick                    |   2 |   4 |   6 |   8 |
  ------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  Eight tricks, or grand independence |   8 |  16 |  24 |  32 |
  Three honours                       |   6 |  12 |  18 |  24 |
  Four honours                        |   8 |  16 |  24 |  32 |
  Each extra trick                    |   4 |   8 |  12 |  16 |
  ------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  Petite misère                       |  16 |  32 |  48 |  64 |
  Grand misère                        |  32 |  64 |  96 | 128 |
  Misère de quatre as                 |  32 |  64 |  96 | 128 |
  Misère sur table                    |  64 | 128 | 192 | 256 |
  Slam à deux (partners)              |  50 | 100 | 150 | 200 |
  Slam seul (alone)                   | 100 | 200 | 300 | 400 |
  Slam sur table                      | 200 | 400 | 600 | 800 |
  ------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


RUSSIAN BOSTON.

This is a variation of Boston de Fontainbleau. A player holding carte
blanche declares it before playing, and receives ten counters from each
of the other players. Carte blanche is the same thing as chicane in
Bridge, no trump in the hand. But in Bridge the player is penalized for
announcing it until after the hand is played.

The order of the suits is the same as in American Boston de
Fontainbleau: diamonds, hearts, clubs, and spades.

When a player bids six, seven, or eight tricks, he is supposed to be
still willing to take a partner, unless he specifies solo. When a
partner accepts him, the combination must make four tricks more than
the original proposal.

Four honours are paid for as four over-tricks; three honours as two
over-tricks.

Piccolissimo is played, and comes between the bids of seven and eight
tricks.


GERMAN WHIST.

_=CARDS.=_ German Whist is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards,
which rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Two persons play. They cut for the first deal, and the
choice of seats.

_=DEALING.=_ The dealer presents the pack to his adversary to be cut,
and then gives thirteen cards to each player, one at a time, turning up
the twenty-seventh card for the trump, and laying it on the talon, or
remainder of the pack.

_=PLAYING.=_ The non-dealer begins by leading any card he pleases, and
his adversary must follow suit if he can. The winner of the first trick
takes the trump card into his hand, and his adversary takes the card
immediately under it, but without showing or naming it. Each player
thus restores the number of cards in his hand to thirteen. The card
which is now on the top of the talon is turned up, and the winner of
the next trick must take it, his adversary taking the one under it, as
before, and turning up the next. In this manner it will be seen that
the winner of each trick must always get a card which is known to his
adversary, while the loser of the trick gets one which remains unknown.

When the talon is exhausted, the thirteen cards in each hand should be
known to both players if they have been observant, and the end game
becomes a problem in double dummy.

_=STAKES.=_ The game is usually played for so much a point, the player
having won the majority of the tricks receiving the difference between
the number of his tricks and those of his adversary. Each game is
complete in one hand.

In many respects the game resembles single-handed Hearts, except that
in Hearts none of the cards drawn are shown.


CHINESE WHIST.

_=CARDS.=_ Chinese Whist is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards,
which rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing.

_=MARKERS.=_ Ordinary whist markers are used for scoring the points.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Two, three or four persons can play Chinese Whist. When
three play, the spade deuce is thrown out of the pack. Partners and
deal are cut for from an outspread pack, as at Whist.

_=POSITION OF THE PLAYERS.=_ When four play, the partners sit opposite
each other. When three play, the one cutting the lowest card chooses
his seat, and dictates the positions of the two other players.

_=DEALING.=_ When four play, the pack is shuffled and cut as at
Whist. The dealer then gives six cards to each player, one at a time,
beginning on his left. These six cards are then spread face down on the
table in front of the players to whom they have been dealt, but without
being looked at. Six more are then dealt to each, one at a time, and
these are turned face up, and sorted into suits. They are then laid
face up on the top of the six cards which are lying on the table face
down, so as to cover them. The last four cards are then dealt, one to
each player. These last are retained in the hand, and must not be shown
or named; they are usually called the “_=down cards=_.”

_=MAKING THE TRUMP.=_ After examining the cards exposed on the table,
and the down card in his own hand, the dealer has the privilege of
naming any suit he pleases for trumps. No consultation with partner is
allowed.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The player to the left of the dealer begins by
leading any one of his exposed cards, and the others must follow suit
if they can; either with one of their exposed cards, or with their
down cards. A player having none of the suit led may either discard
or trump. The highest card played of the suit led wins the trick, and
trumps win all other suits. The side winning the trick takes it in and
arranges it just as at Whist. Before leading for the next trick all
cards which have been uncovered are turned face up. If any person has
played his down card he will have no card to turn up, none having been
uncovered. The cards cannot under any circumstances be shifted from
their original positions. If a player has five cards face up, covering
five cards face down, he cannot shift one of the exposed cards to the
empty sixth place, and uncover another card. All covering cards must be
got rid of in the course of play.

_=PENALTIES=_ for revokes, cards led out of turn, etc., are the same as
at Whist.

_=OBJECTS OF THE GAME.=_ As in Whist, the object is to win tricks, all
above six counting one point toward game. Five, seven, or ten points
may be made the game, at the option of the players, but ten is the
usual number. Honours are not counted except by agreement.

_=STAKES.=_ It is usual to play for so much a point or a game. If
points are played, the loser’s score must be deducted from the
winner’s, and the difference is the value of the game won.

_=WHEN THREE PLAY=_, eight cards are dealt to each person, and arranged
face down; then eight more, arranged face up, and then one to each for
down cards. There are no partnerships; each plays for himself against
the others.

_=WHEN TWO PLAY=_, twelve cards are dealt to each player, and arranged
face down; then twelve more, arranged face up, and then two down cards
to each. It is usual to deal all the cards two at a time.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ Chinese Whist very closely resembles
Dummy, and the chief element of success is the skilful use of tenace.
Memory also plays an important part, it being especially necessary to
remember what cards are still unplayed in each suit. While the down
cards are held a player cannot be sure of taking a trick by leading a
card higher than any his adversary has exposed, because one of the down
cards may be better. If a player is short of trumps, but has as many
and better than those of his adversary, it is often good play to lead
and draw the weaker trumps before the adversary turns up higher ones to
protect them. For instance: one player may have 10 8, and his adversary
the 9 alone. If the 10 is led the 9 will probably be caught, unless one
of the adverse down cards is better. If the 10 is not led the adversary
may turn up an honour, and will then have major tenace over the 10 and
8.

The end game always offers some interesting problems for solution by
the expert in tenace position, and in placing the lead.


WHIST FAMILY LAWS.

While the code of laws drawn up by the American Whist League, and
finally approved and adopted at the Third Congress, [in Chicago, June
20th to 24th, 1893,] refers exclusively to the parent game of Whist,
its general provisions equally apply to all members of the whist
family of games. The author believes it will save much repetition and
confusion to interlineate the exceptions which are necessary in order
to cover the special features of such important variations as Boston,
Cayenne, and Solo Whist. Where no exceptions are made, the law applies
equally to these games and to Whist. The unnumbered paragraphs show the
inserted laws.

It is a common practice for the framers of laws to insert rules which
are simply descriptive of the manner of play. The author believes in
adhering to the proper definition of a law, which is a rule carrying
with it some penalty for its infraction, or defining the rights of
individual players. Such a statement as that the Dummy player may not
overlook his adversary’s hand is not a law, because there is no penalty
if he does so.

The author is not responsible for the peculiar grammar employed in both
the American and English Laws.


THE GAME.

1. A game consists of seven points, each trick above six counting one.
The value of the game is determined by deducting the losers’ score from
seven.

    In _=Boston=_, the game is finished in twelve deals.

    In _=Cayenne=_, a game consists of ten points, each trick above
    six counting towards game according to the table of values.
    Honours and Slams also count towards game. Every hand must be
    played out, and all points made in excess of the ten required
    to win the game are counted on the next game; so that it is
    possible to win two or three games in one hand. In Nullo, every
    trick over the book is counted by the adversaries. Players
    cannot count out by honours alone; they must win the odd trick
    or stop at the score of nine. If one side goes out by cards,
    the other cannot score honours. The rubber is won by the side
    that first wins four games of ten points each. The value of the
    rubber is determined by adding 8 points to the winners’ score
    for tricks, honours, and slams, and then deducting the score of
    the losers.

    In _=Solo Whist=_, the game is complete in one deal, and the
    value of it is determined by the player’s success or failure
    in his undertaking, and must be settled for at the end of the
    hand, according to the table of payments.


FORMING THE TABLE.

2. Those first in the room have the preference. If, by reason of two or
more arriving at the same time, more than four assemble, the preference
among the last comers is determined by cutting, a lower cut giving
the preference over all cutting higher. A complete table consists of
six; the four having the preference play. Partners are determined by
cutting; the highest two play against the lowest two; the lowest deals
and has the choice of seats and cards.

    In _=Boston=_ and in _=Solo Whist=_, a table is complete with
    four players. In cutting for positions at the table, the lowest
    has the choice of seats and cards, and the two highest sit
    opposite each other.

3. If two players cut intermediate cards of equal value, they cut
again; the lower of the new cut plays with the original lowest.

4. If three players cut cards of equal value, they cut again. If the
fourth has cut the highest card, the two lowest of the new cut are
partners, and the lowest deals. If the fourth has cut the lowest card,
he deals, and the two highest of the new cut are partners.

5. At the end of a game, if there are more than four belonging to
the table, a sufficient number of the players retire to admit those
awaiting their turn to play. In determining which players remain in,
those who have played a less number of consecutive games have the
preference over all who have played a greater number; between two or
more who have played an equal number, the preference is determined by
cutting, a lower cut giving the preference over all cutting higher.

    In _=Boston=_, _=Cayenne=_, and _=Solo Whist=_, at the end of
    a game a new table must be formed, those already in having no
    preference over fresh candidates.

6. To entitle one to enter a table, he must declare his intention to do
so before any one of the players has cut for the purpose of commencing
a new game or of cutting out.

    In _=Boston=_, _=Cayenne=_, and _=Solo Whist=_, this rule does
    not apply.


CUTTING.

7. In cutting, the ace is the lowest card. All must cut from the same
pack. If a player exposes more than one card, he must cut again.
Drawing cards from the outspread pack may be resorted to in place of
cutting.


SHUFFLING.

8. Before every deal, the cards must be shuffled. When two packs are
used, the dealer’s partner must collect and shuffle the cards for the
ensuing deal and place them at his right hand. In all cases the dealer
may shuffle last.

    In _=Boston=_ and in _=Cayenne=_, two packs must be used; and
    in Boston there must be no shuffling of either pack after the
    first deal.

9. A pack must not be shuffled during the play of a hand, nor so as to
expose the face of any card.


CUTTING TO THE DEALER.

10. The dealer must present the pack to his right hand adversary to be
cut; the adversary must take a portion from the top of the pack and
place it toward the dealer; at least four cards must be left in each
packet; the dealer must reunite the packets by placing the one not
removed in cutting upon the other.

11. If, in cutting or reuniting the separate packets, a card is
exposed, the pack must be reshuffled by the dealer, and cut again; if
there is any confusion of the cards, or doubt as to the place where the
pack was separated, there must be a new cut.

    In _=Boston=_, the pack must be cut again; but not shuffled.

12. If the dealer reshuffles the pack after it has been properly cut,
he loses his deal.

    In _=Boston=_, _=Cayenne=_, and _=Solo Whist=_, the misdealer
    must deal again.


DEALING.

13. When the pack has been properly cut and reunited, the dealer
must distribute the cards, one at a time, to each player in regular
rotation, beginning at his left. The last, which is the trump card,
must be turned up before the dealer. At the end of the hand, or when
the deal is lost, the deal passes to the player next to the dealer on
his left, and so on to each in turn.

    In _=Solo Whist=_, the cards are distributed three at a time
    until only four remain in the pack. These are dealt one at a
    time, and the last turned up for trump.

    In _=Boston=_ and in _=Cayenne=_, the cards are dealt four at
    a time for two rounds, and then five at a time. No trump is
    turned. After the cards have been dealt the player opposite
    the dealer presents the still pack to be cut by the player on
    the dealer’s left, and the top card of the portion left on the
    table is turned up.

    In _=Boston=_, _=Cayenne=_, or _=Solo Whist=_, the deal is
    never lost. The same dealer deals again with the same pack.

14. There must be a new deal by the same dealer:--

    I. If any card except the last is faced in the pack.

    II. If, during the deal or during the play of the hand, the
    pack is proved incorrect or imperfect; but any prior score made
    with that pack shall stand.

15. If, during the deal, a card is exposed, the side not in fault may
demand a new deal, provided neither of that side has touched a card. If
a new deal does not take place, the exposed card is not liable to be
called.

16. Any one dealing out of turn, or with his adversaries’ pack, may be
stopped before the trump card is turned, after which the deal is valid,
and the packs, if changed, so remain.

    In _=Boston=_ and _=Cayenne=_, the dealer must be stopped
    before the last card is dealt.


MISDEALING.

17. It is a misdeal:--

    I. If the dealer omits to have the pack cut, and his
    adversaries discover the error before the trump card is turned,
    and before looking at any of their cards.

    II. If he deals a card incorrectly, and fails to correct the
    error before dealing another.

    III. If he counts the cards on the table or in the remainder of
    the pack.

    IV. If, having a perfect pack, he does not deal to each player
    the proper number of cards, and the error is discovered before
    all have played to the first trick.

    V. If he looks at the trump card before the deal is completed.

    VI. If he places the trump card face downward upon his own or
    any other player’s cards.

A misdeal loses the deal, unless, during the deal, either of the
adversaries touches a card or in any other manner interrupts the dealer.

    In _=Boston=_, _=Cayenne=_, and _=Solo Whist=_, the misdealer
    deals again with the same cards. In Boston he forfeits a red
    counter to the pool for his error.


THE TRUMP CARD.

18. The dealer must leave the trump card face upward on the table
until it is his turn to play to the first trick; if it is left on the
table until after the second trick has been turned and quitted, it is
liable to be called. After it has been lawfully taken up, it must not
be named, and any player naming it is liable to have his highest or his
lowest trump called by either adversary. A player may, however, ask
what the trump suit is.

This law does not apply to Boston, or Cayenne.

    In _=Boston=_ and in _=Cayenne=_, no trump is turned, but a
    card is cut from the still pack to determine the rank of the
    suits. See Law 13.

    In _=Cayenne=_, the trump suit must be named by the dealer or
    his partner after they have examined their cards. The dealer
    has the first say, and he may select any of the four suits, or
    he may announce “grand,” playing for the tricks without any
    trump suit. In Cayenne, he may announce “nullo,” playing to
    take as few tricks as possible, there being no trump suit. If
    the dealer makes his choice, his partner must abide by it; but
    if the dealer has not a hand to justify him in deciding, he may
    leave the choice to his partner, who must decide. A declaration
    once made cannot be changed.


IRREGULARITIES IN THE HANDS.

19. If, at any time after all have played to the first trick, the pack
being perfect, a player is found to have either more or less than his
correct number of cards and his adversaries have their right number,
the latter, upon the discovery of such surplus or deficiency, may
consult and shall have the choice:--

    I. To have a new deal; or

    II. To have the hand played out, in which case the surplus or
    missing card or cards are not taken into account.

If either of the adversaries also has more or less than his correct
number, there must be a new deal.

If any player has a surplus card by reason of an omission to play to a
trick, his adversaries can exercise the foregoing privilege only after
he has played to the trick following the one in which such omission
occurred.

    In _=Boston=_, if at any time it is discovered that a
    player opposed to the bidder has _=less=_ than his proper
    number of cards, whether through the fault of the dealer,
    or through having played more than one card to a trick, he
    and his partners must each pay the bidder for his bid and
    all over-tricks. If the bidder has _=less=_ than his proper
    number of cards, he is put in for one trick at least, and his
    adversaries may demand the hand to be played out to put him in
    for over-tricks. In Misère Partout, any player having _=less=_
    than his proper number of cards forfeits five red counters to
    each of the other players, and the hands are abandoned. If any
    player has _=more=_ than the proper number of cards, it is a
    misdeal, and the misdealer deals again, after forfeiting one
    red counter to the pool.

    In _=Solo Whist=_, the deal stands good. Should the player with
    the incorrect number of cards be the caller or his partner,
    the hand must be played out. Should the caller make good his
    proposition, he neither receives nor pays on that hand. If he
    fails, he must pay. Should the player with the defective hand
    be the adversary of the caller, he and his partners must pay
    the stakes on that hand, which may then be abandoned. Should
    two players have an incorrect number of cards, one of them
    being the caller, there must be a new deal.


CARDS LIABLE TO BE CALLED.

20. The following cards are liable to be called by either adversary:--

    I. Every card faced upon the table otherwise than in the
    regular course of play, but not including a card led out of
    turn.

    II. Every card thrown with the one led or played to the current
    trick. The player must indicate the one led or played.

    III. Every card so held by a player that his partner sees any
    portion of its face.

    IV. All the cards in a hand lowered or shown by a player so
    that his partner sees more than one card of it.

    V. Every card named by the player holding it.

    In _=Boston=_ and _=Solo Whist=_ there are no penalties for
    cards exposed by the single player, because he has no partner
    to take advantage of the information.

21. All cards liable to be called must be placed and left face upwards
on the table. A player must lead or play them when called, provided
he can do so without revoking. The call may be repeated at each trick
until the card is played. A player cannot be prevented from leading
or playing a card liable to be called; if he can get rid of it in the
course of play, no penalty remains.

    In _=Boston=_ and in _=Solo Whist=_, if the exposed card is a
    trump, the owner may be called upon by his adversary not to use
    it for ruffing. If the suit of the exposed card is led, whether
    trump or not, the adversary may demand that the card be played
    or not played; or that the highest or lowest of the suit be
    played. If the owner of the exposed card has no other of the
    suit, the penalty is paid.

    Penalties must be exacted by players in their proper turn, or
    the right to exact them is lost. For instance: In Solo Whist,
    A is the proposer, B the acceptor, and B has an exposed card
    in front of him. When Y plays he should say whether or not he
    wishes to call the exposed card. If he says nothing, B must
    await Z’s decision.

22. If a player leads a card better than any his adversaries hold of
the suit, and then leads one or more other cards without waiting for
his partner to play, the latter may be called upon by either adversary
to take the first trick, and the other cards thus improperly played are
liable to be called; it makes no difference whether he plays them one
after the other, or throws them all on the table together, after the
first card is played, the others are liable to be called.

23. A player having a card liable to be called must not play another
until the adversaries have stated whether or not they wish to call the
card liable to the penalty. If he plays another card without awaiting
the decision of the adversaries, such other card also is liable to be
called.


LEADING OUT OF TURN.

24. If any player leads out of turn, a suit may be called from him or
his partner, the first time it is the turn of either of them to lead.
The penalty can be enforced only by the adversary on the right of the
player from whom a suit can be lawfully called.

If a player, so called on to lead a suit, has none of it, or if all
have played to the false lead, no penalty can be enforced. If all have
not played to the trick, the cards erroneously played to such false
lead are not liable to be called and must be taken back.

    In _=Boston=_, if the adversary of the bidder leads out of
    turn, and the bidder has not played to the trick, the latter
    may call a suit from the player whose proper turn it is to
    lead; or, if it is the bidder’s own lead, he may call a suit
    when next the adversaries obtain the lead; or he may claim the
    card played in error as an exposed card. If the bidder has
    played to the trick the error cannot be rectified. Should the
    bidder lead out of turn, and the player on his left follow the
    erroneous lead, the error cannot be corrected.

    In Misères, a lead out of turn by the bidder’s adversary
    immediately loses the game, but there is no penalty for leading
    out of turn in Misère Partout.


PLAYING OUT OF TURN.

25. If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth hand also may
play before the second.

26. If the third hand has not played, and the fourth hand plays before
the second, the latter may be called upon by the third hand to play his
highest or lowest card of the suit led or, if he has none, to trump or
not to trump the trick.

    In _=Boston=_, and in _=Solo Whist=_, should an adversary of
    the single player play out of turn, the bidder may call upon
    the adversary who has not played to play his highest or lowest
    of the suit led, or to win or not to win the trick. If the
    adversary of a Misère player leads or plays out of turn, the
    bidder may immediately claim the stakes. In Solo Whist, the
    individual player in fault must pay for himself and for his
    partners.


ABANDONED HANDS.

27. If all four players throw their cards on the table, face upwards,
no further play of that hand is permitted. The result of the hand, as
then claimed or admitted, is established, provided that, if a revoke is
discovered, the revoke penalty attaches.

    In _=Solo Whist=_, should the bidder abandon his hand, he
    and his partner, if any, must pay the stakes and settle
    for all over-tricks as if they had lost all the remaining
    tricks. If a player, not the bidder, abandons his hand, his
    partner or partners may demand the hand to be played out with
    the abandoned hand exposed, and liable to be called by the
    adversary. If they defeat the call they win nothing, but the
    player who abandoned his hand must pay the caller just as if he
    had been successful. If the partner or partners of the exposed
    hand lose, they must pay their share of the losses.


REVOKING.

28. A revoke is a renounce in error, not corrected in time. A player
renounces in error, when, holding one or more cards of the suit led, he
plays a card of a different suit.

A renounce in error may be corrected by the player making it, before
the trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted, unless either
he or his partner, whether in his right turn or otherwise, has led or
played to the following trick.

29. If a player corrects his mistake in time to save a revoke, the card
improperly played by him is liable to be called; any player or players,
who have played after him, may withdraw their cards and substitute
others; the cards so withdrawn are not liable to be called.

    In _=Boston=_, if the bidder revokes and corrects himself in
    time, there is no penalty unless an adversary has played after
    him, in which case the bidder’s card may be claimed as exposed.
    The player who followed him may then amend his play. If a
    player opposed to the bidder discovers and corrects a revoke
    made by himself or any of his partners, the bidder may either
    claim the card played in error as exposed, or may call on the
    revoking player for his highest or lowest of the suit led.

30. The penalty for revoking is the transfer of two tricks from the
revoking side to their adversaries; it can be enforced for as many
revokes as occur during the hand. The revoking side cannot win the game
in that hand; if both sides revoke, neither can win the game in that
hand.

    In _=Cayenne=_ and _=Solo Whist=_, as a penalty for a revoke,
    the adversaries of the revoking player may take from him three
    tricks; or may deduct the value of three tricks from his score;
    or may add the value of three tricks to their own score. The
    revoking players cannot score slams or game that hand. All
    slams must be made independently of the revoke penalty.

    In _=Boston=_, the penalty for a revoke on the part of the
    bidder is that he is put in for one trick, and must pay four
    red counters into the next pool. Should an adversary of the
    bidder revoke, he must pay four red counters into the next
    pool, and he and his partners must pay the bidder as if he had
    been successful. On the discovery of a revoke in Boston the
    hands are usually abandoned; but the cards should be shown to
    the table, in order that each player may be satisfied that no
    other revoke has been made. A player revoking in Misère Partout
    pays five red counters to each of his adversaries and the hands
    are then abandoned.

31. The revoking player and his partner may require the hand in which
the revoke has been made, to be played out, and score all points made
by them up to the score of six.

    In _=Boston=_, the hands are abandoned after the revoke is
    claimed and proved.

    In _=Cayenne=_, the revoking players must stop at nine.

    In _=Solo Whist=_, the revoking players must pay all the red
    counters involved in the call, whether they win or lose,
    but they may play the hand out to save over-tricks. If the
    caller or his partner revokes they must jointly pay the losses
    involved; but if an adversary of the caller revokes, he must
    individually pay the entire loss unless he can show that the
    callers would have won in spite of the revoke. Should he be
    able to do this, his partners must stand their share of the
    losses, but the revoking player must individually pay for
    the three tricks taken as the revoke penalty. If the single
    player revokes, either on solo or abundance, he loses the
    red counters involved in any case, but may play the hand out
    to save over-tricks. If the single player in a misère or
    a slam revokes, the hand is abandoned and he must pay the
    stakes. If an adversary of a misère or a slam revokes, he must
    individually pay the whole stakes.

32. At the end of a hand, the claimants of a revoke may search all
the tricks. If the cards have been mixed, the claim may be urged and
proved, if possible; but no proof is necessary and the revoke is
established, if, after it has been claimed, the accused player or
his partner mixes the cards before they have been examined to the
satisfaction of the adversaries.

33. The revoke can be claimed at any time before the cards have been
presented and cut for the following deal, but not thereafter.


MISCELLANEOUS.

34. Any one, during the play of a trick and before the cards have been
touched for the purpose of gathering them together, may demand that the
players draw their cards.

35. If any one, prior to his partner playing, calls attention in any
manner to the trick or to the score, the adversary last to play to the
trick may require the offender’s partner to play his highest or lowest
of the suit led or, if he has none, to trump or not to trump the trick.

36. If any player says “I can win the rest,” “The rest are ours,” “We
have the game,” or words to that effect, his partner’s cards must be
laid upon the table and are liable to be called.

37. When a trick has been turned and quitted, it must not again be seen
until after the hand has been played. A violation of this law subjects
the offender’s side to the same penalty as in case of a lead out of
turn.

    In _=Boston=_, _=Cayenne=_, and _=Solo Whist=_, it is still the
    custom to permit looking at the last trick, except in Misères.
    The penalty in a misère game is the same as for a lead out of
    turn.

38. If a player is lawfully called upon to play the highest or lowest
of a suit, or to trump or not to trump a trick, or to lead a suit, and
unnecessarily fails to comply, he is liable to the same penalty as if
he had revoked.

39. In all cases where a penalty has been incurred, the offender must
await the decision of the adversaries. If either of them, with or
without his partner’s consent, demands a penalty to which they are
entitled, such decision is final. If the wrong adversary demands a
penalty, or a wrong penalty is demanded, none can be enforced.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following rules belong to the established code of Whist Etiquette.
They are formulated with a view to discourage and repress certain
improprieties of conduct, therein pointed out, which are not reached by
the laws. The courtesy which marks the intercourse of gentlemen will
regulate other more obvious cases.

1. No conversation should be indulged in during the play, except such
as is allowed by the laws of the game.

2. No player should in any manner whatsoever give any intimation as to
the state of his hand or of the game, or of approval or disapproval of
a play.

3. No player should lead until the preceding trick is turned and
quitted.

4. No player should, after having led a winning card, draw a card from
his hand for another lead until his partner has played to the current
trick.

5. No player should play a card in any manner so as to call particular
attention to it, nor should he demand that the cards be placed in order
to attract the attention of his partner.

6. No player should purposely incur a penalty because he is willing
to pay it, nor should he make a second revoke in order to conceal one
previously made.

7. No player should take advantage of information imparted by his
partner through a breach of etiquette.

8. No player should object to referring a disputed question of fact to
a bystander who professes himself uninterested in the result of the
game, and able to decide the question.

9. Bystanders should not in any manner call attention to, or give any
intimation concerning the play or the state of the game, during the
play of a hand. They should not look over the hand of a player without
his permission; nor should they walk round the table to look at the
different hands.

    ERRONEOUS SCORES.

    Any error in the trick score may be corrected before the
    last card has been dealt in the following deal; or if the
    error occurs in the last hand of a game or rubber, it may be
    corrected before the score is agreed to. Errors in other scores
    may be corrected at any time before the final score of the game
    or rubber is agreed to.

    BIDDING.

    In _=Boston=_, or _=Solo Whist=_, any player making a bid must
    stand by it, and either play or pay. Should he make a bid in
    error and correct himself, he must stand by the first bid
    unless he is over-called, when he may either amend his bid or
    pass.


ENGLISH WHIST LAWS.


THE RUBBER.

1. The rubber is the best of three games. If the first two games are
won by the same players, the third game is not played.


SCORING.

2. A game consists of five points. Each trick, above six, counts one
point.

3. Honours, _i.e._, Ace, King, Queen, and Knave of trumps, are thus
reckoned:

If a player and his partner, either separately or conjointly, hold--

    I. The four honours, they score four points.

    II. Any three honours, they score two points.

    III. Only two honours, they do not score.

4. Those players who, at the commencement of a deal, are at the score
of four, cannot score honours.

5. The penalty for a revoke (_see_ Law 72) takes precedence of all
other scores. Tricks score next. Honours last.

6. Honours, unless claimed before the trump card of the following deal
is turned up, cannot be scored.

7. To score honours is not sufficient; they must be called at the end
of the hand; if so called, they may be scored at any time during the
game.

8. The winners gain--

    I. A treble, or game of three points, when their adversaries
    have not scored.

    II. A double, or game of two points, when their adversaries
    have scored less than three.

    III. A single, or game of one point, when their adversaries
    have scored three or four.

9. The winners of the rubber gain two points (commonly called the
rubber points), in addition to the value of their games.

10. Should the rubber have consisted of three games, the value of the
losers’ game is deducted from the gross number of points gained by
their opponents.

11. If an erroneous score be proved, such mistake can be corrected
prior to the conclusion of the game in which it occurred, and such game
is not concluded until the trump card of the following deal has been
turned up.

12. If an erroneous score, affecting the amount of the rubber, be
proved, such mistake can be rectified at any time during the rubber.


CUTTING.

13. The Ace is the lowest card.

14. In all cases, every one must cut from the same pack.

15. Should a player expose more than one card, he must cut again.


FORMATION OF TABLE.

16. If there are more than four candidates, the players are selected by
cutting; those first in the room having the preference. The four who
cut the lowest cards play first, and cut again to decide on partners;
the two lowest play against the two highest; the lowest is the dealer,
who has choice of cards and seats, and, having once made his selection,
must abide by it.

17. When there are more than six candidates, those who cut the two next
lowest cards belong to the table, which is complete with six players;
on the retirement of one of those six players, the candidate who cut
the next lowest card has a prior right to any aftercomer to enter the
table.


CUTTING CARDS OF EQUAL VALUE.

18. Two players cutting cards of equal value, unless such cards are the
two highest, cut again; should they be the two lowest, a fresh cut is
necessary to decide which of those two deals.

19. Three players cutting cards of equal value cut again; should the
fourth (or remaining) card be the highest, the two lowest of the new
cut are partners, the lower of those two the dealer; should the fourth
card be the lowest, the two highest are partners, the original lowest
the dealer.


CUTTING OUT.

20. At the end of a rubber, should admission be claimed by any one,
or by two candidates, he who has, or they who have, played a greater
number of consecutive rubbers than the others is, or are, out; but
when all have played the same number, they must cut to decide upon the
outgoers; the highest are out.


ENTRY AND RE-ENTRY.

21. A candidate wishing to enter a table must declare such intention
prior to any of the players having cut a card, either for the purpose
of commencing a fresh rubber or of cutting out.

22. In the formation of fresh tables, those candidates who have neither
belonged to nor played at any other table have the prior right of
entry; the others decide their right of admission by cutting.

23. Any one quitting a table prior to the conclusion of a rubber may,
with consent of the other three players, appoint a substitute in his
absence during that rubber.

24. A player cutting into one table, whilst belonging to another, loses
his right of re-entry into that latter, and takes his chance of cutting
in, as if he were a fresh candidate.

25. If any one break up a table, the remaining players have the
prior right to him of entry into any other, and should there not be
sufficient vacancies at such other table to admit all those candidates,
they settle their precedence by cutting.


SHUFFLING

26. The pack must neither be shuffled below the table nor so that the
face of any card be seen.

27. The pack must not be shuffled during the play of the hand.

28. A pack, having been played with, must neither be shuffled by
dealing it into packets, nor across the table.

29. Each player has a right to shuffle, once only, except as provided
by Rule 32, prior to a deal, after a false cut [_see_ Law 34], or when
a new deal [_see_ Law 37] has occurred.

30. The dealer’s partner must collect the cards for the ensuing deal,
and has the first right to shuffle that pack.

31. Each player after shuffling must place the cards properly
collected, and face downwards, to the left of the player about to deal.

32. The dealer has always the right to shuffle last; but should a card
or cards be seen during his shuffling, or whilst giving the pack to be
cut, he may be compelled to reshuffle.


THE DEAL.

33. Each player deals in his turn; the right of dealing goes to the
left.

34. The player on the dealer’s right cuts the pack, and, in dividing
it, must not leave fewer than four cards in either packet; if in
cutting, or in replacing one of the two packets on the other, a card be
exposed, or if there be any confusion of the cards, or a doubt as to
the exact place in which the pack was divided, there must be a fresh
cut.

35. When a player, whose duty it is to cut, has once separated the
pack, he cannot alter his intention; he can neither reshuffle nor recut
the cards.

36. When the pack is cut, should the dealer shuffle the cards, he loses
his deal.


A NEW DEAL.

37. There must be a new deal--

    I. If during a deal, or during the play of a hand, the pack be
    proved incorrect or imperfect.

    II. If any card, excepting the last, be faced in the pack.

38. If, whilst dealing, a card be exposed by the dealer or his partner,
should neither of the adversaries have touched the cards, the latter
can claim a new deal; a card exposed by either adversary gives that
claim to the dealer, provided that his partner has not touched a card;
if a new deal does not take place, the exposed card cannot be called.

39. If, during dealing, a player touch any of his cards, the
adversaries may do the same, without losing their privilege of claiming
a new deal, should chance give them such option.

40. If, in dealing, one of the last cards be exposed, and the dealer
turn up the trump before there is reasonable time for his adversaries
to decide as to a fresh deal, they do not thereby lose their privilege.

41. If a player, whilst dealing, look at the trump card, his
adversaries have a right to see it, and may exact a new deal.

42. If a player take into the hand dealt to him a card belonging to
the other pack, the adversaries, on discovery of the error, may decide
whether they will have a fresh deal or not.


A MISDEAL.

43. A misdeal loses the deal.

44. It is a misdeal--

    I. Unless the cards are dealt into four packets, one at a time
    in regular rotation, beginning with the player to the dealer’s
    left.

    II. Should the dealer place the last (_i.e._, the trump) card,
    face downwards, on his own, or any other pack.

    III. Should the trump card not come in its regular order to the
    dealer; but he does not lose his deal if the pack be proved
    imperfect.

    IV. Should a player have fourteen cards, and either of the
    other three less than thirteen.

    V. Should the dealer, under an impression that he has made a
    mistake, either count the cards on the table or the remainder
    of the pack.

    VI. Should the dealer deal two cards at once, or two cards to
    the same hand, and then deal a third; but if, prior to dealing
    that third card, the dealer can, by altering the position of
    one card only, rectify such error, he may do so, except as
    provided by the second paragraph of this Law.

    VII. Should the dealer omit to have the pack cut to him, and
    the adversaries discover the error, prior to the trump card
    being turned up, and before looking at their cards, but not
    after having done so.

45. A misdeal does not lose the deal if, during the dealing, either of
the adversaries touch the cards prior to the dealer’s partner having
done so; but should the latter have first interfered with the cards,
notwithstanding either or both of the adversaries have subsequently
done the same, the deal is lost.

46. Should three players have their right number of cards--the fourth
have less than thirteen, and not discover such deficiency until he has
played any of his cards, the deal stands good; should he have played,
he is as answerable for any revoke he may have made as if the missing
card, or cards, had been in his hand; he may search the other pack for
it, or them.

47. If a pack, during or after a rubber, be proved incorrect or
imperfect, such proof does not alter any past score, game, or rubber;
that hand in which the imperfection was detected is null and void; the
dealer deals again.

48. Any one dealing out of turn, or with the adversary’s cards, may be
stopped before the trump card is turned up, after which the game must
proceed as if no mistake had been made.

49. A player can neither shuffle, cut, nor deal for his partner,
without the permission of his opponents.

50. If the adversaries interrupt a dealer whilst dealing, either by
questioning the score or asserting that it is not his deal, and fail to
establish such claim, should a misdeal occur, he may deal again.

51. Should a player take his partner’s deal and misdeal, the latter is
liable to the usual penalty, and the adversary next in rotation to the
player who ought to have dealt then deals.


THE TRUMP CARD.

52. The dealer, when it is his turn to play to the first trick, should
take the trump card into his hand; if left on the table after the first
trick be turned and quitted, it is liable to be called; his partner may
at any time remind him of the liability.

53. After the dealer has taken the trump card into his hand, it cannot
be asked for; a player naming it at any time during the play of that
hand is liable to have his highest or lowest trump called.

54. If the dealer take the trump card into his hand before it is his
turn to play, he may be desired to lay it on the table; should he show
a wrong card, this card may be called, as also a second, a third, etc.,
until the trump card be produced.

55. If the dealer declare himself unable to recollect the trump card,
his highest or lowest trump may be called at any time during that hand,
and unless it cause him to revoke, must be played; the call may be
repeated, but not changed, _i.e._, from highest to lowest, or _vice
versa_, until such card is played.


CARDS LIABLE TO BE CALLED.

56. All exposed cards are liable to be called, and must be left on the
table; but a card is not an exposed card when dropped on the floor, or
elsewhere below the table. The following are exposed cards:--

    I. Two or more cards played at once.

    II. Any card dropped with its face upward, or in any way
    exposed on or above the table, even though snatched up so
    quickly that no one can name it.

57. If any one play to an imperfect trick the best card on the table,
or lead one which is a winning card as against his adversaries, and
then lead again, or play several such winning cards, one after the
other, without waiting for his partner to play, the latter may be
called on to win, if he can, the first or any other of those tricks,
and the other cards thus improperly played are exposed cards.

58. If a player, or players, under the impression that the game is
lost--or won--or for other reasons--throw his or their cards on the
table face upward, such cards are exposed, and liable to be called,
each player’s by the adversary; but should one player alone retain his
hand, he cannot be forced to abandon it.

59. If all four players throw their cards on the table face upward, the
hands are abandoned; and no one can again take up his cards. Should
this general exhibition show that the game might have been saved, or
won, neither claim can be entertained, unless a revoke be established.
The revoking players are then liable to the following penalties: they
cannot under any circumstances win the game by the result of that hand,
and the adversaries may add three to their score, or deduct three from
that of the revoking players.

60. A card detached from the rest of the hand so as to be named is
liable to be called; but should the adversary name a wrong card, he is
liable to have a suit called when he or his partner have the lead.

61. If a player who has rendered himself liable to have the highest or
lowest of a suit called, fail to play as desired, or if when called on
to lead one suit he lead another, having in his hand one or more cards
of that suit demanded, he incurs the penalty of a revoke.

62. If any player lead out of turn, his adversaries may either call the
card erroneously led, or may call a suit from him or his partner when
it is next the turn of either of them to lead.

63. If any player lead out of turn, and the three others have followed
him, the trick is complete, and the error cannot be rectified; but if
only the second, or the second and third, have played to the false
lead, their cards, on discovery of the mistake, are taken back; there
is no penalty against any one, excepting the original offender, whose
card may be called, or he, or his partner, when either of them has next
the lead, may be compelled to play any suit demanded by the adversaries.

64. In no case can a player be compelled to play a card which would
oblige him to revoke.

65. The call of a card may be repeated until such card has been played.

66. If a player called on to lead a suit have none of it, the penalty
is paid.


CARDS PLAYED IN ERROR, OR NOT PLAYED TO A TRICK.

67. If the third hand play before the second, the fourth hand may play
before his partner.

68. Should the third hand not have played, and the fourth play before
his partner, the latter may be called on to win, or not to win the
trick.

69. If any one omit playing to a former trick, and such error be not
discovered until he has played to the next, the adversaries may claim
a new deal; should they decide that the deal stand good, the surplus
card at the end of the hand is considered to have been played to the
imperfect trick, but does not constitute a revoke therein.

70. If any one play two cards to the same trick, or mix his trump,
or other card, with a trick to which it does not properly belong,
and the mistake be not discovered until the hand is played out, he is
answerable for all consequent revokes he may have made. If, during the
play of the hand, the error be detected, the tricks may be counted face
downward, in order to ascertain whether there be among them a card
too many; should this be the case, they may be searched, and the card
restored; the player is, however, liable for all revokes which he may
have meanwhile made.


THE REVOKE.

71. Is when a player, holding one or more cards of the suit led, plays
a card of a different suit.

72. The penalty for a revoke--

    I. Is at the option of the adversaries, who at the end of the
    hand may either take three tricks from the revoking player or
    deduct three points from his score, or add three to their own
    score;

    II. Can be claimed for as many revokes as occur during the hand;

    III. Is applicable only to the score of the game in which it
    occurs;

    IV. Cannot be divided, _i.e._, a player cannot add one or two
    to his own score and deduct one or two from the revoking player;

    V. Takes precedence of every other score--_e.g._, the claimants
    two, their opponents nothing; the former add three to their
    score, and thereby win a treble game, even should the latter
    have made thirteen tricks, and held four honours.

73. A revoke is established if the trick in which it occur be turned
and quitted, _i.e._, the hand removed from that trick after it has been
turned face downward on the table, or if either the revoking player or
his partner, whether in his right turn or otherwise, lead or play to
the following trick.

74. A player may ask his partner whether he has not a card of the
suit which he has renounced; should the question be asked before the
trick is turned and quitted, subsequent turning and quitting does
not establish the revoke, and the error may be corrected, unless the
question be answered in the negative, or unless the revoking player or
his partner have led or played to the following trick.

75. At the end of the hand, the claimants of a revoke may search all
the tricks.

76. If a player discover his mistake in time to save a revoke, the
adversaries, whenever they think fit, may call the card thus played in
error, or may require him to play his highest or lowest card to that
trick in which he has renounced; any player or players who have played
after him may withdraw their cards and substitute others: the cards
withdrawn are not liable to be called.

77. If a revoke be claimed, and the accused player or his partner
mix the cards before they have been sufficiently examined by the
adversaries, the revoke is established. The mixing of the cards only
renders the proof of a revoke difficult; but does not prevent the claim
and possible establishment of the penalty.

78. A revoke cannot be claimed after the cards have been cut for the
following deal.

79. The revoking player and his partner may, under all circumstances,
require the hand in which the revoke has been detected to be played out.

80. If a revoke occur, be claimed and proved, bets on the odd trick or
on amount of score, must be decided by the actual state of the latter,
after the penalty is paid.

81. Should the players on both sides subject themselves to the penalty
of one or more revokes, neither can win the game; each is punished at
the discretion of his adversary.

82. In whatever way the penalty be enforced, under no circumstances can
a player win the game by the result of the hand during which he has
revoked; he cannot score more than four. (_See_ Law 61.)


CALLING FOR NEW CARDS.

83. Any player (on paying for them) before, but not after, the pack be
cut for the deal, may call for fresh cards. He must call for two new
packs, of which the dealer takes his choice.


GENERAL RULES.

84. Where a player and his partner have an option of exacting from
their adversaries one of two penalties, they should agree who is to
make the election, but must not consult with one another which of the
two penalties it is advisable to exact; if they do so consult, they
lose their right; and if either of them, with or without consent of his
partner, demand a penalty to which he is entitled, such decision is
final.

[This rule does not apply in exacting the penalties for a revoke;
partners have then a right to consult.]

85. Any one during the play of a trick, or after the four cards are
played, and before, but not after, they are touched for the purpose of
gathering them together, may demand that the cards be placed before
their respective players.

86. If any one, prior to his partner playing, should call attention
to the trick--either by saying that it is his, or by naming his card,
or, without being required so to do, by drawing it toward him--the
adversaries may require that opponent’s partner to play the highest or
lowest of the suit then led, or to win or lose the trick.

87. In all cases where a penalty has been incurred, the offender is
bound to give reasonable time for the decision of his adversaries.

88. If a bystander make any remark which calls the attention of a
player or players to an oversight affecting the score, he is liable to
be called on, by the players only, to pay the stakes and all bets on
that game or rubber.

89. A bystander, by agreement among the players, may decide any
question.

90. A card or cards torn or marked must be either replaced by
agreement, or new cards called at the expense of the table.

91. Any player may demand to see the last trick turned, and no more.
Under no circumstances can more than eight cards be seen during the
play of the hand, _viz._: the four cards on the table which have not
been turned and quitted, and the last trick turned.


ETIQUETTE OF WHIST.

The following rules belong to the established Etiquette of Whist. They
are not called laws, as it is difficult--in some cases impossible--to
apply any penalty to their infraction, and the only remedy is to cease
to play with players who habitually disregard them:

Two packs of cards are invariably used at Clubs; if possible, this
should be adhered to.

Any one, having the lead and several winning cards to play, should not
draw a second card out of his hand until his partner has played to the
first trick, such act being a distinct intimation that the former has
played a winning card.

No intimation whatever, by word or gesture, should be given by a player
as to the state of his hand, or of the game.

A player who desires the cards to be placed, or who demands to see the
last trick, should do it for his own information only, and not in order
to invite the attention of his partner.

No player should object to refer to a bystander who professes himself
uninterested in the game, and able to decide any disputed question
of facts; as to who played any particular card--whether honours were
claimed though not scored, or _vice versa_--etc., etc.

It is unfair to revoke purposely; having made a revoke, a player is not
justified in making a second in order to conceal the first.

Until the players have made such bets as they wish, bets should not be
made with bystanders.

Bystanders should make no remark, neither should they by word or
gesture give any intimation of the state of the game until concluded
and scored, nor should they walk round the table to look at the
different hands.

No one should look over the hand of a player against whom he is
betting.


DUMMY.

Is played by three players.

One hand, called Dummy’s, lies exposed on the table.

The laws are the same as those of Whist, with the following exceptions:

I. Dummy deals at the commencement of each rubber.

II. Dummy is not liable to the penalty for a revoke, as his adversaries
see his cards; should he revoke, and the error not be discovered until
the trick is turned and quitted, it stands good.

III. Dummy being blind and deaf, his partner is not liable to any
penalty for an error whence he can gain no advantage. Thus, he may
expose some or all of his cards--or may declare that he has the game,
or trick, etc., without incurring any penalty; if, however, he lead
from Dummy’s hand when he should lead from his own, or _vice versa_, a
suit may be called from the hand which ought to have led.


DOUBLE DUMMY.

Is played by two players, each having a Dummy or exposed hand for his
partner. The laws of the game do not differ from Dummy Whist, except
in the following special Law: There is no misdeal, as the deal is a
disadvantage.



THE POKER FAMILY.


Properly speaking, Poker is not the founder, but simply the most famous
representative of a very ancient and always very popular family of
games, all of which can be traced to one source, the old French game of
Gilet, which was undoubtedly of Italian origin, perhaps a variety of
Primero. Gilet we find changed to Brelan in the time of Charles IX.,
and although Brelan is no longer played, the word is still used in all
French games to signify triplets, and “brelan-carré” is the common
French term for four of a kind in _le poker Américain_. From Brelan we
trace the French games of Bouillotte, and Ambigu, and the English game
of Brag; but the game of poker, as first played in the United States,
five cards to each player from a twenty-card pack, is undoubtedly the
Persian game of _as nas_.

The peculiar and distinguishing characteristic of Poker we find
well described by Seymour, in his chapter on “Brag,” in the “Court
Gamester,” 1719: “The endeavour to impose on the judgment of the rest
who play, and particularly on the person who chiefly offers to oppose
you, by boasting or bragging of the cards in your hand. Those who by
fashioning their looks and gestures, can give a proper air to their
actions, as will so deceive an unskilful antagonist, that sometimes a
pair of fives, trays or deuces, in such a hand, with the advantage of
his composed countenance, and subtle manner of over-awing the other,
shall out-brag a much greater hand, and win the stakes, with great
applause and laughter on his side from the whole company.”

Quite a number of card games retain the feature of pairs, triplets,
sequences, and flushes, but omit the element of brag or bluff, and
can therefore hardly be considered full-blooded members of the poker
family. Whiskey Poker, for instance, has really little or nothing in
common with the true spirit of poker, and is simply the very ancient
game of Commerce, played with five cards instead of three. The
descriptions of this game in the earliest Hoyles betray its French
origin; particularly in the use of the piquet pack; the French custom
of cutting to the left and dealing to the right; and the use of the
words “brelan,” and “tricon.” In later descriptions of the “new
form” of Commerce, about 1835, we find 52 cards are used, and dealt
from left to right, and the names of the combinations are changed to
“pairs-royal,” “sequences,” and “flushes.”

There appears to be little or nothing modern in the game of Poker
but the increased number of cards dealt to each player, which makes
it possible for one to hold double combinations, such as two pairs,
triplets with a pair, etc. The old games were all played with three
cards only, and the “brelan-carré,” or four of a kind, could be made
only by combining the three cards held by the player with the card
which was sometimes turned up on the talon, or remainder of the pack.
The blind, the straddle, the raise, the bluff, table stakes, and
freeze-out, are all to be found in Bouillotte, which flourished in the
time of the French Revolution, and the “draw” from the remainder of the
pack existed in the old French game of Ambigu.

The first mention we have of poker in print is in Green’s Reformed
Gambler, which contains a description of a game of poker played on
a river steamer in June, 1834. The author undertook a series of
investigations with a view to discovering the origin of poker, the
results of which were published in the N.Y. Sun, May 22, 1904. It would
seem that poker came from Persia to this country by way of New Orleans.
The French settlers in Louisiana, recognizing the similarity between
the combinations held in the newcomer from the East, _as nas_, and
those with which they were already familiar in their own game of poque,
called the Persian game poque, instead of _as nas_, and our present
word, “poker,” seems to be nothing but a mispronunciation of the French
term, dividing it into two syllables, as if it were “po-que.”

There is no authoritative code of laws for the game of Poker, simply
because the best clubs do not admit the game to their card rooms,
and consequently decry the necessity for adopting any laws for its
government. In the absence of any official code, the daily press is
called upon for hundreds of decisions every week. The author has
gathered and compared a great number of these newspaper rulings, and
has drawn from them and other sources to form a brief code of poker
laws, which will be found amply sufficient to cover all irregularities
for which any penalty can be enforced, or which interfere with the
rights of any individual player.


DRAW POKER.

_=CARDS.=_ Poker is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards,
ranking: A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2; the ace being the highest or
lowest in play, according to the wish of the holder, but ranking below
the deuce in cutting. In some localities a special pack of sixty cards
is used, the eight extra cards being elevens and twelves in each suit,
which rank above the ten, and below the Jack. It is very unusual to
play Poker with two packs.

[Illustration: 11♣ 12♣]

_=COUNTERS, or CHIPS.=_ Although not absolutely necessary, counters are
much more convenient than money. The most common are red, white, and
blue circular chips, which should “stack up” accurately, so that equal
numbers may be measured without counting them. The red are usually
worth five whites, and the blue worth five reds, or twenty-five whites.
At the beginning of the game one player should act as banker, and be
responsible for all counters at the table. It is usual for each player
to purchase, at the beginning of the game, the equivalent of 100 white
counters in white, red, and blue.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Poker may be played by any number of persons from two
to seven. When there are more than seven candidates for play, two
tables should be formed, unless the majority vote against it. In some
localities it is the custom for the dealer to take no cards when there
are eight players, which is thought to make a better game than two
tables of only four players each. When the sixty-card pack is used,
eight players may take cards.

_=CUTTING.=_ The players who shall form the table, and their positions
at the beginning of the game, must be decided by throwing round a card
to each candidate, face up, or by drawing cards from an outspread pack.
If there are more than eight candidates, the four cutting the highest
cards should play together at one table, and the others at another
table. If there are an even number of candidates, the tables divide
evenly, but if the number is odd, the smaller table is formed by those
cutting the highest cards.

The table formed, the pack must be shuffled and spread, and positions
drawn for. The player cutting the lowest card has the choice of seats,
and must deal the first hand. The player cutting the next lowest has
the next choice, and so on, until all are seated.

_=TIES.=_ If the first cut does not decide, those tying must cut again.
Should two or more players cut cards of equal value, the new cut will
decide nothing but the tie; for even should one of those cutting to
decide a tie draw a card lower than one previously cut by another
player, the original low cannot be deprived of his right. For instance:
there are six players.

[Illustration:

   First cut is:-- 🂥 🃘 🃋 🂷 🃞 🃈
  Second cut is:--   🂴       🃒
]

The 5 and 7 have the first and second choice of seats; the 2 and 4 the
third and fourth choice.

_=PLAYERS’ POSITIONS.=_ There are only three distinctive positions at
the poker table: the _=dealer=_; the _=pone=_; and the _=age=_. The
pone is the player on the dealer’s right, and the age is the one on his
left.

_=STAKES.=_ Before play begins, or a card is dealt, the value of the
counters must be decided, and a _=limit=_ must be agreed upon. There
are four limitations in Draw Poker, and they govern or fix the maximum
of the four principal stakes: the blind; the straddle; the ante; and
the bet or raise.

The _=blind=_ is the amount put up by the age before he sees anything,
and should be limited to one white counter, as the blind is the
smallest stake in the game. In some places it is permissible for the
age to make the blind any amount he pleases within half the betting
limit; but such a practice is a direct violation of the principles of
the game, which require that the amount of the blind shall bear a fixed
proportion to the limit of the betting.

The _=straddle=_ is a double blind, sometimes put up by the player to
the left of the age, and like the blind, without seeing anything. This
allows the player on the left of the straddler to double again, or put
up four times the amount of the original blind. This straddling process
is usually limited to one-fourth of the betting limit; that is, if the
betting limit is fifty counters, the doubling of the blind must cease
when a player puts up sixteen, for another double would carry it to
thirty-two, which would be more than half the limit for a bet or raise.

The _=ante=_ is the amount put up by each player after he has seen his
cards, but before he draws to improve his hand. The terms “ante” and
“blind” are often confused. The blind is a compulsory stake, and must
be put up before the player has seen anything. He does not even know
whether or not he will be dealt a foul hand, or whether it will be a
misdeal. He has not even seen the cards cut. The ante, on the other
hand, is a voluntary bet, and is a sort of entrance fee, which is paid
before the hand is complete, but after the first part of it has been
seen. The ante is always twice the amount of the blind, whatever that
may be. If the blind has been increased by the process of straddling,
the ante must be twice the amount of the last straddle, but must not
exceed the betting limit. This is why the straddles are limited.

The largest _=bet=_, or _=raise=_, which a player is allowed to make is
generally known as _=the limit=_. This limit is not the greatest amount
that may be bet on one hand, but is the maximum amount by which one
player may increase his bet over that of another player. For instance:
If no one has bet, A may bet the limit on his hand; B may then put up a
similar amount, which is called _=seeing=_ him, and may then _=raise=_
him any further sum within the limit fixed for betting. If B raises the
limit, it is obvious that he has placed in the pool twice the amount
of the betting limit; but his _=raise=_ over A’s bet is within the
betting limit. If another player should raise B again, he would be
putting up three times the limit; A’s bet, B’s raise, and his own raise.

In the absence of any definite arrangement, it is usual to make the
betting limit fifty times the amount of the blind. That is, if the
value of the blind, or one white counter, is five cents, the limit of a
bet or raise will be two dollars and a half, or two blue counters. This
fixes the ante at two white counters, or ten cents, in the absence of
straddles, and limits the straddling to the fourth player from the age,
or sixteen white counters. This proportion makes a very fair game, and
gives a player some opportunity to vary his betting according to his
estimate of the value of his hand. Where the blind is five cents, the
ante ten, and the limit twenty-five, the game ceases to be Poker, and
becomes a species of _=show-down=_. It is universally admitted by good
judges that a player can lose more money at twenty-five cent show-down
than he will at two-and-a-half Poker.

There are several other variations in the manner of arranging the
stakes and the betting limits, but they will be better understood after
the game itself has been described.

_=DEALING.=_ The age having put up the amount of the blind, and the
cards having been shuffled by any player who chooses to avail himself
of the privilege, the dealer last, they are presented to the pone to be
cut. The pone may either cut them, or signify that he does not wish to
do so by tapping the pack with his knuckles. Should the pone decline
to cut, no other player can insist on his so doing, nor do it for him.
Beginning on his left, the dealer distributes the cards face down one
at a time in rotation until each player has received five cards. The
deal passes to the left, and each player deals in turn.

_=IRREGULARITIES IN THE DEAL.=_ The following rules regarding the deal
should be strictly observed:--

If any card is found faced in the pack the dealer must deal again.
Should the dealer, or the wind, turn over any card, the player to whom
it is dealt must take it; but the same player cannot be compelled to
take two exposed cards. Should such a combination occur, there must
be a fresh deal by the same dealer. If the player exposes his cards
himself, he has no remedy.

Should any player receive more or less than his correct number of
cards, and discover the error before he looks at any card in his hand,
or lifts it from the table, he may demand a fresh deal if no bet has
been made; or he may ask the dealer to give him another from the pack
if he has too few; or to draw a card if he has too many. Cards so drawn
must not be exposed, but should be placed on the bottom of the pack.

If the number of the hands dealt does not agree with the number of
players, there must be a new deal.

If two or more cards are dealt at a time, the dealer may take back the
card or cards improperly dealt if he discovers the error before dealing
to the next player; otherwise there must be a new deal.

A misdeal does not lose the deal. The misdealer must deal again.

Should a player take up his hand, or look at any card in it, he is
not entitled to any remedy. If he has more or less than the proper
number of cards, his hand is foul, and must be abandoned, the player
forfeiting any interest he may have in that deal, and any stake he may
have put up on that hand. In all gambling houses, the invariable rule
is to call a short hand foul; although there should be no objection to
playing against a man with only four cards, which cannot be increased
to five, even by the draw.

_=STRADDLING.=_ During the deal, or at any time before he looks at any
card in his hand, the player to the left of the age may _=straddle
the blind=_ by putting up double the amount put up by the age. The
only privilege this secures to the straddler is that of having the
last _=say=_ as to whether or nor he will make good his ante and draw
cards. Should he refuse to straddle, no other player can do so; but
if he straddles, the player on his left can straddle him again by
doubling the amount he puts up, which will be four times the amount
of the blind. This will open the privilege to the next player on the
left again, and so on until the limit of straddling is reached; but
if one player refuses to straddle, no other following him can do so.
Good players seldom or never straddle, as the only effect of it is to
increase the amount of the ante.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The cards dealt, the players take up and examine
their hands. The careful poker player always “spreads” his cards before
taking them up, to be sure that he has neither more nor less than five,
and he lifts them in such a way that the palm and fingers of his right
hand conceal the face of the first card, while the thumb of the left
hand separates the others just sufficiently to allow him to read the
index or “squeezer” marks on the edges.

[Illustration: Spreading. Squeezing.]

The object of this examination is to ascertain the value of the hand
dealt to him, and to see whether or not it is worth while trying to
improve it by discarding certain cards and drawing others in their
place. The player should not only be thoroughly familiar with the
relative value of the various combinations which may be held at Poker,
but should have some idea of the chances for and against better
combinations being held by other players, and should also know the odds
against improving any given combination by drawing to it.

The value of this technical knowledge will be obvious when it is
remembered that a player may have a hand dealt to him which he knows
is comparatively worthless as it is, and the chances for improving
which are only one in twelve, but which he must bet on at odds of one
in three, or abandon it. Such a proceeding would evidently be a losing
game, for if the experiment were tried twelve times the player would
win once only, and would lose eleven times. This would be paying eleven
dollars to win three; yet poker players are continually doing this.

_=RANK OF THE HANDS.=_ The various combinations at Poker outrank one
another in the following order, beginning with the lowest. Cards with
a star over them add nothing to the value of the hand, and may be
discarded. The figures on the right are the odds against such a hand
being dealt to any individual player.

  Five cards of various
  suits; not in sequence,
  and without a pair.               [Illustration: 🂡* 🃘* 🂶* 🂴* 🂢*] Even

  _=One Pair.=_ Two cards
  of one kind and three useless
  cards.                          [Illustration: 🂨 🃘 🃞* 🂭* 🂴*] 34 to 25


  _=Two Pairs.=_ Two of
  one kind; two of another
  kind; and one useless card.        [Illustration: 🂫 🃋 🂣 🃓 🂹*] 20 to 1

  _=Threes.=_ Three of one
  kind, and two useless cards.      [Illustration: 🃉 🂹 🃙 🂭* 🂢*] 46 to 1

  _=Straight.=_ All five
  cards in sequence, but
  of various suits.                  [Illustration: 🃉 🂸 🃗 🃆 🂥] 254 to 1

  _=Flush.=_ All five
  cards of one suit, but
  not in sequence.                   [Illustration: 🂡 🂮 🂨 🂥 🂣] 508 to 1

  _=Full Hand.=_ Three
  of one kind, and two
  of another kind; no
  useless cards.                     [Illustration: 🃅 🂥 🃕 🂽 🂭] 693 to 1

  _=Fours.=_ Four cards
  of one kind, and one
  useless card.                    [Illustration: 🃆 🂦 🃖 🂶 🂾*] 4164 to 1

  _=Straight flush.=_
  Five cards of the same
  suit, in sequence with
  one another.                     [Illustration: 🃈 🃇 🃆 🃅 🃄] 72192 to 1

  _=Royal Flush.=_ A
  straight flush which is
  ace high.                       [Illustration: 🃑 🃞 🃝 🃛 🃚] 649739 to 1

When hands are of the same rank, their relative value is determined
by the denomination of the cards they contain. For instance: A hand
without a pair, sequence, or flush is called by its highest card; “ace
high,” or “Jack high,” as the case may be. As between two such hands,
the one containing the highest card would be the better, but either
would be outclassed by a hand with a pair in it, however small. A hand
with a pair of nines in it would outrank one with a pair of sevens,
even though the cards accompanying the nines were only a deuce, three
and four, while those with the sevens were an ace, King and Queen. But
should the pairs be alike in both hands; such as tens, the highest
card outside the pair would decide the rank of the hands, and if those
were also alike, the next card, or perhaps the fifth would have to
be considered. Should the three odd cards in each hand be identical,
the hands would be a tie, and would divide any pool to which each had
a claim. Two flushes would decide their rank in the same manner. If
both were ace and Jack high, the third card in one being a nine, and
in the other an eight, the nine would win. In full hands the rank of
the triplets decides the value of the hand. Three Queens and a pair of
deuces will beat three Jacks and a pair of aces. In straights, the
highest card of the sequence wins; not necessarily the highest card in
the hand, for a player may have a sequence of A 2 3 4 5, which is only
five high, and would be beaten by a sequence of 2 3 4 5 6. The ace must
either begin or end a sequence, for a player is not allowed to call
such a combination as Q K A 2 3 a straight.

It was evidently the intention of those who invented Poker that the
hands most difficult to obtain should be the best, and should outrank
hands that occurred more frequently. A glance at the table of odds will
show that this principle has been carried out as far as the various
denominations of hands go; but when we come to the members of the
groups the principle is violated. In hands not containing a pair, for
instance, ace high will beat Jack high, but it is much more common to
hold ace high than Jack high. The exact proportion is 503 to 127. A
hand of five cards only seven high but not containing a pair, is rarer
than a flush; the proportion being 408 to 510. When we come to two
pairs, we find the same inversion of probability and value. A player
will hold “aces up,” that is, a pair of aces and another pair inferior
to aces, twelve times as often as he will hold “threes up.” In the
opinion of the author, in all hands that do not contain a pair, “seven
high” should be the best instead of the lowest, and ace high should be
the lowest. In hands containing two pairs, “threes up” should be the
highest, and “aces up” the lowest.

_=ECCENTRIC HANDS.=_ In addition to the regular poker hands, which are
those already given, there are a few combinations which are played in
some parts of the country, especially in the South, either as matter of
local custom or by agreement. When any of these are played, it would be
well for the person who is not accustomed to them to have a distinct
understanding in advance, just what combinations shall be allowed and
what hands they will beat. There are four of these eccentric hands, and
the figures on the right are the odds against their being dealt to any
individual player:

  _=Blaze.=_ Five picture
  cards. Beat two pairs;
  but lose to three of a
  kind.                             [Illustration: 🂻 🃝 🃍 🃎 🂮] 3008 to 1

  _=Tiger.=_ Must be seven
  high and deuce low; without
  a pair, sequence or
  flush. It beats a straight;
  but loses to a flush.              [Illustration: 🃇 🂦 🂥 🂳 🃒] 636 to 1

  _=Skip, or Dutch
  Straight.=_ Any sequence
  of alternate cards,
  of various suits. Beats
  two pairs and a blaze.             [Illustration: 🂭 🂺 🃘 🃆 🃔] 423 to 1

  _=Round-the-Corner.=_
  Any straight in which the
  ace connects the top and
  bottom. Beats threes;
  but any regular straight
  will beat it.                      [Illustration: 🂾 🂱 🃂 🃃 🃔] 848 to 1

The rank of these extra hands has evidently been assigned by
guess-work. The absurdity of their appraised value will be evident if
we look at the first of them, the blaze, which is usually played to
beat two pairs. As it is impossible to have a blaze which does not
contain two pairs of court cards, all that they beat is aces up or
kings up. If it were ranked, like other poker hands, by the difficulty
of getting it, a blaze should beat a full hand.

All these hands are improperly placed in the scale of poker values, as
will be seen by comparing the odds against them. In any games to which
these eccentric hands are admitted, the rank of all the combinations
would be as follows, if poker principles were followed throughout:--

  DENOMINATION.                       ODDS AGAINST.

  One pair                                 1¼ to 1
  Two pairs                               20  to 1
  Three of a kind                         46  to 1
  Sequence or straight                   254  to 1
  Skip or Dutch straight                 423  to 1
  Flush                                  508  to 1
  Tiger [Big or Little Dog]              636  to 1
  Full hand                              693  to 1
  Round-the-corner straight              848  to 1
  Blaze                                 3008  to 1
  Four of a kind                        4164  to 1
  Straight flush                       72192  to 1
  Royal Flush [Ace high]              649739  to 1

When the true rank of these eccentric hands is not allowed, local
custom must decide what they will beat.

_=JOKER POKER=_, or _=MISTIGRIS=_. It is not uncommon to leave the
joker, or blank card, in the pack. The player to whom this card is
dealt may call it anything he pleases. If he has a pair of aces, and
the joker, he may call them three aces. If he has four clubs, and the
joker, he may call it a flush; or he may make the joker fill out a
straight. If he has four of a kind, and the joker, he can beat a royal
flush by calling his hand five of a kind. In case of ties, the hand
with the mistigris wins; that is to say, an ace and the joker will beat
two aces.

A player holding the joker may even call it a duplicate of a card
already in his hand. For instance; he might hold the A J 8 5 of hearts
and the joker against the A K Q 7 3 of clubs. If he calls the joker the
king of hearts, the club flush still beats him as it is queen next. He
must call it the ace, which makes his flush ace-ace high.

_=PROBABILITIES.=_ In estimating the value of his hand as compared to
that of any other player, before the draw, the theory of probabilities
is of little or no use, and the calculations will vary with the number
of players engaged. For instance: If five are playing, some one should
have two pairs every fourth deal, because in four deals twenty hands
will be given out. If seven are playing, it is probable that five of
them will hold a pair of some kind before the draw. Unfortunately,
these calculations are not of the slightest practical use to a poker
player, because although three of a kind may not be dealt to a player
more than once in forty-five times on the average, it is quite a common
occurrence for two players to have threes dealt to each of them at the
same time. The considerations which must guide the player in judging
the comparative value of his hand, both before and after the draw, must
be left until we come to the suggestions for good play.

_=THE ANTE.=_ The player to the left of the age is the one who must
make the first announcement of his opinion of his hand, unless he has
straddled, in which case the player on the left of the last straddler
has the first “_=say=_.” If he considers his hand good enough to draw
to, let us say a pair of Kings, he must place in the pool, or toward
the centre of the table, double the amount of the blind, or of the
last straddle, if any. This is called the ante, because it is made
before playing the hand, whereas the blind is made before seeing it.
The player is not restricted to double the amount of the blind or
straddle; he may bet as much more as he pleases within the limit fixed
at the beginning of the game. For instance: If there has been only one
straddle he must put up four white counters or pass out of the game for
that deal. But if he puts up the four, he may put up as many more as
he pleases within the limit, which is two blues, or fifty whites. This
is called _=raising the ante=_. If he does not care to pay twice the
amount of the blind or straddle for the privilege of drawing cards to
improve his hand, he must throw his cards face downward on the table in
front of the player whose turn it will be to deal next. Reasonable time
must be allowed for a player to make his decision; but having made it,
he must abide by it; a hand once thrown down cannot be taken up again,
and counters once placed in the pool, and the hand removed from them,
cannot be taken out again, even though placed in the pool by mistake.

The player who has the first say having made his decision, the player
next him on the left must then decide. He must put into the pool an
amount equal to that deposited by the first player, or abandon his
hand. Suppose there has been no straddle, and that all conclude to
_=stay=_, as it is called. They each in turn put up two white counters
until it comes to the age. The one white counter he has already put up
as a blind belongs to the pool, but by adding one to it he can make his
ante good, and draw cards, always provided no player has raised the
ante. If any player has put more counters into the pool than the amount
of the ante, all the other players must put up a like amount, or throw
down their hands. Suppose five play, and A has the age. B antes two
counters, and C puts up seven, the ante and a raise of five. If D and E
come in, they must put up seven counters also; and the age, A, must put
up six to make his ante good. It now comes to B, who must either lose
the two he has already put up, or add five more to them. Let us suppose
that D puts up the seven, and that E, the dealer, puts up twelve. This
will force the age to put up eleven; B to put up ten; and C to put up
five more. This will make each player’s ante an equal amount, twelve
counters, and they will then be ready to draw cards. No one can now
raise the ante any further, because it is no one’s turn to “say.”

It will thus be seen that every player in his turn can do one of three
things, which are sometimes called the _=a b c=_ of Poker: He can
_=Abdicate=_; by throwing down his hand, and abandoning whatever money
he has already placed in the pool. He can _=Better=_; by putting up
more money than any player before him, which is sometimes called “going
better.” Or, he can _=Call=_, by making his amount in the pool equal to
the highest bet already made.

Should any player increase the ante to such an extent that none of the
others care to call him, they must of course throw down their hands,
and as there is no one to play against him, the one who made the last
increase in the ante takes down all the counters in the pool. This is
called _=taking the pot=_, and the cards are gathered, shuffled, and
dealt again, the deal passing to the player who was the age.

_=DRAWING CARDS.=_ All those who have made the ante good have the
privilege of discarding, face downward, as many cards as they please,
in the place of which they may draw others. The age has the first draw,
and can take any number of cards from one to five, or he may _=stand
pat=_, refusing to draw any. A player cannot receive from the dealer
more or less cards than he discards; so that if a person is allowed to
play with a short hand, of four cards only, he will still have only
four cards after the draw. If his hand was foul, it will remain so
after the draw. In drawing, a player may keep or discard what cards he
pleases. There is no rule to prevent his throwing away a pair of aces
and keeping three clubs if he is so inclined; but the general practice
is for the player to retain whatever pairs or triplets he may have,
and to draw to them. Four cards of a straight or a flush may be drawn
to in the same way, and some make a practice of drawing to one or two
high cards, such as an ace and a king, when they have no other chance.
Some hands offer opportunities to vary the draw. For instance: A player
has dealt to him a small pair; but finds he has also four cards of a
straight. He can discard three cards and draw to the pair; or one card,
and draw to the straight; or two cards, keeping his ace in the hope
of making two good pairs, aces up. The details of the best methods
of drawing to various combinations will be discussed when we come to
suggestions for good play.

[Illustration:

  🂱 🂴 🃒 🂣 🃄
]

In drawing cards, each player in turn who has made good his ante,
beginning with the age, must ask the dealer for the number of cards he
wants. The demand must be made so that every player can hear, because
after the cards have been delivered by the dealer no one has the right
to be informed how many cards any player drew. When the dealer comes to
his own hand, he must distinctly announce the number of cards he takes.
He must also inform any player asking him how many cards he took,
provided the question is put before the player asking it has made a
bet, and it is put by a player who has made good his ante to draw cards.

In dealing the cards for the draw, the pack is not cut again, the cards
being dealt from the top, beginning where the deal before the draw left
off. As each player asks for his cards he must discard those he wants
replaced, and he must receive the entire number he asks for before the
next player is helped. In some places it is the custom for all those
who have made good the ante to discard before any cards are given out.
This is not good poker, as it prevents the dealer from seeing that the
number discarded is equal to the number asked for. Should any card
be found faced in the pack, it must be placed on the table among the
discards. Should any card be exposed by the dealer in giving out the
cards, or be blown over by the wind before the player has touched it,
such card must not be taken by the player under any circumstances, but
must be placed with the discards on the table. A player whose card is
exposed in this manner does not receive a card to take its place until
all the other players have been helped. [The object of this rule is to
prevent a dealer from altering the run of the cards in the draw.]

Should a player ask for an incorrect number of cards and they be given
him, he must take them if the next player has been helped. If too many,
he must discard before seeing them. If too few, he must play them. If
he has taken them up and has too many, his hand is foul, and shuts him
out of that pool. If the dealer gives himself more cards than he needs
he is compelled to take them. For instance: He draws three cards to a
pair; but on taking up his hand he finds he had triplets, and really
wanted only two cards. He cannot change his draw, and must take the
three cards he has dealt off. There is a penalty for not following
the strict rule of the game, which is for each player, including the
dealer, to discard before he draws.

Should the dealer give any player more cards than he asked for, and the
player discover the error before taking them up or looking at any of
them, the dealer must withdraw the surplus card, and place it on the
top of the pack. Should the dealer give a player fewer cards than he
asks for, he must supply the deficiency when his attention is called to
it, without waiting to supply the other players. If a player has more
or less than five cards after the draw, his hand is foul, and he must
abandon it, together with all he may have already staked in the pool.

The dealer may be asked how many cards he drew; but he is not allowed
to say how many cards he gave to any other player. Each player must
watch the draw for himself.

The last card of the pack must not be dealt. When only two cards
remain, the discards and abandoned hands must be gathered, shuffled,
and presented to the pone to be cut, and the deal then completed.

_=BETTING UP THE HANDS.=_ All those who made good the ante having
been supplied with cards, the next player who holds cards on the left
of the age must make the first bet. Should the age have declined to
make good his ante, or have passed out before the draw, that does not
transfer the privilege of having the last say to any other player;
because the peculiar privilege of the age,--having the last say,--is
given in consideration of the blind, which he is _compelled_ to pay,
and no other player can have that privilege, because no other player
is obliged to play. Even if a player has straddled the blind, he must
still make the first bet after the draw, because he straddled of
his own free will, and knew at the time that the only advantage the
straddle would give him was the last say as to whether or not he would
make good his ante and draw cards.

If the player next to the age has passed out before the draw, the next
player to the left who still holds cards must make the first bet. The
player whose turn it is to bet must either do so, or throw his hand
face downward in front of the player whose turn it will be to deal
next. If he bets, he can put up any amount from one white counter to
the limit, two blues. It then becomes the turn of the player next on
his left who still holds cards to abdicate, better, or call. If he
calls, he does so by placing in the pool an amount equal to that staked
by the last player, and it then becomes the turn of the next player
on the left to say what he will do. But if he goes better, he adds to
the amount staked by the player on his right any further sum he sees
fit, within the limit of two blues. Each player in turn has the same
privilege, the age having the last say.

Suppose five play, and that A has the age. B has straddled, and all
but the dealer have made good the ante and drawn cards. There are
sixteen white counters in the pool, B’s straddle having made the ante
four instead of two. Suppose B bets a red counter, and C then throws
down his hand. D _=sees=_ B, by putting up a red counter; and he then
_=raises=_ him, by putting up two blues, increasing his bet as much as
the limit will allow him. The age must now abandon his hand or put up
one red and two blues to call D, without knowing what B proposes to
do. Let us suppose he sees D, and raises another two blues. B must now
retire, or put up four blues to call A, without knowing what D will
do. He can raise the bet another two blues, or one blue, or a red, or
a white even, if he is so minded. If he declines to raise, he cannot
prevent D from so doing, because D still has the privilege of replying
to A’s raise, and as long as a player has any _=say=_ about anything,
whether it is to abdicate, better, or call, he can do any one of the
three. It is only when there is no bet made, or when his own bet is
either not called or not raised, that a player has nothing to say. Let
us suppose B puts up the four blues to call A. It is now D’s turn. If
he puts up two blues, each will have an equal amount in the pool, and
as no one will have anything more to say, the betting must stop, and
the hands must be shown. But if D raises A again, by putting up four
blues instead of two, he gives A another say, and perhaps A will raise
D in turn. Although B may have had quite enough of this, he must either
put up four more blues, the two raised by D and the further raise by
A, or he must abandon his hand. If B throws down his cards he loses
all claim to what he has already staked in the pool, four blues and a
red, besides his straddle and ante. Let us suppose he drops out, and
that D just calls A, by putting up two blues only, making the amount he
has in the pool exactly equal to A’s, eight blues and a red, besides
the antes. This prevents A from going any further, because it is not
his turn to say anything. He is not asked to meet any one’s raise, nor
to make any bet himself, but simply to show his hand, in order to see
whether or not it is better than D’s.

_=SHOWING HANDS.=_ It is the general usage that the hand _=called=_
must be shown first. In this case A’s hand is called, for D was the
one who called a halt on A in the betting, and stopped him from going
any further. The strict laws of the game require that both hands must
be shown, and if there are more than two in the final call, all must
be shown to the table. The excuse generally made for not showing the
losing hand is that the man with the worse hand paid to see the better
hand; but it must not be forgotten that the man with the better hand
has paid exactly the same amount, and is equally entitled to see the
worse hand. There is an excellent rule in some clubs that a player
refusing to show his hand in a call shall refund the amount of the
antes to all the other players, or pay all the antes in the next jack
pot. The rule of showing both hands is a safeguard against collusion
between two players, one of whom might have a fairly good hand, and the
other nothing; but by mutually raising each other back and forth they
could force any other player out of the pool. The good hand could then
be called and shown, the confederate simply saying, “That is good,” and
throwing down his hand. Professionals call this system of cheating,
“raising out.”

When the hands are called and shown, the best poker hand wins, their
rank being determined by the table of values already given. In the
example just given suppose that A, on being called by D, had shown
three fours, and that D had three deuces. A would take the entire
pool, including all the antes, and the four blues and one red staked
by B after the draw. It might be that B would now discover that he had
_=laid down=_ the best hand, having held three sixes. This discovery
would be of no benefit to him, for he abandoned his hand when he
declined to meet the raises of A and D.

If the hands are exactly a tie, the pool must be divided among those
who are in at the call. For instance: Two players show aces up, and
each finds his opponent’s second pair to be eights. The odd card must
decide the pool; and if that card is also a tie the pool must be
divided.

If no bet is made after the draw, each player in turn throwing down his
cards, the antes are won by the last player who holds his hand. This is
usually the age, because he has the last say. If the age has not made
good his ante, it will be the dealer, and so on to the right. There is
no necessity for the fortunate player to show his hand; the mere fact
that he is the only one holding any cards is prima facie evidence that
his hand is the best. On the same principle, the player who has made
a bet or raise which no other player will see, wins the pool without
showing his hand, as he must be the only one with cards in his hand;
for when a player refuses to see a bet he must abandon his hand, and
with it all pretensions to the pool. If he wishes to call, but has not
money enough, he must borrow it. He cannot demand a show of hands for
what counters he has, except in table stakes.

During the betting, players are at liberty to make any remarks they
see fit, and to tell as many cheerful lies about their hands as they
please. A player may even miscall his hand when he shows it; the cards
speak for themselves, just as the counters do, and what a player says
does not affect either in the slightest. If a player says: “I raise you
two blues,” the statement amounts to nothing until the blues have been
placed in the pool, and the owner’s hand removed from them. There is no
penalty if a player, during the betting, tells his adversaries exactly
what he holds; nor is he likely to lose anything by it, for no one will
believe him.

_=JACK POTS.=_ The addition of jack pots has probably done more to
injure Poker than the trump signal has injured Whist. In the early
days, when poker parties were small, four players being a common
number, it was frequently the case that no one had a pair strong enough
to draw to, and such a deal was regarded as simply a waste of time.
To remedy this, it was proposed that whenever no player came in, each
should be obliged to ante an equal amount for the next deal, and just
to demonstrate that there were some good hands left in the pack no one
was allowed to draw cards until some one had _=Jacks or better=_ to
draw to.

The result of this practice was to make jack pots larger than the other
pools, because every one was compelled to ante, and this seems to have
prompted those who were always wanting to increase the stakes to devise
excuses for increasing the number of jack pots. This has been carried
so far that the whole system has become a nuisance, and has destroyed
one of the finest points in the game of Poker,--the liberty of personal
judgment as to every counter put into the pool, except the blind. The
following excuses for making jack pots are now in common use:

_=After a Misdeal=_ some parties make it a jack; but the practice
should be condemned, because it puts it in the power of any individual
player to make it a jack when he deals.

_=The Buck=_ is some article, such as a penknife, which is placed in
the pool at the beginning of the game, and is taken down with the rest
of the pool by whichever player wins it. When it comes to his deal, it
is a jack pot, and the buck is placed in the pool with the dealer’s
ante, to be won, taken down, and make another jack in the same way.

The usual custom is to fix the amount of the ante in jack pots, a red,
or five whites, being the common stake. In some places it is at the
option of the holder of the buck to make the ante any amount he pleases
within the betting limit. Whichever system is adopted, every player at
the table must deposit a like amount in the pool. Players are sometimes
permitted to _=pass a jack=_; that is, not to ante nor to take any part
in the game until the jack is decided. If this is to be allowed, it
should be so understood at the beginning of the game.

_=The High Hand=_ jack pot is played whenever a hand of an agreed
value, such as a flush or a full, is shown to the board; that is,
called. In some places four of a kind calls for _=a round of jacks=_,
every player in turn making it a jack on his deal.

_=Only Two In.=_ It is a common custom in large parties, say six or
seven players, to make it a jack when no one but the dealer will ante.
Instead of allowing the blind to make his ante good, and draw cards
against the dealer, each player contributes two white counters, the
age adding one to his blind, and the cards are redealt for a jack pot.
Another variety of this custom is when the blind is opposed by only one
ante, to allow the age to make this player take down his two counters,
and to pay two counters for him, to make it a jack. For instance: Five
play, and A has the age. B and C pass, and D antes two counters. The
dealer, E, says: “I pass for a jack.” A then puts up three counters,
one of which is added to his blind, the other two paying D’s ante in
the ensuing jack. D takes down his two counters, and the cards are
redealt. This cannot be done if more than one player has anted, nor if
the ante has been raised or the blind straddled. In the example just
given, had D raised the ante to five counters and E passed, the age
would have had to put up four more white counters and draw cards, or
allow D to win his blind.

_=Progressive Jacks.=_ In some localities it is the custom to make the
pair necessary to open a jack pot progress in value; Jacks or better to
open the first round; Queens the next; then Kings; then Aces; and then
back to Kings, Queens, and Jacks again. This is very confusing, and is
not popular.

_=Fattening Jacks.=_ When the original ante is two counters only,
and no one holds Jacks or better on the first deal, each player must
contribute another white counter to “fatten,” and the cards are
dealt again. This continues until the pot is opened; that is, until
some player holds a hand as good or better than a pair of Jacks. The
fattening process is followed when the dealer can make the original
ante what he pleases; but if the ante for jacks is a fixed sum, such as
a red counter, it is not usual to fatten the pot at all. This saves all
disputes as to _=who is shy=_, one of the greatest nuisances in Poker.

_=Opening Jacks.=_ As there is no age or straddle in any form of jack
pot, the player to the left of the dealer has the first say, and must
examine his hand to see if he has Jacks or better; that is to say,
either an actual pair of Jacks, or some hand that would beat a pair
of Jacks if called upon to do so, such as two pairs, a straight,
or triplets. In some localities it is allowed to open jacks with a
_=bobtail=_; that is, four cards of a flush or straight. If the player
on the dealer’s left has not openers, or does not care to open the pot
if he has, he says: “I pass;” but he does not abandon his hand. The
next player on his left must then declare. In some places players are
allowed to throw down their cards when they pass; but in first-class
games a penalty of five white counters must be paid into the pool by
any player abandoning his hand before the second round of declarations,
as it gives an undue advantage to players with medium hands to know
that they have only a limited number of possible opponents. For
instance: If six play, and the first three not only pass, but throw
down and abandon their cards, a player with a pair of Jacks will know
that he has only two possible adversaries to draw against him, which
will so increase his chances that it may materially alter his betting.

If no one acknowledges to holding Jacks or better, the pot is fattened,
and the cards are reshuffled and dealt. The best practice is for the
same dealer to deal again until some one gets Jacks or better. This is
called _=dealing off the jack=_. If any player has forfeited his right
in one deal, such as by having a foul hand, that does not prevent him
coming into the pot again on the next deal with rights equal to the
other players.

If any player holds Jacks or better, he can open the pot, or “the
jack,” for any amount he pleases within the betting limit. The
expression “open” is used because after one player has declared that he
holds Jacks or better, all restrictions are removed, and the pool is
then open to any player to come in and play for it, regardless of what
he may hold. Each player in turn, beginning on the left of the opener,
must declare whether or not he will _=stay=_. If he stays, he must put
up an amount equal to that bet by the opener, and has the privilege
of raising him if he sees fit. If he passes, he throws his cards face
downward on the table in front of the player whose turn it will be to
deal next. Should the opener be raised, and not care to see that raise,
he must show his hand to the table before abandoning it, in order to
demonstrate that he had openers. Some players show only the cards
necessary to open, but the strict rules require the whole hand to be
shown before the draw. When once the jack is opened, the betting before
the draw proceeds exactly as in the ordinary pool. Any player on the
right of the opener, who passed on the first round, may come in after
the pot is opened. For instance: E deals. A and B pass, but hold their
hands. C opens, and D throws down his hand. E sees the opener’s bet,
and it then becomes the turn of A and B, who have passed once, to say
whether or not they will play, now that the pot is opened.

When all those who have declared to stay have deposited an equal amount
in the pool, they draw cards to improve their hands, just as in the
ordinary pool, the player on the dealer’s left being helped first. All
those who draw cards, except the opener, throw their discards into the
centre of the table as usual; but the opener is obliged always to place
his discard under the chips in the pool. This is in order that he may
be able to show what he held originally, in case he should conclude to
_=split his openers=_ in order to try for a better hand. For instance:
He has opened with a pair of Jacks, but has four of one suit in his
hand. Four other players have stayed, perhaps the bet has been raised,
and he knows that his Jacks will probably be worthless, even if he
gets a third. So he breaks the pair, and draws for a flush. As the
opener always places his discard under the chips in the pool, it is not
necessary for him to betray his game by telling the whole table that he
is drawing to a bobtail.

_=False Openers.=_ Should a player open a jack without the hand to
justify it, and discover his error before he draws, the best usage
demands that his hand is foul, and that he forfeits to the pool
whatever amount he may have opened for, and any raises that he may
have stood. There are then three ways to play: _=First.=_ Those who
have come in under the impression that the pot had been legitimately
opened but who have not openers themselves, can withdraw their money,
and allow any one to open it who has openers. This is very unfair to
those on the left of the false opener who have abandoned their hands.
_=Second.=_ Those who have come into the pot after the false opening
are allowed to stay in, and play for it, no matter what their hands
are. _=Third.=_ On discovery of the false opening, each player is
allowed to take down whatever amount he may have paid into the pool,
including his original ante and all fatteners, and the false opener
must then make the entire amount good. The cards are then dealt afresh.
This is a very harsh punishment for a very trifling and common error.

The second method is the most popular, and probably the fairest, and is
now the universal rule.

If the false opener does not discover his mistake until he has drawn
cards, his action is at least suspicious, and he should be compelled
to put up the total amount in the pool, as in case three. In some
localities such a player is barred from playing the next two jacks, but
compelled to ante his share in each.

_=Betting Jacks.=_ When a jack pot has been properly opened, and all
have declared whether or not they will stay, and have drawn cards, the
players proceed to bet on their hands. As there is no age in jack pots,
the rule is for the opener to make the first bet; or, if he has been
raised out before the draw, the player next on his left who still holds
cards. The opener may decline to bet if he pleases; but if he does
so, he must show his openers, and then abandon his hand. If no bet is
made, the last player holding cards takes the pool without showing his
hand. If a bet is made, each player in turn on the left must abdicate,
better, or call, just as in the ordinary pool. At the conclusion of the
betting, if there is a call, the best poker hand wins, of course. If
there is no call, the player making the last bet or raise takes the
pool without showing his hand, unless he is the opener, when the whole
hand need not be shown, as it is no one’s business what the opener got
in the draw, no one having paid to see it. All he need show is openers.
But should the opener be one of those in the final call, he must show
his whole hand. Should it then be discovered that he has not openers,
the false opener is compelled to ante for all the players at the table
for another Jack. This is usually called giving them a “free ride.”

_=The Kitty=_ is now an almost universal adjunct to the pool. In clubs,
it pays for the cards, and for an occasional round of refreshments; in
small poker parties it defrays the expense of the weekly supper. When
the amount is excessive, or accumulates too rapidly, it is often used
to give the players a “free ride” by paying all their antes in a “kitty
jack pot.”

The kitty is usually kept by the banker, who takes a white counter
out of every pool in which triplets or better are shown to the board,
and a red counter out of every jack pot. These counters must be kept
apart from the other chips, and must be accounted for at the end of the
game by paying the kitty so much in cash, just as if it was one of the
players.

Gambling houses and poker rooms are supposed to derive their entire
revenue from this source, and those of the lowest class invent endless
excuses for taking out for the kitty. In many houses there is a sliding
scale for various hands; one counter being taken for two pairs; two
counters for triplets; three for straights or flushes; and a red for
fours, jack pots, and misdeals. It is not uncommon for the proprietors
of such games to find thirty or forty dollars in the kitty after a
night’s play with five-cent chips.

_=TABLE STAKES.=_ This is one of several variations in arranging the
stakes and the betting limit. In some localities it is the custom to
allow each player to purchase as many counters as he pleases; in others
it is the rule to compel each to buy an equal number at the start,
usually two hundred times the amount of the blind. In table stakes the
betting limit is always the amount that the player has in front of him;
but no player is allowed either to increase or diminish that amount
while he has any cards in front of him. Before the cards are dealt for
any pool he may announce that he wishes to buy counters, or that he has
some to sell to any other player wishing to purchase; but for either
transaction the consent of all the other players must be obtained. No
player is allowed under any circumstances to borrow from another, nor
to be “shy” in any pot; that is, to say, “I owe so many.” If he has any
counters in front of him, his betting is limited to what he has; if he
has none, he is out of the game, for that hand at least. As a player
cannot increase the amount he has in front of him during the play of a
hand, it is best to keep on the table at all times as much as one is
likely to want to bet on any one hand.

It is the usual custom, and an excellent one, to fix upon a definite
hour for closing a game of table stakes, and to allow no player to
retire from the game before that hour unless he is _=decavé=_, (has
lost all his capital). Should he insist on retiring, whatever counters
he has must be divided among the other players, and if there are any
odd ones after the division, they must be put into the current pool.

In table stakes, any player may _=call a sight=_ for what money or
counters he has in front of him, even should another player have bet a
much larger amount. For instance: A has bet three dollars, and B has
only two dollars in front of him, but wishes to call A. B calls for a
sight by putting his two dollars in the pool, and A must then withdraw
his third dollar from the pool, but leave it on the table to be called
or raised by any other player. Should C wish to call A, or even to
raise him, A and C may continue the betting independently of B’s part
of the pool. Should C have even less money than B, say one dollar, he
may still further reduce the original pool, leaving the two dollars
aside for settlement between A and B, and A’s third dollar still aside
from that again for the decision of any other player.

Let us suppose that A and C continue the betting until one calls.
When the hands are shown, if either A’s or C’s is better than B’s, B
loses his interest; but if B’s hand is better than either A’s hand or
C’s hand, he takes the part of the pool for which he called a sight,
while A and C decide the remainder between them. For instance: A calls
C, and C shows three tens. Neither A nor B can beat it, and C takes
everything. But if B had three Jacks, and A only three fives, B would
take the part of the pool for which he called a sight, and C would take
the remainder.

Should C have raised and bluffed A out, or have bet so much that A
finally refused to call, A would have no interest in either pool, and C
would take all the money outside the pool for which B called a sight.
Should it then transpire, on the show of hands between B and C, that A
had laid down a better hand than either of them, that would not entitle
A to claim the sight pool from B, because in laying down his hand he
has practically acknowledged that C’s hand is better, and has retired
from the game. If B’s hand is better than C’s, B takes the sight pool.

_=FREEZE OUT.=_ This might be called a variety of table stakes. At the
start, each player is supplied with an equal number of counters; but
no one is allowed to replenish his stock, or to withdraw or loan any
part of it. As soon as any player has lost his capital he is decavé,
or _=frozen out=_, and must permanently retire from the game. The
other players continue until only one remains, who must of course win
everything on the table. This is not a popular form of Poker, because
it is sometimes a long time before a player who is frozen out can get
into a game again.

_=SHOW-DOWN POKER.=_ This is a variety of draw poker, in which each
player takes the five cards dealt to him and turns them face up so that
all the other players can see them. Each player discards and draws in
turn, eldest hand first. As soon as a hand is beaten it is thrown into
the deadwood, all the cards drawn being dealt face up.

_=FLAT POKER.=_ In this variety of the game, before the cards are
dealt, the age puts up, for a blind, any amount he pleases within
the limit. Those who are willing to bet a similar amount on the
possibilities of their hands put up a similar amount. Those who decline
are not given any cards. There are no straddles, raises, or antes.
Immediately after the deal each player who is in the pool draws cards,
the age first. There are then two ways to play: The hands are shown
and the best wins; or, beginning with the age, each player may say if
he will back his hand against the field; _i.e._, all the others in the
pool. If he will, he must put up as much as their combined stakes. He
cannot be raised; but if any one player or combination of players call
him, and one of them can beat his hand, the field divide the pool. For
instance: Age makes it a blue, and three others stay with him. After
the draw C puts up three blues against the field. D and A call it,
and all show hands. If any of the three, A, B or D can beat C they
divide the pool, B getting his third, although he did not contribute
to the call. This game is a pure gamble; except that a bold player may
occasionally bluff the field off.

_=METHODS OF CHEATING.=_ Poker and its congeners have received more
attention from the greeks than any other family of card games. In fact
it is generally believed that the term greek, as applied to a card
sharper, had its origin in the Adam of the poker family, which was a
gambling game introduced by the Greeks in Italy.

So numerous and so varied are the methods of cheating at Poker that it
is an axiom among gamblers that if a pigeon will not stand one thing
he will another. The best informed make it a rule never to play Poker
with strangers, because they realize that it is impossible for any but
a professional gambler to know half the tricks employed by the poker
sharp. It is a notorious fact that even the shrewdest gamblers are
continually being taken in by others more expert than themselves. What
chance then has the honest card player?

There are black sheep in all flocks, and it may be well to give a few
hints to those who are in the habit of playing in mixed companies.

Never play with a man who looks attentively at the faces of the cards
as he gathers them for his deal; or who stands the pack on edge, with
the faces of the cards towards him, and evens up the bunch by picking
out certain cards, apparently because they are sticking up. Any pack
can be straightened by pushing the cards down with the hand. The man
who lifts them up is more than probably a cheat.

Never play with a man who looks intently at the pack and shuffles the
cards slowly. If he is not locating the cards for the ensuing deal he
is wasting time, and should be hurried a little.

Never play with a person who leaves the cut portion of the pack on the
table, and deals off the other part. In small parties this is a very
common way of working what is known as _=the top stock=_. If such a
dealer is carefully watched it will usually be found that he seizes
the first opportunity to place the part cut off on the top of the part
dealt from. The top stock is then ready for the draw, and the judicious
player should at once cash his chips and retire from the game.

Never play with a man who continually holds his cards very close to
his body, or who completely conceals his hand before the draw, or who
takes great care to put his discard among previous discards, so that
the exact number of cards put out cannot be counted. He is probably
working a vest or sleeve hold-out. Some clumsy or audacious sharpers
will go so far as to hold out cards in their lap, or stick them in a
“bug” under the table. One of the most successful poker sharps ever
known, “Eat-um-up Jake” Blackburn, who had a hand like a ham, could
hold out five cards in his palm while he carried on all the operations
of shuffling, dealing, and playing his hand. Such men require great
dexterity and nerve to get rid of their “deadwood,” or surplus cards,
without detection. _=Holding out=_ is regarded by the professional as a
most dangerous experiment, but it is very common.

Never play with a man who keeps his eyes rivetted on the cards as he
deals, and who deals comparatively slowly. He is probably using marked
cards, or has marked the important ones himself during the play. Poker
sharps who mark cards by scratching them with a sharp point concealed
in a ring are obliged to hold the cards at a certain angle to the
light in order to see the scratches. Those who dig points in the cards
with the thumb nail depend on touch instead of sight. If you find such
points on the cards, either dig other points on other cards, or retire
from the game.

Against the hold-out or marked cards there is no protection, because
the dealer does not care how much the cards in the pack are shuffled or
cut; but every method of running up hands, or stocking cards, can be
made ineffective if the pone will not only cut the cards, but carefully
reunite the packets. If the two parts are straightened after the cut,
it will be impossible for the dealer to shift the cut, and bring the
cards back to their original position. The dealer will sometimes bend
the top or bottom card so as to form a _=bridge=_, which will enable
him to find the place where the cards were cut. This can only be
overcome by shuffling the cards instead of cutting them, which every
player has the right to do. If you insist on shuffling, the greek will
do the same in his turn, and will run up hands to be dealt to himself.
It is perfectly useless to endeavour to protect yourself against a
poker sharp; the only remedy is to leave the game.

Many persons have a strong prejudice against playing with a man who
shuffles his chips. The mere fact of his being an expert at chip
shuffling has nothing to do with the game of poker, the accomplishment
usually being the result of long experience at the faro table. The
reason for the prejudice is that a chip shuffler is usually cold
blooded, courageous, and seldom a loser at any game that requires nerve.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ Volumes might be written for the
guidance of the poker player without improving his game a particle,
unless he possesses at least one of four qualifications: Control over
his features and actions; judgment of human nature; courage; and
patience. The man whose face or manner betrays the nature of his hand,
or the effect of an opponent’s bet or raise, will find everyone to beat
his weak hands, and no one to call his strong ones. Unless he is a fair
judge of human nature he will never be able to estimate the strength or
peculiarities of the players to whom he is opposed, and will fail to
distinguish a bluff from an ambuscade. Without courage he cannot reap
the full benefit of his good hands; and without patience he cannot save
his money in the time of adversity.

Of one thing every player may rest assured, and that is that Poker
cannot be played by mathematical formulas. Beyond the most elementary
calculations of the chances in favour of certain events the theory of
probabilities is of no assistance. It is not necessary to call in a
mathematician to prove that a player who habitually discards a pair of
aces to draw to three cards of a suit will lose by the operation in the
long run. Nor will any amount of calculation convince some players that
they are wasting their money to stay in a jack pot in order to draw to
a pair of tens, although such is the fact.

The various positions occupied by the player at the poker table may
be briefly examined, and some general suggestions offered for his
guidance in each of them. In the first place he should look out for his
counters. It is always best for each player to place the amount of his
ante or his bet immediately in front of him, so that there need be no
dispute as to who is up, or who is shy. Above all it should be insisted
that any player who has once put counters in the pool, and taken his
hand from them, should not again take them down.

_=The Age=_ is the most valuable position at the table, but it is
seldom fully taken advantage of. The age should never look at his
hand until it is his turn to make good his blind. He may pick up his
cards, but he should use his eyes in following the manner and facial
expression of the other players as they sort their cards. One of the
greatest errors made by the age is in thinking that he must save his
blind. The player who draws to nothing because he can do so cheaply,
will usually have nothing to draw at the end of the game. The age can
usually afford to draw to four-card flushes, and to straights open at
both ends, but should not do so when there are less than three who have
paid to draw cards, or when the ante has been raised.

If the age holds Kings or better before the draw, he should invariably
raise the ante unless there are five players in the pool besides
himself, or unless some other player has already raised. If he holds
two pairs, he should do all his betting before the draw. If any other
player has raised, or his own raise is re-raised, the age must use his
judgment of the player and the circumstances. It is useless for the age
to disguise his hand by such manœuvres as holding up an odd card to a
pair, unless he raises the blind at the same time. If he draws one or
two cards only, and has not raised the blind, every one will credit him
for a small pair and an ace, or for a bobtail, and will inevitably call
any bluff he may make. The age is the poorest position at the table for
a bluff, but it is decidedly the best in which to win large pots with
moderate hands.

_=The Dealer=_ has the next best position to the age, and in large
parties there is very little difference in the way in which the two
positions should be played.

The _=first bettor=_ has the worst position at the table and he should
seldom come in on less than Queens. He should seldom raise the ante,
even with two pairs, as he will only drive others out. In this position
very little can be made out of good hands, because every one expects
to find them there; but it offers many excellent opportunities for
successful bluffing. A player in this position should never straddle.
Many players endeavour to force their luck in this way, but it is a
losing game, and the best players seldom or never straddle. Having
to make the first bet after the draw, it is usual for the player in
this position, if he has an average hand, to _=chip along=_, by simply
betting a single counter, and waiting for developments. With a strong
hand, it is best to bet its full value at once, on the chance that the
bet may be taken for a bluff, and called.

_=Other Positions.=_ As the positions go round the table from the first
bettor to the age, they become more desirable, and little need be said
of them beyond the consideration of the average strength necessary for
a player to _=go in=_ on.

_=GOING IN.=_ There is a great difference of opinion as to the minimum
value of a hand which should justify a player in drawing cards if he
can do so for the usual ante. In close games many players make it a
rule not to go in on less than tens, while in more liberal circles the
players will draw to any pair. In determining which course to follow,
the individual must be guided by his observation and judgment. Suppose
five play, and A observes that B and C constantly draw to small pairs,
while D and E never come in on less than tens. If A has the age, B,
D, and E having anted, A may be sure that there are at least two good
hands against him, and will guide himself accordingly. But if B and
C are the only players in, A may safely draw to a small pair. It can
be mathematically demonstrated that what is called an _=average go-in
hand=_ should be at least a pair of tens; but a player who waits for
tens in a liberal game, in which others are drawing to ace high, will
ante himself away if there are many jack pots, and will get no calls
when he gets a hand.

_=BETTING.=_ Good players are guided by the general character of the
game in which they take part. Some parties play a very liberal game,
and the players bet high on medium hands, and give every one a good
fight. It is best to have liberal or lucky players on your right;
because if they sit behind you, they will continually raise you, and
you will be forced either to overbid your hand on the same liberal
scale that they adopt, or lose what you have already put up. If a
liberal player sits on your right you will often be able to make large
winnings on moderate hands. In a close game, when the players bet in a
niggardly manner, the liberal player is at a great disadvantage; for
he can win little or nothing on his good hands, but will lose large
amounts when he runs up the betting on a good hand which is opposed
to one that is better. When a liberal player finds a close player
following him freely, he may be sure there is a very strong hand
against him.

_=VARIETY.=_ Above all things a player should avoid regularity in his
play, because observant adversaries will soon learn his methods. The
best players usually play two pairs pat, without drawing, about half
the time. This gives them the reputation of betting on pat hands which
are not genuine, and when they get one that is real, they will often
succeed in getting a good bet, or even a raise, from those holding
triplets or two large pairs, who have noticed them play two pairs pat.
In the same way it is advisable to hold up an odd card occasionally,
without raising the ante; so that when you do hold triplets, and draw
two cards, you will not frighten every one at the table. The chances
of improving a pair by drawing three cards, are one in three; and by
drawing two cards only, one in four. The difference is worth the moral
effect of the variation in the play.

_=PROBABILITIES.=_ The endless poker statistics that have been
published are of little or no value to the practical player, and there
are only a few figures that are worth remembering. It is a general
law in all games of chance that you should never do a thing which you
would not be willing to repeat under the same circumstances a hundred
times. The best example of the application of this law is in drawing
to bobtails. If you have a four-card flush to draw to, the odds
against getting it are about four to one; and unless you can obtain
the privilege of drawing to it by paying not more than one-fifth of
the amount in the pool, you will lose by it in the long run. The best
players never draw to four-card flushes except when they have the age,
and the ante has not been raised.

There are some players who pretend to be so guided by probabilities
that they never go into a pool unless the chances in favour of their
having a good hand after the draw are at least equal to the odds they
have to bet by going into the pool. This is all nonsense; for no player
knows when he goes into a pool how much it will cost him to get out,
and the value of his individual hand is an unknown quantity at the
best, because it cannot be compared to the others. One thing only is
certain, and that is that in the long run the player who goes in with
the strongest hand will still have the strongest hand after the draw.
This is an important thing to remember in jack pots, in which the
value of at least one hand is known. If you draw to a pair smaller
than Jacks, you do so with the full knowledge that the pair itself is
not strong enough to win. Now what are the odds against your winning
the pool? Suppose you hold tens, and draw three cards. Your chance of
improving your hand is a little better than one in five. The opener of
the jack pot has exactly the same chance, and if both of you draw cards
a hundred times under those circumstances, he will beat you in the long
run, to say nothing of the other players who may come in and beat both
of you. It is therefore evident that in backing tens against openers,
it is four to one against your beating the openers to begin with, and
if you do beat them the odds are still against your winning the pot. If
there were five players, and the jack pots were all equal in amount,
you would have to win one pot out of five to make your investment pay.
Can you make this average when your original pair will not beat openers?

There are three principles with regard to the draw that should never be
lost sight of:

(1) An average go-in hand is a hand which will win its proportion of
the pools, according to the number playing, taking all improvements and
opposition into account. This can be demonstrated to be a pair of tens.

(2) The draw is much more valuable to a weak hand than to a strong one,
and weak hands will improve in much greater proportion than strong ones
will. For instance: The chances for a player to improve by drawing to
a pair of Queens are one in three and a half. He may make two pairs, or
triplets, or a full hand, or four of a kind. The chances of improvement
for a player drawing to two pairs, say Eights up, are only one in
thirteen. This consideration leads players to adopt two lines of play:
To bet all they intend to on two pairs before the draw, in order to
prevent weaker hands drawing cards and improving; or, to discard the
smaller pair in order to increase their chances of improvement.

(3) The smaller the number of players, the greater the value of the
hands; and the larger the number of players, the greater the chance
that any given hand will be beaten. When only two play, you can safely
bet the limit on a pair of Eights; but in a party of eight players they
are hardly worth drawing to. For this reason average hands should force
the weaker out, and reduce the number of players _=before the draw=_.

For the benefit of those interested in such matters _=the probable
improvement by the draw=_ may be briefly given.

It is 2½ to 1 against improving _=a pair=_ by drawing three cards; the
chances against making triplets or two pairs being 8 to 1; against a
full hand, 61 to 1; and against four of a kind, 364 to 1. It is 4 to
1 against improving a pair by drawing two cards; the chances against
triplets being 12 to 1, and 8 to 1 against two pairs.

It is 12 to 1 against making a full hand by drawing to _=two pairs=_.

It is 8 to 1 against improving _=triplets=_ by drawing two cards; 14½
to 1 against a full hand, and 23 to 1 against four of a kind. It is 12
to 1 against improving if one card is drawn; 16 to 1 against the full,
and 46 to 1 against four of a kind.

It is 11 to 1 against making a straight out of a sequence of four cards
which is open in the middle, or at one end only. It is 5 to 1 against
making a straight out of a sequence of four which is open at both ends.

[Illustration:

  🂻 🃚 🂨 🂧             |  🂹 🃘 🂧 🃆

  IN-BETWEEN STRAIGHT.       OPEN-END STRAIGHT.
]

It is 4½ to 1 against filling a four-card flush. It is 23 to 1 against
filling a three-card flush. It is 95 to 1 against filling a two-card
flush.

It is 3 to 1 against improving a four-card straight flush which is open
at both ends. The chances against getting the straight or the flush
have been given; the odds against getting the straight flush are 24 to
1. The chance for getting a pair exists; but the pair would probably be
worthless.

It is 4 to 1 against improving a four-card straight flush open in the
middle, or at one end only; the odds against getting the straight flush
being 46 to 1.

There are several minor or speculative draws which may be of interest.
Drawing to an ace and a King, it is 3 to 1 against making a pair of
either. It is 4 to 1 against making a pair of aces by drawing four
cards to an ace; and 12 to 1 against making aces up, or better. It is
24 to 1 against making a straight by drawing to three cards of it, open
at both ends. It is 12 to 1 against making either a straight or a flush
by drawing to three cards of a straight flush, open at both ends.

_=HOW TO WIN AT POKER.=_ There have been many alleged infallible
receipts for winning at Poker. Proctor thought that refusing to go
in on less than triplets would prove a certainty; but in the same
paragraph he acknowledges that the adversaries would soon learn the
peculiarity, and avoid betting against the player. Triplets before the
draw occur about once in every 45 hands. If five were playing, a person
following Proctor’s advice would have to blind 9 times, and ante in
at least 12 jack pots in every 45 hands, to say nothing of fattening.
This means an outlay of at least 75 counters. When the triplets come,
will he get back 75 counters on them? He will probably win the blind,
and one or two antes; but the moment he makes his own ante good, every
player who cannot beat triplets, knowing his system, will lay down his
hand.

An extensive observation of the methods of the best players has led the
author to the conclusion that the great secret of success in Poker,
apart from natural aptitude for the game, and being a good actor, is to
_=avoid calling=_. If you think you have the best hand, raise. If you
think you have not the best, lay it down. Although you may sometimes
lay down a better hand than the one that takes the pool, the system
will prove of immense advantage to you in two ways: In the first place,
you will find it a great educator of the judgment; and in the second
place, it will take almost any opponent’s nerve. Once an adversary has
learned your method, it is not a question of his betting a red chip on
his hand; but of his willingness to stand a raise of two blues, which
he will regard as inevitable if you come in against him at all. The
fear of this raise will prompt many a player to lay down a moderately
good hand without a bet; so that you have all the advantage of having
made a strong bluff without having put up a chip. The system will
also drive all but the most courageous to calling your hand on every
occasion, being afraid of a further and inevitable raise; and it is an
old saying that a good caller is a sure loser.

The theory of calling is to get an opportunity to compare your hand
with your adversary’s. Now, if you think that after the comparison
yours will prove the better hand, why not increase the value of the
pool? If, on the contrary, you fear that his hand will beat yours, why
throw good money after bad? If you don’t think at all about it, and
have no means of forming an opinion as to the respective merits of your
hands, you are not a poker player, and have no business in the game.

_=BLUFFING.=_ There is nothing connected with Poker on which persons
have such confused ideas as on the subject of bluffing. The popular
impression seems to be that a stiff upper lip, and a cheerful
expression of countenance, accompanied by a bet of five dollars,
will make most people lay down three aces; and that this result will
be brought about by the five-dollar bet, without any regard to the
player’s position at the table, the number of cards he drew, his manner
of seeing or raising the ante, or the play of his adversaries before
the draw. The truth of the matter is that for a bluff to be either
sound in principle or successful in practice, the player must carefully
select his opportunity. The bluff must be planned from the start,
and consistently played from the ante to the end. To use a common
expression: “The play must be right for it, or the bluff will be wrong.”

There are many cases in which a bluff of fifty cents would be much
stronger than one of five dollars; the difference depending on the
player’s position at the table, his treatment of the ante, and the
number of cards he had drawn. As an example of the play being right
for a bluff, take the following case: Five play in a jack pot. A and B
have passed when C opens it for the limit. D and E pass out, but A and
B both stay, and each draws one card. C takes two cards, and as it is
his first bet he puts up the limit on his three aces. A drops out, but
B raises C the limit in return. Now, if C is a good player he will lay
down his three aces, even if he faintly suspects B is bluffing, because
B’s play is sound in any case. He either could not, or pretended he
could not open the jack; but he could afford to pay the limit to draw
one card against openers, and he could afford to raise the limit
against an opener’s evidently honest two-card draw. As a matter of fact
the whole play was a bluff; for B not only had nothing, but had nothing
to draw to originally.

Another variety of the bluff, which is the author’s own invention, will
often prove successful with strangers, but it can seldom be repeated
in the same company. Suppose six play in a jack pot. A passes, and
B opens it by quietly putting up his counters. C and D pass, and E,
pretending not to know that B has opened it, announces that he will
open it for the limit, although he has not a pair in his hand. He is
of course immediately informed that it has been opened, upon which
he unhesitatingly raises it for the limit. Whatever the others do, E
stands pat, and looks cheerful. The author has never known this bluff
to be called.

Holding a strong hand, a player may often coax another to raise him, by
offering to divide the pool.

The successful bluffer should never show his hand. Even if he starts
the game by bluffing for advertising purposes, hoping to get called on
good hands later, he should not show anything or tell anything that the
others do not pay to see or know. Bluffing is usually more successful
when a player is in a lucky vein than when he has been unfortunate.


POKER LAWS.

_=1. Formation of Table.=_ A poker table is complete with seven
players. If eight play the dealer must take no cards, or a sixty-card
pack must be used. If there are more than seven candidates for play,
two tables must be formed unless the majority decide against it.

_=2. Cutting.=_ The players who shall form the table, and their
positions at the beginning of the game may be decided by drawing from
an outspread pack, or by throwing round a card to each candidate, face
up. If there are eight or more candidates, the tables shall divide
evenly if the number is even, those cutting the highest cards playing
together. If the number is odd, the smaller table shall be formed by
those cutting the highest cards. In cutting, the ace is low. Any player
exposing more than one card must cut again.

_=3.=_ The table formed, the players draw from the outspread pack for
positions. The lowest cut has the first choice, and deals the first
hand. The player cutting the next lowest has the next choice, and so on
until all are seated.

_=4. Ties.=_ If players cut cards of equal value they must cut again;
but the new cut decides nothing but the tie.

_=5. Stakes.=_ Any player may be the banker, and keep the kitty, if
any. In Draw, Straight, or Stud Poker, each player may purchase as many
counters as he pleases. In Freeze-out, Table Stakes, Whiskey Poker, and
Progressive Poker, each player must begin with an equal amount.

_=6. Betting Limits.=_ Before play begins limits must be agreed upon
for the amount of the blind, the straddle, the ante in jack pots, and
for betting or raising.

_=7. Shuffling.=_ Before the first deal the pack must be counted to see
that it contains the proper number of cards. Should the first dealer
neglect this he forfeits five counters to the pool. Before each deal
the cards must be shuffled. Any player may shuffle, the dealer last.

_=8. Cutting to the Dealer.=_ The dealer must present the pack to the
pone, [the player on his right,] to be cut. The pone may either cut, or
signify that he does not wish to do so, by tapping the pack with his
knuckles. Should the pone decline to cut, no other player can insist
on his doing so, nor do it for him. If he cuts, he must leave at least
four cards in each packet, and the dealer or the pone must reunite the
packets by placing the one not removed in cutting upon the other.

_=9.=_ If in cutting, or in reuniting the packets, a card is exposed,
the pack must be reshuffled and cut.

_=10.=_ If the dealer reshuffles the pack after it has been properly
cut, he forfeits five counters to the current pool.

_=11. Dealing Before the Draw.=_ After the age, [the player on the
dealer’s left,] has put up the amount of the blind, the dealer
distributes the cards face down, one at a time, in rotation, until each
player has received five cards.

_=12.=_ The deal passes to the left, except in jack pots, when it may
be agreed that the same dealer shall deal until the pot is opened.

_=13. Misdealing.=_ A misdeal does not lose the deal; the same dealer
must deal again. It is a misdeal: If the dealer fails to present the
pack to the pone; or if any card is found faced in the pack; or if the
pack is found imperfect; or if the dealer gives six or more cards to
more than one player; or if he deals more or fewer hands than there
are players; or if he omits a player in dealing; or if he deals a card
incorrectly, and fails to correct the error before dealing another.

_=14. Irregularities in the Hands.=_ Should the dealer, or the wind,
turn over any card, the player to whom it is dealt must take it; but
the same player cannot be compelled to take two exposed cards. Should
such a combination occur there must be a new deal. If the player
exposes cards himself, he has no remedy.

_=15.=_ Should any player receive more or less than his proper number
of cards, and discover the error before he looks at any card in his
hand, or lifts it from the table, he may demand a new deal if no bet
has been made; or he may ask the dealer to give him another card from
the pack if he has too few, or to draw a card if he has too many. Cards
so drawn must not be exposed, but should be placed on the top of the
pack. If a bet has been made, there must be a new deal. Should the
player take up his hand, or look at any card in it, he has no remedy.

_=16.=_ Should a player take up a hand containing more or less than
five cards, or look at any card in it, such a hand is foul, and he must
abandon it, forfeiting any interest he may have in that pool. If one
player has six cards and his neighbour four, neither having lifted or
looked at any card, the dealer may be called upon to draw a card from
the six hand and give it to the four hand.

_=17. Straddling.=_ During the deal, or at any time before he looks at
any card in his hand, the player to the left of the age may straddle
the blind by putting up double the amount put up by the age. Should he
straddle, the player on his left may double the amount again, provided
he has not seen any of his cards; and so on, until the limit of the
straddling is reached. This limit must not exceed one-fourth of the
betting limit. Should any player in his turn refuse to straddle, no
other player on his left can straddle.

_=18. The Ante.=_ After the cards are dealt, each player in turn,
beginning with the one to the left of the age, or to the left of the
last straddler, if any, must either abandon his hand or put into the
pool twice the amount of the blind, or of the last straddle. When it
comes to the turn of the age, and the straddlers, if any, they must
either abandon their hands, or make the amount they have in the pool
equal to twice the amount of the blind, or of the last straddle, if any.

_=19. Raising the Ante.=_ Each player, when it is his turn to come in,
may add to the amount of the ante any sum within the betting limit.
This will compel any player coming in after him to equal the total of
the ante and the raise, or to abandon his hand; and it will also give
such following player the privilege of raising again by any further
amount within the betting limit. Should any player decline to equal
the amount put up by any previous player, he must abandon his hand,
together with all his interest in that pool. Any player who has been
raised in this manner may raise again in his turn; and not until each
player holding cards has anted an equal amount will the game proceed.

_=20. Winning the Antes.=_ Should any player have put up an amount
which no other player will equal, he takes whatever counters are then
in the pool, without showing his hand, and the deal passes to the next
player on the dealer’s left. Should only one player come in, and the
age decline to make good his ante, the player who has come in wins the
blind, unless jack pots are played. Should any player have straddled
the blind, or raised the ante, there can be no jack pot.

_=21. Making Jacks.=_ If no player will come in, it is a Natural Jack,
and all the hands must be abandoned, each player putting up for the
ensuing deal the amount agreed upon. If no one has straddled the blind,
or raised the ante, and only one player has come in, the age may do one
of four things: He may forfeit his blind; or he may make the ante good;
or he may raise it; or he may demand that the single player who has
come in shall take down his ante, the age putting up twice the amount
agreed upon for jack pots; once for himself, and once for the player
who came in. All the other players must then put up for the ensuing
deal. This is an Only-Two-In Jack.

_=22. Drawing Cards.=_ When two or more players have come in for an
equal amount, the others having abandoned their hands, each of them in
turn, beginning with the one on the dealer’s left, may discard any or
all of the cards originally dealt him, and draw others in their place.
The number discarded and drawn, if any, must be distinctly announced by
each player, including the dealer; and the fresh cards must be given
face down from the top of the pack, without any further shuffling or
cutting. Each player must receive the entire number he asks for before
the next player is helped. No player shall receive from the dealer more
or fewer than he discards; so that if he is playing with a short hand,
such as four cards only, he will still have four cards after the draw;
and if his hand was originally foul, it will so remain.

_=23. Exposed Cards.=_ In dealing for the draw, should any card be
found faced in the pack, or should any card be exposed by the dealer
in giving out the cards, or be blown over by the wind before the
player has touched it, such cards must be placed on the table with
the discards. The player whose card has been exposed does not receive
another in its place until all the other players, including the dealer,
have been helped.

_=24. Incorrect Draws.=_ Should any player ask for an incorrect number
of cards, he must take them; unless he discovers the error before the
next player has been helped. If too many have been asked for, he must
discard before seeing them. If too few, and he lifts any of them, he
holds a foul hand. No player is allowed to take back into his hand any
card that has once been discarded. If he has taken up the cards, or
has seen any of them, and has too many, his hand is foul, and must be
abandoned. If the dealer gives himself more cards than he needs, he
must take them; but if less, he can supply the deficiency, provided he
has not looked at any of the drawn cards.

_=25. Incorrect Dealing.=_ Should the dealer give any player more
or fewer cards than he asks for, and the player discover the error
before taking them up or seeing any of them, the dealer must withdraw
the surplus card, and place it on the top of the pack. Should the
dealer give a player fewer cards than he asks for, he must supply the
deficiency when his attention is called to it, without waiting to
supply the other players. Should the dealer give cards to any player
out of his proper turn, he may correct the error if none of the cards
have been seen; not otherwise.

_=26. The Last Card=_ of the pack must not be dealt. When only two
cards remain, and more than one is asked for, they must be mixed with
the discards and abandoned hands, and the whole shuffled together, and
presented to the pone to be cut. Discards of those who have yet to draw
must not be gathered.

_=27.=_ After the cards have been delivered by the dealer, no player
has the right to be informed how many cards any player drew; and any
person, bystander or player, volunteering the information, except the
player himself, may be called upon to pay to the player against whom he
informs an amount equal to that then in the pool. Any player who has
made good the ante and drawn cards may, before making a bet, ask how
many cards the dealer drew, and the dealer must inform him.

_=28. Betting After the Draw.=_ The first player who holds cards on
the left of the age must make the first bet, whether he has straddled
or not. If he declines to bet he must abandon his hand. The fact that
the age is not playing makes no difference, as his privilege cannot
be transferred to any other player. Bets may vary in amount from one
counter to the betting limit. If no player will bet, the age takes the
pool without showing his hand; or, if he has passed out before the
draw, the last player on his right who holds cards wins the pool.

_=29. Raising the Bets.=_ Should any player make a bet, each player
in turn on his left must either bet an equal amount or abandon his
hand. Should any player bet an equal amount, he has the privilege of
increasing the bet to any further sum within the betting limit. The
players on his left must then either meet the total amount of the
original bet and the raise, or abandon their hands. Any player meeting
the amount already bet has the privilege of increasing it to any
further amount within the limit, and so on, until no further raises
take place. Any player whose bet has been raised must abandon his hand
or meet the raise, with the privilege of raising again in return.
Should one player make a bet or raise which no other player will see,
he takes the pool without showing his hand, and the cards are shuffled
and cut for the next deal.

_=30. Calling the Bets.=_ As long as one player raises another’s bets,
he gives that player the privilege of raising him again; but if a
player who has made a bet is not raised, the others simply betting an
equal amount, the first bettor is called, and all betting must cease.
The players must then show their hands to the table, in order to decide
which wins the pool.

_=31.=_ Bets must be actually made by placing the counters in the pool,
and no bet is made until the player’s hand has been withdrawn from the
counters. Any counters once placed in the pool, and the owner’s hand
withdrawn, cannot be taken down again, except by the winner of the pool.

_=32. Betting Out of Turn.=_ Should any player bet out of his turn, he
cannot take down his counters again if he has removed his hand from
them. Should the player whose proper turn it was raise the bet, the
player who bet out of turn must either meet the raise or abandon his
hand, and all interest in that pool.

_=33. Mouth Bets.=_ Any player stating that he bets a certain amount,
but failing to put up the actual counters in the pool, cannot be called
upon to make the amount good after the hands are shown, or the pool is
won. If the players opposed to him choose to accept a mouth bet against
the counters they have already put up, they have no remedy, as no value
is attached to what a player says; his cards and his counters speak for
themselves. Any player wishing to raise a mouth bet has the privilege
of raising by mouth, instead of by counters; but he cannot be called
upon to make the amount good after the hands are shown, or the pool has
been won.

_=34. Showing Hands.=_ When a call is made, all the hands must be
shown to the table, and the best poker hand wins the pool. Any player
declining to show his hand, even though he admits that it is not good,
must pay an amount equal to the ante to each of the players at the
table; or, if jack pots are played, he must put up for all of them in
the next jack pot. When the hands are called, there is no penalty for
mis-calling a hand; the cards, like the counters, speak for themselves.

_=35. Rank of the Hands.=_ The best poker hand is a _=Royal Flush=_; A
K Q J 10 of the same suit, which beats a

_=Straight Flush=_; any sequence of five cards of the same suit.

_=Four of a Kind=_; such as four 10’s and an odd card.

_=Full Hand=_; three of a kind and a pair, such as three 8’s and a pair
of Q’s, which beats a

_=Flush=_; five cards of the same suit, but not in sequence.

_=Straight=_; five cards in sequence, but of various suits. In
straights, the Ace cannot be used to form such combinations as Q K A 2
3; but it may be used as the bottom of 5 4 3 2, or the top of 10 J Q K.
Straights beat

_=Three of a Kind=_; such as three K’s and two odd cards.

_=Two Pairs=_; such as two 9’s and two 7’s, with an odd card.

_=A Pair=_; such as two Aces and three odd cards.

If no pair is shown, the _=Highest Card=_ wins.

A short hand, such as four cards, cannot be claimed as either a
straight or a flush.

_=36. Ties.=_ In case of ties, the highest of the odd cards decides it.
Ultimate ties must divide the pool. When combinations of equal rank are
shown, the one containing the highest cards wins, the rank of the cards
being, A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2; so that two pairs, K’s and 4’s, will
beat two pairs, Q’s and J’s. Three 5’s and a pair of 2’s, will beat
three 4’s and a pair of aces.


JACK POT LAWS.

_=37. The Antes.=_ There is neither age nor straddle in jack pots.
Every one at the table must ante an equal amount. Any player may
decline to ante, by saying: “I pass this jack;” and the dealer will
give him no cards.

_=38. Opening.=_ After the cards are dealt, each player in turn,
beginning on the dealer’s left, may open the pot for any amount he
pleases within the betting limit, provided he holds a pair of Jacks,
or some hand better than a pair of Jacks. If he does not hold openers,
or does not wish to open the pot with them, he must say: “I pass;” but
must not abandon his hand, under penalty of paying five counters to the
pool.

_=39. False Openers.=_ Should a player open a jack without the hand to
justify it, and discover his error before he draws, his hand is foul,
and he forfeits whatever amount he may have already placed in the pool.
Those who have come into the pool after the false opening, stay in and
play for the pot, regardless of the value of the hands dealt them.

_=40. Fattening.=_ If no player will open, the cards are reshuffled,
cut, and dealt, usually by the same dealer, and each player adds one
counter to the pool.

_=41. Coming In.=_ If any player opens the pot for a certain amount,
each player in turn, on his left, can come in by putting up a similar
amount, regardless of the value of his hand. Any player on the right of
the opener who passed on the first round may now come in. Any player
declining to put up the amount for which the pot is opened must abandon
his hand, and all his interest in the pool.

_=42. Raising the Opener.=_ Any player coming into the pool has the
privilege of raising the original opener any amount within the betting
limit, and he may in turn be raised again, just as in the ordinary
pools. Should the opener decline to meet such a raise, he must show his
entire hand before abandoning it. If he declines to do so, he must pay
the antes for all the other players for another jack. It is not enough
to show openers before the draw, the whole hand must be shown.

_=43. Drawing Cards.=_ Each player in turn who has come in, beginning
on the left of the dealer, may discard and draw, to improve his hand.
The opener is allowed to split his openers, provided it is the rule of
the game that the opener shall _always_ put his discard under the chips
in the pool, whether he is going to split or not. The opener’s discard
must never be gathered in with other discards when the pack runs short
for the draw.

_=44. False Hands.=_ If a false opener does not discover his mistake
until after he has drawn cards, his hand is foul, and must be
abandoned. As a penalty he must put up an ante for each of the other
players at the table for another Jack.

_=45. Betting the Hands.=_ The opener makes the first bet; or, if he
has withdrawn, the player next on his left. Should the opener decline
to bet after the draw, he must show his openers before abandoning his
hand. He need not show the cards he has drawn. If no bet is made, the
last player holding cards takes the pool without showing his hand. If
a bet is made, the game proceeds as in the ordinary pools. Should the
opener retire during the betting, he must show his openers; if he is in
the final call he must show his entire hand, whether it is the best or
not. If he or any other player declines to show his hand when a call is
made, he must ante for all the other players for another jack.

_=46. Shy Bets.=_ If any player is shy in a jack pot, whether from
failure to put up his ante, to fatten, or to substantiate his mouth
bets with counters, nothing can be collected from him after a call has
been made, or the pot has been won.


STRAIGHT POKER.

Straight Poker or _=Bluff=_ is played with a full pack of fifty-two
cards, and any number of players from one to eight. The arrangements
for counters, seats, and deal are exactly the same as in Draw Poker,
but the method of anteing and betting up the hands is slightly
different. There is no draw to improve the hand, and no such
combination as a straight flush is recognized, four of a kind being the
highest hand possible.

The ante and betting limit must be decided before play begins. The
first dealer is provided with a _=buck=_, which should be a penknife,
or some similar article. Before dealing, he puts up the amount of the
ante for all the players, and then _=passes the buck=_ to the player on
his left, who must ante for all the players in the next pool. There is
no variation of the amount of the ante under any circumstances, and the
buck is passed round the table in this manner irrespective of the deal,
which is taken by the player winning the pool. The laws for the deal
and its irregularities are the same as in Draw Poker, except that it
does not pass to the left.

The cards dealt, each in turn, beginning with the player to the left
of the dealer, may either bet or pass. Should all pass, the holder of
the buck antes, making a double pool, and passes the buck. The deal
then passes to the left. Should any player make a bet, each in turn,
beginning with the one on his left, must call it, raise it, or abandon
his hand. Players who have passed the first time, must now decide. The
rules for seeing, raising, calling, and showing hands are precisely the
same as at Draw Poker.

Owing to the absence of the draw, there is no clue to the strength of
an opponent’s hand, except his manner, and the amount of his bet. The
hands shown are much weaker than the average of those at Draw Poker,
being about equal to hands that a player in that game would come in
on. Triplets are very strong at Straight Poker, and two pairs will win
three out of four pools in a five-handed game. The great element of
success is bluff.


STUD POKER.

The arrangements for the cards, seats, antes, buck, etc., are precisely
as at Straight Poker; but in dealing, only the first card is dealt face
down, the remaining four being turned up by the dealer as he gives
them out. Each player in turn then looks at his _=down card=_, and the
betting proceeds as in Straight Poker, each player having the privilege
of passing once before a bet is made.

A much more popular method is to stop the deal at two cards, each
player having received one face down, and another face up. The best
card showing then makes the first bet, and each player in turn must
meet it, raise it, or pass out of that pool. If no one will call, the
player making the bet takes the pool, and the next deal. If a bet is
made and called, those in the call do not show their down cards, but
are each given another card, face up, and the same betting process is
gone through, the best hand showing face up making the first bet in
each round. As long as two or more players remain in the pool they are
given more cards until they have five. Then the final betting is done,
and if a call is made, the down cards are shown, and the best poker
hand wins the pool. Straight flushes do not count.


WHISKEY POKER.

The arrangements for the cards, seats, etc., are the same as in Draw
Poker. Each player is provided with an equal number of white counters,
which may have a value attached to them, or which may simply represent
markers. If the counters represent money, each player should have at
least twenty; if they are only markers, five is the usual number.

If the game is played for money, each player puts one counter in the
pool before the cards are dealt. There is no raising or betting of any
kind.

An extra hand, called _=the widow=_, is dealt face down at Whiskey
Poker. The dealer gives each player and the widow five cards, one at a
time, beginning on his left, and dealing to the widow just before he
deals to himself. Each player in turn, beginning with the age, then
examines his hand, and has the option of exchanging it for the widow;
keeping it for the purpose of drawing to it; or risking his chances of
winning the pool with it as it is.

If he wishes to exchange, he must place his five cards face upward on
the table, and take up the widow, but without showing it to any other
player. The hand he abandons then becomes the widow. If he prefers to
draw to his hand, he says: “_=I pass=_,” which transfers to the next
player the option of taking the widow. If he wishes to stand on the
merits of the hand dealt to him, without drawing to it, he _=knocks=_
on the table, which also passes the option of taking the widow to the
next player on his left.

If any player takes the widow, the next player on his left can do any
one of three things: He may discard from his own hand any card he
pleases, taking one from the widow in its stead; the card which he
discards being placed on the table face upward, and becoming part of
the widow; or he may exchange his entire hand for the widow; or he may
stand on the hand dealt him, and knock. Whether he draws one card,
exchanges his entire hand, or knocks, the next player on his left has
the option of drawing, exchanging, or knocking; and so on, until some
player does knock.

Should no player take the widow until it comes to the dealer’s turn,
he must either take it, or turn it face upward on the table. Even if
the dealer knocks, he must turn up the widow, and allow each player an
opportunity to draw from it, or to exchange his entire hand for it.

When a player knocks, he signifies that no matter what the players
following him may do, when it comes to his turn again the hands must be
shown. A player cannot draw and knock at the same time; but a player
can refuse to draw or exchange after another player has knocked, not
before. In some localities it is the rule to turn the widow face up at
once if any player knocks before it is taken; allowing all those after
the knock an opportunity to draw or exchange; but this is not the usual
custom.

Suppose five play. E deals, and A passes; B takes the widow; C and
D draw from B’s abandoned hand, and E knocks; without drawing, of
course. A, who passed the first time, now has an opportunity to draw
or exchange. So have each of the others in turn, up to D; but after D
draws or exchanges, the hands must be shown, because the next player,
E, has knocked.

When the hands are shown, there are two ways to settle: If the counters
have a money value, the best poker hand wins the pool, and the deal
passes to the left. If the counters have no money value, there is no
pool; but the player who has the worst hand shown puts one of his
counters in the middle of the table. This continues until some player
has lost all five of his counters, and he is then called upon to pay
for the whiskey, or whatever refreshments may be at stake upon the
game. Hence the name: Whiskey Poker.


THIRTY-ONE.

This game is sometimes called _=Schnautz=_. A pool is made up by any
number of players. The dealer takes a pack of fifty-two cards and gives
three to each, face down, and three extra cards to the table, dealt
face up. Each player in turn to the left can exchange one of his own
cards for one of those on the table, the object being to get a flush of
three cards of some suit having a pip value of thirty-one; or else to
get three of a kind.

The aces are worth 11, the other court cards and the ten, 10 each. If
no one can get a flush worth thirty-one, three of a kind wins the pool.
If no one has three of a kind, the highest pip value shown in one suit
wins. Drawing is kept up until some player knocks, after which only
one more draw is allowed, the knocker not being allowed to draw again.
A player can knock without drawing at all if he wishes to prevent the
others from beating his original hand.


PROGRESSIVE POKER.

There are several ways to play Progressive Poker, but the description
of one will suffice. The simplest method of arranging the players is
to take two packs of cards, one red and one blue, and to select two
aces from each for the four positions at the head table; three deuces,
treys, etc., for the six positions at each of the other tables until
the last or booby table is reached, at which there must be only four
players at starting. If there are not enough players to make exactly
six at each of the intermediate tables, the numbers may be varied from
four to seven, cards being selected to agree with the number required;
but the head and booby tables must start with four only. The cards thus
selected are then thoroughly shuffled, and presented face downward
to the ladies to draw from. Each lady takes a red-backed card, the
gentlemen drawing the blue cards only. The number of pips on the card
drawn will indicate to each person the table at which they are to sit.
Should the number of men and women not be equal, some of the men must
represent women or _vice versa_.

Each player is provided at starting with a certain number of counters,
usually fifty. The head table is supplied with a box of counters
differing in colour from any of those used by the players, and also
with a bell. The choice of seats, deal, etc., is decided at each table
exactly as at Draw Poker.

One deal is made at each table, ordinary Draw Poker is played, and when
the pool is decided at the head table the bell is struck. This is the
signal for the winner of the pool at each of the other tables to move
up to the table next above. At the head table, the chips are counted,
and the player with the smallest number in his possession goes down to
the booby table, unless he was one of the players in the call. Should
the player with the smallest number of chips be the winner of the pool,
or one of those who called the winner, he retains his seat, and the
player with the smallest number of counters who was not in the call
goes to the booby table. This arrangement effectually prevents players
at the head table from waiting for big hands. In case of ties, the
players cut to decide which shall go down, the lowest cut remaining.
The winner of each pool at the head table is given one of the special
chips provided for that purpose, and which are usually yellow, the
others being red, white, and blue.

Any player losing all his counters at any table must get a fresh stake
of fifty more from the banker, and must then exchange seats with the
player at the booby table who has the most counters.

Three or four prizes are usually provided for: One for the player who
has won the greatest number of yellow chips at the head table, and one
each for the lady and gentleman winning the greatest number of counters
during the evening’s play. Those who have been provided with an extra
stake must be charged with it when settling up. In case of ties for the
number of yellow chips, the player with the largest number of ordinary
counters wins. The booby prize, if any, is usually given to the player
with the smallest number of ordinary chips, or the fewest number of
yellow ones.


BRAG.

There are two varieties of this old English game; single, and
three-stake Brag. Both are played with a full pack of fifty-two cards;
the positions of the players, arrangements for counters, decision of
the betting limit, etc., being the same as in Draw Poker. Three to
twelve players may form a table.

There is a special value attached to three cards which are known as
_=braggers=_. These again have a rank of their own; the best being the
_=ace of diamonds=_; then the _=Jack of clubs=_, and then the _=nine of
diamonds=_. All other cards rank as in Poker. A player to whom any one
of these braggers is dealt may call it anything he pleases. If he has
a pair of nines and a bragger, or a nine and two braggers, he may call
them three nines, and bet on them as such. In this respect braggers
resemble mistigris, already described in connection with Draw Poker;
but in Brag a natural pair or triplet outranks one made with the aid of
a bragger. Three eights will beat an eight and two braggers.

The dealer must put up an ante before the cards are cut. This ante
may be any amount he pleases within the betting limit. No player can
straddle or raise this ante until the cards are dealt. Beginning on his
left the dealer distributes the cards face down, and one at a time,
until each player has received three. Beginning with the age, [eldest
hand,] each player in turn must put up an amount equal to the dealer’s
ante, or abandon his hand. He may, if he chooses, raise the ante any
further amount within the betting limit. All those following him must
meet the total sum put up by any individual player, increase it, or
pass out. In this respect Brag is precisely similar to the betting
after the draw at Poker.

If no one will see the dealer’s ante, he must be paid one white counter
by each of the other players, and the deal passes to the left. Should
any player bet an amount which no other player will meet, he takes the
pool without showing his hand. Should a call be made, all the hands
must be shown, and the best brag hand wins.

Pairs and triplets are the only combinations of any value, and of
course three aces is the best hand; two aces and the club Jack being
the next best. If none of the hands shown contains either a natural
pair or a bragger, the highest card wins, the ace ranking above the
King. In case of equal natural pairs, the highest card outside the pair
wins. Should the pairs tied both be made with a bragger, the highest
bragger wins. Two odd cards, seven high, with the club Jack, would beat
two cards seven high with the diamond nine.

_=Three Stake Brag.=_ In this variation each player puts up three equal
amounts to form three equal pools. These amounts must be invariable,
and should be agreed upon before play begins. The dealer then gives two
cards to each player, one at a time, face down; and then a third card
to each, face up. The highest card turned up in this manner wins one
of the pools, the ace being the highest and the deuce the lowest. The
diamond ace, being a bragger, outranks any other ace; the club Jack any
other Jack; and the diamond nine any other nine. Ties are decided in
favour of the eldest hand, or the player nearest him on the left.

The players then take up the other two cards, without showing them,
and proceed to brag on their hands as in single stake Brag. The winner
takes the second pool; but those who pass out do not abandon their
hands until the third pool is decided. If no bet is made for the second
pool, it is won by the dealer.

All hands are shown to decide the last pool. Each player counts up
the pip value of his three cards, reckoning the aces for eleven, and
court-cards as ten each. The player coming nearest to thirty-one takes
the third pool. Ties are decided in favour of the eldest hand, as
before.

In some places a further variation is introduced by allowing the
players to draw cards for the third pool, in order to increase the pip
value of their hands. Beginning with the eldest hand, each player in
turn pays into the pool a counter for each card he draws. These cards
are given by the dealer face up, and one player must be given all he
needs before passing to the next. Should a player pass thirty-one,
he is out of the pool. Some judgment is necessary in drawing in this
manner, for all the hands are exposed, and each player knows exactly
what he has to beat.

In _=American Brag=_, there are eight braggers; the Jacks and nines of
each suit, and they are all of equal rank when used as braggers. Pairs
or triplets formed with the aid of braggers outrank naturals, so that
three Jacks is an invincible hand, beating three aces. Two braggers
and an ace outrank two aces and a bragger; but the absurd part of the
arrangement is that three Jacks and three nines are a tie.

The method of playing differs from English Brag. If the players simply
equal the dealer’s ante, nothing unusual occurs, and all the hands are
shown at once. But if any player raises, and another sees this raise,
these two immediately exchange hands, without showing them to the other
players, and the one who held the worse hand retires from that pool,
returning the better hand to its original holder, who then awaits a
call or raise from the next player in order, the entire amount staked
still remaining in the pool. This lose-and-drop-out system is continued
until only one player remains to dispute the pool with the dealer. If
they come to a call, both hands are shown to the table. If the bragger
is not called, he takes the pool without showing his hand.


COMMERCE.

This old English game is evidently the forerunner of Whiskey Poker. It
is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, and the arrangements
for the seats, counters, etc., are the same as at Draw Poker. Three
to twelve players may form a table. There are two methods of playing
Commerce; with and without a widow. We shall take the older form first.

_=Without a Widow.=_ The counters have a money value, and each player
deposits one in the pool. The dealer then distributes the cards one at
a time, face down, until each has three. The players then examine their
cards, and each in turn, beginning with the eldest hand, may exchange
one card. If he trades _=for ready money=_, he gives his card and one
white counter to the dealer, and receives another card, face down, from
the top of the pack. The discard is left on the table, and the counter
is the dealer’s perquisite. If he trades _=for barter=_, he passes his
discard to the player on his left, who must give one of his own in
exchange before looking at the one he is to receive. If the player will
not exchange, he must _=knock=_ on the table, to signify that he will
stand by the cards he has. If he exchanges, he takes up the offered
card, and then has the privilege of trading for ready money or for
barter himself. The trading goes on in this way round and round, until
some player knocks, when all trading is immediately stopped, and the
hands are shown. The best hand wins the pool, the rank of the various
combinations being as follows, beginning with the highest:--

_=Triplets.=_ Three aces being the highest, and three deuces the
lowest. Pairs have no value.

_=Sequence Flushes=_; the ace being allowed to rank as the top or the
bottom; Q K A, or A 2 3.

_=The Point=_; the greatest number of pips on two or three cards of
the same suit in one hand, counting the ace for eleven, and the other
court-cards for ten each. A single card of a suit does not count for
the point. In case of ties, a point made with three cards will beat one
made with two cards. If the number of cards is also a tie, the dealer,
or the player nearest him on his left wins.

If no triplet is shown, the best straight flush wins. If there is no
straight flush, the best point wins. The deal passes to the left, and a
misdeal loses the deal, as the deal is an advantage, owing to the trade
for ready money.

If the dealer does not win the pool, he must pay one white counter to
the player who does. If the dealer holds a combination of the same rank
as the one that wins the pool, he must pay one white counter to every
other player at the table. For instance: No triplet is shown, and a
straight flush, Jack high, wins the pool. The dealer has a straight
flush, 9 high, and must pay one counter to every player at the table.
If the dealer had no sequence flush, he would pay the winner of the
pool only.

_=With a Widow.=_ This is almost three-card Whiskey Poker. Each player
is provided with three counters only, which are of no value, and three
cards are dealt to each player and to the widow, face down, and one at
a time. The widow is turned face up immediately, and the dealer has the
first say. Before he looks at the cards he has dealt to himself, he
may exchange his whole hand for the widow, otherwise the eldest hand
has the first draw. No other player may exchange his whole hand, but
each in turn may draw one card until some player knocks. The moment
any player knocks, all drawing must cease, and the hands are shown at
once. Triplets, straight flushes, and points determine the value of
the hands, as already described, and the best hand takes the pool. The
dealer makes no extra payments, as he has no perquisites. The first
player to lose his three counters pays for the whiskey; and if two
or more are frozen out at the same time, the one with the worst hand
pays. The game is sometimes varied by playing freeze-out, a value being
attached to the three counters, and players who are decavé retiring
from the game until all the counters have been won by a single player.

Two other combinations are sometimes introduced in either form of
Commerce: A flush, three cards of one suit, ranking next below the
straight flush; and a single pair outranking the point.

Another variety of Commerce is variously known as _=My Ship Sails; or
My Bird Sings=_. The counters have a money value, and three are given
to each player. Three cards are dealt, face down, and one at a time.
There is no widow. The eldest hand may then exchange one card with the
player on his left, who must give his card before seeing the one he is
to receive. The exchange goes round to the left. The moment any player
finds himself with a flush, three cards of the same suit, regardless
of their value, whether dealt to him, or made by exchange, he says:
“My Ship Sails;” and all exchange is stopped, and the hands are shown.
Should there be more than one flush, the pips win, counting ace for 11,
and other court-cards for 10 each. If no player has secured a flush
after two rounds of exchanges, the hands are shown, and the highest
number of pips in the two-card flushes wins the pool. The elder hand
wins ties.


BOUILLOTTE, OR BRELAN.

This is an old and famous French gambling game, often referred to in
stories of fast life in European society. It was the rage during and
long after the French Revolution, but has lately had to share public
attention with Baccara, and even with Le Poker Américain. It has many
points in common with three-stake Brag, and is evidently descended from
the same stock. By many persons Bouillotte is considered superior to
Poker, because it offers the player many opportunities to speculate on
winning by the aid of cards that are not in his own hand.

_=Cards.=_ Bouillotte is played with a piquet pack, reduced to twenty
cards, only the A K Q 9 8 of each suit being retained. The ace is the
highest card in play and in cutting. If five persons play, the Jack
of each suit is added; if only three play, the Queens are discarded,
reducing the pack to sixteen cards. Two packs are generally used
alternately.

_=Counters=_ or chips are used, as in Poker, instead of money. Any
player may be the banker.

_=Players.=_ Three, four, or five persons may play; but four is the
proper number, and all descriptions of the game suppose it to be
four-handed.

_=Cutting.=_ To decide the positions of the players, a sequence of
cards is sorted out, equal in number with the number of players. These
cards are then shuffled, face downward, and each player draws one. The
highest of the sequence has the choice of positions, and so on down
until all are seated. The player who draws the King deals the first
hand.

_=Stakes.=_ Each player purchases an equal number of counters from
the banker, usually 100. This original _=cave=_ cannot be added to or
deducted from. As long as a single counter of it remains the player
must call for a sight, just as in freeze-out or table stakes; and not
until he is _=decavé=_, [has lost everything,] can he purchase another
stake, the amount of which is usually at his own option.

_=Blind and Straddle.=_ Before the distribution of the cards, the
dealer puts up a blind, usually five counters, which the player on
his right has the privilege of straddling. If he straddles, he may be
straddled again, and so on. In Bouillotte the straddle practically buys
from the dealer the privileges of the age. If it goes round until the
dealer buys it back himself, the straddling must then be stopped.

_=Dealing.=_ As in all French games, the cards are cut by the player on
the dealer’s left, and are dealt from right to left. Three cards are
given to each player, one at a time, face down, and the thirteenth is
then turned face up on the pack. This card is called the _=retourne=_.

_=Misdeals.=_ If any card is exposed during the deal, either in the
pack or in giving it to a player, it is a misdeal; but the distribution
of the cards is continued until each player has received three cards,
the exposed card being given out in its regular order. If any player
can show triplets, he receives one white counter from each of the other
players, and the hands are then abandoned. If more than one triplet is
shown, the inferior does not pay the higher. If no triplet is shown,
the cards are redealt. A misdeal does not lose the deal.

The deal passes to the right; but should the player whose turn it is to
deal have lost everything on the previous deal, and have just purchased
another stake, the deal passes to the player beyond him. If a player
withdraws from the table when it is his turn to deal, the deal passes
any newcomer who may take his place.

_=Betting.=_ The cards dealt, each player in turn, beginning with the
one to the right of the dealer, or to the right of the last straddler,
if any, can do one of three things: Equal the amount of the ante;
increase it as much as he pleases within the limits of his cave; or
pass, retaining his cards but betting nothing. If any player _=opens=_
the game by making a bet, the player on his right may equal or raise
it; but he cannot pass after the game is opened, unless he withdraws
from the pool. Any player may call for a sight for the amount in front
of him, but that does not prevent the others from continuing the
betting. If no one will open, the deal is void, and each player puts
five counters in the pool for the next deal. If a player opens, and no
one will equal or raise him, he wins the antes and straddles, if any.
If any player makes a raise which no one will meet, he takes whatever
is in the pool, unless a player has called for a sight for a small part
of it.

_=Calling and Showing.=_ If only two players bet against each other,
either may call the other, and demand a show of hands at any time; but
if three or four are betting, the privilege of calling falls upon each
in turn from right to left. For instance: A, B, C, and D play. D blinds
five counters, and deals. A passes, and B opens for five reds. C passes
out, while D and A both meet the bet of five reds, but neither will
raise it. This does not call B, who has the privilege of raising the
bet if he pleases. Suppose he raises, and D and A both meet it. On this
second round, C having passed out, it is D’s turn to say whether or not
he will raise. On the next round it will be A’s turn, and after that
it will be B’s second turn, and so on. Should any player meet the bet
but refuse to raise, although it is his turn, he still cannot call. If
he does not avail himself of his privilege of raising, he must _=pass
the word=_ to the player on his right; that is, transfer the privilege
to him. If he declines, it is a call; if he raises, it goes on until
every player has refused to avail himself of the privilege. If a player
chooses to raise without waiting for his turn, of course he can do so.
One of the fine points in the game is knowing when to raise the bet
yourself, and when to pass the word.

_=Rank of the Hands.=_ If a call is made, the hands are shown, and
the best Bouillotte hand wins. There are only two classes of hands
recognized in Bouillotte, the brelan, and the point; but there are
three kinds of brelans, which rank in the following order:

_=A Brelan Carré=_ is four of a kind; three in the player’s hand, and
the fourth turned up on the pack. If any player holds a brelan, [three
of a kind,] of a higher denomination than the brelan carré, the player
may turn up the card under the retourne, and if this makes his hand a
brelan carré also, he wins the pool. In addition to winning the pool,
the holder of a brelan carré receives from each player four white
counters.

_=A Simple Brelan=_ is three of a kind in the player’s hand, three aces
being the highest, and three eights the lowest. In addition to winning
the pool, the holder of a simple brelan receives one counter from each
of the other players at the table. If two are shown, neither pays the
other. Should the brelan be formed by uniting the retourne with two
cards in the player’s hand, it is a _=brelan favori=_, and the holder
of it receives an extra counter from every player at the table, whether
he wins the pool or not. For instance: The retourne is an eight; a
brelan of Queens is shown, and wins the pool. Another player holds a
pair of eights, and claims brelan favori. He does not pay the winning
brelan, but receives one counter from its holder, and also from each of
the other players. If the brelan favori wins the pool, it is paid two
counters by each player. If two simple brelans are shown, the higher
wins the pool; but both must be paid by each of the other two players,
who did not hold brelans.

_=The Point.=_ If no brelan is shown, the hands of all the players are
shown, including those who passed out during the betting. This will
expose thirteen cards, including the retourne. The pips in each suit
are then counted, the ace reckoning for 11, court cards for 10 each,
and the 9 and 8 at their face value. Whichever suit has the greatest
number of pips is called _=the suit that wins=_, and the player who
holds the highest card of it takes the pool; provided, of course, that
he was one of those who backed his hand until the last call. If the
player who holds the best card of the winning suit has dropped out
during the betting, his cards count for the player who has the highest
card of the suit among those who backed their hands. For instance: D
deals and turns the heart 8. A and B have passed out, but C has made a
bet which D has called. Neither has a brelan, so all four players show
their cards, and it is found that they lie thus:--

[Illustration:

              🂮 🂭 🂨

           +-------+
           |   B   |
  🂱 🂾 🂹    |C     A|  🂡 🂩 🃙
           |   D   |
           +-------+

              🃑 🃞 🃝        🂸
]

Spades are the winning suit: but neither C nor D has a spade, and as
neither A nor B is in the call, the spade suit cannot win anything. As
between clubs and hearts, D’s point is 40, and C’s 38; so D wins the
pool. C of course had a great advantage in betting, as he knew four
hearts were out, his own and the retourne; and all he feared was a
brelan. A would have won the pool if he had backed his hand, because he
would have had the highest card of the winning suit.

_=Calling for a Sight.=_ Suppose four players have the following caves
in front of them: A, 35; B, 60; C, 120; and D, 185. D blinds five,
deals, and turns the heart 9. A puts up all his 35 counters. B passes
out. C raises 50, putting up 85; and D bets everything, 180 more than
his blind. A demands a sight for his 35, and C puts up the remainder of
his 120, and calls a sight for them. Then D withdraws his superfluous
65, and it is a call. No one has a brelan, so all the hands are shown,
and the cards lie thus:--

[Illustration:

              🂮 🃉 🃈

            +-------+
            |   B   |
  🂡 🂭 🂩     |C     A|  🃑 🃞 🃙
            |   D   |
            +-------+

              🂱 🂾 🃝        🂹
]

The point is exactly even for clubs and spades, 40 in each. In case of
ties, the dealer, or the player nearest him on the right wins. In this
case A wins on account of his position, so clubs is the winning suit,
and A has the best card of it. But he can win from C and D only the
amount for which he called a sight, _i.e._ 35 counters. He therefore
takes down 105 as his share of the pool, leaving 170 to be decided
between C and D. Now, although C has a better point than D, it is one
of the principles of the game that the suit that wins cannot lose at
the same time; and as D has a card of the winning suit, while C has
not, D wins the remainder of the pool. If neither C nor D had a card of
the winning suit, C would win from D on account of his better point.

If we transposed the club ace and spade ace, spades would be the
winning suit, because the elder hand, A, had the best card of it; but C
would take the remainder of the pool, because he held a spade, while D
did not.

As it is, C is decavé, and must purchase another stake, or retire from
the game. If C had lost this pool with a brelan in his hand, he would
not be decavé; because after losing the pool, and all he had staked
therein, B, who had passed out, would have to pay him for the brelan,
and with this one white counter he would have to call for a sight in
the next pool he entered.

_=Methods of Cheating.=_ As in all games in which winning depends
entirely on the cards held, and not on the manner of playing them,
Bouillotte offers many opportunities to the greek. The small number
of cards in the pack, and the consequent ease with which they may be
handled, enable even the clumsiest card sharpers to run up brelan
carrés, make false shuffles, and shift cuts. There is one trick, called
the poussette, which consists in surreptitiously placing more counters
on the table when the player finds he has a hand worth backing. Marked
cards, and packs trimmed to taper one way, biseautés, are among the
most common weapons of the French tricheurs. As in Poker, it is best to
avoid playing with strangers.

_=Suggestions for Good Play.=_ Beyond the usual qualifications
necessary to succeed with any member of the poker family, Bouillotte
requires some study of the probable value of the point, which value
will vary with the number of players engaged in the coup. For instance:
The first player to say, having only 21 in his hand, should ante; but
if two other players had already anted, 31, or even 40 would be a
doubtful hand. If a bet had been made and met by another player, such a
point should generally be laid down.

With good cards it is always better for the eldest hand to pass,
especially with a brelan, for he will then have an opportunity to judge
of the value of the hands against him, and he can raise the bet to
his advantage. Good players will not bet on an ace alone, unless the
suit is turned up; nor on a point of 21 with a weak card of the turn-up
suit. If three play in a pool the point should be very strong to follow
beyond the first raise; and if four players are engaged, it is almost a
certainty that brelans will be shown.

When a player with a brelan has frightened off his opponents with a big
bet, it is usual to _=stifle=_ the brelan, as it is considered more to
the player’s advantage to leave his adversaries under the impression
that he may have been bluffing than to show the hand for the sake of
the one white counter to which it entitles him. With three cards of
one suit to the King, it is usual to bet high, in order to drive out
anything but a brelan. Any player holding ace and another of the suit
will of course abandon his hand, as his point is worth only 21 at the
most, and the player with three to the King will get the benefit of his
cards when the point is counted.


AMBIGU.

_=Cards.=_ Ambigu is played with a pack of forty cards, the K Q J of
each suit being deleted. The cards rank in the order of their numerical
value, the 10 being the highest, and the ace the lowest. Two packs may
be used alternately.

_=Players.=_ Any number from two to six may form the table, and the
arrangements for seats, first deal, etc., should be decided as at
Bouillotte.

_=Stakes.=_ Each player begins with an equal number of counters, the
value of which must be determined beforehand. A betting limit should be
agreed upon, and one player should be the banker for the evening.

_=Blind.=_ Before the cards are dealt, each player deposits one counter
in the pool; there is no straddle.

_=Dealing.=_ The cards are cut to the left, and dealt to the right, and
two cards are given to each player, one at a time, face down.

_=Method of Playing.=_ Each player in turn, beginning on the dealer’s
right, examines his hand, and if satisfied with it he says: “Enough.”
If not satisfied, he may discard one or both of his cards, and receive
others from the top of the pack. In either case he places two white
counters in the pool for his ante. All having decided to stand or
to draw, the remainder of the pack, exclusive of the discards, is
reshuffled and cut; each player is then given two more cards, one at
a time, and face down. Each in turn examines his four cards, and if
satisfied he says: “I play;” if not, he says: “I pass.” If all pass,
the dealer has the choice of two things: He may gather the cards and
deal again, each player putting another counter into the pool, or he
may put up two white counters himself, and compel the players to retain
the cards dealt them, the dealer keeping his also.

Any person announcing to play may put up as many counters as he pleases
within the betting limit. If no person will stay with him, he takes
back his raise, leaving the antes, and is paid two counters by the last
player who refuses. If two or more declare to play they can either meet
the amount offered by the first player, or raise him. If any player
declines to meet a raise, he must abandon his hand. If no one will call
the last raise, the player making it takes the pool, and then shows his
hand, and demands payment from each of the other players for whatever
combination he holds. If two or more players call, by making their bets
equal, they again draw cards, having the privilege of discarding any
number from one to four, or of standing pat. After the draw each in
turn can pass or play. If all pass, the hands are abandoned, and the
pool remains; each player adding one counter for the next deal. This is
to force players to bet on their hands. If a bet is made, the calling
and raising proceeds as in Draw Poker.

When there are not enough cards to supply the players, the discards
must be gathered, shuffled, and cut. Any player with too many or too
few cards must abandon his hand as foul. Any player showing his cards
must abandon his hand, and forfeit four counters to the pool.

The general laws of Poker governing all irregularities may be applied
to Ambigu; but it must be remembered that the French are very much
averse to penalties of all kinds, and if an error can be rectified
without doing an injustice to any player, it is usual to set things
right in the simplest manner possible.

_=Value of the Hands.=_ There are seven combinations of value in
Ambigu, which rank in the following order, beginning with the lowest:--

_=The Point.=_ The total number of pips on two or more cards of the
same suit. A single card does not count for the point. Three cards of
one suit are a better point than two cards, even if there are more pips
on the two cards. If no higher combination than a point is shown, the
player with the winning point receives _=one counter=_ from each of the
other players at the table, besides winning the pool, and everything in
it. In case of ties, the player having two cards in sequence wins. For
instance: an 8 and a 7 will beat a 10 and a 5. If this does not decide
it, the elder hand wins.

_=The Prime.=_ Four cards of different suits, sometimes called a
Dutch flush, is a better hand than the point. If a prime is the best
combination shown, the holder wins the pool, and receives _=two
counters=_ from each of the other players. If the pips in the prime
aggregate more than thirty, it is called _=Grand Prime=_, and the
holder receives _=three counters=_ from each of the other players,
instead of two. If two or more primes are shown, the one with the
highest number of pips wins. If this is still a tie, the elder hand
wins.

_=A Sequence=_ is a bobtail straight flush; that is, three of the four
cards are in sequence, such as the 2, 3 and 4 of spades, with an odd
card, such as a 9. This is a better combination than a prime, and the
holder receives _=three counters=_ from each player. In case of ties,
the highest sequence wins. If the sequence flush is one of four cards,
it is a doublet.

_=A Tricon=_, or three of a kind, is better than a straight, and
entitles the holder to _=four counters=_ from each of the other
players. Pairs have no value.

_=A Flush=_ is four cards of the same suit, not necessarily in
sequence, and is better than a tricon. The holder is paid _=five
counters=_ by each of the other players, in addition to winning the
pool.

_=Doublets.=_ Any hand containing a double combination will beat any
single combination. For instance: A player holds three of a kind, and
the fourth card in his hand is of a different suit from any of his
triplet. His hand is a double combination, prime and tricon, and will
beat a flush. A sequence of four cards of the same suit is a double
combination, and will beat anything but a fredon. When doublets are
shown, the holder is paid for both combinations, _=six=_ for tricon and
prime, or _=eight=_ for sequence and flush, as the case may be.

_=A Fredon=_, or four of a kind, is the best possible hand, and the
holder is paid _=ten or eleven counters=_ by each of the other players,
according to the pip value of his cards. He is paid eight counters for
fredon, and two for the prime, if it is smaller than 8’s; but he claims
grand prime if he has four 9’s, or four 10’S, and gets eleven counters.

In case of _=ties=_ which cannot be decided by the pip values, the
elder hand wins.

Even if a player has lost his entire stake in the pool, he must pay
the various combinations shown, and it is usual to reserve about ten
counters for this purpose.

_=Betting the Hands.=_ After the last cards have been drawn, the
players proceed to bet upon their hands precisely as at Poker. If a
player makes a bet or raise which no one will call, he takes the pool,
and then shows his hand and demands payment for the combination he
holds. It is very unusual for a player to stifle a hand at Ambigu, as
he would at Bouillotte. If a call is made, the players in the call show
and compare their cards, and the best hand wins the pool. Only the
player who wins the pool can demand payment for combinations held.


TEXT-BOOKS ON POKER.

  Draw Poker, by John W. Keller, 1887.
  Round Games, by Baxter-Wray, 1891.
  Complete Poker Player, by John Blackbridge, 1875.
  Proctor on Draw Poker, 1883.
  Schenck’s Rules for Draw Poker, 1872.
  The Poker Book, by Richard Guerndale, 1888.
  The Gentlemen’s Handbook of Poker, by J.W. Florence, 1892.
  Poker Rules in Rhyme, by Geo. W. Allen, 1895.
  Science of Draw Poker, by David A. Curtis, 1901.
  Poker, Brentano’s Pocket Library Series, by R.F. Foster, 1897.
  Practical Poker, with complete laws, by R.F. Foster, 1905.
  Treatise on Poker, by E.P. Philpots, 1904.
  Poker probabilities, by Alleyne Reynolds, 1901.
  The Game of Draw Poker, Mathematically Illustrated, by H.T.
    Winterblossom, 1875.



THE EUCHRE FAMILY.


This family embraces four of the best known and most popular games
in the world, each of which has been considered the national game in
its own country: Écarté in France; Napoleon in England; Spoil Five in
Ireland; and Euchre in America.

It has always been the custom to trace the origin of Euchre to a
variety of Triomphe, or French Ruff, probably introduced to America by
the French of Louisiana; and to claim Écarté as its cousin, and the
French survivor of the parent game. In the opinion of the author, both
the game and its name go to show that Euchre is of mixed stock, and
probably originated in an attempt to play the ancient Irish game of
Spoil Five with a piquet pack. “Euchre” is not a French word, but the
meaning of it is identical with “Spoil Five”; both names signifying
that the object of the game is to prevent the maker of the trump from
getting three tricks. In the one game he is “spoiled;” in the other he
is “euchred.” In the old game of Triomphe, in Écarté, and in the black
suits in Spoil Five, the order of the court cards in plain suits is
the same, the ace ranking below the Jack. But in Euchre the Jack ranks
above the ace when the suit is trumps, exactly as it does in Spoil
Five. In the latter game the five is the best trump; but as there is no
five in a piquet pack, that trump was probably disregarded, leaving the
Jack the best. Taking up, or “robbing” the turn-up trump, is another
trait common to both Spoil Five and Euchre.

Spoil Five and Triomphe are mentioned in the earliest works on card
games. Triomphe can be traced to 1520, when it was popular in Spain;
and the origin of Maw, the parent of Spoil Five, is lost in the mists
of Irish antiquity. It was the fashionable game during the reign of
James I.

The old Spanish game of Triomphe, now obsolete, seems to have undergone
several changes after its introduction to France. At first it was
played either by two persons, or by two pairs of partners. If one
side had bad cards, they could offer to abandon the hand, and allow
the adversaries to count a point without playing. If the adversaries
refused, they were obliged to win all five tricks or lose two points.
It was compulsory to win the trick if possible, and to trump,
over-trump, or under-trump if the player had none of the suit led. This
peculiarity survives in the games of Rams and Loo, which also belong to
the euchre family.

After a time we find a variation introduced in which any number from
two to six could play, each for himself, and the player first winning
two tricks out of the five marked the point. Later still we find the
ace ranking above the King, thus becoming the best trump. If the ace
was turned up, the dealer had the privilege of robbing it, or the
holder of the ace of trumps could rob the turn-up, discarding any card
he pleased, just as in Spoil Five. But in Triomphe the dealer turned up
another card, and if that was of the trump suit the holder of the ace
could rob that also, and so on until he turned a card of a different
suit. This did not alter the trump, but merely stopped the robbing
process. Whether or not Triomphe borrowed this feature from Spoil Five
or Maw, it is now impossible to say.

Whatever its origin, Euchre has always been the most respectable member
of the family, and the game of all others that has best served the
card-playing interest in social life. Spoil Five probably comes next
in point of respectability; but Écarté has often fallen into evil
hands, and the very name is in some places regarded as synonymous for
gambling. The same is true of Napoleon, but in less degree. Euchre,
unlike the other members of the family, is not essentially a gambling
game, but belongs rather to the intellectual group of card games; a
position which we hope it may long maintain.


EUCHRE.

_=CARDS.=_ Euchre is played with what is commonly known as the piquet
pack, 32 cards, all below the 7 being deleted. In plain suits the cards
rank as at Whist; but in the trump suit the Jack is the best, and it is
called the _=Right Bower=_. The Jack of the same colour as the trump
suit, red or black, is the second-best trump, and it is called the
_=Left Bower=_; so that if clubs were trumps the rank of the nine cards
in the trump suit would be as follows:--

[Illustration:

  🃛 🂫 🃑 🃞 🃝 🃚 🃙 🃘 🃗
]

The rank of the cards in the other suits would be:--

[Illustration:

  🂡 🂮 🂭 🂪 🂩 🂨 🂧
  🂱 🂾 🂽 🂻 🂺 🂹 🂸 🂷
  🃁 🃎 🃍 🃋 🃊 🃉 🃈 🃇
]

When the _=Joker=_, or blank card is used, it is always the best trump,
ranking above the right bower. In cutting, the ace is low, the other
cards ranking as in plain suits. A player cutting the Joker must cut
again.

_=COUNTERS=_ or whist markers may be used for keeping the score, but it
is much more common to use the small cards from the deleted portion of
the pack. The game is five points, and the best method of scoring is to
use the 4 and 3 of any suit. When the 3 is face up, but covered by the
4 face down, it counts _=one=_. When the 4 is face up, covered by the 3
face down, it counts _=two=_. When the 4 is face down, covered by the 3
face up, it counts _=three=_. When the 3 is face down, covered by the 4
face up, it counts _=four=_.

[Illustration:

  [🃓 covered by   [🃔 covered by   [🃓 covering a   [🃔 covering a
  facedown card]   facedown card]   facedown card]   facedown card]
       ONE.             TWO.            THREE.            FOUR.
]

The number of pips exposed on the card which is face up is immaterial;
the relative position of the two cards will always determine the score.

Rubber or game scores must be kept on a whist marker, or on a sheet of
paper.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Euchre may be played by any number of persons from two to
seven; but in the seven-handed game the full pack of fifty-three cards
is used. Whatever the number of players, they cut for positions at the
table, for partners, and for the deal.

_=CUTTING.=_ The cards are usually spread, face down, and each
candidate for play draws a card.

[Illustration: SPREADING THE PACK.]

When _=two=_ or _=three=_ play, the lowest cut has the choice of seats,
and takes the first deal. When _=four=_ play, they cut for partners;
the two highest pairing against the two lowest. The lowest has the
choice of seats, and deals the first hand. When _=five=_ or _=seven=_
play, they have the choice of seats in their order, the lowest first,
and the lowest cut deals. When _=six=_ play, the three lowest are
partners against the three highest, the lowest cut having the choice of
seats, and the first deal.

_=TIES.=_ Players cutting cards of equal value cut again; but the new
cut decides nothing but the tie.

_=PLAYER’S POSITIONS.=_ The _=eldest hand=_, or age, sits on the left
of the dealer, and the _=pone=_ sits on the dealer’s right. There are
no distinctive names for the other positions.

When _=two=_ play, they sit opposite each other. When _=three=_ play,
each for himself, the game is known as _=Cut Throat=_, and the position
of the players is immaterial. When _=four=_ play, the partners sit
opposite each other. When _=five=_ or _=seven=_ play, the maker of the
trump in each deal selects his partners, and they play against the
others without any change in their positions at the table. When _=six=_
play, three are partners against the other three, and the opposing
players sit alternately round the table.

_=STAKES.=_ If there is any stake upon the game, its amount must be
settled before play begins. When _=rubbers=_ are played, it is usual to
make the stake so much a rubber point. If the winners of the game are
five points to their adversaries’ nothing, they win a _=treble=_, and
count three rubber points. If the losers have scored one or two points
only, the winners mark two points for a _=double=_. If the losers have
reached three or four, the winners mark one for a _=single=_. The side
winning the rubber adds two points to its score for so doing; so that
the largest rubber possible is one of eight points;--two triples to
nothing, and two added for the rubber. The smallest possible is one
point;--two singles and the rubber, against a triple. If the first two
games are won by the same partners, the third is not played.

_=DEALING.=_ Any player has the right to shuffle the cards, the dealer
last. The pack must be presented to the pone to be cut, and he must
leave at least four cards in each packet. Beginning on his left, the
dealer distributes the cards either two at a time and then three, or
three and then two to each player in rotation, until all have five
cards. Whichever number, two or three, the dealer begins with, he must
continue giving the same number to every player, including himself, for
the first round. After the cards are dealt, the next card is turned
face up on the remainder of the pack, except in five and seven-handed
Euchre, in which no trump is turned. Each player deals in turn to the
left, until the conclusion of the game or rubber.

_=Irregularities in the Deal.=_ If any card is found faced in the pack,
the dealer must deal again. Should the dealer expose any card but the
trump while dealing, the adversaries may demand a new deal by the same
dealer. Should any adversary of the dealer expose a card, the dealer
may elect to deal again. A player dealing out of turn may be stopped
before the trump card is turned; but after that the deal must stand,
afterward passing to the left in regular order. On the completion of
the deal, if any player has more or less than five cards, it is a
misdeal, and the deal passes to the player on the misdealer’s left.

The dealer loses his deal if he neglects to have the pack cut; if he
deals a card incorrectly, and fails to remedy the error before dealing
another; if he counts the cards on the table, or those remaining in the
pack; or if he deals two cards to one player and three to another in
the same round.

If the pack is found to be imperfect, the deal in which the error is
discovered is void; but all previous scores stand good.

_=MAKING THE TRUMP.=_ Although a card is turned up at the end of
the deal, the suit to which it belongs is not necessarily the trump
for that hand. Each player in turn, beginning on the dealer’s left,
whether he be an adversary or a partner of the dealer’s, may insist
on the turn-up suit remaining the trump; or he may declare that he is
indifferent as to which suit is the trump, the one turned up or some
other. But should one player in his proper turn decide in favour of the
turn-up, no player after him can alter the decision. When it comes to
the dealer’s turn, if no other player has decided to retain the suit
turned up, he must either let the trump remain as it is, or insist on
its being changed.

As the individual or side that settles which suit shall be the trump is
said to _=make the trump=_, it will be necessary to describe the method
of scoring in order to understand the principles that guide the players
in deciding on the trump suit.

_=SCORING.=_ Euchre is played for tricks. If the side that makes the
trump takes three or four tricks out of the five possible, it scores
one point. If the side wins all five tricks, it scores two points for
a _=march=_. If the player that makes the trump fails to win three
tricks, he is _=euchred=_, and his adversaries score two points for
the euchre. _=When four play=_, if the player who makes the trump
declares to play _=alone=_, that is, without any assistance from his
partner, who must lay down his cards, the maker of the trump scores
four points if he succeeds in winning all five tricks, and one point if
he wins three or four tricks. But if he fails to win three tricks, he
is euchred, and the adversaries score two points. _=When three play=_,
a lone hand counts three if the player wins all five tricks. _=When two
play=_, five tricks is simply a march, and counts two points. _=When
five or seven play=_, there are special scores for lone hands. When all
five tricks are taken by one side, but not by an individual playing
a lone hand, it is simply a march, and counts two points, no matter
how many are playing. When two or three are playing, a march must of
course be a lone hand, as there are no partnerships. As we shall see
later, there are some varieties of Euchre in which a lone hand may play
against a lone hand, but this is not permitted in the ordinary game.

No one but the individual player who makes the trump can play alone.

Except in five and seven-handed Euchre, the player or side first
reaching five points wins the game. If three are playing, and two of
them reach five points simultaneously by euchreing the third, they both
win a game. If they are playing for stakes, they divide the pool.

_=TAKING UP THE TRUMP.=_ After the trump is turned up, each player in
turn examines his cards, and if he does not care whether the trump
suit remains unchanged or not, he says: “_=I pass=_.” If all pass, the
dealer must decide. The dealer has the advantage of being allowed to
take the trump card into his own hand, discarding one of his worthless
cards in its place. If he thinks he can make three tricks with the
turn-up suit for trumps, and his partner’s probable assistance, or can
win five tricks by playing alone, he discards any card he pleases,
placing it under the remainder of the pack, face down, and without
showing or naming it. If the dealer decides to play alone, it is usual
for him to pass his discard across the table to his partner, face down,
so that there may be no misunderstanding his intention.

The dealer may take up the trump card at any time during the play of
the hand; but it is usual to leave it on the pack until it is played to
a trick. No one but the dealer can take the trump into his hand.

_=TURNING DOWN THE TRUMP.=_ If the dealer fears that he and his partner
cannot make three tricks with the turn-up suit for trumps, or would
prefer to have the suit changed, he can pass. If he passes, he takes
the trump card from the top of the pack, and places it face upward, and
partly under the pack, in such a manner that it can be distinctly seen.

[Illustration:

   [🃘 on top of pack      [Facedown pack
 covering facedown card]    covering 🃘]
        TAKEN UP.           TURNED DOWN.
]

_=CHANGING THE TRUMP.=_ It then becomes the turn of the other players,
each in succession to the left of the dealer, to name some other suit
for the trump, or to pass a second time. If the suit of the same colour
as the turn-up is named for the new trump, it is usual to say: “_=I
make it next=_.” If a suit of a different colour is named, it is called
_=crossing the suit=_, and some players, if a red suit is turned, will
say: “I _=cross=_ to clubs.”

Any player naming a new suit may announce to play alone at the same
time. The side that makes the new trump must make at least three
tricks, or it will be euchred, and the adversaries will count two
points. If a player names the suit that has just been turned down, he
loses his right to make the trump; and if he corrects himself, and
names another suit, he debars not only himself but his partner from
making the trump. One player having named a new trump suit in his
proper turn, his decision is binding on all the others; but should a
player name a suit out of his proper turn, both he and his partner are
debarred from making that suit the trump. If no one will name a new
trump, the deal is void, and passes to the next player on the dealer’s
left.

_=ORDERING UP THE TRUMP.=_ Instead of passing the turn-up trump on
the first round, any player who thinks it would be to his advantage
to have the turn-up remain the trump, may order the dealer to take
it up. In doing so he says: “_=I order it=_,” if he is an adversary;
or: “_=I assist=_,” if he is the dealer’s partner. In either case the
player making the trump may announce a lone hand at the same time. His
side must make at least three tricks, whether he plays alone or not,
or it is a euchre, and the adversaries will count two points. In case
an adversary of the dealer plays alone, he must distinctly announce it
when he orders up the trump. The usual expression is: “_=I order it
alone=_.” His partner then lays his cards face downward on the table
and takes no further part in the play of that hand. If he exposes any
card of the abandoned hand, the adversaries can call upon him to take
up the hand and play it, leaving the exposed card on the table as
liable to be called. This of course prevents the lone hand.

If the dealer’s partner wishes to play alone, instead of assisting,
he says: “_=I play this alone=_,” and the dealer lays down his cards,
leaving the trump on the pack.

_=PLAYING ALONE.=_ No player but the one that takes up, orders up,
or makes the trump can play a lone hand. If the dealer takes up the
trump card of his own accord, he can play alone. If any player orders
up or assists, that player can play alone. Any player making a new
trump after the first has been turned down, can play alone. If one
player orders up the trump, neither his partner nor his adversary can
play alone; and if the dealer’s partner assists, that prevents the
dealer from playing a lone hand. In many clubs the mistake is made of
allowing the dealer to play alone on his partner’s assist; or letting
the pone play alone after the dealer has been assisted; or letting the
partner of the player who makes the new trump play alone. This is not
good Euchre, because it gives an unfair advantage to one side, as we
shall see when we come to the suggestions for good play, especially in
connection with ordering up at what is called the “bridge;” that is,
when the score is 4 to 1, or 4 to 0.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The trump settled, the eldest hand, or the
player next him on the left, if the partner of the eldest hand is
playing alone, begins by leading any card he pleases, and the others
must follow suit if they can. Failure to follow suit when able is a
_=revoke=_, if the error is not discovered and corrected before the
trick in which it occurs is turned and quitted. If the player discovers
his mistake in time, the card played in error must be left on the
table, and is liable to be called. When a revoke is discovered and
claimed by the adversaries, it is usual to abandon the hand, and the
adversaries of the revoking player can either deduct two points from
his score, or add two to their own score, for every revoke made during
the hand. The penalty cannot be divided. If both sides revoke, the deal
is void, and the same dealer must deal again.

Any player having none of the suit led may either trump, or throw away
a card of another suit. The highest card played, if of the suit led,
wins the trick, trumps winning against all other suits, and a higher
trump winning a lower. The winner of the trick may lead any card he
pleases for the next trick, and so on, until all five tricks have been
played. If the dealer takes the trump into his hand, any player naming
it is liable to have his highest or lowest trump called; but a player
may ask and must be informed what the trump suit is.

_=Cards Played in Error.=_ All cards led out of turn, played in error,
or two or more played to a trick, or dropped face upward on the table,
are called _=exposed cards=_, and must be left face up on the table.
These must be played when called by the adversaries, unless compliance
with the demand would make the player revoke; but the fact of their
being exposed does not prevent their being got rid of in the course
of play if the opportunity offers. Some persons imagine that the
adversaries can prevent an exposed card from being played; but such is
not the case in Euchre. A person playing a lone hand is not liable to
any penalty for exposing his cards, nor for leading out of turn, for he
has no partner to derive any benefit from the information conveyed.

_=Leading Out of Turn.=_ Should any person, not playing alone, lead out
of turn, the adversaries may call a suit from the player in error, or
from his partner, when it is next the turn of either of them to lead.
The demand must be made by the person who will be the last player on
the trick in which the suit is called. If all have played to the lead
before discovering the error, it cannot be rectified; but if all have
not played, those who have followed the false lead must take back their
cards, which are not liable to be called.

Any player may ask the others to _=draw cards=_ in any trick, provided
he does so before the cards are touched for the purpose of gathering
them. In answer to this demand, each player should indicate which card
of those on the table he played. No one is allowed to see any trick
that has been turned and quitted.

_=Taking Tricks.=_ As the tricks are taken they should be neatly laid
one upon the other in such a manner that any player at the table can
count them. All tricks belonging to one side should be kept together.
At the end of each hand the score should be claimed and marked. Revokes
must be detected and claimed before the cards are cut for the following
deal.

_=CUTTING OUT.=_ When the play is confined to four players, rubbers are
usually played, and the table is complete with six persons, two looking
on, and awaiting their turn. At the end of a rubber, if there are more
than four players belonging to the table, those who have just played
cut to decide which shall give place to those waiting, the players
cutting the highest cards going out. If six belong to the table, there
will be no further cutting out, as those who are out for one rubber
re-enter for the next, taking the places of those who have played
two consecutive rubbers. If five belong to the table, the three who
remained in for the second rubber must cut to allow the fifth player to
re-enter. At the end of the third rubber, the two cut that have not yet
been out; and at the end of the fourth rubber the one who has played
every rubber goes out without cutting. Partners and deal are cut for at
the beginning of each new rubber.

_=METHODS OF CHEATING.=_ All the Euchre family of games, especially
Écarté and Napoleon, offer numerous opportunities to the greek. So well
is this known in Europe that it is considered extremely foolish for any
person to play Écarté in mixed companies. The small number of cards in
the pack, and the custom of dealing two and three at a time, gives the
dealer an opportunity to bunch four valuable cards, of which he can
give himself three, and turn up the fourth. False shuffles, shifted
cuts, and marked cards are formidable weapons. The telegraph between
partners, and the variation in tone or words in passing are frequently
used by card-sharpers. One of the commonest devices in America is the
use of what are known as “jack strippers.” These are two Jacks, usually
both of the same colour, which can be withdrawn from any portion of the
pack by the fingers of an expert, and placed on the top. When the sharp
deals, he places cards enough on these to supply the other players on
the first round, so that the strippers will come to him. When only two
are playing, he strips them out and leaves them on the top when he cuts
the cards, so that they shall be dealt to him. Never play Euchre or
Écarté with a man who cuts the pack with both hands.

Any person who is tempted to bet on any game in the Euchre family
should remember the advice of the worldly-wise Parisian to his son:
“Until you have four eyes in your head, risk not your gold at Écarté.”

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ The chief points for the beginner to
understand are. When to order up; when to assist; when to take up;
when to play alone; and what to make the trump if it is turned down.
His decision in each case will be governed largely by his position at
the table, and by the score. The following suggestions are for four
players, two being partners against the other two, and playing without
the Joker; that being the most common form of the game. The general
principles underlying these suggestions for the four-handed game will
be found equally valuable in any form of Euchre.

_=ORDERING UP.=_ Although probabilities are of little practical value
in Euchre, it may be well to remember that there are nine cards in
the trump suit; but as only two-thirds of the pack is dealt out, the
average number of trumps among four players will be six. Of these, the
dealer always has the advantage of being sure of one more than his
share, and it is safe to reckon upon the dealer to hold at least two
trumps. He may also be counted for a missing suit, for he will discard
any losing card of an odd suit when he takes up the trump.

_=The Eldest Hand=_ should not order up the trump unless he has such
cards that he is reasonably certain of three tricks without any
assistance from his partner, and cannot be sure of two tricks if the
trump is turned down. When he holds one or two bowers, especially if he
has cards of the next suit; that is, the suit of the same colour as the
turn-up, he should always pass; because if the dealer takes it up he
will probably be euchred, and if he turns it down, the eldest hand will
have the first say, and can make it next. It is seldom right to order
up a bower, because the dealer will rarely turn down such a card.

There are exceptional cases in which the eldest hand may order up with
little or nothing. One of the most common is when the adversaries of
the dealer are at the _=bridge=_; that is, when their score is 4, and
the dealer’s side has only 1 or 2 marked. It is obvious that if the
dealer or his partner plays alone, he will win the game; but if the
trump is ordered up the most he can score is 2 points for a euchre,
and the player who orders up will then have a chance to go out on his
own deal. For this reason it has come to be regarded as imperative for
the eldest hand to order up at the bridge, unless he holds the right
bower, or the left bower guarded, or the ace twice guarded, any one
of which combinations is certain to win a trick against a lone hand
if the eldest hand does not lead trumps himself. Another case is when
the score is 4 to 4, and the eldest hand has average trump strength,
good side cards, but nothing in the next suit. It is better to order
it up, and risk the game on such a hand than to take the chance of the
dealer’s turning it down.

_=The Pone=_, who is the partner of the eldest hand, orders up at
the bridge on exactly opposite principles. The fact that the eldest
hand did not order up shows that the dealer cannot make a lone hand.
This should indicate to the pone that his partner has a certain trick
in trumps, and if the pone holds any good trumps himself, he can
often guess what his partner’s trumps are. For instance: The ace is
turned, and the pone holds the left bower guarded. The eldest hand
must have the right bower, or four trumps to the King. If the eldest
hand has passed at the bridge, and the pone has strong trumps himself,
especially the ace or left bower and two small trumps, he should order
up the trump; not to save the game, but to be sure of winning it by
preventing the dealer from turning it down. If the pone does not order
up at the bridge, the eldest hand may infer that he is weak in trumps.

When it is not a bridge, the pone should be guided by the same
principles as those given for the eldest hand, because he may be sure
that his partner will make it next if it is turned down, unless he has
a certainty of three tricks by crossing.

If a player calls his partner’s attention to the fact that they are at
the bridge, both lose their right to order up.

_=ASSISTING.=_ The dealer’s partner usually assists on plain-suit
cards, such as two aces, rather than on trumps. The score and the
turn-up trump will often be a guide as to whether or not to assist. For
instance: If the score is 1 all, or to 2 to 1, and a bower is turned,
it is rarely right to assist, because it prevents the dealer from
playing alone. If the partner has good suit cards, they may be useful
to make a march; if he has strong trumps, especially if sure of three
tricks, he should play alone, instead of assisting. If the score is 3
in the dealer’s favour, he does not need a lone hand to win the game,
and with two reasonably certain tricks in his own hand the dealer’s
partner should assist, as they may win the game by a march.

If the dealer’s side is at the bridge, the score being 4 to 1 or 4 to
0 in their favour, and the eldest hand passes, the dealer’s partner
must be on the alert to prevent the pone from placing a lone hand. He
should assist unless a bower is turned, or he has it himself, or holds
such cards that, combined with the turn-up, he is sure of a trick. For
instance: The dealer’s partner has the King and two other trumps, and
the ace is turned. It is impossible for the pone to make a lone hand,
even if he has both bowers, and the ace is bare; for he cannot catch
the King, even if his partner leads the trump through it. But if a
small trump was turned, the pone might easily make a lone hand with
both bowers and the ace.

_=TAKING UP.=_ The average expectation of the dealer is something over
two trumps, including the turn-up. With more than two trumps, or with
two strong trumps, and a reasonably certain trick in a plain suit, the
dealer should take up the trump. Three trumps of any size and an ace in
plain suits is a strong take-up hand. It is better to take up the trump
with only one plain suit in the hand, and small trumps, than with two
strong trumps and two weak plain suits. The score will often decide the
dealer in taking up the trump. For instance: At 4 all, it is useless
to turn anything down unless you have a certain euchre in the next
suit, and nothing in the turn-up. Even then, the adversaries are almost
certain to cross the suit and go out. With the score 3 all, the dealer
should be very careful about taking up on a weak hand, because a euchre
loses the game. If he is weak, but has a chance in the next suit, or
a bower in the cross suits, he should turn it down. It is a common
stratagem to turn it down for a euchre when the dealer is better in the
next suit, and has only 2 to go.

_=PLAYING ALONE.=_ The dealer has the best chance to get a lone hand;
but the eldest hand is more likely to succeed with one, on account of
the advantage of the lead. It is an invariable rule for any player
to go alone when he has three certain tricks, unless he is 3 up, and
can win the game with a march. A lone hand should be played with both
bowers and the ace, no matter how worthless the other cards; or with
five trumps to the ace without either bower; or two high trumps and
three aces in plain suits; or three good trumps and two aces. The
theory of this is that while the march might possibly be made with
partner’s assistance, if partner has the cards necessary to make a
march, the adversaries have little or nothing, and there is a very good
chance to make a lone hand if three tricks of it are certain. Both
bowers and the ace, with only the seven and eight of a plain suit have
made many a lone hand. If the lone player is not caught on the plain
suit at the first trick, the adversaries may discard it to keep higher
cards in the other suit; or they may have none of it from the first.
There is always a chance, and it should be taken.

The dealer’s partner, and the pone, should be very careful in playing
lone hands, and should never risk them except with three certain
tricks, no matter what suit is led first.

With three sure tricks, some players make it a rule to play alone,
provided the two other cards are both of the same suit.

_=MAKING THE TRUMP.=_ When the trump is turned down, the general rule
is for the eldest hand to make it next. The exceptions are when he has
nothing in the next suit, but has at least two certain tricks in the
cross suit, and a probable trick in a plain suit. It is safer to make
it next with a weak hand than to cross it on moderate strength, for
the presumption is that neither the dealer nor his partner had a bower
in the turn-down suit, and therefore have none in the next suit. Such
being the case, it is very likely that one or both may be strong in the
cross suits, and it is not considered good policy to cross the suit
unless so strong in it as to be reasonably certain of three tricks.
Some players invariably make it next, regardless of their hands, unless
they can play alone in the cross suit. Such a habit exposes them to the
common artifice of the dealer’s turning it down for a euchre. A dealer
holding a bower and three cards of the next suit, will often turn it
down, and trust to the eldest hand making it next, which will give the
dealer four trumps instead of two. The eldest hand should be on his
guard against this when the dealer’s side has 3 scored.

The dealer’s partner, on the other hand, should cross the suit almost
as invariably as the eldest hand should make it next; for if his
partner cannot take up the trump, and the eldest hand cannot make it
next, their hands must be weak, and if it is passed to the pone, he
will probably turn out to have a lone hand. The best chance is to cross
the suit, unless the player has three certain tricks in his own hand by
making it next, such as five trumps to the ace, or four trumps and a
plain-suit ace. With such cards he should play alone.

The pone should never make the trump unless he has three certain
tricks, and is willing to play a lone hand. If the dealer turns it
down, and both the eldest hand and the dealer’s partner pass a second
time, there must be a nigger in the woodpile somewhere.

_=LEADING.=_ The general principle of leading is to make tricks while
you can. It is useless to save up tenaces in plain suits, because there
are only five tricks to play, two of which are certain to fall to the
trumps, and it is very improbable that any player will lead up to you
a small card of a plain suit that will go round twice. It is seldom
right to lead small cards of a plain suit. There is a better chance to
make a trick with the King by leading it than by keeping it guarded.
In the trump suit, tenaces are very strong, and should be preserved,
especially if the tenace is over the turn-up trump. There is a familiar
example of the importance of tenace when only two play, in which one
person holds the major tenace in trumps, hearts, and must win three
tricks, no matter which player leads. The cards in one hand are:--

[Illustration:

  🂻 🂱 🂺 🂡 🂮
]

and those in the other hand are;--

[Illustration:

  🃋 🂾 🂽 🂹 🃑
]

If the player with the major tenace has to lead first, all he has to
do is to force his adversary with the plain suit, spades. Whatever the
adversary leads, the player with the major tenace simply wins it, and
forces again. If the player with the four trumps has the first lead, it
does not matter what card he plays; the player with the major tenace
wins it, and forces with the plain suit. As long as the major tenace in
trumps is not led away from, it must win three tricks in trumps.

_=Leading Trumps.=_ With strong cards in plain suits, the eldest
hand may often lead trumps to advantage if the dealer’s partner has
assisted, especially if the turn-up trump is small. It is seldom right
to lead trumps if the dealer has taken up the trump of his own accord;
but an exception is usually made when the eldest hand holds three
trumps, and two aces in plain suits. The best chance for a euchre is
to exhaust the trumps, so as to make the aces good for tricks. If the
pone has ordered up the trump, the eldest hand should lead trumps to
him immediately; but the pone should not lead trumps to his partner if
the eldest hand has ordered up at the bridge. If a bower is turned, the
dealer’s partner should lead a small trump at the first opportunity.

In playing against a lone hand the best cards in plain suits should
always be led, trumps never. In playing alone, it is best to lead
winning trumps as long as they last, so as to force discards, which
will often leave intermediate cards in plain suits good for tricks.

_=Second Hand.=_ Play the best card you have second hand, and cover
everything led if you can. With King and another or Queen and another,
it is usually best to put up the honour second hand, on a small card
led.

_=Trumping.=_ It is seldom right to trump partner’s winning cards,
unless he has ordered up the trump, and you think you can lead through
the dealer to advantage. In playing against a lone hand, it is
sometimes good play to trump your partner’s ace with an unguarded left
bower or ace of trumps, as it may prevent the dealer from getting into
the lead with a small trump, and may save a King or Queen of trumps in
your partner’s hand. If you don’t trump, the dealer will probably get
in and swing the right bower, and your trump will be lost.

If your partner has ordered, made, or taken up the trump, and you have
only one trump, even a bower, trump with it at the first opportunity.
Trump everything second hand, unless it takes the right bower for a
doubtful trick, or breaks into the major tenace in trumps.

_=Discarding.=_ It is best to throw away singletons, unless they are
aces. If you have two cards of equal value, but of different colours,
one of which must be discarded, it is usual to keep the one of the
same colour as the turn-up when playing against the dealer. Discard
suits that the adversaries are trumping. If your partner discards
a suit in which you have a high card, keep that suit, and discard
another. If you have both ace and King of a plain suit, discard the
ace, to show partner that you can win a trick in the suit. It is very
often important to discard correctly when playing against a lone hand,
especially if the lone player leads trumps for the fourth trick. It is
a common practice for modern players to signal in the discard if they
have a certain trick in a suit. This is done by discarding two cards in
another suit, the higher before the lower. For instance: You have two
aces, spades and diamonds. The dealer plays alone on hearts, and trumps
your spade ace the first time. If you have two clubs, such as King and
ten, discard the King first, and then the ten, and your partner will
know you can stop the diamond suit. This should advise him to keep his
clubs.


CUT-THROAT EUCHRE.

The chief element in the three-handed game is playing to the score.
The player with the strong hand must always be kind to the under dog,
and partnerships are always formed against the man with the high
score. Suppose _=A=_, _=B=_, and _=C=_ are playing, and that _=A=_
has 3 points to his adversaries’ nothing on _=B’s=_ deal. It is to the
interest of _=A=_ to euchre _=B=_; but it is to the interest of _=C=_
to let _=B=_ make his point because if _=B=_ is euchred, _=A=_ wins the
game. _=B=_ having made his point, _=C=_ deals, and it is then to the
interest of _=B=_ to let _=C=_ make his point. Suppose _=C=_ makes a
march, 3 points, which puts him on a level with _=A=_. On _=A’s=_ deal
it is _=C’s=_ game to euchre him, but _=B=_ must let _=A=_ make his
point; so that instead of being opposed by both _=B=_ and _=C=_, as he
was a moment ago, _=A=_ finds a friend in _=B=_, and the two who were
helping each other to beat _=A=_, are now cutting each other’s throats.
On _=B’s=_ deal, _=A=_ does not want to euchre him, for although that
would win the game for both _=A=_ and _=C=_, _=A=_, who now has 4
points up, does not wish to divide the pool with _=C=_ while he has
such a good chance to win it all himself. Suppose _=B=_ makes his
point. _=A=_ will do all he can to euchre _=C=_, but _=B=_ will oppose
the scheme, because his only chance for the game is that _=A=_ will not
be able to take up the trump on his own deal, and that _=B=_ will make
a march.


SET-BACK EUCHRE.

This is simply a reversal of the ordinary method of scoring, the
players starting with a certain number of points, usually ten, and
deducting what they make on each deal. The peculiarity which gives the
game its name is that if a player is euchred he is _=set back=_ two
points, his adversaries counting nothing. The revoke penalty is settled
in the same way. The game is usually counted with chips, each player
starting with ten, and placing in the centre of the table those that he
is entitled to score.


BLIND EUCHRE.

Each player is for himself and a widow of two cards is dealt. The
player who takes the widow practically orders up the trump and must
play against all the others after discarding two cards. If no one will
take the widow, the deal is void.


PENALTY EUCHRE.

Five players are each provided with twelve counters. An extra hand of
five cards is dealt face down, for a widow. Each player in turn can
exchange the hand dealt him for the widow, or for the hand abandoned by
anyone who has taken the widow, the cards being always face down. The
turned trump is not taken up by the dealer, but is left on the pack.
The eldest hand leads for the first trick and every man is for himself,
each holding his own tricks.

At the end of the hand, each player that has not taken a trick receives
a counter from each of the others, whether they have taken tricks or
not. Then all those that have won tricks put back into the pool a
counter for each trick they have taken. The first player to get rid of
his twelve counters wins the game.


AUCTION EUCHRE.

This form of the game is sometimes erroneously called _=French
Euchre=_. The French know nothing about Euchre in any form. Auction
Euchre is exactly the same as the ordinary four or six-handed game,
except that the trump is not turned up, the players bidding in turn for
the privilege of naming the trump suit. The bidder names the number
of tricks he proposes to take. There is no second bid, and the player
who has made the highest bid names the trump suit. No matter who is
the successful bidder, the eldest hand leads for the first trick. The
number of points won or lost on the deal are the number of points bid,
even if the bidder accomplishes more. If a player has bid 3, and he and
his partner take 4 or 5 tricks, they count 3 only. If they are euchred,
failing to make the number of tricks bid, the adversaries count the
number of points bid. Fifteen points is usually the game.

This is probably the root of the much better games of five and
seven-handed Euchre, which will be described further on.


PROGRESSIVE EUCHRE.

This form of Euchre is particularly well suited to social gatherings.
Its peculiarity consists in the arrangement and progression of a large
number of players originally divided into sets of four, and playing, at
separate tables, the ordinary four-handed game.

_=Apparatus.=_ A sufficient number of tables to accommodate the
assembled players are arranged in order, and numbered consecutively;
No. 1 being called _=the head table=_, and the lowest of the series
_=the booby table=_. Each player is provided with a blank card, to
which the various coloured stars may be attached as they accrue in the
course of play. These stars are usually of three colours; red, green,
and gold. The head table is provided with a bell, and each table is
supplied with one pack of cards only. It is usual to sort out the
thirty-two cards used in play, and the four small cards for markers,
before the arrival of the guests.

_=Drawing for Positions.=_ Two packs of differently coloured cards
are used, and from the two black suits in each a sequence of cards
is sorted out, equal in length to the number of tables in play. For
instance: If there are sixteen ladies and sixteen gentlemen, or
thirty-two players in all, they will fill eight tables, and all the
clubs and spades from the ace to the eight inclusive should be sorted
out. These are then thoroughly shuffled and presented, face down, to
the players to draw from. The ladies take only the red-back cards,
and the gentlemen only the blue. The number of pips on the card drawn
indicates the number of the table at which the player is to sit, and
those drawing cards of the same suit are partners for the first game.

_=Playing.=_ All being seated, the deal is cut for at each table, and
play begins. There is no cutting for partners, that being settled in
the original drawing. Five points is a game, and after that number is
reached by either side at the head table, the bell is struck. Lone
hands are usually barred at the head table, so as to give the other
tables time to make a certain number of points, and so to avoid ties.
Upon the tap of the bell all play immediately ceases, even if in the
middle of a deal. If the players at any but the head table have reached
five points before the bell rings, they play on, counting all points
made until the bell taps.

_=Progressing.=_ The partners winning the game at the head table each
receive a gold star, and retain their seats for the next game. The
losing players at the head table go down to the booby table. All the
winning players at the other tables receive red stars, and go to the
table next in order above, those at table No. 2, going to No. 1. Those
losing and remaining at the booby table each receive a green star.

_=Changing Partners.=_ At all but the head table the partners that
progress to the next table divide, the lady who has just lost at each
table retains her seat, and takes for her partner the gentleman who has
just arrived from the table below. At the head table the newly arrived
pair remain as partners; but at the booby table the players who have
just arrived from the head table divide. All being seated, they cut for
the deal, and play is resumed until the next bell tap.

_=Ties.=_ In case of ties in points at any table when the bell taps,
those having won the most tricks on the next hand are declared the
winners. If that is also a tie, the ladies cut to decide it, the lowest
cut going up. In cutting, the ace is low, and the jack ranks below the
Queen.

_=Prizes.=_ Six prizes are usually provided for large companies. The
lady and gentleman having the largest number of gold stars taking
the first prizes; the largest number of red stars winning the second
prizes; and the largest number of green stars the booby prizes. One
player cannot win two prizes. In case of ties for the gold stars, the
accompanying red stars decide it; if that is also a tie, the player
with the fewest number of green stars wins; and if that is still a tie,
the players must cut for it.

The hostess decides the hour at which play shall cease, and is the
referee in all disputes.


MILITARY EUCHRE.

The hostess arranges each table as a fort, with a distinguishing flag
and a number of small duplicate flags. The partners who sit East and
West progress round the room from table to table, and play one game of
five points at each, no lone hands allowed. The winners of each game
get a little flag from the losers as a trophy. By the time the E and
W pairs have made the circuit of all the tables and got home again,
the game is ended, the victors being the fort that has captured the
greatest number of flags.


RAILROAD EUCHRE.

Railroad Euchre is the name given to any form of the four-handed game
in which every expedient is used to make points rapidly.

_=Cards.=_ A pack of twenty-five cards is used, all below the 9 being
deleted, and the Joker added. The Joker is always the best trump.

_=Players.=_ There are four players, two being partners against the
other two. Partners, deal, and seats are cut for as in the ordinary
game.

_=Dealing.=_ The cards are distributed as in the ordinary game; but it
is usual to agree beforehand upon a suit which shall be the trump if
the Joker is turned up.

_=Playing Alone.=_ The chief peculiarity in Railroad Euchre is in
playing alone. Any player announcing to play alone, whether the dealer
or not, has the privilege of passing a card, face down, to his partner.
In exchange for this, but without seeing it, the partner gives the best
card in his hand to the lone player, passing it to him face down. If he
has not a trump to give him, he can pass him an ace, or even a King.
Even if this card is no better than the one discarded, the lone player
cannot refuse it. If the dealer plays alone, he has two discards; the
first in exchange for his partner’s best card, and then another, in
exchange for the trump card, after seeing what his partner can give
him. In this second discard he may get rid of the card passed to him by
his partner. If the dealer’s partner plays alone, the dealer may pass
him the turn-up trump, or any better card he may have in his hand.

Any person having announced to play alone, either of his adversaries
may play alone against him; discarding and taking partner’s best card
in the same manner. Should the lone player who makes the trump be
euchred by the lone player opposing him, the euchre counts four points.
It is considered imperative for a player holding the Joker, or the
right bower guarded, to play alone against the lone hand, taking his
partner’s best; for as it is evident that the lone hand cannot succeed,
there is a better chance to euchre it with all the strength in one hand
than divided.

If any player, in his proper turn, announces to play alone, and asks
for his partner’s best, the partner cannot refuse; neither can he
propose to play alone instead.

_=Scoring.=_ With the exception of the four points for euchreing a lone
hand, the scoring is exactly the same as in the ordinary four-handed
game; but there are one or two variations which are sometimes agreed
upon beforehand in order to make points still more rapidly.

_=Laps.=_ If a player makes more points than are necessary to win the
game, the additional points are counted on the next game, so that there
is always an inducement to play lone hands, even with 4 points up.

_=Slams.=_ If one side reaches five points before the other has scored,
it is a slam, and counts _=two games=_.

When laps and slams are played, it is sometimes agreed that if a person
plays alone without taking his partner’s best card, or the dealer plays
alone without taking up the trump or asking for his partners best, and
such a player succeeds in winning all five tricks with a pat hand,
it counts _=five=_ points. If he fails to win all five tricks, the
adversaries count _=one=_. If he is euchred, they count _=three=_; but
they are not permitted to play alone against him.

_=Jambone.=_ Any person playing a lone hand may announce Jambone,
and expose his cards face up on the table. The adversaries then have
me right to call any card they please, either for the lead, or in
following suit; but they cannot make the player revoke, nor can they
consult, or in any way expose their hands. If a lead is required, it
must be called by the person on the jambone player’s left. If a card
is called on a trick, it must be called by the person on the jambone
player’s right. If in spite of these difficulties the jambone player
succeeds in winning five tricks, he scores _=eight=_ points. If he wins
three or four only, he counts _=one=_ point. If he is euchred he loses
_=two=_. It is not allowable to play alone against a jambone.

_=Jamboree.=_ This is the combination of the five highest trumps in one
hand, and need only be announced and shown to entitle the holder to
score _=sixteen=_ points. If held by the dealer, it may be made with
the assistance of the turn-up trump; and any player may make it with
the assistance of his partners best; but it does not count unless the
holder of it has made the trump. If a player with a pat Jamboree is
ordered up, all he can score is a euchre.

As in other forms of Euchre, no one but the maker of the trump can play
alone, or announce Jambone or Jamboree. Lone hands are very common in
Railroad Euchre, and ordering up to prevent lone hands is commoner
still.


SEVEN-HANDED EUCHRE.

_=Cards.=_ Seven-handed Euchre is played with a full pack of
fifty-three cards, including the Joker. The cards in plain suits rank
as at Whist; but the Joker is always the best trump, the right and left
bowers being the second and third-best respectively.

_=Counters.=_ One white and four red counters are necessary. The
white counter is passed to the left from player to player in turn, to
indicate the position of the next deal. The red counters are placed
in front of the maker of the trump and his partners, to distinguish
them from their opponents. Markers are not used, the score being kept
on a sheet of paper. The score is usually kept by a person who is not
playing, in order that none of those in the game may know how the
various scores stand. Should an outsider not be available for scoring,
there are two methods: One is for one player to keep the score for the
whole table, who must inform any player of the state of the score if
asked to do so. The other is to have a dish of counters on the table,
each player being given the number he wins from time to time. These
should be placed in some covered receptacle, so that they cannot be
counted by their owner, and no other player will know how many he has.
As it is very seldom that a successful bid is less than five, and never
less than four, counters marked as being worth 4, 5, 6 and 7 each will
answer every purpose, and will pay every bid made.

_=Cutting.=_ The players draw cards from an outspread pack for the
choice of seats, those cutting the lowest cards having the first
choice. The lowest cut of all deals the first hand, passing the white
counter to the player on his left, whose turn it will be to deal next.
Ties are decided in the usual way.

_=Dealing.=_ The cards are dealt from left to right, two being given to
each player for the first round, then three, and then two again, until
each player has received seven cards. The four remaining in the pack
are then placed in the centre of the table, face down, and form the
_=widow=_. No trump is turned.

The rules governing all irregularities in the deal are the same as in
ordinary Euchre.

_=Making the Trump.=_ The cards dealt, each player in turn, beginning
with the eldest hand, bids a certain number of points, at the same time
naming the suit which he wishes to make the trump. There is no second
bid, and the suit named by the highest bidder must be the trump for
that deal. The successful bidder takes the widow, selecting from it
what cards he pleases, and discarding others in their stead, so as to
restore the number of his cards to seven. He then places a red counter
in front of him, and chooses his partners, passing a red counter to
each of them. These counters must be placed in front of the players to
distinguish them as belonging to the bidder’s side; but the players
make no changes in their respective positions at the table. Each player
should bid on the possibilities of his hand, however small, so as to
guide the others in their selection of partners.

_=Partners.=_ If the bidder has proposed to take not more than _=five=_
tricks out of the seven possible, he chooses two partners, and these
three play against the remaining four. If he has bid to make _=six=_ or
_=seven=_ tricks he chooses three partners, and these four play against
the remaining three. Partners cannot refuse to play.

_=Playing Alone.=_ Should a player think he can take all seven tricks
without any partners, he may bid _=ten=_, which would outrank a bid of
seven; but such a bid must be made before seeing the widow. If a player
thinks he can win all seven tricks without either widow or partners, he
may bid _=twenty=_, which is the highest bid possible. When twenty is
bid the cards in the widow must remain untouched.

_=Playing.=_ The successful bidder has the lead for the first trick.
The general rules for following suit, etc., are the same as in ordinary
Euchre. The bidder takes in all the tricks won by himself and his
partners, and one of the adversaries should gather for that side. If
a player on either side _=revokes=_, the adversaries score the number
bid, and the hand is abandoned.

_=Scoring.=_ If the bidder is successful in his undertaking, he and his
partners, if any, are credited by the scorer with the number of points
bid, but no more. Should a player bid five, and his side take seven, it
would count them only five points. If the player making the trump fails
to reach his bid, he is euchred, and the adversaries are credited with
the number of points bid.

_=Prizes.=_ It is usual to give two prizes for each table in play; one
for the highest number of points won during the evening, and one for
the smallest number; the latter being usually called the “booby” prize.

_=Suggestions for Good Play.=_ It is very risky to bid seven without
the Joker, the odds being 11 to 1 against finding it in the widow. A
bid of ten should not be made without both Joker and Right Bower, and
all the other cards winners and trumps. To bid twenty, a player should
have a practically invincible hand, with at least five winning leads of
trumps.

The first bidders are always at a disadvantage, because they know
nothing of the contents of the other hands; but after one or two
players have made a bid, those following them can judge pretty well how
the cards lie. For instance: The seven players are _=A=_ _=B=_ _=C=_
_=D=_ _=E=_ _=F=_ _=G=_. _=A=_ deals, and _=B=_ bids 2 in hearts. _=C=_
and _=D=_ pass. _=E=_ bids 3 in clubs; and _=F=_ says 4 in hearts.
It is evident that _=F=_ is bidding on _=B’s=_ offer in hearts, and
intends to choose him for a partner. _=G=_ finds in his hand four good
spades and the Joker, but neither Bower. He may safely bid 5 or 6,
taking _=E=_ for a partner if successful, as _=E=_ very probably has
one or both the black Bowers. If he bids 5 only, the dealer, _=A=_,
would have an excellent chance to bid 6 in hearts, and to take _=B=_
and _=F=_ for two of his partners, and _=G=_ for the third, trusting to
find him with the Joker, or at least protection in one or both black
suits.

If the successful bidder has had no previous bids to guide him in his
choice of partners, he should take those who have the lowest scores, if
the scores are known; because it is to his advantage to avoid advancing
those who are perhaps already ahead. When the scores are not known,
there is nothing but luck to guide one, unless a person has a very good
memory, and knows which players are probably behind.

_=Leading.=_ If the successful bidder wants 6 or 7 tricks, and holds
the Joker, he should lead it at once. If he has not the Joker, he
should begin with a low trump, and give his partners a chance to play
the Joker on the first round. If the leader cannot exhaust the trumps
with one or two rounds, it will sometimes be to his advantage to lead
any losing card he may have in the plain suits, in order to let his
partners win the trick if they can. In playing alone, it is absolutely
necessary to exhaust the trumps before opening a plain suit.

Partners should avail themselves of the methods common to four-handed
Euchre to support one another in trumps and plain suits. The discard
should invariably be from weakness if the player is the bidder’s
partner; and from strength, if opposed to him.

_=EUCHRE FOR FIVE PLAYERS.=_ This is practically the same as the
seven-handed game, but the pack is reduced to 28 cards, all below the
Eight in each suit being deleted. The Joker is not used. Five cards
are dealt to each player, by two and three at a time, and the three
remaining form the widow. The player bidding _=three=_ tricks takes one
partner only. The player bidding _=four=_ or _=five=_ tricks, takes two
partners. A player who intends to take the widow, but no partners, can
bid _=eight=_ and one who intends to take neither widow nor partners
can bid _=fifteen=_. In this form of Euchre the scores are generally
known, and 100 points is game.

In some clubs it is the practice for the successful bidder to select
one of his partners by asking for the holder of a certain card. For
instance: B has the lead, and has bid five in hearts, holding the three
best trumps, the club ace, and a losing spade. Instead of selecting his
partners at random, he asks for the spade ace, and the player holding
that card must say, “Here”; upon which the bidder will pass him a
counter, marking him as one of his partners.


CALL-ACE EUCHRE.

In this variety of euchre, each player is for himself so far as the
final score goes. The one who takes up the trump or orders it up, or
who makes it after it is turned down, may call upon the best card of
any suit but the trump. The player holding the best card of that suit
must be his partner, but he does not declare himself. When the highest
card of the suit asked for falls in play, the partner is disclosed.

As the whole pack is not dealt out, it often happens that the ace, or
even both ace and king, of the suit called for are in the talon. Should
it turn out that the caller has the highest card of the suit himself,
he has no partner.

When six play, 32 cards are used, and only one remains unknown. When
five play, the sevens are thrown out. When four play, the eights are
also discarded.

If the maker of the trump does not want a partner, he may either say
“alone” or he may ask for a suit of which he holds the ace himself.

If the maker of the trump and his partner get three tricks, they score
1 point each. If they win all the tricks, they score 3 points each if
there are five or six in the game; 2 points if there are not more than
four players. If the partnership is euchred, each of the others at the
table scores 2 points.

For a lone hand, winning all five tricks, the player scores a point for
as many players as there are at the table, including himself. Euchres
score 2 for every other player but the lone hand. A lone hand making
three or four tricks only, scores 1.


500, OR BID EUCHRE.

In this variety of euchre, the joker is always used. When there is a
trump suit, it is the best trump; but when there are no trumps, it is a
suit by itself, but still a trump. The player holding it cannot trump
with it as long as he can follow suit; but when he has none of the suit
led, he can trump with the joker if he likes. When the joker is led in
a no-trump hand, the leader must name the suit that he wishes played to
it.

Five hundred is supposed to be a game for three players, but sometimes
two play against two as partners.

The dealer gives ten cards to each player, three and then two at a time
as in the ordinary game of euchre; but after dealing the first three
cards to each he lays off three cards face down for a widow. This widow
is taken in hand by the successful bidder, who discards three cards in
its place.

The players bid for the privilege of naming the trump suit, or of
playing without any trump but the joker. The number of tricks bid must
not be less than six, and the suit must be named at the same time.
The player having the most valuable game, regardless of the number of
tricks or the suit, is the successful bidder, because a bid of seven in
hearts, for instance, is worth more in points than a bid of eight in
clubs, as will be seen from the following table.

  ---------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+----------
  If trumps are: |6 tricks.|7 tricks.|8 tricks.|9 tricks.|10 tricks.
  ---------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+----------
  Spades         |   40    |   80    |  120    |  160    |  200
  Clubs          |   60    |  120    |  180    |  240    |  300
  Diamonds       |   80    |  160    |  240    |  320    |  400
  Hearts         |  100    |  200    |  300    |  400    |  500
  No-trumps      |  120    |  240    |  360    |  480    |  600
  ---------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+----------

The successful bidder always leads for the first trick, after he has
taken the widow and discarded, and after the hand is played, he has
the first count. If he has made as many as he bid, he scores it; but
he cannot score more than he bid unless he succeeds in winning every
trick. In that case he scores 250 if his bid was less than 250; but
if his bid was more than 250, he gets nothing extra for winning every
trick.

Any player but the bidder winning a trick scores ten points for it,
so it is necessary for each player to keep separate the tricks he
individually wins.

If the bidder fails, he loses, or is set back, as many points as he
bid, and he scores nothing for the tricks he takes, but he may play the
hand out to prevent the others from scoring, as his adversaries still
get ten points for each trick they win.

Five hundred points is game, and as the bidder has the first count he
may go out first, even if an adversary has won tricks enough to reach
500 also.


EUCHRE LAWS.

_=1.=_ _=SCORING.=_ A game consists of five points. If the players
making the trump win all five tricks, they count _=two=_ points towards
game; if they win three or four tricks, they count _=one=_ point; if
they fail to win three tricks, their adversaries count _=two=_ points.

_=2.=_ If the player making the trump plays _=alone=_, and makes five
tricks, he counts as many points as there are players in the game:
Two, if two play; three if three play; four if four play, etc. If he
wins three or four tricks only, he counts one; if he fails to win three
tricks, his adversaries count two.

_=3.=_ _=The Rubber=_ is the best of three games. If the first two are
won by the same players, the third game is not played. The winners gain
a _=triple=_, or three points, if their adversaries have not scored;
a _=double=_, or two points, if their adversaries are less than three
scored; a _=single=_, or one point, if their adversaries have scored
three or four. The winners of the rubber add two points to the value
of their games, and deduct the points made by the losers, if any; the
remainder being the value of the rubber.

_=4.=_ _=FORMING THE TABLE.=_ A Euchre table is complete with six
players. If more than four assemble, they cut for the preference, the
four lowest playing the first rubber. Partners and deal are then cut
for, the two lowest pairing against the two highest. The lowest deals,
and has the choice of seats and cards.

_=5.=_ _=Ties.=_ Players cutting cards of equal value cut again, but
the new cut decides nothing but the tie.

_=6.=_ _=Cutting Out.=_ At the end of a rubber the players cut to
decide which shall give way to those awaiting their turn to play.
After the second rubber, those who have played the greatest number of
consecutive games give way; ties being decided by cutting.

_=7.=_ _=Cutting.=_ In cutting, the ace is low, the other cards
ranking, K Q J 10 9 8 7, the King being the highest. A player exposing
more than one card, or cutting the Joker, must cut again.

_=8.=_ _=SHUFFLING.=_ Every player has a right to shuffle the cards,
the dealer last.

_=9.=_ _=DEALING.=_ The dealer must present the pack to the pone to
be cut. At least four cards must be left in each packet. If a card is
exposed in cutting, the pack must be reshuffled, and cut again. If the
dealer reshuffles the pack after it has been properly cut, he loses his
deal.

_=10.=_ Beginning on his left, the dealer must give to each player in
rotation _=two=_ cards on the first round, and _=three=_ on the second;
or three to each on the first round, and two on the second. Five cards
having been given to each player in this manner, the next card is
turned up for the trump. The deal passes to the left.

_=11.=_ There must be a new deal by the same dealer if any card but the
trump is found faced in the pack, or if the pack is proved incorrect or
imperfect; but any previous scores made with the imperfect pack stand
good.

_=12.=_ The adversaries may demand a new deal if any card but the trump
is exposed during the deal, provided they have not touched a card. If
an adversary exposes a card, the dealer may elect to deal again. If a
new deal is not demanded, cards exposed in dealing cannot be called.

_=13.=_ The adversaries may stop a player dealing out of turn, or with
the wrong pack, provided they do so before the trump card is turned,
after which the deal stands good.

_=14.=_ _=MISDEALING.=_ A misdeal loses the deal. It is a misdeal: If
the cards have not been properly cut; if the dealer gives two cards to
one player and three to another in the same round; if he gives too many
or too few cards to any player; if he counts the cards on the table,
or those remaining in the pack; or if he deals a card incorrectly, and
fails to correct the error before dealing another. If the dealer is
interrupted in any manner by an adversary, he does not lose his deal.

_=15.=_ _=THE TRUMP CARD.=_ After the trump card is turned, each
player in turn, beginning with the eldest hand, has the privilege of
passing, assisting, or ordering up the trump. Should a player pass,
and afterward correct himself by ordering up or assisting, both he and
his partner may be prevented by the adversaries from exercising their
privilege. If a player calls his partner’s attention to the fact that
they are at the bridge, both lose their right to order up the trump.

_=16.=_ The dealer may leave the trump card on the pack until it is got
rid of in the course of play. If the trump card has been taken up or
played, any player may ask, and must be informed by the dealer, what
the trump suit is; but any player naming the trump card may be called
upon by an adversary to play his highest or lowest trump.

_=17.=_ If the dealer takes up, or is ordered up, he must _=discard=_
a card from his own hand, placing it under the remainder of the pack.
Having quitted such discard, it cannot be taken back. If the dealer
has not discarded until he has played to the first trick, he and his
partner cannot score any points for that hand.

_=18.=_ If the eldest hand leads before the dealer has quitted his
discard, the dealer may amend his discard, but the eldest hand cannot
take back the card led.

_=19.=_ If the dealer takes up the trump to play alone, he must pass
his discard across the table to his partner. If he fails to do so, the
adversaries may insist that his partner play with him, preventing the
lone hand.

_=20.=_ _=MAKING THE TRUMP.=_ If the dealer does not take up the trump,
he must place it under the remainder of the pack, face upward, so
that it can be distinctly seen. Each player in turn, beginning on the
dealer’s left, then has the privilege of naming a new trump suit.

_=21.=_ If any player names the suit already turned down, he loses his
right to name a suit; and if he corrects himself, and names another,
neither he nor his partner is allowed to make that suit the trump. If a
player names a new trump suit out of his proper turn, both he and his
partner are forbidden to make that suit the trump.

_=22.=_ If no one will name a new trump, the deal is void, and passes
to the next player on the dealer’s left.

_=23.=_ _=IRREGULARITIES IN THE HANDS.=_ If any player is found not to
have his correct number of cards, it is a misdeal; but if he has played
to the first trick the deal stands good, and he cannot score anything
that hand.

_=24.=_ _=EXPOSED CARDS.=_ The following are exposed cards, and must
be left face up on the table, and are liable to be called by the
adversaries:

    I. Every card faced upon the table otherwise than in the
    regular course of play.

    II. Two or more cards played to a trick. The adversaries may
    elect which shall be played.

    III. Any card named by the player holding it.

_=25.=_ If an adversary of a person playing alone exposes a card, the
lone player may abandon the hand, and score the points. Should the
partner of the lone player expose a card, the adversaries may prevent
the lone hand by compelling the player in error to play with his
partner, leaving the exposed card on the table.

_=26.=_ _=CALLING EXPOSED CARDS.=_ The adversary on the right of an
exposed card must call it before he plays himself. If it will be the
turn of the player holding the exposed card to lead for the next trick,
the card, if wanted, must be called before the current trick is turned
and quitted. Should a player having an exposed card and the lead, play
from his hand before the previous trick is turned and quitted, the card
so led may also be claimed as exposed.

_=27.=_ _=LEADING AND PLAYING OUT OF TURN.=_ If a player leads when
it was his partner’s turn, a suit may be called from his partner. The
demand must be made by the last player to the trick in which the suit
is called. If it was the turn of neither to lead, the card played in
error is exposed. If all have played to the false lead, the error
cannot be rectified. If all have not followed, the cards erroneously
played must be taken back, but are not liable to be called.

_=28.=_ If an adversary of a lone player leads out of turn, the lone
player may abandon the hand, and score the points.

_=29.=_ If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth hand
may play before his partner, either of his own volition, or at the
direction of the second hand, who may say: “Play, partner.” If the
fourth hand plays before the second, the third hand may call upon the
second hand to play his highest or lowest of the suit led, or to trump
or not to trump the trick.

_=30.=_ _=REVOKING.=_ A revoke is a renounce in error, not corrected
in time; or non-compliance with a performable penalty. If a revoke
is claimed and proved, the hand in which it occurs is immediately
abandoned. The adversaries of the revoking player then have the option
of adding two points to their own score, or deducting two points from
his score. If both sides revoke, the deal is void. If one person is
playing alone, the penalty for a revoke is as many points as would have
been scored if the lone hand had succeeded.

_=31.=_ A revoke may be corrected by the player making it before the
trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted, unless the
revoking player or his partner, whether in his right turn or otherwise,
has led or played to the following trick.

_=32.=_ If a player corrects his mistake in time to save a revoke, the
card played in error is exposed; but any cards subsequently played by
others may be taken back without penalty.

_=33.=_ _=PLAYING ALONE.=_ No one but the individual maker of the trump
can play alone.

_=34.=_ The dealer must announce his intention to play alone by passing
his discard over to his partner. Any other player intending to play
alone must use the expression “alone” in connection with his ordering
up or making the trump; as, “I order it, alone;” or “I make it hearts,
alone.”

_=35.=_ The partner of a player who has announced to play alone must
lay his cards on the table, face down. Should he expose any of his
cards, the adversaries may prevent the lone hand, and compel him to
play with his partner, the exposed card being left on the table and
liable to be called.

_=36.=_ The lone player is not liable to any penalty for exposed cards,
nor for a lead out of turn.

_=37.=_ Should either adversary lead or play out of turn, the lone
player may abandon the hand, and score the points.

_=38.=_ _=MISCELLANEOUS.=_ No player is allowed to see any trick that
has once been turned and quitted, under penalty of having a suit called
from him or his partner.

_=39.=_ Any player may ask the others to indicate the cards played by
them to the current trick.

_=40.=_ A player calling attention in any manner to the trick or to the
score, may be called upon to play his highest or lowest of the suit
led; or to trump or not to trump the trick during the play of which the
remark was made.


ÉCARTÉ.

Écarté is usually described as a very simple game, but unfortunately
the rules governing it are very complicated, and as no authoritative
code of law exists, disputes about trifling irregularities are very
common. In the following directions the author has selected what
appears to be the best French usage. The code of laws adopted by some
of the English clubs is unfortunately very defective, and in many
respects quite out of touch with the true spirit of the French game.
The English are very fond of penalties; the French try to establish the
status quo.

_=CARDS.=_ Écarté is played with a pack of thirty-two cards, which
rank, K Q J A 10 9 8 7. When two packs are used, the adversary shuffles
one while the other is dealt.

_=MARKERS.=_ In France, the game is always marked with the ordinary
round chips or counters, never with a marker. As five points is the
game, four of these counters are necessary for each player.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Écarté is played by two persons, who sit opposite each
other. One is known as the dealer, and the other as the pone, the
adversary, the elder hand, the non-dealer, the leader, or the player.

_=THE GALLERY.=_ In clubs that make a feature of Écarté, and in which
there is a great deal of betting on the outside by the spectators, it
is not usual to allow more than one game between the same players, the
loser giving place to one of those who have been backing him, and who
is called a _=rentrant=_. This is known as playing the _cul-levé_. Any
person in the gallery is allowed to draw attention to errors in the
score, and may advise the player he is backing, or even play out the
game for him, if he resigns. The player need not take the advice given
him, which must be offered without discussion, and by pointing only,
not naming the suit or cards. If a player will not allow the gallery
to back him, taking all bets himself, no one may overlook his hand nor
advise him without his permission, and he need not retire if he loses
the game.

_=CUTTING.=_ The player cutting the highest écarté card deals the first
hand, and has the choice of seats and cards. If a person exposes more
than one card in cutting, the lowest is taken to be his cut. If he does
not cut, or will not show his cut, he loses the first deal.

_=STAKES.=_ Écarté is played for so much a game. If the gallery is
betting, all money offered must be placed on the table, and if the
bets are not taken by the players, they may be covered by the opposing
gallery.

_=DEALING.=_ It is usual for the dealer to invite his adversary to
shuffle the cards, but if two packs are used this is not necessary.
The dealer must shuffle the pack and present it to his adversary to be
cut. At least two cards must be left in each packet, and the upper part
of the pack must be placed nearer the dealer. Five cards are given to
each player, and the eleventh is turned up for the trump. The cards
are distributed two and three at a time, or three and then two, and in
whichever manner the dealer begins he must continue during the game. If
he intends to change his manner of dealing in the following game, he
must so advise his adversary when presenting the cards to be cut.

_=MISDEALING.=_ A player dealing out of turn, or with the wrong cards,
may be stopped before the trump is turned. But if the trump has been
turned, and neither player has discarded or played to the first trick,
the pack must be set aside, with the cards as dealt, and the trump
turned, to be used for the ensuing deal. The other pack is then taken
up and dealt by the player whose proper turn it was to deal. If a
discard has been made, or a trick played to, the deal stands good, and
the packs, if changed, must so remain.

There must be a new deal if any card but the eleventh is found faced in
the pack. If the dealer exposes any of his own cards, the deal stands
good. If he exposes any of his adversary’s cards, the non-dealer may
claim a fresh deal, provided he has not seen any of his cards.

It is a misdeal if the dealer gives too many or too few cards to his
adversary or to himself. If the hands have not been seen, and the pone
discovers that he has received more than five cards, he has the choice
to discard the superfluous cards at hazard, or to claim a misdeal,
which loses the deal. If the pone has received less than the proper
number, he may supply the deficiency from the remainder of the pack,
without changing the trump card, or he may claim a misdeal. If the
dealer has given himself too many or too few cards, the pone may claim
a misdeal, or he may draw the superfluous cards from the dealer’s hand,
face downward, or allow him to supply the deficiency from the remainder
of the pack, without changing the trump.

If the cards have been seen, the pone, having an incorrect number, may
supply or discard to correct the error, or he may claim a misdeal. If
he discards, he must show the cards to the dealer. If the dealer has
an incorrect number, the pone may draw from his hand, face downward,
looking at the cards he has drawn, (as the dealer has seen them,) or
allow him to supply the deficiency, or claim a misdeal.

When any irregularity is remedied in this manner, the trump card
remains unchanged.

If the dealer turns up more than one card for the trump, his adversary
has a right to select which card shall be the trump, or he may claim a
new deal by the same dealer, provided he has not seen his hand. If he
has seen his hand, he must either claim a misdeal, or the eleventh card
must be the trump, the other exposed card being set aside.

If the pack is found to be imperfect, all scores previously made with
it stand good.

_=TURNING THE KING.=_ If the King is turned up, the dealer marks one
point for it immediately. If a wrong number of cards has been dealt,
and a King is turned, it cannot be scored, because it was not the
eleventh card.

_=PROPOSING AND REFUSING.=_ The cards dealt, the pone examines his
hand, and if he thinks it strong enough to win three or more tricks,
he stands; that is, plays without proposing, and says to the dealer:
“_=I play=_.” If he thinks he can improve his chances by drawing
cards, allowing the dealer the same privilege of course, he says: “_=I
propose=_;” or simply: “_=Cards=_.” In reply the dealer may either
accept the proposal by asking: “_=How many?=_” or he may refuse,
by saying: “_=Play=_.” If he gives cards, he may also take cards
himself, after having helped his adversary. If he refuses, he must
win at least three tricks or lose two points; and if the pone plays
without proposing, he must make three tricks, or lose two points. The
hands on which a player should stand, and those on which the dealer
should refuse are known as _=jeux de règle=_, and will be found in the
suggestions for good play.

A proposal, acceptance, or refusal once made cannot be changed or taken
back, and the number of cards asked for cannot be corrected.

_=DISCARDING.=_ If the pone proposes, and the dealer asks: “How many?”
the elder hand discards any number of cards from one to five, placing
them on his right. These discards, once quitted, must not again be
looked at. A player looking at his own or his adversary’s discards
can be called upon to play with his cards exposed face upward on the
table, but not liable to be called. The number of cards discarded must
be distinctly announced, and the trump is then laid aside, and the
cards given from the top of the pack, without further shuffling. It
is considered imperative that the player who has proposed should take
at least one card, even if he proposed with five trumps in his hand.
The pone helped, the dealer then announces how many cards he takes,
placing his discards on his left. The dealer, if asked, must inform his
adversary how many cards he took, provided the question is put before
he plays a card.

After receiving his cards, the pone may either stand or propose again,
and the dealer may either give or refuse; but such subsequent stands
or refusals do not carry with them any penalty for failure to make
three tricks. Should these repeated discards exhaust the pack, so that
there are not enough cards left to supply the number asked for, the
players must take back a sufficient number from their discards. If the
dealer has accepted a proposal, and finds there are no cards left for
himself, that is his own fault; he should have counted the pack before
accepting. The trump card cannot be taken into the hand under any
circumstances.

_=MISDEALING AFTER DISCARDING.=_ If the dealer gives the pone more or
less cards than he asks for, he loses the point and the right to mark
the King, unless it was turned up.

If the dealer gives himself more cards than he wants, he loses the
point and the right to mark the King, unless he turned it up. If he
gives himself less cards than he wants, he may make the deficiency
good without penalty; but if he does not discover the error until he
has played a card, all tricks for which he has no card to play must be
considered as won by his adversary.

If the pone asks for more cards than he wants, the dealer can play the
hand or not, as he pleases. If he plays, he may draw the superfluous
card or cards given to the pone, and look at them if the pone has seen
them. If the dealer decides not to play, he marks the point. In either
case the pone cannot mark the King, even if he holds it.

If the pone asks for less cards than he wants, he must play the hand as
it is, and can mark the King if he holds it; but all tricks for which
he has no card to play must be considered as won by his adversary.

If a player plays without discarding, or discards for the purpose of
exchanging, without advising his adversary of the fact that he has too
many or too few cards, he loses two points, and the right of marking
the King, even if turned up.

If either player, after discarding and drawing, plays with more than
five cards, he loses the point and the privilege of marking the King.

Should the dealer forget himself in dealing for the discard, and turn
up another trump, he cannot refuse his adversary another discard, if he
demands it, and the exposed card must be put aside with the discards.

If any cards are found faced in the pack when dealing for the discard,
the deal stands good if they will fall to the dealer. But if the
exposed card will go to the pone, he has the option of taking it, or
claiming a fresh deal by the same dealer.

During all the discards the trump card remains the same.

_=MARKING THE KING.=_ The discards settled, the first and most
important thing before play begins is to mark the King. If the King
is turned up, the dealer marks one point for it immediately. If the
pone holds it, he must _=announce=_ and mark it before he plays a card.
If he leads the King for the first trick, he must still announce it
by saying distinctly: “I mark the King;” and unless this announcement
is made before the King touches the table, it cannot be marked. So
important is this rule that in some European Casinos it is found
printed on the card tables. Having properly announced the King, it may
be actually marked with the counters at any time before the trump is
turned for the following game.

If the dealer holds the King he must announce it before his adversary
leads for the first trick. It is in order that there may be no
surprises in this respect that the elder hand is required to say
distinctly: “I play,” before he leads a card. The dealer must then
reply: “I mark the King,” if he has it; if not, he should say: “Play.”
A player is not compelled to announce or mark the King if he does not
choose to do so.

If a player announces and marks the King when he does not hold it,
his adversary can take down the point erroneously marked, and mark
one himself, for penalty. This does not prevent him from marking an
additional point for the King if he holds it himself. For instance: The
pone announces King, and marks it, at the same time leading a card. Not
having notified the dealer that he was about to play, the dealer cannot
be deprived of his right to mark the King himself, if he holds it. The
dealer marks the King, marks another point for penalty, and takes down
the pone’s point, erroneously marked. If the player announcing the
King without holding it, discovers his error before a card is played,
he simply amends the score and apologizes, and there is no penalty. If
any cards have been played after an erroneous announcement of the King,
such cards can be taken back by the adversary of the player in error,
and the hand played over again.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The elder hand begins by leading any card he
pleases, at the same time announcing the suit; “hearts;” “spades;” or
whatever it may be. This announcement must be continued at every trick.
If a player announces one suit and leads another, his adversary may
demand that he take back the card played, and lead the suit announced.
If he has none of the announced suit, the adversary may call a suit. If
the adversary is satisfied with the card led, but improperly announced,
he may demand that it remain as played.

_=RENOUNCING.=_ When a card is led the adversary must not only follow
suit, but must win the trick if he can. If he can neither follow suit
nor trump, he may discard any card he pleases. Should a player not
follow suit, or should he decline to win the trick, when able to do so,
it is a renounce, and if he makes the odd trick he counts nothing; if
he makes all five tricks, he counts one point only, instead of two.
Should he trump the trick when he can follow suit, he is subject to the
same penalty. There is no such thing as a _=revoke=_ in Ecarté. When
it is discovered that a player has not followed suit when able, or has
lost a trick that he could have won, the cards are taken back, and the
hand played over again, with the foregoing penalty for the renounce.

The highest card played, if of the suit led, wins the trick, and trumps
win all other suits.

_=Leading Out of Turn.=_ Should a player lead out of turn, he may take
back the card without penalty. If the adversary has played to the
erroneous lead, the trick stands good.

_=Gathering Tricks.=_ The tricks must be turned down as taken in, and
any player looking at a trick once turned and quitted may be called
upon to play with the remainder of his hand exposed, but not liable to
be called.

_=Abandoned Hands.=_ If, after taking one or more tricks, a player
throws his cards upon the table, he loses the point; if he has not
taken a trick, he loses two points. But if the cards are thrown down
claiming the point or the game, and the claim is good, there is no
penalty. If the cards are abandoned with the admission that the
adversary wins the point or the game, and the adversary cannot win more
than is admitted, there is no penalty.

_=SCORING.=_ A game consists of five points, which are made by tricks,
by penalties, and by marking the King. A player winning three tricks
out of the five possible, counts one point toward game; winning all
five tricks, which is called _=the vole=_, counts two points. The
player holding or turning up the King of trumps may mark one point for
it, but he is not compelled to do so.

If the pone plays without proposing, and makes three or four tricks, he
counts one point; if he makes the vole he counts two points; but if he
fails to make three tricks the dealer counts two.

If the dealer refuses the first proposal, he must make three tricks to
count one point; if he makes the vole he counts two points; but if he
fails to win three tricks the player who was refused counts two points.

If the dealer accepts the first proposal, and gives cards, subsequent
proposals and refusals do not affect the score; the winner of the odd
trick scoring one point, and the winner of the vole two points.

In no case can a player make more than two points in one hand by
tricks. If the dealer refuses the first proposal, and the pone makes
the vole, it counts two points only. If the pone should play without
proposing, and the dealer should mark the King and win the vole, it
would count him only three points altogether.

The player first reaching five points wins the game. If a player has
four scored, and turns the King, that wins the game, provided the King
was the eleventh card. Rubbers are seldom played.

_=CHEATING.=_ The methods of cheating at Écarté would fill a volume.
There are many tricks which, while not exactly fraudulent, are
certainly questionable. For instance: A player asks the gallery whether
or not he should stand, and finally concludes to propose, fully
intending all the time to draw five cards. Another will handle his
counters as if about to mark the King; will then affect to hesitate,
and finally re-adjust them, and ask for cards, probably taking four
or five, having absolutely nothing in his hand. The pone will ask the
dealer how many points he has marked, knowing perfectly well that the
number is three. On being so informed, he concludes to ask for cards,
as if he were not quite strong enough to risk the game by standing;
when as a matter of fact he wants five cards, and is afraid of the vole
being made against him.

There are many simple little tricks practiced by the would-be sharper,
such as watching how many cards a player habitually cuts, and then
getting the four Kings close together in such a position in the pack
that one of them is almost certain to be turned. Telegraphic signals
between persons on opposite sides of the gallery who are nevertheless
in partnership, are often translated into advice to the player, to
his great benefit. Besides these, all the machinery of marked cards,
reflectors, shifted cuts, wedges, strippers, and false shuffles are at
the command of the philosopher, who can always handle a small pack of
cards with greater freedom, and to whom the fashion of dealing in twos
and threes is always welcome. The honest card-player has not one chance
in a thousand against the professional at Écarté.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ The French claim that any person
may become an expert at a game like Piquet, simply by dint of long
practice; but that the master of Écarté must be a born card-player, as
no game requires in such degree the exercise of individual intelligence
and finesse. While this may be true, there are many points about the
game which may be learned by the novice, and which will greatly improve
his play.

There are two things which the beginner should master before sitting
down to the table for actual play: the hands on which it is right to
stand, or play without proposing, and those with which it is right to
refuse, or play without giving cards. These are called stand hands, or
_=jeux de règle=_, and the player should be able to recognize them on
sight.

In the following paragraphs the words _=dealer=_ and _=player=_ will be
used to distinguish the adversaries at Écarté.

The principle underlying the jeux de règle is the probable distribution
of the cards in the trump suit, and the fact that the odds are always
against the dealer’s holding two or more. There are thirty-two cards in
the Écarté pack, of which eight are trumps, and one of these is always
turned up. The turn-up and the player’s hand give us six cards which
are known, and leave twenty-six unknown. Of these unknown cards the
dealer holds five, and he may get these five in 65,780 different ways.
The theory of the jeux de règle is that there are only a certain number
of those ways which will give him two or more trumps. If the player
holds one trump, the odds against the dealer’s holding two or more are
44,574 to 21,206; or a little more than 2 to 1. If the player holds two
trumps, the odds against the dealer’s holding two or more are 50,274
to 15,506; or more than 3 to 1. It is therefore evident that any hand
which is certain to win three tricks if the dealer has not two trumps,
has odds of two to one in its favour, and all such hands are called
jeux de règle. The natural inference from this is that such hands
should always be played without proposing, unless they contain the King
of trumps.

The exception in case of holding the King is made because there is
no danger of the dealer’s getting the King, no matter how many cards
he draws, and if the player’s cards are not strong enough to make it
probable that he can win the vole, it is better for him to ask for
cards, in hope of improving his chances. If he is refused, he stands an
excellent chance to make two points by winning the odd trick.

While it is the rule for the player to stand when the odds are two
to one in his favour for making the odd trick, and to ask for cards
when the odds are less, there are exceptions. The chances of improving
by taking in cards must not be forgotten, and it must be remembered
that the player who proposes runs no risk of penalty. He has also the
advantage of scoring two for the vole if he can get cards enough to
win every trick, whereas the dealer gets no more for the vole than for
the odd trick if the player does not propose. Some beginners have a
bad habit of asking for cards if they are pretty certain of the point.
Unless they hold the King this is not wise, for the player cannot
discard more than one or two cards, but the dealer may take five, and
then stands a fair chance of getting the King, which would not only
count a point for him, but would effectually stop the vole for which
the player was drawing cards.

The most obvious example of a jeux de règle is one trump, a winning
sequence of three cards in one suit, and a small card in another. For
instance: Hearts trumps--

  1 [Illustration: 🂷 🃛 🃝 🃞 🂧]      44,724 to 21,056.

If the dealer does not hold two trumps, it is impossible to prevent the
player from winning the point with these cards; because he need only
lead his winning sequence until it is trumped, and then trump himself
in again. With this hand the player will win 44,724 times out of 65,780.

There are about twenty hands which are generally known as jeux de
règle, and every écarté player should be familiar with them. In the
following examples the weakest hands are given, and the trumps are
always the smallest possible. If the player has more strength in plain
suits than is shown in these examples, or higher trumps, there is so
much more reason for him to stand. But if he has not the strength
indicated in plain suits, he should propose, even if his trumps are
higher, because it must be remembered that strong trumps do not
compensate for weakness in plain suits. The reason for this is that
from stand hands trumps should never be led unless there are three of
them; they are to be kept for ruffing, and when you have to ruff it
does not matter whether you use a seven or a Queen. The King of trumps
is of course led; but a player does not stand on a hand containing the
King.

The first suit given is always the trump, and the next suit is always
the one that should be led, beginning with the best card of it if there
is more than one. The figures on the right show the number of hands
in which the player or the dealer will win out of the 65,780 possible
distributions of the twenty-six unknown cards. These calculations are
taken, by permission of Mr. Charles Mossop, from the eighth volume
of the “_Westminster Papers_,” in which all the variations and their
results are given in full.

               PLAYER WINS.    DEALER WINS.

   2 [Illustration: 🃗 🃘 🂷 🂸 🂹]         47,768           18,012

   3 [Illustration: 🂷 🂸 🂮 🂧 🃇]         46,039           19,741

   4 [Illustration: 🂧 🂨 🃇 🃗 🃞]         43,764           22,016

   5 [Illustration: 🃇 🃈 🃘 🃗 🂾]         45,374           20,406

   6 [Illustration: 🃗 🃘 🃈 🃉 🂭]        44,169            21,611

   7 [Illustration: 🂷 🂸 🃙 🃚 🃋]        43,478            22,302

   8 [Illustration: 🂧 🂨 🂺 🂱 🃑]        44,243            21,537

   9 [Illustration: 🃇 🃈 🂡 🂫 🂸]        44,766            21,014

  10 [Illustration: 🃗 🃘 🂾 🂫 🃇]        44,459            21,321

  11 [Illustration: 🂷 🂸 🂮 🃁 🃙]        44,034            21,746

  12 [Illustration: 🂧 🂨 🃎 🃚 🂺]        43,434            22,346

  13 [Illustration: 🃇 🃈 🂨 🂽 🃞]        44,766            21,014

  14 [Illustration: 🃗 🃘 🃁 🂭 🂻]        46,779            19,001

  15 [Illustration: 🂷 🂸 🃛 🃋 🂫]        45,929            19,851

The player should always stand on a hand containing three trumps, not
including the King, and should lead the trump:--

  16 [Illustration: 🂷 🂸 🂹 🂧 🃇]         42,014 to 23,766

An example of a hand containing only one trump has already been given,
and some hands are jeux de règle which contain no trumps. The strongest
of these is the King of each plain suit, and any queen. Lead the K Q
suit:--

  17 [Illustration: 🃞 🃗 🂾 🂭 🂮]         48,042 to 17,738

The odds in favour of this hand are greater than in any other jeux de
règle. Another which is recommended by Bohn is this, the odds in favour
of which have not been calculated; the player to begin with the guarded
King:--

  18 [Illustration: 🃞 🃗 🃍 🃇 🂮]

Another is any four court cards, not all Jacks; unless one is the trump
Jack guarded. From the example the Queen should be led:--

  19 [Illustration: 🂫 🂧 🂻 🃛 🃝]

There are two hands which are usually played with only one trump, from
both of which the best card of the long suit is led:--

  20 [Illustration: 🂷 🂧 🂨 🂨 🂮]

  21 [Illustration: 🃗 🃇 🃈 🃍 🂮]

_=THE LEADER.=_ There are a great many more opportunities to make the
vole than most players are aware of; especially with jeux de règle.
Where the vole is improbable or impossible, tenace is very important,
and all tenace positions should be made the most of. In No. 5, for
instance, if the clubs were the Queen and ace, it would be better to
begin with the heart King, instead of leading away from the minor
tenace in clubs. Observe the lead in No. 4. Many tenace positions
cannot be taken advantage of because the player must win the trick if
he can. For instance: Several discards have been made, and each player
suspects the other holds three trumps, with three tricks to play. The
Queen is led, and the adversary holds K A 7. If he could pass this
trick, he must lie tenace; but as he has to win it with the King, he
gives tenace to his adversary, who evidently has J and another.

When the dealer is four, the player may stand on much weaker hands.

It is usually best to lead from guarded suits, in preference to single
cards. Lead the best of a suit if you have it. If the third trick is
the first you win, and you have a trump and another card, lead the
trump; but if you have won two tricks, lead the plain suit.

_=THE DEALER.=_ When the player asks for cards, the dealer knows that
his adversary probably does not hold a jeux de règle. The dealer must
not be too sure of this, however, for proposals are sometimes made on
very strong hands in order to try for the vole, or to make two points
on the refusal. The dealer should assume that he is opposed by the best
play until he finds the contrary to be the case, and it is safest to
play on the assumption that a player who proposes has not a jeux de
règle.

For all practical purposes it may be said that the dealer can refuse
to give cards with hands a trifle less strong than those on which the
player would stand. The general rule is for the dealer to give cards
unless he is guarded in three suits; or has a trump, and is safe in two
suits; or has two trumps, and is safe in one suit. If the dealer has
only one suit guarded, and one trump, he must take into account the
risk of being forced, and having to lead away from his guarded suit.

There are eight recognized hands on which the dealer should refuse. The
full details of the calculations can be found in the ninth volume of
the “_Westminster Papers_.” As in the case of the player, the weakest
trumps have been taken for the examples, and the weakest holdings in
plain suits. If the dealer has better plain suits, or stronger trumps,
he has of course so much more in his favour if he refuses. The first
column of figures gives the number of times in 65,780 that there will
be no proposal, so that the dealer has no choice but to play. The other
columns give the number of times the dealer or the player will win if
the player proposes and the dealer refuses.

The first suit given in each instance is the trump.

                                    NO      DEALER  PLAYER
                                 PROPOSAL.   WINS.   WINS.

  22 [Illustration: 🃗 🃘 🃙 🃇 🂧]     6,034   36,974   22,772

  23 [Illustration: 🂷 🂸 🂡 🂨 🂧]     9,826   38,469   17,485

  24 [Illustration: 🂧 🂨 🂾 🂷 🃗]     8,736   41,699   15,345

  25 [Illustration: 🃇 🃈 🃝 🃗 🂷]     9,256   40,524   16,000

  26 [Illustration: 🃗 🃘 🃇 🃈 🂭]    10,336   37,484   17,960

  27 [Illustration: 🂷 🂸 🃘 🃙 🃋]     9,776   37,439   18,565

  28 [Illustration: 🂧 🂨 🂹 🂺 🃚]     9,776   36,909   19,095

  29 [Illustration: 🃇 🃈 🃗 🃁 🃈]     9,776   36,733   19,271

In giving cards, some judgment of human nature is necessary. Some
players habitually propose on strong hands, and it is best to give to
such pretty freely.

_=DISCARDING.=_ The general principle of discarding is to keep trumps
and Kings, and let everything else go. If you hold the trump King you
may discard freely in order to strengthen your hand for a possible
vole. If you have proposed once, and hold the King, and feel pretty
sure of the point, you may propose again on the chance of getting
strength enough to make the vole.

When only two cards can be discarded, it is a safe rule to stand on the
hand; either to play without proposing, or to refuse cards; unless you
hold the King.

There are no authoritative laws for Écarté, and the various French
and English codes do not agree. The code adopted by the English clubs
is not in accord with the best usage, and fails to provide for many
contingencies. All that is essential in the laws will be found embodied
in the foregoing description of the game.

_=TEXT BOOKS.=_ The best works on the subject of Écarté are usually to
be found in conjunction with other games. The student will find the
following useful:--

  The Westminster Papers, Vols. IV to XI, inclusive.
  Bohn’s Handbook of Games; any edition.
  Écarté and Euchre, by Berkeley, 1890.
  Cavendish on Écarté, 1886.
  Jeux de Cartes, (Fr.), by Jean Boussac.
  Règles de Tous les Jeux, (Fr.), M. Dreyfous, Edit.
  Académie des Jeux, (Fr.), by Van Tenac.
  Académie des Jeux, (Fr.), by Richard.
  Short Whist, by Major A. (Écarté Laws in appendix.)


POOL ÉCARTÉ.

Pool Écarté is played by three persons, each of whom contributes an
agreed sum, which is called a _=stake=_, to form a pool. They then
cut to decide which shall play the first game, the lowest écarté card
going out. The players then cut for the first deal, choice of seats and
cards, etc., exactly as in the ordinary game.

The winner of the first game retains his seat; the loser pays into the
pool another stake, equal to the first, and retires in favour of the
third player, who is called the _=rentrant=_. The rentrant takes the
loser’s seat and cards, and cuts with the successful player for the
first deal. The loser of the second game adds another stake to the
pool, and retires in favour of the waiting player.

The pool is won by any player winning two games in succession. If the
winner of the first game won the second also, he would take the pool,
which would then contain five stakes; the three originally deposited,
and the two added by the losers of the two games. A new pool would
then be formed by each of the three depositing another stake, and all
cutting to decide which should sit out for the first game.

In some places only the two players actually engaged contribute to
the pool, the loser retiring without paying anything further, and the
rentrant contributing his stake when he takes the loser’s place.

The outsider is not allowed to advise either player during the first
game, nor to call attention to the score; but on the second game he is
allowed to advise the player who has taken his seat and cards. This
is on the principle that he has no right to choose sides on the first
game; but that after that he has an interest in preventing his former
adversary from winning the second game, so as to preserve the pool
until he can play for it again himself.


NAPOLEON, OR NAP.

This is one of the simplest, and at the same time most popular of the
euchre family. Few games have become so widely known in such a short
time, or have had such a vogue among all classes of society. So far as
the mere winning and losing goes, the result depends largely upon luck,
and skill is of small importance. Except in a long series of games the
average player has little to fear from the most expert.

_=CARDS.=_ Napoleon is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards,
which rank A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2; the ace being highest in play;
but ranking below the deuce in cutting.

_=COUNTERS.=_ As each deal is a complete game in itself it must be
settled for in counters, to which some value is usually attached. One
player is selected for the banker, and before play begins each of the
others purchases from him a certain number of counters, usually fifty.
When any player’s supply is exhausted, he can purchase more, either
from the banker or from another player.

In many places counters are not used, and the value of the game is
designated by the coins that take their place. In “penny nap,” English
coppers are used in settling; sixpences in “sixpenny nap,” and so on.
In America, nickel and quarter nap are the usual forms.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Any number from two to six can play; but four is the best
game. If five or six play it is usual for the dealer to give himself no
cards.

_=CUTTING.=_ The players draw from an outspread pack to form the
table, and for choice of seats. A lower cut gives preference over all
higher; the lowest cut has the first choice of seats, and deals the
first hand. Ties cut again, but the new cut decides nothing but the tie.

In some places the players take their seats at random, and a card is
then dealt to each face upward; the lowest card or the first Jack
taking the deal.

_=DEALING.=_ Any player has a right to shuffle the cards, the dealer
last. They are then presented to the pone to be cut, and at least four
cards must be left in each packet. Beginning at his left, the dealer
gives each _player_ in rotation two cards on the first round, and three
on the next; or three on the first and two on the next. No trump is
turned. In some places the cards are distributed one at a time until
each player has five; but the plan is not popular, as the hands run
better and the bidding is livelier when the cards are dealt in twos and
threes. The deal passes to the left, each player dealing in turn.

_=MISDEALING.=_ A misdeal does not lose the deal in Napoleon, because
the deal is a disadvantage. For this reason, if any player begins to
deal out of turn, he must finish, and the deal stands good. If any card
is found faced in the pack, or is exposed by the dealer; or if too many
or too few cards are given to any player; or if the dealer does not
give the same number of cards to each player in the same round; or if
he fails to have the pack cut, it is a misdeal, and the misdealer must
deal again with the same pack.

_=BIDDING.=_ Beginning on the dealer’s left, each player in turn bids
for the privilege of naming the trump suit, stating the number of
tricks he proposes to win, playing single-handed against the three
other players, and leading a trump for the first trick. In bidding,
the trump suit is not named, only the number of tricks. If a player
proposes to win all five tricks he bids _=nap=_, which is the highest
bid possible, and precludes any further bidding, except in some of the
variations which will be described later on. If a player will not make
a bid, he says “_=I pass=_,” A bid having been made, any following
player must either increase it or pass. If all pass until it comes to
the dealer, he is bound to bid at least one trick, and either play or
pay. The hands are never abandoned except in case of a misdeal.

In some places a _=misère=_ bid is allowed, which outranks a bid of
three tricks, and is beaten by one of four. There is no trump suit in
misère, but the bidder, if successful, must lead for the first trick.

Any bid once made can neither be amended nor recalled, and there is no
second bid.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The player bidding the highest number of tricks
has the first lead, and the first card he plays must be one of the
trump suit. The players must follow suit if able, but need not win the
trick unless they choose to do so. The highest card played of the suit
led wins the trick, and trumps win all other suits. The winner of the
trick leads again for the next trick, and so on, until all five tricks
have been played. After the first trick any suit may be led.

The bidder gathers all tricks he wins, stacking them so that they may
be readily counted by any player at the table. One of the other side
should gather all tricks won by the adversaries of the bidder. A trick
once turned and quitted cannot again be seen. In some places they have
a very bad habit of gathering tricks with the cards face up, turning
down one card only. This always results in numerous misdeals, on
account of cards being continually found faced in the pack.

The hands are usually abandoned when the bidder succeeds in his
undertaking, or shows cards which are good for his bid against any
play. If it is impossible for him to succeed, as when he bids four and
the adversaries have won two tricks, the hands are thrown up, because
nothing is paid for under or over-tricks. Players should show the
remainder of their hands to the board, as evidence that no revoke has
been made.

_=IRREGULARITIES IN HANDS.=_ If a player, before he makes a bid or
passes, discovers that he holds too many or too few cards, he must
immediately claim a misdeal. If he has either made a bid or passed, the
deal stands good, and the hand must be played out. If the bidder has
his right number of cards and succeeds, he must be paid. If he fails,
he neither wins nor loses; because he is playing against a foul hand.
If the bidder has more than his right number of cards he must pay if he
loses; but wins nothing if he succeeds. If he has less than his right
number of cards, he is simply supposed to have lost the trick for which
he has no card to play.

_=PLAYING OUT OF TURN.=_ If any adversary of the bidder leads or plays
out of turn, he forfeits three counters to the bidder, independently of
the result of the hand, and receives nothing if the bid is defeated.
If the bidder leads out of turn, the card must be taken back, unless
all have followed the erroneous lead, in which case the trick is good.
There is no penalty if he plays out of turn.

_=REVOKES.=_ When a revoke is detected and claimed, the hands are
immediately abandoned, and the individual player in fault must pay all
the counters depending on the result. If he is the bidder, he pays each
adversary; if he is opposed to the bidder, he pays for himself and for
each of his partners. In England it is the rule to take back the cards
and play the hand over again, as at Écarté, the revoking player paying
all the stakes according to the result. This is often very unfair to
the bidder, and leads to endless disputes as to who held certain cards
which have been gathered into tricks. Sometimes the difference between
a seven and an eight in a certain player’s hand will change the entire
result.

_=PAYMENTS.=_ If the bidder succeeds in winning the specified number of
tricks, each adversary pays him a counter for every trick bid. If he
bid three tricks, they pay him three counters each; four counters each
for four tricks bid; and the value of three tricks for a misère. If he
fails to win the specified number of tricks, he pays each adversary;
three counters if he bid three tricks, or a misère; four if he bid
four. Any player bidding nap, and succeeding in winning all five
tricks, receives ten counters from each adversary; but if he fails, he
pays only five to each.

When penny nap is played, the settlement being in coin, it is usual to
make naps win a shilling or lose sixpence, in order to avoid handling
so much copper.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ In calculating his chances for success
in winning a certain number of tricks, the player will often have to
take into consideration the probability of certain cards being out
against him. This will vary according to the number of players engaged.
For instance: If four are playing, and the bidder holds K Q of a plain
suit, the odds against the ace of that suit being out against him are
about 2 to 1. As it would be impossible for any person to remember all
the jeux de règle for three tricks at Napoleon, each must learn from
experience the trick-taking value of certain hands. Trump strength is,
of course, the great factor, and the bidder should count on finding at
least two trumps in one hand against him. Nap should never be bid on a
hand which is not pretty sure of winning two rounds of trumps, with all
other cards but one winners. One trick may always be risked in a nap
hand, such as A Q of trumps, or a King, or even a Queen or Jack in a
plain suit; the odds against the adversaries having a better card being
slightly increased by the odds against their knowing enough to keep it
for the last trick.

If the bid is for three tricks only, tenaces, or guarded minor honours
in plain suits should be preserved. After the first trick it will
sometimes be advantageous for the player to get rid of any losing card
he may have in plain suits. It is seldom right to continue the trumps
if the bidder held only two originally, unless he has winning cards in
two plain suits, in which case it may be better to lead even a losing
trump to prevent a possibility of adverse trumps making separately.

In playing against the bidder, leave no trick to your partners that you
can win yourself, unless a small card is led, and you have the ace. In
opening fresh suits do not lead guarded honours, but prefer aces or
singletons. If the caller needs only one more trick, it is usually best
to lead a trump. If you have three trumps, including the major tenace,
pass the first trick if a small trump is led; or if you remain with
the tenace after the first trick, be careful to avoid the lead.

Discards should indicate weakness, unless you can show command of such
a suit as A K, or K Q, by discarding the best of it. This will direct
your partners to let that suit go, and keep the others. It is usually
better to keep a guarded King than a single ace. The player on the
right of the bidder should get into the lead if possible, especially if
he holds one or two winning cards. These will either give his partners
discards, or allow them to over-trump the bidder.

In playing misères, it is better to begin with a singleton, or the
lowest of a safe suit. An ace or King two or three times guarded is
very safe for a misère, as it is very improbable that any player will
be able to lead the suit more than twice; and if the bidder’s missing
suit is led, the high card can be got rid of at once.

In playing against a misère, discards are important, and the first
should be from the shortest suit, and always the highest card of it. A
suit in which the bidder is long should be continued, in order to give
partners discards. More money is lost at Napoleon by playing imperfect
misères than in any other way.

_=Variations.=_ The foregoing description applies to the regular
four-handed game; but there are several variations in common use.

Better bids than “nap” are sometimes allowed, on the understanding
that the bidder will pay double or treble stakes if he fails, but will
receive only the usual amount if successful. For instance: One player
bids _=Nap=_, and another holds what he considers a certainty for
five tricks. In order not to lose such an opportunity the latter bids
_=Wellington=_, which binds him to pay ten counters to each player if
he fails. Another may outbid this again by bidding _=Blucher=_, which
binds him to pay twenty to each if he loses, but to receive only ten
if he wins. In England, the bidder, if successful, receives double or
treble stakes for a Wellington or a Blucher, which is simply another
way of allowing any person with a nap hand to increase the stakes at
pleasure, for a player with a certain five tricks would of course bid a
Blucher at once, trebling his gains and shutting off all competition at
the same time. This variation is not to be recommended, and benefits no
one but the gambler.

_=Pools.=_ Napoleon is sometimes played with a pool, each player
contributing a certain amount, usually two counters, on the first deal.
Each dealer in turn adds two more; revokes pay five, and leads out of
turn three. The player who first succeeds in winning five tricks on a
nap bid takes the pool, and a fresh one is formed. If a player bids nap
and fails, he is usually called upon to double the amount then in the
pool, besides paying his adversaries.

_=Purchase Nap=_; sometimes called _=Écarté Nap=_, is a variation of
the pool game. After the cards are dealt, and before any bids are
made, each player in turn, beginning on the dealer’s left, may discard
as many cards as he pleases, the dealer giving him others in their
place. For each card so exchanged, the player pays one counter to the
pool. Only one round of exchanges is allowed, and bids are then in
order. A player having once refused to buy, or having named the number
of cards he wishes to exchange, cannot amend his decision. Any player
winning five tricks on a nap bid takes the entire pool. This is a very
good game, and increases both the bids and the play against them.

_=Widows.=_ Another variation is to deal five cards in the centre of
the table, face downward, the dealer giving the cards to the widow just
before helping himself in each round. Any player in his proper turn to
bid may take the widow, and from the total of ten cards so obtained
select five on which he must bid nap, discarding the others face
downward.

_=Peep Nap.=_ In this variety of the pool game one card only is dealt
to the widow, usually on the first round. Each player in turn, before
bidding or passing, has the privilege of taking a private peep at this
down card, on paying one counter to the pool. The card is left on the
table until the highest bidder is known, and he then takes it into his
hand, whether he has paid to peep at it or not. He must then discard
to reduce his hand to five cards. If a player bids nap it usually pays
those following him to have a peep at the down card in case the bidder
should retain it in his hand.


SPOIL FIVE.

Spoil Five is one of the oldest of card games, and is generally
conceded to be the national game of Ireland. It is derived from the
still older game of Maw, which was the favourite recreation of James
the First. The connecting link seems to have been a game called Five
Fingers, which is described in the “_Compleat Gamester_,” first
published in 1674. The Five Fingers was the five of trumps, and also
the best, the ace of hearts coming next. In Spoil Five, the Jack of
trumps comes between these two.

_=CARDS.=_ Spoil Five is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards.
The rank of the cards varies according to the colour of the suit, and
the trump suit undergoes still further changes, the heart ace being
always the third best trump. In the plain suits, the K Q J retain
their usual order, the King being the best. The rank of the spot
cards, including the aces of diamonds, clubs, and spades, is generally
expressed by the phrase: _=Highest in red; lowest in black=_. That is
to say, if several cards of a suit, not including a King, Queen or
Jack, are played to a trick, the highest card will win if the suit
is red; and the lowest if the suit is black. This will give us the
following order for the plain suits, beginning with the highest card in
each:--

   No change. |          Highest in red.
  ♡  K  Q  J  |  10  9   8   7   6   5   4   3   2
  ♢  K  Q  J  |  10  9   8   7   6   5   4   3   2   A
              |
              |          Lowest in black.
  ♣  K  Q  J  |  A   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10
  ♠  K  Q  J  |  A   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

In the trump suit the same order of cards is retained, except that four
cards are always the best trumps. These are the Five, Jack, and ace of
the suit itself, and the ace of hearts, the latter being always the
third best. This gives us the rank of the cards as follows, when the
suit is trump:--

         No change.   |          Highest in red.
  ♡ 5 J       ♡ A K Q |  10  9   8   7   6   5   4   3   2
  ♢ 5 J  ♡ A  ♢ A K Q |  10  9   8   7   6   5   4   3   2
                      |
                      |          Lowest in black.
  ♣ 5 J  ♡ A  ♣ A K Q |  2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10
  ♠ 5 J  ♡ A  ♠ A K Q |  2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

_=COUNTERS.=_ Spoil Five is played with a pool, for which counters
are necessary. One player should act as banker, and the others should
purchase from him, each beginning with 20 counters. Coins may take the
place of counters, shillings being the usual points.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Any number from 2 to 10 may play; but 5 or 6 is the usual
game.

_=CUTTING.=_ This is unknown at Spoil Five. The players take their
seats at random, and one of them deals a card face up to each in
succession. The first Jack takes the first deal. Some note should be
made of the player who gets the first deal, as the rules require that
when the game is brought to an end the last deal shall be made by the
player on the right of the first dealer.

_=THE POOL.=_ Before play begins each player deposits one counter in
the pool, and to this amount each successive dealer adds a counter
until the pool is won, when all contribute equally to form a new one.
In some places it is the practice for each successive dealer to put up
for all the players, whether the pool is won or not. This simply makes
larger pools.

_=DEALING.=_ Any player has the right to shuffle the pack, the dealer
last. The cards are then presented to the pone to be cut, and as many
cards as there are players must be left in each packet. Beginning on
his left, the dealer gives five cards to each player; two on the first
round and three on the next, or three and then two. After all are
helped, the next card is turned up on the remainder of the pack, and
the suit to which it belongs is the trump for that deal.

_=MISDEALING.=_ If there is any irregularity in the deal which is not
the dealer’s fault, such as any card except the trump found faced in
the pack, or the pack found imperfect, the same person deals again. But
if the dealer neglects to have the pack cut, or deals too many or too
few cards to any player, or exposes a card in dealing, or does not give
the same number of cards to each player on the same round, or counts
the cards on the table or those remaining in the pack, it is a misdeal,
and the deal passes to the next player on the misdealer’s left. In
some places the misdealer is allowed to deal again if he forfeits two
counters to the pool.

_=ROBBING THE TRUMP CARD.=_ If the trump card is an ace, the dealer may
discard any card he pleases in exchange for it. He may take up the ace
when he plays to the first trick, or may leave it on the pack until got
rid of in the course of play. When an ace is turned, the eldest hand,
before leading, should call upon the dealer to discard if he has not
already done so. If the dealer does not want the trump, he answers: “I
play these.”

If the trump card is not an ace, any player at the table holding the
ace of trumps is bound to announce the fact when it comes to his turn
to play to the first trick. The usual plan is for him to pass a card to
the dealer face downward, and in return the dealer will give him the
turn-up trump. If the holder of the ace does not want the turn-up, he
must tell the dealer to turn the trump down, which shows that he could
rob, but does not wish to. If the holder of the ace of trumps plays
without announcing it, he not only loses his right to rob, but his ace
of trumps becomes of less value than any other trump for that deal, and
even if it is the ace of hearts he loses the privileges attached to
that card.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The eldest hand begins by leading any card he
pleases. It is not necessary to follow suit except in trumps; but if
a player does not follow suit when he is able to do so, he must trump
the trick, or it is a revoke. If he cannot follow suit, he may trump
or discard at his pleasure. The highest card played of the suit led
wins the trick, and trumps win all other suits. The winner of the first
trick leads any card he pleases for the next, and so on, until all five
tricks have been played. Each player gathers his own tricks, as there
are no partnerships.

_=RENEGING.=_ The three highest trumps have special privileges in the
matter of not following suit. Any player holding the Five or Jack of
the trump suit; or the ace of hearts, but having no smaller trump with
them, may refuse to follow suit if any inferior trump is led; but if he
has also a smaller trump, he must play one or the other. If a superior
trump is led, the player must follow suit in any case. For instance: If
the Five of trumps is led, no one can refuse to follow suit, no matter
what trumps he holds; but if the Jack is led, and any player holds the
Five alone, he need not play it to the inferior trump lead. If the
heart ace is led, and one player holds the Jack alone, and another the
Five alone, neither of these cards need be played, because the trump
led is inferior to both of them. If a superior trump is played in
following suit, such as the Five played on an Eight led, the holder of
the lone Jack of trumps or ace of hearts, need not play it, because the
lead was inferior. This privilege of reneging is confined to the three
highest trumps.

_=OBJECTS OF THE GAME.=_ In Spoil Five there are three things to play
for. If any one person can win three tricks he takes the pool. If he
can win all five tricks he not only gets the pool, but receives an
extra counter from each of the other players. If he has no chance to
win three tricks, he must bend all his energies to scattering the
tricks among the other players, so that no one of them shall be able
to get the three tricks necessary to win the pool. When this is done,
the game is said to be _=spoiled=_, and as that is the object of the
majority in every deal it gives the game its name. In the older forms
of the game the winner of three tricks counted five points, and if
he could be prevented from getting three tricks his five points were
spoiled.

_=JINK GAME.=_ When a player has won three tricks, he should
immediately abandon his hand and claim the pool, for if he continues
playing he must _=jink it=_, and get all five tricks or lose what he
has already won, the game being spoiled just as if no one had won three
tricks. It is sometimes a matter for nice judgment whether or not to go
on, and, for the sake of an extra counter from each player, to risk a
pool already won. The best trump is often held up for three rounds to
coax a player to go on in this manner.

_=IRREGULARITIES IN THE HANDS.=_ If, during the play of a hand, it is
discovered that any one holds too many or too few cards, that hand is
foul, and must be abandoned, the holder forfeiting all right to the
pool for that deal. Those who have their right number of cards finish
the play without the foul hand, but any tricks already won by the
holder of the foul hand remain his property.

_=IRREGULARITIES IN PLAY.=_ If any player robs when he does not hold
the ace; leads or plays out of turn; reneges to the lead of a higher
trump; renounces in the trump suit; revokes in a plain suit; or exposes
a card after any player has won two tricks, he loses all his right and
interest in the current pool, which he cannot win, either on that or
any subsequent deal, but to which he must continue to contribute when
it comes to his turn to deal. After the pool has been won, and a fresh
one formed, the penalty is removed.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ Observation, quickness, and good
judgment of character are the essentials for success at Spoil Five,
the last being probably the most important. The peculiar order of the
cards; the privilege of renouncing when holding a card of the suit led;
and the right of passing inferior trump leads, are very confusing to
the beginner; but with practice the routine and strategy of the game
soon become familiar.

The player should first make up his mind whether he is going to try to
win the pool or to spoil it. Particular attention should be paid to the
player who robs, because he must have at least the ace and the turn-up
in trumps, and is more likely to need spoiling than any other player.
When a player wins a trick, some judgment will be necessary to decide
whether he is trying for the pool himself, or simply spoiling it for
some one else. When he wins two tricks, every other player at the table
must combine against him.

With only one small or medium trump, it is better to use it at the
first opportunity. Unless the player has some hopes of winning the
pool himself, he should trump all doubtful cards; that is, cards that
may win the trick if not trumped. With two good trumps, it is better
to wait for developments; even if you cannot win the last three tricks
yourself, you may effectually spoil any other player. Do anything you
can to prevent the possibility of a third trick being won by a player
who has already won two.


FORTY-FIVE, OR FIVE AND TEN.

These names are given to Spoil Five when it is played by two persons
only, or by four or six divided into two equal partnerships. There is
no pool, as one side or the other must win three tricks every deal.
The side winning the odd trick counts five points towards game, or
ten points if it wins all five tricks. Forty-five points is game. In
another variation, each trick counts five points, and the winners’
score is deducted from the losers’, so that if one side wins four
tricks it counts fifteen towards game. When this manner of counting is
adopted, the players count out; that is, if each side is 35 up, the
first to win two tricks counts out.

Minor variations are sometimes introduced; such as robbing with the
King, if the ace is not in play; counting five for the dealer’s side if
the ace or King is turned up, etc.

There are no _=Text Books=_ on Spoil Five; but descriptions and laws of
the game are to be found in the “Westminster Papers,” Vol II., and in
“Round Games,” by Berkeley.


RAMS, OR RAMMES

This game seems to be the connecting link between the more strongly
marked members of the Euchre family and Division Loo.

_=CARDS.=_ Rams is played with the euchre pack, thirty-two cards, which
rank as at Écarté, K Q J A 10 9 8 7. It has lately become the fashion,
however, to adopt the rank of the cards in the piquet pack, A K Q J 10
9 8 7.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Any number from three to six may play; but when six play
the dealer takes no cards. The general arrangements for the players,
first deal, counters, etc., are exactly the same as at Spoil Five.

_=THE POOL.=_ Each successive dealer puts up five counters, to form or
to augment the pool.

_=DEALING.=_ The cards having been properly shuffled and cut, five
are given to each player; two the first round and three the next, or
three the first round and two the next. An extra hand, known as the
_=widow=_, is dealt face downward in the centre of the table. The
dealer gives cards to the widow just before dealing to himself in each
round. When all are helped, the next card is turned up for the trump.
Irregularities in the deal are governed by the same rules as in Spoil
Five.

_=DECLARING TO PLAY.=_ Each player in turn, beginning with the eldest
hand, may either play or pass. If he passes, he lays his cards face
downward in front of him, and takes no further part in that deal unless
a general rams is announced. If he plays, he engages himself to take
at least one trick, or forfeit five counters to the pool. He may play
with the hand originally dealt him, or he may risk getting a better
by taking the widow in exchange. If he exchanges, his original hand
is dead, and must not be seen by any player. If any player takes the
widow, those following him must play the hand dealt them or pass out.
In some clubs the eldest hand is obliged to play, either with his own
hand or with the widow.

If all pass except the pone, he must play against the dealer, either
with the cards dealt him, or with the widow. If he declines to play,
he must pay the dealer five counters, and the pool remains. The dealer
must play if he is opposed by only one player; but if two others have
announced to play, the dealer may play or pass as he pleases. If he
plays, he may discard and take up the trump card. No other player may
rob the trump.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The eldest hand of those who have declared to
play begins by leading any card he pleases. Each player in turn must
head the trick; that is, play a higher card if he can. If he has two
higher, he may play either. If he has none of the suit led, he must
trump if he can, even if the trick is already trumped by another
player. For instance: Hearts are trumps, and A leads a club. B follows
suit, but neither C nor D has a club. Suppose C trumps with the King,
and that the only trump D has is the Queen, he must play it on the
trick, losing it to C’s King. When a player can neither follow suit
nor trump, he may discard any card he pleases. The winner of the trick
leads for the next trick, and so on until all five tricks have been
played.

_=PENALTIES.=_ There is only one penalty in Rams; to win nothing on the
deal, and to forfeit five counters to the next pool. This is inflicted
for playing with more or less than five cards; for exposing any card;
for leading or playing out of turn; for renouncing; and for refusing to
head or trump a trick when able to do so.

_=DIVIDING THE POOL.=_ Pools may be simple or double. The usual custom
is to compel every one to play when the pool is a simple, containing
nothing but the five counters put up by the dealer. When there are more
than five counters in the pool they must be some multiple of five, and
the pool is called a double. In double pools the players may play or
pass as they please. No matter how many counters are already in the
pool, the dealer must add five.

Each player gathers in the tricks he wins, and at the end of the hand
he is entitled to take one-fifth of the contents of the pool for every
trick he has won. If he has played his hand, and failed to get a trick,
he is ramsed, and forfeits five counters to form the next pool, in
addition to those which will be put up by the next dealer. If two or
more players fail to win a trick, they must each pay five counters, and
if the player whose turn it will be to deal next is ramsed, he will
have to put up ten; five for his deal, and five for the rams.

_=GENERAL RAMS.=_ If any player thinks he can win all five tricks,
with the advantage of the first lead, he may announce a general rams,
when it comes to his turn to pass or play. This announcement may be
made either before or after taking the widow. When a general rams is
announced, all at the table must play, and those who have passed and
laid down their hands, must take them up again. If the widow has not
been taken, any player who has not already refused it may take it. The
player who announced general rams has the first lead. If he succeeds in
getting all five tricks, he not only gets the pool but receives five
counters in addition from each player. If he fails, he must double
the amount then in the pool, and pay five counters to each of his
adversaries. Any player taking a trick that spoils a general rams gets
nothing from the pool, and it is usual to abandon the hands the moment
the announcing player loses a trick.


ROUNCE.

This is an American corruption of Rams. It is played with the full pack
of fifty-two cards, which rank as at Whist, and any number of players
from three to nine. Six cards are dealt to the widow, one of which
must be discarded by the player taking it. All pools are alike, there
being no difference between simples and doubles, and there is no such
announcement as general rounce. There is no obligation to head the
trick, nor to trump or under-trump; but the winner of the first trick
must lead a trump if he has one.


BIERSPIEL.

This is a popular form of Rams among German students. Three crosses are
chalked on the table in front of each player, representing five points
each. When a trick is won, a beer-soaked finger wipes out the centre of
a cross, and reduces its value to four. Successive cancellings of the
remaining arms of the cross as tricks are taken gradually reduce it to
nothing, and the player who is last to wipe out his third cross pays
for the beer. No player is allowed to look at his cards until the trump
is turned, and the dealer gives the word of command: “Auf.” The seven
of diamonds is always the second-best card of the trump suit, ranking
next below the ace. If it is turned up, the dealer turns up the next
card for a trump, and when it comes to his turn, he can take both cards
into his hand, discarding others in their place. If the dealer passes,
the eldest hand may take up the trump. If only two declare to play, a
trump must be led for the first trick; if three play, trumps must be
led twice; if four play, three times. If the leader has no trump, he
must lead his smallest card, face downward, which calls for a trump
from such of the other players as have one. All penalties are made by
adding fresh crosses to the delinquent’s score.


LOO, OR DIVISION LOO.

This was at one time the most popular of all round games at cards; but
its cousin Napoleon seems to have usurped its place in England, while
Poker has eclipsed it in America. There are several varieties of the
game, but the most common form is Three-card Limited Loo, which will be
first described.

_=CARDS.=_ Loo is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, which
rank, A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2; the ace being the highest.

_=COUNTERS.=_ Loo being a pool game, counters are necessary. They
should be of two colours, white and red, one red banker, to sell and
redeem all counters. Each player should begin with 18 red and 6 white,
which is equal to 20 reds.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Any number of persons from three to seventeen may play,
but eight is the usual limit, and five or six makes the best game. The
players take their seats at random.

_=CUTTING.=_ A card is dealt round to each player, face up, and the
first Jack takes the first deal.

_=THE POOL.=_ Each successive dealer places three red counters in
the pool. The pool is added to from time to time by penalties for
infractions of the rules, and by forfeitures from players who have
failed in their undertakings. Such payments are always made in red
counters, the number being always three or six. When the pool is
divided, it sometimes happens that a player is not allowed to withdraw
his share. In such cases the red counters representing it should be
changed for their value in white ones, so that the forfeited share may
be divided in three parts.

The difference between _=Limited Loo=_, and _=Unlimited Loo=_, is in
the amounts paid into the pool. In Limited Loo the penalty is always
three or six red counters. In Unlimited Loo, it is the same for
irregularities, and for infraction of the rules; but any player failing
in his undertaking must put up for the next pool an amount equal to
that in the current pool. When two or more fail on successive deals the
pool increases with surprising rapidity. A player at twenty-five cent
Loo has been known to lose $320 in three consecutive deals.

_=DEALING.=_ The pack having been properly shuffled and cut, the dealer
gives three cards to each player, one at a time in rotation, beginning
on his left. The first deal, and every deal in which the pool contains
only the three red counters put up by the dealer, is known as a
_=simple=_, and no trump card is turned up until one or two tricks have
been played to. If there are more than three red counters in the pool,
it is known as a _=double=_, and an extra hand must be dealt for the
_=widow=_, and after all have been helped, the next card in the pack is
turned up for a trump. The dealer gives cards to the widow just before
helping himself in each round.

_=Irregularities in the Deal.=_ If the pack is found to be imperfect,
or any card except the trump is found faced in the pack, the same
dealer must deal again without penalty. If the dealer neglects to have
the pack cut; reshuffles it after it has been properly cut; deals a
card incorrectly and fails to correct the error before dealing another;
exposes a card in dealing; gives any player too many or too few cards;
or deals a wrong number of hands, it is a misdeal, and he loses his
deal, and forfeits three red counters to the current pool. The new
dealer adds his three counters as usual, and the pool becomes a double.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ A description of the method of playing will be
better understood if it is divided into two parts, as it varies in
simple and in double pools.

_=In Simple Pools=_, no trump is turned, and no widow dealt. Should
the dealer inadvertently turn a trump, he forfeits three red counters
to the current pool, but it remains a simple. If he deals a card for a
widow, and fails to correct himself before dealing another card, it is
a misdeal.

The eldest hand leads any card he pleases, and the others must not
only follow suit, but must head the trick if they can. This does not
necessarily mean that they shall play the best card they hold of the
suit led, but that they shall play a better one than any already
played. The cards are left in front of the players. If all follow
suit the winner of the trick leads any card he pleases for the next
trick. If all follow suit to that again, the winner leads for the
next, and if all follow suit again, that ends it, and the winners
of the several tricks divide the pool. All those who have not won a
trick are _=looed=_, and must contribute three red counters each for
the next pool, which, added to the three to be deposited by the next
dealer, will make the ensuing pool a double. But if in any trick any
player is unable to follow suit, as soon as the trick is complete the
dealer turns up the top card on the remainder of the pack, and the
suit to which it belongs is the trump. If any trump has been played,
the highest trump wins the trick. In any case, the winner of the trick
must lead a trump for the next trick if he has one. When all three
tricks have been played, the winner of each is entitled to one-third
of the contents of the pool. Those who have not won a trick are looed,
and must contribute three red counters each for the next pool. This is
called a _=Bold Stand=_.

_=In Double Pools=_, an extra hand is dealt for the widow, and a trump
is turned. No player is allowed to look at his cards until it comes
to his turn to declare. The dealer, beginning on his left, asks each
in turn to announce his intentions. The player may _=stand=_ with
the cards dealt him; or may _=take the widow=_ in exchange; or may
_=pass=_. If he passes or takes the widow, he gives his original hand
to the dealer, who places it on the bottom of the pack. If he takes the
widow or stands, he must win at least one trick, or he is looed, and
will forfeit three red counters to the next pool.

If all pass but the player who has taken the widow, he wins the pool
without playing, and the next deal must be a simple. If only one player
stands, and he has not taken the widow, the dealer, if he will not play
for himself, must take the widow and play to defend the pool. If he
fails to take a trick, he is not looed; but the payment for any tricks
he wins must be left in the pool, and the red counters for them should
be changed for white ones, so that the amount may be easily divided at
the end of the next pool.

_=Flushes.=_ If any player in a double pool holds three trumps, whether
dealt him or found in the widow, he must announce it as soon as all
have declared whether or not they will play. The usual custom is to
wait until the dealer declares, and then to ask him: “How many play?”
The dealer replies: “Two in;” “Three in;” or: “Widow and one;” as the
case may be. The player with the flush then shows it, and claims the
pool without playing, each of those who are “in” being looed three red
counters. If two players hold a flush in trumps, the elder hand wins,
whether his trumps are better or not; but the younger hand, holding
another flush, is not looed.

_=Leading.=_ In all double pools, the eldest hand of those playing must
lead a trump if he has one. If he has the ace of trumps he must lead
that; or if he has the King and the ace is turned up. The old rule was
that a player must lead the higher of two trumps, but this is obsolete.
The winner of a trick must lead a trump if he has one. Each player in
turn must head the trick if he can; if he has none of the suit led he
must trump or over-trump if he can; but he need not under-trump a trick
already trumped.

_=Irregularities and Penalties.=_ There is only one penalty in Loo, to
win nothing from the current pool, and to pay either three or six reds
to the next pool. If the offender has won any tricks, the payment for
them must be left in the pool in white counters, to be divided among
the winners of the next pool.

The offences are divided, some being paid for to the current pool, such
as those for errors in the deal, while others are not paid until the
current pool has been divided. If any player looks at his hand before
his turn to declare, or the dealer does so before asking the others
whether or not they will play, or if any player announces his intention
out of his proper turn; the offender in each case forfeits three red
counters to the current pool, and cannot win anything that deal, but he
may play his hand in order to keep counters in the pool. If he plays
and is looed, he must pay.

_=Revokes.=_ If a player, when able to do so, fails to follow suit, or
to head the trick, or to lead trumps, or to lead the ace of trumps,
(or King when ace is turned,) or to trump a suit of which he is void,
the hands are abandoned on discovery of the error, and the pool is
divided as equally as possible among those who declared to play, with
the exception of the offender. Any odd white counters must be left for
the next pool. The player in fault is then held guilty of a revoke, and
must pay a forfeit of six red counters to the next pool. The reason
for the division of the pool is that there is no satisfactory way to
determine how the play would have resulted had the revoke not occurred.
It is impossible to take back the cards and replay them, because no one
would have a right to judge how much a person’s play was altered by his
knowledge of the cards in the other hands.

If a player, having already won a trick, renders himself liable to any
penalty, as for exposing a card, leading or following suit out of turn,
or abandoning his hand, he is looed for three red counters, payable to
the next pool, and the payment for the tricks he has won must be left
in the pool in white counters.


IRISH LOO.

In this variation, no widow is dealt, and there is no distinction
between simple and double pools. A trump is always turned up, and
the dealer asks each in turn, beginning on his left, whether or not
he will play, taking up the cards of those who decline to stand. He
then announces his own decision, and proceeds to ask those who have
declared to play whether or not they wish to exchange any of the cards
originally dealt them. The usual question is simply: “How many?” and
the player names the number of cards he wishes to exchange, if any;
at the same time discarding others in their places. The number first
asked for cannot be amended or recalled. The trump is laid aside, and
the cards called for are dealt from the remainder of the pack, without
further shuffling. In all other respects, the game is Three-card Loo.


FIVE-CARD LOO.

This is Irish Loo with some additional variations. Each red counter
should be worth five white ones, and the players will require about
fifty red counters each at starting. The dealer puts up five red
counters. Any player holding a flush of five cards in any suit may
immediately claim the pool, and every person at the table, whether
playing or not, is supposed to be looed, and pays five red counters to
the next pool. If two players hold flushes, the elder hand wins, even
if the younger hand holds a flush in trumps.

Another variation is to make the club Jack, which is known as _=Pam=_,
always the best trump. Combined with four cards of any suit, this card
will make a flush. If any player leads the trump ace, the holder of Pam
must pass the trick if he can do so without revoking. The old usage was
for the holder of the trump ace to notify any player holding Pam to
pass, if he wished him to do so; but that is quite superfluous, as no
player wants to lose his ace of trumps, and it goes without saying that
he wants Pam to pass it.

       *       *       *       *       *

Interesting articles on Loo will be found in “Bell’s Life,” the
“Field,” the “Sportsman,” and the “Westminster Papers;” Vol. II. of the
latter especially.



ALL FOURS FAMILY.


All Fours is to be found amongst the oldest games of cards, and is the
parent of a large family of variations, all of which are of American
birth. The youngest member of the family, Cinch, seems to have a bright
future before it, and bids fair to become one of our most popular
games. The chief defect in Cinch has been the method of scoring, which
left too much to luck. In the following pages the author has attempted
to remedy this.

The name, “All Fours,” seems to have been varied at times to “All
Four,” and was derived from four of the five points which counted
towards game; the fifth point, for “gift” having been apparently quite
overlooked. The game was originally ten points up, and the cards were
dealt one at a time. According to the descriptions in some of the older
Hoyles, the honours and Tens of the plain suits did not count towards
game; but this is evidently an error, for we find in the same editions
the advice to trump or win the adversary’s best cards in plain suits.
This would obviously be a mere waste of trumps if these plain-suit
cards did not count for anything.

All Fours seems to have been popular with all classes of society at
one time or another. Cotton’s “Compleat Gamester” gives it among the
principal games in his day, 1674. Daines Barrington, writing a hundred
years later, speaks of All Fours in connection with Whist. “Whist,”
he says, “seems never to have been played on principles until about
fifty years ago; before that time [1735] it was confined chiefly to
the servants’ hall, with All Fours and Put.” Another writer tells us
that Ombre was the favourite game of the ladies, and Piquet of the
gentlemen _par excellence_; clergymen and country squires preferring
Whist, “while the lower orders shuffled away at All Fours, Put,
Cribbage, and Lanterloo.” In 1754 a pamphlet was published containing:
“Serious Reflections on the dangerous tendency of the common practice
of Card-playing; especially the game of All Four.” For many years All
Fours was looked upon as the American gambler’s game _par excellence_,
and it is still the great standby of our coloured brother; who would
sooner swallow a Jack than have it caught.


ALL FOURS, SEVEN-UP, OR OLD SLEDGE.

_=CARDS.=_ Seven-up is played with the full pack of fifty-two cards,
which rank A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2; the ace being the highest, both
in cutting and in play.

_=COUNTERS.=_ Each player or side should be provided with seven
counters. As the points accrue, these counters are got rid of by
placing them in a pool in the centre of the table. By this method a
glance will show how many each side or player has “to go,” that is, how
many will put him out.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Two, three or four persons may play. When three play, the
game resembles Cut-throat Euchre, each for himself. When four play, two
are partners against the other two, and the partners sit opposite each
other. The player on the dealer’s left, or his adversary if only two
play, is always spoken of as the eldest or elder hand. The one on the
dealer’s right is the pone.

_=CUTTING.=_ If there are four players, they cut for partners, deal,
and choice of seats. The two lowest are partners against the two
highest; the highest cut has the choice of seats, and deals the first
hand. When two or three play, they cut for seats and deal. In cutting,
the ace is high. Ties cut again; but the new cut decides nothing but
the tie.

_=STAKES.=_ If there is any stake, it is for so much a game. Rubbers
are never played.

_=DEALING.=_ Each player has the right to shuffle the pack, the dealer
last, and the cards are then presented to the pone to be cut. At least
four cards must be left in each packet. Beginning on his left, the
dealer gives six cards to each player, three on the first round, and
three more on the second round, turning up the next card for the trump,
and leaving it on the remainder of the pack. If this card is a Jack,
the dealer counts one point for it immediately; but if any player is
found to have an incorrect number of cards, and announces it before he
plays to the first trick, the Jack cannot be counted, as it could not
have been the proper trump.

In _=Pitch, or Blind All Fours=_, no trump is turned. The first card
led or “pitched” by the eldest hand is the trump suit for that deal.

_=MISDEALING.=_ If any card is found faced in the pack, or the pack
is proved to be imperfect, the same dealer deals again. If he deals
without having the cards cut, or gives too many or too few cards to
any player, it is a misdeal, and the deal passes to the next player on
the misdealer’s left. If the dealer exposes a card, the adversaries may
elect to have the deal stand, or to have a new deal by the same dealer.
In _=Pitch=_, a misdeal does not lose the deal, because the deal is no
advantage.

_=BEGGING.=_ The deal completed, and the trump turned, the eldest hand
looks at his cards, the other players leaving theirs untouched. If
the eldest hand is not satisfied, he says: _=I beg=_; and the dealer,
after examining his own hand, has the option of giving him a point or
_=running the cards=_. If he decides to give the point, he says: _=Take
it=_, and the eldest hand immediately scores one for the _=gift=_. If
the dealer will not give, he lays the trump card aside, and deals three
more cards to each player, including himself; turning up another trump.
Should this be a Jack of another suit, the dealer scores a point for
it at once. Should it be of the same suit as that first turned up, the
Jack cannot be scored, as the dealer has declined to have that suit for
the trump. When the same suit is turned up a second time, the card is
laid aside; three more cards are given to each player, another trump
is turned, and so on until a different suit comes up for the trump. If
the pack is exhausted before another suit turns up, the cards must be
_=bunched=_, and the same dealer deals again.

The dealer’s partner and the pone are not permitted to look at their
cards until the eldest hand and the dealer have decided whether to
stand or run the cards. Among strict players, if a person looks at
his hand before the proper time, the adversaries score a point. The
object of this rule is to prevent the possibility of any expression of
satisfaction or disapproval of the turn-up trump.

No second beg is allowed, but when only two play, if either player is
dissatisfied with the new trump he may propose to _=bunch the cards=_.
If the proposition is agreed to, the cards are reshuffled and dealt
again by the same dealer. If three play, the dealer must give a point
to both adversaries if he refuses to run the cards, although only one
begs. The dealer cannot give a player enough to put him out.

_=DISCARDING.=_ When the cards have been run, the usual practice is to
discard all superfluous cards, each player reducing his hand to six,
with which he plays. In some clubs it is the rule to keep all the cards
if only nine are in each hand, but to discard down to six if two or
more rounds were dealt after turning the first trump.

_=OBJECTS OF THE GAME.=_ The object in Seven-up is to secure certain
points which count towards game. As its name implies, the game is
won when a player has put up seven of his counters, each of which
represents a point. There are six different ways of making these
points, and it is possible for one player to make five of them in one
deal; but he cannot by any possibility make seven. The following count
one point each:

1st. Turning up the _=Jack=_ of trumps.

2nd. Being _=given=_ a point by the dealer.

3rd. Holding the _=Highest=_ trump.

4th. Holding the _=Lowest=_ trump.

5th. Winning a trick with the _=Jack=_ of trumps in it.

6th. Making the majority of the pips that count for what is called
_=Game=_.

_=Turning the Jack=_ is entirely a matter of chance, and should not
occur more than once in thirteen deals. If a Jack is turned every few
deals, you may be sure that unfair methods are being used. Nothing is
more common among advantage players than turning up Jacks every few
deals.

_=Begging=_ is resorted to by a player who holds no trumps, or such
indifferent ones that it is very unlikely they will be either High or
Low. If he has anything better, such as very high or low cards in other
suits, such a hand is called, “a good hand to run to,” and the player
begs, hoping the new trump will better fit his hand. If he has nothing
better in other suits than in the turn-up, it will still be slightly in
his favour to beg, unless he has trumps enough to give him some hopes
of making the point for Game. It is a fatal error to beg on good cards,
and gamblers have a saying that he who begs a point to-day, will beg a
stake to-morrow.

_=High=_ and _=Low=_ count to the player to whom those cards are dealt,
and there is no chance to alter the fortunes of the deal except by
begging and running the cards. These two points may both be made by the
same card, if it is the only trump in play; because High is counted for
the best trump out during the deal, and Low for the lowest, no matter
what the cards are.

_=Catching the Jack=_, or saving it, is one of the principal objects
of the game, and as a rule a player holding the Jack should lose no
opportunity to save such a valuable counting card. On the other hand, a
player holding higher trumps will often have to use good judgment as to
whether to lead them to catch the Jack, if it happens to be out; or to
keep quiet until the last few tricks, when if the Jack is not out, such
trumps may be useful to win cards that count for Game.

_=The Game=_ is generally known as _=the gambler’s point=_, because
it is the only point that must be played for in every hand, and its
management requires more skill than all the others put together. The
cards that count for Game are the four honours and the Ten of each
suit. Every ace counts 4; every King 3; every Queen 2; every Jack 1;
and every Ten 10. After the last card has been played, each player
turns over the tricks he has won, and counts up the pip value of the
court cards and Tens that he has won. Whoever has the highest number
counts the point for Game. For instance: Two are playing. The elder
hand has taken in an ace, two Kings and a Jack, which are collectively
worth 11. The dealer has taken in a Queen and a Ten, which are worth
12; so the dealer marks the point for Game. If both players have the
same number, or if there is no Game out, which rarely happens, the
non-dealer scores Game. If three play, and Game is a tie between the
two non-dealers, neither scores. The non-dealer is given the benefit
of counting a tie for Game as an offset to the dealer’s advantage in
turning Jacks. When no trump is turned, as in Pitch, no one can count
Game if it is a tie.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The eldest hand begins by leading any card he
pleases. If a trump is led, each player must follow suit if able. When
a plain suit is led he need not follow suit if he prefers to trump; but
if he does not trump, he must follow suit if he can. If he has none
of the suit led he may either trump or discard. This rule is commonly
expressed by saying that a player may _=follow suit or trump=_. The
highest card played of the suit led wins the trick, and trumps win all
other suits. The winner of the trick takes it in, and leads for the
next one, and so on until all the cards have been played. The tricks
themselves have no value except for the court cards and Tens they
contain.

As High, Jack, and Game are always counted by the player holding those
points at the end of the play, there can be no question about them: but
serious disputes sometimes arise as to who played Low. The best method
of avoiding this is for each player, as the game proceeds, to announce
and claim the lowest trump which has so far appeared, and instead of
giving it to the current trick, to leave it turned face up in front
of him if it is of no counting value. For instance: Four are playing,
and a round of trumps comes out, the six being the lowest. The player
holding it announces: “Six for Low,” and keeps the card face up in
front of him until some smaller trump appears. It often happens that a
player holds a 7 or 8, and having no idea that it will be Low, takes no
notice of it. At the end of the hand it is found that both the 7 and 8
are out, the 7 being Low, and the holders of those two cards get into
an argument as to which card each of them held.

_=SCORING.=_ The last card played, the various points for High, Low,
Jack, (if in play), and the Game are claimed, and the player or side
holding them puts a counter in the pool for each. The side first
getting rid of its seven counters wins the game. If both sides make
points enough to win the game on the same deal, High goes out first,
then Low, then Jack, and then Game. As already noticed, one card may
be both High and Low; the Jack may be High, Low, Jack; and it is even
possible, if there is no other trump or counting card in play, for the
Jack to be High, Low, Jack, and the Game.

In the variety known as _=All Fives=_, the score is kept on a cribbage
board, and part of it is pegged as the hand progresses. A player
winning a trick containing any of the following cards in the trump
suit pegs them immediately:--For the trump ace, 4 points; for the King
3; for the Queen 2; for the Jack 1; for the Ten 10, and for the Five
5. After the hand is over, all these cards are counted over again in
reckoning the point for Game, the Five of trumps counting 5. Sixty-one
points is game.

_=IRREGULARITIES IN PLAY.=_ The most serious error in Seven-up is the
_=revoke=_. If a player does not follow suit when able, it is a revoke
unless he trumps the trick. A player holding two small trumps and the
Ten of a plain suit, may trump both the ace and King of that suit
instead of giving up his Ten. But if on the third round the Queen is
led, and he cannot trump it, he must play his Ten if he has no other
card of the suit.

The only points affected by the revoke are Jack and Game. _=If the Jack
is not in play=_, there is only one point that can be affected by the
revoke, the score for Game; and the revoke penalty is one point, which
the adversary may add to his own score, or deduct from the score of the
revoking player. The adversary may also score the point for Game if he
makes it; but it cannot be scored by the revoking player; who may mark
only High or Low if he holds either or both of those points.

_=If the Jack is in play=_, two points may be affected by a revoke. The
player in fault cannot score either Jack or Game, and the penalty for
the revoke is two points; in addition to which the adversary of the
revoking player may score either or both Jack and Game if he makes them.

The revoking player cannot win the game that hand, no matter what he
scores, but must stop at six. A revoke is established as soon as the
trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted, or a card has
been led or played to the next trick.

_=Exposed Cards.=_ When four play, all exposed cards must be left on
the table, and are liable to be called by the adversaries if they
cannot be previously got rid of in the course of play. All cards led or
played out of turn are exposed, and liable to be called. If two or more
cards are played to a trick, the adversaries may select which shall
remain; the other is exposed.

_=METHODS OF CHEATING.=_ Few games lend themselves more readily to
the operations of the greek than Seven-up. Turning Jacks from the
bottom of the pack; setting up the half-stock for the beg; dealing
oneself more than six cards, and dropping on the tricks already won
those counting for Game; getting the A J 10 and 2 of a suit together
during the play of a hand, and then shifting the cut to get them on
the next deal, turning up the Jack; marked cards; strippers; wedges;
reflectors; these and many other tricks are in common use. Those who
are not expert enough to deal seconds or shift cuts will sometimes
resort to such trifling advantages as abstracting one of the Tens from
the pack, so that they may know a suit from which a small card can
always be led without any danger of the adversary’s making the Ten. One
very common swindle in Seven-up is known as _=the high hand=_, which
consists in giving the intended victim the A K J 10 9 2 of trumps, and
then inducing him to bet that he will make four points. No matter how
skilful the player may be, he will find it impossible to save both Jack
and Game.


CALIFORNIA JACK.

This is a variety of Seven-up for two players, in which the number of
cards in the hand is constantly restored to six by drawing from the
remainder of the pack.

The trump suit is cut for before the cards are shuffled and dealt.
The usual method is to cut for seats and deal, and the highest cut
determines the trump suit at the same time. After each player has been
given six cards, three at a time, the remainder of the pack is turned
face up on the table, and the winner of each trick takes the top card,
his adversary taking the next one. When the stock is exhausted, the
last six cards are played as in the ordinary game of Seven-up.

Seven points is game, the points being the same as in Seven-up; but
everything, including Low, counts to the player winning it.

_=Shasta Sam=_ is California Jack with the remainder of the pack turned
face down, and is a much better game on that account.


AUCTION PITCH, SELL OUT, OR COMMERCIAL PITCH.

This very popular round game derives its name from the fact that the
first card led or “pitched” is the trump suit, and that the privilege
of pitching it belongs to the eldest hand, who may sell it out to the
highest bidder.

The number of _=cards=_ and their rank is the same as at Seven-up; A
K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2, the ace being the highest in cutting and in
play.

_=Players.=_ Any number from four to seven may play, each for himself;
five is considered the best game. The players cut for choice of seats,
the highest cut taking the first choice and the deal.

_=Counters.=_ Each player should be provided with seven white counters
to mark the game. If stakes are played for, red counters are used to
make up the pool, one player acting as the banker to sell and redeem
all red counters.

_=Dealing.=_ Six cards are dealt to each player, three at a time, but
no trump is turned. All the rules for irregularities in the deal are
the same as in Seven-up, but a misdeal does not lose the deal under any
circumstances.

_=Objects of the Game.=_ As in Seven-up, the object of each player is
to get rid of his seven counters, one of which he is entitled to put in
the pool for each of the following points: For holding the _=highest=_
trump in play; for holding (having dealt to him) the _=lowest=_ trump
in play; for winning a trick with the _=Jack=_ of trumps in it; for
making the greatest number of the pips that count for the _=game=_
point. The details of these points have already been explained in
connection with Seven-up. If the count for Game is a tie, no one scores
it.

_=Bidding.=_ The eldest hand sells. If he pitches without waiting for a
bid he must make four points, or he will be set back that number. Each
player in turn, beginning on the left of the eldest hand, bids for the
privilege of pitching the trump, naming the number of points he thinks
he can make. If he will not bid, he must say distinctly: “_=I pass=_.”
After a bid has been made, any following player must bid higher or
pass. There are no second bids. The highest number any player can bid
is four, which will require him to make High, Low, Jack, and the Game
against the combined efforts of all the other players. The eldest hand
must either accept the number bid, or pitch the trump himself, and make
as many points as the highest bidder offered him. If the eldest hand
accepts, he pushes into the pool as many counters as he is bid, and the
successful bidder pitches the trump. If no bid is made, the eldest hand
must pitch the trump himself.

A bidder is not allowed to give the seller enough points to put him
out, and should he do so by mistake, he forfeits his right to bid at
all for that deal. If the seller has only two to go, and a player is
able to bid three or four, he loses nothing by bidding one only, for
no one can overbid him, and he is entitled to count all he makes. The
only risk he runs is that the seller can afford to refuse one, and will
go out on his own pitch. To remedy this it is the custom in some clubs
to allow a player to bid the full value of his hand. If the seller
accepts, he scores to within one of game; but if he refuses, he must
make as many as bid, even if he does not actually want them. It is one
of the fine points of the game for the seller to refuse when the number
of points offered would put the bidder out if he was successful.

There is no penalty for bidding out of turn. If a player chooses to
expose to a preceding player what he is prepared to bid, that is
usually to his own disadvantage.

_=Bidding to the Board.=_ Modern players usually adopt the practice of
bidding to the board, eldest hand having the first bid. In this form
of the game the points bid count to no one, and anyone can bid up to
four, no matter what the scores are. No one can claim the privilege of
pitching the trump for as many as bid, as each in turn must bid higher
or pass.

_=Playing.=_ The successful bidder has the first lead, and whatever
card he plays, whether by mistake or not, is the trump suit for that
deal. After that, the winner of the trick may lead any suit he pleases.
A player must follow suit in trumps if he is able to do so; but in a
plain suit he may trump if he chooses, although holding a card of the
suit led. If he does not trump, he must follow suit if he can. If he
has none of the suit led, he may trump or discard as he pleases. The
highest card played of the suit led wins the trick, and trumps win all
other suits.

_=Scoring.=_ At the end of the hand the various players claim the
points made, and score them by placing white counters in the pool. If
the bidder makes any points in excess of the number bid, he scores
them. The first player to get rid of his seven white counters wins
the pool, and takes down all the red counters it contains. The white
counters are then redistributed, and the players cut for the first deal
of the new game.

If two players can count out on the same deal, and one of them is the
bidder, he wins the pool if he has made good his bid. If neither of
the ties is the bidder, the points count out in their regular order,
High first, then Low, then Jack, and finally Game. For instance: Seven
are playing. A sells to B, who bids two. B and C have each two to go.
B pitches a trump of which C has both High and Low; but if B makes
Jack and Game he wins the pool, because he bid only two points, and
made them. This is generally expressed by the rule: _=bidder goes out
first=_.

_=Setting Back.=_ If the player who pitches the trump fails to make the
number of points bid, he is set back, and scores nothing for any points
he may have made. A player who is set back, either for overbidding his
hand, or for refusing to sell and failing to make the number of points
offered him, must withdraw from the pool as many white counters as were
bid, and add them to his own. For instance: It is A’s sell. A and B
each have two to go. B bids three, which A refuses, pitching the trump
himself. A makes only two points, B scoring one, and a third player
D, another. B and D score one each, but A scores nothing for the two
points he made, and must take three white counters from the pool, which
will make him five to go. Had the bid which A refused been two only, he
would have won the game, as he made two points. In many clubs it is the
custom for a player who is set back to add a red counter to the pool.

_=Irregularities in Play.=_ If any adversary of the player who pitches
the trump leads or plays out of turn, he may be called upon by the
bidder to play his highest or lowest of the suit led; or to trump or
not to trump the trick. If any player but the pitcher has followed the
erroneous lead, the cards must be taken back; but if the pitcher has
followed, the error cannot be rectified.

In case of a _=revoke=_, the hand is played out as if the revoke
had not occurred, and each player except the person in error counts
whatever points he makes. If the pitcher of the trump fails to make
the number of points bid, he cannot be set back, but must be allowed
to score any points he makes. The revoking player is then set back the
number of points bid, and forfeits a red counter to the pool. If no bid
was made, he is set back two points.


SMUDGE.

In this variation of auction pitch, any player who is not in the hole
wins the game at once if he can bid four and make it.


PEDRO.

Pedro, Pedro Sancho, Dom Pedro, and Snoozer, are all varieties of
Auction Pitch, in which certain counting cards are added, and secondary
bids are allowed.

Everything counts to the player winning it, instead of to the one to
whom it is dealt. The game point is scored by the player who wins the
trick containing the Ten of trumps. If that card is not in play there
is no Game.

In _=Pedro Sancho=_, the Five and Nine of trumps count their pip value
in scoring, so that 18 points can be bid and made on one deal; one each
for High, Low, Jack, and Game, and fourteen more for the Nine and Five
of trumps. These two trumps have no special rank. The Ten will win the
Nine, and the Six will take the Five. In some places all the cards in
the pack are dealt out, which makes a much better game in any form of
Pedro.

The eldest hand sells, as at Auction Pitch. If a player’s first bid is
raised he may raise again in his proper turn.

Fifty points is game, and the players are usually provided with two
varieties of counters for scoring; one worth five points, and the other
worth one. The rank of the points in scoring is; High, Low, Jack, Ten
(Game), Five, and Nine. The revoke penalty is to be set back the number
of points bid, or ten points if there is no bid, and the player in
fault cannot score anything that hand. In all other respects the rules
are the same as in Auction Pitch.

In _=Dom Pedro, or Snoozer=_, the Joker is added to the pack, and the
Three, Five, and Nine of trumps count their pip value in scoring. The
Joker, or Snoozer, counts fifteen, so that thirty-six points can be
bid and made on one deal. The Joker is the lowest trump, so that the
deuce of trumps will win it, but it will win any trick in plain suits.
Fifty or a hundred points is the game. In counting out, the order of
precedence is: High, Low, Jack, Ten (Game), Three, Five, Nine, Snoozer.


CINCH, DOUBLE PEDRO, OR HIGH FIVE.

This is now regarded as the most important variety of All Fours, and
bids fair to supplant the parent game altogether. Properly speaking,
Cinch is one of the pedro variations of Auction Pitch, the difference
being that no one sells, and that there is added the always popular
American feature of a draw to improve the hand.

The derivation and meaning of the name, Cinch, seems to be very much
misunderstood. Many persons assume it is simply a name for the Left
Pedro, but such is not the case. Cinch is a Mexican word for a strong
saddle-girth, and when used as a verb it refers to the manner of
adjusting the girth on a bucking broncho so that no amount of kicking
will get him free. The word is used in this sense to describe one of
the principal tactics of the card game, which is to “cinch” certain
tricks, so that the adversary cannot possibly get either of the Pedroes
free.

_=CARDS.=_ Cinch is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards which
rank A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2. When the suit is trumps the 5 retains
its natural position, and is known as the _=Right Pedro=_; but the 5
of the same colour as the trump suit, which is known as the _=Left
Pedro=_, ranks between the 5 and 4 of the trump suit. The ace is
highest in cutting and in play. Whist-players, who have taken up Cinch
as a side issue, are in the habit of making the ace lowest in cutting;
but such a practice is out of harmony with all other members of the
Seven-up family of games.

_=COUNTERS.=_ The score is usually kept on a sheet of paper; but it is
more convenient to provide each side with 8 red and 11 white counters,
representing 51 points; the whites being worth 1, and the reds 5 each.
A good pull-up cribbage board is still better.

[Illustration: PULL-UP GAME COUNTER.]

_=PLAYERS.=_ Any number from two to six can play; but the regular game
is for four persons, two of whom are partners against the other two.
The player on the dealer’s left is the _=eldest hand=_; on the dealer’s
right is the _=pone=_.

_=CUTTING.=_ The players draw from an outspread pack for partners,
seats, and deal. The two lowest play against the two highest; the
highest cut has the choice of seats and cards, and deals the first
hand. Partners sit opposite each other.

_=DEALING.=_ Each player has the right to shuffle the pack, the dealer
last. The cards are then presented to the pone to be cut, and at
least four cards must be left in each packet. Beginning on his left,
the dealer gives nine cards to each player, three at a time in three
separate rounds. No trump is turned, and the remainder of the pack is
left on the table face downward.

_=MISDEALING.=_ If any card is found faced in the pack, the cards must
be reshuffled and dealt again. If the dealer exposes a card in dealing,
or turns up a trump by mistake, the adversaries may elect to have a new
deal by the same dealer, or to let the deal stand. If the dealer gives
too many or too few cards to any player, or fails to give the same
number of cards in each round, it is a misdeal, and the deal passes to
the next player on the left. Any player dealing out of turn, or with
the wrong cards, may be stopped before the last three cards are dealt;
but after that the deal stands good. If a misdeal is not discovered
until after a bid has been made, the deal stands good if three players
have their right number of cards. The deal passes in regular rotation
to the left.

_=OBJECTS OF THE GAME.=_ The game is fifty-one points, and the side
first pegging that number, or getting rid of its fifty-one counters is
the winner. Fourteen points are made on every deal, as follows:--

   1    For _=High=_, the ace of trumps.
   1    For _=Low=_, the deuce of trumps.
   1    For the _=Jack=_ of trumps.
   1    For the Ten of trumps, or _=Game=_.
   5 For the Five of trumps, or _=Right Pedro=_.
   5 For the Five of the same colour, or _=Left Pedro=_.
  --
  14 points altogether; all in the trump suit.

All these points, including Low, count to the player winning them, and
not to the players to whom they are dealt. This saves endless disputes.

_=BIDDING.=_ Beginning with the eldest hand, each player in turn, after
examining his nine cards, can make _=one bid=_ for the privilege of
naming the trump suit. The peculiarity of this bidding is that nobody
sells, the bids being made _=to the board=_, as it is called. The
bidder announces the number of points he thinks he can make (with his
partner’s assistance) but does not name the trump suit. If a player
will not bid, he says: “_=I pass=_.” After a bid has been made in its
proper turn, any following player must bid higher or pass. No one is
allowed to bid more than fourteen. There are no second bids, and a bid
once made cannot be amended or withdrawn. The player who has made the
highest bid is called upon to name the trump suit.

_=Irregular Bids.=_ If any player bids before the eldest hand has bid
or passed, both the player in error and his partner lose their right
to make any bid that deal; but the side not in error must bid against
each other for the privilege of naming the trump suit. If the eldest
hand has decided, and the pone bids without waiting for the dealer’s
partner, the pone loses his bid, and the dealer may bid before his
partner, without penalty. If the dealer bids before his partner has
decided, both he and his partner lose their right to bid that deal;
but the pone is still at liberty to overbid the eldest hand for the
privilege of naming the trump. If the dealer’s partner has bid, and the
dealer bids without waiting for the pone, the dealer loses his right to
bid for that deal.

If a player whose partner has not yet bid names the trump suit, his
partner loses the right to bid. If no bid is made, the dealer may name
any suit he pleases, without bidding. If any player exposes a card
before the trump suit is named, the adversaries may elect to have a new
deal by the same dealer.

_=DISCARDING AND DRAWING.=_ The trump suit named, each player discards
and leaves _=face upward=_ on the table as many cards as he pleases.
He must discard three, to reduce his hand to six cards. If he discards
more than three he must draw from the remainder of the pack to restore
the number of his cards to six; so that after the discard and draw each
player at the table will have exactly six cards, although nine were
originally dealt him.

The dealer, beginning on his left, gives to each player in turn as
many cards from the top of the pack as may be necessary to restore the
number in his hand to six. When it comes to the dealer’s turn, instead
of taking cards from the top of the pack, he may search the remainder
of the pack, and take from it any cards that he pleases. This is called
_=robbing the deck=_. Should he find in his own hand and the remainder
of the pack more than six trumps, he must discard those he does not
want, showing them face up on the table with the other discards.

Should any player discard a trump, his partner has the right to call
his attention to it, and if the player has not been helped to cards, or
has not lifted the cards drawn, the trump erroneously discarded may be
taken back; otherwise it must remain among the discards until the hand
has been played, when, if it is of any counting value, it must be added
to the score of the side making the trump.

Although there is no law to that effect, it is considered imperative
for each player except the dealer to discard everything but trumps.
This is partly because no other cards are of the slightest use, and
partly because one of the points of the game is that the number of
trumps held by each player before the draw should be indicated by his
discard.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The player who has named the trump suit begins
by leading any card he pleases. If a trump is led, every one must
follow suit if able to do so, and it must be remembered that the Left
Pedro is one of the trump suit. When a plain suit is led, any player
may trump if he chooses, although holding one of the suit led; but if
he does not trump, he must follow suit if he can. If he has none of
the suit led he may trump or discard at pleasure. The highest card
played of the suit led wins the trick, and trumps win all other suits.
The Five of trumps, or any higher, will win the Left Pedro; but the
Left Pedro will win the Four of trumps, or any lower. The winner of
the trick gathers it in, turning it face down, and leads for the next
trick, and so on, until all six tricks have been played. The tricks
themselves have no value, and need not be kept separate. The last trick
turned and quitted may be seen, but no other.

_=Irregularities in Playing.=_ If, during the play of a hand, any
person is found to have too many cards, his hand is foul, and neither
he nor his partner can score any points for that deal, but they may
play the hand out to prevent the adversaries from scoring everything.
If he has too few cards there is no penalty.

If a player leads out of turn, and the three others follow him, the
trick stands good. If all have not followed the false lead, their cards
must be taken back, but only the leader’s card is liable to be called.
If it was the turn of the partner of the player in error to lead,
the adversary on his right may call upon him to lead or not to lead
a trump; but he cannot specify the plain suit. If it was the turn of
either adversary of the player in error to lead, the card led in error
is simply exposed.

If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth may play before
the second also. If the fourth hand plays before his partner, third
hand not having played, the trick may be claimed by the adversaries,
regardless of who wins it; but the player who actually wins it leads
for the next trick.

If a player has a card of the suit led, and neither follows suit nor
plays a trump, it is a _=revoke=_; and, if detected and claimed by the
adversaries, neither the player in error nor his partner can score
any points that hand; but the hand may be played out to prevent the
adversaries from scoring everything. If an adversary of the bidder
revokes, the bidder’s side scores all points it makes, regardless
of the number bid. For instance: A has bid nine; and Y revokes. A-B
make eight only, which they score, Y-Z scoring nothing. When a player
renounces, his partner should ask him if he is void of the suit.

If any player abandons his hand, the cards in it may be exposed and
called by the adversaries. The practice of throwing down the hand as
soon as one renounces to trumps, cannot be too strongly condemned.

All _=exposed cards=_, such as cards dropped on the table; two or more
played at once; cards led out of turn; or cards named by the player
holding them, must be left face up on the table, and are liable to be
called by the adversaries, unless they can be previously got rid of in
the course of play. If the exposed card is a trump, the adversaries
may prevent its being played, but the holder of it is not liable for a
revoke in such cases.

_=SCORING.=_ When the last card has been played, each side turns over
all the tricks won, and counts the points they contain; High, Low,
Jack, Game, Right and Left Pedro. Everything, including Low, counts to
the side winning it. The number of points won or lost is determined by
deducting the lower score from the higher, the difference being the
number of points won on that deal. If it is a tie, neither side scores.
If either side has incurred a penalty which prevents them from scoring
any points they may have won, the adversaries have nothing to deduct,
and score all they make.

If the side that named the trump fails to make as many points as it
bid, it scores nothing, and the number of points bid are scored by the
adversaries, in addition to any points that the adversaries may have
made in play. For instance: A-B are partners against Y-Z. B has bid to
make 8, and named hearts for trumps. A-B make 10, which is 2 more than
they bid, Y-Z getting the other 4; which leaves A-B 6. These are scored
by placing one red and one white counter in the pool. But suppose A-B
got only 5 points, Y-Z getting 9. A-B would score nothing, as they did
not make good their bid; while Y-Z would score the 9 points actually
won, and the 8 points bid in addition, or 17 altogether.

The old way of scoring was to _=set back=_ the side that failed to make
the number bid; but that system of counting entirely destroyed the
interest in the game when one side got much behind; because it could
not recover in time to prevent the other side from _=sweating out=_, as
it is called. Suppose A-B have been set back 18 points on two failures,
Y-Z having made 16 points on those two deals, and 23 on their own bids.
The score will stand: A-B 64 to go; Y-Z, 12 to go. Even if we suppose
that A-B make 11 on each of the next four deals, they will still have
20 to go, while Y-Z will be out. Again: A-B want 15, Y-Z want 2. Even
if A-B can bid 12 and make it, Y-Z will sweat out.

With the system of scoring here recommended, this sweating out is
impossible, and it is not uncommon for a side that wants one to go, to
be beaten by an adversary that wants forty-nine.

The side first pegging out on a cribbage-board, or getting rid of
its fifty-one counters, wins the game. When the game is counted on a
pull-up cribbage marker, it is usual to start with ten up, and peg out
to the game-hole, or 61.

_=VARIATIONS.=_ There are quite a number of minor differences in the
manner of playing Cinch. Sometimes, instead of discarding and drawing,
after the successful bidder has been ascertained, but before he names
the trump, four more cards are given to each player, including the
dealer. Having seen thirteen cards, the bidder names the trump suit,
and the hands are then reduced to six cards each. This method gives no
clue to the number of trumps originally held, and deprives the dealer
of one of the greatest advantages of his position, robbing the deck.

Another method is to discard and draw after the trump is named, but to
make the dealer take his cards from the top of the pack to complete
his hand, without seeing what he is to get. This often leaves counting
cards in the remainder of the pack, which must remain face down, and be
kept separate from the discards. Such points count for neither side;
but any points found among the discards may be counted by the side
making the trump, as in the ordinary game. Owing to the uncertainty as
to the number of points actually in play, the result is controlled more
largely by luck than skill.

In some places the _=first lead=_ from the successful bidder must be a
_=trump=_. This makes the game too much like Auction Pitch, and spoils
some of the finer points in leading.

_=Low=_ is sometimes counted for the person to whom it is dealt. Such a
rule causes endless confusion and disputes.

The old method of _=scoring=_ has already been mentioned. Another
variation is that if the bidder’s side do not make at least 8 points
they cannot score anything, no matter what they bid. If both sides
score 7, neither having bid more than 7, neither scores. If one side
bids 6, and makes 8, it scores 8; but the adversaries score the 6 they
make. If the side bidding 6 had made 6 only, it would score nothing,
while their adversaries would mark the 8 they made. The only good
result of the 6 bid in this case is to prevent the adversaries from
scoring for a failure; for if 7 had been bid, and only 6 made, the
adversaries would have scored the 7 bid in addition to the 8 they made,
or 15 in all. This system, while better than the old way, because it
never sets players back, still allows one side to sweat out; because if
the bidder does not make 14, the adversaries must count something every
deal.

_=Five or six players=_, each for himself, may play what is called
_=Auction Cinch=_, or _=Razzle-dazzle=_. Only six cards are dealt to
each player, three on the first round and three on the second. Then
the privilege of naming the trump suit is bid for as usual. After the
trump is named, superfluous cards are thrown out, and others drawn in
their place, restoring the hands to six cards each. The successful
bidder then calls upon the holder of any given card to be his partner.
The person holding the card named cannot refuse, and says: “I play with
you.” The partnership thus formed plays against the combined forces of
the other players, but without changing seats. The maker of the trump
leads first, any card he pleases. For instance: A B C D E are playing.
C bids 8 and names clubs. After the draw he finds he holds A J 10 5 2
of trumps. He calls for the club King as his partner, and leads his
Pedro at once for the King to take it in. He is then certain to catch
the other Pedro, or to save three of the four points for High, Low,
Jack, and the Game. Those who have played Seven-handed Euchre will at
once recognize the similarity of the two games. Both are excellent
round games for the family circle.

_=Progressive Cinch=_ is played by dealing one round at each table;
that is, four deals, each player having the deal once only. The
ordinary game of Cinch is played, and the pair having the fewest points
to go at the end of the four deals progress to the next higher table.
Ties cut to decide, high going up. On arriving at the next table, the
partners divide, and another game of four deals is played, the winning
pair again progressing. The general arrangements for the original
positions of the players, and the prizes to be given, are the same as
in Progressive Euchre, and have been fully described in connection with
that game.

_=Blind Cinch.=_ Instead of giving each player thirteen cards at once,
the hands are dealt in two parts. First of all, nine cards are dealt
to each player, three at a time. Then four cards are dealt in front of
each player, but not to be touched until the bidding is finished. The
highest bidder takes up his four extra cards and then names the trump,
after which he discards down to six cards for play. The others then
take up their four cards and discard down to six, and the game proceeds
like regular cinch.

_=Sixty-three.=_ In this variation, nine cards are dealt to each
player, three at a time. After the bidding, the players discard
and fill up again to six cards. Players are allowed several bids,
each raising in turn if he is raised. The highest bid possible is
sixty-three, and these may be made as follows: High, low, Jack, and ten
of trumps count 1 each; pedros, 5 each; King of trumps, 25; trey of
trumps, 15; nine of trumps, 9. Game is 150 points.

_=Widow Cinch.=_ Six players cut for partners, two on a side. Each
player has two adversaries between himself and his partner. The dealer
gives each player eight cards, four at a time, and four are dealt to
the table after the first round to the players. These four cards are
the widow. The successful bidder can take the widow before he names the
trump, and then all the players discard down to six cards.

_=SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.=_ There is a great diversity of opinion on
bidding. Some persons always bid six on an ace, if they hold neither
of the Pedroes. This is based on the sound principle that the odds are
five to four in favour of your partner having one of the Pedroes, which
he will immediately give up if you lead the ace. The odds are five to
two that your partner will hold one or more of any three named counting
cards which you do not hold. If you have no Pedro, count on him for
one, and if you have King and Queen, you can risk his having a guard to
it, and bid as if you were sure of getting his Pedro home. If you have
none of the points for High, Low, Jack, or Game, or only one of them,
count on him for one at least, and bid accordingly.

It is very difficult to give exact rules for bidding, the state of
the score having much to do with it; but as a general rule it is much
better to bid on _=catching cards=_ than on the points themselves. For
instance: A K Q of trumps should certainly be good for eight points;
some players habitually bid twelve on them, reckoning to catch both
Pedroes and one of the minor points. This is risky unless there are one
or two small trumps with the A K Q. On the other hand, two Pedroes,
with Jack and Low, are not worth bidding more than five on; because it
is very unlikely that you will save more than one of the Pedroes, if
that. The very fact that you bid five diminishes your chances, for you
betray the fact that your only hope is to save a well-guarded Pedro.
Long experience with players who bid their hands correctly will give
a player a very good idea of what the bidder has in his hand. To the
partner this is a great point, for it enables him to judge when to give
up points himself, and when to play for his partner to throw them to
him.

The number of cards asked for by each player should be very carefully
noted; for it will frequently happen that the entire trump suit can be
located by this means. It is useless to keep anything but trumps, for
tricks, as such, have no value, and every card you draw increases your
chances of getting another trump.

The most important point in the game is to _=cinch=_ every trick in
which an adversary plays after you; that is, to play some trump higher
than a Pedro, if the Pedroes have not been played, and you do not hold
them yourself. Examples of cinching will be found in the Illustrative
Hands. If your partner leads a certain winning trump, such as the ace,
or the King if the ace is gone, give him the best counting card you
have; but if you have two, one of them being Low, give up the lower
card first; you may catch something with the Jack or Ten. If your
partner leads any trump higher than the Five, play your smallest trump
unless second hand covers, in which case you must cinch the trick, to
prevent the fourth hand from giving up a Pedro on his partner’s trick.

If you are forced to win your partner’s first lead of trumps, return
the best trump you have, unless it is the Jack or Ten, in which case
you must be guided by the number of points you are playing for, and
your chances of making them if you lose the card you lead.

If your partner begins by leading a plain suit, you must cinch the
trick if you can; if second hand follows suit, any trump better than
the Five will do. If second hand puts on a trump, you must cinch higher.

If the player on your right renounces to trumps, get into the lead if
possible, and play your best cards in plain suits. This may give your
partner a tenace position over the player on your left.

If partner begins with a high card in trumps, not the ace, credit
him with the sequence below it, and put in your Pedro at the first
opportunity. For instance: Partner leads King, won by the ace second
hand. Whatever this player leads, put in your Pedro, if you have one,
your partner must have Queen of trumps.

Playing to the score is very important. Do not attempt to get more
than the number bid until that is assured. On the other hand, if it is
certain that the adversary cannot make good his bid, do not let him get
as close to it as possible, but play boldly to win all you can, for
every point he makes is simply lost.

Here are a few example hands, which will give a very good idea of some
of the fine points in the game.

      _=No. 1.=_             |   |     _=No. 2.=_
    A bids 8 on hearts.      | T |   A bids 8 on hearts.
     The draw: A 2; Y 2;     | R |    The draw: A 2; Y 3;
               B 4; Z 5.     | I |              B 4; Z 4.
  ---------------------------+ C +---------------------------
      A     Y      B      Z  | K |   A      Y        B     Z
  ------+------+------+------+---+------+-------+-------+-----
    ♣Q  |  ♣3  | _♡8_ |  ♣5  | 1 |  ♡3  |  ♡7   | _♡10_ | ♡8
    ♡2  |  ♡6  | _♡Q_ |  ♡4  | 2 | _♡Q_ |  ♡2   |  ♡4   | ♡9
    ♡10 | _♡J_ |  ♣J  |  ♡9  | 3 |  ♡6  | _♡J_  |   A♢  | ♣4
   _♡K_ |   5♢ |  2♠  |  4♠  | 4 |  ♣2  |  _7♠_ |   K♢  |  6♠
   _♡A_ |  ♡7  |  6♠  | ♣9   | 5 |  ♡K  | _♡A_  |  ♣3   | ♣6
    ♡3  | _♡5_ | 10♠  |  K♢  | 6 | _♡5_ |   5♢  |  2♢   | ♣10
  ------+------+------+------+---+------+-------+-------+-----

_=No. 1.=_ Y’s draw shows that he holds at least four trumps, so A must
trust his partner to cinch the first trick and return the trump. [See
our suggestions for good play.] At trick 3, Z cinches, to make A play
a high trump. It is evident to A that neither B nor Z holds either
Jack or Seven of trumps; so both those cards must be with Y. As B has
no more trumps the adversaries must have both Pedroes, and Y must have
one, as he holds four trumps. If they are divided, A can catch both by
cinching this trick with the King and leading the Ace; but if Y has
both Pedroes, such a course would lose Jack, Game, and one Pedro. If
A cinches this trick with the Ten, allowing Y to win with the Jack, A
must catch both Pedroes, no matter how they lie, provided Y leads the
trump Seven, for A will refuse to win it.

Y sees his danger, and by leading a Pedro to A, forces him either to
pass it, or to get into the lead and free the other Pedro.

A-B score nothing: Y-Z score 7 for Jack, Game, Pedro; and 8 in
addition, for points bid but not made by A-B; 15 altogether.

_=No. 2.=_ At trick 2, Y sees that he cannot save Low, and the lead
would be a great disadvantage, because either A has all the remaining
trumps, or Y’s partner has an unguarded Pedro. At trick 3, A knows that
if Y has Ace, and Z Pedro, A can still make his bid by catching Jack,
and saving his own Pedro. If the Pedro was not with Z the small trump
is still the best lead, for it puts the lead on A’s left. B gets rid of
cards which might get him into the lead to his partner’s disadvantage.
Unfortunately, Z is unable to take the lead away from Y at trick 4. As
Y is still in the lead, there is no necessity for A to save his Pedro,
for Y cannot possibly catch it, and A must catch Y’s, no matter how Y
plays.

A-B score 10 points; Low, Game, and both Pedroes, 12, from which they
deduct the 2 points made by Y-Z.

      _=No. 3.=_             |   |     _=No. 4.=_
    A bids 12 on hearts.     | T |   A bids 8 on hearts.
     The draw: A 3; Y 5;     | R |   The draw: A 2; Y 4
               B 3; Z 2.     | I |             B 4; Z 4.
  ------+------+------+------+ C +-------+------+------+-----
     A      Y      B      Z  | K |   A       Y      B      Z
  ------+------+------+------+---+-------+------+------+-----
   _♡A_ |  ♡3  |   5♢ |  ♡6  | 1 | _♡A_  |  ♡6  |  ♡J  |  ♡3
   _♡K_ |  ♡4  |  ♡8  |  ♡10 | 2 |  ♡8   |  ♡7  |  ♡4  | _♡9_
    ♡2  |  ♡7  |  ♡9  | _♡J_ | 3 |  ♡Q   |  ♡2  |   4♢ | _♡K_
    ♣Q  | _♣K_ |  ♣3  |  ♣J  | 4 |   Q♠  |  ♣2  | _♣A_ |  ♣9
     8♠ | _♣A_ |  ♣10 |   2♢ | 5 |   5♢  | _♡5_ |  ♣J  |  ♣7
   _♡Q_ |   Q♠ |   K♢ |  ♡5  | 6 | _♡10_ |   4♠ |   J♢ |   2♢

_=No. 3.=_ At the second trick, A knows that his partner still holds
another trump, because he drew only three cards. This trump must be the
9. Z holds two more trumps, and they must be the Jack and Right Pedro,
because Z would not throw away Game if he had anything smaller. The 7
must be with Y, and if A now leads trump Queen, he will leave the Pedro
good over his Deuce, leaving him only 8 points, whereas he has bid 12.
If A leads the Deuce, his partner’s nine will cinch the trick, and Z
can make only the Jack.

A-B score 10. The 12 actually taken make good the bid; but the 2 points
won by the adversaries must be deducted, leaving 10 to be scored by A-B.

_=No. 4.=_ At the third trick, a hasty or careless player would have
been only too glad of the opportunity to get in his Pedro. But Y
reasons that there are only two trumps unaccounted for, the Ten and
Left Pedro. If B has one, it must fall to this trick. He cannot have
both, for A drew only two cards. If A has both, Y must catch his Pedro,
no matter how A plays; and as long as Y does not get into the lead
himself, he cannot lose his own Pedro. At trick 5, A naturally places
the Pedro with Z, as Y did not save it on the King, and it is perfectly
natural for A to trump with his Pedro, intending to lead the Ten to
catch Z’s.

A-B score nothing, not having made good their bid. Y-Z score Right and
Left Pedro, and Low, 11 points; adding the 8 points bid but not made by
A-B, 19 altogether.


CINCH LAWS.

_=Formation of Table.=_ A cinch table is complete with six players.
If more than four assemble, they cut for preference, the four highest
playing the first game. Partners and deal are then cut for, the two
lowest pairing against the two highest. Partners sit opposite each
other. The highest deals, and has the choice of seats and cards. The
Ace is high, both in cutting and in play. A player exposing more than
one card must cut again.

_=Ties.=_ If the first cut does not decide, the players cutting equal
cards cut again; but the new cut decides nothing but the tie.

_=Cutting Out.=_ At the end of the game, the players cut to decide
which shall give way to those awaiting their turn to play, the lowest
cuts going out. After the second game, those who have played the
greatest number of consecutive games give way, ties being decided by
cutting.

_=Dealing.=_ Every player has the right to shuffle the cards, the
dealer last. The dealer must present the pack to the pone to be cut.
At least four cards must be left in each packet. If a card is exposed
in cutting, the pack must be reshuffled, and cut again. If the dealer
reshuffles the pack after it has been properly cut, he loses his deal.

Beginning on his left, the dealer must give to each player in rotation
three cards at a time for three rounds. No trump is turned. The deal
passes to the left.

There must be a new deal by the same dealer if any card is found faced
in the pack; or if the pack is proved incorrect or imperfect; but any
previous cutting or scores made with the imperfect pack stand good.

The adversaries may demand a new deal if any card is exposed during the
deal, provided they have not touched a card. If an adversary exposes
a card, the dealer may elect to deal again. If a new deal is not
demanded, cards exposed in dealing cannot be called.

The adversaries may stop a player dealing out of turn, or with the
wrong pack, provided they do so before the last three cards are dealt,
alter which the deal stands good.

_=Misdealing.=_ A misdeal loses the deal. It is a misdeal: If the cards
have not been properly cut, if the dealer does not give the same number
of cards to each player on the same round; if he gives too many or too
few cards to any player; if he counts the cards on the table, or those
remaining in the pack; or if he deals a card incorrectly, and fails to
correct the error before dealing another. If the dealer is interrupted
in any way by an adversary, he does not lose his deal.

_=Bidding.=_ After receiving his nine cards, each player in turn,
beginning on the dealer’s left, announces the number of points he will
undertake to win if he is allowed to name the trump suit. No player is
allowed to bid more than fourteen. If he will not bid, he must say: “I
pass.” A bid having been regularly made, any following player must bid
higher or pass. There are no second bids. A bid once made can neither
be amended nor withdrawn.

_=Irregular Bids.=_ If any player bids before the eldest hand has bid
or passed, both the player in error and his partner lose their right
to bid; but the side not in error must bid to decide which of them
shall name the trump. If the eldest hand has decided, and the pone
bids without waiting for the dealer’s partner, the pone loses his bid,
and the dealer may bid before his partner. If the dealer bids without
waiting for his partner, both lose their bids; but the pone may overbid
the eldest hand.

If the dealer’s partner has bid, and the dealer bids without waiting
for the pone, the dealer loses his bid.

If a player whose partner has not yet bid names the trump suit, his
partner loses his bid.

If a player bids with more than nine cards in his hand, his bid is
lost, and the adversaries must draw the superfluous cards from his
hand, face down, placing them about the middle of the undealt portion
of the pack.

If no bid is made, the dealer may name any trump he pleases, without
bidding.

If any player exposes any of his cards before the trump suit is named,
the adversaries may elect to have a new deal by the same dealer.

_=Discarding.=_ The trump named, each player must put out at least
three of his cards, and may discard as many more as he pleases. All
such discards must be placed on the table face up. Should a player
discard a trump, his partner may call his attention to it, and it may
be taken back, provided the player has not been helped to cards, or has
not lifted the cards drawn.

_=Drawing.=_ The players having discarded, the dealer, beginning on his
left, must give to each in turn from the top of the pack, face down, as
many cards as may be necessary to restore the number in each hand to
six.

_=Robbing the Deck.=_ When it comes to the dealer’s turn to draw cards,
instead of taking them from the top of the pack, face down, he may
search the remainder of the pack, and take from it any cards he pleases
to restore the number in his hand to six. Should he find in his own
hand and in the remainder of the pack, more than six trumps, he must
discard those he does not want, face upward on the table.

_=Irregular Drawing.=_ Should a player ask for too many or too
few cards, and not discover his error until the next player has
been helped, if he has too few he may make his hand good from the
discards, but must not take a trump therefrom. If he has too many, the
adversaries must be allowed to draw the superfluous ones at random,
face down, placing them on the top of the pack.

_=Playing.=_ The maker of the trump must lead for the first trick, any
card he pleases. If a trump is led, all must follow suit if able. If a
plain suit is led, a player may trump, even when holding a card of the
suit led; but if he does not trump he must follow suit if he can, or he
is liable to the penalty for a revoke.

The last trick turned and quitted may be seen, but no other.

_=Irregularities in the Hands.=_ If any player is found to have an
incorrect number of cards, it is a misdeal if no bid has been made.
If a bid has been made, the deal stands good if three players have
their right number of cards. If the first trick has been played to by
a person holding too many cards, neither he nor his partner can score
anything that hand; but they may play the hand out to save what points
they can. If a player has too few cards, there is no penalty, but he
should draw from the discard to make up the deficiency, plain-suit
cards only being available.

_=Exposed Cards.=_ The following are exposed cards, which must be left
face up on the table, and are liable to be called by either adversary:
1. Every card faced upon the table otherwise than in the regular course
of play. 2. Two or more cards played to a trick; the adversaries may
elect which shall be played. 3. Any card named by the player holding it.

The adversary on the right of an exposed card must call it before he
plays himself. If it will be the turn of the player holding the exposed
card to lead for the next trick, the card, if wanted, must be called
before the current trick is turned and quitted. Should a player having
the lead, and an exposed card in front of him, play before the previous
trick is turned and quitted, the card so led may also be claimed as
exposed.

If a trump is exposed after the trump suit has been named, the
adversaries may prevent the playing of such a card; but the holder of
it is not liable to any penalty for a revoke under such circumstances.

_=Leading Out of Turn.=_ If a player leads when it was his partner’s
turn, the partner may be called upon by his right-hand adversary to
lead or not to lead a trump; but a specified plain suit cannot be
called. If it was the turn of neither of the side in error to lead, the
card played in error is simply exposed. If all have played to the false
lead, the error cannot be rectified. If all have not followed, the
cards played to the false lead may be taken back, and are not liable to
be called.

_=Playing Out of Turn.=_ If the third hand plays before the second, the
fourth may play before the second also; either of his own volition,
or by the direction of the second hand, who may say: “Play, partner.”
If the fourth hand plays before the second, the third hand not having
played, the trick may be claimed by the adversaries, no matter who
actually wins it; but the actual winner of it must lead for the next
trick.

If any player abandons his hand, the cards in it may be claimed as
exposed, and called by the adversaries.

_=The Revoke.=_ A revoke is a renounce in error, not corrected in time,
or non-compliance with a performable penalty. It is a revoke if a
player has one of the suit led, and neither follows suit nor trumps.

A person prohibited from playing an exposed trump is not liable to any
penalty if it causes him to revoke.

A revoke is established when the trick in which it occurs has been
turned and quitted; or when either the revoking player or his partner,
whether in his right turn or otherwise, has led or played to the
following trick.

If a revoke is claimed and proved, the revoking side cannot score
any points that deal; but they may play the hand out to prevent the
adversaries from making points.

If an adversary of the bidder revokes, the bidder’s side scores
whatever points it makes that deal, regardless of the number bid.

A player may ask his partner whether or not he has a card of the suit
in which he renounces and does not trump, and the player may correct
his error if the question is asked before the trick is turned and
quitted. But if he answers in the negative, there is no remedy.

_=Drawing Cards.=_ Any player may ask the others to indicate the cards
played by them to the current trick; but he must confine himself to the
expression: “Draw cards.”

_=Irregular Remarks.=_ A player calling attention in any manner to the
trick or to the score, may be called upon to play his highest or lowest
of the suit led; or to trump or not to trump the trick during the play
of which the remark is made.

_=Scoring.=_ A game consists of fifty-one points; fourteen of which
must be made on every deal, as follows:--

1 for _=High=_, or the Ace of trumps.

1 for _=Low=_, or the Deuce of trumps.

1 for the _=Jack=_ of trumps.

1 for _=Game=_, or the Ten of trumps.

5 for _=Right Pedro=_, or the Five of trumps.

5 for _=Left Pedro=_, or Five of the same colour as the trump suit. All
points count to the side winning them.

Any trumps found among the discards at the end of the hand count for
the side that made the trump.

At the end of the hand, the number of points won by each side is added
up, and the lower deducted from the higher, the difference being scored
by the winners of the majority. If the result is a tie, neither scores.
For instance: If A-B make 11, Y-Z must make the remaining 3, which
deducted from 11 leaves 8 points for A-B to score.

If the side naming the trump suit fails to make as many points as they
bid, they score nothing for that deal, and the number bid is scored by
the adversaries, in addition to any other points that the adversaries
may have made in play. The number bid and the number actually won, must
be compared before deducting the points made by the adversaries.

The side first making fifty-one points wins the game.

       *       *       *       *       *

_=Text Books.=_ There are two very good text-books on the game.

  _The Laws and Principles of Cinch_, by G.W. Hall, 1891.
  _The Laws and Etiquette of Cinch_, issued by the Chicago Cinch Club,
    1890.



HEARTS.


Hearts is supposed by some persons to be an entirely new game; but its
leading principle, losing instead of winning tricks, is to be found
in many other card games, some of which are quite old. Slobberhannes,
Enflé, Schwellen, Polignac, and The Four Jacks, all belong to the same
family, but most of them have given way to the more popular game of
Hearts.

There are several varieties of Hearts, but the principal arrangements
are the same in all, and the chief differences are in the manner of
settling at the end of the hand.

_=CARDS.=_ Hearts is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, which
rank A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2: the ace is the highest in play, but in
cutting it ranks below the deuce. There is no trump suit.

When three persons play, the deuce of spades is thrown out of the
pack; when five play, both the black deuces are laid aside, and when
six play, all four deuces are discarded. It is usual to play with two
packs, one being shuffled while the other is dealt.

_=COUNTERS.=_ Every deal is a game in itself, and must be settled for
in counters immediately. It is usual for each player to begin with
fifty counters, which are purchased from some person who is agreed
upon to act as banker. When only two play, the game may be scored on a
pull-up cribbage board, and settled for at the end.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Any number from two to six persons may play, but four is
the usual number, each playing for himself against all the others. The
players on the dealer’s right and left are known as the _=pone=_ and
the _=eldest hand=_, respectively.

_=STAKES.=_ The value of the counters must be agreed upon before
play begins, and the method of settling should also be understood,
Sweepstake Hearts and Howell’s Settling being entirely different games,
and requiring totally different methods of play.

_=CUTTING.=_ If seven players assemble, it is usual to make up a table
in which the dealer takes no cards. If there are more than seven
candidates for play, two tables must be formed.

Players draw from an outspread pack for the choice of seats and cards,
the lowest cut having the first choice, and the others following in
their order. The player cutting the lowest card takes the first deal,
which afterward passes in regular rotation to the left.

In cutting, the ace is low. Any player exposing more than one card must
cut again.

_=TIES.=_ If the first cut does not decide, those tying must cut again,
but the new cut decides nothing but the tie.

_=DEALING.=_ Any player has the right to shuffle the pack, the dealer
last. The cards are then presented to the pone to be cut, who must
leave at least four in each packet. The cards are dealt from left to
right, one at a time to each player in rotation until the pack is
exhausted. No trump is turned. In Two-handed Hearts, the dealer stops
when each player has received thirteen cards. The deal passes to the
left.

_=Misdealing.=_ It is a misdeal if the dealer omits to have the pack
cut, and the error is discovered before the last card is dealt; if he
deals a card incorrectly, and does not remedy the error before dealing
another; or if he counts the cards on the table, or those remaining in
the pack; or if it is discovered before all have played to the first
trick that any player has too many or too few cards. A misdeal loses
the deal unless one of the other players has touched the cards, or has
in any way interrupted the dealer.

If any card is exposed by the dealer, the player to whom it is dealt
may demand a new deal, provided he has not touched any of his cards.
Any one dealing out of turn, or with the wrong cards, may be stopped
before the last card is dealt. After that the deal stands good, and the
packs, if changed, must so remain.

_=IRREGULAR HANDS.=_ If, after the first trick has been played to, any
two players are found to have more or less than their correct number
of cards, the pack being perfect, the one having less must draw, face
downward, from the hand of the one having more; and each must pay five
counters into the pool.

_=OBJECTS OF THE GAME.=_ As a general proposition, the object of each
player is to avoid getting any hearts in the tricks he takes in. In
some varieties of the game his object must be to take no hearts; in
others it will be to take less than his adversaries; while in others
it will be to take less than four. After a person has taken in one or
more hearts, his object will be to _=load=_ the others; that is, to see
that they get some hearts also; or it may be to see that a given player
takes at least one heart; or that no one but himself takes any. The
manner in which a person must vary his play in accordance with these
different objects will be discussed when we come to the suggestions for
good play. In the meantime, it is necessary to bear in mind only the
general principle that the object of the game is to avoid winning any
tricks that contain hearts.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The cards dealt, the player to the left of the
dealer begins by leading any card he pleases, and the others must
follow suit if they can. The highest card played, if of the suit led,
wins the trick. There is no trump suit. If a player has none of the
suit led, he may discard anything he pleases. The winner of the trick
takes it in and leads for the next trick, and so on until all the cards
have been played. The tricks themselves have no value as such, and need
not be kept separate.

_=Irregularities in Play.=_ If any player omits to play to a trick, and
plays to a following one, he is not allowed to correct his error, but
is compelled to take the thirteenth or last trick, with whatever hearts
it may contain. If a player is found, during or at the end of a hand,
to be a card short, all others at the table having their right number,
and all having played to the first trick, the player with the short
hand is compelled to take the last trick, with whatever hearts it may
contain.

_=Exposed Cards.=_ Should a person lead or play two cards to one trick,
he is allowed to indicate the one intended; but he must leave the other
face upward on the table. All exposed cards are liable to be called
by any player at the table, and should one player call such a card,
his decision is binding on the others. A player with an exposed card
in front of him must play it when called upon, provided he can do so
without revoking; but he cannot be prevented from getting rid of the
exposed card in the course of play, if the opportunity offers.

_=Leading Out of Turn.=_ Should a player lead out of turn, he may be
called upon to lead or not to lead a heart when it is next his turn to
lead. This penalty can be enforced only by the player on his right. If
all have played to the false lead the error cannot be rectified; but if
all have not played, their cards must be taken back, and are not liable
to be called.

If any person plays out of turn in any trick, the player on his left,
not having played, may demand that the card be taken back, and after
the proper player has played the player in error may be called upon to
play his highest or lowest of the suit led, or not to discard a heart.
If the person on the left of the player in error was the leader in the
trick, either he or the player whose proper turn it was to play may
demand the penalty.

_=Revoking.=_ Any player failing to follow suit, when able to do so,
may amend his error if he discovers his mistake before the trick in
which it occurs has been turned and quitted. The card played in error
then becomes an exposed card. Those who have played after him have the
privilege of withdrawing their cards and substituting others, without
penalty. Should the revoking player not discover his error in time,
the hand must be played out, and if the revoke is detected and claimed
the player in error must pay all the losses on that hand. Should
the revoking player win the pool himself, he must pay the thirteen
counters to the pool, and leave them for a _=Jack=_. Should he divide
the pool with another player, he must pay his co-winner six counters,
and put up the other seven for a Jack.

If two or more players revoke in the same hand, each must pay the
entire losses in that hand as if he were alone in error; so that if
two should revoke and a third win the pool, the latter would receive
twenty-six counters instead of thirteen. In Auction Hearts, the
revoking player must also refund the amount put up by the bidder.
A revoke must be claimed and proved before the pool is divided.
Non-compliance with a performable penalty is the same as a revoke.

_=SETTLING.=_ After the last card has been played, each player turns
over his tricks, counts the number of hearts he has taken in, and
announces it. Players should be careful not to gather or mix the cards
until all thirteen hearts have been accounted for. Each player then
pays into the pool for the number of hearts he has taken in, according
to the system of settlement agreed upon before play began. The pool
is then taken down by the player or players winning it, and the deal
passes to the left. The game is at an end any time the players wish to
stop, after a hand has been settled for; but it is usual to agree upon
some definite hour.

There are two ways of settling at the end of the hand, each of which
has its good points.

_=SWEEPSTAKE HEARTS.=_ After the hand has been played, each player
announces the number of hearts he has taken in, and pays into the pool
one counter for each. All thirteen hearts having been paid for, any
player having taken no hearts wins the entire pool; two having taken
none, divide it. If all the players have taken hearts, or if one player
has taken all thirteen, the pool remains, and forms a _=Jack=_. This
can be won only by a single player in some subsequent deal taking no
hearts, all the others having taken at least one. These jack pools are
of course increased thirteen counters every deal until some player wins
the whole amount. Some clubs make it a Jack after two players have
divided a pool, using the odd counter as a starter. It will be found
that natural Jacks occur quite frequently enough without resorting to
this expedient.

_=HOWELL’S SETTLING.=_ The great objection to the method of settling
at Sweepstake Hearts is that it makes the game almost entirely one of
chance. No matter how good a player one may be, good luck alone will
bring success. In a four-handed game it is possible for one player
to take in only 58 hearts in 60 deals, and still to be 46 counters
behind; while another player may take in 500 hearts in 60 deals and
be 46 counters ahead. It may be claimed that the player who has 46
counters ahead at the end was the better player, because he won; but
most persons will agree that a player who takes in only 58 hearts in 60
deals is a much better player than one who has taken in 500 hearts in
the same time.

It was to remedy this defect, and to give skill its proper percentage
of value, that Mr. E. C. Howell of Boston proposed the manner of
contributing to and dividing the pools which is now known as Howell’s
Settling.

Each player begins with an equal number of counters, usually 100. At
the end of the hand, after the hearts have been counted and announced,
each player pays into the pool, for every heart he holds, as many
counters as there are players besides himself. For instance: A, B, C
and D play. A takes three hearts; B and C five each, and D none. There
being three players besides himself, A puts up three times three, or 9
counters. B and C put up 15 each, and D none; so that there are 39 in
the pool. Each player then takes out of the pool 1 counter for every
heart he did _=not=_ hold when the hearts were announced. D, having
taken no hearts, gets 13 counters. A, having taken three hearts only,
is entitled to 10 counters for the 10 hearts he did not hold, while B
and C get 8 each. This exhausts the pool. There are no Jacks in this
way of settling.

Matters may be facilitated by having counters of different colours,
the white being the unit, and the red representing the number which it
will be necessary to pay for one heart. Practice will make the players
so familiar with the amount of the various profits or losses that they
simply pay or take what is due to them.

The first time this is played it looks like a pretty severe game for a
player who takes in a large number of hearts on one deal; but it will
be found that he rapidly recovers. During a sitting of any length the
player who takes in the smallest number of hearts must be the winner.
In the case mentioned in connection with Sweepstake Hearts, in which
one player lost 46 counters while another won 46, in 60 deals, the
result at Howell’s Settling would have been that the player who took in
only 58 hearts would be 548 counters ahead instead of losing 46; while
the one who took in 500 hearts would lose 1220 counters, instead of
winning 46.

_=METHODS OF CHEATING.=_ Under the rule for dealing the cards one at a
time, the greek must be very skilful to secure any advantage at Hearts.
But when it is the practice to deal the cards three at a time, and
four on the last round, it is an easy matter to get four small hearts
together on the bottom of the pack. Any person who is observed to hold
three or four small hearts every time he deals, should be carefully
watched, and it will usually be found that he gathers the small hearts
from the hands of the other players while the pool is being divided.
Marked cards are of little use to the greek at hearts, because so much
depends on what a player holds, and so little on his play.


VARIETIES OF HEARTS.

Before proceeding to suggestions for good play, it will be better to
describe some of the variations of the game in common use, because what
would be good play in one variation would not be in another.

_=TWO-HANDED HEARTS.=_ The two players having cut for the deal,
thirteen cards are given to each, one at a time, and the remainder
of the pack is left on the table, face down. The dealer’s adversary,
usually called the pone, begins by leading any card he pleases, and the
dealer must follow suit if he can, as in the ordinary game. The winner
of the trick takes it in, but before leading for the next trick he
draws one card from the top of the pack lying on the table, restoring
the number of his cards to thirteen. His adversary then draws the next
card, and the cards are played and drawn in this manner until the pack
is exhausted. The thirteen cards remaining in the hands of the two
adversaries are then played, and after the last trick has been won,
each turns over his cards and counts the number of hearts he has taken
in. The object of the game is to take fewer hearts than your opponent,
and the method of settling is either for the greater number to pay the
lesser the difference; or, for the first six hearts taken by the loser
to count nothing, but all above six to be paid for. The most popular
way is to peg up the difference on a cribbage board, and to settle at
the end of the sitting.

_=THREE-HANDED HEARTS.=_ The deuce of spades is discarded, and
seventeen cards are dealt to each player, one at a time, after which
the game proceeds in the usual way. There are several methods of
settling. Howell’s method is undoubtedly the best, but Sweepstakes is
very common. An excellent way is for the player who takes the largest
number of hearts to pay the two others as many counters as he has
hearts in excess of theirs. If two have an equal number, both pay the
low man. There are no Jacks.

_=AUCTION HEARTS.=_ This is usually played by four persons, although
five or six may form a table. After the cards have been dealt in the
usual way, the player to the left of the dealer examines his cards,
and determines which suit he would prefer to play to get clear of. It
may be that if the game were to get rid of clubs instead of hearts,
his hand would be a very good one, whereas if the suit were to remain
hearts it would be a very bad hand. As the pool will contain thirteen
counters to a certainty, he can afford to pay something for the better
chance he will have to win it if he is allowed to make clubs the suit
to be avoided, instead of hearts. He bids whatever amount he is willing
to pay for the privilege of changing the suit, without naming the suit
he prefers. The next player then has a bid, and so on in turn, the
dealer bidding last. There are no second bids.

The player making the highest bid pays into the pool the amount he
has bid. He then names the suit to be avoided, and leads for the
first trick, regardless of his position with respect to the deal. The
dealer’s position is a great advantage, on account of its having the
last bid.

After the hand is played, those who have taken in any cards of the suit
announced to be avoided, pay one counter to the pool for each of them.
If any one player gets clear, each of the others having at least one
of the tabooed suit, he takes the entire pool. If two get clear, they
divide the pool, leaving any odd counter to form the basis of a Jack,
as at Sweepstakes. If one player takes all thirteen, it is a Jack; but
instead of the next choice being sold to the highest bidder, the one
who named the suit on the hand that made the pool a Jack has the choice
of suits again for the next deal, and he must select some suit without
paying anything further for it, until some player wins what he paid for
the choice in the first place. That is, the pool must be won before the
choice can be sold again.

The general principle of the game is for the players to combine against
the successful bidder, and to spare no effort to prevent him from
winning the pool.

_=SPOT HEARTS.=_ In this variation, when the hearts are announced at
the end of the hand, the spots on them are the units of value, the
Jack being worth 11, the Queen 12, the King 13, and the Ace 14. This
adds nothing to the interest or skill of the game; but rather tends to
create confusion and delay, owing to the numerous disputes as to the
correctness of the count.

The total to be accounted for in each deal is 104. In settling, the
player with the smallest number collects from each of the others the
amount they have in excess of his. If two or more players have an equal
number, or none at all, they divide the amount collected from each of
the others. For instance: Four play, A has 8 points, B 24, C 18, and D
54. As 8 points is the lowest, B pays A 16, C pays him 10, and D pays
him 46. If A and B had 8 each, C 32, and D 56, C would pay 24, and D
48; and A-B would divide the amount between them.

The chief variation in play arises from the fact that one who must win
a heart trick cannot always afford to play his highest heart as in the
ordinary game.

_=JOKER HEARTS.=_ In this variation, the heart deuce is discarded, and
the Joker takes its place. The Joker occupies a position between the
Jack and the Ten in value, with the added peculiarity that it cannot
be discarded on a plain suit; for if it is, it wins the trick unless
there is a higher heart in the same trick. If a player has the Joker
dealt to him, his only chance to get rid of it is to play it on a trick
in which hearts are led, or to discard it on a plain suit on which some
other player has already discarded a higher heart than the Ten. Under
such circumstances, the holder of the Joker is allowed to discard it,
even if he has one of the suit led, and the Joker being in the trick
compels the player who discarded the higher heart to take it in.

In settling, the Joker is worth five counters. If the player to whom
it was dealt takes it in, he pays these five counters to the pool. If
another player gets the Joker, he must pay the five counters to the
player who got rid of it. The remainder of the pool is then divided in
the usual way. This is a most exasperating game.

_=DISCARD HEARTS.=_ This is sometimes called _=Black Jack=_, or _=Black
Lady=_. If it is the Jack, it is worth ten hearts; if it is the Queen,
it is worth thirteen hearts.

After the cards are dealt, each player in turn lays out three cards
which he does not want, and the player on his left is obliged to take
them, after having discarded himself. No player may look at what he is
going to get until he has discarded himself.

The Black Jack or Lady holds its rank as a spade when spades are led;
but the moment any other suit is led, of which the player is void,
he can discard the Black Jack or Lady, just as he would get rid of a
heart. If hearts are led and the player has no hearts, he can play the
Black Jack or Lady to the trick, as it ranks below the deuce of hearts.

_=PROGRESSIVE HEARTS.=_ The general arrangements for the players and
their positions are exactly the same as those already described in
connection with Progressive Euchre. The players at each table cut for
the deal, and play begins with the tap of the bell at the head table.
Only one deal is played at each table.

There are no counters. At the end of the hand the ladies compare their
cards, and the one having the fewer hearts goes to the next higher
table. The gentlemen then compare their cards in the same way, so that
one lady and one gentleman go up from each table at the end of every
hand. They take the seats vacated by those leaving the table they go
to. All ties are determined by cutting, those cutting the lower cards
going up. In cutting, the ace is low.

Each player is provided with a score card, to which the gold, red and
green stars are attached as in Euchre. The gold stars are given to
those at the head table who have the fewest hearts. Those moving from
other tables receive red stars; and those taking in the most hearts at
the booby table receive green stars. Prizes are given to the ladies
and gentlemen having the greatest number of each variety of star; but
the same player cannot win two prizes. If there is a tie in one class,
the number of other stars must decide; equal numbers of gold being
decided by the majority of red on the same card; red ties, by the
greater number of gold; and green ties by the fewest number of gold
stars.

_=HEARTSETTE.=_ Heartsette differs from hearts only in the addition of
a widow. When four play, the spade deuce is deleted; twelve cards are
given to each player, and the three remaining form the widow, which is
left face downward in the centre of the table. When any other number
play, the full pack is used. If there are three players, three cards
are left for the widow: two cards are left when five play, and four
when six play. The player winning the first trick takes in the widow,
with any hearts it may contain. He is entitled to look at these cards,
but must not show or name them to any other player. The game then
proceeds in the usual way. Payments are made to the pool for all hearts
taken in, and the pool is then won, divided, or remains to form a Jack,
just as at Sweepstake Hearts. The chief difference in the game is that
the other players do not know whether the winner of the first trick is
loaded or not, and he is the only player who knows how many or what
hearts are still to be played.

_=DOMINO HEARTS.=_ In this variation, six cards only are dealt to each
player, the remainder of the pack being left face down on the table.
When a player is unable to follow suit, he must draw cards from the
stock, one at a time, until he can. The last player with any cards left
in his hand must take what is left of the stock, if any. The hearts
taken in are then counted as usual. Thirty-one points is game, and the
winner is the player who has the least hearts scored when some other
player reaches thirty-one.


SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY.

A good player, after sorting his hand, carefully estimates its
possibilities. The hand may be such that it is evidently impossible to
avoid taking some hearts. The player must then decide whether he will
play to give each of the others hearts, or will take them all himself.
If he succeeds in either object he has a chance to win back his money
in the ensuing Jack. In deciding on his chances to get clear without
taking a single heart, the player must first consider the advisability
of beginning with a heart, or with a plain suit. If hearts, he should
know the probability of the heart he leads not winning the trick; if a
plain suit, he should know the probability of the suit going round one
or more times without hearts being discarded on it, especially if he
intends to lead high cards. These chances must then be balanced one
against the other and the more favourable selected.

_=LEADING HEARTS ORIGINALLY.=_ When your hearts are so small as to be
absolutely safe, such as the 7 5 3 2, it might be supposed that the
best play would be to lead them at once, in order to get a large number
of hearts out of your way. But with such cards it is usually much
better play, unless you have a very dangerous hand in plain suits, to
reserve these small hearts until you have a more definite idea, from
the fall of the cards, to whom you are giving them. Such cards are
particularly useful for getting rid of the lead at dangerous stages in
the end-game.

When the plain-suit cards are high or dangerous, but the hearts are
reasonably safe, it is usually better to lead the hearts, and to
continue leading them every time you get in. By following these tactics
it is quite possible for you to take almost every trick in the plain
suits, and yet to win the pool by rapidly exhausting the hearts.

If you lead the ♡ 4, the only chance for it to win is that one player
has no hearts, and that the 2 and 3 are divided. The odds against this
combination of circumstances will vary with the number of hearts you
hold with the 4, but may be generally stated on the average as about 50
to 1. It is usually considered a safer lead than a high card of a plain
suit, even if you have only three of the suit.

If your only heart is the 5, and you propose to lead it, the chances
that the 2, 3, and 4 are not each in separate hands are about 19 in 25,
or 19 to 6 against it, which is about 3 to 1. If you lead the 5, the
odds against your winning the trick decrease as the number of hearts
you hold with the 5 increases. If you have four hearts, the 5 being the
lowest, the odds against its winning the trick, if you lead it, are
about 29 to 11. If you have eight hearts, the 5 being the lowest, it is
about an even chance. If your only heart is the 6, it is about an even
chance that it will win the trick; but the odds against you increase
rapidly with the number of additional hearts that you hold. If you
propose to lead the 7, the chances that it will win the trick are 2 to
1 under the most favourable circumstances, which are when it is your
only heart. These odds against you increase rapidly with the number of
additional hearts that you hold.

_=LEADING PLAIN SUITS ORIGINALLY.=_ It will often happen that you will
have to decide between the lead of a comparatively dangerous heart and
a risky plain suit. Your knowledge of probabilities should enable you
to select the safer course. The odds against getting a heart on the
first round of a plain suit depend upon how many cards of the suit you
hold. If you lead an Ace, or any card which is sure to win the trick,
the odds against your getting a heart on it are as the following:--

  If you have 4 cards of the suit, 22 to 1.
      ”       5          ”         15 to 1.
      ”       6          ”          7 to 1.
      ”       7          ”          4 to 1.
      ”       8          ”          2 to 1.

These odds may be slightly increased by taking into account the fact
that players who cannot follow suit do not always discard hearts,
having perhaps more dangerous cards to get rid of.

The odds against a suit going round a second time may be influenced
by the cards played to the first round; but it sometimes happens that
you have to calculate in advance for two rounds of a suit, regardless
of the cards that may be played by others. This is especially the case
when you fear that the suit will be led to you, and you have such
cards as must win two rounds. If you have 4 cards of the suit the odds
_against_ your getting a heart in two rounds are 2 to 1. The odds _in
favour_ of your getting a heart in two rounds are:--

  If you have 5 cards of the suit, 4 to 3.
      ”       6          ”         2 to 1.
      ”       7          ”         6 to 1.

As an example of the value of a thorough knowledge of these odds to a
careful player, suppose he had to win two rounds of a plain suit, of
which he held six cards; or to lead the ♡7, having three higher. The
suit would be the better play, because it takes in only one heart,
while the lead of the heart might take in four.

The following table shows the exact number of times in 1,000 deals that
a heart would probably be discarded on a plain suit led, according to
the number of cards in the suit held by the leader, and the number of
times the suit was led:

  Cards held by the leader.         | 1,2,3,4 |  5   |   6  |   7  |   8
  ----------------------------------+---------+------+------+------+-----
  Times hearts will be discarded:-- |         |      |      |      |
  On first round                    |     44  |   63 |  122 |  200 |  315
  On second round                   |    358  |  430 |  659 |  857 | 1000
  On third round                    |    842  | 1000 | 1000 | 1000 | 1000

This shows that 158 times in 1,000, when the leader has 1, 2, 3, or 4
cards of the suit, it will go round three times, because 158 is the
balance necessary to bring our last figure, 842, up to 1,000. Reducing
this to a small fraction, the odds are about 5⅛ to 1 that a suit will
not go round three times without affording to some player the chance of
discarding hearts on it. This calculation shows the hopeless nature of
all hands that contain at least three cards of each suit, unless the
smallest card in every suit is below a 6; for if any one of the suits
is led three times, it is even betting that you will have to win the
third round, and 5⅛ to 1 that you get a heart on it if you do.

_=PLAIN-SUIT LEADS.=_ The favourite lead with most heart players is a
singleton; or, failing that, a two-card suit. This is a mistake, unless
the singleton is a high card; for if the adversaries are sharp players
they will at once suspect the nature of the lead, and carefully avoid
the suit. But if you wait until some other player opens the suit,
it will very probably be led twice in succession. The best original
plain-suit lead is one in which you are moderately long, but have small
cards enough to be safe, and from which you can lead intermediate cards
which probably will not win the first trick.

A very little experience at Hearts will convince any one that it is
best, in plain suits, to play out the high cards first. This agrees
with the theory of probabilities; for while the odds are 22 to 1
against your getting a heart on the first round of a plain suit of
which you have 4 cards, the odds are only 2 to 1 against it on the
second round, and on the third they are 5⅛ to 1 in favour of it.
Accordingly, on the first round most players put up their highest card
of the suit led, no matter what their position with regard to the
leader; but in so doing, they often run needless risks. The object in
Sweepstake Hearts is to take none, and the most successful players will
be found to be those who play consistently with the greatest odds in
their favour for taking none.

Suppose that you hold such a suit as A 10 9 7 4 2. This is a safe suit;
because it is very improbable that you can be compelled to take a trick
in it. The best lead from such a suit is the 10 or 9. If the suit is
led by any other player, the same card should be played, unless you are
fourth hand, and have no objection to the lead. This avoids the risk,
however slight, of getting a heart on the first round, which would
be entailed by playing the ace. In Sweepstake Hearts it is a great
mistake to play the high cards of a suit in which you are safe; for
no matter how small the risk, it is an unnecessary one. In the case
we are considering, when you have six cards of the suit, the odds are
7 to 1 against your getting a heart if you play the ace first round.
That is to say, you will probably lose one pool out of every eight if
you play it. Take the greatest odds in your favour, when you have only
four cards of a suit; they are 22 to 1 against your getting a heart
the first round, so that you would lose by it only once in 23 times.
But this is a heavy percentage against you if you are playing with
those who do not run such risks, for you give up every chance you might
otherwise have in 5 pools out of every 110.

When you have a dangerous hand in hearts, but one absolutely safe long
suit, it is often good play to begin with your safe suit, retaining
any high cards you may have in other suits in order to get the lead as
often as possible for the purpose of continuing your safe suit, which
will usually result in one or more of the other players getting loaded.

When you have at least three of each plain suit it is obvious that you
cannot hope for any discards, and that you must take into account the
probability of having to win the third round of one or more suits, with
the accompanying possibility of getting hearts at the same time. If
you have the lead, this probability must be taken into account before
any of the other players show their hands, and as it may be set down
as about 5⅛ to 1 that you will get a heart, any better chance that the
hand affords should be taken advantage of.

It will often occur that a player’s attention must be so concentrated
on getting clear himself that he has no opportunity to scheme for
“loading” the others. But if it unfortunately happens that he is
compelled to take in one or more hearts, he should at once turn his
attention to taking them all, or to loading the other players, with a
view to making a Jack of the pool. Should he succeed in either object,
he has another chance for his money.

It is usually bad policy to return the suit opened by the original
leader. He has picked that out as his safest suit, and although he may
be the only one safe in it, by continuing it you are reducing your
chances to two players, when you might share them with all three.

_=FOLLOWING SUIT.=_ When a player is not the original leader, his
policy becomes defensive; for, as the first player is plotting to
give hearts to every one but himself, each of the others must be a
prospective victim, and should do his best to avoid the traps prepared
by the one who plans the opening of the hand.

When you are second or third player, the first time a suit is led, it
is usually best to play your highest card, unless you are safe in the
suit, or have so many that there is danger of getting a heart, even on
the first round. As fourth player, you should always play your highest
card, unless there is already a heart in the trick, or some decided
disadvantage in the lead. The risks you run in playing high cards
while following suit must be judged by the same probabilities that we
examined in considering the original lead. The fact that one or more
players have already followed suit, and perhaps the cards they have
played, may enable you to arrive at a still closer estimate of your
chances. It is generally conceded, that the odds against a player who
holds up on the first round are about 1 to 11. That is to say, in 12
pools, he will sacrifice his chances of one simply by holding up.

After one or two tricks have been played, the conditions may be such
that it becomes necessary to hold up, in order to win the second
round. This is especially the case after you have been loaded, and
are anxious to keep a certain player out of the lead. For an example
see Illustrative Hand No. 4. in which Y holds up the ♢ King to keep A
from getting in and leading another round of hearts. In the same hand
Z tries hard to make the pool a Jack by holding up the ♣ Q. Had not A
been entirely safe in diamonds the stratagem would have succeeded.

In following suit it is important to keep count of the cards played, in
order to avoid the unwitting lead of a suit of which the other players
have none. The suits that need close watching are those in which you
have nothing smaller than a six or eight. You should be careful to note
which player appears to have the smaller cards, after the suit has
been led once or twice, and be on the watch to take the lead away from
him in other suits if you can, or he may load you by leading the small
cards of your dangerous suit, in which he is safe. When this danger is
apparent, it is best to retain, until the second round, such high cards
as Kings and Queens of the suits led. Even if you have four of the
suit, you run only a 2 to 1 risk in winning the second round instead of
the first, as against a certainty that you will be out of the pool at
once if the dangerous player gets the lead. For an example of this, see
B’s play in Illustrative Hand No. 2.

Where you have a certain safe card, and others of another suit not
absolutely safe, it is better to keep the safe card, in order to be
sure of getting rid of the lead if you are put in on your dangerous
suit.

In following suit, the most annoying hand that one can hold is one
containing at least three cards of each suit, none of them below a
6. There is no hope of a discard, unless two players make a fight in
some one suit, which they lead four or five times in order to load
each other, regardless of the escape of the other players. This very
seldom occurs, and never among good players. With such a hand escape is
almost impossible, and it is usually best to make the losses as small
as possible. Many good players, with such a hand, will deliberately
take in hearts on the plain suits, hoping to escape with only one or
two in each trick, instead of having to carry the whole load by getting
into the lead at the end. It should never be forgotten that when you
must inevitably take some hearts it is cheaper to take them in on plain
suits than to win heart tricks.

_=CONTROL OF THE LEAD.=_ One of the strongest points in good heart play
is the proper control of the lead at certain times. A player whose hand
contains no commanding cards, and who is unable to do anything but
follow suit on the first two or three rounds, will often find himself
compelled to win one of the later rounds with a small card, taking in
one or two hearts with it; and this misfortune usually overtakes him
because a certain player gets into the lead at a critical period of the
hand. If he sees the impending danger, and has K, Q or J of a suit led,
he will not give up his high card, even if the ace is played to the
trick; but will retain it in order to prevent the possibility of the
dangerous player getting into the lead on the second round of the suit.
In doing this, he of course decreases the odds against his getting
hearts, by deliberately winning the second round. But 2 to 1 in his
favour is a much better chance than the certainty, almost, that he will
be loaded if a particular player is allowed the opportunity to lead a
certain suit again. See B’s play in Illustrative Hand No 2, and Y’s in
No 4.

A player may have no desire to prevent any particular adversary from
getting the lead; but may be anxious simply to carry out a certain line
of play. In order to do this it may be essential that he should have
some direction of the course of the hand. This is impossible if his
play is confined to following suit helplessly, whatever is led. He must
be able to assume the lead himself in order so to change the course of
the play as to better suit his game.

Let us suppose that he has a dangerous hand in plain suits, but is safe
in hearts, and decides that his best chance is to lead hearts at every
opportunity; or that he has a certain safe suit which it is manifestly
to his advantage to have led as often as possible. The other players,
being the ones who are to suffer from this line of play, will of course
prevent it if possible; and in order to carry out the plan in spite of
their opposition, it will be necessary for the individual player to
gain the lead a certain number of times, and so force his game upon
them.

Again, a player may know that he can load a certain adversary if he
can get in and lead a certain suit or card; or he may know that by
giving one player the lead, that player can load another. In such cases
commanding cards must be held or retained, in order to give the player
a certain control of the lead.

When a player is attempting to take all thirteen hearts, the control of
the lead, especially in the end game, is very important; because the
design of each of the other players will be to get the lead into some
other hand, in the hope that they may load the player having it, and so
at least divide the pool.

_=THE DISCARD.=_ One of the most important elements in heart play
is the discard. The beginner is too apt to discard hearts at every
opportunity; but a little experience will teach him that even a 3 in a
plain suit may be a better card to part with.

The most important thing in discarding is to reduce the odds against
your winning the pool. Let us suppose that you have the A K Q of a
plain suit. It is 5⅛ to 1 that you get a heart if this suit is led a
third time. If you can get a discard, the odds are at once reduced to 2
to 1 in your favour, that being the probability that you will escape,
even if you have to win two rounds. This is a very large percentage,
and should never be lost sight of. If you have a choice between two
discards, one being from the K Q J 2 of hearts, and the other from the
K Q J of a plain suit, select the plain suit. You can improve your
chances little or none in the hearts, while you not only bring the odds
to your side in the plain suit, but secure a chance of discarding on
the third round of it.

Following the same principle, it is evidently good play to discard from
a suit which has been led once or twice, if you have a dangerous card
or cards in it. Even if you have a safe tenace in a suit, such as 4 and
2, the 5 and 3 being still out somewhere, it is better to discard from
it if there is the slightest danger of your getting the lead. Tenaces
are only safe when led up to.

In _=Howell’s settling=_, the object is not so much to load the others
as to escape yourself. It is never advisable to attempt to take all
thirteen hearts, because there are no Jacks; but there are many cases
in which it is better deliberately to take three or four, in order
to avoid the chance of taking six or eight. For an example of these
tactics adopted by two players, see Illustrative Hand, No. 3. On the
same principle, there are often cases in which it is advisable to
take a trick with one heart in it, in order to get rid of a dangerous
card, which might bring you in several hearts later on. The general
principles of leading and discarding are the same as in Sweepstake
Hearts; but it is not necessary to take such desperate chances to
escape entirely.

_=THREE-HANDED HEARTS=_ is more difficult to play than any other form
of the game, partly because there are so many rounds of each suit, and
partly because the moment one player refuses, the exact cards of that
suit in the two other players’ hands are known to each of them.

There is usually a great deal of cross-fighting in the three-handed
game, during which one player escapes by getting numerous discards.
When all three have refused, each a different suit, the end game
becomes a question of generalship, and the preservation of one or more
commanding cards, with which to control and place the lead, is usually
the key to the situation. A player who has no high cards for the end
game, unless he is quite safe, is almost certain to be loaded in the
last few tricks.

_=TWO-HANDED HEARTS.=_ Before opening the hand, the player should
carefully consider what suits are safe and what are dangerous. It is
usually best to preserve the safe suits and to lead the dangerous
ones, which you should clear your hand of, if possible. It is a great
advantage to have a missing suit, and equally disadvantageous to have a
number of a suit of which your adversary is probably clear. If a card
of a missing suit is drawn, it is usually best to lead it at once, so
as to keep the suit clear; but in so doing, be careful first to place
the card among the others in the hand, or your adversary will detect
that it is a missing suit.

The lead is a disadvantage if you have safe hearts; but toward the end
of the stock, from which cards are drawn, it is an advantage to have
commanding cards, with which you can assume the lead if necessary.

There is some finesse in determining whether or not to change the suit
often in the leads. If you have a better memory than your adversary, it
may be well to change often; but if not, it may assist you to keep at
one suit until afraid to lead it again.

In Two-Handed Hearts, keeping count of the cards is the most important
matter, because the real play comes after the stock is exhausted, and
the moment that occurs you should know every card in your adversary’s
hand. The exact number of each suit should be a certainty, if not the
exact rank of the cards. Until you can depend on yourself for this, you
are not a good player. The last thirteen tricks are usually a problem
in double-dummy; but the advantage will always be found to be with the
player who has carefully prepared himself for the final struggle by
preserving certain safe suits, and getting rid of those in which it
became evident that his adversary had the small and safe cards.

Some very pretty positions arise in the end game, it being often
possible to foresee that four or five tricks must be played in a
certain manner in order to ensure the lead being properly placed at the
end, so that the odd hearts may be avoided.

_=AUCTION HEARTS.=_ The cards having been cut and dealt, the player to
the left of the dealer, whom we shall call A, examines his hand, and
determines which suit he would prefer to play to get clear of. Let us
suppose his hand to consist of the ♡ A K 8; ♣ J 6 5 4 3 2; ♢ K 4; and
the ♠ 7 3. If the suit remains hearts, he is almost certain to take in
a number; but if it is changed to clubs, he is almost as certain of
getting clear. The hand is not absolutely safe, as hearts might be led
two or three times before the clubs in the other hands were exhausted
by the original leader, whose game would be to lead small clubs. As
the pool will contain thirteen counters to a certainty, he can afford
to bid in proportion to his chances of winning it for the privilege of
making clubs the suit to be avoided, instead of hearts.

It might be assumed, if the odds were 10 to 1 that the player would get
clear if the suit were clubs, that therefore he could afford to bid ten
times the amount of the pool, or 130, for his chance. Theoretically
this is correct, but if he should lose one such pool, he would have
to win ten others to get back his bid alone, to say nothing of the
amounts he would lose by paying his share in pools won by others. Let
us suppose him to win his share, one-fourth of all the pools. While he
is winning the ten pools necessary to repair his single loss, he has to
stand his share of the losses in the thirty others, which would average
about 128 counters. This must show us that even if a player has a 10
to 1 chance in his favour, he must calculate not only on losing that
chance once in eleven times, but must make provision for the amounts
he will lose in other pools. Experience shows that a bid of 25 would
be about the amount a good player would make on such a hand as we are
considering, if the pool were not a Jack, and he had first say.

The next player, Y, now examines his hand. Let us suppose that he finds
♡ 6 4 3; ♣ A K 10; ♢ 8 7 5 3; ♠ 6 5 4. If the first bidder is offering
on clubs, it is evident that he will lead them, as the successful
bidder has the original lead in Auction Hearts; and it is equally
evident that if he does so, a player with A K 10 will have to pay for
most of the pool. If any of the other suits is the one bid on, B has
as good a chance for the pool as any one, at least to divide it. With
two men still to bid, a good player would probably make himself safe by
shutting out A’s bid, probably offering 26.

Let us suppose B then to examine his hand, finding ♡ J 10; ♣ Q 9 8
7; ♢ A 10 9; ♠ 10 9 8 2. Being unsafe in everything, he passes, and
practically submits to his fate, his only hope being that the pool
will result in a Jack. Z then examines his hand, finding ♡ Q 9 7 5 2;
♣ none; ♢ Q J 6 2; ♠ A K Q J. He sees at once that on spades he would
lose everything, and on diamonds he would have a very poor chance. On
clubs the result would depend on how often spades were led. In hearts,
he has a very good hand, especially as he has a missing suit to discard
in. As he is the last bidder he can make sure of the choice for 27,
which he bids, and pays into the pool. The result of the play is given
in Illustrative Hand No. 4. (As the cards happen to lie, had A been the
successful bidder and made it clubs, Z would have won the pool.)

ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS.

  _=No. 1.=_ Sweepstake Hearts. | T| _=No. 2.=_ Sweepstake Hearts.
       A leads for first trick. | R|      A leads for first trick.
                                | I|
  ------+-------+-------+-------+ C+-------+------+------+--------
     A      Y       B       Z   | K|   A       Y     B       Z
  ------+-------+-------+-------+--+-------+------+------+--------
    10♠ |   Q♠  |   8♠  |  _K♠_ | 1| _♣A_  |  ♣K  | ♣10  |  ♣Q
    ♣J  | _♣A_  |  ♣4   |  ♣K   | 2|  ♣5   |  ♣2  | ♣9   | _♣J_
     6♢ |  _A♢_ |   J♢  |   Q♢  | 3|  10♢  |  J♢  |  9♢  |  _A♢_
     5♢ |  _K♢_ |   10♢ |   9♢  | 4|   Q♢  |  8♢  | _K♢_ |   4♢
     4♢ |   3♢  |   2♢  |  _8♢_ | 5|   2♠  |  J♠  | _A♠_ |   9♠
    ♣9  |  ♣7   |  ♣3   | _♣Q_  | 6|   Q♠  | 10♠  | _K♠_ |   8♠
    ♣6  |  ♣5   |  ♣2   | _♣10_ | 7|  ♡A   | _7♢_ |  3♢  |  ♡Q
     3♠ |   6♠  |   4♠  |  _J♠_ | 8| _♡10_ | ♡4   | ♡3   |  ♡5
     2♠ |   5♠  |  ♡K   |   9♠  | 9|  ♣4   | ♡K   | ♣6   | _♣7_
   _♡A_ |  ♡Q   |  ♡10  |  ♡5   |10|  ♡9   | _7♠_ | ♡J   |   5♠
    ♡7  | _♡J_  |  ♡9   |   7♠  |11|  ♡7   | ♡2   | ♣8   | _♡8_
    ♡6  | _♡8_  |  ♡4   |  ♣8   |12|  ♡6   | _6♠_ |  6♢  |   4♠
     A♠ |  ♡2   | _♡3_  |   7♢  |13|  ♣3   | _5♢_ |  2♢  |   3♠
  ------+-------+-------+-------+--+-------+------+------+--------
    A 4    Y 6     B 2     Z 1        A 4    Y 5    B 0     Z 4
        Making it a Jack.                  B wins the Pool.

_=No. 1. 2nd Trick.=_ Z sees that with such a hand escape is
impossible. As his chief danger is in being loaded with hearts at the
end, he clears his hand as rapidly as possible. _=9th Trick.=_ The ♠A
being held up, it looks as if A were safe in that suit with A 5 2. If
Z now leads the ♡ 5, and A gets into the lead, returning the spade, Z
must take every other trick. _=10th Trick.=_ If Z now leads ♠ 7, he
loads A; but if his ♡ 5 should win the next trick he will take all
the rest of the hearts, Y and B dividing the pool. If he leads the ♡
5 first he cannot get more than four hearts, and the other players
will inevitably make a Jack of it. _=11th Trick.=_ Y sees that if
he underplays the 7 led, B will win the pool, as he has nothing but
hearts, A having only one more. He keeps A out of the lead by winning
two rounds, so as to be sure of loading B, making it a Jack. The ending
is very well played.

_=No. 2.=_ A has an even chance to escape, and it is better for him to
be third or fourth player in hearts than to lead them. _=3rd Trick.=_
B sees from the fall of the clubs that Y has no more, and that A is
safe in them and will lead them again; so he holds up ♢ K to keep A
out of the lead. _=7th Trick.=_ As A’s hand can now be counted to
contain either the 7 4 3 of clubs and four dangerous hearts, or the 4
3 of clubs and five hearts, B’s game is clearly to lead diamonds, in
order to load Y and Z. His only dangerous card, the ♡ J, will go on the
next round of spades, which must be led again in the next two or three
tricks.

   _=No. 3.=_ Howell’s Settling.  | T | _=No. 4.=_ Auction Hearts.
       Z dealt, and A leads for   | R |     A, the successful
       first trick.               | I |     bidder, names Hearts.
  --------------------------------+ C +--------------------------------
      A       Y       B       Z   | K |  A        Y       B       Z
  --------+-------+-------+-------+---+-------+-------+-------+--------
     10♢  |   J♢  |   9♢  |  _K♢_ |  1| ♡5    |  ♡8   |  ♡6   | _♡J_
      7♢  |   6♢  |   8♢  |  _Q♢_ |  2|  Q♢   |   4♢  |   8♢  |  _A♢_
     ♣4   |  ♣9   |  ♣J   | _♣A_  |  3|  J♢   |  _K♢_ |   7♢  |  10♢
     ♣2   |  ♣8   |  ♣5   | _♣K_  |  4| _A♠_  |   7♠  |   6♠  |  10♠
      J♠  |   8♠  |   K♠  |  _A♠_ |  5| ♡7    | _♡A_  |  ♡4   |  ♡10
      5♠  |   7♠  |  _Q♠_ |  10♠  |  6| _K♠_  |   3♠  |   5♠  |   9♠
      4♠  |  _6♠_ |   3♠  |   2♠  |  7| ♡Q    | _♡K_  |  ♡3   |  ♣9
     ♡5   |  ♡3   | _♡8_  |  ♡4   |  8| ♡9    |  ♣J   |  ♣10  | _♣Q_
    _♡A_  |  ♡J   |  ♡7   |   5♢  |  9| _Q♠_  |  ♣6   |   4♠  |   8♠
     ♡9   |  ♡2   | _♡K_  |  ♣Q   | 10| _J♠_  |  ♣5   |  ♣A   |   2♠
      A♢  | _♡10_ |  ♡6   |   9♠  | 11|  6♢   |  ♣4   |   5♢  |  _9♢_
      4♢  |  ♣3   |  ♡Q   | _♣10_ | 12|  2♢   |  ♣3   | _♣K_  |  ♣8
      2♢  | _♣7_  |   3♢  |  ♣6   | 13| ♡2    |  ♣2   |  _3♢_ |  ♣7
  --------+-------+-------+-------+---+-------+-------+-------+--------
     A 3     Y 2     B 7     Z 1        A 0      Y 7     B 1     Z 5

    Z wins 9; Y 5; A 1; B loses 15.                A wins the pool.

_=No. 3.=_ A begins with the intermediate cards of his safe suit.
_=8th Trick.=_ Y is afraid to lead away from his club tenace, because
it might be at once led back to him. _=9th Trick.=_ Z seizes this
opportunity to get rid of the very dangerous ♢5. If A does not play
the ♡A now, it is quite possible that he will take every trick, except
one in diamonds. _=10th Trick.=_ If A leads the ♢2, and hearts are led
again, he must take all the remaining hearts. By taking three at once
he can escape the rest. B sees that if he passes this trick A will at
once lead the ♢2, and he will take all the remaining hearts; so he
takes these three and throws the lead to Y, who has no chance to injure
him. _11th Trick._ Z keeps two clubs, hoping that if Y gets in and
leads clubs, B may discard a diamond instead of a heart, in which case
Z would get clear.

_=No. 4.=_ A, with his dangerous suit of spades, clears up the hearts
at once. _=6th Trick.=_ The second round of spades betrays A’s
dangerous suit to the other players. _=7th Trick.=_ A must risk the
King and 3 being divided, for if they are in one hand nothing will save
him. Z keeps ♢9 and ♣Q in order to be sure of getting a lead, as he is
the only player who can load A by putting him in on spades at the end
making him take in his own hearts. _=8th Trick.=_ B cannot risk playing
the high clubs while there is any chance for him to win the pool. He
can count A to be safe in diamonds, with two hearts and two spades.
_=10th Trick.=_ A clears his hand of the very dangerous spade before
leading his tenace in diamonds. _=12th Trick.=_ A will not give up the
heart until he is sure that B has not the ♣7.

       *       *       *       *       *

_=Text Books.=_ There are at present only two text-books on the game;
_Foster on Hearts_, and _Hearts and Heartsette_.


SLOBBERHANNES.

_=Cards.=_ Slobberhannes is played with a Euchre pack, thirty-two
cards, all below the Seven being deleted. The cards rank: A K Q J 10 9
8 7, the ace being the highest both in cutting and in play. There is no
trump suit.

_=Counters.=_ Each player is provided with ten counters, and points
are marked by placing these counters in the pool. The player who first
loses his ten counters also loses the game. If stakes are played for,
counters of a different colour must be provided, and the player losing
the game must pay as many counters to each of the others as they have
points still in front of them. One player is usually the banker, and
sells and redeems all money counters. The others are redistributed at
the end of each game.

_=Players.=_ Any number from four to seven may play; but the two black
Sevens must be deleted if there are more than four players. When seven
play, the dealer takes no cards. All the preliminaries of seats, cards
and deal are settled as at Hearts.

_=Dealing.=_ The entire pack is distributed, the dealer giving each
player in rotation two or three cards in each round. No trump is
turned. All irregularities in the deal are governed by the same
laws as at Hearts; but a misdeal does not lose the deal under any
circumstances. The same dealer must deal again.

_=Objects of the Game.=_ The object in Slobberhannes is to avoid taking
either the first or the last trick, or any trick containing the Queen
of clubs. The player who wins any of these loses one point, and if he
wins all three of them, he loses an extra point, or four altogether.
The penalty for a revoke is also the loss of a point.

_=Method of Playing.=_ The eldest hand begins by leading any card he
pleases, and the others must follow suit if they can. The highest card
played, if of the suit led, wins the trick, and the winner takes it in
and leads for the next trick. The player winning the first trick must
pay for it immediately, to avoid disputes. The tricks which are neither
the first nor the last have no value, unless they contain the club
Queen, which must be paid for as soon as it is taken in.

There is a good deal of play in manœuvring to get rid of cards which
might win the last trick, or which would take in the club Queen. The
Ace and King of clubs are of course dangerous cards, and unless the
player holding them has small cards enough to make him safe in that
suit, he should be on the alert for opportunities to discard.


POLIGNAC. QUATRE-VALETS, OR FOUR JACKS.

_=Cards and Players.=_ When Polignac is played by four persons, a
Piquet pack is used, and eight cards are dealt to each player, 3-2-3 at
a time. When five play, the two black Sevens are deleted, and six cards
are given to each player. When six play, each receives five cards. When
seven play, the dealer takes no cards. In France, the cards usually
rank as in Écarté; K Q J A 10 9 8 7; but in England and America it is
more usual to preserve the order in Piquet, A K Q J 10 9 8 7. There
is no trump suit. All the preliminaries are settled as at Hearts or
Slobberhannes.

_=Counters.=_ Each player is provided with ten or twenty counters, as
may be agreed upon, and the player first losing his counters loses
the game, and pays to each of the others any stake that may have been
previously agreed upon, usually a counter for each point they have
still to go when he is decavé.

_=Objects of the Game.=_ The object of the game is to avoid winning
any trick containing a Jack, and especially the Jack of spades, which
is called _=Polignac=_. The moment any player wins a trick containing
a Jack, he pays one counter into the pool. If he takes in Polignac,
he pays two counters. The eldest hand begins by leading any card he
pleases, and the others must follow suit if they can. The highest card
played, if of the suit led, wins the trick, and the winner leads for
the next trick. If a player has none of the suit led he may discard
anything he pleases.

The game is sometimes varied by adding a _=general=_, or _=capot=_. Any
player who thinks he can win all the tricks announces capot before the
first card is led. If he is successful he loses nothing; but each of
the others must pay five counters into the pool, one for each Jack, and
one extra for Polignac. If the capot player fails to win every trick,
each player pays for whatever jacks he has taken in.


ENFLÉ, OR SCHWELLEN.

When Enflé is played by four persons, the Piquet pack of thirty-two
cards is used. If there are more than four players, sufficient cards
are added to give eight to each person. The rank of the cards and all
other preliminaries are the same as at Hearts. There is no trump suit.

The cards are dealt 3-2-3 at a time. The eldest hand leads any card he
pleases, and the others must follow suit if they can. If all follow
suit, the highest card played wins the trick, which is turned face
down, and the cards in it are dead. The winner leads for the next
trick, and so on. But if any player is unable to follow suit, he is not
allowed to discard, but must immediately gather up the cards already
played, and take them into his own hand with the cards originally dealt
to him. The players following the one who renounces to the suit led do
not play to the trick at all; but wait for him to lead for the next
trick. Should any player fail to follow suit on the next trick, or on
any subsequent trick, he gathers the cards already played, takes them
into his hand and leads for the next trick. The play is continued in
this manner until some player gets rid of all his cards, and so wins
the game.

Enflé is usually played for a pool, to which each player contributes
an equal amount before play begins. The game requires considerable
skill and memory to play it well, it being very important to remember
the cards taken in hand by certain players, and those which are in the
tricks turned down.


THE LAWS OF HEARTS.

1. Formation of table. Those first in the room have the preference. If
more than the necessary number assemble, the choice shall be determined
by cutting, those cutting the lowest cards having the right to play.
Six persons is the largest number that can play at one table. The
player cutting the lowest card has the deal.

2. In cutting, the Ace is low. Players cutting cards of equal value,
cut again. All must cut from the same pack, and any person exposing
more than one card must cut again. Drawing cards from an outspread pack
is equivalent to cutting.

3. A complete Heart pack consists of fifty-two cards, which rank in the
following order:--A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2, the Ace being highest
in play. In Three-Handed Hearts, the spade deuce is thrown out. In
Five-Handed, both the black deuces are laid aside. In Six-Handed, all
four deuces are discarded. In Joker Hearts the heart deuce is replaced
by the Joker.

4. When two packs are used, the player next but one on the dealer’s
left must collect and shuffle the cards for the next deal, placing them
on his right. The dealer has the privilege of shuffling last.

5. The dealer must present the pack to his right-hand adversary to be
cut. Not less than four cards shall constitute a cut.

6. In case of any confusion or exposure of the cards in cutting, or in
reuniting them after cutting, the pack must be shuffled and cut again.

7. If the dealer reshuffles the cards after they have been properly
cut, or looks at the bottom card, he loses his deal.

8. After the cards have been cut, the dealer must distribute them
one at a time to each player in rotation, beginning at his left, and
continuing until the pack is exhausted; or in Two-Handed Hearts, until
each player has thirteen.

9. The deal passes to the left.

10. There must be a new deal by the same dealer if the pack is proved
to be incorrect, either during the deal or during the play of a hand;
or if any card is faced in the pack, or is found to be so marked or
mutilated that it can be named. In the last case a new pack must be
used.

11. If a card is exposed during the deal, the player to whom it is
dealt may demand a new deal, provided he has not touched any of his
cards. If the deal stands, the exposed card cannot be called.

12. Any one dealing out of turn may be stopped before the last card is
dealt. After that the deal must stand, and the packs, if changed, must
so remain.

13. It is a misdeal: If the dealer omits to have the pack cut, and the
error is discovered before the last card is dealt; or if he deals a
card incorrectly, and fails to remedy it before dealing another; or if
he counts the cards on the table, or those remaining in the pack; or
if it is discovered before all have played to the first trick that any
player has not his proper number of cards, the pack being perfect.

14. A misdeal loses the deal unless one of the other players has
touched his cards, or in any way interrupted the dealer.

15. If, after the first trick is played to, any two players are found
to have more or less than their correct number of cards, the pack being
perfect, the one having less shall draw from the hand of the one having
more, and each shall pay a forfeit of five counters into the pool.

16. If a player omits to play to any trick, and plays to the following
one, he shall not be allowed to correct the error; but shall be
compelled to take in the last trick, with whatever hearts it may
contain.

17. Should a player be found during or at the end of a hand to be a
card short, all the others having the right number, and all having
played to the first trick, he shall be compelled to take in the last
trick.

18. If a player leads or plays two cards to a trick, he must indicate
the one intended, and leave the other face up on the table. Any card
exposed, except in the proper course of play, or any card named by the
player holding it, must be left face up on the table.

19. A player must lead or play any exposed card when called upon to
do so by any other player, provided he can do so without revoking. He
cannot be prevented from playing an exposed card, and if he can so get
rid of it, no penalty remains.

20. If a player leads out of turn, a suit may be called from him when
it is next his proper turn to lead. This penalty can be enforced only
by the player on his right. If he has none of the suit called, or if
all have played to the false lead, no penalty can be enforced. If all
have not played to the false lead, the cards can be taken back, and are
not exposed cards.

21. If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth hand may
demand that the card be taken back, and may call upon the third hand to
play the highest card he has of the suit; or may call upon him not to
discard hearts. If the fourth plays before the third, the second player
may demand the penalty.

22. The first player to any trick having led, the others must follow
suit if they can. Should a player revoke, and discover the error before
the trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted, he may amend
his play, and the card played in error becomes an exposed card. Any who
have played after him may withdraw their cards and substitute others,
the cards first played not being exposed.

23. If the revoke is discovered during the play of the hand, the hand
must be played out, and at the end the revoking player must pay all
losses in that hand. Should the revoking player win the pool himself,
he must pay to the pool thirteen counters and leave them for a Jack.
Should he divide it, he must pay the other winner six counters, and
leave up seven for a Jack.

24. Should two or more players revoke in the same hand, each must
pay the entire losses in the hand, as if he were alone in error; so
that if two should revoke, and a third win the pool, he would receive
twenty-six counters, instead of thirteen. In Auction Hearts the
revoking player must pay the amount of the bid in addition.

25. The claimant of a revoke may search all the tricks at the end of a
hand. The revoke is established if the accused player mixes the cards
before the claimants have time to examine them.

26. A revoke must be claimed before the tricks have been mixed,
preparatory to shuffling for the next deal.

27. If a player is lawfully called upon to lead a certain suit, or to
play the highest of it, and unnecessarily fails to comply, he is liable
to the penalties for a revoke.

28. Any trick once turned and quitted must not again be seen until the
hand is played. Any player violating this rule is subject to the same
penalties as for a lead out of turn.

29. In settling at the end of the hand, the player having taken no
hearts, [each of the others having taken at least one,] wins the pool.
Two players having taken none, the other two having each at least one,
divide it, the odd counter remaining until the next pool. Three players
having taken none, the thirteen counters remain in the pool, forming a
Jack, which can be won only by one player taking no hearts, each of the
others having taken at least one. During the time the Jack is played
for, and until it is won, each player must add to the pool by paying
for the hearts he takes in each hand.

30. In Auction Hearts, the player to the left of the dealer has the
first bid, the dealer the last, and there is no second bid.



THE BÉZIQUE FAMILY.


This family includes three of our most popular games; Bézique itself,
Binocle, and Sixty-Six. These are all comparatively modern games, but
are descended from very old stock, the best known of the ancestors
being Marriage, Matrimony, and Cinq-Cents. The etymology of the word
Bézique is very much disputed. Some claim that it is from the Spanish
basa, afterwards basico, a little kiss; referring to the union of
the spade Queen and the diamond Jack, and the various marriages in
the game. This was afterwards Basique, transformed by the French to
Bésique, and by the English to Bézique. One English writer thinks the
word is from bésaigne, the double-headed axe.

Judging from the rank of the cards, which is peculiar to German games,
Bézique may have originated in an attempt to play Binocle with a piquet
pack, for Binocle seems to have been originally played with a full pack
of fifty-two cards. One German writer says the game is of Swiss origin,
and that they probably got it from Spain. In one writer’s opinion,
the name Binocle, is derived from _bis_, until, and _knochle_, the
knuckle, which would imply that the original meaning was, until some
one knuckled; _i.e._, stopped the game by knocking on the table with
his knuckles. This interpretation seems far-fetched, but if correct,
it would sustain the opinion that Binocle was derived from the old
game of Cinq-Cents, in which the player knocked with his knuckles to
announce that he had made enough points to win the game. In the opinion
of the author, the word “binocle” is a German mispronunciation of
the French word “binage,” which was the term used in Cinq Cents for
the combination of spade Queen and diamond Jack, as will be seen if
the description of Cinq Cents is referred to. Stopping the play is a
prominent feature in Sixty-Six, another variation of Bézique, and the
connecting link between Binocle and Skat. In Sixty-Six, the combination
known as Bézique, or binocle, is omitted; so is the sequence in trumps.
Sixty-four-card Binocle is simply Bézique, with a slight difference in
the counting value of the various combinations. Sometimes twelve cards
are given to each player.

Great confusion seems to have existed when the game of Bézique was
introduced to England, in the winter of 1868-9, owing to the fact that
so many persons rushed into print with their own private opinions of
the rules, which were first given by Dr. Pole, in 1861. No one knew
whether “the last trick” was the absolute last, or the last before
the stock was exhausted. Whether the highest or lowest cut dealt was
also a matter of dispute. “Cavendish” got both these wrong in the
first edition of his “Pocket Guide,” but corrected himself without
explanation or apology in the second edition. It was then the custom
of many players to attach no value to the trump suit until the stock
was exhausted; so that until the last eight tricks there was no such
thing as trumping a trick in order to win it. Disputes also arose as to
counting double combinations, many contending that a double marriage
should be as valuable as a double bézique. Time and experience have
finally settled all these points, and the rules of the game are now
practically uniform in all countries.


BÉZIQUE, OR SIXTY-FOUR-CARD BINOCLE.

There are two forms of Bézique in common use; the ordinary game, which
will be first described, and the variation known as Rubicon Bézique,
which is to Bézique proper what Railroad Euchre is to Euchre.

_=CARDS.=_ Bézique is played with two packs of thirty-two cards each,
all below the Seven being deleted, and the two packs being then
shuffled together and used as one. It is better to have both packs
of the same colour and pattern, but it is not absolutely necessary.
The cards rank, A 10 K Q J 9 8 7; the Ace being the highest, both in
cutting and in play.

[Illustration: PULL-UP BÉZIQUE MARKER.]

_=COUNTERS.=_ Special markers are made for scoring at Bézique; but the
score may easily be kept by means of counters. Each player should be
provided with four white, four blue, and one red, together with some
special marker, such as a copper cent or a button. The button stands
for 500 points, each blue counter for 100, the red for 50, and the
white ones for 10 each. At the beginning of the game the counters are
placed on the left of the player, and are passed from left to right as
the points accrue, exchanging smaller denominations for higher when
necessary. Many persons find it more convenient to peg the game on a
pull-up cribbage board, starting at 21, counting each peg as 10 points,
and going twice round to the game hole.

_=STAKES.=_ Bézique is played for so much a game, 1,000 points up; or
for so much a point, the score of the loser being deducted from that of
the winner. When a partie of five games is agreed upon, it is usual to
have an extra stake upon the odd game, and when three games have been
won by the same player, the partie is at an end. It is usual to count
it a double game if the loser has not reached 500 points.

_=PLAYERS.=_ Bézique is played by two persons, one of whom is known as
the _=dealer=_, and the other as the _=pone=_. They cut for choice of
seats and deal, the player cutting the highest card having the first
choice, and electing whether or not to deal himself. In cutting, the
cards rank as in play, and the ace is the highest. If a player exposes
more than one card, he must cut again.

_=DEALING.=_ The cards are thoroughly shuffled, and presented to the
pone to be cut. At least five cards must be left in each packet. The
cards are then dealt three at a time for the first round, two for
the next, and three for the last, each player receiving eight cards.
The seventeenth is then turned up for the trump. If this card is a
Seven, the dealer scores 10 points for it at once. The trump card
is laid on the table by itself, the remainder of the pack, which is
called the _=stock=_ or _=talon=_, is slightly spread, to facilitate
the process of drawing cards from it, and to be sure that none of the
cards remaining in the undealt portion are exposed. In sixty-four-card
Binocle twelve cards are sometimes dealt to each player.

_=Misdealing.=_ A misdeal does not lose the deal, but in some cases a
new deal is at the option of the adversary. If the dealer exposes a
card belonging to the adversary or to the stock, the pone may demand a
new deal; but if either player exposes any of his own cards, the deal
stands good. If too many cards are given to either player, there must
be a new deal. If too few, the pone may claim a fresh deal, or allow
the dealer to supply the missing cards from the top of the stock,
without changing the trump card. If any card but the trump is found
faced in the pack, there must be a new deal. If a card faced in the
stock is not discovered until the first trick has been played to, the
exposed card must be turned face down, without disturbing its position.
If a pack is found to be imperfect, the deal in which the error is
discovered is void, but all previous cuts or scores made with that pack
stand good.

_=METHOD OF PLAYING.=_ The pone begins by leading any card he chooses,
to which his adversary may play any card he pleases. A player is not
obliged to follow suit, nor to trump; but may renounce or trump at
pleasure until the stock is exhausted, after which the method of play
undergoes a change. If a player follows suit, the higher card wins the
trick, and if identical cards are played to the same trick, such as two
Jacks of clubs, the leader wins. Trumps win plain suits. The winner of
the trick takes in the cards, turning them face down; but before he
leads for the next trick he has the privilege of announcing and scoring
any one of certain combinations that he may hold in his hand. After,
or in the absence of any such announcement, and before leading for
the next trick, he draws a card from the top of the stock and places
it in his hand, without showing or naming it. His adversary draws the
next card, so that each player restores the number of cards in his
hand to eight. This method of drawing from the stock is open to many
objections, and in France the pone always draws first, no matter who
wins the trick.

All combinations announced and scored must be laid face upward on the
table; but the cards still form part of the player’s hand, and may be
led or played at any time, although they must not again be taken in
hand until the stock is exhausted.

_=OBJECTS OF THE GAME.=_ The reasons for winning or not winning certain
tricks will be better understood in connection with the description
of the various combinations that count toward game, and the manner of
scoring them.

_=Brisques.=_ The aces and Tens of each suit are called brisques, and
count ten points each towards game. Except for the purpose of getting
or keeping the lead, there is no object in winning any trick which does
not contain a brisque. Every brisque taken in should be scored at once
by the player winning the trick; 10 points for an ace or Ten; 20 points
if there are two such cards in the same trick.

A player holding or drawing the _=Seven of trumps=_ has the privilege
of exchanging it for the turn-up trump, and scoring 10 points at the
same time; but he must make the exchange immediately after winning a
trick, and before drawing his card from the stock. Should the turn-up
card be a Seven, or one exchange have already been made, the exchange
can still be made and scored. He cannot score the Seven and make a
declaration at the same time.

_=DECLARATIONS.=_ The combinations which may be announced and scored
during the play of the hand are divided into three classes: Marriages
and Sequences; Béziques; and Fours of a kind. Only one combination can
be scored at a time, and it must be announced immediately after the
player holding it has won a trick, and before he draws his card from
the talon. If he draws without announcing, it is equivalent to saying
he has no declaration to make. Having drawn his card, even if he has
not looked at it, he cannot score any declaration until he wins another
trick.

The combinations and their values are as follows:--

  CLASS A

  King and Queen of any plain suit, _=Marriage=_           20
  King and Queen of trumps, _=Royal Marriage=_             40
  Sequence of five highest trumps, _=Sequence=_           250

  CLASS B.

  Spade Queen and diamond Jack, _=Bézique=_                40
  Two spade Queens and diamond Jacks, _=Double Bézique=_  500

  CLASS C.

  Any _=four Aces=_                                       100
  Any _=four Kings=_                                       80
  Any _=four Queens=_