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Title: Metropolitan Subway and Elevated Systems - Bulletin 49
Author: Company, General Electric
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Metropolitan Subway and Elevated Systems - Bulletin 49" ***

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                           Transcriber Notes

 ● Obvious typos and punctuation errors fixed.
 ● Inconsistencies in hyphenation kept as in the original.
 ● Italics are represented by underscores surrounding the _italic text_.
 ● Small capitals have been converted to ALL CAPS.
 ● Superscripts are noted by a caret and curly brackets, e.g. 59^{TH}.
 ● A decorative GE logo is represented by [GE logo]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



[Illustration:

                          METROPOLITAN SUBWAY
                          and ELEVATED SYSTEMS

                                   GE


                 Presented As Bulletin Number 49 By The

                  ELECTRIC RAILWAY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

                              Price $1.50

]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



              BOSTON ELEVATED RAILWAY RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM


The transportation system of the city of Boston comprises a combination
of both rapid transit and surface lines operated under a single fare
arrangement with transfer privileges permitting a continuous ride in one
general direction from one end to the other of the system. The elevated
lines and the Tremont St. Subway were originally built by the railway
company in 1901. Today the total transportation system includes more
than 500 miles of line of which 37 miles are subway and elevated tracks.
The population served in the district of more than 92 square miles is
considerably over a million people and the number of revenue passengers
carried, approximates 350,000,000 per year. Statistics are not available
as to the passengers carried on the Rapid Transit lines.

[Illustration: EXTERIOR OF MAIN POWER STATION AT SOUTH BOSTON]

The original elevated structure operated between Sullivan Sq.,
Charlestown, and Dudley Street, with two branches through the city, one
by subway under Tremont St. and the other by the way of Atlantic Ave.
and South Station. In 1908-9 the elevated structure was extended to the
present terminal at Forest Hills and the Washington St. Subway was
completed through the business part of the city. The Cambridge Subway
was placed in operation in 1912. Recent extensions include an elevated
line from Sullivan Square to Everett and reconstruction of the tunnel to
East Boston.

Since July 1, 1919, the system has been operated by the Board of
Trustees of the Commonwealth. Under the direction of this board are
included not only the details of operation and management, but also the
decisions as to fares to be charged independent of the State Department
of Public Utilities.

Under the direction of the present management a continuous program of
improvements has been inaugurated which has necessitated the re-routing
of trains to handle the traffic to the best advantage.

Briefly there are four main routes as follows:

              Forest Hills-Everett (via tunnel) 8.59 miles
              Forest Hills-Everett (via elev.)  9.35 miles
              Harvard-Andrew                    5.56 miles
              No. Station West-Kenmore          2.87 miles
              Bowdoin-Maverick Sq.              1.67 miles

The Forest Hills-Everett route is called the main line, and the
Harvard-Andrew route the Cambridge Subway. The Bowdoin-Maverick Square
line up to the present has been operating three-car trains with overhead
trolley, but new equipment consisting of steel cars is now on order and
the third rail is now being installed in the tunnel. The Lechmere
Sq.-Broadway line over East Cambridge Viaduct and Tremont St. Subway is
also considered a rapid transit route, although surface type cars are
used with overhead trolley. These cars are equipped for multiple unit
control and are operated in three-car trains.

[Illustration: 35,000-KW. TURBO-GENERATOR IN SOUTH BOSTON POWER STATION]

The rush hour trains on the main line include as high as eight cars,
which is the limit set by the length of the station platforms. The
signal system is entirely automatic and during rush hours the headway
varies from 2 to 3½ minutes on the main line. The maximum grades
encountered are 2 to 3 percent with a high percentage of heavy
curvature. By taking advantage of the transfer arrangements at
terminals, rides of 14 miles can be obtained for a single fare.


_Power Station Equipment_

The power system as originally installed included several engine-driven
direct-current plants suitably located for distributing 600 volts direct
to the trolley. With the extension of the system, however, an
alternating-current station was installed at South Boston, generating
25-cycle three-phase current for distribution at 13,200 volts to
synchronous converter substations. Alternating-current generating
equipment has also been installed at the Lincoln Station. The total
installed capacity of turbine stations is now 115,000 kw. while the
direct-current generating stations have practically all been
discontinued.

[Illustration: RAPID TRANSIT LINES—BOSTON ELEVATED RAILWAY]

[Illustration: EXTERIOR OF EGLESTON SQUARE SUBSTATION]


_Substations_

There are in operation for supplying power to both elevated and surface
lines a total of 12 synchronous converter substations having a total
rated capacity of 58,000 kw. The power consumption of the Rapid Transit
lines is somewhat less than half the total energy used.


_Distribution_

Direct current is distributed from the several substations at 600 volts
and is collected on the rapid transit systems from an 85-lb.
over-running third rail.


_Rolling Stock_

Altogether there are 420 cars in the rapid transit service, the older
cars weighing about 34 tons with seating capacity of 48 and the newer
type as used in the Cambridge Subway 43 tons each, arranged to seat 72
passengers. On account of the limiting clearances in the old subway the
Cambridge cars cannot be used on the main line. All cars are motor cars
and no attempt is made to use trailers. Each car is equipped with two
motors and multiple unit control.

[Illustration: LATEST TYPE OF STEEL MOTOR CAR USED IN CAMBRIDGE SUBWAY]

[Illustration: MAIN LINE TRAIN—BOSTON ELEVATED RAILWAY]

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF SUBSTATION EQUIPPED WITH 2000-KW. SYNCHRONOUS
CONVERTERS]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                     BROOKLYN RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM


The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company controls all of the elevated and
surface lines in Brooklyn including those reaching Coney Island. It also
has entrance to Manhattan over the lines of the New York Municipal
Railway Corporation, which was organized by the B. R. T. to finance and
construct a part of the new city lines allotted to the B. R. T. The New
York Municipal line runs through the new Broadway subway as far north as
60th St. thence east through the 60th St. tunnel under the East River to
a connection with the Astoria and Corona lines in Queens. Other subway
and bridge routes have been completed during the past few years as part
of a definite plan, which contemplates the elimination of the present
stub end operation at the lower end of Manhattan.

[Illustration: STANDARD NEW YORK MUNICIPAL MOTOR CAR EQUIPPED WITH
GE-248 MOTORS]

The Brooklyn Bridge line built in 1883 and the Brooklyn Elevated R. R.
in 1888 formed the nucleus of the present Brooklyn Rapid Transit system.
Electrical equipment was tried out in 1898 and additional motor cars
were put in service in 1902. This improvement rapidly displaced the
“steam dummies” and facilitated the extension of lines and the handling
of a rapidly increasing traffic.

Of the present lines on the Brooklyn Rapid Transit system 89.20 miles of
route aggregating 258.35 miles on a single track basis can be classed as
rapid transit lines and operate multiple unit trains with third rail
current collection. This includes the several elevated branches in
Brooklyn and the newer subway lines of the dual system all of which are
operated by the New York Consolidated R. R. Co., which is the operating
organization.

The lines of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit system, which are operated by
the New York Consolidated R. R., according to figures for the year ended
June 30, 1921, handled 404,970,640 passengers over the rapid transit
lines.


_Power Supply_

The original power equipment consisted of engine-driven direct-current
generators, which have gradually been retired due to obsolescence.

[Illustration: RAPID TRANSIT LINES OPERATED BY NEW YORK CONSOLIDATED
R. R. CO.]

Power for operating the B. R. T. system is now generated in two
alternating-current plants with installed capacities as follows:

             Central (Third Av. & 2nd. St.)      16,500 kw.
             Williamsburg (Kent Av. & Rush St.) 182,500 kw.

Power is generated and transmitted at 6600 volts, 25 cycles,
three-phase. Owing to the diversified feeding system it is not possible
to estimate the portion used by the elevated and surface lines. Power
for the operation of the Manhattan lines is purchased from the
Interborough Rapid Transit Co.


_Substations_

For supplying 600 volts to the entire system the B. R. T. has in
operation 98 synchronous converter units aggregating 142,500 kw. These
units range in size from 500 to 4000 kw. each. Many of the stations feed
both elevated and surface lines so that it is difficult to approximate
the capacity available for the rapid transit service.


_Distribution_

Current collection on all elevated and subway lines is from an
over-running third rail. The following sizes of third rail are in use:

       Early Elevated lines   55 lb. (to be replaced with 80 lb.)
       Subway lines           80 lb.
       New Subway            150 lb.


_Rolling Stock_

The New York Consolidated R. R. Company operates in subway and elevated
service a total of 1550 cars each equipped with two motors and multiple
unit control. These include the equipment operated over the New York
Municipal lines through the new subways. 900 of the newest cars use
GE-248 motors and weigh, fully equipped, about 45 tons with seats for 72
passengers. These new cars are operated in all motor car trains.

Trains up to seven cars are operated in rush hour service and the
minimum headways approximate two minutes. The maximum length of ride
possible for a single fare is from Corona through the Broadway subway to
Coney Island, about 21 miles. The maximum grade on the system is 5 per
cent on the New York Municipal line.

[Illustration: 4000-KW. SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTERS INSTALLED IN SOUTH 6TH
STREET SUBSTATION]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                       CHICAGO ELEVATED RAILROADS


The present Chicago Elevated Railroads are an amalgamation of the four
systems which up to 1911 were operated as independent lines. Under the
unified system of operation a single fare takes the passenger from one
end of the system to the other, except that north of Howard Street on
the Evanston line an additional fare is collected. The longest
continuous ride without change is from Wilmette to Jackson Park, a
distance of 24 miles.

The first elevated road, afterward known as the South Side Elevated,
started operation in June, 1892, with steam engines. After the
successful demonstration on the Intramural Railway this line was
electrified; all steam equipment being withdrawn in 1898.

What is now the Chicago and Oak Park Elevated Railroad began operation
in 1893 also with steam locomotives. Electrical operation began in
September, 1896.

[Illustration: 30,000-KW. CURTIS TURBINE IN NORTHWEST STATION OF
COMMONWEALTH EDISON COMPANY]

The Metropolitan West Side was originally planned for steam locomotive
operation, but developments in electric traction during the construction
period were so rapid that orders for steam equipment were cancelled and
operation began in May, 1895, with electric equipment.

The Northwestern Elevated began operation in May, 1900, and was planned
as an electric rad from the start. In 1897 the “Union Loop” was built to
facilitate interchange of passengers from the different lines, but a
separate fare was required on each road up to 1913.

The population served by the Chicago Elevated Lines is estimated at more
than 1,000,000 people; the total number of passengers handled annually
is about 190,000,000. Trains of from six to eight cars are operated
during rush hour service on a two-minute headway with a maximum of 72
trains per hour on a track of the loop. Plans are being made to extend
some of the station platforms to permit the use of more than 6- and
8-car trains.

An extensive program of improvements to the present rapid transit system
has been proposed, but no definite steps have yet been taken toward
authorizing the work. These plans include a subway section under the
present loop district with several additional elevated lines.


               PRESENT MILEAGE OF CHICAGO ELEVATED LINES

         ══════════════════════╤═══════╤═══════╤═══════╤═══════
                               │ Route │Single │ Yard  │ Total
                               │ Miles │ Track │       │ Track
                               │       │ Miles │       │
                               ├───────┼───────┼───────┼───────
         Northwestern Elevated │   19.7│  52.33│   9.28│  61.61
         Chicago & Oak Park    │   9.32│  20.38│   2.28│  22.66
         Metropolitan West Side│  23.83│  53.63│   7.78│  61.41
         South Side            │  16.15│  35.99│   9.97│  45.96
         Loop                  │   2.12│   4.72│   ....│   4.72
                               ├───────┼───────┼───────┼───────
                               │  91.12│ 167.05│  29.31│ 196.36
         ──────────────────────┴───────┴───────┴───────┴───────

[Illustration: CHICAGO ELEVATED RAILROADS]

[Illustration: TRAIN ON INTRAMURAL RAILWAY CHICAGO, 1893]

[Illustration: 8-CAR TRAIN—CHICAGO ELEVATED ROADS—EQUIPPED WITH GE-243
MOTORS]

[Illustration: 4000-KW. SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTERS AT CAMPBELL AVENUE AND
HOMER STREET STATION]


_Power Supply_

The power for the early elevated lines was derived from engine-driven
direct-current power plants all of which have since become obsolete. All
power, therefore, is supplied from the network of the Commonwealth
Edison Co., which maintains an ample reserve to supply all needs. While
a large percentage of the power now being purchased is generated at 25
cycles, the policy of the Power Co. on all new equipment is to specify
60 cycles.


_Substations_

12 out of the 32 substations supplying the various traction systems are
owned and operated by the Commonwealth Edison Co. and only 60-cycle
generating equipment is installed when adding to their present capacity.

The several substations contain synchronous converter units ranging in
size from 1000 to 4000 kw. each. The preferred size for new 60-cycle
substations is the 3000-kw. unit of which there are now five in service.
The following table shows the ownership and gross capacity of the
substation equipment for all of the Chicago lines. It is not possible on
account of the diversity of feeding arrangement to designate any
particular stations as belonging exclusively to the elevated lines.


                  SUBSTATIONS—CHICAGO TRACTION SYSTEMS

        ═════════════════════════════╤════════╤════════╤════════
                Operating Co.        │  No.   │  No.   │ Total
                                     │Stations│ Units  │Capacity
        ─────────────────────────────┼────────┼────────┼────────
        Chicago Railways Co.         │      10│      32│  80,000
        Chicago City Railway         │       7│      26│  53,400
        Calumet & So. Chicago Railway│       3│       9│   9,000
        Commonwealth Edison Co.      │      12│      33│ 105,000
        Elevated R. R.               │       3│       8│   9,000
                                     ├────────┼────────┼────────
            Totals                   │      35│     108│ 256,400
        ─────────────────────────────┴────────┴────────┴────────

[Illustration: LATEST TYPE OF 3000-KW., 60-CYCLE SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTERS
INSTALLED BY COMMONWEALTH EDISON COMPANY, FOR CHICAGO SURFACE AND
ELEVATED LINES]

The Northwestern Elevated R. R. has on order a complete 2000-kw.
automatic substation from the General Electric Co. to be installed at
Buena Park. This is the first application of the automatic to
Metropolitan Rapid Transit service.


_Distribution_

Energy for elevated train operation is fed to the third-rail shoes at
600 volts. The third rail is of the top contact unprotected A.S.C.E.
rail varying in size from 40 to 80 lb.


_Rolling Stock_

The rolling stock equipment includes a total of 1008 two-motor cars
weighing from 22 to 35 tons each, the latter figure representing the
more recent types of cars. The distribution of these cars among the four
divisions is as follows:

                                              No. Motor
                                                Cars
                 Northwestern Elevated              302
                 Chicago & Oak Park Elev.            84
                 Metropolitan West Side Elev.       253
                 South Side Elev.                   369
                                              ─────────
                     Total                        1,008

In addition to the motor cars there are available for use on the several
divisions about 660 coaches which can be used as trailers.

Supplemental to the regular elevated service the Chicago Elevated System
affords entrance to the business section of the city to the Chicago,
North Shore & Milwaukee R. R. an affiliated line operating a high speed
interurban service between Chicago and Milwaukee. This line enters from
the north operating over the Northwestern division at Evanston.

Connection is also made at Des Plaines at the end of the Garfield Park
Branch with the Chicago, Aurora & Elgin R. R., a high-speed third-rail
line reaching Aurora, Elgin, Batavia, Geneva and other points west.
These trains also enter the city running over the Metropolitan West Side
tracks into the loop district.

[Illustration: 4-CAR TRAIN ON NORTHWESTERN ELEVATED EQUIPPED WITH GE-243
MOTORS]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                        HUDSON & MANHATTAN R. R.


The Hudson & Manhattan R. R. Conducts a Heavy Passenger Traffic Between
Lower Manhattan and Jersey City points and between an uptown station at
33rd. St. and Hoboken, N. J. Rapid Transit service is also maintained
between Hudson Tunnel and Newark over the tracks of the Pennsylvania
R. R. These lines popularly known as the Hudson Tubes are to a large extent
operated through tunnels under the Hudson River. Direct under-river
connection is made between New York and the stations of the Erie, D. L.
& W. and Pennsylvania Railroads.

The total mileage of the system is made up as follows:

                      Miles of road         7.869
                      Extra track           8.634
                      Sidings, etc.          .332
                      Car Houses and Shops  1.920
                                           ──────
                          Total            18.768

The road was opened in February, 1908, for transportation of passengers
from Jersey City to lower Manhattan and later to the uptown terminal.

[Illustration: 6-CAR TRAIN ON HUDSON & MANHATTAN RAILROAD EQUIPPED WITH
GE-76 MOTORS AND TYPE M CONTROL]

[Illustration: 3-CAR TRAIN FOR NEWARK RAPID TRANSIT SERVICE EQUIPPED
WITH GE-212 MOTORS AND TYPE M CONTROL]

[Illustration: HUDSON AND MANHATTAN RAILROAD]

[Illustration: TWO 35,000-KW. CURTIS TURBINES IN WATERSIDE STATION NO. 1
NEW YORK EDISON COMPANY]

The electrical equipment, which was furnished throughout by the General
Electric Company, includes:

    A power station equipped with four Curtis turbo-generating units
      aggregating 18,000-kw.

    Three substations containing a total of 11-1500-kw. synchronous
      converters.

    311 electric motor cars equipped for multiple unit operation. (60 of
      these cars operated in the Newark Suburban service are the
      property of the Pennsylvania R. R.)


                              POWER SUPPLY

The power station was equipped with two 6000-kw. and two 3000-kw.
vertical Curtis turbines generating 25-cycle three-phase alternating
current at 11,000 volts. This plant is at Jersey City conveniently
located for the reception of coal for fuel and use of Hudson River water
for condensing purposes. Through an arrangement agreed to some time ago
power is now being purchased from the New York Edison Company, who have
furthermore taken over the power station.

Substation No. 1 is located at Christopher & Greenwich Sts.; No. 2 at
Washington & First Sts. (in Power House) and No. 3 in the Hudson
Terminal Building. The 600-volt current for train propulsion is
distributed through a 75-lb. top contact third rail reinforced with
suitable feeders.


                             ROLLING STOCK

The motor car equipment owned by the Hudson & Manhattan R. R. includes
251 units, all motor cars, each carrying two motors either GE-76, GE-212
or GE-259 and Type M control. The cars are of all-steel construction and
weigh from 35 to 37 tons each without passenger load. The Newark service
requires 96 cars of which 36 are owned and 60 are furnished by the
Pennsylvania R. R. Co. All of these cars are equipped with GE-212
motors.

Train service is operated on a uniform headway varying the number of
cars per train to suit the traffic. Platforms are 370 ft. in length,
which is sufficient to accommodate 8-car trains. The total number of
passengers handled during the year ended June 30, 1921, was 95,607,645.

                               [GE logo]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                     INTERBOROUGH RAPID TRANSIT CO.


On account of its geographical peculiarities the city of New York has
for many years been subject to traffic congestion on the north-south
line. The long narrow outline of the island of Manhattan with its dense
population presents an unusually difficult transportation problem.

Until the year 1914 the operations of the Interborough Rapid Transit
System were confined almost exclusively to Manhattan and the Bronx,
while the Brooklyn Rapid Transit System operated in Brooklyn and the
Borough of Queens. This geographical division, however, was abandoned
with the inauguration of the dual system. By the new arrangement the
B. R. T. operates into Manhattan over the New York Municipal line and on
the other hand the Interborough reaches into Queens through the Steinway
Tunnels and the Queensborough Bridge and into Brooklyn by the Eastern
Parkway and Nostrand Ave. Lines.

[Illustration: 7-CAR TRAIN EQUIPPED WITH G-E MOTORS AND PC CONTROL]

[Illustration: 30,000-KW. TURBINE AT 59^{TH} STREET STATION,
INTERBOROUGH RAPID TRANSIT]

[Illustration: INTERBOROUGH RAPID TRANSIT LINES]

The Interborough operates the old subway traversing the length of
Manhattan and also the four elevated lines in Manhattan and the Bronx.
The original lines of this system were built in 1868 and were the first
elevated tracks in New York and probably the first in the world. Other
elevated lines were built between 1870 and 1880, and the present old
subway was completed in 1904-8.

Steam locomotives were superseded on the Manhattan Elevated line in 1902
and electric motor car trains were substituted. The original General
Electric equipment installed at that time is still in daily operation
after 20 years’ service.

The present rapid transit facilities of the Interborough include the
following branches:

           ═══════════════════════════════════╤══════╤══════
                        Division              │Length│Total
                                              │  of  │Single
                                              │ Road │Track
           ───────────────────────────────────┼──────┼──────
           Bronx Subway Line Contracts 1 & 2  │      │
             Underground                      │ 19.56│ 62.97
             Elevated                         │  6.16│ 22.32
           Contract No. 3                     │      │
             Atlantic Ave.                    │  ....│   .27
             Astoria Line Elevated            │  2.33│  6.87
             Brooklyn Line                    │  5.10│ 17.66
             Corona Line Elevated             │  4.21│ 12.61
             Clark St. Tunnel                 │  2.31│  4.67
             Jerome Ave. Line                 │  6.04│ 18.89
             Lexington Ave. Line              │  5.00│ 21.15
             149th St. Loop                   │   .55│   .55
              Nostrand Ave. Branch            │  2.70│  5.55
             Pelham Bay Park Line             │  7.15│ 21.6
             Queensboro Subway                │      │
               Underground                    │  1.61│  5.98
               Elevated                       │  1.03│  ....
             South Ave. Line Underground      │  4.19│ 15.73
             White Plains Rd. Line Elevated   │  4.88│ 15.82
           Manhattan Division Elevated        │ 37.67│113.19
             8th Ave. & 162nd. St. Connection │   .62│  1.26
             Queensboro Bridge Line           │  1.35│  2.73
             Webster Ave. Line                │  1.74│  5.33
             West Farms Subway Connection     │   .5 │  1.00
                                              ├──────┼──────
               Totals                         │114.7 │373.15
           ───────────────────────────────────┴──────┴──────

The number of passengers carried by the Interboro Lines during the
fiscal year 1921 was 1,013,678,831. This figure represents 2,773,479
passengers per mile of track. In the main 4-track subway 10-car express
trains are operated during rush hour periods on minimum headways of 108
seconds.


_Power Supply_

The power generating equipment of the Interborough includes briefly the
following:

              ════════════════════════════════╤═══════════
                   59th St. Power Station     │ Total Kw.
              ────────────────────────────────┼───────────
              Turbo-Generators    3-30,000 kw.│ 90,000
              Compound Units      5-15,000 kw.│ 75,000
              Engine-driven Units 4- 7,500 kw.│ 30,000
                                              ├───────────
                Total                         │195,000 Kw.
              ────────────────────────────────┴───────────

              ════════════════════════════════╤═══════════
                   74th St. Power Station     │ Total Kw.
              ────────────────────────────────┼───────────
              Turbo-Generator     1-60,000 kw.│ 60,000
              Turbo-Generators    3-30,000 kw.│ 90,000
              Turbo-Generator     1- 7,500 kw.│  7,500
              Engine-driven       3- 7,500 kw.│ 22,500
                                              ├───────────
                Total                         │180,000 Kw.
              ────────────────────────────────┴───────────

Power is generated 11,000 volts three-phase 25 cycles and transmitted
principally underground at 11,000 and 19,000 volts. The total energy
generated in the two main sections at 59th St. and 74th St. for the year
1921 was 830,000,000 kw-hrs.


_Substations_

For supplying 625-volt direct current to the rapid transit lines, there
are a total of 25 substations containing 129 synchronous converters
aggregating 283,000 kw.


_Distribution_

Propulsion current is delivered to trains through an unprotected
over-running third rail weighing, in the old subway 75 lbs. per yard, on
the elevated 100 lbs., and in the new subway 150 lbs. per yard.


_Rolling Stock_

The motor car equipment on the Manhattan Elevated lines includes over
800 cars which have been in operation since 1902-4 with GE-66 motors and
Type M control. These cars after 20 years of hard service are referred
to as the “back-bone of the system.” Frequent additions have been made
to elevated and subway equipment so that the total rolling stock at the
end of the fiscal year 1921 was as follows:

           INTERBOROUGH RAPID TRANSIT ROLLING STOCK EQUIPMENT

                  MANHATTAN DIVISION
                    Passenger Motor Cars          1016
                    Passenger Trailers             721
                    Service Motor Cars               4
                    Service Trailers                56
                  ELEVATED EXTENSIONS
                    Passenger Motor Cars           476
                  SUBWAY DIVISION CONTRACTS 1 & 2
                    Passenger Motor Cars           785
                    Passenger Trailers             352
                    Service Motor Cars              10
                    Service Trailers                46
                  SUBWAY DIVISION CONTRACT 3
                    Passenger Motor Cars           581
                    Passenger Trailers             217
                    Service Motor Cars               1
                      Total Motor Cars            2873
                      Total Trailers              1392
                      Grand Total                 4265

The longest ride on the system for a single fare is from the terminus of
the White Plains Road line at 241st St. near the Northern boundary of
the city, the entire length of Manhattan and the Bronx and through the
Eastern Parkway Subway to Linwood Avenue, a distance of about 26 miles.
The maximum grades encountered are 4½ per cent.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                     PHILADELPHIA RAPID TRANSIT CO.


The present rapid transit facilities of the City of Philadelphia include
Market St. Subway-Elevated line extending East from the 69th St.
Terminal to the Delaware River. The tracks are elevated from 66th St. to
22nd St. and pass in subway under the business section to another
elevated section on Delaware Ave. This line first began service in 1905
and during the year 1920 handled approximately 80,000,000 passengers.

As far back as 1912 an exhaustive study of the city’s transportation
facilities was made and a comprehensive program of extensions was
proposed for the rapid transit system. Owing to legislative delays, and
conditions due to the war, progress has been delayed on this program so
that so far only the Frankford Elevated line has been built. This is now
nearly ready for operation, from the foot of Market Street to Frankford,
a distance of 6.4 miles all double tracked. Other extensions planned for
construction in the near future include a four-track subway running
north and south under Broad Street, and an elevated line extending from
the present Market Street line at West Philadelphia to Darby.

The present elevated-subway system is double tracked throughout and
multiple unit trains up to seven cars each are operated on headways down
to two minutes. No express service is operated, all trains making every
stop.

[Illustration: PHILADELPHIA RAPID TRANSIT ELEVATED AND SUBWAY LINES]

[Illustration: TRAIN ON MARKET STREET ELEVATED, PHILADELPHIA RAPID
TRANSIT COMPANY]


_Power Supply_

The Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company’s principal power station is at
Delaware Avenue. Steam turbine generating equipment totalling 58,000 kw.
is in service in three stations and is designed for 13,200 volts 3-phase
25 cycles at which it is transmitted to the substations. One or two
direct-current stations are still available for supplying 600 volts
direct to the trolley. Power is also purchased from the Philadelphia
Electric Co. and the Philadelphia Hydro-Electric Co.


_Substations_

The company operates a total of 17 substations used for supplying both
surface and rapid transit lines. These stations contain a total of 65
units aggregating 103,500 kw.

Power is distributed to all lines at 600 volts and on the rapid transit
lines is collected from an under running third rail similar to that used
on the New York Central Electric Zone.


_Rolling Stock_

The rolling stock used on the Elevated-Subway line includes 215 motor
cars each equipped with two motors. Trains are made up of all motor
cars, no trailers being used. General Electric motors are used
throughout including GE-66 and GE-222. The Frankford extension will be
operated with 100 motor cars each equipped with two GE-259 motors.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF SUBSTATION AT 15TH AND TUCKER STREETS,
SHOWING 2000-KW. SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTERS]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



          GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY EQUIPMENT IN MULTIPLE-UNIT
                       SUBWAY & ELEVATED SERVICE

 ════════════════╤═════════════════════════════╤══════════════════════
                 │             Cars            │        Motors
      SYSTEM     ├───┬───────┬────────┬────────┼───┬────────┬─────────
                 │No.│Yr. put│ Total  │ Length │No.│  Type  │ Trailer
                 │   │  in   │  Wgt.  │Overall │   │        │Operating
                 │   │Service│ Pounds │Ft. In. │   │        │
 ────────────────┼───┼───────┼────────┼────────┼───┼────────┼─────────
 Boston Elev.    │ 40│1917   │   66383│46 7¼   │  2│GE-259-B│}
 Rwy. Co.        │ 45│1920   │   66628│46 7¼   │  2│GE-259-B│} No
                 │ 24│1920   │   68009│46 7¼   │  2│GE-259-B│}
                 │ 20│1912-3 │   86400│69 6½   │  2│GE-212  │}
                 │   │       │        │        │   │        │
 Hudson &        │ 50│1907   │   74550│48 3    │  2│GE-76   │}
 Manhattan R. R. │ 90│1909   │   69620│48 5    │  2│GE-76   │}
                 │ 50│1910   │   69620│48 5    │  2│GE-76   │} No
                 │ 96│1911   │   73000│48 3½   │  2│GE-212-C│}
                 │ 25│1921   │   73500│51 3½   │  2│GE-259  │}
                 │   │       │        │        │   │        │
 Interborough    │828│1902-3 │   75500│47 0½   │  2│GE-66-A │}
 Rapid Transit   │200│1904   │   58500│47 0½   │  2│GE-69-B │}
 Co.             │ 91│1907   │   59160│47 0½   │  2│GE-211-A│}
                 │ 40│1907   │   83200│47 0½   │  2│GE-212-A│}
                 │190│1909   │   83200│51 0½   │  2│GE-212-A│} Yes
                 │  6│1915   │   70960│51 0½   │  2│GE-240-C│}
                 │161│1915   │   75000│51 0½   │  2│GE-259-A│}
                 │103│1915   │   75500│51 0½   │  2│GE-260-A│}
                 │ 71│1915   │   71000│51 0½   │  2│GE-259-A│}
                 │168│1917   │   75500│51 0½   │  2│GE-260-A│}
                 │   │       │        │        │   │        │
 Metropolitan    │ 12│1895-98│   65000│47 9½   │  2│GE-2000 │}
 West Side Elev. │ 78│1904   │65-70000│47 9½   │  2│GE-55   │} Yes
 Rwy.            │ 37│1914-5 │   70000│48 6¾   │  2│GE-243  │}
                 │   │       │        │        │   │        │
 Northwestern    │192│1900-06│65-69000│46 7½   │  2│GE-55   │}
 Elev. R. R.     │ 20│1908   │   69000│46 7½   │  2│GE-211-B│} Yes
                 │ 43│1914-15│   70000│48 6¾   │  2│GE-243  │}
                 │   │       │        │        │   │        │
 South Side Elev.│149│1897   │   52714│47 1    │  2│GE-57-B │}
 R. R.           │ 70│1902-03│   55000│47 3    │  2│GE-73-A │} Yes
                 │ 61│1914-15│   70000│48 6¾   │  2│GE-243  │}
                 │   │       │        │        │   │        │
 Chicago & Oak   │ 84│1906   │65-70000│46 7½   │  2│GE-55   │Yes
 Park Elev. R. R.│   │       │        │        │   │        │
                 │   │       │        │        │   │        │
 N. Y. Municipal │900│1914-20│   90600│67 0    │  2│GE-248  │Yes
 Ry.             │   │       │        │        │   │        │
                 │   │       │        │        │   │        │
 Philadelphia    │ 40│1906   │   71000│49 7    │  2│GE-66   │}
 Rapid Tran. Co. │ 40│1907   │   76000│49 7    │  2│GE-66   │}
                 │ 16│1906   │   72000│49 7    │  2│GE-66   │}
                 │  4│1909   │   76000│49 7    │  2│GE-66   │} No
                 │ 65│1911   │   70500│49 7    │  2│GE-66   │}
                 │ 50│1913   │   70000│49 7    │  2│GE-222-F│}
                 │ 50│1921   │   89600│55      │  2│GE-259  │}
                 │ 50│1922   │   89600│55      │  2│GE-259  │}
 ────────────────┴───┴───────┴────────┴────────┴───┴────────┴─────────

Bulletin Number 49 is a reproduction of a 1922 General Electric Company
pamphlet. Since that year many changes have been made in the systems
described and new lines have been constructed in Cleveland, Toronto and
Montreal. Another is under construction in the San Francisco area.
Additional copies are available at $1.50 each from the Electric Railway
Historical Society, Box 3305, Chicago, Ill. 60654.





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