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Title: Food Adulteration and its Detection - With photomicrographic plates and a bibliographical appendix
Author: Battershall, Jesse P. (Jesse Park)
Language: English
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text by =equal signs=



  FRONTISPIECE.      PLATE I.

[Illustration: TEA PLANT.]



  FOOD

  ADULTERATION

  AND

  ITS DETECTION.

  _WITH PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC PLATES AND
  A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX._

  BY

  JESSE P. BATTERSHALL, Ph.D., F.C.S.,
  CHEMIST, U.S. LABORATORY,
  NEW YORK CITY.

  [Illustration]

  NEW YORK:
  E. & F. N. SPON, 35, MURRAY STREET,
  AND 125, STRAND, LONDON.

  1887.



[_Copyright, 1887._ By JESSE P. BATTERSHALL.]



PREFACE.


To embody in a condensed form some salient features of the present
status of Food Adulteration in the United States is the object of this
volume. The importance of the subject, and the apparent need of a book
of moderate dimensions relating thereto, must suffice as its _raison
d’être_. The standard works have been freely consulted, and valuable
data have been obtained from the recent reports of our State and Civic
Boards of Health. The system of nomenclature accepted by the American
Chemical Society has been generally adopted. It was, however, deemed
advisable to retain such names as glycerine, sodium bicarbonate, etc.,
in place of the more modern but less well-known terms, glycerol and
sodium hydrogen carbonate, even at a slight sacrifice of uniformity.

The photogravure plates, most of which represent the results of recent
microscopical investigation, are considered an important feature of the
book. And it is believed that the bibliographical appendix, and the
collation of American Legislation on Adulteration, will supply a want
for ready reference often experienced.

  U. S. LABORATORY,
    _July 1st, 1887_.



CONTENTS.


                         PAGE

  Introduction              1

  Tea                      12

  Coffee                   29

  Cocoa and Chocolate      42

  Milk                     49

  Butter                   63

  Cheese                   83

  Flour, Bread, and Starch 87

  Bakers’ Chemicals       101

  Sugar                   104

  Honey                   121

  Confectionery           129

  Beer                    132

  Wine                    157

  Liquors                 186

  Water                   200

  Vinegar                 225

  Pickles                 232

  Olive Oil               233

  Mustard                 239

  Pepper                  243

  Spices                  249

  Miscellaneous           254

  Bibliography            258

  Laws                    268


  Index                   320



PLATES.


                                  PAGE

  I.    Tea Plant    _frontispiece_

  II.   Tea Leaves                  17

  III.  Tea and other Leaves        18

  IV.   Cream and Cow’s Milk        61

  V.    Skimmed and Colostrum Milk  62

  VI.   Butter and Oleomargarine    78

  VII.  Fat Crystals                79

  VIII. Artificial Digestion of
           Butter and Oleomargarine 82

  IX.   Starches                   100

  X.    Polariscope                112

  XI.   Organisms in Water         218

  XII.  Spices                     252



FOOD ADULTERATION.



INTRODUCTION.


Of the various branches cognate to chemical research which excite
public attention, that of food adulteration doubtless possesses
the greatest interest. To the dealer in alimentary substances, the
significance of their sophistication is frequently merely one of profit
or loss, and even this comparatively unimportant consideration does
not always attach. But to the general community, the subject appeals
to interests more vital than a desire to avoid pecuniary damage, and
involving, as it necessarily does, the question of health, it has
engendered a feeling of uneasiness, accompanied by an earnest desire
for trustworthy information and data. The most usual excuses advanced
by dishonest traders, when a case of adulteration has been successfully
brought home to them--guilty knowledge being also established--are,
that they are compelled to resort to the misdeed by the public demand
for cheap commodities, that the addition is harmless, or actually
constitutes an improvement, as is asserted to be the case when
chicory is added to coffee, or that it serves as a preservative, as
was formerly alleged to be the fact when vinegar was fortified with
sulphuric acid. Pretexts of this sort are almost invariably fallacious.
The claim that manufacturers are often forced into adulteration by
the necessities of unfair trade competition possesses more weight--an
honest dealer cannot as a rule successfully compete with a dishonest
one--and has undoubtedly influenced many of the better class to
co-operate in attempts to prevent the practice. The general feeling
of uncertainty which exists in the public mind concerning the
actual extent and importance of food adulteration is probably to be
ascribed to two causes. In the first place, most of the literature
generally accessible relating to the subject has been limited to
sensational newspaper articles, reciting some startling instance
of food-poisoning, often unauthenticated and bearing upon its face
evidences of exaggeration. By reason of such publications, periodical
panics have been created in our large cities which, however, as a
rule quickly subside, and the community relapses into the customary
feeling of doubtful security, until aroused from its apathy by the next
_exposé_. The fact that the only reliable results of food investigation
have, until recently, been confined to purely scientific journals,
and therefore not prominently brought to public notice, is another
explanation of the lack of creditable information which generally
prevails concerning this species of sophistication.

The adulteration of alimentary substances was practised in the
civilised countries of Europe at a very remote date, and the early
history of the art, mainly collated by Prof. Blyth in his valuable
work on food,[1] is replete with interest. Bread certainly received
due attention at the hands of the ancient sophisticator. Pliny makes
several references to the adulteration of this food. In England,
as early as the reign of King John, the sale of the commodity was
controlled by the “Assize of Bread,” which, although originally
designed to regulate the price and size of the loaf, was subsequently
amplified so as to include penalties for falsification, usually
consisting of corporal punishment and exposure in the pillory. In
France, in 1382, ordinances were promulgated specifying the proper
mode of bread-making, the punishment for infringement being similar in
character to those inflicted in Great Britain. It is related that in
the year 1525, a guilty baker “was condemned by the court to be taken
from the Châtelet prison to the cross before the _Église des Carmes_,
and thence to the gate of _Notre Dame_ and to other public places in
Paris, in his shirt, having his head and feet bare, with small loaves
hung from his neck, and holding a large wax candle, lighted, and in
each of the places enumerated he was to make _amende honorable_, and
ask mercy and pardon of God, the king, and of justice for his fault.”
In Germany, during the fifteenth century, the bread adulterator,
while not subjected to a religious penance, did not escape from a
sufficiently practical rebuke, as it was the frequent custom to put him
in a basket attached to a long pole, and purge him of his misdeeds by
repeated immersions in a pool of water.

Wine would also appear to have been exposed to fraudulent admixture
in former times. Pliny mentions that in Rome considerable difficulty
was experienced, even by the wealthy, in securing the pure article,
and in Athens a public inspector was early appointed to prevent its
adulteration. In England, during the reign of Edward the Confessor,
punishment for brewing bad beer was publicly enforced, and, in
1529, official “ale tasters” flourished, without whose approval the
beverage was not to be sold. In later years, Addison, referring to the
manipulators of wine of his time, writes: “These subtle philosophers
are daily employed in the transmutation of liquors, and, by the power
of magical drugs and incantations, raise under the streets of London
the choicest products of the hills and valleys of France; they squeeze
Bordeaux out of the sloe and draw champagne from an apple.”[2] In the
fifteenth century, at Biebrich on the Rhine, a wine sophisticator was
forced to drink six quarts of his own stock, and it is recorded with
due gravity that the test resulted fatally. Not very many years since,
a manufacturer of wine at Rheims secured for his champagne, which was
chiefly consumed in Würtemberg, a high reputation, on account of the
unusually exhilarating effects following its use. Suspicion being at
length aroused, Liebig made a chemical examination of the article,
and found that it was at least unique in its gaseous composition,
being charged with one volume of carbonic acid gas and two volumes of
nitrous oxide, or “laughing gas.” These early attempts to control and
punish adulteration, while often possessing interest on account of
their quaintness, are chiefly important, as being the precursors of the
protective legal measures which exist in more modern times.

In 1802 the _Conseil de Salubrité_ was established in Paris, and this
body has since developed into numerous health boards, to whom the
French are at present mainly indebted for what immunity from food
falsification they enjoy. A very decided advance upon all preceding
methods to regulate the public supply of food was signalised in 1874
by the organisation in England of the Society of Public Analysts, who
formulated a legal definition of adulteration, and issued the standards
of purity which articles of general consumption should meet. This
society was supported in its valuable services by the enactment, in
1875, of the Sale of Food and Drugs Act, which, with the amendment
added in 1879, seems to embrace all necessary safeguards against
the offences sought to be suppressed. The results of their work are
tabulated as follows:--

  ---------+-----------+--------------+----------------
    Year.  |  Samples  |   Samples    |   Percentage
           | Examined. | Adulterated. | of Adulterated.
  ---------+-----------+--------------+----------------
    1875-6 |  15,989   |    2,895     |      18·10
    1877   |  11,943   |    2,371     |      17·70
    1878   |  15,107   |    2,505     |      16·58
    1879   |  17,574   |    3,032     |      17·25
    1880   |  17,919   |    3,132     |      17·47
  ---------+-----------+--------------+----------------

Of the total number of samples tested, the classification of
adulterations is as below:--

                         Per cent.
  Milk                       50·98
  Butter                      5·73
  Groceries                  12·90
  Drugs                       2·52
  Wine, spirits, and beer    15·18
  Bread and flour             2·68
  Waters (including mineral)  9·18
  Sundries                    0·83

More recent data concerning the falsification of food in Great Britain
are as follows:--

  ---------+---------+--------------+-------------
    Year.  | Samples |    Number    | Per cent. of
           | Tested. | Adulterated. | Adulterated.
  ---------+---------+--------------+-------------
    1881   | 17,823  |    2,495     |    14·0
    1882   | 19,439  |    2,916     |    15·0
    1883   | 14,900  |    2,453     |    16·4
  ---------+---------+--------------+-------------

Of the samples of spirits and beer examined, about 25 per cent. were
adulterated.

The results of the work done at the Paris Municipal Laboratory are the
following:--

  --------+---------+-------+-----------+------------------------
          |         |       |           |           Bad.
          |         |       |           +------------+-----------
    Year. | Samples | Good. | Passable. |   Not      |
          | Tested. |       |           | Injurious. | Injurious.
  --------+---------+-------+-----------+------------+-----------
    1881  |  6,258  | 1,565 |   1,523   |   2,608    |    562
    1882  | 10,752  | 2,707 |   2,679   |   3,822    |  1,544
    1883  | 14,686  |   --  |    --     |    --      |    --
  --------+---------+-------+-----------+------------+-----------

The American characteristic of controlling their own personal affairs,
and the resulting disinclination to resort to anything savouring of
parental governmental interference, has probably had its effect in
retarding early systematic action in the matter of adulteration.
Sporadic attempts to secure legislative restrictions have, it is true,
occasionally been made, but the laws passed were almost invariably of a
specific nature, designed to meet some isolated case, and were destined
to share the fate of most legislation of the kind--the particular
adulteration being for the nonce suppressed, the law became practically
a dead letter. Subsequent effort to obtain more comprehensive laws
inclined to the other extreme, and the enactments secured were so
general in scope, and so deficient in details, that loopholes were
inadvertently allowed to remain, through which the crafty adulterator
often managed to escape.

The present food legislation in the United States was to some extent
anticipated in 1848 by an Act of Congress to secure the purity of
imported drugs. In this enactment these are directed to be tested
by the standards established by the various official pharmacopœias;
twenty-three are specifically enumerated, the most important being
Peruvian bark and opium. The Act is still in force. All previous
efforts to regulate the quality of our food supply culminated in
1877 in formal action being taken by several of the State Boards of
Health, at whose instance laws against adulteration were formulated,
and chemists commissioned to collect and examine samples of alimentary
substances, and furnish reports on the subject. These may be found in
the publications of the same, notably in the volumes issued by the
New York, Massachusetts, Michigan, and New Jersey Boards. The service
rendered to the public by these investigations is almost incalculable,
and the annual reports containing the results of the same are fraught
with interest. For the first time we are placed in possession of
trustworthy statistics, indicating the extent of food sophistication in
this country.

The annual report of the New York City Board of Health for the year
1885 furnishes the following statistics:--

  Milk examined                          7,006 samples.
  Adulterated milk destroyed             1,701 quarts.
  Candy destroyed                       72,700 lbs.
  Cheese   „                             5,700  „
  Packages of tea, ordered out of sale     266
  Canned goods condemned                39,905  „
  Pickles  „       „                     4,000
  Coffee   „       „                     4,100  „
  Pepper, spices, and baking powder      1,455  „
  Meat and fish                        790,410  „
  Fruit                                212,000  „
  Total inspections                     43,665
  Complaints made                        5,786
  Fines collected                       $2,070

Some of the results of the work performed by the New York State Board
of Health during the year 1882 are tabulated below:--

  ----------------+-----------+--------------+--------------
                  | Number of |   Number     | Per cent. of
     Article.     |  Samples  | found to be  | Adulterated.
                  |  Tested.  | Adulterated. |
  ----------------+-----------+--------------+--------------
  Butter          |    40     |      21      |     52·50
  Olive oil       |    16     |       9      |     56·25
  Baking powder   |    84     |       8      |      9·52
  Flour           |   117     |       8      |      6·84
  Spices          |   180     |     112      |     62·22
  Coffee (ground) |    21     |      19      |     90·48
  Candy (yellow)  |    10     |       7      |     70·00
  Brandy          |    25     |      16      |     64·00
  Sugar (brown)   |    67     |       4      |      5·97
  ----------------+-----------+--------------+--------------

In interpreting the significance of the foregoing table, it should be
borne in mind that in the vast majority of cases the adulterations
practised were not of an injurious nature, but consisted of a
fraudulent admixture of some cheaper substance, the object being an
increase of bulk or weight resulting in augmented profit.

Much of the embarrassment experienced by health authorities in their
efforts to bring persons guilty of food adulteration to punishment is
due to the lack of explicit detail in the law. It is far easier to
substantiate the fact of the adulteration than it is to produce the
offender in court and secure his conviction. Numerous cases are on
record illustrating the peculiar contingencies which at times arise.
Probably with the best intention, a milk vendor labelled his wagon,
“Country skimmed milk, sold as adulterated;” an inspector bought a
sample, not noticing the label, and the magistrate convicted the
vendor, doubtless on the ground that due attention had not been
directed to the advertisement.[3] Chief Justice Cockburn, in referring
to an analogous case, said: “If the seller chooses to sell an article
with a certain admixture, the onus lies on him to prove that the
purchaser knew what he was purchasing.” In most instances, when in
ostensible compliance with the law, a package bears a label purporting
to state the actual nature of its contents, the label is either printed
in such small type, or is placed in so inconspicuous a position, that
the buyer is in ignorance of its existence at the time the purchase is
made. A confectioner in Boston was suspected of selling adulterated
candy, and while it was proved that a sample bought of him contained
a dangerous proportion of a poisonous pigment--chromate of lead--he
escaped conviction, on the plea that candy was not an article of food
within the meaning of the existing law, which, it seems, has since been
amended so as to embrace cases of this kind.

In a recent action brought by the New York Board of Health to obtain an
injunction against the sale of certain Ping Suey teas, it was held by
the court, in refusing to grant the same, that, although the teas in
question had been clearly shown to be adulterated with gypsum, Prussian
blue, sand, etc., it was likewise necessary to prove that the effect of
these admixtures was such as to constitute a serious danger to public
health.

As a result of the publicity lately given to the subject of food
adulteration, a popular impression has been produced that any substance
employed as an adulterant of, or a substitute for another, is to be
avoided _per se_. Perhaps the common belief that for all purposes
cotton-seed oil is inferior to olive oil, and oleomargarine to butter,
is the most striking illustration of this tendency. Now, as a matter
of fact, pure cotton-seed oil, as at present found on the market,
is less liable to become rancid than the product of the olive, and,
for many culinary uses, it is at least quite as serviceable. Absolute
cleanliness is a _sine qua non_ in the successful manufacture of
oleomargarine, and, as an economical substitute for the inferior kinds
of butter often exposed for sale, its discovery cannot justly be
regarded a misfortune. The sale of these products, _under their true
name_, should not only be allowed, but under some circumstances even
encouraged.

The benefits accruing to the community by reason of the service of our
State Boards of Health are so evident and so important, that it is
almost incredible that these bodies have not been put in possession
of all the facilities necessary for their work. It would appear,
however, that, while our legislators have been induced to enact good
laws regulating adulteration, they have often signally failed to fulfil
all the requirements indispensable to the efficient execution of the
same. Without entering into the details of this branch of the subject,
it is proper to observe that owing to the lack of necessary funds,
great pecuniary embarrassment has been experienced in securing the
services of a competent corps of experts, who, in addition to their
inadequate remuneration, must incur the expenses of purchasing samples.
The appointment of public analysts in our larger towns and cities--as
has for some time been the case in Great Britain--is certainly to be
urgently recommended.

All attempts to awaken public interest in the subject of food
adulteration are of any real service only as they may be conducive to
the adoption of more advanced and improved measures for the suppression
of the practice.

In general, the adulterations to which food is subjected may be divided
into those positively deleterious to health (such as the colouring of
confectionery by chrome yellow), those which are only fraudulent (such
as the addition of flour to mustard), and those which may be fairly
considered as accidental (such as the presence of a small amount of
sand in tea). It would exceed the limits of this volume to enter into a
comprehensive review of the almost endless varieties of adulteration.
The following list embraces the articles most exposed to falsification,
together with the adulterants commonly employed:--

  Article.              Common Adulterants.

  Baker’s chemicals     Starch, alum.
  Bread and flour       Other meals, alum.
  Butter                Water, colouring matter, oleomargarine, and
                          other fats.
  Canned foods          Metallic poisons.
  Cheese                Lard, oleomargarine, cotton-seed oil, metallic
                          salts (in rind).
  Cocoa and chocolate   Sugar, starch, flour.
  Coffee                Chicory, peas, rye, corn, colouring matters.
  Confectionery         Starch-sugar, starch, artificial essences,
                           poisonous pigments, terra alba, plaster of
                           Paris.
  Honey                 Glucose-syrup, cane sugar.
  Malt liquors          Artificial glucose and bitters, sodium
                          bicarbonate, salt.
  Milk                  Water, and removal of cream.
  Mustard               Flour, turmeric, cayenne.
  Olive oil             Cotton-seed and other oils.
  Pepper                Various ground meals.
  Pickles               Salts of copper.
  Spices                Pepper-dust, starch, flour.
  Spirits               Water, fusil oil, aromatic ethers, burnt
                          sugar.
  Sugar                 Starch-sugar.
  Tea                   Exhausted tea leaves, foreign leaves, indigo,
                          Prussian blue, gypsum, soap-stone, sand.
  Vinegar               Water, sulphuric acid.
  Wine                  Water, spirits, coal tar and vegetable
                          colours, factitious imitations.

The above table includes those admixtures which have actually been
detected by chemists of repute within the past few years, and omits
many rather sensational forms of adulteration mentioned in the early
treatises on the subject, the practice of which appears to have been
discontinued.

In the following pages, some of the more important articles of food
and drink are described with especial reference to their chemical
relations and the ordinary adulterations to which they are exposed.
It should be added, that many of the methods of examination given
are quoted in a condensed form from the more extensive works on
food-analysis.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] ‘Foods: Composition and Analysis,’ pp. 1-18.

[2] _The Tatler_, 1710.

[3] ‘Analyst,’ 1880, p. 225.



TEA.


The early history of tea is probably contemporary with that of China,
although, in that country, the first authentic mention of the plant
was as late as A.D. 350; while, in European literature, its earliest
notice occurs in the year 1550. The first important consignment of
tea into England took place in 1657. Chinese tea made its appearance
in the United States in 1711; in 1858, the importation of Japan tea
began. During the season of 1883-1884, the importation of tea into
this country[4] was--from China, 30½ millions of pounds; from Japan,
32½ millions of pounds. Recently, numerous shipments of Indian tea
have been placed upon our markets, the quality of which compares very
favourably with the older and better known varieties. During the past
four years the consumption of tea in this country has materially
decreased; whilst that of coffee has undergone an almost corresponding
increase. The _per capita_ consumption of tea and coffee in the United
States as compared with that of Great Britain is as follows:--United
States, tea, 1·16; coffee, 9·50; Great Britain, tea, 4·62; coffee,
0·89. In the year 1885 our importation of tea approximated 82 millions
of pounds, that of coffee being nearly 455 millions of pounds.

Genuine tea is the prepared leaf of _Thea sinensis_. The growth of the
tea shrub is usually restricted by artificial means to a height of from
three to five feet. It is ready for picking at the end of the third
year, the average life of the plant being about ten years. The first
picking is made in the middle of April, the second on the 1st of May,
the third in the middle of July, and occasionally a fourth during the
month of August. The first pickings, which obviously consist of the
young and more tender leaves, furnish the finer grades of tea. After
sorting, the natural moisture of the leaves is partially removed by
pressing and rolling; they are next more thoroughly dried by gently
roasting in iron pans for a few minutes. The leaves are then rolled on
bamboo tables and again roasted, occasionally re-rolled and re-fired,
and finally separated into the various kinds, such as twankay, hyson,
young hyson, gunpowder, etc., by passing through sieves. The difference
between green and black tea is mainly due to the fact that the former
is dried shortly after gathering, and then rolled and carefully fired,
whereas black tea is first made up into heaps, which are exposed to the
air for some time before firing and allowed to undergo a species of
fermentation, resulting in the conversion of its original olive-green
into a black colour. The methods employed in the preparation of the tea
are somewhat modified in their details in the different tea districts
of China and Japan. In Japan two varieties of the leaf are used, which
are termed “otoko” (male), and “ona” (female), the former being larger
and coarser than the latter. After picking, the leaves are steamed by
placing them in a wooden tray suspended over boiling water, in which
they are allowed to remain for about half a minute. They are next
thrown upon a tough paper membrane attached to the top of an oven,
which is heated by burning charcoal covered with ashes, where they are
constantly manipulated by the hand until the light-green colour turns
to a dark olive, and the leaves have become spirally twisted. After
this “firing,” the tea is dried at a low temperature for from four
to eight hours; it is next sorted by passing through sieves, and is
then turned over to the “go-downs,” or warehouses of the foreigners,
where the facing process is carried on by placing the tea in large
metallic bowls, heated by means of a furnace, and gradually adding the
various pigments used, the mixture being continually stirred. The tea
is finally again sorted by means of large fans, and is now ready for
packing and shipment.

The sophistications to which tea is exposed have received the careful
attention of chemists, but not to a greater extent than the importance
of the subject merits; indeed, it is safe to assert that no article
among alimentary substances has been, at least in past years, more
subjected to adulteration. The falsifications which are practised to no
inconsiderable extent may be conveniently divided into three classes.

1st. Additions made for the purpose of giving increased weight and
bulk, which include foreign leaves and spent tea leaves, and also
certain mineral substances, such as metallic iron, sand, brick-dust,
etc.

2nd. Substances added in order to produce an artificial appearance of
strength to the tea decoction, catechu and other bodies rich in tannin
being mainly resorted to for this purpose.

3rd. The imparting of a bright and shining appearance to an inferior
tea by means of various colouring mixtures or “facings,” which
operation, while sometimes practised upon black tea, is far more
common with the green variety. This adulteration involves the use
of soap-stone, gypsum, China clay, Prussian blue, indigo, turmeric,
and graphite. The author lately received from Japan several samples
of the preparations employed for facing the tea in that country,
the composition of which was shown by analysis to be essentially as
follows:--

1. Magnesium silicate (soap-stone).

2. Calcium sulphate (gypsum).

3. Turmeric.

4. Indigo.

5. Ferric ferrocyanide (Prussian blue).

6. Soap-stone, 47·5 per cent.; gypsum, 47·5 per cent.; Prussian blue, 5
per cent.

7. Soap-stone, 45 per cent.; gypsum, 45 per cent.; Prussian blue, 10
per cent.

8. Soap-stone, 75 per cent.; indigo, 25 per cent.

9. Soap-stone, 60 per cent.; indigo, 40 per cent.

The “facing” or “blooming” of tea is often accomplished by simply
placing it in an iron pan, heated by a fire, and rapidly incorporating
with it one of the preceding mixtures (Nos. 6, 7, 8, or 9), in the
proportion of about half a dram to seven or eight pounds of the tea, a
brisk stirring being maintained until the desired shade of colour is
produced.

Some of the above forms of sophistication usually go together;--thus
exhausted tea is restored by facing. The collection of the spent leaves
takes place in China. Much of the facing was, until about three years
since, done in New York city, and constituted a regular branch of
business, which included among its operations such metamorphoses as the
conversion of a green tea into a black, and _vice versâ_.

According to James Bell,[5] the composition of genuine tea is as
follows:--

  ----------------------------+-----------+-------------
                              |  Congou.  | Young Hyson.
  ----------------------------+-----------+-------------
                              | per cent. |  per cent.
  Moisture                    |    8·20   |     5·96
  Theine                      |    3·24   |     2·33
  Albumin, insoluble          |   17·20   |    16·83
     „     soluble            |    0·70   |     0·80
  Extractive, by alcohol      |    6·79   |     7·05
  Dextrine, or gum            |     ..    |     0·50
  Pectin and pectic acid      |    2·60   |     3·22
  Tannin                      |   16·40   |    27·14
  Chlorophyll and resin       |    4·60   |     4·20
  Cellulose                   |   34·00   |    25·90
  Ash                         |    6·27   |     6·07
                              +-----------+-------------
                              |  100·00   |   100·00
  ----------------------------+-----------+-------------

The ash of samples of uncoloured and unfaced tea, and of spent tea
analysed by the author, had the following composition:--

  -----------------------+------------+-----------+-----------
                         |   Oolong   |           |
                         |(average of |  Japan.   |Spent Black
                         |50 samples).|           |    Tea.
  -----------------------+------------+-----------+-----------
                         | per cent.  | per cent. | per cent.
  Total ash              |    6·04    |    5·58   |   2·52
  Soluble in water       |    3·44    |    3·60   |   0·28
  Per cent. soluble      |   57·00    |   64·55   |  11·11
  -----------------------+------------+-----------+-----------

  _Composition._

  Silica                 |   11·30   |    9·30   |  27·75
  Chlorine               |    1·53   |    1·60   |   0·79
  Potassa                |   37·46   |   41·63   |
  Soda                   |    1·40   |    1·12   |
  Ferric oxide           |    1·80   |    1·12 } |  16·00
  Alumina                |    5·13   |    4·26 } |
  Manganic oxide         |    2·10   |    1·30   |
  Lime                   |    9·43   |    8·18   |  19·66
  Magnesia               |    8·00   |    5·33   |  11·20
  Phosphoric acid        |   12·27   |   16·62   |  15·80
  Sulphuric acid         |    4·18   |    3·64   |   1·10
  Carbonic acid          |    5·40   |    5·90   |   6·70
                         +-----------+-----------+----------
                         |  100·00   |  100·00   |  99·00
  -----------------------+-----------+-----------+----------

“Tea dust” affords a high proportion of ash, sometimes amounting to 20
per cent., the composition of which is usually strikingly different
from that of the ash of ordinary tea. It is deficient in potassa and
phosphoric acid, and the amount of ash insoluble in water and acids
is very excessive, as is shown by the following analysis, made by the
author:--

  _Ash of Tea Dust._

                                 Per cent.
  Insoluble in acids               60·30
  Alumina and ferric oxide          6·60
  Lime                              5·10
  Magnesia                          7·89
  Potassa                          11·00
  Soda                              2·51
  Sulphuric acid                    1·23
  Chlorine                          0·63
  Phosphoric acid                   4·73
                                   -----
                                   99·99
  Ash insoluble in water           80·00

      PLATE II.

[Illustration: TEA LEAVES.]

The portion of ash insoluble in acids consisted of silica, clay, and
soapstone, indicating that the ash of tea dust is largely composed of
the mineral substances employed for “facing” purposes.

The characteristics of the ash of unspent tea are the presence of
manganic oxide, the large proportion of potassium salts present, and
the solubility of the ash in water. The amount of ash in genuine
tea ranges from five to six per cent. In the absence of exhausted
leaves, it has been found that the finer sorts of tea afford a smaller
proportion of ash than the inferior grades. It will be noticed that
spent tea ash exhibits a marked increase in the proportion of insoluble
compounds (silica, alumina, and ferric oxide), as well as a total
absence of potassium salts.

The presence of foreign leaves, and, in some instances, of mineral
adulterants in tea is best detected by means of a microscopical
examination of the suspected sample. The genuine tea-leaf is
characterised by its peculiar serrations and venations. Its border
exhibits serrations which stop a little short of the stalk, while the
venations extend from the central rib, nearly parallel to one another,
but turn just before reaching the border of the leaf.

Plate I. (Frontispiece) is a photogravure of a twig of the tea plant,
in possession of the author. The leaves are of natural size, but the
majority are of a greater maturity than those used in the preparation
of tea, which more resemble in size the few upper leaves.

Plate II. shows more distinctly the serrations and venations of the
tea-leaf. The Chinese are said to occasionally employ ash, camelia,
and dog-rose leaves for admixture with tea, and the product is stated
to have formerly been subjected in England to the addition of sloe,
willow, beech, hawthorn, oak, etc. For scenting purposes, chulan
flowers, rose, jasmine, and orange leaves, have been employed. The
writer has lately received from Japan specimens of willow, wisteria,
_te-mo-ki_, and other leaves which at one time were used in that
country as admixtures.

Plate III. exhibits some of these leaves, two genuine Japan tea-leaves
being included for purpose of comparison. The leaves represented in
this plate are: 1, beech; 2, hawthorn; 3, rose; 4, Japan tea; 5,
willow; 6, _te-mo-ki_; 7, elm; 8, wisteria; 9, poplar. From very recent
reports of the American consuls in Japan and China, it would appear
that the addition of foreign leaves to tea is at present but seldom
resorted to, and this accords with the author’s experience in the
testing of the teas imported into this country.

In 1884, the Japanese Government made it a criminal offence to
adulterate tea, and instituted “tea guilds,” which are governed by
very stringent laws, and of which most dealers of repute are members.
The facing of tea does not appear, however, to have been considered an
adulteration, its continued practice being justified by the plea that
otherwise Japan teas would not suit the taste of American consumers.

      PLATE III.

[Illustration: TEA AND OTHER LEAVES.]

In the microscopic examination of tea, the sample should be moistened
with hot water and spread out on a glass plate, and then submitted to
a careful inspection, especial attention being directed to the general
outline of the leaf and its serrations and venations. The presence
of exhausted tea-leaves may often be detected by their soft texture
and generally disintegrated appearance. If a considerable quantity
of the tea be placed in a long glass cylinder and agitated with cold
water, the colouring and other abnormal substances frequently become
detached, and either rise to the surface of the liquid as a sort of
scum, or fall to the bottom as a sediment. In this way Prussian blue,
indigo, soapstone, gypsum, sand, and turmeric can often be separated,
and subsequently recognised by their characteristic appearance under
the microscope. The separated substances should also be subjected
to a chemical examination. Prussian blue is detected by heating
with a solution of sodium hydroxide, filtering, acidulating the
filtrate with acetic acid, and then adding ferric chloride, when,
in its presence, a blue colour will be produced. Indigo is best
recognised by the microscopic examination. It is not decolorised by
caustic alkali, but it dissolves in sulphuric acid to a blue liquid.
Soapstone, gypsum, sand, and metallic iron, are identified by means of
the usual chemical reactions. A compound very aptly termed “Lie-tea,”
is sometimes met with. It forms little pellets, consisting of tea-dust
mixed with foreign leaves, sand, etc., and held together by means of
gum or starch. This falls to powder if treated with boiling water.
In the presence of catechu, the tea infusion usually assumes a muddy
appearance upon standing. In case iron salts have been employed to
deepen the colour of the infusion, they can be detected by treating the
ground tea-leaves with acetic acid, and testing the filtered solution
with potassium ferrocyanide. Tea should not turn black upon immersion
in hydrosulphuric acid water, nor should it impart a blue colour to
ammonia water. The infusion should be amber-coloured, and not become
reddened by the addition of an acid.

The United States Tea Adulteration Act was passed by Congress in 1883.
The enactment of this law was largely due to the exertions of prominent
tea merchants, whose business interests were seriously affected by
the sale (principally in trade auctions) of the debased or spurious
article. It is stated in the official report of the United States Tea
Examiner at New York City, that from March 1883 to December of the same
year, 856,281 packages (about four millions of pounds) of tea were
inspected, of which 7000 packages (325,000 pounds) were rejected as
unfit for consumption. Since the enforcement in New York City of the
Tea Adulteration Act, nearly 2000 samples of tea have been chemically
tested under the direction of the author. The proportion grossly
adulterated has been a little over nine per cent. But this does not
apply to the total amount imported, since only those samples which were
somewhat suspicious in appearance were submitted for analysis. As the
result of the past two years’ experience in the chemical examination of
tea, the prevailing adulterations were found to be of two kinds--the
admixture of spent tea-leaves, and the application to the tea of a
facing preparation. A natural green tea possesses a dull hue, and is
but seldom met with in the trade; some Moyunes and uncoloured Japans
(which latter, properly speaking, is not a green tea) being almost
the only varieties not exhibiting the bright metallic lustre due to
the facing process. The addition of foreign leaves was detected only
in a few instances; the presence of sand and gravel occurred far more
frequently. Apropos of the practical utility of Governmental sanitary
legislation, it can be stated that, since the enforcement of the
Adulteration Act, the tea imported into the city of New York has very
perceptibly improved in quality.

Attempts in tea culture are being made in the United States of
Columbia, S.A. A specimen of the prepared plant received by the writer,
differed greatly in appearance from the Chinese and Japanese products.
The leaves, which had not been rolled but were quite flat, possessed
a light pea-green colour and a fine but rather faint aroma. An
examination indicated that the tea, although very delicate in quality,
was seriously deficient in body.

The analysis showed:--

                                                 Per cent.
  Moisture                                          6·70
  Total ash                                         4·82
  Ash soluble in water                              1·62
  Ash insoluble in water                            3·20
  Ash insoluble in acid                             0·16
  Extract                                          27·40
  Tannic acid                                       4·31
  Theine                                            0·66
  Insoluble leaf                                   65·90

The following Tea Assay, while not including the determinations of all
the proximate constituents of the plant, will, it is believed, in most
instances suffice to indicate to the analyst the presence of spent
leaves, mineral colouring matters, and other inorganic adulterations.

_Theine_ (_Caffeine_), C_{8}H_{10}N_{4}O_{2}.--Contrary to the once
general belief, there does not always exist a direct relation between
the quality of tea (at least so far as this is indicated by its
market price) and the proportion of theine contained, although the
physiological value of the plant is doubtless due to the presence of
this alkaloid.

The commercial tea-taster is almost entirely guided in his judgment in
regard to the value of a sample of tea by the age of the leaf, and by
the flavour or bouquet produced upon “drawing,” and this latter quality
is to be mainly ascribed to the volatile oil.

The following process will serve for the estimation of theine:--A
weighed quantity of the tea is boiled with distilled water until
the filtered infusion ceases to exhibit any colour. The filtrate is
evaporated on a water bath to the consistence of a syrup; it is next
mixed with calcined magnesia to alkaline reaction, and carefully
evaporated to dryness.

The residue obtained is then finely powdered, digested for a day or
so with ether (or chloroform) and filtered, the remaining undissolved
matter being again digested with a fresh quantity of ether, so long as
any further solution of theine takes place. The ether is now removed
from the united filtrates by distillation, whereupon the theine will be
obtained in a fairly pure condition.

Theine contains a very large proportion of nitrogen (almost 29 per
cent.), and Wanklyn[6] has suggested the application of his ammonia
process (see p. 205) to the analysis of tea. Genuine tea is stated to
yield from 0·7 to 0·8 per cent. of total ammonia, when tested in this
manner.

_Volatile Oil._--Ten grammes of the tea are distilled with water; the
distillate is filtered, saturated with calcium chloride, then well
agitated with ether, and allowed to remain at rest for some time.
The ethereal solution is subsequently drawn off, and spontaneously
evaporated in a weighed capsule. The increase in weight gives
approximately the amount of oil present. A sample of good black tea
yielded by this method 0·87 per cent. of volatile oil.

_Tannin._--Two grammes of the well-averaged sample are boiled with
100 c.c. of water, for about an hour, and the infusion filtered, the
undissolved matter remaining upon the filter being thoroughly washed
with hot water, and the washings added to the solution first obtained.
If necessary, the liquid is next reduced to a volume of 100 c.c. by
evaporation over a water-bath. It is then heated to boiling, and 25
c.c. of a solution of cupric acetate added. The copper solution is
prepared by dissolving five grammes of the salt in 100 c.c. of water,
and filtering. The precipitate formed is separated by filtration,
well washed, dried, and ignited in a porcelain crucible. A little
nitric acid is then added and the ignition repeated. One gramme of the
cupric oxide thus obtained represents 1·305 grammes of tannin. For
the estimation of spent leaves (especially in black tea), Mr. Allen
suggests the following formula, in which E represents the percentage of
spent tea, and T the percentage of tannin found:--

    E = ((10 - T)100) / 8.

_The Ash._--_a. Total Ash._--Five grammes of the sample are placed
in a platinum dish and ignited over a Bunsen burner until complete
incineration is accomplished. The vessel is allowed to cool in a
desiccator, and is then quickly weighed. In genuine tea the total ash
should not be much below 5 per cent., nor much above 6 per cent., and
it should not be magnetic. In faced teas the proportion of total ash is
sometimes 10 per cent.; in “lie-tea” it may reach 30 per cent.; while
in spent tea it frequently falls below 3 per cent., the ash in this
case being abnormally rich in lime salts, and poor in potassium salts.

_b. Ash insoluble in water._--The total ash obtained in _a_ is washed
into a beaker, and boiled with water for a considerable time. It is
then brought upon a filter, washed, dried, ignited, and weighed. In
unadulterated tea it rarely exceeds 3 per cent. of the sample taken.

_c. Ash soluble in water._--This proportion is obtained by deducting
the ash insoluble in water from the total ash. Genuine tea contains
from 3 per cent. to 3·5 per cent. of soluble ash, or at least 50 per
cent. of the total ash, whereas in exhausted tea the amount is often
but 0·5 per cent. The following formula has been proposed for the
calculation of the percentage of spent tea E, where S is the percentage
of soluble ash obtained:--

    E = (6 - 2S)20.

A sample prepared by averaging several good grades of black tea, was
mixed with an equal quantity of exhausted tea-leaves. The proportion
of soluble ash in the mixture was found to be 1·8 per cent. According
to the above formula, the spent tea present would be 48 per cent., or
within 2 per cent. of the actual amount.

_d. Ash insoluble in acid._--The ash insoluble in water is boiled with
dilute hydrochloric acid, and the residue separated by filtration,
washed, ignited, and weighed. In pure tea, the remaining ash ranges
between 0·3 and 0·8 per cent.; in faced tea, or in tea adulterated by
the addition of sand, etc., it may reach the proportion of 2 to 5 per
cent. Fragments of silica and brickdust are occasionally found in the
ash insoluble in acid.

_The Extract._--Two grammes of the _carefully sampled_ tea are
boiled with water until all soluble matter is dissolved, more water
being added from time to time to prevent the solution becoming too
concentrated. The operation may also be conducted in a flask connected
with an ascending Liebig’s condenser. In either case, the infusion
obtained is poured upon a tared filter, and the remaining insoluble
leaf repeatedly washed with hot water so long as the filtered liquor
shows a colour. The filtrate is now diluted to a volume of 200 c.c.,
and of this 50 c.c. are taken and evaporated in a weighed dish until
the weight of the extract remains constant. Genuine tea affords from 32
to 50 per cent. of extract, according to its age and quality; in spent
tea the proportion of extract will naturally be greatly reduced. Mr.
Allen employs the formula below for determining the percentage of spent
tea E in a sample, R representing the percentage of extract found.

    E = ((32 - R)100) / 30.

In order to test the practical value of this equation, a sample of
black tea was mixed with 50 per cent. of spent tea-leaves, and a
determination made of the extract afforded. The calculated proportion
of spent tea was 44 per cent., instead of 50 per cent. It should be
added, however, that the tea taken subsequently proved to be of a very
superior quality, yielding an extract of 40 per cent.

_Gum (Dextrine)._--The proportion of gum contained in genuine tea is
usually inconsiderable. Its separation is effected by treating the
concentrated extract with alcohol, allowing the mixture to stand at
rest for a few hours, and collecting the precipitated gum upon a tared
filter, and carefully drying and weighing it. As a certain amount of
mineral matter is generally present in the precipitate, this should
afterwards be incinerated and a deduction made for the ash thus
obtained. A more satisfactory method is to treat the separated dextrine
with very dilute sulphuric acid, and estimate the amount of glucose
formed by means of Fehling’s solution (see p. 37); 100 parts of glucose
are equivalent to 90 parts of dextrine.

_Insoluble Leaf._--The insoluble leaf as obtained in the determination
of the extract, together with the weighed filter, is placed in an
air-bath, and dried for at least eight hours at a temperature of
100°,[7] and then weighed. In genuine tea the amount of insoluble
leaf ranges from 47 to 54 per cent.; in exhausted tea it may reach a
proportion of 75 per cent. or more. It should be noted that in the
foregoing estimations the tea is taken in its ordinary air-dried
condition. If it be desired to reduce the results obtained to a dry
basis, an allowance for the moisture present in the sample (an average
of 6 to 8 per cent.), or a direct determination of the same must be
made.

The following tabulation gives the constituents of genuine tea, so far
as the ash, extract, and insoluble leaf are involved:--

_Total ash_ ranges between 4·7 and 6·2 per cent.

_Ash soluble in water_ ranges between 3 and 3·5 per cent.; should equal
50 per cent. of total ash.

_Ash insoluble in water_, not over 3 per cent.

_Ash insoluble in acid_ ranges between 0·3 and 0·8 per cent.

_Extract_[8] ranges between 32 and 50 per cent.

_Insoluble leaf_ ranges between 43 and 58 per cent.

The table below may prove useful as indicating the requirements to be
exacted when the chemist is asked to give an opinion concerning the
presence of facing admixtures, or of exhausted or foreign leaves in a
sample of tea.

_Total ash_ should not be under 4·5 per cent. or above 7 per cent.

_Ash soluble in water_ should not be under 40 per cent. of total ash.

_Ash insoluble in water_ should not be over 3·25 per cent.

_Ash insoluble in acid_ should not be over 1 per cent.

_Extract_ (excepting in poor varieties of Congou tea) should not be
under 30 per cent.

_Insoluble Leaf_ should not be over 60 per cent.

The British Society of Public Analysts adopt:--

_Total ash_ (dry basis), not over 8 per cent. (at least 3 per cent.
should be soluble in water).

_Extract_ (tea as sold), not under 30 per cent.

Below are the proportions of total ash, ash soluble in water, and
extract found in 850 samples of tea (mostly inferior and faced),
examined under the direction of the author in the U.S. Laboratory:--

  TOTAL ASH.

  ---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+--------
  Range    |5 to 5½ |5½ to 6 |6 to 6½ |6½ to 7 |7 to 8 |8 p.c.
           |  p.c.  |  p.c.  | p.c.   |  p.c.  | p.c.  |and over
  Number   |    21  |    76  |   102  |   194  |   421 |  36
  Per cent.|   2·47 |   8·94 |  12·00 |  21·64 | 49·53 | 4·23
  ---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------+--------

  ASH SOLUBLE IN WATER.

  ---------+---------+----------+--------------+---------------
  Range    | Under 2 |2 to 3 per|3 to 3½ per   |3½ per cent.
           |per cent.|   cent.  |     cent.    |   and over.
  Number   |   25    |   649    |     157      |      19
  Per cent.|  2·94   |  76·35   |    18·70     |     2·23
  ---------+---------+----------+--------------+---------------

  EXTRACT.

  ---------+---------+------------+------------+-------------
  Range    |20 to 25 |25 to 30 per|30 to 35 per|35 to 40 per
           |per cent.|    cent.   |    cent.   |    cent.
  Number   |   21    |    151     |    499     |     179
  Per cent.|  2·47   |   17·76    |   58·70    |    21·05
  ---------+---------+------------+------------+-------------

The following tabulation exhibits the results obtained by the
examination of various grades of Formosa, Congou, Young Hyson,
Gunpowder, and Japan tea, made, under the supervision of the writer, by
Dr. J. F. Davis.

It will be noticed, if the same varieties of tea be compared, that,
with some exceptions, their commercial value is directly proportional
to the percentages of soluble ash, extract, tannin, and theine
contained.

  --------------+------------------------------------------------------
                |Formosa Oolong, Choice, 1st Crop.
                |     +------------------------------------------------
                |     | Formosa Oolong, Superior, 1st Crop.
                |     |     +------------------------------------------
                |     |     |Formosa Oolong, Choice, 3rd Crop.
                |     |     |     +------------------------------------
     Variety.   |     |     |     |Formosa Oolong, Superior, 3rd Crop.
                |     |     |     |     +------------------------------
                |     |     |     |     |Congou, Choicest.
                |     |     |     |     |        +---------------------
                |     |     |     |     |        |Congou, Medium.
                |     |     |     |     |        |     +---------------
                |     |     |     |     |        |     |Congou, Common.
  --------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+--------+-----+---------------
                | c.  | c.  | c.  | c.  |   c.   | c.  | c.
  Price per lb. | 70  | 28  | 55  | 24  |65 to 70| 24  | 14
    (wholesale).|     |     |     |     |        |     |
                |p.c. |p.c. |p.c. |p.c. |  p.c.  |p.c. |p.c.
  Total ash     | 6·50| 5·96| 5·80| 6·34|  6·22  | 6·36| 6·58
  Ash soluble in| 3·60| 2·86| 3·12| 3·60|  3·56  | 3·00| 2·88
    water.      |     |     |     |     |        |     |
  Ash insoluble | 2·90| 3·10| 2·68| 2·74|  2·66  | 3·36| 3·70
    in water.   |     |     |     |     |        |     |
  Ash insoluble | 0·86| 0·94| 0·56| 0·66|  0·56  | 0·66| 1·06
    in acids.   |     |     |     |     |        |     |
  Extract       |42·00|37·40|43·20|40·60| 34·60  |29·60|26·20
  Insoluble leaf|54·90|59·55|52·70|56·55| 60·75  |64·80|68·75
  Tannin        |18·66|16·31|18·00|16·05| 14·87  |13·70|12·26
  Theine        | 3·46| 2·20| 2·26| 1·39|  3·29  | 2·23| 2·35
  --------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+--------+-----+-----

  --------------+-------------------------------------------------------
                |First Young Hyson, Regular Moyune.
                |        +----------------------------------------------
                |        |First Young Hyson, Plain Draw.
                |        |     +----------------------------------------
                |        |     |Second Young Hyson, Moyune.
    Variety.    |        |     |        +-------------------------------
                |        |     |        |Third Young Hyson, Plain Draw.
                |        |     |        |      +------------------------
                |        |     |        |      |Choice Gunpowder.
                |        |     |        |      |       +----------------
                |        |     |        |      |       |Third Gunpowder.
  --------------+--------+-----+--------+------+-------+----------------
                |   c.   | c.  |   c.   |  c.  |  c.   |  c.
  Price per lb. |28 to 30| 25  |17 to 18|  14  |  35   |  23
    (wholesale).|        |     |        |      |       |
                |  p.c.  | p.c.|  p.c.  | p.c. |  p.c. | p.c.
  Total ash     |  6·26  | 5·86|  5·84  | 6·20 |  5·76 | 5·50
  Ash soluble in|  3·60  | 3·28|  3·36  | 3·34 |  3·26 | 3·14
    water.      |        |     |        |      |       |
  Ash insoluble |  2·66  | 2·58|  2·48  | 2·86 |  2·50 | 2·36
    in water.   |        |     |        |      |       |
  Ash insoluble |  0·64  | 0·58|  0·50  | 0·52 |  0·54 | 0·52
    in acids.   |        |     |        |      |       |
  Extract       | 40·60  |41·00| 39·80  |30·40 | 39·60 |36·00
  Insoluble leaf| 55·50  |57·70| 57·15  |61·95 | 56·70 |57·90
  Tannin        | 18·00  |19·96| 18·53  |16·99 | 20·09 |17·87
  Theine        |  2·26  | 2·30|  1·16  | 1·08 |  1·78 | 1·42
  --------------+--------+-----+--------+------+-------+------

  --------------+-----------------------------------------------
                |Uncoloured Japan, Choicest, First Picking.
                |      +----------------------------------------
                |      |Coloured Japan, Good Medium,
                |      |   First Picking.
                |      |      +---------------------------------
     Variety.   |      |      |Coloured Japan, Good Medium,
                |      |      |  Third Picking
                |      |      |      +--------------------------
                |      |      |      |        Japan Dust
                |      |      |      +--------------------------
                |      |      |      |Coloured, Fine.
                |      |      |      |      +-------------------
                |      |      |      |      |Uncoloured, Common.
  --------------+------+------+------+------+-------------------
                | c.   |  c.  |  c.  |  c.  |  c.
  Price per lb. | 30   |  22  |  19  |  9   |  6
    (wholesale).|      |      |      |      |
                | p.c. | p.c. | p.c. | p.c. | p.c.
  Total ash     | 5·44 | 6·06 | 6·50 | 9·74 | 6·66
  Ash soluble in| 3·46 | 2·84 | 2·90 | 1·48 | 2·78
    water.      |      |      |      |      |
  Ash insoluble | 1·98 | 3·22 | 3·60 | 8·26 | 3·88
    in water.   |      |      |      |      |
  Ash insoluble | 0·46 | 0·78 | 0·96 | 3·90 | 1·46
    in acids.   |      |      |      |      |
  Extract       |39·20 |36·40 |33·40 |31·80 |32·80
  Insoluble leaf|56·85 |57·10 |59·90 |61·45 |60·05
  Tannin        |21·92 |18·27 |17·35 |15·66 |17·74
  Theine        | 1·54 | 1·66 | 0·74 | 0·82 | 2·43
  --------------+------+------+------+------+-----

The following analyses of several kinds of spurious tea, received from
the U.S. Consuls at Canton and Nagasaki (Japan), have been made by the
author:--

  -----------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------
                         |    1.     |     2.    |     3.    |     4.
  -----------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------
                         | per cent. | per cent. | per cent. | per cent.
  Total ash              |    8·62   |    8·90   |    7·95   |   12·58
  Ash insoluble in water |    7·98   |    6·04   |    4·95   |    8·74
  Ash soluble in water   |    0·64   |    1·86   |    3·00   |    3·84
  Ash insoluble in acid  |    3·92   |    3·18   |    1·88   |    6·60
  Extract                |    7·73   |   14·00   |   12·76   |   22·10
  Gum                    |   10·67   |    7·30   |   11·00   |   11·40
  Insoluble leaf         |   70·60   |   70·55   |   67·00   |   60·10
  Tannin                 |    3·13   |    8·01   |   14·50   |   15·64
  Theine                 |    0·58   |    nil    |    0·16   |    0·12
  -----------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------

1. Partially exhausted and refired tea-leaves, known as “_Ching Suey_”
(clear water), which name doubtless has reference to the weakness of a
beverage prepared from this article.

2. “Lie tea,” made from Wampan leaves.

3. A mixture of 10 per cent. green tea and 90 per cent. “lie tea.” It
is sometimes sold as “Imperial” or “Gunpowder” tea, and is stated to be
extensively consumed in France and Spain.

4. “Scented caper tea,” consisting of tea-dust made up into little
shot-like pellets by means of “Congou paste” (_i. e._ boiled rice), and
said to be chiefly used in the English coal-mining districts.

The following are the results of the analysis by American chemists of
samples representing 2414 packages of Indian tea.

                              Per cent.      Average per cent.
  Moisture                 5·830 to  6·325        5·938
  Extract                 37·800 „  40·350       38·841
  Total ash                5·050 „   6·024        5·613
  Ash soluble in water     3·122 „   4·280        3·516
  Ash insoluble in water   1·890 „   2·255        2·092
  Ash insoluble in acid    0·120 „   0·296        0·177
  Insoluble leaf          47·120 „  55·870       51·910
  Tannin                  13·040 „  18·868       15·323
  Theine                   1·880 „   3·24         2·736

FOOTNOTES:

[4] I.e. the United States.

[5] ‘Chemistry of Foods.’

[6] ‘Tea, Coffee, and Cocoa Analysis.’

[7] The degrees of temperature given in the text refer to the
Centigrade thermometer; their equivalents on the Fahrenheit scale can
be obtained by means of the formula 9/5C.° + 32 = F.°.

[8] In low grade, but unadulterated Congou tea, the extract
occasionally falls so low as 25 per cent.



COFFEE.


Coffee is the seed of the _Caffea Arabica_, indigenous to Abyssinia
and southern Arabia, and since naturalised in the West Indies, Ceylon,
Brazil, and other tropical countries. Its importance as an almost
universal beverage is only equalled by that of tea. The ancient history
of coffee is shrouded in great obscurity. It was unknown to the Romans
and Greeks, but its use is said to have been prevalent in Abyssinia
from the remotest time, and in Arabia it formed an article of general
consumption during the fifteenth century. From its introduction, in
1575, into Constantinople by the Turks, it gradually made its way into
all civilised countries. In 1690 it was carried by the Dutch from Mocha
to Java, whence specimens of the tree were taken to Holland and France.
Coffee houses were opened in London about the middle of the seventeenth
century, and in 1809 the first cargo of coffee was shipped to the
United States. As with many other articles of diet, the adulteration of
coffee has kept well apace with its increased consumption. The bean is
deprived of its external fleshy coatings before exportation, and is met
with in commerce in a raw, roasted, or ground condition. Bell[9] gives
the following analyses of two samples of coffee, both in the raw and
roasted state:--

  ---------------------------+---------------------+--------------------
                             |        Mocha.       |     East Indian.
                             +----------+----------+----------+---------
                             |  Raw.    | Roasted. |   Raw.   | Roasted.
  ---------------------------+----------+----------+----------+---------
                             |per cent. |per cent. |per cent. |per cent.
  Caffeine                   |  1·08    |  0·82    |   1·11   |  1·05
  Saccharine matter          |  9·55    |  0·43    |   8·90   |  0·41
  Caffeic acids              |  8·46    |  4·74    |   9·58   |  4·52
  Alcohol extract (containing|  6·90    | 14·14    |   4·31   | 12·67
    nitrogen and colouring   |          |          |          |
    matter).                 |          |          |          |
  Fat and oil                | 12·60    | 13·59    |  11·81   | 13·41
  Legumin or Albumin         |  9·87    | 11·23    |  11·23   | 13·13
  Dextrine                   |  0·87    |  1·24    |   0·84   |  1·38
  Cellulose (and insoluble   | 37·95    | 48·62    |  38·60   | 47·42
    colouring matter).       |          |          |          |
  Ash                        |  3·74    |  4·56    |   3·98   |  4·88
  Moisture                   |  8·98    |  0·63    |   9·64   |  1·13
                             +----------+----------+----------+---------
                             |100·00    |100·00    | 100·00   |100·00
  ---------------------------+----------+----------+----------+---------

Other authorities have obtained the following results:--

  ---------------------------+-------------------+---------+-------------
                             |       König.      |         | Smethan.
                             +---------+---------+  Payen. |(Average of
                             |  Raw.   | Roasted.|   Raw.  |7 Varieties.)
                             |         |         |         | Roasted.
  ---------------------------+---------+---------+---------+-------------
                             |per cent.|per cent.|per cent.| per cent.
  Substances soluble in water|  27·44  |  27·45  |   ..    |    ..
  Nitrogen                   |   1·87  |   2·31  |   ..    |   2·26
  Nitrogenous substances     |  11·43  |  12·05  |11 to 13 |    ..
  Caffeine                   |   1·18  |   1·38  |  0·8    |    ..
  Caffetannic acid           |    ..   |   ..    |3·5 to 5 |    ..
  Fat                        |  13·23  |  15·03  |10 to 13 |  10·99
  Ethereal oil               |    ..   |    ..   |  0·013  |    ..
  Sugar                      |   3·25  |   1·32  |   ..    |    ..
  Sugar and Dextrine         |   ..    |   ..    |  15·5   |    ..
  Other non-nitrogenous      |  31·52  |  38·41  |   ..    |    ..
    substances.              |         |         |         |
  Cellulose                  |  27·72  |  24·27  |  34·0   |  29·28
  Ash                        |   3·48  |   3·75  |   6·7   |   4·19
  Soluble ash                |   ..    |    ..   |   ..    |   3·37
  Moisture                   |  11·19  |   3·19  |  12·0   |   2·87
  ---------------------------+---------+---------+---------+-------------

It will be noticed from these analyses that the amount of sugar is
greatly diminished by the process of roasting. According to some
analysts, the proportion of fat experiences an increase, but it is more
probable that this constituent is simply rendered more susceptible to
the action of solvents by a mechanical alteration of the structure of
the berry. Recent determinations of the ash in coffee place its average
proportion at 4 per cent.; 3·24 being soluble in water, and 0·74 per
cent. insoluble. The soluble extract in roasted coffee usually amounts
to about 30 per cent.

An analysis made by Beckurts and Kauder[10] gives the general
composition of roasted chicory, dried at 107°, as follows:--

                                  Per cent.
  Substances soluble in water       57·40
      „      insoluble    „         41·90
  Ash                                7·66
  Fat                                0·73
  Nitrogenous substances             7·12
  Grape sugar                        4·35
  Cane sugar and dextrine            5·33
  Starch                             2·45
  Other non-nitrogenous substances  49·13
  Woody fibre                       26·23

The most common adulterations to which coffee is liable consist
in the addition of chicory, caramel, and numerous roasted grains,
such as corn, wheat, and rye, as well as such roots and seeds as
dandelion, mangold wurzel, turnips, beans, peas, etc. The roasted and
ground article is naturally most exposed to falsification, although
letters patent have been issued for the fictitious manufacture of a
pressed “coffee bean,” containing absolutely no coffee. The addition
of chicory is by far the most prevalent adulteration of coffee. Of
thirty-four samples examined by Hassall, thirty-one (91 per cent.)
contained this root. In regard to the moral aspects of its use, it
can safely be asserted that, while the addition of chicory to coffee
is largely sanctioned, and indeed demanded by the existing tastes of
many coffee-drinkers, its use constitutes a true adulteration, and
should be condemned, unless its presence is prominently stated on the
label of the package. In chicory the active principles of coffee, which
exert valuable physiological effects on the system (viz. caffeine, the
essential oil, etc.), are totally absent; moreover, its comparative
cheapness is a constant temptation to employ a proportion largely in
excess of the amount requisite to produce any alleged improvement in
the flavour of the resulting admixture.

The sophistications of coffee may be detected, in a general way, by
physical tests, by chemical analysis, and by microscopic examination,
in which processes great aid is derived from the characteristic
properties exhibited by the pure roasted and ground berry which
distinguish it from its more usual adulterants.

(_a_) _Physical Examination._--The following tests, while not always
decisive in their results, are often of service.

A small portion of the suspected sample is gently placed upon the
surface of a beaker filled with cold water, and allowed to remain at
rest for about fifteen minutes. If pure, the sample does not imbibe the
water, but floats upon the surface without communicating much colour to
it; if chicory or caramel be present, these substances rapidly absorb
moisture and sink, producing brownish-red streaks in their descent,
which, by diffusion, impart a very decided tint to the entire liquid. A
similar coloration is caused by many other roasted roots and berries,
but not so quickly or to so great an extent. The test may be somewhat
modified by shaking the sample with cold water, and then allowing
the vessel to stand aside for a short time. Pure coffee rises to the
surface, little or no colour being imparted to the water; chicory,
etc., fall to the bottom as a sediment, and give a brownish colour to
the liquid.

If a small quantity of the sample is placed upon a clean plate of
glass, and moistened with a few drops of water, the pure coffee berries
remain hard, and offer resistance when tested with a needle; most
grains employed for their adulteration become softened in their texture.

A considerable portion of the mixture is treated with boiling water and
allowed to settle. Genuine coffee affords a clear and limpid infusion;
many foreign grains yield a thick gummy liquor, resulting from the
starchy and saccharine matters contained. An infusion of pure coffee,
if treated with solution of cupric acetate and filtered, will show
a greenish-yellow colour; if chicory be present, the filtrate will
be reddish-brown. As a rule, samples of ground coffee which are much
adulterated, pack together when subjected to a moderate pressure.

Owing to the low density of a coffee infusion (due to its almost entire
freedom from sugar), as compared with that of the infusions of most
roots and grains, it has been suggested by Messrs. Graham, Stenhouse
and Campbell, to apply the specific gravity determination of the
infusion obtained from the suspected sample as a means for detecting
adulteration. The results afforded are fairly approximate. The solution
is prepared by boiling one part of the sample with ten parts of water
and filtering. The following table gives the densities, at 15°·5, of
various infusions made in this manner:--

  Acorns             1·0073
  Peas               1·0073
  Mocha coffee       1·0080
  Beans              1·0084
  Java coffee        1·0087
  Jamaica coffee     1·0087
  Costa Rica coffee  1·0090
  Ceylon coffee      1·0090
  Brown malt         1·0109
  Parsnips           1·0143
  Carrots            1·0171
  Yorkshire chicory  1·0191
  Black malt         1·0212
  Turnips            1·0214
  Rye meal           1·0216
  English chicory    1·0217
  Dandelion root     1·0219
  Red beet           1·0221
  Foreign chicory    1·0226
  Mangold wurzel     1·0235
  Maize              1·0253
  Bread raspings     1·0263

Assuming the gravity of the pure coffee infusion to be 1·0086, and that
of chicory to be 1·0206, the approximate percentage of coffee, C, in a
mixture, can be obtained by means of the following equation, in which D
represents the density of the infusion:--

    C = (1·00(1·020 - D)) / 12.

This was tested by mixing equal parts of coffee and chicory, and taking
the specific gravity of the infusion; it was 1·01408, indicating the
presence of 49 per cent. of coffee. Some idea of the amount of foreign
admixture (especially chicory) in ground roasted coffee may be formed
from the tinctorial power of the sample. It has already been mentioned
that coffee imparts much less colour to water than do most roasted
grains and roots. The table below shows the weights of various roasted
substances which must be dissolved in 2·000 parts of water in order to
produce an equal degree of colour:[11]--

  Caramel                      1·00
  Mangold wurzel               1·66
  Black malt                   1·82
  White turnips                2·00
  Carrots                      2·00
  Chicory (darkest Yorkshire)  2·22
  Parsnips                     2·50
  Maize                        2·86
  Rye                          2·86
  Dandelion root               3·33
  Red beet                     3·33
  Bread raspings               3·36
  Acorns                       5·00
  Over-roasted coffee          5·46
  Highly-roasted coffee        5·77
  Medium-roasted coffee        6·95
  Peas                        13·33
  Beans                       13·33
  Spent tan                   33·00
  Brown malt                  40·00

The comparative colour test may also be applied as follows:[12]--One
gramme each of the sample under examination, and of a sample prepared
by mixing equal parts of pure coffee and chicory, are completely
exhausted with water, and the infusions made up to 100 c.c. or more;
50 c.c. of the filtered extract from the suspected sample are then
placed in a Nessler cylinder, and it is determined by trial how many
c.c. of the extract from the standard mixture, together with enough
distilled water to make up the 50 c.c., will produce the same colour.
In calculating the chicory present, it is assumed that this substance
possesses three times the tinctorial power of coffee.

(_b_) _Chemical Examination._--Some of the chemical properties of
roasted coffee afford fairly reliable means for the detection of an
admixture of chicory. Coffee ash dissolves in water to the extent of
about 80 per cent.; of the ash of roasted chicory only about 35 per
cent. is soluble. Coffee ash is almost free from silica and sand, which
substances form a notable proportion of the constituents of the ash of
chicory.

The following (see p. 36) are the results obtained by the writer from
the analysis of the ash of coffee and chicory.

It will be observed from these analyses, that the most distinctive
features presented by coffee ash are the absence of soda, and the
small amounts of chlorine, ferric oxide and silica present. In these
respects, it is very different from the ash of chicory. The proportion
of phosphoric acid found in the latter is in excess of that given by
some authorities. Several analyses of chicory ash have been made by
the author, and, in every instance, the amount of phosphoric acid was
over 8 per cent.; in one sample of the ash of commercial chicory it
approximated 13 per cent.

  -------------------------------+--------------+--------------
                                 | Java Coffee. | Chicory Root
  -------------------------------+--------------+--------------
                                 |  per cent.   |  per cent.
  Percentage of ash              |       3·93   |       4·41
  -------------------------------+--------------+--------------
  Potassa                        |      53·37   |      23·00
  Soda                           |       ..     |      13·13
  Lime                           |       5·84   |       9·40
  Magnesia                       |       9·09   |       5·88
  Alumina                        |       0·43   |       ..
  Ferric oxide                   |       0·53   |       5·00
  Sulphuric acid                 |       3·19   |       9·75
  Chlorine                       |       0·78   |       4·93
  Carbonic acid                  |      15·26   |       4·01
  Phosphoric acid                |      11·26   |       8·44
  Silica and sand                |       0·25   |      16·46
  -------------------------------+--------------+--------------
                                 |     100·00   |     100·00
  -------------------------------+--------------+--------------

Blyth gives the annexed table, showing the characteristic differences
between coffee and chicory ash:[13]--


  ------------------------+----------------+----------------
                          | Coffee Ash.    | Chicory Ash.
  ------------------------+----------------+----------------
                          |    per cent.   |    per cent.
  Silica and sand         |      none      | 10·69 to 35·88
  Carbonic acid           |      14·92     |  1·78  „  3·19
  Ferric oxide            |  0·44 to 0·98  |  3·13  „  5·32
  Chlorine                |  0·26  „ 1·11  |  3·28  „  4·93
  Phosphoric acid         | 10·00  „ 11·00 |  5·00  „  6·00
  Total soluble ash       | 75·00  „ 85·00 |  21·00 „ 35·00
  ------------------------+----------------+----------------

The following formula has been suggested for determining the percentage
of pure coffee, in mixtures:--

    C = 2 ((100S - 174) / 3)

where S represents the percentage of soluble ash.

Another noteworthy difference between roasted coffee and chicory, is
the amount of sugar contained. As a rule, in roasted coffee, it ranges
from 0·0 to 1·2 per cent.; in roasted chicory, it varies from 12· to
18· per cent. The quantity of sugar in a sample can be determined by
Fehling’s method as follows:--

A standard solution of pure cupric sulphate is first prepared by
dissolving 34·64 grammes of the crystals (previously ground and dried
by pressing between bibulous paper) in about 200 c.c. of distilled
water; 173 grammes of pure Rochelle salt are separately dissolved
in 480 c.c. of a solution of sodium hydroxide of sp. gr. 1·14. The
solutions are then mixed and diluted with distilled water to one litre.
Each c.c. of the above solution represents 0·05 gramme of grape sugar.
The test is applied by taking 10 c.c. of the copper solution, adding
about four times its volume of water, and bringing it to the boiling
point. The coffee infusion is then gradually added from a burette,
until the copper salt is completely reduced to the red sub-oxide,
which point is recognised by the disappearance of its blue colour, and
can be more accurately determined by acidulating the filtered fluid
with acetic acid and testing it (while still hot) for any remaining
trace of copper with potassium ferrocyanide. In preparing the coffee
solution for the foregoing test, it is advisable to exhaust a weighed
quantity of the sample with hot water. The infusion is treated with
basic plumbic acetate so long as a precipitate forms; it is then
filtered, the precipitate being well washed, and the lead contained
is removed by conducting sulphuretted hydrogen gas through the fluid
which is subsequently again filtered and boiled until the dissolved gas
is expelled. The sugar determination is now made. Wanklyn employs the
following equation to estimate the amount of chicory in an adulterated
sample:--

    E = ((S - 1)100) / 14,

where E is the percentage of chicory, and S the percentage of sugar.

According to the analysis of König, the proportions of sugar and other
constituents in some of the adulterants of coffee, are as follows:--

  ----------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------
                              |Chicory. |  Figs.  | Acorns. |   Rye.
  ----------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------
                              |per cent.|per cent.|per cent.|per cent.
  Water                       | 12·16   |  18·98  |  12·85  |  15·22
  Nitrogenous substances      |  6·09   |   4·25  |   6·13  |  11·84
  Fat                         |  2·05   |   2·83  |   4·61  |   3·46
  Sugar                       | 15·87   |  34·19  |   8·05  |   3·92
  Other non-nitrogenous       | 46·71   |  29·15  |  62·    |  55·37
    substances.               |         |         |         |
  Cellulose                   | 11·0    |   7·16  |   4·98  |   5·35
  Ash                         |  6·12   |   3·44  |   2·12  |   4·81
  Substances soluble in water | 63·05   |  73·8   |    ..   |  45·11
  ----------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------

Estimations of the amount of sugar obtained upon boiling the suspected
coffee with water containing a little sulphuric acid (see p. 37), and
the proportion of the sample which is soluble in hot water should be
made. The presence of chicory is shown by a decided increase in the
amount of soluble substances; that of rye, by the notable quantity of
sugar produced by the inversion with acid, due to the starch contained
in the grain.

In this connection, the following determinations of Krausch are of
interest:--

  ---------------------------------+----------+------------+----------
                                   |Substances|Ready-formed|  Sugar
                                   |Soluble in|   Sugar.   |  after
                                   |  Water.  |            |Inversion.
  ---------------------------------+----------+------------+----------
                                   | per cent.|  per cent. | per cent.
  Roasted coffee                   |   23·81  |    0·20    |  24·59
     „    chicory                  |   65·42  |   23·40    |  22·14
     „    rye                      |   31·92  |    ..      |  75·37
     „    coffee                   |          |            |
            + 10 per cent. chicory |   30·63  |    2·30    |  23·15
     „    coffee                   |          |            |
            + 10 per cent. rye     |   25·98  |    0·19    |  29·60
  ---------------------------------+----------+------------+----------

The presence of roasted rye, corn, and other grains in coffee, may be
qualitatively recognised by testing the cold infusion of the sample
with iodine solution for starch, which is not contained in a ready
formed state in coffee. Caffeine is absent in chicory and the other
usual adulterants of coffee, and the estimation of this alkaloid is of
decided service (see p. 21). Roasted coffee contains about 1 per cent.
of caffeine.

A popular brand of ground coffee received by the author for
examination, and labelled “Prepared Java Coffee,” had the following
approximate composition:--Coffee, 38; peas, 52; rye, 2; and chicory, 7
per cent.

A sample of “acorn” coffee, analysed by König, gave the following
results:--

                                  Per cent.
  Water                             12·85
  Nitrogenous substances             6·13
  Fat                                4·01
  Sugar                              8·01
  Other non-nitrogenous substances  62·00
  Cellulose                          4·98
  Ash                                2·02

The non-nitrogenous constituents contained from 20 to 30 per cent. of
starch, and from 6 to 8 per cent. of tannic acid.

The composition of the well-known German coffee-substitutes, prepared
by Behr Bros., is stated to be as follows:--

  “_Rye Coffee-substitutes._”

                                 Per cent.
  Substances soluble in water      61·33
  Substances insoluble in water    36·45
  Cellulose                         9·78
  Starch                            8·34
  Dextrine                         49·51
  Nitrogenous substances           11·87
  Other non-nitrogenous substances  9·83
  Fat                               3·91
  Ash                               4·54
  Moisture                          2·22

  “_Malt Coffee-substitute._”

                                       Per cent.
            { Albuminoid substances       4·22
  Soluble   { Dextrine                   50·19
    in      { Alcoholic extract           7·57
  hot water { Inorganic matter,         }
            {   containing              } 2·27
            {   phosphoric acid, 0·54   }
  Insoluble in hot water                 35·00
  Moisture                                0·35

The raw coffee bean is sometimes subjected to a process termed
“sweating,” which consists in treating it with moist steam, the object
being to artificially reproduce the conditions present in the holds
of vessels, by means of which the bean is increased in size, and also
somewhat improved in colour and flavour. Another form of manipulation,
analogous to the facing of tea, is to moisten the raw bean with water
containing a little gum, and agitate it with various pigments, such as
indigo, Prussian blue, Persian berries, turmeric, alkanet, Venetian
red, soap-stone, chrome-yellow, and iron ochre. Mexican coffees are
sometimes made to resemble the more expensive Java in appearance.
The chemist of the New York City Board of Health has found in the
quantity of such treated coffee commonly taken to make a cup of the
beverage 0·0014 gramme of cupric arsenite. Indigo may be detected in
the artificially coloured product by treating a considerable portion
of the sample with dilute nitric acid, filtering and saturating the
filtrate with sulphuretted hydrogen. If indigo be present, it can now
be extracted upon agitating the solution with chloroform. Alkanet root
and Prussian blue are separated by warming the coffee with solution of
potassium carbonate, from which these pigments are precipitated upon
addition of hydrochloric acid.

(_c_) _Microscopic Examination._--Great aid to the chemical
investigation is afforded by the microscopic examination of ground
coffee. It is necessary to first become familiar with the appearance of
the genuine article--low magnifying powers being employed--and then
make comparative examinations of the adulterant suspected to be present.

The coffee bean mainly consists of irregular cells inclosed in very
thick walls which are distinguished by uneven projections. The cells
contain globules of oil. Most of the roots added to coffee exhibit
a conglomeration of cells (provided with thin walls) and groups of
jointed tubes, often quite similar to one another in structure. The
microscopic appearance of some of the starch granules, occasionally met
with in coffee mixtures, is represented on p. 100.

Of 151 samples of ground coffee recently purchased at random and tested
by various American chemists, 69 (45·7 per cent.) were found to be
adulterated.

FOOTNOTES:

[9] Op. cit.

[10] Pharm. Centralbl., 1885, p. 346.

[11] Graham, Stenhouse and Campbell.

[12] Leebody, ‘Chemical News,’ xxx. p. 243.

[13] ‘Foods: Composition and Analysis.’



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE.


Cocoa is prepared from the roasted seeds of the tree _Theobroma cacao_,
of the order _Byttneriaceæ_. It sometimes appears in commerce as
“cocoa-nibs” (_i. e._ partially ground), but it is more frequently sold
in the powdered state, either pure or mixed with sugar and starch, and
also often deprived of about one-half of its fat. Chocolate usually
consists of cocoa-paste and sugar flavoured with vanilla, cinnamon, or
cloves, and commonly mixed with flour or starch. According to Wanklyn,
the average composition of cocoa is as follows:--

                                 Per cent.
  Cocoa butter                     50·00
  Theobromine                       1·50
  Starch                           10·00
  Albumin, fibrine and gluten      18·00
  Gum                               8·00
  Colouring matter                  2·60
  Water                             6·00
  Ash                               3·60
  Loss, etc.                        0·30

R. Benzeman[14] has furnished the following averages of the results
obtained by the analysis of cocoa and chocolate. The air-dried cocoa
berries gave--husks, 13·00 per cent.; nibs, 87·00 per cent.:--

  -------------------------------------+-------------+---------------
                                       |             | Chocolate made
                                       | Cocoa Nibs. | from Cocoa and
                                       |             |   Sugar.
  -------------------------------------+-------------+---------------
                                       |  per cent.  |     per cent.
  Moisture at 100°                     |    6·41     |       1·65
  Fat                                  |   51·47     |      22·57
  Starch                               |   11·75     |       4·58
  Other organic substances,            |             |
     insoluble in water.               |   18·03     |       8·58
  Organic substances, soluble in water |    8·54     |      60·63
  Mineral Ash                          |    3·80     |       1·99
  -------------------------------------+-------------+---------------
                                       |  100·00     |     100·00
  -------------------------------------+-------------+---------------
   Ash of insoluble substances         |    0·89     |       0·30
  -------------------------------------+-------------+---------------

Recent analysis of shelled cocoa-beans, made by Boussingault, gave the
following results:--

  ---------------------------+-----------+-----------
                             |   Fresh.  |  Dry.
  ---------------------------+-----------+-----------
                             | per cent. | per cent.
  Fat                        |    49·9   |  54·0
  Starch and starch-sugar    |     2·4   |   2·5
  Theobromine                |     3·3   |   3·6
  Asparagine                 |   traces  |    ..
  Albumin                    |    10·9   |  11·8
    „  gum                   |     2·4   |   2·5
  Tartaric acid              |     3·4   |   3·7
  Tannin                     |     0·2   |   0·2
  Soluble cellulose          |    10·6   |  11·5
  Ash                        |     4·0   |   4·4
  Water                      |     7·6   |   ..
  Undetermined               |     5·3   |   5·8
  ---------------------------+-----------+-----------

Dr. Weigman[15] obtained the following results from an examination of
several varieties of the shelled beans:--

  ---------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
                 | Water.    |   Fat.    |   Ash.    | Nitrogen.
  ---------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
                 | per cent. | per cent. | per cent. | per cent.
  Machala        |  4·97     |   47·80   |    3·88   |   2·25
  Arriba         |  6·57     |   47·44   |    3·52   |   2·31
  Caracas        |  6·00     |   46·39   |    4·19   |   2·23
  Puerto Cabello |  5·71     |   48·74   |    3·94   |   2·13
  Surinam        |  5·01     |   46·26   |    2·99   |   2·20
  Trinidad       |  6·07     |   45·74   |    2·04   |   2·04
  Port au Prince |  4·73     |   48·58   |    3·89   |   2·33
  ---------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------

The most important constituents of cocoa are the fat (cocoa-butter), and
the alkaloid (theobromine).

_Cocoa butter_ forms a whitish solid of 0·970 specific gravity, fusing
at 30°, and soluble in ether and in alcohol.

_Theobromine_ (C_{7}H_{8}N_{4}O_{2}) crystallises in minute rhombic
prisms, which are insoluble in benzol, but dissolve readily in boiling
water and alcohol. It sublimes at 170°. Theobromine is exceedingly rich
in nitrogen, containing over 20 per cent. of the element. In this and
many other respects it bears a great resemblance to theine.

The proportion of mineral ash in cocoa varies from 3·06 to 4·5 per cent.

James Bell[16] gives the following composition of the ash of Grenada
cocoa nibs:--

                 Per cent.
  Sodium chloride   0·57
  Soda              0·57
  Potassa          27·64
  Magnesia         19·81
  Lime              4·53
  Alumina           0·08
  Ferric oxide      0·15
  Carbonic acid     2·92
  Sulphuric acid    4·53
  Phosphoric acid  39·20
                  ------
                  100·00
                  ------

The most characteristic features of the ash of genuine cocoa are its
great solubility, the small amounts of chlorine, carbonates, and soda,
and the constancy of the proportion of phosphoric acid contained. Bell
has also analysed several samples of commercial cocoa. The following
will serve to illustrate their general composition:--

                 Per cent.
  Moisture          4·95
  Fat              24·94
  Starch (added)   19·19
  Sugar (added)    23·03
  Non-fatty cocoa  27·89
                  ------
                  100·00
                  ------

                                     Per cent.
  Nitrogen                              2·24
  Ash                                   1·52
  Cocoa, soluble in cold water         31·66
  Ash in portion soluble in cold water  1·17

The comparatively low percentage of ash contained in prepared cocoas
and chocolate, is of use in indicating the amount of real cocoa present
in such mixtures. A large proportion of the mineral constituents of
cocoa are dissolved by directly treating it with cold water. Wanklyn
obtained in this way from genuine cocoa-nibs 6·76 per cent. organic
matter, and 2·16 per cent. ash, the latter chiefly consisting of
phosphates; a commercial cocoa gave, extract, 46·04 per cent.; ash,
1·04 per cent. The most common admixtures of cocoa and chocolate,
are sugar and the various starches. The addition of foreign fats,
chicory, and iron ochres, is also sometimes practised. Since prepared
cocoas are generally understood to contain the first-named diluents,
their presence can hardly be considered an adulteration, if the fact
is mentioned upon the packages. Many varieties of the cocoas of
commerce will be found to be deficient in cocoa-butter, a considerable
proportion of which has been removed in the process of manufacture.
This practice is also claimed to be justifiable, the object being to
produce an article unobjectionable to invalids, which is not always
the case with pure cocoa. In the analysis of cocoa the following
estimations are usually made:--

_Theobromine._--10 grammes of the sample are first repeatedly exhausted
with petroleum-naphtha. The insoluble residue is mixed with a small
quantity of paste, prepared by triturating calcined magnesia with a
little water, and the mixture evaporated to dryness at a gentle heat.
The second residue is boiled with alcohol and the alcoholic solution of
theobromine filtered and evaporated to dryness in a tared capsule. It
is then purified by washing with petroleum-naphtha and weighed. Bell
has verified the existence in cocoa of a second alkaloid, distinct
from theobromine, which crystallises in silky needles very similar to
theine.

_Fat._--The proportion of fat is readily determined by evaporating to
dryness the petroleum-naphtha used in the preceding estimation. As
already stated, it is generally present in a proportion of 50 per cent.
in pure cocoa; the amount contained in prepared soluble cocoas being
often less than 25 per cent. The English minimum standard is 20 per
cent.

_Ash._--The ash is determined by the incineration of a weighed portion
of the sample in a platinum dish. In prepared cocoas and chocolates,
the proportion of ash is considerably lower than in pure cocoa. It is
of importance to ascertain the amount of ash soluble in water (the
proportion in genuine cocoa is about 50 per cent.), and especially the
quantity of phosphoric acid contained. Assuming that prepared cocoa
contains 1·5 per cent. of ash, of which 0·6 per cent. consists of
phosphoric acid, and allowing that pure cocoa contains 0·9 per cent. of
phosphoric acid, Blyth adopts the following formula for calculating the
proportion of cocoa present in the article:--

    (·6 × 100) / ·9 = 66·66 per cent.

_Starch._--A convenient method for estimating the starch is to
first remove the fatty matter of the cocoa by exhaustion with
petroleum-naphtha, and then boil the residue with alcohol. The
remaining insoluble matter is dried, and afterwards boiled until the
starch becomes soluble. It is next again boiled for several hours with
a little dilute sulphuric acid, after which the solution is purified
by addition of basic plumbic acetate. The liquid is then treated with
sulphuretted hydrogen, in order to remove the lead, and the sugar
contained in the filtered solution is determined by means of Fehling’s
solution, and calculated to terms of starch. The proportion of starch
normally present in cocoa is to be deducted from the results thus
afforded. The variety of starch contained in cocoa differs in its
microscopic appearance from the starches most frequently added.

_Sugar._--The sugar may be determined by evaporating the alcoholic
solution obtained in the preceding process, and then subjecting the
residue to the same method of procedure.

The proportion of woody fibre in cocoa can be approximately estimated
by the method of Henneberg and Stohman,[17] which consists in
extracting the fat with benzole, boiling the remaining substances for
half an hour, first with 1·25 per cent. sulphuric acid, then with
1·25 per cent. solution of potassium hydroxide. The residue is washed
with alcohol and with ether, and its weight determined. Unwashed
cocoa-berries, when treated in this manner, gave from 2 to 3 per cent.
of cellulose, while cocoa husks furnished from 10 to 16 per cent.
The presence of chicory in soluble cocoa and chocolate is easily
recognised by the dark colour of the extract obtained, upon digesting
the suspected sample with cold water; ochres and other colouring
matters are detected by the reddish colour of the ash as well as by its
abnormal composition. The addition of foreign fats to chocolates is
stated to be occasionally resorted to.

The melting point of pure cocoa-butter varies from 30° to 33°. The
identification of foreign fats can sometimes be accomplished by means
of their higher melting point, and by an examination of the separated
fat, according to Koettstorfer’s method (see p. 71). The table
following gives the melting points of various fats, and the number of
milligrammes of K(OH) required for the saponification of one gramme of
the same.

  --------------------------+--------------+-------------
                            |              |m.g. K(OH)
            Fat.            |Melting point.|to saponify
                            |              |one gramme.
  --------------------------+--------------+-------------
                            |   °       °  |
  Cocoa-butter              |  30  to  33  |198 to 203
  Arachidis oil             |      ..      |  191·3
  Sesamé oil                |      ..      |  190·0
  Cotton-seed and olive oil |      ..      |  191·7
  Almond oil                |      ..      |  194·5
  Palm oil                  |  35  to  36  |  202·5
  Lard                      |  32   „  33  |  195·5
  Mutton tallow (fresh)     |  42·5 „  45  |   ..
  Mutton tallow (old)       |     43·5     |  196·5
  Bone fat                  |  21  to  22  |  190·0
  Beeswax                   |     63       |   ..
  --------------------------+--------------+-------------

Other tests have also been suggested for the detection of foreign fats
in cocoa-butter:--

(_a_) Treat the fat with two parts of cold ether; pure cocoa-butter
dissolves, forming a clear solution, whereas in presence of tallow or
wax a cloudy mixture is obtained.

(_b_) Dissolve 10 grammes of the suspected fat in benzole, and expose
the solution to a temperature of 0°. By this treatment a separation
of pure cocoa-butter in minute grains is produced. The liquid is now
heated to 14°·4, when the cocoa-fat will re-dissolve to a transparent
solution, while the presence of tallow will be recognised by the turbid
appearance of the liquid.

FOOTNOTES:

[14] Jahresberichte, 1883, p. 1002.

[15] Agrikulturchemische Versuchstation, in Münster.

[16] Op. cit.

[17] Repert. f. Analyt. Chemie, 1884, p. 345.



MILK.


Owing to the very important sanitary relations of milk as a model
food, the subject of its sophistication has during the past ten years
received particular notice at the hands of the food-chemist. The
investigations of our public sanitary authorities have shown that milk
adulteration is exceedingly common. It is stated upon good authority
that until quite recently (1883) the 120 millions of quarts of milk
annually brought into New York city were intentionally diluted with
40 millions of quarts of water, the resulting product rivalling in
richness the famous compound once lauded by the philanthropic Squeers.

The results of the examination of milk instituted by the New York State
Board of Health are given below, in which, however, the specimens of
skimmed milk are not included:--

  ------+-------------------+--------------------+--------------
  Year. | Number of Samples | Number showing     | Per cent. of
        | tested.           | addition of Water. | Adulterated.
  ------+-------------------+--------------------+--------------
  1880  |    1514           |       167          |    11·0
  1881  |    1110           |        51          |     4·6
  1882  |    1775           |       120          |     6·7
  ------+-------------------+--------------------+--------------

From October 1883 to March 1884, of 241 samples of milk examined by the
Public Analyst of Eastern Massachusetts, 21·37 per cent. were watered;
of 1190 samples tested during the year 1884, 790 were watered.[18]
Over 73 per cent. of the milk supplied to the city of Buffalo in
1885 was found to be adulterated. A very marked improvement in the
quality of the milk received in New York city has taken place since the
appointment of a State Dairy Commissioner (1884). Under the direction
of this official the metropolitan milk supply has been subjected to a
most rigid inspection, and with very satisfactory results. During the
years 1884 and 1885 nearly 45,000 samples of milk were examined.

A very common sophistication practised upon milk consists in the
partial or complete removal of its cream. This process of skimming is
conducted at establishments called “creameries,” of which sixty-three
were formerly known to send their impoverished product to New York
city. The State Dairy Commissioner has likewise accomplished much
towards stopping this form of adulteration.

Milk is the secretion of the mammary glands of female _mammalia_. It is
an opaque liquid, possessing a white, bluish-white, or yellowish-white
colour, little or no odour, and a somewhat sweetish taste. At times
it exhibits an amphigenic reaction, _i. e._ it turns red litmus blue
and blue litmus red. From the examination of nearly one thousand
cows in the States of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut, the
_minimum_ specific gravity of milk was found to be 1·0290, the
_maximum_ being 1·0394. The opacity of milk is only apparent, and is
due to the presence of fatty globules held in suspension; these under
the microscope are seen to be surrounded by a transparent liquid.
Upon allowing milk to remain at rest for some time it experiences
two changes. At first, a yellowish-white stratum of cream rises to
the surface, the lower portion becoming bluish-white in colour and
increasing in density. If this latter is freed from the cream and
again set aside, it undergoes a further separation into a solid
body (_curd_), and a liquid (_whey_). This coagulation of the curd
(_caseine_) is immediately produced by the addition of rennet, and of
many acids and metallic salts.

The essential ingredients of milk are water, fat, caseine, sugar
(lactose), and inorganic salts. The following table, collated by
Mr. Edward W. Martin,[19] exhibits the results obtained by numerous
authorities from the analysis of pure cow’s milk:--

  --------------+-------+------+-------+-----+------+------+--------+------
  Authority or  |Number |      | Total |     |Solids|      |        |
    Analyst.    |  of   |Water.|solids.|Fat. | not  |Sugar.|Caseine.|Salts.
                | cows. |      |       |     | fat. |      |        |
  --------------+-------+------+-------+-----+------+------+--------+------
                |       | p.c. | p.c.  | p.c.| p.c. | p.c. |  p.c.  | p.c.
  James Bell    |  216  |87·17 | 12·83 | 3·83| 9·00 |  ..  |   ..   | 0·71
                |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
  James Bell    |   24  |86·78 | 13·22 | 4·12| 9·10 |  ..  |   ..   | 0·72
                |dairies|      |       |     |      |      |        |
                |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
  C. Estecourt  |   22  |87·26 | 12·74 | 3·37| 9·37 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
                |dairies|      |       |     |      |      |        |
                |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
  J. Carter Bell|  183  |86·40 | 13·60 | 3·70| 9·90 |  ..  |   ..   | 0·76
  J. Cameron    |   42  |86·53 | 13·47 | 4·00| 9·47 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
  C. Cameron    |   40  |87·00 | 13·00 | 4·00| 9·00 | 4·28 |  4·10  | 0·62
  C. Cameron    |  100  |86·75 | 13·85 | 4·60| 9·25 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
                |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
  Fleischmann } |  120  |87·78 | 12·22 | 3·20| 9·02 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
    and Veith } |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
                |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
  Veith         |   60  |87·20 | 12·80 | 3·10| 9·70 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
  Veith         | 9120  |86·97 | 13·03 | 3·52| 9·51 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
  Wanklyn       |Average|87·50 | 12·50 | 3·20| 9·30 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
                |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
  A. Wynter   } |   „   |86·87 | 13·13 | 3·50| 9·63 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
    Blyth     } |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
                |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
  Marchand      |   „   |87·15 | 12·85 | 3·55| 9·30 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
                |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
  Henry and   } |   „   |87·02 | 12·98 | 3·13| 9·85 | 4·77 |  4·48  | 0·60
    Chevalier } |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
                |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
  Vernois     } |   „   |86·40 | 13·60 | 3·60|10·00 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
    Becquerel } |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
                |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
  Payen         |   „   |86·60 | 13·40 | 3·50| 9·90 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
  O. C. Wiggin  |   58  |85·92 | 14·08 | 4·01|10·07 | 4·29 |  4·99  | 0·79
  E. Calder     |   27  |87·23 | 12·77 | 3·32| 9·45 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
  Sharpless     |   34  |85·85 | 14·15 | 4·62| 9·53 | 4·82 |  4·06  | 0·65
  Haidlen       |Average|87·30 | 12·70 | 3·00| 9·70 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
  Letherby      |   „   |86·00 | 14·00 | 3·90|10·10 | 5·20 |  4·10  | 0·80
  J. König      |   „   |87·30 | 12·70 | 3·00| 9·70 | 5·00 |  4·00  | 0·70
  Boussingault  |   „   |87·40 | 12·60 | 4·10| 8·50 | 5·10 |  3·20  | 0·70
  Muspratt      |   „   |86·43 | 13·57 | 4·43| 9·14 | 4·73 |  3·74  | 0·67
  Dieulafait    |   „   |87·64 | 12·36 | 3·11| 9·25 | 4·22 |  4·18  | 0·85
  Gorup-Bezanez |   „   |85·70 | 14·30 | 4·31| 9·99 | 4·04 |  5·40  | 0·55
  Brinton       |   „   |86·00 | 14·00 | 4·50| 9·50 | 3·50 |  5·50  | 0·70
                |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
  Chandler      |  1700 |87·45 | 12·55 | 3·83| 8·72 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
                |  qts. |      |       |     |      |      |        |
                |       |      |       |     |      |      |        |
  Newton        |Average|87·50 | 12·50 | 3·50| 9·00 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
  Bartley       |   „   |87·50 | 12·50 | 3·50| 9·00 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
  White         |   „   |87·50 | 12·50 | 3·50| 9·00 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
  Waller        |   „   |87·50 | 12·50 | 3·20| 9·30 |  ..  |   ..   |  ..
  Babcock       |   „   |85·53 | 14·47 | 5·09| 9·39 | 5·15 |  3·57  | 0·67
  Church        |   „   |86·30 | 13·70 | 3·70|10·00 | 5·10 |  4·10  | 0·80
  Edward Smith  |   „   |86·40 | 13·60 | 3·61| 9·90 | 3·80 |  5·52  | 0·66
  Martin        |   „   |86·50 | 12·50 | 3·20| 9·30 |  ..  |   ..   | 0·67
  --------------+-------+------+-------+-----+------+------+--------+------

Mr. Martin obtained the following results from the examination of
cream separated by centrifugal force, and of skimmed milk:--

  -----------+----------+-------------
             |  Cream.  |Skimmed Milk.
  -----------+----------+-------------
             | per cent.|  per cent.
  Water      |   52·21  |   90·34
  Fat        |   41·16  |    0·15
  Sugar      |    3·11  |    3·98
  Caseine    |    3·40  |    4·80
  Salts      |    0·12  |    0·78
  -----------+----------+-------------

The proportion of mineral constituents in milk usually ranges between
0·7 and 0·8 per cent. The average composition of milk ash is as
follows:[20]--

                          Per cent.
  Potassa                   24·5
  Soda                      11·0
  Lime                      22·5
  Magnesia                   2·6
  Ferric oxide               0·3
  Phosphoric anhydride      26·0
  Sulphuric anhydride        1·0
  Chlorine                  15·6
                           -----
                           103·5[21]

The tabulation below gives the composition of human milk and the milk
of various animals:--

  ------------+--------+------+-------+------+--------+-------+---------
              |Specific|Water.| Milk  | Fat. |Caseine.| Milk  |Inorganic
              |Gravity.|      |Solids.|      |        |Sugar. | Salts.
  ------------+--------+------+-------+------+--------+-------+---------
              |        | p.c. | p.c.  |  p.c.|  p.c.  |  p.c. | p.c.
  White woman | 1·0315 |87·806|12·194 | 4·021| 3·523  | 4·265 | 0·28
  Coloured    |        |      |       |      |        |       |
    woman     |  ..    |86·34 |13·66  | 4·03 | 3·32   | 5·71  | 0·61
  Mare        | 1·0310 |91·310| 9·690 | 1·055| 1·953  | 6·285 | 0·397
  Goat        | 1·0323 |86·36 |13·64  | 4·36 | 4·70   | 4·00  | 0·62
  Ewe         | 1·0380 |82·94 |17·00  | 6·97 | 5·40   | 3·63  | 0·97
  Sow         | 1·0440 |81·80 |18·20  | 6·00 | 5·30   | 6·07  | 0·83
  Canine      | 1·0360 |77·26 |22·74  |10·64 | 9·21   | 2·49  | 0·44
  Ass         | 1·0330 |91·95 | 8·05  | 0·11 | 1·82   | 6·08  | 0·34
  Camel       |        |86·94 |13·06  | 2·90 | 3·67   | 5·78  | 0·66
              |        |      |       |      |     \  |  /    |
  Hippopotamus|   ..   |90·43 | 9·57  | 4·51 |      4·40      | 0·11
  Elephant    |   ..   |66·697|33·303 |22·070| 3·212  | 7·392 | 0·629
  Porpoise    |   ..   |41·11 |58·89  |45·80 | 11·19  | 1·33  | 0·57
  Cat         |   ..   |81·62 |18·38  | 3·33 |  9·55  | 4·91  | 0·58
  Llama       |   ..   |89·55 |10·45  | 3·15 |  0·90  | 5·60  | 0·80
  ------------+--------+------+-------+------+--------+-------+---------

Several varieties of preserved and condensed milk have, for a number of
years, been placed upon the market. The composition of the best-known
brands of these preparations is as follows:--

  PRESERVED MILK.

  ----------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------
                        |         |         |Cane and |         |
           Brand.       | Water.  |  Fat.   |  Milk   |Caseine. |Salts.
                        |         |         | Sugar.  |         |
  ----------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------
                        |  p.c.   |  p.c.   |  p.c.   |  p.c.   | p.c.
  Alderney              | 30·05   | 10·08   | 46·01   | 12·04   | 1·82
  Anglo-Swiss (American)| 29·46   |  8·11   | 50·41   | 10·22   | 1·80
    „     „    (English)| 27·80   |  8·24   | 51·07   | 10·80   | 2·09
    „     „    (Swiss)  | 25·51   |  8·51   | 53·27   | 10·71   | 2·00
  Eagle                 | 27·30   |  6·60   | 44·47   | 10·77   | 1·86
  Crown                 | 29·44   |  9·27   | 49·26   | 10·11   | 1·92
  ----------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------

  CONDENSED MILK.

  -------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
                     |         |         |Cane and |         |
           Brand.    | Water.  |  Fat.   |  Milk   |Caseine. | Salts.
                     |         |         | Sugar.  |         |
  -------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
                     |per cent.|per cent.|per cent.|per cent.|per cent.
  American           | 52·07   | 15·06   | 16·97   | 14·26   |  2·80
  New York           | 56·71   | 14·13   | 13·98   | 13·18   |  2·00
  Granulated Milk Co.| 55·43   | 13·16   | 14·84   | 14·04   |  2·53
  Eagle              | 56·01   | 14·02   | 14·06   | 13·90   |  2·01
  -------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------


ANALYSIS.

The principal adulterations of milk (watering and skimming), are
detected by taking its specific gravity, and making quantitative
determinations of the total milk solids, the fat, and the milk solids
not fat. Of these criteria, the last-mentioned is the most constant and
reliable.


_Physical Examination._

_a. Specific Gravity._--The instrument employed by the New York health
inspectors for testing milk is a variety of the hydrometer, termed
the lactometer, and its use, which is based upon the fact that under
ordinary conditions watered milk possesses a decreased density, is
certainly of great value as a preliminary test. The Board of Health
lactometer indicates specific gravities between 1·000 (the density of
water) and 1·0348. On its scale 100° represents the specific gravity of
1·029 (taken as the minimum density of genuine milk), and 0 represents
the density of water; the graduations are extended to 120°, equivalent
to a specific gravity of 1·0348. In taking an observation with the
lactometer, the standard temperature of 15° should be obtained,
_and the colour and consistency of the milk noted_. If these latter
properties indicate a dilution of the sample, and the instrument sinks
below the 100° mark, it is safe to assume that the milk has been
watered. The scale is so constructed that the extent of the dilution
is directly shown by the reading, _e. g._ if the lactometer sinks to
70° the sample contains 70 per cent. of pure milk and 30 per cent.
of water. As the standard of specific gravity (1·029) selected for
the 100° mark of the lactometer is the _minimum_ density of unwatered
milk, it is evident that the readings of the instrument will almost
invariably indicate an addition of water less than has actually taken
place. It would therefore appear that, under normal circumstances,
the standard adopted by the New York Board of Health errs on the side
of too much leniency toward the milk dealer. Cream being lighter than
water, a sample of skimmed milk will possess a greater specific gravity
than the pure article, and it is possible to add from 10 to 20 per
cent. of water to it and still have the resulting admixture stand at
100° when tested by the lactometer. Vehement attempts have been made in
court and elsewhere to impeach the accuracy of the indications afforded
by the lactometer. These have been mainly founded upon the fact that
a sample of milk unusually rich in cream will have a lower density
than a poorer grade, so that it is quite possible that milk of very
superior quality may show a gravity identical with that of a watered
specimen. Great stress has been laid upon this by the opponents of the
measures to control milk adulteration adopted by the public sanitary
authorities. They have contended that a chemical analysis should be
made. Recourse to this method would, however, involve a greater amount
of time than it is usually practicable to devote to the examination
of the numerous samples daily inspected; moreover, the process is
resorted to whenever the indications of the lactometer leave the
inspector in doubt. With the exercise of ordinary intelligence this
contingency seldom arises, as the proportion of cream required to
reduce the specific gravity to that of a watered sample would be more
than sufficient to obviate any danger of mistaking the cause of the
decreased density. In this connection it should be stated, that the
average lactometric standing of about 20,000 samples of milk, examined
by the New York State Dairy Commissioner in the year 1884, was 110°,
equivalent to a specific gravity of 1·0319.

The following table shows the value of lactometer degrees in specific
gravity:--

  VALUE OF LACTOMETER DEGREES IN SPECIFIC GRAVITY.

  -----------+-----------
  Lactometer.|  Gravity.
  -----------+-----------
        0    |  1·00000
        1    |  1·00029
        2    |  1·00058
        3    |  1·00087
        4    |  1·00116
        5    |  1·00145
        6    |  1·00174
        7    |  1·00203
        8    |  1·00232
        9    |  1·00261
       10    |  1·00290
       11    |  1·00319
       12    |  1·00348
       13    |  1·00377
       14    |  1·00406
       15    |  1·00435
       16    |  1·00464
       17    |  1·00493
       18    |  1·00522
       19    |  1·00551
       20    |  1·00580
       21    |  1·00609
       22    |  1·00638
       23    |  1·00667
       24    |  1·00696
       25    |  1·00725
       26    |  1·00754
       27    |  1·00783
       28    |  1·00812
       29    |  1·00841
       30    |  1·00870
       31    |  1·00899
       32    |  1·00928
       33    |  1·00957
       34    |  1·00986
       35    |  1·01015
       36    |  1·01044
       37    |  1·01073
       38    |  1·01102
       39    |  1·01131
       40    |  1·01160
       41    |  1·01189
       42    |  1·01210
       43    |  1·01247
       44    |  1·01276
       45    |  1·01305
       46    |  1·01334
       47    |  1·01363
       48    |  1·01392
       49    |  1·01421
       50    |  1·01450
       51    |  1·01479
       52    |  1·01508
       53    |  1·01537
       54    |  1·01566
       55    |  1·01595
       56    |  1·01624
       57    |  1·01653
       58    |  1·01682
       59    |  1·01711
       60    |  1·01740
       61    |  1·01769
       62    |  1·01798
       63    |  1·01827
       64    |  1·01856
       65    |  1·01885
       66    |  1·01914
       67    |  1·01943
       68    |  1·01972
       69    |  1·02001
       70    |  1·02030
       71    |  1·02059
       72    |  1·02088
       73    |  1·02117
       74    |  1·02146
       75    |  1·02175
       76    |  1·02204
       77    |  1·02233
       78    |  1·02262
       79    |  1·02291
       80    |  1·02320
       81    |  1·02349
       82    |  1·02378
       83    |  1·02407
       84    |  1·02436
       85    |  1·02465
       86    |  1·02494
       87    |  1·02523
       88    |  1·02552
       89    |  1·02581
       90    |  1·02619
       91    |  1·02639
       92    |  1·02668
       93    |  1·02697
       94    |  1·02726
       95    |  1·02755
       96    |  1·02784
       97    |  1·02813
       98    |  1·02842
       99    |  1·02871
       100   |  1·02900
       101   |  1·02929
       102   |  1·02958
       103   |  1·02987
       104   |  1·03016
       105   |  1·03045
       106   |  1·03074
       107   |  1·03103
       108   |  1·03132
       109   |  1·03161
       110   |  1·03190
       111   |  1·03219
       112   |  1·03248
       113   |  1·03277
       114   |  1·03306
       115   |  1·03335
       116   |  1·03364
       117   |  1·03393
       118   |  1·03422
       119   |  1·03451
       120   |  1·03480
  -----------+----------


_Chemical Examination._

_b. Water, Total Solids, and Ash._--Five grammes of the fresh milk are
weighed in a tared platinum dish, having a flat bottom, which is placed
on a water-bath, where it is allowed to remain for about three hours.
It is then transferred to a water-oven, and the dish is subsequently
weighed, from time to time, until the weight becomes constant. The loss
in weight is the _water_ present; the difference between the weight
of the platinum capsule and its weight with the remaining contents
gives the amount of _total solids_, which, in milk of good quality,
should not be under 12 per cent. The inorganic salts (ash) can now
be determined by carefully incinerating the residual contents of the
capsule. Too high a temperature is to be avoided in this process, in
order to prevent the fusion of the ash, which should, however, be
ignited until it shows a greyish-white colour. The amount of ash in
genuine milk ranges from 0·70 to 0·80 per cent. The addition of water
naturally decreases this proportion as well as that of the total
milk-solids.

_c. Fat, Milk Solids not Fat, Caseine, and Milk Sugar._--An approximate
estimation of the fat in milk was formerly made by the use of the
_creamometer_. This instrument consists simply of a long glass tube,
provided at its upper end with a scale. The milk under examination is
introduced into the tube and allowed to remain at rest for about 24
hours, or until the stratum of cream has completely collected upon
its surface; the quantity is then read off by means of the attached
scale. The results afforded by the creamometer are, however, far
from reliable. Cream is really milk rich in fat, caseine, etc., and
the quantitative relation it bears to the true amount of fat present
is not always a direct one. A recent form of _lactoscope_, devised
by Feser, is less objectionable, and is in very general use for the
rapid estimation of fat in milk. It consists essentially of a glass
cylinder, provided with two scales, one being graduated into c.c., the
other, into percentages of fat. In the lower end of the instrument is
a contraction, in which is placed a cylindrical piece of white glass,
graduated with well-defined black lines. In using the lactoscope, 4
c.c. of the milk are introduced into the instrument by means of a
pipette, and water is gradually added, with shaking, until the black
marks on the small white cylinder become just visible. Upon now
referring to the c.c. scale, the quantity of water used to effect the
necessary dilution is ascertained, and the corresponding percentage of
fat in the sample is indicated by the percentage scale.[22]

In the gravimetric determination of the fat (butter), 10 grammes of the
milk are put into a tared platinum dish, containing a weighed amount of
dry sand. The milk is evaporated as previously directed, the mixture
being constantly stirred with a small platinum spatula. The residue
is repeatedly treated with warm ether or petroleum naphtha of 70° B.,
and the solutions poured upon a small filter. The several filtrates are
collected in a tared beaker, and cautiously evaporated, until constant
weight is obtained. This will give the amount of _fat_. The undissolved
residue remaining in the platinum capsule, or the difference between
the quantity of fat and that of the total milk-solids, affords the
proportion of _milk solids not fat_ contained, which, in unadulterated
milk, should amount to 9 per cent. It has been determined by
experiment, that every percentage of milk-solids not fat, increases
the specific gravity of milk 0·00375, whereas each percentage of fat
decreases the gravity 0·0010, and the proportion of solids not fat can
be calculated from the data afforded by the lactometer and Feser’s
lactoscope by means of the formula:--

    (S - A) / 0·00375,

where S is the specific gravity of the milk, as shown by the
lactometer, and A is the remainder obtained upon multiplying the
percentage of fat indicated by the lactoscope by 0·001 and subtracting
the residue from 1·0000.

The residue remaining after the extraction of the fat is treated with
warm water containing a few drops of acetic acid, or with dilute (80
per cent.) alcohol, in order to remove the sugar. The residue is
dried until it ceases to decrease in weight, and is then weighed. The
difference between the original weight of the sand and the weight of
the sand and residue combined represents approximately the amount of
_caseine_ (albuminoids) present. As this contains a certain proportion
of ash it is to be subsequently ignited, and the ash obtained deducted
from the first weight. The alcoholic sugar solution is evaporated to
dryness and weighed. The residue is then incinerated and the weight
of ash is subtracted. The difference is the amount of _milk sugar_
contained. The sugar may likewise be determined by means of Fehling’s
solution (see pp. 37, 111). About 50 c.c. of the milk is warmed with
a small quantity of acetic acid to precipitate the caseine, which is
removed by filtration, and the filtrate diluted to 500 c.c.; the test
is then applied. 10 c.c. of the copper solution represents 0·067 gramme
of milk sugar.

The sugar in milk can also be estimated by the polariscope (see under
Sugar, p. 112). In case the Ventzke-Scheibler instrument is used, 65·36
grammes of the sample are weighed out and introduced into a 100 cc.
flask; about 5 cc. of plumbic basic acetate solution is added, and the
liquid is well shaken, and then allowed to stand at rest for a few
minutes. It is next filtered, its volume made up to the 100 cc. mark,
and the 20 cm. tube filled and the reading made; this divided by 2
gives the percentage of sugar in the milk.

Mr. A. Adams[23] has recently proposed a method of milk analysis which
consists in first placing 5 cc. of the sample in a tared beaker, and
then introducing a weighed paper coil made of blotting paper from
which all fatty matter has previously been removed by washing with
ether. As soon as the milk is completely absorbed, the paper coil is
removed and dried at 100°. The increase of weight gives the amount of
_total solids_. The _fat_ is next extracted by petroleum naphtha or
ether, and its weight determined. The proportion of _solids not fat_ is
ascertained by again drying and weighing the exhausted coil.

The standards adopted by the English Society of Public Analysts for
pure milk, are:--

                       Per cent.
  Specific gravity       1·030
  Ash                    0·70
  Solids not fat         9·00
  Fat                    2·50
  Total solids          11·50
  Water                 88·50

In the State of New York, the legal standards for milk are that it
shall not contain more than 88 per cent. of water, nor less than 12 per
cent. of milk solids, and 3 per cent. of fat.

In Massachusetts the law fixing a chemical standard of purity for milk
reads: “In all cases of prosecution, if the milk shall be shown upon
analysis to contain more than 87 per cent. of water, or to contain less
than 13 per cent. of milk solids, it shall be deemed, for the purpose
of this Act, to be adulterated.”

The Board of Health of New Jersey fixes the minimum amount of total
solids at 12 per cent. and the maximum amount of water at 88 per cent.
In Paris, the minimum limits _for condemnation_ are the following:--

Fat, 2·70; milk-sugar, 4·50; caseine, albumen, and ash, 4·30; total
solids, 11·50.

The following proportion can be employed in the calculation of the
amount of pure milk (_x_) contained in a suspected sample:--

  From the total solids:--

      12·5: total solids found = 100 : _x_.

  From the solids not fat:--

      9·30: solids not fat = 100 : _x_.

  From the sugar:--

      4·40: sugar found = 100 : _x_.

  From the specific gravity:--

      1·030 : sp. gr. = 100 : _x_.

In most cases the determination of the total milk-solids and the fat
(the difference being the solids not fat) furnishes all the data
required for determining the amount of watering which a sample of milk
has undergone. The Society of Public Analysts use 9 as the average
percentage of solids not fat in pure milk (which is generally
considered as too low) and adopt the formula:--

    100/9 S = _x_,

in which _x_ represents the percentage of genuine milk, and S the
solids not fat.

      PLATE IV.

[Illustration: Cream × 420.]

[Illustration: Cows Milk × 420.]

    ARTOTYPE. E. BIERSTADT, N. Y.

In skimmed milk the percentage of fat removed (_x_) can be ascertained
by the formula:--

    (2·5) / (9·0) S - _f_ = _x_,

in which S = solids not fat, and _f_ = the fat found. In case the
sample has been subjected to both skimming and watering, the water
added (_x_) can be calculated from the formula[24]:--

    100 - (100 + 2·5) / 9 S - _f_ = _x_.

The addition of mineral salts to milk is detected by the increased
proportion of ash found; the presence of an abnormal amount of common
salt by the high proportion of chlorine present in the ash, which
in pure milk should never exceed 0·14 per cent. The use of sodium
bicarbonate, borax, etc., is also detected by the analysis of the
ash. Glycerine, salicylic acid, flour, and starch, if added, can be
extracted from the milk-solids and their identity established by the
usual characteristic reactions.

The microscope is of great service in the determination of the quality
of milk, and especially in the detection of the presence of abnormal
bodies, such as pus, colostrum cells, and blood. In pure cow’s milk the
globules are in constant motion; their usual size is 1/5000 of an inch,
but this depends upon the nature of the food used. Plates IV. and V.,
which represent cream, pure milk, skimmed milk, and milk containing
colostrum cells, were taken from photo-micrographic negatives furnished
through the kindness of Mr. Martin.

Numerous cases of severe illness have from time to time been developed
by the use of milk which was apparently free from any of the usual
adulterants. In a recent issue of the ‘Philadelphia Medical News’
(Sept. 1886) an instance of wholesale milk poisoning at Long Branch is
described, and the results reached by a careful study of the epidemic
are given. It was demonstrated that warm milk, fresh from the cow, if
placed in closed cans under conditions which retarded the dissipation
of its heat, may suffer fermentation resulting within a few hours in
the genesis of a sufficient quantity of a poisonous ptomaine (termed
_tyrotoxicon_) to produce dangerous toxic effects in those drinking it.

Tyrotoxicon was isolated from the milk, and obtained in needle-shaped
crystals, which reduced iodic acid and gave a blue coloration when
treated with potassium ferricyanide or ferric chloride. Prof. Victor
C. Vaughan[25] discovered the same alkaloid in poisonous cheese, and
has also detected its presence in ice-cream that had been the cause
of sickness. In this connection it is of importance to note that
the addition of gelatine to ice-cream is occasionally practised:
in case this substance is used while in a state of incipient
decomposition, the danger of the bacteria and other organisms present
subsequently resuming activity is considerable. It has been repeatedly
and conclusively demonstrated that milk from cows affected with
tuberculosis and other complaints, is capable of propagating the seeds
of disease, especially in children. The presence of impure water in
milk constitutes another source of danger. A test based upon the fact
that water which has received sewage contamination often contains
nitrites, is applied by first coagulating the suspected milk with
acetic acid, then filtering and adding to the filtrate a few cc. of an
equal mixture of sulphanilic acid and naphthylamine sulphate, when, in
presence of nitrites, a rose-red colour will be produced.

      PLATE V.

[Illustration: Skimmed Cows Milk × 420.]

[Illustration: Colostrum in Cows Milk × 420.]

    ARTOTYPE. E. BIERSTADT, N. Y.

FOOTNOTES:

[18] In 1885, out of 2024 samples tested, 880 fell below the standard
of 13 per cent. total solids.

[19] Second Annual Report of the New York State Dairy Commissioner,
1886.

[20] Dammer’s ‘Lexikon der Verfälschungen,’ 1887, p. 592.

[21] 3·50 per cent. should be deducted for chlorine and oxygen.

[22] For description of the “Lactocrete,” see ‘Analyst,’ Jan. 1887.

[23] ‘Analyst,’ x. pp. 46-54.

[24] Blyth.

[25] “Ein Ptomain aus giftigem Käse,” Zeit. f. Phys. Chem., x. p. 2,
1886.



BUTTER.


Butter is the fat of milk, containing small proportions of caseine,
water, and salt (the latter mostly added), and possessing a somewhat
granular structure. In its preparation the fat-globules of cream are
made to coalesce by the process of churning, and are removed from
the residual buttermilk. Its colour, due to lactochrome, varies from
white to yellow, according to the breed and food of the cow. The
fatty constituents of butter are butyric, caproic, caprylic, capric,
myristic, palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids, which are combined with
glycerine as ethers; the first four are soluble in hot water, the
remainder insoluble. It is very probable that butter fat is composed of
complex glycerides, _i. e._ tri-acid (presumably oleic, palmitic, and
butyric) ethers, of the following character:--

                {O.C_{4} H_{7}O
    C_{3} H_{5} {O.C_{16}H_{31}O
                {O.C_{18}H_{33}O

The table on p. 64 exhibits a summary of the results obtained by
various chemists by the analysis of numerous specimens of genuine
butter.

Dr. Elwyn Waller found the following variations in the constituents of
pure butter:--Fat, from 83 to 85; water, from 8 to 10; curd, from 1 to
3; salts, from 3 to 5 per cent.

Butter fat fuses at 28° to 37°, and at 37°·7 its specific gravity
ranges from 0·91200 to 0·91400. The most common adulterations of
butter consist in the addition of water, salt, colouring matters, and
various foreign fats (notably oleomargarine). The first two admixtures
are easily recognised by the proximate analysis; the detection of the
last sophistication involves a somewhat elaborate examination of the
fatty constituents of the butter.

  -----------------+--------+---------------------+---------------------
                   |   No.  |       Water.        |        Fats.
      Analyst.     |   of   |------+------+-------+-------+-------+-----
                   |Samples.| Max. | Min. |  Avg. | Max.  | Min.  | Avg.
  -----------------+--------+------+------+-------+-------+-------+-----
                   |  p.c.  | p.c. | p.c. |  p.c. | p.c.  | p.c.  | p.c.
  König            |  123   |35·12 | 5·50 | 14·49 |85·25  |76·37  |83·27
  Bell             |  117   |20·75 | 4·15 | 14·2  | ..    |  ..   |  ..
                   |        |      |      |       |       |       |
  Hassall        { |   48   |15·43 | 4·18 |  ..   |96·93  |67·72  |  ..
                 { |        |28·6  | 8·48 |  ..   |96·93  |67·72  |  ..
                   |        |      |      |       |       |       |
  Angell and Hehner|   30   |16·0  | 6·4  |  ..   |90·2   |76·4   |  ..
  Wanklyn          |   50   |24·9  | 8·6  |  ..   | ..    |  ..   |  ..
  Caldwell         |   26   |30·75 |10·45 |  ..   | ..    |  ..   |  ..
  Ellis            |   12   |10·5  | 4·9  |  ..   |89·7   |80·8   |  ..
  Larue            |   12   |16·5  | 8·0  |  ..   |86·9   |79·14  |  ..
                   |        |      |      |       |       |       |
  Fleischman {fresh|   ..   |  ..  |  ..  | 18·0  | ..    |  ..   |80·0
             {salt |   ..   |  ..  |  ..  | 12·0  | ..    |  ..   |83·5
                   |        |      |      |       |       |       |
  Blyth            |    5   |12·984| 8·58 |  ..   |87·223 |82·643 |85·45
  Schacht          |    8   | 9·00 | 1·25 |  ..   |98·00  |87·00  |  ..
  -----------------+--------+------+------+-------+-------+-------+-----

  -----------------+----------------------+-----------------------
                   |         Curd.        |         Salts.
      Analyst.     |-------+-------+------+--------+--------------
                   | Max.  | Min.  | Avg. |  Max.  | Min.  | Avg.
  -----------------+-------+-------+------+--------+-------+------
                   | p.c.  | p.c.  | p.c. |  p.c.  | p.c.  | p.c.
                   |       |       |      |        |       |
  König            | 4·77  | 0·25  | 1·29 |  5·65  | 0·08  | 0·95
  Bell             | 4·02  |  ..   | 1·2  | 15·08  | 0·5   |  ..
                   |       |       |      |        |       |
  Hassall        { |  ..   |  ..   |  ..  |  2·91  | 0·3   |  ..
                 { |  ..   |  ..   |  ..  |  8·24  | 1·53  |  ..
                   |       |       |      |        |       |
  Angell and Hehner| 5·1   | 1·1   |  ..  |  8·5   | 0·4   |  ..
  Wanklyn          |  ..   |  ..   |  ..  | 10·7   | 0·1   |  ..
  Caldwell         |  ..   |  ..   |  ..  |   ..   |  ..   |  ..
  Ellis            | 4·9   | 1·1   |  ..  |  6·2   | 0·1   |  ..
  Larue            | 5·5   | 1·5   |  ..  |  3·60  | 0·4   |  ..
                   |       |       |      |        |       |
  Fleischman {fresh|  ..   |  ..   |  ..  |   ..   |  ..   | 2·0
             {salt |  ..   |  ..   |  ..  |   ..   |  ..   | 6·5
                   |       |       |      |        |       |
  Blyth            | 5·137 | 2·054 | 2·5  |  3·151 | 0·424 |  ..
  Schacht          | 0·5   |  ..   |  ..  |  6·0   | 0·57  |  ..
  -----------------+-------+-------+------+--------+-------+------


_Proximate Analysis._

About five grammes of the well-averaged sample are weighed out in a
tared platinum capsule, and dried for three hours (or until constant
weight is obtained) over a water-bath (or over a low flame, constantly
stirring with a thermometer), and the decrease in weight (water)
ascertained. As a rule, the proportion of water in genuine butter
varies from 8 to 16 per cent. The residue in the capsule is then
melted at a gentle heat, and the liquid fat cautiously poured off
from the remaining caseine and salt, these latter being afterwards
more completely exhausted by washing with ether. Upon now drying the
residue, the loss in weight will give the amount of fat present.
The caseine is next determined by the loss in weight obtained upon
incinerating the matters left undissolved by the ether, the remaining
inorganic matter being the salt contained.

The proportion of fat present in genuine butter ranges from 82 to 90
per cent.; it should never be below 80 per cent. The average amount of
caseine is 2·5 per cent.; greater proportions, frequently occurring
in unadulterated butter, render it more liable to become rancid. The
ash should consist of sodium chloride, with some calcium phosphate;
the amount of salt is quite variable, but it usually ranges from 2
to 7 per cent. The proportion of ingredients, not fat, in butter
may be conveniently determined by melting 10 grammes of the sample
in a graduated tube, provided with a scale at its lower end, which
is narrowed, adding 30 c.c. of petroleum naphtha, and shaking the
mixture. After standing a few hours, the non-fatty matters collect in
the lower portion of the tube, and their volume is read off. Genuine
butter is said to yield from 12 to 14 per cent. (assuming each c.c. to
equal one gramme), while adulterated specimens may show 20 per cent. of
matters not fat.


_Examination of the Butter-fat._

The most common and important sophistication of butter consists in the
addition of foreign fats, embracing both animal fats (oleomargarine and
lard) and vegetable oils (cotton-seed, olive, rape-seed, cocoa-nut,
almond, palm, etc.). Of these, oleomargarine is doubtless the most
often employed. Oleomargarine is the more fusible portion of beef fat,
and is prepared by straining the melted fat, allowing the oil thus
obtained to stand for some time at a temperature of about 24°, when
most of the stearine and palmitine will separate out, and cooling the
remaining oil until it solidifies. This is next churned with milk, a
little colouring matter (annato) being added, and the product is then
chilled by mixing it with ice; salt is now added, and the mass is
finally worked up into lumps.

It is stated that fifteen establishments in the United States are
engaged in the manufacture of oleomargarine, the annual production
in the State of New York alone being about 20,000,000 pounds. The
rapid increase in the manufacture of oleomargarine is shown by the
following statistics:--In 1880 this country exported 39,236,655
pounds of butter and 20,000,000 pounds of oleomargarine, while in
1885 the exportation of butter declined to 21,638,128 pounds, and
the exportation of oleomargarine reached nearly 38,000,000 pounds.
The present production is said to approximate 50,000,000 pounds per
annum. The most characteristic difference in the composition of genuine
butter and oleomargarine consists in the greater proportion of soluble
fats contained in the former. This is illustrated by the following
comparative analysis of the two products (Mége Mouriès):--

  ---------------+---------------+---------------
                 |Genuine Butter.|Oleomargarine.
  ---------------+---------------+---------------
                 |   per cent.   |  per cent.
  Water          |    11·968     |    11·203
  Solids         |    88·032     |    88·797
                 +---------------+---------------
                 |   100·000     |   100·000
    _Solids_:    |               |
  Insoluble fats |    75·256     |    81·191
  Soluble fats   |     7·432     |     1·823
  Caseine        |     0·182     |     0·621
  Salt           |     5·162     |     5·162
                 +---------------+---------------
                 |    88·032     |    88·797
  ---------------+---------------+---------------

Lard is likewise occasionally used in the United States as an
admixture to butter, the product, “lardine,” being sold either as
oleomargarine-butter, or as the genuine article. Dr. Munsell mentions
a factory in New York city where the weekly output of larded butter is
5000 pounds. As a result of the efforts of the New York State Dairy
Commission, it has been estimated that the sale of imitation butter in
this State in 1885 suffered a decrease of about 60 per cent., although
the quantity manufactured in the United States showed an increase of 50
per cent.

The specific gravity and melting point of butter have been suggested as
criteria for its purity; in most cases, however, these determinations
possess a rather limited value; as already stated, butter fat, at the
temperature of 37°·7, has a density ranging from 0·91200 to 0·91400.

The relation between the specific gravity of a fat and the proportion
of insoluble acids contained was first noticed by Bell. This is shown
in the following table which refers to pure butter fat.

  Specific Gravity |    Per cent.
      at 37°·7.    | Insoluble Acids
      0·91382      |      87·47
      0·91346      |      87·89
      0·91337      |      87·98
      0·91290      |      88·48
      0·91286      |      88·52
      0·91276      |      88·62
      0·91258      |      88·80
      0·91246      |      89·00

The following results have been obtained by the analysis of samples of
various animal fats, and oleomargarine butter.

  --------------------------+------------------+------------------
                            | Specific Gravity | Per cent. Fixed
                            |    at 37°·5.     |  Fatty Acids.
  --------------------------+------------------+------------------
  Mutton suet               |     0·90283      |    95·56
  Beef suet                 |     0·90372      |    95·91
  Fine lard                 |     0·90384      |    96·20
  Dripping (commercial)     |     0·90456      |    94·67
  Mutton dripping (genuine) |     0·90397      |    95·48
  Oleomargarine butter      |     0·90384      |    94·34
        „         „         |     0·90234      |    94·83
        „         „         |     0·90315      |    95·04
        „         „         |     0·90379      |    96·29
        „         „         |     0·90136      |    95·60
  --------------------------+------------------+----------------

It will be noticed that the fats mostly used to adulterate butter are
of a lower density. Blyth regards a gravity below 0·911 (at 37°·5) as
clearly pointing to the presence of foreign fatty admixture.

The specific gravity determination is made by means of the areometer,
or by the gravity bottle; numerous indirect methods have also been
proposed. P. Casamajor[26] suggests a process for distinguishing
genuine butter from oleomargarine which is based upon the fact that
the density of a liquid in which a body remains in equilibrium is the
density of the body itself. As the result of his investigations it was
found that pure butter at 15° would be held in equilibrium by alcohol
of 53·7 per cent. (sp. gr. = 0·926), and that oleomargarine would
remain in equilibrium, at the same temperature, in alcohol of 59·2 per
cent. (sp. gr. = 0·905). If equal volumes of alcohol of 53·7 per cent.
and 59·2 per cent. (_i.e._ an alcohol of 56·5 per cent.) are taken,
and a drop of melted butter and of oleomargarine are delivered upon
its surface, the former will sink to the bottom and the latter will
remain at the top, so long as the two globules are warm and liquid.
In case the temperature of the alcohol is about 30°, the butter will
solidify and also rise to the top, whereas the oleomargarine may remain
liquid. On now keeping the alcohol for a short time at a temperature
of 15° the oleomargarine becomes opaque, but remains at the top, while
the solidified butter will sink to the bottom. If alcohol of 59·2 per
cent. is employed, oleomargarine will remain at the surface and genuine
butter fall to the bottom at all temperatures above 15°, and at this
temperature oleomargarine will be in equilibrium. Since not over 33 per
cent. of butter is usually added to oleomargarine, it is proposed to
use alcohol of 55 per cent., and consider as oleomargarine any sample
which does not sink at 15°.

The foregoing method can be applied quantitatively by determining the
strength of the alcohol which will keep in equilibrium a drop of the
fat under examination. Since the difference between 59·2 and 53·7
is 5·5, the difference between the strength of the alcohol used and
53·7, divided by 5·5 (or multiplied by 0·18), will give the proportion
of oleomargarine present. For example, if the globule is held in
equilibrium at 15° in 57 per cent. alcohol, the sample contains about
60 per cent. of oleomargarine, for (57 - 53·7) × 0·18 = 3·3 × 0·18 =
0·594 or, say, 6/10.

The melting-point of butter is below that of most of its fatty
adulterants; as previously stated, it varies from 28° to 37°. The
determination is made either in the ordinary manner by means of a
fine tube, or a little of the chilled sample is attached to a looped
platinum wire, placed near the thermometer-bulb, in water which is
gradually heated until fusion takes place. Blyth gives the following
table of the melting-points of various fats:--

                               °
  Butterine                  31·3
  Cocoa butter               34·9
  Butter (average)           35·8
  Beef dripping              43·8
  Veal dripping              47·7
  Mixed                      42·6
  Lard, from                42 to 45
  Ox fat, from about        48 „  53
  Mutton fat, from about    50 „  51
  Tallow                     53·3

Numerous qualitative tests have been proposed by various authorities
for the detection of foreign fats in butter, of which the following are
perhaps sometimes of use. It should be added that the value of these
tests, when applied to mixtures, is limited and very uncertain.

1. A little of the sample is heated in a test-tube: pure butter froths
and acquires a brownish colour; with foreign fats there is but little
foaming, and, although the caseine present darkens, the liquid itself
remains comparatively clear.

2. If a sample containing oleomargarine is melted and the oil burned
in an ordinary lamp-wick, a decided odour of burning tallow will be
produced upon extinguishing the flame. Specimens of real butter,
however, have been found to also emit a tallow-like odour.

3. The melted sample is filtered and treated with boiling ether;
pure butter fat dissolves much more readily than do lard and tallow.
Upon adding methylic alcohol to the solution the latter fats are
precipitated, whereas pure butter will remain in solution.

4. If the filtered fat is distilled with a mixture of alcohol and
sulphuric acid, the distillate will possess the odour of butyric ether
_in a very marked degree_, in case it consists of butter.[27]

5. The strained fat is treated with a solution of carbolic acid (1 part
acid and 10 parts water): genuine butter dissolves to a clear solution;
beef, mutton, and swine fat form two layers, the upper one becoming
turbid upon cooling.

6. If the sample consists of butter or oleomargarine, and is mixed
with about ten parts of glycerine and the emulsion digested with a
mixture of equal parts of ether and alcohol, two layers of solution
will be produced, without any deposit of solid matter between them;
if, however, lard, suet, or starch is present it will become deposited
between the layers.

It has already been mentioned that butter differs from some of its
fatty adulterants in containing a considerable proportion of fatty
acids which are soluble in hot water, the acids present in most
foreign fats being, on the other hand, almost entirely insoluble. The
estimation of the relative amounts of soluble and insoluble acids
contained in a fat possesses therefore much importance; indeed, more
significance attaches to this determination than to any other. The
processes most frequently employed in the quantitative examination of
butter fat are those of Koettstorfer, Hehner, and Reichert.

Koettstorfer’s method[28] is based upon the fact that, as butter fat
contains the fatty acids, having a smaller molecular weight than those
present in other fats, it must contain more molecules of acid, and will
therefore require a greater amount of an alkali to effect saponication.
The process is executed as follows:--One or two grammes of the filtered
fat are weighed out in a narrow beaker and heated over a water-bath
with about 25 c.c. of one-half normal alcoholic solution of potassium
hydroxide. The saponification of the fat is assisted by repeated
stirring; when it is completed the beaker is removed from the bath,
a few drops of alcoholic phenol-phthaleine added for an indicator,
and the excess of potash used titrated back with one-half normal
hydrochloric acid. It has been found that pure butter fat requires from
221·4 to 232·4 milligrammes of potassium hydroxide for saponification.
The following are the number of milligrammes of alkali necessary for
the saponification of one gramme of various other fats:--

                  mgr.
  Olive oil      191·8
  Rape-seed oil  178·7
  Oleomargarine  195·5
  Beef tallow    196·5
  Lard           195·5
  Mutton suet    197·0
  Dripping       197·0

Taking 227 milligrammes as the average amount of potassium hydroxide
required to saponify one gramme of pure butter fat, the following
formula has been suggested for the estimation of the proportion of
admixture in a suspected sample:--

    (227 - _n_) × 3·17 = _x_,

in which _n_ represents the number of milligrammes of potassium
hydroxide used, and _x_ the percentage of foreign fat added. In the
Paris Municipal Laboratory, 221 milligrammes of K(OH) are regarded as a
standard for the saponification of one gramme of genuine butter.

Cocoa-nut oil, unfortunately, requires a figure (250 mgr.) considerably
above that of butter, and it is quite possible to prepare a mixture
of this oil and oleomargarine, that by the foregoing test would show
a result almost identical with that afforded by pure butter. Hehner’s
process,[29] which is often employed for the determination of the
insoluble fatty acids, is as follows:--About 4 grammes of the melted
and strained sample are dissolved in 50 c.c. of alcohol, containing two
grammes of potassium hydroxide in solution, and the mixture is heated
until complete saponification takes place. The alcohol is removed by
evaporation, the residue dissolved in 200 c.c. of water, and the fatty
acids precipitated by adding dilute sulphuric acid to distinct acid
reaction. The fatty acids are next melted by heating the liquid and are
then allowed to cool, after which the insoluble acids are poured upon
a tared filter and repeatedly washed with hot water until the washings
cease to show acidity. The filter and contents are finally cautiously
dried and weighed. In genuine butter the proportion of insoluble fatty
acids ranges between 86·5 and 87·5 per cent.; it should not be above
88 per cent.[30] Oleomargarine, lard, mutton, beef, and poppy, palm,
olive, and almond oils contain about 95·5 per cent. of insoluble
acids.[31]

The preceding process is also imperfect in not effecting the detection
of cocoa-nut oil, which affords only about 86 per cent. of insoluble
fatty acids, and although the presence of any considerable proportion
of this oil in butter would probably be indicated by the decreased
melting point of the admixture, an estimation of the soluble fatty
acids is by far the most reliable means for its detection. For this
determination Reichert’s method[32] is eminently adapted. In this
process advantage is taken of the facts that the amount of soluble
acids in a mixture of fat bears a direct relation to the proportion
of genuine butter present, and that, if the aqueous solution of a
saponified fat is decomposed by an acid and heated to boiling, the
greater portion of the soluble acids escape with the watery vapours and
can be collected and determined in the distillate. The details of this
method are essentially as follows:--2½ grammes of the filtered sample
are introduced into an Erlenmayer flask together with 1 gramme of
potassium hydroxide and 20 c.c. of dilute (80 per cent.) alcohol, and
the mixture is heated over the water-bath until complete saponification
is effected, and the alcohol _entirely_ removed. The soap thus formed
is dissolved in 50 c.c. of water, and decomposed by adding 20 c.c.
of dilute sulphuric acid (1:10). The flask is next connected with a
Liebig’s condenser and the contents carefully distilled until 50 c.c.
have passed over. The distillate is now freed from any insoluble acids
possibly present by filtration; it is then titrated with decinormal
soda solution, a few drops of litmus solution being employed as an
indicator. As the result of numerous tests, it has been found that
genuine butter, when examined by the above method, requires from 13 to
15 c.c. of the decinormal solution. The following are the number of
c.c. required by various other fats:--

  Lard               0·2
  Rape oil           0·25
  Kidney fat         0·25
  Olive oil          0·3
  Sesamé oil         0·35
  Oleomargarine   0·7 to 1·3
  Cocoa-nut oil      3·70

Dr. Elwyn Waller[33] modifies the foregoing method of procedure by
adding 50 c.c. of water to the contents of the flask remaining after
the first distillation, and again distilling off 50 c.c., the process
being repeated until the final distillate neutralises only 0·1 c.c. of
the decinormal alkali. With butter fat, it was found that the first
distillate contained about 79 per cent. of the total volatile acids
present. By means of this modification, a distinction between the
rate of distillation of the volatile fatty acids of different fats is
possible. The non-volatile acids left in the flask are washed several
times with water, in order to remove the glycerine and potassium
sulphate present, and are then dried and weighed.

For estimating the percentage of pure butter fat in a sample of mixed
fat, Reichert employed the formula: B = 7·3 (_m_ - 0·3), in which _m_
is the number of c.c. of soda solution used in the titration.

Baron Hübl[34] has recently suggested a method for butter testing,
which is founded upon the fact that the three series of fats (acetic,
acrylic, and tetrolic), unite in different proportions with the
halogens (iodine, bromine, and chlorine), to form addition products.
Iodine has been found especially well adapted to the examination of
fats. The standard solution employed is prepared by dissolving 25
grammes of iodine in 500 c.c. of 95 per cent. alcohol, and adding to
the solution a solution of 30 grammes of mercuric chloride in 500 c.c.
of alcohol. The reagent is then standardised by means of a solution
of 24 grammes of sodium hyposulphite in 1 litre of water. The test
is applied as follows:--1 gramme of the sample under examination is
introduced into a flask and dissolved in 10 c.c. of pure chloroform.
The iodine reagent is then gradually added from a burette, the mixture
being well shaken, until the coloration produced indicates that an
excess is present, even after standing for about two hours; 15 c.c.
of a 10 per cent. potassium iodide solution and 150 c.c. of water are
then added and the excess of iodine present determined by means of the
sodium hyposulphite solution, and deducted from the total quantity
used. The amount of iodine (in grammes) absorbed is calculated to 100
grammes of the fat; this is termed the iodine number. The examination
of numerous samples of genuine butter and oleomargarine, and other
fats, made at the laboratory of the New York State Dairy Commissioner,
furnished the following results:[35]--

                       Iodine Number.
  Genuine butter    from 30·5 to 43·0
  Oleomargarine       „  50·9 „  54·9
  Cocoa-nut oil           6·8
  Lard                   55·0
  Mutton fat             57·3
  Oleine                 82·3
  Olive oil              83·0
  Pea-nut oil            96·0
  Sweet-almond oil      102·0
  Cotton-seed oil       108·0
  Poppy oil             134·0

It has been proposed to differentiate between butter and oleomargarine
by a determination of the proportion of glycerine contained.
Liebschütz[36] employs the following process for this estimation: 10
grammes of the sample are saponified by heating with 20 grammes of
barium hydroxide, until the water of crystallisation has been almost
entirely expelled. Alcohol is then added with constant stirring;
saponification quickly takes place, and is completed by evaporating
the mass nearly to dryness. The glycerine is extracted with boiling
water, the solution filtered, and the barium contained removed by
means of sulphuric acid. The filtrate from the barium sulphate is then
concentrated by evaporation, and the excess of sulphuric acid present
neutralised by adding a little barium carbonate. The filtered liquid
is now again evaporated to a small volume, and most of the salts
present precipitated by addition of absolute alcohol. After filtration
the alcoholic solution is evaporated over the water-bath, then dried
at 100° until constant weight is obtained. It is finally ignited and
the proportion of glycerine contained estimated by the loss in weight
sustained. This process is certainly far from being exact, owing
principally to the volatilisation of glycerine that occurs in the
evaporation of its aqueous and even alcoholic solutions. The following
results were obtained upon treating genuine butter and oleomargarine
according to the above method:--

                 Per cent. Glycerine.
  Butter                 3·75
  Oleomargarine          7·00

Gelatine is said to have lately been used as an adulterant of butter,
more especially of artificial butter. Its detection is a matter of some
difficulty. The following method has been suggested. A considerable
quantity of the suspected butter is boiled with water, the solution
strained, a drop of acetic acid and a little potassium ferrocyanide
added, and the liquid boiled until the precipitate formed becomes
bluish in colour. The solution is then filtered hot and the filtrate
examined for gelatine by adding tannic acid to, or conducting chlorine
gas through it.

A sample lately imported under the name of “butter preservative” was
found by the author to consist of a dilute solution of phosphoric acid.
The use of this agent does not, however, appear to be prevalent to any
great extent.[37]

_Artificial Colouring._--The list of colouring matters said to be
added to butter includes the vegetable dyes, annato, carotin, fustic,
turmeric, marigold, and saffron; the coal-tar colour, Victoria
yellow (potassium dinitrocresylate), and Martius yellow (potassium
dinitronaphthalate), and the mineral pigment chrome yellow (plumbic
chromate). Of the foregoing, annato and carrot colour appear to be most
commonly employed. Mr. Edward W. Martin[38] has proposed a method for
the isolation of the former which consists in dissolving the butter in
carbon disulphide, and shaking the solution with a _dilute_ solution
of potassium hydroxide, in which the colouring matter dissolves; it
is subsequently identified by further tests. According to Mr. R. W.
Moore,[39] the presence of carotin in butter may be detected by first
agitating the carbon disulphide solution of the fat with alcohol, which
fails to extract this colour. Upon now adding to the mixture a drop
of dilute ferric chloride solution, again shaking the liquid and then
putting it aside for a short time, the alcoholic solution dissolves the
carrot colour, and if no other colouring matter is contained in the
butter, leaves the carbon disulphide colourless.

The artificially coloured butter may be dissolved in alcohol and tested
with the following reagents:--

(_a_) Nitric acid: greenish coloration, _saffron_.

(_b_) Sugar solution and hydrochloric acid: red coloration, _saffron_.

(_c_) Ammonia: brownish coloration, _turmeric_.

(_d_) Silver nitrate: blackish coloration, _marigold_.

(_e_) Evaporate the alcoholic solution to dryness and add concentrated
sulphuric acid: greenish-blue coloration, annato; blue coloration,
_saffron_.

(_f_) Hydrochloric acid: decolorisation, with formation of yellow
crystalline precipitate, _Victoria or Martius yellow_.

(_g_) Separation of a heavy and insoluble yellow powder, _chrome
yellow_ (see p. 130).

_Microscopic Examination._--The microscopic examination of butter has
lately received considerable attention as a means for the detection
of the presence of foreign fats. Genuine butter generally exhibits
under the microscope a crowded mass of globules of fat, fatty crystals
being commonly absent. In oleomargarine a more crystalline structure
is observed, with pear-shaped masses of fat and but few globules.
While the presence of crystals in a sample may justly be regarded as
suspicious, it is by no means a positive evidence of adulteration,
since, under certain circumstances, pure butter may present the same
indications. In applying the microscopic test, a small portion of the
fat is made into a thin layer on the slide, and then protected with a
glass cover, applied with rather gentle pressure.

Plate VI.[40] represents the microscopic appearance of genuine
butter and oleomargarine. It will be observed that in butter (Fig.
1) numerous globules but no crystals of fat are presented, the
crystals present being those of salt. In oleomargarine (Fig. 2) the
distinctive pear-shaped masses of fat, accompanied by only a small
number of fatty globules, are to be seen. Dr. Thomas Taylor (of the
U.S. Department of Agriculture), has made an elaborate investigation
of the microscopic appearance of various fats when viewed by polarised
light. He regards the presence of peculiar globular crystals and the
black cross commonly termed St. Andrew’s cross as characteristic of
genuine butter.[41] Lard, beef, and other fats are said to exhibit
different and, to some extent, distinctive crystalline forms. Prof.
Weber,[42] however, affirms that mixtures of lard and tallow fat,
under certain conditions, cannot be distinguished from butter by means
of this method of examination. More recently, Dr. Taylor states that
the distinguishing difference between butter and other fats under the
microscope is that the former, when observed by polarised light through
a selenite, exhibits a uniform tint, whereas the latter shows prismatic
colours. Although the results of these investigations cannot as yet be
considered as perfectly satisfactory or conclusive, they certainly are
entitled to rank as a highly valuable and important step in advance of
the optical processes hitherto employed.

      PLATE VI.

[Illustration: Fig. 1, Butter × 400.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2, Oleomargarine × 400.]

    ARTOTYPE. E. BIERSTADT, N. Y.

      PLATE VII.

[Illustration: Butter × 40.]

[Illustration: Butter × 40.]

[Illustration: Beef × 40.]

[Illustration: Lard × 160.]

[Illustration: Butterine × 40.]

[Illustration: Oleomargarine × 40.]

    FAT CRYSTALS.

Plate VII. exhibits the appearance of butter, oleomargarine, beef, and
some other fats, when viewed by the microscope and polarised light. It
will be noticed that, while a discrimination between lard and butter is
readily made, oleomargarine presents the St. Andrew’s cross, stated to
be characteristic of genuine butter. These photomicrographs represent
the results of investigations made in the Chemical Division of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture.

The question of the sanitary effects of oleomargarine and other
substitutes for butter, has been studied by many scientists, and with
very discordant results. Doubtless the great divergence of opinion
which at present exists, is largely due to the fact that the artificial
products examined have been made according to different processes,
and with varying regard to the quality of the fats used in their
manufacture, and to the degree of care and cleanliness observed. The
attention of the American public has very lately been directed to the
oleomargarine question, by the recent enactment of a national law
imposing a tax upon the manufacture of the article.

Without entering to any great extent into the subject of the
wholesomeness of artificial butter as it is generally met with in
commerce, it will be of interest to refer to the conclusions reached by
two or three sanitarians who have devoted particular attention to this
aspect of the question. Prof. W. O. Atwater[43] summarises the results
of his investigation of oleomargarine as follows:--

“1. The common kinds of imitation butter, oleomargarine, butterine,
etc., when properly made, agree very closely in chemical composition,
digestibility, and nutritive value with butter from cow’s milk.

“2. In fulfilling one of the most important functions of food, namely,
that of supplying the body with heat and muscular energy, they, with
butter, excel in efficiency all, or nearly all, our other common food
materials.

“3. Considering the low cost at which they can be produced, as well
as their palatability and nutritive value, they form a food product
of very great economical importance, and one which is calculated to
greatly benefit a large class of our population whose limited incomes
make good dairy butter a luxury.

“4. Imitation butter, like many other manufactured food materials,
is liable (but in actual commerce has been found not to be so) to be
rendered unwholesome by improper materials and methods of manufacture.
It is also open to the especial objection that it is largely sold as
genuine butter. The interests of the public, therefore, demand that
it should be subjected to competent official inspection, and that it
should be sold for what it is, and not as genuine butter.”

Dr. S. B. Sharples[44] states: “When well made, it (oleomargarine) is
a very fair imitation of genuine butter; being inferior to the best
butter, but much superior to the low grades of butter too commonly
found in the market. So far as its influence on health is concerned,
I can see no objection to its use. Its sale as genuine butter is a
commercial fraud, and as such, very properly condemned by the law. As
to its prohibition by law, the same law which prohibited it should also
prohibit the sale of lard and tallow, and more especially all low-grade
butters, which are far more injurious to health than a good sweet
article of oleomargarine. A good deal has been said in regard to the
poor grade of fats from which the oleomargarine is made. Any one making
such assertions in regard to the fats is simply ignorant of the whole
subject. When a fat has become in the least tainted, it can no longer
be used for this purpose, as it is impossible to remove the odour from
the fat after it has once acquired it.”

_Per contra_, Dr. R. B. Clark, in an exhaustive report on butter,[45]
affirms with great decision, that artificial butter is not a wholesome
article of food, for the following reasons:--

“1. On account of its indigestibility.

“2. On account of its insolubility when made from animal fats.

“3. On account of its liability to carry germs of disease into the
human system.

“4. On account of the probability of its containing, when made under
certain patents, unhealthy ingredients.”

The two last grounds for condemning oleomargarine are evidently
affected by, and, in fact, dependent upon the character of the fat and
the exercise of care employed in its manufacture. In regard to the
relative digestibility of butter and its imitations, actual experiments
have been made by several chemists. A. Mayer,[46] from the results of
feeding human beings for three days on butter and on oleomargarine,
found that 1·6 per cent. less of the latter was absorbed by the system
than of the former, and inclines to the opinion, that with healthy
persons this proportion is so inconsiderable, that it is of little or
no importance. Dr. Clark considers these experiments of too limited
duration to be regarded as conclusive, although, so far as they went,
the results reached coincided with those obtained by him by a more
exhaustive investigation. Dr. Clark has made an examination of the
artificial digestion of butter as compared with oleomargarine and
other fats, including beef and mutton suet, and lard, cotton-seed,
sesamé, and cod-liver oils. The method of examination pursued was as
follows:--About 2 grammes of the melted fat was added to a digestive
fluid consisting of 0·33 gramme of “extractum pancreatis,” and 0·33
gramme of sodium bicarbonate, dissolved in 10 c.c. of distilled
water. This mixture was introduced into a test-tube, well shaken, and
then exposed to a temperature of 40°. The contents of the test-tube
were microscopically examined at the lapse of intervals of one,
four, and twelve hours. It was found from these tests that cod-liver
oil exhibited the most perfect state of emulsion, after which came
genuine butter, next lard oil, and then commercial “oleo.” Plate VIII.
represents the results obtained from the experiments made with butter
and commercial oleomargarine, as presented at the end of one, four,
and twelve hours. The globules of butter-fat, it will be observed, are
smaller in size and more uniform in appearance. Dr. Clark likewise
instituted experiments which tended to demonstrate the relative
insolubility of the fats used in the preparation of artificial butter.

      PLATE VIII.

[Illustration: Butter 1 hour × 250.]

[Illustration: Oleomargarine 1 hour × 250.]

[Illustration: Butter 4 hours × 250.]

[Illustration: Oleomargarine 4 hours × 250.]

[Illustration: Butter 12 hours × 250.]

[Illustration: Oleomargarine 12 hours × 250.]

    ARTIFICIAL DIGESTION OF FATS.

FOOTNOTES:

[26] Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc., iii. p. 83.

[27] The proportion of butyrine present in commercial oleomargarine
is often sufficient in quantity to cause the characteristic odour of
butyric ether to a noticeable degree.

[28] Fresenius’ ‘Zeitschrift,’ 1879, p. 197.

[29] ‘Zeitschrift für Analytische Chemie,’ 1877, p. 145.

[30] The French standard is 87·50 per cent.

[31] The percentage of foreign fat (F) in a sample can be calculated by
the formula F = (I - 88) × 13·3, in which I = the insoluble fatty acids.

[32] Fresenius’ Zeitschrift, 1879, p. 68.

[33] Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc., viii. p. 6.

[34] Dingl. Polyt. Journ., ccliii., p. 281.

[35] R. W. Moore notes that a certain mixture of lard and cocoa-nut
oil would give an iodine number identical with that of butter
fat.--(‘Analyst,’ x. p. 224.)

[36] Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc., vii. p. 134.

[37] Samples invoiced as “butter flavouring,” and consisting of butyric
acid, have also been imported.

[38] ‘Analyst,’ x. p. 163.

[39] Ibid., xi. p. 163.

[40] The author is indebted to Mr. Edward W. Martin for the negatives
used in the preparation of these and other photomicrographs of fats.

[41] _Vide_ ‘Proceedings of the American Microscopical Society,’ May
1885.

[42] ‘Bulletin of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station,’ March 1st,
1886.

[43] Bradstreet’s, June 19, 1886.

[44] Fourth Annual Report (1883) Mass. State Board of Health, p. 30.

[45] Second Annual Report of the New York State Dairy Commissioner, pp.
291-392.

[46] ‘Landwirthschaftliche Versuchsstation,’ ii. p. 215.



CHEESE.


Cheese consists essentially of the caseine and albumen of milk,
together with water, fat, lactic acid, and mineral salts. It is
prepared by the coagulation of milk by means of rennet, and is usually
obtained from cow’s milk (either fresh, skimmed, or sour), although
the milk of the goat, ewe, and other animals is occasionally used.
Its colour is very often due to the addition of annato. The following
table exhibits the composition of the best-known varieties of cheese,
according to the analysis of various chemists:--

  ----------------+----------+----------+-----------+---------+---------
                  |          |          |  Caseine  |         |
                  |          |          |     or    |         |   Free
      Variety.    |  Water.  |  Fat.    |Nitrogenous|  Milk   | Acid, as
                  |          |          |  Matter.  | Sugar.  |  Lactic.
  ----------------+----------+----------+-----------+---------+---------
                  |per cent. |per cent. | per cent. |per cent.|per cent.
  American (pale) | 31·55    |  35·93   |  28·83    |   ..    |   0·27
  American (red)  | 28·63    |  38·24   |  29·64    |   ..    |    ..
  Cheddar         | 35·60    |  31·57   |  28·16    |   ..    |   0·45
  Stilton         | 23·57    |  39·13   |  32·55    |   ..    |   1·24
  Gloucester      | 35·75    |  28·35   |  31·10    |   ..    |   0·31
  Dutch           | 41·30    |  22·78   |  28·25    |   ..    |   0·57
  Roquefort       | 32·26    |  34·38   |  27·16    |   ..    |   1·32
  Brie            | 51·87    |  24·83   |  19·00    |   ..    |    ..
  Cheshire        | 37·11    |  30·68   |  26·93    |   ..    |   0·86
  Gruyère         | 33·66    |  30·69   |  30·67    |   ..    |   0·27
  Gorgonzola      | 31·85    |  34·34   |  27·88    |   ..    |   1·35
  Neufchatel      | 37·87    |  41·30   |  17·43    |         |
                  |          |          |           |       \   /
  Camembert       | 51·30    |   ..     |  19·00    |        3·50
                  |          |          |           |        /  \
  Parmesan        | 27·56    |  15·95   |  44·08    |        6·69
  ----------------+----------+----------+-----------+-------------------

  ----------------+---------+---------------------
                  |         | Composition of Fat.
                  |         +----------+----------
      Variety.    |   Ash.  | Soluble  | Insoluble
                  |         |  Acids.  |  Acids.
  ----------------+---------+----------+----------
                  |per cent.|per cent. | per cent.
  American (pale) |  3·42   |  4·81    |  88·49
  American (red)  |  3·49   |  4·26    |  89·06
  Cheddar         |  4·22   |  4·55    |  88·75
  Stilton         |  3·51   |  4·42    |  88·76
  Gloucester      |  4·49   |  6·68    |  86·89
  Dutch           |  7·10   |  5·84    |  87·58
  Roquefort       |  4·88   |  4·91    |  88·70
  Roquefort       |  5·00   |   ..     |   ..
  Brie            |  4·42   |  5·55    |  87·76
  Cheshire        |  4·71   |  4·41    |  88·97
  Gruyère         |  4·58   |  4·40    |  89·18
  Gorgonzola      |  3·40   |   ..     |   ..
  Neufchatel      |         |          |
  Camembert       |  4·70   |   ..     |   ..
                  |         |          |
  Parmesan        |  5·72   |   ..     |   ..
  ----------------+---------+----------+----------

Dr. Muter has published the following analyses of cheese:--[47]

  -----------------+----------------------------------------------------
                   |Insoluble Acids.
                   |     +----------------------------------------------
                   |     |Soluble Acids.
                   |     |    +-----------------------------------------
                   |     |    |Milligrammes K(OH) to saponify 1 gr.
                   |     |    |     +-----------------------------------
                   |     |    |     |Water.
                   |     |    |     |     +-----------------------------
                   |     |    |     |     |Fat.
                   |     |    |     |     |     +-----------------------
      Variety.     |     |    |     |     |     |Lactic Acid.
                   |     |    |     |     |     |     +-----------------
                   |     |    |     |     |     |     |Insoluble Ash.
                   |     |    |     |     |     |     |     +-----------
                   |     |    |     |     |     |     |     |Soluble
                   |     |    |     |     |     |     |     | Ash.+-----
                   |     |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |Salt.
  -----------------+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
  Double Gloucester|87·00|6·28|229·3|37·20|22·80|1·80 |2·56 |2·00 |1·64
  Stilton          |86·20|7·02|231·7|28·60|30·70|1·08 |1·80 |2·22 |0·75
  English cream    |90·01|3·26|220·0|63·64|15·14|0·90 |0·72 |0·20 |0·12
  Dutch            |87·20|6·09|228·7|42·72|16·30|1·35 |2·26 |9·10 |4·02
  Gruyère          |87·32|5·98|228·0|33·20|27·26|1·35 |3·12 |1·58 |1·05
  Rochefort        |87·00|6·27|229·3|21·56|35·96|0·72 |1·70 |8·54 |3·42
  Camembert        |87·15|6·09|229·0|48·78|21·35|0·36 |0·16 |8·64 |3·46
  Bondon           |7·834|5·95|228·0|55·20|20·80|0·90 |0·52 |6·46 |3·16
  American Cheddar |89·08|3·30|220·2|29·70|30·70|0·90 |2·16 |1·54 |1·20
  Cheddar          |87·66|5·00|227·5|33·40|26·60|1·53 |2·30 |2·00 |1·52
  -----------------+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

According to this chemist, one gramme of genuine cheese should require
not less than 220 milligrammes K(OH) for saponification, as executed in
Koettstorfer’s process (see p. 71).

The following results were obtained by Griffiths[48] from the analysis
of American cheese, and by Gerber[49] from the analysis of artificial
American cheese:--

  --------------+---------+------------+--------------
                | American|Lard Cheese.|Oleomargarine
                |  Cheese.|            |   Cheese.
  --------------+---------+------------+--------------
                |per cent.|  per cent. |  per cent.
                |         |            |
  Water         | 26·55   |    38·26   |    37·99
  Fat           | 35·58   |    21·07   |    23·70
  Caseine, etc. | 33·85   |    35·55   |    34·65
  Ash           |  3·90   |     5·12   |     3·66
  --------------+---------+------------+--------------

The constituents of cheese are very similar to those of milk; the
relations between the soluble and insoluble fatty acids is much the
same as in butter. In cheese, however, the milk-sugar is largely
decomposed into lactic acid, alcohol, and carbonic acid, during the
process of ripening or curing employed in its manufacture.

Another essential change effected by the curing of cheese is the
partial decomposition of the caseine into ammonia, which combines
with the unaltered caseine, forming soluble ammonium caseates. Other
products of the ripening process, also due to the decomposition of the
caseine, are tyrosine and leucine (C_{6}H_{13}NO_{2}). The butter-fats
are likewise transformed into the corresponding fatty acids, which give
rise to the formation of either the ammonia salts, acid albuminates, or
amines, such as butylamine or amylamine.

The characteristic odour of many varieties of cheese is chiefly owing
to the genesis of these latter compounds.

As with butter, the most important adulteration of cheese consists
in the addition of foreign fats. Doubtless, the most frequent
sophistication is the admixture of lard. Lard cheese (which is usually
sold as “Neufchatel”) is made by first preparing an emulsion of lard
and skimmed milk (in the proportion of one part of the former to two
parts of the latter). This is subsequently incorporated with skimmed
milk and butter-milk, the coagulation of the fat being then effected
in the usual manner. In regard to the production of this species of
cheese, it is stated that in the 23 factories in the State of New
York, the product of six months’ working (ending November, 1881), was
about 800,000 pounds, of which the greater proportion was exported.
The recent (1885) adoption of a New York State brand for “pure cream
cheese” has had a very good effect, and accomplished much in the
restriction of the manufacture and sale of the spurious article.
Another variety of imitation cheese, know as “anti-huff cheese,”
is prepared from skimmed milk without the addition of foreign fat,
but with the aid of various chemical preparations, such as caustic
or carbonated soda, saltpetre, and borax. The rind of cheese is
occasionally contaminated with poisonous metallic salts, including
those of lead, mercury, antimony, arsenic, copper and zinc, which are
added either for colouring purposes or to prevent the attacks of flies
and other insects. This form of adulteration is doubtless of rare
occurrence. The methods used in cheese analysis are much the same as
those employed in the examination of butter. The fat is determined
by exhaustion with ether (or preferably, petroleum naphtha), and
evaporation, the remaining solids not fat being likewise dried and
weighed. The difference between the combined weight of the fat and the
solids not fat, and the amount of the sample taken, represents the
proportion of water present. Lactic acid, while insoluble in petroleum
naphtha, is also dissolved by ether, and can be estimated by digesting
another portion of the sample with water, and titrating the filtered
liquid with decinormal soda solution. Its weight is then to be deducted
from the amount of fat previously obtained, in case ether was employed
in this determination. The relative proportions of the soluble and
insoluble fatty acids contained in cheese possess the same significance
in indicating the presence of oleomargarine and other foreign fats as
with butter; and they are determined by the same methods.

The examination of the colouring matter of cheese can be made by first
neutralising the free lactic acid, separating the fat by agitation
with water, filtering and drying; the fat is then tested with carbon
disulphide and potassium hydroxide (see p. 77).

FOOTNOTES:

[47] ‘Analyst,’ Jan. 1885, p. 3.

[48] Chem. News, pp. 47, 85.

[49] Dingl., vol. i. pp. 247, 474.



FLOUR AND BREAD.


Wheat (_Triticum vulgare_) forms the principal bread-stuff of civilized
nations, and is by far the most important of all cereal grasses. It
has one or more slender, erect and smooth stalks, which, owing to the
large proportion of siliceous matter present, possesses the strength
necessary for the support of the ears. The grain is imbricated in four
rows. The following are the averages of the results obtained by the
analyses of 260 samples of American wheat, made by the United States
Department of Agriculture, in 1883:--

                   Per cent.
  Water              10·27
  Ash                 1·84
  Oil                 2·16
  Carbohydrates      71·98
  Fibrin              1·80
  Albuminoids        11·95
  Nitrogen            1·91

Analyses of the ash of wheat by the same Department, furnished the
following results:--

  ----------------+---------+-------------------
                  |         |      Foreign.
                  | Dakota. +---------+---------
                  |         | Winter. | Spring.
  ----------------+---------+---------+---------
                  |Per cent.|Per cent.|Per cent.
  Insoluble       |   1·44  |   2·11  |   1·64
  Phosphoric acid |  47·31  |  46·98  |  48·63
  Potassa         |  30·63  |  31·16  |  29·99
  Magnesia        |  16·09  |  11·97  |  12·09
  Lime            |   3·36  |   3·34  |   2·93
  Soda            |   1·17  |   2·25  |   1·93
  Sulphuric acid  |  trace  |   0·37  |   0·48
  Chlorine        |    „    |   0·22  |   0·51
  Ferric oxide    |    „    |   1·31  |   0·28
  Undetermined    |   ..    |   0·29  |   1·52
                  | ------  | ------  | ------
                  | 100·00  | 100·00  | 100·00
                  |         |         |
      Total ash   |   1·88  |   1·97  |   2·14
  ----------------+---------+---------+---------


FLOUR.

The name flour is usually given to the product obtained by grinding
wheat and removing the bran, or woody portion of the grain, by sifting
or bolting. Its constituents are starch, dextrine, cellulose, and sugar
(carbohydrates), the nitrogenous compounds albumen, gliadin, mucin,
fibrin, and cerealin, and fat, mineral substances and water. Upon
kneading flour with water, and removing the starch and soluble matters
by repeated washing, an adhesive body termed _gluten_ remains behind.
This is chiefly composed of gliadin, mucin, and fibrin.

According to Wanklyn,[50] the general composition of flour is:--

                       Per cent.
  Water                  16·5
  Fat                     1·5
  Gluten                 12·0
  Modified starch         3·5
  Vegetable albumen       1·0
  Starch granules        64·8
  Ash                     0·7

The average of numerous analyses of American flour examined by the
Department of Agriculture gave:--

                         Per cent.
  Water                   11·67
  Fat                      1·25
  Sugar                    1·91
  Dextrine                 1·79
  Starch                  71·72
  Soluble albuminoids      2·80
  Insoluble    „           7·90
  Total        „          10·70
  Ash                      0·54

The composition of the ash of flour from Minnesota wheat (1883), is as
follows:--

                      Per cent.
  Insoluble             0·98
  Phosphoric acid      49·63
  Potassa              31·54
  Magnesia              9·05
  Lime                  5·87
  Soda                  2·93


ANALYSIS OF FLOUR.

The following are the determinations generally required in the
proximate analysis of flour:--

_Water._--Two or three grammes of the sample are weighed in a tared
platinum dish, and heated in an air bath, until constant weight is
obtained. The proportion of water should not exceed 17 per cent.

_Starch._--A small amount of the flour is placed in a flask, connected
with an ascending Liebig’s condenser, and boiled for several hours with
water slightly acidulated with sulphuric acid. Any remaining excess
of acid is then neutralised with sodium hydroxide; the solution is
considerably diluted, and the glucose formed, estimated by means of
Fehling’s solution (see p. 111). 100 parts of glucose represent 90
parts of starch.

_Fat._--The inconsiderable proportion of fat in flour is best
determined by exhausting the dried sample with ether and evaporating
the solution.

_Gluten_ (albuminoids).--As previously stated, gluten is separated by
kneading the flour and repeated washing with water. After the removal
of the amylaceous and soluble ingredients, the residue is carefully
dried and weighed. A far more accurate method is to make a combustion
of a small portion of the flour with cupric oxide, and determine the
quantity of nitrogen obtained, the percentage of which, multiplied by
6·33, gives the percentage of gluten.[51] The proportion of gluten in
flour ranges from about 8 to 18 per cent. From 10 to 12 per cent, is
deemed necessary in order to make good bread, and, in England, any
deficiency in this constituent is remedied by the addition of bean or
other flour, but in the United States this practice is seldom required.

_Substances soluble in cold water._--About five grammes of the flour
are digested with 250 c.c. of cold water, and the solution filtered,
and evaporated to dryness. Good flour is stated to yield 4·7 per cent.
of extract when treated in this manner, the soluble matters consisting
of sugar, gum, dextrine, vegetable albumen, and potassium phosphate.
The latter salt, which constitutes about 0·4 per cent. of the extract,
should form the only mineral matter present.

_The Ash._--The ash of flour is determined in the usual manner, by
ignition in a platinum dish. It varies in amount from 0·3 to 0·8 per
cent., and should never exceed a proportion of 1·5 per cent.

When of good quality, wheaten flour is perfectly white, or has only a
faint tinge of yellow. It should be free from bran, and must not show
red, grey, or black specks, nor possess a disagreeable odour. It should
also exhibit a neutral reaction and a decided cohesiveness, acquiring
a peculiar soft and cushion-like condition when slightly compressed.
Formerly, wheaten flour was mixed with various foreign meals, such as
rye, corn, barley, peas, beans, rice, linseed, buckwheat, and potato
starch; but at present this form of adulteration is probably but
rarely resorted to, at least in the United States. The presence of
mildew, darnel, ergot, and other parasites of the grain, constitutes
an occasional contamination of flour. The most frequent admixture
consists, however, in the addition of alum, which, although more
extensively used in bread, is also employed in order to disguise the
presence of damaged flour in mixtures, or to improve the appearance of
an inferior grade; its addition to a damaged article serves to arrest
the decomposition of the gluten, thereby preventing the flour from
acquiring a dark colour, and disagreeable taste and odour.

It has recently been stated that in flour which has been kept for a
long time in sacks, a transformation of the gluten sometimes occurs,
resulting in the production of a poisonous alkaloid. This body may be
separated by evaporating the ethereal extract of the flour to dryness,
and treating the residue with water. The presence of the alkaloid in
the filtered aqueous solution is recognised by means of potassium
ferrocyanide. The presence of an excessive proportion of moisture is
doubtless instrumental in the formation of toxic alkaloids or fungi in
old flour and bread.

Pure wheaten flour is coloured yellow when treated with ammonium
hydroxide, whereas corn meal assumes a pale brown colour, and the meals
prepared from peas, beans, etc., become dark brown in colour when
tested in this way. Nitric acid imparts an orange-yellow colour to
wheaten flour, but fails to change the colour of potato-starch, with
which it forms a stiff and tenacious paste.

Potato-starch is readily detected by examining a thin layer of the
sample on a slide under the microscope, and adding a dilute solution
of potassium hydroxide, which, while not affecting the wheaten starch,
causes the potato-starch granules to swell up very considerably.
Leguminous starches, such as peas, etc., contain approximately 2·5 per
cent. of mineral matter; in pure flour, the average proportion of ash
is only about 0·7 per cent., and this difference is sometimes useful in
the detection of an admixture of the former.

The external envelope of the granules of potato-starch offers far less
resistance when triturated in a mortar than that of wheat, and upon
this fact a simple test for their detection is founded. It is executed
by rubbing up a mixture consisting of equal parts of the sample and
sand with water, diluting and filtering the paste formed, and then
adding to it a solution of 1 part of iodine in 20 parts of water. In
the absence of potato-starch, an evanescent pink colour is produced;
in case it is present, the colour obtained is dark purple, which in
time also disappears.

Among the methods which have been suggested for the detection of
such accidental impurities as darnel, ergot, and mildew, are the
following:--If pure flour is digested for some time with dilute
alcohol, the latter either remains quite clear or it acquires a very
light straw-colour; with flour contaminated with darnel, the alcohol
shows a decided greenish tint, and possesses an acrid and disagreeable
taste. In case the alcohol used is acidulated with about 5 per cent.
of hydrochloric acid, the extract obtained exhibits a purple-red
colour with flour containing mildew, and a blood-red colour with flour
containing ergot. When flour contaminated with ergot or other moulds,
is treated with a dilute solution of aniline violet, the dye is almost
wholly absorbed by the damaged granules, which are thus rendered more
noticeable in the microscopic examination.

The following test is often used for the detection of alum in flour:--A
small quantity of the suspected sample is made into a paste with a
little water and mixed with a few drops of an alcoholic tincture of
logwood; a little ammonium carbonate solution is then added. In the
presence of alum, a lavender-blue coloured lake is formed, which
often becomes more apparent upon allowing the mixture to remain at
rest for a few hours. The production of a brown or pink coloration is
an indication of the absence of alum. A modification of this test,
proposed by Blyth, consists in immersing for several hours in the cold
aqueous extract of the flour a strip of gelatine, with which the alum
combines; the gelatine is subsequently submitted to the action of the
logwood tincture and ammonium carbonate as above.

For the quantitative estimation of alum in flour, the following
processes are usually employed:--A considerable quantity of the sample
is incinerated in a platinum dish, the ash is boiled with dilute
hydrochloric acid and the solution filtered. The filtrate is next
boiled and added to a concentrated solution of pure sodium hydroxide,
the mixture being again boiled and afterwards filtered hot. A little
sodium diphosphate is now added to the filtrate which is then slightly
acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and finally made barely alkaline by
addition of ammonium hydroxide. The resulting precipitate, which, in
the presence of alum, consists of aluminium phosphate, is brought upon
a filter, well washed, and then weighed.

Another method, which is a modification of that of Dupré, is as
follows:--The ash obtained by the calcination of the flour (or bread),
is fused, together with four times its weight of pure mixed sodium and
potassium carbonates, the fused mass treated with hydrochloric acid,
the solution evaporated to dryness and the separated silica collected
and weighed. A few drops of sodium phosphate solution are added to
the filtrate from the silica, then ammonium hydroxide in excess, by
which the calcium, magnesium, ferric and aluminium phosphates are
precipitated. The two latter are next separated by boiling the liquid
with an excess of acetic acid (in which they are insoluble), and
brought upon a filter, washed, dried, and weighed. The iron sometimes
accompanying the precipitate of aluminium phosphate, can be determined
by reduction with zinc and titration with potassium permanganate.
If the presence of alum is indicated by the logwood test, and it is
quantitatively determined by either of the preceding methods, it has
been suggested that an allowance be made for the small proportion of
aluminium silicate occasionally found in unadulterated flour or bread,
and a deduction from the total alum present of one part of alum for
every part of silica obtained is considered proper. The weight of
aluminium phosphate found, multiplied by 3·873, or by 3·702, gives
respectively the corresponding amounts of potash-alum or ammonia-alum
contained in the sample examined.


BREAD.

Bread is usually prepared by mixing flour with water, kneading it into
a uniform dough, submitting it to a process of “raising,” either by
means of a ferment or by the direct incorporation of carbonic acid gas,
and finally baking the resulting mass.

Unleavened bread, however, is made by simply kneading flour with water,
with the addition of a little salt, and baking. The oatcake of the
Scotch, the passover bread of the Israelites, and the corncakes of the
Southern States are the best known varieties of unleavened bread.

The porosity peculiar to raised bread is caused by the generation of
a gas, either previous to, or during the process of baking. In former
times (and to some extent at present, notably in Paris), fermented
bread was made by the use of _leaven_, which is dough in a state of
incipient decomposition; but in this country, the common agent employed
in raising bread is yeast, which consists of minute vegetable cells
(_Torula cerevisiæ_) forming either the froth or deposit of fermenting
worts.

By the action of these ferments, the gluten of the flour first
undergoes a modification and enters into a peculiar combination with
the starch-granules, which become more or less ruptured; the soluble
albumen is rendered insoluble, and the starch is transformed, first
into sugar, then into carbonic acid and alcohol. These changes are
perfectly analogous to those which occur in the fermentation of the
wort in the preparation of fermented liquors.

Other and minor decompositions likewise occur, such as the partial
conversion of the starch into dextrine, the sugar into lactic acid,
and the alcohol into acetic acid, but the most essential change is the
production of alcohol and carbonic acid. The alcohol formed is mainly
volatilised, although an average proportion of 0·3 per cent. of this
compound has been found in samples of fresh bread. The escape of the
carbonic acid is retarded by the gluten, and to its expansion is due
the porous or spongy appearance of well-made bread.

Of late years, artificial substitutes for the fermentation process in
the production of porous bread have been extensively employed. By the
use of these agents, the liberation of carbonic acid in the dough is
accomplished and a slight gain of weight is effected, as none of the
original ingredients of the flour are lost by fermentation.

“Aërated bread” is made by kneading the flour under pressure with water
highly charged with carbonic acid gas, which, upon the removal of the
pressure, expands, and gives porosity to the bread. The use of “baking
powders” effects the same result in a more convenient manner, and is
largely practised in families. These compounds generally consist of
sodium bicarbonate (sometimes partially replaced by the corresponding
ammonia salt), and tartaric acid, or potassium bitartrate, together
with rice or other flour. A more commendable preparation is a mixture
of sodium bicarbonate with potassium or calcium acid phosphates, the
use of which is claimed to restore to the bread the phosphates lost by
the removal of the bran from the flour. Baking powders are often mixed
in the dry state with flour, and the produce, which is known under the
name of “self-raising flour,” only requires to be kneaded with water
and baked to form porous bread. However great the convenience attending
the use of these compounds, they are often open to the objection that
their decomposition gives rise to the formation of aperient salts,
_e.g._ sodium tartrate, and that they are very frequently contaminated
with alum.

As a result of the chemical changes which take place in the
fermentation of the flour and the subsequent application of heat, the
composition of bread differs materially from that of the grain from
which it is prepared. As already mentioned, the soluble albuminoids
are rendered insoluble, and the starch is partially transformed into
sugar (maltose). The unconverted starch is modified in its physical
condition, the ruptured granules being far more readily acted upon
by the digestive fluids than before. The proportion of soluble
carbohydrates is naturally augmented in bread. The amount of ash is
also somewhat increased, chiefly owing to the addition of salt, but
it should not exceed a proportion of 2 per cent. The quantity of
water in bread varies considerably. Wanklyn fixes 34 per cent. as the
standard; greater proportions have, however, been frequently found.
In ten samples of apparently normal bread, examined by E. S. Wood,
Analyst to the Massachusetts State Board of Health, the amounts of
moisture contained varied from 34 to 44 per cent. The quantity of
water decreases very rapidly upon exposure to the air. Thus, Clifford
Richardson[52] found that bread which showed 36 per cent. of moisture
when freshly baked, contained but 5·86 per cent. after drying for two
weeks. Stale bread would seem to contain water in a peculiar molecular
condition, and, as is well known, upon heating (“toasting”), it
reassumes the porous state.

According to analyses collected by König,[53] the mean composition of
bread is as follows:--

  -------------+--------------------------------------------------------
               |Water.
               |     +--------------------------------------------------
               |     |Nitrogenous substances.
               |     |     +-----+------+-------------------------------
               |     |     |Fat. |Sugar.| Extractive free from Nitrogen.
               |     |     |     |     ++    +-----------+--------------
               |     |     |     |     |     |Cellulose. |     Dry
               |     |     |     |     |     |     +-----|  Substances.
               |     |     |     |     |     |     |Ash. |--------------
               |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |Carbohydrates.
               |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |-----+
               |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |  N. |
  -------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+--------
               | per | per | per | per | per | per | per | per |  per
               |cent.|cent.|cent.|cent.|cent.|cent.|cent.|cent.| cent.
  Fine wheat   |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
    bread      |31·51| 7·06| 0·46| 4·02|52·56|0·32 | 1·09| 1·75| 87·79
  Coarse       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
    wheat bread|40·45| 6·15| 0·44| 2·08|49·04|0·62 | 1·22| 1·65| 85·84
  Rye bread    |42·27| 6·11| 0·43| 2·31|46·94|0·49 | 1·46| 1·69| 85·31
  Pumpernickel |43·42| 7·59| 1·51| 3·25|41·87|0·94 | 1·42| 2·15| 79·74
  -------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+--------

Clifford Richardson gives the following results of the analysis of
ordinary family loaf-bread:--

                        Per cent.
  Water                   37·30
  Soluble albuminoids      1·19
  Insoluble    „           6·85
  Fat                      0·60
  Sugar                    2·16
  Dextrine                 2·85
  Starch                  47·03
  Fibre                    0·85
  Ash                      1·17
                         ------
                         100·00

  Nitrogen                 1·29
  Total albuminoids        8·04

The analysis of bread is conducted essentially in the same manner
as that of flour. Under ordinary circumstances, the determinations
required are limited to an estimation of the moisture contained in
the crumb, the amount of the ash, and special tests for the presence
of alum and copper salts. Owing to the broken condition of the starch
granules in bread, their identification by the microscope is usually
rendered exceedingly difficult. The logwood test for alum in bread
is applied by Bell as follows:--About 10 grammes of the crumb are
immersed in a little water containing 5 c.c. each of the freshly
prepared logwood tincture and solution of ammonium carbonate for about
five minutes, after which the liquid is decanted, and the bread dried
at a gentle heat. In the presence of alum the bread will acquire
the characteristic lavender tint mentioned under Flour. It should
be added, that salts of magnesia also produce a lavender lake with
alum; but this fact does not affect the usefulness of the process as
a preliminary test to the quantitative determination of the mineral
impurities present in the sample under examination. The quantitative
examination of alum in bread is made by one of the methods described on
p. 93. Bread, free from alum, will sometimes yield 0·013 per cent. of
aluminium phosphate, and this amount should therefore be deducted from
the weight of the precipitate obtained.

The average of the results obtained by Dr. Edward G. Love, New York
State Board of Health, from the examination of the crumb of ten samples
of the cheaper varieties of wheaten bread were as follows:--

                                     Per cent.
  Water                               42·80
  Total ash                            1·0066
  Silica and sand                      0·0056
  Aluminium (and ferric) phosphates    0·0053

That the addition of alum to bread is prevalent seems to admit of
little doubt. The British Public Analysts, in 1879, tested 1287 samples
of bread, of which 95 (or 7·3 per cent.) contained alum. Of 18 samples
examined, in 1880, in the city of Washington, 8 were adulterated with
the salt. The question of the sanitary effects produced by the use of
alumed bread is one which has given rise to very extended discussion.
According to some authorities, the conversion of alum into an insoluble
salt by the fermentation process, which takes place in bread-making,
is regarded as a proof that it remains inert, and is consequently
harmless in its effects. Others contend that its action as a preventive
of excessive fermentation is at the expense of valuable nutritious
constituents of the flour, and that its combination with the phosphates
present in the grain results in the formation of an insoluble salt
which tends to retard digestion. Experiments have been made by J. West
Knights, on the comparative action of artificial gastric juice upon
pure and alumed bread, which apparently support this latter view.

Another objection to the use of alum is that it is frequently employed
for the purpose of disguising the bad quality of damaged and inferior
grades of flour. The presence of copper salts in bread is of rare
occurrence. Their detection is accomplished by treating a portion
of the crumb with a dilute solution of potassium ferrocyanide
acidulated with acetic acid, which, in presence of copper, will impart
a reddish-brown colour to the bread. If contained in any appreciable
proportion, it can be extracted from the ash obtained by the
incineration of the bread, and deposited upon the interior of a weighed
platinum capsule by the electrolytic method.

_Starch_ (C_{6}H_{10}O_{5}).--Starch, which enters so largely into the
composition of cereals, is a carbo-hydrate, _i. e._ hydrogen and oxygen
are contained in the proportions necessary to form water. In this
respect, it is identical with woody fibre, cellulose, and dextrine.

The well-known dark-blue colour produced upon the addition of a
solution of iodine to starch-paste forms the usual qualitative test
for its presence. This coloration is discharged by alkalies and by a
solution of sulphurous acid. The quantitative estimation of starch in
mixtures is best effected by heating the dry substance in a closed
tube for 24 hours, together with a dilute hot alcoholic solution of
potassium hydroxide. The hot liquid is next filtered, the residue
washed with alcohol, and the filtrate heated with 2 per cent. solution
of hydrochloric acid until it ceases to show the blue coloration when
tested with iodine. It is then rendered alkaline, and the proportion of
starch originally present, calculated from the amount of sugar formed,
as determined by Fehling’s solution. Although identical in chemical
composition, the various forms of starch met with in the vegetable
kingdom vary in size and exhibit characteristic differences in the
appearance of the granules. The following are measurements of several
varieties of starch granules:--

            Millimetre.
  Wheat       ·0500
  Rye         ·0310
  Rice        ·0220
  Corn        ·0300
  Bean        ·0631
  Potato      ·1850

The larger granules of potato starch, when suspended in water, subside
more rapidly than those of wheat starch; they are also far more readily
ruptured.

The identification of the various starches is accomplished by means
of the microscope. Starch possesses an organised structure which,
fortunately, differs in different plants. Besides varying in size,
the granules develope in a different manner and form from centres of
growth, and therefore exhibit characteristic conditions and positions.
These distinctions, together with their effect upon polarised light,
are of great utility in the determination of the source of any
particular starch. For this purpose, it is necessary to become familiar
with the distinctive microscopical appearance of each individual
starch. A collection of those most usually met with should be made,
and, after careful study, preserved in a dried state for comparative
purposes. Polarised light is a very useful adjunct in the examination
of starch granules. In the microscopical investigation, a minute
portion of the sample is placed upon the glass slide and well moistened
with a solution of 1 part glycerine in 2 parts of water; it is then
protected by a thin glass cover, which is put on with gentle pressure.
The appearance of various starches, under polarised light, is seen in
Plate IX., where the cross lies at the hilum or nucleus of the granule
and the form and relative size is visible in outline. This plate, and
Plates VII. and XII. are copied, with permission, from Bulletin No. 11
of the Chemical Division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The
original negatives (made by Clifford Richardson) were used, but the
auto-types are presented in a somewhat modified form.

      PLATE IX.

[Illustration: Potato × 145.]

[Illustration: Maize × 145.]

[Illustration: Wheat × 145.]

[Illustration: Rice × 450.]

[Illustration: Bean × 145.]

[Illustration: Pea × 145.]

    STARCHES.

FOOTNOTES:

[50] ‘Bread Analysis.’

[51] Wanklyn applies his ammonia process (see p. 205), to the
estimation of albuminoids in vegetable substances. In this manner
he obtained the following percentages of ammonia from various
flours:--Rice, 0·62; maize and malt, 1·03; wheat and barley, 1·10; rye,
1·45; pea, 2·30.

[52] ‘An Investigation of the Composition of American Wheat and Corn.’
United States Department of Agriculture, 1883.

[53] ‘Die Menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel’ p. 420. Berlin, 1883.



BAKERS’ CHEMICALS.


The substances employed for the artificial production of porosity
in bread, as already mentioned, are sodium bicarbonate (now termed
“saleratus”), potassium bitartrate, tartaric acid, and calcium
diphosphate, the various mixtures of these compounds being known as
baking powders. Some of the above chemicals are not always used in
the pure state, and, in addition to this source of contamination,
baking powders are often excessively diluted with flour or starch, and
seriously adulterated with alum.

The sodium bicarbonate employed is generally a fairly pure article.
Common grades of the salt contain a little sodium chloride, and in some
cases as much as 2 per cent. of the corresponding sulphate; it may
also prove to be somewhat deficient in the proportion of carbonic acid
present. Cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate), is far more liable to
adulteration. A certain quantity of calcium tartrate is often found in
the commercial article, originating from its method of manufacture, and
amounting, on the average, from 6 to 7 per cent. The salt is, moreover,
sometimes intentionally mixed with alum, starch, tartaric acid, gypsum,
chalk and terra alba.

Occasionally so-called cream of tartar has been found to be wholly
composed of starch and calcium diphosphate. In the examination for
calcium tartrate and sulphate, a quantitative determination of the
total lime and sulphuric acid is made. The quantity of sulphuric
acid obtained is calculated to gypsum, any excess of lime left
being returned as tartrate. The ash in pure cream of tartar should
amount to 36·79 per cent., while that of calcium tartrate is only
21·54 per cent. Naturally, the addition of flour or starch would
materially decrease the proportion of ash. The presence of these latter
adulterants is recognised by means of the microscope, and by testing
the sample with iodine solution. It is generally required that cream of
tartar should contain at least 90 per cent. of potassium bitartrate.

_Baking powders._--The usual composition of baking powders has already
been stated. They all contain sodium bicarbonate, but differ in the
acid ingredient present, which may consist of cream of tartar, tartaric
acid, calcium diphosphate, or alum. In order to remedy the tendency to
deterioration which exists in powders entirely composed of the above
salts, it is the practice to add a considerable amount of “filling”
(corn-starch, flour, etc.). The quantity of filling employed for this
purpose varies from 20 to 60 per cent., but is as a rule, greater than
is really necessary. A small proportion of the sodium salt is often
replaced by ammonium sesquicarbonate. Alum is a more objectionable
constituent of many preparations, and it should be considered an
adulteration. The practical value of baking powder is chiefly dependent
upon the quantity of carbonic acid it liberates when decomposed, and
this is affected by the strength of the acid salt and the amount of
“filling” used. The most common varieties of baking powders are:--

(_a_) _Sodium bicarbonate and cream of tartar_, either pure or mixed
with starch. In testing this class of powders, it is usual to determine
the excessive alkalinity remaining after the decomposition with water,
by means of decinormal acid; this is put down as bicarbonate present in
excess. The proportions of sodium bicarbonate and cream of tartar are
calculated from the alkaline strength of the ash, minus the excessive
alkalinity found.

Impurities originating from the cream of tartar employed are estimated
as previously described; and the amount of starch contained is
determined by the usual methods. In some preparations, tartaric acid
is substituted for cream of tartar.

The following proportions represent the composition of a baking powder
of good quality:--

                      Parts.
  Cream of tartar       30
  Sodium bicarbonate    15
  Flour                  5

(_b_) _Sodium bicarbonate and calcium diphosphate._--Calcium sulphate
occurs as an impurity in the commercial phosphate and is therefore
liable to be met with in phosphate powders. In addition to phosphoric
acid, lime, etc., a determination of sulphuric acid and chlorine should
be made.

(_c_) _Sodium bicarbonate and alum._--These constitute the most
reprehensible forms of baking powder. The sanitary effects of alum have
been referred to under Flour. It may be present either as potash or
ammonia alum. The following is a fair example of an alum powder:--

                           Per cent.
  Alum                       26·45
  Sodium bicarbonate         24·17
  Ammonium sesquicarbonate    2·31
  Cream of tartar             None
  Starch                     47·07

From an exhaustive investigation of baking powders made by Dr. Henry
A. Mott, it was found that about 50 per cent. of these preparations
were impure, alum being the chief admixture. Of 280 samples of cream
of tartar lately examined by various American Health Boards, 100 were
adulterated; of 95 baking powders tested, 16 were adulterated.



SUGAR.


The sugars of commerce may be conveniently classified into two
varieties, viz., sucrose (cane sugar or saccharose) and dextrose (grape
sugar or glucose). The former, which is the kind almost exclusively
employed for domestic uses, is chiefly obtained from the sugar cane of
the West Indies and American Southern States (_Saccharum officinarum_),
and, in continental Europe, from the sugar beet (_Beta vulgaris_).
A comparatively small quantity is manufactured in the United States
from the sugar maple (_Acer saccharinum_), and from sorghum (_Sorghum
saccharatus_).

_Cane Sugar_ (C_{12} H_{22} O_{11}).--Among the more important chemical
properties of cane sugar are the following:--It dissolves in about
one-third its weight of cold water--much more readily in hot water--and
is insoluble in cold absolute alcohol. From a concentrated aqueous
solution it is deposited in monoclinic prisms, which possess a specific
gravity of 1·580. Cane sugar is characterised by its property of
rotating the plane of a ray of polarised light to the right; the rotary
power is 66°·6. Upon heating its solution with dilute mineral acids, it
is converted into a mixture termed “invert sugar,” which consists of
equal parts of _dextrose_ and _levulose_. The former turns the plane of
polarised light to the right, the latter to the left; but owing to the
stronger rotation exerted by the levulose, the combined rotary effect
of invert sugar is to the left, _i. e._, opposite to that possessed by
cane sugar. Invert sugar exhibits the important property of reducing
solutions of the salts of copper, which is not possessed by pure cane
sugar. Cane sugar melts at 160°; at a higher temperature (210°) it
is converted into a reddish-brown substance termed _caramel_. When
subjected to the action of ferments, cane sugar is first transformed
into invert sugar, then into alcohol and carbonic acid, according to
the reactions:--

    (_a_) C_{12} H_{22} O_{11} + H_{2}O = 2 C_{6} H_{12} O_{6}.
    (_b_) C_{6} H_{12} O_{6} = 2 CO_{2} + 2 C_{2} H_{6}O.

The varieties of cane sugar usually met with in commerce are the
following:--

1. Loaf sugar, consisting either of irregular fragments, or (more
often) of cut cubes.

2. Granulated sugar.

3. Soft white sugar.

4. Brown sugar, varying in colour from cream-yellow to reddish-brown.

Molasses is a solution of sugar, containing invert sugar, gummy
matters, caramel, etc., which forms the mother-liquor remaining after
the crystallisation of raw cane sugar; the name “syrup” being commonly
applied to the residual liquor obtained in the manufacture of refined
sugar.

_Dextrose_ (C_{6} H_{12} O_{6}), occurs ready-formed in grape juice,
and in many sweet fruits, very frequently associated with levulose;
it is also contained in honey, together with a small amount of cane
sugar. As already mentioned, it constitutes an ingredient of the
product obtained by the action of acids and ferments upon cane sugar.
For commercial purposes, glucose is prepared by treating grains rich
in starch, with dilute acids. In France and Germany, potatoes are used
in its manufacture; in the United States, Indian corn or maize is
almost exclusively employed. The processes used consist substantially
in first separating the starch from the grain by soaking, grinding,
and straining, then boiling it, under pressure, with water containing
about 3 per cent. of sulphuric acid, neutralising the remaining acid
with chalk, decolorising the solution by means of animal charcoal,
and concentrating it in vacuum pans. In the United States thirty-two
factories are engaged in the manufacture of glucose, which consume
about 40,000 bushels of corn daily, their annual production having an
estimated value of 10 millions of dollars. In commerce, the term grape
sugar is applied to the solid product, the syrup or liquid form being
known as glucose. The chief uses of starch sugar and glucose are in
the manufacture of table syrups, and as a substitute for malt in the
brewing of beer and ale. Their other most important applications are as
a substitute for cane sugar in confectionery, and in the preparation
of fruit jellies; as an adulterant of cane sugar, as an admixture to
genuine honey, and as a source for the preparation of vinegar.

Dextrose is soluble in 1-1/5 part of cold water, and is much more
soluble in hot water. It has a dextro-rotary power of 56°. When
separated from its aqueous solution, it forms white and opaque granular
masses, but from an alcoholic solution, it is obtained in well-defined,
microscopic needles, which fuse at 146°. Two parts of glucose have
about the same sweetening effect as one part of cane sugar.[54] It does
not become coloured when mixed with cold concentrated sulphuric acid,
which distinguishes it from sucrose; on the other hand, its solution
is coloured dark-brown if boiled with potassium hydroxide, another
distinction from cane sugar. Dextrose is capable of directly undergoing
vinous fermentation, and, like invert sugar, it possesses the property
of reducing alkaline solutions of copper salts, especially upon the
application of heat.

The chief commercial varieties of American glucose are the following:--

  1. _Glucose_:              Per cent. Glucose.
     “Crystal H,” containing               40
     “Crystal B”                           45
     “Crystal A”                           50

  2. _Grape Sugar_:
     “Brewers’ grape”                   70-75
     “A” or “Solid grape”               75-80
     “Grained” or “Granulated grape”    80-85

_Maltose_ and _levulose_ are isomers of dextrose. The former is
prepared by the action of malt or diastase upon starch. It has a
dextro-rotary power of 150° and its property of reducing copper salts
is only about 60 per cent. of that of dextrose. It is converted into
the latter compound upon boiling with dilute sulphuric acid. Levulose,
as previously stated, is formed, together with dextrose, from cane
sugar by treatment with dilute acids or with ferments. It turns the
plane of a ray of polarised light to the left, its rotary power varying
considerably at different temperatures.

_Lactose_, or milk sugar, has already been referred to under the head
of Milk. It is isomeric with cane sugar, possesses a dextro-rotary
power (58°·2), and undergoes fermentation when mixed with yeast, and
reduces alkaline copper solutions, but in a different degree from
glucose.

Many of the substances frequently enumerated as being used to
adulterate sugar are at present very seldom employed. The usual list
includes “glucose” (often meaning invert sugar), sand, flour, chalk,
terra alba, etc. Loaf sugar is almost invariably pure, although its
colour is sometimes improved by the addition of small proportions of
various blue pigments, such as ultramarine, indigo, and Prussian blue.
The presence of ultramarine was detected in about 73 per cent. of
the samples of granulated sugar tested in 1881 by the New York State
Board of Health. Tin salts[55] are also occasionally employed in the
bleaching of sugar and syrups. Granulated sugar is asserted to be
sometimes mixed with grape sugar, and powdered sugar has been found
adulterated with flour and terra alba; but the varieties which are most
exposed to admixture are the low grades of yellow and brown sugar, in
which, however, several per cent. of invert sugar are normally present.
Sand, gravel, and mites form a rather common contamination of raw
sugar. From the year 1876 to 1881, 310 samples of commercial sugar were
examined by the public health authorities of Canada, of which number
24 were reported as containing glucose, and 11 as of doubtful purity.
Of 38 samples of brown sugar recently analysed by Dr. Charles Smart,
of the National Board of Health, 9 were adulterated with glucose.
From the investigations of A. L. Colby, Analyst to the New York State
Board of Health, it was found that of the 116 samples examined, the
white sugars were practically pure; whereas, of 67 samples of brown
sugar, 4 contained glucose. Of 16 specimens of brown sugar, tested by
a commission appointed by the National Academy of Sciences in 1883,
4 contained about 30 per cent. of this body.[56] Many varieties of
sugar-house syrups, and the various forms of confectionery, are very
extensively adulterated with artificial glucose.

The average sugar-house syrup has the following composition:--

                        Per cent.
  Water                    16
  Crystallisable sugar     36
  Invert sugar             34
  Gum, pectose, etc.       10
  Ash                       4

Dr. W. H. Pitt, in the Second Annual Report of the New York State
Board of Health, gives the following analysis of grocers’ mixed glucose
syrup, and of confectioners’ glucose:--

  _American Grape Sugar Co.’s Syrup._

                Per cent.
  Ash             0·820
  Water          18·857
  Dextrine       34·667
  Cane syrup      7·805
  Glucose        37·851
                -------
                100·000
                -------

  _Confectioners’ Glucose._

                Per cent.
  Ash             0·431
  Water          15·762
  Dextrine       41·614
  Glucose        42·193
                -------
                100·000
                -------

It is stated that a large proportion of the American maple syrup and
maple sugar found on the market, consists of raw sugar, flavoured with
the essential oil of hickory-bark, for the manufacture of which letters
patent have been granted.

_Analysis of Sugar._--The examination of sugar is ordinarily confined
to the estimation of the water, ash, and determination of the nature
of the organic matters present. The proportion of water contained in
a sample is found by drying it for about two hours in an air-bath, at
a temperature of 110°. Moist and syrupy sugars, such as muscovadoes,
are advantageously mixed with a known weight of ignited sand before
drying. The ash is determined either by directly incinerating a few
grammes of the sugar in a tared platinum capsule, or by accelerating
the process of combustion by first moistening the sample with a little
sulphuric acid. In this case the bases will naturally be converted
into sulphates, and a deduction of one-tenth is usually made from
the results so obtained, in order to reduce it to terms of the
corresponding carbonates. The proportion of ash in raw cane sugar
varies somewhat, but it should not much exceed 1·5 per cent. Its
average composition, as given by Monier, is as follows:--

  Calcic carbonate                 49·00
  Potassium carbonate              16·50
  Sodium and potassium sulphates   16·00
  Sodium chloride                   9·00
  Alumina and silica                9·50
                                  ------
                                  100·00
                                  ------

Insoluble mineral adulterants are readily separated by dissolving a
rather considerable amount of the sample in water and filtering. In
this manner the presence of sand, terra alba, and foreign pigments may
be recognised.

The determination of the character of the organic constituents of
commercial sugars is effected, either by chemical or by physical tests,
and, in some instances, by a combination of these methods. The presence
of such adulterants, as flour or starch, is very easily detected upon a
microscopic examination of the suspected sample.

If cane sugar, containing grape sugar, is boiled with water, to which
about 2 per cent. of potassium hydroxide has been added, the solution
acquires a brown colour.

Upon mixing a solution of pure cane sugar with a solution of cupric
sulphate, adding an excess of potassium hydroxide, and boiling, only a
slight precipitation of red cupric oxide takes place. Under the same
conditions, grape sugar at once produces a copious green precipitate,
which ultimately changes to red, the supernatant fluid becoming nearly
or quite colourless. A very good method for the quantitative estimation
of grape sugar when mechanically mixed with cane sugar, is that of P.
Casamajor. It is executed by first preparing a saturated solution of
grape sugar in methylic alcohol. The sample to be tested is thoroughly
dried, and then well agitated with the methylic alcohol solution, in
which all cane sugar will dissolve; any grape sugar present remains
behind, and upon allowing the mixture to remain at rest for a short
time, forms a deposit which is again treated with the grape sugar
solution, and then collected upon a tared filter, washed with absolute
methylic alcohol, and weighed. Glucose and invert sugar are usually
quantitatively determined by means of Fehling’s solution.

As this preparation is liable to decompose upon keeping, it is
advisable to first prepare cupric sulphate solution by dissolving
exactly 34,640 grammes of the salt in 500 c.c. of distilled water,
and then make up the Rochelle salt solution by dissolving 68 grammes
of sodium hydroxide, and 173 grammes of Rochelle salt in 500 c.c. of
water, the solutions being kept separate. When required for use, 5
c.c. each of the copper and Rochelle solutions (corresponding to 10
c.c. of Fehling’s solution) are introduced into a narrow beaker, or a
porcelain evaporating dish, a little water is added, and the liquid
brought to the boiling point. The sugar solution under examination
should not contain over 0·5 per cent. of glucose. It is cautiously
added to the hot Fehling’s solution from a burette until the fluid
loses its blue colour (see p. 37). The number of c.c. required to
completely reduce 10 c.c. of Fehling’s solution, represents 0·05 gramme
of grape sugar. The foregoing volumetric method is sometimes applied
gravimetrically by adding a slight excess of Fehling’s solution to the
sugar solution, collecting the precipitated cupric oxide upon a filter
and weighing, after oxidation with a few drops of nitric acid; or, it
may be dissolved, and the copper contained deposited by electrolysis,
in which case the weight of copper obtained, multiplied by 0·538, gives
the equivalent amount of glucose. The proportion of cane sugar in a
sample of raw sugar can be determined by first directly estimating the
proportion of invert sugar contained by means of Fehling’s solution, as
just described. The cane sugar present is then inverted by dissolving
one gramme of the sample in about 100 c.c. of water, adding 1 c.c.
of strong sulphuric acid, and heating the solution in the water-bath
for 30 minutes, the water lost by evaporation being from time to
time replaced. The free acid is next neutralised by a little sodium
carbonate, its volume made up to 200 c.c., and the invert sugar now
contained estimated by Fehling’s solution. The difference in the two
determinations represents the glucose formed by the conversion of the
cane sugar; 100 parts of the glucose so produced is equivalent to 95
parts of cane sugar.

Commercial cane sugar is, however, generally estimated by the
instrument known as the saccharimeter or polariscope.

In order to convey an intelligent idea of the physical laws which
govern the practical working of the polariscope, it will first be
necessary to refer to the subject of the polarisation of light. The
transformation of ordinary into polarised light is best effected either
by reflection from a glass plate at an angle of about 56°, or by what
is known as double refraction. The former method can be illustrated by
Fig. 1, Plate X., which represents two tubes, B and C, arranged so as
to allow the one to be turned round within the other. Two flat plates
of glass, A and P, blackened at the backs, are attached obliquely to
the end of each tube at an angle of about 56°, as represented in the
figure. The tube B, with its attached plate, A, can be turned round
in the tube C without changing the inclination of the plate to a ray
passing along the axis of the tube. If a candle be now placed at I,
the light will be reflected from the plate P through the tube, and,
owing to the particular angle of this plate, will undergo a certain
transformation in its nature, or, in other words, become “polarised.”
So long as the plate A retains the position represented in the figure,
the reflected ray would fall in the same plane as that in which the
polarisation of the ray took place, and an image of the candle would
be seen by an observer stationed at O. But, suppose the tube B to be
turned a quarter round; the plane of reflection is now at right
angles to that of polarisation, and the image will become invisible.
When the tube B is turned half-way round, the candle is seen as
brightly at first; at the third quadrant it disappears, until, on
completing the revolution of the tube, it again becomes perfectly
visible. It is evident that the ray reflected from the glass plate P
has acquired properties different from those possessed by ordinary
light, which would have been reflected by the plate A in whatever
direction it might have been turned.

      PLATE X.

[Illustration:

Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

Polariscope.]

    ARTOTYPE. E. BIERSTADT N. Y.

If a ray of common light be made to pass through certain crystals,
such as calc spar, it undergoes double refraction, and the light
transmitted becomes polarised. The arrangement known as Nicol’s prism,
which consists of two prisms of calc spar, cut at a certain angle and
united together by means of Canada balsam, is a very convenient means
of obtaining polarised light. If two Nicol’s prisms are placed in a
similar position, one behind the other, the light polarised by the
first (or polarising) prism passes through the second (or analysing)
prism unchanged; but if the second prism be turned until it crosses
the first at a right angle, perfect darkness ensues. While it would
exceed the limits of this work to enter fully upon the theoretical
explanations which are commonly advanced concerning the cause and
nature of this polarised, or transformed light, it may be well to state
here that common light is assumed to be composed of two systems of
beams which vibrate in planes at right angles to each other, whereas
polarised light is regarded as consisting of beams vibrating in a
single plane only. If, now, we imagine the second Nicol’s prism to be
made up of a series of fibres or lines, running only in one direction,
these fibres would act like a grating and give free passage to a
surface like a knife blade only when this is parallel to the bars,
but would obstruct it if presented transversely. This somewhat crude
illustration will, perhaps, serve to explain why the rays of light
which have been polarised by the first Nicol’s prism are allowed to
pass through the second prism when the two are placed in a similar
position, and why they are obstructed when the prisms are crossed
at right angles, it being remembered that in a polarised ray the
vibrations of the beams of light take place in a single plane.

Suppose we place between the two Nicol’s prisms, while they are at
right angles, a plate cut in a peculiar manner from a crystal of
quartz, we will discover that rays of light now pass through the
second prism, and that the field of vision has become illuminated
with beautiful colours--red, yellow, green, blue, etc., according
to the thickness of the quartz plate used. On _turning_ the second
Nicol’s prism on its axis, these colours will change and pass through
the regular prismatic series, from red to violet, or the contrary,
according to the direction of the rotation produced by the intervening
plate. Quartz, therefore, possesses the remarkable property of rotating
the plane of polarisation of the coloured rays of which light is
composed; and it has been discovered that some plates of this mineral
exert this power to the right, others to the left; that is, they
possess a right or left-handed circular polarisation. Numerous other
substances, including many organic compounds, possess this quality
of causing a rotation--either to the right or left--of a plane of
polarised light. For example, solutions of cane sugar and ordinary
glucose cause a right-handed rotation, whilst levulose and invert sugar
exert a left-handed rotation. The extent of this power is directly
proportional to the concentration of the solutions used, the length
of the column through which the ray of polarised light passes being
the same. It follows that on passing polarised light through tubes of
the same length which are filled with solutions containing different
quantities of impure cane sugar, an estimation of the amount of pure
cane sugar contained in the tubes can be made by determining the degree
of right-handed rotation produced; and it is upon this fact that the
application of the polariscope in sugar analysis is based. The optical
portions of the most improved form of the polariscope--that known as
the Ventzke-Scheibler--are represented by Fig. 2.

The light from a gas burner enters at the extremity of the instrument
and first passes through the “regulator A,” which consists of the
double refracting Nicol’s prism _a_ and the quartz plate _b_, it being
so arranged that it can be turned round its own plane, thus varying
the tint of the light used, so as to best neutralise that possessed
by the sugar solution to be examined. The incident ray now penetrates
the polarising Nicol’s prism B, and next meets a double quartz plate
C (3·75 millimetres in thickness). This quartz plate, a front view of
which is also shown in the figure, is divided in the field of vision,
one half consisting of quartz rotating to the right hand, the other
half of the variety which rotates to the left hand. It is made of the
thickness referred to owing to the fact that it then imparts a very
sensitive tint (purple) to polarised light, and one that passes very
suddenly into red or blue when the rotation of the ray is changed.
Since the plate C is composed of halves which exert opposite rotary
powers, these will assume different colours upon altering the rotation
of the ray. After leaving the double quartz plate the light, which,
owing to its passage through the Nicol’s prism B is now polarised,
enters the tube D containing the solution of cane sugar under
examination; this causes it to undergo a right-handed rotation. It next
meets the “compensator” E, consisting of a quartz plate _c_, which has
a right-handed rotary power, and the two quartz prisms _d_, both of
which are cut in a wedge shape and exert a left-handed rotation. They
are so arranged that one is movable and can be made to slide along the
other, which is fixed, thus causing an increase or decrease in their
combined thickness and rotary effect. The ray of light then passes
through the analysing Nicol’s prism F, and is finally examined by
means of the telescope G, with the objective _e_ and ocular _f_. Fig.
3 gives a perspective view of the Ventzke-Scheibler polariscope. The
Nicol’s prism and quartz plate which constitute the “regulator” are
situated at A and B, and can be rotated by means of a pinion connecting
with the button L. The polarising Nicol’s prism is placed at C, and
the double quartz plate at D. The receptacle _h_ contains the tube
P filled with sugar solution, and is provided with the hinged cover
_h´_, which serves to keep out the external light while an observation
is being taken. The right-handed quartz plate and the wedge-shaped
quartz prisms (corresponding to _c_ and _d_, Fig. 2) are situated at G,
and at E and F, and the analysing Nicol’s prism is placed at H. When
the wedge-shaped prisms have an equal thickness coinciding with that
of the quartz plate _c_ (Fig. 2) the left-handed rotary power of the
former is exactly neutralised by the right-handed rotary power of the
latter, and the field of vision seen at I is uniform in colour, the
opposing rotary powers of the two halves of the double quartz plates
C (Fig. 2) being also equalised. But if the tube, filled with a sugar
solution, is placed in the instrument, the right-handed rotary power
of this substance is added to that half of the double quartz plate
which exerts the same rotary effect (the other half being diminished
in a like degree), and the two divisions of the plate will now appear
of different colours. In order to restore an equilibrium of colour
the movable wedge-shaped quartz plate E is slid along its fellow F by
means of the ratchet M, until the right-handed rotary power of the
sugar solution is compensated for by the increased thickness of the
left-handed plate, when the sections of the plate C will again appear
uniform in colour. For the purpose of measuring the extent to which the
unfixed plate has been moved, a small ivory scale is attached to this
plate, and passes along an index scale connected with the fixed plate.
The degrees marked on the scale, which are divided into tenths, are
read by aid of a mirror _s_ attached to a magnifying glass K. When the
polariscope is in what may be termed a state of equilibrium, _i. e._
before the tube containing the sugar solution has been placed in it,
the index of the fixed scale points to the zero of the movable scale.

In the practical use of the Ventzke-Scheibler saccharimeter the
method to be followed is essentially as follows: 26·048 grammes of
the sugar to be tested are carefully weighed out and introduced into
a flask 100 cubic centimetres in capacity; water is added, and the
flask shaken until all crystals are dissolved. The solution is next
decolorised by means of basic plumbic acetate, its volume made up to
100 cubic centimetres, and a little bone-black having been added if
necessary, a glass tube, corresponding to P (Fig. 3) which is exactly
200 millimetres in length, and is provided with suitable caps, is
completely filled with the clear filtered liquid. This is then placed
in the polariscope, and protected from external light by closing the
cover shown at _h´_. On now observing the field of vision by means of
the telescope, it will be seen that the halves into which it is divided
exhibit different colours. The screw M is then turned to the right
until this is no longer the case, and absolute uniformity of colour is
restored to the divisions of the double quartz plate C (Fig. 2). The
extent to which the screw has been turned, which corresponds to the
right-handed rotation caused by the sugar solution, is now ascertained
on reading the scale by the aid of the glass K. The instrument under
consideration is so constructed that, when solutions and tubes of the
concentration and length referred to above are used, the reading on the
scale gives directly the percentage of pure crystallisable cane sugar
contained in the sample examined. For instance, if the zero index of
the fixed scale points to 96°·5 on the movable scale, after uniformity
of colour has been obtained, the sample of sugar taken contains 96·5
per cent. of pure cane sugar. The results given by the polariscope
possess an accuracy rarely, if ever, attained by any other apparatus
employed in the determination of practical commercial values.[57]

The proportion of grape sugar intentionally added to cane sugar can
also be determined by the use of the polariscope, certain modifications
being observed in its application. As previously stated, cane sugar
is converted into a mixture of dextrose and levulose, termed invert
sugar, by the action of dilute acids. While the rotary effect of
dextrose upon the plane of a ray of polarised light is constant at
temperatures under 100°, that exerted by levulose varies, it being
reduced as the temperature is increased; hence it follows that at a
certain temperature the diminished levo-rotary power of the levulose
will become neutralised by the dextro-rotary effect of the dextrose,
_i.e._ the invert sugar will be optically inactive. This temperature
has been found to approximate 90°. Since dextrose is not perceptibly
affected by the action of weak acids, it is evident that by converting
cane sugar into invert sugar and examining the product by the
polariscope at a temperature of about 90°, the presence of any added
dextrose (glucose) will be directly revealed by its dextro-rotary
action. This is accomplished by a method suggested by Messrs. Chandler
and Ricketts,[58] which consists in substituting for the ordinary
observation tube of the polariscope a platinum tube, provided with
a thermometer, and surrounded by a water-bath, which is heated to
the desired temperature by a gas burner (Plate X. Fig. 4). The sugar
solution to be examined is first treated with a little dilute sulphuric
acid, then neutralised with sodium carbonate, clarified by means of
basic plumbic acetate, filtered, and the polariscopic reading taken at
a temperature of 86° to 90°.

Since the results given by the foregoing method represent pure
dextrose, it is necessary to first ascertain the dextro-rotary
power of the particular variety of glucose probably employed for
the adulteration of the sugar under examination, and then make the
requisite correction. This process for the estimation of glucose is
especially advantageous, in that the optical effect of the invert sugar
normally present in raw cane sugars is rendered inactive.

It is sometimes desirable to determine the relative proportions of
the organic constituents which are present in commercial glucose.
These usually consist of dextrose, maltose, and dextrine, all of which
possess dextro-rotary power, but not in the same degree; that of
dextrose being 52, that of maltose 139, and that of dextrine 193. An
estimation of the amount of each can be made by first ascertaining the
total rotary effect of the sample by means of the polariscope.[59] This
is expressed by the equation

    P = 52 _d_ + 139 _m_ + 193 _d´_,      (1)

in which P is the total rotation observed. Upon now treating the
solution of glucose with an excess of an alkaline solution of mercuric
cyanide (prepared by dissolving 120 grammes of mercuric cyanide and 25
grammes of potassium hydroxide in 1 litre of water), the dextrose and
maltose contained in the sample are decomposed, leaving the dextrine
unaffected. A second polariscopic reading is then made, which gives the
amount of dextrine present, that is

    P´ = 193 _d´_,                        (2)

from which the proportion of dextrine is calculated.

Subtracting the second equation from the first, we have

    P - P´ = 52 _d_ + 139 _m_.            (3)

Both dextrose and maltose reduce Fehling’s solution, the total
reduction (R) being the reducing per cent. of the former (_d_) added to
that of the latter (_m_). The reducing power of maltose is, however,
only 0·62 as compared with dextrine, therefore

    R = _d_ + 0·62 _m_.                   (4)

Multiplying by 52, we have

    52 R = 52 _d_ + 32·24 _m_,

and subtract from (3), which gives

    P - P´ - 52 R = 106·76 _m_,           (5)

whence

    _m_ = (P - P´ - 52 R) / 106·76        (6)

    _d_ = R - 0·62 _m_                    (7)

and

    _d´_ = P´/193.

FOOTNOTES:

[54] It is of interest in this connection to note the recent discovery
of a coal-tar derivative, benzoyle sulphonic imide, C_{6}H_{4} 
NH, commercially known as “saccharine.” This body possesses about
230 times the sweetening power of cane sugar. It bears, however, no
near chemical relation to the sugars, which, for the greater part,
constitute hexatomic alcohols. See Amer. Chem. Jour., i. p. 170, and
vol. ii. p. 181; also, Jour. Soc. Chem. Indus., No. 2, vol. vi. p. 75.

[55] Of 41 samples of molassan, tested in Massachusetts in 1885, 12
contained tin chloride.

[56] The average composition of over 100,000 samples of raw cane sugar
(mostly Cuban) tested in the United States Laboratory during the past
five years, has been as follows:--

                Per cent.
  Moisture        3·0
  Ash             1·5
  Polarisation    90°


[57] The foregoing description of the polariscope was embodied in
an article contributed by the author to Van Nostrand’s Engineering
Magazine.

[58] Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc., i. p. 1.

[59] Wiley, Chem. News, xlvi. p. 175.



HONEY.


Honey consists of the saccharine substance collected by the bee (_Apis
mellifica_) from the nectaries of flowers, and deposited by them in
the cells of the comb. “Virgin honey” is the product of hives that
have not previously swarmed, which is allowed to drain from the comb;
the inferior varieties being obtained by the application of heat and
pressure. As a result of the peculiar conditions of its formation,
honey constitutes a rather complex mixture of several bodies; indeed,
its exact composition is a matter of some doubt. The chief ingredients
are levulose and dextrose, accompanied by a small amount of cane sugar,
and inconsiderable proportions of pollen, wax, and mineral matter.
According to Dubrunfaut and Soubeiran,[60] genuine honey contains an
excess of levulose mixed with dextrose and some cane sugar. In the
course of time the latter is gradually converted into invert sugar, and
a crystalline deposit of dextrose forms, the levulose remaining fluid.

The following analyses made by J. C. Brown[61] and E. Sieben,[62] show
the general composition of pure honey:--

  ------------------------+----------------+----------------
                          | J. C. Brown.   |  E. Sieben.
  ------------------------+----------------+----------------
  Dextrose                | 31·77 to 42·02 | 22·23 to 44·71
  Levulose                | 33·56 „  40·43 | 32·15 „  46·89
  Total glucoses          | 68·40 „  79·72 | 67·92 „  79·57
  Sucrose                 |       ..       |  none „   8·22
  Wax, pollen and insol   | trace to  2·10 |       ..
  Ash                     |  0·07 „   0·26 |       ..
  Water at 100°           | 15·50 „  19·80 | 16·28 to 24·95
  Undetermined            |  4·95 „  11·00 |  1·29 „   8·82
  ------------------------+----------------+----------------

Barth has examined several varieties of genuine honey with the
following results:--

  -----------------------------------+----------+-----------+-----------
                                     | Per cent.| Per cent. | Per cent.
  -----------------------------------+----------+-----------+-----------
  Water                              |   13·60  |   15·60   |   11·06
  Dry substance                      |   86·40  |   84·40   |   88·94
  Ash                                |    0·28  |    0·24   |    0·90
  Polarisation of 10 per  }Direct    |   -4·6°  |     -5°   |    +11°
   cent. solution (in 200 }After     |          |           |
   millimetre tube)       } inversion|    ..    |   -7·5°   |     +4°
        {Original substance          |   69·60  |   72·0    |   60·0
  Sugar {After inversion             |   69·50  |   77·0    |   74·6
  Organic matter, not sugar          |   16·52  |    7·16   |   13·44
  -----------------------------------+----------+-----------+-----------

W. Bishop[63] obtained the following figures from the examination of
honey of known purity:--

  -----------------------------+-----------+-------+---------+---------
                               |Hungarian. |Chili. |Italian. |Normandy.
  -----------------------------+-----------+-------+---------+---------
  Reducing sugar               |   67·17   | 73·05 |  70·37  |  79·39
  Crystallised sugar           |    7·58   |  4·55 |   5·77  |   0·
  Direct polarisation          |  -13·70   |-14·15 |  -8·55  |  -9·25
  Polarisation after inversion |  -15·40   |-14·85 |  -12·0  |   ..
  -----------------------------+-----------+-------+---------+---------

The substances said to be employed in the adulteration of honey are
water, starch, cane sugar, and glucose-syrup; the last mentioned is
undoubtedly most commonly used. Hager[64] states that, by treating
corn starch with oxalic acid, a product is obtained which, on standing
two or three weeks, acquires the appearance and taste of genuine
honey; and samples of commercial honey not unfrequently wholly consist
of this or some other form of artificial glucose. The season for
the collection of honey by bees is a limited one, and any existing
deficiency in their natural source of supply is sometimes remedied by
placing vessels filled with glucose near the hives. Occasionally the
bees are also supplied with a ready-made comb, consisting, at least
partially, of paraffine. It has been asserted that in some instances,
this factitious comb is entirely composed of paraffine, but the writer
is informed that, if the sophistication is practised to a proportion
of over 10 per cent., the bees do not readily deposit the honey in the
comb.

Owing to the complex composition of honey and to the rather incomplete
character of the analyses of the genuine article at hand, the detection
of some of the forms of adulteration resorted to is a matter of
considerable difficulty. The presence of starch is best recognised by
the microscopic examination of the honey. This will likewise reveal the
absence of pollen, which may be regarded as a certain indication of
the spurious nature of the sample. There appears to exist a difference
of opinion in regard to the presence of cane sugar in genuine honey,
but it may safely be accepted that the detection of a considerable
proportion of this substance points to its artificial addition. In
all cases of suspected adulteration with cane sugar or glucose, the
determination of the sugar present by means of the polariscope and by
Fehling’s method (both before and after inversion) is indispensable. It
is commonly stated that unsophisticated honey polarises to the left,
and that a sample possessing a dextro-rotary action is necessarily
contaminated with glucose or cane sugar; but, while in the great
majority of cases this is doubtless the fact, it is equally certain
that honey of known purity has been met with which polarised to
the right. Upon the inversion of honey containing cane sugar, the
dextro-rotation is changed to a levo-rotation.

According to Lenz,[65] the specific gravity (at 17°) of a solution
of 30 grammes of pure honey in exactly twice the quantity of
distilled water is never less than 1·1110, a lower density indicating
adulteration with water. Hehner[66] states that the ash of genuine
honey is always alkaline, whereas that of artificial glucose is
invariably neutral. The proportion of phosphoric acid present in honey
varies from 0•·013 to 0•·035 per cent., which is considerably less
than the proportion contained in starch sugars. Honey contaminated with
starch sugar will generally show about 0·•10 per cent. of phosphoric
acid, and artificial honey, made from cane sugar, will usually be free
from the acid.

The addition of commercial glucose may often be detected by the
turbidity produced upon adding ammonium oxalate to a filtered aqueous
solution of the sample; this is due to the presence of calcium
sulphate, a common impurity in the commercial varieties of glucose.
If the glucose employed for admixture contains much dextrine, as is
very often the case, this fact can be utilised in its detection as
follows:--2 c.c. of a 25 per cent. solution of the honey are introduced
into a narrow glass cylinder, and 0·•5 c.c. of absolute alcohol is
cautiously added; with pure honey, the point of contact of the liquids
will remain clear or become so upon allowing the mixture to stand at
rest, whereas in presence of artificial glucose a milky turbidity will
appear between the two strata. Genuine honey may, it is true, contain
a small proportion of dextrine and exhibit a slight cloudiness when
treated with alcohol, but the difference in the degree of turbidity
caused is very considerable, and sufficient to render the test of
service.

The test may also be applied by dissolving 20 grammes of the suspected
honey in 60 c.c. of distilled water and then adding an excess of
alcohol. Under these circumstances pure honey merely becomes milky,
while, if commercial glucose is present, a white precipitate of
dextrine is formed, which can be collected and weighed. If the sugar in
the sample is determined by Fehling’s solution, both before and after
inversion with a little sulphuric acid, and an estimation of the amount
of dextrine present is made by precipitation with alcohol, it often
occurs that the quantity of the latter substance is proportional to the
difference between the amount of sugar found.

According to the late investigations of Sieben,[67] fairly
satisfactory methods for the detection and determination of glucose
syrup in honey are based upon the following facts:--

1st. When genuine honey undergoes fermentation, the substances which
remain undecomposed, are optically inactive. Glucose, or starch syrup,
on the other hand, leaves a considerable amount of dextrine, which
is strongly dextrogyrate. The test is made by dissolving 25 grammes
of honey in about 160 c.c. of water, and adding 12 grammes of yeast
(free from starch). The mixture is allowed to ferment at a moderate
temperature for two or three days, after which aluminium hydroxide is
added, and the liquid made up to 250 c.c. and then filtered. 200 c.c.
of the filtrate are evaporated to a volume of 50 c.c., and a 200 mm.
tube is then filled with the concentrated solution and examined by the
polariscope.

2nd. The substances remaining unaffected by the fermentation of pure
honey are not converted into a reducing sugar by boiling with dilute
hydrochloric acid, as is the case with those obtained from starch syrup
under the same circumstances. 25 c.c. of the solution employed for the
polarisation test, as just described, are diluted with an equal volume
of water, 5 c.c. of strong hydrochloric acid added, and the mixture
is placed in a flask and heated for an hour over the water-bath. The
contents of the flask are neutralised with potassium hydroxide, then
diluted to a volume of 100 c.c., and the proportion of reducing sugar
estimated in 25 c.c. of the solution. Honey containing different
proportions of starch sugar gave the following percentages of reducing
sugar:--

  Starch-Sugar Present. | Reducing Sugar Obtained.
        per cent.       |        per cent.
           5            |          1·472
          10            |          3·240
          20            |          6·392
          40            |          8·854

3rd. If the cane sugar originally present in genuine honey has been
changed into invert sugar, and the honey solution is boiled with a
slight excess of Fehling’s reagent, no substances capable of yielding
sugar when treated with acids will remain undecomposed. Starch syrup,
when subjected to this treatment, yields grape sugar in about the
proportion of 40 parts to every 100 parts of the syrup used. The test
is applied as follows:--14 grammes of honey are dissolved in 450 c.c.
of water, and the solution is heated over the steam-bath with 20 c.c.
of semi-normal acid, in order to invert the cane sugar present. After
heating for half an hour, the solution is neutralised, and its volume
made up to 500 c.c. 100 c.c. of Fehling’s solution are then titrated
with this solution, which may contain about 2 per cent. of invert
sugar (in case the sample examined is pure, from 23 to 26 c.c. will
be required); 100 c.c. of Fehling’s reagent are next boiled with 0·5
c.c. less of the honey solution than was found to be necessary to
completely reduce the copper. The reduced liquid is then passed through
an asbestos filter, the residue washed with hot water, the filtrate
treated with a slight excess of concentrated hydrochloric acid, and the
solution heated for one hour on the steam-bath. Sodium hydroxide is
now added, until only a very little free acid remains unneutralised,
and the solution is made up to 200 c.c. Upon well shaking the cooled
liquid, a deposit of tartar sometimes separates. 150 c.c. of the
filtered solution are finally boiled with a mixture of 120 c.c. of
Fehling’s reagent and 20 c.c. of water, and the proportion of grape
sugar estimated from the amount of metallic copper obtained. (See p.
111.) When pure honey is submitted to the preceding process, the copper
found will not exceed 2 milligrammes. The quantities of copper obtained
when honey adulterated with various proportions of starch sugar was
tested were about as follows:--

    Starch Sugar | Milligrammes of
     contained.  |  Copper found.
     per cent.   |
       10        |       40
       20        |       90
       30        |      140
       40        |      195
       50        |      250
       60        |      330
       70        |      410
       80        |      500

    --------------------------------+-----------------------------------
                                    |Dextrose.
                                    |      +----------------------------
                                    |      |Levulose.
                                    |      |      +---------------------
                                    |      |      |Invert Sugar,
         Character of Samples.      |      |      | by Fehling’s Method.
                                    |      |      |       +-------------
                                    |      |      |       |Cane Sugar.
                                    |      |      |       |      +------
                                    |      |      |       |      |Total
                                    |      |      |       |      |Sugar.
    --------------------------------+------+------+-------+------+------
                                    | per  | per  |  per  |  per | per
                                    |cent. |cent. | cent. | cent.| cent.
    Adulterated with cane sugar     | ..   | ..   | 56·39 | 19·45| 76·84
         „       „    „    „  and   |      |      |       |      |
                     water          |25·63 |25·42 | 51·06 | 10·62| 61·67
         „       „ 15 per cent.     |      |      |       |      |
                       glucose syrup|37·20 |31·80 | 69·18 |  ..  | 69·00
         „       „ 65 per cent.     |      |      |       |      |
                       glucose syrup|21·75 |19·60 | 41·30 |  ..  | 41·35
         „       „ 40 per cent.     |      |      |       |      |
                       glucose syrup|34·61 |23·89 | 58·83 |  ..  | 58·50
         „       „ 40 per cent.     |      |      |       |      |
                       glucose syrup|      |      |       |      |
                       and with cane|      |      |       |      |
                       sugar.       |25·47 |23·51 | 49·04 |  7·06| 56·04
         „       „ 80 per cent.     |      |      |       |      |
                       glucose syrup|21·92 |12·83 | 35·00 |  ..  | 34·75
    --------------------------------+------+------+-------+-------------

    --------------------------------+-------------------------
                                    |Water.
                                    |      +------------------
         Character of Samples.      |      |Dry Substance.
                                    |      |      +-----------
                                    |      |      | Not Sugar.
    --------------------------------+------+------+-----------
                                    | per  | per  | per
                                    |cent. |cent. |cent.
    Adulterated with cane sugar     |20·85 |79·15 | 2·31
         „       „    „    „  and   |      |      |
                     water          |36·48 |63·52 | 1·85
         „       „ 15 per cent.     |      |      |
                       glucose syrup|18·54 |81·46 |12·46
         „       „ 65 per cent.     |      |      |
                       glucose syrup|18·65 |81·35 |40·00
         „       „ 40 per cent.     |      |      |
                       glucose syrup|17·81 |82·19 |23·69
         „       „ 40 per cent.     |      |      |
                       glucose syrup|      |      |
                       and with cane|      |      |
                       sugar.       |19·94 |80·06 |24·02
         „       „ 80 per cent.     |      |      |
                       glucose syrup|18·12 |81·88 |57·13
    --------------------------------+------+------+-----------

    --------------------------------+--------+----------------------------
                                    |Polarisation after Fermentation.
                                    |        +----------------------------
                                    |   I    |Residue of Fermentation when
                                    |        |treated with acid gave Grape
         Character of Samples.      |        | Sugar.
                                    |        |         +------------------
                                    |        |         |Milligrammes of
                                    |        |         |Copper found by
                                    |        |         |Method 3.
    --------------------------------+--------+---------+------------------
                                    |degrees.|per cent.| mgr.
    Adulterated with cane sugar     |  0·0   |   0·0   |   0
         „       „    „    „  and   |        |         |
                     water          |  0·0   |   0·0   |   0
         „       „ 15 per cent.     |        |         |
                       glucose syrup| × 4·4  |   4·2   |  66
         „       „ 65 per cent.     |        |         |
                       glucose syrup| × 25   |  12·4   | 366
         „       „ 40 per cent.     |        |         |
                       glucose syrup| × 13   |   7·6   | 196
         „       „ 40 per cent.     |        |         |
                       glucose syrup|        |         |
                       and with cane|        |         |
                       sugar.       |        |         |
         „       „ 80 per cent.     |        |         |
                       glucose syrup| × 34   |  15·2   | 492
    -----------------------------------------+---------+------------------

The tabulation on p. 127 exhibits the results obtained by the
application of the foregoing tests to adulterated honey.[68]

The detection of paraffine in honeycomb is easily accomplished. Genuine
bees’-wax fuses at 64°, paraffine usually at a lower temperature.
The latter is not affected by treatment with concentrated sulphuric
acid, whereas bees’-wax is dissolved by the strong acid, and undergoes
carbonisation upon the application of heat. The amount of potassium
hydroxide required for the saponification of one gramme of bees’-wax,
as applied in Koettstorfer’s method for butter analysis (p. 71), widely
differs from the quantities consumed by Japanese wax and paraffine. Mr.
Edward W. Martin has obtained the following figures:--

               Milligrammes K (O H) required
                 to saponify one gramme.
  Bees’-wax              7·0
  Japanese wax         212·95
  Paraffine             none

18 out of 37 samples of strained and comb honey, examined in 1885 by
the Mass. State Board of Health, were adulterated with glucose and
ordinary syrup.

FOOTNOTES:

[60] ‘Comptes Rendus,’ xxviii. p. 775.

[61] ‘Analyst,’ iii. p. 269.

[62] Zeits. Anal. Chem., xxiv. p. 135.

[63] Journ. de Pharm. et de Chem., 1884, p. 459.

[64] Pharm. Centralb. 1885, pp. 303, 327.

[65] ‘Chemiker Zeitung,’ viii., p. 613.

[66] ‘Analyst,’ x., p. 217.

[67] Zeitsch. d. Vereins. f. d. Rübenzucker Ind., p. 837.

[68] ‘Jahresberichte,’ 1884, p. 1051.



CONFECTIONERY.


Pure white candy should consist entirely of cane sugar with its water
of crystallisation, but most of the article commonly met with contains
a large proportion of glucose, and in many cases it is wholly composed
of this compound (see p. 109). Starch and terra alba (_i. e._ gypsum or
kaolin), are the other adulterants sometimes employed to fraudulently
increase the bulk and weight of candy.

The substances used for colouring purposes are more liable to be
positively deleterious. While such colouring agents as caramel,
turmeric, litmus, saffron, beet-juice, indigo, and some of the coal-tar
dyes may be considered comparatively harmless, there can be no question
in regard to the very objectionable character of certain other pigments
which are sometimes employed: these are mainly inorganic, and include
plumbic chromate, salts of copper and arsenic, zinc-white, barium
sulphate and Prussian blue. Another occasional form of adulteration
to which some kinds of confectionery are exposed, is the admixture of
artificial flavourings, such as “pear essence” (amylic and ethylic
acetates), “banana essence” (a mixture of amylic acetate and ethylic
butyrate), and oil of bitter almonds, or its imitation, nitro-benzole.
A preparation known as “rock and rye drops,” which had acquired a great
popularity among school children in several of our large cities, proved
upon analysis to consist of a mixture of glucose, flour, and fusel oil.

The examination of candy and other forms of confectionery usually
embraces the determinations of glucose, starch, flour, colouring and
flavouring agents, terra alba, and mineral admixtures generally. The
detection and estimation of glucose has already been described under
Sugar.

Starch and flour are readily detected upon treating a minute portion of
the suspected candy with a little water and submitting the mixture to a
microscopic examination, when, in their presence, the insoluble residue
will exhibit the characteristic forms of starch granules. The insoluble
portion of the sample may also be tested with a solution of iodine. The
proportion of starch can be determined by boiling the matter insoluble
in water with dilute sulphuric acid, and estimating the amount of
glucose found, by means of Fehling’s solution.

Coal-tar and vegetable compounds used for colouring purposes, can
often, be recognised by means of their behaviour with reducing and
oxidising agents, by their solubility in spirits and other menstrua,
and by the application of dyeing-tests. Thus vegetable colours may
sometimes be identified upon boiling mordanted cotton yarn in a bath
prepared from a portion of the sample containing the colouring matter,
and slightly acidulated with acetic acid. This process will likewise
generally reveal the presence of aniline dyes, unmordanted woollen
cloth being substituted for cotton, and a neutral bath being employed.
The inorganic pigments used for colouring candy are usually to be
sought for in the ash obtained upon incineration.

The presence of copper and lead is detected by the formation of
black precipitates upon saturating with sulphuretted hydrogen the
solution of the ash in hydrochloric acid; zinc, chromium, etc., are
precipitated from the filtered solution upon addition of ammonium
hydroxide and ammonium sulphide. It is frequently more convenient to
apply special tests for the particular metal thought to be present,
either directly to the pigment or to the ash. In this way, arsenic can
often be recognised by treating a portion of the colouring matter in a
test-tube, when it will sublime and collect upon the cool part of the
tube in minute crystals of arsenious acid. Or, an acidulated solution
of the detached pigments may be boiled with a piece of polished
copper-foil, upon which the arsenic will be deposited as a greyish
film: this can be sublimed, and otherwise further examined.

Copper is easily detected and estimated by placing the acid solution
of the ash in a tared platinum dish, and reducing the copper by the
electrolytic method. Chromium is recognised upon boiling the colouring
matter with potassium carbonate solution: in its presence, potassium
chromate is formed, which is submitted to the usual distinctive tests
for chromium. The colour of Prussian blue is destroyed upon warming
it with caustic alkalies: indigo, which remains unaffected by this
treatment, forms a blue solution if heated with concentrated sulphuric
acid. The presence of terra alba, barium sulphate, etc., is best
detected by the examination of the ash. Chalk, or marble-dust, is
recognised by its effervescence when treated with an acid, as well as
by the presence of a notable proportion of lime in the ash.

Many of the flavouring mixtures added to candy may be separated
by treating the sample with chloroform or petroleum naphtha and
evaporating the solution to dryness over a water-bath, when their
identity is frequently revealed by their odour and other physical
properties. Of 198 samples of the cheaper varieties of confectionery
examined by Health officials in the United States, 115 were
adulterated. Plumbic chromate is a very common addition; 41 out of 48
samples of yellow- and orange-coloured candy contained this poisonous
pigment.



BEER.


The name beer is most commonly applied to a fermented infusion of
malted barley, flavoured with hops. Its manufacture embraces two
distinct operations, _viz._, malting and brewing. Briefly considered,
the former process consists in first steeping barley (the seed of
_Hordeum distichon_) in water and allowing it to germinate by arranging
it in layers or heaps which are subsequently spread out and repeatedly
turned over, the germination being thereby retarded; it is afterwards
entirely checked by drying the grain (now known as _malt_) in cylinders
or kilns.

The degree of temperature employed in drying and roasting the barley
determines the colour and commercial character of the malt, which may
be pale, amber, brown or black. In the United States the light-coloured
varieties of malt are chiefly made. An important change which takes
place during the malting of barley is the conversion of its albuminous
constituents into a peculiar ferment, termed _diastase_, which,
although its proportion in malt does not exceed 0·003 per cent., exerts
a very energetic action in transforming starch, first into dextrine,
then into sugar (maltose). The following analyses, by Proust, exhibit
the general composition of unmalted and malted barley:--

  ----+---------------------+---------------+-------------+----
      |                     |    Barley.    |    Malt.    |
      |                     +---------------+-------------+
      |  Hordeine           |      55       |     12      |
      |  Starch             |      32       |     56      |
      |  Gluten             |       3       |      1      |
      |  Sugar              |       5       |     15      |
      |  Mucilage           |       4       |     15      |
      |  Resin              |       1       |      1      |
      |                     |     ---       |    ---      |
      |                     |     100       |    100      |
  ----+---------------------+---------------+-------------+----

The body termed hordeine is generally considered to be an allotropic
modification of starch.

In the brewing of beer, the malted grain is crushed by means of iron
rollers, and then introduced into the mash-tubs and digested with
water at a temperature of about 75°, whereby the conversion of the
starch into dextrine and sugar is effected. After standing for a few
hours, the clear infusion, or _wort_, is drawn off and boiled with hops
(the female flower of _Humulus lupulus_), after which it is rapidly
cooled, and then placed in capacious vats where it is mixed with
yeast and allowed to undergo the process of fermentation for several
days, during which the formation of fresh quantities of yeast and a
partial decomposition of the sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid take
place. The beer is next separated from the yeast and transferred into
clearing-vats, and, later on, into storage casks, where it undergoes
a slow after-fermentation, at the completion of which it is ready for
consumption. The quality of the water used in the process of mashing
and brewing is of great importance, and it is of special moment that it
should be free from all organic contaminations. The presence of certain
mineral ingredients, notably of calcium sulphate, is believed to exert
a beneficial effect on the character of the beer obtained.

In the United States, the best known varieties of malt liquors are
ale, porter, and lager beer. The difference between ale and porter is
mainly due to the quality of the malt used in their manufacture. Ale
is made from pale malt, porter or stout from a mixture of the darker
coloured malts, the method of fermentation employed being in both cases
that known as the “superficial” (_obergährung_), which takes place at
a higher temperature and is of shorter duration than the “sedimentary”
(_untergährung_). The latter form of fermentation, which is used in the
preparation of Bavarian or lager beer, occurs at a temperature of about
8°, and requires more time for its completion, during which the beer
is, or should be, preserved in cool cellars for several months before
it is fit for use; hence the common American name of this kind of beer,
from _lager_, a storehouse. There are three varieties of Bavarian beer,
“lager beer” proper, or the summer beer, which has been stored for
about five months; “_schenk_,” or winter beer, which is fit for use in
several weeks; and “_bock_” beer, which possesses more strength than
the former, and is made in comparatively small quantities in the spring
of the year. A mild kind of malt liquor, known as “_weiss_” beer, and
prepared by a quick process of fermentation, is less frequently met
with.

The first brewery in America is said to have been founded in New
York in the year 1644, by Jacobus, who afterwards became the first
burgomaster of the city, then New Amsterdam. Subsequently, William
Penn established a brewery in Bucks Co., Pa., and a century later,
General Putnam engaged in the manufacture of beer in the State of
Connecticut. The brewing of lager beer in the United States began to
assume prominence about thirty-five years ago. It is estimated that, at
the present time, over 2000 breweries are devoted to the preparation
of this form of malt liquor, with an invested capital of at least 60
millions of dollars, the annual production exceeding 15 millions of
barrels.[69] The industry is chiefly carried on in New York, Brooklyn,
Philadelphia, Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Cincinnati.

The composition of beer naturally varies according to the kind of
grain from which it is made and the process of fermentation employed.
The chief ingredients are alcohol, carbonic acid, sugar (maltose),
dextrine, the oil and bitter principle of hops (lupuline), albuminoids,
lactic, acetic, succinic and propionic acids, inorganic salts, and
traces of glycerine. The term “extract” is applied to the non-volatile
constituents, which include the sugar, dextrine, albuminoids, ash, etc.
The foregoing table, collated from the analyses of various chemists,
gives the general composition of some of the best known brands of malt
liquor, as well as the minimum and maximum proportions that have been
found.

  --------------+-------------------------------------------------------
                |Specific Gravity.
                |      +------------------------------------------------
                |      |Carbonic Acid.
                |      |     +------------------------------------------
                |      |     |Alcohol (by weight).
                |      |     |    +-------------------------------------
                |      |     |    |Extract.
                |      |     |    |     +-------------------------------
                |      |     |    |     |Albuminoids.
     Variety.   |      |     |    |     |    +--------------------------
                |      |     |    |     |    |Sugar.
                |      |     |    |     |    |    +---------------------
                |      |     |    |     |    |    | Dextrine.
                |      |     |    |     |    |    |    +----------------
                |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |Phosphoric Acid.
                |      |     |    |     |    |    |    +----------+
                |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |Acid.     |
                |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |    +-----+
                |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |    |Ash. |
  --------------+------+-----+----+-----+----+----+----+----+-----+-----
                |      |p.c. |p.c.|p.c. |p.c.|p.c.|p.c.|p.c.|p.c. |p.c.
  Porter        |1·0207|0·16 | 5·4| 6·0 |0·83| .. |7·72|0·24|0·40 | ..
  Scotch ale    |  ..  |0·15 | 8·5|10·9 |0·77|0·34|2·50|0·19| ..  | ..
  Burton ale    |1·0106| ..  | 5·9|14·5 |0·57| .. |3·64|0·32| ..  | ..
  Munich        |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |    |     |
      (Salvator)|1·0129|0·18 | 4·6| 9·4 |0·67| .. | .. | .. | ..  | ..
    „ (Bock)    |1·0118|0·17 | 4·2| 9·2 | .. |0·80| .. | .. |0·22 |0·024
    „ (Schenk)  |  ..  | ..  | 3·8| 5·8 | .. | .. |6·17|0·14| ..  | ..
    „ (Lager)   |1·0110|0·15 | 5·1| 5·0 |0·83|0·35| .. |0·20|0·21 | ..
  Berlin        |  ..  | ..  | 3·1| 5·8 | .. | .. | .. | .. |0·21 | ..
    „ (Tivoli)  |  ..  | ..  |4·35| 5·14| .. | .. | .. |0·23|0·19 | ..
  Erlanger      |  ..  | ..  |4·56| 4·81| .. |0·40|1·44| .. |0·48 | ..
  Thüringer     |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |    |     |
    (common)    |  ..  | ..  |2·00|  .. | .. |0·31|7·71| .. | ..  | ..
  Culmbacher    |1·0228| ..  |4·00| 7·38|0·53| .. | .. |0·16| ..  | ..
  American      |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |    |     |
    lager,      |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |    |     |
    average 19  |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |    |     |
    samples     |1·0162| ..  |2·78| 6·05| .. |1·52| .. |0·19|0·305|0·105
  American ale  |1·0150| ..  |4·69| 6·50|0·74|4·96| .. | .. |0·253|0·080
  American      |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |    |     |
    lager, 474  |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |    |     |
    samples     |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |    |     |
      maximum   |1·0370| ..  |8·99| 9·54| .. | .. | .. | .. |0·46 |0·166
      minimum   |0·999 | ..  |0·68| 1·28| .. | .. | .. | .. |0·10 |0·028
  According to  |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |    |     |
    König       |      |     |    |     |    |    |    |    |     |
      maximum   |1·034 |0·500| 7·3|11·24|1·98|2·45|7·85|0·40|0·48 |0·09
      minimum   |1·0100|0·100|1·00| 2·60|0·02|0·10|1·46|0·08|0·14 |0·02
  --------------+------+-----+----+-----+----+----+----+----+-----+-----

The composition of beer ash is evidently affected by the character of
the water used in the brewing process. Blyth gives the following as the
average composition of the ash of English beers:--

                     Per cent.
  Potash               37·22
  Soda                  8·04
  Lime                  1·93
  Magnesia              5·51
  Ferric oxide        traces
  Sulphuric acid        1·44
  Phosphoric acid      32·09
  Chlorine              2·91
  Silica               10·82

The following results were obtained by the writer from the analysis of
the ash of American lager beer of fair quality:--

                             Per cent.
  Silica                        9·97
  Alumina and ferric oxide      0·46
  Lime                          3·55
  Magnesia                      7·27
  Soda                         13·81
  Potassa                      19·59
  Sulphuric acid                3·25
  Chlorine                      4·40
  Phosphoric acid              37·70
                              ------
                              100·00

  Percentage of ash            0·274

Strictly speaking, normal beer consists solely of the product of malt
and hops, and the presence of any ingredients other than these should
be regarded as an adulteration. It is maintained by brewers, and
with justice, that the term “malt” is not necessarily restricted to
barley, but includes other varieties of malted grain, such as wheat,
corn, and rice. The old English law, while permitting the addition
of wholesome bitters, prohibits the use of various other substances,
but in the United States, no legal definition of pure beer has, as
yet, been formulated, and the necessity for such a measure is being
experienced.[70] The past literature of beer adulteration makes mention
of very numerous substances which, in former times, have been resorted
to as admixtures. Among these the following are the most prominent:--

1st. _Artificial bitters._--Picric acid, picrotoxine, aloes, gentian,
quassia, and wormwood. Several years ago the author had occasion to
examine two samples, imported under the name of “hop substitutes,” both
of which proved to consist of _salicine_, the bitter principle of the
willow. The fruit of the hop tree (_Ptelea trifoliata_), has also been
employed as an artificial bitter for beer.

2nd. _Flavourings._--For flavouring purposes, cayenne pepper, “grains
of paradise,” cloves, orris root, coriander seeds, the oils of anise,
nutmegs, and carraway, are stated to have been used.

3rd. _Malt substitutes._--These mainly consist of corn, rice, and
glucose.

A substitute for malt, of rather recent origin, and commercially known
as “cerealine,” is prepared by subjecting hulled and coarsely ground
Indian corn to the action of steam, the product being subsequently
pulverised by means of hot rollers. It is said to have the following
average composition:--

  Water                                       9·98
  Insoluble starch                           61·43
  Soluble starch, dextrine, and maltose      17·79
  Albuminoids                                 9·07
  Oil                                         1·22
  Cellulose                                   0·23
  Mineral matter                              0·28

In addition to the foregoing, several chemical compounds, such as
ammonium carbonate, tartaric acid, alkaline phosphates, boric and
salicylic acids and glycerine are, or at least have been, employed
as accessories in the manufacture of beer. From the investigations
of the New York State Board of Health, it appears that the present
adulteration of American beer--more especially of “lager beer”--is
limited, so far as the brewer is concerned, to the use of various
substitutes for malt, the addition of salt, and of sodium bicarbonate.

The proportion of diastase obtained by the germination of barley, or
other cereals, is largely in excess of the amount required to convert
into sugar the starch actually present in the grain treated; hence
the brewer can add other forms of amylaceous substances, such as corn
or rice, to malted barley with decided economy, and the majority of
New York brewers employ such substitutes, usually in a proportion of
25 per cent. The brewer may likewise advantageously add glucose syrup
to the malt infusion, since, by its use, he arrives at the same end,
_i. e._ instead of obtaining all of his sugar as the result of the
malting process, he directly provides himself with the same body, at
least so far as it possesses value to him as a source of alcohol. The
question of the sanitary effects of the use of artificial glucose as an
adulterant of sugar and syrups, and as a substitute for malted grain
in the manufacture of beer, has given rise to extensive controversy.
In this regard, one fact seems to have been demonstrated. Glucose,
as it is now to be found on the market, is free from any appreciable
amount of deleterious contamination. The discovery of its artificial
production has given birth to a very important branch of industry, and,
according to all available reports, the commercial product at present
met with is for many purposes an economical and harmless substitute for
cane sugar, the chief objection to its application as such being the
fact that it possesses considerably less sweetening power.

The United States National Academy of Sciences, after having carefully
investigated the sanitary aspects of the glucose question, arrived at
the following conclusion:[71] “That, though having at best only about
two-thirds the sweetening power of cane sugar, yet starch sugar is in
no way inferior to the cane sugar in healthfulness, there being no
evidence before the committee that maize-starch sugar, either in its
normal condition or fermented, has any deleterious effect upon the
system, even when taken in large quantities.” In regard to the use
of glucose as a substitute for malt in beer-making, it is asserted
by some authorities that dietetic advantages to be derived from pure
malt will be to some extent wanting in the extractive matters of beer
manufactured partially from the artificial product. A distinction
between glucose and maltose, to the advantage of the latter, is also
made. The brewer, on the other hand, claims that sugar is sugar,
whether obtained from the malting of grain or from the conversion of
starch by the aid of acids. Regarding these bodies merely as sources of
alcohol, attempts to differentiate between them are of little service.
The superiority claimed for barley malt over its substitutes would
rather appear to be due to its greater richness in certain soluble
constituents, more especially those containing nitrogen and phosphoric
acid.[72] A proposed law to prohibit the use of all malt substitutes
has recently been rejected by the German Reichstag. In the English Beer
Adulteration Act (1886), however, it is directed that, in case beer
(ale or porter) made from other substances than hops and barley-malt is
offered for sale, the fact shall be mentioned on a prominent placard,
stating the nature of the foreign ingredients.

The addition of sodium bicarbonate is resorted to in order to increase
the effervescing power of the beverage, and, possibly in some
instances, to neutralise the acids formed by the souring of new and
hastily prepared beer.[73] One of the chief objections to which certain
inferior varieties of American lager beer are open is that they are
not allowed to “age” properly. The apparent gain to the brewer of such
beer consists in an economy of time and ice; he is also enabled to turn
over his invested capital sooner than the more scrupulous manufacturer,
who is thus placed in a disadvantageous position so far as trade
competition is concerned. It is stated that some of the beer made in
the neighbourhood of New York is sent out for consumption two weeks
after its brewing.[74] Beer of this character would be apt to contain
abnormally large proportions of dextrine, dextrose, etc., as well as
be contaminated with unchanged yeast and other products of imperfect
fermentation. It is said to be the practice to submit it to a process
of clarification by means of isinglass and cream of tartar, and then
impart additional life to the product by adding sodium bicarbonate,
which is used in the form of cartridges or pills, and in a proportion
of two ounces of the salt to the keg of beer.[75] Such a beverage
obviously possesses very little claim to the name “lager” beer. It is,
perhaps, to this reprehensible practice that many of the deleterious
effects on the digestive organs which sometimes follow the consumption
of considerable quantities of _poor grades_ of lager beer are to be
ascribed; and it is often asserted to be the fact that beer drinkers
who have daily drunk from 20 to 25 glasses of German beer with apparent
impunity, experience disagreeable results from the habitual consumption
of much smaller quantities of some varieties of American lager.

It should be remarked, in this connection, that the brewer is by no
means responsible for all of the sophistications to which beer is
exposed, as after it leaves his hands it may be watered by the retailer
as well as allowed to deteriorate in quality by careless methods of
preservation. From all procurable information, it would appear that the
only questionable features of beer brewing, as now generally carried on
in the United States, are the following:--

1st. The use of corn and other meals, and of artificial glucose as
substitutes for malted barley.

2nd. The use of sodium bicarbonate, to impart additional life to the
beer, and the occasional use of common salt.

Concerning the alleged employment of artificial bitters in beer
it should be stated, that a few years since, when a very marked
increase occurred in the price of hops, other bitter preparations
were advertised and offered for sale in the market; unfortunately,
but little authentic data can be secured in regard to the extent of
their use. At present, this form of adulteration has apparently been
discontinued. It is worthy of notice, that the addition of hops to
beer was originally considered a falsification, and was prohibited
in England by legal enactments. In regard to the manufacture and
sale of partially fermented beer, the question of the prevalence of
this practice must be regarded as undetermined. No objection exists
to the proper use of isinglass or other forms of gelatine for the
clarification of beer.

Of 476 samples of beer tested by Dr. F. E. Engelhardt, of the New York
State Board of Health, about one-quarter gave evidence of the use of
malt substitutes in their manufacture, but no sample was conclusively
shown to be adulterated with bitters other than hops.

The examination of beer properly includes an inspection of its
physical characteristics, such as taste, colour, and transparency, the
determination of the specific gravity, quantitative estimations of
the proportions of alcohol, carbonic acid, extractive matter, sugar,
organic acids, ash and phosphoric acid, and qualitative tests for the
detection of the presence of artificial substitutes for malt and hops.

When of good quality, beer exhibits a bright and transparent colour,
a faint but not disagreeable aroma, and a clean and slightly bitter
taste. It should be free from any signs of viscosity, the appearance of
which is usually an indication of the presence of unchanged yeast.

The specific gravity of beer is determined by first removing the excess
of carbonic acid by repeatedly agitating the sample in a capacious
glass flask, or by pouring it from one beaker into another several
times, and then filling a specific gravity bottle with the liquid and
allowing it to stand at rest until all air or gas bubbles have escaped;
the weight of the bottle and its contents is now taken at 15°. In order
to determine the proportion of alcohol present, 100 c.c. of the beer
are introduced in a suitable flask which is connected with a Liebig’s
condenser and subjected to distillation until about one-half of the
quantity taken has passed over. The distillate is then made up to its
original volume by the addition of water, and its density ascertained
by means of the specific gravity bottle, from which the percentage of
alcohol present (by weight and by volume) is readily obtained upon
referring to the alcoholometric table on p. 144. The frothing of beer
and the volatilisation of the free acids present are best obviated by
the addition of a little tannic acid and baryta-water to the sample
before the distillation. An indirect method for the determination
of alcohol in beer is also frequently employed. It is accomplished
by first ascertaining the density of the liquor, next removing the
alcohol present by evaporation over the water-bath, subsequently adding
sufficient water to restore the original volume and again taking
the specific gravity of the product. The density of spirit of equal
strength to the beer taken (X) is obtained by the formula, D/D´ = X,
in which D is the original gravity of the sample, and D´ the gravity
of the de-alcoholised liquor when made up to its first volume. The
following table (see p. 144) from ‘Watts’ Dictionary of Chemistry’
gives the percentages of alcohol by volume and weight, corresponding to
different densities at 15°.

The amount of carbonic acid is conveniently found by introducing 100
c.c. of the _well-cooled_ beer into a rather large flask, provided
with a delivery-tube which connects, first with a wash-bottle
containing concentrated sulphuric acid, next with a U-tube, filled
with fused calcium chloride. The latter is connected with a Liebig’s
bulb containing a solution of potassium hydroxide, then with a U-tube
containing solid potassium hydroxide, both of which have previously
been tared. The flask is heated over a water-bath until the evolution
of carbonic acid ceases, after which, the gas remaining in the
apparatus is caused to traverse the potash bulb by drawing air through
it. This is done by means of a tube attached to the flask and reaching
below the surface of the beer. At its other extremity, it is drawn
out to a fine point and connected with a small potash bulb (for the
retention of atmospheric carbonic acid), by aid of a rubber tube,
which permits of breaking the glass point before drawing air through
the apparatus. The amount of carbonic acid present in the sample is
ascertained by the increase of weight found in the larger potash bulb
and U-tube.

  ALCOHOLOMETRIC TABLE FOR BEER, ETC.

  ---------+---------+-------------------
   Volume  | Weight  |Specific Gravity.
  per cent.|per cent.|
  ---------+---------+------------------
     1·0   |   0·80  |    0·99850
     1·1   |   0·88  |    0·99835
     1·2   |   0·96  |    0·99820
     1·3   |   1·04  |    0·99805
     1·4   |   1·12  |    0·99790
     1·5   |   1·20  |    0·99775
     1·6   |   1·28  |    0·99760
     1·7   |   1·36  |    0·99745
     1·8   |   1·44  |    0·99730
     1·9   |   1·52  |    0·99715
     2·0   |   1·60  |    0·99700
     2·1   |   1·68  |    0·99686
     2·2   |   1·76  |    0·99672
     2·3   |   1·84  |    0·99658
     2·4   |   1·92  |    0·99644
     2·5   |   2·00  |    0·99630
     2·6   |   2·08  |    0·99616
     2·7   |   2·16  |    0·99602
     2·8   |   2·24  |    0·99588
     2·9   |   2·32  |    0·99574
     3·0   |   2·40  |    0·99560
     3·1   |   2·48  |    0·99546
     3·2   |   2·56  |    0·99532
     3·3   |   2·64  |    0·99518
     3·4   |   2·72  |    0·99504
     3·5   |   2·80  |    0·99490
     3·6   |   2·88  |    0·99476
     3·7   |   2·96  |    0·99462
     3·8   |   3·04  |    0·99448
     3·9   |   3·12  |    0·99434
     4·0   |   3·20  |    0·99420
     4·1   |   3·28  |    0·99406
     4·2   |   3·36  |    0·99392
     4·3   |   3·44  |    0·99378
     4·4   |   3·52  |    0·99364
     4·5   |   3·60  |    0·99350
     4·6   |   3·68  |    0·99336
     4·7   |   3·76  |    0·99322
     4·8   |   3·84  |    0·99308
     4·9   |   3·92  |    0·99294
     5·0   |   4·00  |    0·99280
     5·1   |   4·08  |    0·99267
     5·2   |   4·16  |    0·99254
     5·3   |   4·24  |    0·99241
     5·4   |   4·32  |    0·99228
     5·5   |   4·40  |    0·99215
     5·6   |   4·48  |    0·99202
     5·7   |   4·56  |    0·99189
     5·8   |   4·64  |    0·99176
     5·9   |   4·72  |    0·99163
     6·0   |   4·81  |    0·99150
     6·1   |   4·89  |    0·99137
     6·2   |   4·97  |    0·99124
     6·3   |   5·05  |    0·99111
     6·4   |   5·13  |    0·99098
     6·5   |   5·21  |    0·99085
     6·6   |   5·30  |    0·99072
     6·7   |   5·38  |    0·99059
     6·8   |   5·46  |    0·99046
     6·9   |   5·54  |    0·99033
     7·0   |   5·62  |    0·99020
     7·1   |   5·70  |    0·99008
     7·2   |   5·78  |    0·98996
     7·3   |   5·86  |    0·98984
     7·4   |   5·94  |    0·98972
     7·5   |   6·02  |    0·98960
     7·6   |   6·11  |    0·98949
     7·7   |   6·19  |    0·98936
     7·8   |   6·27  |    0·98924
     7·9   |   6·35  |    0·98912
     8·0   |   6·43  |    0·98900
  ---------+---------+------------------

The proportion of malt extract in beer can be directly determined by
the evaporation of 5 or 10 c.c. of the sample in a capacious platinum
dish over the water-bath and drying the residue until constant weight
is obtained.[76] It should be allowed to cool under a bell-jar over
calcium chloride, before weighing. Usually the estimation is made
by an indirect process, which consists in removing the alcohol by
evaporation, bringing the liquid up to its original volume by the
addition of water, and then taking its specific gravity and determining
the percentage of malt extract by means of the following table:--

  SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND STRENGTH OF MALT EXTRACT.

  ----------+-------------
   Specific |  Per Cent.
   Gravity. |Malt Extract.
  ----------+-------------
    1·000   |    0·000
    1·001   |    0·250
    1·002   |    0·500
    1·003   |    0·750
    1·004   |    1·000
    1·005   |    1·250
    1·006   |    1·500
    1·007   |    1·750
    1·008   |    2·000
    1·009   |    2·250
    1·010   |    2·500
    1·011   |    2·750
    1·012   |    3·000
    1·013   |    3·250
    1·014   |    3·500
    1·015   |    3·750
    1·016   |    4·000
    1·017   |    4·250
    1·018   |    4·500
    1·019   |    4·750
    1·020   |    5·000
    1·021   |    5·250
    1·022   |    5·500
    1·023   |    5·750
    1·024   |    6·000
    1·025   |    6·244
    1·026   |    6·488
    1·027   |    6·731
    1·028   |    6·975
    1·029   |    7·219
    1·030   |    7·463
    1·031   |    7·706
    1·032   |    7·950
    1·033   |    8·195
    1·034   |    8·438
    1·035   |    8·681
    1·036   |    8·925
    1·037   |    9·170
    1·038   |    9·413
    1·039   |    9·657
    1·040   |    9·901
    1·041   |   10·142
    1·042   |   10·381
    1·043   |   10·619
    1·044   |   10·857
    1·045   |   11·095
    1·046   |   11·333
    1·047   |   11·595
    1·048   |   11·809
    1·049   |   12·047
    1·050   |   12·285
    1·051   |   12·523
    1·052   |   12·761
    1·053   |   13·000
    1·054   |   13·238
    1·055   |   13·476
    1·056   |   13·714
    1·057   |   13·952
    1·058   |   14·190
    1·059   |   14·428
    1·060   |   14·666
    1·061   |   14·904
    1·062   |   15·139
    1·063   |   15·371
    1·064   |   15·604
    1·065   |   15·837
    1·066   |   16·070
    1·067   |   16·302
    1·068   |   16·534
    1·069   |   16·767
    1·070   |   17·000
  ----------+-------------

The sugar contained in beer is best determined by by taking 50 c.c.
of the sample, adding 10 c.c. of plumbic basic acetate solution, and
making the volume of the mixture up to 300 c.c. with distilled water.
After standing for some time the solution is passed through a dry
filter. It is then examined by cautiously adding it from a burette to
10 c.c. of Fehling’s solution (diluted with 40 c.c. of distilled water
and brought to the boiling-point), until the blue colour of the latter
disappears (see p. 111). It should be borne in mind that, while 10
c.c. of Fehling’s solution are reduced by 0·05 gramme of glucose, it
requires 0·075 gramme of maltose to effect the same reduction.

In order to estimate the dextrine, 10 c.c. of the beer are reduced by
evaporation to about 4 c.c., and heated with 1 c.c. of dilute sulphuric
acid to 110° by means of an oil-bath in a strong hermetically closed
glass tube for five hours. At the completion of this operation the
solution is neutralised with sodium hydroxide, diluted, and the total
glucose determined by Fehling’s reagent, as just described. The glucose
due to the conversion of the dextrine is found by deducting the amount
of maltose (expressed in terms of glucose) previously obtained from the
total glucose; 10 parts of glucose represent 9 parts of dextrine.

The organic acids (acetic and lactic) are estimated as follows:--(_a_)
_Acetic acid_, by distilling 100 c.c. of the sample almost to
dryness, and titrating the distillate with decinormal soda solution;
(_b_) _Lactic acid_, by dissolving the residue remaining after the
distillation in water, and either determining its acidity by decinormal
soda, or by treating the residue with water and a little sulphuric
acid, adding barium carbonate to the mixture, heating in the water-bath
and filtering, the precipitate being thoroughly washed with hot water.
The filtrate is then concentrated to a syrup by evaporation, and
agitated in a test-tube with a mixture of 1 part each of sulphuric
acid, alcohol, and water, and 10 parts of ether. After standing at rest
for some time, the ethereal solution is separated by means of a pipette
and evaporated to dryness in a tared capsule. The residue (impure
lactic acid) can be weighed, or it is dissolved in water, the solution
treated with zinc carbonate, and the lactic acid determined as zinc
lactate, which contains 54·5 per cent. of the anhydrous acid.

Phosphoric acid may be estimated in the beer directly by first
expelling the carbonic acid, then adding a small quantity of potassium
acetate, heating, and titrating with a standard solution of uranium
acetate, using potassium ferrocyanide as the indicator. It can also be
determined gravimetrically in the ash.

The estimation of the ash is made by evaporating 100 c.c. of the sample
in a weighed platinum dish to dryness, and incinerating the residue at
a rather moderate heat, so as to avoid volatilisation of the chlorides.
The amount of ash in normal beer should never exceed 0·5 per cent.,
the usual proportion being about 0·3 per cent.; this would naturally
be increased by the addition of sodium bicarbonate or sodium chloride
to the beer. The complete analysis of the ash is seldom necessary, but
it is often of importance to estimate the amount of sodium chloride
contained. This is effected by dissolving the ash-residue in distilled
water and precipitating the chlorine from an aliquot portion of the
solution by silver nitrate; one part of the precipitate obtained
represents 0·409 part of common salt. The proportion of sodium
chloride in pure beer is very inconsiderable, but it may be added to
the beverage either to improve the flavour or to create thirst. For
the determination of phosphoric acid, a weighed portion of the ash
is dissolved in nitric acid, the solution evaporated to dryness, and
the residue boiled with water containing a little nitric acid. It is
then filtered, concentrated by evaporation, an excess of ammonium
molybdate solution added, and the mixture set aside for about ten
hours, after which the precipitate formed is separated by filtration
and dissolved in ammonium hydroxide. A solution of magnesium sulphate
(mixed with a considerable quantity of ammonium chloride) is now added,
and the precipitated ammonio-magnesium phosphate collected, washed,
ignited, and weighed, 100 parts of this precipitate contain 64 parts of
phosphoric anhydride (P_{2}O_{5}).

The positive detection of the presence of artificial substitutes
for malt in beer is a matter of considerable difficulty. According
to Haarstick, a large proportion of commercial glucose contains a
substance termed _amylin_, which exerts a strong dextro-rotary effect
upon polarised light, but is not destroyed by fermentation, and upon
these facts is based a process for the identification of starch-sugar
in beer. It is executed by evaporating 1 litre of the sample to the
consistency of a syrup and separating the dextrine present by the
gradual addition of 95 per cent. alcohol.[77] After standing at
rest for several hours the liquid is filtered, the greater portion
of the alcohol removed from the filtrate by distillation, and the
residual fluid evaporated to dryness over the water-bath. The solid
residue is then diluted to about a litre, yeast added, and the sugar
present decomposed by allowing fermentation to take place for three
or four days, at a temperature of 20°. It was found that, under these
conditions, pure beer afforded a solution which was optically inactive
when examined by the polariscope, while beer prepared from artificial
glucose gave a solution possessing decided dextro-rotary power. The use
of rice and glucose in the manufacture of beer is also indicated when
there is a deficiency in the proportion of phosphoric acid in the ash,
and of the extract, which applies, although to a somewhat less extent,
if wheat or corn meal has been substituted for barley malt.

The following conclusions were reached by a commission of chemists
appointed in Germany to determine standards for beer:--A fixed relation
between the quantity of alcohol and extract in beer does not invariably
exist. As a rule in Bavarian and lager beer, for 1 part by weight of
alcohol a maximum of 2 parts and a minimum of 1·5 parts of extract
should be present. In case malt has been replaced by glucose, or other
non-nitrogenous substances, the percentage of nitrogen in the extract
will fall below 0·65. The acidity should not exceed 3 c.c. of normal
alkali solution for 100 c.c. of beer. The ash should not exceed 0·3
per cent. The maximum proportion of glycerine should not exceed 0·25
per cent. For clarification, the following means are permissible:
Filtration, the use of shavings, etc., and of isinglass or other forms
of gelatine; for preservation, carbonic acid gas, and salicylic acid
may be employed--the latter, however, only in beer which is intended
for exportation to countries where its use is not prohibited.

Several samples of so-called “beer preservatives” examined by the
author, consisted of a solution of sodium salicylate and borax,
dissolved in glycerine. Salicylic acid is employed in order to
prevent fermentation in beer, which is exposed to great variations
in temperature. Its presence is detected by the following process,
suggested by Röse,[78] which is equally applicable to wine:--The beer
(or wine) is acidulated with sulphuric acid, and well shaken with its
own volume of a mixture of equal parts of ether and petroleum naphtha.
After standing at rest, the ethereal layer is removed by a pipette,
and evaporated or distilled until reduced to a few c.c. A little water
and a few drops of a dilute ferric chloride solution are then added,
and the liquid filtered: in presence of salicylic acid, the filtrate
will exhibit a violet colour. In the case of wines, where the presence
of tannic acid might interfere with the salicylic acid reaction, the
filtrate is re-acidulated, then diluted, and the treatment with the
ether mixture and iron chloride repeated. The second residue will
now show the violet coloration, even in wines rich in tannin, and
containing but 0·2 milligramme of salicylic acid per litre. The tannin
can also be removed by precipitation with gelatine, and the colour
test for salicylic acid subsequently applied. Glycerine is likewise
sometimes used as a preservative of beer, and is also added to render
the liquor richer in appearance, by communicating a viscosity to the
froth which causes it to adhere longer to the sides of the glass. It
can be quantitatively estimated by evaporating 100 c.c. of the sample
in a capsule at a temperature of 75°, until the carbonic acid has
been expelled, then adding about 5 grammes of magnesium hydroxide,
and thoroughly stirring the mixture until it forms a homogeneous,
semifluid mass. The contents of the dish are allowed to cool, and are
then well digested with 50 c.c. of absolute alcohol, and the fluid
portion afterwards separated by decantation, the residual mass being
again treated with 20 c.c. of absolute alcohol, and the alcoholic
solution thus obtained added to the first. The malose, parapeptone,
etc., present in the solution are now precipitated by adding (with
constant stirring) 300 c.c. of anhydrous ether, after which the liquid
is filtered, and the filtrate concentrated, at first by spontaneous
evaporation, subsequently by heating over the water-bath, until it
assumes the consistency of a syrup, when it is placed in an exsiccator
which connects with an air-pump, where it is allowed to remain for
twenty-four hours. The syrupy residue is then digested with 20 c.c. of
absolute alcohol and filtered, the filtrate being collected in a tared
capsule, which is again exposed to the heat of the water-bath, and
allowed to remain in the exsiccator for twelve hours, after which it
is weighed. The increase in weight gives approximately the amount of
glycerine contained in the beer examined.[79]

It is certain that many of the poisonous substances which in former
times have been detected in beer, such as strychnine, hyoscyamine,
picric acid, and picrotoxine, are not used at present. It is much
more probable that such bitters as gentian and quassia may be met
with, especially at times when hops are dear. These latter far
exceed hops in bitterness, and do not exert deleterious effects upon
health. Willow bark, or its active principle, salicine, has also been
employed. The detection of some of the most apocryphal substitutes
for hops is effected, according to Wiltstein,[80] by the following
method: One litre of the beer is concentrated over the water-bath to
a syrupy liquor, which is introduced into a rather capacious tared
cylinder and weighed. The gum, dextrine, and mineral salts are first
separated by adding to the syrup five times its weight of 95 per cent.
alcohol, with which it is thoroughly mixed, and allowed to digest for
twenty-four hours. The clear, supernatant solution is now drawn off,
and the residue treated with a fresh quantity of alcohol, which is
afterwards united with the solution first obtained, the whole being
then evaporated until the alcohol is expelled. A small portion of the
residue is dissolved in a little water, and tested for picric acid,
as described later on. The remainder is repeatedly shaken with about
six times its weight of pure benzol, which is subsequently removed
by decantation, the operation being then repeated with fresh benzol,
the two solutions added and evaporated to dryness at a very moderate
temperature. The residue thus obtained is divided into three portions,
which are placed in small porcelain dishes and tested as follows:--

To one portion a little nitric acid (sp. gr. 1·330) is added; if a
red coloration ensues, _brucine_ is present; if a violet colour,
_colchicine_. A second portion is treated with concentrated sulphuric
acid; the production of a red colour indicates the presence of
_colocynthine_. To a third portion, a few fragments of potassium
dichromate and a little sulphuric acid are added; if a purple-violet
coloration takes place, _strychnine_ is present.

The portion of the syrup which has remained undissolved by benzol is
first dried over the water-bath, and then agitated with pure amylic
alcohol, by which treatment picrotoxine and aloes, if present, will go
in solution, and impart a bitter taste to the liquid.

The solution can be examined as subsequently directed for picrotoxine;
the presence of aloes is best recognised by the characteristic
saffron-like odour possessed by this body. The syrup which remains
after the successive treatments with benzol and amylic alcohol is
next freed from any remaining traces of the latter compound by means
of blotting-paper, and then thoroughly agitated with anhydrous ether,
which is afterwards removed and allowed to spontaneously evaporate.
If the residue now obtained exhibits a wormwood-like aroma, and gives
a reddish yellow solution, which rapidly changes to a deep blue when
treated with concentrated sulphuric acid, _absinthine_ is present. The
syrup insoluble in ether may still contain quassine, gentipicrine, and
menyanthine, and the presence of any of these bodies is indicated if
it possesses a bitter taste, since the bitter principle of hops would
have been removed by the foregoing treatment with solvents. The syrup
is dissolved in a little warm water, the solution filtered and divided
into two portions. To one a concentrated ammoniacal solution of silver
nitrate is added, and the mixture heated: if it remains clear, quassine
is probably present; the formation of a metallic mirror points to the
presence of either gentipicrine or menyanthine. A second portion of the
aqueous solution is cautiously evaporated in a small porcelain capsule,
and a few drops of strong sulphuric acid are added to the residue: if
no change takes place in the cold, but upon applying heat a carmine-red
coloration appears, _gentipicrine_ is present; if a yellowish brown
colour, which afterwards changes to a violet, is produced, the presence
of _menyanthine_ is probable.[81]

Picric acid can be detected by means of the following tests:--

1. Upon shaking pure beer with animal charcoal, it becomes decolorised,
whereas beer containing picric acid retains a lemon-yellow colour after
this treatment.

2. The bitter taste of normal beer is removed by treatment with a
little plumbic diacetate and filtering, which is not the case with the
flavour imparted by the use of picric acid.

3. Unbleached wool or pure flannel will acquire a decided yellow colour
if boiled for a short time in beer adulterated with picric acid, and
afterwards washed.

4. Upon agitating 20 c.c. of the suspected beer in a test-tube with 10
c.c. of amylic alcohol, allowing the mixture to remain at rest, and
then removing the amylic alcohol, a solution is obtained which contains
any picric acid present in the sample treated. It is evaporated to
dryness, the residue dissolved in a little warm distilled water, and
the aqueous solution submitted to the following tests:--

(_a_) To one portion a concentrated solution of potassium cyanide is
added; in presence of picric acid, a blood-red colour is produced, due
to the formation of iso-purpuric acid.

(_b_) A second portion is treated with a solution of cupric-ammonium
sulphate; if picric acid be present, minute greenish crystals of
cupric-ammonium picrate will be formed.

(_c_) To a third portion, a little ammonium sulphide, containing free
ammonium hydroxide, is added; in presence of picric acid, picramic acid
is produced, the formation of which is accelerated by the application
of heat, and is made evident by the appearance of an intensely red
colour.

The detection of _cocculus indicus_, or its poisonous alkaloid,
_picrotoxine_, may be effected by first agitating the beer with
plumbic acetate, filtering, removing the lead from the filtrate by
means of sulphuretted hydrogen, and again filtering. The filtrate is
first boiled, then carefully evaporated until it possesses a thickish
consistency, when it is shaken up with animal charcoal, which is
afterwards brought upon a filter, washed with a very little cold water,
and dried at 100°. The picrotoxine possibly present is then extracted
from the animal charcoal by boiling it with strong alcohol, from
which the alkaloid separates on evaporating the solution, either in
quadrilateral prisms or in feathery tufts.

Again reverting to beer adulteration, Prof. H. B. Cornwall has lately
made an interesting report in this regard.[82] Several years ago, in
reply to a circular issued by the “Business Men’s Moderation Society
of New York City,” the “Association of United Lager Beer Brewers”
asserted that the only substitutes for barley malt employed were corn
starch, corn meal, rice, glucose, and grape sugar, no artificial
bitters being used. The addition of glucose and grape sugar, the
association stated, was not necessarily on account of economy, but
had for its object an increase in the strength of the wort, without
resorting to concentration and the production of beer of desirable
flavour and colour. Rüdlinger[83] denies that beer is subjected to
injurious adulteration in Germany. He states substantially as follows:
“Cases of sickness, frequently claimed to be caused by the beer, are
due either to excess or to the consumption of the new and incompletely
fermented beverage. It has been affirmed that brewers often economise
in hops by the use of other and deleterious bitters, and that picric
acid and strychnine have been employed for this purpose. Nonsense, once
written, is frequently copied by hundreds, and in this way circulates
among the masses. The maximum amount of hops used in beer is really
inconsiderable, and, there exists no necessity for resorting to foreign
substitutes, even in seasons when the price of hops is abnormally high,
since the proportion of this ingredient could be slightly decreased
without incurring the danger of detection which would follow the use of
artificial bitters.” On the other hand, it is certain that, _in past
years_, such injurious additions as cocculus indicus, picric acid,
aloes, etc., have actually been discovered by chemists of high standing
in bitter ale and other forms of beer. A. Schmidt,[84] asserts that
glycerine, alum, and sodium bicarbonate are added to beer, and states
that beer, poor in extractive and alcoholic constituents, is liable
to become sour, a defect which is remedied by the use of alkalies
and chalk, the resulting disagreeable taste being disguised by means
of glycerine. The same authority deprecates the use of glucose on
account of the absence of nutritious albuminoids and phosphates in this
substance. It would certainly appear obvious that the direct addition
of starch-sugar to the wort, which results in augmenting the alcoholic
strength of beer without correspondingly increasing the proportion of
valuable extractive matter, is of doubtful propriety. Grains are less
open to this objection. Of these, maize is generally regarded as the
best substitute for barley malt, both on account of its similarity in
composition and its cheapness. The International Congress of Medical
Sciences, held at Brussels in 1875, adopted the following resolutions:--

1. Genuine beer should be made from grain and hops.

2. No other substances should replace these, either wholly or partially.

3. All substitutes should be considered as adulterations, and should
come under the penalty of the law, even if not deleterious to health.

The German Brewers’ Association, at its Frankfort meeting, defined
wholesome beer as the produce of malt, hops, yeast, and water with
a partial substitution of the malt by starch meal, rice, maize, and
glucose, and regarded the use of some malt substitutes as permissible
on scientific and hygienic grounds. It recommended, however, that, in
case such substitutes are employed, the beer so prepared should be
designated by a distinctive name, such as “rice beer,” “sugar beer,”
etc.

The darker varieties of beer are sometimes artificially coloured by
the addition of caramel, and, although the result reached is virtually
the same as that caused by the over-roasting of malt, the practice is
prohibited in Germany unless the product is designated as “coloured
beer.”[85] According to Guyot, some of the Bavarian beer sold in Paris
is coloured with methyl orange.[86] Licorice is employed in beer
brewing in Germany, both on account of its sweetening power and for
clarifying purposes.

In regard to the use of artificial preservatives, such as salicylic
acid and sodium bisulphite, it is very probable that articles of
food which have been treated with these preparations are not readily
digested. Their use, moreover, should be unnecessary, if due care has
been exercised in the manufacture of the beer. This is especially
applicable to beer intended for home consumption.

FOOTNOTES:

[69] The total production of all kinds of malt liquors in the United
States was, for the fiscal year 1886, 20 millions of barrels; it is
assumed that at least three-quarters of this amount consisted of lager
beer.

[70] In Bavaria the use of all malt and hop substitutes is legally
prohibited.

[71] ‘Report of the National Academy of Sciences,’ 1883, p. 88.

[72] Hanemann has made the following determinations of fermented worts
prepared from pure malt and from malts containing 40 per cent. of each
substitute:--

  ---------+------------+--------------+------------+--------------+
           | Pure Malt. | Maize Malt.  | Rice Malt. | Starch Malt. |
  ---------+------------+--------------+------------+--------------+
  Alcohol  |    2·71    |    2·76      |    2·90    |    3·19      |
  Extract  |    6·59    |    6·48      |    6·25    |    5·91      |
  Proteids |    0·43    |    0·39      |    0·33    |    0·28      |
  ---------+------------+--------------+------------+--------------+

[73] The writer is assured by a prominent New York brewer, that the
addition of sodium bicarbonate is resorted to, not so much as a remedy
for poor beer, as for the purpose of satisfying the vitiated taste of
the public, who demand a lively and sparkling beverage. The proportion
employed is claimed not to exceed one ounce to the keg of beer.

[74] ‘Annual Report Brooklyn Board of Health,’ 1885, p. 89.--The
accuracy of this statement is denied by the brewers. A blending of new
and old beer is, however, occasionally practised with, it is said, no
deleterious effects.

[75] Ibid.

[76] The albuminoids in beer may be estimated by diluting 1 c.c. of the
sample with water and then submitting it to Wanklyn’s process for water
analysis (see p. 211). The albuminoid ammonia thus obtained, multiplied
by 5·2, give the proteids in the beer taken.

[77] The dextrine can also be removed by subjecting the beer to
dialysis (see p. 183).

[78] Chem. Centralb., 1886, p. 412.

[79] Griessmayer; Corresp. Blatt. d. Ver. Anal. Chem. No. 4, Feb. 1880.

[80] Griessmayer; Corresp. Blatt. d. Ver. Anal. Chem. No. 4, Feb. 1880.

[81] A comprehensive scheme for the detection of foreign bitters in
beer, suggested by Dragendorff, will be found in the Archiv. der Pharm.
[3] iii. 295; iv. 389.

[82] Reports of Am. Health Assoc., vol. x.

[83] ‘Bierbrauerei,’ 1876.

[84] Archiv. der Pharm., xii. 392.

[85] Deutsch. Reichsanzeiger, July 31, 1885.

[86] Répert. de Pharm., xii. p. 513.



WINE.


Wine is the fermented juice of the grape of _Vitis vinifera_. In its
preparation, the fully matured grapes are usually (but not always)
first separated from the stalks, and then crushed, the _marc_ so
obtained being afterwards placed in butts provided with perforated
sides, through which the expressed juice or _must_ percolates. It
is next introduced into vats, and allowed to undergo a process of
fermentation, which is very analogous to that of beer wort. The
addition of yeast is, however, in this case unnecessary, as the
fermentation of grape-juice is spontaneous, it being due to the
generation of the fungus _Penicillium glaucum_, which is the product of
the action of atmospheric germs upon the albuminoid matters contained
in the must. The most important constituents of grape-juice are
glucose (10 to 30 per cent.), organic acids (0·3 to 1·5 per cent.),
and albuminous substances. During the fermentation the glucose is
converted into alcohol and carbonic acid, the latter being evolved in
bubbles; a deposit of potassium bitartrate and yeast-cells, forming
the _lees_, likewise occurring. This first fermentation ceases after
the lapse of several days, the period being indicated by the cessation
of escaping gas. In order to prevent the oxidation of the alcohol to
acetic acid, the liquid is removed from the lees and transferred into
casks, in which a slow after-fermentation and a further separation of
potassium bitartrate take place. The wine is subsequently stored for a
considerable time in fresh casks, during which it “ages,” and acquires
its characteristic flavour.

The more common varieties of wine are classified according to the
country of their production--into French (claret, burgundy, champagne,
etc.), German (Rhine), Spanish (sherry and port), and Italian.

The production of American wine has experienced a noteworthy increase
during the past twenty-five years. While, in 1860, less than two
millions of gallons of native wine were consumed in the United States,
in the year 1884 the quantity used exceeded seventeen millions of
gallons.[87] Aside from the general distinction of red and white,
wines are classified by their characteristic properties, as dry,
sweet, and cordial. In dry wines, such as those of the Gironde and
Rhenish districts, considerable free acid, and but little or no sugar
are contained, whereas in sweet wines (Madeira, port, etc.) a certain
proportion of the sugar remains undecomposed. Cordial wines are
distinguished by their sweetness and comparatively heavy body. The
nature of wines is materially affected by the proportion of glucose and
acids contained in the original must, as well as by the environments
of their manufacture, such as climate and temperature. From a chemical
point of view, the most important constituents of wine are the primary
products of fermentation--alcohol, succinic acid, and glycerine, but
its market value is far more dependent upon the flavour and bouquet,
which are chiefly due to the formation of secondary products, usually
included under the name “oenanthic ether,” and consisting of the ethers
of caproic, caprylic, and other organic acids.

The following table exhibits the constituents of some of the best
known varieties of wine, according to results obtained by different
authorities:--

  -----------------+----------------------------------------------------
                   |Specific Gravity.
                   |       +--------------------------------------------
                   |       |Alcohol, by Weight.
                   |       |      +-------------------------------------
                   |       |      |Fixed Acids (as Tartaric).
                   |       |      |      +-----------------------------
                   |       |      |      |Volatile Acids (as Acetic).
    Kind of Wine.  |       |      |      |       +----------------------
                   |       |      |      |       |Total Acids.
                   |       |      |      |       |      +---------------
                   |       |      |      |       |      |     Real
                   |       |      |      |       |      |Tartaric Acid.
                   |       |      |      |       |      |      +--------
                   |       |      |      |       |      |      | Total
                   |       |      |      |       |      |      |Residue.
  -----------------+-------+------+------+-------+------+------+--------
                   |       | p.c. | p.c. | p.c.  | p.c. | p.c. | p.c.
  French (red)[88] |0·9950 |12·00 |0·420 |0·170  |0·590 |0·180 | 2·43
  French (white)   |0·9922 |10·84 |0·435 |0·169  |0·604 |0·102 | 1·257
  Vin Ordinaire    |  ..   | 6·99 |0·610 |0·110  |0·720 | ..   | 5·04
  St. Julien (1858)|  ..   | 9·84 |0·510 |0·140  |0·650 | ..   | 2·67
  Frousac          |  ..   |10·74 |0·450 |0·270  |0·720 | ..   | 2·36
  Champagne        |  ..   | 7·95 | ..   | ..    |0·520 | ..   |12·41
  Rhenish[88]      |0·9934 | 9·26 |0·420 |0·110  |0·530 |0·250 | 1·850
  Rüdesheimer      |  ..   |13·32 |  ..  | ..    |0·630 | ..   | 1·840
  Alsatian[88]     |  ..   |10·38 |  ..  |0·6100 | ..   | ..   |   ..
  Würtemberg       |  ..   | 7·09 |0·87  | ..    | ..   |  ..  | 2·22
  Sherry[88]       |0·9940 |17·20 |0·270 |0·150  |0·420 |0·018 | 4·20
  Port[88]         |1·0040 |18·56 |0·310 |0·080  |0·390 |0·022 | 7·55
  Madeira[88]      |0·9940 |17·75 |0·330 |0·160  |0·490 |0·03  | 4·35
  Marsala[88]      |0·9960 |16·71 |0·190 |0·110  |0·300 | ..   | 4·98
  Red Vœslauer     |  ..   |10·25 |0·480 |0·060  |0·540 | ..   | 1·96
  Lachryma Christi |  ..   | 9·70 |0·460 |0·110  |0·560 | ..   |23·63
  White Capri      |  ..   |10·40 |0·460 |0·190  |0·650 | ..   | 1·96
  Cyprus           |  ..   |10·09 |0·480 |0·120  |0·600 | ..   |23·81
  Greek[88]        |0·9931 |13·89 |0·233 |0·177  |0·710 |0·03  | 2·55
  Hungarian[88]    |0·9921 | 8·54 |0·530 |0·150  |0·700 |0·067 | 1·82
  -----------------+-------+------+------+-------+------+------+--------

  -----------------+--------+-----------------------------------------
                   | Sugar. |  Ash. |Potassa (KOH).
                   |        |       |      +--------------------------
                   |        |       |      |Potassium Carbonate.
                   |        |       |      |       +------------------
                   |        |       |      |       | Sulphates
                   |        |       |      |       |and Chlorides.
                   |        |       |      |       |       +----------
                   |        |       |      |       |       |Phosphoric
                   |        |       |      |       |       |   Acid.
  -----------------+--------+-------+------+-------+-------+----------
                   |  p.c.  |  p.c. | p.c. |  p.c. | p.c.  | p.c.
  French (red)[88] | 0·200  | 0·220 |  ..  | 0·060 | 0·10  | 0·03
  French (white)   | 0·880  | 0·197 |  ..  |  ..   |  ..   | 0·031
  Vin Ordinaire    | 0·110  | 0·450 | 0·13 |  ..   |  ..   |   ..
  St. Julien (1858)| 0·250  | 0·400 |  ..  |  ..   |  ..   | 0·080
  Frousac          | 0·370  | 0·270 |  ..  |  ..   |  ..   | 0·040
  Champagne        | 10·63  | 0·25  |  ..  |  ..   |  ..   | 0·050
  Rhenish[88]      | 0·012  | 0·170 |  ..  | 0·07  | 0·07  | 0·03
  Rüdesheimer      | 0·017  | 0·170 |  ..  | 0·07  |  ..   |   ..
  Alsatian[88]     |   ..   | 0·178 |  ..  |  ..   |  ..   | 0·0253
  Würtemberg       |   ..   | 0·230 | 0·09 |  ..   |  ..   |   ..
  Sherry[88]       |  2·56  | 0·450 |  ..  | 0·001 | 0·36  | 0·02
  Port[88]         |  4·33  | 0·280 |  ..  | 0·05  | 0·130 | 0·03
  Madeira[88]      |  2·08  | 0·39  |  ..  | 0·03  | 0·25  | 0·04
  Marsala[88]      |  3·24  | 0·22  |  ..  | 0·02  | 0·15  | 0·02
  Red Vœslauer     |  0·29  | 0·32  | 0·14 |  ..   |  ..   |   ..
  Lachryma Christi | 18·91  | 0·48  | 0·10 |  ..   |  ..   |   ..
  White Capri      |  0·48  | 0·29  | 0·11 |  ..   |  ..   |   ..
  Cyprus           | 22·12  | 0·53  | 0·11 |  ..   |  ..   |   ..
  Greek[88]        |  0·36  | 0·37  |  ..  | 0·02  | 0·24  | 0·04
  Hungarian[88]    |  0·06  | 0·17  |  ..  | 0·01  | 0·08  | 0·02
  -----------------+--------+-------+------+-------+-------+----------

Two varieties of Californian wine, examined by J. L. de Fremery,[89] had
the following composition:--

  -------------------------------+------------------+-------------------
       Grammes in 100 c.c.       | Gutedel (White). | Zinfandel (Red).
  -------------------------------+------------------+-------------------
  Alcohol                        |      10·45       |      9·80
  Extract                        |       2·0908     |      2·1270
  Mineral matter                 |       0·1978     |      0·2218
  Volatile acids (as acetic)     |       0·0804     |      0·0972
  Fixed acids (as tartaric)      |       0·4845     |      0·4110
  Potassium bitartrate           |       0·1579     |      0·1428
  Free tartaric acid             |       0·0060     |        ..
  Other free acids (as tartaric) |       0·5850     |      0·5325
  Sulphuric acid                 |       0·0384     |      0·0168
  Phosphoric acid                |       0·0220     |      0·0193
  Chlorine                       |       0·0036     |      0·0054
  Lime                           |       0·0056     |      0·0084
  Magnesia                       |       0·0170     |      0·0160
  Glycerine                      |       0·6133     |      0·5647
  Sugar                          |       0·0165     |      0·0276
  Polarisation                   |      +0·2        |        ..
  Succinic acid                  |       0·0068     |      0·0097
  Malic acid                     |       0·0324     |      0·0922
  -------------------------------+------------------+-------------------

According to analyses made by R. Fresenius and R. Borgmann,[90] natural
wine has the following _average_ composition:--

                     Grammes in 100 c.c.
  Alcohol                   7·71
  Extract                   2·75
  Free acids                0·73
  Mineral matter            0·23
  Glycerine                 0·79
  Sulphuric acid            0·038
  Phosphoric acid           0·040
  Lime                      0·018
  Magnesia                  0·018
  Potassa                   0·092
  Chlorine                  0·004
  Potassium bitartrate      0·200

Natural wines are frequently subjected to various processes of
treatment, designed to remedy certain defects existing in the original
must. While these do not, perhaps, all properly come under the head
of adulteration, it is certain that many of the practices resorted to
affect the dietetic quality of the wine in a deleterious manner. The
most common modes of treatment, generally considered harmless, are the
following:--

_Pasteuring_, which consists essentially in heating the wine to 60°,
with a limited supply of air, and effects the artificial ageing and
better conservation of the product. Wines which exhibit ropiness and
other diseases are restored by destroying the fungi present. This is
accomplished by subjecting the well-filled and corked bottles to a
temperature of from 45° to 100° for several hours.

A process of freezing is likewise employed for the improvement of wine.
It results in the removal of much of the cream of tartar, colouring
matter, and nitrogenous substances contained, and also causes an
increase in the alcoholic strength of the wine, thereby considerably
decreasing its tendency to undergo an after-fermentation.

The proportions of sugar and acid best adapted to the production of
wine of good quality are at least 20 per cent. of the former to not
more than 0·5 per cent. of the latter. As these conditions do not
always obtain in grape-juice, artificial methods are employed to supply
the necessary constituents. Of these, the most rational consists in
diluting the must until the amount of acid is reduced to 0·5 per
cent., and increasing the sugar to a proportion of 20 per cent. by the
addition of glucose. In a somewhat similar process, due to Petiot, the
marc is repeatedly mixed with water containing 20 per cent. of sugar,
and then subjected to fermentation. In other methods, the removal of
the excess of free acid is effected by neutralisation with pulverised
marble or neutral potassium tartrate. The use of these agents results
in the formation and subsequent separation of insoluble salts--in
the latter case, of potassium bitartrate. Another process for the
improvement and preservation of natural wine, proposed by Scheele,
consists in the addition of glycerine, in a maximum proportion of 3 per
cent., after the first fermentation has taken place.

R. Kayser[91] has made a very exhaustive investigation of wine-must
of different sources, and of the wine prepared therefrom, both in its
natural state and after having been subjected to various “processes of
improvement.” The following table shows the results obtained from the
analysis of Franken must and wine (both natural and “improved”), made
from Riessling grapes in 1880:--

  -------------------+-------+------------------------------------------
                     | Must. |Natural Wine.
                     |       |      +-----------------------------------
                     |       |      |Gall’s Process, (Cane Sugar added).
                     |       |      |       +---------------------------
                     |       |      |       |Gall’s Process,
                     |       |      |       |(Grape Sugar used).
                     |       |      |       |      +--------------------
                     |       |      |       |      |Chaptal’s
                     |       |      |       |      |Process (Calcium
                     |       |      |       |      |Carbonate added).
                     |       |      |       |      |      +---------------
                     |       |      |       |      |      |Plastered.
                     |       |      |       |      |      |    +--------
                     |       |      |       |      |      |    |Petiot’s
                     |       |      |       |      |      |    |Process
                     |       |      |       |      |      |    |(Cane
                     |       |      |       |      |      |    |Sugar
                     |       |      |       |      |      |    |added to
                     |       |      |       |      |      |    |grape
                     |       |      |       |      |      |    |husks).
                     |       |      |       |      |      |    +-+
                     |       |      |       |      |      |      |
                     +-------+------+-------+------+------+------+------
                     | p.c.  | p.c. | p.c.  | p.c. | p.c. | p.c. | p.c.
  Alcohol            |  ..   |6·60  |12·20  |9·10  |6·60  |6·70  |10·40
  Extract            |17·87  |2·53  | 2·11  |5·91  |2·19  |2·80  | 1·98
  Ash                | 0·33  |0·26  | 0·10  |0·17  |0·28  |0·29  | 0·16
  Sulphuric acid     | 0·010 |0·006 | 0·002 |0·010 |0·006 |0·077 | 0·002
  Phosphoric acid    | 0·031 |0·024 | 0·020 |0·021 |0·023 |0·025 | 0·017
  Lime               | 0·012 |0·009 | 0·007 |0·018 |0·027 |0·039 | 0·006
  Magnesia           | 0·012 |0·011 | 0·012 |0·009 |0·012 |0·012 | 0·008
  Free acid (as      |       |      |       |      |      |      |
    tartaric)        | 1·365 |1·275 | 0·765 |0·802 |0·660 |1·297 | 0·488
  Total tartaric acid| 0·501 |0·342 | 0·120 |0·140 |0·014 |0·260 | 0·150
  Free tartaric acid | 0·188 |0·012 |   ..  |  ..  |  ..  |0·160 |   ..
  Malic acid         | 0·720 |0·715 | 0·400 |0·388 |0·710 |0·716 | 0·165
  Succinic acid      |  ..   |0·110 | 0·140 |0·114 |0·112 |0·101 | 0·127
  Glycerine          |  ..   |0·650 | 1·150 |0·800 |0·600 |0·700 | 0·900
  Sugar              |13·90  |0·210 | 0·180 |0·340 |0·200 |0·180 | 0·300
  Potassa            | 0·156 |0·117 | 0·051 |0·081 |0·134 |0·127 | 0·093
  -------------------+-------+------+-------+------+------+------+------

Magnier de la Source[92] has recently made some investigations
concerning the difference in chemical composition of natural and
plastered wine; he gives the following constituents of 1 litre of
wine:--

  --------------------------------------+--------+------------
                                        |Natural.| Plastered.
                                        +--------+------------
                                        |   gr.  |    gr.
  Tartar                                |  1·94  |    0
  Sulphuric acid                        |  2·58  |    3·10
  Potassium                             |  1·12  |    2·46
  Calcium (in soluble portion of ash)   |  0     |    0·037
  Calcium (in insoluble portion of ash) |  0·179 |    0·151
  --------------------------------------+--------+------------

_Adulteration of Wine._--Although there may be some question in regard
to the moral status of the foregoing methods of improvement of natural
wine, numerous other practices are resorted to concerning which no
doubt can exist. The more common forms of wine adulteration include
plastering, sulphuring, fortification, blending, flavouring, colouring,
and the manufacture of fictitious imitations.

The “plastering” of wines consists in the addition of plaster of
Paris (often mixed with lime), either to the unpressed grapes or to
the must. The process, which is rather hypothetically claimed to aid
in the preservation of the wine and correct any excessive acidity,
is very objectionable, in that it determines the formation of free
sulphuric acid and acid sulphates, as well as of calcium tartrate and
potassium sulphate. The lime salt, being insoluble, is deposited with
the lees; the potassium sulphate, however, remains in solution, and
as it exerts a decided purgative effect, its presence in wine cannot
fail to be detrimental. In France, the sale of wine containing over
0·2 per cent. of potassium sulphate is prohibited. The plastering of
wine is chiefly carried on in Spain, Portugal, and southern France.
The ash of pure wine does not exceed 0·3 per cent., but in the samples
of sherry usually met with it reaches a proportion of 0·5 per cent.,
and is almost entirely composed of sulphates. The “sulphuring” of
wines is also extensively practised. It is effected either by burning
sulphur in the casks or by conducting sulphurous acid through the wine
itself, the object sought being to preserve the product and impart to
it the ripeness naturally acquired by age. Sulphured wines, while not
necessarily showing an increase in the amount of ash, can often be
recognised by the abnormally large proportion of sulphates present.

The strength and preservative qualities of wine are frequently
augmented by the addition to it of inferior sorts of brandy. Port
wine usually receives an addition of about 30 per cent., and sherry
is invariably fortified, if not to so great an extent. By the Customs
regulations in England, 10 per cent. of brandy is allowed to be added
to wines in bond, while, in France, the sophistication is equally
permitted in wines intended for export, provided the total amount of
alcohol in the fortified article does not exceed 21 per cent.

Doubtless the mixing or blending of wines constitutes the most frequent
form of their sophistication. Natural wines of the same manufacture
vary to some extent from year to year in colour, flavour, and other
characteristic properties, and mixing is resorted to in order to supply
the trade with a product always possessing nearly identical qualities.
In many cases, the flavour of wines is improved by blending, and their
intoxicating effects are also increased, both results being due to
the formation of compound ethers. Common instances of wine mixing
are the addition of Hermitage and Rousillon wines to clarets; of
Malaga and Teneriffe to port; of _solaras_ (a mixture of Amontillado
and Manzanilla) to sherry; and of a liqueur composed of sugar, some
kind of full, rich wine, and brandy, to champagne. The flavour and
bouquet of expensive wines are frequently imparted to inferior grades
by the addition of various substances, among which are elderflowers,
orris root, cherry water, essential oil of almonds, sweet briar, and
numerous perfumes, such as orange-flower water, neroli, _essence de
petit grain_, violet petals, etc. The tincture of raisin seeds is said
to communicate a genuine port flavour to poor wines, and a grain of
ambergris, triturated with a little sugar, is stated to impart a much
esteemed bouquet to a hogshead of claret. Numerous tinctures, as those
of strawberry root, raspberries, and walnuts, are likewise used. Sweet
and liqueur wines are extensively imitated at Cette and Montpelier. The
following recipes[93] will serve to illustrate the general character of
the mixtures employed:--

  _For Lachryma Christi_:--
        Bagnols (dry)                    85 litres.
        Gum kino                         50 grammes.
        Infusion of walnuts               1 litre.
        Syrup of raisins                  6 litres.
        Alcohol (85°)                     8   „

  _For Madeira_:--
        Picardan (dry)                   60 litres.
        Tavel (old and strong)           25   „
        Infusion of walnuts               2   „
        Infusion of bitter almonds        2   „
        Rock candy                        1½ kilos.
        Brandy (58°)                     10 litres.

  _For Malaga_:--
        Bagnols (old)                    80 litres.
        Syrup of raisins                 10   „
        Infusion of walnuts               2   „
        Alcohol (85°)                     8   „

  _For Tokay_:--
        Bagnols                          80 litres.
        Syrup of raisins                 10   „
        Dried elder flowers             300 grammes.
        Infusion of white raspberries     2 kilos.
           „     „  walnuts               1 kilo.
        Alcohol                           6 litres.

Port is frequently flavoured with a mixture of elderberry juice, grape
juice, brown sugar, and crude brandy known as “_Jerupiga_.” Sherry
often consists of Cape wine mixed with honey, bitter almonds, and
brandy. Astringency is conveyed to wines, deficient in this quality, by
means of tannin; and the property of forming a crust on the interior of
the bottle is produced, especially in port, by the admixture of cream
of tartar and gum. “Dryness” is also obtained by artificial methods. A
preparation met with in the trade, and used for this purpose, has the
following composition:[94]--

                        Per cent.
  Glucose                 28·72
  Glycerine               38·40
  Tannin                   4·10
  Dextrine                 3·14
  Boracic acid             4·27
  Cream of tartar         trace
  Moisture and ash        21·37
                         ------
                         100·00
                         ------

The colour of white wines is caused by the oxidation of the tannin
present, but it is sometimes increased by the addition of the
concentrated juice of highly-coloured grapes, or by means of a small
proportion of caramel. The colour of natural red wine is due to the
presence of _oenocyanin_, a bluish-black compound, chiefly contained
in the grape skins, which is insoluble in water, but dissolves in
acidulated alcohol. In Spain and southern France, a wine prepared
from a vine known as the _Teinturier_, and possessing an intense
bluish-red colour, is extensively employed for colouring of wines.
There appears to be no doubt but that elderberries, black cherries,
mulberries, and hollyhock are also frequently used as colouring agents.
Souberian[95] mentions a mixture, termed _liqueur de fismes_, composed
of elderberries, but also containing about 5 per cent. of alum, which
is occasionally employed. The general use of several deleterious
dyes, such as logwood, cochineal, and the aniline colours, is far
more problematical. In regard to the last-mentioned agents, it has,
however, been asserted,[96] that in a commune near Beziers, of 1800
inhabitants, magenta, to the value of 30,000 francs, is annually
consumed in the adulteration of wine.

It is also worthy of remark that an aniline preparation used in Spain
for the artificial colouring of wine has recently been found to contain
1·62 per cent. of arsenic acid.[97]

Owing to the ravages of the phylloxera, a very considerable decrease in
the source of natural wines has taken place during the past few years.
Between 1883 and 1884 no less than 22 thousand acres of vineyards were
entirely destroyed in the Gironde district alone, and it is stated,
upon good authority, that the total production of wines in France in
1884 was 220 millions of gallons less than the average of the previous
ten years.[98] There is no doubt but that this decrease has greatly
stimulated the manufacture of imitation wines. These occasionally
contain a certain proportion of genuine wine as the basis, but more
frequently they consist entirely of factitious constituents. The
following recipe furnishes a fair example of those of the first class:--

  Rousillon wine      50 litres.
  Water               85   „
  Common brandy       20   „
  Vinegar              1   „
  Tartaric acid      300 grammes.
  Powdered orris      20   „
  Wood charcoal      500   „

Agitate thoroughly, add the white of two eggs, with constant stirring;
allow to settle, and draw off.

Of late years, the production of wine from dried fruit has assumed
very extensive proportions in France. The product, which is generally
known as “_vin de raisins secs_,” is claimed by its manufacturers to be
wholesome.[99] A wine said to possess the qualities of a fair claret,
is made by submitting to fermentation the following mixture:--

  White sugar                 5 kilos.
  Raisins                     5   „
  Sodium chloride           125 grammes.
  Tartaric acid             200   „
  Brandy                     12 litres.
  Water                      95   „
  Gall nuts                  20 grammes.
  Brewer’s yeast            200   „

Another recipe for Bordeaux wine is:--

  Orris root                  1 lb.
  Water                       5 galls.
  Raspberry juice             1   „
  Pure spirit                10   „
  Essence of claret           ½ lb.
  Sugar syrup                 1 gall.
  Colour with cochineal.

It is authentically stated that in the year 1881, 52 millions of
gallons of factitious claret wine were made in France, and the
industry has certainly not diminished in extent since this date. It
is a significant fact that the importation of Spanish raisins into
France has undergone a remarkable increase during the past few
years. Nor is this species of sophistication confined to foreign
wines. Establishments are in active operation in New York City and
elsewhere in this country, where imitations of Californian hock and
claret are made from fermented infusions of dried fruit (often charged
with salicylic acid), and offered for sale at less than thirty cents
per gallon, with more than the usual trade discount.[100] According
to a reliable estimation, less than one-tenth of the wine sold as
champagne is actually the product of that district, the remainder being
fabricated from other wines or from cider.

_Analysis of Wine._--The analysis of wine comprises the following
estimations:--Specific gravity, alcohol, extract, sugar, polarisation,
glycerine, total free acids, volatile acids, free tartaric acid,
potassium bitartrate, malic acid, succinic acid, tannin, ethers, ash,
chlorine, sulphuric and phosphoric acids, and colouring matters.

_Specific gravity._--The density is determined by means of the gravity
bottle, at a temperature of 15°.

_Alcohol._--The proportion of alcohol is ascertained by the
distillation of 50 or 100 c.c. of the wine in a suitable flask, which
is connected with a Liebig’s condenser, until about half of the liquid
has passed over. The distillate is made up to the original volume with
water, and its specific gravity taken, from which the amount of alcohol
(by weight) present is calculated by aid of the usual alcohol-metric
tables (see p. 196). The result (as well as the proportions of the
other constituents) is preferably stated in grammes per 100 c.c. of
wine. The determination may also be made by first removing the alcohol
by evaporation, adding distilled water to restore the original volume,
and then estimating the density of the liquid (see under Beer, p. 142).
In unfortified wines the alcoholic strength ranges from 6 to 12 per
cent., and in wines which have received an addition of spirit, it may
vary from 12 to 22 per cent.

_Extract._--The extract is conveniently determined by evaporating 50
c.c. (measured at 15°), in a platinum dish over the water-bath, the
residue being dried for 2½ hours in the steam-oven. In case a wine rich
in sugar (containing, say, over 0·5 grammes per 100 c.c.) is under
examination, 20 c.c. will suffice for the determination. The indirect
method used in the estimation of the malt extract in beer may also be
employed. According to Girardin and Pressier, it is possible to detect
the watering of certain wines, the average composition of which is
known, by means of the proportions of extract and alcohol present. For
example, in genuine Bordeaux wines the proportion of extract ranges
from 20 to 20·8 grammes per 1000 c.c., and the amount of alcohol is
also very constant, it being a mean of 100 grammes per 1000 c.c. Should
a sample of Bordeaux wine show an extract of 14·5 grammes per litre,
the proportion of genuine wine present would be 72·5 per cent., for
(1000 × 14·5)/20 = 725·00, the remainder being water and alcohol. In
order to estimate the amount of spirits artificially added, the alcohol
contained in 72·5 parts of the wine is determined. If, for instance,
it is found to be 11 parts, then, (11 - 7·25 = ) 3·75 parts of alcohol
have been added.[101] The quantity of extract in pure natural wine
varies from 1·5 to 3 per cent., but in sweet and fortified wines, it
may reach 10 per cent. or more.

_Sugar._--The sugar in wine consists of a mixture of fruit and grape
sugar, usually in the proportion of 3 parts of the former to 1 part
of the latter. The amount of sugar is best estimated by Fehling’s
solution (see p. 111). In the case of white wines, it is advisable to
employ 100 c.c. for the determination; with sweet rich wines 25 c.c.
are sufficient. The alcohol is first removed by evaporation over the
water-bath, and the diluted liquid is next decolorised by means of
bone-black or plumbic acetate, filtered, and made alkaline by addition
of sodium carbonate. It is then made up to a volume of 200 c.c. and
gradually added to 10 c.c. of Fehling’s solution. It is always well to
test the wine by the polariscope, and, whenever the presence of cane
sugar is indicated, to invert 100 c.c. of the sample by heating with a
few drops of hydrochloric acid, and again make a sugar determination
with Fehling’s reagent after neutralisation with sodium carbonate.

_Polarisation._--The optical examination of wine is conducted by adding
20 c.c. of plumbic acetate solution to 100 c.c. of the sample, shaking
the mixture, allowing it to stand for a short time, and passing it
through a filter. If necessary the filtrate is further decolorised with
animal charcoal and again filtered. The polariscope tube is then filled
with the clear solution and the reading made. The majority of wines
exhibit a left-handed polarisation, which is due to the fact that, as
a rule, the proportion of fruit sugar present predominates over that
of grape sugar; moreover, ½ part of fruit sugar will neutralise the
dextro-rotary action of 1 part of grape sugar. In case the presence of
an excess of grape sugar is indicated by the polariscopic examination,
it is often assumed that this body has been directly added to the
wine. It sometimes occurs, however, that, in the fermentation process,
more grape sugar remains undecomposed than fruit sugar, under which
circumstances the preponderance of the former body in the resulting
wine would not prove sophistication; but, under ordinary conditions,
the presence of an excessive proportion of grape sugar may safely be
regarded as strongly pointing to the artificial addition of must syrup.

_Glycerine._--100 c.c. of the wine are reduced by evaporation on the
water-bath to 10 c.c., some pure sand added, and then milk of lime to
decided alkaline reaction, after which the mixture is evaporated nearly
to dryness. When cold, the residue is thoroughly agitated with 50 c.c.
of 96 per cent. alcohol, next heated to boiling on the water-bath,
and then passed through a filter. The insoluble residue is repeatedly
washed with more hot alcohol, the washings being added to the first
filtrate. The solution is now evaporated until it assumes a viscous
consistency. The residue is taken up with 10 c.c. of absolute alcohol,
and 15 c.c. of ether are added, the mixture being shaken and allowed
to stand at rest in a well-stoppered flask until it becomes clear. The
solution is subsequently filtered into a tared glass capsule, then
carefully evaporated to a syrupy condition over the water-bath, and
the residue dried in the steam-oven for one hour, and finally weighed.
According to Pasteur, 112·8 parts of grape sugar yield 3·6 parts of
glycerine; in natural wine, therefore, the glycerine should amount to
about 1/14th part of the alcohol present.

_Acids._--The acids in wine consist of acetic, tartaric, malic, tannic,
succinic, racemic, formic, and propionic.

_Total free Acids._--These are determined by titrating 10 c.c. of the
sample with 1/10th normal soda solution, litmus paper or tincture of
logwood being employed as the indicator. Wines containing free carbonic
acid should be repeatedly well-shaken before making the estimation. The
free acids are expressed in terms of tartaric acid (C_{4}H_{6}O_{6}).
If sulphuric acid or potassium bisulphate is present, a piece of filter
paper will be rendered brittle when immersed in the wine for some time,
and afterwards cautiously dried.

_Volatile Acids._--The volatile acids are estimated by slowly
evaporating 10 c.c. of the wine to the consistency of a syrup, and
repeating the titration with 1/10th normal alkali solution. The
difference in acidity represents the proportion of volatile acids
present, which is stated in terms of acetic acid (C_{2}H_{4}O_{2}). It
is evident that the non-volatile acids can be calculated by deducting
from the total amount of free acids, the tartaric acid corresponding
to the acetic acid found. The proportion of volatile acid in genuine
wine varies from 0·3 to 0·6 per cent. According to Dupré, in white
wine, one-fourth of the total acidity should be due to volatile acids,
and in fortified and red wine, they should not exceed a proportion of
one-third.

_Free Tartaric Acid and Potassium Bitartrate._--In the presence
of a small amount of free acids, the detection of a considerable
proportion of free tartaric acid may fairly be considered as strong
evidence that the wine is artificial. Nessler recommends the following
qualitative test:--20 c.c. of the sample are repeatedly shaken with
a little freshly prepared and finely ground cream of tartar. After
standing one hour, the solution is filtered, 3 or 4 drops of a 20
per cent. solution of potassium acetate are added, and the mixture
is allowed to remain at rest for twelve hours, when, in presence of
free tartaric acid, a precipitation will take place. The quantitative
estimation of free tartaric acid and potassium bitartrate is made
by Berthelot’s method, as follows:--Separate portions of the wine
(20 c.c. each) are introduced into two flasks, a few drops of 20 per
cent. solution of potassium acetate being added to the second flask.
200 c.c. of a mixture of equal parts of alcohol and ether are then
added to both flasks, their contents repeatedly shaken and finally
set aside for eighteen hours at a temperature between 0° and 10°. The
separated precipitates are now removed by filtration, washed with the
ether-alcohol mixture, and then titrated with 1/10th normal alkali
solution. That formed in the first flask corresponds to the potassium
bitartrate originally contained in the wine; the second represents the
total tartaric acid present. The addition of a small quantity of clean
sand will assist in the separation of the precipitates.

_Malic Acid._--A slight excess of lime-water is added to 100 c.c. of
the wine, and, after standing for some time the solution is filtered,
concentrated by evaporation to one-half its original volume, and
treated with an excess of absolute alcohol. The resulting precipitate
(consisting of calcium malate and sulphate) is collected upon a filter,
dried and then incinerated. The proportion of malic acid contained
is now estimated by volumetrically determining the amount of calcium
carbonate present by means of a normal acid solution: 1 part of calcium
carbonate represents 1·34 parts of malic acid (C_{4}H_{6}O_{5}).

_Tannic Acid._--10 c.c. of the sample are taken, the free acids
present neutralised with normal alkali solution, and a few drops of
concentrated sodium acetate solution (40 per cent.) added. A solution
of ferric chloride (10 per cent.) is then added, drop by drop,
carefully avoiding an excess. A single drop of the iron solution
represents 0·05 per cent. of tannic acid. The method of tannin
determination described under Tea (see p. 22) can also be applied.

_Succinic Acid._--500 c.c. of the wine are decolorised with bone-black,
filtered, the filtrate evaporated over the water-bath nearly to
dryness, and the residue repeatedly treated with alcohol-ether. The
solution thus obtained is concentrated, carefully neutralised with
lime-water, evaporated to dryness, and the glycerine present removed by
washing with the alcohol-ether mixture. The remaining residue is now
treated with 80 per cent. alcohol, in order to dissolve the calcium
succinate contained, every 100 parts of which represent 75·64 parts of
succinic acid (H_{6}C_{4}O_{4}). Thudichum and Dupré state that one
litre of pure wine contains from 1 to 1·5 grammes of succinic acid.

_Ethers._--The compound ethers in wine are volatile and fixed,
and exist in but minute proportions. Of the former class, ethylic
acetate C_{2}H_{3}(C_{2}H_{5})O_{2} is the most important. As already
mentioned, the aroma of wine is largely influenced by the presence of
the ethers of the fatty acids, butyric, caprylic, etc. Dupré determines
the proportion of both kinds of ethers indirectly as follows:--250 c.c.
of the wine are distilled until 200 c.c. have passed over. Water is
then added to the distillate to a volume of 250 c.c. 100 c.c. are first
titrated with 1/10th normal soda solution. Another 100 c.c. of the
distillate are next heated with a known quantity of alkali (by which
the ethers are decomposed into their corresponding acids and alcohol),
and the titration is repeated. The amount of _volatile_ ethers is then
calculated from the increased acidity shown by the second titration. In
order to determine the proportion of _fixed_ ethers, 500 c.c. of the
sample are evaporated over the water-bath to a small volume which is
made alkaline, and then subjected to distillation. The distillate is
acidulated with sulphuric acid and again distilled. The alcohol present
in the second distillate is now oxidised to acetic acid by means of
potassium dichromate, and the amount of this acid found estimated
by titration. According to Berthelot, the proportion of ethers in
genuine wine bears a fixed relation to the amounts of alcohol and acids
present: he suggests the following formula for calculating the amount
of alcohol contained in the compound ether of one litre of wine, when
etherification is complete:--

    _y_ = 1·17 A + 2·8

    _x_ = (_y_ × _a_) / 100,

where A is the percentage, by weight, of alcohol; _a_ the amount
of alcohol equivalent to the total free acid in one litre of wine
(assuming this to be acetic acid); _y_, the proportion per cent. of
_a_ present as compound ether in one litre of wine, when the alcoholic
strength of the wine is A; and _x_, the amount of alcohol present in
the compound ether of one litre of wine.

_The Ash._--100 c.c. of the wine are evaporated to dryness in a
platinum dish, over the water-bath, and the residue is incinerated at
a rather low temperature and weighed. By this process, the tartrates
and malates contained in the wine are converted with carbonates.
The ash of normal wine consists of potassium sulphate, carbonate,
phosphate and chloride, sodium chloride, calcium carbonate, etc.,
but, in many samples, it will be found to be largely if not entirely
composed of sulphates, which is due to the practice of sulphuring and
plastering.[102] Generally speaking, the proportion of ash in genuine
wine ranges from 0·15 to 0·30 per cent.

_Chlorine._--100 c.c. of the sample are neutralised with sodium
carbonate, evaporated to dryness, and the residue gently ignited.
It is then extracted with boiling water, filtered, and the chlorine
determined by means of silver nitrate, either volumetrically or
gravimetrically.

_Sulphuric Acid._--100 c.c. are acidulated with hydrochloric acid, the
liquid heated to boiling, and the sulphuric acid precipitated by barium
chloride. The precipitate is well washed, dried, and weighed. 100 parts
represent 42·49 parts H_{2}SO_{4}. Pure wine contains from 0·109 to
0·328 gramme of monohydrated sulphuric acid per litre (corresponding to
0·194 to 0·583 gramme potassium sulphate). The presence of an excess of
this maximum amount indicates that the wine has been plastered.

_Phosphoric Acid._--100 c.c. of the wine are evaporated, the residue
ignited, dissolved in a little water, acidulated with nitric acid,
and then added to an excess of solution of ammonium molybdate. After
standing over night the separated precipitate is dissolved in ammonia
and the phosphoric acid determined by means of an ammoniacal solution
of magnesium sulphate. 100 parts of the precipitate thus obtained
correspond to 63·96 parts of phosphoric acid. The former belief
that the best qualities of wine contain the largest proportion of
phosphoric acid does not appear to be invariably correct.

_Salicylic Acid._[103]--The determination of this acid is accomplished
as follows:--100 c.c. of the sample are repeatedly agitated with
chloroform, which is subsequently separated and evaporated to dryness.
The residue is re-crystallised from chloroform and weighed; its
identity can be established by dissolving it in water and adding
solution of ferric chloride (see p. 149).

_Sulphurous Acid._--For the detection and estimation of sulphurous
acid, the following methods have been recommended:--500 c.c. of
the wine are placed in a flask, the exit-tube of which dips into a
test-tube which is suitably cooled, and subjected to distillation. When
about 2 c.c. have distilled, a few drops of a _neutral_ solution of
silver nitrate are added to the distillate: in presence of sulphurous
acid, a white curdy precipitate will be formed, which differs from
silver chloride in being soluble in nitric acid. According to
Haas,[104] this test is not invariably decisive, as pure wine may cause
the precipitation under certain conditions; moreover, acetic acid is
said to render silver nitrate turbid in strong alcoholic solutions.
Sulphurous acid can be quantitatively determined by adding phosphoric
acid to 100 c.c. of the wine, and distilling it in an atmosphere of
carbonic acid gas. The distillate is received in 5 c.c. of normal
iodine solution. When one-third of the sample has passed over, the
distillate (which should still contain an excess of free iodine),
is acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and the sulphuric acid formed
precipitated with barium chloride.

_Colouring matters._--Very numerous processes have been published for
the detection of foreign and artificial colouring matters in wine.
Among those suggested are the following:--

1. A few drops of the sample are placed in succession on the smooth
surface of a piece of white calcined lime, and notice taken of the
tint produced. The following colours are stated to occur with pure and
artificially coloured wine:--

  Natural red wine                      yellowish brown.
  Wine coloured with fuchsine           rose colour.
    „     „      „   Brazil wood          „     „
    „     „      „   logwood            reddish violet.
    „     „      „   black hollyhock    yellowish brown.
    „     „      „   poke-berries       yellowish red.

2. If ammonium hydroxide be added to the suspected sample to distinct
alkaline reaction, then a little ammonium sulphide and the liquid
filtered, the filtrate from genuine wine will possess a green tint,
whereas that obtained from artificially coloured wine will exhibit
other colours, such as red, blue, violet, or brown.

3. 100 c.c. of the wine are evaporated to about one-half of the
original volume, ammonium hydroxide added to alkaline reaction, and the
liquid thoroughly shaken. Ether is then added, and the mixture again
well shaken. It is next introduced into a separator, and allowed to
stand at rest until the ether has risen to the surface, when the lower
stratum is drawn off, and the residual ether washed by agitation with
water, which is subsequently removed. The ethereal solution is now
transferred to a flask connected with a Liebig’s condenser, a piece of
white woollen yarn introduced into the liquid, and the contents of the
flask distilled at a gentle heat: in presence of the smallest amount of
fuchsine, the wool will acquire a very perceptible reddish hue.

4. A slight excess of ammonium hydroxide is added to 50 c.c. of the
wine, a piece of white woollen fabric introduced, and the liquid
boiled until the alcohol and ammonia are expelled. By this treatment
it will be found that most aniline colouring matters, if present,
become attached to the wool. Their presence can be corroborated by
removing the fabric, washing and pressing it, and then dissolving it,
with constant stirring, in a hot solution of potassium hydroxide. When
solution has taken place, the liquid is allowed to cool, and one-half
its volume of alcohol is added, then an equal volume of ether. The
mixture is vigorously shaken, and, after remaining at rest for some
time, the supernatant ethereal solution is removed, introduced into
a test-tube, and a drop or two of acetic acid added. In presence of
fuchsine, its characteristic colour will now become apparent. Methyl
violet and aniline blue are separated by an analogous process.

5. Logwood and cochineal may be detected by agitating 100 c.c. of the
suspected wine with manganic peroxide, and filtering. The filtrate
afforded by pure wine will be colourless.

6. In Dupré’s process,[105] cubes of jelly are first prepared by
dissolving 1 part of gelatine in 20 parts of hot water, and pouring
the solution into moulds to set. These are immersed in the wine under
examination for 24 hours, then removed, slightly washed, and the depth
to which the colouring matter has permeated is observed: pure wine will
colour the gelatine very superficially; the majority of other colouring
principles (e.g. fuchsine, cochineal, logwood, Brazil wood, litmus,
beetroot, and indigo) penetrate the jelly more readily and to a far
greater degree. Dilute ammonium hydroxide dissolves from the stained
cake the colouring matter of logwood and cochineal, but not that
derived from fuchsine or beetroot.

7. The colouring principle of genuine wine when subjected to dialysis,
does not pass through the animal membrane to any decided extent, while
that of logwood, cochineal, and Brazil wood easily dialyses.

8. Many of the foreign dyes added to wine are precipitated by a
solution of basic plumbic acetate. The precipitate obtained upon
treating 10 c.c. of the sample with 3 c.c. of this reagent is collected
on a filter and washed with a 2 per cent. solution of potassium
carbonate, which dissolves cochineal, sulphindigotic acid and aniline
red. The latter is separated upon neutralising the solution with acetic
acid, and shaking with amylic alcohol, which, in its presence, will
acquire a rose colour. The liquid is next acidulated with sulphuric
acid, and again agitated with amylic alcohol, by which the carminamic
acid, originating from cochineal, is isolated. Any remaining indigo
(as well as the carminamic acid) is to be subsequently identified by
means of its spectroscopic reactions. Upon treating the portion of the
plumbic acetate precipitate which remains undissolved by potassium
carbonate with a dilute solution of ammonium sulphide, the colouring
matter of pure wine and of logwood is dissolved. If, in presence of
logwood, the original sample is shaken with calcium carbonate mixed
with a little calcium hydroxide solution and filtered, the filtrate
will exhibit a decided red tint, but, if the wine treated be pure,
little or no coloration will be produced.

9. An artificial colouring for wine, known as _rouge végétale_, is not
uncommonly employed. According to Amthor,[106] its presence can be
recognised as follows:--100 c.c. of the wine are distilled until all
alcohol is removed. The residual liquid is strongly acidulated with
sulphuric acid, and agitated with ether. Some woollen yarn is next
introduced into the ethereal solution, which is then evaporated over
the water-bath. In presence of _rouge végétale_, the wool will acquire
a brick-red colour, which turns violet upon treatment with ammonium
hydroxide.

10. Cauzeneuve and Lepine[107] state that acid aniline red,
“naphthol-yellow S,” and roccelline red are harmless, whereas safranine
and ordinary Martius’ yellow are decidedly poisonous.

The presence of “Bordeaux red”[108] is recognised by first adding
sodium sulphate to the suspected wine, then a solution of barium
chloride: the artificial dye is carried down with the precipitated
barium sulphate, from which it can be extracted by means of sodium
carbonate solution. The brownish-red liquid thus obtained acquires
a deep red colour if acidulated with acetic acid, which it readily
communicates to silk upon boiling. Natural red wine fails to produce a
coloration under the same circumstances.

For the detection of the presence of artificial colouring matter
the following process is used in the Municipal Laboratory in
Paris:--Preliminary tests are made--

1st. By soaking pieces of chalk in an aqueous solution of egg-albumen;
these are dried and applied for use by dropping a little of the wine
upon them, and noting the coloration produced. Natural coloured wine
usually causes a greyish stain, which, in highly coloured varieties,
may verge to blue.

2nd. Baryta water is added to the wine under examination until the
mixture acquires a greenish hue, after which it is shaken with acetic
ether or amylic alcohol. If the wine be pure, the upper layer remains
colourless, even after acidulation with acetic acid; whereas, in
presence of _basic_ coal-tar dyes, such as fuchsine, amidobenzole,
safranine, chrysoidine, chrysaniline, etc., characteristic colorations
will be obtained.

3rd. A few c.c. of the sample are made alkaline by the addition of
dilute potassium hydroxide, some mercuric acetate added, and the
mixture agitated and filtered. With pure wines, the filtrate is
colourless; in the presence of _acid_ coal-tar derivatives, it is red
or yellow.

The general character of the artificial dye contained in the wine
having been ascertained by the foregoing tests its more precise nature
is determined as follows:--

In case the foreign colouring is _basic_, the supernatant layer
obtained in the second test is separated, and divided into two
portions; one portion being evaporated with pure woollen yarn, the
other with filaments of silk. The dyed threads are then subjected to
the following tests:--

(_a_) _Rose-aniline or safranine_ affords a red coloration; safranine
usually attaches itself only on silk.

(_b_) _Soluble aniline violet_ produces coloured threads which become
green upon treatment with hydrochloric acid, the primitive colour
reappearing upon dilution with water.

(_c_) _Mauve-aniline_ gives a colour which turns blue upon addition of
the acid.

(_d_) _Chysotoluidine_ causes a coloration which is only slightly
affected by the acid, but which is discharged upon boiling with zinc
powder; upon protracted exposure to the air the colour reappears.

(_e_) _Chrysoidine_ and _Amidonitrobenzole_ produce yellow colours, the
former turning poppy-red if treated with sulphuric acid, the latter,
scarlet. A general characteristic of dyes, similar to rose-aniline, is
that they are decolorised by treatment with sodium bisulphite.

If the presence of an _acid_ coal-tar dye is indicated by the third
preliminary test, the following special methods of procedure are
employed:--

Two portions of the wine are saturated respectively with hydrochloric
acid and with ammonium hydroxide water, and each portion is strongly
agitated with acetic ether. The ethereal layers are removed by means
of a pipette, then mixed together, evaporated to dryness, the residue
obtained treated with a drop of concentrated sulphuric acid, and
observations made of the colour obtained:--

  (_a_) Roccelline                   affords a violet colour.
  (_b_) Bordeaux, R. and B.             „      blue    „
  (_c_) Panceau R., R.R., R.R.R.        „      scarlet „
  (_d_) Panceau, B.                     „      red     „
  (_e_) Biebrich red                    „      green to violet colour.
  (_f_) Tropeoline, O.O.O.              „      red colour.
  (_g_) Tropeoline, O., and Chrysoidine „      orange-yellow colour.
  (_h_) Tropeoline, O.O.                „      violet-red      „
  (_i_) Eosine                          „      yellow          „

The method employed in the Paris Municipal Laboratory for the detection
of dried fruit wine, or of added commercial glucose, is substantially
the following:--A little beer-yeast is added to 300 c.c. of the
suspected wine, and the mixture is allowed to undergo fermentation
at a temperature of about 30°. When the fermentation is completed,
the filtered liquid is introduced into a dialyser, the outer water of
which is automatically renewed. The process of dialysis is continued
until the outer water ceases to show a rotary effect when examined by
the polariscope, after which it is neutralised with calcium carbonate
and evaporated to dryness over the water-bath, with constant stirring.
The residue obtained is treated with 50 c.c. of absolute alcohol and
filtered, the insoluble matters being twice washed with 25 c.c. of
alcohol. The alcoholic filtrates are next decolorised by means of
animal charcoal, and evaporated to dryness, and the solid residue is
dissolved in 30 c.c. of water and polarised. Genuine claret, when
tested in this manner, fails to exhibit a rotary power, or is but
slightly dextrogyrate, whereas fruit wines, and those containing
artificial starch sugar, strongly rotate respectively to the left or to
the right.

The following are some of the conclusions arrived at by a commission,
appointed by the German Government, to inquire into uniform methods
for wine analysis, and establish standards of purity for genuine
wine.[109]

(_a_) After deducting the non-volatile acids, the extract in natural
wine should amount to at least 1·1 gramme per 100 c.c.; after deducting
the free acids, to at least 1 gramme per 100 c.c.

(_b_) Most natural wines contain one part of ash to every 10 parts of
extract.

(_c_) The free tartaric acid should not exceed 1/6th of the total
non-volatile acids.

(_d_) The relation between the alcohol and glycerine varies in natural
wines between 100 parts alcohol to 7 parts glycerine, and 100 parts
alcohol to 14 parts glycerine. These proportions do not apply, however,
to sweet wines.

(_e_) Genuine wines seldom contain less than 0·14 gramme of ash, nor
more than 0·05 gramme of sodium chloride per 100 c.c.

According to the analyses of Moritz, the maximum and minimum relative
proportions of the constituents of natural wine are as follows:--The
extract (after deducting the free acids) ranges from 1·10 to 1·78
per cent.; the proportion of ash to extract varies from 1 : 19·2 to
1 : 6·4; that of phosphoric acid to ash ranges from 1 : 12·3 to 1 :
10·49; that of alcohol to glycerine, from 100 : 12·3 to 100 : 7·7.[110]
From the investigations of Dr. Dupré, it would appear that in genuine
unfortified wines, the amount of alcohol present varies from 6 to 12
per cent. by weight. A wine containing less than 6 per cent. would be
unpalatable, and more than 13 per cent. cannot well be present, since
natural grape-juice does not contain the quantity of sugar requisite
for the production of a greater amount of alcohol; moreover, an excess
of this proportion would retard, if not entirely stop, the process
of fermentation. Pure wines contain a greater proportion of volatile
than fixed ethers, but in fortified wines the reverse is frequently
the case. In natural wines, which are not over a few years old, the
sugar present rarely amounts to 1 per cent., generally it is much less.
Fortified wines, in which fermentation has been checked by the addition
of alcohol, often contain 5 per cent. of sugar; champagnes usually show
from 4 to 10 per cent., and, in some liqueur wines, a maximum of 25 per
cent. has been found. In natural wines, the total dry residue generally
ranges from 1·5 to 3 per cent., while in fortified wines the addition
of sugar and other substances may increase its proportion to 10 per
cent., or even more. At the Paris Municipal Laboratory the following
standards are adopted: The amount of added water in all wines, not
sold as of a special or abnormal character, is calculated on a basis
of 12 per cent. of alcohol (by volume) and 24 grammes of dry extract
per litre. The proportion of potassium sulphate in unplastered wines
must not exceed 0·583 gramme per litre. The use of salicylic acid is
prohibited.

FOOTNOTES:

[87] During the year 1886 the total production of Californian wine
approximated 19½ million gallons, of which 3½ million gallons were
consumed in the manufacture of brandy, and 5 million gallons exported.

[88] These figures denote the weight in grammes of the ingredients
contained in 100 c.c. of the wine; otherwise, percentages are expressed.

[89] Berichte der Deutsch. Chem. Gesell., 1885, p. 426.

[90] Zeit. f. Anal. Chem., 1885, p. 44.

[91] Repert. Anal. Chem., 1882, ii., p. 1.

[92] ‘Comptes Rendus,’ xcviii. p. 110.

[93] _Vide_ ‘Spon’s Encyclopædia.’

[94] Jay, Bullet. de la Soc. Chim., xlii. p. 217.

[95] Dict. des Falsifications.

[96] ‘Les Mondes, Revue Hebd. des Sciences,’ No. 4, 1876.

[97] Bullet. de la Soc. de Chim., xlii. pp. 167 and 207.

[98] Recent reports of the vintage in France for the year 1886,
indicate that, while a decided improvement has been experienced in the
Champagne, Burgundy, Hérault, and Rousillon districts, this has failed
to be the case in Charentes and Gironde, where the phylloxera has again
seriously injured the crops.

[99] F. Schaffer (Zeits. Anal. Chem., xxiv. p. 559) has made the
following analyses of artificial wine (grammes in 100 c.c.):--

  ------------------------+--------+--------+-------
  Alcohol (by volume)     | 8·05   | 9·55   | 7·02
  Extract                 | 2·395  | 1·962  | 1·797
  Sugar                   | 0·330  | 0·409  | 0·321
  Ash                     | 0·209  | 0·135  | 0·160
  Acidity (as tartaric)   | 0·743  | 0·501  | 0·772
  Free tartaric acid      |   --   | traces | traces
  Cream of tartar         | 0·264  | 0·227  | 0·471
  Sulphuric anhydride     | 0·0374 |  --    |  --
  Phosphoric anhydride    | 0·0196 | 0·0135 | 0·0172
  ------------------------+--------+--------+-------

[100] It is asserted by a prominent wine merchant in New York that the
monthly production of two manufacturers of artificial wine in this city
exceeds 30,000 gallons.

[101] Blyth, op. cit., p. 445.

[102] According to J. Carter Bell (‘Analyst,’ vi. pp. 197, 221), the
average composition of the ash of pure grape-juice is as follows:--

  K_{2}O  Na_{2}O  CaO    MgO    Fe_{2}O_{3} & Al_{2}O_{3}
   42·14   3·37   11·48   9·67            0·75

  SiO_{2}  P_{2}O_{6}  SO_{3}   Cl
   0·29       9·60      9·14   1·09

[103] Curtman (Jour. Pharm., xiv. p. 523) states that salicylic acid
can be detected by adding to 4 c.c. of the wine (or beer) 2 c.c. of
methylic alcohol and 2 c.c. of sulphuric acid. Shake the mixture, heat
gently for two minutes, then allow to cool. Next heat to boiling,
when, in presence of the acid, the odour of oil of wintergreen will be
perceptible.

[104] Zeit. f. Anal. Chem., xxi. p. 3, 1882.

[105] Journ. Chem. Soc., xxxvii. p. 572.

[106] Schweizer Wochenschrift, xxii. p. 143.

[107] ‘Comptes Rendus,’ 101, pp. 823, 1011, 1167.

[108] Répert de Pharm. xii. p. 504.

[109] Reichsanzeiger, 1884, No. 154.

[110] R. Borgman (loc. cit.) gives the follow average relations of
ingredients in pure wine:--

  Alcohol : glycerine    =  100 : 10·5
  Extract : acidity      = 1000 : 16·6
  Acidity : ash          =   10 :  3·4
  Ash     : extractives  =    1 : 11·2
  Phosphoric acid : ash  =    1 :  6·8



LIQUORS.


The ordinary forms of liquors (namely, whisky, rum, and gin), are
prepared by the distillation of alcoholic infusions. The process of
distillation is preceded either by the conversion of the amylaceous
constituents of grain, first into sugar, then into alcohol, or by the
fermentation of saccharine bodies into alcohol, or, as in the case of
brandy, it may be directly applied to a solution containing alcohol.

_Brandy._--When genuine, brandy is the product of the distillation
of various sorts of rich, light-coloured wines. The most esteemed
quality is prepared in the neighbourhood of Cognac, in the Deux
Charentes district, and in Armagnac; but numerous inferior grades are
manufactured in Rochelle and Bordeaux and in other parts of Southern
France, as well as in Spain and Portugal. In the United States, a
considerable quantity is produced by the distillation of California and
Ohio wine. The fermented marc and lees of grapes are also extensively
utilised in the manufacture of brandy. Most of the liquor known in
commerce under this name, however, is made from the spirit obtained
by the distillation of potatoes, corn, and other grains, which is
subsequently rectified, deodorised, and then suitably flavoured.
In France, the different grades of brandy are known as _eau-de-vie
supérieure_ (the best quality of Cognac); _eau-de-vie ordinaire_
(common, sp. gr. 0·9476); _eau-de-vie de marc_ (chiefly used for mixing
purposes); _eau-de-vie seconde_ (weak and inferior); _eau-de-vie à
preuve de Hollande_ (sp. gr. 0·941); _eau-de-vie à preuve d’huile_ (sp.
gr. 0·9185); _eau-de-vie forte_ (sp. gr. 0·8390); and _esprit-de-vin_
(sp. gr. 0·8610).

The characteristic taste and bouquet of the original wine are to a
considerable extent communicated to the resulting brandy, and upon
these qualities its value is greatly dependent. Many of the remarks
made in regard to the ageing, flavouring and blending of wines equally
apply to brandy, and need not be repeated in this place. When freshly
distilled, it is colourless, its amber tint being either due to the
casks in which it has been stored, or to added caramel. The normal
constituents of genuine brandy are water, alcohol (including small
amounts of butylic, propylic and amylic), various ethers (acetic,
oenanthic, butyric, and valerianic), aldehyde, acetic and tannic
acids, and traces of sugar and the oil of wine. The specific gravity
usually approximates 0·9300 (equivalent to 52 per cent. of alcohol by
volume), it may, however, range from 0·9134 to 0·9381 (from 60 to 48
per cent. of alcohol). Owing to the presence of acetic acid, genuine
brandy usually shows a slightly acid reaction. According to Blyth, the
constituents vary as follows:--total solids, from 1 to 1·5 per cent.;
ash, from ·04 to ·2 per cent.; acids (estimated as tartaric), from ·01
to ·05 per cent.; sugar from 0 to ·4 per cent. A partial examination of
brandy, by König,[111] furnished the following percentages:--specific
gravity, 0·8987; alcohol (by weight), 61·70; extract, 0·645; ash,
0·009. The ingredients found in twenty-five samples of brandy tested
for the New York State Board of Health varied as follows:--specific
gravity, 0·9297 to 0·9615; alcohol (by weight) from 25·39 to 42·96;
extract, from 0·025 to 1·795; ash, from 0·002 to 0·014.

The majority of these samples were certainly abnormal in composition.
Ordonneau[112] has quite recently determined by careful fractional
distillation the proportions of the more important constituents of
cognac brandy twenty-five years old, with the following results, the
quantities being stated in grammes per hectolitre:--aldehyde, 3;
ethylic acetate, 35; acetal, traces; normal propylic alcohol, 40;
normal butylic alcohol, 218·6; amylic alcohol, 83·8; hexylic alcohol,
0·6; heptylic alcohol, 1·5; propionic, butyric and caproic ethers, 3;
oenanthic ether, 4; amines, traces. The large proportions of normal
butylic and amylic alcohols obtained are very significant. It was found
that commercial alcohol, prepared from corn, potatoes and beetroot,
while containing isobutylic alcohol, was entirely free from normal
butylic alcohol, and the difference in flavour between genuine brandy
and brandy distilled from grains would appear to be mainly due to
this fact. Normal butylic alcohol is obtained when fermentation takes
place under the influence of elliptical or wine yeast, whereas the
iso-alcohol is the product of fermentation induced by means of beer
yeast; and it was shown that, by fermenting molasses, etc., with the
aid of wine yeast, a spirit was obtained which much resembled brandy in
colour and flavour.

_Whisky._--Whisky is the spirituous liquor prepared by distilling
fermented infusions of barley, wheat, corn, and other grains. Spirits
that contain over 60 per cent. of alcohol are known as “high wines,”
or common spirits; those containing 90 per cent. of alcohol are often
termed “cologne spirits,” the name whisky being usually given to the
product of a former distillation, containing about 50 per cent. by
weight of alcohol. In Great Britain, the largest amount of whisky is
made in Scotland and Ireland; in the United States, the principal
supply comes from the States of Illinois, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky
(Bourbon Co.), and Pennsylvania (Monongahela Co.). The grains taken
differ greatly in composition. In Scotland and Ireland, malted barley
(pure, or mixed with other grain) is extensively employed; in the
preparation of Bourbon, partially malted corn and rye are taken,
while, for Monongahela whisky, only rye (with 10 per cent. of malt)
is used. The essential features of whisky-making are, first, the
conversion of the starch of the grain into dextrine and glucose,
which takes place in the process of _mashing_; the change being due
to the action of the nitrogenous principle, _diastase_ (formed during
the germination of the gain); then, the transformation of the sugar
into alcohol and carbonic acid by fermentation, which is induced by
the addition of yeast; and, finally, the concentration of the alcohol
by distillation. The quality of whisky is much affected by the nature
of the grain from which it is prepared, and by the care exercised in
its manufacture, more particularly in the process of distillation.
The most injurious ingredient in distilled spirits is commonly known
as “fusel oil,” which term comprises several products of alcoholic
fermentation, possessing a higher boiling point than ethylic alcohol,
and consisting chiefly of amylic alcohol, accompanied by small
proportions of butylic and propylic alcohols. Several varieties of
fusel oil exhibiting distinctive properties are met with, but that
obtained from potato-spirit is the most common. As a rule, the spirits
prepared from malted grain contain the smallest proportion. In the
manufacture of whisky, a danger of promoting the formation of fusel
oil is incurred by carrying on the distillation to the furthest
point, in order to obtain the greatest possible quantity of alcohol.
In Great Britain, the fermented mash is removed from the remaining
grain before its introduction into the still; but in this country the
entire mash is occasionally taken, by which means a larger yield of
alcohol is supposed to be effected. This practice is evidently open to
the objection that the solid matters of the wort are liable to suffer
destructive distillation, and engenders the formation of fusel oil.
Another result, sometimes experienced, is the imparting of a smoky
flavour to the product, which was originally intentionally communicated
to the famous “poteen” whisky of Ireland, by using malt dried by
means of burning turf. This quality is said to be still artificially
obtained by the use of creosote. Genuine whisky, when recently
made, is nearly colourless; but, if preserved in casks, it gradually
acquires a brownish colour. It contains minute quantities of tannic
acid, and ethylic and amylic acetates and valerianates. The specific
gravity generally ranges between 0·9220 and 0·9040, corresponding to
48 and 56 per cent. of alcohol. The solid extract in whisky is usually
below 1 per cent., and the total volatile acids under 0·1 per cent.
In regard to the average composition of whisky, chemical literature
furnishes but very meagre data. The examination of a large number of
samples of ordinary American whisky in 1881, for the New York State
Board of Health, gave the following results:--Specific gravity ranged
from 0·9018 to 0·9645; alcohol (by weight) from 23·75 to 52·58; solid
residue, from 0·100 to 0·752; ash, from 0·0020 to 0·0280. Several
samples of rye whisky, examined by Mr. Green,[113] showed alcohol (by
weight) from 32·50 to 51·20; tannic acid, 0·0003; acetic acid, 0·0012
to 0·002; sugar, 0·002 to 0·005; solid residue, 0·160 to 0·734.

_Rum._--Rum is obtained by the distillation of the fermented juice
of sugar-cane or of molasses; a very considerable proportion of the
article bearing this name is, however, made from grain spirit. In
France and Germany the mother-liquor remaining after the extraction
of beet-sugar, is utilised in the manufacture of a spirituous liquor
greatly resembling rum in properties. The characteristic odour and
taste of the liquor are mainly due to the presence of ethylic butyrate,
and are frequently factitiously communicated to its imitations by
the direct addition of this ether or of butyric acid. Grain spirit
is also sometimes treated with pineapples, which likewise impart the
distinctive flavour. Rum is chiefly produced in the West Indies, and
in North America. The specific gravity ranges from 0·874 to 0·926;
alcohol, from 50 to 70 per cent.; solid residue, from 0·7 to 1·50 per
cent; ash, under 0·10 per cent.[114]

The following are the results obtained by Berkhurts, from the analysis
of various samples of genuine and artificial Jamaica rum:[115]--

  -----------------+----------+----------+---------+-------
                   | Specific |Alcohol by|  Total  |
       Source.     | Gravity. |  Weight. | Solids. | Ash.
  -----------------+----------+----------+---------+-------
  London           |  0·885   |   61·38  |  0·668  | 0·023
  Glasgow          |  0·875   |   61·38  |  4·800  | 0·089
  Bremen           |  0·875   |   74·07  |  0·568  | 0·031
  Directly imported|  0·910   |   51·33  |  2·047  | 0·098
  Artificial       |    ..    |   38·94  |  0·469  | 0·033
  Artificial       |    ..    |   58·86  |  0·926  | 0·021
  -----------------+----------+----------+---------+-------

The variations in the composition of commercial rum would seem to be so
great that little information of value concerning its authenticity is
to be derived from analyses of a general character.

_Gin._--Genuine Holland gin is a spirit prepared by the distillation
of fermented grain infusions (rye and malted barley), flavoured with
juniper berries, or oil of turpentine. Formerly the flavouring was
directly introduced into the still together with the mash, but the
more recent practice is to add salt, water, and juniper berries to
the distilled grain spirit, and then re-distil the mixture. Numerous
other aromatic substances are likewise employed in the manufacture of
gin, among which are coriander, cardamom, and caraway seeds, orris,
angelica, and calamus roots, cassia, bitter-almonds, sweet fennel, etc.
Cayenne pepper, sugar, and acetic acid, are said to be also frequently
added to gin. Gin doubtless possesses more of an artificial character
than any other spirit. It is safe to assert that the great bulk of the
drink sold under the name is simply grain-spirits flavoured with some
of the preceding aromatics. On the other hand, the flavouring agents
employed are not, as a rule, harmful in their effects, so that the
quality of the liquor is mainly dependent upon the extent to which the
spirits used have been rectified. It is difficult to define “pure
gin,” since, owing to its compound character, it varies in composition
according to the method of manufacture followed by each individual
distiller. The variations found from the examination of twenty-five
samples of the commercial article, tested by the New York State Board
of Health, were as follow:[116]--Specific gravity, from 0·9302 to
0·9694; alcohol (by weight), from 18·64 to 44·33; solid residue, from
0·018 to 0·772; ash, from 0·001 to 0·019.

_Adulteration of liquors._--Although it is notorious that the more
common varieties of spirituous liquors are sophisticated, the practices
resorted to are unfortunately usually of a character that does not
permit of positive detection, and, unless an actual adulteration, such
as the addition of some substance foreign to the genuine liquor, has
been made, a chemical examination alone is frequently inadequate to
distinguish between the true and the factitious article. In fact, the
ordinary physical qualities, such as odour and taste, are often of
greater service in determining the genuineness of distilled spirits
than more scientific tests. The most prevalent form of sophistication
with brandy, rum, and gin, is their artificial imitations; the direct
addition of substances deleterious to health being of comparatively
unfrequent occurrence. It is usual to employ a certain proportion of
the genuine liquor in the fabrication of its imitation. An apparent
objection to this species of adulteration is that grain spirits are
liable to be used as the basis of the fictitious product, which is
therefore apt to be contaminated with fusel oil, a compound producing
toxic effects in a proportion fifteen times greater than ordinary
ethylic alcohol.

In the United States, whisky is probably less subjected to serious
sophistication than other spirituous drinks. While the blending
of this liquor (i. e. the mixing of new and old grades) is almost
universally practised by the refiner, and while the retail dealer often
reduces its alcoholic strength by the addition of water, there is very
little ground for the belief that, in this country, whisky is subjected
to noxious admixture to any great extent.

A very large number of recipes have been published for the manufacture
of spurious liquors; the following are characteristic, and will
indicate their general nature:--

  _For Brandy_:--

    Cologne spirits (reduced to proof)    40 galls.
    Oil of cognac                           1/6 oz.
    Burnt sugar colouring                  1½ pint.
    Tannin                                  ¼ oz.
    Brandy essence                         1 part.
    Alcohol                             1000 parts.
    Water                                600   „

The compound known as “Brandy essence” consists of oil of grapes, 5
parts; acetic ether, 4 parts; tincture of allspice, 1 part; tincture of
galls, 3 parts; and alcohol, 100 parts. “Oil of cognac” is a mixture of
amylic alcohol and oenanthic ether.

According to M. Duplais, the best imitation of Cognac is the
following:--

  Alcohol (85 per cent.)                     54 litres.
  Rum (good quality)                          2   „
  Syrup of raisins                            3   „
  Infusion of green walnut hulls              2   „
  Infusion of the shells of bitter almonds    2   „
  Catechu, in powder                         15 grammes.
  Balsam of tolu                              6   „
  Pure water                                 37 litres.
           Mix and colour with caramel.

New Cognac, Montpellier, Saintonge, and other brandies are aged and
improved by adding to every 100 litres: old rum, 2 litres; old kirsch,
1-3/4 litres; infusion of green walnut hulls, 3/4 litre; syrup of
raisins, 2 litres.

A compound sold as “London Brandy Improver” consists of sugar syrup,
acetic ether and essence of cayenne, coloured with caramel.

  _Whisky_:--
  (Rye)    Proof spirit                                50 galls.
           Pelargonic ether                             2 oz.
           Pear oil                                     1  „
           Oil  of wintergreen (dissolved in alcohol)  10 drops.
           Acetic ether                                 4 oz.
           Oil of cloves (dissolved in acetic ether)    4 drops.

  (Scotch) Alcohol (95 per cent.)                      46 galls.
           Scotch whisky                                8   „
           Water                                       18   „
           Honey (3 lbs. in 1½ gall. water)
           Creosote                                     5 drops.
           Acetic acid                                  2 oz.
           Pelargonic ether                             1  „
           Ale                                          1 gall.

  (Irish)  Spirits                                     30 galls.
           Irish whisky                                 5   „
           Old ale                                       ½  „
           Creosote (dissolved in acetic acid)          4 drops.
           Pelargonic ether                             1 oz.

The preparation met with in commerce under the name of “pelargonic
ether” appears to be identical with oenanthic ether.

  _Rum_:--
            Rectified spirits                           6 quarts.
            Jamaica rum                                22   „
            Rum essence                                 1½ oz.
            Vanilla essence                              1/10 „
            Water                                       2 quarts.
            St. John’s bread                            1½ oz.
            Raisins                                     1½  „

            Proof spirits                              40 galls.
            Rum essence                                  ½ pint.
            Sugar colouring                              ½  „
            Sugar syrup                                 1 quart.

“Rum essence” is composed of butyric ether, 15 parts; acetic ether,
2 parts; vanilla tincture, 2 parts; essence of violets, 2 parts; and
alcohol, 90 parts.

  _Gin_:--
    Corn spirits                 80 galls.
    Oil of turpentine             1 pint.
    Oil of juniper                8 oz.
    Salt                         21 lbs.
    Water                        35 galls.
    Oil of caraway                 ½ oz.
    Oil of sweet fennel            ¼  „
    Cardamoms                     8   „
            Distil over, 100 galls.

The chemical examination of distilled spirits is ordinarily limited
to a determination of the alcohol, solid residue, ash, and volatile
acids, coupled with special qualitative and quantitative tests for any
particular adulterants, the presence of which may be suspected.

(_a_) _Alcohol._--In properly distilled liquors, a fairly approximate
estimation of their alcoholic strength is effected by the specific
gravity determination, which is best made by means of the special
gravity bottle. In the case of spirituous liquors which contain
extractive matters, it is necessary to first separate the alcohol
present by the process of distillation, and then determine the density
of the distillate when made up to the volume originally taken. The
following table gives the percentages of alcohol by weight and by
volume, and of water by volume, for specific gravities at 15°.[117]

The percentages of alcohol in the table are calculated for the
temperature of 15°. The necessary correction for differences of
temperature at which the determination is made is obtained by
multiplying the number of degrees above or below 15°, by 0·4, and
adding the product to the percentage shown by the table, when the
temperature is lower than 15°, and deducting it when it is above.

Percentage of alcohol, by weight and by volume, and of water by
volume, for specific gravity at 15°; water at same temperature being
the unit:--

  ---------+-------------------------
           |     PERCENTAGE.
           +---------+---------------
           |   By    |      By
           | Weight. |    Volume.
  Specific +---------+------+--------
  Gravity. |  Alc.   | Alc. | Water.
  ---------+---------+------+--------
   1·0000  |   0·    |  0   | 100·
   0·9985  |   0·80  |  1   |  99·05
   0·9970  |   1·60  |  2   |  98·11
   0·9956  |   2·40  |  3   |  97·17
   0·9942  |   3·20  |  4   |  96·24
   0·9928  |   4·00  |  5   |  95·30
   0·9915  |   4·81  |  6   |  94·38
   0·9902  |   5·61  |  7   |  93·45
   0·9890  |   6·43  |  8   |  92·54
   0·9878  |   7·24  |  9   |  91·62
   0·9867  |   8·06  | 10   |  90·72
   0·9855  |   8·87  | 11   |  89·80
   0·9844  |   9·69  | 12   |  88·90
   0·9833  |  10·51  | 13   |  88·00
   0·9822  |  11·33  | 14   |  87·09
   0·9812  |  12·15  | 15   |  86·19
   0·9801  |  12·98  | 16   |  85·29
   0·9791  |  13·80  | 17   |  84·39
   0·9781  |  14·63  | 18   |  83·50
   0·9771  |  15·46  | 19   |  82·60
   0·9761  |  16·29  | 20   |  81·71
   0·9751  |  17·12  | 21   |  80·81
   0·9741  |  17·96  | 22   |  79·92
   0·9731  |  18·79  | 23   |  79·09
   0·9721  |  19·63  | 24   |  78·13
   0·9711  |  20·47  | 25   |  77·23
   0·9700  |  21·31  | 26   |  76·33
   0·9690  |  22·16  | 27   |  75·43
   0·9679  |  23·00  | 28   |  74·53
   0·9668  |  23·85  | 29   |  73·62
   0·9657  |  24·70  | 30   |  72·72
   0·9645  |  25·56  | 31   |  71·80
   0·9633  |  26·41  | 32   |  70·89
   0·9620  |  27·27  | 33   |  69·96
   0·9607  |  28·14  | 34   |  69·04
   0·9595  |  29·01  | 35   |  68·12
   0·9582  |  29·88  | 36   |  67·20
   0·9568  |  30·75  | 37   |  66·26
   0·9553  |  31·63  | 38   |  65·32
   0·9538  |  32·52  | 39   |  64·37
   0·9522  |  33·40  | 40   |  63·42
   0·9506  |  34·30  | 41   |  62·46
   0·9490  |  35·18  | 42   |  61·50
   0·9473  |  36·09  | 43   |  60·58
   0·9456  |  37·00  | 44   |  59·54
   0·9439  |  37·90  | 45   |  58·61
   0·9421  |  38·82  | 46   |  57·64
   0·9403  |  39·74  | 47   |  56·66
   0·9385  |  40·66  | 48   |  55·68
   0·9366  |  41·59  | 49   |  54·70
   0·9348  |  42·53  | 50   |  53·72
   0·9328  |  43·47  | 51   |  52·73
   0·9308  |  44·41  | 52   |  51·74
   0·9288  |  45·37  | 53   |  50·74
   0·9267  |  46·33  | 54   |  49·74
   0·9247  |  47·29  | 55   |  48·74
   0·9226  |  48·26  | 56   |  47·73
   0·9205  |  49·24  | 57   |  46·73
   0·9183  |  50·21  | 58   |  45·72
   0·9161  |  51·20  | 59   |  44·70
   0·9139  |  52·20  | 60   |  43·68
   0·9117  |  53·19  | 61   |  42·67
   0·9095  |  54·20  | 62   |  41·65
   0·9072  |  55·21  | 63   |  40·63
   0·9049  |  56·23  | 64   |  39·60
   0·9026  |  57·25  | 65   |  38·58
   0·9002  |  58·29  | 66   |  37·54
   0·8978  |  59·33  | 67   |  36·51
   0·8954  |  60·38  | 68   |  35·47
   0·8930  |  61·43  | 69   |  34·44
   0·8905  |  62·50  | 70   |  33·39
   0·8880  |  63·58  | 71   |  32·35
   0·8855  |  64·64  | 72   |  31·30
   0·8830  |  65·72  | 73   |  30·26
   0·8804  |  66·82  | 74   |  29·20
   0·8778  |  67·93  | 75   |  28·15
   0·8752  |  69·04  | 76   |  27·09
   0·8725  |  70·16  | 77   |  26·03
   0·8698  |  71·30  | 78   |  24·96
   0·8671  |  72·43  | 79   |  23·90
   0·8644  |  73·59  | 80   |  22·83
   0·8616  |  74·75  | 81   |  21·76
   0·8588  |  75·91  | 82   |  20·68
   0·8559  |  77·09  | 83   |  19·61
   0·8530  |  78·29  | 84   |  18·52
   0·8500  |  79·51  | 85   |  17·42
   0·8470  |  80·72  | 86   |  16·32
   0·8440  |  81·96  | 87   |  15·23
   0·8409  |  83·22  | 88   |  14·12
   0·8377  |  84·47  | 89   |  13·01
   0·8344  |  85·74  | 90   |  11·88
   0·8311  |  87·04  | 91   |  10·76
   0·8277  |  88·37  | 92   |   9·62
   0·8242  |  89·72  | 93   |   8·48
   0·8206  |  91·08  | 94   |   7·32
   0·8169  |  92·45  | 95   |   6·16
   0·8130  |  93·89  | 96   |   4·97
   0·8089  |  95·35  | 97   |   3·77
   0·8046  |  96·83  | 98   |   2·54
   0·8000  |  98·38  | 99   |   1·28
   0·7951  | 100·00  | 100  |   0·00
  ---------+---------+------+--------

(_b_) _Solid residue._--This is determined by evaporating 100 c.c. of
the liquor in a tared platinum dish, until constant weight is obtained.

(_c_) _Ash._--The proportion of ash is found by the incineration of the
solid residue. If the presence of poisonous metallic adulterants (such
as copper or lead) is suspected, a further examination of the ash is
necessary.

(_d_) _Acids._--The acidity of distilled liquors is generally due to
minute quantities of acetic acid, and can be estimated by means of
1/10th normal soda solution.

Any mineral acid (_e.g._, sulphuric acid) supposed to be present is to
be sought for in the residue remaining, after the distillation process
employed in the determination of alcohol.

The presence of fusel oil in liquors is sometimes quite readily
detected, by first removing the ethylic alcohol by gentle evaporation,
and then inspecting the odour and taste of the still warm residue.
The suspected liquor may also be agitated with an equal volume of
ether, water added, and the ethereal stratum removed by means of a
pipette, and concentrated by evaporation; the residue is to be examined
for amylic alcohol. When distilled with a mixture of sulphuric and
acetic acids, amylic alcohol is converted into amylic acetate, which
may be recognised by its characteristic pear-like odour; or, the
amylic alcohol can be transformed into valerianic acid (which also
possesses a distinctive odour) by oxidation with sulphuric acid and
potassium dichromate. Another simple qualitative test for fusel oil
consists in first decolorising a small quantity of the liquor under
examination with animal charcoal, adding a few drops of hydrochloric
acid, and then a little freshly distilled and colourless aniline
oil, when, in presence of fusel oil, it will be observed that the
aniline compound acquires a perceptible rose tint as it falls to the
bottom of the liquid. The quantitative determination of fusel oil
presents some difficulties. A very ingenious method has been suggested
by Marquardt.[118] It consists essentially in first agitating the
sample with chloroform, draining off the solution obtained, washing
it by repeated shaking with water, and then treating it at 85° with a
mixture of 5 parts potassium dichromate, 2 parts sulphuric acid, and
30 parts of water. The valerianic acid thus formed is now separated
by distilling the mixture of water and chloroform. The distillate is
digested with barium carbonate, next concentrated by evaporation,
and then filtered, and divided into two equal portions. One portion
is evaporated to dryness, the residue taken up with water containing
a little nitric acid, and the amount of barium present determined
by precipitation with sulphuric acid. In the other portion, the
chlorine originating from a partial oxidation of the chloroform, is
to be estimated. The amount of barium combined with the chlorine, is
deducted from the total quantity obtained; the remainder represents the
proportion in combination with the fatty acids formed by oxidation. Of
these, valerianic acid largely predominates; and the amount of barium
valerianate [Ba_{2} (C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})] found is calculated to its
equivalent in amylic alcohol. Capsicum, creosote, etc., are isolated by
treating the sample with ether or benzole, and testing the odour and
taste of the evaporated solutions so prepared.

Creosote gives a blue colour with ferric chloride solution; and the
exceedingly pungent vapours evolved upon heating a residue containing
capsicum are equally characteristic. The presence of tannin in
distilled spirits, which is mostly derived from their preservation in
casks, is recognised by the formation of a bluish-black colour upon the
addition of ferric solutions. The identification of the various ethylic
and amylic ethers used in the preparation of factitious liquors is a
matter of some difficulty. Their presence is most readily detected by
means of their characteristic odour, which is developed upon adding a
little sodium hydroxide to the sample, evaporating the mixture over
the water-bath almost to dryness, and then adding a small quantity of
sulphuric acid. Another means of ascertaining the nature of the organic
ethers present in spirits is to first remove the ethylic alcohol
contained by a partial distillation with an alkaline solution, and
then acidulate the remaining liquid with sulphuric acid, and repeat
the distillation, when the volatile fatty acids originally contained
in the ethers will be found in the distillate; their identity is to be
established by means of their characteristic properties. Nitrous ether
(which compound is not contained in genuine liquors) may be detected
by partially distilling the sample and adding a mixture of potassium
iodide, starch paste, and acetic acid to the first portion of the
distillate, the production of a blue colour indicating its presence. As
previously remarked, the exercise of the ordinary senses is frequently
of greater value in judging the quality of liquors than the results of
chemical tests. Many of the organic ethers employed in the manufacture
of artificial liquors are identical with those contained in the genuine
article, and it is obvious that, in such instances, no distinction can
be made between them.

FOOTNOTES:

[111] ‘Nahrungs u. Genussmittel,’ 1st part, p. 187.

[112] ‘Comptes Rendus,’ 102, p. 217-219.

[113] Am. Chem. 1876, p. 46.

[114] Blyth, op. cit.

[115] ‘Wieder die Nahrungsfälscher,’ 1881, p. 105.

[116] See Report by Dr. F. E. Engelhardt, New York State Board of
Health, 1882.

[117] Hager’s ‘Untersuchungen.’

[118] ‘Berichte,’ 1882, pp. 1370, 1661.



WATER.


The subject of the purity of potable waters possesses the highest
degree of importance in its sanitary relations, and, particular
attention has been bestowed upon methods of analysis that would serve
to indicate the character and significance of existing impurities.
The earlier processes of examination, which chiefly consisted in the
determination of the mineral constituents of water, while of use in
furnishing an idea of the general nature of the water regarded as an
inorganic solution, almost totally failed to reveal the presence of the
more subtle and important organic contaminations which are now known
to exert an active influence in the propagation of zymotic diseases.
During the past few years, decided progress has been attained in the
analytical methods employed. Little is known of the exact nature of
the organic constituents present in water that has received sewage
contamination. They may be either of vegetable or animal origin, and it
appears to be very probable that they constitute organised germs. But,
although we are still unable to determine the constitution of these
deleterious ingredients, it is at present possible to approximately
ascertain the hygienic character of drinking water, and to distinguish,
with a fair degree of accuracy, between a good and a bad sample. In
arriving at a conclusion regarding the sanitary quality of water, it
is, however, also needful to take into consideration the origin and
surrounding conditions which affect the chances of contamination.
Most of the more recent methods of water analysis are based upon the
fact, that the putrefactive decomposition of harmful organic matter
is attended by the genesis of certain compounds (such as ammonia,
nitrites, and nitrates), of which quantitative estimations can be made.
For the purpose of ascertaining the character of a potable water, the
following determinations are usually necessary:--

1. Colour, odour, and taste.

2. Total solid matter and loss on ignition.

3. Organic matter in solution.

4. Chlorine.

5. Ammonia, free and albuminoid.

6. Nitrogen, as nitrites and nitrates.

Certain precautions should be observed in the collection of samples of
water intended for examination. It is indispensable for this purpose
to employ scrupulously clean glass stoppered bottles, which are washed
out several times with the water previous to being filled. If a well
or stream is to be sampled, the bottle should be entirely immersed in
the water some distance from the sides of the stream, and, if taken
from a pump or pipe, the latter should be cleansed by first running a
considerable quantity of the water before charging the bottle.

1. _Colour, odour, and taste._--The colour is best determined by
filling a glass cylinder, about 2 feet in height, with the sample,
placing it upon a white surface and observing the tint produced; or, by
the use of a coloured glass tube of the same length, which is provided
with glass plates attached at each end, and is filled with the sample
and viewed when held towards a sheet of white paper.

As a rule, pure water exhibits a light-bluish tint, a yellowish hue
being generally considered a suspicious indication; but it frequently
occurs that a perfectly colourless water is bad, and one possessing a
decided colour may prove to be at least, fair in quality. The odour of
the sample is ascertained by placing a corked bottle, one-half filled
with the water, in a warm place (at about 38°) for some time, and then
shaking the bottle, withdrawing the stopper and immediately testing the
odour. Pure water should be free from much perceptible odour of any
kind, and more especially from one of a disagreeable nature. The same
remark applies to the taste. Water should be practically tasteless,
even when warmed. It frequently happens, however, that a water may be
highly contaminated with deleterious organic impurities, and still
remain devoid of any marked unpleasant taste. There are few simple
tests of any value which will reveal at once the sanitary quality of
drinking water. One, sometimes employed, is to fill a clean quart
bottle about three-fourths full with the suspected sample, and dissolve
in it a teaspoonful of fine granulated white sugar. The bottle is
then corked and allowed to remain in a warm place for two days, when,
in the presence of sewage contamination, it will become cloudy or
milky.[119] According to Wanklyn and Chapman,[120] if a brownish colour
or precipitate is produced upon the addition of 1·5 c.c. of Nessler’s
reagent (see p. 208) to 100 c.c. of the water, it should be considered
unfit for domestic use.

2. _Total solid residue and loss on ignition._--500 c.c. of the water
under examination are introduced, in small portions at a time, into a
tared platinum dish, and evaporated to dryness over the water-bath, the
residue being subsequently dried for three or four hours in an air-bath
at 100°. The solid residue obtained, multiplied by 200, represents
parts in 100,000: or, by 140, grains per imperial gallon. It is usually
considered that, unless the proportion of total solids exceeds 40
grains per Imperial gallon (32 grains per U.S. gallon, or about 56·5
parts per 100,000), the water need not be objected to for drinking
purposes on this ground alone. The volatile and organic matters are
determined by igniting the solid residue, which is afterwards allowed
to cool. It is then moistened with a little carbonic acid water or
solution of ammonium carbonate, dried to constancy at 130°, and the
organic matter estimated by the decrease in weight. Formerly, this
process was chiefly depended upon for determining the proportion of
organic substances contained in water. It is open to numerous serious
objections, among which are, that it may afford a result either
below or above that correctly representing the quantity of organic
ingredients present in the sample. The first case takes place when
a portion of the organic matter is decomposed during the process of
evaporation, and is quite liable to occur; the second case takes place
when the water contains nitrates, which would be decomposed upon
ignition. The method, however, possesses some value, and is still often
resorted to as affording a general idea of the proportion of organic
contamination present, the degree of blackening of the solid residue
during the process of ignition being, at least, a useful qualitative
indication.

3. _Organic matter in solution._--A method frequently employed for
this determination is based upon the supposition that the amount of
potassium permanganate required to oxidise the organic constituents
contained in water would serve as a criterion of its sanitary value.
It is generally known as the “Forchammer” or “oxygen” process, and,
although of undoubted service in comparing the quality of samples of
very impure water, it is defective in the following important respects:
Different organic substances are not affected to an equal extent by
potassium permanganate; albumen, for instance, being far less easily
oxidised than other compounds, and the value of the results afforded is
vitiated by the presence of certain inorganic bodies, such as nitrites,
sulphuretted hydrogen, ferrous salts, etc. It has been stated, that
the more deleterious and putrescent organic ingredients of water are
those most readily affected by the permanganate solution. As modified
and improved by Miller[121] and by Tidy,[122] the process consists
substantially in adding an excess of a standard solution of potassium
permanganate to a measured quantity of the water under examination
(acidulated with sulphuric acid), and then determining the excess of
permanganate used by means of sodium hyposulphite and potassium iodide.
The following solutions are required:--

_Potassium Permanganate._--0·395 gramme of the salt is dissolved in
1 litre of distilled water; 10 c.c. of this solution represent 0·001
gramme of available oxygen.

_Sodium Hyposulphite._--One gramme of the salt is dissolved in a litre
of water.

_Starch solution._--One gramme of starch is triturated with about 20
c.c. of boiling water, and the mixture allowed to stand at rest over
night, after which the clear supernatant solution is drawn off.

_Pure distilled Water._--This is prepared by digesting 10 litres of
distilled water with 10 grammes of potassium hydroxide and 2 grammes of
potassium permanganate in a still provided with an inverted condenser
at 100° for twenty-four hours, after which the water is distilled,
separate portions being frequently tested with Nessler’s solution; the
distillate is not reserved for use until this reagent ceases to produce
a brownish coloration.

The determination proper is executed as follows:--Two flasks are first
thoroughly cleansed by washing with concentrated sulphuric acid, and
subsequently with water; 250 c.c. of the water to be examined are
introduced into one, and the same volume of the pure distilled water,
prepared as above, is placed in the other. 10 c.c. of dilute sulphuric
acid (1 part pure acid and 8 parts distilled water) and 10 c.c. of the
potassium permanganate solution are now added to each flask, both then
being put aside for three hours. Two drops of a 10 per cent. solution
of potassium iodide are next added to the flasks, and the amount of
iodine liberated (which is equivalent to the quantity of permanganate
unacted upon by the water) is determined by titration with the sodium
hyposulphite solution. The precise end of the reaction is ascertained
by means of a few drops of the starch paste, the hyposulphite being
added to each flask until the blue colour produced by the starch
disappears. The quantities of solution used in each titration are then
read off.

The amount of permanganate consumed is equal to A-B, where A represents
the hyposulphite used with the distilled water, and B, that used with
the sample under examination, and the proportion of oxygen which is
consumed by the water tested, can be calculated by the formula:--

    ((A - B) _a_) / A

in which _a_ is the available oxygen in the added permanganate. For
example, if 10 c.c. of permanganate (= 0·001 gramme available oxygen)
are added to the 250 c.c. (= ¼ litre) contained in each flask, and
the distilled water required 35 c.c., the sample 15 c.c., of the
hyposulphite solution, the proportion of oxygen consumed by the ¼ litre
of water, would be

    ((35 - 15) × ·001) / 35

= ·000571, which represents ·228 parts of oxygen in 100,000 parts of
water.

In applying the preceding test, it is requisite that the flasks should
be kept at a particular temperature, such as 27°. The presence of
putrescent and readily oxidised organic matter or nitrites, which
indicates dangerous contamination, is recognised by the absorption of
any considerable proportion of oxygen in the space of two minutes.
According to Dr. Tidy, 100,000 parts of water of various degrees of
purity, absorb the following amount of oxygen in three hours:--

                               Part Oxygen.
  1. Great organic purity        0 to 0·05
  2. Medium purity             0·05 „ 0·15
  3. Doubtful                  0·15 „ 0·21
  4. Impure                      over 0·21

4. _Chlorine._--The importance attached to the estimation of chlorine
in potable waters is derived from the fact that this element enters
largely into the food of men and animals, and is thrown off in their
excreta. This, naturally, contributes to the sewage contamination to
which water is often exposed. Water, however, may take up a certain
proportion of chlorides from the geological strata through which it
passes, and it is of importance to bear this fact in mind in forming
a conclusion as to the significance of the results afforded by this
determination. It is, likewise, to be remembered that vegetable
organic pollution would escape detection were the quantity of chlorine
contained alone taken into consideration. The determination is
conveniently made as follows:--50 c.c. of the water are introduced
into a beaker, a drop or two of a concentrated and neutral solution
of potassium chromate added, and then a standard solution of silver
nitrate very cautiously added from a burette, drop by drop, until a
faint but permanent red tint is produced. If the silver solution is
prepared by dissolving 2·394 grammes of the nitrate in 1 litre of
distilled water, the number of c.c. required to cause the reddish
coloration directly indicates the parts of chlorine present in 100,000
parts of the water examined. According to Frankland, 100,000 parts
of water from various sources contain the following proportions of
chlorine:--

  Rainwater                     0·22
  Upland surface water          1·13
  Springs                       2·49
  Deep wells                    5·11

Watts’ ‘Dictionary of Chemistry’ quotes the proportions below:--

  Thames, at Kew                1·21
  Thames, at London Bridge      6·36
  Loch Katrine                  0·56
  Rhine, at Basle               0·15
  Rhine, at Bonn                1·45
  Lake of Geneva      0·67
  Elbe, near Hamburg  3·94
  Loire, at Orleans   0·29

The amount of chlorine contained in sewage is stated to range from 6·5
to 21·5 parts, the average being 11·54 parts.[123] It is generally
considered that a proportion in excess of 5 parts in 100,000 parts
of a drinking water, which is not liable to be affected by mineral
admixture, is to be ascribed to organic contamination.

5. _Ammonia, free and albuminoid._--It has already been mentioned
that the decomposition of the nitrogenous organic impurities present
in polluted water results in the production, first, of ammonia, then
of nitrites and nitrates, and, as it is commonly asserted that the
deleterious character of water is mainly due to the putrefactive
processes taking place, which are probably directly proportionate to
the quantity of ammonia produced, it is evident that the determination
of this compound is of considerable importance. The proportion of
albuminous and allied constituents in a sample can, moreover, be
measured by the quantity of ammonia produced when the water is boiled
with an alkaline solution of potassium permanganate. Upon the foregoing
facts, Messrs. Wanklyn, Chapman, and Smith[124] have based a method for
the determination of the sanitary quality of potable waters, which is
in very general use. It involves, first, an estimation of the ammonia
generated upon distilling the water with sodium carbonate (“free”
ammonia); second, the quantity given off by boiling with alkaline
potassium permanganate (“albuminoid” ammonia). In case the water tested
is contaminated with urea, which is not improbable, this compound will
be decomposed into ammonia by the treatment with sodium carbonate. The
following solutions are employed in the execution of the test:--

_Ammonium Chloride._--Dissolve 1·5735 grammes of the dry and pure salt
in 1 litre of distilled water. When required for use, dilute 100 c.c.
of the solution to 1 litre; 1 c.c. of this diluted solution contains
·00005 gramme of NH_{3}.

_Pure Sodium Carbonate._--The ordinary pure reagent is freed from any
ammonia possibly contained by heating it in a platinum capsule.

_Pure distilled Water._--This is obtained as directed on p. 204.

_Nessler’s Reagent._--This is a strong alkaline solution of mercury
biniodide. It may be prepared by first dissolving 62·5 grammes of
potassium iodide in 250 c.c. of hot distilled water (reserving 10
c.c. of the solution), and adding a concentrated solution of mercury
bichloride, with constant shaking, to the remainder, until a permanent
precipitate remains undissolved; this is then brought in solution by
means of the 10 c.c. of iodide solution, set aside, and the addition of
mercury bichloride is carefully continued until a slight precipitate
reappears. A concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide (200 grammes
dissolved in water) is now added, and the volume of the whole made
up with distilled water to 1 litre. The solution is then allowed to
subside, after which it is decanted and preserved in a well-stoppered
bottle.

_Permanganate solution._--Dissolve 8 grammes of potassium permanganate
and 200 grammes of potassium hydroxide in 1 litre of water, and boil to
expel any ammonia present.

The estimation of free and albuminoid ammonia is made as follows:--100
c.c. of the water to be examined are introduced into a glass retort,
which connects with a Liebig’s condenser, and has previously been
thoroughly cleansed by boiling with distilled water; one gramme of
pure sodium carbonate is added, and the water distilled until 40 c.c.
have passed over, the distillate being separately collected in four
10 c.c. cylinders or tubes. About 10 c.c. of the alkaline solution of
potassium permanganate is then added to the remaining contents of the
retort, and the distillation continued almost to dryness. The second
distillate is likewise collected in fractions of 10 c.c. each. It
is advisable to so regulate the process of distillation, that only
about 10 c.c. pass over in the space of eight minutes. The two sets
of distillates are then separately tested by adding 0·5 c.c. of the
Nessler solution to each cylinder, well stirring the mixture, and
setting it aside for at least five minutes. A series of comparison
tubes (10 c.c. in capacity) are prepared by adding ·001, ·003, ·005 up
to ·01 gramme of ammonium chloride, and filling to the 10 c.c. mark
with pure distilled water; 0·5 c.c. of the Nessler reagent being added
to each. The degree of coloration exhibited in the cylinders containing
the two sets of distillates is then matched by the comparison cylinders.

It is evident, that from the data thus obtained, the amount of ammonia
obtained by the first distillation with sodium carbonate (free
ammonia), and by the second distillation with alkaline potassium
permanganate (albuminoid ammonia), can be determined. It has been
previously mentioned that urea evolves ammonia when boiled with sodium
carbonate; the amount of ammonia obtained by the first process of
distillation will therefore include that actually contained as such
in the water, and that generated by the decomposition of any urea
possibly present. As the presence of this body is incompatible with
a good drinking water, this fact is of little real importance. In
case, however, it be desired to make an estimation of the free ammonia
really present, 500 c.c. of the water to be tested are treated with 1
or 2 c.c. of calcium chloride solution, then with a slight excess of
potassium hydroxide, and the liquid filtered. It is next distilled as
directed above, and the remaining contents of the retort made up to 500
c.c. 200 c.c. of the original sample are then subjected to the same
treatment with calcium chloride and potassium hydroxide, and filtered.
The second solution, which contains all the ammonia originally present
in the water, is now tested with Nessler’s reagent, the solution first
obtained by diluting the contents of the retort being employed, instead
of pure distilled water, for comparison.

The proportions of free and albuminoid ammonia found in the preceding
operations are usually expressed in parts per 100,000 of the water.
Wanklyn gives the following amounts of free and albuminoid ammonia
contained in 100,000 parts of several kinds of water:--

  Deep spring water                   not over    0·001
    „    „     „    mixed with surface water      0·005
  Filtered water                         0·005 to 0·010
  Imperfectly filtered water             0·01  „  0·02
  Sewage                                          0·30

The same authority makes the following classification of potable water,
reference being made to parts of albuminoid ammonia present in 100,000
parts:--

  Extraordinary purity      0 to 0·005
  Satisfactory purity   0·005 „  0·010
  Dirty                     over 0·010

The presence of any considerable proportion of free ammonia is
usually indicative of recent sewage contamination. In the absence
of free ammonia, a water need not be rejected unless the albuminoid
ammonia exceeds 0·010 part, but a water containing over 0·015 part of
albuminoid ammonia should be condemned under all circumstances.

6. _Nitrogen as nitrites and nitrates._--It is quite generally accepted
that the presence in water of the oxidation products of nitrogen,
is to be ascribed to the oxidation of nitrogenous organic matter,
unless they are the result of percolation through soil containing
nitrates, and, for this reason, considerable importance attaches to
the quantitative estimation of the nitrogen present in the state of
nitrates, and, in some cases, nitrites. One of the most reliable
methods for this determination is the eudiometric process of Frankland,
which is based upon that of Crum,[125] and consists in agitating
the concentrated water with mercury and strong sulphuric acid, and
measuring the volume of nitric oxide formed by the reduction of
nitrates and nitrites. Owing, however, to the necessity of employing
gas apparatus, this method is not in very general use. Wanklyn’s
process is the following:--100 c.c. of the sample are made alkaline
with pure sodium hydroxide, evaporated to about one-fourth of its
original volume, next made up to 100 c.c. by adding pure distilled
water, and introduced into a flask which connects with a U-tube
filled with powdered glass moistened with hydrochloric acid. A piece
of aluminium foil is then added to the contents of the flask, and
the mixture is allowed to stand at rest for six or seven hours. The
contents of the U-tube are now transferred to the flask, the latter
is connected with a Liebig’s condenser and the liquid distilled. The
proportion of ammonia contained in the distillate is determined by
Nessler’s reagent as previously described, from which the amount of
nitrogen present as nitrates and nitrites is calculated.

Griess[126] has suggested a very useful process for the determination
of nitrous acid and nitrites in potable waters. It is executed by
placing 100 c.c. of the filtered water in a glass cylinder, and adding
a few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid, and 1 c.c. of a solution of
sulphanilic acid and naphthylamine hydrochloride. In the presence
of nitrites, a beautiful rose-red colour (due to the formation of
azobenzol-naphthylamine sulphonic acid), will be produced. The
proportion of nitrites contained in the water, is ascertained by
simultaneously subjecting a solution of potassium nitrite, of known
strength, to the same treatment, and matching the degree of colour
obtained, as in the Nessler process. This solution can be prepared by
dissolving 0·406 gramme of dry silver nitrite in hot water, and adding
a slight excess of potassium chloride. After cooling, the solution is
made up to one litre, the silver chloride allowed to settle, and the
clear liquid filtered. If 100 c.c. of the filtrate are further diluted
to one litre, each c.c. will contain 0·00001 gramme of nitrous acid.

In Ditmar’s method, the residue obtained by the evaporation of the
water, is first mixed with pure sodium hydroxide, and placed in a
small silver boat. It is next introduced into a combustion tube and
burned in a current of hydrogen, the evolved gases being received in an
absorption apparatus filled with very dilute hydrochloric acid. In this
method the amount of ammonia formed, is likewise estimated by means of
Nessler’s solution. The proportion of _organic nitrogen_ is found by
deducting the free ammonia present in the water and multiplying the
remainder by 14/17.

Messrs. Dupré and Hake[127] determine the _organic carbon_ in water
essentially as follows:--The residue of the evaporation of the water
is obtained in a very thin silver dish, which can be rolled up
and introduced into a combustion tube filled three-fourths of its
length with cupric oxide. The residue is then burned in a stream of
oxygen. The evolved carbonic acid is absorbed in a solution of barium
hydroxide, the precipitate formed being collected upon a filter,
washed, dried, and weighed; its weight, divided by 19·4, gives the
amount of organic carbon present in the sample. The carbonates and
nitrates originally contained in the water can be removed by boiling
with a saturated solution of sulphurous acid before the preliminary
evaporation.

Frankland gives the following average proportions of nitrogen, as
nitrates, occurring in 100,000 parts of various kinds of water:--

  Rain water                                  0·007
  Upland surface water                        0·009
  Deep wells and springs                      0·400
  Surface water (cultivated districts)        0·250
  Shallow wells (no average), 2 to 5 parts common.

Other authorities regard the presence of more than 0·6 part of nitrogen
as nitrates per 100,000 parts of water as indicating dangerous
pollution.

At the International Pharmaceutical Congress held in Brussels,[128] the
following standards of purity for potable water were recommended:--

1st. A water should be limpid, transparent, colourless, without smell,
and free of matter in suspension.

2nd. It should be fresh, with a pleasant taste, and its temperature
should not vary much, and certainly not be higher than 15°.

3rd. It should not contain noxious animal or vegetable matter, and
especially none of these substances in a state of decomposition.

4th. It should not contain more than 6 to 10 mgrms. of organic matter
per litre, expressed in terms of oxalic acid. It should not contain
nitrogenous matter.

5th. The nitrogenous organic matter, oxidised with an alkaline solution
of potassium permanganate, should not yield more than 0·01 part of
albuminoid ammonia per 100,000.

6th. It should not assume a disagreeable smell after having been kept
in an open or closed vessel.

7th. It should not contain white algæ, nor numerous infusoria,
bacteria, etc.

8th. It must hold air in solution, which should contain a larger
proportion of oxygen than ordinary air.

9th. It should not contain, per litre, more than:--

  0·5 gramme   mineral salts.
   ·060  „     sulphuric anhydride.
   ·008  „     chlorine.
   ·002  „     nitric anhydride.
   ·200  „     alkaline earths.
   ·030  „     silica.
   ·003  „     iron.

In the Municipal Laboratory of Paris, the following standards for
potable waters are employed. One litre must not contain more than:--

  0·5 to 0·6 gramme    total mineral residue.
  0·25    „     „      calcium sulphate.
  0·015   „     „      chlorine.
  0·005   „     „      organic matter (calculated as oxalic acid).
  0·001   „     „      albuminoid ammonia.
  0·001   „     „      metals precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen.
  0·003   „     „      iron.
                       No sulphuretted hydrogen.

100 c.c. should contain 3·25 c.c. of gas, 10 per cent. of which should
be carbonic acid and 33-1/3 per cent. oxygen.

Professor J. W. Mallet[129] suggests the idea, that the noxious
character of potable waters containing nitrates and nitrites, with but
small proportions of organic matter, may be due to the presence of a
special nitrifying ferment belonging to the lower organisms, which are
capable of propagating disease.

In regard to the degree of importance that should attach to definite
and arbitrary standards of purity, it appears to be accepted that,
although the data afforded as the result of chemical tests are often
of value in discriminating between pure and impure waters, but little
reliance should be placed upon such criteria alone.

Professor Mallet, who has devoted much attention to the investigation
of potable waters, and whose opinion on this subject is entitled to the
highest consideration, arrived at the following conclusions concerning
the more vital points at issue in the determination of the hygienic
character of water:--

“1. It is not possible to decide absolutely upon the wholesomeness
or unwholesomeness of a drinking water by the mere use of any of
the processes examined for the estimation of organic matter or its
constituents.

“2. I would even go further, and say that in judging the sanitary
character of the water, not only must such processes be used in
conjunction with the investigation of other evidence of a more general
sort, as to the source and history of the water, but should even be
deemed of secondary importance in weighing the reasons for accepting or
rejecting a water not manifestly unfit for drinking on other grounds.

“3. There are no sound grounds on which to establish such general
‘standards of purity’ as have been proposed, looking to exact amounts
of ‘organic carbon’ or ‘nitrogen,’ ‘albuminoid-ammonia,’ ‘oxygen of
permanganate consumed,’ etc., as permissible or not.

“4. Two entirely legitimate directions seem to be open for the useful
examination by chemical means of the organic constituents of drinking
water, namely; first, the detection of _very gross_ pollution, * * * *
and, secondly, the periodical examination of a water supply, as of a
great city, in order that the normal or usual character of the water
having been previously ascertained, any suspicious changes, which from
time to time may occur, shall be promptly detected and their cause
investigated.”

The microscopic and biological investigations of water are useful
adjuncts to the chemical examination. The former is made by
allowing a litre or more of the sample to remain at rest for several
hours, collecting the deposit formed and inspecting it by means of
the microscope, using low magnifying power at first. It will be
found advantageous to stain portions of the sediment obtained with
aniline violet, which, by a sort of predilection, attaches itself to
particular forms of vegetable and animal life, thereby rendering them
more distinct. The matters most usually observed in the microscopic
examination of the deposit are:--

1st. Numerous lifeless substances, such as mineral matters, vegetable
_debris_, muscular and cellular tissues, hairs, hemp, wool, cotton,
silk, starch cells, insect remains, and pollen grains.

2nd. Living vegetable forms, such as confervæ, various algæ,
oscillatoria, desmids, diatoms, and bacteria.

3rd. Living animal forms, including many varieties of infusoria and
animalcula. Of the latter, those known as “saprophytes” are regarded as
specially indicating the presence of sewage contamination.

Certain varieties of bacteria have been found associated with some
forms of disease, and particular attention has been bestowed upon the
study of these germs. The biological examination of water consists
of pathological experiments on living animals, made by injecting a
solution of the water-residue beneath the skins of rabbits, etc., and
of experiments made by inoculating culture gelatine with the water.
Of the latter methods of examination, that originally suggested by
Dr. Koch, of Berlin, and described by Dr. Percy F. Frankland,[130] is
well worthy of mention. In this process, the lower forms of life are
cultivated in a solid medium, by means of which the growth of each
colony is localised and rendered suitable for microscopic inspection.

The medium employed by Dr. Frankland has the following composition:

  Lean meat          1 lb.
  Gelatine         150 grammes.
  Solid peptone     10    „
  Sodium chloride    1    „
  Distilled water    1 litre.

The finely-cut meat is first infused in half a litre of cold water
for two hours and strained; the gelatine is digested in the other
half-litre of water, then mixed with the meat-extract, and the whole
heated until the gelatine is completely dissolved, when the peptone and
salt are added.

The liquid is now cautiously neutralised with sodium carbonate, and
clarified by beating it together with two or three eggs, boiling,
straining through cloth, and filtering hot through bibulous paper;
upon cooling it sets to a transparent jelly. Before setting, 7 c.c. of
the liquid are introduced into a series of clean test-tubes, which are
tightly plugged with cotton-wool and then sterilised by steaming them
half-an-hour for three or four consecutive days. It is necessary to
observe special precautions in the collection of the sample of water to
be examined. Glass-stoppered bottles are well adapted for this purpose.
These are to be very thoroughly washed with distilled water, then dried
and finally sterilised by heating in an air-bath for three or four
hours at a temperature of from 150° to 180°.

The actual examination of the water is executed by first heating one of
the test-tubes containing the sterilised gelatin medium in a water-bath
to 30°, by which it is fused. The external portion of the cotton-wool
is next burned, the tube opened, and a certain number of drops of the
water to be tested (previously well shaken) are introduced by means
of a sterilised pipette. The mixture is immediately poured out upon a
clean and sterilised glass plate which rests in a perfectly horizontal
position, and is covered by a glass shade. The plate is supported
by a glass tripod which dips into a dish containing a two per cent.
solution of mercuric chloride--thus forming an antiseptic protection
from the external air. The tripods, dishes, etc., are sterilised
by washing them with the mercuric chloride solution. As soon as the
gelatine mixture has set, the glass plate (together with the cover)
is introduced into an air-bath kept at a temperature of from 20°-25°,
where it is allowed to remain for two to five days for incubation. The
individual organisms and the progress of the formation of colonies are
observed from time to time by inspecting the plate, which can be done
without removing the glass cover. As soon as they have become easily
visible to the naked eye, the plate is removed from the bath, and
placed upon another glass plate, which is ruled in squares, and put
over a black paper. The colonies are then counted by aid of a lens, or,
if they are too numerous to admit of this, the number contained in a
few of the squares is determined and multiplied accordingly.

Dr. Frankland has applied the foregoing method to the examination of
the London water supply (1885), with the following results:--

  MICRO-ORGANISMS IN 1 C.C.

  --------------+-----+-----+------+-----+----------+------+-----+-----
                |Jan. | Feb.|March.| May.|   June.  | Sept.| Oct.| Nov.
  --------------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+----+------+-----+-----
  River Thames  |  .. |  .. |   .. |  .. | 155 | .. | 1644 | 714 |1866
  at Hampton    |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
                |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
  Chelsea       |   8 |  23 |   10 |  14 |  22 | 81 |   13 |  34 |   3
                |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
  West Middlesex|   2 |  16 |    7 |   3 |  .. | 26 |    2 |   2 |   5
                |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
  Southwark     |  13 |  26 |  246 |  24 |  .. | 47 |   18 |  24 |  32
                |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
  Grand Junction| 382 |  57 |   28 |   3 |  21 | 18 |   43 |  40 |  40
                |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
  Lambeth       |  10 |   5 |   69 |  30 |  .. | 38 |  103 |  26 |  26
                |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
  RIVER LEA.    |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
                |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
  River Lea at  |  .. |  .. |   .. |  .. |  .. | .. |   .. |  .. | 954
  Chingford Mill|     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
                |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
  New River     |   7 |   7 |   95 |   3 |  .. | 27 |    3 |   2 |  11
                |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
  East London   |  25 |  39 |   17 | 121 |  .. | 22 |   29 |  53 |  14
                |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
  DEEP WELLS.   |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
                |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
  Kent (well at |  .. |  .. |   .. |  .. |   6 | .. |   .. |   6 |   8
  Deptford)     |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
                |     |     |      |     |     |    |      |     |
  Kent (supply) |  10 |  41 |    9 |  20 |  26 | .. |   14 |  18 |  ..
  --------------+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+----+------+-----+----

      PLATE XI.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

In Plate XI., Fig. 1 exhibits the animal and vegetable living forms
contained in Croton water. They have been catalogued as follows:--

  (_a_) Asterionella formosa, vegetable; a diatom, × 312.
  (_b_) Pediastrum simplex, vegetable; a desmid, × 200.
  (_c_) Cyclotella astræa, vegetable; a diatom, × 200.
  (_d_) Vorticella; an animalcule, × 312.
  (_e_) Conferva, vegetable; “green scum,” × 40.
  (_f_) Epithelial cell; × 200.
  (_g_) Fragillaria cupucina, vegetable; a diatom, × 200.
  (_h_) Heteromita ovata; an animalcule, × 500.
  (_i_) Halteria grandinella (?); an animalcule, × 200.
  (_k_) Anguillula fluviatilis; a water-worm, × 312.
  (_l_) Amœba porrecta; an animalcule, × 200.
  (_n_) Dinophrys; an animalcule, × 200.
  (_o_) Didymoprium borreri, vegetable; a desmid, × 200.
  (_p_) Tabellaria fenestrata, vegetable; a diatom, × 312.
  (_q_) Free vorticella; an animalcule, × 200.
  (_r_) Coccudina costata, dividing; an animalcule, × 312.
  (_s_) Monas umbra; an animalcule, × 312.
  (_t_) Cyclidium obscissum; an animalcule, × 312.
  (_u_) Chilodon cucullulus; an animalcule, × 200.
  (_v_) Epistylis nutans; young animalcules, × 200.
  (_w_) Paramecium; an animalcule, × 200.
  (_x_) Difflugia striolata, the lorica or case; an animalcule, × 200.
  (_y_) Conferva; vegetable “green scum,” × 312.
  (_z_) Vorticella microstoma; an animalcule, × 200.
  (_aa_) Fragments of dyed wood, × 200.
  (_cc_) Gomphonema acuminatum, vegetable; a diatom, × 200.
  (_ee_) Arthrodesmus octocornis, vegetable; a desmid, × 312.
  (_ff_) Scenodesmus quadricauda, vegetable; a desmid, × 200.
  (_ii_) Navicula rhynchocephala (?), vegetable; a diatom, × 200.

Fig. 2 represents the organisms found in the Brooklyn (Ridgwood) water
supply:--

  (_a_) Actinophrys sol; an animalcule, × 200.
  (_b_) Coccudina costata; an animalcule, × 200.
  (_c_) Chætonotus squamatus; hairy-backed animalcule, × 200.
  (_d_) Notommata; a rotiferous animalcule, × 200.
  (_e_) Amœba guttula; an animalcule, × 200.
  (_f_) Melosira orichalaea, vegetable; a diatom, × 200.
  (_g_) Vorticella microstoma; animalcules, × 200.
  (_h_) Chætonotus larus; hairy-backed animalcule, × 200.
  (_i_) Tabellaria flocculosa, vegetable; a diatom, × 200.

The original drawings from which Plate XI. is taken were prepared by
Mr. William B. Lewis, for the Metropolitan Board of Health.

The presence of these organisms, however startling some of them may
be in appearance, is usually not objectionable; indeed, microscopic
vegetable growths are frequently of service in the purification of
potable water. The more important forms of bacteria (bacilli, etc.),
present minute rod-like shapes, far less impressive in appearance.

Considerable difference of opinion exists in regard to the sanitary
value of the results afforded by the biological examination of water.
While the number of bacteria found in a given quantity of water
may be of aid in the formation of an opinion as to its relative
safety for domestic purposes, it should be borne in mind that these
micro-organisms are almost omnipresent, being contained in the air, and
in soils, and articles of food.

The following tabulation shows the relative purity of the water supply
of several American cities, as determined by Prof. A. R. Leeds, in
June, 1881:--

  ----------+-------+-------------------------------------------------------
            |  New  |Brooklyn.
            | York. |       +-------+---------------------------------------
            |       |       |Jersey |Philadelphia.
            |       |       | City. |       +-------+-----------------------
   Parts in |       |       |       |       |Boston.|Washington.
   100,000  |       |       |       |       |       |       +---------------
            |       |       |       |       |       |       |Rochester.
            |       |       |       |       |       |       |   +-----------
            |       |       |       |       |       |       |   |Cincinnati.
            |       |       |       |       |       |       |   +---+
            |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
  ----------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
  Free      |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
   ammonia. | 0·0027|0·00075|0·00475| 0·001 |0·01325| 0·006 | 0·0114| 0·0115
  Albuminoid|       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
   ammonia. | 0·027 |0·00825|0·0427 | 0·018 |0·0605 | 0·027 | 0·023 | 0·024
  Oxygen    |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
   required.| 0·81  |0·413  |0·95   | 0·46  |1·77   | 0·600 | 0·790 | 0·860
  Nitrites. | None  |None   | None  |  None | None  |  None |  None | None
  Nitrates. | 0·8325|1·2025 |0·9065 | 0·6845|1·2395 | 0·8325| 0·629 | 0·740
  Chlorine. | 0·350 |0·550  |0·235  | 0·3000|0·315  | 0·270 | 0·195 | 0·805
  Total     |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
   hardness.| 3·300 |2·270  |3·200  | 4·400 |2·100  | 4·800 | 5·500 | 6·400
  Total     |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
   solids.  |11·800 |6·000  |9·300  |14·300 |8·500  |11·500 |10·000 |16·200
  Mineral   |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
   matter.  | 5·000 |5·000  |3·400  | 6·000 |2·000  | 5·500 | 4·000 | 9·000
  Organic   |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
   and      |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
   volatile |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
   matter.  | 6·800 |1·000  |5·900  | 8·300 |6·500  | 6·000 | 6·000 | 7·200
  ----------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------

  -----------------+-------+--------------+--------------+--------------
     Parts per     | April.|     May.     |    June.     |     July.
      100,000.     +-------+-------+------+------+-------+-------+------
                   | 3rd.  | 6th.  | 26th.| 13th.| 30th. | 15th. | 30th.
  -----------------+-------+-------+------+------+-------+-------+------
  Appearance, &c.  |  Cl.  |Sl. Tb.|  Tb. |  Cl. | Cl.   | Cl.   | Cl.
  Odour (heated to | None  | None  | None | None | None  | None  | None
   100° Fahr.).    |       |       |      |      |       |       |
  Chlorine in      |0·278  |0·348  |0·244 |0·348 |0·226  |0·279  |0·226
   chlorides.      |       |       |      |      |       |       |
  Equivalent to    |0·459  |0·575  |0·400 |0·574 |0·374  |0·459  |0·374
   sodium          |       |       |      |      |       |       |
   chloride.       |       |       |      |      |       |       |
  Phosphates.      | None  | None  | None | None | None  | None  | None
  Nitrites.        | None  | None  | None | None | None  | None  | None
  Nitrogen in      | 0·0403|0·0494 |0·034 |0·0469|0·0371 |0·0395 |0·0387
   nitrates and    |       |       |      |      |       |       |
   nitrites.       |       |       |      |      |       |       |
  Free ammonia.    | 0·001 |0      |0·002 |0·003 |0·0005 |0·002  |0·003
  Albuminoid       | 0·009 |0·0166 |0·0086|0·007 |0·014  |0·008  |0·011
   ammonia.        |       |       |      |      |       |       |
  “Hardness”       |       |       |      |      |       |       |
   equivalent      |       |       |      |      |       |       |
   to carbonate of |       |       |      |      |       |       |
   lime--          |       |       |      |      |       |       |
    Before boiling.| 4·73  |4·082  |4·280 |3·860 |4·968  |4·268  |4·332
    After boiling. | 4·31  |3·787  |3·510 |3·500 |4·586  |4·268  |4·332
  Organic and      | 6·00  |1·500  |3·00  |2·50  |2·00   |0·50   |2·50
   volatile        |       |       |      |      |       |       |
   (loss on        |       |       |      |      |       |       |
   ignition).      |       |       |      |      |       |       |
  Mineral matter   | 5·00  |4·000  |4·50  |4·50  |5·50   |5·00   |5·00
   (non volatile). |       |       |      |      |       |       |
  Total solids (by |11·00  |5·50   |7·50  |7·00  |7·50   |5·50   |7·50
   evaporation).   |       |       |      |      |       |       |
  -----------------+-------+-------+------+------+-------+-------+------

  -----------------+-------------+------------+-----------+------+------
     Parts per     |   August.   | September. |  October. | Nov. | Dec.
      100,000.     +------+------+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------
                   | 19th.| 31st.|15th.| 29th.|14th.|30th.| 15th.| 1st.
  -----------------+------+------+-----+------+-----|-----+------+------
  Appearance, &c.  | Cl.  | Cl.  | Cl. | Cl.  | Cl. | Cl. | Cl.  | Cl.
  Odour (heated to | None | None |None | None |None |None | None | None
   100° Fahr.).    |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
  Chlorine in      |0·278 |0·313 |0·209|0·208 |0·272|0·243|0·312 |0·295
   chlorides.      |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
  Equivalent to    |0·459 |0·517 |0·344|0·343 |0·458|0·400|0·515 |0·486
   sodium          |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
   chloride.       |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
  Phosphates.      | None | None | None| None |None |None | None | None
  Nitrites.        | None | None | None| None |None |None | None | None
  Nitrogen in      |0·0469|0·0486|0·037|0·0477|0·041|0·047|0·048 |  ..
   nitrates and    |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
   nitrites.       |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
  Free ammonia.    |0·003 |0·001 |0·004|0·002 |0    |0·003|0·001 |0·0032
  Albuminoid       |0·014 |0·009 |0·016|0·0094|0·013|0·015|0·014 |  ..
   ammonia.        |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
  “Hardness”       |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
   equivalent      |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
   to carbonate of |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
   lime--          |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
    Before boiling.|4·586 |4·332 |5·096|3·949 |4·520|4·512|3·840 |3·729
    After boiling. |3·949 |4·332 |4·459|3·822 |4·294|4·512|3·390 |3·164
  Organic and      |3·00  |2·00  |2·50 |2·50  |2·50 |3·00 |3·00  |  ..
   volatile        |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
   (loss on        |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
   ignition).      |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
  Mineral matter   |5·00  |4·50  |4·00 |4·00  |4·00 |4·50 |4·00  |  ..
   (non volatile). |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
  Total solids (by |8·00  |6·50  |6·50 |6·50  |6·50 |7·50 |7·00  |  ..
   evaporation).   |      |      |     |      |     |     |      |
  -----------------+------+------+-----+------+-----+-----+------+------

  Cl. signifies _clear_.   Sl. Tb., _slightly turbid_.
  Tb., _turbidity_ somewhat more marked.

  PARTS PER 100,000.

  --------------+-------+-----------------------+------------+----------
                |       |                       |  Chlorine  |
                |       |                       |     in     |Equivalent
                | Date  |  Time when drawn.     |  Chlorides.|   to
  Description   | when  |     +-----------------+----------+ | Sodium
   of Sample.   | taken |     |                 |Odour when| | Chloride.
                |       |     | Appearance in   | heated   | +----+
                |       |     | two-foot Tube.  | to 38°.  |      |
  --------------+-------+-----+-----------------+----------+------+-----
                | 1884. |     |                 |          |      |
  Mohawk River, |Dec. 5 | ..  |Turbid,          |Faint     |0·233 |0·371
   above Diamond|       |     |  greenish yellow| aromatic |      |
   Woollen Mills|       |     |                 |          |      |
  Hudson River, |Nov. 12| ..  |Faintly turbid,  |Faint,    |0·233 |0·371
   above        |       |     | light greenish  | vegetable|      |
   Lansingburg  |       |     | yellow          |          |      |
  Troy hydrant  | „   12| ..  |Faintly turbid,  |Faint,    |0·233 |0·371
                |       |     | light greenish  | vegetable|      |
                |       |     | yellow          |          |      |
  Hudson River, |Dec. 6 | ..  |Faintly turbid,  |Faint,    |0·167 |0·265
   at Maple     |       |     |  greenish yellow| marshy   |      |
   Island       |       |     |                 |          |      |
  Hudson River, |Nov. 1 |High |Clear, light     |Faint     |0·333 |0·530
   at inlet     |       |tide | yellow          |          |      |
                |       |     |                 |          |      |
  Hudson River, | „   1 |High |Faintly turbid,  |Faint,    |0·333 |0·530
   at inlet     |       |tide | light yellow    | stale    |      |
                |       |     |                 |          |      |
  Hudson River, | „   1 |Low  |Clear, brownish  |Faint     |0·366 |0·583
   at inlet     |       |tide | yellow          |          |      |
                |       |     |                 |          |      |
  Hudson River, | „   1 |Low  |Turbid, brownish |Faint     |0·366 |0·583
   at inlet     |       |tide | yellow          |          |      |
                |       |     |                 |          |      |
  Hudson River, |Dec. 4 |High |Slightly turbid, |Oily      |0·233 |0·371
   50 ft. south |       |tide | brownish yellow |          |      |
   of inlet     |       |     |                 |          |      |
  Hudson River, | „   4 |Low  |Turbid, brownish |Oily      |0·183 |0·291
   at inlet     |       |tide | yellow          |          |      |
                |       |     |                 |          |      |
  Bleecker      |Nov. 1 | ..  |Clear, faint     | ..       |0·340 |0·541
   Reservoir    |       |     | yellow          |          |      |
                |       |     |                 |          |      |
  Bleecker      | „   1 | ..  |Turbid, faint    |Faint,    |0·340 |0·541
   Reservoir    |       |     | yellow          | stale    |      |
  Tivoli Lake   | „   6 | ..  |Faint milkiness  |Faint,    |0·833 |1·325
                |       |     |                 | stale    |      |
  Tivoli Lake   | „   6 | ..  |Whitish, milky   |Faint,    |0·833 |1·325
                |       |     |                 | stale    |      |
  Tivoli Lake   |Dec. 4 | ..  |Turbid, greenish |Faint,    |0·966 |1·537
                |       |     |                 | marshy   |      |
  --------------+-------+-----+-----------------+----------+------+------

  --------------+-----------+-----------+----------+---------+----------
                |Phosphates.| Nitrites. |          |         |
                |           |    in     |          |         |
                |           | Nitrates  |          |         |
                |           |    and    | Nitrogen | Free    |Albuminoid
                |           | Nitrites. | Ammonia. |Ammonia. |Ammonia.
  --------------+-----------+-----------+----------+---------+----------
  Mohawk River, |    ..     |     ..    |  0·0705  |  0·0044 |   0·0074
   above Diamond|
   Woollen Mills|
  Hudson River, |    ..     |     ..    |  0·0247  |    ..   |   0·0150
   above        |
   Lansingburg  |
  Troy hydrant  |    ..     |     ..    |  0·0284  |  0·0015 |   0·0151
  Hudson River, |    ..     |     ..    |  0·0614  |  0·0014 |   0·0082
   at Maple     |
   Island       |
  Hudson River, |    ..     |     ..    |  0·0277  |  0·0064 |   0·0002
   at inlet     |
  Hudson River, |    ..     |     ..    |  0·0265  |  0·0038 |   0·0142
   at inlet     |
  Hudson River, |    ..     |     ..    |  0·0471  |  0·0028 |   0·0134
   at inlet     |
  Hudson River, |    ..     |     ..    |  0·0288  |  0·0050 |   0·0124
   at inlet     |
  Hudson River, |    ..     |     ..    |  0·0647  |  0·0054 |   0·0114
   50 ft. south |
   of inlet     |
  Hudson River, |    ..     |     ..    |  0·0606  |  0·0064 |   0·0090
   at inlet     |
  Bleecker      |    ..     |     ..    |  0·0484  |  0·0052 |   0·0068
   Reservoir    |
  Bleecker      |    ..     |     ..    |  0·0489  |  0·0046 |   0·0102
   Reservoir    |
  Tivoli Lake   |Faint trace|Faint trace|  0·0507  |  0·0184 |   0·0080
  Tivoli Lake   |Faint trace|Faint trace|  0·0611  |  0·0198 |   0·0280
  Tivoli Lake   |Faint trace|Faint trace|  0·1334  |  0·0380 |   0·0118
  --------------+-----------+-----------+----------+---------+----------

  --------------+---------------+-----------------+----------------------
                |               |    Hardness     |      Mineral Matter.
                |               |   equivalent    +--------+      +------
                |Oxygen absorbed|  to Carbonate   |        |      |Total
                | at 80° Fahr.  |    of lime.     |Organic |      |Solids
                |--------+------+--------+--------+  and   |      |dried
                | In 15  | In 4 | Before |  After |Volatile|      | at
                |Minutes.|hours.|Boiling.|Boiling.|Matter. |      |110°.
  --------------+--------+------+--------+--------+--------+------+------
  Mohawk River, | 0·2071 |0·3704| 6·838  | 6·838  |  1·70  | 9·00 |10·70
   above Diamond|
   Woollen Mills|
  Hudson River, | 0·2691 |0·4150| 3·818  | 3·818  |  2·20  | 5·80 | 8·00
   above        |
   Lansingburg  |
  Troy hydrant  | 0·2750 |0·4000| 4·498  | 4·498  |  2·60  | 6·50 | 9·00
  Hudson River, | 0·2827 |0·4100| 5·049  | 4·839  |  2·40  | 5·30 | 7·70
   at Maple     |
   Island       |
  Hudson River, | 0·1670 |0·3111| 5·897  | 5·897  |  1·40  | 9·80 |11·20
   at inlet     |
  Hudson River, | 0·1890 |0·3422| 6·237  | 6·237  |  5·00  | 7·20 |12·20
   at inlet     |
  Hudson River, | 0·2180 |0·3180| 6·237  | 6·086  |  1·80  | 9·20 |11·00
   at inlet     |
  Hudson River, | 0·2200 |0·3470| 6·048  | 6·048  |  4·80  | 8·20 |13·00
   at inlet     |
  Hudson River, | 0·2509 |0·4340| 5·470  | 5·470  |  3·50  | 4·50 | 8·00
   50 ft. south |
   of inlet     |
  Hudson River, | 0·2230 |0·4420| 5·838  | 5·838  |  1·50  | 7·50 | 9·00
   at inlet     |
  Bleecker      | 0·1511 |0·2578| 5·330  | 3·893  |  2·50  | 8·80 |11·30
   Reservoir    |
  Bleecker      | 0·1755 |0·3020| 6·577  | 6·577  |  5·70  | 6·80 |12·50
   Reservoir    |
  Tivoli Lake   | 0·0780 |0·2030| 7·069  | 4·309  |  2·00  |12·00 |14·00
  Tivoli Lake   | 0·1200 |0·1852| 7·409  | 5·481  |  6·00  |11·00 |17·00
  Tivoli Lake   | 0·1075 |0·1762| 8·468  | 8·468  |  3·20  |10·40 |13·60
  --------------+--------+------+--------+--------+--------+------+------

The variation in the composition of Croton water, at different seasons
of the year, is exhibited by the table on p. 221, which gives the
results of the semi-monthly examinations made by Dr. Elwyn Waller
during the year 1885.[131]

For the results of the analyses of the water of the Hudson River,
recently made by Dr. C. F. Chandler, see table, pp. 222, 223.

The rather common belief that freezing purifies water is incorrect.
It is said, that the greater part of the ice supply of New York City
(three millions of tons) is gathered from the Hudson River between
Albany and Poughkeepsie, most being drawn within thirty miles of the
former city, and therefore liable to be polluted with sewage. The
average number of bacteria in one c.c. of ordinary ice is stated to
approximate 400, but Hudson River ice has been found to contain nearly
2000 bacteria per c.c.[132] The number of bacteria in one c.c. of snow
is usually about 9000; Hudson River snow-ice contains 20,000 per c.c.;
and, although the great majority of these organisms are perfectly
harmless, cases are on record where epidemics (as of gastro-enteritis)
have been directly traced to the use of impure ice.

FOOTNOTES:

[119] This test presupposes the existence in the water of the
substances necessary for the support of vegetable growth.

[120] ‘Water Analysis.’

[121] Jour. Lond. Chem. Soc., xviii. p. 117.

[122] Ibid., xxxv. p. 67.

[123] Sixth Annual Report, Rivers Pollution Commission, “Blue Book.”

[124] Jour. Lond. Chem. Soc. 1867, xx. p. 445.

[125] Phil. Mag., xxx. p. 426.

[126] Ber. der Deutsch. Chem. Gesell. xii. p. 427.

[127] Chem. Soc. Journ., March, 1879.

[128] Pharm. Zeit., 1885, No. 76.

[129] ‘Annual Report of the National Board of Health,’ 1882, p. 207.

[130] Jour. Soc. Chem. Indus., Dec. 1885.

[131] Jour. Am. Chem. Soc., viii. p. 6.

[132] See paper read by Dr. T. M. Prudden before the New York Academy
of Medicine, March 18th, 1887.



VINEGAR.


Vinegar is a dilute aqueous solution of acetic acid, containing
inconsiderable proportions of alcohol, aldehyde, acetic ether, and
extractive matters, which, to some extent, impart a characteristic
flavour and aroma. The process most frequently involved in the
preparation of vinegar is known as the acetous fermentation, and may be
induced in various saccharine juices and infusions, such as those of
apples, wine, malted grain, etc., when, in presence of a ferment, they
are exposed to the action of the air, at a temperature between 24° and
32°. In the oxidation of alcohol, an intermediate compound (aldehyde)
is at first formed, which, by the continued action of oxygen, is
ultimately converted into acetic acid. A dilute solution of alcohol is,
however, not oxidised to acetic acid by simple exposure to the air;
it is usually necessary that a peculiar microscopic plant (_mycoderma
aceti_) should be present. This fungus includes two varieties, viz.,
minute globules (_micrococci_) and rod-like forms (_bacilli_) varying
in size; and is often developed in old casks that have been long
employed for making vinegar. It constitutes a gelatinous mass (“mother
of vinegar”) having the appearance of glue that has been soaked in
cold water; the surface quickly becomes coated with a bluish mould
(_Penicillium glaucum_).

Pasteur regards acetification as a product of the development of the
_mycoderma aceti_, _i.e._, as a physiological fermentation--but it
appears probable that the process is rather one of oxidation, and
that the fungus accelerates the change by condensing the oxygen upon
its surface and delivering it to the alcohol, possibly in the form
of ozone. Indeed, the process of vinegar making may take place in
the entire absence of the _mycoderma_, as when spongy platinum is
brought into contact with alcoholic solutions; and Buchner has examined
shavings which had been used in a vinegar factory for over twenty-five
years, and found them to be absolutely free from the fungoid plant. In
the United States, the best known and most esteemed kind of vinegar
is that obtained by the acetification of apple cider; but by far the
largest quantity is manufactured from alcohol and spirituous liquors.
Cider vinegar is free from aldehyde but contains malic acid. The usual
source of vinegar in Great Britain is a wort prepared from mixtures of
malt with other grain; while, in Continental Europe, inferior sorts
of new wine (especially white wine) are extensively employed for its
production.

Malt vinegar possesses a brown colour and a density ranging from 1·006
to 1·019; that known as proof vinegar contains from 4·6 to 5 per cent.
of acetic acid. In Great Britain the manufacturer is allowed by law
to add 0·1 per cent. of sulphuric acid to vinegar, on account of its
supposed preservative action, and, although the practice is now known
to be unnecessary, it is still sometimes resorted to. The specific
gravity of wine vinegar varies from 1·014 to 1·022. 100 c.c. should
neutralise from 0·6 to 0·7 grains of sodium carbonate, and the solids
obtained upon evaporation to dryness should approximate two per cent.
According to the United States Pharmacopœia, one fluid ounce of vinegar
should require for saturation not less than 35 grains of potassium
bicarbonate.

In 500 samples of imported wine and malt vinegar tested by the author,
the minimum and maximum strength ranged from 3 to 10·6 per cent. of
acetic acid, the specific gravity from 1·0074 to 1·0150, and the number
of grains of potassium bicarbonate required to neutralise one troy
ounce from 22 to 84. Of 273 samples of vinegar tested in 1884 by the
Massachusetts State Board of Health, 52 were above the then legal
standard of 5 per cent. of acetic acid, and 221 below; 109 of the
latter contained more than 4 per cent.; the strongest sample showed
8·86 per cent., and the weakest contained but 0·66 per cent. of acetic
acid. In the year 1885, 114 samples were examined, of which 45 were
above and 69 below the standard of 4½ per cent. acetic acid.

In the State of New York, the legal standard for vinegar is 4·5 of
absolute acetic acid, and, in the case of cider vinegar, the proportion
of total solids must not fall below 2 per cent. In Massachusetts, also,
the acidity must be equivalent to 4½ per cent. of acetic acid, and
cider vinegar must contain, at least, 2 per cent. of solid matter. The
English standard of strength is 3 per cent. of acetic acid.

_Analysis._--For the requirements of the United States Customs Service,
the only estimations ordinarily made are the specific gravity, and a
determination of the acidity. The former is accomplished by means of
the specific gravity bottle; the latter, by placing 10 c.c. of the
sample in a beaker, adding about 30 c.c. of water, then a few drops of
an alcoholic solution of phenol-phthaleïn (to serve as the indicator),
and titrating with a normal alkali-solution; the number of c.c. used
divided by 10 and multiplied by 48, gives the amount, in grains, of
potassium bicarbonate required to neutralise one troy ounce of the
vinegar. In the presence of sulphuric acid, it is necessary to distil
a measured quantity of the sample almost to dryness and titrate the
distillate, it being assumed that 80 per cent. of the total acetic acid
present passes over.

The determination of the extract or solid residue in vinegar is
executed in the same manner as described under beer and wine. Several
tests have been suggested for the detection of the presence of free
sulphuric acid. The usual reagent--barium chloride--is not well adapted
to the direct determination of this acid, since sulphates, which are
as readily precipitated as the free acid, may also be present. The
following methods may be employed:--

1. A piece of cane sugar is moistened with a small quantity of the
sample and exposed to the heat of the water-bath for some time, when,
in presence of free sulphuric acid, the residue will become more or
less carbonised, according to the proportion of acid present.

2. Five centigrammes of pulverised starch are dissolved in a decilitre
of the sample by boiling, and after the liquid has become completely
cooled, a few drops of iodine solution are added. Dilute acetic acid
does not affect starch, and if the sample is pure, a blue coloration
will be produced; if, however, but a minute quantity of sulphuric or
other mineral acid is present, the starch is converted into dextrine,
and the addition of iodine fails to cause the blue coloration.

3. According to Hilger,[133] if two drops of a very dilute solution
of methyl aniline violet (0·1 to 100) are added to about 25 c.c. of
pure vinegar no change of colour takes place; whereas, in the presence
of 0·2 per cent. of mineral acid, a bluish coloration is produced; in
case the proportion of acid reaches 1 per cent. the liquid acquires a
greenish tint.

4. A recent test for mineral acids has been suggested by Hager.[134] It
consists in warming together two drops of East Indian copaiba balsam,
and 30 drops of pure acetic acid, and subsequently adding to the
mixture two or three drops of the vinegar under examination; if either
sulphuric or hydrochloric acid be present, a blue-violet colour is
produced.

The free mineral acids in vinegar may be quantitatively estimated by
saturating a weighed quantity of the sample with quinine, evaporating
the mixture to dryness over the water-bath, and dissolving the quinine
salts formed in alcohol, which is then removed by distillation. The
second residue is next dissolved in water, and the quinine precipitated
by addition of ammonia, and separated by filtration.

The filtrate will contain the mineral acids present, and their amount
is determined by the ordinary methods.

The free sulphuric acid in vinegar can also be quantitatively
estimated, according to Kohnstein,[135] as follows: 100 c.c. of the
sample are shaken with pure and freshly calcined magnesia until
completely neutralised. The mixture is filtered, the filtrate
evaporated to dryness in a platinum dish and the residue ignited at a
moderate temperature. By this treatment magnesium acetate is converted
into the corresponding carbonate, while any magnesium sulphate present
will remain unaltered. The ignited residue is moistened and evaporated
with a little carbonic acid water, then digested with hot water, and
the solution filtered; the insoluble magnesium carbonate remains
upon the filter, the sulphate going in solution; the precipitate is
thoroughly washed. After removing the traces of lime possibly present,
the amount of magnesia contained in the filtrate is determined as
pyrophosphate, from the weight of which the proportion of free
sulphuric acid originally contained is calculated. The presence of
metallic impurities in vinegar is detected by means of the usual
reagents, such as hydrosulphuric acid and ammonium sulphide. In
addition to water and sulphuric acid, the most common adulterants of
vinegar are capsicum, sulphurous acid and various colouring matters.
The presence of capsicum and other acrid substances is usually revealed
by the pungent odour produced upon burning the solid residue obtained
by the evaporation of the sample to dryness, and by the peculiar
taste of the residue. Sulphurous acid is sometimes detected by its
characteristic odour; its determination is described on p. 177.

Caramel is recognised by extracting the solid residue with alcohol,
and evaporating the solution to dryness; in its presence, the residue
now obtained will possess a decidedly dark colour, and a bitter taste.
Fuchsine, which is said to have been employed for colouring vinegar,
is detected by the tests mentioned under Wine.

As already stated, a very large proportion of vinegar is made in the
United States from spirituous liquors. It is probable that fully 90
per cent. of the total production is obtained by the acetification of
whisky. Much of this product is mixed with cider vinegar, or simply
coloured with caramel, and then put on the market as apple vinegar. It
is certain that the manufacturers of whisky vinegar, who are permitted
by law to make “low wines” on their premises, without being subjected
to the usual Internal Revenue Tax, are frequently enabled to perpetrate
a fraud on the Government by disposing of the spirits so produced to
the whisky trade, instead of converting it wholly into vinegar. To so
great an extent is this practice carried on, that many of the cider
vinegar producers have found it impossible to successfully compete with
the less scrupulous manufacturers. Whisky vinegar is nearly colourless,
usually possesses a greater strength than cider vinegar, and is free
from malic acid. Cider vinegar exhibits a light-brownish colour and
a characteristic odour. Some of the differences between these two
varieties are shown by the following results, obtained by the author by
the examination of samples of pure apple and whisky vinegar, fresh from
the factories:--

  -------------------------------+--------------+---------------
                                 |Cider Vinegar.|Whisky Vinegar.
  -------------------------------+--------------+---------------
  Specific gravity               |  1·0168      |    1·0107
                                 |              |
  Specific gravity of distillate}|  0·9985      |    0·9973
    from neutralised sample     }|              |
  Acetic acid                    |  4·66 p. c.  |    7·36 p. c.
  Total solids                   |  2·70   „    |    0·15   „
  Mineral ash                    |  0·20   „    |    0·038  „
  Potassa in ash                 |Considerable  |     None
  Phosphoric acid in ash         |Considerable  |     None
                                 |              |
  Heated with Fehling’s solution}|Copious       |} No reduction
                                }|  reduction   |}
                                 |              |
  Treated with basic lead       }|Flocculent    |} No precipitate
    acetate                     }|  precipitate |}
  -------------------------------+--------------+----------------

Naturally the addition of caramel or cider vinegar to whisky vinegar
would greatly affect the above tests.

Attempts made to differentiate between the two samples by means of
qualitative reactions for aldehyde and malic acid were not sufficiently
distinctive in their results to be of much value.

It has been suggested that the presence of _nitrates_ in vinegar would
point to its origin from spirits. The apple vinegar manufacturer,
however, frequently finds his product above the standard, in which case
he reduces its strength by adding water, thus rendering this test of
little or no avail.

Regarding the addition of mineral acids to vinegar in the United
States, it is satisfactory to note that, of a large number of samples
tested by the New York City Vinegar Inspector during the past year, not
a single sample was found to contain these adulterants.

Fermented infusions of molasses, “black strap,” etc., are occasionally
employed in the manufacture of vinegar. The product obtained from these
sources has been found in some instances to contain acrid and probably
noxious ingredients.

FOOTNOTES:

[133] Archiv. der Pharm., 1876, p. 193.

[134] Pharm. Centralb., N.F. 7, p. 292.

[135] Dingl. Poly. Journ., 256, p. 129.



PICKLES.


The examination of pickles naturally includes a determination of the
character of the vinegar used in their preparation. This is made by
the methods just described. The practice of imparting a bright green
colour to pickles which have become bleached by long preservation in
brine or by other means, is doubtless still prevalent, and calls for
a brief notice. The greening of pickles is effected either by the
direct addition of cupric sulphate to the water in which they are
heated, or by introducing some form of metallic copper into the bath.
Alum is stated to be also occasionally employed for the same purpose.
The presence of copper is readily detected by incinerating a rather
considerable quantity of the pickles, treating the ash with a little
nitric acid and adding an excess of ammonium hydroxide to the solution,
when, in presence of the metal, a blue coloration will be produced.
The quantitative estimation of copper is made by boiling the residue,
obtained by the evaporation of the vinegar or the incineration of the
pickles, with dilute nitric acid, adding a small quantity of sulphuric
acid and expelling the excess of nitric acid by evaporating nearly to
dryness. The solution is next diluted with water, filtered, and the
filtrate placed in a platinum capsule. The copper is then deposited by
electrolysis. In the Report of the Brooklyn Board of Health for the
year 1885, a case is recorded where a child ate a portion of a pickle
coloured with cupric sulphate (containing an estimated quantity of 2½
grains of the salt), with fatal results.



OLIVE OIL.


Olive Oil is extracted from the pericarp of the fruit of the _Olea
Europea_. When pure, it exhibits a pale yellow or greenish colour,
has a specific gravity of 0·9176, and possesses a faint, pleasant
odour and a bland and agreeable taste. It is insoluble in water, very
slightly in alcohol, but dissolves in about 1½ parts of ether. Olive
oil boils at 315°, and begins to deposit white granules at 10°; at 0°,
it solidifies to a solid mass which, by pressure, may be separated
into tripalmetine and trioleine. Upon saponification, it is decomposed
into oleic, palmetic, and stearic acids and glycerine. The best-known
varieties of olive oil met with in commerce, in the order of their
quality, are--Provence, Florence, Lucca, Genoa, Gallipoli, Sicily, and
Spanish.[136]

Owing to the high price of the pure article, and perhaps to the
difficulty experienced in detecting foreign admixtures, olive oil is
probably more extensively adulterated than any substance of general
consumption. The oils most employed as adulterants are those of
cotton-seed, poppy, pea-nut, sesamé, rape-seed, arachis, and lard.
Although the subject of the adulteration of olive oil has received the
attention of numerous chemists, including several of exceptionally high
standing, the results obtained, while of service in indicating the
presence of some foreign oil, are unfortunately often of but little
use in the positive identification of the particular adulterant used.
Of the many methods of examination that have been suggested, the
following are the most satisfactory:--

1. _Specific gravity._--The density of olive oil is lower than
that of the majority of the oils with which it is mixed, and it is
sometimes possible to detect the presence of the latter by means of
this property, especially when they are contained in a considerable
proportion. Cotton-seed oil differs more in specific gravity than the
other oils generally employed as adulterants. Donny[137] applies the
test by placing in the suspected sample a drop of olive oil of known
purity which has been dyed with ground alkanet root, and observing
whether it remains stationary. A more satisfactory method is to
determine the density by the gravity bottle. The following tabulation
gives the densities (at 15°) of olive and several other oils liable to
be met with as admixtures:--

  Olive oil         ·914 to ·917
  Poppy oil         ·924 „  ·927
  Cotton-seed oil   ·922 „  ·930
  Sweet almond oil  ·914 „  ·920
  Arachis oil       ·916 „  ·920
  Colza oil         ·914 „  ·916
  Sesamé oil        ·921 „  ·924
  Rape-seed oil     ·914 „  ·916
  Lard oil          ·915

2. _Solidifying point._--Attempts have been made to utilise the fact
that some of the oils added to olive congeal at a lower temperature
than the pure oil. Thus, cotton-seed oil solidifies at -22°, ground-nut
oil at -33°, poppy at -18°.

3. _Elaidin and colour tests._--Pure olive oil is converted into a
solid mass when treated with various oxidising agents, the change being
retarded by the presence of some of its adulterants. The test may be
made in several ways:--

(_a_) Ten grms. of the sample are shaken with 5 grms. of nitric acid
(sp. gr. 1·40) and 1 grm. of mercury, and the colour produced and time
required for solidification noticed. In this manner the following
results have been obtained:--

  ------------+----------------------+-----------------
  Oil.        | Coloration.          | Minutes for
              |                      | Solidification.
  ------------+----------------------+-----------------
  Olive       | Pale yellowish green |      60
  Almond      | White                |      90
  Arachis     | Pale reddish         |     105
  Rape        | Orange               |     200
  Cotton-seed | Orange red           |     105
  Sesamé      | Yellowish orange     |     150
  Beech-nut   | Reddish orange       |     360
  Poppy       | Red                  | Remains fluid.
  ------------+----------------------+-----------------

(_b_) Or a few pieces of copper foil are added to a mixture of equal
parts of the oil and nitric acid, the liquor occasionally stirred, and
then set aside. If the oil be pure, it will be converted into a nearly
white buttery mass in from three to six hours; sesamé oil yields a red,
cotton and rape-seed a brown, and beech-nut a reddish-yellow colour,
the solidification being delayed from 10 to 20 hours, while poppy oil
fails to solidify at all.

(_c_) Nine parts of the sample are oxidised by heating with one part
of concentrated nitric acid, the mixture being well stirred; pure
olive oil forms a hard, pale-yellow mass in the course of two hours;
seed oils (including cotton-seed) turn orange-red in colour and do not
become solid in the same time or manner.

(_d_) A portion of the sample is well mixed with one-fourth of its
weight of chromic acid; if pure, the oil will be converted into an
opaque mass.

(_e_) Introduce 2 c.c. of the sample into a narrow graduated glass
cylinder, add 0·1 gramme potassium dichromate, next 2 c.c. of a mixture
of sulphuric and nitric acids, shake well, and then add 1 c.c. of
ether; shake again and allow the mixture to stand at rest. Lively
effervescence and evolution of nitrous fumes soon take place, and the
oil rises to the surface, showing a characteristic coloration. Olive
oil exhibits a green colour, whereas in presence of 5 per cent. of
sesamé, arachis, cotton-seed, or poppy oil, the colours will vary from
greenish-yellow to yellow or yellowish red. The coloration is more
readily observed upon agitating the mixture with water and, setting it
aside for a short time.

(_f_) Several portions of the oil are placed upon a porcelain slab and
separately treated with a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid,
nitric acid, and a solution of potassium dichromate in sulphuric acid,
and notice taken of the colours produced, comparative tests being
simultaneously made with olive oil of undoubted purity.

(_g_) The presence of sesamé oil is readily detected by the formation
of a deep green colour when the oil is agitated with a mixture of equal
parts of nitric and sulphuric acid.

(_h_) Upon mixing samples containing cotton-seed oil with an equal
volume of nitric acid (40° B.) a coffee-like colour is produced. Olive
oil gives a pale green, rape and nut, a pale rose, and sesamé oil a
white-coloured mixture.

The presence of rape- and cotton-seed oils may also be detected as
follows:--Dissolve 0·1 gramme silver nitrate in a very little water,
and add about 4 c.c. of absolute alcohol. This solution is added to
the sample of olive oil to be tested, the mixture well shaken and put
aside for one or two hours; it is then to be heated for a few minutes.
If cotton-seed or rape-seed oil is present, the oily stratum which
separates on standing will exhibit a brownish-red or blackish colour,
due to the reduction of silver. Olive oil fails to cause an appreciable
coloration. Experiments made by the author with samples of olive oil
containing 10 per cent. of cotton-seed and rape-seed oils furnished
the following results:--On standing one hour, without heating, the
mixture containing cotton-seed oil showed a slightly dark colour,
that adulterated with rape-seed oil a decidedly dark colour; upon the
application of heat, the former exhibited a dark-red colour, while the
latter turned quite black.

_Maumené’s test._--This test is founded upon the fact that the
elevation of temperature caused by mixing olive oil with strong
sulphuric acid is considerably less than that produced with the oils
commonly employed as its adulterants. With these latter an evolution
of sulphurous acid generally takes place, which is not the case with
pure olive oil. The best method of procedure is as follows:--10 c.c. of
sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1·844) are gradually added to 50 grammes of the
sample, the mixture being constantly stirred with a small thermometer,
and observations made of the maximum increase of temperature produced,
as well as of the evolution of gas. When treated in this manner,
genuine olive oil causes an elevation of about 42°; that given by
various other oils, often added to it, ranges from 52° to 103°, and
it is frequently possible to recognise their presence in admixtures
by the high temperature produced. The following are the increases
of temperature observed by L. Archbutt:--olive, 41-45; rape, 55-64;
arachis, 47-60; sesamé, 65; cotton-seed (crude) 70; (refined), 75-76;
poppy-seed, 86-88; menhaden, 123-128. In the Paris Municipal Laboratory
an acid of 1·834 sp. gr. is used, and the following heating powers are
regarded as standards:--For olive oil, 55·5°; for cotton-seed, 69·5°
for nut, 62°; for sesamé, 66°; for poppy oil, 73°.

The application of Hubl’s test for butter (see p. 75) is one of the
most useful means for the detection of foreign oils in olive oil. The
iodine absorption number of the pure oil is considerably below that of
its most common adulterants.

The prevalence of the adulteration of olive oil has been abundantly
demonstrated. Of 232 samples examined by the New York and Massachusetts
State Boards of Health, 165 (71 per cent.) were spurious. It is a
notorious fact that large quantities of cotton-seed oil are exported
from the United States to France and Italy, much of which returns home
under the guise of the genuine product of the olive.

FOOTNOTES:

[136] It has been stated that American olive oil of superior excellence
is made in the States of N.C., Miss, and Cal.; but this product does
not, as yet, appear to be generally known on the New York market.

[137] Frens. Zeitsch. 3, 1864, p. 513.



MUSTARD.


Mustard is the product obtained by crushing and sifting the seeds of
_Sinapis nigra_ and _Sinapis alba_, of the genus Brassicaceæ. In the
manufacture of the condiment, both the black and white seeds are used.
According to analyses made by Piesse and Stansell,[138] fine grades of
the two varieties of mustard possess the following composition:--

  --------------------+--------------+--------------
                      |Black Mustard.|White Mustard.
  --------------------+--------------+--------------
                      |   per cent.  |   per cent.
  Moisture            |     4·52     |     5·78
  Fixed oil or fat    |    38·02     |    35·74
  Cellulose           |     2·06     |     4·15
  Sulphur             |     1·48     |     1·22
  Nitrogen            |     5·01     |     4·89
  Albuminoids         |    30·25     |    30·56
  Myrosin and albumen |     6·78     |     6·67
  Soluble matter      |    32·78     |    36·60
  Volatile oil        |     1·50     |     0·04
  Potassium myronate  |     5·36     |      ..
  Ash                 |     4·84     |     4·31
  Soluble ash         |     0·98     |     0·55
  --------------------+--------------+------------

Clifford Richardson regards the following proportions of the more
prominent constituents of pure mustard flour as a basis for detecting
adulterations:--

                    Per cent.
  Water           5·00 to 10·00
  Ash             4·00 „   6·00
  Fixed oil      33·00 „  37·00
  Volatile oil    0·25 „   1·00
  Crude fibre     0·50 „   2·00
  Nitrogen        4·50 „   6·00

The following results were obtained by Messrs. Waller and Martin from
the examination of 14 samples of very low grade dry mustard, as found
on the New York market:[139]--

                           Per cent.
  Moisture, ranged from  5·43 to 9·86
  Fixed oil     „   „    6·81 „ 22·56
  Total ash     „   „    2·05 „ 16·05
  Soluble ash   „   „    0·15 „  2·90
  Insoluble ash „   „    1·69 „ 13·15

Eight samples were coloured with turmeric, 4 with Martius’ yellow, 12
contained starch, and 5 showed the presence of calcium sulphate.

The article usually sold as mustard is a mixture of mustard farina,
prepared from different varieties of the seed, with wheaten flour
or starch, and turmeric. It is claimed by the manufacturers that
pure mustard possesses too acrid a taste to be suitable for use as
a condiment; and its admixture with the foregoing substances is so
generally resorted to and recognised, that the New York State Board of
Health, in 1883, legally sanctioned the practice, provided the fact
is distinctly stated upon the label of the packages. Other prevalent
forms of sophistication consist in the partial extraction of the
fixed oil from the mustard before its introduction on the market,
and in the addition of cocoa-nut shells, _terra alba_, and “Martius’
yellow” (potassium dinitronaphthalate). The latter colouring matter is
specially objectionable, being poisonous in its action. The presence of
organic admixtures is usually recognised upon a microscopic examination
of the sample. The anatomical structure of mustard seed is described
by Fluckigen and Hamburg in ‘Pharmacographia.’ Wheaten flour or starch
is readily identified by the iodine test. The following methods are
employed for the detection of turmeric:--

1. A portion of the sample is agitated with castor oil and filtered. In
case turmeric is present, the filtrate will exhibit a marked greenish
fluorescence.

2. Upon treating the suspected sample with ammonium hydroxide, an
orange-red colour is produced in presence of turmeric. Or, the mustard
is boiled with methylic alcohol, the extract filtered, evaporated to
dryness, and the residue treated with hydrochloric acid; if turmeric
be present, an orange-red coloration takes place, which changes to a
bluish-green upon adding an excess of sodium hydroxide. In addition
to the above qualitative tests, valuable indications regarding the
purity of mustard are to be obtained by the determination of the
proportions of fixed oil, sulphur, and ash contained in the sample
under examination.

_Fixed Oil._--The amount of fixed oil is estimated by digesting
a weighed portion of the mustard with ether in a closed vessel,
filtering, and determining the weight of the residue left upon
evaporating the ethereal solution to dryness over the water-bath. The
oil possesses a specific gravity ranging from 0·915 to 0·920. The
percentage of fixed oil in pure mustard is very considerable (usually
over 34 per cent.), whereas the substances commonly added contain but
a very small quantity. In case wheaten flour has been employed as an
adulterant, the proportion of pure mustard (_x_) in a mixed sample, can
be approximately calculated by the following formulæ, in which _y_ is
the fixed amount of oil contained.[140]

    (33·9_x_) / 100 + 1·2(100 - _x_) / 100 = _y_,

    36·7_x_ / 100 + 2·(100 - _x_) / 100 = _y_.

In the absence of flour, a low percentage of fixed oil indicates the
presence of exhausted mustard cake.

_Sulphur._--Blyth determines the total sulphur by oxidation with fuming
nitric acid, diluting the liquid considerably with water, filtering and
precipitating the sulphates formed by means of barium chloride. The
proportion of sulphates (in terms of barium sulphate) found in the
ash is to be deducted from the weight of the precipitate obtained; the
remainder, multiplied by 0·1373, gives the amount of sulphur present
in organic combination, and, as the quantity contained in this form in
mustard is far greater than in any of the substances employed for its
adulteration, the estimation is frequently very useful.

_Ash._--The amount of ash is determined in the usual manner, _i. e._ by
the incineration of a weighed portion in a platinum capsule. Genuine
mustard contains about 5 per cent. of ash, of which nearly 1 per cent.
is soluble in water. In presence of inorganic impurities, the quantity
of ash is naturally increased, while a proportion under 4 per cent. is
usually considered an indication of organic admixture.

The composition of the ash of mustard seed is given below:--

                   Per cent.
  Potassa            16·15
  Lime               19·24
  Magnesia           10·51
  Ferric oxide        0·99
  Phosphoric acid    39·92
  Sulphuric acid      4·92
  Chlorine            0·53
  Silica              2·48

The adulteration of mustard is very extensively practised. Of 18
samples bought at random in the shops and tested for the New York State
Board of Health, 12 were found to be impure; of 88 samples, examined
in the year 1884 by the Massachusetts State Board, 20 were compounds
(labelled as such, but in a manner designed to deceive the purchaser).
37 were adulterated with flour, turmeric, and, in some cases, with
cayenne, and 31 were found to be pure; in 1885, 211 samples were
tested, of which 124 were sophisticated; of 27 samples tested by the
National Board of Health, 21 contained foreign admixtures, consisting
chiefly of wheat or flour and turmeric, but also including corn-starch,
rice, cayenne, and plaster of Paris.

FOOTNOTES:

[138] ‘Analyst,’ 1880, p. 161.

[139] ‘Analyst,’ ix. p. 166.

[140] Blyth, op. cit.



PEPPER.


Black Pepper is the dried unripe berry of _Piper nigrum_; white
pepper, which is much less in use, being the same fruit deprived of
its outer skin by maceration in water and friction. The more important
constituents of pepper are an alkaloid (piperin), the volatile oil, and
the resin, and upon these ingredients its value as a condiment depends.
The partial composition of genuine pepper, as given by Blyth, is shown
below:--

  -----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+-------------------
             |         |         |         |         |       Ash.
             |         |         |         |Aqueous  +---------+---------
    Variety. |Moisture.| Piperin.| Resin.  |Extract. |Soluble. | Total.
  -----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
             |per cent.|per cent.|per cent.|per cent.|per cent.|per cent.
  Penang     |  9·53   |  5·57   |  2·08   | 18·33   |  2·21   |  4·18
  Tellicherry| 12·90   |  4·67   |  1·70   | 16·50   |  3·38   |  5·77
  Sumatra    | 10·10   |  4·70   |  1·74   | 17·59   |  2·62   |  4·31
  Malabar    | 10·54   |  4·63   |  1·74   | 20·37   |  3·45   |  5·19
  -----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------

The percentages of piperin, resin, extract, and ash are calculated on
the sample dried at 100°. König’s analysis of pepper is as follows:--

                                  Per cent.
  Water                             17·01
  Nitrogenous substances            11·99
  Volatile oil                       1·12
  Fat                                8·82
  Other non-nitrogenous substances  42·02
  Cellulose                         14·49
  Ash                        4·57 to 5·00

Heisch[141] has analysed several varieties of pure and commercial
pepper, with the following results:--

  -------------------+--------------------------------------------------
                     |Water.
                     |     +-----+--------------------------------------
                     |     |Total|Ash Soluble in Water.
                     |     |Ash. |     +--------------------------------
                     |     |     |     |Ash Soluble in Acid.
                     |     |     |     |    +---------------------------
                     |     |     |     |    |Ash Insoluble.
                     |     |     |     |    |     +---------------------
                     |     |     |     |    |     |Alkalinity
                     |     |     |     |    |     |  as      +----------
                     |     |     |     |    |     |K_{2}O.   |Piperin.
                     |     |     |     |    |     |    +-----+-----+
                     |     |     |     |    |     |    |  Alcoholic|
                     |     |     |     |    |     |    |   Extract.|
                     |     |     |     |    |     |    +-------+   |
                     |     |     |     |    |     |    |Starch.|   |
                     |     |     |     |    |     |    |     +-+   |
                     |     |     |     |    |     |    |     |     |
  -------------------+-----+-----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+----
                     |p.c. |p.c. |p.c. |p.c.|p.c. |p.c.|p.c. |p.c. |p.c.
                    {| 9·22| 4·35|1·54 |1·51|0·36 |0·72|48·53|10·47|4·05
  Black berry       {|  to |  to | to  | to | to  | to |  to |  to | to
                    {|14·36| 8·99|3·34 |3·83|4·38 |1·57|56·67|16·20|9·38
                     |     |     |     |    |     |    |     |     |
                    {|13·67| 1·28|0·217|0·84|0·22 |0·  |76·27| 9·23|5·13
  White berry       {|  to |  to | to  | to | to  | to |  to |  to |to
                    {|17·32| 8·78|0·618|2·80|0·69 |0·22|77·68| 9·73|6·14
                     |     |     |     |    |     |    |     |     |
  Fine ground (white)|13·90| 1·58|0·16 |0·90|0·52 |0·0 |75·31|10·66|4·51
  Long pepper        |12·15|13·48|2·28 |5·52|5·68 |0·53|58·78| 8·29|1·71
  Adulterated ground |11·12|14·70|2·02 |4·07|8·61 |0·78|35·85|11·57|2·02
  -------------------+-----+-----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----

The same authority regards 50 per cent. of starch as the minimum
standard for unadulterated pepper. The granules of pepper-starch are
characterised by their exceedingly small size, being only about ·008
mm. in diameter.

The proportion of ash in genuine pepper seldom exceeds 7 per cent., of
which not over 1/10th should consist of sand; but in the commercial
article, the total ash often approximates 10 or 12 per cent., 40 or 50
per cent. of which is sand and other insoluble substances.

  COMPOSITION OF PEPPER ASH.

  Potassa            31·36
  Soda                4·56
  Magnesia           16·34
  Lime               14·59
  Ferric oxide        0·38
  Phosphoric acid    10·85
  Sulphuric acid     12·09
  Chlorine            9·52

The list of adulterations used as admixtures to pepper, as well as
to most other ground condiments and spices, is quite extensive, and
includes such cheap and neutral substances as ship-bread, corn, ground
cocoanut shells, beans, peas, hulls of mustard seed, sand, etc.,
etc. It is stated that in England large quantities of preparations
consisting of linseed-meal, mustard husks and rice-meal, known to the
trade respectively as P.D., H.P.D., and W.P.D., are very generally
employed in the adulteration of pepper. P.D. (pepper-dust), would
appear to also signify the sweepings collected from pepper factories,
and sometimes fortified with cayenne, the manufacture of which article
has given rise to a special industry. It is utilised as a diluent of
the various spices, the sophisticated products being sold as “P.D.
pepper,” “P.D. cloves,” “P.D. cinnamon,” etc. Unfortunately the
character of most of the adulterants of pepper, as of other spices,
is such, that little assistance is afforded the analyst by chemical
tests. A microscopic examination of the suspected sample furnishes far
more trustworthy information and should in all instances be employed,
comparative observations being made with an article of known purity.

The appearance of several of the starch granules of various flours
often found in adulterated condiments and spices is represented in
Plate IX.

In the special case of pepper, it is of advantage to make chemical
determinations of the moisture, ash, piperin and resin.

_Moisture._--The proportion of moisture is estimated by the ordinary
method of drying a weighed portion of the pepper in a platinum capsule
at 100°, and noting the loss in weight sustained.

_Ash._--The dry sample is incinerated, and the amount of mineral
residue determined. As already intimated, the proportion of sand
present is of especial import.

_Piperin and Resin._--The pepper is repeatedly digested with absolute
alcohol, the mixture filtered and the filtrate evaporated to dryness
over a water-bath. The extract is weighed and then treated with sodium
hydroxide solution, in which the resin is soluble. The alkaline liquid
is then removed, and the remaining piperin dissolved in alcohol, the
solution filtered, evaporated to dryness, and the weight of the residue
determined. The proportion of piperin in unadulterated pepper ranges
from 4·5 to 5·5 per cent., that of resin from 1·7 to 2 per cent.

Niederstadt,[142] from the results of his investigations, concludes,
that genuine pepper should yield as much as 7·66 per cent. of piperin,
and employs this factor for estimating the purity of mixtures; thus, a
sample adulterated with palm kernels and husks, to the extent of about
80 per cent., contained but 1·62 per cent. of piperin.

Pepper contains a greater proportion of starch than some of the
substances employed in its adulteration. The following method,
suggested by Lenz,[143] may be used for the determination of this
constituent:--4 grammes of the sample are digested for several hours
in a flask with 250 c.c. of water, with occasional shaking, and the
decoction decanted upon a filter. The residue is washed and returned to
the flask, which is filled with water to a volume of 200 c.c., 20 c.c.
of hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1·121) are added, the flask connected
with an ascending Liebig’s condenser, and heated on the water-bath for
three hours. After cooling, the contents of the flask are filtered into
a half-litre flask, and the filtrate carefully neutralised with sodium
hydroxide and diluted up to the 500 c.c. mark. It is finally tested by
Fehling’s solution. The clarification of the hot solution is assisted
by the addition of a few drops of zinc chloride. Lenz obtained by this
process the following percentages of sugar, calculated on the ash-free
substances:--

  Black pepper   52
  White pepper   60
  Palm-nut meal  22·6
  Pepper husks   16·3

The application of this method to the examination of commercial
American peppers, when they contain as adulterants substances rich
in starch, is obviously of little value. A sample of German pepper,
sold as “_Pfefferbruch_,” recently analysed by Hilger,[144] had the
following composition:--

               Per cent.
  Pepper husks    50
  Palm nut meal   30
  Pepper dust     15
  Paprika          1
  Brick-dust       4

_Cayenne Pepper._--Cayenne pepper is the ground berry and pods of
_Capsicum annuum_. Its well-known active properties, which were
formerly ascribed to an acrid oil termed _capsicin_, have lately been
shown to be due to the presence of the crystalline compound _capsaicin_
(C_{9}H_{14}O_{5}), fusing at 55°, and capable of volatilisation at
115° without decomposition. The proportion of moisture in cayenne
pepper is about 12 per cent.; the alcoholic and ethereal extracts
should approximate, respectively, 25 and 9 per cent. The ash ranges
from 5·5 to 6 per cent., of which nearly one-half should be soluble
in water. Strohmer[145] has analysed Hungarian cayenne, known as
“Paprika”; his results were as follows:--

  ------------------------------------+-----------+-----------+---------
                                      |           |           | Entire
                                      |   Seeds.  |   Husks.  | Fruit.
  ------------------------------------+-----------+-----------+---------
                                      | per cent. | per cent. |per cent.
  Water and volatile matter at 100°   |    8·12   |   14·75   |  11·94
  Nitrogenous substances, as protein  |   18·31   |   10·69   |  13·88
  Fat                                 |   28·54   |    5·48   |  15·26
  Ethereal extract (free of nitrogen) |   24·33   |   38·73   |  32·63
  Fibre                               |   17·50   |   23·73   |  21·09
  Ash                                 |    3·20   |    6·62   |   5·20
  Nitrogen                            |    2·93   |    1·71   |   2·22
  ------------------------------------+-----------+-----------+---------

A commercial brand of the same article had the following composition:--

                                    Per cent.
  Volatile at 100°                   12·69
  Nitrogenous substances, as protein 13·19
  Ethereal extract                   13·35
  Ash                                 7·14

The organic adulterants sometimes met with in cayenne (flour, mustard
seed, husks, etc.), are detected by means of the microscope. Among the
mineral substances said to be employed as colouring agents, such as
iron ochre, brick-dust, red lead, and vermilion, the two former are of
more frequent occurrence, and may be recognised upon an examination of
the ash obtained by the incineration of the sample.

An adulterant of pepper, known in the trade as “Poivrette” or
“Pepperette,” has recently made its appearance in England. It forms
a cream-coloured powder, much resembling the inner layer of the
pepper-berry in bulk and cellular structure, is exported from Italy,
and evidently consists of ground olive-stones, as is indicated by the
following analyses, made by J. Campbell Brown:[146]--

  ---------------------+-----+----------+----------+----------+---------
                       |     | Matters  |Albuminous|  Woody   |
                       |     | Soluble  |   and    |  Fibre   |
                       |     |by boiling|  other   |Insoluble |
                       |     |    in    | matters  | in Acid  |
                       |     |  Dilute  | Soluble  |   and    |
                       |Ash. |  Acid.   |in Alkali.| Alkali.  | Starch.
  ---------------------+-----+----------+----------+----------+---------
  White pepperette     |1·33 |  38·32   |  14·08   |  48·48   | None
  Black pepperette     |2·47 |  34·55   |  17·66   |  47·69   |  „
  Ground almond shells |2·05 |  23·53   |  24·79   |  51·68   |  „
  Ground olive stones  |1·61 |  39·08   |  15·04   |  45·38   |  „
  ---------------------+-----+----------+----------+----------+---------

The extent to which the various forms of pepper are fraudulently
contaminated in the United States is illustrated by the fact that, out
of 386 samples of the condiment examined by the chemists of the New
York, Massachusetts and National State Boards of Health, 236 (or about
61 per cent.) were found to be adulterated.

FOOTNOTES:

[141] ‘Analyst,’ 1886, p. 186.

[142] Rép. anal. Chem., iii. p. 68.

[143] Zeit. f. anal. Chem., 1884, p. 501.

[144] Archiv. der Pharm., 233, p. 825.

[145] Chem. Centralb., 1884, p. 577.

[146] ‘Analyst,’ Feb. 1887, p. 23; Mar. p. 47.



SPICES.


As is the case with mustard and pepper, the adulteration of the
ordinary spices is exceedingly prevalent in the United States. Probably
those most subject to admixture, are cloves, mace, cinnamon, allspice,
and ginger. The fact that these condiments are frequently offered for
sale in a ground state furnishes an opportunity to incorporate with
them various cheaper vegetable substances, of which the manufacturer
too often makes use. For the detection of these additions the use of
the microscope is of pre-eminent importance; and, in this regard,
no more useful information could be afforded than by quoting the
following remarks, furnished to the author by Clifford Richardson,
Assistant Chemist of the United States Department of Agriculture, who
has lately made a valuable contribution to the literature of spice
adulteration.[147]

“Spices consist of certain selected parts of aromatic or pungent
plants possessing a characteristic anatomical structure and proximate
composition which, when they have been carefully studied and recorded,
serve as a means of recognising the pure substances when under
examination, and distinguishing them from the different structure and
composition of the adulterants which have been added to them.

“To carry on an investigation of this description a limited knowledge
of botanical physiology (as well as of proximate chemical analysis)
is therefore necessary. For the physiological part, the use of the
microscope, as a means of determining structure, is necessary.

“The structure of the plant parts which constitute the spices and their
adulterants as well, is characterised by the presence or absence of
different forms of cells and of starch, and their relative arrangement.
At least, this is as far as it is necessary to go from the analyst’s
point of view. By studies of sections of pure whole spices one must
become familiar with the forms usually met with in the spices and
those which are prominent in adulterants and be able to recognise the
presence of starch and by the character of the granules to determine
their source.

“The common forms of cells which are met with in the spices, and
with which one should be familiar, are known as parenchyma cells,
sclerenchyma cells, those of fibro-vascular bundles, spiral and dotted
cells, and those of peculiar form in the cortex and epidermis.

“_Parenchyma_ consists of thin-walled cells, such as are well
illustrated in the interior of a corn-stalk and are found in the centre
of the pepper kernel. They are often filled with starch, as in the
cereals and pepper, but at times are without it, as in the mustard seed.

“_Sclerenchyma_, or stone cells, are of a ligneous character, their
walls being greatly thickened. They are commoner in the adulterants
than in the spices, and are well illustrated in the shell of the
cocoa-nut, in clove stems, and a few are seen in pepper hulls.

“_Spiral and Dotted Cells_ are found in woody tissue, and their
characteristics are denoted by their names. They are more commonly
found in adulterants, and their presence in large amounts is
conclusive, in many instances, of impurity. They may be seen in
sections of cedar-wood and in cocoa-nut shells, and to a small extent
in pepper husks.

“_The Fibro-vascular Bundles_, as their name implies, are aggregations
which appear to the eye, in some instances, as threads running through
the tissue of the plant. They are easily seen in the cross-section
of the corn-stalk, and are common in ground ginger, having resisted
comminution from their fibrous nature. They are made up of cells of
various forms.

“_The Cells of the Cortex and Epidermis_ are in many cases extremely
characteristic in form, and of great value for distinguishing the
origin of the substances under examination. They are too numerous in
shape to be particularly described, and are well illustrated in the
husk of mustard, and the pod of _Capsicum_ or cayenne.

“Other forms of tissue are also met with, but not so prominently as to
render it advisable to burden the memory with them at first, or to seek
them before they are met.

“These forms of cells and their combinations which have been described,
present in addition some peculiarities, aside from their structure,
which assist in distinguishing them.

“Parenchyma is optically inactive, and is not stained by iodine
solution, except in so far as its contents are concerned. Sclerenchyma,
the stone cell, is optically active, and in the dark field of the
microscope, with crossed Nicols, appears as shining silvery cells,
displaying their real structure. The fibro-vascular bundles are stained
yellowish brown by iodine, and are thus differentiated from the
surrounding tissue.

“Starch is stained a deep blue, or blue black, by iodine solution,
and since the contents of the parenchyma cells often consist of much
starch, the parenchyma in these cases seems to assume this colour.

“To distinguish some of the peculiarities of structure which have been
mentioned requires some little practice and skill, but not more than is
readily acquired with a short experience. There are however some aids
which should not be neglected.

“In the ground spices it will be found more difficult to recognise
the anatomy of the parts than in a carefully prepared section. The
hardest parts are often the largest particles, and scarcely at all
transparent. The mounting of the material in water or glycerine will
render them more so, but it is necessary to employ some other means of
which two are available. A solution of chloral hydrate in water, 8 to
5, serves after 24 hours to make the particles less obscure. In many
instances also, it has been found advisable to bleach the deep colour
by Schulze’s method, using nitric acid of 1·1 sp. gr. and chlorate of
potash. When this is done, hard tissue is broken down and rendered
transparent where otherwise nothing could be seen. As examples, olive
stones and cocoa-nut shells will serve. Without treatment little can be
made out of their structure.

“Of course, it is plain that the detection of starch must be in a
portion of the material which has received no treatment, and that
progress must be made from the least to the most violent reagents.

“For this work an elaborate microscope is unnecessary. It should, for
work with starches, have objectives of ½ and 1/5 inch equivalent focus,
arrangements for polarising light, and if possible, a condenser system.
Many good stands are to-day made at reasonable prices which will serve
the purpose.”

The microscopical appearance of various starches in polarised light is
shown in Plate IX. Plate XII. exhibits several spices, under polarised
light, in a pure and adulterated state. Those represented are:--

Ginger, pure, and adulterated with foreign starch.

Cinnamon and Cassia; the pure barks, ground, showing the relative
greater frequency of fibro-vascular bundles in the former.

Cayenne, pure, and adulterated with rice starch.

The chemical analysis of spices, although usually of minor importance,
often serves to confirm the results secured by aid of the microscope.
The principal determinations required are the ash, oil, starch, and
sugar. The more common forms of spice adulteration are the following:--

_Cloves._--This spice is said to be sometimes deprived of its volatile
oil before being put on the market. In the genuine article the
proportion of oil seldom falls below 17 per cent. The oil is readily
estimated by distilling the suspected sample with water. The usual
adulterants of ground cloves consist of clove-stems, allspice, flour
and burnt shells.

      PLATE XII.

[Illustration: Ginger Starch.]

[Illustration: Ginger Adulterated.]

[Illustration: Cinnamon.]

[Illustration: Cassia.]

[Illustration: Cayenne.]

[Illustration: Cayenne Adulterated.]

    SPICES.

_Mace._--True mace is frequently mixed with the false spice, the
presence of which is indicated by its dark-red colour. The other
foreign substances most commonly used are turmeric, wheaten flour,
rice, corn meal, and roasted beans.

_Cinnamon._--The chief admixtures to be sought for are cassia, ground
shells, crackers, etc.

_Allspice._--Owing to its cheapness, allspice is probably less
adulterated than the preceding spices. The addition of mustard-husks,
ground shells, and clove stems, and the removal of the volatile oil,
are, however, sometimes practised. The oil in genuine allspice should
amount to about 5 per cent.

_Ginger._--Ginger is likewise comparatively little exposed to
sophistication, although it has occasionally been found coloured with
turmeric, and admixed with corn meal, mustard-husks, cayenne, and clove
stems. It is stated that the manufacturers of ginger extract dispose
of the exhausted article to spice dealers who utilise the impoverished
product for the adulteration of other spices.

_Mixed Spices._--These consist of mixtures of the foregoing, and are
liable to the sophistications practised upon their ingredients, the
addition of the cheaper flours and starches being especially prevalent.

The following table shows the results of the examination of various
spices, lately officially made in the States of New York and
Massachusetts, and by the National Board of Health in Washington:--

  ---------+-----------+--------------+--------------
           |  Number   |    Number    | Percentage
           | Examined. | Adulterated. | Adulterated.
  ---------+-----------+--------------+--------------
  Cloves   |    132    |      60      |    45·5
  Mace     |     79    |      50      |    66·3
  Cinnamon |    149    |      78      |    52·4
  Allspice |     90    |      39      |    43·3
  Ginger   |    157    |      40      |    25·4
  ---------+-----------+--------------+--------------

FOOTNOTE:

[147] Bulletin No. 13, Part 2, Chemical Division; United States
Department of Agriculture.



MISCELLANEOUS.


A variety of articles of food, which do not properly come under any of
the heads previously treated, have, during the past few years, been
found on our markets in an adulterated state. Prominent among these,
are the various kinds of canned meats, fruits, and vegetables, which
have not unfrequently been the cause of serious cases of illness. This
result may be owing to the original bad condition of the goods, or to
fermentation having taken place; but, in many instances, the trouble
has been traced to the improper methods of canning used, resulting in
the contamination of the preserved articles with metallic poisons. The
fact that fermentation has occurred is frequently indicated by the
external appearance of the head of the can, which, in this case, will
be slightly convex, instead of being, as it should be, concave. The
metals most often detected in canned goods are lead, tin, and copper.
The presence of lead is usually due to the use of an impure grade of
tin, known as “terne-plate,” in the manufacture of the cans, or to
carelessness in the soldering process. The origin of copper is probably
to be found in the methods sometimes practised of heating the goods
in vessels made of this metal previous to canning them. The presence
of tin results from the action of partially decomposed fruits and
vegetables upon the can. Preserved fruits and jellies are sometimes put
up in unsealed tin pails or cans, when they almost invariably contain
notable amounts of this metal.

Asparagus seems to be especially liable to contamination with metals,
doubtless owing to the formation of aspartic acid. As much as half a
gramme of tin has been found in a quart can of this vegetable. The
use of zinc chloride as a flux in soldering, has, to the writer’s
knowledge, occasioned the presence of an appreciable proportion of the
salt in canned goods.

Of 109 samples of canned food lately examined by our health officials,
97 contained tin; 39, copper; 4, zinc; and 2 lead. In the analysis of
food of this description, the organic matters are first destroyed by
heating with oxidising agents, such as a mixture of potassium chlorate
and hydrochloric acid. The solution is then evaporated to a small
volume. It is next diluted with water, and tested with sulphuretted
hydrogen, ammonium sulphide, and the usual reagents.

Messrs. Waller and Martin have made an investigation in regard to the
proportion of copper which may be present in various natural grains and
vegetables. Their results show that these plants frequently take up
a minute quantity of this metal from the soil. The amounts of copper
found were as follows:--

                                    Parts of copper
                                      per million.
  Raw wheat and other grains, from    4· to 10·8
  Green cucumbers                            2·5
    „   peas                                 3·1
    „   pea pods                             1·0

The following proportions were detected in canned vegetables:--

  Pickles 29 to 91
  Peas    79 „ 190
  Beans   87 „ 100

Meat extracts, while not subjected to adulteration, have acquired a
popular reputation as articles of food which is not always deserved. As
stimulants and useful adjuncts to food proper for invalids, the value
of these preparations is undoubted. The chemical composition of several
of the best known brands, as determined by American and English health
officials, is given below:--

  --------------------------+------+------------------------------------
                            |Water.|Organic Substance.
                            |      |     +-----+------------------------
                            |      |     |Ash. |Soluble Albumin.
                            |      |     |     |     +------------------
                            |      |     |     |     |Alcoholic Extract.
           Brand.           |      |     |     |     |      +-----------
                            |      |     |     |     |      |Phosphoric
                            |      |     |     |     |      |Acid.
                            |      |     |     |     |      |  +--------
                            |      |     |     |     |      |  |Potassa.
                            |      |     |     |     |      |  +--+
                            |      |     |     |     |      |     |
  --------------------------+------+-----+-----+-----+------+-----+-----
                            | per  | per | per | per | per  | per | per
                            |cent. |cent.|cent.|cent.|cent. |cent.|cent.
  Liebig’s extract          |18·27 |58·40|23·25| 0·05|44·11 |7·83 |10·18
  Berger’s extract of beef  |40·65 |39·85|19·50| 1·11|13·18 | ..  |  ..
  Starr’s extract of beef   |37·00 |55·65| 7·35| 1·10|10·13 | ..  |  ..
  Johnson’s fluid beef      |41·20 |50·40| 8·40| 1·17|15·93 |1·91 | 1·72
  Gaunt’s beef peptone      |37·15 |54·92| 7·43| 0·00|20·14 | ..  |  ..
  London Co.’s extract of   |81·90 |16·80| 1·30|  .. |  ..  | ..  |  ..
   beef                     |      |     |     |     |      |     |
  London Co.’s extract of   |78·00 |19·50| 2·50|  .. |  ..  | ..  |  ..
   mutton                   |      |     |     |     |      |     |
  London Co.’s extract of   |71·60 |27·10| 1·30|  .. |  ..  | ..  |  ..
   chicken                  |      |     |     |     |      |     |
  Brand’s essence of beef   |89·19 | 9·50| 1·31|  .. |  ..  |0·19 | 0·20
  Carnrick’s beef peptonoids| 6·75 |87·75| 5·50|  .. |  ..  |1·27 | 1·33
  Kemmerick’s extract of    |20·95 |60·81|18·24|  .. |  ..  |6·56 | 8·30
   beef                     |      |     |     |     |      |     |
  Murdoch’s liquid food     |83·61 |15·83| 0·56|  .. |  ..  |0·10 | 4·17
  Savory and Moore’s fluid  |27·01 |60·89|12·10|  .. |  ..  |1·49 | 4·20
   meat                     |      |     |     |     |      |     |
  Valentine’s meat juice    |50·67 |29·41|11·52|  .. |  ..  |3·76 | 5·11
  --------------------------+------+-----+-----+-----+------+-----+-----

The factitious manufacture of jellies has lately excited considerable
attention. Many of the more expensive kinds of this article are
imitated by mixtures consisting largely of apple jelly.

A brand of spurious currant jelly, which is manufactured in France, and
has recently made its appearance on the American market, is prepared
from a gelatinous seaweed found in Japan (_Arachnoidiscus Japonicus_),
to which glucose, tartaric acid, and an artificial essence of currants
are added, the desired colour being obtained by means of cochineal and
_Althea roseata_. The product is offered for sale at five cents a pound.

The flour employed in the manufacture of the maccaroni and vermicelli
commonly met with in our larger cities, is not always of good quality.
A more serious form of adulteration consists in the artificial
colouring of these preparations. The substances used for this purpose,
which have been detected by the public authorities, are turmeric,
saffron, and chrome yellow. Meat has been found tinted with aniline
red, and Bologna sausages, coated with iron pigments, have occasionally
been encountered.

The flavouring syrups used in connection with the popular American
beverage, “soda water,” frequently consist almost wholly of glucose and
artificial compound ethers. Dr. Cyrus Edson, of the New York City Board
of Health, has lately directed public notice to the fact that many
manufacturers of soda water use water obtained from artesian wells,
which are driven on their premises, and which, from the nature of the
geological formation of Manhattan Island, are very liable to contain
sewage contamination.



APPENDIX.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.


The literature of Food Adulteration has acquired such extensive
proportions during the past few years, that a complete list of the
memoirs which have been contributed to scientific journals would
alone form a moderately sized volume. In the following pages the more
important periodicals, official reports, etc., are mentioned, together
with a chronological catalogue of the works on Adulteration and allied
subjects.


_Periodicals._

  Zeitschrift für Untersuchung von Lebensmittel. Eichstatt.

  Zeitschrift gegen Verfälschung der Lebensmittel. Leipzig.

  The Analyst. London, from 1877 to date.

  The Food Journal. London, 1870 to 1874.

  The Sanitary Engineer. New York, 1877 to date.

  Food, Water, and Air in relation to the Public Health. London, 1872.

  Jacobson’s Chemisch-techniches Repertorium. 1862 to date.

  Repertorium der Analytischen Chemie. 1881.

  Schäfer’s Wieder die Nahrungsfälscher. Hanover, 1878.

  Biederman’s Centralblatt. 1880 to date.

  Zeitschrift für Analytische Chemie. 1862 to date.

  Wagner’s Jahresberichte. 1880 to date.

  American Analyst. New York, 1884 to date.

  Vierteljahresschrift der Chemie der Nahrungs- und Genussmittel.
    Berlin, 1887.


_Reports._

  Reports of the Select Committee on Adulteration of Food. London,
    1855, 1856, 1872, 1874.

  Canadian Reports on the Adulteration of Food. Ottawa, 1876 to date.

  First and Second Reports of the Municipal Laboratory of Paris.

  Annual Reports of the National Academy of Sciences. Washington, 1882
    to date.

  Annual Reports of the National Board of Health. Washington, 1881 to
    date.

  Annual Reports of the State Boards of Health of New York, New Jersey,
    Massachusetts, and Michigan. 1882 to date.

  Annual Reports of the New York State Dairy Commissioner. 1885-1886.

  Annual Reports of the Inspector of Wines and Liquors to the
    Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 1876 to date.

  Annual Reports of the New York City Board of Health. 1871, 1873.

  Annual Reports of the Brooklyn Board of Health.

  Bulletins of the Chem. Div., U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.


_Special Technical Journals._

  Milk Journal. London.

  Milch-Zeitung.

  La Sucrerie Indigène. Compiègne.

  Jahresbericht über die Untersuchungen und Fortschritte auf dem
    Gesammtgebiete der Zuckerfabrikation.

  Wochenschrift für die Zuckerfabrikanten. Braunschweig.

  Zeitschrift für Zuckerindustrie. Prag.

  The Sugar Cane. Manchester.

  Der Bierbrauer. Leipzig.

  Der Amerikanische Bierbrauer. New York.

  Le Brasseur. La Sedan.

  Bayerischer Bierbrauer. München.

  Norddeutsche Brauer-Zeitung. Berlin.

  The Western Brewer. Chicago and New York.

  The Brewer’s Gazette. New York.

  The Brewer’s Journal. London.

  Le Moniteur de la Brasserie. Bruxelles.

Important articles on Food Adulteration and Analysis are contained in
the following general works of reference:--

  Watts’ Dictionary of Chemistry.
  Spons’ Encyclopædia of Arts, Manufactures, etc.
  Muspratt’s Encyclopædia of Chemistry.
  Lippincott’s Encyclopædia of Chemistry.
  Ure’s Dictionary of Chemistry.
  Gmelin’s Handbook of Chemistry.
  Cooley’s Practical Receipts.
  Wurtz’s Dictionnaire de Chimie.


_General Works, chronologically arranged._

  Boyle, Medicina Hydrostatica. London, 1690.

  Sande, Les falsifications des médicaments dévoilées. La Haye, 1784.

  Fraise, Alimentation publique. Anvers, 1803.

  Favre, De la sophistication des substances médicamenteuses et des
    moyens de la reconnaître. Paris, 1812.

  Accum, A Treatise on Adulteration of Foods and Culinary Poisons.
    London, 1820.

  Ebermayer, Manuel des pharmaciens et des droguistes. Paris, 1821.

  Culbrush, Lectures on the Adulteration of Food and Culinary Poisons.
    Newbury, 1823.

  Branchi, Sulla falsificazione delle sostanze specialmente medicinali
    e sui mezzi atti ad scoprirli. Pisa, 1823.

  Desmarest, Traité des falsifications. Paris, 1827.

  Bussy et Boutron-Charlard, Traité des moyens de reconnaître les
    falsifications des drogues. Paris, 1829.

  Walchner, Darstellung der wichtigsten im bürgerlichen Leben
    vorkommenden Verfälschungen der Nahrungsmittel und Getränke.
    Karlsruhe, 1840.

  ----, Darstellung der wichtigsten, bis jetzt erkannten Verfälschungen
    der Arzneimittel und Droguen. Karlsruhe, 1841.

  Brum, Hilfsbuch bei Untersuchungen der Nahrungsmittel und Getränke.
    Wien, 1842.

  Pereira, A Treatise on Food and Diet. London, 1843.

  Richter, Die Verfälschung der Nahrungsmittel und anderer
    Lebensbedürfnisse. Gotha, 1843.

  Garnier, Des falsifications des substances alimentaires, et des
    moyens de les reconnaître. Paris, 1844.

  Trebuschet, Exposé des recherches du Conseil de Salubrité de Paris.
    Paris, 1845.

  Bertin, Sophistication des substances alimentaires, et moyens de les
    reconnaître. Nantes, 1846.

  Beck, Adulterations of various substances used in Medicine and in the
    Arts. New York, 1846.

  Friederich, Handbuch der Gesundheitspolizei. Ansbach, 1846.

  Duflos, Die wichtigsten Lebensbedürfnisse, ihre Aechtheit, Güte, und
    Verunreinigungen, etc. Breslau, 1846.

  Acam, Traité des falsifications des substances médicamenteuses, &c.
    Anvers, 1848.

  Batilliat, Traité sur les Vins de France. Paris, 1848.

  Mitchell, Treatise on the Adulteration of Food. London, 1848.

  Pedroni, Manuel complet des falsifications des drogues, simples et
    composées. Paris, 1848.

  Normandy, Commercial Handbook of Chemical Analysis. London, 1850.

  Cottereau, Des altérations et des falsifications du vin et des moyens
    physiques et chimiques employés pour les reconnaître. Paris, 1850.

  Dungerville, Traité des falsifications des substances alimentaires,
    etc. Paris, 1850.

  Marcet, Composition, Adulteration, and Analysis of Foods. London,
    1850.

  Tauber, Verfälschung der Nahrungstoffe und Arzneimittel. Wien, 1851.

  Chevallier et Baudrimont, Dictionnaire des altérations et
    falsifications des substances alimentaires, etc., avec l’indication
    des moyens pour les reconnaître. Paris, 1851.

  Büchner, Die Baierische Bierbrauerei und ihre Geheimnisse. Leipzig,
    1852.

  McMullen, Handbook of Wines. New York, 1852.

  Pierce, Examination of Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals, etc., as to their
    Purity and Adulterations. Cambridge, U.S., 1852.

  Fop, Adulteration of Food. London, 1853.

  Moleschott, Lehre der Nahrungsmittel für das Volk. Erlangen, 1853.

  Gille, Falsifications des substances alimentaires. Paris, 1853.

  Babo, Von dem Weinbau. 1855.

  Bureaux, Histoire des falsifications des substances alimentaires.
    Paris, 1855.

  Hassall, Food and its Adulteration. 1855 (there are several later
    editions).

  How, Adulteration of Food and Drink. London, 1855.

  Klencke, Die Nahrungsmittelfrage in Deutschland. Leipzig, 1855.

  Fresenius, Auffindung unorganischer Gifte in Speisen. Braunschweig,
    1856.

  Ganeau, Altérations et falsifications des farines. Lille, 1856.

  Dodd, The Food of London. London, 1856.

  Gall, Praktische Anweisung sehr gute Mittelweine aus unreifen Trauben
    zu erzeugen. Trier, 1856.

  Payen, Des substances alimentaires. Paris, 1856.

  Trommer, Die Kuhmilch in Bezug auf ihre Verdünnung und
    Verfälschungen. Berlin, 1857.

  Dalton, Adulteration of Food. London, 1857.

  Bouchardet et Quevenne, Du Lait. Paris, 1857.

  Müller, Die Chemie des Bieres. Leipzig, 1858.

  Klencke, Die Verfälschung der Nahrungsmittel und Getränke. Leipzig,
    1858.

  Vernois, Du Lait, chez la femme dans l’état de santé et dans l’état
    de maladie. Paris, 1858.

  Petit, Instructions simplifiées pour la constatation des propriétés
    des principales denrées alimentaires. Bordeaux, 1858.

  Müller, Anleitung zur Prüfung der Kuhmilch. Bern, 1858.

  Souillier, Des substances alimentaires, de leur qualité, de leur
    falsification, de leur manutention, et de leur conservation.
    Amiens, 1858.

  Monier, Mémoires sur l’analyse du lait et des farines. Paris, 1858.

  Nägeli, Die Stärkemehlkörner. Zurich, 1858.

  Friederich, Die Verfälschung der Speisen und Getränke. Münster, 1859.

  Adriene, Recherches sur le lait au point de vue de sa composition, de
    son analyse, etc. Paris, 1859.

  Gellée, Précis d’analyse pour la recherche des altérations et
    falsifications des produits chimiques et pharmaceutiques. Paris,
    1860.

  Gerhardt, Précis d’analyse pour la recherche des altérations, etc.
    Paris, 1860.

  Vogel, Eine neue Milchprobe. Stuttgart, 1860.

  Roussen, Falsifications des vins par l’alun. Paris, 1861.

  Brinton, On Food. London, 1861.

  Quarigues, Chemische künstliche Bereitung der moussirenden Weine.
    Weimar, 1861.

  Selmi, Chimica applicata all’igiene alla economica domestica. Milan,
    1861.

  Wenke, Das Bier und seine Vefälschung. Weimar, 1861.

  Henderson, Geschichte des Weines. 1861.

  Hoskins, What we eat, and an account of the most common Adulterations
    of Food and Drink, with simple tests by which many of them may be
    detected. Boston, 1861.

  Muller, A., La composition chimique d’aliments, représenté en
    tableaux coloriés. Brux., 1862.

  Haraszthy, Grape Culture, Wines, and Wine-making. New York, 1862.

  Pohl, Beihilfe zum Gallisiren der Weine. Wien, 1863.

  Moir, Das Bier und dessen Untersuchungen. München, 1864.

  Balling, Die Bereitung des Weines. Prag, 1865.

  Ladray, L’art de faire le vin. Paris, 1865.

  Pasteur, Précis théorique et pratique des substances alimentaires.
    Paris, 1865.

  Druitt, On Wines. London, 1866.

  Huber und Becker, Die pathologisch-histiologischen und
    bacterio-logischen Untersuchungsmethoden, mit einer Darstellung der
    wichtigsten Bacterien. Leipzig, 1866.

  Robinet, Manuel pratique et élémentaire d’analyse chimique des vins.
    Paris, 1866.

  Gerstenbergk, Geheimnisse und Winke für Braumeister. Weimar, 1866.

  Vogel, Die Bieruntersuchung. Berlin, 1866.

  Feser, Der Werth der bestehenden Milchproben für die Milchpolizei.
    München, 1866.

  Brun, Guide pratique pour reconnaître et corriger les fraudes et
    maladies du vin. Paris, 1866.

  Lancaster, Good Food, what it is and how to get it. London, 1867.

  Feuchtwanger, Fermented Liquors, etc. New York, 1867.

  Wiesner, Einleitung in die technisch Mikroscopie. Wien, 1867.

  Gall, Das Gallisiren. Trier, 1867.

  Monier, Guide pratique d’essai et l’analyse des sucres. Paris, 1867.

  Cameron, Chemistry of Food. London, 1868.

  Cammerson, Guide pour l’analyse des matières sucrées. Paris, 1868.

  Pasteur, Étude sur le Vinaigre. Paris, 1868.

  Dubusque, Pratique du Saccharimètre Soleil modifiée. Paris, 1868.

  Wanklyn, Water Analysis. London, 1868.

  Sonnenschein, Handbuch der gerichtlichen Chemie. Berlin, 1869.

  Letheby, On Food, its varieties, chemical composition, etc. London,
    1870.

  Rion, Sämmtliche Geheimnisse der Bierbrauerei. New York, 1870.

  Neubauer, Chemie des Weines. Wiesbaden, 1870.

  Foellix, Gründliche Belehrung über richtiges Gallisiren oder Veredeln
    der Trauben-most in nicht guten Weinjahren durch Zucker- und
    Wasserzusatz. Mainz, 1870.

  Martigny, Die Milch, ihre Wesen und ihre Verwerthung. 1871.

  Huseman, Die Pflanzenstoffen. Berlin, 1871.

  Hager, Untersuchungen. Leipzig, 1871.

  Facen, Chimica bromatologica ossia guida per riconoscere la bonta,
    le alterazioni e la falsificazione delle sostanze alimentari.
    Compilation. Firenze, 1872.

  Griffin, The Chemical Testing of Wines and Spirits. London, 1872.

  Wiesner, Mikroskopische Untersuchungen. Stuttgardt, 1872.

  Thudichum and Dupré, A Treatise on the Origin, Nature, and Varieties
    of Wine. London, 1872.

  Dobell, On Diet. London, 1872.

  Vogel, Nahrungs- und Genussmittel aus dem Pflanzenreiche. Wien, 1872.

  Dragendorff, Untersuchungen aus dem pharmaceutischen Institut in
    Dorpat. St. Petersburg, 1872.

  Thein, Die Weinveredelung und Künstfabrication. Prag, 1873.

  Dochnahl, Die künstliche Weinbereitung. Frankfurt, 1873.

  Bersch, Die Vermehrung und Verbesserung des Weines. Wien, 1873.

  Smith, Ed., Handbook for Inspectors of Nuisances. London, 1873.

  ----, Foods. London, 1873.

  Hager, Untersuchungen. Leipzig, 1873.

  Atcherly, Adulterations of Food. London, 1874.

  Baltzer, Die Nahrungs- und Genussmittel der Menschen. Nordhausen,
    1874.

  Lunel, Guide pratique pour reconnaître les falsifications des
    substances alimentaires. Paris, 1874.

  Walchner, Die Nahrungsmittel des Menschen, ihre Verfälschungen und
    Verunreinigung. Berlin, 1874.

  Marvaud, Les aliments d’épargne. Paris, 1874.

  Smith, Ed., Manual for Medical Officers of Health. London, 1874.

  Hamm, Das Weinbuch. Leipzig, 1874.

  Nägeli, Stärkegruppe. Leipzig, 1874.

  Schmidt, Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Milch. Dorpat, 1874.

  Squibb, Proper Legislation on Adulteration of Food. New York, 1874.

  Wanklyn, Milk Analysis. London, 1874.

  ---- Tea, Coffee, and Cocoa. London, 1874.

  Sharples, Food, and its Adulteration. Preston, 1874.

  Passoz, Notice sur la saccharométrie chimique. Paris, 1874.

  Angell and Hehner, Butter, its Analysis and Adulteration. London,
    1874.

  Cotter, Adulterations of Liquors. New York, 1874.

  Jones, Chemistry of Wines. London, 1874.

  Bowman and Bloxam, Medical Chemistry. London, 1874.

  Springer, Ein Handbuch der Untersuchung, Prüfung und Werthbestimmung
    aller Handswaaren, Natur- und Kunsterzeugnisse, Gifte,
    Lebensmittel, Geheimmittel, etc. Berlin, 1874.

  Attfield, General, Medicinal, and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. London,
    1874.

  Thiel, Nahrungs- und Genussmittel als Erzeugnisse der Industrie.
    Braunschweig, 1874.

  Black, A Practical Treatise on Brewing. London, 1875.

  Dammer, Kurzes chemische Handwörterbuch. 1875.

  Blankenhorn, Bibliotheca œnologica, etc. Heidelberg, 1875.

  Müller, Chemische Zusammensetzung der wichtigsten Nahrungsmittel.
    1875.

  Terrell, Notions pratiques sur l’analyse chimique des substances
    saccharifères. Paris, 1878.

  Prescott, Chemical Examination of Alcoholic Liquors. New York, 1875.

  Pavy, A Treatise on Food and Dietetics. London, 1875.

  Hoppe-Seyler, Handbuch der physiologisch- und pathologisch-chemische
    Analyse. Berlin, 1875.

  Bartling, Die Englische Spiritus-fabrication und der Spiritus auf dem
    Englischen Markte. London, 1876.

  Bastide, Vins sophistiqués. Beriés, 1876.

  Blyth, Dictionary of Hygiene and Public Health. London, 1876.

  Bresgen, Der Handel mit verdorbenen Getränke. Ahrenweiler, 1876.

  Bolley, Handbuch der technisch-chemischen Untersuchungen. Leipzig,
    1876.

  Pasteur, Étude sur la bière. Paris, 1876.

  ---- Recherches des substances amères dans la bière. Paris, 1876.

  Ritter, Des vins coloriés par la fuchsine. Paris, 1876.

  Schutzenberger, On Fermentation. New York, 1876.

  Bauer, Die Verfälschung der Nahrungsmittel in grossen Städten,
    speciell Berlin, etc. Berlin, 1877.

  Grandeau, Traité d’analyse des matières agricoles. Paris, 1877.

  Church, Food. New York, 1877.

  Dennehl, Die Verfälschung des Bieres. Berlin, 1877.

  Feltz, Etude expérimentale de l’action de la fuchsine sur
    l’organisme. Nancy, 1877.

  Gaultier, La sophistication des vins. Paris, 1877.

  Duplais, Traité de la fabrication des liqueurs et de la distillation
    des alcools. Paris, 1877.

  Goppelsroeder, Sur l’analyse des vins. Mulhouse, 1877.

  Hilger, Die wichtigen Nahrungsmittel. Erlangen, 1877.

  Lieberman, Anleitung zur chemischen Untersuchung auf der Gebiete der
    Medicinal-polizei. Stuttgardt, 1877.

  Birnbaum, Einfache Methoden zur Prüfung wichtiger Lebensmittel auf
    Verfälschungen. Karlsruhe, 1877.

  Focke, Massregeln gegen Verfälschung der Nahrungsmittel. Chemnitz,
    1877.

  Hausner, Die Fabrikation der Conserven und Conditen. Leipzig, 1877.

  Lobner, Massregeln gegen Verfälschung der Nahrungsmittel. Chemnitz,
    1877.

  Mierzinski, Die Conservirung der Thier- und Pflanzenstoffe. Berlin,
    1877.

  Wittstein, Taschenbuch des Nahrungs- und Genussmittel-Lehre.
    Nordlingen, 1877.

  Lintner, Lehrbuch der Bierbraurei. 1877.

  Loebner, Massregeln gegen Verfälschung der Nahrungsmittel. Chemnitz,
    1877.

  Reitleitner, Die Analyse des Weines. Wien, 1877.

  Schnarke, Wörterbuch der Verfälschung. Jena, 1877.

  Husson, Du Vin. Paris, 1877.

  Bauer, Die Verfälschung des Nahrungsmittel. Berlin, 1877.

  Stierlin, Ueber Weinverfälschung und Weinfarbung. Bern, 1877.

  ---- Das Bier und seine Verfälschung. Bern, 1877.

  Pfeiffer, Analyse der Milch. Wiesbaden, 1877.

  Koenig, Chemische Zusammensetzung der menschlichen Nahrungsmittel.
    Leipzig, 1878.

  Lang, Die Fabrikation der Künstbutter, Spärbutter, und Butterin.
    Leipzig, 1878.

  Auerbeck, Die Verfälschung der Nahrungs- und Genussmittel. Bremen,
    1878.

  Fox, Sanitary Examination of Water, Air, and Food. 1878.

  Klencke, Illustrirtes Lexicon der Verfälschungen der Nahrungsmittel
    und Getränke. Leipzig, 1878.

  Schmidt, Anleitung zu sanitärisch- und polizeilich-chemischen
    Untersuchungen. Zurich, 1878.

  Birnbaum, Das Brodtbacken. Braunschweig, 1878.

  Bronner and Scoffern, The Chemistry of Food and Diet. London, 1878.

  Kollmann, Anhaltspunkte zur Benutzung bei Bieruntersuchung. Leipzig,
    1878.

  Nessler, Die Behandlung des Weines. Stuttgart, 1878.

  Parkes, A Manual of Practical Hygiene. London, 1878.

  Roth, Die Chemie des Rothweines. Heidelberg, 1878.

  Reischauer, Die Chemie des Bieres. München, 1879.

  Caldwell, Agricultural Qualitative and Quantitative Chemical
    Analysis. New York, 1879.

  Adams, Étude sur les principales méthodes d’essai et d’analyse du
    lait. Paris, 1879.

  Blas, De la présence de l’acide salicylique dans les bières. Paris,
    1879.

  Dietzsch, Die wichtigsten Nahrungs- und Genussmittel. Zurich, 1879.

  Kensington, Analysis of Foods. London, 1879.

  Fleischman, Das Molkerwesen. 1879.

  Bourchadat et Quervenne, Instruction sur l’essai et l’analyse du
    lait. Paris, 1879.

  Robinet, Manuel pratique d’analyse des vins, etc. Paris, 1879.

  Stahlschmidt, Bolley’s Handbuch der technisch-chemischen
    Untersuchungen. Leipzig, 1879.

  Mott, Brief History of the Mégé Discovery. New York, 1880.

  Elsner, Die Praxis des Nahrungs-mittel Chemikers, etc. Leipzig, 1880.

  Hoppe-Seyler, Physiologische Chemie. Berlin. 1880.

  Guckeisen, Die modernen Principien der Ernährung. Köln, 1880.

  Griessmayer, Die Verfälschung der wichtigsten Nahrungs- und
    Genussmittel. 1880.

  Meyer und Finkelnburg, Gesetze der Verkehr mit Nahrungsmittel,
    Genussmittel, etc. Berlin, 1880.

  Pick, Die Untersuchung der im Handel und Gewerbe gebräuchlichsten
    Stoffe. Wien, 1880.

  Märcker, Handbuch der Spiritusfabrikation. 1880.

  Johnson, Chemistry of Common Life. New York, 1880.

  Pratt, Food Adulteration. Chicago, 1880.

  Muter, An Introduction to Pharmaceutical and Medical Chemistry.
    Philadelphia, 1880.

  Flügge, Lehrbuch der hygienischen Untersuchungsmethoden. Leipzig,
    1881.

  Hehner, Alkoholtafeln. Wiesbaden, 1881.

  Medicus, Gerichtlich-chemische Prüfung von Nahrungs- und
    Genussmittel. Würzburg, 1881.

  Nowak, Lehrbuch der Hygiene. Wien, 1881.

  Post, Handbuch der analytischen Untersuchungen zur Beaufsichtigung
    der chemische Grossbetriber. Braunschweig, 1881.

  Tucker, Manual of Sugar Analysis. New York, 1881.

  Blyth, Foods, Composition and Analysis. London, 1882.

  Blochman, Ueber Verfälschung der Nahrungsmittel. Köln, 1882.

  Flick, Die Chemie im Dienst der öffentlichen Gesundheitspflege.
    Dresden, 1882.

  Landolt, Handbook of the Polariscope (trans.). London, 1882.

  Palm, Die wichtigsten und gebräuchlichsten Nahrungsmittel. St.
    Petersburg, 1882.

  Prescott, Proximate Organic Analysis. New York, 1882.

  Bell, James, Chemistry of Food. London, 1883.

  Frankland, Agricultural Chemical Analysis. London, 1883.

  Tracy, Handbook of Sanitary Information. New York, 1884.

  Naquet, Legal Chemistry (trans., 2nd edition). New York, 1884.

  Cornwall, Adulteration of Beer. 1885.

  Husband-Audry, Aids to the Analysis of Food and Drugs. 1884.

  Smee, Milk in Health and Disease. London, 1885.

  Wauters, Prospect d’organisation d’un service de surveillance des
    Denrées alimentaires et Boissons. Paris, 1885.

  Brieger, Untersuchung über Ptomaine. Berlin, 1886.

  Cazeneuve, La coloration des vins par les couleurs de houille. Paris,
    1886.

  Jago, The Chemistry of Wheat, Flour, and Bread. London, 1886.

  Merat et Delens, Dictionnaire Universelle. Paris, 1886.

  Schimper, Anleitung zur mikroskopisch-chemischen Untersuchung der
    Nahrungs- und Genussmittel. Jena, 1886.

  Thomann, Alleged Adulteration of Malt Liquors. New York, 1886.

  Wanklyn, Bread Analysis. London, 1886.

  Benedikt, Analyse der Fette, etc. Berlin, 1886.

  Allen, Commercial Organic Analysis. Philadelphia, 1887.

  Damner, Illustrirtes Lexikon der Verfälschungen und Verunreinigungen
    der Nahrungs- und Genussmittel. Leipzig, 1887.

  Bickerdyke, The Curiosities of Ale and Beer. New York, 1887.

  Moeller, Mikroskopie der Nahrungs- und Genussmittel. Berlin, 1887.

  Offinger, Die Ptomaïne oder Cadaver-Alkaloïde. Wiesbaden, 1887.



LEGISLATION.


The following are the more important and recent laws relating to Food
Adulteration, which have been enacted by American State Legislatures,
and by the United States Government.

The New York State General Law, of 1881, for the prevention of the
adulteration of food and drugs, is as follows:--

 SECTION 1. No person shall, within this State, manufacture, have,
 offer for sale, or sell any article of food or drugs which is
 adulterated within the meaning of this Act, and any person violating
 this provision shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanour, and upon
 conviction thereof, shall be punished by fine not exceeding fifty
 dollars for the first offence, and not exceeding one hundred dollars
 for each subsequent offence.

 2. The term “food,” as used in this Act, shall include every article
 used for food or drink by man. The term “drug,” as used in this Act,
 shall include all medicines for internal and external use.

 3. An article shall be deemed to be adulterated within the meaning of
 this Act:--

   _a._--In the case of drugs.

    1. If, when sold under or by a name recognised in the United States
    Pharmacopœia, it differs from the standard of strength, quality, or
    purity laid down therein.

    2. If, when sold under or by a name not recognised in the United
    States Pharmacopœia, but which is found in some other pharmacopœia
    or other standard work on Materia Medica, it differs materially
    from the standard of strength, quality, or purity laid down in such
    work.

    3. If its strength or purity fall below the professed standard
    under which it is sold.

   _b._--In the case of food or drink.

    1. If any substance or substances has or have been mixed with it
    so as to reduce or lower or injuriously affect its quality or
    strength.

    2. If any inferior or cheaper substance or substances have been
    substituted wholly or in part for the article.

    3. If any valuable constituent of the article has been wholly or in
    part abstracted.

    4. If it be an imitation of, or be sold under the name of, another
    article.

    5. If it consists wholly or in part of a diseased or decomposed,
    or putrid or rotten, animal or vegetable substance, whether
    manufactured or not, or, in the case of milk, if it is the produce
    of a diseased animal.

    6. If it be coloured, or coated, or polished, or powdered, whereby
    damage is concealed, or it is made to appear better than it really
    is, or of greater value.

    7. If it contain any added poisonous ingredient, or any ingredient
    which may render such article injurious to the health of the person
    consuming it: Provided, that the State Board of Health may, with
    the approval of the Governor, from time to time declare certain
    articles or preparations to be exempt from the provisions of this
    Act: And provided further, that the provisions of this Act shall
    not apply to mixtures or compounds recognised as ordinary articles
    of food, provided that the same are not injurious to health and
    that the articles are distinctly labelled as a mixture, stating the
    components of the mixture.

 4. It shall be the duty of the State Board of Health to prepare
 and publish from time to time lists of the articles, mixtures, or
 compounds declared to be exempt from the provisions of this Act in
 accordance with the preceding section. The State Board of Health shall
 also from time to time fix the limits of variability permissible in
 any article of food or drug, or compound, the standard of which is not
 established by any national pharmacopœia.

 5. The State Board of Health shall take cognisance of the interests
 of the public health as it relates to the sale of food and drugs and
 the adulteration of the same, and make all necessary investigations
 and inquiries relating thereto. It shall also have the supervision
 of the appointment of public analysts and chemists, and upon its
 recommendation whenever it shall deem any such officers incompetent,
 the appointment of any and every such officer shall be revoked and
 be held to be void and of no effect. Within thirty days after the
 passage of this Act, the State Board of Health shall meet and adopt
 such measures as may seem necessary to facilitate the enforcement of
 this Act, and prepare rules and regulations with regard to the proper
 methods of collecting and examining articles of food or drugs, and
 for the appointment of the necessary inspectors and analysts; and the
 State Board of Health shall be authorised to expend, in addition to
 all sums already appropriated for said Board, an amount not exceeding
 ten thousand dollars for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of
 this Act. And the sum of ten thousand dollars is hereby appropriated
 out of any moneys in the treasury, not otherwise appropriated, for the
 purposes in this section provided.

 6. Every person selling or offering or exposing any article of food
 or drugs for sale, or delivering any article to purchasers, shall be
 bound to serve or supply any public analyst or other agent of the
 State or Local Board of Health appointed under this Act, who shall
 apply to him for that purpose, and on his tendering the value of the
 same, with a sample sufficient for the purpose of analysis of any
 article which is included in this Act, and which is in the possession
 of the person selling, under a penalty not exceeding fifty dollars for
 a first offence, and one hundred dollars for a second and subsequent
 offences.

 7. Any violation of the provisions of this Act shall be treated and
 punished as a misdemeanour; and whoever shall impede, obstruct,
 hinder, or otherwise prevent any analyst, inspector, or prosecuting
 officer in the performance of his duty shall be guilty of a
 misdemeanour, and shall be liable to indictment and punishment
 therefor.

 8. Any Acts or parts of Acts inconsistent with the provisions of this
 Act are hereby repealed.

 9. All the regulations and declarations of the State Board of Health
 made under this Act from time to time, and promulgated, shall be
 printed in the statutes at large.

 10. This Act shall take effect at the expiration of ninety days after
 it shall become a law.


AMENDMENT of April 29th, 1885.

 SECTION 1. The title of chapter four hundred and seven of the laws
 of eighteen hundred and eighty-one, entitled “An Act to prevent the
 adulteration of food and drugs,” is hereby amended to read as follows:
 “An Act to prevent the adulteration of food, drugs and spirituous,
 fermented or malt liquors in the State of New York.”

 2. Section one of chapter four hundred and seven of the laws of
 eighteen hundred and eighty-one is amended to read as follows:--

 1. No person shall within this State manufacture, brew, distil, have,
 offer for sale or sell any articles of food, drugs, spirituous,
 fermented or malt liquors which are adulterated within the meaning
 of this Act, and any person violating this provision shall be deemed
 guilty of a misdemeanour, and upon conviction thereof, shall be
 punished by fine not exceeding fifty dollars for the first offence,
 and not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisonment for one year,
 or both, for each subsequent offence, and shall in addition thereto
 be liable to a penalty of one hundred dollars for each and every
 offence, to be sued for and recovered in the name of the people of
 the State of New York on complaint of any citizen, one-half of such
 recovery to be paid to the prosecutor of the action and the balance
 shall be paid to the county where such recovery shall be obtained for
 the support of the poor.

 3. Section two is hereby amended to read as follows:--

 2. The term food as used in this Act shall include every article
 of food or drink by man, including teas, coffees, and spirituous,
 fermented and malt liquors. The term drug as used in this Act shall
 include all medicines for internal or external use.

 4. Section three is hereby amended by adding after subdivision seven
 the following: C. In the case of spirituous, fermented and malt
 liquors, if it contain any substance or ingredient not normal or
 healthful to exist in spirituous, fermented or malt liquors, or which
 may be deleterious or detrimental to health when such liquors are used
 as a beverage.

 5. Section five is hereby amended to read as follows:--

 5. The State Board of Health shall take cognisance of the interests
 of the public health as it relates to the sale of food, drugs,
 spirituous, fermented and malt liquors, and the adulteration thereof,
 and make all necessary inquiries relating thereto. It shall have the
 supervision of the appointment of public analysts and chemists, and
 upon its recommendation, whenever it shall deem any such officers
 incompetent, the appointment of any and every such officer shall be
 revoked and be held to be void and of no effect. Within thirty days
 after the passage of this Act, and from time to time thereafter as
 it may deem expedient, the said Board of Health shall meet and adopt
 such measures, not provided for by this Act, as may seem necessary to
 facilitate the enforcement of this Act, and for the purpose of making
 an examination or analysis of spirituous, fermented or malt liquors
 sold or exposed for sale in any store or place of business not herein
 otherwise provided for, and prepare rules and regulations with regard
 to the proper methods of collecting and examining articles of food,
 drugs, spirituous, fermented or malt liquors, and for the appointment
 of the necessary inspectors and analysts. The said Board shall at
 least once in the calendar year cause samples to be procured in public
 market or otherwise, of the spirituous, fermented or malt liquors
 distilled, brewed, manufactured or offered for sale in each and every
 brewery or distillery located in this State, and a test, sample or
 analysis thereof to be made by a chemist or analyst duly appointed
 by said Board of Health. The samples shall be kept in vessels and
 in a condition necessary and adequate to obtain a proper test and
 analysis of the liquors contained therein. The vessels containing
 such samples shall be properly labelled and numbered by the secretary
 of said Board of Health, who shall also prepare and keep an accurate
 and proper list of the names of the distillers, brewers or vendors,
 and opposite each name shall appear the number which is written or
 printed upon the label attached to the vessel containing the sample
 of the liquor manufactured, brewed, distilled or sold. Such lists,
 numbers and labels shall be exclusively for the information of the
 said Board of Health, and shall not be disclosed or published unless
 upon discovery of some deleterious substance prior to the completion
 of the analysis, except when required in evidence in a court of
 justice. The samples when listed and numbered shall be delivered to
 the chemist, analyst or other officer of said Board of Health, and
 shall be designated and known to such chemist, analyst or officer only
 by its number, and by no other mark or designation. The result of the
 analysis or investigation shall thereupon, and within a convenient
 time, be reported by the officer conducting the same to the secretary
 of said State Board of Health, setting forth explicitly the nature
 of any deleterious substance, compound or adulteration which may be
 detrimental to public health and which has been found upon analysis
 in such samples, and stating the number of the samples in which said
 substance was found. Upon such examination or analysis the brewer,
 distiller or vendor in whose sample of spirituous, fermented or malt
 liquor such deleterious substances, compounds or adulterations shall
 be found, shall be deemed to have violated the provisions of this Act,
 and shall be punishable as prescribed in section seven of this Act.

 6. Section six of said chapter four hundred and seven of the laws of
 eighteen hundred and eighty-one is hereby amended to read as follows:--

 6. Every person selling, offering, exposing for sale or manufacturing,
 brewing or distilling any article of food, spirituous, malt or
 fermented liquors, or delivering any such articles to purchasers,
 shall be bound to serve or supply any public analyst or other agent
 of the State or local Board of Health appointed under this Act, who
 shall apply to him for that purpose, and upon his tendering the value
 of the same, with a sample sufficient for the purpose of analysis of
 any article which is included in this Act, and which is in possession
 of the person selling, manufacturing, brewing or distilling the same,
 and any person who shall refuse to serve or supply such sample of
 any article as prescribed herein, or any person who shall impede,
 obstruct, hinder or otherwise prevent any analyst, inspector or
 prosecuting officer in the performance of his duty shall be deemed to
 have violated the provisions of this Act, and shall be punishable as
 prescribed by section seven of this Act.

 7. Section seven of said chapter four hundred and seven of the laws of
 eighteen hundred and eighty-one is hereby amended to read as follows:--

 7. Upon discovering that any person has violated any of the provisions
 of this Act, the State Board of Health shall immediately communicate
 the facts to the district attorney of the county in which the person
 accused of such violation resides or carries on business, and the said
 district attorney, upon receiving such communication or notification,
 shall forthwith commence proceeding for indictment and trial of the
 accused as prescribed by law in cases of misdemeanour.

 8. The State Board of Health shall be authorised to expend, in
 addition to the sums already appropriated for said board, an amount
 not exceeding three thousand dollars, for the purpose of carrying
 out the provisions of this Act, in relation to spirituous, fermented
 or malt liquors. And the sum of three thousand dollars is hereby
 appropriated out of any moneys in the treasury not otherwise
 appropriated and expended for the purposes of this Act.

 9. This Act shall take effect immediately.


 SPECIAL ACT to prevent deception in the sale of dairy products, and
   to preserve the public health, being supplementary to and in aid
   of chapter two hundred and two of the laws of eighteen hundred and
   eighty-four, entitled “An act to prevent deception in sales of dairy
   products.”

    (PASSED April 30, 1885).

 _The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and
 Assembly, do enact as follows_:--

 SECTION 1. No person or persons shall sell or exchange, or expose
 for sale or exchange, any unclean, impure, unhealthy, adulterated or
 unwholesome milk, or shall offer for sale any article of food made
 from the same, or of cream from the same. The provisions of this
 section shall not apply to skim milk sold to bakers or housewives
 for their own use or manufacture, upon written orders for the same,
 nor to skim milk sold for use in the county in which it is produced.
 This provision shall not apply to pure skim cheese made from milk
 which is clean, pure, healthy, wholesome and unadulterated, except
 by skimming. Whoever violates the provisions of this section is
 guilty of a misdemeanour, and shall be punished by a fine of not less
 than twenty-five dollars, nor more than two hundred dollars, or by
 imprisonment of not less than one month or more than six months, or
 both such fine and imprisonment for the first offence, and by six
 months’ imprisonment for each subsequent offence.

 2. No person shall keep cows for the production of milk for market,
 or for sale or exchange, or for manufacturing the same, or cream from
 the same, into articles of food, in a crowded or unhealthy, condition,
 or feed the cows on food that is unhealthy, or that produces impure,
 unhealthy, diseased or unwholesome milk. No person shall manufacture
 from impure, unhealthy, diseased or unwholesome milk, or of cream from
 the same, any article of food. Whoever violates the provisions of
 this section is guilty of a misdemeanour and shall be punished by a
 fine of not less than twenty-five dollars, nor more than two hundred
 dollars, or by imprisonment of not less than one month or more than
 four months, or by both such fine and imprisonment for the first
 offence, and by four months’ imprisonment for each subsequent offence.

 3. No person or persons shall sell, supply or bring to be manufactured
 to any butter or cheese manufactory, any milk diluted with water or
 any unclean, impure, unhealthy, adulterated or unwholesome milk,
 or milk from which any cream has been taken (except pure skim milk
 to skim cheese factories), or shall keep back any part of the milk
 commonly known as “strippings,” or shall bring or supply milk to any
 butter or cheese manufactory that is sour (except pure skim milk to
 skim cheese factories). No butter or cheese manufactories, except
 those who buy all the milk they use, shall use for their own benefit,
 or allow any of their employés or any other person to use for their
 own benefit, any milk, or cream from the milk, or the product thereof,
 brought to said manufactories without the consent of the owners
 thereof. Every butter or cheese manufacturer, except those who buy
 all the milk they use, shall keep a correct account of all the milk
 daily received, and of the number of packages of butter and cheese
 made each day, and the number of packages and aggregate weight of
 cheese and butter disposed of each day, which account shall be open
 to inspection to any person who delivers milk to such manufacturer.
 Whoever violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a
 misdemeanour, and shall be punished for each offence by a fine of not
 less than twenty-five dollars, or more than two hundred dollars, or
 not less than one month or more than six months’ imprisonment, or both
 such fine and imprisonment.

 4. No manufacturer of vessels for the package of butter shall sell or
 dispose of any such vessels without branding his name and the true
 weight of the vessel or vessels on the same, with legible letters
 or figures not less than one-fourth of an inch in length. Whoever
 violates the provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanour,
 and shall be punished for each offence by a fine of not less than
 fifty dollars, nor more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment
 of not less than thirty days or more than sixty days, or by both such
 fine and imprisonment.

 5. No person shall sell, or offer or expose for sale, any milk except
 in the county from which the same is produced, unless each can, vessel
 or package containing such milk shall be distinctly and durably
 branded with letters not less than one inch in length, on the outside,
 above the center, on every can, vessel or package containing such
 milk, the name of the county from which the same is produced; and the
 same marks shall be branded or painted in a conspicuous place on the
 carriage or vehicle in which the milk is drawn to be sold; and such
 milk can only be sold in, or retailed out of a can, vessel, package or
 carriage so marked. Whoever violates the provisions of this section
 shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and shall be punished by a fine of
 not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than two hundred dollars,
 or not less than two months’ or more than four months’ imprisonment,
 or both such fine and imprisonment, for the first offence, and by four
 months’ imprisonment for each subsequent offence.

 6. No person shall manufacture out of any oleaginous substance or
 substances, or any compound of the same, other than that produced from
 unadulterated milk, or of cream from the same, any article designed to
 take the place of butter or cheese produced from pure unadulterated
 milk or cream of the same, or shall sell, or offer for sale, the
 same as an article of food. This provision shall not apply to pure
 skim-milk cheese made from pure skim milk. Whoever violates the
 provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and be
 punished by a fine of not less than two hundred dollars nor more than
 five hundred dollars, or not less than six months or more than one
 year’s imprisonment, or both such fine and imprisonment for the first
 offence, and by imprisonment for one year for each subsequent offence.

 7. No person by himself or his agents or servants shall render or
 manufacture out of any animal fat or animal or vegetable oils not
 produced from unadulterated milk or cream from the same, any article
 or product in imitation or semblance of or designed to take the place
 of natural butter or cheese produced from pure unadulterated milk or
 cream of the same, nor shall he or they mix, compound with, or add
 to milk, cream or butter any acids or other deleterious substance
 or any animal fats or animal or vegetable oils not produced from
 milk or cream, with design or intent to render, make or produce any
 article or substance or any human food in imitation or semblance of
 natural butter or cheese, nor shall he sell, keep for sale, or offer
 for sale any article, substance or compound made, manufactured or
 produced in violation of the provisions of this section, whether such
 article, substance or compound shall be made or produced in this State
 or in any other State or country. Whoever violates the provisions
 of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanour and be punished
 by a fine of not less than two hundred dollars nor more than five
 hundred dollars or not less than six months’ or more than one year’s
 imprisonment for the first offence, and by imprisonment for one year
 for each subsequent offence. Nothing in this section shall impair the
 provisions of section six of this Act.

 8. No person shall manufacture, mix or compound with or add to
 natural milk, cream or butter any animal fats or animal or vegetable
 oils, nor shall he make or manufacture any oleaginous substance not
 produced from milk or cream, with intent to sell the same for butter
 or cheese made from unadulterated milk or cream, or have the same
 in his possession, or offer the same for sale with such intent, nor
 shall any article or substance or compound so made or produced, be
 sold for butter or cheese, the product of the dairy. If any person
 shall coat, powder or colour with annatto or any colouring matter
 whatever, butterine or oleomargarine, or any compounds of the same,
 or any product or manufacture made in whole or in part from animal
 fats or animal or vegetable oils not produced from unadulterated milk
 or cream, whereby the said product, manufacture or compound shall be
 made to resemble butter or cheese, the product of the dairy, or shall
 have the same in his possession, or shall sell or offer for sale
 or have in his possession any of the said products which shall be
 coloured or coated in semblance of or to resemble butter or cheese, it
 shall be conclusive evidence of an intent to sell the same for butter
 or cheese, the product of the dairy. Whoever violates any of the
 provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and be
 punished by a fine of not less than two hundred dollars nor more than
 one thousand dollars. This section shall not be construed to impair or
 affect the prohibitions of sections six and seven of this Act.

 9. Every manufacturer of full-milk cheese may put a brand upon each
 cheese indicating “full-milk cheese,” and the date of the month and
 year when made; and any person using this brand upon any cheese made
 from which any cream whatever has been taken shall be guilty of a
 misdemeanour, and shall be punished for each offence by a fine of not
 less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.

 10. No person shall offer, sell or expose for sale in full packages,
 butter or cheese branded or labelled with a false brand or label as
 to county or state in which the article is made. Whoever violates the
 provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanour, and shall be
 punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five dollars or more than
 fifty dollars, or imprisonment of not less than fifteen days or more
 than thirty days for the first offence, and fifty dollars or thirty
 days’ imprisonment for each subsequent offence.

 11. No person shall manufacture, sell or offer for sale any condensed
 milk, unless the same shall be put up in packages upon which shall be
 distinctly labelled or stamped the name, or brand, by whom or under
 which the same is made. No condensed milk shall be made or offered
 for sale unless the same is manufactured from pure, clean, healthy,
 fresh, unadulterated and wholesome milk, from which the cream has not
 been removed, or unless the proportion of milk solids contained in the
 condensed milk shall be in amount the equivalent of twelve per centum
 of milk solids in crude milk, and of such solids twenty-five per
 centum shall be fat. When condensed milk shall be sold from cans, or
 packages not hermetically sealed, the vendor shall brand or label such
 cans or packages with the name of the county or counties from which
 the same was produced, and the name of the vendor. Whoever violates
 the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and
 be punished by a fine of not less than fifty dollars or more than five
 hundred dollars, or by imprisonment of not more than six months, or
 by both such fine and imprisonment for the first offence, and by six
 months’ imprisonment for each subsequent offence.

 12. Upon the expiration of the term of office of the present
 commissioner, the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of
 the Senate, shall appoint a commissioner, who shall be known as the
 New York State Dairy Commissioner, who shall be a citizen of this
 State, and who shall hold his office for the term of two years, or
 until his successor is appointed, and shall receive a salary of three
 thousand dollars per annum, and his necessary expenses incurred in the
 discharge of his official duties under this Act. Said commissioner
 shall be charged, under the direction of the Governor, with the
 enforcement of the various provisions thereof, and with all laws
 prohibiting or regulating the adulteration of butter, cheese, or milk.
 The said commissioner is hereby authorised and empowered to appoint
 such assistant commissioners and to employ such experts, chemists,
 agents, and such counsel as may be deemed by him necessary for the
 proper enforcement of this law, their compensation to be fixed by
 the commissioner. The said commissioner is also authorised to employ
 a clerk at an annual salary not to exceed twelve hundred dollars.
 The sum of fifty thousand dollars is hereby appropriated, to be paid
 for such purpose out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise
 appropriated. All charges, accounts and expenses authorised by this
 Act shall be paid by the Treasurer of the State upon the warrant of
 the comptroller, after such expenses have been audited and allowed
 by the comptroller. The entire expenses of said commissioner shall
 not exceed the sum appropriated for the purposes of this Act. The
 said commissioner shall make annual reports to the legislature, on
 or before the fifteenth day of January of each year, of his work
 and proceedings, and shall report in detail the number of assistant
 commissioners, experts, chemists, agents, and counsel he has employed,
 with their expenses and disbursements. The said commissioner shall
 have a room in the new capitol, to be set apart for his use by
 the capitol commissioner. The said commissioner and assistant
 commissioners and such experts, chemists, agents, and counsel as they
 shall duly authorise for the purpose, shall have full access, egress,
 and ingress to all places of business, factories, farms, buildings,
 carriages, vessels, and cans used in the manufacture and sale of any
 dairy products or any imitation thereof. They shall also have power
 and authority to open any package, can, or vessel containing such
 articles which may be manufactured, sold, or exposed for sale, in
 violation of the provisions of this Act, and may inspect the contents
 therein and may take therefrom samples for analysis. This section
 shall not affect the tenure of the office of the present commissioner.

 13. Upon the application for a warrant under this Act, the
 certificate of the analyst or chemist of any analysis made by him
 shall be sufficient evidence of the facts therein stated. Every such
 certificate shall be duly signed and acknowledged by such analyst
 or chemist before an officer authorised to take acknowledgments of
 conveyances of real estate.

 14. Courts of special sessions shall have jurisdiction of all cases
 arising under this Act, and their jurisdiction is hereby extended
 so as to enable them to enforce the penalties imposed by any or all
 sections thereof.

 15. In all prosecutions under this Act, one-half of the money shall
 be paid by the court or clerk thereof to the city or county where the
 recovery shall be had, for the support of the poor, except in the city
 and county of New York shall be equally divided between the pension
 funds of the police and fire departments, and the residue shall be
 paid to the Dairy Commissioner, who shall account therefor to the
 Treasury of the State, and be added to any appropriation made to carry
 out the provisions of this Act. All sums of money expended by the
 Dairy Commissioner under the provisions of this Act shall be audited
 and allowed by the Comptroller of the State. Any bond given by any
 officer shall be subject to the provisions of this section.

 16. In all prosecutions under this Act relating to the sale and
 manufacture of unclean, impure, unhealthy, adulterated, or unwholesome
 milk, if the milk be shown to contain more than eighty-eight per
 centum of water or fluids, or less than twelve per centum of milk
 solids, which shall contain not less than three per centum of fat, it
 shall be declared adulterated, and milk drawn from cows within fifteen
 days before, and five days after, parturition, or from animals fed on
 distillery waste, or any substance in the state of putrefaction or
 fermentation, or upon any unhealthy food whatever, shall be declared
 unclean, unhealthy, impure and unwholesome milk. This section shall
 not prevent the feeding of ensilage from silos.

 17. The doing of any thing prohibited being done, and the not doing
 of any thing directed to be done in this Act, shall be presumptive
 evidence of a wilful intent to violate the different sections and
 provisions thereof. If any person shall suffer any violation of the
 provisions of this Act by his agent, servant, or in any room or
 building occupied or controlled by him, he shall be deemed a principal
 in such violation and punished accordingly.

 18. Chapters four hundred and sixty-seven of the laws of eighteen
 hundred and sixty-two, five hundred and forty-four, and five hundred
 and eighteen of the laws of eighteen hundred and sixty-four,
 five hundred and fifty-nine of the laws of eighteen hundred and
 sixty-five, four hundred and fifteen of the laws of eighteen hundred
 and seventy-seven, two hundred and twenty, and two hundred and
 thirty-seven of the laws of eighteen hundred and seventy-eight, four
 hundred and thirty-nine of the laws of eighteen hundred and eighty,
 and two hundred and fourteen of the laws of eighteen hundred and
 eighty-two, are hereby repealed.

 19. If any person shall, by himself or other, violate any of the
 provisions of sections one, two, three, four or five of this Act,
 or knowingly suffer a violation thereof by his agent, or in any
 building or room occupied by him, he shall, in addition to the fines
 and punishments therein described for each offence, forfeit and pay
 a fixed penalty of one hundred dollars. If any person, by himself or
 another, shall violate any of the provisions of sections six, seven,
 or eight of this Act, he shall, in addition to the fines and penalties
 herein prescribed for each offence, forfeit and pay a fixed penalty of
 five hundred dollars. Such penalties shall be recovered with costs in
 any court of this State having jurisdiction thereof in an action to be
 prosecuted by the Dairy Commissioner, or any of his assistants in the
 name of the people of the State of New York.

 20. This Act and each section thereof is declared to be enacted to
 prevent deception in the sale of dairy products, and to preserve the
 public health which is endangered by the manufacture, sale or use of
 the articles or substances herein regulated or prohibited.

 21. This Act shall take effect immediately. Sections six and seven
 shall not apply to any product manufactured, or in process of
 manufacture at the time of the passage of this Act; but neither
 this exemption nor this Act shall impair the power to prosecute any
 violations heretofore committed of section six of the Act of which
 this Act is supplemental.


 AN ACT to amend chapter two hundred and two of the laws of eighteen
   hundred and eighty-four, entitled “An Act to prevent deception in
   sales of dairy products.”

    (PASSED April 30, 1885).

 _The people of the State of New York, represented in Senate and
 Assembly, do enact as follows_:--

 SECTION 1. Section seven of chapter two hundred and two of the laws
 of eighteen hundred and eighty-four, entitled “An Act to prevent
 deception in sales of dairy products,” is hereby amended to read as
 follows:--

 7. No person shall offer, sell, or expose for sale butter or cheese
 branded or labelled with a false brand or label as to the quality of
 the article, or the county or State in which the article is made. The
 New York State Dairy Commissioner is hereby authorised and directed
 to procure and issue to the cheese manufactories of the State, upon
 proper application therefor and under such regulations as to the
 custody and use thereof as he may prescribe, a uniform stencil brand
 bearing a suitable device or motto, and the words “New York State
 Full Cream Cheese.” Every brand issued shall be used upon the outside
 of the cheese and also upon the package containing the same, and
 shall bear a different number for each separate manufactory, and the
 commissioner shall keep a book in which shall be registered the name,
 location and number of each manufactory using the said brand, and the
 name or names of the persons at each manufactory authorised to use the
 same. It shall be unlawful to use or permit such stencil brand to be
 used upon any other than full cream cheese or packages containing the
 same. Whoever violates the provisions of this section is guilty of
 a misdemeanour, and for each and every cheese or package so falsely
 branded shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five
 dollars or more than fifty dollars, or imprisonment of not less than
 fifteen or more than thirty days.

 2. This Act shall take effect immediately.


 AN ACT to protect butter and cheese manufacturers.

    (PASSED June 8, 1885, three-fifths being present.)

 _The people of the State of New York, represented in Senate and
 Assembly, do enact as follows_:--

 SECTION 1. Whoever shall with intent to defraud, sell, supply, or
 bring to be manufactured to any butter or cheese manufactory in
 this State, any milk diluted with water, or in any way adulterated,
 unclean or impure, or milk from which any cream has been taken, or
 milk commonly known as skimmed milk, or whoever shall keep back any
 part of the milk as strippings, or whoever shall knowingly bring or
 supply milk to any butter or cheese manufactory that is tainted or
 sour, or whoever shall knowingly bring or supply to any butter or
 cheese manufactory, milk drawn from cows within fifteen days before
 parturition, or within three days after parturition, or any butter
 or cheese manufacturers who shall knowingly use or allow any of his
 or her employés or any other person to use for his or her benefit,
 or for their own individual benefit, any milk or cream from the milk
 brought to said butter or cheese manufacturer, without the consent of
 all the owners thereof, or any butter or cheese manufacturer who shall
 refuse or neglect to keep or cause to be kept a correct account, open
 to the inspection of any one furnishing milk to such manufacturer,
 of the amount of milk daily received, or of the number of pounds of
 butter and the number of cheeses made each day, or of the number cut
 or otherwise disposed of, and the weight of each, shall for each and
 every offence forfeit and pay a sum not less than twenty-five dollars
 nor more than one hundred dollars, with costs of suit, to be sued for
 in any court of competent jurisdiction for the benefit of the person
 or persons, firm or association, or corporation or their assigns upon
 whom such fraud or neglect shall be committed. But nothing in this Act
 shall affect, impair, or repeal any of the provisions of chapter two
 hundred and two of the laws of eighteen hundred and eighty-four, or of
 the acts amendatory thereof or supplementary thereto.

 2. This Act shall take effect immediately.


 Special Act in relation to the manufacture and sale of vinegar.

    (PASSED June 9, 1886.)

 _The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and
 Assembly, do enact as follows_:--

 SECTION 1. Every person who manufactures for sale, or offers or
 exposes for sale as cider vinegar, any vinegar not the legitimate
 product of pure apple juice, known as apple cider, or vinegar not
 made exclusively of said apple cider, or vinegar into which foreign
 substances, drugs or acids have been introduced, as may appear by
 proper test, shall for each offence be punishable by a fine of not
 less than fifty, nor more than one hundred dollars.

 2. Every person who manufactures for sale, or offers for sale, any
 vinegar found upon proper tests to contain any preparation of lead,
 copper, sulphuric acid, or other ingredient injurious to health, shall
 for each such offence be punishable by fine of not less than one
 hundred dollars.

 3. The mayor of cities shall, and the supervisor of towns may,
 annually, appoint one or more persons to be inspectors of vinegar, who
 shall be sworn before entering upon their duties, and who shall have
 power and authority to inspect and examine all vinegar offered for
 sale.

 4. No person shall by himself, his servant or agent, or as the servant
 or agent of any other person, sell, exchange, deliver, or have in his
 custody or possession, with intent to sell or exchange, or expose or
 offer for sale or exchange any adulterated vinegar, or label, brand
 or sell as cider vinegar, or as apple vinegar, any vinegar not the
 legitimate product of pure apple juice, or not made exclusively from
 apple cider.

 5. All vinegars shall be without artificial colouring matter, and
 shall have an acidity equivalent to the presence of not less than
 four and one-half per cent., by weight, of absolute acetic acid,
 and in the case of cider vinegar, shall contain in addition not
 less than two per cent. by weight of cider vinegar solids upon full
 evaporation over boiling water; and if any vinegar contains any
 artificial colouring matter or less than the above amount of acidity,
 or in the case of cider vinegar, if it contains less than the above
 amount of acidity or of cider vinegar solids, it shall be deemed to be
 adulterated within the meaning of this Act.

 6. Every person making or manufacturing cider vinegar shall brand
 on each head of the cask, barrel or keg containing such vinegar
 the name and residence of the manufacturer, the date when same was
 manufactured, and the words cider vinegar.

 7. Whoever violates any of the provisions of this Act shall be
 punished by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars. Any person who
 may have suffered any injury or damage by reason of the violation of
 any of the provisions of this Act, may maintain an action in his own
 name against any person violating any of the provisions of this Act,
 to recover the penalties provided for such violation, and one-half of
 the sum recovered shall be retained by him for his own use and the
 other half shall be paid into the city or county treasury where such
 offence was committed for the benefit of such city or county.

 8. This Act shall take effect immediately.


The following are the Statutes of the State of Massachusetts relating
to the adulteration of food and drugs:--

GENERAL LAWS RELATING TO ADULTERATION.

 FOOD AND DRUGS.

 [Sidenote: Adulteration prohibited. 1882, 263, § 1.]

 SECTION 1. No person shall, within this commonwealth, manufacture for
 sale, offer for sale, or sell any drug or article of food which is
 adulterated within the meaning of this Act.

 [Sidenote: Definition of terms “drug” and “food.” 1882, 263, § 2.]

 2. The term “drug” as used in this Act shall include all medicines for
 internal or external use, antiseptics, disinfectants, and cosmetics.
 The term “food” as used herein shall include all articles used for
 food or drink by man.

 [Sidenote: Drugs, how adulterated. 1882, 263, § 3. Specifications.]

 3. An article shall be deemed to be adulterated within the meaning of
 this Act--

 [Sidenote: Officinal drugs may be sold as called for, or as variation
 is made known to the purchaser. 1884, 289, § 7.]

 (_a._) In the case of drugs,--(1.) If, when sold under or by a name
 recognised in the United States Pharmacopœia, it differs from the
 standard of strength, quality, or purity laid down therein, unless the
 order calls for an article inferior to such standard, or unless such
 difference is made known or so appears to the purchaser at the time
 of such sale; (2.) If, when sold under or by a name not recognised
 in the United States Pharmacopœia, but which is found in some other
 pharmacopœia, or other standard work on _materia medica_, it differs
 materially from the standard of strength, quality, or purity laid down
 in such work; (3.) If its strength or purity falls below the professed
 standard under which it is sold:

 [Sidenote: Food, how adulterated. Specifications.]

 (_b._) In the case of food--(1.) If any substance or substances have
 been mixed with it so as to reduce, or lower, or injuriously affect
 its quality or strength; (2.) If any inferior or cheaper substance
 or substances have been substituted wholly or in part for it; (3.)
 If any valuable constituent has been wholly or in part abstracted
 from it; (4.) If it is an imitation of, or is sold under the name of
 another article; (5.) If it consists wholly or in part of a diseased,
 decomposed, putrid, or rotten animal or vegetable substance, whether
 manufactured or not, or in the case of milk, if it is the produce
 of a diseased animal; (6.) If it is coloured, coated, polished, or
 powdered, whereby damage is concealed, or if it is made to appear
 better or of greater value than it really is; (7.) If it contains any
 added or poisonous ingredient, or any ingredient which may render it
 injurious to the health of a person consuming it.

 [Sidenote: Provisions of Act not to apply to labelled compounds or
 mixtures when not injurious to health.]

 [Sidenote: No prosecution to be made relative to drugs, if standard
 of same has been raised since the issue of the last edition of the
 Pharmacopœia until such change has been published. 1884, 289, § 5.]

 4. The provisions of this Act shall not apply to mixtures or compounds
 recognised as ordinary articles of food or drinks, provided that
 the same are not injurious to health, and are distinctly labelled
 as mixtures or compounds. And no prosecutions shall at any time be
 maintained under the said Act concerning any drug the standard of
 strength or purity whereof has been raised since the issue of the
 last edition of the United States Pharmacopœia, unless and until such
 change of standard has been published throughout the commonwealth.

 [Sidenote: State Board shall make investigations and may appoint
 inspectors, analysts and chemists. 1882, 263, § 5.]

 5. The State Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity, shall take
 cognisance of the interests of the public health relating to the sale
 of drugs and food and the adulteration of the same, and shall make all
 necessary investigations and inquiries in reference thereto, and for
 these purposes may appoint inspectors, analysts, and chemists, who
 shall be subject to its supervision and removal.

 [Sidenote: The Board shall make regulations as to collecting and
 examining of food and drugs, and may expend ten thousand dollars in
 carrying out the provisions of this Act. 1882, 263, § 5. 1884, 289, §
 1.

 Three-fifths to be expended in relation to milk and its products.
 1884, 289, § 1.]

 Within thirty days after the passage of this Act the said Board
 shall adopt such measures as it may deem necessary to facilitate
 the enforcement hereof, and shall prepare rules and regulations
 with regard to the proper methods of collecting and examining drugs
 and articles of food. Said Board may expend annually an amount not
 exceeding ten thousand dollars for the purpose of carrying out the
 provisions of this Act: provided, however, that not less than
 three-fifths of the said amount shall be annually expended for the
 enforcement of the laws against the adulteration of milk and milk
 products.

 [Sidenote: Samples to be furnished to officers or agents. 1882, 263, §
 6.]

 6. Every person offering or exposing for sale, or delivering to a
 purchaser, any drug or article of food included in the provisions
 of this Act, shall furnish to any analyst or other officer or agent
 appointed hereunder, who shall apply to him for the purpose and shall
 tender him the value of the same, a sample sufficient for the purpose
 of the analysis of any such drug or article of food which is in his
 possession.

 [Sidenote: Obstruction and its penalty. 1882, 263, § 7.]

 7. Whoever hinders, obstructs, or in any way interferes with any
 inspector, analyst, or other officer appointed hereunder, in the
 performance of his duty, and whoever violates any of the provisions
 of this Act, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding fifty dollars
 for the first offence, and not exceeding one hundred dollars for each
 subsequent offence.

 [Sidenote: State Board to report prosecutions and money expended.
 1883, 263, § 2. 1884, 289, § 2.]

 8. The State Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity shall report
 annually to the Legislature the number of prosecutions made under said
 chapter, and an itemised account of all money expended in carrying out
 the provisions thereof.

 [Sidenote: Powers of inspectors. 1884, 289, § 3.]

 9. An inspector appointed under the provisions of said chapter two
 hundred and sixty-three of the Acts of the year eighteen hundred and
 eighty-two shall have the same powers and authority conferred upon a
 city or town inspector by section two of chapter fifty-seven of the
 Public Statutes.

 [Sidenote: Act of 1882 does not affect chapter 57 of the Public
 Statutes. 1884, 289, § 4.]

 10. Nothing contained in chapter two hundred and sixty-three of the
 Acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-two shall be in any way
 construed as repealing or amending anything contained in chapter
 fifty-seven of the Public Statutes.

 [Sidenote: Samples to be sealed for benefit of defendant. 1884, 289, §
 8.]

 11. Before commencing the analysis of any sample the person making
 the same shall reserve a portion which shall be sealed; and in case
 of a complaint against any person the reserved portion of the sample
 alleged to be adulterated shall upon application be delivered to the
 defendant or his attorney.

 [Sidenote: Selling corrupt or unwholesome provisions without notice.
 Public Statutes, chap. 208, § 1. 12 Cush. 499.]

 12. Whoever knowingly sells any kind of diseased, corrupted, or
 unwholesome provisions, whether for meat or drink, without making
 the same fully known to the buyer, shall be punished by imprisonment
 in the jail not exceeding six months, or by fine not exceeding two
 hundred dollars.

 [Sidenote: Adulterating food. Public Statutes, chap. 208, § 3.]

 13. Whoever fraudulently adulterates, for the purpose of sale,
 bread or any other substance intended for food, with any substance
 injurious to health, or knowingly barters, gives away, sells, or has
 in possession with intent to sell, any substance intended for food,
 which has been adulterated with any substance injurious to health,
 shall be punished by imprisonment in the jail not exceeding one year,
 or by fine not exceeding three hundred dollars; and the articles so
 adulterated shall be forfeited, and destroyed under the direction of
 the court.

 [Sidenote: Adulterating liquor used for drink, with Indian cockle,
 etc. Public Statutes, chap. 208, § 4.]

 14. Whoever adulterates, for the purpose of sale, any liquor used or
 intended for drink, with Indian cockle, vitriol, grains of paradise,
 opium, alum, capsicum, copperas, laurel-water, logwood, Brazil wood,
 cochineal, sugar of lead, or any other substance which is poisonous
 or injurious to health, and whoever knowingly sells any such liquor
 so adulterated, shall be punished by imprisonment in the State prison
 not exceeding three years; and the articles so adulterated shall be
 forfeited.

 [Sidenote: Adulteration of drugs or medicines. Public Statutes, chap.
 208, § 5.]

 15. Whoever fraudulently adulterates, for the purpose of sale, any
 drug or medicine, or sells any fraudulently adulterated drug or
 medicine, knowing the same to be adulterated, shall be punished by
 imprisonment in the jail not exceeding one year, or by fine not
 exceeding four hundred dollars; and such adulterated drugs and
 medicines shall be forfeited, and destroyed under the direction of the
 court.

 [Sidenote: Persons selling certain poisons to keep record, etc.]

 [Sidenote: Purchasers who give false name, etc. Public Statutes, chap.
 208, § 6.]

 16. Whoever sells arsenic, strychnine, corrosive sublimate, or prussic
 acid, without the written prescription of a physician, shall keep a
 record of the date of such sale, the name of the article, the amount
 thereof sold, and the name of the person or persons to whom delivered;
 and for each neglect shall forfeit a sum not exceeding fifty dollars.
 Whoever purchases deadly poisons as aforesaid, and gives a false or
 fictitious name to the vendor, shall be punished by fine not exceeding
 fifty dollars.


LAWS RELATIVE TO SPECIAL ARTICLES OF FOOD.

OF THE INSPECTION AND SALE OF MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS.

 [Sidenote: Appointment of inspectors of milk. Public Statutes, chap.
 57, § 1.]

 1. The mayor and aldermen of cities shall, and the selectmen of towns
 may, annually appoint one or more persons to be inspectors of milk
 for their respective places, who shall be sworn before entering upon
 the duties of their office. Each inspector shall publish a notice of
 his appointment for two weeks in a newspaper published in his city or
 town, or if no newspaper is published therein, he shall post up such
 notice in two or more public places in such city or town.

 [Sidenote: Their duties and powers. 1884, 310, § 3-11 Allen, 264.]

 2. Such inspectors shall keep an office, and shall record in books
 kept for the purpose the names and place of business of all persons
 engaged in the sale of milk within their city or town. Said inspectors
 may enter all places where milk is stored or kept for sale, and all
 persons engaged in the sale of milk shall, on the request in writing
 of an inspector, deliver to the person having the request a sample or
 specimen sufficient for the purpose of analysis of the milk then in
 his possession from such can or receptacle as shall be designated by
 the inspector or the person bearing the request. Said inspector shall
 cause the sample or specimen of milk so delivered to be analysed or
 otherwise satisfactorily tested, the results of which analysis or
 test they shall record and preserve as evidence. The inspectors shall
 receive such compensation as the mayor and alderman or selectmen may
 determine.

 [Sidenote: Persons selling milk from carriages to be licensed. Public
 Statutes, chap. 57, § 3.]

 3. In all cities, and in all towns in which there is an inspector of
 milk, every person who conveys milk in carriages or otherwise for the
 purpose of selling the same in such city or town shall annually, on
 the first day of May, or within thirty days thereafter, be licensed
 by the inspector or inspectors of milk of such city or town to sell
 milk within the limits thereof, and shall pay to such inspector or
 inspectors fifty cents each to the use of the city or town. The
 inspector or inspectors shall pay over monthly to the treasurer of
 such city or town all sums collected by him or them. Licenses shall be
 issued only in the names of the owners of carriages or other vehicles,
 and shall for the purposes of this chapter be conclusive evidence of
 ownership. No license shall be sold, assigned, or transferred. Each
 license shall record the name, residence, place of business, number of
 carriages or other vehicles used, name and residence of every driver
 or other person engaged in carrying or selling said milk, and the
 number of the license. Each licensee shall before engaging in the sale
 of milk, cause his name, the number of his license, and his place of
 business, to be legibly placed on each outer side of all carriages
 or vehicles used by him in the conveyance and sale of milk, and he
 shall report to the inspector or inspectors any change of driver or
 other person employed by him which may occur during the term of his
 license. Whoever, without being first licensed under the provisions
 of this section, sells milk or exposes it for sale from carriages or
 other vehicles, or has it in his custody or possession with intent so
 to sell, and whoever violates any of the provisions of this section,
 shall for a first offence be punished by fine of not less than thirty
 nor more than one hundred dollars; for a second offence by fine of
 not less than fifty nor more than three hundred dollars; and for a
 subsequent offence by fine of fifty dollars and by imprisonment in the
 house of correction for not less than thirty nor more than sixty days.

 [Sidenote: Persons selling milk in stores, etc., to be registered.
 Public Statutes, chap. 57, § 4. 1 Allen, 593. 2 Allen, 157.]

 4. Every person before selling milk or offering it for sale in a
 store, booth, stand, or market-place in a city or in a town in which
 an inspector or inspectors of milk are appointed, shall register in
 the books of such inspector or inspectors, and shall pay to him or
 them fifty cents to the use of such city or town; and whoever neglects
 so to register shall be punished for each offence by fine not
 exceeding twenty dollars.

 [Sidenote: Penalty for selling, etc., adulterated milk, etc. Public
 Statutes, chap. 57, § 5. 9 Allen, 499. 10 Allen, 199. 11 Allen, 264.
 107 Mass., 194.]

 5. Whoever by himself or by his servant or agent, or as the servant or
 agent of any other person, sells, exchanges, or delivers, or has in
 his custody or possession with intent to sell or exchange, or exposes
 or offers for sale or exchange, adulterated milk, or milk to which
 water or any foreign substance has been added, or milk produced from
 cows fed on the refuse of distilleries or from sick or diseased cows,
 shall for a first offence be punished by fine of not less than fifty
 nor more than two hundred dollars; for a second offence by fine of
 not less than one hundred nor more than three hundred dollars, or by
 imprisonment in the house of correction for not less than thirty nor
 more than sixty days; and for a subsequent offence by fine of fifty
 dollars and by imprisonment in the house of correction for not less
 than sixty nor more than ninety days.

 [Sidenote: Penalty for selling milk from which cream has been removed.
 Public Statutes, chap. 57, § 6.]

 6. Whoever by himself or by his servant or as the servant or agent of
 any other person, sells, exchanges, or delivers, or has in his custody
 or possession with intent to sell or exchange, or exposes or offers
 for sale as pure milk, any milk from which the cream or a part thereof
 has been removed, shall be punished by the penalties provided in the
 preceding section.

 [Sidenote: Vessels containing milk from which cream has been removed
 to be marked “skimmed milk.” Public Statutes, chap. 57, § 7.]

 7. No dealer in milk, and no servant or agent of such a dealer, shall
 sell, exchange, or deliver, or have in his custody or possession, with
 intent to sell, exchange, or deliver, milk from which the cream or any
 part thereof has been removed, unless in a conspicuous place above
 the centre upon the outside of every vessel, can, or package from or
 in which such milk is sold, the words “skimmed milk” are distinctly
 marked in letters not less than one inch in length. Whoever violates
 the provisions of this section shall be punished by the penalties
 provided by section 5.

 [Sidenote: Penalty on inspectors, etc., for conniving, etc. Public
 Statutes, chap. 57, § 8. 1884, 310, § 5.]

 8. Any inspector of milk, and any servant or agent of an inspector who
 wilfully connives at or assists in a violation of the provisions of
 this chapter, and whoever hinders, obstructs, or in any way interferes
 with any inspector of milk, or any servant or agent of an inspector
 in the performance of his duty, shall be punished by fine of not
 less than one hundred nor more than three hundred dollars, or by
 imprisonment for not less than thirty nor more than sixty days.

 [Sidenote: What milk to be deemed adulterated. Public Statutes, chap.
 57, § 9.]

 9. In all prosecutions under this chapter, if the milk is shown upon
 analysis to contain more than eighty-seven per cent. of watery fluid,
 or to contain less than thirteen per cent. of milk solids, it shall be
 deemed for the purposes of this chapter to be adulterated.

 [Sidenote: Inspectors to institute complaints. Public Statutes, chap.
 57, § 10.]

 10. It shall be the duty of every inspector to institute a complaint
 for a violation of any of the provisions of this chapter on the
 information of any person who lays before him satisfactory evidence by
 which to sustain such complaint.

 [Sidenote: Names, etc., of persons convicted to be published. Public
 Statutes, chap. 57, § 11.]

 11. Each inspector shall cause the name and place of business of every
 person convicted of selling adulterated milk, or of having the same in
 his possession with intent to sell, to be published in two newspapers
 in the county in which the offence was committed.

 [Sidenote: Milk cans to hold eight quarts when, etc. Public Statutes,
 chap. 57, § 12.]

 12. When milk is sold by the can, such can shall hold eight quarts,
 and no more.

 [Sidenote: Spurious butter sold in boxes, tubs and firkins to be
 plainly marked as such. 1884, 310, § 1.]

 [Sidenote: Retail packages to be marked on outside of wrapper.]

 13. Whoever, by himself or his agents, sells, exposes for sale, or
 has in his possession with intent to sell, any article, substance or
 compound, made in imitation or semblance of butter, or as a substitute
 for butter, and not made exclusively and wholly of milk or cream, or
 containing any fats, oils or grease not produced from milk or cream,
 shall have the words “imitation butter,” or “oleomargarine,” stamped,
 labelled or marked, in printed letters of plain Roman type, not less
 than one inch in length, so that said word cannot be easily defaced,
 upon the top and side of every tub, firkin, box or package containing
 any of said article, substance, or compound. And in cases of retail
 sales of any of said article, substance or compound, not in the
 original packages, the seller shall, by himself or his agents, attach
 to each package so sold, and shall deliver therewith to the purchaser,
 a label or wrapper bearing in a conspicuous place upon the outside of
 the package the words “imitation butter” or “oleomargarine” in printed
 letters of plain Roman type, not less than one half inch in length.

 [Sidenote: Spurious cheese to be plainly marked as such. Public
 Statutes, chap. 56, § 18.]

 [Sidenote: Wrappers to be marked.]

 14. Whoever, by himself or his agents, sells, exposes for sale, or
 has in his possession with intent to sell, any article, substance, or
 compound, made in imitation or semblance of cheese, or as a substitute
 for cheese, and not made exclusively and wholly of milk or cream, or
 containing any fats, oils or grease not produced from milk or cream,
 shall have the words “imitation cheese” stamped, labelled, or marked
 in printed letters of plain Roman type not less than one inch in
 length, so that said words cannot be easily defaced, upon the side
 of every cheese cloth or band around the same, and upon the top and
 side of every tub, firkin, box, or package containing any of said
 article, substance or compound. And in case of retail sales of any of
 said article, substance or compound not in the original packages, the
 seller shall, by himself or his agents, attach to each package so sold
 at retail, and shall deliver therewith to the purchaser a label or
 wrapper bearing in a conspicuous place upon the outside of the package
 the words “imitation cheese,” in printed letters of plain Roman type
 not less than one half inch in length.

 [Sidenote: Penalty for fraudulent sales. Public Statutes, chap. 56, §
 19.]

 15. Whoever sells, exposes for sale, or has in his possession with
 intent to sell, any article, substance, or compound made in imitation
 or semblance of butter, or as a substitute for butter, except as
 provided in section one; whoever sells, exposes for sale, or has
 in his possession with intent to sell, any article, substance, or
 compound made in imitation or semblance of cheese, or as a substitute
 for cheese, except as provided in section two, and whoever shall
 deface, erase, cancel, or remove any mark, stamp, brand, label, or
 wrapper provided for by this Act, or change the contents of any box,
 tub, article, and package marked, stamped, or labelled as aforesaid,
 with intent to deceive as to the contents of said box, tub, article,
 or package, shall for every such offence forfeit and pay a fine of one
 hundred dollars, and for a second and each subsequent offence a fine
 of two hundred dollars, to be recovered with costs in any court of
 this commonwealth of competent jurisdiction; and any fine paid shall
 go to the city or town where the offence was committed.

 [Sidenote: Complaints for violations to be instituted by inspectors of
 milk. 1884, 310, § 2.]

 16. Inspectors of milk shall institute complaints for violations
 of the provisions of the three preceding sections when they have
 reasonable cause to believe that such provisions have been violated,
 and on the information of any person who lays before them satisfactory
 evidence by which to sustain such complaint. Said inspectors may enter
 all places where butter or cheese is stored or kept for sale, and said
 inspectors shall also take specimens of suspected butter and cheese
 and cause them to be analysed or otherwise satisfactorily tested, the
 result of which analysis or test they shall record and preserve as
 evidence; and a certificate of such result, sworn to by the analyser,
 shall be admitted in evidence in all prosecutions under this and the
 three preceding sections. The expense of such analysis or test, not
 exceeding twenty dollars in any one case, may be included in the
 costs of such prosecutions. Whoever hinders, obstructs, or in any way
 interferes with any inspector, or any agent of an inspector, in the
 performance of his duty, shall be punished by a fine of fifty dollars
 for the first offence, and of one hundred dollars for each subsequent
 offence.

 [Sidenote: Terms “butter” and “cheese” defined. Public Statutes, chap.
 56, § 21.]

 17. For the purposes of the four preceding sections the terms “butter”
 and “cheese” shall mean the products which are usually known by these
 names, and are manufactured exclusively from milk or cream, with salt
 and rennet, and with or without colouring matter.

 [Sidenote: Portion of sample to be reserved for defendant. 1884, 310,
 § 4.]

 18. Before commencing the analysis of any sample the person making
 the same shall reserve a portion which shall be sealed; and in case
 of a complaint against any person the reserved portion of the sample
 alleged to be adulterated shall upon application be delivered to the
 defendant or his attorney.


 OF THE SALE OF CHOCOLATE.

 [Sidenote: Chocolate, how to be stamped. Public Statutes, chap. 60, §
 8.]

 28. No manufacturer of chocolate shall make any cake of chocolate
 except in pans in which are stamped the first letter of his Christian
 name, the whole of his surname, the name of the town where he
 resides, and the quality of the chocolate in figures, No. 1, No. 2,
 No. 3, as the case may be, and the letters MASS.

 [Sidenote: Ingredients of.]

 [Sidenote: Boxes, how branded. Public Statutes, chap. 60, § 9.]

 29. Number one shall be made of cocoa of the first quality, and
 number two of cocoa of the second quality, and both shall be free
 from adulteration; number three may be made of the inferior kinds and
 qualities of cocoa. Each box containing chocolate shall be branded on
 the end thereof with the word chocolate, the name of the manufacturer,
 the name of the town where it was manufactured, and the quality, as
 described and directed in the preceding section for the pans.

 [Sidenote: Boxes, when may be seized, etc. Public Statutes, chap. 60,
 § 10.]

 30. If chocolate manufactured in this commonwealth is offered for sale
 or found within the same, not being of one of the qualities described
 in the two preceding sections and marked as therein directed, the same
 may be seized and libelled.


 OF THE ADULTERATION OF VINEGAR.

 [Sidenote: Sale of adulterated vinegar. Penalty. Public Statutes,
 chap. 60, § 69. 1883, 257, § 1.]

 31. Every person who manufactures for sale or offers or exposes for
 sale as cider vinegar, any vinegar not the legitimate product of pure
 apple juice, known as apple cider or vinegar, not made exclusively
 of said apple cider or vinegar, into which any foreign substances,
 ingredients, drugs or acids have been introduced, as may appear by
 proper tests, shall for each such offence be punished by fine of not
 less than fifty nor more than one hundred dollars.

 [Sidenote: Sale of vinegar containing ingredients injurious to Health.
 Penalty Statutes Public Statutes, chap. 60, § 70.]

 32. Every person who manufactures for sale, or offers or exposes for
 sale, any vinegar found upon proper tests to contain any preparation
 of lead, copper, sulphuric acid, or other ingredients injurious to
 health, shall for each such offence be punished by fine of not less
 than one hundred dollars.

 [Sidenote: Appointment of inspectors. Public Statutes, chap. 60, § 71.]

 33. The mayor and aldermen of cities shall, and the selectmen of towns
 may, annually appoint one or more persons to be inspectors of vinegar
 for their respective places, who shall be sworn before entering upon
 their duties.

 [Sidenote: Compensation of inspectors. 1883, chap. 257, § 2.]

 34. Any city or town in which an inspector shall be appointed under
 the preceding section, may provide compensation for such inspector
 from the time of such appointment, and in default of such provision
 shall be liable in an action at law for reasonable compensation for
 services performed under such appointment.


    (Chap. 307, Acts of 1884.)

 AN ACT to prevent the adulteration of vinegar.

 _Be it enacted &c., as follows_:--

 [Sidenote: Sale of adulterated vinegar.]

 SECTION 1. No person shall by himself, his servant or agent or as
 the servant or agent of any other person, sell, exchange, deliver or
 have in his custody or possession with intent to sell or exchange,
 or expose or offer for sale or exchange any adulterated vinegar,
 or label, brand or sell as cider vinegar, or as apple vinegar, any
 vinegar not the legitimate product of pure apple juice, or not made
 exclusively from apple cider.

 [Sidenote: Standard of vinegar prescribed.]

 2. All vinegar shall have an acidity equivalent to the presence of
 not less than five per cent. by weight of absolute acetic acid, and
 in the case of cider vinegar shall contain in addition not less than
 one and one-half per cent. by weight of cider vinegar solids upon full
 evaporation over boiling water, and if any vinegar contains less than
 the above amount of acidity, or if any cider vinegar contains less
 than the above amount of cider vinegar solids, such vinegar shall be
 deemed to be adulterated within the meaning of this Act.

 [Sidenote: Milk inspectors to enforce Act.]

 3. It shall be the duty of the inspectors of milk who may be appointed
 by any city or town to enforce the provisions of this Act.

 [Sidenote: Penalty for violation.]

 4. Whoever violates any of the provisions of this Act shall be
 punished by fine not exceeding one hundred dollars.

 5. All Acts or parts of Acts inconsistent with this Act are hereby
 repealed.

 Approved June 2, 1884.


The method of testing vinegar, used by Dr. B. F. Davenport, late
Vinegar Inspector of Boston, is as follows:--

 The following detailed practical method of determining whether
 a sample of “cider vinegar or apple vinegar” conforms to the
 requirements of the Statute of April 1885, relating thereto, which
 requires that it should be not only the legitimate and exclusive
 product of pure apple juice or cider, but also that it should not
 fall below the quality of possessing an acidity equivalent to the
 presence of not less than 4½ per cent. by weight of absolute--that is,
 monohydrated--acetic acid, and should yield upon full evaporation at
 the temperature of boiling water not less than 2 per cent. by weight
 of cider vinegar solids, may prove of interest to those dealing in the
 article. As the limits set by the Statute are in per cents. by weight,
 the portion of vinegar taken for the tests should, for perfect
 accuracy, be also taken by weight--that is, the quantities of 6 and of
 10 grammes are to be taken for the tests of strength and of residue;
 but as taking it by measure, if of about the ordinary atmospheric
 temperature of 60 to 70 degrees F. will make the apparent percentage
 at most only 1 to 2 per cent. of itself greater than the true--that
 is, will make a true 5 per cent. vinegar appear to be, say, from 5·05
 to 5·10 per cent.--measuring proves in practice to be accurate enough
 for all common commercial purposes, and therefore the quantities of
 6 and of 10 cubic centimetres by measure may be taken in place of as
 many grammes.

 All the measuring apparatus necessary for making the legal tests is
 one of the measuring tubes called burettes. It is most convenient
 to have this of a size to contain 25 to 50 c.c.--that is, cubic
 centimetres--and have these divided into tenths. The best form of
 burette is the Mohr’s, which is closed by a glass stop-cock. Besides
 this, only a dropping-tube, called a pipette, graduated to deliver 6
 and 10 c.c., will be needed. These tubes are to be obtained of any
 philosophical or chemical apparatus dealer, being articles generally
 kept in stock by them for common use, like yard-sticks.

 The only two chemicals needed in determining the strength of a vinegar
 are such as can be obtained of any competent apothecary in any city
 of the State. They are simply a small vial of a 1 per cent. solution
 of Phenol-phthalein in diluted alcohol, and a sufficient quantity
 of a solution of caustic soda, prepared as directed for “Volumetric
 Solution of Soda” upon page 399 of the last ‘U. S. Pharmacopœia,’
 a book which is in the hands of every competent apothecary, as it
 contains the formulæ according to which he is required by the law of
 the State to prepare all such medicinal preparations as are mentioned
 therein.

 Having these, the procedure for making the test will be as
 follows:--Fill the pipette by suction, and then quickly close the
 top of it with the forefinger. Raise the tube out of the sample
 of vinegar, and let it empty out by drops exactly down to the top
 graduation-mark, this bearing the mark of 0· c.c. Then holding it
 over a white mug or cup, let it run out exactly down to the 6 c.c.
 mark. Dilute the 6 c.c. of vinegar thus measured out into the mug with
 sufficient clean water to make it look about white, and then add to
 it about three drops of the Phenol-phthalein solution. Then having
 prepared the burette by filling it up to the top, zero, or any other
 noted mark of the graduation, with the volumetric solution of soda,
 let the soda solution run out cautiously into the diluted vinegar,
 which should be constantly stirred about. As soon as the vinegar in
 the mug begins to darken, the soda should then only be allowed to
 run into it by drops. This dropping is thus continued until at last
 a final drop of soda turns the vinegar suddenly to a permanent pink
 or cherry colour, which will not disappear upon further stirring. By
 now reading off from the graduations of the burette the number of
 full c.c. divisions and of tenths which have been emptied out to bring
 about this change of colour in the vinegar is known the per cents.
 and tenths of acidity equivalent to true acetic acid contained in the
 vinegar being examined. This, if it is a pure cider vinegar, and well
 made, will be upon the average about 6 per cent., but never under
 5 per cent. If, in like manner, 10 c.c. of the vinegar is exactly
 measured off by the pipette into a small light porcelain dish, and
 then evaporated fully to dryness over boiling water, the number of
 grammes weight gained by the dish, when multiplied by ten, gives the
 percentage of solid residue contained in the vinegar.

 There are certain characteristics peculiar to the residue of a pure
 cider vinegar, the principal of which are the following:--It will be
 about 3 per cent. in weight, and never less than 2 per cent. It is
 always soft, viscid, of apple flavour, somewhat acid and astringent in
 taste. A drop of it taken up in a clean loop of platinum or of iron
 wire, and ignited in a colourless Bunsen gas-lamp flame, imparts to
 it the pale lilac colour of a pure potash salt, without any yellow,
 due to sodium, being visible. The ignited residue left in the loop of
 wire will be a fusible bead of quite a good size, and it will have
 a strong alkaline reaction upon moistened test-paper, effervescing
 briskly when immersed in an acid. The presence in a vinegar of the
 _slightest_ trace of any free mineral acid will prevent the ignited
 residue having any alkaline reaction, or effervescing with acids. The
 presence of any practical amount of commercial acetic acid added to
 “tone up” the strength of the vinegar will cause the igniting residue
 to impart another colour to the Bunsen flame, and the residue itself
 will have a smoky pyroligneous taste or odour. Any corn glucose
 used in the vinegar will cause its residue when ignited to emit the
 characteristic odour of burning corn, and, as the last spark glows
 through the carbonised mass, to usually emit the familiar garlic
 odour of arsenic, for the common oil of vitriol usually used in the
 production of glucose is now mostly derived from pyrites, which almost
 always contain arsenic. A glucose vinegar which has been made without
 vaporising the alcohol after the fermentation of the glucose will
 also have a strong reducing action upon a copper salt in an alkaline
 solution, and also will give a heavy precipitation of lime with
 ammonium oxalate. A true malt vinegar always contains phosphates, and
 a wine vinegar cream of tartar. The presence of any acrid vegetable
 substance in a vinegar is known by the residue having a pungent taste,
 especially if before the evaporation the vinegar has been exactly
 neutralised with soda.

 In a pure apple cider vinegar hydrogen sulphide gas will not cause any
 discoloration, nor will the addition of a solution of either barium
 nitrate, silver nitrate, or ammonium oxalate cause anything more than
 the _very slightest_ perceptible turbidity. But the addition of some
 solution of lead acetate--that is, of sugar of lead--will cause an
 immediate voluminous and flocculent precipitation, which will all
 settle out in about ten minutes, leaving a clear fluid above. In most
 of the so-called “apple vinegars,” made with second pressings of the
 fermenting pumice, the addition of some of this lead solution will
 cause but a slight turbidity, without any precipitate settling out for
 several hours, and even then the precipitate will not be of the same
 appearance as in apple cider vinegar.

 Sophistications of cider vinegar that will not be detected by some
 one or more of the above given tests are not likely to be met with,
 for the simple reason that they are not profitable. To translate
 percentages of acid strength into the old commercial terms of grains
 of soda bicarbonate per troy ounce, the per cent. may be multiplied
 by 6·72, or, _vice versâ_, divide the grains by the same factor. To
 reduce it into grains of potash bicarbonate 8 would be the factor to
 be used in like manner.


The general Adulteration of Food Law of the State of New Jersey is the
same as that of New York. The following is a copy of a special Act in
relation to the sale of adulterated milk:--


 AN ACT to prevent the adulteration of milk and to regulate the sale of
 milk.

 [Sidenote: Persons selling or offering for sale skimmed milk, to
 solder a label or tag upon can or package.]

 [Sidenote: Penalty for violating this section.]

 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of the State of
 New Jersey, that every person who shall sell, or who shall offer or
 expose for sale, or who shall transport or carry, or who shall have in
 possession with intent to sell, or offer for sale, any milk from which
 the cream, or any part thereof has been removed, shall distinctly,
 durably and permanently solder a label, tag or mark of metal in a
 conspicuous place upon the outside and not more than six inches from
 the top of every can, vessel or package containing such milk, and said
 metal label, tag or mark shall have the words “skimmed milk” stamped,
 engraved or indented thereon in letters not less than one inch in
 height, and such milk shall only be sold or shipped in or retailed
 out of a can, vessel or package so marked, and every person who shall
 violate the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of
 a misdemeanour, and on conviction thereof shall be subject to the
 penalties prescribed in section eight of this Act.

 [Sidenote: Penalty for selling or offering for sale impure or
 adulterated milk.]

 2. And be it enacted, that every person who shall sell, or who shall
 offer for sale, or who shall transport or carry, for the purposes of
 sale, or who shall have in possession with intent to sell or offer for
 sale, any impure, adulterated or unwholesome milk, shall be deemed
 guilty of a misdemeanour, and on conviction thereof shall be subject
 to the penalties prescribed in section eight of this Act.

 [Sidenote: Penalty for adulterating milk and keeping cows in an
 unhealthy condition, etc.]

 3. And be it enacted, that every person who shall adulterate milk
 or who shall keep cows for the production of milk, in a crowded
 or unhealthful condition, or feed the same on food that produces
 impure, diseased or unwholesome milk, shall be deemed guilty of a
 misdemeanour, and on conviction thereof, shall be subject to the
 penalties prescribed in section eight of this Act.

 [Sidenote: Addition of water or other substance declared an
 adulteration.]

 4. And be it enacted, that the addition of water or any substance or
 thing is hereby declared an adulteration; and milk that is obtained
 from animals that are fed on distillery waste, usually called “swill,”
 or upon any substance in a state of putrefaction or rottenness, or
 upon any substance of an unhealthful nature, is hereby declared to be
 impure and unwholesome, and any person offending as aforesaid shall be
 deemed guilty of a misdemeanour, and on conviction thereof shall be
 subject to the penalties prescribed in section eight of this Act.

 [Sidenote: Penalty for feeding cows on unwholesome substances.]

 5. And be it enacted, that every person who shall feed cows on
 distillery waste, usually called “swill,” or upon any substance in
 a state of putrefaction, or rottenness or upon any substance of an
 unwholesome nature, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanour, and on
 conviction thereof shall be subject to the penalties prescribed in
 section eight of this Act.

 [Sidenote: Penalty for selling or offering for sale milk exposed to
 certain diseases.]

 6. And be it enacted, that every person who shall sell, or who shall
 offer for sale any milk that has been exposed to, or contaminated
 by the emanations, discharge or exhalations from persons sick with
 scarlet fever, measles, diphtheria, small pox, typhoid fever, or any
 contagious disease by which the health or life of any person may be
 endangered or compromised, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and on
 conviction thereof shall be subject to the penalties prescribed in
 section eight of this Act.

 [Sidenote: When milk is deemed to be adulterated.]

 7. And be it enacted, that in all prosecutions under this Act, if the
 milk shall be shown, upon analysis, to contain more than eighty-seven
 per centum of watery fluids, or to contain less than thirteen per
 centum of milk solids, it shall be deemed, for the purposes of this
 Act, to be adulterated.

 [Sidenote: Penalty for violating the provisions of this Act.]

 8. And be it enacted, that every person who shall violate any of the
 provisions of this Act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanour, and,
 upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not less than
 fifty dollars, nor more than two hundred dollars, or imprisonment in
 the county jail for not less than thirty days, nor more than ninety
 days, or both, at the discretion of the court, and if the fine is not
 immediately paid, shall be imprisoned for not less than thirty days,
 or until said fine shall be paid, and for a second offence by a fine
 of not less than one hundred dollars, nor more than three hundred
 dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail for not less than
 sixty days, nor more than ninety days, or both, at the discretion of
 the court, and for any subsequent offence by a fine of fifty dollars
 and imprisonment in the county jail not less than sixty nor more
 than ninety days; and on trial for such misdemeanour or penalty, the
 sale, or offer for sale, or exposure for sale, of milk or articles
 contrary to the provisions of this Act, shall be presumptive evidence
 of knowledge by the accused of the character of the milk or article
 so sold, or offered, or exposed for sale, and that the can, vessel or
 package was not marked as required by this Act.

 [Sidenote: Penalties--how recovered.]

 9. And be it enacted, that all penalties imposed under the
 provisions of this Act may be sued for in any court having competent
 jurisdiction, one-half the fine to go to the person making the
 complaint, and the other half to be paid to the county collector for
 the benefit of the county; any court of competent jurisdiction in this
 state shall have jurisdiction to try and dispose of all and any of the
 offences arising in the same county against the provisions of this
 Act, and every justice of the peace shall have jurisdiction within his
 county of actions to recover any penalty hereby given or created.

 [Sidenote: State Board of Health empowered to appoint an inspector of
 milk.]

 [Sidenote: Compensation and expenses--how paid.]

 [Sidenote: Duties of inspector.]

 [Sidenote: Inspector to advertise name and place of business of
 persons convicted of violating this Act.]

 [Sidenote: Proviso.]

 10. And be it enacted, that the State Board of Health is hereby
 empowered and directed to appoint, each year, a competent person, who
 shall act as State inspector of milk, at a salary of eight hundred
 dollars per annum, payable by the treasurer of this State, by warrant
 of the comptroller, in quarterly payments, for the purposes of this
 Act, and in addition thereto, said inspector shall be paid his actual
 travelling expenses while in the performance of his duties, and actual
 expenses of suits brought by him under this Act, payable by the
 treasurer of this State by warrant of the comptroller; said inspector
 shall act until removed by said board, or until his successor is
 appointed, and shall make such reports to said board, at such time as
 it may direct; said inspector, having reason to believe the provisions
 of this Act are being violated, shall have power to open any can,
 vessel, or package containing milk and not marked as directed by the
 first section of this Act, whether sealed, locked or otherwise, or
 whether in transit or otherwise; and if, upon inspection, he shall
 find such can, vessel or package to contain any milk which has been
 adulterated, or from which the cream, or any part thereof, has been
 removed, or which is sold, offered or exposed for sale, or held in
 possession with intent to sell or offer for sale, in violation of any
 section of this Act, said inspector is empowered to condemn the same
 and pour the contents of such can, vessel or package upon the ground,
 and bring suit against the person or party so violating the law, and
 the penalty, when so collected by such suit, shall be paid into the
 treasury of this State, and said inspector is directed to cause the
 name and place of business of all persons convicted of violating any
 section of this Act to be published once in two newspapers in the
 county in which the offence is committed; and said inspector is
 empowered to appoint one or more deputies, who shall have power to
 inspect milk, as provided by this Act, and who shall be empowered to
 act as complainant, as provided by section nine of this Act; provided,
 that no expense be incurred to the State by action or appointment in
 lieu thereof of said deputies.

 [Sidenote: Inspector to be a public analyst.]

 11. And be it enacted, that said State inspector of milk shall also be
 a public analyst, and shall make analyses and investigations of food,
 drugs, and other substances, as he may be directed so to do by the
 State Board of Health.

 [Sidenote: Certain Acts repealed.]

 12. And be it enacted, that an Act entitled “An Act to prevent
 the adulteration of milk, and to prevent traffic in impure and
 unwholesome milk,” approved April seventh, one thousand eight hundred
 and seventy-five, and an Act, entitled “An Act to regulate the sale
 of milk,” approved April fifth, one thousand eight hundred and
 seventy-eight, and an Act entitled “A supplement to an Act to regulate
 the sale of milk, approved April fifth, one thousand eight hundred and
 seventy-eight,” approved March twelfth, one thousand eight hundred and
 eighty, are hereby repealed.

 13. And be it enacted, that this Act shall take place immediately.

 Approved March 22, 1881.


The New Jersey State Board of Health has adopted the following rules
for the government of its inspectors and analysts:--

 DUTIES OF INSPECTORS.

 1. The inspector is to buy samples of food or drugs, and to seal each
 sample in the presence of a witness.

 2. The inspector must affix to each sample a label bearing a number,
 his initials, and the date of purchase.

 3. Under no circumstance is the inspector to inform the analyst as to
 the source of the sample before the analysis shall have been completed
 and formally reported to the President or Secretary of the State Board
 of Health.

 4. Inspectors are to keep a record of each sample as follows:--

   (1) Number of sample.
   (2) Date and time of purchase.
   (3) Name of witness to sealing.
   (4) Name and address of seller.
   (5) Name and address of producer, manufacturer or wholesaler, when
         known, with marks on original package.
   (6) Name of analyst and date of sending.
   (7) How sent to analyst.

 5. If the seller desires a portion of the sample, the inspector is to
 deliver it under seal. The duplicate sample left with seller should
 have a label containing the same marks as are affixed to the portion
 taken by the inspector.

 6. The inspector is to deliver the sample to the analyst, taking his
 receipt for the same, or he may send it by registered mail, express or
 special messenger.


 DUTIES OF THE ANALYSTS.

 1. The analyst is to analyse the samples immediately upon receipt
 thereof.

 2. Samples, with the exception of milk and similar perishable
 articles, are to be divided by the analyst and a portion sealed up,
 and a copy of the original label affixed. These duplicates are to be
 sent to the Secretary of the State Board of Health at the end of each
 month, and to be retained by him until demanded for another analysis,
 as provided for in section 3 of these Rules.

 3. Should the result obtained by any analyst be disputed in any
 case, an appeal may be made to the State Board of Health, through
 its secretary, by the defendant or person selling the sample, or
 his attorney, and said secretary shall then require another member
 of the Committee of Public Analysts to repeat the analysis, using
 the duplicate sample for such purpose. But when an appeal shall be
 made, a sum of money sufficient to cover the expenses of the second
 analysis shall be deposited with the President of the State Board of
 Health, which sum shall be paid over to the analyst designated by the
 President and Secretary of the Board to perform the second analysis,
 in case the analysis shall be found to agree with the first in all
 essential particulars.

 4. In the case of all articles having a standard of purity fixed by
 any of the laws of the State, the certificate of the analyst should
 show the relation of the article in question to that standard.

 5. Where standards of strength, purity or quality are not fixed by
 law, the Committee of Analysts shall present to the State Board of
 Health such standard as in their judgment should be fixed.

 6. Each analyst should keep a record book, in which should be entered
 notes, as follows:--

   (1)  From whom the sample is received.
   (2)  Date, time and manner in which the sample was received.
   (3)  Marks on package, sealed or not.
   (4)  Results of analysis in detail.

 This record should be produced at each meeting of the committee.

 7. At the completion of the analysis a certificate in the form given
 below should be forwarded to the person from whom the sample was
 received, and a duplicate copy sent to the State Board of Health.


 CERTIFICATE.

 _To whom it may concern._

 I, ------, a member of the Committee of Public Analysts, appointed by
 the State Board of Health of New Jersey under the provisions of an
 Act entitled “An Act to prevent the adulteration of food and drugs,”
 approved March 25th, 1881, do hereby certify that I received from
 ------, on the day ------ of ------, 188--, a sample of ------, sealed
 as require by the rules of said Board, and bearing the following
 marks, to wit: ------

 I carefully mixed said samples and have analysed the same, and hereby
 certify and declare the results of my analysis to be as follows:------

      ------[_Signature._]


 EXCEPTIONS.

 The following exceptions are adopted:--

 _Mustard._--Compounds of mustard, with rice flour, starch, or flour,
 may be sold if each package is marked “Compound Mustard,” and if not
 more than 25 per cent. of such substance is added to the mustard.

 _Coffee._--Compounds of coffee with chicory, rye, wheat, or other
 cereals, may be sold if the package is marked “A Mixture,” and if the
 label states the per cent. of coffee contained in said mixture.

 _Oleomargarine_ and other imitation dairy products may be sold if each
 package is marked with the name of the substance, and in all respects
 fulfils the terms of the special law as to these.

 _Syrups._--When mixed with glucose, syrup may be sold if the package
 is marked “A Mixture.”


The following is a summary of the laws of various States and
Territories relative to Oleomargarine:[148]--


 STATES.


 _California._

 “An Act to prevent the sale of oleomargarine, under the name and
 pretence that the said commodity is butter.”

 This law is restrictive, requires the word “oleomargarine” to be
 branded on the package.

 The penalty is from fifty dollars to two hundred dollars, or
 imprisonment from fifty to two hundred days, or both.

 “An Act to prevent fraud and deception in the sale of butter and
 cheese.”

 This law is restrictive, requiring the article to be manufactured and
 sold under its appropriate name.

 Penalty is from ten dollars to five hundred dollars or imprisonment
 from ten to ninety days, or both.

 Approved, March 2, 1881.

 “An Act to prevent the sale or disposition as butter of the substance
 known as ‘oleomargarine,’ or ‘oleomargarine butter,’ and when
 ‘oleomargarine’ or ‘oleomargarine butter’ is sold or disposed of
 requiring notice thereof to be given.”

 This law is restrictive, requiring branding, also requiring
 hotel-keepers, etc., to keep posted up in their places of business in
 three places, the words “oleomargarine sold here.”

 Penalty from five dollars to five hundred dollars, or imprisonment for
 not more than three months, or both such fine and imprisonment.

 Approved, March 1, 1883.

 “An Act to protect and encourage the production and sale of pure and
 wholesome milk, and to prohibit and punish the production and sale of
 unwholesome or adulterated milk.”

 This law makes it a misdemeanour to sell or expose for sale
 adulterated or unwholesome milk, or to keep cows for producing the
 same in an unhealthy condition, or feeding them on feed that will
 produce impure milk, etc.

 Penalty is one hundred dollars for the first offence, and double that
 amount for each subsequent offence.

 Approved, March 12, 1870.


 _Colorado._

 “An Act to encourage the sale of milk, and to provide penalties for
 the adulteration thereof.”

 This law makes it a misdemeanour to sell adulterated milk or milk from
 which the cream has been taken, or for withholding the strippings
 without the purchasers being aware of the fact.

 Penalty is from twenty-five dollars to one hundred dollars, or
 imprisonment for six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

 In force, May 20, 1881.

 “An Act to regulate the manufacture and sale of oleomargarine,
 butterine, suine or other substances made in imitation of, or having
 the semblance of butter, and to provide penalties for the violation of
 the provisions hereof.”

 This law requires that a license shall be necessary to manufacture,
 import, or sell oleomargarine or kindred products within the State.
 License to manufacture or import not less than one thousand; license
 to sell not less than five hundred.

 Penalty from fifty dollars to five hundred dollars, or imprisonment
 not to exceed one year or both.

 Approved, April 6, 1885.


 _Connecticut._

 “An Act concerning the sale of oleomargarine and other articles.”

 This law requires that the article shall be properly branded, and that
 the seller shall keep a sign posted up in his place of business that
 such commodity is sold there.

 Penalty seven dollars, or imprisonment from ten to thirty days or both.

 Approved, April 4, 1883.


 _Delaware._

 “An Act to regulate the manufacture and sale of oleomargarine.”

 This law is restrictive in its nature.

 Penalty fifty dollars, commitment until the fine is paid.

 Approved, February 10, 1879.

 “An Act to amend chapter 154, volume 16, Laws of Delaware.”

 This amendment has reference to the fact that the substance
 manufactured is “artificial butter.”

 Passed, March 21, 1883.


 _Florida._

 Chapter 80, sections 34-35, McClellans’ Digest, 1881.

 Section 34 makes it a misdemeanour to sell spurious preparations as
 butter; section 35 has reference to hotels and boarding-houses.

 Penalty, not to exceed one hundred, or imprisonment not to exceed
 thirty days, or both.


 _Illinois._

 “An Act to prevent and punish the adulteration of articles of food,
 drink and medicine, and the sale thereof when adulterated.”

 Section 3 of this law has reference to colouring matter in food, drink
 or medicine.

 Section 4 of this law has reference to mixing oleomargarine with
 butter, cheese, etc., requiring the seller to inform the buyer of the
 fact and the proportion of the mixture.

 Penalty, first offence, twenty-five dollars to two hundred dollars;
 second offence, one hundred dollars to two hundred dollars, or
 imprisonment from one to six months or both; third offence, from five
 hundred dollars to two thousand dollars and imprisonment not less than
 one year nor more than five years.

 Approved, June 1, 1881.

 “An Act to require operators of butter and cheese factories on the
 co-operative plan to give bonds, and to prescribe penalties for the
 violation thereof.”

 This law requires the filing of a bond in the penal sum of six
 thousand dollars that certain reports will be made on the first of
 each month and a copy filed with the town clerk, etc.

 Penalty, from two hundred dollars to five hundred dollars, or
 imprisonment from thirty days to six months, or both.

 Approved, June 18, 1883.


 _Indiana._

 Section 2071, Revised Statutes. “Selling unwholesome milk.”

 This section provides against the sale of unwholesome milk, whether
 from adulteration or from the feed given the cows; also against the
 use of poisonous or deleterious material in the manufacture of butter
 and cheese.

 Penalty, from fifty dollars to five hundred dollars.

 “An Act to prevent the sale of impure butter, and the keeping on any
 table at any hotel or boarding-house of impure butter, providing
 penalties declaring an emergency.”

 This law requires the branding with the word “oleomargarine.”

 Penalty from ten dollars to fifty dollars.

 Approved, March 3, 1883.


 _Iowa._

 Section 4042, Code.

 This section provides against the adulteration of milk in any way.

 Penalty, twenty-five dollars to one hundred dollars, and makes the
 offender liable in double that amount to the party injured.

 “An Act to protect the dairy interests and for the punishment of fraud
 connected therewith.”

 This law requires that “oleo” and kindred products shall be branded
 with the word “oleomargarine.”

 Penalty, from twenty dollars to one hundred dollars or imprisonment
 from ten to ninety days.

 “An Act to prevent and punish the adulteration of articles of food,
 drink, and medicine, and the sale thereof when adulterated.”

 This law provides that skimmed milk cheese shall be so branded, and
 when oleomargarine is mixed with any other substance for sale it shall
 be distinctly branded with the true and appropriate name.

 Penalty, first offence, from ten dollars to fifty dollars; second,
 from twenty-five dollars to one hundred dollars, or confined in the
 county jail not more than thirty days; third, from five hundred
 dollars to one thousand dollars and imprisonment not less than one
 year nor more than five years.


 _Maryland._

 “An Act to repeal the Act of 1883, chapter 493, entitled ‘An Act for
 the protection of dairymen, and to prevent deception in the sale of
 butter and cheese, and to re-enact new sections in lieu thereof.’”

 This law requires that substances made in semblance of butter and
 cheese not the true product of the dairy shall be branded with the
 word “oleomargarine” so as to be conspicuous, and that the buyer shall
 be apprised of the nature of the article that he has bought.

 Penalty, one hundred dollars, or imprisonment not less than thirty or
 more than ninety days for the second offence, and not less than three
 months nor more than one year for the third offence.

 Approved, April 8, 1884.


 _Maine._

 “An Act to amend chapter 128 of the Revised Statutes, relating to the
 sale of unwholesome food.”

 This law is prohibitive as to oleomargarine and kindred products.

 Penalty, for the first offence one hundred dollars, and for each
 subsequent offence two hundred dollars, to be recovered with costs.


 _Massachusetts._

 This State has a law against selling adulterated milk.

 Penalty, for first offence, fifty dollars to one hundred dollars; for
 the second offence, one hundred dollars to three hundred dollars, or
 by imprisonment for thirty to sixty days; and for each subsequent
 offence, fifty dollars and imprisonment from sixty to ninety days.


 _Michigan._

 “An Act to prevent deception in the manufacture and sale of dairy
 products and to preserve the public health.”

 This law prohibits the manufacture and sale of oleomargarine and
 kindred products.

 Penalty, two hundred dollars to five hundred dollars or not less than
 six months’ nor more than one year’s imprisonment, or both, for the
 first offence, and by imprisonment for one year for each subsequent
 offence.

 Approved, June 12, 1885.


 _Minnesota._

 “An Act to prohibit and prevent the sale or manufacture of unhealthy
 or adulterated dairy products.”

 This law prohibits the sale of impure or adulterated milk.

 Penalty, twenty-five dollars to two hundred dollars, or imprisonment
 from one to six months, or both for the first offence, and six months’
 imprisonment for each subsequent offence.

 This law also prohibits the manufacture and sale of oleaginous
 substances or compounds of the same.

 Penalty, from one hundred dollars to five hundred dollars, or from
 six months’ to one year’s imprisonment, or both, such fine and
 imprisonment for the first offence, and by imprisonment one year for
 each subsequent offence.

 Approved, March 5, 1885.


 _Missouri._

 This State passed the first prohibitory law.

 Penalty, confinement in the county jail not to exceed one year, or
 fine not to exceed one thousand dollars, or both.


 _Nebraska._

 Section 2345, “Skimmed milk or adulterated milk.”

 This section provides against the sale of adulterated milk, and makes
 a penalty of from twenty-five dollars to one hundred dollars and be
 liable to double the amount to the person or persons upon whom the
 fraud is perpetrated.


 _New Hampshire._

 “An Act relating to the sale of imitation butter.”

 This law provides that no artificial butter shall be sold unless it is
 coloured pink.

 Penalty, for the first offence, fifty dollars, and for a second
 offence a fine of one hundred dollars. “A certificate of the analysis
 sworn to by the analyser shall be admitted in evidence in all
 prosecutions.”

 “The expense of the analysis, not exceeding twenty dollars, included
 in the costs.”


 _New Jersey._

 Law similar to the New York law.


 _Ohio._

 This State has a law that is prohibitory except as to oleomargarine
 made of beef suet and milk.

 Penalty, one hundred dollars to five hundred dollars, or from three to
 six months’ imprisonment, or both, for the first offence; and by such
 fine and imprisonment for one year for each subsequent offence.

 Passed, April 27, 1885.


 _Oregon._

 The law in this State provides against adulterated and unwholesome
 milk, against keeping cows in an unhealthy condition, and against
 feeding them upon unhealthful food.

 It also provides that oleaginous substances sold upon the market shall
 be so branded as to distinguish them from the true dairy product;
 and that in hotels, boarding-houses, restaurants, etc., where such
 substances are used as an article of food, the bill of fare shall
 state the fact, and that the name of the said substance shall be
 posted up in the dining-room in a conspicuous place.

 Passed, February 20, 1885.


 _Pennsylvania._

 “An Act to protect dairymen, and to prevent deception in sales of
 butter and cheese.”

 This act requires the branding of imitation butter and cheese.

 Penalty, one hundred dollars. Violations of this Act by exportation
 to a foreign country are punished by a fine of from five dollars to
 two hundred dollars, or by imprisonment from ten to thirty days, or by
 both such fine and imprisonment.

 Approved, May 24, 1883.

 “An Act for the protection of the public health and to prevent
 adulteration of dairy products and fraud in the sale thereof.”

 This law prohibits the sale of oleomargarine and kindred products.

 Penalty, one hundred dollars to three hundred dollars, or by
 imprisonment from ten to thirty days for the first offence, and by
 imprisonment for one year for each subsequent offence.

 Approved, May 21, 1885.


 _Rhode Island._

 “Of the sale of butter, potatoes, onions, berries, nuts, and shelled
 beans.”

 This law provides that artificial butter shall be stamped
 “Oleomargarine,” and that the retailer shall deliver to the purchaser
 a label upon which shall be the word “Oleomargarine.”

 Penalty, one hundred dollars.


 _Tennessee._

 Code of 1884, chapter 14, sections 2682, 2683, 2684.

 This law requires that the substance shall be manufactured under its
 true and appropriate name, and that it shall be distinctly branded
 with the true and appropriate name.

 Penalty, from ten dollars to three hundred dollars, or imprisonment
 from ten to ninety days.


 _Vermont._

 “An Act to prevent fraud in the sale of oleomargarine and other
 substances as butter.”

 This law provides that oleomargarine and kindred products shall not be
 sold as butter.

 Penalty, five hundred dollars.

 Approved, November 1884.

 Chapters 192, Laws of 1874, 76 of 1870, 51 of 1855, provide against
 the adulteration of milk.


 _Virginia._

 Code of Virginia, 1873, chapter 865, title 26, section 56.

 “Provision against adulterating milk intended for the manufacture of
 cheese.”

 This law provides against the adulteration of milk carried to cheese
 manufactories, etc.

 Penalty, from twenty-five dollars to one hundred dollars, with costs
 of suit.


 _West Virginia._

 Chapter 41, Acts of West Virginia, 1885.

 “An Act to prevent the manufacture and sale of mixed and impure butter
 and cheese and imitations thereof.”

 This law requires that the true and appropriate name of the substance
 shall be printed thereon, etc.

 Penalty, from ten dollars to one hundred dollars, or imprisonment.


 _Wisconsin._

 Section 1494, chapter 61, Revised Statutes.

 This Act provides that no cream shall be taken from the manufactory
 where it is being worked up, also that the persons manufacturing
 cheese at factories shall keep certain records.

 Chapter 361, R. S.

 “An Act to prevent the manufacture and sale of oleaginous substances
 or compounds of the same in imitation of the pure dairy products, and
 to repeal sections 1 and 3 of chapter 49 of the laws of 1881.”

 This law prohibits the manufacture and sale of oleomargarine and
 kindred products.

 Penalty, not to exceed one thousand dollars, or imprisonment not to
 exceed one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

 Published, April 13, 1885.


 TERRITORIES.


 _Arizona._

 “An Act to regulate the sale and manufacture of oleomargarine or other
 substitutes for butter in the Territory of Arizona.”

 This law requires that oleomargarine and kindred substances sold
 in the territory shall be appropriately branded with the word
 “oleomargarine.” And that the seller shall deliver to the purchaser
 a printed label on which is the word “oleomargarine.” Also that
 dealers shall keep posted up in their places of business this sign,
 “Oleomargarine sold here.”

 Penalty for the first offence not less than five dollars, for the
 second offence not less than one hundred dollars or imprisonment for
 sixty days, and for each succeeding offence five hundred dollars and
 imprisonment for ninety days.

 Approved, March 8, 1883.


 _Dakota._

 “An Act to secure the public health and safety against unwholesome
 provisions.”

 This law requires that all oleaginous substances shall be branded with
 their true and proper names. Costs of analyses, not exceeding twenty
 dollars, shall or may be included in the costs of prosecutions.

 Penalty, first offence, one hundred dollars, and every subsequent
 offence, two hundred dollars.

 Passed at the session of 1883.

The following States and Territories have no law on the subject:--

 STATES.--Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana,
 Mississippi, Nevada, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas.

 TERRITORIES.--Alaska, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, Washington,
 Wyoming.

The complete text of the United States Oleomargarine Tax Law is as
follows:--

 SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives
 of the United States of America, in Congress assembled. That for the
 purposes of this Act the word “butter” shall be understood to mean the
 food product usually known as butter, and which is made exclusively
 from milk or cream, or both, with or without common salt, and with or
 without additional colouring matter.

 2. That for the purposes of this Act certain manufactured substances
 certain extracts, and certain mixtures and compounds, including such
 mixtures and compounds with butter, shall be known and designated
 as “oleomargarine,” namely: All substances heretofore known as
 oleomargarine, oleo, oleomargarine oil, butterine, lardine, suine,
 and neutral; all mixtures and compounds of oleomargarine, oleo,
 oleomargarine oil, butterine, lardine, suine, and neutral; all
 lard extracts and tallow extracts; and all mixtures and compounds
 of tallow, beef fat, suet, lard, lard oil, vegetable oil, annatto
 and other colouring matter, intestinal fat, and offal fat made in
 imitation or semblance of butter, or when so made, calculated or
 intended to be sold as butter or for butter.

 3. That special taxes are imposed as follows:--Manufacturers of
 oleomargarine shall pay six hundred dollars. Every person who
 manufactures oleomargarine for sale shall be deemed a manufacturer of
 oleomargarine.

 4. Wholesale dealers in oleomargarine shall pay four hundred
 and eighty dollars. Every person who sells or offers for sale
 oleomargarine in the original manufacturer’s packages shall be
 deemed a wholesale dealer in oleomargarine. But any manufacturer of
 oleomargarine who has given the required bond and paid the required
 special tax, and who sells only oleomargarine of his own production,
 at the place of manufacture, in the original packages to which the
 tax-paid stamps are affixed, shall not be required to pay the special
 tax of a wholesale dealer in oleomargarine on account of such sale.

 Retail dealers in oleomargarine shall pay forty-eight dollars. Every
 person who sells oleomargarine in less quantities than ten pounds at
 one time shall be regarded as a retail dealer in oleomargarine. And
 Sections 3232, 3233, 3234, 3235, 3236, 3237, 3238, 3239, 3240, 3241,
 and 3243 of the Revised Statutes of the United States are, so far as
 applicable, made to extend to and include and apply to the special
 taxes imposed by this section, and to the persons upon whom they are
 imposed. (See page 10 for Revised Statutes.) Provided, That in case
 any manufacturer of oleomargarine commences business subsequent to the
 thirtieth day of June in any year, the special tax shall be reckoned
 from the first day of July in that year, and shall be five hundred
 dollars.

 4. That every person who carries on the business of a manufacturer
 of oleomargarine without having paid the special tax therefor, as
 required by law, shall, besides being liable to the payment of the
 tax, be fined not less than one thousand dollars and not more than
 five thousand dollars; and every person who carries on the business of
 a wholesale dealer in oleomargarine without having paid the special
 tax therefor, as required by law, shall, besides being liable to the
 payment of the tax, be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor
 more than two thousand dollars, and every person who carries on the
 business of a retail dealer in oleomargarine without having paid the
 special tax therefor, as required by law, shall, besides being liable
 to the payment of the tax, be fined not less than fifty dollars nor
 more than five hundred dollars for each and every offence.

 5. That every manufacturer of oleomargarine shall file with the
 Collector of Internal Revenue of the district in which his manufactory
 is located, such notices, inventories, and bonds, shall keep such
 books and render such returns of materials and products, shall put
 up such signs and affix such number to his factory, and conduct
 his business under such surveillance of officers and agents as the
 Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary
 of the Treasury may, by regulation, require. But the bond required of
 such manufacturer shall be with sureties satisfactory to the Collector
 of Internal Revenue, and in a penal sum of not less than five thousand
 dollars, and the sum of said bond may be increased from time to time,
 and additional sureties required at the discretion of the Collector,
 or under instructions of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.

 6. That all oleomargarine shall be packed by the manufacturer thereof
 in firkins, tubs, or other wooden packages not before used for that
 purpose, each containing not less than ten pounds, and marked,
 stamped and branded as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the
 approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, shall prescribe; and all
 sales made by manufacturers of oleomargarine and wholesale dealers in
 oleomargarine shall be in original stamped packages. Retail dealers
 in oleomargarine must sell only from original stamped packages, in
 quantities not exceeding ten pounds, and shall pack the oleomargarine
 sold by them in suitable wooden or paper packages, which shall be
 marked and branded as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue with the
 approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, shall prescribe. Every
 person who knowingly sells or offers for sale, or delivers or offers
 to deliver, any oleomargarine in any other form than in new wooden or
 paper packages as above described, or who packs in any package any
 oleomargarine in any manner contrary to law, or who falsely brands
 any package or affixes a stamp on any package denoting a less amount
 of tax than that required by law, shall be fined for each offence not
 more than one thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not less than six
 months nor more than two years.

 7. That every manufacturer of oleomargarine shall securely affix,
 by pasting, on each package containing oleomargarine manufactured
 by him, a label on which shall be printed, besides the number of
 the manufactory and the district and State in which it is situated,
 these words:--“Notice.--The manufacturer of the oleomargarine herein
 contained has complied with all the requirements of law. Every person
 is cautioned not to use this package again or the stamp thereon
 again nor to remove the contents of this package without destroying
 said stamp, under the penalty provided by law in such cases.” Every
 manufacturer of oleomargarine who neglects to affix such label to any
 package containing oleomargarine made by him, or sold or offered for
 sale by or for him, and every person who removes any such label so
 affixed from any such package, shall be fined fifty dollars for each
 package in respect to which such offence is committed.

 8. That upon oleomargarine which shall be manufactured and sold, or
 removed for consumption or use, there shall be assessed and collected
 a tax of two cents per pound, to be paid by the manufacturer thereof;
 and any fractional part of a pound in a package shall be taxed as a
 pound. The tax levied by this section shall be represented by coupon
 stamps; and the provisions of existing laws governing the engraving,
 issue, sale, accountability, effacement and destruction of stamps
 relating to tobacco and snuff, as far as applicable, are hereby made
 to apply to stamps provided for by this section.

 9. That whenever any manufacturer of oleomargarine sells, or removes
 for sale or consumption, any oleomargarine upon which the tax is
 required to be paid by stamps, without the use of the proper stamps,
 it shall be the duty of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, within
 a period of not more than two years after such sale or removal, upon
 satisfactory proof, to estimate the amount of tax which has been
 omitted to be paid, and to make an assessment therefor and certify the
 same to the collector. The tax so assessed shall be in addition to the
 penalties imposed by law for such sale or removal.

 10. That all oleomargarine imported from foreign countries shall,
 in addition to any import duty imposed on the same, pay an internal
 revenue tax of 15 cents per pound, such tax to be represented by
 coupon stamps as in the case of oleomargarine manufactured in the
 United States. The stamps shall be affixed and cancelled by the owner
 or importer of the oleomargarine while it is in the custody of the
 proper custom-house officers; and the oleomargarine shall not pass out
 of the custody of said officers until the stamps have been so affixed
 and cancelled, but shall be put up in wooden packages, each containing
 not less than ten pounds; as prescribed in this Act for oleomargarine
 manufactured in the United States, before the stamps are affixed;
 and the owner or importer of such oleomargarine shall be liable to
 all the penal provisions of this Act prescribed for manufacturers
 of oleomargarine manufactured in the United States. Whenever it is
 necessary to take any oleomargarine so imported to any place other
 than the public stores of the United States for the purpose of
 affixing and cancelling such stamps, the Collector of Customs of the
 port where such oleomargarine is entered, shall designate a bonded
 warehouse to which it shall be taken, under the control of such
 customs officer as such collector shall direct; and every officer of
 customs who permits such oleomargarine to pass out of his custody or
 control without compliance by the owner or importer thereof with the
 provisions of this section relating thereto, shall be guilty of a
 misdemeanour, and shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars
 nor more than five thousand dollars, and imprisoned not less than six
 months nor more than three years. Every person who sells or offers
 for sale any imported oleomargarine, or oleomargarine purporting or
 claimed to have been imported, not put up in packages and stamped
 as provided by this Act, shall be fined not less than five hundred
 dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not
 less than six months nor more than two years.

 11. That every person who knowingly purchases or receives for sale any
 oleomargarine which has not been branded or stamped according to law,
 shall be liable to a penalty of fifty dollars for each such offence.

 12. That every person who knowingly purchases or receives for sale any
 oleomargarine from any manufacturer who has not paid the special tax
 shall be liable for each offence to a penalty of one hundred dollars,
 and to forfeiture of all articles so purchased or received, or of the
 full value thereof.

 13. That whenever any stamped package containing oleomargarine is
 emptied, it shall be the duty of the person in whose hands the
 same is to destroy utterly the stamps thereon, and any person who
 wilfully neglects or refuses so to do shall for each such offence
 be fined not exceeding fifty dollars, and imprisoned not less than
 ten days nor more than six months. And any person who fraudulently
 gives away or accepts from another, or who sells, buys, or uses for
 packing oleomargarine, any such stamped package, shall for each such
 offence be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars and be imprisoned
 not more than one year. Any revenue officer may destroy any emptied
 oleomargarine package upon which the tax-paid stamp is found.

 14. That there shall be in the office of the Commissioner of Internal
 Revenue an analytical chemist and a microscopist, who shall each be
 appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury, and shall each receive
 a salary of two thousand five hundred dollars per annum; and the
 Commissioner of Internal Revenue may, whenever in his judgment
 the necessities of the service so require, employ chemists and
 microscopists, to be paid such compensation as he may deem proper, not
 exceeding in the aggregate any appropriation made for that purpose.
 And such commissioner is authorised to decide what substances,
 extracts, mixtures or compounds which may be submitted for his
 inspection in contested cases are to be taxed under this Act; and his
 decision in matters of taxation under this Act shall be final. The
 commissioner may also decide whether any substances made in imitation
 or semblance of butter, and intended for human consumption, contains
 ingredients deleterious to the public health; but in case of doubt
 or contest his decisions in this class of cases may be appealed from
 to a board hereby constituted for the purpose, and composed of the
 Surgeon-General of the Army, the Surgeon-General of the Navy, and the
 Commissioner of Agriculture, and the decisions of this body shall be
 final in the premises.

 15. That all packages of oleomargarine subject to tax under this
 Act that shall be found without stamps or marks as herein provided,
 and all oleomargarine intended for human consumption which contains
 ingredients adjudged, as hereinbefore provided, to be deleterious to
 the public health, shall be forfeited to the United States. Any person
 who shall wilfully remove or deface the stamps, marks or brands on the
 package containing oleomargarine taxed as provided herein shall be
 guilty of a misdemeanour, and shall be punished by a fine of not less
 than one hundred dollars nor more than two thousand dollars, and by
 imprisonment for not less than thirty days nor more than six months.

 16. That oleomargarine may be removed from the place of manufacture
 for export to a foreign country without payment of tax or affixing
 stamps thereto, under such regulations and the filing of such bonds
 and other security as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the
 approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, may prescribe. Every person
 who shall export oleomargarine shall brand upon every tub, firkin,
 or other package containing such article the word “oleomargarine” in
 plain Roman letters not less than one-half inch square.

 17. That whenever any person engaged in carrying on the business of
 manufacturing oleomargarine defrauds, or attempts to defraud, the
 United States of the tax on the oleomargarine produced by him, or any
 part thereof, he shall forfeit the factory and manufacturing apparatus
 used by him, and all oleomargarine and all raw material for the
 production of oleomargarine found in the factory and on the factory
 premises, and shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor
 more than five thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not less than six
 months nor more than three years.

 18. That if any manufacturer of oleomargarine, any dealer therein, or
 any importer or exporter thereof shall knowingly or wilfully omit,
 neglect, or refuse to do, or cause to be done, any of the things
 required by law in the carrying on or conducting of his business, or
 shall do anything by this Act prohibited, if there be no specific
 penalty or punishment imposed by any other section of this Act for
 the neglecting, omitting, or refusing to do, or for the doing or
 causing to be done, the thing required or prohibited, he shall pay a
 penalty of one thousand dollars; and if the person so offending be
 the manufacturer of or a wholesale dealer in oleomargarine, all the
 oleomargarine owned by him, or in which he has any interest as owner,
 shall be forfeited to the United States.

 19. That all fines, penalties and forfeitures imposed by this Act may
 be recovered in any court of competent jurisdiction.

 20. That the Commissioner of Internal Revenue with the approval of the
 Secretary of the Treasury, may make all needful regulations for the
 carrying into effect of this Act.

 21. That this Act shall go into effect on the ninetieth day after
 its passage; and all wooden packages containing ten or more pounds
 of oleomargarine found on the premises of any dealer on or after the
 ninetieth day succeeding the date of the passage of this Act shall be
 deemed to be taxable under section eight of this Act, and shall be
 taxed, and shall have affixed thereto the stamps, marks, and brands
 required by this Act or by regulations made pursuant to this Act; and
 for the purposes of securing the affixing of the stamps, marks and
 brands required by this Act, the oleomargarine shall be regarded as
 having been manufactured and sold, or removed from the manufactory
 for consumption or use, on or after the day this Act takes effect;
 and such stock on hand at the time of the taking effect of this Act
 may be stamped, marked and branded under special regulations of the
 Commissioner of Internal Revenue, approved by the Secretary of the
 Treasury; and the Commissioner of Internal Revenue may authorise
 the holder of such packages to mark and brand the same and to affix
 thereto the proper tax-paid stamps.


The following is the United States’ Tea Adulteration Law:--

 SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives
 of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That from and
 after the passage of this Act it shall be unlawful for any person or
 persons or corporation to import or bring into the United States any
 merchandise for sale as tea, adulterated with spurious leaf or with
 exhausted leaves, or which contains so great an admixture of chemicals
 or other deleterious substances as to make it unfit for use; and the
 importation of all such merchandise is hereby prohibited.

 2. That on making entry at the custom house of all tea or merchandise
 described as tea imported into the United States, the importer or
 consignee shall give a bond to the collector of the port that such
 merchandise shall not be removed from warehouse until released by the
 custom house authorities, who shall examine it with reference to its
 purity and fitness for consumption; and that for the purpose of such
 examination samples of each line in every invoice shall be submitted
 by the importer or consignee to the examiner, with his written
 statement that such samples represent the true quality of each and
 every part of the invoice, and accord with the specification therein
 contained; and in case the examiner has reason to believe that such
 samples do not represent the true quality of the invoice, he shall
 make such further examination of the tea represented by the invoice,
 or any part thereof, as shall be necessary: Provided, That such
 further examination of such tea shall be made within three days after
 entry thereof has been made at the custom house: And provided further,
 That the bond above required shall also be conditioned for the payment
 of all custom house charges which may attach to such merchandise
 prior to being released or destroyed (as the case may be) under the
 provisions of this Act.

 3. That if, after an examination, as provided in section two, the tea
 is found by the examiner not to come within the prohibition of this
 Act, a permit shall at once be granted to the importer or consignee
 declaring the tea free from the control of the custom authorities;
 but if on examination such tea, or merchandise described as tea, is
 found, in the opinion of the examiner, to come within the prohibitions
 of this Act, the importer or consignee shall be immediately notified,
 and the tea, or merchandise described as tea, so returned shall not be
 released by the custom house, unless on a re-examination called for by
 the importer or consignee, the return of the examiner shall be found
 erroneous: Provided, That should a portion of the invoice be passed
 by the examiner, a permit shall be granted for that portion, and the
 remainder held for further examination, as provided in section four.

 4. That in case of any dispute between the importer or consignee and
 the examiner, the matter in dispute shall be referred for arbitration
 to a committee of three experts, one to be appointed by the collector,
 one by the importer, and the two to choose a third, and their decision
 shall be final; and if upon such final re-examination the tea shall
 be found to come within the prohibitions of this Act, the importer
 or consignee shall give a bond, with securities satisfactory to the
 collector, to export such tea, or merchandise described as tea, out
 of the limits of the United States, within a period of six months
 after such final re-examination; but if the same shall not have been
 exported within the time specified, the collector, at the expiration
 of that time shall cause the same to be destroyed.

 5. That the examination and appraisement herein provided for shall be
 made by a duly qualified appraiser of the port at which said tea is
 entered, and when entered at ports where there are no appraisers, such
 examination and appraisement shall be made by the revenue officers to
 whom is committed the collection of duties, unless the Secretary of
 the Treasury shall otherwise direct.

 6. That leaves to which the term “exhausted” is applied in this Act
 shall mean and include any tea which has been deprived of its proper
 quality, strength, or virtue by steeping, infusion, decoction, or
 other means.

 7. That teas actually on shipboard for shipment to the United States
 at the time of the passage of this Act shall not be subject to the
 prohibition thereof.

 8. That the Secretary of the Treasury shall have the power to enforce
 the provisions of this Act by appropriate regulations.

 Approved, March 2, 1883.


The following is the text of the California Wine Adulteration Law,
passed Feb. 17th, 1887:--

 _The People of the State of California, represented in Senate and
 Assembly, do enact as follows_:--

 SECTION 1. For the purposes of this Act, pure wine shall be defined
 as follows: The juice of grapes fermented, preserved, or fortified
 for use as a beverage, or as a medicine, by methods recognised as
 legitimate according to the provisions of this Act; unfermented grape
 juice, containing no addition of distilled spirits, may be denominated
 according to popular custom and demand as wine only when described as
 “unfermented wine,” and shall be deemed pure only when preserved for
 use as a beverage or medicine, in accordance with the provisions of
 this Act. Pure grape must shall be deemed to be the juice of grapes,
 only, in its natural condition, whether expressed or mingled with the
 pure skins, seeds, or stems of grapes. Pure condensed grape must shall
 be deemed to be pure grape must from which water has been extracted
 by evaporation for purposes of preservation or increase of saccharine
 strength. Dry wine is that produced by complete fermentation of
 saccharine contained in must. Sweet wine is that which contains more
 or less saccharine appreciable to the taste. Fortified wine is that
 wine to which distilled spirits have been added to increase alcoholic
 strength, for purposes of preservation only, and shall be held to be
 pure, when the spirits so used are the product of the grape only. Pure
 champagne or sparkling wine is that which contains carbonic acid gas
 or effervescence produced only by natural fermentation of saccharine
 matter of musts, or partially fermented wine in bottle.

 2. In the fermentation, preservation, and fortification of pure
 wine, it shall be specifically understood that no materials shall
 be used intended as substitutes for grapes, or any part of grapes;
 no colouring matters shall be added which are not the pure products
 of grapes during fermentation, or by extraction from grapes with the
 aid of pure grape spirits; no foreign fruit juices, and no spirits
 imported from foreign countries, whether pure or compounded with fruit
 juices, or other material not the pure product of grapes, shall be
 used for any purpose; no aniline dyes, salicylic acid, glycerine,
 alum, or other chemical antiseptics, or ingredients recognised as
 deleterious to the health of consumers, or as injurious to the
 reputation of wine as pure, shall be permitted; and no distilled
 spirits shall be added except for the sole purpose of preservation,
 and without the intention of enabling trade to lengthen the volume of
 fortified dry wine by the addition of water, or other wine weaker in
 alcoholic strength.

 3. In the fermentation and preservation of pure wine, and during
 the operations of fining or clarifying, removing defects, improving
 qualities, blending and maturing, no methods shall be employed which
 essentially conflict with the provisions of the preceding sections
 of this Act, and no materials shall be used for the promotion of
 fermentation, or the assistance of any of the operations of wine
 treatment which are injurious to the consumer or the reputation of
 wine as pure; _provided_, that it shall be expressly understood
 that the practices of using pure tannin in small quantities, leaven
 to excite fermentation only, and not to increase the material for
 the production of alcohol; water before or during, but not after
 fermentation, for the purpose of decreasing the saccharine strength
 of musts to enable perfect fermentation; and the natural products of
 grapes in the pure forms as they exist in pure grape musts, skins,
 and seeds; sulphur fumes, to disinfect cooperage and prevent disease
 in wine; and pure gelatinous and albuminous substances, for the sole
 purpose of assisting fining or clarification, shall be specifically
 permitted in the operations hereinbefore mentioned, in accordance with
 recognised legitimate custom.

 4. It shall be unlawful to sell, or expose, or offer to sell under
 the name of wine, or grape musts, or condensed musts, or under any
 names designating pure wines, or pure musts as hereinbefore classified
 and defined, or branded, labelled, or designated in any way as
 wine or musts, or by any name popularly and commercially used as a
 designation of wine produced from grapes, such as claret, burgundy,
 hock, sauterne, port, sherry, madeira, and angelica, any substance,
 or compound, except pure wine, or pure grape must, or pure grape
 condensed must, as defined by this Act, and produced in accordance
 with and subject to restrictions herein set forth; _provided_,
 that this Act shall not apply to liquors imported from any foreign
 country, which are taxed upon entry by custom laws in accordance
 with a specific duty and contained in original packages or vessels
 and prominently branded, labelled, or marked so as to be known
 to all persons as foreign products, excepting, however, when such
 liquors shall contain adulterations of artificial colouring matters,
 antiseptic chemicals, or other ingredients known to be deleterious to
 the health of consumers; _and provided further_, that this Act shall
 not apply to currant wine, gooseberry wine, or wines made from other
 fruits than the grape, which are labelled or branded and designated
 and sold, or offered or exposed for sale under names, including the
 word wine, but also expressing distinctly the fruit from which they
 are made, as gooseberry wine, elderberry wine, or the like. Any
 violation of any of the provisions of any of the preceding sections
 shall be a misdemeanour.

 5. Exceptions from the provisions of this Act shall be made in the
 case of pure champagne, or sparkling wine, so far as to permit the
 use of crystallised sugar in sweetening the same according to usual
 custom, but in no other respect.

 6. In all sales and contracts for sale, production, or delivery of
 products defined in this Act, such products, in the absence of a
 written agreement to the contrary, shall be presumed to be pure as
 herein defined, and such sale or contracts shall, in the absence of
 such an agreement, be void, if it be established that the products so
 sold or contracted for were not pure as herein defined. And in such
 case the concealment of the true character of such products shall
 constitute actual fraud for which damages may be recovered, and in
 a judgment for damages, reasonable attorney fees to be fixed by the
 Court, shall be taxed as costs.

 7. The Controller of the State shall cause to have engraved plates,
 from which shall be printed labels which shall set forth that the wine
 covered by such labels is pure California wine in accordance with
 this Act, and leaving blanks for the name of the particular kind of
 wine, and the name or names of the seller of the wine and place of
 business. These labels shall be of two forms or shapes, one a narrow
 strip to cap over the corks of bottles, the other, round or square,
 and sufficiently large, say three inches square, to cover the bungs of
 packages in which wine is sold. Such labels shall be furnished upon
 proper application to actual residents, and to be used in this State
 only, and only to those who are known to be growers, manufacturers,
 traders, or handlers, or bottlers of California wine, and such parties
 will be required to file a sworn statement with said Controller,
 setting forth that his or their written application for such labels is
 and will be for his or their sole use and benefit, and that he or they
 will not give, sell, or loan such label to any other person or persons
 whomsoever. Such labels shall be paid for at the same rate and price
 as shall be found to be the actual cost price to the State, and shall
 be supplied from time to time as needed upon the written application
 of such parties as are before mentioned. Such label when affixed to
 bottle or wine package shall be so affixed, that by drawing the
 cork from bottle or opening the bung of package, such label shall be
 destroyed by such opening; and before affixing such labels all blanks
 shall be filled out by stating the variety or kind of wine that is
 contained in such bottle or package, and also by the name or names and
 Post Office address of such grower, manufacturer, trader, handler, or
 bottler of such wine.

 8. It is desired and required that all and every grower, manufacturer,
 trader, handler, or bottler of California wine, when selling or
 putting up for sale any California wine, or when shipping California
 wine to parties to whom sold, shall plainly stencil, brand, or have
 printed where it will be easily seen, first, “Pure California Wine,”
 and secondly his name, or the firm’s name, as the case may be, both on
 label of bottle or package in which wine is sold and sent, or he may,
 in lieu thereof, if he so prefers and elects, affix the label which
 has been provided for in section seven. It shall be unlawful to affix
 any such stamp or label as above provided to any vessel containing any
 substance other than pure wine, as herein defined, or to prepare or
 use on any vessel containing any liquid any imitation or counterfeit
 of such stamp, or any paper in the similitude or resemblance thereof,
 or any paper of such form and appearance as to be calculated to
 mislead or deceive any unwary person, or cause him to suppose the
 contents of such vessel to be pure wine. It shall be unlawful for
 any person or persons, other than the ones for whom such stamps were
 procured, to in any way use such stamps, or to have possession of the
 same. A violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be a
 misdemeanour, and punishable by fine of not less than fifty dollars
 and not more than five hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in the
 county jail for a term of not exceeding ninety days, or by both such
 fine and imprisonment. All moneys collected by virtue of prosecutions
 had against persons violating any provisions of this or any preceding
 sections shall go one half to the informer and one half to the
 District Attorney prosecuting the same.

 9. It shall be the duty of the Controller to keep an account, in a
 book to be kept for that purpose, of all stamps, the number, design,
 time when, and to whom furnished. The parties procuring the same are
 hereby required to return to the Controller semi-annual statements
 under oath, setting forth the number used, and how many remain on
 hand. Any violation of this section, by the person receiving such
 stamps, is a misdemeanour.

 10. It shall be the duty of any and all persons receiving such stamps
 to use the same only in their business, in no manner or in nowise to
 allow the same to be disposed of except in the manner authorised by
 this Act; to not allow the same to be used by any other person or
 persons. It shall be their duty to become satisfied that the wine
 contained in the barrels or bottles is all that said label imports as
 defined by this Act. That they will use the said stamps only in this
 State, and shall not permit the same to part from their possession,
 except with the barrels, packages, or bottles upon which they are
 placed as provided by this Act. A violation of any of the provisions
 of this section is hereby made a felony.

 12. This Act shall take effect and be in force ninety days after its
 passage.

FOOTNOTE:

[148] Second Report of the New York State Dairy Commissioner.



INDEX.


  A.

  Acetous fermentation, 225
  Acids, acetic, 146
  ---- butyric, 63
  ---- malic, 173
  ---- nitrous, 210
  ---- phosphoric, 147
  ---- picric, 153
  ---- salicylic, 149, 177
  ---- succinic, 174
  ---- sulphuric, 176, 227
  ---- tannic, 22, 174
  ---- tartaric, 102, 173
  ---- in beer, 146
  ---- ---- butter, 63, 71
  ---- ---- wine, 172
  Adams’ test for milk, 59
  Adulteration, excuses for, 1
  ---- extent of, 5, 7
  ---- varieties of, 9, 10
  Albuminoid ammonia, 207
  Albuminoids in beer, 145
  ---- ---- flour, 89
  ---- ---- water, 207
  Alcohol in beer, 143
  ---- ---- bread, 94
  ---- ---- liquors, 195
  Alcoholometric tables, 144, 196
  Alkaloids in beer, 150
  ---- ---- flour, 91
  ---- ---- milk, 62
  Allspice, 253
  Aloes, 152
  Alum in baking powders, 102
  ---- ---- bread, 98
  ---- ---- flour, 92
  American adulteration, 8
  ---- cheese, 85
  ---- wine, 158
  Ammonia in water, 207
  Amylic alcohol, 197
  Annato in butter, 77
  ---- ---- cheese, 86
  Aniline dyes in wine, 178-183
  Artesian wells in New York, 257
  Artificial bitters in beer, 141
  ---- butter, 66
  ---- cheese, 85
  ---- coffee, 31-40
  ---- honey, 122
  ---- jelly, 256
  ---- liquors, 193
  ---- spices, 245
  ---- sugar, 105
  ---- tea, 19, 28
  ---- wine, 167
  Ash of beer, 136
  ---- ---- bread, 96
  ---- ---- chicory, 35
  ---- ---- cocoa, 44
  ---- ---- coffee, 31, 35
  ---- ---- flour, 89
  ---- ---- milk, 52
  ---- ---- mustard, 242
  ---- ---- pepper, 244
  ---- ---- pickles, 232
  ---- ---- sugar, 110
  Ash of tea, 16, 22
  ---- ---- wine, 175
  Asparagus, 254


  B.

  Bacteria in water, 220
  Bakers’ chemicals, 101
  Baking powders, 102
  Banana essence, 129
  Barley malt, 132
  Beans in coffee, 31
  Beech leaves in tea, 18
  Beer, 132
  ---- adulteration of, 137
  ---- acids in, 146
  ---- alcohol in, 142
  ---- albuminoids in, 145
  ---- alkaloids in, 150
  ---- American, 134
  ---- analysis of, 142
  ---- ash of, 136, 147
  ---- bitters in, 137, 141
  ---- carbonic acid in, 143
  ---- composition of, 135
  ---- extract of, 134, 144
  ---- flavourings for, 137
  ---- glucose in, 138
  ---- glycerine in, 150
  ---- lager, 134
  ---- malt substitutes in, 138
  ---- manufacture of, 133
  ---- phosphates in, 147
  ---- picric acid in, 153
  ---- picrotoxine in, 153
  ---- production of, 134
  ---- salicylic acid in, 149
  ---- salt in, 147
  ---- soda in, 140
  ---- standards for, 148
  ---- sugar in, 144
  ---- sulphites in, 156
  ---- Wittstein’s test for, 151
  ---- varieties of, 133
  Bees’ wax, 128
  Bibliography, 258
  Biological examination of water, 216
  Bitters in beer, 141
  Bleaching of flour, 90
  ---- ---- sugar, 108
  Blending of beer, 140
  ---- ---- liquors, 185
  ---- ---- wine, 164
  Blue pigments, 14, 107
  Boards of Health, 6
  Borax in milk, 61
  Bouquet of liquors, 187
  ---- ---- wine, 164
  Brandy, 186
  Bread, 94
  ---- aerated, 95
  ---- alcohol in, 94
  ---- alum in, 98
  ---- analysis of, 97
  ---- ash of, 96
  ---- composition of, 96
  ---- salt in, 96
  ---- soda in, 95
  ---- starch in, 96
  ---- water in, 96
  Brewing in the United States, 134
  Butter, 63
  ---- acids in, 71
  ---- adulteration of, 66
  ---- analysis of, 65
  ---- Angell & Hehner’s test, 72
  ---- annato in, 77
  ---- artificial, 66
  ---- ash of, 65
  ---- carotin in, 77
  ---- colouring of, 77
  ---- composition of, 63
  ---- examination of, 65, 68
  ---- fat crystals in, 79
  ---- fusing point of, 63, 69
  ---- gelatine in, 76
  ---- Hübl’s process for, 75
  ---- Koettstorfer’s process for, 71
  ---- microscopic appearance of, 78
  ---- oleomargarine in, 66
  ---- photomicrographs of, 78
  Butter, Reichert’s process for, 73
  ---- saffron in, 77
  ---- salt in, 65
  ---- soluble acids in, 71
  ---- specific gravity of, 67
  ---- tests for purity of, 70
  ---- volatile acids in, 71
  ---- water in, 65
  Butterine, 66, 67
  Butter fat, melting point, 69
  ---- ---- specific gravity, 68
  Butyric acid, 63
  ---- alcohol, 188
  ---- ether, 187


  C.

  Caffeine, 21, 39
  California wine, 158, 160
  Cane sugar, 104
  Canned vegetables, 254
  Capsicum, 229
  Carbohydrates, 99
  Carbonic acid, 95, 143
  Carotine, 77
  Caseine, 50, 85
  Cassia, 252
  Cayenne pepper, 247
  Cereals in coffee, 31, 34
  Cheese, 83
  ---- adulteration of, 85
  ---- American, 84
  ---- analysis, 86
  ---- artificial, 85
  ---- composition of, 83
  ---- fats in, 84
  ---- lard, 85
  ---- varieties of, 83, 84
  Chicory, 31
  ---- ash, 35
  ---- colouring power of, 34
  ---- extract, 38
  ---- in coffee, 32, 34
  ---- sugar in, 37
  ---- tests for, 32
  Chlorine in water, 206
  Chocolate, 42
  ---- ash of, 45
  ---- fats in, 45
  ---- flavourings for, 42
  ---- flour in, 42
  ---- sugar in, 45
  Chrome yellow in coffee, 40
  ---- ---- ---- candy, 131
  Cider vinegar, 230
  Cinnamon, 253
  Cloves, 252
  Coal-tar colours in candy, 130
  ---- ---- ---- mustard, 240
  ---- ---- ---- wine, 178, 183
  Cocoa, 42
  ---- adulteration of, 42, 45
  ---- analysis of, 45
  ---- composition of, 43
  ---- starch in, 42
  ---- theobromine in, 44
  Cocoa-nut oil in butter, 73
  Coffee, 29
  ---- adulteration of, 31
  ---- analysis of, 30
  ---- artificial, 31, 40
  ---- ash of, 31, 35
  ---- caffeine in, 39
  ---- cereals in, 31, 34
  ---- chicory in, 31, 32
  ---- colouring of, 40
  ---- composition of, 30
  ---- density of infusion, 33
  ---- examination of, 32
  ---- extract of, 31
  ---- facing of, 40
  ---- fat in, 30
  ---- sugar in, 37, 38
  ---- tests for purity of, 32, 33
  Cognac essence, 193
  ---- oil, 193
  Colouring agents, 15, 77, 130
  ---- ---- aniline, 130
  ---- ---- annato, 77
  ---- ---- carotin, 77
  ---- ---- gypsum, 14
  Colouring agents, indigo, 14
  ---- ---- lead, 131
  ---- ---- logwood, 178
  ---- ---- Martius’ yellow, 77
  ---- ---- mineral, 15
  ---- ---- Prussian blue, 15
  ---- ---- saffron, 77
  ---- ---- turmeric, 15, 77
  ---- ---- vegetable, 130
  ---- ---- Venetian red, 40
  Cocculus indicus, 153
  Condensed milk, 53
  Confectionery, 129
  Copper in grains, 255
  ---- ---- pickles, 232


  D.

  Dairy Commissioner, 50
  Darnel in flour, 90
  Dextrine, 24, 146
  Dextrose, 105
  Dialysis, 180, 183
  Diastase, 132
  Digestion of alumed bread, 98
  ---- ---- butter, 82
  ---- ---- oleomargarine, 82


  E.

  Elaidin test, 234
  Elm leaves, 18
  Ergot in flour, 90
  Essences, artificial, 129
  Ethers, 129, 174


  F.

  Facing of coffee, 40
  ---- ---- tea, 15
  Fats in butter, 63, 71
  ---- ---- chocolate, 46
  ---- ---- crystals, 79
  ---- fixed, 73
  ---- insoluble, 71
  ---- milk, 57
  ---- soluble, 71, 73
  Fats, volatile, 73
  Fehling’s test, 37, 111
  Feser’s lactoscope, 57
  Flavourings for beer, 137
  ---- ---- candy, 129
  ---- ---- chocolate, 42
  ---- ---- liquors, 194
  ---- ---- wine, 165
  Flour, 88
  ---- adulteration of, 90
  ---- albuminoids in, 89
  ---- alkaloids in, 91
  ---- alum in, 90, 92
  ---- analysis of, 89
  ---- ash of, 89
  ---- composition of, 87
  ---- fungi in, 91
  ---- gluten in, 89
  ---- phosphates in, starch in, 89
  ---- tests for, 92
  ---- water in, 89
  Forchammer’s test, 203
  Frankland’s method, 211
  Fruit, canned, 254
  ---- essences, 129
  ---- wine, 168
  Fusel oil in candy, 129
  ---- ---- liquors, 197


  G.

  Gall’s method for wine, 162
  Gelatine in butter, 76
  Gentian in beer, 150
  Gin, 191
  Ginger, 253
  Glucose, commercial, 105
  ---- estimation of, 111
  ---- in beer, 138
  ---- in honey, 124
  ---- in wine, 171
  ---- manufacture of, 105
  ---- tests for, 110, 124
  Gluten in flour, 89
  Glycerine in beer, 150
  ---- ---- wine, 171
  Granules of starch, 100
  Gypsum in sugar, 110
  ---- ---- tea, 14
  ---- ---- wine, 163, 176


  H.

  Honey, 121
  ---- adulteration of, 122
  ---- analysis of, 124
  ---- artificial, 122
  ---- ash of, 123
  ---- comb, 122, 128
  ---- glucose in, 123
  ---- sugar in, 123
  ---- water in, 123
  Hop-substitutes, 137, 150
  Hordeine, 133
  Hawthorn leaves, 18
  Hubl’s test, 75


  I.

  Ice, impure, 224
  Indigo, 14, 19, 40, 129
  Iodine test, 99


  J.

  Jellies, 256


  K.

  Kœttstorfer’s test, 71


  L.

  Lactometer, 53, 54
  Lactoscope, 57
  Levulose, 107
  Lard cheese, 85
  Leaves in tea, 17, 18
  Legislation, 268
  Liquors, 186
  ---- adulteration of, 192
  Logwood test, 92


  M.

  Mace, 253
  Malic acid, 173
  Malt, 132, 137
  Maltose, 107
  Malt substitutes in beer, 137, 148
  Maple sugar, 109
  Marble dust, 131
  Marc of wines, 157
  Martius’ yellow, 77, 240
  Meat extracts, 255
  Micro-organisms in water, 214
  Microscopic examination of butter, 78
  ---- ---- coffee, 40
  ---- ---- fats, 78, 79
  ---- ---- milk, 61
  ---- ---- spices, 246
  ---- ---- starches, 100
  ---- ---- tea, 17
  ---- ---- water, 216
  Milk, 49
  ---- Adam’s method for, 59
  ---- adulteration of, 49
  ---- analysis of, 53
  ---- ash of, 52
  ---- caseine in, 59
  ---- composition of, 51
  ---- condensed, 53
  ---- cream in, 57
  ---- fats in, 57
  ---- globules, 61
  ---- nitrites in, 62
  ---- photo-micrographs of, 61
  ---- ptomaines in, 62
  ---- skimmed, 50
  ---- specific gravity of, 53, 55
  ---- standards for, 59-60
  ---- sugar of, 59
  ---- total solids, 58
  ---- water in, 56
  Miscellaneous adulteration, 254
  Molasses, 105
  Moore’s test for carotine, 77
  Mustard, 239
  ---- adulteration of, 240
  ---- analysis of, 241
  ---- ash of, 242
  ---- colouring of, 240
  Mustard, composition of, 239
  ---- flour in, 240
  ---- oil of, 241
  ---- sulphur in, 241


  N.

  Nessler’s solution, 208
  Nitrates in water, 210
  Nitrites in milk, 62
  ---- ---- vinegar, 231
  ---- ---- water, 210
  Nitrogen in flour, 89
  ---- ---- tea, 21
  ---- ---- water, 210


  O.

  Oenanthic ether, 158
  Oils, bitter almond, 129
  ---- cocoanut, 73
  ---- cognac, 193
  ---- cotton seed, 234, 236
  ---- fusel, 197
  ---- lard, 68
  ----- mustard, 241
  ---- nut, 235
  ---- olive, 233
  ---- poppy, 235
  ---- rape seed, 236
  ---- sesamé, 236
  ---- turpentine, 191
  Oleic acid, 63
  Oleomargarine, 66
  ---- composition of, 67
  ---- digestion of, 82
  ---- effects of, 80, 81
  ---- exportation of, 66
  ---- manufacture of, 66
  ---- photo-micrographs of, 79
  ---- tests for, 70
  Olive oil, 233
  ---- ---- adulteration of, 233
  ---- ---- American, 233
  ---- ---- cotton seed oil in, 236
  ---- ---- examination of, 234
  Olive oil, specific gravity of, 234
  ---- ---- standard for, 237
  Organisms in ice, 219
  ---- ---- water, 217


  P.

  Pepper, 243
  ---- adulteration of, 244
  ---- analysis of, 245
  ---- ash of, 244
  ---- cayenne, 247
  ---- composition of, 243
  ---- starch in, 246
  Pepperette, 248
  Phosphates in beer, 147
  ---- ---- bread, 89
  ---- ---- wine, 176
  Photogravures of leaves, 18
  ---- ---- water, 217
  ---- ---- polariscope, 112
  ---- ---- tea, 17
  ---- ---- tea plant, _Frontispiece_.
  Photo-micrographs of butter, 79
  ---- ---- cream, 61
  ---- ---- digestion of fats, 82
  ---- ---- fats, 79
  ---- ---- milk, 61
  ---- ---- oleomargarine, 79
  ---- ---- spices, 252
  ---- ---- starches, 100
  Pickles, 232
  Picric acid, 153
  Polariscope, 112
  Polarisation of beer, 148
  ---- ---- honey, 123
  ---- ---- glucose, 118
  ---- ---- lactose, 59
  ---- ---- sugar, 112
  ---- ---- wine, 171
  Poplar leaves, 18
  Preservatives in beer, 149, 156
  ---- ---- butter, 77
  ---- ---- milk, 61
  ---- ---- wine, 177
  Preserved milk, 53
  Prussian blue in candy, 131
  ---- ---- coffee, 40
  ---- ---- tea, 14
  Ptomaines in ice cream, 62
  ---- ---- milk, 62


  Q.

  Quassia in beer, 152


  R.

  Raisin wine, 168
  Reichert’s test, 73
  “Rock and rye” drops, 129
  Rose leaves, 18
  Rum, 190


  S.

  St. Andrew’s cross in fats, 79
  Sal aeratus, 101
  Salicine in beer, 137
  Salt in beer, 147
  ---- ---- butter, 65
  Salicylic acid in beer, 149
  ---- ---- wine, 175
  Sand in tea, 14
  Soda water syrups, 257
  Specific gravity of beer, 142
  ---- ---- butter, 63, 68
  ---- ---- fats, 68
  ---- ---- milk, 50, 53
  ---- ---- oils, 232
  ---- ---- spirits, 185-189
  ---- ---- tables, 55, 144, 145, 196
  ---- ---- vinegar, 226
  ---- ---- wine, 159
  Spices, 249
  ---- microscopic examination of, 249
  Standards for beer, 148
  ---- ---- butter, 72, 74, 75
  ---- ---- cocoa, 46
  ---- ---- milk, 59, 60
  ---- ---- tea, 25
  ---- ---- water, 213, 214
  Standards for wine, 184
  Starch, 99
  ---- estimation of, 99
  ---- granules, 100
  ---- in mustard, 240
  ---- in pepper, 246
  ---- photo-micrographs of, 100
  ---- in spices, 252
  Strychnine in beer, 151
  Sugar, 104
  ---- adulteration of, 107
  ---- analysis of, 109
  ---- ash of, 110
  ---- cane, 104
  ---- fruit, 105
  ---- grape, 105, 119
  ---- invert, 104
  ---- malt, 107
  ---- maple, 109
  ---- milk, 59, 107
  ---- tin salts in, 107
  Sulphates in wine, 176
  Sulphuric acid in vinegar, 228
  ---- ---- wine, 176
  Syrups, adulteration of, 108
  ---- glucose, 108


  T.

  Tables, of adulteration, 10
  ---- alcoholometric, 144
  ---- coffee infusion, 33
  ---- lactometric, 55
  ---- malt extract, 145
  ---- specific gravity, 55, 143, 196
  Tannic acid in tea, 22
  ---- ---- in wine, 174
  Tartar, cream of, 101
  ---- ---- in wine, 173
  Tartaric acid in baking powder, 103
  ---- ---- in wine, 173
  Tea, 12
  ---- adulteration of, 14
  ---- analysis of, 21, 26, 27
  ---- ash of, 16, 17, 22
  Tea, Ching Suey, 28
  ---- colouring of, 14
  ---- composition of, 15
  ---- dust, 16
  ---- examination of, 21
  ---- extract of, 23
  ---- facing of, 15
  ---- factitious, 19, 28
  ---- foreign leaves in, 14, 18
  ---- gypsum in, 14
  ---- gum in, 24
  ---- indigo in, 19
  ---- insoluble ash in, 23
  ---- ---- leaf in, 28
  ---- leaves, 7, 17, 18
  ---- lie, 19
  ---- microscopic examination of, 18
  ---- Ping Suey, 8
  ---- sand in, 14
  ---- soapstone in, 19
  ---- soluble ash, 23
  ---- South American, 26
  ---- spent, 15
  ---- standards for, 25
  ---- tannin in, 22
  ---- theine in, 21
  ---- volatile oil in, 22
  Te-mo-ki leaves, 18
  Theine in tea, 21
  Tin in canned fruits, 254
  Tin salts in sugar, 107


  U.

  Ultramarine in sugar, 107


  V.

  Vanilla in chocolate, 42
  Vegetables, canned, 254
  Vinegar, 225
  ---- adulteration of, 229
  ---- analysis of, 227
  ---- cider, 230
  ---- extract of, 227
  ---- malt, 226
  Vinegar, standards for, 227
  ---- sulphuric acid in, 228
  ---- whisky, 230
  ---- wine, 226
  Volatile acids in butter, 73
  ---- ethers in wine, 174


  W.

  Water, 200
  ---- albuminoid ammonia in, 207
  ---- American supply, 220
  ---- bacteria in, 216
  ---- biological examination of, 216
  ---- carbon in, 212
  ---- chlorine in, 206
  ---- croton, 219
  ---- examination of, 201
  ---- Forchammer’s process, 203
  ---- Frankland’s process, 211
  ---- free ammonia in, 207
  ---- Hudson river, 222
  ---- microscopic examination of, 216
  ---- nitrates in, 210
  ---- nitrites in, 210
  ---- nitrogen in, 210
  ---- organic matter in, 203
  ---- organisms in, 219
  ---- sewage in, 207, 210
  ---- standards for, 213
  ---- total solids in, 202
  ---- urea in, 207
  ---- Wanklyn’s process, 207
  Wheat, 87
  Wheaten flour, 87
  ---- starch, 88, 100
  Whey, 50
  Whisky, 188
  ---- vinegar, 230
  Willow leaves, 18
  Wine, 157
  ---- acids in, 172
  ---- adulteration of, 163
  ---- alcohol in, 169
  ---- American, 158
  Wine, ash of, 175
  ---- blending of, 164
  ---- California, 160
  ---- colouring of, 166, 178
  ---- ethers in, 174
  ---- examination of, 169
  ---- extract of, 170
  ---- fruit, 168
  ---- glycerine in, 170
  ---- imitation, 167
  ---- improving, 161
  ---- malic acid in, 173
  ---- natural, 160
  ---- Pasteuring, 161
  ---- Petiot’s process, 161
  ---- phosphoric acid in, 176
  ---- plastering of, 163
  ---- polarisation of, 171
  ---- raisin, 168
  ---- salicylic acid in, 177
  ---- Scheele’s process for, 162
  ---- standards for, 184
  ---- succinic acid in, 174
  ---- sulphates in, 176
  ---- sulphurous acid in, 177
  ---- sugar in, 170
  ---- table of, 159
  ---- tannin in, 174
  ---- tartrates in, 178
  ---- tartaric acid in, 173
  ---- varieties of, 159
  Willow leaves, 18
  Wisteria ----, 18


PRINTED BY E. AND F. N. SPON, NEW YORK AND LONDON.



_RELIABLE FOOD PRODUCTS._


As the largest Manufacturers and Dealers in the world in this line,
we consider it to our interest to manufacture only PURE and WHOLESOME
goods, and pack them in a tidy and attractive manner. We import,
manufacture, or deal in nearly everything eaten or drank. _All goods
bearing our name are guaranteed to be of superior quality, and dealers
are authorized to refund the purchase price in any case where consumers
have cause for dissatisfaction._ It is, therefore, to the interest of
both dealers and consumers to use THURBER’S BRANDS.

 THURBER, WHYLAND & CO.,

 _West Broadway, Reade and Hudson Streets, New York._

 _9 and 11 Fenchurch Avenue, London, E. C., England._

 _17 Rue Lagrange, Bordeaux, France._

_NOTICE._

Our Canned Goods are put up with a special quality of tin, and most of
them, being hermetically sealed while fresh at the sources of supply,
preserve the fresh natural flavors, and are REALLY FRESHER, MORE
WHOLESOME AND PALATABLE than many so-called “fresh” articles which are
exposed for sale during considerable periods of time in city markets.



When the very delicate article of =CORN STARCH=, which is so largely
used in the family for food, and especially for children and invalids,
is adulterated with poisonous and unhealthy substances, it becomes very
important that every housekeeper should be cautious and know what kind
they use.

The evidence of such adulteration is most signally shown in the
following proof, which is by one of the most eminent food analysts of
Great Britain, viz.:

 “I recently purchased, on the same day and in the same neighborhood,
 a series of eight samples of starch, paying for them three different
 prices. On subjecting them to analysis, I found the whole of them to
 be adulterated with 20, 30, and even nearly 40 per cent. of earthy or
 mineral matter. This I found to consist of mineral white, terra alba,
 or sulphate of lime.”--Letter in the London _Times_, October 5th, 1878.

      (Signed) ARTHUR H. HASSALL, M.D.

Only a careful chemical analysis will show the pure article from the
adulterated.

KINGSFORD’S OSWEGO STARCH

has been thus analyzed and proved to be perfectly pure and free from
any foreign substance, as is proved by the following report:

  THE ANALYTICAL SANITARY INSTITUTION.

      LONDON, January 1, 1879.

We have obtained in different parts of the metropolis samples of both
the qualities of Starch manufactured by Messrs. T. KINGSFORD & SON.

We have examined them carefully, both with the microscope and by
chemical analysis, and found the samples without exception to be of
good color, of excellent quality, perfectly genuine, and of great
strength.

THEY WERE QUITE FREE FROM ANY ADDED MINERAL MATTER.

      (Signed) ARTHUR HILL HASSALL, M.D.

      (Signed) OTTO HEHNER, F.C.S.

In order to secure the genuine and unadulterated article, see that the
name T. KINGSFORD & SON is on every box and package.



ANTI-ADULTERATION BAKING POWDERS.

[Illustration: Count Rumford]

THE BAKING PREPARATIONS

OF

PROFESSOR HORSFORD

 [Namely, Professor Horsford’s Self-Raising Bread Preparation, put up
 in paper packages; Rumford Yeast Powder, in bottles; and Professor
 Horsford’s Phosphatic Baking Powder, in bottles with wide mouths to
 admit a spoon],

are made of Horsford’s Acid Phosphate, in powdered form, and are

 HEALTHFUL AND NUTRITIOUS,

because they restore to the flour the nourishing phosphates lost with
the bran in the process of bolting.

These Baking Preparations have received the endorsement of, and are

 UNIVERSALLY USED AND RECOMMENDED BY PROMINENT PHYSICIANS AND CHEMISTS,

and are for sale by all dealers.

 THEY INCREASE THE NUTRITIVE QUALITIES OF FLOUR.

BARON LIEBIG, the world-renowned German chemist, said: “I consider this
invention as one of the most useful gifts which science has made to
mankind! It is certain that the nutritive value of flour is increased
ten per cent. by your phosphatic Baking Preparations, and the result
is precisely the same as if the fertility of our wheat fields had been
increased by that amount. What a wonderful result is this!”

 THE HORSFORD ALMANAC AND COOK BOOK SENT FREE.

 RUMFORD CHEMICAL WORKS, PROVIDENCE, R. I.



SPONS’ ENCYCLOPÆDIA

OF THE

INDUSTRIAL ARTS, MANUFACTURES AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS.

Edited by C. G. WARNFORD LOCK, F.L.S., &c., &c.

In Super-royal 8vo, containing 2,100 pp., and illustrated by nearly
1,500 Engravings.

Can be had in the following bindings:

  In 2 vols., cloth                       $27.00

  In 5 divisions, cloth                    27.00

  In 2 vols. half-morocco, top edge gilt,
  bound in a superior manner               35.00

  In 33 monthly parts, at 75c. each.

_Any Part can be had separate, price 75c._


COMPLETE LIST OF ALL THE SUBJECTS.

                         PART
  Acids               1, 2, 3
  Alcohol                3, 4
  Alkalies               4, 5
  Alloys                 5, 6
  Arsenic                   6
  Asphalte                  6
  Aerated Waters            6
  Beer and Wine          6, 7
  Beverages              7, 8
  Bleaching Powder          8
  Bleaching              8, 9
  Borax                     9
  Brushes                   9
  Buttons                   9
  Camphor               9, 10
  Candles                  10
  Carbon                   10
  Celluloid                10
  Clays                    10
  Carbolic Acid            11
  Coal-tar Products        11
  Cocoa                    11
  Coffee               11, 12
  Cork                     12
  Cotton Manufactures  12, 13
  Drugs                    13
  Dyeing and Calico
    Printing           13, 14
  Dyestuffs                14
  Electro-Metallurgy       14
  Explosives           14, 15
  Feathers                 15
  Fibrous Substances   15, 16
  Floor-cloth              16
  Food Preservation        16
  Fruit                16, 17
  Fur                      17
  Gas, Coal                17
  Gems                     17
  Glass                    17
  Graphite                 18
  Hair Manufactures        18
  Hats                     18
  Ice, Artificial          18
  Indiarubber
    Manufactures       18, 19
  Ink                      19
  Jute Manufactures        19
  Knitted Fabrics
    (Hosiery)              19
  Lace                     19
  Leather              19, 20
  Linen Manufactures       20
  Manures                  20
  Matches              20, 21
  Mordants                 21
  Narcotics            21, 22
  Oils and Fatty
    Substances     22, 23, 24
  Paper                    24
  Paraffin                 24
  Pearl and Coral          24
  Perfumes                 24
  Photography          24, 25
  Pigments and Paints      25
  Pottery              25, 26
  Printing and Engraving   26
  Resinous and Gummy
    Substances         26, 27
  Rope                     27
  Salt                 27, 28
  Silk                     28
  Skins                    28
  Soap, Railway Grease
    and Glycerine      28, 29
  Spices                   29
  Starch                   29
  Sugar            29, 30, 31
  Tannin               31, 32
  Tea                      32
  Timber                   32
  Varnish                  32
  Wool and Woollen
    Manufactures       22, 33

_Descriptive Catalogue of Books relating to Civil and Mechanical
Engineering, Arts, Trades and Manufactures sent on application. We can
supply any book in print at published price._


E. & F. N. SPON, 35 Murray Street, New York.



       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Notes

Minor punctuation errors (i.e. missing periods) have been silently
corrected. Inconsistencies in hyphenation and accented letters have
been retained. The use of both c.c. and cc. has also been retained.

Discrepancies between the names in the Table of Contents and List of
Plates and on the Chapters and Plates themselves has been retained.

Inconsistencies in spelling have been retained except in the following
apparent typographical errors:

Page 34, “wurtzel” changed to “wurzel.” (Mangold wurzel)

Page 62, “demonstated” changed to “demonstrated.” (It was demonstrated
that warm milk)

Page 80, “excell” changed to “excel.” (with butter, excel in efficiency)

Page 136, “10·000” changed to “100·00.” (the total of the analysis of
American lager beer)

Page 162, “proprotion” changed to “proportion.” (in a maximum
proportion of 3 per cent.)

Page 169, “calulated” changed to “calculated.” (calculated by aid of
the usual alcohol-metric)

Page 190, “·0012” changed to “0·0012.” (acetic acid, 0·0012 to 0·002)

Page 196, “9·9538” changed to “0·9538.” (in Specific Gravity column of
table)

Page 200, “degeee” changed to “degree.” (with a fair degree of accuracy)

Page 211, “presenee” changed to “presence.” (In the presence of
nitrites)

Page 275, “years’” changed to “year’s.” (more than one year’s
imprisonment)

Page 316, “accordanee” changed to “accordance.” (and produced in
accordance with)

Page 321, “carrotin” changed to “carotin.” (butter ... carotin in)

Page 322, “Cocoanut” changed to “Cocoa-nut.” (Cocoa-nut oil in butter)

Page 322, “carrotin” changed to “carotin.” (Colouring agents ... carotin)

Second end paper, “analysists” changed to “analysts.” (one of the most
eminent food analysts)

Second end paper, “ANYLITICAL” changed to “ANALYTICAL.” (THE ANALYTICAL
SANITARY INSTITUTION.)





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