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Title: The Development of Certain Tendencies in Modern Opera - Thesis for the degree of Bachelor of Music
Author: Browne, Kathryn Eleanor
Language: English
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                  THE DEVELOPMENT OF CERTAIN TENDENCIES
                             IN MODERN OPERA

                                   BY
                         KATHRYN ELEANOR BROWNE

                                 THESIS
                                 FOR THE
                       DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF MUSIC
                                   IN
                                  MUSIC

                             SCHOOL OF MUSIC
                         UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
                                  1917



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS


                                                             June 1, 1907

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT THE THESIS PREPARED UNDER MY SUPERVISION BY

                         KATHRYN ELEANOR BROWNE

ENTITLED THE DEVELOPMENT OF CERTAIN TENDENCIES IN MODERN OPERA.

IS APPROVED BY ME AS FULFILLING THIS PART OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF

                            BACHELOR OF MUSIC

    George F. Schwartz
    Instructor in Charge

    APPROVED: J Lawrence Erb

                       HEAD OF DEPARTMENT OF Music



THE DEVELOPMENT OF CERTAIN TENDENCIES IN MODERN OPERA.



Table of Contents.


  Introduction                                                Page 3.

  I    The Beginnings of Opera to Gluck                       Page 5.

  II   Gluck                                                  Page 14.

  III  Rossini and His School up to Wagner                    Page 20.

  IV   Wagner                                                 Page 27.

  V    Post Wagnerian School--Including Modern Russian,
       French, Italian, German and American Composers.        Page 34.

  VI   Appendix of Tables                                     Page 44.

       Table I,   General                                     Page 46.

       Table II,  Number and Kind of Characters               Page 48.

       Table III, Orchestration                               Page 50.

       Table IV,  Solos                                       Page 52.

       Table V,   Recitative                                  Page 54.

       Table VI,  Ensemble                                    Page 56.

       Table VII, Chorus                                      Page 58.

    VII  Bibliography                                         Page 60.



THE DEVELOPMENT OF CERTAIN TENDENCIES IN MODERN OPERA.



INTRODUCTION.


In this thesis there has been an attempt made to trace the origin, growth
and development, and modification of various tendencies in the Opera. The
form only of the opera has been considered and no attempt has been made
towards the harmonic analysis of the various operas. The main tendencies
that have been discussed are, the differences in regard to; (1) the
number of acts employed; (2) the number and kind of characters; (3) a
comparison; (a) of the proportion of orchestral work, overtures, ballets
and ritornelli; (b) of solo work and the various voices employed; (c) of
recitative, spoken, accompanied and unaccompanied; (d) of ensemble work,
duets, trios, quartets, quintets and sextets; and (e) separate from this
last, a consideration of the proportion of chorus work, mixed, and that
sung by the men and the women alone.

A study has been made of thirty-four operas and in order to accurately
consider these proportions, tables have been prepared, showing the
percentage of the factors portrayed. These percentages have been
obtained by actual count of the measures devoted to the solos, choruses,
ensembles, etc. There are seven tables.

Table I is a general table showing the number of characters, acts,
percentage of orchestra, solo, recitative, ensemble and chorus.

Table II shows the distribution and number of characters.

Table III shows the percentage of orchestral work, and also that of the
divisions of the orchestral work into overture, ballet and ritornelli.

Table IV shows the percentage of solo work and its distribution to the
various voices.

Table V shows the percentage of recitative and its distribution to the
various voices.

Table VI shows the percentage of ensemble work and the various kinds.

Table VII shows the percentage of the chorus work and its distribution as
to mixed choruses and those sung by the men and women alone.

"Rappresentatione de Anima" by Cavalieri is generally classed as an
oratorio but many authorities consider it an opera, as he was one of
Peri's contemporaries, and worked with the little band of Florentine
nobles, and this was the first work which resulted from their meetings.
However, whether it is an opera or an oratorio, the forms in those days
were very vague, hence, the component factors are interesting as compared
to the later operas, and inasmuch as no score could be obtained earlier
than 1675, it will suffice as a type of that time. In studying the operas
from Wagner on, the solos have been very difficult to distinguish from
the recitative, and consequently any stretch of solo singing over twenty
or twenty-five measures in length, with any sort of tune, has been
considered as a solo.



I. THE BEGINNINGS OF OPERA TO GLUCK.


Before beginning the survey of modern operas and before tracing the
development of the different tendencies, it will be interesting to
consider briefly the historic source of the opera, and the part that
music played in the various dramas, madrigals, ballets, church services,
etc.

It is an acknowledged fact that Peri and his little band of Florentine
reformers went back to the old Greek dramas for their models and forms.
However, it is not to be supposed that opera was developed spontaneously
among these reformers. Like every other world wide movement, it was the
culmination of tendencies and customs from various sources. We have
no reason to accept the Greek dramas as the only models which served,
although they were considered seriously by the first opera writers.

The Egyptians sang jubilations to their Gods. These consisted of florid
cadences on prolonged vowel sounds. In the old Greek dramas, music played
an important part. The Greek tragedy and comedy developed from the hymns,
choral dances and chants sung by a chorus of singers disguised as satyrs,
at the festivals of Bacchus. The chorus often addressed the audience on
topical subjects. The various actors intoned or chanted their words,
and were often accompanied by a lyre and other instruments of the day.
The chorus chanted their parts. This would not be termed music by us
today, but was more of a recitative. Later the chorus chanted while the
principals sang, forming a sort of background accompaniment. The slow
developement of the music in the mass must not be forgotten, but there is
nothing which definitely resembles opera until the thirteenth century.
"Noel" was supposed to be a song which the angels sang, and is found in
many festivals. Perhaps this may be termed one of the sources of Wagner's
ideas, the association of a particular song with one group of people. In
the "Three Maries" the chorus sang words in Latin, Gabriel and the three
virgins sang, but the words of the Savior had no music. The "Fete of the
Ass" was quite an elaborate festival and here the various characters sang
quite definitely, and the congregation was urged at stated intervals
to join in the singing. Part of the words and music were symbolical,
especially those imitating the braying of the ass. "The Passion", in
1264, enacted by the Fraternity of the Gonfalone, lasted for several
days, and contained scenes which were sung, choruses and a trio.

At this period, we must consider the vaudeville plays which were plays
interspersed with song. "Li gieus de Robin et de Marion", given at the
court of Charles d'Artois in Naples in 1285, was an operatic symptom
and was divided into songs, spoken dialogue, dialogue songs in which
two voices alternated, and popular ballad tunes, although the music
was not appropriate since it consisted of such complex counterpoint.
The Madrigal plays, although comic in character, influenced in the
introduction of village gossip related by chorus. The "Ballet de la
Reine" was a brilliant ballet with elaborate scenery, costumes, music,
etc. It contained solos, duets, choruses and instrumental interludes. The
melody, however, was only loosely associated with the play. In 1554 "Il
Sagrifigio", a pastoral drama, arose, in which the priest sang solos,
accompanied by lyre and the chorus. The first solo singing was in the
Madrigal of Corteccia in 1539. In "Aminta", 1573, the choruses separated
acts, and introduced the action danced to the chorus behind the scenes.
There was no attempt at the complete setting of the text in these plays,
and no union of the lyrics by any sort of recitative. In "Decameron"
one or another of the personages sang to the company, and they all sang
and danced. The lyric solo resembled somewhat the dramatic recitative
of Peri and Caccini. The vocal melody was simple in melodic structure.
Cecchi's "Esaltazione delle Croce", 1589, a sacred representation, had an
orchestra of viols, lutes, horns and the orchestra played an interlude
with special music. There was an accompanied solo allotted to the Deity
and a dance of David. The orchestras were composed of lutes, trombones,
which accomapnied the dancing, etc., but were usually silent after the
entrance of the various characters, excepting the lyres. In the English
masque the words and song were written for an actor but sung behind the
scenes by a chorus.

The Madrigal dramas became comedies which exhibited a variety of style
and expressive power. When a single character spoke, the chorus sang in
madrigals, while the actors were on the stage. The music was from behind
the curtain. These Madrigal dramas began to degenerate, however, as the
spectacle disappeared, and the comic element became preeminent.

Then came the band of Florentine nobles who were not originators, but
merely revived certain musical practices and traditions of the 14th
century and modeled these on the early Greek tragedies. "Eurydice"
was accompanied by a large orchestra for those days consisting of a
chitarone, viola di gamba, theorba, three flutes and smaller trombones.
There was a brief entr'acte, and a trio of two sopranos and a tenor. The
chorus was in five parts. Previous to this the solo without harmony or
harmonic support was unknown. The instrumental music was of course in
its infancy and expressive melody was out of the question. This first
operatic orchestra was concealed--perhaps this suggested the idea to
Wagner--perhaps not. There were no set tunes, nor any sort of formal
melody divided into periods, balancing each other symmetrically, but a
sort of recitative which observed the inflection of the spoken words was
created.

Peri developed this principle to a great extent. He expressed soft gentle
speech by half spoken, half sung tones on a sustained instrumental bass.
Feelings of deeper emotional kind, he expressed by melody with greater
intervals and a lively tempo, accompanied by instrumental harmonies
changing frequently, sometimes using dissonance. His prologue was in
verse and he gave short metrical passages for the chorus which were rich
in harmony. An instrumental episode in the first act and dancing in the
end are effective.

Vecchi's "L'Amfiparnasso" and "Commedia Armonica" are really only a
series of madrigals for five voices. There was no overture, no orchestral
accompaniment, nor ritornello of any kind. When the stage was occupied
by a single character, four voices were made to sing behind the scenes,
foretelling the modern orchestra. In "Orfeo" the accompaniment was a
figured bass. "Dafne" and "Arianna" were written in this newly invented
"Stilo rappresentatino" with a larger orchestra. "Dafne" consisted of
an imitation of speech, a sort of melodious recitative accompanied only
with a sustained bass. The instruments were really so contrasted and
combined as to invest each character and scene with marked individuality.
The introductory toccata (founded on a single chord) was followed by a
ritornello, the recitative was accompanied by a figured bass, sometimes
by two or more instruments indicated at the beginning.

These reformers really resuscitated a style of musical declamation, and
their music better expressed passion and the like. There was a monodic
exchanging of contrapuntal richness for the simplest of melodies,
confined to a single part, and accompanied by bass of the rudest
type and construction. The melodies were destitute of figure and the
composers really aimed at exact oratorical rendering of the words. The
possibilities of orchestral coloring were limited and the dry style of
recitative really dramatically untruthful. There was little variety of
contrast. This weakened the true power of the drama by the introduction
of measured melody and formally constructed movements. The libbrettos
were carefully considered at first, but finally declined, and more and
more attention was paid to the aria and the various concerted music
introduced without regard to the dramatic tendencies. The rules became
strict, and it is not difficult to see how the operas became a concert in
costume. We find a quotation of the rules:--

1. A woman always took a man's part.

2. Characters were stereotyped.

3. Position of the aria was determined to give entrance impressiveness.

4. The solos, duets, choruses and ballets were arranged artificially
to suit the convenience of the performers and without regard for the
dramatic context.

Monteverde has been termed "the Italian Wagner". He never ventured to
introduce flowing melody save in the ritornello. His music was dramatic
and he increased the dramatic scope of the recitative. His "Orfeo", 1607,
contains the first dramatic duet. He was an innovator and gave a new
developement to the harmonic system. His influence may be summed up as
follows;

I. He made operatic recitative more melodious and expressive.

II. He boldly used unprepared discord to express dramatic emotions.

III. He greatly enlarged the orchestra, used special, appropriate
groups of instruments to accompany characters, and employed separate
combinations to announce the return and entry of persons. In his
"Arianna" the widening influence of his orchestra developed to thirty-six
instruments, including violins, trombones, trumpets and three small
organs. He invented the pizzicato and tremolo on the violin. In his
"Orfeo" there are parts for the harpsichords, lyres, violas, double
basses, double harps with two rows of strings, two violins, guitars,
organs, flutes, clarions and trombones. The apportionment of the
instruments was as follows:--

The bass viols accompanied Orpheus.

The violas, Eurydice.

Four Trombones, Pluto.

The organs, Apollo.

The guitars, Charon.

The flute registers of the organs, the chorus of sprites.

Scarlatti's genius for melody modified the still though dramatically
correct recitative, and substituted airs in its place. He introduced
measured recitative for the first time, and invented the "de capo aria",
his singers thus distracting attention from the important dramatic
meaning. His knowledge of counterpoint aided him in the construction of
the bass, and elaboration of accompaniments. He tired of the monotony of
uninterrupted recitative, and organized three forms:--

1. Recitative secco for ordinary business.

2. Recitative stromentato which was accompanied and used for violent
emotion, and used the "thorough bass" by the harpsichord to aid this
passionate form of declamation. The sense of the verbal text was enforced
by continual interposition of orchestral symphonies.

3. The aria, to which he added the "de capo"--that is, the repetition of
the second part following the first.

Cavalli employed the ritornello constantly to relieve the monotony of
continuous recitative, and introduced repetition in his ariettas, which
was disapproved by the Florentine Caccini, who was the father of a new
order of music, a style of melody which is not melody; a recitative
melody, noble in character and surpassing the songs of the people, not
altering the words nor depriving them of life, but augmenting them and
giving them meaning and force.

Purcell had true dramatic instinct and a declamatory recitative second
only to that of Wagner, and his airs show unfettered melody. The laws of
his time, which he chose to disregard and modify, are interesting.

I. The number of characters was six, three women and three men.

a. Prima Donna (soprano).

b. A contralto.

c. An artificial or male soprano.

d. An artificial alto.

e. A tenor.

f. A bass.

II. (a) "Aria Cantabile" was quiet and slow with opportunities of
ornamentation, accompanied by a figured bass under pathos.

(b) "Aria di portamento" in slow movement and marked rythm was sometimes
accompanied only by one or two violins.

(c) "Aria di mezzo carattere" had the second part faster than the first,
and the accompaniment was rich and varied.

(d) "Aria Parlante" was elaborately declamatory.

(e) "Aria di bravura" was allegro with brilliant divisions.

III. There were three acts and every scene terminated with an air. Every
member sang one air but no one sang two airs in succession and no two
airs of the same type followed each other. The most important ones came
at the conclusion of the first and second act and here the hero and
heroine claimed a grand scene, with accompanied recitative followed by
"aria d'agilita" and then united in a grand duet. The third act ended
with a chorus of lively movement frequently accompanied by a dance. There
were no trios, quartets or other concentrated movements allowed, though
three characters could join in harmonized exclamation at close of the
recitative.

Handel broke away from these rules in "Radamisto" with an elaborate
quartet and "Teseo" in five acts with two airs in succession to each
character. His operas have been termed a ballad concert in costume,
although he did a great deal toward faithful reproduction of the embodied
sentiments of the text. Purcell rebelled against the idea of succession
of songs and dances and in a tuneful chorus with dramatic spoken
action, he introduced a decided dramatic feeling. The English opera was
advertised to be performed after the Italian manner, with recitative
in place of dialogue and measured melody for airs. Purcell's "Dido and
Aeneus" contains not one spoken word, and his drawn out aria foreshadowed
the dramatic aria of Gluck and Wagner. Balfe and Benedict raised the
standard of the old ballad operas by using better music although Balfe
only appealed to the ear. Tallis, Byrde and Purcell are tolerated for
their voice parts only.



II. GLUCK.


"In the early 18th century the condition of opera was very 'low'". The
accepted number of characters was six, three of each sex. There were
three acts of a given number of verses based on Greek drama. The chorus
stood motionless except for the leader, in a double row with the sexes
separated and masked. The same libretti were used time and time again.
The poets became as stilted as the composers. There were five types of
melody whose sequence and distribution were regulated by rules, and
not by dramatic requirements. Though varied in other ways, the songs
consisted of two parts, the first repeated "de capo" after the second,
notwithstanding the histronic result. The vocalist tyrannized over the
performance, displaying no musical feeling, nothing but vocal agility.
In England and Germany the singers sang their own language during the
performance, for every thing except the formal arias, which were sung in
Italian. Each act had to close with an elaborate finale, and each singer
had to have an aria.

Sammartini in Milan gave prominence to string quartets. There was much
stress laid on technical proficiency and arias. The dances became
better than the vocal music, for the arias especially were monotonous
and forced, and overloaded with ornament and contained practically no
counterpoint. The overture, customarily in three parts, was separated
from the opera itself. The arias were in bravura style with long
and prolix ritornelli. The dramatic airs were absolutely spoiled by
florishes.

Gluck freed the opera from many of these forms. He maintained that the
function of the music was to support the poetry without interrupting
action or disfiguring by superfluous ornament. The dramatic action was
given more importance and the concerted pieces with stereotyped de
capo were discarded. He was criticized for sacrificing music to drama,
which would often have been better without it. This has also been said
of Debussy's "Pelleas and Melisande." Gluck colored his music and
avoided interrupting the actor in the warmth of the dialogue to wait for
ritornello, flourishes and repetitions. He maintained that the overture
should prepare specifically for the character of action and indication of
the subject. Instruments should be employed in proportion to the degree
of interest and passion. Above all he worked for simplicity; that opera
must express life in aria and in recitative, and in similarity between
the passion and the object called forth. His melody was supported by
harmony and was varied in rythm. He strove for pictorial representation
in his airs and accompanied his recitatives by figured bass and chords of
the harpsichord, and employed several airs preceded by long instrumental
solos. He changed and consolidated the structure of the opera on the
verbal basis, and repressed the vanity and egotism of the singers. He
galvanized the lazy languid orchestra into life and made the recitative
play a more important part, making his opera dignified, overture
elucidatory, accompaniment significant, and emphasized the coherent
principle of unity.

In "Telemaco" Gluck imitated aspects of nature in several of the arias
with greater unity of handling, truer dramatic expression, and
continuous interest in the recitative. There are nine numbers following
in dramatic sequence. He abandoned the symphony in three pieces making
his overture lead into the opening aria. His two themes begin finely in
contra-distinction but they degenerate into bravura style. Gluck studied
literature and filled in the void for recitative so that the audience
could-not play chess in between numbers.

"Orpheus" is lyrical and noticeable for the dramatic interest of the
recitative, and the importance of the work given to the chorus. His
duo-thematic treatment of the orchestra here is not successful. In his
short orchestral prelude he breaks away from the spirit of the overture.
The chorus takes up the broad sad theme. Orpheus cries, "Eurydice",
twice, the third time he sings a note higher and stands against chords
of diminished intervals, instead of blending with the chord of the minor
third of the dominant, making a striking dramatic effect. The theme of
the aria is echoed behind the scenes. In the accompanied recitative the
orchestra has a share in producing the effect. In one aria when the sense
of the words changes, the whole character of the music changes. Three
fourth time, in the key of G, is used to depict the happiness of man.
Where Cupid relates to Orpheus, an andante in three eighth time in the
key of D is used.

Gluck has too many contrasts of slow and fast to be effective. His
overtures and finales are weak, and he could not quite effect a
compromise between the musical and the dramatic.

He improved the old antagonism between the aria and the recitative by
giving the orchestra the function of adding some sort of color to
the mere vocal padding. He insisted on acting, instead of mere singing
by posturing sopranos and a chorus of wax figures. He insisted also on
his music being sung as written. His bold stroke was uneven, but such a
dramatic genius has never been surpassed.

In "Alceste" his overture assumed a new significance. It had no formal
end but was broken into by the chorus. In "Armide" each character had
music personally distinctive. "Iphigenie en Tauride" combined dramatic
sincerity, superb use of recitative, natural and telling though simple
choruses, throbbing height of passion, unification of parts of soloists,
chorus and orchestra. He is termed a "creator of dramatic music".
Orchestration was his specialty although he introduced it subservient to
action. However, Gluck never employed trill passages or cadenzas, for
he wanted to accentuate nature and strengthen declamation. His choruses
are treated as "an additional acting character", and his recitative is
true to the dramatic import. Rameau's and Lulli's operas were crabbed and
rigid in comparison. Gluck alone gives each personage a style that is
proper. The musicians who would not, or could not sing, except from the
wings, were ignored by Gluck, and he refused the undramatic demands of
the manager. In "Iphigenia en Tauris" the chorus works into a background
which appropriately and dramatically supports the singer. The two
tendencies in Gluck are, to neglect all sensuous aesthetic pleasure for
attainment of dramatic intensity through declamation, and to realize his
purpose through emotional pleasure, harmony of color, greater unity of
scenes, the carrying out of one dramatic idea from the beginning to the
end, making each individual part stronger.

Piccini was the innovator of the dramatic treatment of the duet and
extended development of the finale. He was the first to turn choral
masses to account on the stage. He used "Recitative instrumento" in
pale of the ordinary "Recitative secco." Mozart enlarged on his ideas,
for his command of the orchestra was unrivalled as a dramatic factor.
Cimarosa placed a statue on the stage, with a pedestal in the orchestra,
while Mozart placed the staue in the orchestra, using the work of the
stage as the pedestal. Cimarosa uses the accompaniment for the support
while Mozart intensifies the voice. Cimarosa was the first to introduce
quartets and other concerted pieces in the midst of dramatic action, and
not as an ornament at the end of the act, but he was outdistanced by
Mozart. Before this, opera was merely a recitative, with a chorus at the
end of each act, and then occasional airs were introduced, but not before
the middle of the 18th century do we find trios, etc.

Beethoven and Weber followed Gluck. Beethoven gave to the orchestra the
explanatory character of the chorus. He employs twenty phrases for a
single character in "Fidelio". Weber used spoken dialogue and recitative
sparingly but when neccessary composed with originality and dramatic
vividness. He tried to construct drama by means of melody and failed. The
first example of a grand orchestral prelude is written in six-fourth time
to "Der Beberrscher der Geister." The overture to "Der Freischutz", by
the use of leading themes, relates the entire story.

In the Italian and French school, "a la Sopontini" the orchestra lifted
and balanced the words and the spirit of the orchestra reveals the
innermost emotions of the dramatic personae. The Mythical manner is
chosen, and a use of alliterative verse with a peculiar use of the
orchestra as preparing, supporting, commenting upon, enforcing and
recalling the various situations of the text.



III. ROSSINI AND HIS SCHOOL UP TO WAGNER.


In 1814 the operatic conditions were deplorable. Vocalists were masters
over the composers. They accepted the mere skeleton of a tune, and so
adorned it with their own trills and flourishes that the poor composer
could scarcely recognize it. The solos were placed to suit their
convenience, whether or not they were suited dramatically. The tenor
singers were very prominent and the bass singers had not as yet emerged
from the background.

Rossini expelled the male soprani from the stage, directed and
controlled his own operas. His music was sensuous and, as shown in
"William Tell", of a simple dramatic style. The operas were of two
acts and scarcely conducive to the maintenance of dramatic action,
separated by a ballet. His "Elizabetha" contained an overture, a duet
and the finale had involved motives in the orchestra. There were two
tenors, for the bass was still in the background. This was the first
opera in which the recitative was accompanied by a stringed quartet and
double bass. He supported the declamation by brilliant themes for the
orchestra. "The Barber of Seville" is a series of melodies, continuous,
and the characters only ceased to sing for strains executed by the
instrumentalists. The transfer of the current of the melody from the
voices to the orchestra was an entirely new idea. He also introduced new
instruments into the orchestra.

Mozart was indebted to the Italians for the sweetness of his melodies
and gave to Italy, through Rossini, new instrumental combinations, new
dramatic methods and new operatic forms. The horn, eighty years ago, was
not very important in Italy and the orchestration played in the operatic
band probably had a part in developing the taste for wind instruments and
especially for horns. Rossini was a student of Haydn's symphonies and
quartets.

In the opera-buffo "L'Equivaco Stravagante" the concerted pieces are
good, and the final rondo a type of final airs. "L'Inganno Felice"
was the first to make an impression. "Ciro in Babilonia" was given to
accomodate a woman, who sustained one tone while the orchetra played
the melody. With "Tancredi" came the commencement of reforms and the
character of the easily comprehended melodies was fascinating. Rossini
substituted singing for declamation, for monologues supported by chords,
and concerted pieces connected with and supported by a brilliant
orchestral accompaniment. In "Tancredi" the bass was given prominence,
in fact he was as prominent as the tenor. In "Semiramide" the principal
is a bass. The action is sustained, the number of formal airs decreased,
the number of characters increased and a free use made of the chorus,
which previous to this time had been merely a subordinate part with no
dramatic functions. In "Otello" the recitative is used more sparingly and
accompanied by a full band, from which the piano was banished. This had
been expelled before in Germany, and by Gluck in France. The two leading
parts are assigned to bass voices, and the interminable recitative
accompanied by double piano or piano and double bass, is done away with.
The most beautiful airs for the prima donna are in "La Cenercatola".

Rossini was now bringing his operas to a brilliant termination, and
beginning to emphasize the alto and mezzo voice. It was only toward the
end of his Italian career in "Matilda di Shubrun" that he assigned the
leading part to a soprano. We find now that there are no leading parts
written for contralto and whether this is due the fact that the soprano
has bean forced into activity to suit new tastes, or because contraltos
are rare, we can not say. Of course Meyerbeer's "L'Africaine" and
Donnizetti's "La Favorita" are exceptions. The orchestration of "La Gazza
Ladrone" is more brilliant and sonorous than that of its predecessors
and introduces new instruments, new combinations, a new distribution of
voice parts, and of orchestral melodies with declamatory phrases for the
singers instead of the endless recitative accompanied only by chords for
the cellos or piano.

He introduced cornets and ophicleides in the overture to "William Tell",
as the nearest approach to the actual instruments used by the cowherders
of Switzerland. In "Semiramide" he brought an entire band onto the
stage and wrote beautifully harmonized music which suggests the chase.
He began the overture to "La Gazza Ladrona" with a duet for the drums,
and did away with the extemporaneous attempts at orchestration by solo
instrumentalists in the accompaniment, who were every bit as disagreeable
and authoritative os the vocal soloists.

Berlioz charged that Rossini's music was heartless, unemotional and
written entirely for the singer, utterly disregarding the vocal effect.
His particular attention to orchestral and choral effects may be traced
to the Parisian influence of his fine experience in hearing their
choruses and orchestras. His music changed from the soft voluptuous
melodies of "Semiramide" to simple emotional dramatic ones in "William
Tell".

Rossini, as mentioned before, was the first Italian to accompany
recitative with a full band, assign leading parts to the bass, make each
dramatic scene one continuous piece of music, and bring to perfection the
highly varied, amply developed, concerted finales.

Donizetti wrote from sixty to seventy operas, but his "Don Pasquale" is
in a light style as compared to the "Barber of Seville" and does not
approach "Semeramide" for melody, nor "William Tell" for dramatic value.
Stendhal foretold that the florid music of Rossini would be followed by a
master of simple melodies and we find Bellini to be the one. Donizetti's
work is not well balanced and he sways from one extreme to the other. His
tenor air in "Anne Bolena" is attractive for it possesses more dramatic
significance than most of his. He counted on the pure musical effect,
which is naturally more effective in spoken drama than in opera, which is
sung through out. For instance, the horn of "Hermani" is terrifying when
heard in the play, but merely ordinary when heard in the opera. He seldom
wrote a tune, or scored a half dozen measures of simple accompaniment,
without burying the voice under ponderous chords for the wood winds.
"Lucrezia Borgia" contains less recitative than was customary with
Rossini. Notice must be taken of the brilliancy of the introduction,
the series of dramatic scenes and the large number of tuneful themes
distributed judiciously for the four leading personages. "Lucia" is
broadly conceived, well constructed and highly dramatic, especially
where the chorus informs Lucia of the end of Edgar. In "La Favorita"
there is passionate impulsiveness in the final duet, the choruses are
impressive, and the music appropriate to the various personages and
situations of the piece.

Bellini had true melody and his creative power was more effective than
Donizetti's, as was his use of the orchestra. He abandoned trills and for
ornamentation delivered simple phrases. "La Somnambula" is an endless
flow of melodies full of true emotion and thoroughly dramatic, for he
gave attention to the orchestration and concerted melodies. Rossini
emphasized the necessity of introducing choruses, which he maintained
were indispensable for dramatic effect, and we find his ideas developed
by these men. However, these, and Paisiello's form of long scenes of
recitative are old now.

Mozart's introduction to "Figaro" first introduces the air by the
orchestra, then transcribed for the solo voice and finally sung by the
chorus. The melody of his "Zitti Zitti" trio was take I from Hayden's
"Seasons". He has adapted also an air from a Russian dance to aid in
the dramatic effect. He reached the highest perfection of expression
of melody with the strings, woodwinds and voice. His librettos are
weak, however, although he rewrote the less important ones himself. His
recitative is barren, for in his operas one had only to sing beautifully,
while in Wagner one must declaim beautifully. Mozart knew music as the
art of expression and gave this in its fullest sense to airs, duets and
ensemble pieces, yet he left opera forms as he found them. He spoke
of and depicted scenes, animals, etc. in his music. "Magic Flute" is
a primma donna opera. Mozart considered first music, then the book
and lastly the performance. In "Figaro" the psychological handling of
the characters is unconvincing. He has applied one invariable musical
formula to every character. He repeats one or two chords ad infinitum
in the orchestra. The voice trips along on top of these in semi speed. He
sanctioned formulas for cadences used in every situation. Even in "Don
Giovanni" the formulas for the cadences are used in this manner. He uses
the same method for light scenes as well as tragic situations, depicting
indignant heroines and chorus in the same manner. He was more musical but
he did not realize the dramatic situations.

Bellini was a pure melodist, but his instrumentation was faulty, and he
objected to ornamentation.

The French opera helps to develop the tendency of individual expression
while the German crushes it in striving for a whole general effect.
Rameau's "Hyppolyte et Aricie" is the most highly developed study of
character. Lulli's work is an amplification of Ramean's work. He combined
simplicity, natural melody and dramatic intentions. He developed his
attention to the orchestra, and employed the chorus as an integral
factor in the situation. He invented the overture using a slow movement,
followed by a quick fugal style with the third division, a short
dance. He developed the style of the French ballet. Both he and Ramean
considered accompanied recitative a matter of more importance than a
continuous flow of melodies. He reduced music to a minimum in this and
did not dominate it in time, rythm nor musical feeling. He characterized
it by accentuating the metrical and prosodial elements of the words
themselves, and followed closely the accent of the words, changing
rapidly from four-four rythm to three-four, and back again.

There is no feeling in his arias for he was restricted to conventional
forms, and his melodies are characterless. In his "Comique de la
Rayne", arranged by Baltazan de Beaujoyeaux, with dance, tunes, chorus,
musical dialogues and ritornelli he exhibits a bold and highly cultivated
taste for instrumental music which led him to mold the overture into a
more perfect form.

The serious opera, however, was becoming a mass of absurdities,
emphasizing the spectacle as superior to the music, with bad libretti,
degenerating under aristocratic patronage. The overture was to anticipate
the opera and a better recitative was wanted. Gluck wished to minimize
the disparity between opera and recitative and protested against the
frequent use of the de capo and repetition of words, maintaining that the
words should only be repeated where required by circumstances of passion.

Meyerbeer was feeble in harmonic invention with no psychological grip but
with a talent for manipulating broad contrasts and climaxes of sound. He
is a creator of modern stage technique, merging scenes and music into
unity, a school of dramatic effects closely studied by Berlioz and Wagner.

Bizet's "Carmen" is the most brilliant and best to convey the romance
of the nomadic desire in the gypsy. The ballets and operas of Delibes
are like the fashioning of a piece of Sevres china. Cesar Franck's veil
of harmonies envelops a multitude of themes so that the tragic ending
almost gives one a sense of peace. Auber was the last to represent the
Opera Comique and is noted for his simple melodies, and the rythm and
brilliancy of his orchestral effects. Bizet's operas are notable for
their abundance of local color, but Meyerbeer was the most influential
except Wagner. He opened up a new epoch in French opera.



IV. WAGNER.


Wagner objected to the sentimental Italian music. He considered Gluck
only a musician of airs, and himself insisted on absolute equality of
words and music. His "Trilogy" is the longest musical work in the world,
containing 984,033 notes. He discarded formal arias, finales, separate
movements, to a great extent choruses, whereever histrionic delineation
did not demand them. He considered a full close or final cadence quaint
and for usual formal melodies substituted declamatory recitative or
speech song.

Gluck and Wagner brought back undying principles of dramatic worth. In
the days of Bellini, Rossini and Donizetti, melody was supreme. The
dramatic truth was lost sight of and the melody was not appropriate. In
"William Tell" and "Der Freischutz" there was a step onwards towards the
Wagner reform and a return to the first principles of dramatic art as
applied to opera by the Bardi coterie. There was recitative, declamation
and melody. Individualism was the prevailing tendency, and the success
depends on the forcibleness of character development by means of the
leitmotiv. Operatic art was here swaying between Wagnerism and the
ancient Greek drama. This union of drama and music does away with the
old absurd Italian form, in which the libretto was a mere skeleton, the
situations unnatural and the music inappropriate and undramatic.

The Wagner texts were better and abolished concerted music which was
unnatural, and he demanded distinctness in ennunciation, musical
embodiment of emotional speech, melodic independence of the orchestra and
rapid and natural action. The Italian libretto was merely an excuse for
musical adornment, but the Wagnerian opera was a source of inspiration.
Wagner translated every character, emotion, dramatic action, symbolic
idea by a series of characteristic phrases. He joined motive to motive,
developed with artistic skill a musical current rolling along in the
orchestral accompaniment and ample in every word.

In his earlier works Wagner adhered to the lyrical conception of the
opera. Speech was raised by stress of emotion into song with the
orchestra used only as an accompaniment and, under this new system,
effected an organization of instrumental and vocal forces. In "Das
Rheingold" the orchestra is exalted to symphonic dignity with the
traditional alternations of the formal song and recitative merged into
free declamation. The symphonic treatment of the orchestra led to
increased developmentt of leading motives. As symphonic music presupposes
the use of musical themes, Wagner drew his themes not from the words sung
by the characters but from the characters themselves, their thoughts,
feelings and aspirations. In the love duet in "Die Walküre" the most
delicious harmony is expressed.

Wagner was both a poet and a musician and combined poetry, music and
pantomine painting. He is called the "reformer of opera", a "regenerator
of modern drama". Wagner's great work aside from the leitmotiv was his
work with recitative. Up to this time the recitative and the arias were
dry, weak, barren and hampered every composer and poet. Up to his time
the recitative aria and the ballet had undergone no organic change,
though the aria had suffered many changes of fashion. He did not mean to
sacrifice the beauty of sound in the Italian operas, but this had so far
usurped the first place, while the dramatic motive which had inspired
the invention of the opera. His works are not conspicuous for pure
melody, for he considered the dramatic effect of chords and discords. He
paid deference to the language employed and the vocal peculiarities of
the people, for the German words were unintelligible when sung to the
florid Italian tunes. He wrote the vocal parts of his lyric dramas to
bring out the force of his poetry.

He gave new expression to new ideas. Peri, in "Eurydice", concealed
an orchestra behind the scenes. In Monteverde's "Orfeo", thirty-six
different instruments were relegated to each personage. Wagner assigned
an instrument or set of instruments to each person. His typical phrases
are most interesting. He pictures the giants, in "Das Rheingold", with
loud heavy octaves, the Nibelung, tricksters and schemers, with music of
a descending figure, twothirds the interval of a seventh, the melodies of
the Rhine with characteristic figures depicting slow undulation of water
in its depths, flux and reflux of element, ripples on the surface and the
motion of the swimmers.

His "Rheingold" music is truly scenic. It begins with a single deep
tone and then introduces instruments of a lighter color. The graduated
augmentation of the wavy accompaniment and the doubly delineative
spirit reflects the sinless quiet of the Golden Age. There are themes
for mental states and the evil Alberich is represented by abrupt jerky
music. The orchestra discourses mournfully of the renunciation of love.
Loga is depicted by fitful chromatic phrases which crackle and flash
thru the orchestra. The sword phrase consists of major harmonies over
sustained pedal point, and the thunderstorm of rushing figures in bass,
and staccato lightning in short rapid figures in lighter instruments,
crashing of the wind in chromatic phrases, a hammering rythm for
the Nibelung. Siegfried's boyhood is pictured as a wild forest lad
with a hunting call, and when he gathers pieces of the spear the music
accompaniment is in broken rythm.

In "Parsifal" the music depicts little of external things. In
"Tannhaüser" there are fancies which Wagner wished to float thru the
minds of the audience and the Pilgrim's Chant swells and disappears. In
"Tristan and Isolde" the prelude represents the spiritual progress of
the tragedy. The suffering of the wounded Tristan is shown by a theme of
descending half steps and a closing cadence of short phrases which stand
for the love glance is a downward leap of the seventh. The symbol of
death is expressed with a sudden and unprepared change from A flat to A.
The music consists of a few phrases which unfold themselves over and over
again in a variety of combinations with continually changing instrumental
color. "Die Meistersinger" prelude delineates the characteristic traits
of the personages, and the symphonic introduction indicates the elements
of the plot, the progress in its developement and the outcome. The two
classes of melodies are broadly distinguished in external physiognomy and
emotional essence, at first consecutively, then in conflict and finally
in harmonious and contented union. The solid old burghers of Nuremburg,
a little vain, are pictured by strong simple tunes with sequences of the
intervals of the simple diatonic scale, strongly and simply harmonized,
a trifle pompous in opposition to the passion of the lovers displayed.
These themes differ in every respect, melodic, rythmic, and harmonic,
and also in their treatment. The lover's theme is chromatic, the rythme
are less regular and more eager by syncopation. This is harmonized with
greater warmth and set for the instruments with greater passion.

Wagner's orchestra acquired gradually the functions of the Greek chorus,
in that it takes part in the action to publish that which is beyond the
capacity of the personages alone to utter. He unfolds thoughts, emotions,
motives and passions by means of mode, harmony, rythm, time and the
orchestration. By applying the principles of augmentation to a phrase
in the three phases of melodic, harmonic and instrumental structure, he
illustrates the tragic growth of Siegfried. He wrote his own librettos
so that his works would be consistent. "Tristan and Isolde", "Die
Meistersinger", "Der Ring des Nibelunger" and "Parsifal" realized his
conception of what a poet composer should be. Music had usurped the place
in lyric drama and music is a medium only and not an end of dramatic
expression. His leitmotiv, infinite melody and symbolical themes gave
his orchestra color. He used musical declamation for recitative secco,
employed choruses with intelligent regard, and originated arias from
the situations. Wagner lived for pure singing and did not make abnormal
demands upon the voice like those of Strauss' "Electra". He has long solo
passages and orderly development of orchestral themes, as different from
Debussy whose sounds are not connected. Wagner elevated the orchestra
from a mere accompanying force to an essential factor. He maintained that
formal song should be abolished, that the dialogue should be musical
and that the orchestra should have an orderly development of melodic
material save when the climaxes justify an apparently disconnected
dramatic melodramatic method. Damrosch criticizes Wagner because he says
everything in his orchestra, and his singer is too little considered.

However, his operas are a tableaux of gorgeous glowing pictures, and he
has had no successful imitation. His scheme of thematic identification
and development in its union of calculation and reflection and musical
inspiration, is beyond the capacities of those who have come after him.
Musical critics and historians have been occupied with the question as
to whether or not the progress in operatic composition is possible on
the lines laid down, although his influence is a modification of the old
method rather than the invention of new ideas. We look to the theatres of
Paris for his influence in corrections and technical finish. The clear
musical phrases of the "Flying Dutchman" are presented in symphonic
way and there is an introduction, aria, scene, duet and chorus. The
commencement of each of the three acts with a chorus was a mannerism, but
Wagner scarcely ever employed it. In "Tannhauser" there is only one duet.
He advanced individualism of the dramatic mood by banishing the aria. He
made the orchetra the chief sustainer of the musical framework with the
voice for the dramatic organ. The lyric recitative is reechoed at times
by melodic phrases and developed motives. The extreme limit of Wagner's
methods is "Salome", which is really a symphonic poem for a gigantic
orchestra to the accompaniment of dramatic action with a voice obligato.

Gounod did not use prolonged themes unless for a dramatic or purely
ethical reason. "Faust" is the best suited for the human voice. The
orchestra never submerges the voice and is only a factor and not a sum
total. At this time the Italian school was at the height where flimsy
librettos only served to string together duets, quartets or choruses. In
"Faust" there is the first artistic union of score and words.

Verdi had a keen dramatic vision and assigned greater importance to the
orchestra than his Italian predecessors. There is an absence, for the
most part, of set airs, and there is a continuity of musical structure.
The orchestration is wonderful, but the voice still remains the centre of
the musical system. The style is more that of Donizetti's than Bellini's,
although critics declare the music of "Ernani" noisy and commonplace,
with too much brass in the orchestra. His chorus was written in unison,
and passed too abruptly from one piece to another, and his effects were
not sufficiently prepared, but under his direction the brassiness was
kept down, and a proper balance maintained. There is genuine emotion in
his strains, significance in his melodies, characterization of personages
and forcible construction of scenes, though he did not surpass "William
Tell". He neglected concerted music and does not include one separate
regularly constructed piece. His solo melodies are beautiful. His
"Aida" is saturated with local color, Egyptian music, with a masterly
combination of strings, woodwind and voice. "Il Trovatore" is not an
opera but a set of detached pieces held in loose contact on a string.
There was little action and we find page after page to be sung at the
footlights with only mechanical gestures. Verdi avoided the "leitmotiv",
and relegated mere tune to the background. In "Falstaff" there is a
complete independence of restrictive formalism that modern music drama
requires to illustrate the play, which enhances the significance of the
situations.



V. POST WAGNERIAN SCHOOL--INCLUDING MODERN RUSSIAN, FRENCH, ITALIAN,
GERMAN, AND AMERICAN COMPOSERS.


Michael Ivanovitch Glinka is called the "Father of Russian Opera". He
combined the technique, forms and counterpoint of Italy and Germany
with the Russian folksong and rythm. He was choice of his subjects, and
thought that the management of the plots ought to be more simple, and the
music in the style of natural song. There is energy and also vitality in
"La Vie pour le Tsar" and "Russlau et Ludmille". In Russian folk songs we
find the music suitable to the words.

The Russian folk like acting and their customs in their wedding
ceremonies, etc., are an ideal basis for an opera school. Glinka used
the fierce struggle of the contending nations for a background, and let
the story be related and enacted by four central figures. His realism
surpassed the trivial impossibilities of the Italian school. He did not
combine involved themes in a pot-pourri style so that none could be
distinguished, but rather created atmosphere. His instrumentalism is
sonorous and uses five-four, six-four and seven-four time.

The "Pique Dame" of Tschaikovsky has a style like that of other composers
beyond set forms of the older operas though not of the music drama. The
arias, duets, choruses and ballets are dramatically appropriate, and
the orchestra is more of a function than an accompaniment. In "Boris
Godonnow" there is no principle tenor part, no principle contralto part
and no principle soprano part. If it is a singer's opera at all it is
a basso's, but it really is more for chorus. The writing for solo
declamatory passages occassioned the use of the lyric passages in the
orchestra, which was made the purveyor of color. The atmosphere is not
symphonic, though the development is important and we find a remarkable
use of the leitmotiv but the composer never even heard of Wagner.

Nicolai Andreyevitch Rimski-Korsakov was a serious student of Russian
folk lore. His music is free and expressive--so much so that when he
studied technique seriously, it was almost impaired. His operas are
versatile, but his "Snow Maiden" is a trifle old-fashioned, although
he fails to express pathos, delicate tenderness etc. The stage
phantasmoriga, of "Christmas Eve or Vakoul the Smith", especially at
the transformation scenes is accompanied with music wild and bizarre,
yet consummate in its descriptive finesse. He was dissatisfied with
the foreign elements of the Italian form of opera which Glinka and
Tschaikovsky could assimilate to excellent purpose. He cannot seem to
decide whether opera is lyrical or symphonic. His orchestra suggests
the soft freshness of a May night atmosphere in the steppes of Russia,
the aroma of flowers, the enchanting long drawn notes of a nightingale
interspersed with the love element, and the vocal characterization of
the Mayor and the Bailiff in this "A May Night" is extremely clever.
Like Strauss, he uses certain themes for certain instruments and has the
Russian desire to mingle meaning and sound.

Wagner laid down the theories but his imitators have failed because they
did not have his genius. Rimski-Korsakov is noted for his brilliant
orchestration and the ugly and cruel music leading up to his situations,
but he combines dignity and simplicity with realism and not with the
romantic. The protogonists of his drama are, the Russian people, and
that is the reason for the extended use of the chorus. There is no
central situation, as the people and one character, or sometimes two,
make up the drama. It is easy to omit or transpose a scene thus showing
the loosenes of the dramatic construction, which is a merit in a musical
play, for the composer can express the central ideas of the drama
without being bound hand and foot by dramatic situations. In the modern
music drama the orchestra expresses all that cannot be expressed by the
dramatic action and the singers. Rimski-Korsakov's is mainly a subjective
expression of composition, while Moussorgsky's orchestra is never
subjective, but always objective. Borodini's "Prince Igor" is a colorful
barbaric ballet while in Dargomysky's "The Water Sprite", "The Stone
Guest" there are interesting intermediary recitative sections, although
the recitative of "La Pskovitaine" is dry.

Xaver Schwarwenka'a opera "Mataswinthe" resembles those of Wagner of the
"Lohengrin" period. They are thoroughly modern. The muted horns in the
orchestra give dramatic expressiveness in harmony and the composer uses
the free arioso style. There is not the set form of the Italian school,
but the modern declamatory arioso, monologues and duets, discarding
recitative, and introducing massive ensembles with key complexity, but
never smothering them with the orchestra.

Balakirew and Borodini employ good airs, especially in the ballet, and
color their orchestra wonderfully. Cesar Cui used melodic recitative with
the interdiction of the repetitions of words, and there is an absence of
duets and trios and every piece of ensemble, and every one affecting a
definite and complete character. "Angelo" and "The Filibuster" are too
extreme, for the three acts of recitaive become monotonous. This school's
form is vague except for the audacious harmonization.

Puccini adds to Wagner's reform, with the peculiar style of modern French
and Italian composers which alternates light and varied orchestration and
melody, with harsh, almost crude instrumentation. He demonstrates that
the orchestra may be made to interpret shades and transitions of rapid
and subtle emotion, and he produced an actual musical diction with some
of the finest passages for the orchestra alone. His sense of melody is
supreme in his combination of Italian and German methods. His impressive
manner of intensifying and underscoring dramatic moments in the action is
unparalleled as is also his capacity for forceful and succinct orchestral
commentary. He uses his music to paint scenes and makes continuous use of
distinctive and rythmic melody and there is an absence of any definite
characterization by means of a leitmotiv, for his work is lighter than
that of Wagner's. He maintains that opera must have local color, so
therefore we find an interweaving of American airs in his "Girl of the
Golden West" and American and Japanese airs in "Madame Butterfly". His
score is genuinely Puccinean and an influence of Debussy is betrayed in
an harmonic way.

The prelude to "Madame Butterfly" Is not an overture, though it does
state some motives. His songs constantly contain one melody in the
instrumental against the unrelated vocal part, and he reflects the
modern moods and ideas in a score intricate in counterpoint, rich in
embellishment, full of the melodic fluency of the Italian temperament
and strength of the German school. The Japanese effects give beautiful
lyric movements but they are not as great as Verdi's. There is intense
dramatic vigor in "Manon Lescaut" which has spoken dialogue with running
orchestral accompaniment and motives. "La Boheme" has neither overture
nor intermezzo, and lacks sustained melody. Puccini is termed the only
one with as much genius as Wagner, for he agrees that too much realism
is cramping to good music, and he proves that music drama can be loosely
constructed and need not conform to spoken drama standards.

Debussy, in "Pelleas and Melisande" places a statue on a stage, not
a musical one, but one of dramatic action and declamation. The vocal
parts are reduced to a minimum of musical expressiveness and the music,
a sort of rythmless chant, is subordinate to action. He is about the
only composer who makes music dependent entirely on the drama. Wagner's
orchestra is a bug driving force, while Strauss' delicate shifting of the
background of the polyphony does not drown the voices. Debussy does not
compose with the aim of orchestral composition as do Wagner and Strauss.
With Puccini, Debussy and Charpentier, the human voice counts as a real
medium. In "Pelleas and Melisande" there is a tress on the naturalness
of the recitative. Debussy makes music the servant of the drama and
makes a symphonic use of motives which are not developed formally, but
manipulated in an undercurrent of musical thought. He declares melody
anti-dramatic, and in recitative with the orchestra there is freedom for
individual interpretation. His "L'Enfant Prodigue" is composed along the
regular lines and is his best work. He follows Cesar Franck's method
of scattering a number of disconnected themes and leaving them to sort
themselves.

In Dukas' "Ariane and Bluebeard", set melodies are avoided and
everything is in plastic style of music drama, with shimmering tone color
and a wealth of orchestral touches. Louis Aubert's "The Blue Forest",
is an effective combination of modernity and simplicity with much use
of leading motives and some fairly definite numbers. "Les Heretiques"
displays enervating voluptuousness and languor in the duet. There are
grave and large accents for the invocation to Venus by Daphne. The
orchestral lamentation at the close is graceful and the choruses are
charming, but the dialogue is wearisome. He is a disciple of Massenet in
his correct portrayal of the suavity, sweetnes and fascination of women.
In "Le Petite Boheme" the orchestration is rich and effective and the
dramatic action is developed.

Franchetti's "Germania" is a lyric two act drama with a prologue and
an epilogue, aping Wagner, Verdi, Puccini and Tschaikovski. Delibes, a
new dramatist, uses unusual discretion in the color expression of the
orchestra but with very little acting. His modulation scheme is rich and
more melodic, but it is almost as declamatory as that of Strauss. Saint
Saens and Massenet are less radical with a light melodic orchestra.
Massenet's music in "Le Jongleur" and "Griselidis" is not strong enough
to atone for tiresome episodes in the plot. The chorus plays an important
but invisible part, throughout.

The Charpentier orchestra and neither Strauss-like nor Wagnerian. His
"Louise" is constructed according to Wagner but creates an atmosphere
rather emphasizing themes. It has musical originality, dramatic
novelty and picturesque reproductions of life, style, and a blend of
romanticism and reality. He is influenced by Massenet in musical speech
and orchestral style. He emphasizes the lyrical element by the use
of melodic recitative rather than by aria. He develops motives for
descriptive importance with polyphonic style. The individual sonority of
the orchestra reduses the stress on the orchestra's departure from the
Wagnerian ideas. He reduced the dependence of these ideas to a minimum,
and asserted the value of reliance on the native sources of music and
drama.

Bruneau was a pupil of Massenet with undistinguished melodic patterns.
He followed Wagner in the close continuity of drama and accurate
characterization in music, fitting a characterization for varying
dramatic atmospheres. His "Kerim" displays militarism and is a contrast
to the pastoral elements in "L'Attaque du Moulin". His thematic
manipulation is not flexible enough but his harmonic idiom is ingenuous
and true to the qualities of race and time. D'Albert's "Tiefland" has
a prologue and two acts, and combines the Wagner and Puccini swift and
pliant orchestra, which colors and intensifies, but dispenses with the
elaboration of Wagner's symphonic chorus. Chenier's "Liberia", strange
to say, has one strain repeated and repeated. Chabrier is noted for
his delicate expression and his fidelity and vigor of delineation. In
"Briseis" the fresh aroma of the sea is suggested by the soft singing of
the sailors without any overture or prelude. Bruneau in "Zola" writes
flexible music and has a capacity for unmetred prose used for vocal
purposes, a caustic rugged sincerity with an element of passion and
little tenderness. Charpentier's "Louise" has the quick lithe movement of
the Parisian character; gay, amused and amusing.

Richard Strauss uses a more complex orchestra than Wagner and we find
leading motives as in Wagner. He is one of the most severely criticized
composers of modern times. He has been accused of outrageous infraction
of every musical law. The mood in "Electra" is implicit in the play,
but it is reinforced by Strauss' orchestration. Where Beethoven or
Wagner entrances are splendid, the instrumental equivalent of Strauss
grates. He is typical to the moods, etc., of the play. He uses discords
to represent a mad woman, but is musically beautiful in the recognition
of brother and sister and love. The chief characters are depicted by
leading motives, dissonance and orchestral bewilderments, and his power
of characterization is extraordinary. There are forty-five themes in
"Electra". He uses different instruments to represent the different
animals, etc. For instance, the grunting of the pigs is represented by
six bassoons and a flute.

There are one hundred and four musicians in "Salome", with sixty strings
and an organ celeste. Three men carry on an excited conversation, one in
seven eighth time, one in five eighth time and one in four four time,
while the orchestra continues its original tempo.

Puccini, Humperdinck and Mascagni are considered by many to be the
best living composers. "Königskinder" is chiefly declamatory and
never sacrfices the human voice for the orchestra, and expounds and
illustrates, but never fails to support the shapely arioso by rarely
defined melody.

"Conchita" by Riccardo Zandonai embraces a few fragmentary themes
and the voice parts are declamatory without a melodic line or the
shapeliness of an arioso. Mascagni's "Cavalleria Rusticana" shows the
introduction of a new device with the performance of the orchestral
interlude and division of the work into two parts, with the curtain
remaining up and showing the empty stage. Both he and Leoncavello have
written short operas with effective librettos, and they stand for
dramatic verities. Our American composers seem to follow different
schools and styles without establishing one of their own. "Mona" by
Horatio Parker assigns not a motive for a label to each character but
a tonality, though only one blessed with absolute pitch can appreciate
this. Walter Damrosch's "Cyrano" is in a post-Wagnerian style, a sort of
melodious arioso frequently broadening into definitely shaped airs, with
numerous ensembles, trios, quartets and choruses and the orchestra plays
an important part, being continuously melodious, but not monopolizing
melodic interest with leading motives attached to characters. "The Pipe
of Desire", by F. S. Converse, has passages in a later Wagnerian style,
and there are four prominent motives while the orchestra is exceedingly
good, especially in depicting the "Naioa" theme. Victor Herbert's music
is replete with local color and drama, and the representative themes are
not developed, although his music is rather light and better suited for
the operetta and the salon.

Thus we see how the musical forms of the opera have changed from the
older more vocal feats to the newer well developed music drama. Gluck
and Wagner brought back the undying principles of dramatic truth. In
the days of Bellini, Rossini and Donizetti, melody was supreme and the
dramatic truth was lost sight of. In "William Tell" and "Der Freischütz"
there was a step onward, and with Wagner we find a return to, or reform,
of the first principles of true dramatic art as applied to the opera by
the Bardi coterie. Individualism is the prevailing tendency and succes
depends on the forcibleness of the characters and the development of the
leitmotiv.

In our consideration of the operas, from "Rappresentatione di Anima"
to "Madeleine" we find the number of characters growing larger, the
orchestra more complex and perhaps usurping more time, the solo work
increasing considerably, recitative increasing, ensemble almost vanishing
and chorus work reduced to a minmum. The opera of the future will be
a medium between Wagner and Strauss, orchestral music drama, and the
Debussy incidental music, and the melodiousness of the Italian school.
The most vital music dramas of the day do not abandon nor drown out
the voice, nor do they cast aside all musical connections, but combine
orchestra, voice and dramatic action in an artistic way.



APPENDIX OF TABLES.


Table I. This table is general, comparing, by means of a percentage
system, the amount of space devoted to the orchestra solo, recitative,
ensemble and chorus work in the thirty-four operas considered. The date,
name, composer, number of acts and number of characters is shown.

Table II. This develops column "D" of table I and shows the first
the entire number of characters, and then the number of sopranos,
mezzo-sopranos, altos, tenors, baritones and bass in these same
thirty-four operas.

Table III. This table develops "F" of Table I showing the entire
percentage of orchestration in each of the thirty-four operas, and
further the division of this percentage into that devoted to overtures,
ballets and interludes.

Table IV. This table develops column "G" of Table I concerning solo
works. The percentage of the entire solo work is given and this is then
divided into the percentage devoted to that of soprano, mezzo-soprano,
alto, tenor, baritone and bass.

Table V. In this table column "H" of Table I is developed. A record
is shown of the operas which contain accompanied and unaccompanied
recitative of the thirty-four operas is shown, and this, in turn, is
divided into that of soprano, mezzo-soprano, contralto, tenor, baritone
and bass.

Table VI. Column "I" of Table I is considered here. The entire percentage
of ensemble work is shown, and this is divided into that of duets, trios,
quartets, quintets and sextets.

Table VII. This table develops column "J" of Table I and shows the
percentage of the opera devoted to chorus work and further, the division
into mixed chorus and men's and women's choruses.



TABLE I.


      A         B                           C              D

    Date.      Name.                     Composer.      No. of
                                                      Characters.

    1600    Rappresebtatione de Anima    Cavalieri         5
    1675    King Arthur                  Purcell          13
    1731    La Serva Padrona             Pergolese         2
    1762    Orfeus                       Gluck             3
    1767    Alceste                      Gluck             8
    1784    Le Domine Noir               Auber             9
    1787    Don Giovanni                 Mozart            8
    1762    L'Amant Jaloux               Gretry            7
    1800    Les Deux Journees            Cherubini         6
    1805    Fidelio                      Beethoven         7
    1816    The Barber of Seville        Rossini           8
    1821    Der Freischütz               Weber             6
    1831    La Somnambula                Bellini           7
    1832    Le Postilion Lonjuneaux      Adam              7
    1835    Lucia di Lammermoor          Donizetti         7
    1843    The Bohemian Girl            Balfe             9
    1847    Martha                       Flotow           10
    1866    Mignon                       Thomas            8
    1867    Romeo and Juliet             Gounod           12
    1874    Aida                         Verdi             6
    1875    Carmen                       Bizet            10
    1882    Parsifal                     Wagner            6
    1887    Samson and Delilah           Saint-Saens       8
    1890    Cavalleria Rusticana         Mascagni          5
    1892    Il Pagliacci                 Leoncavello       5
    1893    Le Cid                       Massenet         10
    1894    Hansel and Gretel            Humperdinck       7
    1896    Cricket on the Hearth        Goldmark          6
    1900    Louise                       Charpentier       8
    1904    Madame Butterfly             Puccini          10
    1905    Eugene Onegin                Tschaikovski     10
    1905    Salome                       Strauss           6
    1913    L'Amour dei Tre Re           Montemezzi       10
    1914    Madeleine                    Herbert           5

GENERAL.

        E          F          G         H           I          J

      No. of     % of       % of      % of        % of       % of
       Acts    Orchestra    Solo    Recitative   Ensemble   Chorus

       3         11.6      14.21     30.2         11.6      14.39
       5         30.1      21.3       9.73        17.27     21.6
       2         14.35     25.73     30.30        19.50     10.2
       3         26.85     15.27     11.87        33.13     12.88
       3         32.92     23.5      23.82         3.163    18.71
       3         23.6      18.68     18.62        15.91     23.19
       2         15.91     30.13     31.43        29.31      1.582
       3          4.17      6.53       .92        83.4       6.2
       3         22.56     13.5      22.8          7.2      36.94
       2         26        35.17     10.11        14.66     14.06
       2         22.15     17.28     10.00        38.57     12.00
       3         51.03     18.9       9.06         4.7      16.31
       2         19.61     15.19     30.33         7.523    30.6
       3         19.6      12.76     33.8         23.32     26.17
       3          8.92     39.83      5.62        10.23     35.4
       3         32.6      23.7      10.42         8.38     25.7
       4         18.85      8.73     24.03        28.77     25.95
       5         19.7      21.42     33.75         9.76     14.74
       5         29.6      32.71     17            6.97     13.72
       4         29.82     17.405    15.6          7.075    30.1
       4         31.6      26.71     15.32        15.05      9.32
       3         31.2      28.67     19.82          --      10.31
       3         35.6      25.43     19.71         4.3      15.07
       1         31.6      12.3      11.9         12.56     31.64
       2         15.77     40.2      11.97         9.18     19.88
       4         36.31     25.83     19.78         8.33      9.75
       3         36.2      25.47     18.1         14.91     15.38
       3         33.6      16.86     38.40         5.54      5.6
       4         25.6      23.97     20.32        15.6      15.51
       2         33.4      12.87     24.85         4.75     10.03
       3         32.4      33.96     15.42         2.93     15.29
       1         19.89     46.2      31.62          .93     11.36
       3         24.6      32.24     39.62          .07      3.51
       1         22.41     50.19     23.04         4.36       --



TABLE II.


      A         B                           C                  D

    Date.      Name.                     Composer.          No. of
                                                          Characters.

    1600    Rappresentatione de Anima    Cavalieri             5
    1675    King Arthur                  Purcell              13
    1731    La Serva Padrona             Pergolese             2
    1762    Orfeus                       Gluck                 3
    1767    Alceste                      Gluck                 8
    1784    Le Domine Noir               Auber                 9
    1787    Don Giovanni                 Mozart                8
    1762    L'Amant Jaloux               Gretry                7
    1800    Les Deux Journees            Cherubini             6
    1805    Fidelio                      Beethoven             7
    1816    The Barber of Seville        Rossini               8
    1821    Der Freischütz               Weber                 6
    1831    La Somnambula                Bellini               7
    1832    Le Postilion Lonjuneaux      Adam                  7
    1835    Lucia di Lammermoor          Donizetti             7
    1843    The Bohemian Girl            Balfe                 9
    1847    Martha                       Flotow               10
    1866    Mignon                       Thomas                8
    1867    Romeo and Juliet             Gounod               12
    1874    Aida                         Verdi                 6
    1875    Carmen                       Bizet                10
    1882    Parsifal                     Wagner                6
    1887    Samson and Delilah           Saint-Saens           8
    1890    Cavalleria Rusticana         Mascagni              5
    1892    Il Pagliacci                 Leoncavello           5
    1893    Le Cid                       Massenet             10
    1894    Hansel and Gretel            Humperdinck           7
    1896    Cricket on the Hearth        Goldmark              6
    1900    Louise                       Charpentier           8
    1904    Madame Butterfly             Puccini              10
    1905    Eugene Onegin                Tschaikovski         10
    1905    Salome                       Strauss               6
    1913    L'Amour dei Tre Re           Montemezzi           10
    1914    Madeleine                    Herbert               5

NUMBER AND KIND OF CHARACTERS.

       E          F              G        H         I          J

    No. of     No. of Mezzo    No. of   No. of    No. of     No. of
    Soprano    Soprano         Alto     Tenor     Baritone   Bass

    2              --            --      2          --        1
    7              --            --      1          --        5
    1              --            --       --        --        1
    2              --            1        --        --        --
    1              --            --      2          --        5
    2              3             --      1          --        3
    3              --            --      1          1         3
    3              --            --      2          --        1
    1              --            --      3          --        2
    2              --            --      2          --        3
    1              --            1       1          1         4
    2              --            --      1          1         4
    2              1             --      2          1         1
    1              --            --      4          --        3
    1              1             --      3          1         1
    3              --            --      3          1         2
    2              3             --      2          --        3
    1              1             1       2          --        3
    2              1             --      3          3         3
    1              1             --      2          --        2
    3              1             --      2          1         3
    1              --            --      1          1         3
     --            1             --      3          1         3
    1              1             1       1          1         --
    1              --            --      2          --        2
    2              --            --      2          3         3
    3              3             --      --         1         --
    3              --            --      1          1         1
    1              1             3       1          2         --
    1              2             --      2          3         2
    1              2             1       2          1         3
    1              2             --      2          1         --
    3              1             --      4          2         --
    1              1             --      1          1         1



TABLE III.


     A              B                     C               D

    Date.         Name.                Composer.   % of Entire
                                                   Orchestration.

    1600    Rappresentatione de Anima  Cavalieri        14.39
    1675    King Arthur                Purcell          30.1
    1731    La Serva Padrona           Pergolese        14.35
    1762    Orfeus                     Gluck            26.85
    1767    Alceste                    Gluck            32.92
    1784    Le Domine Noir             Auber            23.6
    1787    Don Giovanni               Mozart           15.91
    1762    L'Amant Jaloux             Gretry            4.17
    1800    Les Deux Journees          Cherubini        22.56
    1805    Fidelio                    Beethoven        26.00
    1816    The Barber of Seville      Rossini          22.15
    1821    Der Freischütz             Weber            51.03
    1831    La Somnambula              Bellini          19.61
    1832    Le Postilion Lonjuneaux    Adam             19.6
    1835    Lucia di Lammermoor        Donizetti         8.92
    1843    The Bohemian Girl          Balfe            32.6
    1847    Martha                     Flotow           18.85
    1866    Mignon                     Thomas           19.7
    1867    Romeo and Juliet           Gounod           29.6
    1874    Aida                       Verdi            29.82
    1875    Carmen                     Bizet            31.6
    1882    Parsifal                   Wagner           31.2
    1887    Samson and Delilah         Saint-Saens      35.6
    1890    Cavalleria Rusticana       Mascagni         31.6
    1892    Il Pagliacci               Leoncavello      25.77
    1893    Le Cid                     Massenet         36.31
    1894    Hansel and Gretel          Humperdinck      36.2
    1896    Cricket on the Hearth      Goldmark         33.6
    1900    Louise                     Charpentier      25.6
    1904    Madame Butterfly           Puccini          33.4
    1905    Eugene Onegin              Tschaikovski     32.4
    1905    Salome                     Strauss          19.89
    1913    L'Amour dei Tre Re         Montemezzi       24.6
    1914    Madeleine                  Herbert          22.41

ORCHESTRATION.

          E                F               G

    % of Overture.   % of Ballet.   % of Interludes.

         2.07              --            12.32
         5.21             3.34           21.55
         2.45              --            11.90
        14.87             9.01            2.97
         3.61            18.45           10.86
        10.97              --            13.6
         7.39              --             8.52
         2.64              --             1.97
        16.95             1.41            4.5
         7.4               --            18.6
         8.98              --            13.17
        21.09             3.27           26.67
         3.35              --            16.26
         4.85              --            14.85
         2.33             1.45            5.14
        16.25            10.32            5.09
         1.293             --            17.57
         6.52              --            13.2
         2.45             3.97           22.14
         6.42            10.53           12.87
         4.5              9.2            17.9
         5.1               --            26.1
          --             17.42           18.18
        21.72              .93            8.95
        15.15              --            10.62
         3.4              5.6            27.31
        16.5               --            19.7
         5.29              --            28.31
         4.75              --            20.85
         5.42              --            28.00
         3.52             9.65           19.33
          --              7.42           12.47
          --               --            24.6
          --               --            22.41



TABLE IV.


     A                  B                           C             D

    Date.             Name.                      Composer.   % of entire
                                                                solos.

    1600       Rappresentatione de Anima       Cavalieri         14.21
    1675       King Arthur                     Purcell           21.3
    1731       La Serva Padrona                Pergolese         25.73
    1762       Orfeus                          Gluck             15.27
    1767       Alceste                         Gluck             23.5
    1784       La Domine Noir                  Auber             18.68
    1787       Don Giovanni                    Mozart            30.13
    1762       L'Amant Jaloux                  Gretry             6.53
    1800       Les Deux Journees               Cherubini         13.5
    1805       Fidelio                         Beethoven         35.17
    1816       The Barber of Seville           Rossini           17.28
    1821       Der Freischütz                  Weber             18.9
    1831       La Somnambula                   Bellini           15.19
    1832       Le Postillon Lonjuneaux         Adam              12.76
    1835       Lucia di Lammermoor             Donizetti         39.83
    1843       The Bohemian Girl               Balfe             23.7
    1847       Martha                          Flotow             8.73
    1866       Mignon                          Thomas            21.42
    1867       Romeo and Juliet                Gounod            32.71
    1874       Aida                            Verdi             17.405
    1875       Carmen                          Bizet             26.71
    1882       Parsifal                        Wagner            28.67
    1887       Samson and Delilah              Saint-Saens       25.43
    1890       Cavalleria Rusticana            Mascagni          12.3
    1892       Il Pagliacci                    Leoncavello       40.2
    1893       Le Cid                          Massenet          25.83
    1894       Hansel and Gretel               Humperdinck       25.47
    1896       Cricket on the Hearth           Goldmark          16.86
    1900       Louise                          Charpentier       23.97
    1904       Madame Butterfly                Puccini           12.87
    1905       Eugene Onegin                   Tschaikovsky      33.96
    1905       Salome                          Strauss           46.2
    1913       L'Amour dei Tre Re              Montemezzi        33.24
    1914       Madeleine                       Herbert           50.19

SOLOS.

         E            F          G         H         I         J

        % of         % of      % of       % of      % of      % of
      Soprano.     Mezzo Sop.  Alto.     Tenor.   Baritone.   Bass.

        10.2          --         --        2.6        --      1.31
         7.4          --        4.061      4.62       --      5.219
        19.1          --         --          --       --      6.63
         6.52         --        8.75         --       --       --
        14.8          --         --        4.5        --     33.6
        14.92         --         --         .92       --      2.84
        15.02         --         --        3.27      4.29     7.55
         3.98         --         --         .95       --      1.58
         4.3         2.1         --        5.72       --      1.38
        17.06         --         --       14.32       --      3.79
         3.42         --       6.68        3.813     1.52     1.847
         8.76         --         --        3.41      2.41     4.32
         5.35        1.07        --        4.53      2.25     1.99
         2.67         --         --        5.33       --      4.76
        13.6         4.5         --       14.12      3.25     4.36
         4.95         --         --        7.86      6.24     5.25
         4.53         .414       --        2.81       --       .742
         5.28        5.32        --        6.71      4.11      --
        14.9          --         --        7.36      3.51     6.94
         5.69        5.03        --        3.56       --      3.125
         9.87         --        .09        7.43      1.29     8.03
         5.24         --         --        6.59      9.62     7.22
         6.00        6.27        --        6.00      6.42      --
         6.24         --         --        5.19       .87      --
        13.25         --         --        13.9     13.07      --
        15.2          --         --        5.31      1.4      3.92
         5.63       12.59        --         --       7.25      --
        10.16         --         --        1.09      2.4      3.21
         5.6          .27       3.8        9.41      4.89      --
         7.98         --         --        3.96       .874     --
        10.42        2.37        .531      3.29      8.34     8.909
        23.4          --         --       15.27      3.5      4.03
         5.32         --         --        9.64      9.72     7.56
        15.06         --         --       10.5       8.39    16.23



TABLE V.


      A              B                        C                 D

    Date.          Name.                   Composer.       Spoken text.
                                                          Accom. Unaccom.

     1600    Rappresentatione de Anima    Cavalieri          --    x
     1675    King Arthur                  Purcell            --    --
     1731    La Serva Padrona             Pergolese          --    --
     1762    Orfeus                       Gluck              --    --
     1767    Alceste                      Gluck              --    --
     1784    Le Domine Noir               Auber              --    --
     1787    Don Giovanni                 Mozart             --    --
     1762    L'Amant Jaloux               Gretry             --    x
     1800    Les Deux Jounees             Cherubini          --    --
     1805    Fidelio                      Beethoven          --    x
     1816    The Barber of Seville        Rossini            --    x
     1821    Der Freischütz               Weber              x     x
     1831    La Somnambula                Bellini            --    --
     1832    Le Postilion de Longjuneaux  Adam               --    --
     1835    Lucia di Lammermoor          Donizetti          --    --
     1843    Bohemian Girl                Balfe              --    --
     1847    Martha                       Flotow             --    --
     1866    Mignon                       Thomas             --    x
     1867    Romeo and Juliet             Gounod             --    --
     1874    Aida                         Verdi              --    --
     1875    Carmen                       Bizet              --    --
     1882    Parsifal                     Wagner             --    --
     1887    Samson and Delilah           Saint Saens        --    --
     1890    Cavalleria Rusticana         Mascagni           --    --
     1893    Le Cid                       Massenet           --    --
     1892    Il Pagliacci                 Leoncavello        --    --
     1894    Hansel and Gretel            Humperdinck        --    --
     1896    Cricket on the Hearth        Goldmark           --    --
     1900    Louise                       Charpentier        --    --
     1904    Madame Butterfly             Puccini            --    --
     1905    Eugene Onegin                Tschaikovsky       --    --
     1913    L'Amour dei Tre Re           Montemezzi         --    --
     1914    Madeleine                    Herbert            --    --

RECITATIVE.

      E          F          G          H        I         J          K

      %          %          %          %        %         %          %
    Recit.   Soprano.   Mezzo Sop.   Alto.    Tenor.   Baritone.   Bass.

    30.2        6.43        --       13.21     9.27       --        1.29
    9.73        5.39        --         --       --        --        4.34
    30.30      20.58        --         --       --        --        9.72
    11.87       7.56        --        4.315     --        --         --
    23.82       3.32        --         --      2.95       --       17.55
    18.62       4.22       3.9         .3      1.77       --        8.43
    31.43       9.16        --         --      5.53      7.47       9.27
      .92        .11        --         --       .95       --        1.58
    22.8        6.9         --        3.165    7.32       --        5.415
    10.11       4.31        --         --      2.6        --        3.3
    10.00       2.66        --         .798    2.33       --        4.2
     9.06       2.27        --         --      2.72      1.03       3.04
    30.33       5.85       3.17        --      4.78     22.2        4.33
    33.80      25.71        --         --      5.66       --        2.43
     5.62        .987       .06        --      1.76      3.09        .703
    10.42       3.26        --         --      3.5       2.91        .75
    24.03       7.45       5.02        --      3.31       --        8.25
      --        3.96      17.30        .725    6.36       --        5.41
    17.00       3.68        .97        --      4.63      5.29       2.34
    15.60       3.94       4.6         --      5.82       --        1.24
    15.32       4.52        --        1.06     5.31      2.06       8.03
    19.82       3.7         .3         --      3.92      7.59       4.31
    19.71        --        4.36        --      4.3       5.1       17.95
    11.9        2.3        1.47       4.538    1.29      2.357       --
    19.78       4.31        --         --      2.29      5.53       7.65
    11.97       4.63        --         --      3.445      --        4.89
    18.1        6.4        7.35        --       --       4.35        --
    38.40      10.42        --         --      7.31      9.44      11.23
    20.32       4.28       3.36        .43     6.19      6.14        --
    24.85      18.4        4.5         --      1.2       3.2        1.6
    15.42       2.33       2.47       1.09     2.96      1.17       5.4
    21.62       6.39       1.6        1.4     11.27       --         .96
    39.62      19.21        --         --     10.43      1.5        8.48
    23.04      12.27       6.02        --      1.06      1.4        2.29



TABLE VI.


     A              B                      C              D

    Date.         Name.                 Composer.        % of
                                                       Ensemble.

    1600   Rappresentatione de Anima   Cavalieri        11.6
    1675   King Arthur                 Purcell          17.27
    1731   La Serva Padrona            Pergolese        19.50
    1762   Orfeus                      Gluck            33.13
    1767   Alceste                     Gluck             3.163
    1784   Le Domine Noir              Auber            15.91
    1787   Don Giovanni                Mozart           19.31
    1762   L'Amant Jaloux              Gretry           83.4
    1800   Les Deux Journees           Cherubini         7.2
    1805   Fidelio                     Beethoven        14.06
    1816   The Barber of Seville       Rossini          38.57
    1821   Der Freishutz               Weber             4.7
    1831   La Somnambula               Bellini           7.523
    1832   Le Postilion Lonjuneaux     Adam             23.32
    1835   Lucia di Lammermoor         Donizetti        10.23
    1843   The Bohemian Girl           Balfe             8.38
    1847   Martha                      Flotow           28.778
    1866   Mignon                      Thomas            9.76
    1867   Romeo and Juliet            Gounod            6.97
    1874   Aida                        Verdi             7.075
    1875   Carmen                      Bizet            15.05
    1882   Parsifal                    Wagner             --
    1887   Samson and Delilah          Saint Saens       4.3
    1890   Cavalieria Rusticana        Mascagni         12.56
    1892   Il Pagliacci                Leoncavello       9.18
    1893   Le Cid                      Massenet          8.33
    1894   Hansel and Gretel           Humperdinck       5.54
    1896   Cricket on the Hearth       Goldmark          2.09
    1900   Louise                      Charpentier      15.6
    1904   Madame Butterfly            Puccini           4.75
    1905   Eugene Onegin               Tschaikovsky      2.93
    1905   Salome                      Strauss            .93
    1913   L'Amour dei Tre Re          Montemezzi         .07
    1914   Madeleine                   Herbert           4.36

ENSEMBLE

      E        F          G           H          I

    % Duet.  % Trio.  % Quartet.  % Quintet.  % Sextet.

    11.6        --       --            --        --
    14.07      3.2       --            --        --
    19.50       --       --            --        --
    33.13       --       --            --        --
      .833      --      2.53           --        --
     9.59      6.32      --            --        --
     8.89      5.69     4.47          3.91      6.35
    34.2      34.2     22.8          15.75     10.65
     2.46      2.97      .743          --       1.1
     8.3       1.66     4.7            --        --
    15.25      4.92     2.7          15.7        --
     1.6       3.1       --            --        --
     6.46       --       .963          --        --
    12.73      6.52     1.76          4.07       --
     6.4       2.07      --            --        --
     3.25      2.42     2.71           --        --
    10.68      8.50     7.89          1.708      --
     5.19      4.24      .033          --        --
     4.31       --      2.66           --        --
     4.39      2.685     --            --        --
     8.92      1.07     3.74         1.32        --
      --        --       --            --        --
     3.9        .4       --            --        --
    12.56       --       --            --        --
     8.87      .306      --            --        --
     4.3      1.97      2.06           --        --
     2.09       --       --           3.54       --
     2.09       --       --            --        --
    13.92     1.68       --            --        --
     3.41      .134      --            --        --
     1.42      .6       1.91           --        --
      .93       --       --            --        --
      .07       --       --            --        --
     4.36       --       --            --        --



TABLE VII.


     A            B                         C              D

    Date.       Name.                   Composer.      % of Chorus.

    1600   Rappresentatione de Anima    Cavalieri        14.39
    1675   King Arthur                  Purcell          21.6
    1731   La Serva Padrona             Pergolese        10.2
    1762   Orfeus                       Gluck            12.88
    1767   Alceste                      Gluck            18.71
    1784   Le Domine Noir               Auber            23.19
    1787   Don Giovanni                 Mozart            1.582
    1762   L'Amant Jaloux               Gretry            6.2
    1800   Les Deux Journees            Cherubini        36.94
    1805   Fidelio                      Beethoven        14.6
    1816   The Barber of Seville        Rossini          12.2
    1821   Der Freischütz               Weber            16.31
    1831   La Somnambula                Bellini          30.6
    1832   Le Postilion Lonjuneaux      Adam             26.17
    1835   Lucia di Lammermoor          Donizetti        35.4
    1843   The Bohemian Girl            Balfe            24.9
    1847   Martha                       Flotow           25.957
    1866   Mignon                       Thomas           33.75
    1867   Romeo and Juliet             Gounod           13.72
    1874   Aida                         Verdi            30.1
    1875   Carmen                       Bizet             9.32
    1882   Parsifal                     Wagner           10.31
    1887   Smason and Delilah           Saint Saens      15.07
    1890   Cavalleria Rusticana         Mascagni         31.64
    1892   Il Pagliacci                 Leoncavello      19.88
    1893   Le Cid                       Massenet          9.75
    1894   Hansel and Gretel            Humperdinck       5.38
    1896   Cricket on the Hearth        Goldmark          5.6
    1900   Louise                       Charpentier      15.51
    1904   Madame Butterfly             Puccini          10.03
    1905   Eugene Onegin                Tschaikovsky     15.29
    1905   Salome                       Strauss          11.36
    1913   L'Amour dei Tre Re           Montemezzi        3.57
    1914   Madeleine                    Herbert            --

CHORUS

       E            F            G

    % of mixed   % of men's   % of women's
     chorus.       chorus.      chorus.

    14.39           --           --
    18.3          2.56          1.14
    10.2           --            --
    12.88          --            --
    16.05         2.66           --
    12.7          6.09          4.3
      .923         .652          --
      --           --            --
     9.14        24.8            --
     8.3          2.71          4.59
    12.2           --            --
    12.2          3.15          3.85
    30.6           --            --
    13.37          --          14.85
    20.99        15.21           --
    21.32          --           3.58
    19.9           .647         5.41
    11.08         3.66           --
     9.03         2.5           2.19
    19.74         3.5           9.86
     5.29         1.64          2.39
     5.1          3.29          1.92
    10.43         3.21          1.43
    22.78         3.46          5.4
    19.88          --            --
     7.29         2.46           --
     1.27         4.21           --
     5.6           --            --
     6.29         4.3           4.96
     8.48          .262         1.34
    10.47          --           4.82
    11.36          --            --
     2.04         1.53           --
      --           --            --



BIBLIOGRAPHY.


Books.

   1. Apthorpe, W. F.                      Opera, Past and Present.
   2. Dannrheuther, E.                     Wagner and Reform.
   3. Edwards, H. S.                       Rossini and His School.
   4. Gounod, Chas.                        Mozart's Don Giovanni.
   5. Henderson, W. J.                     Some Forerunners of Opera.
   6. Henderson, W. J.                     A Comment on Opera.
   7. Krehbiel,                            A Book of the Opera.
   8. Krehbiel,                            Studies of Wagnerian Drama.
   9. Mendelssohn                          Stories of the Opera.
  10. Newman, E.                           Gluck and the Opera.
  11. Newman, E.                           Opera.
  12. Sonneck, O. G.                       Early Opera in America.
  13. Upton, Geo. P.                       The Standard Operas.
  14.                                      Victor Book of the Operas.
  15. Introduction--American History
      and Encyclopedia.                    H. E. Krehbiel.
  16. Groves Musical Dictionary.           Pages 446, 454.
  17. Moore Encyclopedia of Music.
  18. Naaman Zwillingsbruder.              Volume II.
  19. Dictionary of Music.                 Rieman.
  20. University Music Encyclopedia.
  21. W. B. Matthews.                     History of Music.


Program Notes.

    Chicago Grand Opera Company.
    Boston Grand Opera Company.


Special Articles in the Programs.

    1. Brennon, Algernon St. John.    Translating Opera.

    2. Haexter, Hermann H.,           English Grand Opera in America.

    3. Hackett, Karleton,         (a) Madame Butterfly.
                                  (b) Il Trovatore.
                                  (c) Faust.
                                  (d) Cleopatre.
                                  (e) Thais.
                                  (f) Thanhauser.

    4. Oberdorfer, Anne Faukner,  (a) Influence of Wagner.
                                  (b) Reforms of Gluck.
                                  (c) Monna Vanna.
                                  (d) Louise.


Aid has been recieved from the following first hand sources.

      I. Interview with Mr. C. C. Birchard of Boston.
     II. Notes from class in Music II, Summer of 1916.
    III. Lecture on Modern Music. Thos. Whitney Surrette.
     IV. Attendance at the various operas for the past six seasons
             at Chicago.


Magazine Articles.

  1913 Atlantic Monthly         The Opera                Thos. W. Surrette.

  Vol. 13.  Bookman             Opera Season 1900-1901        E. Singleton.

  Vol. 29.     "                Lawrence Gilman on "Chapters of the Opera"
                                by Krehbiel.

  Vol. 81.  Century             Acting in Lyric Drama          Mary Garden.

  Vol. 89.  Contemporary Review "Nicolai Andreyevitch Rimski-Korsakov"
                                                              A. E. Keeton.

  Vol. 13.      "     "         Gluck and Puccini             A. E. Keeton.

  Vol. 97.      "     "         Two Centuries of French Opera.

  Vol. 106.     "     "         Gluck & the Reform of Opera.       K. Roof.

  1908      Craftsman           Nationalism in Opera.

  1909         "                Elektra in Dresden.

  Vol. 39.  Current Literature  Two New French Operas.

  Vol. 48.     "     "          (a) American reception of Elektra.
                                (b) Sorrowful Fate of Librettists.

  1909      Etude               Frank Moore Jeffery                Bellini.

  1910        "                 Future of Italian Opera in America
                                                                Ant. Scott.

              "                 Modern French and German Opera.
                                                              Arthur Elson.

              "                 Modern Italian Opera and Tendencies.
                                                               L. C. Elson.

              "                 Gluck's Operatic Ideas      Henry T. Finck.

              "                 Beginnings of Opera            "       "

              "                 Conflict of Speech and Song    Fred Corder.

  Vol. 37.  Forum               Music                          Joseph Sohn.

  Vol. 41.    "                 Lesson from Wagner            F. R. Burton.

  Vol. 3.   Fortnightly         Centenary of Wagner      Franklin Peterson.

              "                 Moussorgsky's Operas.

  1909       "                  Beaumarchais and Musicians       E. Newman.

  1913       "                  Puccini.

  Vol. 54. Harper's Weekly      Two New Operas                   L. Gilman.

             "                  Bruneau on Opera.

             "                  Strauss' Electra.

             "                  Tschaikovsky's Queen of Spade

  1910       "                                              F. S. Converse.

  1910       "                  Pipe of Desire                      Gilman.

  Vol. 64.  Independent         Bel Canto                       Tetrazzini.

  Vol. 69.      "               Future of the Opera                Puccini.

  Vol. 19.  Living Age          Music and Modern Opera.

  1906            "             Apostasy of a Wagnerian      E. A. Baugham.

  1910            "             Electra and the Future of Music Drama.

  1910   Literary Digest        (a) Our Gilded Opera.
                                (b) Slow Growth of Shakespearean Opera.

  1905     Musician             New School of Music             E. B. Hill.

  1908        "                 Peleas and Melisande             "  "  "

  1910        "                 Group of French and Italian Composers
                                                             F. H. Marling.

  1910        "                 Synopsis of Modern French Music E. B. Hill.

  1911        "                 (a) Music of Greek Drama
                                (b) Rimski-Korsakov           C. A. Browne.

  Vol. 18.    "                 Opera as a factor in Music   Arthur Wilson.

  Vol. 9.   Music               (a) Wagner
                                (b) Gounod
              "                 (a) Boris Godonow                A. Pougin.
              "                 (b) Balakirew and Borodine
              "                 (c) First Greek Drama          Arthur Weld.
              "                 (d) "Mataswinthe"

  Vol. 12   Music               Young Russian School             A. Pougin.

  Vol. 13     "                 Puccini                        Alfred Vert.

  Vol. 14     "                 Rimski-Korsakov                  A. Pougin.

  Vol. 39   Nation              German and Italian Opera.

  Vol. 40     "                 German Opera in New York.

  Vol. 90     "                 Massenet's Music.

  Vol. 96     "                 Weber.

  Vol. 102    "                                                H. T. Finck.

  Vol. 102    "                 (a) Comments on the Metroplitan Season.
                                (b) Shakespearean Operas.
                                (c) Music.

  1908   19th Century           Music Drama of the Future      E. J. Levey.

  1887   North American         Boucicault and Wagner          E. J. Levey.

  Vol. 9  New Music Review      Les Hugenote                   Saint Saens.

           "    "      "        Puccini                       Vernon Black.

  Vol. 8   "    "      "        At the Opera.

  1910     "    "      "        Königskinder.

           "    "      "        Natoma.

  1910     "    "      "        Cyrano                     Walter Damrosch.

           "    "      "        Conchita                 Riccardo Zandonai.

  1895 Saturday Review          Opera and Acting                   J. F. R.

  Vol. 80   "      "            Weber and Wagner                   J. F. R.

  Vol. 80   "      "            Italian and German Opera           J. F. R.

  Vol. 80   "      "            At the Opera                       J. F. R.

  Vol. 84   "      "            Concerts at the Opera              J. F. R.

  Vol. 95   "      "            Italian Opera                      J. F. R.

  Vol. 43 Review of Reviews  }
  Vol. 40   "           "    }  Opera.
  Vol. 49   "           "    }

  1898 Scribner's               (a) Gluck and Wagner.
                                (b) Tendencies of Modern Opera    De Koven.
                                (c) Mozart's Magic Flute.

  Vol. 18   World Today         Chevalier Gluck and the Leading Motive.





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