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Title: Historical Record of the Twenty-First or The Royal North British Fusiliers: From Its Formation in 1678 to 1849
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  A superscript is denoted by ^x or ^{xx}. For example, M^cDonald or
  Esq^{re}.

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  More detail can be found at the end of the book.



[Illustration:

  BY COMMAND OF His late Majesty WILLIAM THE IV^{TH}.
  _and under the Patronage of_
  Her Majesty the Queen.

  HISTORICAL RECORDS,
  _OF THE_
  British Army

  _Comprising the
  History of every Regiment
  IN HER MAJESTY'S SERVICE._

  _By Richard Cannon Esq^{re}._

  _Adjutant Generals Office, Horse Guards._

  London

  _Printed by Authority_:]



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE-GUARDS_,
  _1st January, 1836_.

His Majesty has been pleased to command that, with the view of
doing the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals
who have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with
the Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the
British Army shall be published under the superintendence and
direction of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall
contain the following particulars, viz.:--

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations
  in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any
  Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies,
  &c., it may have captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers, and the number of
  Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates Killed or Wounded by the
  Enemy, specifying the place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
  Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers,
  and Privates, as may have specially signalized themselves in
  Action.

  And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honorable

  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour by which all who enter into its service
are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that
any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which
alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have
preceded him in their honorable career, are among the motives that
have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
"London Gazette," from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on
the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their
orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill
and bravery; and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour
of their Sovereign's approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic
account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command that every Regiment shall, in
future, keep a full and ample record of its services at home and
abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, being undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active service
and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during peace, the
British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe, with little
or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which
so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services and of acts of
individual bravery can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under his
Majesty's special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk
of the Adjutant General's Office; and while the perusal of them
cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every
rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and
information to the general reader, particularly to those who may
have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or
are serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment
to everything belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a
narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great, the
valiant, the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with
a brave and civilized people. Great Britain has produced a race
of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood "firm
as the rocks of their native shore:" and when half the world has
been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained
by our countrymen, our brothers, our fellow citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us,--will certainly prove acceptable to the
public.

Biographical Memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value
and importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment
will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall
be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION TO THE INFANTRY.


The natives of Britain have, at all periods, been celebrated for
innate courage and unshaken firmness, and the national superiority
of the British troops over those of other countries has been
evinced in the midst of the most imminent perils. History contains
so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery, that no doubts can
be raised upon the facts which are recorded. It must therefore be
admitted, that the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is
INTREPIDITY. This quality was evinced by the inhabitants of England
when their country was invaded by Julius Cæsar with a Roman army,
on which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into the sea to
attack the Roman soldiers as they descended from their ships; and,
although their discipline and arms were inferior to those of their
adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing intimidated
the flower of the Roman troops, including Cæsar's favourite tenth
legion. Their arms consisted of spears, short swords, and other
weapons of rude construction. They had chariots, to the axles of
which were fastened sharp pieces of iron resembling scythe-blades,
and infantry in long chariots resembling waggons, who alighted
and fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit or retreat,
sprang into the chariot and drove off with the speed of cavalry.
These inventions were, however, unavailing against Cæsar's
legions: in the course of time a military system, with discipline
and subordination, was introduced, and British courage, being
thus regulated, was exerted to the greatest advantage; a full
development of the national character followed, and it shone forth
in all its native brilliancy.

The military force of the Anglo-Saxons consisted principally of
infantry: Thanes, and other men of property, however, fought on
horseback. The infantry were of two classes, heavy and light The
former carried large shields armed with spikes, long broad swords
and spears; and the latter were armed with swords or spears only.
They had also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes and
javelins.

The feudal troops established by William the Conqueror consisted
(as already stated in the Introduction to the Cavalry) almost
entirely of horse; but when the warlike barons and knights, with
their trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a proportion
of men appeared on foot, and, although these were of inferior
degree, they proved stout-hearted Britons of stanch fidelity. When
stipendiary troops were employed, infantry always constituted a
considerable portion of the military force; and this _arme_ has
since acquired, in every quarter of the globe, a celebrity never
exceeded by the armies of any nation at any period.

The weapons carried by the infantry, during the several reigns
succeeding the Conquest, were bows and arrows, half-pikes, lances,
halberds, various kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour
was worn on the head and body, and in course of time the practice
became general for military men to be so completely cased in steel,
that it was almost impossible to slay them.

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the destructive
purposes of war, in the early part of the fourteenth
century, produced a change in the arms and equipment of the
infantry-soldier. Bows and arrows gave place to various kinds of
fire-arms, but British archers continued formidable adversaries;
and, owing to the inconvenient construction and imperfect bore of
the fire-arms when first introduced, a body of men, well trained
in the use of the bow from their youth, was considered a valuable
acquisition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth century.

During a great part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth each company
of infantry usually consisted of men armed five different ways; in
every hundred men forty were "_men-at-arms_," and sixty "_shot_;"
the "men-at-arms" were ten halberdiers, or battle-axe men, and
thirty pikemen; and the "shot" were twenty archers, twenty
musketeers, and twenty harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides
his principal weapon, a sword and dagger.

Companies of infantry varied at this period in numbers from 150
to 300 men; each company had a colour or ensign, and the mode of
formation recommended by an English military writer (Sir John
Smithe) in 1590 was:--the colour in the centre of the company
guarded by the halberdiers; the pikemen in equal proportions, on
each flank of the halberdiers: half the musketeers on each flank
of the pikes; half the archers on each flank of the musketeers,
and the harquebusiers (whose arms were much lighter than the
muskets then in use) in equal proportions on each flank of the
company for skirmishing.[1] It was customary to unite a number
of companies into one body, called a REGIMENT, which frequently
amounted to three thousand men: but each company continued to carry
a colour. Numerous improvements were eventually introduced in the
construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found impossible to
make armour proof against the muskets then in use (which carried
a very heavy ball) without its being too weighty for the soldier,
armour was gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seventeenth
century: bows and arrows also fell into disuse, and the infantry
were reduced to two classes, viz.: _musketeers_, armed with
matchlock muskets, swords, and daggers; and _pikemen_, armed with
pikes from fourteen to eighteen feet long, and swords.

In the early part of the seventeenth century Gustavus Adolphus,
King of Sweden, reduced the strength of regiments to 1000 men. He
caused the gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in flasks,
or in small wooden bandoliers, each containing a charge, to be
made up into cartridges, and carried in pouches; and he formed
each regiment into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division
of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of forming four regiments
into a brigade; and the number of colours was afterwards reduced to
three in each regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that his
infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated Polish horsemen
and Austrian cuirassiers; and his armies became the admiration of
other nations. His mode of formation was copied by the English,
French, and other European states; but so great was the prejudice
in favour of ancient customs, that all his improvements were not
adopted until near a century afterwards.

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea-service, styled
the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 each company of 100 men usually
consisted of 30 pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with light
firelocks. In this year the King added a company of men armed with
hand grenades to each of the old British regiments, which was
designated the "grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived as to
fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets, similar to those
at present in use, were adopted about twenty years afterwards.

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by order of King James
II., to guard the artillery, and was designated the Royal Fusiliers
(now 7th Foot). This corps, and the companies of grenadiers, did
not carry pikes.

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's regiment in the second
Foot Guards, and raised two Marine regiments for sea-service.
During the war in this reign, each company of infantry (excepting
the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 pikemen and 46
musketeers; the captains carried pikes; lieutenants, partisans;
ensigns, half-pikes; and serjeants, halberds. After the peace in
1697 the Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again formed on
the breaking out of the war in 1702.[2]

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were laid aside, and every
infantry soldier was armed with a musket, bayonet, and sword; the
grenadiers ceased, about the same period, to carry hand grenades;
and the regiments were directed to lay aside their third colour:
the corps of Royal Artillery was first added to the Army in this
reign.

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion companies of infantry
ceased to carry swords; during the reign of George II. light
companies were added to infantry regiments; and in 1764 a Board of
General Officers recommended that the grenadiers should lay aside
their swords, as that weapon had never been used during the Seven
Years' War. Since that period the arms of the infantry soldier have
been limited to the musket and bayonet.

The arms and equipment of the British Troops have seldom differed
materially, since the Conquest, from those of other European
states; and in some respects the arming has, at certain periods,
been allowed to be inferior to that of the nations with whom they
have had to contend; yet, under this disadvantage, the bravery and
superiority of the British infantry have been evinced on very many
and most trying occasions, and splendid victories have been gained
over very superior numbers.

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like champions who have
dared to confront a host of foes, and have proved themselves
valiant with any arms. At _Crecy_, King Edward III., at the head
of about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 1346, Philip
King of France, whose army is said to have amounted to 100,000
men; here British valour encountered veterans of renown:--the
King of Bohemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and nobles
were slain, and the French army was routed and cut to pieces. Ten
years afterwards, Edward Prince of Wales, who was designated the
Black Prince, defeated, at _Poictiers_, with 14,000 men, a French
army of 60,000 horse, besides infantry, and took John I., King of
France, and his son Philip, prisoners. On the 25th of October,
1415, King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000 men, although
greatly exhausted by marches, privations, and sickness, defeated,
at _Agincourt_, the Constable of France, at the head of the flower
of the French nobility and an army said to amount to 60,000 men,
and gained a complete victory.

During the seventy years' war between the United Provinces of the
Netherlands and the Spanish monarchy, which commenced in 1578 and
terminated in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the
States-General were celebrated for their unconquerable spirit and
firmness;[3] and in the thirty years' war between the Protestant
Princes and the Emperor of Germany, the British Troops in the
service of Sweden and other states were celebrated for deeds of
heroism.[4] In the wars of Queen Anne, the fame of the British
army under the great MARLBOROUGH was spread throughout the world;
and if we glance at the achievements performed within the memory
of persons now living, there is abundant proof that the Britons
of the present age are not inferior to their ancestors in the
qualities which constitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds of
the brave men, of whom there are many now surviving, who fought in
Egypt in 1801, under the brave Abercromby, and compelled the French
army, which had been vainly styled _Invincible_, to evacuate that
country; also the services of the gallant Troops during the arduous
campaigns in the Peninsula, under the immortal WELLINGTON; and
the determined stand made by the British Army at Waterloo, where
Napoleon Bonaparte, who had long been the inveterate enemy of Great
Britain, and had sought and planned her destruction by every means
he could devise, was compelled to leave his vanquished legions to
their fate, and to place himself at the disposal of the British
Government. These achievements, with others of recent dates, in the
distant climes of India, prove that the same valour and constancy
which glowed in the breasts of the heroes of Crecy, Poictiers,
Agincourt, Blenheim, and Ramilies, continue to animate the Britons
of the nineteenth century.

The British Soldier is distinguished for a robust and muscular
frame,--intrepidity which no danger can appal,--unconquerable
spirit and resolution,--patience in fatigue and privation, and
cheerful obedience to his superiors. These qualities, united with
an excellent system of order and discipline to regulate and give
a skilful direction to the energies and adventurous spirit of
the hero, and a wise selection of officers of superior talent to
command, whose presence inspires confidence,--have been the leading
causes of the splendid victories gained by the British arms.[5]
The fame of the deeds of the past and present generations in the
various battle-fields where the robust sons of Albion have fought
and conquered, surrounds the British arms with a halo of glory;
these achievements will live in the page of history to the end of
time.

The records of the several regiments will be found to contain a
detail of facts of an interesting character, connected with the
hardships, sufferings, and gallant exploits of British soldiers in
the various parts of the world where the calls of their Country
and the commands of their Sovereign have required them to proceed
in the execution of their duty, whether in active continental
operations, or in maintaining colonial territories in distant and
unfavourable climes.

The superiority of the British infantry has been pre-eminently set
forth in the wars of six centuries, and admitted by the greatest
commanders which Europe has produced. The formations and movements
of this _arme_, as at present practised, while they are adapted
to every species of warfare, and to all probable situations
and circumstances of service, are calculated to show forth the
brilliancy of military tactics calculated upon mathematical and
scientific principles. Although the movements and evolutions have
been copied from the continental armies, yet various improvements
have from time to time been introduced, to insure that simplicity
and celerity by which the superiority of the national military
character is maintained. The rank and influence which Great Britain
has attained among the nations of the world, have in a great
measure been purchased by the valour of the Army, and to persons
who have the welfare of their country at heart, the records of the
several regiments cannot fail to prove interesting.



FOOTNOTES:

[1] A company of 200 men would appear thus:--

                                 __|
                                |  |
                                |__|
                                   |
      20     20     20     30     2|0     30     20      20     20
  Harquebuses.    Muskets.      Halberds.      Muskets.    Harquebuses.
           Archers.       Pikes.         Pikes.        Archers.

The musket carried a ball which weighed 1/10th of a pound; and the
harquebus a ball which weighed 1/25th of a pound.

[2] The 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine corps
in 1702, and were employed as such during the wars in the reign
of Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the Fleet under
Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of Gibraltar, and
in its subsequent defence in 1704; they were afterwards employed at
the siege of Barcelona in 1705.

[3] The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his Discourse on War, printed
in 1590, observes:--"I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation
would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the
field, let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the
Spanish infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe.
For instances of valour displayed by the British Infantry during
the Seventy Years' War, see the Historical Record of the Third
Foot, or Buffs.

[4] _Vide_ the Historical Record of the First, or Royal Regiment of
Foot.

[5] "Under the blessing of Divine Providence, His Majesty ascribes
the successes which have attended the exertions of his troops in
Egypt to that determined bravery which is inherent in Britons; but
His Majesty desires it may be most solemnly and forcibly impressed
on the consideration of every part of the army, that it has been a
strict observance of order, discipline, and military system, which
has given the full energy to the native valour of the troops, and
has enabled them proudly to assert the superiority of the national
military character, in situations uncommonly arduous, and under
circumstances of peculiar difficulty."--_General Orders in 1801._

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope
(afterwards Lord Hopetoun), congratulating the army upon the
successful result of the Battle of Corunna, on the 16th of January,
1809, it is stated:--"On no occasion has the undaunted valour of
British troops ever been more manifest. At the termination of a
severe and harassing march, rendered necessary by the superiority
which the enemy had acquired, and which had materially impaired
the efficiency of the troops, many disadvantages were to be
encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the
troops themselves: and the enemy has been taught, that whatever
advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is
inherent in the British officers and soldiers a bravery that knows
not how to yield,--that no circumstances can appal,--and that will
ensure victory, when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any
human means."



  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE TWENTY-FIRST REGIMENT,

  OR

  THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS.

  CONTAINING

  AN ACCOUNT OF THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT
  IN 1678,

  AND OF ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES
  TO 1849.

  COMPILED BY
  RICHARD CANNON, ESQ.,
  ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, HORSE GUARDS.

  ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES.

  LONDON:
  PARKER, FURNIVALL, & PARKER,
  30, CHARING-CROSS.

  MDCCCXLIX.


  London: Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street,
  For Her Majesty's Stationery Office.


  THE TWENTY-FIRST REGIMENT,

  OR

  THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS,

  BEARS ON THE REGIMENTAL COLOUR

  "THE THISTLE"

  WITHIN THE CIRCLE AND MOTTO OF SAINT ANDREW,

  "_Nemo me impune lacessit_;"

  SURMOUNTED BY

  THE IMPERIAL CROWN.



THE TWENTY-FIRST REGIMENT,

OR

THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH REGIMENT,



CONTENTS

OF THE

HISTORICAL RECORD.


  YEAR                                                           PAGE

        INTRODUCTION.

  1678  Formation of the Regiment                                   1

  ----  Appointment of Charles, Earl of Mar, to the
          Colonelcy                                                 -

  ----  Armed with light muskets, and called _Fusiliers_            2

  1679  Rebellion in Scotland, and murder of _Archbishop
          Sharp_                                                    -

  ----  Attack and defeat of the rebels at _Bothwell
          Bridge_                                                   -

  1685  Death of King Charles II., and accession of
          King James II.                                            -

  ----  Rebellion in Scotland excited by the Earl of
          Argyle                                                    3

  1686  Colonel Thomas Buchan appointed to the Colonelcy,
          in the place of the Earl of Mar                           -

  1688  Marched from Scotland to London, on occasion
          of the expected landing of the Prince of
          Orange                                                    -

  ----  Flight of King James II. to France                          4

  ----  Regiment marched into Oxfordshire                           -

  1689  The Prince and Princess of Orange elevated
          to the throne, by the titles of King William
          III. and Queen Mary                                       4

  ----  Colonel F. F. O'Farrell appointed to the Colonelcy,
          in place of Colonel T. Buchan                             -

  ----  Regiment embarked for Holland                               -

  ----  Joined the Army under the Earl of Marlborough               -

  ----  Engaged with the French at _Walcourt_                       -

  1691  Encamped near Brussels                                      5

  1692  Battle of _Steenkirk_                                       -

  1693  Battle of _Landen_                                          6

  1694  Performed many marches, and arrived at
          _Deinse_                                                  7

  ----  Directed to take rank and precedence as the
        _Twenty-first_ Regiment of Infantry                         -

  1695  Surrender of the town of _Deinse_ by Brigadier-General
          O'Farrell                                                 8

  ----  Appointment of Colonel Robert Mackay, in
          place of Brigadier O'Farrell, cashiered by a
          General Court-Martial                                     -

  1696  Proceeded to the camp at Marykirk, and served
          with the army of Brabant                                  -

  1697  Appointment of Colonel Archibald Row to the
          Coloneley, in succession to Colonel R. Mackay,
          deceased                                                  9

  ----  Treaty of Peace concluded at Ryswick                        -

  ----  Regiment returned to Scotland                               -

  1702  Death of King William III.                                  -

  ----  Accession of Queen Anne                                     -

  ----  Declaration of War with France and Spain                    -

  ----  Embarked from Scotland for Holland                          -

  1703  Joined the allied army at Maestricht                        -

  ----  Siege and capture of _Huy_                                 10

  ----  ----------------  of _Limburg_                             --

  1704  Marched from Holland into Germany                          10

  ----  Engaged in the Battle of _Schellenberg_                    --

  ----  ------  in the Battle of _Blenheim_                        11

  ----  The three Field-Officers, Brigadier-General
          Row, Lieut.-Colonel Dalyel, and Major
          Campbell, killed in obtaining the glorious
          Victory of Blenheim                                      12

  ----  Appointment of John, Viscount Mordaunt, to
          the Colonelcy, in succession to Brigadier-General
          Row                                                      --

  1705  Completed with recruits from Scotland, and
          engaged in forcing the French lines at _Helixem_
          and _Neer Hespen_                                        13

  1706  Engaged in the Battle of _Ramilies_                        --

  ----  ------  in the capture of _Ostend_, _Menin_, and
          _Aeth_                                                   14

  ----  Appointment of Colonel Sampson de Lalo,
          from the 28th Regiment, in exchange with
          Viscount Mordaunt                                        --

  1707  Engaged in marches, &c., in West Flanders                  --

  ----  The Union of Scotland and England took place;
          and certain additions and alterations were
          made in consequence in the colours and titles
          of Regiments                                             --

  1708  Engaged in the Battle of _Oudenarde_                       --

  ----  ------  in the siege and capture of _Lisle_                15

  1709  ------  in the siege and capture of _Tournay_              --

  ----  ------  in the Battle of _Malplaquet_                      --

  ----  Re-appointment of Viscount Mordaunt to the
          Colonelcy, in succession to Major-General
          De Lalo, killed in the Battle of Malplaquet              16

  ----  Engaged in the siege and capture of _Mons_                 --

  1710  ------  in passing the French lines at _Pont-à-Vendin_     --

  ----  ------  in siege and capture of _Douay_                    --

  1710  Engaged in siege and capture of _Bethune_                  16

  ----  ---------------------------- of _St. Venant_               --

  ----  ---------------------------- of _Aire_                     --

  ----  Appointment of Lieut.-General Thomas Meredith
          to the Colonelcy, in succession to Viscount
          Mordaunt                                                 --

  ----  Appointment of the Earl of Orrery to the
          Colonelcy, in succession to Lieut.-General
          Meredith, removed                                        --

  1711  Engaged in passing the French lines at _Arleux_            17

  ----  ------  in the siege and capture of _Bouchain_             --

  1712  Joined the Army under the command of the
          Duke of Ormond                                           --

  ----  Suspension of hostilities                                  --

  1713  Treaty of Peace concluded at Utrecht                       --

  1714  Returned from Flanders to England                          --

  ----  Proceeded to Scotland                                      18

  1715  Rebellion in Scotland, excited by the Earl of
          Mar, in favour of the Pretender                          --

  ----  Encamped at Stirling, under the command of
          the _Duke of Argyle_, and advanced to _Dumblain_         --

  ----  Engagement at _Sheriff-muir_ between the King's
          troops and the rebel forces                              --

  1716  The King's troops advanced; the insurgents
          retreated; the Pretender escaped to the Continent;
          and the rebellion suppressed                             19

  ----  Appointment of Colonel George Macartney
          to the Colonelcy, in place of the Earl of
          Orrery                                                   --

  1727  Appointment of Brigadier-General Sir James
          Wood to the Colonelcy, in succession to Lieut.-General
          Macartney, removed to the Sixth
          Dragoon Guards                                           19

  1728  Embarked for Ireland                                       --

  1738  Appointment of Colonel John Campbell to the
          Colonelcy, in succession to Sir James Wood,
          deceased                                                 19

  1739  War declared against Spain                                 20

  1740  Removed from Ireland to South Britain                      --

  1741  Encamped on Lexden Heath                                   --

  1742  Embarked for Flanders                                      --

  1743  Marched for Germany, and engaged at the
          Battle of _Dettingen_                                    --

  1744  Encamped at Asche and Alost                                --

  ----  Returned to Ghent for winter-quarters                      --

  1745  Marched to the relief of Tournay                           21

  ----  Engaged at the Battle of _Fontenoy_                        --

  ----  Placed in garrison at Ostend                               22

  ----  Charles Edward, eldest son of the Pretender,
          landed in Scotland                                       --

  ----  Regiment ordered to return from Flanders                   --

  1746  Proceeded to Scotland, and engaged at the
          Battle of _Culloden_                                     --

  ----  Removed to Glasgow                                         23

  1747  Re-embarked for the Netherlands                            --

  ----  Engaged at the battle of Val                               --

  1748  Treaty of Peace concluded at Aix-la-Chapelle               --

  ----  Returned to England                                        --

  1751  Regulations, prescribed by Royal Warrant, for
          establishing uniformity in the clothing, standards,
          and colours of regiments, &c. &c.                        --

  ----  Received the commendations of the Duke of
          Cumberland for good conduct in quarters and
          bravery in the field                                     24

  ----  Embarked for Gibraltar                                     --

  1752  Appointment of the Earl of Panmure to the
          Colonelcy, in succession to Lieut.-General
          Campbell, removed to the Second Dragoons,
          Scots Greys                                              --

  1760  Returned from Gibraltar to England                         24

  1761  Embarked on an expedition to Belle-Isle                    --

  ----  Capture of the island                                      25

  ----  Returned to England                                        --

  1763  Proceeded to Scotland                                      --

  1765  Embarked for America, and quartered in West
          Florida                                                  --

  1770  Removed to Canada                                          --

  ----  Appointment of Major-General Hon. Alexander
          Mackay to the Colonelcy, in succession to
          Lieut.-General the Earl of Panmure, removed
          to the Scots Greys                                       26

  1772  Returned from Canada to England                            --

  1775  Commencement of the American War of Independence           --

  1776  Re-embarked for America, and engaged in the
          relief of Quebec                                         --

  1777  Engaged in active operations on Lake Champlain,
          at Ticonderago, and other places, with the
          American troops                                          --

  ----  The British troops under Lieut.-General Burgoyne
          surrendered                                              28

  1781  Returned to Europe, and stationed in Scotland              --

  1783  Removed to Ireland                                         --

  1789  Embarked for Nova Scotia                                   --

  ----  Appointment of General Hon. James Murray,
          from the 13th regiment, to the Colonelcy, in
          succession to Lieut.-General Hon. A. Mackay,
          deceased                                                 --

  1793  Embarked for the West Indies                               --

  ----  Proceeded to Martinique, to aid the French
          Royalists                                                29

  1794  Engaged in the capture of Martinique, St. Lucia,
          and Guadaloupe                                           --

  ----  Guadaloupe recaptured by the French                        30

  1794  Appointment of Major-General James Hamilton
          to the Colonelcy, in succession to General
          Hon. James Murray, deceased                              31

  1796  Returned from the West Indies                              --

  ----  Proceeded to Scotland to recruit                           --

  1800  Embarked for Ireland, after completing its
          numbers                                                  --

  1802  Received the compliments of the principal inhabitants
          of Enniskillen for its excellent
          conduct                                                  32

  ----  Establishment reduced in consequence of the
          Peace with France concluded at _Amiens_                  --

  1803  Removed to Dublin                                          --

  ----  The Establishment again augmented, in consequence
          of a renewal of war with France                          --

  ----  Insurrection at Dublin                                     --

  ----  The Lord Chief-Justice, Viscount Kilwarden,
          murdered by the populace; his nephew, the
          Rev. R. Wolfe, wounded, and many other
          acts of violence committed                               --

  ----  Regiment assembled to suppress the riots, and
          Lieut.-Colonel Brown murdered by the Insurgents
          on his way to the station of the
          regiment                                                 --

  ----  The command of the regiment devolved on
          Major Robertson                                          --

  ----  Received the approbation and thanks of the
          Commander-in-Chief, and of the Civil Authorities,
          in Dublin, for the exertions used in
          restoring tranquillity                                   --

  ----  Appointment of General Hon. William Gordon,
          from 71st regiment, to the Colonelcy, in succession
          to General Hamilton, deceased                            33

  1804  Measures adopted for repelling the threatened
          invasion of the French                                   --

  1804  A second battalion added to the regiment, composed
          of men raised under the "_Additional
          Force Act_" in the counties of Ayr and
          Renfrew                                                  33

  1805  First battalion embarked from Ireland for Portsmouth       --

  ----  Removed to Weymouth, and reviewed by His
          Majesty King George III., and other members
          of the Royal Family                                      --

  1805  Removed to Lewes                                           --

  1806  Marched to London to attend the funeral of
          Admiral Viscount Nelson, who was killed at
          the battle of Trafalgar, and was honored with
          a public funeral at St. Paul's Cathedral                 34

  ----  First battalion embarked for Sicily                        --

  ----  Second battalion embarked from Scotland for
          Ireland                                                  --

  1807  Hostilities with the Grand Seignior                        --

  ----  First battalion embarked from Sicily on an expedition
          to Egypt; landed at Alexandria,
          and marched to Aboukir                                   --

  ----  Peace with the Turks being restored, the battalion
          returned to Sicily                                       --

  1809  Flank companies engaged in the capture of the
          Islands of _Ischia_ and _Procida_, in the Gulf of
          Naples                                                   35

  ----  Attempt made to reduce the Castle of _Scylla_              --

  1810  The invasion of Sicily by Murat, King of Naples,
          defeated                                                 36

  1811  Second battalion embarked from Ireland for
          Scotland                                                 37

  1814  First battalion embarked for Italy, with a force
          under Lieut.-General Lord William Bentinck               --

  ----  Landed at _Leghorn_, marched to _Pisa_, thence to
          Lucca                                                    --

  1814  Advanced to _Genoa_, and took possession of that
          town and fortress                                        37

  ----  Second battalion embarked from Scotland for
          Holland                                                  38

  ----  Employed in the attack of Bergen-op-Zoom                   --

  ----  Hostilities on the Continent ceased                        --

  ----  Abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte                           --

  ----  Second battalion embarked for England, and
          returned to Scotland                                     --

  ----  First battalion embarked for service in America            39

  ----  Defeated the American Army at _Bladensburg_                --

  ----  Advanced to _Washington_, captured the city,
          and destroyed the arsenal, docks, &c.                    40

  ----  Marched back to St. Benedict                               --

  ----  Re-embarked and landed at North Point                      --

  ----  Advanced towards _Baltimore_, and engaged the
          American troops                                          --

  ----  Major-General Robert Ross killed, and the command
          devolved on Colonel Brooke, 44th
          regiment                                                 --

  ----  Attacked and defeated the American Army at
        _Godly wood_                                               --

  ----  Colonel Paterson, 21st regiment, commanded a
          brigade and commended in the public despatches           41

  ----  Attack on the town of Baltimore abandoned,
          and the British troops re-embarked on board
          the Fleet                                                --

  ----  Proceeded to Jamaica, and there reinforced by a strong
          detachment from the second battalion                     --

  ----  Re-embarked, and proceeded to make an attack
          on _New Orleans_                                         --

  1815  Major-General Hon. Sir Edward Pakenham
          killed, and many other officers and soldiers
          killed, wounded, or made prisoners                       42

  1815  The capture of New Orleans abandoned                       43

  ----  Capture of Fort Bowyer                                     --

  ----  Peace with America concluded                               --

  ----  First battalion returned to the West Indies, and
          thence to Portsmouth, and proceeded to
          Cork                                                     --

  ----  Napoleon Bonaparte returned to France, and
          regained possession of that kingdom                      --

  ----  The Battle of Waterloo took place                          --

  ----  First battalion embarked from Ireland for
          Ostend, and proceeded to join the army under
          the command of Field-Marshal the Duke of
          Wellington                                               44

  ----  Formed part of the Army of Occupation in
          France                                                   --

  1816  Second battalion disbanded at Stirling                     --

  ----  Reviewed by Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington           --

  ----  Appointment of Lieut.-General Lord Forbes,
          from 54th regiment, to the Colonelcy, in
          succession to General Hon. William Gordon,
          deceased                                                 --

  1817  Proceeded to Calais, and embarked for England              --

  1818  Marched to Portsmouth                                      --

  ----  Officers authorised to wear long coats                     --

  1819  Embarked for the West Indies                               --

  ----  Received the particular thanks of Major-General
          Lord Howard of Effingham, commanding at
          Portsmouth, for its excellent qualities                  45

  ----  Landed at Barbadoes, and inspected by Lieut.-General
        Lord Combermere                                            --

  1821  Proceeded to Demerara                                      46

  ----  Lieut.-Colonel J. M. Nooth died, and succeeded
          by Lieut.-Colonel J. Leahy                               --

  1823  Insurrection among the negroes at Demerara                 --

  1823  Received the thanks of the Lieut.-General commanding
          in the West Indies, of His Royal
          Highness the Duke of York, and of His
          Majesty King George IV., for its conduct in
          suppressing this revolt                                  46

  ----  Certain sums voted by the Court of Policy of
          Demerara to the regiment, for its efficient
          services on this occasion                                --

  1824  Removed to St. Vincent and Grenada                         --

  1827  Embarked for England                                       47

  ----  Arrived at the Isle of Wight, marched to
          Windsor, and furnished the duties at the
          Castle                                                   --

  1828  Removed from Windsor to Portmouth                          --

  ----  Marched to Bath and thence to Bristol                      --

  ----  Embarked for Ireland                                       --

  1831  Marched to Dublin, and embarked for England                --

  1832  Removed to Chatham                                         --

  1833  Embarked for New South Wales, by detachments,
          as guards over convicts                                  48

  1839  Embarked from Hobart Town for the East
          Indies                                                   --

  ----  Arrived at Calcutta                                        --

  1840  Removed to Dinapore                                        --

  1843  Marched to Kamptee                                         --

  1846  Removed to Agra                                            --

  1847  Removed to Cawnpore, thence to Calcutta                    --

  1848  Embarked for England, and arrived at Gravesend             49

  ----  Marched to Canterbury                                      --

  ----  Proceeded to Edinburgh                                     --

  1849  Conclusion                                                 50



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF

THE TWENTY-FIRST REGIMENT,

OR

THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS.


  YEAR                                             PAGE

  1678  Charles, Earl of Mar                         51

  1686  Thomas Buchan                                52

  1689  Francis Fergus O'Farrell                     --

  1695  Robert Mackay                                --

  1697  Archibald Row                                53

  1704  John, Viscount Mordaunt                      --

  1706  Sampson De Lalo                              54

  1709  John, Viscount Mordaunt--_Re-appointed_      --

  1710  Thomas Meredith                              55

  ----  Charles, Earl of Orrery, K.T.                --

  1716  George Macartney                             56

  1727  Sir James Wood                               --

  1738  John Campbell--afterwards Duke of Argyle     --

  1752  William, Earl of Panmure                     57

  1770  _Hon._ Alexander Mackay                      --

  1789  _Hon._ James Murray                          58

  1794  James Hamilton                               59

  1803  _Hon._ William Gordon                        --

  1816  James, Lord Forbes                           --

  1843  Right Hon. Sir Frederick Adam, G.C.B.        60


APPENDIX.

  YEAR                                                       PAGE

  List of Battles, Sieges, &c., in the Netherlands, from
    1689 to the Peace of Ryswick in 1697, during the
    reign of King William III.                                 61

  List of Battles, Sieges, &c., in the Netherlands and
    Germany, during the Campaigns under the Duke
    of Marlborough, from 1702 to 1711                          62

  List of Battles, Sieges, &c., which occurred in Germany
    and in the Netherlands, from 1743 to 1748,
    during the "War of the Austrian Succession"                63

  List of the British Regiments which served in Flanders
    and Germany between 1742 and 1748, during
    the "War of the Austrian Succession"                       64


PLATES.

  Colours of the Regiment                       _to face Page_  1

  Costume of the Regiment in 1742                     "        24

  Costume of the Regiment in 1849                     "        50



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF

THE TWENTY-FIRST REGIMENT OF FOOT,

OR

THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS.


[Illustration: TWENTY FIRST REGIMENT.

_Madeley lith 3 Wellington Street Strand_

THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS.

1742

_For Cannon's Military Records_]



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF

THE TWENTY-FIRST REGIMENT OF FOOT,

OR

THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS.


[Sidenote: 1678]

THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH REGIMENT OF FUSILIERS derives its origin
from the commotions in Scotland, during the reign of King Charles
II., who attempted to establish Episcopacy in that country; but
was opposed by the Presbyterians, who wished to adhere to their
religious institutions, and prosecutions being used in Scotland by
the Government, to enforce obedience, collisions occurred between
the inhabitants and the military, which were sometimes attended
with loss of life. Several Highland clans were called out, in 1678,
and quartered upon the Presbyterians, and in the autumn of the same
year a regiment of foot was added to the military establishment of
Scotland, of which Charles, Earl of Mar, was appointed Colonel,
by commission dated the 23rd of September, 1678: this corps,
having been retained in the service, now bears the title of
the TWENTY-FIRST Regiment of Foot, or the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH
FUSILIERS.

Regiments of infantry, at this period, were generally armed with
pikes and muskets; but the practice was introduced of arming every
man, of a few select corps, with a fusil, or a light musket, and
these regiments were called FUSILIERS. The EARL OF MAR'S regiment
was one of the first corps which obtained this distinction.

[Sidenote: 1679]

[Sidenote: 1680]

In the following year, Archbishop Sharp, who had become
particularly obnoxious to the non-conformists, was murdered. This
event was followed by severities against the Presbyterians, and a
meeting for public worship, at Loudon-hill, having been attacked
by a body of horse and dragoons, under Captain Robert Graham, of
Claverhouse, afterwards Viscount Dundee, the countrymen, being
numerous, and provided with arms, gained some advantage over the
military. The persons, who had thus committed themselves, resolved
to keep together in arms, and to seek by their valour, that redress
to which they considered themselves entitled. They were soon
augmented in numbers, and taking post behind the river Clyde, they
barricaded _Bothwell Bridge_. The EARL OF MAR'S regiment was called
upon to take the field against the insurgents, and it formed part
of the army, commanded by James, Duke of Monmouth, which attacked
the rebels on the 22nd of June, and gained a decisive victory. The
rebels made a feeble resistance on this occasion; twelve hundred
foot laid down their arms without striking a blow, and the other
divisions of their army fled in dismay; about four hundred were
killed by the King's troops in the pursuit, and the rebellion was
suppressed. Several parties, however, kept together in arms for
some time, and gave the military much trouble in that and the
following year.

[Sidenote: 1685]

In the early part of 1685, King Charles II. died, and was succeeded
by his brother, King James the Second of England, and Seventh
of Scotland. The King being a Roman Catholic, some disaffected
persons supposed the people would not submit to his government;
and the Earl of Argyle and the Duke of Monmouth, who were both in
exile on the Continent, for their political conduct, agreed to
raise the standard of rebellion,--the former in Scotland, and the
latter in England. The Earl of Argyle landed in Argyleshire in May,
and assembled a body of men; when the EARL OF MAR'S regiment was
again called into the field. The King's troops were commanded by
the Earl of Dumbarton; and on the night of the 19th of June, the
two armies encamped in sight of each other. The rebels attempted
to avoid an engagement, by a night march; but they were led into a
bog in the dark; alarm and disorder followed; and the insurgents,
proceeding some in one direction and some in another, left the Earl
of Argyle without an army; he was captured and executed. The Duke
of Monmouth met with a similar fate, and the rebellion in England
was suppressed without the EARL OF MAR'S regiment being required to
pass the border.

[Sidenote: 1686]

The Earl of Mar was succeeded in the colonelcy of the regiment, in
1686, by Colonel Thomas Buchan, from a regiment of horse.

[Sidenote: 1688]

When the attempts made by King James to establish papacy and
arbitrary government had alarmed his subjects, and the Prince of
Orange was preparing an armament for the invasion of England,
the regiment was one of the corps which marched from Scotland
to support the authority of the King; and in the early part of
November, 1688, it arrived in the vicinity of London, when it was
ordered to occupy quarters in Spitalfields and the Tower Hamlets.
The Prince of Orange landed on the 5th of November; King James
discovered that he had alienated the affections of his subjects,
both civil and military, and he fled to France. Colonel BUCHAN'S
regiment was ordered, by the Prince of Orange, to occupy quarters
at Witney, in Oxfordshire.

[Sidenote: 1689]

The Prince and Princess of Orange were elevated to the Throne by
the titles of King William and Queen Mary; and Colonel Buchan
having adhered to the interests of King James, King William
conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on Colonel Francis Fergus
O'Farrell, by commission dated the 1st of March, 1689.

From Oxfordshire, the regiment marched to Gravesend, where it
embarked for Holland, and joining the Dutch army commanded by
Prince Waldeck, served the campaign of that year with the division
under the Earl (afterwards Duke) of Marlborough. The regiment took
part in a sharp action with the French troops, commanded by Marshal
d'Humières, at _Walcourt_, in the province of Namur, on the 25th of
August, on which occasion the French were repulsed in their attacks
on the allied army, with considerable loss.

[Sidenote: 1690]

The regiment passed the winter in Flanders, and in the summer of
1690 again took the field; it was on its march for Brussels on the
21st of June, in order to join the allied army; but Prince Waldeck
engaged the French at Fleurus, without waiting for the arrival of
the British troops, and was defeated. This disaster occasioned the
services of the army to be limited to defensive operations during
the remainder of the campaign.

[Sidenote: 1691]

In March, 1691, the regiment was encamped at Halle, in South
Brabant, and formed in brigade with the second battalion of the
Royals; the French besieged Mons, and the allies were too few in
numbers to prevent the capture of the place by the enemy. After
the surrender of Mons, the regiment was placed in quarters until
May, when it encamped near Brussels, and was formed in brigade with
the Royals, and the Scots regiments of Mackay, Ramsay, and Angus,
under the orders of Brigadier-General Ramsay.

In a list of the army in Flanders, printed in July, 1691, the
regiment is styled "O'FARRELL'S FUSILIERS;" and its uniform is
stated to be _red, faced and lined with the same colour_.

At the termination of the campaign, the regiment was again placed
in winter-quarters.

[Sidenote: 1692]

A numerous French army appeared in the Netherlands in the spring of
1692, and besieged Namur; when O'FARRELL'S FUSILIERS were called
from their quarters, and advanced with the army, commanded by King
William III., to the relief of the place; but the march having
been delayed by heavy rains, the garrison surrendered on the 20th
of June. A few days afterwards, a detachment of the regiment was
employed in an attempt to surprise Mons; but the garrison was found
prepared. On this occasion, Colonel Sir Robert Douglas and Colonel
O'Farrell, having proceeded a short distance to consult with the
Prince of Wirtemberg, who commanded the party, mistook their way
in the dark, and were made prisoners by a detachment of French
cavalry: they were released on paying the regulated ransom.

O'FARRELL'S FUSILIERS formed part of the advance-guard at the
battle of _Steenkirk_ on the 3rd of August; and were severely
engaged with the superior numbers of the enemy under the Duke of
Luxembourg. The regiment distinguished itself on this occasion, and
sustained the loss of many brave officers and soldiers. D'Auvergne
states, in his history of this campaign,--"Our van-guard behaved
in this engagement to such wonder and admiration, that though
they received the charge of several battalions of the enemy, one
after another, yet they made them retreat almost to their camp."
The corps in advance were not supported in time to enable them to
persevere in their career of victory; and King William commanded
the army to retreat.

The regiment had Major Keith, Captains White, Cygnoe, Mackenzie,
and Sharp, Lieutenants Charles King and Edward Griffith killed;
and Lieutenant Newton wounded. The regiment was not engaged in any
service of importance during the remainder of the campaign, and it
passed the winter at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1693]

Again taking the field in the summer of 1693, the NORTH BRITISH
FUSILIERS were formed in brigade with the regiments of Leven
(twenty-fifth), Monro (twenty-sixth), Mackay, and Lander
(afterwards disbanded), under the command of Brigadier-General
Ramsay, and, after taking part in several manœuvres, were engaged
at the battle of _Landen_ on the 29th of July. At sunrise on the
morning of that day, a French force of very superior numbers,
commanded by the Duke of Luxembourg, appeared before the position
occupied by the confederate army under King William III., when the
NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS, and other regiments of their brigade, were
ordered to occupy some hedges and narrow roads, beyond the village
of Laer, on the right of the line. This village, and the ground
occupied by General Ramsay's brigade, being attacked by a numerous
body of the enemy, the NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS were engaged in a
sharp musketry battle in the fields and open grounds. At length the
Third foot, and other corps in the village of Laer, were forced to
retire; but they rallied, and, being joined by Brigadier-General
Ramsay's brigade, the whole charged, and by a gallant effort
recaptured the village; the NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS distinguished
themselves on the occasion. The French afterwards carried the
village of Neer-Winden, and forced the position; the regiments at
Laer then became separated from the main body of the confederate
army; they gallantly defended their post some time, and eventually
retired, fighting, to the Gheet, forded that river, and joined
several corps which had crossed the bridge of Neer-Hespen. The army
was retreating, and the NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS accompanied King
William to the vicinity of Tirlemont. The regiment had Captains
Campbell and Strayton, Lieutenants Douglas and Dunbar, and Adjutant
Walle wounded; Captain Paterson taken prisoner; also a number of
soldiers killed, wounded, and prisoners.

At the end of the campaign, the regiment was placed in garrison at
Bruges.

[Sidenote: 1694]

During the summer of 1694, the regiment performed many long marches
in Brabant and Flanders; but was not engaged with the enemy, and in
the autumn it marched to Deinse.

This year the King commanded a board of General Officers to
assemble and decide upon the rank of the several corps of the army.
This board gave precedence to the English regiments, and gave the
Scots and Irish regiments rank in the English army from the date
of their first arrival in England, or from the date when they
were first placed on the English establishment. The NORTH BRITISH
FUSILIERS, not having entered England until the Revolution in 1688,
received rank as TWENTY-FIRST regiment. Numerical titles were not
generally used until the reign of King George II.

[Sidenote: 1695]

When the army took the field to serve the campaign of 1695, the
TWENTY-FIRST were left in garrison at Deinse, where some stores of
provision were formed. King William undertook the siege of Namur,
and the regiment was directed to join the covering army under
the Prince of Vaudemont; but it subsequently returned to Deinse,
of which place its colonel, Brigadier-General O'Farrell, was
commandant.

The French commander, Marshal Villeroy, detached a strong body
of troops, under the Marquis of Feuqueres, to reduce the town of
_Deinse_ where the NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS were stationed. This
town was situate on the river Lys; it was only slightly fortified,
and in many places there was only an entrenchment and some
palisades as defensive works; eight pieces of cannon were the only
ordnance in the town. Under these circumstances Brigadier-General
O'Farrell considered it impossible to make a successful defence
of the place, and he surrendered on the 21st of July without
having fired a shot. The FUSILIERS became prisoners of war on this
occasion.

Brigadier-General O'Farrell was afterwards tried by a general
court-martial, and cashiered: and King William conferred the
colonelcy of the regiment on Colonel Robert Mackay, from a Scots
corps, which was afterwards disbanded.

After the surrender of Namur, the regiment rejoined the allied
army, and was again stationed at Bruges.

[Sidenote: 1696]

From Bruges the regiment proceeded to the camp at Marykirk, and it
served the campaign of 1696 with the army of Brabant: in the autumn
it went into village cantonments.

[Sidenote: 1697]

In December, Colonel Robert Mackay died; and on the 1st of January,
1697, King William conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on
Lieut.-Colonel Archibald Row, from the Sixteenth foot.

Quitting its village quarters on the 13th of March, 1697, the
regiment entered upon the operations of another campaign. While
the troops were in the field, negotiations for a general peace
commenced at Ryswick, and the treaty was signed in September.
Thus the British monarch witnessed his efforts for the liberties
of Europe, and for the preservation of the balance of power in
Christendom, attended with success.

The regiment returned to Scotland during the winter, and was
stationed there during the remainder of King William's reign.

[Sidenote: 1702]

Queen Anne succeeded to the throne on the 8th of March, 1702; and
the French monarch, having violated the conditions of existing
treaties, by procuring the accession of his grandson, Philip, Duke
of Anjou, to the throne of Spain, war was declared against France
soon afterwards. At the commencement of hostilities the NORTH
BRITISH FUSILIERS were selected to proceed on foreign service,
and they embarked from Scotland for Holland, to serve with the
allied army commanded by the Earl of Marlborough. The regiment did
not join the army immediately on its arrival in Holland, but was
stationed some time at Breda, and in September it marched towards
Flanders.

[Sidenote: 1703]

Quitting its winter-quarters in April, 1703, the regiment marched
towards Maestricht, where the allied army was assembled, and
the second battalion of the Royals, with the Tenth, Sixteenth,
TWENTY-FIRST, and Twenty-Sixth regiments, were formed in brigade,
under Brigadier-General the Earl of Derby.

The regiment took part in the operations of the campaign, and its
services were connected with the reduction of _Huy_, a strong
fortress on the Maese, above the city of Liege, which was besieged
and captured in ten days. The regiment was afterwards detached from
the main army, to take part in the capture of _Limburg_, a city of
the Spanish Netherlands, situate on a pleasant eminence near the
banks of the Wesdet. The siege of this place was commenced on the
10th of September, and the NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS were employed
in carrying on the approaches, and in making the attacks; and in
seventeen days the garrison surrendered at discretion.

[Sidenote: 1704]

In October the regiment marched back to Holland, where it was
stationed during the winter.

From Holland the regiment marched, in the months of May and June,
1704, to the interior of Germany, to arrest the progress of the
French and Bavarians, who had gained considerable advantage over
the Imperialists. A junction was formed with the Germans under
the Margrave of Baden; and on the 2nd of July the NORTH BRITISH
FUSILIERS took part in the attack of the enemy's position on the
lofty heights of _Schellenberg_ on the north bank of the Danube;
when the entrenchments were carried, and the French and Bavarians,
commanded by the Count d'Arco, were driven from their post with
severe loss.

The regiment had a few private soldiers killed and wounded; also
Captain Kygoe, Lieutenants Johnston and John Campbell, wounded.

After this victory the regiment penetrated the Electorate of
Bavaria to the vicinity of the enemy's fortified camp at Augsburg,
which was found too strong to be attacked with any prospect of
success, and the army retired a few stages to undertake the siege
of Ingoldstadt. At the same time a numerous reinforcement of French
troops arrived at the theatre of war.

These events were followed by the battle of _Blenheim_, on the
13th of August, when the French and Bavarians, commanded by
Marshal Tallard and the Elector of Bavaria, were overpowered by
the allies under the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of
Savoy, and a victory was gained which reflected lustre on the
British arms. The NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS were selected to lead the
attack against the French troops in the village of BLENHEIM, and
their colonel, Brigadier-General Row, placed himself at the head
of his regiment, which was followed by four other corps. In the
Annals of Queen Anne it is stated--"The five English battalions,
led on by Brigadier-General Row, who charged on foot at the head
of his own regiment with unparalleled intrepidity, assaulted the
village of Blenheim, advancing to the very muzzles of the enemy's
muskets, and some of the officers exchanged thrusts of swords
through the palisades;"--but the avenues of the village were found
strongly fortified, and defended by a force of superior numbers.
Brigadier-General Row led the NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS up to the
palisades before he gave the word "fire," and the next moment he
fell mortally wounded; Lieut.-Colonel Dalyel and Major Campbell,
being both on the spot, stepped forward to raise their colonel,
and were both instantly pierced by musket-balls; the soldiers,
exasperated at seeing the three field officers of the regiment
fall, made a gallant effort to force their way into the village,
but this was found impossible, and the regiment was ordered to
retire. The moment the soldiers faced about, thirteen squadrons
of French cavalry galloped forward to charge them, and one of the
colours of the regiment was captured by the enemy; but the French
horsemen were repulsed by the fire of a brigade of Hessians, and
the colour was recovered.

Another attempt to capture the village of Blenheim having failed,
the firing was continued against this post, and the army advanced
against the enemy's line, which was driven from the field with
great slaughter, and the loss of its cannon, and of many officers
and soldiers made prisoners, among whom was the French commander,
Marshal Tallard. Additional forces were then brought against the
French troops in Blenheim, and they surrendered prisoners of war.
The Germans, who attacked the enemy's right, were also victorious;
and the gallant achievements of the allied army raised on the banks
of the Danube a trophy which time cannot destroy.

The regiment had Lieut.-Colonel Dalyel, Captain Stratton, jun.,
Captain Stratton, senior, Lieutenants Vandergracht, Hill, Campbell,
and Travallion killed; Brigadier-General Row and Major Campbell
died of their wounds; Captains Craufurd and Fairlee, Lieutenants
Dunbar, J. Douglas, Elliott, Ogilvy, Maxwell, Stuart, Primrose, and
Gordon wounded.

The number of the enemy captured on this occasion was so great,
that the NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS, and four other corps, were sent
to Holland in charge of prisoners. These corps marched in charge of
the captured French and Bavarians to Mentz, where they embarked in
boats and sailed to Holland, under the orders of Brigadier-General
Fergusson; and having delivered them into the charge of other
regiments, went into quarters.

[Sidenote: 1705]

The colonelcy of the regiment was conferred on John, Viscount
Mordaunt, who had distinguished himself at the head of the foot
guards which commenced the attack on the heights of Schellenberg.
A number of recruits from Scotland having replaced the losses of
the preceding campaign, the regiment appeared complete and in good
order when it took the field to serve the campaign of 1705. It was
employed in the expedition up the Moselle: and returning to the
Netherlands, was afterwards engaged at the forcing of the French
lines at _Helixem_ and _Neer Hespen_, on the morning of the 18th of
July, when the superior tactics of the British Commander, and the
gallantry of his troops, were very conspicuous.

[Sidenote: 1706]

The regiment had also the honor to take part in gaining another
splendid victory over the combined French, Spanish, and Bavarian
forces, at _Ramilies_, on Whit-Sunday, the 23rd of May, 1706.
During the early part of the action the NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS,
the Third foot, and three regiments of cavalry, were stationed on
the heights of Foulz, where they had a view of the field of battle.
An important crisis in the battle arriving, these corps descended
from the heights,--the FUSILIERS and Third Foot forced their way
through a morass, crossed the Little Gheet, ascended the acclivity
between that river and the Jauche, and charging the enemy's left
flank, forced three French regiments into some low grounds, where
the greater part of them were either killed or taken prisoners. The
allies were successful at every part of the field, and the legions
of the enemy were overpowered, and pursued from the plains of
Ramilies with great slaughter until the following morning, by which
time nearly all the enemy's cannon, with many standards, colours,
and kettle-drums, had been captured.

This victory augmented the reputation of the British arms; and was
followed by very important results. Spanish Brabant, and many of
the principal towns of Flanders, were rescued from the power of the
enemy. The services of the regiment are connected with the capture
of Ostend, Menin, and Aeth; and it passed the winter in garrison in
Flanders.

In June of this year Viscount Mordaunt exchanged with Colonel
Sampson de Lalo, a French gentleman of the Protestant religion, who
had been forced to quit his native country by the Edict of Nantes;
Colonel de Lalo had served as Lieut.-Colonel and Colonel of the
Twenty-eighth regiment several years, and had the reputation of
being an excellent officer.

[Sidenote: 1707]

During the campaign of 1707, the services of the regiment were
limited to marches and occupying positions; and it passed the
winter in West Flanders.

The Union of Scotland and England took place this year, which
occasioned St. George's cross to be added to the colours of the
Scots regiments, and St. Andrew's cross to the colours of the
English regiments. The corps, previously designated _Scots_
regiments, took the title of _North British_ regiments.

[Sidenote: 1708]

In May, 1708, the regiment again took the field, and on the 11th
of July it had an opportunity of acquiring fresh laurels at the
battle of _Oudenarde_, which was fought in the broken grounds near
the river Scheldt. On this occasion the regiment was engaged in
a severe musketry action, and it succeeded in driving the French
corps opposed to it from field to field, until the darkness of the
night put an end to the conflict. Before the following morning the
wreck of the French army had retreated in disorder towards Ghent.

After this victory, the siege of _Lisle_, the capital of French
Flanders, was resolved upon. This fortress was deemed almost
impregnable; it was garrisoned by fifteen thousand men, commanded
by Marshal Boufflers, who resolved upon making a desperate defence.
The NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS were selected to take part in the
attack of this important fortress, under the orders of Prince
Eugene of Savoy; the covering army was commanded by the Duke of
Marlborough. The regiment had several men killed and wounded in
carrying on the approaches, and at the attack of the counterscarp
it had thirteen men killed; three officers, four serjeants, and
sixty-six rank and file wounded. The progress of this siege was a
subject of peculiar interest throughout Europe; and the besieging
army witnessed its extraordinary efforts for the capture of the
place, attended by complete success, on the 9th of December, when
the citadel surrendered.

[Sidenote: 1709]

Having reposed a few months in quarters, and received a body of
fine recruits from Scotland, the regiment joined the army, and was
employed in covering the siege of _Tournay_, in July and August,
1709. The citadel of Tournay surrendered in the beginning of
September, and the army afterwards marched in the direction of Mons.

A numerous French army, commanded by Marshals Villars and
Boufflers, took up a position at _Malplaquet_, and strengthened
the post by entrenchments and other works of art. The Duke of
Marlborough and Prince Eugene had confidence in the valour and
perseverance of the troops under their orders, and they attacked
the enemy's formidable position on the 11th of September, on
which occasion the heroic valour of the troops was conspicuous;
the enemy's entrenchments and _abatis-de-bois_ were stormed with
distinguished gallantry, the determined resistance of the French
was overcome, and another trophy was acquired; but with the loss
of many brave officers and soldiers, including the Colonel of the
NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS, Brigadier-General DE LALO, who was killed
at the head of a brigade, and his fall was much regretted.

In addition to the loss of its Colonel, the regiment had also
Captains Monroe, Wemys, and Farley killed; Captains Montressor and
Lowther wounded.

After the death of Brigadier-General de Lalo, Viscount Mordaunt was
re-appointed on the 4th of September to the colonelcy of the NORTH
BRITISH FUSILIERS, from the Twenty-eighth regiment.

The regiment was afterwards employed in covering the siege of
_Mons_, which was terminated by the surrender of the garrison on
the 20th of October; when the regiment marched into quarters.

[Sidenote: 1710]

On the 14th of April, 1710, the regiment marched out of its
winter-quarters towards the frontiers of France, and was
engaged in the movements by which the French lines were passed
at _Pont-à-Vendin_: it was afterwards selected to take part in
the siege of _Douay_, where it performed much severe service.
It was employed in carrying on the approaches, in storming the
outworks, and other duties connected with the siege, and sustained
considerable loss in killed and wounded. The garrison beat a parley
on the 25th of June, and afterwards surrendered the fortress.

After the capture of Douay, the regiment was employed in covering
the siege of _Bethune_, which place was surrendered in August. The
regiment was also with the covering army during the sieges of _St.
Venant_ and _Aire_; the former place surrendered on the 30th of
September, and the latter on the 9th of November.

Viscount Mordaunt died this year, and was succeeded in the
colonelcy by Major-General Meredith, from the Thirty-seventh
regiment. This officer was succeeded, in December, by Major-General
the Earl of Orrery, from a newly-raised regiment, which was
afterwards disbanded.

[Sidenote: 1711]

After passing the winter in quarters at Dendermond, the regiment
joined the army in May, 1711, and it took part in the movements
by which the boasted impregnable French lines were passed at
_Arleux_ on the 5th of August. The regiment was afterwards employed
in the siege of _Bouchain_, in which service obstacles of the
greatest magnitude had to be overcome, and the abilities of the
commanders, with the valour of the troops, were put to a severe
test. These qualities were found in the besieging army; on more
than one occasion the soldiers fought up to their middle in water,
and by a gallant perseverance, which reflected honor on all the
corps engaged in the siege, every difficulty was overcome; and the
garrison surrendered on the 13th of September.

[Sidenote: 1712]

The regiment joined the army commanded by the Duke of Ormond, in
the campaign of 1712, and advanced to the frontiers of Picardy;
but a suspension of hostilities was soon afterwards proclaimed,
preparatory to a general peace, when the British army marched to
Ghent, and afterwards went into quarters.

[Sidenote: 1713]

A treaty of peace was concluded at Utrecht, and the soldiers of
the NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS could look back with exultation at
the career of victory and honor which had attended their corps
during these memorable campaigns. At this period the regiment is
designated by historians, and in official documents, by the title
of the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS; but the date when this
honorary distinction of "ROYAL" was conferred upon it, has not been
ascertained.

[Sidenote: 1714]

The ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS were stationed in Flanders until
the decease of Queen Anne, on the 1st of August, 1714, and the
accession of King George I., when they were ordered to embark for
England. They landed at Gravesend on the 23rd of August, and were
afterwards directed to march to Scotland.

[Sidenote: 1715]

In 1715 the Earl of Mar[6] erected the standard of rebellion
in Scotland, and summoned the Highland clans to aid him in
establishing the Pretender on the throne. The ROYAL NORTH BRITISH
FUSILIERS were encamped at Stirling, under the command of the
Duke of Argyle, and advanced with the Royal army to _Dumblain_,
to defeat the attempts of the enemy to march southward. On the
morning of the 13th of November the two armies confronted each
other on _Sheriff-muir_. On the approach of the clans, it was
found necessary for the Royal forces to change position, and this
movement was executed at a critical time with steadiness; but
several corps were suddenly attacked by the clans while in the act
of forming, and suffered severely. The left wing of the rebel army
was overpowered, and driven from the field with great slaughter;
and the left wing of the Royal army was also forced to retire; thus
each commander had one wing victorious, and one wing defeated: the
rebels were prevented marching southward, and retired; and the
King's troops returned to their camp at Stirling.

The regiment had one captain, two lieutenants, three serjeants, and
eighty-five rank and file killed; one captain, one serjeant, and
twenty-four rank and file wounded.

[Sidenote: 1716]

Reinforcements having arrived, the King's troops advanced, in
January, 1716, to attack the insurgents, who made a precipitate
retreat. The Pretender, and several leaders in the rebellion,
escaped to the Continent, and the clans separated. The rebellion
was thus suppressed.

In July of this year the Earl of Orrery was succeeded in the
colonelcy of the regiment by Colonel George Macartney, whose
regiment of foot had been disbanded at the peace of Utrecht.

[Sidenote: 1727]

The regiment was employed on home service many years; and in 1727
it was held in readiness to embark for Holland, to aid the Dutch in
their approaching war with the Emperor of Germany; but the presence
of British troops was not required.

In the same year Colonel Macartney was removed to the Seventh
horse, now Sixth Dragoon Guards, and the colonelcy of the ROYAL
NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS was conferred on Brigadier-General Sir
James Wood, from the Dutch service.

[Sidenote: 1728]

[Sidenote: 1729]

The order for embarking for Holland having been countermanded, the
regiment afterwards proceeded to Ireland, and was placed upon the
establishment of that country.

[Sidenote: 1738]

Major-General Sir James Wood died in 1738, and King George II.
nominated Colonel John Campbell, afterwards Duke of Argyle, to
the colonelcy of the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS, from the
Thirty-ninth regiment.

[Sidenote: 1739]

[Sidenote: 1740]

[Sidenote: 1741]

War having been declared against Spain, in the autumn of 1739, the
regiment was withdrawn from Ireland, and landing at Liverpool, was
stationed in South Britain during the year 1740; in the summer of
1741 it was encamped on Lexden Heath, where seven regiments of
cavalry and seven of infantry were assembled, and held in readiness
for foreign service.

[Sidenote: 1742]

In the summer of 1742 King George II. sent sixteen thousand men to
Flanders, to support the interest of the House of Austria against
the aggressions of France and Bavaria: the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH
FUSILIERS formed part of this force, and were stationed some time
at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1743]

Early in 1743 the regiment commenced its march for Germany, and
after taking part in several movements in the field, had the honor
to distinguish itself, under the eye of its Sovereign, at the
battle of _Dettingen_, on the 27th of June, when the French troops,
under Marshal Noailles, were driven from the field of battle with
great slaughter, and the loss of a number of standards and colours.

The ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS had Lieutenant Yonge, one
serjeant, and thirty-five rank and file killed; Lieutenant
Levingstone, one serjeant, two drummers, and fifty-three rank and
file wounded.

The regiment was afterwards encamped near Hanau; in August it
crossed the Rhine, and was employed in West Germany; but in the
autumn it returned to Flanders.

[Sidenote: 1744]

During the campaign of 1744 the regiment served with the army
under Field-Marshal Wade; it was encamped between Asche and Alost,
afterwards on the banks of the Scheldt, and subsequently penetrated
the French territory to the vicinity of Lisle; but returned to
Ghent for winter-quarters.

[Sidenote: 1745]

Quitting its cantonments in April, 1745, the regiment marched, with
the army commanded by His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland,
to the relief of _Tournay_, which fortress was besieged by a
numerous French army, which took up a position near the village of
_Fontenoy_. The enemy had a great superiority of numbers; but the
Duke of Cumberland, trusting to the innate bravery of his troops,
resolved to hazard a general engagement on the 11th of May, when
the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS had their valour and endurance
put to a severe test, and they proved themselves not unworthy
successors of the gallant officers and soldiers who triumphed at
_Blenheim_ and _Ramilies_ under the great Duke of Marlborough.

Soon after nine o'clock the British infantry advanced in the face
of a heavy fire of grape and musketry, and by a gallant charge
broke through the French lines; but the Dutch failed to carry
the village of _Fontenoy_, and a brigade under Brigadier-General
Ingoldsby did not capture the battery it was appointed to attack;
the troops, which had forced the enemy's centre, were thus exposed
to so severe a cross fire, that they were ordered to retire.
A second attack was made; British valour and intrepidity were
again triumphant; but the failure of the Dutch a second time,
produced disastrous results, and the British regiments, which had
carried the enemy's entrenchments, and forced the centre, were
nearly annihilated by a destructive cross fire. The ROYAL NORTH
BRITISH FUSILIERS suffered severely on this occasion. The Duke of
Cumberland afterwards ordered a retreat, and the army withdrew from
the field of battle to Aeth.

Lieutenants Campbell, Houston, and Serjeant, of the regiment, were
killed; Major Colville, Captains Latan, Olivant, and Knatchbull,
Lieutenants Maxwell, Colville, Ballenden, Macgaken, and Townsend,
wounded; Captain Sandilands, Lieutenant Stuart, and Quarter-Master
Stewart prisoners; eleven serjeants and two hundred and fifty-nine
rank and file killed, wounded, and prisoners.

The severe loss which the regiment had experienced occasioned it
to be placed in garrison at _Ostend_. This place was besieged by
a numerous French force; and the garrison defended their post
some time; but the works were not in repair, the stores were
defective, and the garrison not sufficiently numerous: under these
circumstances the governor surrendered, on condition that the
garrison should join the allied army.

While the regiment was in Flanders, Charles Edward, eldest son of
the Pretender, arrived in Scotland, and being joined by a number
of Highland clans, he made a desperate attempt to overturn the
existing government, and establish his father's authority in
the kingdom. The ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS were ordered to
return to England; they arrived in the river Thames on the 4th of
November, and after landing, marched northward: the efficiency of
the regiment was increased by a body of fine recruits enlisted in
Scotland.

[Sidenote: 1746]

The regiment arrived at Edinburgh in January, 1746, and advanced
with the army commanded by the Duke of Cumberland, towards
Stirling, when the young Pretender raised the siege of Stirling
castle and made a precipitate retreat. The pursuit was retarded
by severe weather; but the army continued its advance when the
season permitted, and on the 16th of April encountered the
clans on _Culloden_ moor. The regiment was in the front line on
this occasion, and took part in repulsing the attacks of the
Highlanders, and in driving them from the field of battle with
great slaughter. This victory proved decisive, and the rebellion
was suppressed.

The loss of the regiment was limited to seven private soldiers
killed and wounded. It was encamped a short time at Inverness, and
afterwards removed to Glasgow.

[Sidenote: 1747]

From Scotland, the regiment was again removed to the theatre of the
war in the Netherlands, where it arrived in time to take part in
the operations of the campaign of 1747; and it was engaged at the
battle of _Val_, on the 2nd of July. On this occasion the allied
army was very inferior in numbers to the enemy, and although the
gallantry of the British infantry was very conspicuous throughout
the action, the Duke of Cumberland was obliged to order a retreat
to Maestricht.

Eight rank and file of the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS were
killed; one serjeant and fifteen rank and file were wounded; and
five men missing.

[Sidenote: 1748]

The regiment was again in the field in the summer of 1748.
Hostilities were this year terminated by the treaty of
Aix-la-Chapelle, and during the winter the regiment returned to
England.[7]

[Sidenote: 1751]

In the Royal Warrant, issued on the 1st of July, 1751, for ensuring
uniformity in the clothing, standards, and colours of the army, the
following directions are given for the TWENTY-FIRST REGIMENT, OR
THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS:--

"In the centre of their colours, the THISTLE within the CIRCLE OF
ST. ANDREW, and the CROWN over it; and in the three corners of the
second colour, the KING'S CIPHER AND CROWN.

"On the grenadier caps, the THISTLE as on the colours; the WHITE
HORSE, and motto over it, _Nec aspera terrent_, on the flap. On the
drums and bells of arms, the THISTLE and CROWN to be painted, as
on the colours, with the rank of the regiment underneath."

During the period the regiment was stationed in England, where it
remained until 1751, it received the commendations of His Royal
Highness the Duke of Cumberland, on account of its good conduct in
quarters, and of its former gallantry in the field.

The TWENTY-FIRST regiment embarked for Gibraltar towards the end of
the year 1751, in order to relieve the Eighth, or King's Regiment.

[Sidenote: 1752]

Lieut.-General Campbell was removed to the Scots Greys, and
King George II. nominated Colonel the Earl of Panmure, from the
Twenty-fifth regiment, to the colonelcy of the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH
FUSILIERS, by commission dated the 29th of April, 1752.

[Sidenote: 1760]

The regiment remained at Gibraltar until 1760, when it was relieved
from duty at that fortress, and returned to England.

[Illustration: _Madeley lith 3 Wellington S^t. Strand._

XXI.

THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS.

1742

_For Cannon's Military Records._]

[Sidenote: 1761]

In the meantime another war had commenced between Great Britain and
France, and in 1761 the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS, mustering
eight hundred men, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Edward
Maxwell, sailed with the expedition under Major-General Hodgson,
for the attack of the French island in the Bay of Biscay, called
_Belle-Isle_. The fleet appeared before the island on the 7th of
April; but the coast was found like a vast fortress,--the little
which nature had left undone by rocks and crags, having been
supplied by art. A landing was, however, effected on the following
day; the TWENTY-FIRST was one of the regiments which leaped on
shore, and stormed the works of Port Andro, under a heavy fire of
cannon and musketry; the works were found too steep to be ascended,
and although the officers and soldiers made a gallant effort,
one attempting to lift another up, it was found impossible to
succeed, and they were ordered to return on board of the fleet. The
regiment had three serjeants, one drummer, and eight rank and file
killed; eight rank and file wounded; Lieutenants Innis and Ramage,
and thirty-five rank and file, prisoners;--many of the officers and
soldiers taken prisoners were severely wounded, and were unable to
return on board of the fleet when the order was given to retire.

A landing was effected on the 22nd of April at a rugged spot near
Point Lomaria, where the difficult ascent had occasioned the
enemy to be less attentive to that part of the coast; and the
troops, under Brigadier-General Lambert, having landed, gained
the summit of the rock, and repulsed the attempts of the enemy to
dislodge them,--capturing three brass field-pieces. The cannon
was afterwards landed from the ships, and dragged up the rocks;
the lines which covered the town of Palais were captured, and the
siege of the citadel commenced. The ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS
took part in the siege of the _Citadel_ of _Belle-Isle_, which was
prosecuted with so much vigour, that the governor, the Chevalier de
St. Croix, was forced to surrender on the 7th of June. The capture
of the island was thus effected, with the loss of about eighteen
hundred men killed and wounded.

[Sidenote: 1762]

[Sidenote: 1763]

[Sidenote: 1764]

After the surrender of the Castle of Belle-Isle, the regiment
returned to England, where it was stationed in 1762; and in 1763
and 1764 it occupied quarters in Scotland.

[Sidenote: 1765]

[Sidenote: 1770]

On the 6th of May, 1765, the regiment embarked for America, and was
quartered five years in West Florida; in 1770, it was removed to
Canada, and was stationed some time at Quebec.

In November, 1770, Lieut.-General the Earl of Panmure was removed
to the Scots Greys, and was succeeded in the colonelcy of the ROYAL
NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS by Major-General the Honorable Alexander
Mackay, from the Sixty-fifth regiment.

[Sidenote: 1772]

[Sidenote: 1773]

[Sidenote: 1774]

Having been relieved from duty at Quebec, in 1772, the regiment
embarked for England, where it was stationed in 1773 and the two
following years.

[Sidenote: 1775]

The American war commenced in 1775, and during the winter of that
year Quebec was besieged by an American force.

[Sidenote: 1776]

In the spring of 1776, the regiment embarked for the relief of
_Quebec_; on the arrival of the British reinforcement to the
garrison, the Americans raised the siege, and made a precipitate
retreat; they were pursued up the country, and driven from all the
posts which they occupied in that province. After these services
were performed, the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS were quartered at
St. John's, where they were stationed during the winter.

[Sidenote: 1777]

The regiment was called into active operations in the spring of
1777, with the armament commanded by Lieut.-General Burgoyne; it
embarked in boats on Lake Champlain, and sailed to Crown Point,
where the troops halted three days, and afterwards proceeded
against Ticonderago; but the Americans quitted the fort without
hazarding the events of a siege. The regiment returned on board
of the flotilla, and sailing along the lake, arrived, about three
o'clock on the afternoon of the 6th of July, within three miles of
Skenesborough, where the Americans had a stockaded fort. The Ninth,
Twentieth, and TWENTY-FIRST regiments leaped on shore, and ascended
the mountains, to get behind the fort and cut off the retreat of
the garrison; but the Americans made a precipitate retreat, and
escaped with the loss of a few men made prisoners.

On the 8th of July, the regiment was detached towards Fort Anne, to
support the Ninth, who were attacked by an American force of very
superior numbers. The enemy was repulsed, and retreated towards
Fort Edward.

To follow up these advantages proved a difficult undertaking; trees
and other obstacles had to be removed; creeks and marshes had to be
crossed; forty bridges had to be constructed; but by great exertion
these difficulties were overcome, and on the 30th of July, the army
arrived at the bank of the Hudson's River, which was crossed by a
bridge of boats on the 13th and 14th of September, and on the 19th
the army advanced against the Americans, in position on an island
called Still-Water, when a severe action was fought. Lieut.-General
Burgoyne stated in his public despatch,--"About three o'clock, the
action began by a very vigorous attack on the British line, and was
continued with great obstinacy until after sunset; the enemy being
constantly supplied with fresh troops. The stress lay upon the
Twentieth, TWENTY-FIRST, and Sixty-second regiments, most parts of
which were engaged nearly four hours without intermission.... Just
as night closed, the enemy gave ground on all sides, and left us
completely masters of the field of battle."

Several other actions occurred, and the regiment sustained
considerable loss in killed and wounded; among the former were
Lieutenants Currie, Mackenzie, Robertson, and Turnbull; and among
the latter Captain Ramsay, and Lieutenant Richardson.

The circumstances under which the troops commanded by
Lieut.-General Burgoyne eventually became placed, assumed a
desperate character; their numbers were reduced to about three
thousand five hundred men able to bear arms; they were environed
by sixteen thousand Americans; their retreat cut off, and they
were short of provisions. Under these accumulated difficulties,
they agreed to lay down their arms on condition of being sent to
England, and of not serving again in North America during the war.
These conditions were, however, violated by the American Congress,
and the troops were detained some time in the provinces.

[Sidenote: 1781]

The TWENTY-FIRST regiment having been liberated returned to Europe,
and in 1781 it was stationed in Scotland, recruiting its numbers.

[Sidenote: 1782]

At the termination of the American war, in 1782, the regiment was
placed on the peace establishment; and in 1783 it proceeded to
Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1789]

The regiment remained in Ireland until the spring of 1789, when it
embarked from Cork for Nova Scotia, and landing at Halifax, was
stationed in the British provinces in North America nearly four
years.

Lieut.-General the Honorable Alexander Mackay died in 1789, and the
colonelcy of the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS was conferred on
General the Honorable James Murray, from the Thirteenth regiment.

[Sidenote: 1793]

While the regiment was in North America a revolution took place
in France, and republican principles were extended to the French
West India islands, where the inhabitants of colour rose in arms
against the European settlers, many of whom sought protection from
Great Britain. Under these circumstances the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH
FUSILIERS were removed to the West Indies in the spring of 1793.

The French royalists of _Martinique_ sent pressing applications for
assistance, and Major-General Bruce, commanding the British troops
in the West Indies, was induced to proceed with a small force to
their aid. The TWENTY-FIRST were employed on this service; they
landed at Caise de Navire on the 14th of June; the other corps
landed on the 16th, and eleven hundred British, and eight hundred
French loyalists, advanced to attack the town of St. Pierre: but
the Royalists were undisciplined; they got into confusion, fired by
mistake on one another, and so completely disconcerted the plan of
attack, that the English General, not having a force sufficiently
numerous for the purpose without them, ordered the British troops
to return on board of the fleet.

[Sidenote: 1794]

General Sir Charles (afterwards Earl) Grey assembled a body of
troops at Barbadoes, in January, 1794, for the attack of the
French islands, and the flank companies of the TWENTY-FIRST were
employed on this service. A landing was effected on the island of
_Martinique_ in the early part of February, and after some sharp
fighting, in which the regiment had several men killed and wounded,
this valuable possession was delivered from the power of the
republicans.

From Martinique the grenadiers, under Prince Edward (afterwards
Duke of Kent), the light infantry, under Major-General Dundas, and
three other corps, embarked on the 30th of March for _St. Lucia_,
where they arrived on the 1st of April, and the conquest of that
fine island was completed in three days.

The flank companies of the TWENTY-FIRST were afterwards employed
in the reduction of the island of _Guadaloupe_. A determined
resistance was made by the enemy; but the island was captured
before the end of April. The regiment had several men killed and
wounded; Captain Macdonald was also wounded on the 12th of April.

After the reduction of Guadaloupe, the flank companies of the
regiment were removed to Antigua.

The loss of so many valuable colonial possessions was not regarded
with indifference by the republican government of France, and in
June a French armament arrived at _Guadaloupe_ for the recovery of
that island. The negroes and other men of colour flocked to the
standard of republicanism; they were instantly armed and clad in
uniforms; the doctrines of liberty and equality were disseminated
among this motley crowd, which led to a frightful catalogue of
crime and bloodshed. The flank companies of the TWENTY-FIRST were
called from Antigua to aid in the defence of Guadaloupe; they
arrived on the 10th of June in the Winchelsea ship of war, landed
on the 19th, at Ance Canot, and were engaged in several arduous
services, in which Lieutenants Harry Foley Price, Samuel Knollis,
and J. S. Colepeper were wounded; also several private soldiers
killed and wounded: but the British troops were not sufficiently
numerous to contend with the republican forces.

Lieut.-Colonel Colin Graham of the TWENTY-FIRST was appointed to
the command of the troops in Basse Terre, and he defended Beville
camp until the 6th of October, when he was forced to surrender, his
force having become reduced to one hundred and twenty-five rank and
file fit for duty.

Three companies of the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS were engaged
in the defence of _Fort Matilda_, under Lieut.-General Prescott,
and the garrison made a resolute resistance, until the place became
so much injured by the enemy's fire that it was not tenable,
when it was evacuated during the night of the 10th of December.
One company of the TWENTY-FIRST occupied the rampart,--the light
company, under Lieutenant William Paterson, was stationed on
the right of the breach, and the third company, under Captain
Mackay, was posted along the Gallion river; they thus covered the
embarkation of the garrison and stores, and afterwards retired
on board of the fleet. The three companies were reduced by
casualties to one captain, three lieutenants, six serjeants, and
ninety-two rank and file. Lieut.-General Prescott stated in his
despatch,--"During the whole progress of this long and painful
siege, the officers and men under my command have conducted
themselves in such a manner as to deserve my warmest praise;
bearing their hardships with the utmost patience, and performing
their duty with alacrity."

General the Honorable James Murray died in this year, and King
George III. nominated Major-General James Hamilton from the
Fifteenth regiment, to the colonelcy of the TWENTY-FIRST FUSILIERS.

[Sidenote: 1795]

[Sidenote: 1796]

In addition to the casualties in action, the regiment also
sustained, during its services in the West Indies, severe loss from
the yellow fever, and in 1796 it returned to England much reduced
in numbers; it landed at Portsmouth, and proceeded from thence to
Scotland, where it commenced active measures for completing its
ranks with recruits.

[Sidenote: 1800]

[Sidenote: 1801]

[Sidenote: 1802]

The regiment occupied various stations in Scotland until June,
1800, when it embarked from Portpatrick for Ireland, where its
numbers were increased to eight hundred rank and file by volunteers
from the Scots fencible regiments then in that country.

In October of the same year, the regiment marched to Enniskillen,
where it was quartered nearly two years, during which time its
numbers were increased to a thousand men by recruits. The good
conduct of the regiment, during its stay at this place, occasioned
it to stand very high in the estimation of the inhabitants; and on
its removal, in 1802, a hundred gentlemen and respectable persons
sent a memorial to the Commander-in-chief, requesting that it
might be again quartered at Enniskillen, and offered to defray the
expense of removal.

On the 15th of July, 1802, the regiment arrived at Londonderry,
where its establishment was reduced in consequence of the peace of
Amiens having been concluded with France.

[Sidenote: 1803]

From Londonderry the regiment was removed to Dublin, in February,
1803; its establishment was again augmented in the summer of this
year after the renewal of hostilities with France.

An alarming insurrectionary spirit was manifested at _Dublin_
in the summer of this year; and on the evening of the 23rd of
July an immense number of persons assembled with fire-arms and
pikes, dragged the Lord Chief-Justice, Viscount Kilwarden, out
of his carriage, and murdered him; also wounded his nephew, the
Rev. Richard Wolfe, and committed numerous other acts of outrage
and violence. At this period the regiment was quartered in Cork
Street, Thomas Street, and Coombe Barracks, and it quickly
assembled to suppress the riots. Lieut.-Colonel Brown was murdered
by the insurgents as he was proceeding from his quarters to head
the regiment. The command devolved on Major Robertson, under
whose orders the regiment was actively employed in restoring
tranquillity, in which service it had twelve men killed and
wounded. The regiment received the thanks and approbation of the
Commander-in-chief in Ireland, Lieut.-General the Honorable H. E.
Fox, for its conduct on this occasion. Also the thanks of the city
of Dublin. Lieutenant Douglas, who commanded the light company,
and Adjutant Brady, particularly distinguished themselves, and
were each presented with a piece of plate by the city of Dublin,
accompanied with the expression of the gratitude and admiration of
the citizens, for their gallant exertions.

On the decease of General Hamilton, in this year, he was succeeded
in the colonelcy by General the Honorable William Gordon, from the
Seventy-first regiment.

[Sidenote: 1804]

Leaving Dublin in July, 1804, the regiment proceeded to Loughrea.

Napoleon Bonaparte, whom the French had elevated to the dignity of
Emperor, having made preparations for the invasion of England, his
menace was met by a meritorious display of loyalty and patriotism
by the British people, who armed to repel the threatened invasion.
Among the precautionary measures adopted at this period, an
"Additional Force Act" received the Royal Assent in July, 1804. The
men raised for limited service, under the provisions of this Act,
in the counties of Ayr and Renfrew, were added to the ROYAL NORTH
BRITISH FUSILIERS, and were formed into a _second battalion_, which
was embodied at Ayr, and placed on the establishment of the army on
the 25th of December, 1804.

[Sidenote: 1805]

On the 30th of April, 1805, the first battalion embarked
from Monkstown for England; it landed at Portsmouth, and was
subsequently encamped at Weymouth, where several corps were
assembled, and were repeatedly reviewed by the King, and other
members of the Royal Family, who expressed their high approbation
of the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS on every occasion on which the
corps appeared before them. In the autumn the battalion marched to
Lewes.

[Sidenote: 1806]

From Lewes the first battalion marched to London, in January, 1806,
to attend the funeral of Vice Admiral LORD VISCOUNT NELSON, who was
killed at the battle of Trafalgar, where the British navy gained a
decisive victory over the combined fleets of France and Spain. The
remains of this highly distinguished naval commander were honored
with a public funeral, which was conducted with great state.
The interment took place on the 9th of January, in St. Paul's
Cathedral: the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS afterwards marched to
Colchester.

At this period the French arms were triumphant in Germany; and
the Court of Naples having displeased the Emperor Napoleon, the
Neapolitan territory was seized by the armies of France, and Joseph
Bonaparte was proclaimed King of Naples. The British preserved the
island of Sicily in the interest of the dethroned family: and in
April the first battalion of the TWENTY-FIRST embarked from Tilbury
for Sicily, and landed at Messina on the 26th of July.

On the 15th of August the second battalion embarked from
Portpatrick for Ireland, where it was stationed during the
following five years.

[Sidenote: 1807]

The Court of the Grand Seignior having become involved in
hostilities with Great Britain, the first battalion embarked from
Sicily on the 17th of May, 1807, and joined the expedition to Egypt
under Major-General Alexander Mackenzie Fraser. The battalion
landed at Alexandria, and marched to the camp at Aboukir. Peace
having been concluded with the Turks, the battalion returned to
Sicily, where it arrived in October.

[Sidenote: 1808]

The first battalion occupied quarters in Sicily during the year
1808.

[Sidenote: 1809]

In June, 1809, Lieut.-General Sir John Stuart, commanding in chief
in the Mediterranean, resolved to menace the capital and kingdom
of Naples, as a diversion in favour of the Austrians, who were
contending against numerous difficulties in their war with France.
The flank companies of the TWENTY-FIRST were employed on this
service; and after menacing a considerable extent of coast, which
produced much alarm, the romantic and fruitful island of _Ischia_,
celebrated for the beauty of its scenery, and situate in the Bay of
Naples, about six miles from the coast, was attacked. A landing was
effected in the face of a formidable line of batteries, from which
the enemy was speedily driven; Lieut. Cameron of the TWENTY-FIRST,
who was attached to the British flotilla, attacked the enemy's
gun-boats with great gallantry, and captured twenty-four of their
number; but was mortally wounded at the moment of victory. The
siege of the castle was undertaken, and in a few days the garrison
was forced to surrender. The island of _Procida_ surrendered on
being summoned. Two valuable islands were thus rescued from the
power of General Murat, whom the Emperor Napoleon had nominated
King of Naples, in succession to Joseph Bonaparte, upon whom the
Emperor had conferred the crown of Spain; and one thousand five
hundred regular troops, with one hundred pieces of ordnance, were
captured.

An attempt was, at this period, made to reduce the castle of
_Scylla_; but the large force, which the enemy possessed in
Calabria, rendered this impracticable. The battalion companies of
the regiment were employed in this service, and had Captain Hunter
killed, eight rank and file killed and wounded.

A detachment of the regiment was sent, at the request of the
inhabitants, to the town of Valmi, for the protection of the place;
but was intercepted by the enemy, and Captains Mackay and Conran,
Lieutenants M'Nab and Mackay, four serjeants, two drummers, and
seventy-six rank and file, were made prisoners.

[Sidenote: 1810]

In the summer of 1810, General Murat assembled upwards of one
hundred heavy gun-boats, a number of others more lightly armed, and
about four hundred transport-boats, and brought thirty thousand
troops to the coast of Calabria for the purpose of invading Sicily.
The ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS were employed on the coast
watching the approach of the enemy, and were at the alarm-post,
under arms, every morning, two hours before daylight, for several
months. During a dark night between the 17th and 18th of September,
four thousand men, under General Cavaignac, made good their
passage, and commenced landing about seven miles to the southward
of Messina. The alarm being given, the TWENTY-FIRST regiment,
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Adam (now General the Right Honorable
Sir Frederick Adam, G.C.B., Colonel of the TWENTY-FIRST ROYAL
NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS), hurried to the spot, accompanied by two
field-pieces which were attached to the regiment, and prevented
several of the boats from reaching the shore: as the boats were
retiring, a few of them were sunk by the fire of the field-pieces.
The regiment next turned towards that portion of the enemy which
had landed, and had taken post on two hills. The flankers were
thrown out, and a fire of musketry was kept up until daylight, when
the enemy, being cut off from the boats and surrounded, surrendered
prisoners of war, delivering up one stand of colours. The
prisoners, amounting to about one thousand officers and soldiers,
were marched to Messina. This repulse, with the destruction of many
of the enemy's gun-boats, by the British and Sicilian flotillas,
disconcerted the plans of Murat, and no further attempts were made
against Sicily.

[Sidenote: 1811]

In September, 1811, the second battalion embarked from Belfast for
Scotland; and in this year it sent a strong detachment, with a
number of volunteers from the militia, to Sicily, which increased
the strength of the first battalion to twelve hundred rank and file.

[Sidenote: 1812]

Meanwhile the British army, commanded by Lord Wellington, now
Field-Marshal the DUKE OF WELLINGTON, was fighting the battle
of Spanish and Portuguese independence in the Peninsula; and in
November, 1812, the grenadier company of the TWENTY-FIRST FUSILIERS
proceeded, with the grenadier battalion, to the eastern coast of
Spain, to take part in the war. It arrived at Alicant, on the 2nd
of December; but circumstances occurred soon afterwards, which
occasioned its return to Sicily, where it arrived in the spring of
1813.

[Sidenote: 1813]

Two companies proceeded, in 1813, to the island of Ponza; and in
the same year, a strong detachment, commanded by Captain Renny,
joined from the second battalion.

[Sidenote: 1814]

The brilliant success of the British troops in the Peninsula, and
of the armies of the Allied Sovereigns on the Continent of Europe,
was followed by the embarkation of a body of troops for Italy,
under Lieut.-General Lord William Bentinck and Major-General H. T.
Montresor. The TWENTY-FIRST regiment embarked for this service, in
February, 1814, under Major Whitaker (Colonel Paterson commanding
a brigade), and landed at Leghorn on the 13th of March; on the
23rd it marched to Pisa, and on the 25th to Lucca. In April, the
battalion advanced upon _Genoa_; on the 12th of that month, the
enemy was driven from Mount Facia and Nervi, and the British took
post at Sturla. On the 17th of April, at daybreak, the French
position in front of Genoa was attacked, the enemy was driven from
the strong position he occupied, and afterwards evacuated the
town, which was taken possession of on the 19th of April, by the
TWENTY-FIRST, and other corps. The regiment had Lieutenant Sabine
wounded; one serjeant and fourteen rank and file killed and wounded.

In the meantime the second battalion had been withdrawn from
Scotland, to take part in the war on the Continent; it embarked
from Fort George, on the 30th of December, 1813, landed in Holland
on the 10th of January, 1814, and was employed in the attack of
_Bergen-op-Zoom_, on the night of the 8th of March. One portion of
the battalion formed part of the third column, under the command of
Lieut.-Colonel ROBERT HENRY, of the TWENTY-FIRST, who was directed
to draw the enemy's attention by an attack near Steenbergen
gate; the flank companies were attached to the fourth column,
under Brigadier-General Gore. Some severe fighting took place,
and advantages were gained in the first instance; but the attack
failed, and a number of officers and men, who had penetrated the
works, were forced to surrender prisoners of war. The battalion had
a number of men killed and wounded on this occasion; Lieutenant
John Bulteel died of his wounds; Lieut.-Colonel Henry, Captains
Durrah and Donald Mackenzie, Lieutenants the Honorable F. Morris,
H. Pigou, D. Moody, D. Rankin, and Sir William Crosby, were
wounded. Hostilities were soon afterwards terminated; Napoleon
Bonaparte abdicated the throne of France; and in September the
second battalion embarked from Ostend for England; it landed at
Deal, and in October embarked from Gravesend for Scotland, where
it arrived in the beginning of November, and landed at Leith.

The war in Europe having terminated, the first battalion of the
ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS was selected to proceed to America,
in consequence of Great Britain having become involved in war with
the United States; it embarked from Genoa on the 12th of May,
and arrived at Gibraltar on the 7th of June; and on the 11th,
sailed with the Twenty-ninth and Sixty-second regiments, for the
West Indies, where it joined the corps under Major-General Robert
Ross. The fleet, with the troops on board, sailed from Bermuda on
the 3rd of August, and proceeded to the Bay of Chesapeake, when
the American flotilla fled for refuge up the Patuxent river. To
ensure the capture or destruction of this flotilla, the troops
landed at the village of St. Benedict, from whence they advanced
to the delightful village of Upper Marlborough, when the Americans
destroyed their flotilla to prevent its falling into the hands
of the British. The object of the expedition had thus been
accomplished; but the army had advanced within sixteen miles of
_Washington_, and the enemy's force was ascertained to be such
as would authorise an attempt to carry the capital. The troops
accordingly advanced on the 23rd of August; routed some detachments
on the road, and encountering the American army under General
Winder, at the village of _Bladensburg_, gained a decisive victory
over a force more than twice their own numbers, and occupying a
position deliberately chosen. The light company of the regiment
distinguished itself on this occasion; it had two men killed;
Captain Robert Rennie, Lieutenant James Grace, and eleven rank and
file wounded.

Advancing from the field of battle, the regiment moved towards
_Washington_, and was the first corps which entered that city; it
was fired upon by the Americans, and had sixty-eight men killed and
wounded; but all resistance was soon overcome: the arsenal, docks,
and other public property were set on fire, and the conflagration
of burning buildings illuminated the sky during the night, while
the exploding magazines shook the city, and threw down houses in
their vicinity. Having completed this service, the British troops
marched back to St. Benedict, and re-embarked on board of the fleet.

Early on the morning of the 12th of September, the troops landed
at North Point, and advancing towards Baltimore, a division
of Americans fled from an entrenched position which they were
preparing across a neck of land. Continuing to advance, the troops
entered a closely wooded country, where they encountered a party
of Americans, and Major-General Robert Ross, mixing among the
skirmishers, was mortally wounded,[8] when the command of the army
devolved on Colonel Brooke.

Six thousand Americans, with six pieces of artillery and a corps
of cavalry, were discovered in position in _Godly wood_. The
light brigade extended and drove in the American skirmishers; the
Forty-fourth, a party of Marines, and a body of seamen from the
fleet, formed line behind the light infantry; the TWENTY-FIRST,
commanded by Major Whitaker, (Colonel Paterson commanding a
brigade,) and the second battalion of Marines, formed column in
reserve, and the Fourth regiment made a flank movement to turn the
enemy's left. The signal was given, the British troops rushed to
the attack, and in fifteen minutes the American army was driven
from the field with severe loss.

The regiment had Lieutenant James Gracie and fifteen rank and file
killed; Major Robert Kenny, Lieutenant John Leavock, two serjeants,
and seventy-seven rank and file wounded.

Colonel Paterson was commended in the public despatch, for the
steady manner in which he brought the brigade into action.

At two o'clock on the following morning the march was resumed, and
in the evening the troops arrived at the foot of the range of hills
in front of _Baltimore_, where fifteen thousand Americans occupied
a chain of palisaded redoubts, connected by breastworks, and
defended by a numerous artillery. Trusting to the innate valour of
his little army, which did not amount to one-third of the numbers
of the enemy, Colonel Brooke made preparations for storming the
hills after dark; but having received intimation from the fleet,
that the entrance of the harbour was closed up by vessels sunk for
that purpose, and that a naval co-operation against the town and
camp was impracticable, the enterprise was abandoned. The troops
retreated three miles on the following day, and then halted to see
if the Americans would venture to descend from the hills; but,
though so superior in numbers, they had no disposition to quit
their works; and the British returned on board the fleet.

The season for active operations having passed, the fleet quitted
the American coast, and the TWENTY-FIRST proceeded to Jamaica,
where they were joined by a strong detachment from the second
battalion, commanded by Major Alexander James Ross.

An attempt on _New Orleans_ was afterwards resolved upon. The
fleet again put to sea, and on the 10th of December anchored off
the coast of Louisiana, opposite the Chandeleur Islands, from
whence the troops were removed in boats to Pine Island, in Lake
Borgne, where they were stationed, exposed to heavy rain by day
and frosts by night, until the 22nd of December, when the first
division proceeded in open boats to a desert spot about eight miles
from New Orleans, where the regiments landed, and marched to a
field on the banks of the Mississippi. The TWENTY-FIRST followed,
and arrived in time to take part in repulsing a night attack of a
very superior force of Americans, when the regiment had Captain
William Conran and two rank and file killed; one serjeant, two
drummers, and eight rank and file wounded; two men missing.

The army afterwards moved forward, but encountered many local
difficulties. The Americans assembled a numerous force, in
extensive fortified lines and batteries, with armed vessels on the
river: the advance was checked, and some loss sustained. The ROYAL
NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS had Lieutenant John Leavock wounded; also
several men killed and wounded.

[Sidenote: 1815]

Arrangements were made for attacking the enemy's fortified lines
on the 8th of January, 1815, and the TWENTY-FIRST were appointed
to take part in this service: several circumstances occurred to
delay the attack, which was made under numerous disadvantages.
The troops, however, rushed forward with great gallantry, and a
detachment of the Fourth, TWENTY-FIRST, and Ninety-fifth (now
Rifle-Brigade), captured a battery; but the troops were exposed to
a dreadful fire, which brought them down by hundreds. Major-General
the Honorable Sir Edward Pakenham was killed; Major-Generals Gibbs
and Keane were dangerously wounded; and success being found
impracticable, the surviving officers and men withdrew from the
unequal contest. Many officers and soldiers, who had been foremost
in the attack, were made prisoners.

Major J. A. Whitaker, Captain Robert Renny (Lieut.-Colonel),
Lieutenant Donald M^cDonald, two serjeants, and sixty-five rank and
file of the TWENTY-FIRST, were killed; Colonel William Paterson,
Major Alexander James Ross, Lieutenants John Waters and Alexander
Geddes, six serjeants, and one hundred and forty-four rank and
file wounded; Lieutenants James Brady, Ralph Carr, and Peter
Quin wounded and taken prisoners; Major James M^cHaffie, Captain
Archibald Kidd, Lieutenants James Stewart, Alexander Armstrong,
John Leavock, and J. S. M. Fonblanque, eight serjeants, two
drummers, and two hundred and seventeen rank and file, prisoners:
total loss, 451 officers and soldiers.

The capture of New Orleans appearing to be impracticable, the
troops returned on board of the fleet. Fort Bowyer was afterwards
captured, but hostilities were terminated by a treaty of peace, and
the regiment returned to the West Indies, from whence Major Pringle
sailed for England, on leave of absence, and the command devolved
on Major Quin.

After a short stay at Bermuda, the regiment sailed for Europe; it
arrived at Portsmouth in May, and afterwards sailed to Cork, where
it landed in June.

In the spring of this year Bonaparte had returned to France and
gained temporary possession of that kingdom: but his numerous
veteran legions were overpowered by British valour at Waterloo
on the 18th of June. The British army had, however, sustained
severe loss, and the first battalion was selected to proceed to
the Continent. It embarked from Monkstown on the 5th of July,
landed at Ostend on the 17th, and proceeding up the country under
Lieut.-Colonel Maxwell, joined the army, commanded by Field-Marshal
the Duke of Wellington, at Paris.

[Sidenote: 1816]

Having been appointed to remain on the Continent, and to form
part of the Army of Occupation in France, the regiment marched to
Compiègne, and occupied several villages in the neighbourhood of
that place, where it was joined, on the 9th of January, 1816, by a
detachment from the second battalion.

On the 13th of January, 1816, the second battalion was disbanded at
Stirling; transferring the men fit for duty to the first battalion.

Towards the end of January, the regiment was removed to
Valenciennes, and in October was reviewed, with the Army of
Occupation, by Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington.

On the death of General the Honorable William Gordon,
Lieut.-General James Lord Forbes was appointed Colonel of the
regiment, from the Fifty-fourth foot, by commission dated the 1st
of June, 1816.

[Sidenote: 1817]

A considerable reduction being made in the British contingent of
the Army of Occupation, the regiment proceeded to Calais, where it
embarked for England, and landed at Harwich on the 2nd of April,
1817.

[Sidenote: 1818]

In May, 1818, the regiment marched to Portsmouth.

In June, the officers were authorised to wear a long coat, of a
pattern approved of by His Royal Highness the Duke of York.

[Sidenote: 1819]

The regiment embarked from Portsmouth, in March, 1819, for the West
Indies, when Lieut.-Colonel Nooth, C.B., received the following
communication from Major-General Lord Howard of Effingham, then
commanding at Portsmouth, and Lieutenant-Governor of that
fortress: "I am not in the habit of giving out orders of thanks to
regiments on quitting my district, because these things are apt
to degenerate so much into words of course, that they lose any
value they might otherwise possess; my orders likewise to corps
on their half-yearly inspections enable me to convey to them my
opinion on their state of discipline, &c.; but I cannot, however,
allow the TWENTY-FIRST regiment, under your command, to embark
without expressing the sense I have of the good conduct of the
regiment since it has been under my orders, and that its interior
discipline, mode of doing duty, and external appearance, have been
such as to merit my perfect approbation, and amply testify the
strict attention paid by you to those under your command,--that
you are properly supported by the officers and non-commissioned
officers, in their respective stations, in carrying into effect
the regulations of the service." His Lordship was also pleased to
express his admiration of the conduct of the corps on the day of
embarkation, adding,--"The regiment is more like one parading for
inspection or review, than for embarkation for the West Indies."

The regiment landed at Barbadoes in April, without a single
casualty, and was inspected by Lieut.-General Lord Combermere,
who requested Major Meyrick to return the officers his lordship's
thanks, for the very great attention they must have paid to those
under their orders, to have brought them to the very high state of
discipline in which his lordship found them.

[Sidenote: 1820]

[Sidenote: 1821]

In September, 1820, a detachment of one hundred rank and file
proceeded to Tobago, where it remained until January, 1821, during
which period it lost four officers and thirty-seven men by an
epidemic disease.

The regiment left Barbadoes in March, 1821, when seven companies
proceeded to Demerara, under Major Leahy, and three to Berbice,
under Major Champion. Previous to its quitting Barbadoes,
Major-General Mainwaring expressed in orders, "the high sense he
entertained of the zeal and ability of Major Leahy, of the steady
conduct of the officers and non-commissioned officers, and of the
good and orderly behaviour of the men."

In August, the regiment sustained a severe loss in the death of
Lieut.-Colonel John M. Nooth, C.B.: he was succeeded in the command
by Lieut.-Colonel John Thomas Leahy.

[Sidenote: 1823]

Insurrectionary movements having been made by the negroes in the
district of Mahaica, in the island of Demerara, in August, 1823,
the TWENTY-FIRST FUSILIERS, under Lieut.-Colonel Leahy, were
employed in reducing the revolted slaves to obedience, in which
they succeeded. For their excellent conduct on this occasion, the
TWENTY-FIRST received the thanks of Lieut.-General Sir Henry Ward,
K.C.B., commanding in the Windward and Leeward Islands; of the
Court of Policy of the Colony; of His Royal Highness the Duke of
York, the Commander-in-chief; and of His Majesty King George IV.

[Sidenote: 1824]

From Demerara the head-quarters were removed to St. Vincent, in
January, 1824, and received the thanks of Major-General Murray,
previous to embarking. At the same time the Court of Policy voted,
as a special and permanent mark of the high estimation in which
the inhabitants of the Colony held the services of Lieut.-Colonel
Leahy, the officers and soldiers, "FIVE HUNDRED GUINEAS TO BE LAID
OUT IN THE PURCHASE OF PLATE FOR THE REGIMENTAL MESS," and TWO
HUNDRED GUINEAS FOR THE PURCHASE OF A SWORD FOR LIEUT.-COLONEL
LEAHY; also FIFTY GUINEAS FOR THE PURCHASE OF A SWORD FOR
LIEUTENANT BRADY, who commanded a detachment at Mahaica, and whose
cool, steady, and intrepid conduct, aided by the courage and
discipline of his men, gave an early and effectual check to the
progress of revolt in that quarter.

In May, two companies were removed to Grenada.

[Sidenote: 1827]

In December, 1826, and January, 1827, the regiment embarked from
St. Vincent and Grenada, for England, after eight years' service
in the West Indies, during which period it had lost, by disease,
fourteen officers and four hundred men. Previous to quitting those
colonies, it received the expression of the approbation and thanks
of Admiral Sir Charles Brisbane, G.C.B., Governor of St. Vincent;
of the Council of that island; and of the Commander of the forces
in the Windward and Leeward Islands. It landed at Cowes, in the
Isle of Wight, in January, February, and March, and was removed to
Windsor, where it had the honor of doing duty during His Majesty's
residence at that place.

[Sidenote: 1828]

From Windsor the regiment was removed to Winchester, in the
spring of 1828, and afterwards to Portsmouth; it was subsequently
stationed at Bath, and in October embarked from Bristol for
Ireland: it landed at Waterford, from whence it proceeded to Fermoy.

[Sidenote: 1829]

[Sidenote: 1830]

The regiment was removed to Mullingar, in June, 1829; and in May,
1830, the head-quarters proceeded to Kilkenny, with parties at
Carlow, Athy, Maryborough, and Wexford.

[Sidenote: 1831]

[Sidenote: 1832]

In September, 1831, the regiment marched for Dublin, where it
embarked for England in October, and landing at Liverpool,
afterwards proceeded to Weedon. In 1832 it was removed to Chatham.

[Sidenote: 1833]

During the years 1832 and 1833, the regiment embarked, by
detachments, in charge of convicts, for New South Wales, and it was
stationed in Australia and Van Diemen's Land until the year 1839.

[Sidenote: 1839]

Five companies and head-quarters embarked from Hobart Town, in
February, 1839, for the East Indies, and arriving at Calcutta in
May, afterwards proceeded to Chinsurah. They were followed by two
companies from Hobart Town in March, 1840; and two from the Swan
River settlement in July.

[Sidenote: 1840]

In April, 1840, the head-quarters were removed to Calcutta; and in
August, the regiment embarked for Dinapore, where it arrived in
September.

[Sidenote: 1841]

The regiment was stationed at Dinapore during the year 1841.

[Sidenote: 1842]

[Sidenote: 1843]

Leaving Dinapore in November, 1842, the regiment commenced its
march for Agra: but on arriving at Mirzapoor, its destination
was changed to Kamptee, at which place it arrived on the 6th of
February, 1843.

[Sidenote: 1844]

During the year 1844, the regiment remained at Kamptee.

[Sidenote: 1845]

The regiment commenced its march from Kamptee _en route_ to the
north-western provinces of Bengal on the 6th of December, 1845, and
arrived at Jubbulpore on the 30th of that month.

[Sidenote: 1846]

The regiment resumed its march on the 1st of January, 1846, and
arrived at Agra on the 7th of February, where it was stationed
during the remainder of the year.

[Sidenote: 1847]

Leaving Agra on the 15th of January, 1847, the regiment arrived
at Cawnpore on the 1st of February. From Cawnpore the regiment
proceeded, in November, to Calcutta, at which place it arrived on
the 30th of December.

Orders were at this period given for the return to England of the
TWENTY-FIRST, ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS, and three hundred and
ninety-three soldiers transferred their services to other regiments
remaining in India.

In January, 1848, the regiment, under the command of
Lieutenant-Colonel John Thomas Hill, embarked at Calcutta, and
arrived at Gravesend on the 11th of May.

The regiment was, in the first instance, stationed at Canterbury,
from which city it proceeded to Edinburgh in July, 1848.

On the 1st of June, 1849, the period to which this Record has been
continued, the regiment continued to be stationed at Edinburgh
Castle, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Gore Browne.


1849.



CONCLUSION.

The foregoing pages contain numerous instances of the valuable
qualities of the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS. The campaigns
of King William III., and the victories obtained by the Duke of
Marlborough, afforded many opportunities for the TWENTY-FIRST
REGIMENT to evince its bravery. In subsequent years the battles
of _Dettingen_, _Fontenoy_, _Culloden_, and _Val_, enhanced its
former renown;--at the capture of _Belle-Isle_ in 1761 the regiment
sustained its previous character;--and the several actions during
the American war increased its fame. Its services in Naples and
Sicily in 1809 and 1810;--and the arduous duties on which it
was employed in America in 1814, gave additional proofs of its
capabilities.

The Regimental Record contains also many instances of the
expression of commendation by the General Officers, under whose
command the Regiment has served, for its activity, discipline, and
good conduct, when employed on home or colonial duties, and when
occasions have occurred where military force has been required in
aid of the Civil Power, and where judgment, temper, and firmness
have been the means of subduing the most violent commotions.

These qualities, which have been evinced for the long period of one
hundred and seventy years, have rendered the TWENTY-FIRST REGIMENT,
or THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS, an ornament in the British
Army, and have acquired the Approbation of the Sovereign and the
Confidence of the Country.


[Illustration: TWENTY FIRST,

THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS.

_Madeley lith 3 Wellington S^t. Strand._

_For Cannon's Military Records._]



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF

THE TWENTY-FIRST REGIMENT OF FOOT,

OR

THE ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS.


CHARLES, (FIFTH) EARL OF MAR.

_Appointed 23rd September, 1678._

CHARLES, LORD ERSKINE, succeeded to the title of EARL OF MAR, in
1668, on the decease of his father, John, fourth Earl of Mar;
and in September, 1678, he raised a regiment of foot, now the
TWENTY-FIRST, or the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS. He was a member
of the Privy Council of Scotland, in the reign of King Charles II.,
and also of King James II. In 1686, he was succeeded in the command
of his regiment by Colonel Buchan.

The Earl of Mar disapproved of the measures of King James II., and
was about to embark for the Continent, in November, 1688, when the
Prince of Orange landed in England. He appeared at the Convention
of the Estates assembled by the Prince of Orange; but joining the
disaffected party, he was arrested. He died on the 23rd of April,
1689, and was succeeded in the title by his son John, sixth Earl
of Mar, whose estates were forfeited in consequence of his having
erected the Standard of Rebellion in Scotland, in 1715, in favor of
the Pretender, as narrated at page 18 of the Historical Record of
the TWENTY-FIRST, ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS.


THOMAS BUCHAN.

_Appointed 29th July, 1686._

THOMAS BUCHAN was an officer in the Scots army, in the time of King
Charles II., and rose to the rank of lieut.-colonel in the Royal
Regiment of Scots Horse, which was disbanded in 1689. King James
II. promoted him to the colonelcy of the TWENTY-FIRST regiment; and
he adhered to the interests of the Stuart family at the Revolution
in 1688. He served in Ireland under King James, and was detached
with a few men to Scotland, to support the Highland clans in their
resistance to the government of King William III. The clans were,
however, not successful in their enterprises, and they submitted to
the authority of King William; when he retired to France.


FRANCIS FERGUS O'FARRELL.

_Appointed 1st March, 1689._

This officer was a decided advocate for the principles of the
Revolution of 1688, and King William nominated him to the
colonelcy of the SCOTS FUSILIERS, which corps he commanded in the
Netherlands, under Prince Waldeck, and afterwards under the British
monarch, who promoted him to the rank of brigadier-general. He
served at the head of a brigade of infantry during the campaign
of 1694; and was appointed governor of Deinse. He commanded the
garrison of Deinse when that place was besieged, in July, 1695; and
was dismissed the service, by sentence of a general court-martial,
for surrendering without firing a shot.


ROBERT MACKAY.

_Appointed 13th November, 1695._

ROBERT MACKAY, third son of John, Lord Reay, was an officer in the
Scots Brigade in the Dutch service, and accompanied the Prince
of Orange to England in 1688. He was promoted captain of the
grenadier company in Major-General Hugh Mackay's regiment, and
served in Scotland in 1689. He distinguished himself at the battle
of Killicrankie, where he received several wounds, and was left
for dead on the field of battle. He, however, showed some signs
of life and was removed to a cottage by the enemy, and eventually
recovered. He was soon afterwards promoted to the rank of
lieut.-colonel, and King William gave him the colonelcy of a newly
raised Scots regiment (afterwards disbanded), from which he was
removed, in 1695, to the TWENTY-FIRST FUSILIERS. His constitution
had become debilitated by severe service and numerous wounds, and
he died at Tongue, the seat of his family, in December, 1696.


ARCHIBALD ROW.

_Appointed 1st January, 1697._

This officer entered the army in the reign of King James II., and
at the Revolution in 1688 he joined the Prince of Orange, who
promoted him to the lieut.-colonelcy of the Sixteenth regiment,
with which corps he served in the Netherlands, and acquired the
reputation of a brave and skilful officer. He served at the
battles of Steenkirk and Landen, and at the siege of Namur; and
was rewarded, in 1697, with the colonelcy of the TWENTY-FIRST
FUSILIERS. He served under the great Duke of Marlborough in 1703,
and in 1704 he commanded a brigade at the battles of Schellenberg
and Blenheim; on the last-mentioned occasion his brigade led the
attack on the village of Blenheim, and he headed his own regiment
with distinguished gallantry, advancing up to the enemy's palisades
before he gave the word "fire." In a moment afterwards he was shot,
and thus closed a life of honor with a death of glory. His valour
has rendered his name immortal in the history of his country.


JOHN, VISCOUNT MORDAUNT.

_Appointed 25th August, 1704._

JOHN, VISCOUNT MORDAUNT, son of Charles, Earl of Peterborough, was
an officer in the first regiment of Foot Guards, in which corps he
rose to the rank of captain and lieut.-colonel. He evinced great
gallantry at the battle of Schellenberg, where he headed fifty
grenadiers, at the storm of the enemy's works, and of that number,
only himself and ten grenadiers escaped. At the memorable battle of
Blenheim, he lost his left arm. His services were rewarded with the
colonelcy of the TWENTY-FIRST FUSILIERS, from which he exchanged to
the Twenty-eighth regiment; but on the death of Major-General de
Lalo, who was killed at the battle of Malplaquet, in 1709, Viscount
Mordaunt was re-appointed to the TWENTY-FIRST regiment. He was
promoted to the rank of brigadier-general on the 1st of January,
1710; and died of the small-pox in April following.


SAMPSON DE LALO.

_Appointed 26th June, 1706._

SAMPSON DE LALO was a French gentleman of the Protestant religion,
whom the Edict of Nantes forced to quit his native country. He
found an asylum from persecution in England, and entering the
British army, proved an efficient and meritorious officer. After
a distinguished career of service in the subordinate commissions,
he was appointed lieut.-colonel of the Twenty-eighth regiment,
and was promoted to the colonelcy of the same corps, in February,
1704; in June, 1706, he exchanged to the TWENTY-FIRST FUSILIERS.
He commanded a brigade under the great Duke of Marlborough, served
at several battles and sieges, and was promoted to the rank of
major-general in January, 1709. During the siege of the castle of
Tournay, he was nominated by the Duke of Marlborough to negotiate
the terms of capitulation with the governor. He evinced great
gallantry at the battle of Malplaquet, where he was mortally
wounded. In the Annals of Queen Anne it is stated, that "he was in
great favor and esteem in the British army."


JOHN, VISCOUNT MORDAUNT.

_Re-appointed 4th September, 1709._

Died in 1710.


THOMAS MEREDITH.

_Appointed 1st May, 1710._

This officer served in the wars of King William III., who promoted
him to the commission of captain in the Third Horse, now Second
Dragoon Guards. On the augmentation of the army in 1702, he was
nominated colonel of the Thirty-seventh regiment, then newly
raised, and he accompanied that corps to Holland in 1703. In 1704,
he served at the battles of Schellenberg and Blenheim, and was
promoted to the rank of brigadier-general on the 25th of August,
1704. In 1705 he commanded a brigade at the forcing of the French
lines at Helixem and Neer-Hespen. He was advanced to the rank of
major-general in 1706, and to that of lieut.-general in 1707; in
1710 he was removed to the TWENTY-FIRST regiment, and in 1714 to
the Twentieth. He died in 1719.


CHARLES, EARL OF ORRERY, K.T.

_Appointed 8th December, 1710._

THE EARL OF ORRERY took an active part in raising a regiment of
foot (afterwards disbanded), of which he was appointed colonel,
on the 1st of May, 1703; in 1705 he was nominated Knight of the
Thistle, and in 1706 he was removed to another regiment, afterwards
disbanded. He was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general in
1709, and served at the battle of Malplaquet, at the head of a
brigade of infantry, and evinced great gallantry. In 1710 he
was advanced to the rank of major-general,--nominated Envoy
extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the States of Brabant and
Flanders,--and removed to the TWENTY-FIRST FUSILIERS; in 1711 he
was created a peer of Great Britain, by the title of Baron Boyle,
of Marston, in Somersetshire; and in 1712 he served under the
Duke of Ormond. He was sworn a member of the Privy Council in
1713. On the arrival of King George I. in England, in the autumn
of 1714, the EARL OF ORRERY was appointed one of the Lords of the
Bedchamber; he was afterwards sworn a member of the Privy Council.
In 1722, he was committed a prisoner to the Tower of London, on a
charge of high treason; but no crime was proved against him. He
died on the 28th of August, 1731.


GEORGE MACARTNEY.

_Appointed 12th July, 1716._

This officer entered the army in the reign of King William III.,
and was promoted, in April, 1703, to the colonelcy of a newly
raised regiment of foot (afterwards disbanded), with which he
served three campaigns on the Continent, under the great Duke
of Marlborough. He afterwards proceeded to Spain, and commanded
a brigade of infantry at the battle of Almanza, where he
distinguished himself, and was taken prisoner. In 1709 he was
promoted to the rank of major-general, and in 1710 to that of
lieut.-general. His regiment having been disbanded at the peace
of Utrecht, he was appointed to the colonelcy of the ROYAL NORTH
BRITISH FUSILIERS in 1716, and removed in 1727 to the Seventh
Horse, now Sixth Dragoon Guards. He died in July, 1730.


SIR JAMES WOOD.

_Appointed 9th March, 1727._

SIR JAMES WOOD served many years in the army of the States-General
of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. His first commission
was dated the 31st of December, 1688, and he rose to the rank of
brigadier-general in 1704, in which rank he was admitted into the
British service, in consequence of his reputation; and in 1727, he
was appointed colonel of the TWENTY-FIRST regiment. In 1735 he was
promoted to the rank of major-general. His decease occurred on the
18th of May, 1738.


JOHN CAMPBELL.

_Appointed 1st November, 1738._

JOHN CAMPBELL, of Mamore, was an officer in the army in the reign
of Queen Anne, and attained the rank of lieut.-colonel. During
the rebellion in 1715 and 1716, he was aide-de-camp to the Duke
of Argyle: and in June, 1737, he obtained the colonelcy of the
Thirty-ninth regiment, from which he was removed in the following
year to the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS. He commanded a brigade
at the battle of Dettingen, in 1743;--was appointed major-general
in the following year; and during the rebellion in 1745 and 1746,
he held a command in Scotland. He was advanced to the rank of
lieut.-general in 1747; removed from the Fusiliers to the Scots
Greys in 1752; and in 1761 he was appointed governor of Limerick;
and also succeeded to the title of Duke of Argyle. The Order of the
Thistle was conferred upon his Grace in 1765. He died in 1770.


WILLIAM, EARL OF PANMURE.

_Appointed 29th April, 1752._

WILLIAM MAULE, who had been several years an officer in the Scots
Foot Guards, and a Member of Parliament, was created a peer of
Ireland on the 6th of April, 1743, by the title of Earl of Panmure.
He served at the battle of Dettingen in the same year; also at the
battle of Fontenoy in 1745; and on the 1st of December, 1747, was
promoted to the colonelcy of the Twenty-fifth foot; from which he
was removed, in 1752, to the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS. The
rank of major-general was conferred upon his Lordship in 1755. In
the following year he was second in command at Gibraltar; and in
1758 he was promoted to the rank of lieut.-general. He was further
advanced to the rank of general in 1770; and obtained the colonelcy
of the Scots Greys in November of the same year. He died on the 4th
of January, 1782.


THE HONORABLE ALEXANDER MACKAY.

_Appointed 10th May, 1770._

THE HONORABLE ALEXANDER MACKAY, son of George, third Lord Reay,
was appointed ensign in the Twenty-fifth regiment, in 1737,
and in 1745 he obtained the commission of captain, in the Earl
of Loudoun's newly raised regiment of Highlanders, afterwards
disbanded. He served against the rebels in the same year, and
was taken prisoner at the battle of Preston-pans. In 1750 he was
nominated major in the Third foot, and on the 21st of December,
1755, he was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the Fifty-second
regiment, then newly raised, from which he exchanged, in March,
1760, to the Thirty-ninth: in 1761, he was elected a Member of
Parliament for Sunderland. In August, 1762, he was promoted to the
colonelcy of the 122nd regiment, which was disbanded at the peace
of Fontainebleau; and in March, 1764, he obtained the colonelcy of
the sixty-fifth. He served in America, in which country he obtained
the local rank of major-general in 1768; in 1770 he received the
same rank in the army, and was removed to the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH
FUSILIERS in the same year. In 1772 he received the appointment of
Governor of Tynemouth, and Clifford's Fort; in 1777 he was promoted
to the rank of lieut.-general, and in the following year appointed
Governor of Landguard Fort,--from which he was afterwards removed
to the government of Stirling Castle. In 1780 he was nominated
Commander-in-chief in Scotland. He died in May, 1789.


THE HONORABLE JAMES MURRAY.

_Appointed 5th June, 1789._

THE HONORABLE JAMES MURRAY served in the Fifteenth regiment, in
which corps he attained the rank of major, and was promoted to the
lieut.-colonelcy on the 5th of January, 1751. He commanded the
Fifteenth in the expedition against Rochefort, under Lieut.-General
Sir John Mordaunt, in 1757, and at the capture of Louisbourg, in
1758; in 1759 he commanded a brigade at the battle and capture
of Quebec, under the renowned Major-General James Wolfe; in 1760
he led a division up the river St. Lawrence, and contributed
to the reduction of Montreal, which completed the conquest of
Canada from the French. He was promoted to colonel-commandant of
a battalion of the Sixtieth regiment in 1759, and to the local
rank of major-general in America in 1760. In 1762 he was advanced
to the rank of major-general; and in 1767 he was removed to the
colonelcy of the Thirteenth regiment. He was promoted to the rank
of lieut.-general in 1772, and to that of general in 1783; in 1789
he was removed to the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS. He died in
1794.


JAMES HAMILTON.

_Appointed 20th June, 1794._

After a progressive service in the subordinate commissions, this
officer was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the TWENTY-FIRST
FUSILIERS, on the 11th of March, 1774. He served in North America
during two campaigns of the war of independence,--was promoted
to the rank of major-general in 1787, and was appointed colonel
of the Fifteenth foot in 1792, from which he was removed to
the TWENTY-FIRST FUSILIERS in 1794. He obtained the rank of
lieut.-general in 1797, and that of general in 1802. His decease
occurred in 1803.


THE HONORABLE WILLIAM GORDON.

_Appointed 6th August, 1803._

THE HONORABLE WILLIAM GORDON was appointed captain in the Sixteenth
Light Dragoons, when that corps was raised in the year 1759;
in October, 1762, he was appointed lieut.-colonel of the 105th
regiment, and in 1777 he was promoted to the colonelcy of the
Eighty-first regiment, which was afterwards disbanded. In 1781
he was promoted to the rank of major-general, and in 1789 was
nominated colonel of the Seventy-first Highlanders. He was advanced
to the rank of lieut.-general in 1793, to that of general in 1798,
and was removed to the ROYAL NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS in 1803. He
died in 1816.


JAMES, LORD FORBES.

_Appointed 1st June, 1816._

JAMES, LORD FORBES, was appointed ensign in the Second Foot Guards,
in 1781. In 1793 he served in Flanders, under His Royal Highness
the Duke of York, and commanded a company at the battle of
Famars. He served at the siege of Valenciennes, and led a portion
of his regiment at the storm of the outworks. He was engaged at
the re-capture of the post of Lincelles, where the Foot Guards
distinguished themselves; also served at the siege of Dunkirk.
In 1794 he served at the actions of Vaux, Cateau, Tournay, and
Mouvaux,--at the defence of Nimeguen and Fort St. André, and
in the retreat through Holland to Germany. After the action of
Lincelles, in 1793, he was promoted to the rank of captain and
lieut.-colonel, in succession to Lieut.-Colonel Bosville, who
was killed on that occasion. In 1796, he obtained the rank of
colonel; and in 1799 he served in the expedition to the Helder,
and was present at every action of that short campaign in Holland,
excepting one. In 1802 Lord Forbes was promoted to the rank of
major-general, and nominated to the command of the troops stationed
at Ashford, in Kent, and subsequently of the garrison at Dover,
and he occasionally commanded the Kent District in the absence
of Lieut.-General Sir David Dundas and of Lord Ludlow. He was
appointed second in command of the troops stationed on the island
of Sicily, in 1808, and promoted to the rank of lieut.-general.
On his return to England in 1811, he was placed on the Staff of
Ireland.

Lord Forbes was elected one of the representative peers of
Scotland, in 1806, and held that distinguished situation many
years. The colonelcy of the Third Garrison Battalion was conferred
upon his Lordship in 1806; he was removed to the Ninety-fourth
regiment in 1808, to the Fifty-fourth in 1809, and to the ROYAL
NORTH BRITISH FUSILIERS in 1816: in 1819 he was promoted to the
rank of general. He died in 1843.


THE RIGHT HONORABLE SIR FREDERICK ADAM, G.C.B., G.C.M.G.

_Appointed 31st May, 1843._



APPENDIX.


_List of Battles, Sieges, &c., in the Netherlands, during the reign
of KING WILLIAM III., from 1689 to the Peace of Ryswick in 1697._

  Battle of Walcourt                        25 August, 1689
  ---- ---- Fleurus                          1 July,   1690
  Mons surrendered to the French            10 April,  1691
  Namur     ditto      ditto                20 June,   1692
  Battle of Steenkirk                        3 August, ----
  Furnes and Dixmude captured               -- Sept.,  ----
  The French lines at D'Otignies forced     10 July,   1693
  Battle of Landen                          29 July,   ----
  Surrender of Huy                          17 Sept.,  1694
  Attack on Fort Kenoque                     9 June,   1695
  Dixmude surrendered to the French         16 July,   ----
  Deinse surrendered to the French          21 July,   1695
  Namur retaken by King William III.        25 July,   ----
  Citadel of Namur surrendered               5 Sept.,  ----
  Treaty of Ryswick signed                  11 Sept.,  1697


_List of Sieges, Battles, &c., in the Netherlands and Germany,
during the Campaigns under the DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH, from 1702 to
1711._

                                               Invested.   Surrendered.

  Siege of Kayserswerth                        16 April,  17 June,  1702
  Skirmish near Nimeguen                                  11 June,  ----
  Siege of Venloo                              29 Aug.,   25 Sept., ----
  Capture of Fort St. Michael                             18 Sept., ----
  Siege of Stevenswaert                                    3 Oct.,  ----
  ---- Ruremonde                                           6 Oct.,  ----
  Capture of Liege Citadel                                23 Oct.,  ----
  Siege of Bonn                                24 April,  15 May,   1703
  ---- Huy                                     16 Aug.,   25 Aug.,  ----
  ---- Limburg                                 10 Sept.,  28 Sept., ----
  Battle of Schellenberg                                   2 July,  1704
  ---- Blenheim                                           13 Aug.,  ----
  Siege of Landau                              12 Sept.,  24 Nov.,  ----
  Huy captured by the French                                 May,   1705
  Re-capture of Huy                                       11 July,  ----
  Forcing the French Lines at Helixem, near Tirlemont     18 July,  ----
  Skirmish near the Dyle                                  21 July,  ----
  Siege of Sandvliet                           26 Oct.,   29 Oct.,  ----
  Battle of Ramilies                                      23 May,   1706
  Siege of Ostend                              28 June,    8 July,  ----
  ---- Menin                                   25 July,   25 Aug.,  ----
  ---- Dendermond                              29 Aug.,    5 Sept., ----
  ---- Aeth                                    16 Sept.,   3 Oct.,  ----
  Battle of Oudenarde                                     11 July,  1708
  Siege of Lisle                               13 Aug.,   23 Oct.,  ----
  Capture of the Citadel                                   9 Dec.,  ----
  Battle of Wynendale                                     28 Sept., ----
  Passage of the Scheldt                                  27 Nov.,  ----
  Siege of Ghent                               18 Dec.,   30 Dec.,  ----
  ---- Tournay                                 27 June,   29 July,  1709
  Capture of the Citadel                                   3 Sept., ----
  Battle of Malplaquet                                    11 Sept., ----
  Siege of Mons                                21 Sept.,  20 Oct.,  ----
  Passage of the French lines at Pont à Vendin            21 April, 1710
  Siege of Douay                               25 April,  27 June,  ----
  ---- Bethune                                 15 July,   29 Aug.,  ----
  ---- Aire                                     6 Sept.,   9 Nov.,  ----
  ---- St. Venant                               6 Sept.,  30 Sept., ----
  Passage of the French lines at Arleux                    5 Aug.,  1711
  Siege of Bouchain                            10 Aug.,   13 Sept., ----
  Treaty of Utrecht signed                                30 March, 1713


_Battles, Sieges, &c., which occurred in Germany and in the
Netherlands from 1743 to 1748, during the "War of the Austrian
Succession."_

  Battle of Dettingen (Germany)                           27 June,  1743
  Menin invested by the French 18 May, and captured        5 June,  1744
  Ypres ditto 7 June, and captured                        14 June,  ----
  Fort Knocque surrendered to the French                     June,  ----
  Furnes, ditto                                            5 July,  ----
  Friburg (Germany) invested by the French                21 Sept.  ----
  Citadel of Friburg captured by ditto                    28 Nov.   ----
  Tournay invested by ditto                               23 April, 1745
  Battle of Fontenoy                                      11 May,   ----
  Citadel of Tournay surrendered to the French            21 June,  ----
  Skirmish near Ghent                                      9 July,  ----
  Ghent captured by the French                            30 June,  ----
  Bruges, ditto                                              July,  ----
  Oudenarde, ditto                                        21 July,  ----
  Dendermond, ditto                                          Aug.   ----
  Ostend invested by the French on 14 July, and captured  23 Aug.   ----
  Nieuport captured by the French                         26 Aug.   ----
  Aeth, ditto                                             28 Sept.  ----
  Brussels invested by the French 24 Jan., and captured   20 Feb.   1746
  Mechlin captured by ditto                                  May,   ----
  Antwerp, ditto                                          20 May,   ----
  Citadel of Antwerp, ditto                               31 May,   ----
  Mons invested by the French on 7 June, and captured     11 July,  ----
  Fort St. Ghislain captured by the French                21 July,  ----
  Charleroi invested by the French on 25 July, and
        captured                                           2 Aug.   ----
  Huy captured by ditto                                      Aug.   ----
  Namur invested by ditto 26 August, and citadel
        captured                                          19 Sept.  ----
  Battle of Roucoux, near Liege                           11 Oct.   ----
  Sluys surrendered to the French                         11 April, 1747
  Fort Sandberg in Hulst and Axel, surrendered to the
        French                                            28 April, ----
  Sandvliet captured by the French                           June,  ----
  Battle of Val, or Laffeld, near Maestricht               2 July,  ----
  Bergen-op-Zoom invested by the French 13 July, and
        captured                                          16 Sept.  ----
  Forts Lillo, Frederick Henry, and Croix                  2 Oct.   ----
  Limburg captured by the French                             March, 1748
  Maestricht invested by the French                        3 April, ----
  Maestricht surrendered to ditto                          3 May,   ----
  Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle                                7 Oct.   ----


List of the BRITISH REGIMENTS which served in FLANDERS and
GERMANY between 1742 and 1748, during the "_War of the Austrian
Succession_."

  +------------------------------+--------+--------------+-----------+
  |                              |Year in |Returned to   |Rejoined   |
  |                              |which   |Great Britain |the Army in|
  |                              |embarked|in consequence|Flanders,  |
  |         CAVALRY.             |for     |of the        |after the  |
  |                              |Flanders|Rebellion in  |suppression|
  |                              |        |favor of the  |of the     |
  |                              |        |Pretender.    |Rebellion. |
  +-----------------+------------+--------+--------------+-----------+
  |   REGIMENTS.    |  COLONELS. |        |              |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 3rd Troop       | Earl of    |  1742  |    1746      |           |
  | Horse Guards    | Albemarle  |        |              |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 4th ditto       | Earl of    |        |              |           |
  | ditto           | Effingham  |  1742  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 2nd ditto       |            |        |              |           |
  | Horse Grenadier | Earl of    |        |              |           |
  | Guards          | Craufurd   |  1742  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | Royal Regiment  | Earl of    |        |              |           |
  | Horse Guards    | Hertford   |  1742  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 1st Horse (1st  | Earl of    |        |              |           |
  | Dragoon Guards) | Pembroke   |  1742  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 4th Irish Horse |            |        |              |           |
  | (7th Dragoon    | Sir John   |        |              |           |
  | Guards)         | Ligonier   |  1742  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 1st Dragoons    | Hawley     |  1742  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 2nd ditto       | Campbell   |  1742  |  Remd. in    |           |
  |                 |            |        |  Flanders    |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 3rd ditto       | Honeywood  |  1742  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 4th ditto       | Rich       |  1742  |    1746      |    1747   |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 6th ditto       |            |        |              |           |
  | (Inniskilling)  |Lord Cadogan|  1742  |}  Remained   |           |
  |                 |            |        |}     in      |           |
  | 7th ditto       | Cope       |  1742  |}  Flanders.  |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  |   FOOT GUARDS.  |            |        |              |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 1st Foot Guards | Duke of    |        |              |           |
  | 1st Battalion   | Cumberland |  1742  |    1746      |    1747   |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 2nd ditto ditto | Duke of    |        |              |           |
  |                 | Marlborough|  1742  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 3rd ditto ditto | Earl of    |        |              |           |
  |                 | Dunmore    |  1742  |    1746      |    1747   |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  |   INFANTRY.     |            |        |              |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 1st Foot        |            |        |              |           |
  | 1st Batt.       | St. Clair  |  1744  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 3rd ditto       |            |        |              |           |
  | (Buffs)         | Howard     |  1742  |    1746      |    1747   |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 4th ditto       | Barrel     |  1744  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 8th ditto       | Onslow     |  1742  |    1746      |    1747   |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 11th ditto      | Cornwallis |  1742  |  Remd. in    |           |
  |                 |            |        |  Flanders    |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 12th ditto      | Duroure    |  1742  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 13th ditto      | Pulteney   |  1742  |    1746      |    1747   |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 18th ditto      | Mordaunt   |  1743  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 19th ditto      |            |        |  Remd. in    |           |
  | (Green)         | Howard     |  1744  |  Flanders    |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 20th ditto      | Bligh      |  1742  |    1746      |    1747   |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 21st ditto,     |            |        |              |           |
  | Royal Nth.      |            |        |              |           |
  | British         |            |        |              |           |
  | Fusiliers       | Campbell   |  1742  |    1746      |    1747   |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 23rd ditto,     |            |        |              |           |
  | Royal Welsh     |            |        |              |           |
  | Fusiliers       | Peers      |  1742  |    1746      |    1747   |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 25th ditto      | Earl of    |        |              |           |
  |                 | Rothes     |  1744  |    1746      |    1747   |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 28th ditto      | Bragg      |  1744  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 31st ditto      | Handasyd   |  1742  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 32nd ditto      | Skelton    |  1742  |}  Remained   |           |
  |                 |            |        |}    in       |           |
  | 33rd ditto      | Johnson    |  1742  |}  Flanders.  |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 34th ditto      |Cholmondeley|  1744  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 36th ditto      | Fleming    |  1744  |    1746      |    1747   |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 37th ditto      | Ponsonby   |  1742  |    1746      |    1747   |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 42nd ditto      | Lord       |        |              |           |
  |                 | Semphill   |  1744  |    1746      |           |
  |                 |            |        |              |           |
  | 48th ditto      | Lord Harry |        |              |           |
  |                 | Beauclerk  |  1744  |    1746      |    1747   |
  +-----------------+------------+--------+--------------+-----------+


  LONDON:--Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street,
  For Her Majesty's Stationery Office.



FOOTNOTES:

[6] This nobleman was John (sixth) Earl of Mar, the son of Charles
(fifth) Earl of Mar, who raised the TWENTY-FIRST regiment, and was
the first colonel of that regiment. On his decease, on the 23rd of
April, 1689, his son John became Earl of Mar, and was honored with
several appointments by Queen Anne. Upon the arrival of King George
I., he was informed that his services were no longer required
as Third Secretary of State, and he retired to his estates in
Scotland where he raised a rebellion, and proclaimed the Pretender
at Kirk-Michael, in Perthshire, on the 11th of September, 1715.
After the defeat of the rebels at Sheriff-muir, he escaped from
Scotland, and in 1716, was attainted of high treason. He followed
the Pretender to Rome, and remained in his service until 1721, when
he removed to Paris where he remained until 1729. From Paris he
retired to Aix-la-Chapelle, where he died, in May, 1732. His son,
Thomas, Lord Erskine, enjoyed his father's forfeited estates, which
were conveyed to him in 1739 by his uncle, Mr. Erskine of Grange,
who bought them of the Commissioners for the benefit of his nephew.

[7] A List of the British regiments which served in Flanders and
Germany, between 1742 and 1748, during the "_War of the Austrian
Succession_," is given in page 64.

[8] See Memoir of Major-General Robert Ross at page 75 of the
Historical Record of the _Twentieth_ Regiment.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  A superscript is denoted by ^x or ^{xx}. For example, M^cDonald or
  Esq^{re}.

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  In the table on Pg 64 at the end of the book, some unnecessary
  bracketing with } has been removed for clarity.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example:
  Neer Hespen, Neer-Hespen; TWENTY-FIRST, TWENTY FIRST; favor, favour;
  situate; despatch; insure.

  Pg 13, 'FUSILEERS and Third' replaced by 'FUSILIERS and Third'.
  Pg 18, 'clans,  was found' replaced by 'clans, it was found'.
  Pg 33, '[Sidenote: 1804'] moved up one paragraph.
  Pg 47, '[Sidenote: 1827'] moved down one paragraph.





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