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Title: Narrative of a Voyage to Hudson's Bay in His Majesty's Ship Rosamond - Containing Some Account of the North-eastern Coast of America and of the Tribes Inhabiting That Remote Region
Author: Chappell, Edward
Language: English
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Transcriber’s note:

      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

      A carat character is used to denote superscription. One
      (examples: M^R, 13^th, M^cKenzie).

                           [Illustration: MAP
                                 of the
                          GREAT NELSON RIVER,
                               _from the_
                 Great Lake Winnepeg to the Gull Lake.
                        _Shewing the different_
                      Portages, Falls, and Rapids;
                       _BY M^R. WILLIAM HILLIER_
                       _Master in the Royal Navy_
_N.B. The figures denote the number of feet in each fall of the River._]
                          High-Resolution Map

                                  OF A
                              HUDSON’S BAY
                      HIS MAJESTY’S SHIP ROSAMOND
                       CONTAINING SOME ACCOUNT OF
                             OF THE TRIBES
                          THAT REMOTE REGION.

                     LIEUT. EDWARD CHAPPELL, R. N.

  Ὑµεῖς δ’, ὦ Μοῦσαι, σχολιὰς ἐνέποιτε χελεύθους.
                               DIONYSII PERIEGESIS. v. 63. _Ozon._ 1697.

                 By H. Watts, Crown Court, Temple Bar.

                             for J. Mawman,
                    Ludgate Street, London, England

                                 TO THE
                       LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTONE
                              BARON TEMPLE
                           _SECRETARY OF WAR_
                              &c. &c. &c.

                             THE FOLLOWING
                              IS DEDICATED
                       AS A MEMORIAL OF GRATITUDE
                        AND A TRIBUTE OF RESPECT
                           BY HIS LORDSHIP’S
                      OBLIGED AND FAITHFUL SERVANT
                                                        EDWARD CHAPPELL.


Towards the close of the year 1814, a young naval officer, Lieutenant
_Chappell_, of his Majesty’s ship _Rosamond_, who had recently returned,
for the second time, from an expedition to the _North-eastern_ coast of
_America_, brought to _Cambridge_ a collection of the dresses, weapons,
&c. of the _Indians_ inhabiting _Hudson’s Bay_[1]; requesting that I
would present these curiosities to the Public Library of the University.
This Collection so much resembled another which the _Russian_ Commodore
_Billings_ brought to Petersburg from the _North-western_ shores of the
same continent, and part of which Professor _Pallas_ had given to me in
the _Crimea_, that, being desirous to learn whether the same customs and
language might not be observed over the whole of _North America_,
between the parallels 50° and 70° of north latitude, I proposed to
Lieutenant _Chappell_ a series of questions concerning the natives of
the _North-eastern_ coast; desiring to have an answer to each of them,
in writing, founded upon his own personal observations. In consequence
of this application, I was entrusted with a perusal of the following
_Journal_. It was written by himself, during his last expedition: and
having since prevailed upon him to make it public, it is a duty
incumbent upon me to vouch for its authenticity, and to make known some
particulars respecting its author, which may perhaps give an additional
interest to his Narrative. The Letters, indeed, which have accompanied
his communications with regard to his late voyage, are strongly tinged
with the “_infandum jubes renovare dolorem_;” because, to the ardent
spirit of a _British_ seaman, no service can be more depressing than
that which, during war, banishes him from the career of glory, to a
station where no proof of skill or of intrepidity, no enterprise of
fatigue or of danger, is ever attended with honour or reward[2].
Lieutenant _Chappell_ was twice ordered upon this station; after
exploits in the navy, which, at a very early period of his life,
obtained for him the rank he now holds.

In 1805, he assisted in cutting out the _Spanish_ privateer-schooner,
_Isabella La Demos_, from under the batteries of a small bay in _South
America_[3]. In 1806, after witnessing the battle of _St. Domingo_, he
was with the boats which burned the _Imperiale_ of 120 guns, and the
_Diomede_ of eighty guns. In the latter end of the same year, his ship,
the _King’s Fisher_, having towed _Lord Cochrane_’s frigate from under
the batteries of _L’Isle d’Aix_, near _Rochfort_, assisted in the
capture of _Le President_ of forty-four guns. In 1808, he was at the
capture of the _Danish_ islands, _St. Thomas_ and _St. Croix_, in the
_West Indies_. In 1808, or 1809, he was in the _Intrepid_ of sixty-four
guns, when she engaged two _French_ frigates, and was very severely
handled. Afterwards, he was at the capture of the _Saints_, and of the
Island of _Martinico_, when he was employed on the shore, in fighting
the _breaching_ batteries. In 1810, he commanded a gun-boat during the
siege of _Cadiz_. The conduct of the gun-boats upon this occasion
requires no comment: it was then that he received a severe wound in the
thigh, and was made Lieutenant. In 1812, he assisted in landing the
Expedition, under General _Maitland_, in _Murcia_. In 1813, he was
employed in protecting the fisheries upon the coast of _Labrador_. In
1814, he made the voyage to _Hudson’s Bay_, whereof the following pages
contain his unaltered Narrative. In 1815, being First Lieutenant of his
Majesty’s ship _Leven_, he was employed in assisting the Chiefs of _La
Vendee_, and in reinstating the Prince _Tremouille_ in the
Captain-generalship of the Department _de Cotes d’Or_.

Such have been the services of this meritorious officer, now only
twenty-five years of age; but, owing to the termination of the war,
dismissed, with many other of his gallant comrades, from the active
duties in which they were engaged. These circumstances, as it must be
obvious, are by no means querulously introduced: nor is the following
Narrative made public with the slightest intention of reproaching the
_Admiralty_ with the hard lot to which one of its naval heroes was
exposed, in being twice employed in such a service:—it is a lot that
must fall somewhere; and the present Publication will shew, that the
person upon whom it devolved is able to give a satisfactory account of
the manner in which this part of his duty was performed.

                                                   EDWARD DANIEL CLARKE.

  University Library, Cambridge,
        _April 7, 1817_.

                          LIST OF ENGRAVINGS.

  Map of the _Great Nelson River_, from the _Great Lake Winnepeg_ to
          the _Gull Lake_; shewing the different Portages, Falls,
          and Rapids: by Mr. _William Hillier_, Master in the Royal
          Navy                                         facing Title-page.
  View of the _Rosamond_ passing to windward of an _Iceberg_         P. 1
  _Cape Saddle Back_, north 7 or 8 miles: with two remarkable
          _Icebergs_ off the low point                                 55
  Male _Esquimaux_, in his Canoe                                      ib.
  An _Esquimaux_ Hut                                                   75
  Sledge drawn by Dogs, used by _European_ Traders at _Hudson’s
          Bay_, and on the Southern Coast of _Labrador_               106
  Bark Canoe of the _Cree Indians_ in _Hudson’s Bay_                  ib.
  Appearance of the Entrance of _Prince of Wales’s Sound_, bearing
          S. W. ½ W. about nine leagues;—taken August 17, 1814        133
  The _Rosamond_ grappled among close Ice                             ib.
  Interior of a Wigwam of the _Cree Indians_                          211

   [Illustration: VIEW _of the_ ROSAMOND, _passing to windward of an_

                                &c. &c.

On the 14th day of _May_, 1814, Captain _Campbell_ received orders to
repair, without delay, to _Hoseley Bay_, on the coast of _Suffolk_; and
there to wait for his final directions from the Admiralty.

The _Rosamond_, at this time, had been lying about a fortnight at
_Spithead_, perfectly ready for sea; and it was conjectured that
_America_ would have been the place of her destination: of course, many
among us were big with the hopes of fame, and many with the expectation
of fortune. When the above-mentioned orders arrived, however, all chance
of our proceeding to the seat of war appeared at an end: yet we consoled
ourselves with the reflection, that we should doubtless be employed on
the coast of _Norway_; as the whole of that kingdom had been declared in
a state of blockade, in consequence of the _Norwegians_ refusing to
accede to the Treaty of _Keil_, by which their country was to be annexed
for ever to the dominion of _Sweden_. Accordingly, we sailed from

May _15th_.—We had light winds all this day. As we passed out of
_Spithead_, through _St. Helen’s_, we observed His Majesty’s ship
_Adamant_, and an _East-India_ ship, going in. About nine in the
evening: we passed close to the _Owers Light_.

May _16th_.—In the forenoon, fine calm weather, we came to an anchor in
sight of _Brighton_, to wait the change of tide: saw His Majesty’s ship
_Hope_ at anchor in the _Roads_. In the afternoon, got under weigh:
observed His Majesty’s brig _Tigress_ standing down _Channel_. Towards
nightfall, we weathered the promontory of _Beachy Head_, and passed in
view of _Hastings_, where the famous battle was fought between _King
Harold_ and _William the Conqueror_.

May _17th_.—At two in the morning, anchored in sight of _Dungeness_
Light-house. At seven A.M. weighed, with a foul wind, and beat towards
the _South Foreland_. Came in sight of the coast of _France_: observed a
large pillar, or monument, on the hills above _Boulogne_, said to have
been erected by _Buonaparte_. In the afternoon, anchored off the town of
_Folkestone_. Towards evening, weighed again; and, after night-fall,
anchored in _Dover Roads_.

May _18th_.—In the morning we had a fine view of _Dover Castle_, the
majestic _South Foreland_, &c. Got under weigh, and stood across the
_Channel_;—observed many vessels passing between _France_ and _England_.
Saw the spires of _Calais_. Beat up at the back of the _Goodwin
Sands_;—observed a three-decked ship in the _Downs_, hoisting the flag
of his Royal Highness the _Duke of Clarence_, under a general salute of
cannon from all the shipping. Towards evening, anchored in sight of
_Margate_; but after night-fall, got under weigh again.

May _19th_.—In the morning, anchored again, near a shoal called the
_Galloper_. In the forenoon, weighed. Towards evening, passed
_Orford-Ness_ Light-houses, and anchored in _Hoseley Bay_. An officer
was immediately sent on shore, to bring on board the final orders. The
boat was nearly overturned in landing, in consequence of the heavy surf
on all parts of this coast: however, the officer returned about
midnight, and delivered the orders to the Captain. Nothing could exceed
the consternation and astonishment of every person on board, to find we
were directed to proceed, almost immediately, for _Hudson’s Bay_!—Had we
been ordered to the _North Pole_, there could not have been more long
faces among us. Down fell, at once, all the _aërial castles_ which we
had been so long building; and nothing remained, but the dismal prospect
of a tedious voyage, amidst icy seas, and shores covered with eternal

May _20th_.—A boat was this day despatched to _Harwich_, from which
place we were about ten miles distant, to get on board what few naval
stores were wanted to complete us for the voyage. _Harwich_ is a small
town, with narrow streets, not paved: there are some pleasant walks in
the environs. The harbour is a good one, with sufficient depth of water
for a frigate. The place is well fortified towards the sea, and has a
small naval arsenal. A guard-ship is generally stationed at this port,
during war.

May _21st_.—In the morning, His Majesty’s ship _Unicorn_ passed us,
under an immense press of sail, with a Royal standard flying at her
mast-head, which we saluted with twenty-one guns.

May _22d_.—Towards the evening of this day, our Captain received orders
to proceed to the _Nore_, in order to procure pilots to conduct the ship
safe to the _Orkneys_. We had also another motive in visiting the _Nore_
at this time, which I may, perhaps, be excused relating, although it
have no immediate connexion with the voyage that we were about to
undertake. Previous to our sailing from _Spithead_, a shipwright
belonging to the dock-yard had been accidentally killed, by our having
fired a signal-gun without taking out the shot. Unfortunately, the poor
man’s wife, at the moment of his death, was pregnant of her tenth child.
A subscription was instantly opened for her, on board our ship, and £.60
was the next day paid into her hands. I have since been informed, that
the different ships at _Spithead_ followed our example, as did also the
workmen of the Dock-yard; and a handsome sum was collected in the whole.
No blame could be attributed to any person; but, to prevent the
possibility of such an imputation, it was thought necessary that the
gunner should be tried by a court-martial; and it was to assemble this
court, that we were now ordered to proceed to the _Nore_[4].

May _23d_.—In the morning, we weighed, with a strong breeze in our
favour; and at noon anchored at the _Great Nore_;—observed a _Russian_
Vice-admiral, with a squadron belonging to that nation, at anchor there
also. We remained at this place, waiting the arrival of the
_Hudson’s-Bay_ traders, until the 30th; when the two ships arrived;
accompanied by a brig belonging to the _Moravian Missionary Society_,
bound for the coast of _Labrador_, whither she was to proceed under our
protection, or at least as far as our courses lay together. It is a rule
with the _Hudson’s-Bay Company_, to make their ships always _break
ground_ on the 29th of _May_; although, sometimes, they do not leave the
river _Thames_ before _June_. The same day on which the _Hudson’s-Bay_
ships arrived at the _Nore_, we were joined by a new Captain
(_Stopford_); our former one (_Campbell_) not wishing, for many reasons,
to go the voyage. His loss was most sincerely regretted by all of us:
however, our new Commander proved himself, during the whole time we
sailed together, to be one of the most exemplary captains in His
Majesty’s navy. We continued getting our stores on board until—

June _4th_.—Early this day, we weighed anchor. Being the birth-day of
our venerable King, all the _English_ and _Russian_ ships of war were
dressed with flags, and made a very gay appearance.

June _5th_.—We anchored twice this day, to wait the change of tide: at
first, off the _Gunfleet Sand_; and towards evening we brought up, off

June _6th_.—In the morning, weighed, and beat up into _Hoseley
Bay_;—found lying there His Majesty’s ship _Bristol_. Towards evening,
sent the purser on shore, to procure fresh beef.

June _7th_.—The boat returned in the morning, with the purser in sad
distress; eight men having deserted from the boat, from an antipathy to
the voyage.

June _8th_.—A party of soldiers, and an officer, were sent to look for
the deserters; but in the evening they returned, unsuccessful.

June _9th_.—In the afternoon, weighed with our convoy, and beat towards
_Yarmouth_. In the evening, anchored off _Aldborough_.

June _10th_.—In the morning, we again weighed. At noon, anchored at
_Yarmouth_; and sent a boat on shore, to procure beef and vegetables for
the ship’s company; as this was the last place we touched at, in
_England_. _Yarmouth_ is a large straggling place; consisting of one or
two good streets, and many narrow lanes; with open spaces here and
there, like squares. The church has a most beautiful spire. The town
does not contain any magnificent buildings: here is, however, a very
fine market-place; and an agreeable promenade, under the shade of two
rows of trees, running along the quay on the banks of the river
_Wensum_, on the N. W. side of the town. All the soil around the town is
barren; which accounts for the waste of room in the buildings, as land
is of little or no value. I know not any place in _Great Britain_ which
has finer bathing conveniences. In the evening, we again weighed; and at
night-fall passed by _Haseborough_ and _Cromer_ Light-houses.

June _11th_.—In the morning, we saw the _Spurn_ Light-house; and towards
noon, we passed by _Flamborough Head_, in _Yorkshire_. Towards evening,
we had a fine view of _Scarborough_.

June _12th_.—A beautiful day, running with a fair wind and smooth sea.
In the evening, saw the blue tops of the _Cheviot Hills_.

June _13th_.—A fine fair breeze. Towards noon, passed the _Buchan Ness_,
and had a good view of _Peterhead_. Towards evening the wind increased
to a gale;—hove-to, until morning.

June _14th_.—In the morning, passed the _Pentland Frith_, in which the
tide is like a whirlpool; and, after having run by _Long-Hope_ Harbour,
we anchored at _Stromness_, in the Island of _Pomona_, the principal of
the _Orkneys_; immediately opposite to which is the _Isle of Hoy_,
having on it a remarkable high mountain, in shape very like the Rock of
_Gibraltar_. Immediately on our arrival, the two _Hudson’s-Bay_ ships
fired seven guns each, to give notice to the inhabitants of their
arrival. The visits of the _North-west men_, as the _Hudson’s-Bay_ ships
are denominated, creates a sort of annual mart, or fair, in the
_Orkneys_; as it is from hence that they derive all the necessary
supplies of poultry, beef, vegetables, and even men, to fit them for so
long a voyage:—consequently, the _Orkney_ people listen with anxiety for
this salute of cannon, which announces the arrival of the N. W. ships;
as almost every person in the island is, in some way or other,
interested in their coming.

June _15th_.—We were employed in watering the ship; and found it
difficult to procure a sufficient quantity, owing to a great drought
which had lately prevailed.

The town of Stromness is an irregular assemblage of dirty huts, with
here and there a decent house. There is scarcely any thing deserving the
name of a street in the place, although it is said to contain a
population of two thousand souls. A few years ago it did not contain
above one third of that number. The harbour is small, but very secure:
it is defended from the sea by an island called _The Holmes_; and there
is a good summer roadstead outside the island, called the _Back of the
Holmes_. Firewood cannot be procured in the _Orkneys_, where there are
no trees; but _Newcastle_ coal is always remarkably cheap. About six
miles from _Stromness_ is a large lake, called _Stonehouse Loch_, in
consequence of some high flat stones which stand by the side of it,
something similar in appearance to _Stonehenge_, on _Salisbury Plain_:
they bear no inscription, and seem to have been set on their ends in the
same state as when taken from the quarry[5]:—the view given of them in
_Barrie’s_ Description of the _Orkney Islands_ is perfectly correct. The
quantities of grouse, partridge, plover, snipe, &c. in the _Orkneys_, is
astonishing: neither foxes nor hares are to be found; but rabbits are
very numerous. There are some spots of good land in the valleys; but in
such a bad state of cultivation, from idleness and want of manure, that
at least five weeds are produced to one blade of corn. Wheat is not
grown in any of the islands; the produce consisting, principally, in
barley and oats. But the chief export of the _Orkneys_ is kelp, ashes
obtained by the burning of sea-weed[6], with which all the shores
abound: this proves a most valuable acquisition to those gentlemen whose
estates border on the sea; as it sells, on an average, at £.11 a ton;
and is collected, at low water, without much difficulty. The kelp
estates produce triennial harvests; and when this commodity is gathered,
it is sent either to _Newcastle_, to _Dumbarton_, or to _Leith_; great
quantities being required for the use of the glass-houses established in
those towns. The number of tame geese reared in these islands is really
surprising: they wander about the barren hills in flocks, like sheep;
and the owners give themselves little or no trouble about them, until
they are wanted for sale, or for their own consumption.

June _16th_.—I accompanied some of the officers on a shooting party.
This circumstance is merely mentioned to introduce a description of the
farm-houses; as we visited many of them during our excursion. The
delineation of _one_ will answer for _all_: and surely there never was a
scene better fitted for the pencil of a _Morland_! In one corner stood a
calf; in another, a sheep and its lambkin; in the next, walled in with
loose stones, a piece of sail-cloth served as a bed for the family; and
the fourth corner, as also the sides and roof of the building, were
garnished with decayed farming implements. The centre of the habitation
was occupied by a turf fire, before which some oaten cakes were
roasting; and, in the middle of the roof, a large square hole was cut,
to allow the smoke to escape. By the side of the fire, in a large and
remarkably high rush chair, sat an old woman, with a spinning-wheel
before her, endeavouring to still the cries of a very dirty infant that
lay in her lap. There was also another apartment to the hut, for the
accommodation of the cows, of which they had a considerable number. The
two rooms were not even divided by a door from each other, and the bare
earth was the only flooring of either.

During this day we were still employed in getting water on board,
although it is rather difficult to be procured.

June _17th_.—Our carpenters were busily employed in affixing ring-bolts
to the rudder; from which strong iron chains were brought in at the
quarter ports of the ship, in order to secure the rudder against the
shocks of the drift ice; as we were well aware that we should have to
force our way through large quantities of it, in passing _Hudson’s
Straits_: and we afterwards found this to have been a most necessary
precaution. We likewise borrowed from the _Hudson’s-Bay_ ships the
necessary store of ice-anchors, ice-axes, and ice-poles; neither of
those articles having been supplied by the Admiralty, probably from not
knowing that they would be requisite.

June _18th_.—During the whole of the time that we remained at _Orkney_
after this day, we were busily employed in getting all kinds of
necessaries on board.

June _29th_.—We sailed from _Orkney_, at 8 A.M. with the two
_Hudson’s-Bay_ ships, and the _Moravian_ Missionary brig, in company.
Towards evening it blew a fresh breeze, and the wind veered round
against us. At sunset we had a distant view of the _Caithness Hills_ and
the _Isle of Shetland_.

June _30th_.—There being a very heavy sea, with rain at times, during
this day, we did not perceive any alteration in the climate. The wind
still proving foul, we continued to stand to the northward. In the
evening, after some very violent squalls and heavy showers of rain, the
wind suddenly veered to the N. W. and reduced us to close-reefed
topsails, blowing very hard. During the night we stood to the S. W.

July _1st_.—In the early part of the day the gale abated by degrees, and
towards evening we had fine sunny weather. Wind still in the N. W.
quarter; consequently we have made way to the S. W. since yesterday,
about 67 miles. Latitude at noon this day, 59°. 10′. N.

July _2d_.—In the morning, we saw the _Lewis Islands_; and the wind
chopping round to S. W. we tacked, and stood off shore to the N. W. At
noon, as the wind continued to blow steady in the S. S. W., we steered
W. N. W. Many Solan geese flying about: these are nearly the size of a
tame goose, but the neck much shorter, and the wings longer, tipped with
black; all the rest of their plumage being perfectly white. At
night-fall, the weather misty, but not cold.

On taking our last departure from the land this morning, it is necessary
to observe, that, in my narrative of the voyage, I shall merely state,
on each day, the course and distance run by the ship in the preceding
day, without making a dull account of latitude, longitude, bearings and
distances, allowances for lee-way, currents, &c. &c.; as all this
farrago of nautical calculation, however necessary it may be to
mariners, cannot fail to tire out the patience of a general reader; and
the object of this publication, is not so much to point out the track of
the _Rosamond_, in her voyage to _Hudson’s Bay_, as to describe the
manners and customs of the different tribes inhabiting the shores of
that immense gulf.

July _3d_.—Course run, W. by N. 66 miles. Thick, foggy weather. During
the morning we frequently lost sight of our convoy, but saw them again
on its clearing up. Light winds from the S. W. Ship standing to the
north. Observed great quantities of a peculiar kind of sea-weed, in the
shape of stars. Numberless sea-birds round the ship, particularly Solan

July _4th_.—Course run, W. by S. ½ S. 79 miles. In the middle of the
night we had a fair wind, which held during the day, accompanied by a
thick fog; ship going generally about five miles an hour. Perhaps it is
deserving notice, that, since our departure from _Orkney_, we never had
a night so dark as not to be able to read and write.

July _5th_.—Course run, W. by N. ¼ N. 101 miles. During the night, lost
our fair wind, and got a westerly breeze, with sunny weather. Towards
noon, the wind again veered to the S. W. This day we obtained an
observation of the sun, for the first time since our leaving _Orkney_,
and found ourselves in latitude 59°. 8′. N. We saw neither Solan geese
nor sea-weed.

July _6th_.—Course run, W. by S. ½ S. 90 miles. A fair wind all day,
variable from N. E. to S. E., ship steering W. N. W. at about four miles
an hour. Noticed the air to be getting much colder, probably occasioned
by the wind shifting to the N. E. The sea-birds and weed appeared now to
have taken their final leave of us; which certainly agrees with the
great Cook’s opinion, that when met with in vast numbers, they are a
certain indication of the proximity of land. In the evening, we saw a
large _finner_ or two. Ship going about seven miles an hour.

July _7th_.—Course run, W. ¾ S. 121 miles. In the middle of the night,
we lost our fair wind. Early in the morning, saw a strange vessel to
windward, and made all sail after her: continued in pursuit the whole
day, with light winds, varying from North to East. Every person on board
was highly elated with the thoughts of a prize. All notion of the
strange vessel’s being a friend was scouted; and it was carried _nem.
con._ that she could be no other than a rich _American_ from
_Archangel_, homeward bound.

July _8th_.—Course, W. by N. ¼ N. 79 miles. At one A.M. spoke the vessel
that we were in pursuit of. She was a light brig from _Copenhagen_,
bound to _Davis’ Straits_, where the _Danes_ have some settlements.
Early in the morning we rejoined our convoy, and shortly afterwards
perceived another brig to windward: we immediately made all sail in
pursuit of her, but soon relinquished the chase, as we were apprehensive
it might lead us too far from our convoy. Wind about N. by W. Ship
standing to the westward. No birds to be seen, excepting one or two
solitary sea-gulls, which are to be met with at any distance from the

July _9th_.—Course run, S. W. ¾ W. 107 miles. A gloomy day. Wind blowing
fresh from the North. Towards evening, the wind abated; and it fell
calm, which continued through the night.

July _10th_.—Course run, S. W. by W. ¾ W. 36 miles. At 2 A.M. the ship
was so surrounded by myriads of porpoises, that it appeared as if they
had some intention of taking us by _storm_. It is an opinion of the
sailors, that those fish generally precede a smart gale, and make
towards the point whence the wind will arise. These swarms were
proceeding in a North-east direction. During the fore-part of the day we
had light variable winds from the southward; and at noon were taken
aback, with a stiff gale from the N. N. W.: it continued to blow hard in

July _11th_.—Course run, S. W. 32 miles. During this day, the wind blew
a pleasant breeze from the N. W. At 10 A.M. we put about ship, and stood
to the North. It is worthy of remark, that the sky had been so
continually overcast, since we quitted the _Orkneys_, that we had been
only able to procure the meridian altitude of the sun twice. Thus we had
been twelve days already on our voyage, with only two good observations.
It ought also to be mentioned, that we found ourselves much retarded by
the bad sailing of the _North-west_ ships; but the _Moravian_ brig
sailed very well.

July _12th_.—Course run, N. W. by W. 62 miles. It blew strong all night;
but we had a fine day; and towards noon, the wind shifted round, and
blew fair at South. We got a peep at the sun this day, and found we were
in latitude 57°. 15′. N.

July _13th_.—Course run, W. ½ N. 76 miles. In the morning, the wind
changed to N. by E. and blew a moderate breeze. After night-fall we had
a faint appearance of the _Aurora Borealis_, in the shape of a
_rainbow_, which rendered it peculiarly interesting.

July _14th_.—Course run, S. W. by S. 71 miles. At 9 A.M. we tacked
about; and the wind coming fair, we steered N. W. by N. Our ship this
forenoon was completely surrounded by innumerable flights of sea-gulls.
I should imagine that they had been attracted hither by some unusual
assemblage of fish, as they were all busily employed in attacks on the
finny tribe.

July _15th_.—Course run, W. by N. 106 miles. This morning we were going
five miles an hour, with a fair breeze and thick weather. It is to be
observed, that, with a wind from the South-east or East, we have always
had a fog; and I have also noticed this to be the case as far to the
southward as the Banks of _Newfoundland_; although I am utterly
incapable to account for it satisfactorily.

Since our departure from _Stromness_, the variation of the compass had
been gradually increasing. We this day allowed for a difference of four
points westerly, between the magnetic and the true needle; whereas at
_Orkney_ there is only a difference of two points and a half, or 28
degrees. Thus it continued increasing until we arrived within about 300
miles of the settlements in _Hudson’s Bay_; when it decreases much more
suddenly; falling away, in that short distance, to half a point, or five
degrees, West—this being the ascertained variation at _York Factory_. I
should think that no subject could exhibit to an inquisitive mind a more
astonishing matter of inquiry, than the singular phenomenon which I have
just noticed. Can any thing be more surprising, than that the variation
should increase but eighteen degrees, in a run of upwards of 2000 miles
to the westward; and that it should then begin to turn; and, in the
short run of 300 miles on the same course, that it should suddenly
decrease 41 degrees? An officer belonging to one of the _Hudson’s-Bay_
ships attempted to account for this astonishing attraction of the
needle, by supposing the contiguity of metallic mountains; but he could
state no facts in support of his hypothesis: and, although the interior
of the N. W. part of _America_ has doubtless been explored, and is even
actually colonized, owing to the enterprising spirit of a _Selkirk_, yet
I cannot learn that any metallic mountains have been discovered, with a
sufficient profusion of ore to cause such an aberration in the compass,
and at so great a distance[7].

Our latitude this day was 56°. 35′. N.; longitude 38°. W. Towards noon,
our fair breeze died away, and we had light winds from the westward: in
the evening, we exercised the men with the great guns, in firing at a
cask in the water.

July _16th_.—Course run, N. W. ¼ N. 35 miles. Light winds and vexatious
calms all this day. We now considered ourselves to be distant from the
entrance of _Hudson’s Straits_ about 840 miles. I know not what reason
could have induced the first discoverers of the northern regions to give
such intimidating names to all the most conspicuous capes, promontories,
bays, creeks, &c.; unless they were originally bestowed with a view of
preventing others from visiting those countries; and at the same time to
enhance the public opinion of their own courage:—for instance, we
passed, in our voyage to _Hudson’s Bay_, _Capes Resolution_, _Comfort_,
_Farewell_, _Discord_, and _Desolation_; also, _Icy_ and _Bear Coves_,
and the _Islands of God’s Mercies_.

The ship was now continually surrounded by a species of sea-gull, which,
on the water, looked very much like wild-ducks. Those birds appear to be
spread in great multitudes quite across the mouth of _Davis’ Straits_,
from _Cape Farewell_ in _Greenland_ to the coast of _Labrador_.

July _17th_.—Course run, W. by N. ¼ N. 20 miles. The light variable
winds still continued through this day.

Towards evening we were highly entertained with a combat between a whale
and two or three of that species of fish called _Finners_. The fury with
which they engage is surprising. The whale, slowly lifting up his
enormous tail, lets it suddenly fall on his opponents with a most
tremendous crash; thereby throwing up foam to an amazing height.
Although the Finners have incomparably the advantage in agility, yet in
size and strength they fall but little short of the smaller whales. The
Finners derive their name from an immense fin, which they use with great
effect in their attacks on the whale. Sometimes they lift up this
enormous fin, and let it fall upon their antagonist, in the manner of a
thresher’s flail; at other times, they run their whole body
perpendicularly out of the water, exhibiting a beautiful view of their
snow-white bellies. In this position they have the singular power of
turning round; and thus they contrive to fall sideways on the whale,
with a shock that may be heard at a considerable distance.

The sea was this day covered with an oily appearance; and some old
_Greenland_ fishermen, who were on board the ship, gave a marvellous
account of its being occasioned by the sperm of the whale.

July _18th_.—Course run W. ¾ N. 65 miles. Early in the morning we had a
fine breeze from the N. E. Latitude at noon, by an observation of the
sun, 57°. 24′. N.; longitude, by our account, 41°. 17′. W. According to
some charts, we considered ourselves this day to be in the longitude of
_Cape Farewell_ in _Greenland_. Nothing can exceed the uncertainty that
prevails, in almost every chart and book of navigation, respecting the
longitude of the Cape in question. In proof of this, I shall quote an
extract from the accompanying Memoir to Mr. _Purdy’s_ Chart of the
_Atlantic_:—“Both the Requisite Tables, and _Connaissance de Tems_,
state the latitude of _Cape Farewell_ at 59°. 38′. N., and longitude,
_per_ chronometer, at 42°. 42′. W.; but the _Danish_ charts place the
Cape _two degrees_ more to the West. We know not which is right, or if
either; and have, _doubtingly_, placed it in 43°. 40′. W. as a mean
between the two. This is a point on which further information is
particularly required. The old books and charts place it from 44°. 30′.
to 44°. 45′. W.”

Nothing can be a more serious inconvenience to mariners than this
uncertainty respecting the latitude and longitude of places; and it is
scarcely to be credited, that so little pains have been taken to
ascertain the longitude of _Greenland’s_ southernmost extremity.

We experienced sharp cold this day, and ascribed it to the winds having
blown over the mountains of _Greenland_, on their way towards us. As the
next three days furnished no remarks worthy an insertion in this
narrative, I shall barely notice the course and distance run by the ship
on each day; and the reader may thus pass on to the _22d_.

July _19th_.—Course run S. W. by W. ¾ W. 60 miles.

July _20th_.—Course run W. by N. ¼ N. 68 miles.

July _21st_.—Course run W. 67 miles.

July _22d_.—Course run N. W. ½ N. 47 miles. As an indication of our
drawing near to some land, we this morning picked up a broken tree,
about eighteen feet long, of the yellow pine species. Although we could
not have been less than three hundred miles from the nearest land, it
certainly had not been long in the water. After night-fall, we were
gratified with a most brilliant display of the _Aurora Borealis_.

July _23d_.—Course run, N. N. W. ¾ W. 23 miles. Early in the morning we
saw five _Greenland_ ships, returning to _England_ from the
whale-fishery; and shortly afterwards we perceived two ships of war, in
the N. W. quarter. At noon we spoke with His Majesty’s ships the
_Victorious_ and _Horatio_. They had been to _Davis’ Straits_, for the
purpose of protecting the whale-fishery; and the former vessel exhibited
a melancholy proof of the ill effects likely to result from the extreme
state of ignorance in which our best navigators are placed, relative to
the exact situation of the Northern lands. The _Victorious_ had struck
on a rock, in latitude 66°. 21′. N., longitude 53°. 47′. W.; entirely
owing to the coast of _Greenland_ having been laid down _four degrees_
wrong in the _Admiralty Charts_. The consequences likely to result from
the loss of a seventy-four-gun ship, in such a situation, may be easily
imagined; allowing every man to have been safely conveyed on board the
_Horatio_. The frigate must herself have been short of provisions at the
moment; and in what possible way could the captain have provided for the
subsistence of nearly six hundred people in addition to his own ship’s
company, in a part of the world where he could not have formed the most
distant hope of receiving a supply?—Fortunately, they were not destined
to experience the horrors of so dreadful a situation; the _Victorious_
was got off the rock again, without much difficulty: yet that her danger
had been imminent cannot be doubted, as she was obliged to get a topsail
under her bottom; and at the time when we met with her, there were some
apprehensions that she might not reach _England_ in safety; the leak
being so bad, that the crew were compelled to labour incessantly at the
pumps. The _Horatio_ of course remained with her until she reached a
_British_ port.

After all that has been said respecting the erroneous state of even the
_Admiralty Charts_ for the Northern Seas, yet I do not imagine that the
smallest imputation of neglect can be charged to Government upon that
account. It has never yet been thought an object of sufficient national
importance, to warrant an expenditure of the public money towards
defraying the great expense that must necessarily be incurred in
surveying thoroughly those frozen coasts which border upon _Davis’_ and
_Hudson’s Straits_. The _Greenland_ mariners are notorious for paying so
little regard to the situation of the places they visit, that they are
incapable of giving any correct information: and the officers of the
_Hudson’s-Bay_ ships have a motive in concealing the knowledge which
they actually possess: this I shall notice more fully hereafter.

July _24th_.—Course run, N. W. ½ W. 34 miles. This morning some slight
indication appeared of a lasting fair wind. The fine mild weather that
had prevailed for the last fortnight was far from affording satisfaction
to the commanders of the _Hudson’s-Bay_ ships; as they prognosticated
much more difficulty in getting through _Hudson’s Straits_, the natural
consequence of so much calm weather. It would have pleased them better
to have encountered a few gales of wind, even if they had proved foul;
as it requires strong winds to carry the drift ice out of the _Straits_,
which is very likely otherwise to choke the passage. Entering _Hudson’s
Straits_, it is a necessary precaution to keep close in with the
northern shore; as the currents out of _Hudson’s_ and _Davis’ Straits_
meet on the south side of the entrance, and carry the ice with great
velocity to the southward, along the coast of _Labrador_. We had seen,
lately, a number of the kind of birds called, by the sailors,
_Boatswains_: they are so numerous to the southward of the Tropic of
_Cancer_, that they are called _Tropic Birds_. I cannot say whether they
are accustomed to seat themselves upon the water or not; because our
visitors flew at a great height over the ship, and we could plainly hear
their melancholy screams by night as well as by day. Some amongst them
have long feathers, like spikes, projecting from their tails; whilst
others in the same flock, and evidently of the same species, are without
them: perhaps these remarkable feathers may serve as distinguishing
marks between the sexes. At noon this day we were in latitude 58°. 35′.
N. longitude 49°. 10′. W. In the afternoon, the _Moravian_ Missionary
brig asked, and obtained permission, to part company: she then quitted
us, and steered more away to the westward. During the stay of our ship
at the _Orkneys_, I had visited the brig in question, and had there met
with an old _German_ Missionary; from whom I learned, that the
difficulty of first getting on terms of intimacy with the _Esquimaux_
was almost insurmountable. This Missionary had himself been one of the
first who succeeded in so dangerous an object, which could only be
accomplished by placing an entire confidence in this wild race of
people: he therefore remained alone with them, conforming to their
loathsome habits, and mildly endeavouring to gain an ascendancy over
their minds. It was a considerable time before he dared to attack those
established customs which, to him, appeared most exceptionable. Habit
had sanctioned polygamy amongst them; although the nature of their
climate, and the difficulty of procuring sustenance, had confined that
privilege almost exclusively to their Chiefs. Passion was allowed to be
pleaded successfully, in extenuation of murder. It was, therefore, with
a trembling, but a resigned heart, that the Missionary first ventured to
point out those practices as offences against the Great Spirit. “The
Almighty,” said the good _Moravian_, “assisted my humble efforts, and my
endeavours were crowned with success.” I shall also quote his own words
as to the result:—“On the bleak and rocky coast of _Labrador_, a temple
is now erected to the worship of God, in which the wild _Esquimaux_
raises his voice in songs of praise to the Most High. Thirty years of my
life have been dedicated to this employment; and I am now on my return,
to finish my days amongst the flock which has been so manifestly
entrusted to my care.”

The Missionary shewed me a _Testament_, _Creed_, and _Lord’s Prayer_, in
the _Esquimaux_ tongue: but it will be easily imagined that many
deficiencies must have arisen in the first instance; consequently,
whenever the _Esquimaux_ were at a loss for words to express any new
idea, or the name of any article that they had not before seen, the
Missionary supplied them with a corresponding _German_ expression; as
the _German_ language, of all others, is most easily pronounced by an

An _English_ frigate had been on a cruize in _Davis’ Straits_; and
returning thence, along the coast of _Labrador_, she put into a little
bay, for the purpose of procuring a supply of wood and water. The
affrighted _Esquimaux_ flew to their beloved Missionary, and pointed out
the strange vessel as the cause of their fear: they were, however, soon
pacified, and returned quietly to their occupations. Nothing, then,
could equal the astonishment of the officers, on landing; when, instead
of a wild race of savages, prepared to oppose them, they found a small
village, inhabited by an inoffensive people, peaceably employed in their
daily duties; and the little children going quietly to school, with
books under their arms. Their surprise, however, must have been greatly
increased, when they were given to understand, that all this had been
accomplished by one man, zealously actuated by a wish of serving his
God, in the services he had rendered to these poor _Indians_[8].

July _25th_.—Course run, W. by N. 35 miles. Light variable winds from
the southward. We were this morning visited by an officer from one of
the _Hudson’s-Bay_ ships; an intelligent man, who had _thirty_ times
performed the same voyage. It was his opinion, that the sharp cold,
which we had experienced on the 18th of this month, must have been
occasioned by the vicinity of ice; and we should doubtless have met with
it on that day, had we not fortunately tacked about in time to avoid it.
Our latitude at noon, this day, was 58°. 46′. N., and longitude 50°.
16′. W. Towards nightfall, the wind freshened to a fine steady breeze
from S. S. W.; and we could plainly discern a bright appearance in the
sky, towards the North; this was believed by every person on board to be
a certain indication of ice in that direction.

July _26th_.—Course run W. by N. 128 miles.—A fine fair breeze all this
day; the ship going about seven miles an hour. In the forenoon, we took
on board the chief-mate of the _Prince of Wales_, (one of the
_Hudson’s-Bay_ ships,) to act as pilot, or rather to instruct us in the
management of our ship, amongst the ice in the _Straits_. He immediately
advised us to raise our anchors, lest the shocks of the heavier masses
of ice should break the stocks: we also rove smaller braces to all the
yards, that we might be able to manœuvre the ship with the greater
facility. At noon, we were in latitude, by account, 50°. 11′. N., and
longitude 54°. 20′. W. We now kept our course more to the northward, to
prevent the possibility of our falling in with the ice to the southward;
as there are always large quantities drifting out of _Hudson’s Straits_,
along the coast of _Labrador_. Ships do well, therefore, to keep to the
northward, until they reach the latitude of _Cape Resolution_; and when
that is attained, they may haul in N. W. and keep close in to the North
shore; thus making a semicircle round the ice: but they should be
particularly cautious not to keep too much to the North, until they
reach the longitude of 54° W. and are consequently quite clear of the
coast of _Greenland_.

July _27th_.—Course run N. W. by W. 182 miles. As we were now getting
well to the northward, the air began to feel quite frigid; and the wind
drawing round to the East, we hauled up North. Latitude, at noon, was
60°. 54′. N. Longitude, 59°. 19′. Our distance from _Cape Resolution_ we
computed to be about 171 miles. In the afternoon we saw the first
_iceberg_, which was an immense mountain of solid ice, in the shape of
an English barn[9].

Towards evening, we passed another _iceberg_. It had a complete chain of
floating fragments on the lee-side of it, through which we butted our
way. We continued to run in for the land, all night, with a fair wind,
although it was a very thick fog, and there were numberless _icebergs_
in all directions; indeed, it appeared to me almost miraculous, how we
escaped being dashed upon some of them.

July _28th_.—The thick fog still continued, until 9 A.M. when it
suddenly cleared up, and we saw the island of _Cape Resolution_, bearing
E. N. E. about eighteen miles distant. We had been long wishing to get
into the _Straits_; and now that object was accomplished, we as
sincerely wished ourselves back again into the ocean. The prospect on
every side was of the most gloomy nature: the black and craggy mountains
on shore were only visible towards their bases; their summits being
covered with eternal snows, and the aspect of the countless _icebergs_,
on all sides of us, truly terrific. The strong southerly current
continually setting out from all the Northern seas has been
hypothetically explained, by supposing that Nature thus supplies the
deficiency of water occasioned by the evaporation caused by the heat of
the sun between the Tropics. It is not my intention to discuss this
philosophical question: suffice it to say, that I can bear testimony to
the existence of such a current in all the Northern seas, and along the
Coast of _Labrador_ and _Newfoundland_, facing the _Atlantic_; and the
effect caused by the continual flowing of the waters towards the South,
is attended with the most beneficial effects; as the Northern seas are
consequently cleared of the vast accumulation of ice, which would
otherwise infallibly block them up, and render all navigation
impracticable. We had taken care to get into the latitude of _Lake
Resolution_, before we bore away to make the land; and although, in
running in for the _Cape_, we still continued to steer a point to the
northward of our true course, yet, after all, the southerly current
proved so strong, as to set us to the southward of our land-fall: and on
our making the _Cape_, it was eighteen miles to the northward of us.

During the remainder of the day, we were endeavouring, with light winds
from the N. E. to get in with the north shore; and towards evening we
saw much field ice towards the south. As the setting sun had a different
appearance to what it generally exhibits in _England_, perhaps it may be
thought worthy of notice. Although it glittered to the eye, and threw a
golden tint on the water, yet it produced no rays, and might be viewed,
for any length of time, without paining the sight by its refulgence. So
far was it from bestowing warmth, that the air appeared more intensely
cold than it had been during the whole of the preceding day. The clouds,
in parallel lines immediately above the descending luminary, exhibited,
in the most beautiful manner, all the varieties of the rainbow; the
dusky red and deep blue being the most predominant colours. If to all
this we add the dazzling reflection which glittered from the snow-capp’d
summits of the rugged mountains, and the shining fantastic forms of the
floating _icebergs_ in the _Straits_, the prospect will easily be
imagined to have excited in our minds those feelings, which induce the
mariner, as well as the poet,

  “To look, through Nature, up to Nature’s God!”

At midnight we passed an immense _iceberg_, which roared like a thunder
storm; occasioned, perhaps, by some cavity in its side, through which
the sea was bursting. It was nearly a calm; and the surface of the sea
was quite smooth at the moment, attended with that gentle undulating
swell which is always prevalent in deep waters.

July _29th_.—In the morning we were obliged to tack about, in order to
avoid a large assemblage of drifting masses, termed by the old seamen a
_patch_ of ice: the seals were leaping about in all directions, and some
few sea-calves were seen. The thermometer in the Captain’s cabin, with a
rousing fire, stood at 43°. At noon we were plying to windward off
_Savage Island_, which is the next land to the west of _Cape Resolution
Island_, on the north shore. _Savage Isle_, lying very low, has not so
much snow upon it, in general, as the other parts of the coast
hereabouts. The next land to the westward of it is called _Terra Nivea_;
owing to its having some mountains, about thirty miles from the sea,
entirely covered with snow. During the remaining part of this day we
continued our course up the _Straits_, but with the weather almost calm.

July _30th_.—We were entirely surrounded this day with a patch of broken
ice, and it extended as far as the eye could reach. The sun shining
bright over the calm surface of the sea, called forcibly to my mind a
description I had once read of the Ruins of _Palmyra_, in the _Syrian
Desert_; the scattered fragments of ice bearing a strong resemblance to
the ruins of temples, statues, columns, &c. spread in confusion over a
vast plain.

     [Illustration: _Cape Saddle Back north 7 or 8 miles: with two
                remarkable Icebergs off the low Point._]

             [Illustration: _Male Esquimaux in his Canoe._]

July _31st_.—Early in the morning of this day we reached a remarkable
cape, called _Saddle Back_, from the resemblance that it bears to a
saddle: and as we were immediately visited by the _Esquimaux_, I must,
for a time, quit the ship and her proceedings, to describe the
appearance, manners, and customs of this singular race, who inhabit the
shores of _Hudson’s_ and _Davis’ Straits_, the northern part of
_Hudson’s Bay_, and both sides of the vast peninsula of _Labrador_. Upon
the first intelligence of the approach of the natives, I immediately
jumped out of bed, and ran upon deck; where, on my arrival, the most
discordant shouts and cries assailed my ears. Alongside the ship were
paddling a large assemblage of canoes, of the most curious construction:
these were built of a wooden frame-work of the lightest materials,
covered with oiled sealskin, with the hair scraped off; the skin being
sewed over the frame with the most astonishing exactness, and as tight
as parchment upon the head of a drum. But the most surprising
peculiarity of the canoes was, their being _twenty-two_ feet long, and
only _two_ feet wide. There was but one opening in the centre,
sufficiently large to admit the entrance of a man; and out of this hole
projected the body of the _Esquimaux_, visible only from the ribs
upwards. The paddle is held in the hand, by the middle; and it has a
blade at each end, curiously veneered, at the edges, with slips of a
sea-unicorn’s horn. On the top of the canoe were fastened strips of
sea-horses’ hide, to confine the lance and harpoon; and behind the
_Esquimaux_ were large lumps of whale blubber, for the purposes of
barter. These canoes are only capable of containing one person, for any
useful purpose; the slightest inclination of the body, on either side,
will inevitably overturn them; yet in these frail barks will the
_Esquimaux_ smile at the roughest sea; and in smooth water they can,
with ease, travel seven miles an hour[10].

Whilst I was still busily employed in making my remarks on the canoes of
the male Indians, a large open boat arrived, containing about twenty
women, besides many children. This last boat was steered by a very old
man, with a paddle: he was the only male adult amongst them. The women
pulled with oars, having a very broad wash at the extremity; and they
cheerfully kept time to the tune of a song, in which they all joined.
The boat was built of the same materials as the canoes; that is to say,
a frame-work covered with oiled seal-skins; but differed, in being
shaped more after the _European_ boats; also, in having a square sail
made of seal-skins, with the hair taken off; and owing to this
difference, the _Hudson’s-Bay_ traders have distinguished these boats by
the name of _Lug Boats_; although they never attempt to use the sail,
except with a fair wind. It is difficult to give an adequate idea of the
delight expressed by these poor creatures, on reaching the ships: they
jumped, shouted, danced, and sang, to express their joy. And here it
should be observed, that the arrival of the ships is considered by the
_Esquimaux_ as a sort of annual fair; their little manufactures of
dresses, spears, &c. are reserved for the expected jubilee; and when,
after long watching, they at last catch a glimpse of the approaching
vessels, their exultation knows no bounds.

The male _Esquimaux_ have rather a prepossessing physiognomy, but with
very high cheek-bones, broad foreheads, and small eyes, rather farther
apart than those of an _European_: the corners of their eyelids are
drawn together so close, that none of the white is to be seen; their
mouths are wide, and their teeth white and regular: the complexion is a
dusky yellow, but some of the young women have a little colour bursting
through this dark tint: the noses of the men are rather flattened, but
those of the women are sometimes even prominent. The males are,
generally speaking, between five feet five inches and five feet eight
inches high; bony, and broad shouldered; but do not appear to possess
much muscular strength. The flesh of all the _Esquimaux_ feels soft and
flabby, which may be attributed to the nature of their food. But the
most surprising peculiarity of this people is the smallness of their
hands and feet; which is not occasioned, as in _China_, by compression,
nor by any other artificial means, as their boots and gloves are made
large, and of soft seals’-skin. To their continual employment in canoes
on the water, and to the sitting posture they are thus obliged to
preserve, perhaps their diminutive feet might be ascribed: but when we
reflect on the laborious life they must necessarily lead, and yet find
that their hands are equally small with their feet, it will naturally
lead us to the conclusion, that the same intense cold which restricts
vegetation to the forms of creeping shrubs has also its effect upon the
growth of mankind, preventing the extremities from attaining their due

The chin, cheek-bones, and forehead, among the women, are tattooed; and
this operation is performed among the _Esquimaux_ by pricking through
the skin with some sharp instrument, and rubbing ashes into the wound:
as the marks are not deep, their appearance is not disagreeable. I
imagine that the tattooing does not take place until the female arrives
at the age of puberty, because the youngest girls were without any such
marks. None of the men undergo the operation; but they have a few
straggling hairs on the chin and upper lip, while the women carefully
remove them from every part of the body, excepting the head, where they
have a lock on each temple, neatly braided, and bound with a thong of
hide. On the back of the head, the hair is turned up, much after the
fashion of the _English_ ladies. I hope the latter will not be offended
at the comparison.

After having gone so far in a description of their persons, perhaps
their diet ought not to be overlooked; because it has been before
noticed, that the relaxed state of their flesh, and the sallow hue of
their complexions, may in a great measure be ascribed to the nature of
their food. As they seem to devour every thing raw, it has been
conjectured that they are unacquainted with the use of fire; but this is
not true. I observed, near one of their huts, a circle of loose stones,
containing the ashes of a recently extinguished fire, and a stone kettle
standing upon it[11]: also, in a hut, I saw a pan of vegetables,
resembling spinach, which had been boiled into the consistency of
paste[12]. Yet, after all, it is no less certain that an _Esquimaux_
prefers all flesh raw. In proof of this it may be mentioned, that the
Commander of the _Eddystone_, a _Hudson’s-Bay_ ship, having shot a
sea-gull, an _Indian_ made signs that he wished for the bird:
immediately on receiving it, he sucked away the blood that flowed from
its mouth; then, hastily plucking off the feathers, he instantly
dispatched the body, entrails, &c. with the most surprising voracity.
The knowledge which the _Esquimaux_ possess of the use of fire, is
observable in the ingenuity with which they transform iron nails, hoops,
&c. into heads for their arrows, spears, and harpoons. May not their
fondness for raw flesh have arisen from the _scarcity of fuel_? There
was not a bit of wood to be found on that part of the coast where I

We made many attempts to induce the natives to partake of our food. At
breakfast, we placed an _Esquimaux_ at table, and offered him every
species of food that the ship could afford. He tasted every thing; but,
with a broad laugh, he was sure to eject whatsoever he tasted, over our
plates and upon the table-cloth. The only thing they could be induced to
swallow was a piece of hog’s lard; and of this they all partook with
avidity. Above all, they appeared to have the greatest aversion from
sugar and salt.

In their dealings, they manifested a strange mixture of honesty and
fraud. At one moment I observed an _Esquimaux_ striving, with all his
might, to convey into a sailor’s hands the article for which he had
already received his equivalent; and, in ten minutes afterwards, I
detected the same man in an endeavour to cut the hinder buttons from my
own coat. They value _metals_ more than any other article of barter, and
_iron_ most of all. As a specimen of the relative articles of traffic, I
shall briefly insert the prices which I paid for some little
curiosities[13]; viz.

  A seal’s-skin hooded frock, quite new, for a              knife.
  A seal’s-skin pair of breeches                            needle.
  Seal’s-skin boots                                         saw.
  A pair of wooden spectacles, or rather shades, used by    one bullet.
    the _Esquimaux_ to defend their eyes against the
    dazzling reflection of the sun from the ice
  A pair of white feather gloves                            two buttons.
  A fishing lance or spear                                  file.

They have a strange custom of licking with their tongue every thing that
comes into their possession, either by barter or otherwise; and they
evidently do not consider an article as their property until it has
undergone this operation. By way of experiment, I gave to a young girl
half a dozen iron nails: she immediately jumped, and shouted, to express
her gratitude; and then licking each nail separately, she put them into
her boot, that being the depository of all riches among the female
_Esquimaux_, who are entirely unacquainted with the use of pockets. I
could easily perceive that each man had a wife; but polygamy did not
appear to exist amongst them; perhaps more on account of their poverty,
and the difficulty of supporting a plurality of wives, than from any
idea they may entertain of the impropriety of the practice itself.
Several of the natives brought their wives on board the ship, and, in
return for a tin spoon or pot, compelled them, nothing loath, to receive
our salutations. Nay, one man plainly intimated, that if I wished to
hold any private conversation with his lady, he should have no objection
to her visiting my cabin, provided I rewarded him with an axe. Many of
the women had very pleasing features; but they were so disfigured with
dirt, and their persons smelt so strongly of the seal oil, that it
required a stout heart to salute even the prettiest of them.

On board the ship, they were exceedingly curious in viewing every thing:
but however astonished or delighted they might appear in the first sight
of any novelty, yet ten minutes was the utmost limit of their
admiration. The pigs, cats, and fowls, attracted their attention in so
remarkable a manner, as to indicate a certainty of their not having seen
any such animals before. A sailor threw them all into the most violent
fit of jumping and shouting, by walking upon his hands along the deck.
But nothing seemed to fix their attention so much as Captain
_Stopford’s_ amputated arm[14]: they satisfied themselves, by feeling
the stump, that the arm was actually deficient, and then appeared to
wonder how it could have been lost: but when I made signs to them that
it had been severed by a saw, to the credit of their feelings, I must
state, that commiseration was depicted on every countenance. We did not
perceive an instance, either of man, woman, or child, amongst them, who
was in any way crippled or deformed.

After breakfast, it was proposed that we should go on shore, and a party
accordingly made: we were all well armed, as a precaution against
treachery; because this people have been particularly accused of a
disposition that way,—whether with or without reason, it is impossible
for me positively to say. An _Esquimaux_, who had bartered his very last
covering away for some bauble, went with us, as a sort of pilot. On our
way to the shore, we met two of the large women’s boats; each steered,
as usual, by an old man. They expressed great joy at meeting with us, by
singing, shouting, and clapping their hands; and instead of proceeding
on toward the ships, they turned their boats, and followed us to the
shore. The coast appears to be completely fringed with small rocky
islands, and these no doubt form a shelter to many good harbours; but
the shores of _Hudson’s Straits_ have never been thoroughly examined,
although a small vessel might accomplish the task in two summers, with
ease: indeed, a voyage for this purpose would, if well conducted, turn
out advantageously, in a mercantile point of view; for although the
_Hudson’s-Bay_ Company’s ships do not procure much oil or whalebone from
the _Esquimaux_, it is because they have but little intercourse with
this people, and perhaps with only one particular tribe: yet it might be
very profitable to any merchant to send a small strong brig into
_Hudson’s Straits_, early in the month of June, so as to reach _Cape
Saddle-Back_ before the Company’s ships arrive. The _Hudson’s-Bay_
Company would not wish to interrupt so laudable an attempt towards
opening a free intercourse with the wild _Esquimaux_ in those seas;
because the profits they derive from the traffic in question are
comparatively trifling, when put in competition with the other more
important objects of their annual voyage. A vessel intended for this
employ should not remain later than the beginning of October in the
_Straits_; and she ought to be well provided with saws, iron lances,
harpoons, files, open knives, kettles, spoons, hatchets, and a few beads
and looking-glasses. By coasting along both sides of the _Straits_, and
as far to the southward of _Cape Diggs_ or _Cape Smith_, she might
doubtless gather thirty or forty tons of good oil, besides whalebone and
a few skins. But the Master of a vessel, during such an expedition,
should be particularly cautious in not trusting a boat on shore, unless
well armed; and by no means ought he to admit more than _two_ or _three
Esquimaux_ at the same time into his vessel, however friendly they might
appear to be.

But to return to our party, whom I left pulling in for the shore, under
the guidance of the naked _Esquimaux_, who continued pointing for us to
proceed still farther to the west, where some natives, from the bottom
of a creek, waved their hands for us to approach. A sort of
expostulation took place between these people and our conductor, by
which it seemed, that the former did not wish us to proceed any farther
to the west. We therefore landed, but walked about some time without
observing any habitations; although, from the deers’ bones and ashes
which lay scattered about the hills, it was evident that a party had not
long quitted the spot. From appearances upon the hills, we had reason to
suppose that rabbits must be abundant; and we were gradually receding
from the sea shore in search of them, when our guide stopped short, and
would not be prevailed upon, by any entreaties, to accompany us farther.
We could not guess the cause of this extra-ordinary conduct; but not
wishing to give any offence to the natives, we turned about, and
descended again to our boats. On our way to the beach, we were joined by
some young girls, to whom we had been, perhaps, rather pointedly
attentive on board the ships: they continued to pester us with the
continual whine of this people, repeating incessantly the word
“_Pillitay! pillitay! pillitay!_” signifying “_Give us something_:” and
having now stripped us of every thing, by their solicitations, they only
seemed to have acquired an incitement to make new demands. It is
generally the case with all barbarous nations, that the receiving of a
gift appears to them to confer a right to levy fresh contributions:
therefore, in all dealings with savages, it is adviseable to teach them
that something will be expected in return for every present bestowed;
and the equivalent should be strenuously insisted upon, let it be of
ever so trifling a nature. A departure from this rule may, indeed, be
necessary in the first opening of a communication with a strange people;
but, even then, the presents ought only to be bestowed on the principal
chieftains, priests, and women.

As we were upon the point of re-embarking, one of our party offered to a
young girl, who stood on the beach, a pinch of snuff; shewing her, at
the same time, how it was to be used. She imitated her instructor with
great exactness, giving a hearty sniff; but it was attended with rather
a violent effect; a torrent of blood instantly gushing from her nose.
Entertaining some apprehensions lest the natives should imagine that we
had been guilty of a premeditated injury to the poor girl, we all made a
point of taking snuff before her: this had the desired effect, in
convincing them that no serious evil was to be apprehended; and the
young woman went, at my request, to wash her nose in a neighbouring
pool. Unfortunately, the cold water produced a contrary effect to what
was intended; the blood again streaming from her nose: yet so far was
this mild creature from being offended, that she smilingly held forth
her hand to me, with the old exclamation of “_Pillitay!_ (Give).” I cut
two brass buttons from my coat, and gave them to her; and with this
atonement she was quite satisfied. The fact is, as we afterwards
discovered, that bleeding at the nose is a most common incident among
the _Esquimaux_; and it is certain to follow the least exertion.
Possibly this may also be occasioned by the quantities of raw flesh they
devour daily.

Perhaps some readers may deem an incident like the foregoing of too
trifling a description to merit a recital; but the manners,
dispositions, and customs of a wild people may be better judged of from
a simple relation of the most trivial circumstances, than from any
inferences which the narrator himself might presume to draw from them:
therefore I would run the chance of being thought jejune, or even
tedious, rather than incur the greater risk of misleading others by my
own weak conclusions.

                          [Illustration: huts]

Embarking again, we pulled along shore, towards the west, among barren
rocky islands, until we at last got sight of some huts on an eminence at
the bottom of a creek; and putting ashore, we examined them minutely.
They are more properly tents than huts, because they are erected much
after the fashion of a marquee: a triangle supports the tent at one end,
and two poles, fastened at the top, at the other: over all is thrown a
covering of seals’-skins sewed together, the hair being scraped off:
they are equally impervious to air or water, and the light is much the
same as in the interior of an _European_ linen tent. At the lower end of
their dwellings is a flap of seal’s-skin, left loose, to answer the
purpose of a door; and when this is thrown back, a person must stoop low
to enter. If a whole family happen to be absent from their home at the
same time, the only security for their property, during the time they
are away, consists in a few loose stones piled against the flap of
seal-skin which covers the entrance to the tent: and although they be
not rigidly honest towards strangers, yet the _Esquimaux_ appear to have
a great respect for each other’s property. At the top of their huts is a
piece of wood, in an horizontal position, for the purpose of supporting
slips of the sea-horse’s hide to dry in the sun; and of this hide they
form a sort of rope, possessing uncommon strength, and useful to them in
a variety of ways.

With respect to the interior of their habitations, it is a general
custom to appropriate the lower end or entrance of the tent to answer
the purpose of a larder, where all their delicacies are displayed; such
as, deer’s flesh, oil, and whale blubber. The upper end of the tent,
under the triangle, was thickly carpeted with skins of different
animals, particularly the deer, and it is set apart for their resting
and sleeping place. I noticed, that whenever I entered a tent, which had
not been previously visited by any of our party, the owner of it ran
forward, with great precipitation, to conceal something under the skins
at the farther end of the tent. Curiosity prompted me to inquire into
this mysterious conduct; and, on removing the skins, I discovered his
bow and arrows, in a sort of seal-skin quiver. The owner stood quite
tranquil during my search, and he did not appear angry when the arms
were produced; but when I offered him a knife, with the usual
expression, “_Chymo_ (barter),” he smiled, as I thought, rather
suspiciously; and taking the quiver gently out of my hand, he replaced
it under the skins; at the same time, offering me an unfinished bow,
without a string, in exchange for the knife. As often as I continued to
point to the quiver, and make signs that I wished to purchase the set
complete, he seemed to feel confused, and endeavoured instantly to draw
off my attention from the subject. I tried at each tent, with no better
success; and it struck me, from appearances, that the _Esquimaux_ have
some superstitious veneration for their bows and arrows: but their
hiding them may be intended as a compliment to their visitors, or an
assurance of their security whilst under that roof. None of the canoes
that visited us, during our stay in _Hudson’s Straits_, had either bow
or arrows on board; consequently, they are only used by the _Esquimaux_
in their wars, and not for the purpose of killing birds or fishes. After
having said this respecting their singular attachment to their weapons,
perhaps it will be expected that those articles are curiously
manufactured and ornamented: but the bow is merely made of two pieces of
plain wood, firmly corded together, and rarely strengthened at the back
with thongs of the sea-horse’s hide; the string is formed of two slips
of hide or dried gut; the arrows are headed, either with iron,
sea-horse’s teeth, sea-unicorn’s horn, or, in some few instances, with
stone[15]; and the whole fabrication of the bow and arrows does not
surpass the workmanship of an English school-boy.

In one of their tents, I saw a female far advanced in pregnancy; she was
sitting upon the ground, closely wrapt in skins as high as her hips; and
during the whole of my stay, she never attempted to rise. It may now be
proper to relate an anecdote of a very interesting nature; which I
received upon such indisputable authority, that it will not admit of a
doubt, as to its veracity.

The land to the northward of _Churchill Factory_, in _Hudson’s Bay_, is
inhabited by _Esquimaux_, who, contrary to the general customs of this
people, employ themselves in hunting. They carry their furs annually to
_Churchill Factory_, for the purpose of traffic. In one of their
periodical visits, a young woman was seen amongst them, having a sickly
infant in her arms, respecting whose health she appeared to be
particularly solicitous; and as some of the domesticated _Indian_ women
in the factory, belonging to the nation of _Cree Indians_, partly
understood the _Esquimaux_ tongue, the young woman explained to them,
that, as the infant was her first-born child, if it should unfortunately
die, her husband would undoubtedly put her to death. The infant expired
shortly after this explanation took place; and some _Europeans_ visiting
the _Esquimaux_ encampment a day or two afterwards, made inquiries
respecting the unhappy mother; when the _Indians_ silently pointed to
the spot where the poor victim was interred!

This circumstance has given rise to an assertion, that if a first-born
child die before it reaches a particular age, the mother is certain of
being immolated, for a supposed want of attention to her infant. I had
no means of ascertaining this singular custom myself; but I have before
observed, that there did not appear either sickly or deformed child or
adult amongst them.

Their fire-places, as before stated, are outside the tents; and they
have no need of any in the interior, as the seal-skins that cover them
are like parchment oiled, and will not admit the wind, nor give egress
to the breath; therefore their habitations are not only warm, but at
mid-day, when I visited them, they were oppressively hot. With respect
to their winter residence, I can say little or nothing. Most people
suppose that they live in caves, by lamp-light; but the Abbé _Raynal_,
who mentions the _Esquimaux_ in his History of the _East_ and _West
Indies_, is of a different opinion. As the Abbé is both correct and
incorrect, in many points of which I had a good opportunity to judge,
perhaps it may not be amiss to give an extract from the part of his work
relating to the _Esquimaux Indians_.

“This sterility of Nature extends itself to every thing. The human race
are few in number, _and scarce any of its individuals above four feet
high. Their heads bear the same enormous proportion to their bodies as
those of children_: the smallness of their feet makes them awkward and
tottering in their gait: small hands, and a round mouth, which in
_Europe_ are reckoned a beauty, seem almost a deformity in these people;
because we see nothing here but the effects of a weak organization, and
of a cold that contracts and restrains the springs of growth, and is
fatal to the progress of animal as well as vegetable life. Besides all
this, their men, although they _have neither hair nor beard_, have the
appearance of being old, even in their youth: this is partly occasioned
by the _formation of their lower lip, which is thick, fleshy, and
projecting beyond the upper_. Such are the _Esquimaux_, who inhabit not
only the coast of _Labrador, from whence they have taken their name_,
but also all that tract of land which extends from the point of
_Bellisle_ to the most northern part of _America_.

“_The inhabitants of Hudson’s-Bay_ have, like the _Greenlanders_, a flat
face, with short, but not flattened noses; _the pupil of their eyes
yellow, and the iris black_. Their women have marks of deformity
peculiar to their sex; amongst others, very long and flabby breasts.
This deformity, which is not natural, arises from their custom of giving
suck to their children until they are five or six years old. They
frequently carry their children on their shoulders, who pull their
mothers’ breasts with their hands, and almost suspend themselves by

“It is not true, that there are races of _Esquimaux_ entirely black, as
has been supposed, and afterwards pretended to be accounted for; neither
do they live under ground. How should they dig into a soil, which the
cold renders harder than stone? How is it possible they should live in
caverns, where they would be infallibly drowned by the first melting of
the snows? What, however, is certain, and almost equally surprising, is,
that these people spend the winter under huts, run up in haste, and made
of flints joined together by cements of ice, where they live without any
other fire, but that of a lamp hung up in the middle of the shed, for
the purpose of dressing their game, and the fish they feed upon. The
heat of their blood and of their breath, added to the vapour arising
from this small flame, is sufficient to make their huts as hot as

“The _Esquimaux_ dwell constantly near the sea, from whence they are
supplied with all their provisions. Both their constitutions and
complexions partake of the quality of their food. The flesh of the seal,
which is their food, and the oil of the whale, which is their drink,
give them an olive complexion, a strong smell of fish, an oily and
tenacious sweat, and sometimes a sort of scaly leprosy. This last is
probably the reason why the mothers have the same custom as the bears of
licking their young ones.

“This nation, weak and degraded by nature, is, notwithstanding, most
intrepid on a sea that is constantly dangerous. In boats, made and sewed
together like so many borachio’s, but at the same time so well closed
that it is impossible for the water to penetrate them, they follow the
shoals of herrings through the whole of their polar emigrations, and
attack the whales and seals at the peril of their lives.

“One stroke of a whale’s tail is sufficient to drown a hundred of these
assailants; _and the seal is armed with teeth, to devour those he cannot
drown_: but the hunger of the _Esquimaux_ is superior to the rage of
these monsters. They have an inordinate thirst for the oil of the whale,
which is necessary to preserve the heat in their stomachs, and defend
them from the severity of the cold. Indeed, men, whales, birds, and all
the quadrupeds and fishes of the North, are supplied by nature with a
degree of fat, which prevents the muscles from freezing, and the blood
from coagulating. Every thing in these Arctic regions is either oily or
gummy, and even the trees are resinous.

“The _Esquimaux_ are, notwithstanding, subject to two fatal disorders;
the scurvy, and loss of sight. The continuation of snows upon the
ground, joined to the reverberation of the rays of the sun on the ice,
dazzle their eyes in such a manner, that they are almost constantly
obliged to wear shades of two pieces of very thin wood, through which
small apertures for the light have been bored with fish-bones. Doomed to
six months’ night, they never see the sun but obliquely; and then it
seems rather to blind them, than to give them light. Sight, the most
delightful blessing of nature, is a fatal gift to them, _and they are
generally deprived of it when young_. A still more cruel evil, which is
the scurvy, consumes them by slow degrees: it insinuates itself into
their blood, and changes, thickens, and impoverishes the whole mass. The
fogs of the sea, which they inspire; the dense and inelastic air they
breathe in their huts, which are shut up from all communication with the
external air; the constant and tedious inactivity of their winters; a
mode of life alternately roving and sedentary; every thing, in short,
tends to increase this dreadful malady, which in a little time becomes
contagious, and, spreading itself through their abodes, is transmitted
by cohabitation, and perhaps likewise by the means of generation.

“Notwithstanding these inconveniences, the _Esquimaux_ is so
passionately attached to his country, that no inhabitant of the
most-favoured spot under Heaven quits it with greater reluctance, than
he does his frozen deserts. The difficulty he finds in breathing in a
softer and cooler climate may possibly be the reason of this attachment.
The sky of _Amsterdam_, _Copenhagen_, and _London_, though constantly
obscured by thick and fetid vapours, is too clear for an _Esquimaux_.
Perhaps, too, there may be something in the change of life and manners
more contrary to the health of savages than the climate: it is not
impossible but that the indulgences of an _European_ may be poison to an
_Esquimaux_.—Such are the inhabitants of a _country discovered, in 1610,
by Henry Hudson_!”

Although many parts of the foregoing extract are strictly descriptive of
the _Esquimaux_, yet it is very evident that the Abbé _Raynal_ has
undertaken to describe a people whom he never saw: consequently, nothing
can be more absurd than those remarks which, it may be observed, I have
particularized: and I shall now notice them, in the order in which they

In the first place, the Abbé says, that “_scarce any of the individuals
are above four feet high!_” It has been before noticed, that, of all
those whom we saw, a fair average standard might determine their height
to be between five feet five inches, and five feet eight inches:
moreover, we even saw some of the females five feet seven inches high.
In the next place, he observes: “_Their heads bear the same enormous
proportion to their bodies as those of children._” This, again, is about
as fabulous as those old stories of a race having been discovered with
_two heads_. There is certainly nothing peculiar about the heads of the
_Esquimaux_, to distinguish them from the _Europeans_; unless, indeed,
we except the enormous quantity of thick, coarse, straight, black hair,
which covers them: and this last fact will bear rather hard upon the
next marvellous remark of the Abbé’s, in which he asserts that _they
have neither hair nor beard_! The amazing coarseness of their hair,
which generally is as thick as a mat on their heads, is, of all others,
the most likely characteristic to strike the attention of a stranger:
they have also a straggling beard upon the chin and upper lip; although,
certainly, it must be admitted that the beard never grows thick or

The aged appearance of the _Esquimaux_ is, as he says, owing to the
_formation of their lower lip_!—Being able to adduce, if necessary, the
testimony of a hundred witnesses to prove the truth of my assertions, I
shall content myself with simply stating, that there is no such
_projection of the lower lip_ as the Abbé has described. He states that
the _Esquimaux_ have _taken their name from the coast of Labrador_; but
_Esquimaux_, or _Skimaux_, is an expression, in the language of the
_Cree_ and other inland _Indians_, signifying “_eaters of raw flesh!_”
and they have bestowed this appellation on the maritime _Indians_, in
contempt; as there has always been a most deadly hatred between them.

Then again, with a bold dash of his pen, the Abbé peoples the _whole of
Hudson’s Bay with Esquimaux_: whereas, in fact, they occupy but a very
small proportion of it, when compared with the vast extent of territory
inhabited by the different tribes of Hunting _Indians_, the inveterate
enemies of the _Esquimaux_. The northern and unexplored parts of the
Bay, and the western shore of _Labrador_, from _Cape Diggs_ to the
southward, are alone inhabited by the latter; whilst the whole of the
western and southern shores are peopled by the former.

I know not what could have induced him, also, to describe the
_Esquimaux_ as having “_the pupil of their eyes yellow, and the iris
black_:” this is not true; but I suppose that such a supposition may
have arisen from that peculiar contraction of the eyelids which has
already been noticed in the foregoing part of this Narrative.

It is not less absurd to affirm, that “_the seal is armed with teeth, to
devour those he cannot drown_,” than to say, that the hare is armed with
teeth, to devour those dogs from which she cannot escape;—the former
being almost as timid an animal as the latter; and there cannot be much
danger from the _rage of that monster_, who coolly suffers a man to
strike him a blow over the nose, which puts an almost immediate end to
his existence.

I believe _Raynal_ to be very correct in his remarks on the prevalent
diseases of the _Esquimaux_; but he goes too far, in asserting that
“_they are generally deprived of sight when young_.” Sore eyes, indeed,
are common amongst them; but there were many old men without this
complaint, and few of the women were troubled with it. “_Such_,” he
concludes, “_are the inhabitants of a country discovered, in 1610, by
Henry Hudson_.”—However, if curiosity should lead any person hereafter
to visit the shores of _Labrador_, in the hopes of meeting with a race
of people _four feet in height_, with _enormous heads_ without _any hair
on them_, and _yellow eye-balls_, he will be grievously disappointed:
and so far are they from being that miserable degraded race which the
Abbé describes them to be, that they are really possessed of industry,
ingenuity, and courage; and certainly as far superior to the disgusting
_Hottentot_, as an _European_ is superior to that race of men.

After having ventured to correct these errors of the Abbé, it would be
injustice if I did not bear testimony to the authenticity of his
description in other respects. The scaly leprosy, which he mentions, is
common amongst them: we at first believed it to be the small-pox, to
which it bears a great resemblance; but, from an attentive inspection
being made by Mr. _Arnot_, our surgeon, he was of opinion, that the
latter disease had not as yet reached them, or that, if it had, it must
have been in its mildest form. Almost all the men are afflicted with
_ophthalmia_, and wear the wooden shades which the Abbé has described;
but, as I before mentioned, few of the women labour under this disease.
The pendant breasts of the latter have certainly a disgusting
appearance; yet it is so common amongst them, that one of the young
girls shewed me, with conscious pride, that her breasts had not as yet
been thus relaxed; intimating, that she differed from the other dusky
damsels in this respect, and was therefore to be considered as an object
of greater admiration. From which it is evident, that they consider long
breasts as a deformity, even among themselves.

With respect to their winter habitations, it is more probable that the
Abbé is correct, than that those persons are so, who entertain the
notion of their residing in caverns; but it is not certain that the
_Esquimaux_ live in a state of total inactivity during the winter: they
must, doubtless, leave their retreats daily, in search of food: and that
they do not depend on the water for all their supplies, is very evident,
from the number of deer-skins which may be observed in every habitation.

It is now pretty well ascertained that the tribes of _Esquimaux_,
inhabiting the northern shores of _Hudson’s Straits_, migrate, in the
fall of the year, towards the south; for the double purpose of taking up
their winter quarters, and of procuring fuel and game amongst the
pine-tree forests of _Labrador_. The northern shore of _Hudson’s
Straits_ is, from end to end, a barren rock; having no mark of
vegetation, except here and there a tuft or two of wild sorrel, or
scurvy-grass: consequently, the wooden frame-work of the canoes, the
poles for their summer-tents, and the handles of their fishing-spears,
can only be procured by the _Esquimaux_ during their annual migrations
to the coast of _Labrador_. Add to this, that, on our visit to their
tents, we observed five or six large boats, hauled up on the shore, and
completely laden with all sorts of furs and necessaries, as if
preparatory to a speedy removal of the whole tribe into winter quarters.

I should not have been led into so long a digression, had it not been
from a wish to correct the very erroneous statements, of even the most
eminent authors, respecting this singular race. That those authors have
derived their descriptions from the confused accounts of other writers,
is evident, by the gross mistakes they have fallen into. It is indeed
probable, that, of those who have written upon this subject, no one ever
personally visited the _Esquimaux_: neither is it a surprising thing
that they have not done this, because the _Esquimaux_ have always been
represented hostile to strangers, prone to treachery, and exceedingly
disgusting in their persons.

To return, then, to our party.—We continued roving for some time amongst
the habitations of the _Esquimaux_; and could not help admiring the
various ways in which they contrive to render the seal useful: indeed,
this creature may be said to supply them with food, light, clothes,
houses, beds, boats, and casks. The blubber of the seal is either eaten,
or converted into oil for the winter lamps; the skin, with the hair on,
is made into frocks, breeches, boots, and stockings; and with the hair
scraped off, and well oiled, the skin serves also for a covering to
their houses and boats: numbers of them, heaped together with the skins
of bears and deer, constitute their beds: lastly, after having carefully
skinned a seal, the females sew the hide neatly up; then fill it with
wind, like a bladder, and dry it in the sun; and, after this
preparation, it fully answers all the purposes of a cask, for containing
oil, or any other liquid for which it may be required; in the same
manner as the mountaineers of _Spain_ and _Portugal_ carry their wine in
the skins of animals.

The _Esquimaux_ have various methods of killing the seal; but the most
common is, by spearing him with a long lance, which they discharge from
a _throwing stick_, exactly in the same manner as described by _Cook_ to
be in use among the natives of _Otaheite_. The seal, when once struck,
becomes an easy prey: a large bladder, affixed to the dart, effectually
prevents his sinking; and a heavy log of wood, also fastened to the
dart, acts as a drag, to prevent his swimming away with any velocity.
They have also a manner of passing the handle of the lance through the
centre of a sort of tambourine; which, in this case, is substituted for
the drag: of course, the seal is soon exhausted, with the efforts he is
compelled to make, in pulling this machine against the water; and a blow
on the nose, from his pursuers, soon puts a period to his existence.

After leaving their huts, we stood on the top of a hill, with the whole
of the remaining population of the place around us:—I say, the remaining
population; because many of the natives were still trafficking on board
the ships. From their numbers, I should think that either several
families must reside in one tent, or that there were other hamlets along
the shore, at a short distance, from whence we had visitors; as the
assemblage on the hill with us consisted of ten men, twenty women, and
fourteen children; and yet there were only nine finished tents, and four
or five in the frame.

Nothing, as before observed, can be more troublesome than the continual
solicitations of these people for gifts; men, women, and children,
tormented us incessantly with “_Pillitay! pillitay! pillitay!_” It
became therefore, at last, absolutely necessary, in our own defence, to
invent some means of diverting their attention from these importunities.
Accordingly, one of our party, who was well acquainted with the manners
of the _Indians_ in _Hudson’s Bay_, began a song in the language of the
_Cree_ tribe. The _Esquimaux_ gaped with great astonishment and evident
pleasure, preserving the most profound silence, until he gave a loud
shout, as a finale; when they sat up an universal shouting and jumping,
and it appeared as if they were half beside themselves with delight: yet
we were certain that they understood nothing of the sense of the song.
We thought this a good opportunity to petition them for a similar
favour: our signs were instantly comprehended, and a ring immediately
formed, consisting entirely of women, with the exception of an old man,
whom we recognised to have seen before, as steersman of one of the large
women’s boats. This old man began the song; walking, at the same time,
in a circle; followed by the women, with their backs to each other. At a
certain turn in the air, the women all raised their voices; I shall not
say in a chorus, as it appeared more like a continuation of the song.
After a short time, the women suffered their voices to die gradually
away, in the most plaintive manner; and the old man again resumed the
song alone, until a similar turn again brought in the women’s voices.
This alternation lasted a considerable time; during which they still
continued to walk round in a circle, and all the while bestowed the most
friendly smiles upon us. Meantime, the men stood scattered outside the
ring; and whenever the old man resumed his song, they jumped, shouted,
and laughed, in the most extravagant manner. One of the men at last
kissed two of the females, making plain signs for us to take the same
liberty, in rotation, with the whole circle; at the same time uttering,
repeatedly, the exclamation, “_Coo-nee!_” We, however, pretended not to
comprehend his meaning, as we were not at all desirous of so
indiscriminate a salutation. I noticed one of the women earnestly making
the same gesticulations, and crying out “_Coo-nee!_” also; but as we did
not comply, they soon after finished the song. We adopted their own
method of jumping and shouting, to express our satisfaction; at which
they seemed particularly well pleased.

Preparing now to leave this interesting spot, we descended to the sea,
followed by the whole of the natives: and as I turned about to observe
if there were any thing belonging to their tents which had before
escaped our notice, my eyes rested upon a group of about a dozen huge
dogs, around a piece of whale blubber. It is really surprising what
numbers of these animals the _Esquimaux_ uselessly support during
summer; but they are amply repaid by the benefits derived from them in
the winter; as the dogs are then employed to drag the sledge of their
owners, after the manner of the reindeer in _Lapland_. In
_Newfoundland_, and in its environs, large dogs are also used, for the
purpose of transporting fire-wood, and other articles, over the snow:
and I have been assured, by a respectable merchant, who resides
occasionally at _Lance-a-Loup Bay_ on the southern coast of _Labrador_,
that he has travelled one hundred miles in twenty-four hours, in a
sledge drawn by ten brace of dogs: they are not accustomed to reins, but
two well-trained dogs are placed foremost, and the whole are then
managed by a singular kind of whip, the use of which it is difficult to
acquire, as the handle is but three feet long, and the lash fifteen.[16]

                 [Illustration: _Sledge drawn by Dogs.
 used by European Traders at Hudson’s Bay, and on the Southern Coast of

      [Illustration: _Engraved by J. Smith & Clements Inc. Strand
             Bark Canoe of the Cree Indians in Hudsons Bay.
             London Published by J. Mawman 13^th May 1817_]

After giving away amongst the natives all the metals we possessed, even
to the buttons of our coats, we embarked; and resting upon our oars, at
a trifling distance from the shore, we gave them three hearty cheers.
This was merely intended by us as an experiment; but the effect produced
by it surpassed in interest any thing that we had yet seen amongst this

The echoes of our huzzas had scarce subsided, before the three young
girls, who had attended us the whole day, stepped down to the edge of
the water; having each of them previously drawn on a pair of gloves made
of white feathers. They first held out their arms, in an horizontal
position, with the fingers extended; then waved them to and fro, with an
undulating motion; and, at last, suddenly sunk them towards the earth.
Again, recommencing for a short time the waving of their hands, they
finished this affecting ceremony by extending both arms, to their full
extent, towards the right side, pointing their snow-white gloves towards
the sky. They continued to repeat the same motions without the least
variation, until we began to pull away from the shore; when they ceased
entirely, and retired into the crowd of natives, who had stood behind
the three girls during the foregoing exhibition, and, in profound
silence, appeared to be watching every motion. Never had we seen a more
interesting spectacle: the young _Esquimaux_ kept the most exact time
with each other, and accompanied their gestures by the most graceful
motion of their heads; their eyes bespeaking, at the same time, the most
tender solicitude for our safety. It is not a trifling matter that can
agitate, even for a moment, the rough feelings of a seaman; yet the
crews of our boats sat, during this scene, in mute astonishment, with
their mouths wide open; and at last, with the utmost reluctance, we tore
ourselves away.

Unlike the generality of savage nations, this people did not exhibit any
dances peculiar to themselves: the only instance that we observed, to
prove they have an idea of dancing, was on board the ship; here a young
girl threw one leg out, and then another, alternately, for some time;
when, stopping suddenly, she shut her eyes, and, holding her head down,
fell to moaning and howling, as if in great pain: next followed a
convulsive gurgling in the throat, and deep-drawn sighs; then gradually
opening her eyes, and relaxing her features into a smile, she repeated
the whole over again.

It is a curious fact, that the inland or hunting tribes of _Indians_ in
_Hudson’s Bay_ believe the _Esquimaux_ to be a nation of sorcerers.
Should the season prove a bad one in procuring their furs, they say that
the _Esquimaux_ have enchanted the game; and they then set off to the
northward, to punish them accordingly. Whenever they discover the tents
of the supposed magicians, they remain lurking about the place until a
favourable opportunity offers; when, raising the dreadful war-whoop,
they rush on to the attack with inconceivable fury. Every individual of
the vanquished is instantly massacred, whether they make resistance, or
implore for mercy. The animosity between them is hereditary, bloody, and

When Mr. _Hearne_ travelled to the N. W. in search of the long-sought
passage to the _Southern Ocean_, he was escorted by a party of _Cree
Indians_, and was himself an eye-witness of the massacre of an
_Esquimaux_ tribe; although he used his most earnest entreaties with his
conductors, to spare an innocent-looking young girl who had supplicated
his protection: the _Indians_ frowned furiously upon him; and asking,
with haughty contempt, _if he wanted an Esquimaux wife_, they speared
her to death on the spot[17].

It is rather remarkable, that the habitations of the _Esquimaux_ had
never before been visited by the officers of the _Hudson’s-Bay_ ships,
although they had often landed in the Straits: but this may be explained
in two ways. In the first place, the _Esquimaux_ are evidently anxious
to conceal their places of abode; secondly, the commanders of the
_Hudson’s-Bay_ ships have directions from the Company not to go on shore
amongst the _Esquimaux_ themselves, nor to send their boats; and they
have orders also to be continually on their guard, in all communications
with this people. Possibly these orders have been issued since the
horrid termination of an attempt to establish a permanent white whale
fishery at _Richmond_; and probably that circumstance may have given
rise to the regulation. I shall relate the dreadful story in the sequel,
when I reach that part of my Narrative where it will be necessary to
give a short description of the factories in _Hudson’s Bay_: it would be
considered as too long a digression to insert it at present. We had the
good fortune, therefore, to be the first _Europeans_ who, for the last
forty years, have visited the habitations of the _Esquimaux_. I have
thus been enabled to describe them fully, from my own observations. And
there is another point upon which I am able to speak _positively_,
although the circumstance did not fall under my own inspection: I allude
to the manner of disposing of their dead.

His Majesty’s ship _Brazen_, Captain _Stirling_, in the year 1813,
convoyed the _Hudson’s-Bay_ ships into the Bay. Captain _Stirling_ and
some of his officers landed in the Straits, but could not find any
habitations of the natives: however, in wandering about the hills, they
discovered an object of no less curiosity; namely, the dead body of an
_Esquimaux_: it was closely wrapt in skins, and laid in a sort of gully
between two rocks, as if intended to be defended from the cold winds of
the ocean: by the side of the corpse lay the bow and arrows, spears, and
harpoon of the deceased; together with a tin pot, containing a few beads
and three or four _English_ halfpence: the last articles had evidently
been procured by the deceased in traffic with the Company’s ships.

The reason of the body having been laid on the surface of the earth, is
in consequence of the impossibility of penetrating the flinty rock, of
which the whole coast is composed; and the custom of depositing his arms
by the side of the corpse of a deceased _Indian_, is common to many
barbarous nations.[18]

As it may be expected that something should be said respecting the
government and religion of the _Esquimaux_, I shall briefly state, that
they did not appear to me to trouble their heads with either. They
certainly paid great respect to the old man who sang to us the song
before mentioned; but it does not necessarily follow that he was either
a prince or a priest. It is probable that they venerated him more on
account of his age, than from any civil or ecclesiastical authority with
which he was invested. But the _Esquimaux_, and all other nations around
_Hudson’s Bay_, have a notion of a superior spirit, whom they concur in
styling _Manéto_, or _Good Spirit_. It is not known whether the
_Esquimaux_ have any idea of an Evil Being; but the _Cree Indians_
imagine that there is a great number of that species, whose sole delight
consists in tormenting mankind[19].

With respect to the language of the _Esquimaux_, I have been able to
collect a few specimens: and I shall insert, against each word, in what
part of the coast each expression was ascertained to be in use, and the
authority from whence I derived my information.

      Words.        Signification.      Where used.       Authority.

     Chymo             _Barter._         On the shores of  Ascertained by
                                         _Hudson’s         myself.
     Pillitay          _Give me
     We-we             _A white goose._
     Wau-ve            _An egg._
     Muck Mhameek      _A knife._
     Kippy Swau, beck  _A saw._
     Muck-tu           _A deer._
     Twau-ve           _Go away—begone._
     Tuck-tu           _Seal blubber._
     Kiack             _Canoe._          _Churchill_, and  Ascertained by
                                         in _Hudson’s      one of the most
                                         Straits_.         respectable
                                                           belonging to
     Omiack            _A ship._
     Kannau weet ameg  _A dart._
     Ye meck           _Water._
     Hennelay          _A woman._
     Aunay             _Far off._
     Cob-loo-nak       _An Englishman._  _Churchill
     Mai               _Good._
     Nagga Mai         _Not good._
     Karrack           _Wood._
     Peo-me-wonga      _I would have._   By the Natives    By the _German_
                                         of the            Missionary
                                         Missionary        before mentioned.
     Ak-ka-karor       _It shall have
     mapock            payment._

    Having given a short account of the _Esquimaux_, their manners, and
customs, I may now proceed with my Journal as before; and content myself
with making a few cursory remarks, as we sail along.

    August _1st_.—The whole of this day we continued off _Saddle
Back_[20]; as the _Hudson’s-Bay_ ships had some arrangements to make,
previous to their final separation, which always takes place off
_Mansfield Island_, at the entrance of _Hudson’s Bay_. Towards evening,
we began to ply to windward, with a fresh breeze at west. Thermometer
40° in the shade.

    August _2d_.—Beating to windward with a strong breeze, in the
afternoon we hove-to off _Icy Cove_, about a mile to the westward of two
remarkable hills, called the _Virgin’s Paps_, which last lay nine
leagues to the westward of _Saddle Back_. On firing a gun and hoisting
our colours, we were immediately visited by another party of
_Esquimaux_: there was no difference whatever in their appearance from
those we had seen before. One of our officers purchased a canoe of a
native, for which he paid a kettle, a lance, a saw, and a spoon. Our
curiosity was considerably excited, to observe in what manner this man
would contrive to reach the shore; and we really entertained serious
apprehensions for his safety, when we perceived him stretch himself out
upon his belly on another canoe, at the back of the man who used the
paddle. He was in this dangerous position conveyed to land, not daring
to lift his head, through fear of destroying the equilibrium of the
canoe; which did not swim two inches above the surface of the sea.

    After night-fall, we were compelled to tack ship about, to avoid a
large patch of floating ice.

    August _3d_.—We continued plying to windward all this day; and in
the evening we had reached _Upper Savage Island_. It lays about
twenty-three leagues to the west of _Saddle Back_, in an opening which
has never been explored. Thermometer 32° in the sun.

    August _4th_.—Towards the evening of this day we had a fair wind,
the ship butting her way through immense quantities of ice. Passed by a
bluff cape, called _Point Look-out_. This cape is eight leagues to the
west of _Upper Savage Island_. We saw a number of _Esquimaux_ following
us among the windings of the loose ice. These poor creatures laboured
hard to overtake us, hallooing and shouting “_Chymo!_” but we were now
exceedingly anxious to get forward, and therefore could not wait for
them; at which their disappointment must have been great.

    August _5th_.—This morning forcing our way with difficulty through
the ocean of ice that surrounded us; at length, being enveloped in a
thick fog, and the wind dying away, we lashed our ship to a large piece
of ice; and firing three guns as a signal for our convoy to do the same,
we were astonished at the effect produced by the cannon, The explosion
issued like thunder over the ice; then appeared to roll rumbling back
towards the ship; bellowing forth again in tremendous peals. The echo
died away in distant reverberation.

    Shortly afterwards, we imagined that we could distinguish the sound
of voices through the fog: we immediately beat the drum, to point out
our situation; and, in a few minutes, we plainly heard the shouting of
the _Esquimaux_: they soon came alongside the ship, with the usual
expressions of delight. It is really surprising that this people should
venture so far from the land, in such frail barks, through a mass of ice
which is enough to daunt an _European_, even in a stout-built ship.

    The fog clearing away, we cast the ship loose, and endeavoured to
force our way forward among the ice; until, from its increasing
consolidation, we were again obliged to lash to a large piece of it.
This operation is called _grappling_; and it is performed by running the
vessel alongside of the piece of ice to which it is intended to make her
fast: two men then leap on the ice: the one runs, with a sort of
pickaxe, to dig a hole in it, using the precaution to stand with his
back to the ship; and the other man follows the first, with a
serpent-like iron on his back, having a strong rope affixed to one end
of it: this serpent (or ice-anchor, as it is termed) is hooked into the
hole on the ice, and the rope is fastened on board the ship. Other
ice-anchors and ropes are then hooked to different parts of the piece of
ice; and the number of ropes is varied according to the state of the
weather. In a gale of wind, we had generally five anchors a-head; and
with a moderate breeze, not more than two. The whole manœuvre of
grappling is generally accomplished in five minutes; and although the
ship be lashed to windward of a clump of ice, yet the action of the wind
on a vessel’s masts, yards, &c. turns the ice round, and she will
consequently soon be under the lee of it, with water as smooth as a

    We were employed this evening in filling our casks from a pool of
snow-water on the ice; and our people were highly diverted with running
upon it, leaping, playing at foot-ball, and shooting at seals. At
length, four of the seamen were so imprudent as to venture on a sort of
peninsula which projected from the main body of the ice; when the
isthmus instantly gave way, leaving them adrift on a small piece that
was barely sufficient to sustain their weight. It was long after
night-fall, and with the utmost exertion and difficulty, that we
succeeded in getting them safe on board again, by the help of a boat.

    August _6th_.—In the middle of the night, the prospect from the ship
was one of the most awful and sublime that I ever remember having
witnessed, during a life spent entirely upon the ocean: and I regret
that no language of mine can give an adequate idea of the grandeur of
the scene. As far as the eye could reach, a vast alabaster pavement
overspread the surface of the sea, whose dark blue waters could only be
seen at intervals, where parts of the pavement appeared to have been
convulsively torn up, and heaped upon each other in ruined fragments.
The snow-white surface of this immense plain formed a most striking
contrast to the deep black clouds of a stormy night; through which,
uninterrupted flashes of forky lightning succeeded each other with great
rapidity, as if intending, by their fiery glare, to shew to us the
horrors of our situation, and then to magnify them by leaving us in
utter darkness. Add to this, the reiterated peals of thunder that burst
forth, in a thousand roaring echoes, over the surrounding ice; also the
heavy plashing of the rain, which poured down in torrents; the distant
growling of affrighted bears, the screams of sea-birds, and the loud
whistling of the wind;—the whole forming a midnight prospect which I
would have gone any distance to see; but having once beheld, never wish
to witness again.

    In the morning, we were surprised by the appearance of two
_Esquimaux_, who had contrived to reach the ship, although we were at
least seven leagues from the land, and the ice closely hemming us round
on all sides: the Indians had effected their passage by dragging their
canoes over the different fields of ice which obstructed their progress.
At 4 A.M. we got under sail; as there appeared a possibility of our
pushing through, the ice having loosened a little; however, we looked in
vain for an opening. The ship running fast, with a fair breeze, struck
violently upon a large field, and the shock fairly lifted up her bows.
We continued butting through until 8 A.M. when we grappled to a large
field of ice, as an impenetrable mass now presented itself on all sides
of us: the wind shifted into the N. W. and blew a heavy gale,
accompanied by drifts of snow and sleet. We lay in this position all
night, closely hemmed in, with five ice-anchors a-head. An inspection
being made by the carpenter, he found that the heavy shocks which the
ship had received this day had started the ceiling about her bows, and
also twelve or fourteen of the trunnels.

    August _7th_.—During the whole of this day, we continued closely
wedged in by the ice. It blew a hard gale from the west, attended by a
heavy fall of snow and sleet. The loose ice was incessantly varying its
position: at one time, we were so closely hemmed in as to be hardly able
to discern any water; then, suddenly, the ice would again open to a
considerable distance. This is easily accounted for; as the light pieces
of ice drift much faster before the wind than the heavier masses, which
are deeper in the water: it will naturally occur, therefore, that the
three ships would alter their position, according to the size of the
clump to which they were fastened. The _Eddystone_ was three miles to
the east of us last night; and at sunset this evening, she was as far to
the west; yet that ship was still grappled to the same piece of ice as
before; and, from the coagulated mass which surrounded us, one would
have been led to conclude that the relative distance from each other
could not have been so easily altered: but it varies according to the
depth and solidity of the ice to which the ships are affixed.

    August _8th_.—In the forenoon, the snow ceased to fall, and we had a
finer day. Latitude, by an observation at noon, 62°. 54′. N. The ice
loosened considerably in the course of the day, but not sufficiently for
us to get under sail. At night-fall, we lost sight of the _Eddystone_,
to the west.

    August _9th_.—The day had just began to dawn, when an animal was
observed swimming near the ship: we at first conjectured it to be a
seal, and accordingly sent a quarter-master over the ice, to knock it on
the head, if it attempted to get upon it; but the man was fain to make a
rapid retreat, when he discovered the form of a prodigious bear emerging
from the water. This enormous creature came close to the ship’s head;
and had I been armed with a pistol only, it would have been easy to have
dispatched him; but during the time we were all bustling for a musquet,
the bear marched up the field of ice. Mr. _Wells_, a young midshipman,
and myself, instantly pursued him, by different routes; but the grey of
the twilight was favourable to him; and his hide being but a shade or
two deeper than the ice itself, he escaped unseen. We afterwards traced
his footsteps to the edge of the ice, opposite the spot where he landed,
and he must therefore have replunged into the sea from that place. I
mention this circumstance to shew in what manner these animals contrive
to procure subsistence: they swim, during the night, in the quiet manner
now described; and drawing close to a piece of ice, they immediately
smell if there be any seals upon the top of it; in which case they
ascend gently on the opposite side, and suddenly springing upon the
sleeping seal, they instantly tear it in pieces.—As this proved to be a
fine day, we drew our seamen out upon the ice, and exercised them by
firing at a target. Towards evening the ice began to loosen

    August _10th_.—A fine day; but the ice still close. Wind remains at
N. W. During the last twenty-four hours, the _Eddystone_ again appeared
in sight; and towards evening, she again neared us considerably. We
believed this to be owing to her having got into a southerly current.
Our latitude this day was 62°. 50′. N.; and at night-fall the
thermometer stood at 28°.

    August _11th_.—At 4 A.M. ungrappled, and got under sail, with a fair
wind, running a zig-zag course amongst the ice; the ship, at intervals,
striking excessively hard. Towards evening, we again grappled to a piece
of ice; and, upon inspection, we found several more trunnels started,
and the ship much shaken, by her repeated blows. The Admiralty must
certainly have been deceived by the _Hudson’s-Bay_ Company, respecting a
Voyage to _Hudson’s Bay_; or they certainly would never have sent a ship
of war to perform it, without previously strengthening her for the
occasion. It is exceedingly dangerous for any ship to attempt a passage
through the sea of ice in _Hudson’s Straits_, unless her bows be doubled
with oak-plank and heavy blocks of wood, bolted to each side of her
cutwater; as the floating masses of ice may be considered so many _rocks
of crystal_.

    This day, in a vacancy between the ice, we saw the first regular
whale. On his second rising to blow, I discharged a load of small shot
into his back; at which, however, he did not even seem to feel the least
annoyance, though we saw him no more.

    August _12th_.—At day-light, ungrappled, with a light wind at south;
but, to our great mortification, we were again obliged to anchor, at
noon, to a field of ice about half a mile long; and both the other ships
made fast to the same piece, so that we could walk across the ice to
visit each other. Our people were immediately set to work; and in three
hours’ time, we had filled fifty-six casks with snow-water, from a large
pond on the ice. We had _Charles’ Island_ in sight, bearing W. N. W.
about nine leagues distant. This small island is on the southern shore
of the Straits, in the narrowest part; the channel there not being above
twenty miles broad. _Charles’ Island_ lies about twenty-one leagues to
the west of _Lady Lake’s Inlet_; and hence the ships leave the northern
shore, and steer for the south end of _Salisbury Island_, lying off Cape
Diggs, at the western extremity of _Hudson’s Straits_.

    The ice continuing very close all around us, we were compelled to
remain in this situation, without ungrappling, for five days; in which
nothing occurred worthy of notice.

   [Illustration: _Appearance of the Entrance of Prince of Wales’s Sound,
        bearing S.W.½W. about nine leagues.—taken August 17, 1814._]

          [Illustration: _The Rosamond grappled among close Ice._]

    August _17th_.—In the morning, we were opposite a deep inlet, called
_Prince of Wales’s Sound_, on the southern shore of the Straits, which
has never been explored. All this coast, as well as the northern shore,
is fringed with islands; the principal of which are called _King
George_, _Prince of Wales_, _Maiden’s Paps_, and _Mannil’s Islands_; and
they doubtless afford shelter to many fine harbours.

    August _18th_.—We did not grapple during the night, but hove to, for
about two hours, whilst it continued dark; and at day-light we again
bore up, and continued running through loose ice. Towards noon it fell
nearly calm: we observed seven large seals, basking on a piece of ice;
but as soon as we approached them in a boat, they rolled into the water,
and disappeared. We were visited by two _Esquimaux_ in the afternoon:
they had nothing remarkable about them, except that their mustachios
were rather more bushy than those we had seen before. In the evening it
fell quite calm, and we grappled.

    August _19th_.—During the night, the other ships had fallen
considerably to the eastward; but the wind coming round to the
south-west, we ungrappled, and waited for their coming up. _Queen Anne’s
Foreland_, a high cape on the north shore, bore E. N. E. nine leagues;
and although at so great distance, we were visited by three canoes of
_Esquimaux_, bringing their usual commodities for traffic. Our latitude
this day was observed to be 63°. 38′. N.; longitude, 72°. 45′. W. We
grappled again in the evening, and lay so until—

    August _21st_.—At 2 A.M. was presented one of those awful
appearances which are so common in these hyperborean regions. The water,
for some distance around the ship, had, for a time, been partially
cleared of the ice; when, on a sudden, a noise was heard like very
distant thunder, and the crackling of falling beams in some immense
conflagration. The loose ice, which had appeared so distant before, now
approached on all sides with an unusual rapidity; the pieces driving one
over another in their course, and seeming to menace the destruction of
our ship. In ten minutes we were completely hemmed in, on all sides; and
a person might travel for miles over a space which had just before been
an expanse of water. The ice must have been forced together by some
extraordinary meeting of the currents, as there was but a slight breeze
at the moment.

    At noon, the wind became fair: we ungrappled, and steered through
loose weighty ice until 8 P.M. when a thick fog came on, and we again
grappled for the night. About 10 P.M. the deep darkness of the sky was
suddenly changed to a bright twilight; and having continued so for about
five minutes, it again relapsed into its former gloom. This singular
appearance was occasioned by a streamer of the _aurora borealis_
bursting through the thick fog which surrounded us.—Thermometer 29°.

    During our stay in _Hudson’s Bay_, and upon our voyage home from
thence, our nights were constantly illuminated by the most vivid and
brilliant coruscations of the _aurora borealis_. Its appearance was very
different from that which I have seen in more southern latitudes;
resembling continual jets of meteoric fire from the northern part of the
horizon, which, after darting upwards in long streamers towards the
zenith, suddenly collapsed, and receded; falling back, in zig-zag,
serpentine lines, with diminished splendour; and ultimately dying away,
and vanishing from the sight; being succeeded by other jets, as
beautiful as the first. The _Cree Indians_ inhabiting _Hudson’s Bay_,
and indeed the _European_ traders there, maintain, that, in the serene
stillness of their severe winters, a soft rushing noise constantly
accompanies these coruscations, like that which is occasioned by the
quick waving of a _fan_, or of a _winnow_. The same remarkable
circumstance is mentioned by _Hearne_, who bears positive testimony to
the fact. “I can positively affirm,” says he[21], “that in still nights
I have frequently heard the _northern lights_ make a rustling and
crackling noise, like the waving of a large flag in a fresh gale of
wind. This is not peculiar to the place of which I am now writing (_the
Athapusco Lake_), as I have heard the same noise very plain at
_Churchill River_: and, in all probability, it is only for want of
attention that it has not been heard in every part of the northern
hemisphere, where these lights have been known to shine with any
considerable degree of lustre.”

    August _22d_.—Early in the morning we again ungrappled. The reader
of this Journal may easily conceive that, by this time, our impatience
was at its height, as we had now been nearly a month incessantly
occupied in endeavouring to push our ship through the never-ending
drifts of ice in _Hudson’s Straits_. I shall not, therefore, attempt to
describe the joy of every person on board, when at 8 A.M. we emerged
into an open sea, and, the wind blowing tolerably fresh, at ten we
passed by _Charles’ Island_. At noon, we had lost sight of both land and
ice; and we now sailed forwards at a great rate, with both our ships in
company. Towards night-fall, we passed by a low level island, called
_Salisbury Island_, which lies at the entrance of _Hudson’s Bay_.

    August _23d_.—In the morning, passed to the southward of
_Nottingham_, a long rocky island, lying north of _Cape Diggs_. I know
not if _Salisbury_ and _Nottingham Islands_ are inhabited by the
_Esquimaux_; but it is natural to suppose that this people visit them
occasionally, during their periodical voyages. At 8 A.M. we were off
_Cape Walsingham_, which is only remarkable for its being the north-west
promontory of _Labrador_, and having a string of small islands running
from it towards the sea.

    In the afternoon, the _Eddystone_ parted company; as that ship was
bound for _Moose Factory_, at the southernmost extremity of the bay;
whilst we intended to proceed with the _Prince of Wales_ to _York
Factory_, on the western side. And now, having brought the ship safely
through these formidable Straits, and conducted her into the immense
gulf of _Hudson’s Bay_, we will leave her for a while to pursue her
voyage, and take an excursion round the _Bay_, in order to give some
short description of its factories, inhabitants, &c.

    Amongst the many adventurous naval enterprises which reflect such
lustre upon the last years of Queen _Elizabeth_, and the beginning of
the reign of _James_ the _First_, none, perhaps, can surpass, in
intrepidity and perseverance, the voyages of _Henry Hudson_; undertaken
for the express purpose of effecting a north-west passage to the
_Pacific Ocean_. All that I have been able to collect respecting this
brave but unfortunate man is, that he sailed in the year 1610, and
discovered the Straits which now bear his name. He boldly pushed his way
through them; and finding that, after a length of six hundred miles, he
emerged into an open sea, his heart beat high with exultation on having,
as he doubtless imagined, succeeded in discovering that famous passage
for which so many had sought in vain[22]. Sailing forward, therefore,
four hundred miles towards the west, his disappointment was great, at
finding himself suddenly stopped, in the midst of his career, by an
unknown coast, extending (as has since been ascertained) from 51° to 63°
N. latitude. However, the spirit of _Hudson_ was not easily checked;
and, astonishing as it may appear, he determined on remaining the whole
winter on this dreary coast, so that he might be able to prosecute his
voyage early in the ensuing spring. After suffering innumerable
hardships, this daring adventurer sailed, early in the next year,
towards the north, in search of the much-wished-for outlet to the
_Pacific_; but his crew, not feeling the same enthusiasm which animated
their leader, and greatly fearing lest his ardent thirst for discovery
might expose them to the horrors of another winter, or, what was still
worse, to the chance of perishing amidst the terrific mountains of ice
with which they saw themselves to be surrounded, they accordingly
proceeded from murmurs to open mutiny; and having turned the heroic
_Hudson_ adrift in a small boat, together with the few who adhered to
his fortune, they basely left their leader to perish, and sailed away
for _England_, where they arrived in safety. As for the unhappy Captain,
I grieve to add, that he was never afterwards heard of: neither have we
the poor consolation of knowing that his murderers met with the
punishment due to their inhuman crime. There can be no doubt that
_Hudson’s Bay_ would have remained much longer unexplored, had it not so
happened that the winter preceding the year in which the discovery was
made must have been remarkably mild; consequently, _Hudson_ could not
have met with many obstacles in passing through the Straits;—no seaman
would have endeavoured to penetrate farther, if he had found them so
completely blocked up with ice as to impede a ship’s progress, even with
the advantage of a favourable wind attending her;—and that this was the
case with us, will appear evident, from a perusal of the preceding part
of this Journal.

    The _Hudson’s-Bay_ Company’s charter is said to confirm to that body
the whole and sole right of trading with the _Indians_, within the
limits of _Hudson’s Straits_; and they have no less than six factories
established at the mouths of as many different rivers, which empty
themselves into the Bay. The northernmost of these factories is called
_Churchill_: it stands on the west side of the Bay, in latitude 58°.
50′. N.; longitude, 93°. 4′. W. The port is tolerably good, and ships of
any size may anchor in it. At the entrance is a danger, called _Cape
Mary’s Rock_; but it is easily to be avoided. On entering _Churchill
River_, ships pass between two points of land. One of them forms a sort
of peninsula; and it has a large strong fort of stone upon it, the
erection of which is said to have cost the _Hudson’s-Bay_ Company
30,000_l._: it was formerly mounted with twenty 32-pound guns. The
opposite Cape (_Mary_) has also a small battery, which formerly had six
guns on it; yet, with the most culpable pusillanimity, did the traveller
_Hearne_ (who acted as chief at that time) yield this strong position to
the _French_ Admiral _La Perouse_, without so much as attempting a
defence; who, in the year 1782, spiked the cannon, and destroyed the
factory. Since that time, the fortifications of _Churchill_ have been
suffered to remain in their present dilapidated state; and, as a
trifling security against any sudden invasion in future, the new factory
was erected at a short distance higher up the river. It is matter of
surprise, that the Company do not repair the large stone fort, which is
made uncommonly strong, both by nature and by art. As it stands upon the
extremity of a peninsula, a body of men passing the isthmus to attack it
by land, would be completely exposed to the enfilading fire of the fort.
It would be difficult also for an enemy to force the gates, because
there is a small half-moon battery built on that side, expressly for
their defence. Besides, there are dwelling-houses in the interior of the
fort, sufficiently large for the reception of the whole factory.

    The shore about _Churchill River_ is high and rocky, producing only
a very few insignificant trees and shrubs. Farther north, towards the
country of the _Esquimaux_, this small vestige of vegetation dwindles
away even to a simple bush or two, and these are only to be found at a
considerable distance from each other.

    Proceeding southward, towards a more genial country, we arrive at
_York Factory_, standing upon low swampy ground, completely covered with
wood: its latitude is 57°. 2′. N.; longitude 92°. 40′. W. This place was
also visited by the _French_ in 1782, who burnt the factory, and
destroyed a small battery at the entrance of _Hayes’ River_. But
_Perouse_ was grievously disappointed in the chief object of his voyage:
and as it is so intimately connected with the subject on which I am
writing, perhaps it will not be thought improper to describe the
disappointment which the _French_ suffered in the expedition;
particularly as the fitting-out of the squadron must have cost the
_French_ nation much money; and their burning a few miserable
mart-houses in _Hudson’s Bay_ could only injure individuals, and most
probably was not felt at all by the public.

    _Perouse_ entered _Hudson’s Bay_ in 1782, having under his command a
line-of-battle ship and two large frigates. With this force he of course
insured the capture of the annual ships, together with their rich cargo
of furs, oil, &c.; and as the escape of the three ships does high honour
to the skill and intrepidity of their commanders, it is well worthy of
notice. The ship which was bound to _Churchill_, was commanded by
Captain _Christopher_; and the _French_ admiral fell in with her at sea,
just previous to her arrival at that place. A frigate was immediately
dispatched in pursuit; but the night drawing on apace, Captain
_Christopher_ resolved on a bold manœuvre, which he accordingly carried
into execution with great success. Perceiving that the _Frenchman_ was
ignorant of the coast, and, by his following the _English_ ship, that he
was determined to govern his own vessel by her motions,—whereby he hoped
to avoid all danger, and in the end secure his prize,—Captain
_Christopher_ sent his men aloft, and furled his sails, pretending to
come to an anchor. The enemy immediately conjectured that it would be
dangerous for him to proceed farther; therefore he directly brought his
frigate to anchor in reality. Captain _Christopher_ rejoiced that his
deception had so far succeeded to his wishes; and he made sail to sea
with the greatest dispatch. Night coming on, and the _Frenchman_ being a
long time in getting up his anchor, the _Englishman_ was soon out of
sight, and escaped in safety to the northward. Fired with this
disappointment, _Perouse_ burnt the factory; and proceeded to _York_, to
secure the other ship, then lying at that place, under the command of
Captain _Fowler_. As there was not depth of water sufficient for his
ships to enter _York_, he anchored in _Nelson River_, and made every
disposition for an attack upon the ship and factory by the dawn of the
next day; but, to his utter mortification, he found in the morning that
the bird had taken wing;—for Captain _Fowler_ had perceived three large
ships at anchor in _Nelson River_ the evening before, and, wisely
conjecturing that they could have no good intentions towards him, put to
sea during the night. _Perouse_ dispatched a fast-sailing frigate in
search of him, which soon had sight of the runaway; but Captain _Fowler_
finding the _Frenchman_ to have much superiority in point of speed,
tacked about, and stood in for the land to the south of _York_, hoping
thereby to entice the _Frenchman_ into shallow water: the enemy,
however, discovering his design, and fearing lest, in further pursuit,
he might incur the risk of shipwreck, put off to sea; and Captain
_Fowler_ pursued his voyage to _England_ in safety. The season was too
far advanced to attempt any other exploit; and having therefore burnt
the factory at _York_, _Perouse_ returned to _Europe_; highly chagrined,
no doubt, at being thus foiled by a pair of _English_ sailors, and at
having failed of success in the principal aim of his expedition. As
there are many shoals and dangerous rocks in _James’ Bay_[23], he did
not think fit to send a ship to destroy the southern settlements: and to
the credit of this unfortunate navigator, I must state, that he
publickly averred, if he had been aware of the factories being the
property of individuals, he would assuredly have quitted them without
molestation. It is remarkable that the Bay ship (as she is called) got
safe to _Moose Factory_, and returned to _England_, without being at all
aware how very narrowly she must have escaped falling into the hands of
the enemy.

    The next factory to the south of _York_ is called _Severn_; but the
shore at this place runs off much too shoal to allow a ship to approach
the coast; therefore a schooner of about eighty tons is employed to take
the furs to _York_, and to bring back the necessary supplies. This is
also the case with _Albany_, the next factory towards the south; except
that the latter place sends its furs, &c. to _Moose_, instead of _York

    At the very bottom or southernmost part of _Hudson’s Bay_, which is
styled _James’s Bay_, we arrive at _Moose Factory_; standing, like all
the rest, on a river, bearing the same name. This place has a good
anchorage, and the climate is milder than in any of the other factories.
It is annually visited by a ship from _England_; as at _Moose_ the furs
are collected together from the lesser mart-houses of _Albany_, _East
Main_, and _Richmond_, for the purpose of being shipped off to _Europe_.
We must now proceed round the bottom of the Bay;—and the next settlement
is at _East Main River_, nearly opposite to the western shore of
_Labrador_. The factory was established at this place for the purpose of
trading with the natives of that vast peninsula; but their internal
mart-houses verge generally towards the south, and the marten skins from
this factory are said to be the finest in quality of any which are
received from _Hudson’s Bay_. The inhabitants around this settlement are
a roving race of people, styled, by the _Europeans_, _Mountain Indians_,
to distinguish them from the _Esquimaux_, who inhabit the sea-coast to
the northward.

    At some distance to the north of _East Main_ is a bight, called
_Richmond Bay_: here is a house belonging to the Company, but not a
permanent establishment; as the people who arrive from _East-Main
Factory_ in the spring, return again to that place in the fall of the
year, to remain for the winter. The annual voyages to _Richmond_ are
undertaken for the purpose of procuring oil, as there is a good
white-whale fishery in this Bay. The white whale[24] is not much larger
than a first-rate porpoise; neither does it yield any whalebone fit for
use: but the oil is nearly equal in value to that of the seal; and it
was sold in _England_, in the year 1813, at fifty-six pounds a ton. The
fish itself is perfectly white.

    There is also a small whale fishery at _Churchill Factory_, but it
is not very productive: perhaps it would be more advantageous for the
Company if they were to convert the remains of it into a new fishing
establishment in some more efficient situation.

    I have now reached that part of my Journal which I before alluded
to, as being the most proper place to introduce the account of the
disastrous termination of two attempts made by the _Hudson’s-Bay
Company_ to settle a permanent white-whale fishery at _Richmond Bay_.

    When first the _Europeans_ went to settle at _Richmond_, the
_Esquimaux_, who reside about this part, kept them in a continual state
of alarm all the winter, by lurking about the woods, in their sledges
drawn by dogs. At length an English boy was missing from the settlement;
and, after some difficulty, two _Esquimaux_ were seized, and confined in
separate apartments. In order to recover the absent youth, the settlers
made use of a stratagem. A musket was discharged in a remote apartment;
and the settlers entering the room in which one of the _Esquimaux_ was
confined, they informed him, by signs, that his comrade had been put to
death, for decoying away the boy; and they gave him to understand, at
the same time, that he must prepare to undergo the same fate, unless he
would faithfully pledge himself to restore the absentee. The _Esquimaux_
naturally promised every thing; and on being set at liberty, he made the
best of his way into the woods, and, of course, was never afterwards
heard of. They kept the other native for some time a prisoner: at
length, he tried to effect his escape, by boldly seizing the sentinel’s
firelock at night, but the piece accidentally going off, he was so
terrified at the report, that they easily replaced him in confinement:
yet either the loss of liberty, a supposition that his countryman had
been murdered, or that he was himself reserved for some cruel death,
deprived the poor wretch of reason. As he became exceedingly
troublesome, the settlers held a conference as to the most eligible mode
of getting rid of him; and it being deemed _good policy_ to deter the
natives from similar offences, by making an example, they accordingly
shot the poor maniac in cold blood, without having given themselves the
trouble to ascertain whether he were really guilty or innocent.

    Possessing only the plain leading facts of this affair[25], it is
not easy to determine how far existing circumstances might have
justified such an act of severity towards an ignorant being, who was
also, perhaps, totally innocent. The reasons ought certainly to have
been weighty which induced them to put the poor man to death; and I hope
they will be able hereafter to reconcile the deed to God and to their
own consciences.

    After this time, _Richmond_ was abandoned as a permanent
establishment; and they fell into the present method of visiting this
place only during the fishing season, and returning to pass the winter
at _East-Main Factory_. Captain _Turner_, however, represented to the
_Hudson’s-Bay Company_, that, in his opinion, want of perseverance was
alone necessary to render _Richmond_ a safe and permanent settlement;
and that, by having people on the spot, ready to begin fishing early in
the spring of the year, much greater profit would necessarily accrue to
the Company. Accordingly, he received directions to take thither seven
people, who were to remain at _Richmond_ during the whole winter. In the
spring of the succeeding year, the northern or _Hunting Indians_, who
had visited _Richmond_ in pursuit of game, came, as usual, to barter
their furs at _East-Main Factory_; at the same time bringing the
dreadful intelligence that the seven unfortunate _Europeans_ had been
murdered by the _Esquimaux_. The bodies of some of the settlers were
afterwards found; although it be by no means certain that they were
killed by the _Esquimaux_: such, however, is a fair presumption, as this
people had before displayed a hostile disposition in the case of the
boy; and the place was rifled of all the metal, of which the _Esquimaux_
are known to be remarkably fond: add to this, that the northern
_Indians_ had long been accustomed to trade yearly at _East Main_, and
no instance had ever been known of their behaving with treachery towards
the _Europeans_.

    On the other hand, we must allow, that the _Hunting Indians_ and the
_Esquimaux_ live in a state of constant enmity, and, consequently, that
their evil reports of each other should be cautiously received. It is
also certain, that the northern _Indians_ are as partial to spirituous
liquors as the _Esquimaux_ are to metals. Three bloody shirts, belonging
to the murdered settlers, were found in the tent of a northern _Indian_,
which he alleged to have taken from the bodies of the slain, after the
_Esquimaux_ had quitted them. Upon the whole, it remains uncertain
whether the settlers at _Richmond_ perished by the hands of the
_Esquimaux_, or by those of the northern _Indians_: for my own part, I
should be inclined to the former opinion. This catastrophe has
effectually put a stop to any further attempts towards establishing a
permanent settlement at _Richmond Bay_.

    The following anecdote of Mr. _Darby_, the father of the celebrated
Mrs. _Mary Robinson_, will shew that the _Esquimaux_ are of a
treacherous disposition, and extremely averse from any settlements being
made on their coasts.

    Mr. _Darby_ had long fostered in his mind a scheme of establishing a
whale fishery upon the coast of _Labrador_, and of civilizing the
_Esquimaux Indians_, in order to employ them in the extensive
undertaking. Hazardous and wild as this plan appeared to his wife and to
his friends, Mr. _Darby_ persevered in his resolution to prosecute it;
and actually obtained the approbation and encouragement of some of the
leading men at that time in power, who promoted his designs. To
facilitate the execution of his plan, he deemed it necessary to reside
at least two years in _America_. His wife felt an invincible antipathy
for the sea, and, of course, heard his determination with horror. The
pleadings of affection, of reason, and of prudence, were alike
ineffectual, and he sailed for _America_.

    The issue of this rash enterprise proved quite as unfortunate as it
was predicted. Mr. _Darby_ had embarked in it his whole fortune; and it
failed. The noble patrons of his plan deceived him in their assurances
of marine protection, and the island of promise became a scene of
desolation. “_The Indians rose in a body, burnt his settlement, murdered
many of his people, and turned the product of their toil adrift on the
merciless ocean._”—This great misfortune was followed by other
commercial losses; and the family of this too enterprising man were, in
consequence, reduced from a state of affluence and luxury to a very
different condition[26].

    Having now described the whole of the Factories established upon the
sea-coast of _Hudson’s Bay_, it will be necessary to say something of
the interior: this is so far from being unknown, that a man may with
safety travel from _Hudson’s Bay_ to _Quebec_, in _Canada_, by land. The
_Hudson’s-Bay Company_ have many small factories, or rather mart-houses,
dispersed in all directions, for upwards of one thousand miles in the
interior; to which the _Indians_ bring furs, feathers, quills, &c. in
exchange for cloths, blankets, ammunition, fowling-pieces, trinkets, &c.
The furs thus collected are sent down the rivers, in large boats, to the
factories on the sea-coast, whence they are shipped off for Europe, as
before described. There is great jealousy existing between the
_Hudson’s-Bay_ traders and the _Canadian Company_, styled the
_North-West Adventurers_, respecting the traffic in _peltry_ with the
_Indians_. As the mart-houses of the two parties meet inland, each uses
all the means in its power to induce the natives to barter furs with
themselves, in preference to their opponents: nay, to such a pitch have
they carried their mutual animosity, that it is not long since a man in
the Company’s employ actually killed a _Canadian_ trader, in a dispute
relative to the purchase of some furs from the _Indians_; for which
offence the culprit was tried at _Montreal_: and as it appeared that the
_Canadian_ had given him sufficient provocation, the jury returned a
verdict of manslaughter.

    The _Indians_ have not failed to observe this competition, so
impolitic on both parts, and they profit by it accordingly.

    Each factory and mart-house has its _Chief_, appointed by the
Company; and there is also a northern and southern Superintendant, who
is directed to visit all the places of note within his district, at
least once in the year. The northern department comprises _Churchill_,
_York_, and _Severn_ factories, on the coast; and the southern embraces
_Albany_, _Moose_, _East Main_, and _Richmond_. To determine the
interior limits of each, an imaginary line of demarcation is drawn east
and west from _Hudson’s Bay_ to the _Stony Mountains_.

    With respect to the inhabitants of this vast desert I shall say but
little, as Sir _Alexander M^cKenzie_ has given a very full description
of the various tribes by which it is peopled[27]. The most populous of
all, perhaps, are the _Cree Indians_: they appear to me to be the same
race described by the before-mentioned author, under the name of
_Knisteneaux_. They occupy the country from _Churchill_ nearly as far
south as _Moose_, and are found scattered almost as far to the west as
the _Stony Mountains_; but their numbers have been much diminished of
late, owing to the small-pox. When this dreadful malady first reached
this country, as the _Indians_ were not aware of any remedy by which
they could counteract its violence, they were accustomed to leave the
person afflicted in the midst of a wood, with a sufficient stock of food
for two or three days’ subsistence; and when this scanty provision was
expended, the unhappy victim must have necessarily perished with hunger.
The banks of the rivers, for a time, exhibited a most loathsome
spectacle, of bodies which had thus fallen a sacrifice to this disorder.

    Besides the _Cree_ or _Knisteneaux Indians_, there are innumerable
tribes spread over the interior of this vast country; the principal of
which are, the _Copper_, _Dog-ribbed_, and _Hare-foot Indians_, towards
the north; the _Swees_, _Bongees_, _Slave_, and _Stone Indians_, towards
the west; likewise a variety of tribes inhabiting the southern country
around _Moose_, such as the _Mistassins_, and others. The different
tribes have frequently wars with each other; and they appear to agree
unanimously in one respect only, that is to say, in universal and
eternal hatred of the _Esquimaux_. However, it fortunately happens, from
the contrariety of their modes of life, that their parties seldom come
into contact with each other, and consequently the battles between them
are very rare.

    It remains now to speak of one of the most enterprising
speculations, perhaps, ever undertaken by a single person; namely, the
attempt lately made by Lord _Selkirk_ to establish a colony upon the
banks of the _Red River_, in a situation nearly equidistant from _York
Factory_ and _Lake Superior_, and in the latitude of 50° N.[28]

    His Lordship holds this land by a grant of 12,000 square acres from
the _Hudson’s-Bay Company_. The first settlers left _Sligo_ in the year
1811; and arriving in _Hudson’s Bay_, they past the winter of that year
at _York Factory_. In the spring of 1812, they proceeded to their
destination, under the command of a Captain _M^cDonald_, formerly
belonging to a veteran corps in _Canada_: but this gentleman seems
deficient in the essential art of conciliating those who are placed
under his government: however, the situation of the colony is
undoubtedly good, and the soil so fertile as to produce every thing
almost spontaneously. The winters, indeed, are more severe than in
places upon the same parallel of latitude in Europe, but much milder
than at _Moose_, or any of the factories in _Hudson’s Bay_; and yet even
at _Moose_ they produce barley, if it be a fine year; and _Orkney_ oats
every year, by sowing them a short distance from the sea-beach. Still,
it is extremely doubtful if ever his Lordship’s descendants will derive
much benefit from their father’s mighty speculations; unless, indeed, he
could prevail upon his tenants to grant him a sort of tithe from their
produce, in lieu of rent. With this corn he could supply the
_Hudson’s-Bay_ settlements, which would save the Company a considerable
expense, and they might repay his Lordship in the current coin of the

    The _Prince of Wales_ took out many women and settlers for the
colony, as also a Mr. _White_, to act as surgeon. Lord _Selkirk_ has
agreed with this gentleman, to give him a yearly stipend of 100_l._
together with a grant of five hundred acres of land, and a labourer four
days in the week for its cultivation.

    It is difficult to imagine what were his Lordship’s intentions with
respect to the colony at _Red River_. Allowing the luxuriance of the
soil to answer his fullest expectations, by what possible means could
the produce be conveyed to an adequate market, so as to repay the
expenses of its carriage? The communication between the colony and _York
Factory_ is kept up by boats, through the great _Lake Winnepeg_; a
little to the southward of which runs the _Asnaboyne_ or _Red River_:
yet the channels of the different rivers are so full of falls, rapids,
portages and carrying-places, that the labour of conveying the boats is
immense, and consequently quite unfit for the purposes of commerce,
except it be in furs, and in such light merchandize.

    It was for some time believed that a large opening to the northward
of _Richmond_, and near to _Cape Smith_, was an inlet to some large
inland sea; but, in the year 1786, Mr. _Davison_, an officer in one of
the Company’s ships, was sent in a schooner to explore the same. The
following extract contains the description of his progress, as expressed
by himself. “On entering the bight, and perceiving no land a-head, we
sat down to a bottle of wine, and drank success to the new discovery:
however, we were soon chagrined by the appearance of some low islands
stretching across the opening; and shortly afterwards, coming to an
anchor under one of them, we climbed to the top of it, and, to our great
mortification, we perceived that the supposed sea was nothing more than
a deep gulf, terminated at the bottom by thick clusters of islands,
among which the sea ran winding in romantic mazes. Here we found the
_Esquimaux_, who bartered away their dresses, &c. with great avidity,
for any sort of metal.”—Notwithstanding this clear statement, there are
experienced men who still suppose that an inland sea does exist; and for
these reasons:—1st. There is a continual current setting to the east
from _Cape Henrietta Maria_, towards the supposed opening; 2dly, The bay
ship, in her voyage to _Moose_, has frequently observed a large glut of
loose ice off _Cape Henrietta Maria_, which, before her return, has
entirely disappeared; and whither could it have drifted with a strong
easterly current, unless some opening had admitted its escape from the
bay?—These are the reasons for and against the existence of the supposed
sea; but it is to be regretted, that the Company do not make a decisive
attempt to ascertain the fact.

    It will now be necessary to return to the proceedings of the ship.

    August _24th_.—Course run S. W. by W. ¼W. 34 miles. In the morning,
past to the northward of _Mansfield_, a very long, low, level island,
lying about seventeen leagues to the westward of _Cape Diggs_. Its
extent from north to south is said to be full sixty miles. As it abounds
with marshes and ponds of fresh water, it may be considered as the grand
nursery of those innumerable flocks of wild geese and ducks which
afterwards line the shores of _Hudson’s Bay_: however, it is but seldom
visited; and the ships generally avoid going too near to it, in
consequence of some shoals that lay around the shore. Towards evening,
we steered away W. S. W. by compass.

    August _25th_.—Course run S. S. W. ¾ W. 101 miles. As there is
generally a glut of ice floating about the centre of _Hudson’s Bay_, a
ship, on leaving _Mansfield Island_, and having a northerly wind, ought
to steer for _Cape Churchill_, until they reach within sixty leagues of
the land, when they may alter the course, and steer for _York_ direct.
It is necessary to make this angle, to avoid the body of ice in
question. Another thing worthy of remark is, that if a ship steer in for
_Cape Churchill_ until she have forty fathoms water, she may be certain
of being in latitude of the Cape: and when she reaches within five or
six leagues of the land, she will have eighteen fathoms water. But a
navigator must be cautious to make allowance for the southerly current,
which sets continually along the western coast of _Hudson’s Bay_.

    August _26th_.—Course run S. W. ¼ S. 56 miles. The wind this day to
the S. S. W. Our latitude at noon was 60°. 11′. N. ship still standing
to the westward. It has been already noticed, that the officers of the
_Hudson’s-Bay_ ships have a motive in concealing from the public the
knowledge which they actually possess relative to the navigation of the
Northern Seas; and I pledged myself to explain that motive at a proper
opportunity. I cannot undertake this unpleasant task at a more apposite
time than the present, when it may serve to enliven the dulness of a few
nautical remarks, which I think it necessary to insert into this part of
my Journal.

    In the first place, it is proper to state, that this illiberal
concealment has its origin in the Company themselves, who (as I am told
by their own officers) have issued the strictest and most peremptory
commands to the people in their employment, “that they take especial
care to conceal all papers, and every other document, which may tend to
throw light upon the Company’s fur-trade.”—It is probable that the
Company had no other motive in issuing these directions, than to keep
themselves and their gains shrowded in a profound silence; as it appears
that, above all other things, they wish their trading concerns not to
become a topic of general conversation in the mother-country. Actuated
by such principles, the officers of the _Hudson’s-Bay_ ships conceive it
to be their duty to conceal likewise all those remarks which their
experience has taught them to make upon the navigation of the _Northern
Seas_: consequently, nothing can be more incorrect than the Chart
supplied by the _Admiralty_ for the guidance of a man-of-war in
_Hudson’s Straits_: it absolutely bears no resemblance to the channel of
which it is intended to be an exact delineation. During the time we
continued in _Hudson’s Straits_, the _Rosamond_ was entirely piloted by
a chart belonging to the chief mate of the _Prince of Wales_, and one of
his own making; yet he was so jealous of his performance, that he was
highly offended at our Master’s having endeavoured to take a copy of it;
and from thenceforward kept his charts carefully locked up. When I
questioned him, with some freedom, on this mysterious conduct, the
selfish motive stood at once confessed: he feared lest, from others
attaining the same knowledge as himself, they might be induced to enter
into the service of the Company, and thereby possibly supplant him in
his situation. And such I found to be the motives which induced the
majority of these experienced seamen to keep their truly valuable
information concealed within their own bosoms. After the foregoing
statement, it will be unnecessary to explain my reasons for inserting
the very few nautical observations which I was enabled to collect.

    August _27th_.—Course run, W. S. W. ¼ W. 87 miles.

    We continued running all this day across the bay, with a fine
leading wind. Our latitude at noon was 59°. 40′. N.

    August _28th_.—Course run W. S. W. 74 miles.

    At noon this day we sounded, and found that we were in eighty
fathoms water. About sun-set we observed a large body of ice to
windward; our latitude at this time 58°. 56′. N.; and longitude, by
chronometer, 89°. 50′. W. It is about this spot that the _Hudson’s-Bay_
ships generally calculate on seeing ice, allowing they meet with it at

    August _29th_.—Course run S. by W. ¼ W. 68 miles.

    At 1 A.M. we sounded in sixty-seven fathoms water. At four in the
morning, the wind suddenly increased to a violent gale, which died away
again at sunset. Our latitude at noon was 58°. 6′. N.; longitude, 90° W.
Towards night-fall we sounded in forty-two fathoms, with a muddy bottom;
and at the same time we caught an owl and a hawk, which we considered as
sure signs of the vicinity of land.

    August _30th_.—As we were now running in to make the land, I shall
insert a Table of the Soundings, taken from the depth of water, which we
ascertained last night at sun-set.

  Table _of_ Soundings _ascertained on the 30th of_ August, _while
  standing in for the Land to the Southward of_ York Factory.

    Hours.      Ship’s     Distance run     Depth of         Bottom.
              Course, by    since last       Water.
               Compass.     Soundings.

        4 A.M.     S. S. W.      20 Miles      25 Fathoms          Mud
        5^h 0^m      Ditto        4 Ditto       21 Ditto          Ditto
         5.30        Ditto        5 Ditto       15 Ditto          Ditto
          6.0        Ditto        5 Ditto       14 Ditto          Ditto
         6.30        Ditto        5 Ditto       19 Ditto       Ditto & sand
          7.0        Ditto        6 Ditto       12 Ditto      Sand & pebbles
      _Note._—At seven o’clock in the morning we saw the trees a-head, the
      land itself being too low to be seen. The land probably about seven
      leagues distant.
         7.30      S. by W.       5 Ditto       9½ Ditto          Ditto
         7.50        Ditto        2 Ditto        7 Ditto          Ditto

    As we continued beating to windward, in various soundings, all the
forenoon, I shall not mark them down, but proceed to 1 P.M. when _Cape
Tottenham_ bore S. by E. five leagues distant.

  Table _of_ Soundings _ascertained on the 30th of_ August, _while
  standing in for the Land to the Southward of_ York Factory;—continued
  from the preceding page.

    Hours.      Ship’s     Distance run     Depth of         Bottom.
              Course, by    since last       Water.
               Compass.     Soundings.

        1 P.M.      We had          ——         13 Fathoms       Rocky and
                                                             gravelly, which
                                                               denotes the
                                                             Cape bearing S.
                                                                  by E.
       2^h. 0^m.   W. N. W.      4½ Miles       14 Ditto          Rocky.
          3.—        Ditto        6 Ditto       23 Ditto          Ditto
          5.—      S. S. E.       5 Ditto       26 Ditto       Brown sand.
          6.—        Ditto        5 Ditto       17 Ditto       Mud, shells,
                                                               and stones.
         7.30      Southward     7½ Ditto        8 Ditto           Mud.
                  & Westward
          9.—        Ditto        7 Ditto       11 Ditto          Ditto
         9.30        Ditto        2 Ditto       11 Ditto          Sand.
         10.—        Ditto        2 Ditto       11½ Ditto         Ditto
         10.30       Ditto        2 Ditto       12 Ditto        Fine sand.
         11.—        Ditto        2 Ditto       12 Ditto     Very fine sand.
         11.30       Ditto        2 Ditto       14 Ditto      Gravelly sand,
                                                                and black
         12.—        Ditto        2 Ditto       14½ Ditto    Very fine sand.

  Table _of_ Soundings _ascertained on the 31st of_ August, while
  standing in for the Land to the Southward of York Factory.

    Hours.      Ship’s     Distance run     Depth of         Bottom.
              Course, by    since last       Water.
               Compass.     Soundings.

        12^h.      Southward      2 Miles      14 Fathoms     Grey sand with
      30^m. A.M.  & Westward                                  black specks.
         1.—         Ditto        3 Ditto       15 Ditto          Ditto
         1.30     S. W. ½ W.      3 Ditto       15½ Ditto          Oozy
         2.—         S. W.        3 Ditto       15½ Ditto          Mud
         2.30        Ditto        2 Ditto       16½ Ditto         Ditto
         3.—         Ditto        2 Ditto       14½ Ditto          Oozy
         3.30        Ditto        2 Ditto       12 Ditto       Brown sand,
                                                             black specks, &
                                                              broken shells.
         4.—         Ditto        2 Ditto       7½ Ditto           Sand
         4.30       Standing in for _York       7½ Ditto          Ditto
         5.—         Ditto        3 Ditto       7¾ Ditto       Hard ground.
         6.—         Ditto        6 Ditto        7 Ditto          Ditto
         7.—         Ditto        6 Ditto       8½ Ditto          Ditto
         8.—         Ditto        7 Ditto       8½ Ditto       Soft ground.

    At eight in the morning, it will be observed, we were in 8½ fathoms
water, on _York Flats_; and we therefore came to an anchor, with the
beacon, at the mouth of _York River_, bearing S. W. by compass; the land
being distant about ten miles, although it could barely be discerned in
a blue line above the horizon. Thus, it may be observed, we had been
sixty-three days on our voyage; and that it may be compared with other
voyages to _Hudson’s Bay_, I have annexed to this Journal a Schedule[29]
of those performed by the Company’s ships since the year 1788; although
I have not been able to obtain the dates of their departures from the

    By the Sounding Table which I have inserted, it is evident that the
depth of water abreast of _York River_, and off _Cape Tottenham_, to the
southward, is uncommonly regular; and it may therefore be fairly
concluded, that, although the western coast of the Bay be very low land,
yet there is no great danger in making it.

    It is not expected that ships during their return to _Europe_ will
ever meet with loose ice[30]: therefore, as soon as our ship anchored on
_York Flats_, we _undid_ all the preparations which had been made for
manœuvring whilst amongst the ice; such as, re-stowing our anchors, and
putting below ice-ropes, ice-anchors, ice-axes, &c.; and we rejoiced in
being rid of them.

    The factory was about twenty miles distant from the anchorage of the
ship, but not visible. At 10 A.M. I went, therefore, from the ship, to
report our arrival to the Governor. We were met at some distance from
the ship by a large boat from the factory. It appeared that they had
noticed the arrival of the ship; and mistaking her for the _Prince of
Wales_, the boat was immediately despatched for letters, parcels, news,
&c. &c. Finding their mistake[31], the boat returned with us to the
factory, which we reached about nine at night. On landing, we were
hailed by a sentinel; and a guard of honour was drawn out to receive us,
with a pair of _Highland_ bagpipes in front. The guard was composed of
the traders, boatmen, and others, belonging to the factory: and through
the gloom of the night I discerned the Governor and his officers,
standing in a group to receive us. After the necessary business of
introduction was over, we walked up to a large wooden building,
surrounded by a double row of wooden palisades; and here we were regaled
with venison steaks and buffalo tongue.

    Sept. _1st_.—At 2 A.M. the tide answering for our return, we quitted
the factory, and reached the vessel again about 8 A.M.

    Whilst we were at _York Fort_, we received information that the
factory at _Churchill_ had been burnt to the ground, in the month of
_November_, 1813. The miseries which the people of that place suffered
during the remainder of the winter were very great. As there were
seventy-three chests of gunpowder in the warehouse at the time the
conflagration took place, their whole attention was occupied in removing
away the powder to prevent an explosion; and by the most strenuous
exertions they succeeded in this undertaking; but the time lost
prevented their being able to save a mouthful of provisions, or a single
utensil, from the flames. An old out-house that had escaped destruction,
and a few tents which they erected of rein-deer skins, served them as
habitations during the remainder of the winter; and, as if Providence
had taken especial care to provide for their necessities, partridges
abounded to a greater degree than had been known for many years before.
Of course, these birds proved a seasonable supply to the sufferers;
particularly as the partridges are so very tame, that they suffer
themselves to be driven into nets, by which means large quantities are
taken at one time.

    A family in _England_ would be justly esteemed objects of great
pity, if they were burnt out of their home in the midst of winter,
although many friendly habitations might be humanely opened for their
reception. What then, comparatively speaking, must have been the
situation of the _Churchill_ people—driven out by the flames in the
middle of a _November_ night, on the shores of a frozen ocean, with the
thermometer 78° below the freezing point, without any shelter save that
of a decayed out-house, no bedding, no cooking utensils, no immediate
nourishment, and no final prospect of relief, except from a reliance on
the adventitious aid of their fowling-pieces! Such a night must surely
be allowed to have had its share of horrors. But heroic strength of mind
is the characteristic of the _European_ traders to _Hudson’s Bay_; and
this alone enabled the people of _Churchill_ to escape all the evils
attendant on such a calamity.

    Towards the evening of this day, the _Prince of Wales_ came to an
anchor near us.

    Sept. _2d_.—In the morning we weighed anchor, and ran into the mouth
of the river, otherwise called _Five-fathom Hole_. It is a very
contracted anchorage, and at high water there is not more than three
fathoms’ water on the bar. In running in from _York Flats_, the large
beacon must be kept bearing S. W. by W. by compass. To moor the ship,
one anchor must be laid up the stream, and another down it; and the
width of swinging room at low water does not much exceed four times a
ship’s length; having a dry muddy flat on the N. W. and a shoal to the
S. E. The water is perfectly fresh, and fit for use, at the last quarter
ebb, and first quarter of the flood-tide.

    As we lay at this anchorage until the 28th instant, I shall not
notice each day separately, but proceed to make such remarks as occurred
during our stay; contenting myself with briefly stating, that the
_Prince of Wales_ was employed during the time in stowing away her
cargo, &c.

    The whole of the north-west part of the continent of _America_ is so
completely intersected with rivers and lakes, that _Mackenzie_ went the
greater part of his journeys by water. _York Factory_ is situated on the
bank of a river, which has sometimes been called _York River_; although
it appears that the majority agree in giving it the name of _Hayes’
River_: but it undergoes many appellations in its course from the
_Echemamis_ to the sea. I shall therefore endeavour to describe the
river, by tracing a journey from _York Factory_ to _Lake Winnepeg_, a
distance of about five hundred miles: but the fur-traders of
_Hudson’s-Bay_ are so well accustomed to the route, that two men in a
slight bark canoe will undertake it without the slightest hesitation.

    On leaving _York Factory_, the boats proceed against the stream,
without meeting any obstruction, up _Hayes’ River_, _Steel River_, and
forty miles of _Hill River_; when they arrive at the first
carrying-place, called _Rock Portage_. The obstructions from
henceforward begin to augment; and at every portage, the boat, with her
whole cargo, must be carried over land; which is rendered sometimes
extremely difficult, by the ground being either rough or swampy.

    After passing _Rock Portage_, the stream is contracted; and there
are a number of portages intervening, before the boats can arrive at a
broad part of the stream, called _Swampy Lake_, which contains a number
of small islands; and it may be considered as a short half-way to _Lake
Winnepeg_. Leaving _Swampy Lake_, the stream is again contracted into a
narrow slip, called _Jack River_, in which are four portages. On
crossing these, they enter a broader part, intersected by innumerable
small islands. This space is styled the _Knee Lake_, and is sixty miles
in length. One of the small islands in the centre of _Knee Lake_
contains so great a quantity of iron ore, as to cause the compass to
spin round with uncommon velocity. At the upper end of the lake the
stream gradually lessens into another slip, called _Trout River_, and
here are four more portages: then gently extending its boundaries, the
river opens on a wide expanse, called _Holey Lake_, from some deep holes
in the bottom of it, and the great inequality of the soundings
throughout. At the eastern extremity of this lake stands _Oxford House_,
the first trading port to be met with after leaving the factory. Owing
to the richness of the soil, and the geniality of the climate, this
place produces a number of excellent vegetables[32].

    Proceeding onwards, the boats leave the main body of _Holey Lake_ to
the left hand: the stream then suddenly narrows; and after passing four
more carrying-places, the last of which is called _Hill’s Portage_,
there is a clear space, until a sudden serpentine bend in the river
forms the _White-fall_. The current now begins to be very weak; and a
little farther on, they enter a narrow part with still water. This spot
is the highest part of the land between _Lake Winnepeg_ and _Hudson’s
Bay_; and _Hayes’ River_ may, perhaps, be said to take its rise about
seven miles to the southward of it, in a small lake called
_Winnepegosis_. The boats now meet with a singular rock, which, from
some curious _Indian_ paintings once found there, has since been called
the _Painted Stone_. Over this rock the boat must be dragged, and again
launched on the opposite side, into a long, narrow, boggy slip of water,
called the _Echemamis_. After emerging from this strait, the current of
the river begins to operate in favour of the boats; and this proves that
the _Echemamis_ is a small river, taking its rise in the morasses about
the _Painted Stone_, and having no connection with the river which leads
from the _Painted Stone_ towards the sea. The _Echemamis_ is, however,
lost at a short distance from its source; as after the boats pass _Hairy
Lake_, the stream falls into the _Sea River_; and there is a portage at
their junction, called the _Sea River_ carrying-place. The _Sea River_
is a branch of the great _Nelson River_, separated from the main stream
at the _Play-green Lake_, and rejoining it by a creek that opens near
_Hairy Lake_.

    The boats go against the current up the _Sea River_; and passing the
little _Cross Lake_ and _Pike River_, they reach _Winnepeg_, through the
_Play-green Lake_. This last is a wide body of water, covered with
islands; and may properly be said to be merely a part of _Nelson River_,
which holds its course from the _Stony Mountains_ to _Hudson’s Bay_. The
rough course from _York Factory_ to Lake _Winnepeg_ is about south-west;
but the _Nelson River_ makes a great angle between _Winnepeg_ and the
sea; as it first runs off N. N. E.; and then takes its course, due E. N.
E. to _Hudson’s Bay_, where it empties itself by the side of _Hayes’

    The labour of getting the boats up these rivers is amazingly great:
their crews encamp on the banks every night; and they generally land
also to cook their meals, except when they are compelled to subsist on
_pemmican_, a sort of dried, husky compound, composed of pounded venison
and deer’s fat mixed together. This species of food is extremely
nutritious: it requires no cooking, and is sometimes rendered more
palatable by the addition of berries.

    There are many kinds of wood growing on the banks of the rivers, and
indeed the whole of the interior near the sea is covered with it: but in
the country about Lake _Winnepeg_ there are very few trees, and the
inhabitants are therefore compelled to use the dung of the buffalo for
fuel. Both buffaloes and horses abound in the open country. The woods on
the coast are principally composed of dwarf poplars, larches, and all
the varieties of the pine species.

    Having thus described the communication by water between Lake
_Winnepeg_ and _York Factory_, I shall conclude with a statement of the
respective distances.


       Distance from _York Factory_ to the top of  _Hayes’ River_        50
                       Thence to the upper end of  _Steel River_         35
                                               To  _Rock Portage_        35
                                               To  _Swampy Lake_         35
                                        Length of  Ditto                  9
                                        Length of  _Jack River_           9
                                                   _Knee Lake_           60
                                                   _Trout River_         12
                                                   _Holey Lake_          30
                                               To  _White-fall_          45
                                                   _Painted Stone_       15
                         Along the _Echemamis_ to  _Hairy Lake_          35
                                        Length of  Ditto                  4
                                                   _Play-green Lake_     35

    It must be allowed, that the above is a mere rough statement of an
old trader, who had been accustomed to traversing the route for nearly
twenty years.

    _Nelson River_ is a much more noble stream than _Hayes’ River_, with
respect to its navigation, extending about twenty miles from the sea;
but from thenceforward it becomes so full of obstructions, from
portages, falls, and rapids, that the Company have been compelled to
establish their factory upon, and give a decided preference to, _Hayes’
River_, although they have an establishment or two for trade on the
former. The _Nelson River_ takes its rise, according to _M^cKenzie_, in
the _Stony Mountains_; and empties itself into _Hudson’s Bay_, at the
same place as _Hayes’ River_. It is only divided from the latter, at the
mouth, by a very low cape, called _Point of Marsh_, upon which an
exceeding high wooden beacon has been erected by the Company, to enable
their ships to distinguish the mouth of the river. The continual washing
of the waters on either side of the _Point of Marsh_ has enabled the sea
to encroach a great deal on the land, and thereby created many dangerous
shoals in the mouths of the rivers: the navigation has, by these means,
been rendered extremely contracted and difficult. The breaking up of the
rivers in the spring tends also, in a great measure, to increase these
evils: for, in the first place, the ice being driven towards the sea
with an amazing velocity, it carries every thing forcibly away, and
causes a general ruin upon the banks, by cutting down large bodies of
earth, and hurling trees and rocks from their places. In the second
place, it frequently happens that immense stones lying at the bottom of
the rivers become fixed into the ice during the winter, and the freshes,
in the spring, consequently bear them away towards the sea; but the ice
not being able to sustain their ponderous weight for any length of time,
it naturally occurs, that those masses become disengaged, and are
deposited at the mouths of the rivers, where they not only incommode the
passages, but likewise injure the ships’ cables by their friction.

    On the second day after our coming, an _Indian_ Chief arrived at the
factory from Lake _Winnepeg_, and some of our officers brought him on
board. He staid with us two days; and as he was the Chief of one of
those tribes who still maintain a great part of their primeval manners,
_untainted_ by _European_ civilization, a full description of him may
not be thought unentertaining.

    This man had been brought from Lord _Selkirk’s_ colony, at _Red
River_, to _York Factory_, by Captain _M^cDonald_, the chief of the
colony. As far as I could collect, his tribe are properly called the
_Sotees_, or people who go up and down the falls of rivers. But they
have been styled _Bongees_ by the _British_, from their being addicted
to mendacity; and as they are always crying out “_Bongee!_” which, in
their tongue, signifies “a little,” perhaps, too, the colonists may have
thought the appellation peculiarly adapted to the _Sotees_, as they are
but a weak tribe in point of numbers.

    The Chief in question was about five feet eight inches high, and, to
all appearance, about thirty years of age. It seems that he had some
claims to the territory on which Lord _Selkirk’s_ colony now stands; but
he had sold his birth-right “for a mess of pottage.” Therefore, to keep
him in good humour with the infant establishment, he had been brought
down on a visit to _York Factory_, where it was intended that he should
receive an accumulation of honours. A coat of coarse blue cloth,
tawdrily ornamented with tarnished lace, and adorned with
shoulder-knots; a round hat, with a red ostrich feather in front; a very
coarse white shirt, with frill and ruffles; a pair of red stockings,
yellow garters, and black shoes, were presented to him immediately upon
his arrival. If we add to all this finery, his native ornaments, such as
a neck-band of wampum or bead-work[34], a long string of beads suspended
by his hair from each temple, and a number of large metal links of the
coarsest workmanship, dangling from either ear, his appearance will
naturally be imagined to have bordered upon the grotesque. His thighs
were entirely naked, as he could not be prevailed upon to fetter them
with breeches; and the cartilage of his nose had been perforated.

    He appeared a very intelligent man, and was highly delighted with
every thing he saw on board the ship. He was not particularly pleased
with any of our musical instruments, except the drum. A sky-rocket
struck him quite dumb with astonishment; and he afterwards observed to a
person who understood his language, “That the _Water-Governors_[35] must
be very powerful, who could thus force the stars to fall from the sky.”
Like most _Indians_, he was a great egotist, and the general tenor of
his conversation ran upon his dignity. He observed that he was a
Governor, like ourselves; and when the snow became deep on the ground,
his tribe were going out, under his command, to make war upon the _Swee_
Tribe; and that after quitting his own territory, he expected to meet
his enemy in eight days. He exulted that he had already killed two of
the _Swee_ nation with his own hand; and he gave us to understand, that
his own tribe always made war on horseback. We presented him with a
cutlass, at which he was delighted, waving it above his head, and
boasting what wonders he should be able to perform by its assistance.
Upon the whole, he was rather a swaggerer; but, perhaps, this was a
little excusable; because, according to the character given of him by
those _Europeans_ who had heard of his fame, he had acquired an amazing
influence amongst many savage tribes, by his courage and wisdom. Indeed,
his remaining two days with us, perfectly easy and contented, is a proof
that he possessed a good share of the former quality; particularly as we
were all utter strangers to him, and he had neither seen the sea nor a
ship before in his life: nor did he appear to be at all deficient in the
more tender susceptibilities of nature. He had two wives, four sons, and
six daughters; and when I presented him with a few spangles and beads,
he gave me to understand, that those trifles would be received with
great pleasure by his children, on his return to his native country. It
surprised us much to observe with what a degree of exactness he copied
all our methods of eating, drinking, &c. As we desired to hear him sing,
we took advantage of his imitative powers to make him comprehend our
wishes: accordingly, the person who sat next to him began first, and the
song went regularly round the table, until it reached the _Bongee_
Chief; when, instantly taking the hint, he rose up, and prefaced his
ditty with a long speech, which we of course did not comprehend; but, by
his gestures, we could perceive that it was evidently intended as an
explanation of the subject on which he was about to sing. Then he
suddenly struck off into an air that gave us a much higher opinion of
the strength than the harmony of his voice. The subject, we could
perceive, was an appeal to the Deity (_Manito_), to protect the ship
from all dangers, in her voyage across the waters. We had many other
songs from him during the evening: and on a special application, we were
favoured with a specimen of the war-whoop, a most discordant howl,
produced by striking the hand quick against the mouth, and shouting at
the same time. But the most farcical scene of all was the business of
getting him into a bed. The purser of the ship undertook the difficult
task of chambermaid; but our _Indian_ Chief disencumbered himself of all
his finery in a twinkling; and having reduced himself to a state of
nature, he rolled head foremost into the bed, placing his feet upon the
pillow: this produced great vexation in the mind of his _Abigail_, who
the next night succeeded, with much difficulty, in causing his _Indian_
Highness to lie down like a _Christian_.

    On the evening of the second day, our _Indian_ friend left us, to
return back to his native country. He seemed to feel great regret at
parting with the _Water-Governors_; and he gave us all to understand,
that if we should hereafter visit his territories, he would insure us a
hearty welcome, and a handsome bed-fellow to boot.

    Captain _Stopford_ having expressed a wish to observe the manner of
killing the reindeer, as practised by the _Indians_, and a party being
accordingly made to ascend the river, we left the factory early in the
morning, with a small boat of Captain _Stopford_’s, and a birch-bark
canoe to carry the provisions, tents, &c. We continued to push along
shore, against the stream, until 10 A.M. when we rested at a small
creek, called _Dram-gat_, to breakfast. _Dram-gat_ is about seven miles
from the factory: it abounds with wild-duck; and receives its name from
an old custom of giving the people in the traders’ boats a dram at this
spot, previously to proceeding farther on their journey up the river.
The tide of the sea ceases to affect the current of the river entirely
at the _Dram-gat_.

    We landed upon the bank, kindled a fire, and roasted some
venison-steaks after the _Indian_ manner, called by them _ponask_.
Having cut a long skewer of wood, they scrape off the bark, and stick
the meat upon its point. The other end of the skewer is then forced into
the ground, close to the fire; and by turning it round occasionally, the
food is soon sufficiently cooked. I never tasted any thing more savoury
than a venison-steak prepared in this manner. After making a hearty
meal, we embarked again; and two men taking out a line to the beach, we
were thus laboriously dragged along shore. There are many islands and
shoals on the south side of the river; whilst the northern shore is,
generally speaking, steep. The mouth of _Hayes’ River_ is gradually
verging towards the north, in consequence of the perceptible
encroachments of the water upon the north bank, and the evident emerging
of islands and shoals towards the south side of the river.

    As we proceeded up the stream, we met several canoes of _Indians_,
deeply laden with venison for the factory. After receiving from us a
small present of tobacco, they continued their course.

    At 3 P.M. we had reached a large circular island on the south side
of the river, called _Rainbow Island_. The view from this spot was
delightfully picturesque. The northern shore was bounded with high clay
banks, covered with dark forests of the spruce-pine tree. Above us, upon
the southern banks, five or six remarkable mounds of earth rose
majestically from the river. At the termination of a long view upwards,
the stream was lost in a sudden bend to the northward; and the vista in
that direction was bounded by a noble grove of poplars, that stood on
the declivity of the green sloping bank; and their bright yellow colour
formed a fine contrast with the sable hue of a frowning forest in the
back ground. Directly opposite to the place where we stood, several
_Indian_ canoes lay scattered about the shore; and the natives sat
regaling themselves, around a blazing fire upon the beach. The river,
glittering with the golden tints of the sun, ran smoothly beneath our
feet; and a little farther down, foamed, in distant murmurs, over a
shoal-bed of pebbles. Whilst we stood contemplating the varied objects
in this interesting scene, a flock of wild geese flew screaming past;
and a gentleman, who knew the country well, immediately observed, that
we should have an “_early fall_;” thereby intimating that the winter
would soon make its appearance. Our admiration of the fine view before
us instantly gave way to other sensations; and we could not avoid
wishing ourselves speedily out of a country where the transition is so
instantaneous, from the most oppressive heat to intense cold; where the
ground is bound up in frost eight months of the year; and the miserable
inhabitants are tormented to madness by heat and mosquitoes during the
remaining four.

    Upon leaving _Rainbow Island_, we approached the spiral mounds of
earth before mentioned. Their formation was so regular, that an
enthusiastic antiquary might easily have believed them to be antient
_Indian_ Tumuli; but upon a close inspection, we plainly perceived that
they had been separated from the body of the bank by the ices in the
spring; and they had probably assumed a circular form owing to the
washing of the great floods which follow the breaking up of the rivers,
and melting of the snows, at that season of the year.

          [Illustration: _Interior of a Wigwam of the Cree Indians
              London Published by J. Mawman 16.^th May 1817_]

    About 5 P.M. we reached a place called _Poplar-fall_; and observing
an _Indian_ wigwam on the north bank, we crossed the river, and encamped
within pistol-shot of it. We had pitched our tent within the wood; and
from it we could discern the river, at intervals, through the openings
of the trees. Although we were but a short distance from the _Indian_
wigwam, yet the wood was so intricate, that we found it difficult to
find our way thither. We, however, paid the natives a visit, and sat
familiarly down in the wigwam. It contained one old and two young men,
one old and one young woman, and five or six children of both sexes,
besides two infants. The wigwam was a circular tent, constructed with
three or four poles, lashed together at the top, and covered over with
an inferior kind of leather, made of tanned deer-skins. In the midst of
the tent was a blazing fire; and in the smoke above, a quantity of
deer’s flesh was suspended, after the manner of bacon in _England_. On
the outside of the hut, there were several stages, on which their strips
of venison were exposed in the sun to dry, for the winter’s consumption.
After sitting a short time with the natives, and inquiring at what part
of the river the rein-deer were crossing, we were at length about to
depart, when the old _Indian_ presented Captain _Stopford_ with eight
deers’ legs, which, when roasted, are considered a great delicacy, on
account of the rich marrow they contain. The young woman then gave
another of our party a deer’s heart and tongue; and the old squaw, whose
aspect was sufficient to give any man a dis-relish to the whole sex,
kindly tossed into my lap a head and a brisket. Laden with these
presents, we returned to our tents, and dined heartily off a tongue and
heart, _ponasked_. But our kind _Indian_ neighbours had not been so
exceedingly munificent without entertaining strong expectations of an
adequate remuneration: accordingly, the visit was soon returned by the
whole horde; and the old _Indian_ brought a kettle in his hand, which
was intended as a _gentle hint_ that he wished for a liquid equivalent.
We therefore gave him about a quart of rum, mixed with three quarts of
water, and a trifling supply of tobacco. Extraordinary as it may appear,
this small donation was amply sufficient to intoxicate every member of
the wigwam; and their voices resounded, in song, through the woods, for
many hours after we had retired to rest.

    Very shortly after the first dawn of day, we were awakened by the
old _Indian_: he came to inform us, that several herd of deer had
already crossed the river, and that it was high time we should repair to
our stations, to intercept any more which might attempt to follow; as it
is an ascertained fact, that these animals, during their periodical
journeys, are accustomed to follow each other’s footsteps.

    According to the old _Indian_’s advice, we proceeded about two miles
farther up the river, until we reached a place called _Twenty-mile
Island_; so named from its distance from _York Factory_. Still pursuing
the directions of the friendly _Indian_, we hauled our canoe close to
the beach, on the north side of the river; as, at this season of the
year, the rein-deer, in pursuance of their northern journey, cross all
the rivers from the southward. The _Indian_ proceeded with his canoe
higher up the stream, and took his post opposite to the spot from whence
he had seen the before-mentioned herds crossing in the morning: he then
concealed himself in the high grass, by the side of his canoe; and we
also followed his example. After lying thus in ambush for a short time,
a small herd, consisting of five deer and a fawn, appeared on the south
bank of the river, exactly opposite the old _Indian_’s canoe. The timid
and wary animals stood for some time on the bank of the river, casting
an inquisitive glance across the water. We all crouched closer than
before, in the grass; and we had soon the satisfaction to see the whole
herd leap boldly from the shore. The _Indian_ above us immediately
pushed across the stream with his canoe, to intercept the retreat of the
deer; and this he was enabled to do unobserved, as he was also a
considerable distance above the deer; and the animals neither looked to
the right nor to the left, but kept their eyes anxiously fixed on the
shore which they were endeavouring to reach. As our lurking-place was
about half a mile lower down than the place from whence the deer had
taken to the water, and the rapid current of the river naturally drifted
them downwards, they would have attempted to land close to us, had not a
shoal in the river arrested their progress, upon which they mounted; and
by their superior height they immediately discovered us. The deer now
stood hesitating what they should do; and so in fact did we: but our
_Indian_ co-adjutor having by this time succeeded in gaining the
opposite shore, called loudly on us to rise and advance. As soon as we
sprang from the grass, the affrighted herd replunged into the river, and
attempted to gain the shore which they had quitted; but we pursued them
across the stream with such activity, that only one effected its
landing, and the remaining four again turned their heads to gain the
northern bank. From this moment their deaths were considered inevitable,
as the chief skill then lay in continually turning the weary animals
from the shore, which we were easily enabled to do, by the superior
speed of our canoe. The _Indian_, meanwhile, followed close behind a
large buck, until it approached the bank; when he deliberately speared
it in the haunch; and as it emerged from the water, he fired a bullet
into its body: yet the animal ran with speed into the wood, and we all
naturally concluded it must have escaped;—but the skilful hunter smiled
at the idea: “No, no,” said he; “I have it safe:—now for another;” on
which, he wheeled about his canoe, and instantly speared to death an
amazing fine doe. My gun being loaded with goose-shot only, I discharged
it into the rump of the surviving doe, which bled profusely; I also
again fired, and struck it on the nose, when my ramrod unfortunately
fell overboard: however, we still kept turning the animal from the
shore; and having now no weapon in the canoe wherewith we could kill it,
I was obliged to halloo for the _Indian_ to bring us a spear;
accordingly, he paddled towards the deer with all his might, and, on
reaching our canoe, tossed me the spear. Following the native’s example,
I made a deep thrust into its haunch, which soon put an end to its
existence; and putting a cord over its head, we towed it on shore in

    As the _Indian_ had predicted, he soon found the carcase of the
wounded buck, lying about ten yards within the wood. Thus we succeeded
in obtaining _three_ out of the original _five_: and with respect to the
other two; one, as above-mentioned, made good its escape in the first
instance; and the fawn also landed, whilst we were engaged with the doe.

    I have been more particular in relating this expedition, because it
will serve as a specimen of the general manner in which the _Indians_
procure their supplies of venison and deer-skins. There have been
instances of taking the rein-deer alive, by throwing a rope about the
antlers; but this can only be attempted by a boat, as the sudden plunges
of the animal, when thus entangled, is very likely to upset a slight
bark canoe.

    From the continual crossings that we had made athwart the stream,
whilst in pursuit of the deer, the current had drifted us down about two
miles below our encampment, which we did not regain until towards
evening; and our _Indian_ neighbour soon paid us a visit, to talk over
the day’s sport. Having received another present of _Scutee Wapper_[36]
(rum) and tobacco, he wished us a good-night; and their songs shortly
afterwards began to swell on the air; giving to us a sure indication of
the liquor having had its due effect on their senses.

    To conclude my account of the rein-deer of _Hudson’s Bay_, I must
observe, that they are evidently the same species with those of
_Lapland_; although the _Indians_ have never attempted to render them in
any way useful for domestic purposes: but Lord _Selkirk_, with his usual
perseverance, has procured people from _Sweden_ to train the rein-deer
in _Hudson’s Bay_; although they have not yet been a sufficient time in
the country to ascertain the practicability of such a scheme[37].

    If the _Indians_ be so fortunate, during their hunting journeys, as
to kill a rein-deer in the woods, they eat of it until they literally
cannot cram another mouthful. When their meal is finished, they erect a
high stage, on which they lay the remainder of the carcase, so as to
secure it from the wild beasts; and then cover it with branches of
trees, to defend it against the birds of prey. All this trouble is
taken, that the food which they are compelled by necessity to leave
behind them may be of service to some wandering tribe of hunters like
themselves, who may not have been so fortunate as to have met with any
deer in their journey.

    When, therefore, in traversing the immense plains or forests of the
interior, a half-famished _Indian_ descries at a distance one of those
charitable stages erected on high for his relief, he hails the cheering
sight with the same feelings of delight that is experienced by a
tempest-tost and bewildered sailor, when he descries, through the dark
clouds of a stormy night, the cheering fire-beacon which denotes the
situation of a sheltering port. Whenever an _Indian_ has satisfied his
hunger at one of the stages in question, he marks the supporting poles
with the character peculiar to his tribe; so that those to whom he is
indebted for relief may perceive, on their return, whether their friends
have benefitted by their humane intentions. And it is a singular point
of honour amongst them, that if, by the characters before mentioned,
they should discover that the stage had been erected by an hostile
tribe, they will rather suffer the severest pangs of hunger than be
obliged to their enemy for relief.

    Upon our return to the factory from the deer-hunt, we found much
anxiety prevailing respecting the safety of a small schooner, which had
sailed hence, on our arrival, to bring the furs from _Churchill River_,
and had not yet returned. There was the more foundation for such
apprehensions, as it blew a heavy gale on the day after her departure,
and she must consequently have been overtaken by it before she could
have possibly reached her destined port. However, it was determined to
wait her return until the 28th of _September_, when prudence dictated
our departure, to avoid the risk of a detention for the whole winter. In
the mean time, we occupied our time in procuring a stock of fresh
provisions against the day of sailing. Accordingly, a party of _Indians_
were despatched in pursuit of game; and in a few days they returned with
eleven hundred wild geese, which they had shot in the marshes to the
southward of _York_; and several other parties of the natives poured in
a copious supply of venison and wild duck.

    Nor were we idle ourselves, as we constantly drew the _seine_ in the
mouth of the river; but the supplies of fish thus obtained were
exceedingly trifling. Of those we caught, the principal part consisted
of mullet, and _tittameg_, a small delicate fish peculiar to the rivers
of _Hudson’s Bay_.

    Before I quit entirely this almost unknown country, I shall insert
an extract from an author whose observations will serve materially to
illustrate my own[38].

    “The animals of _Hudson’s Bay_ are, the moose-deer, stags,
rein-deer, bears, wolves, foxes, beavers, otters, lynxes, martens,
squirrels, ermines, wild-cats, and hares; of the feathered kind, geese,
bustards, ducks, partridges, and all manner of wild fowl: of fish,
whales, morses, seals, cod, sea-horses, and sea-unicorns: and in the
rivers and fresh waters, pike, perch, carp, and trout. There have been
taken in one season, at _Nelson River_, 90,000 partridges, as large as
hens; and 25,000 hares. Every thing changes white in winter; even
_European_ animals after being a short time in the country.

    “The inhabitants shew great ingenuity in kindling a fire, in
clothing themselves, and in preserving their eyes: in other respects,
they are very savage[39]. In their shapes and faces they do not resemble
the _Indians_, who live to the south: they are more like the
_Laplanders_ and _Samoeids_ of _Europe_, from whom they are probably
descended. Those on the sea-coast are dexterous in managing their kiacks
or boats[40]. The other _Americans_ seem to be of a _Tartar_ original.

    “In 1670, a Charter was granted to a Company, which does not consist
of more than nine or ten persons, for the exclusive trade to this Bay;
and they have acted under it ever since, with great benefit to
themselves. The fur and peltry trade might be carried on to a much
greater extent, were it not entirely in the hands of this exclusive
Company; whose interested, not to say inquisitive spirit, has been the
subject of long and just complaint. The Company employ four ships, and
130 seamen[41].

    “The _French_ destroyed the forts in 1782, valued at 500,000_l._ The
Company export commodities to the amount of 16,000_l._ and bring home
returns to the value of 29,340_l._ which yield to the revenue 3,734_l._
This includes the fishing in _Hudson’s Bay_.

    “This commerce, small as it is, affords great profits to the
Company, and is advantageous to _Great Britain_ in general; for the
commodities we exchange with the _Indians_, for their skins and furs,
are all manufactured in _Great Britain_; and as the _Indians_ are not
very nice in their choice, those things are sent of which we have the
greatest plenty, and which, in the mercantile phrase, are _drugs_ with
us.——Though the workmanship, too, happens to be, in many respects, so
deficient, that no civilized people would take it off our hands, it may
nevertheless be admired by the _Indians_. On the other hand, the skins
and furs we bring from _Hudson’s Bay_ enter largely into our
manufactures, and afford us materials for a lucrative trade with many
nations of _Europe_. These circumstances tend to prove incontestably the
immense benefit that would redound to _Great Britain_ by throwing open
the trade to _Hudson’s Bay_; since, even in its present restrained
state, it is so advantageous. The exclusive Company, it is probable, do
not find commerce so advantageous now as it was before we got possession
of _Canada_. The only attempt made to trade with _Labrador_ has been
directed towards the fishery.

    “From the journeys of _M^cKenzie_ and _Hearne_, a complete
confirmation has arisen, that there can be no northern communication
between the _Atlantic_ and _Pacific Oceans_, except at so high a
latitude that it must be impeded by perpetual ice.

    “The mouth of the _Copper-mine River_, as ascertained by Mr.
_Hearne_, lies in latitude 72° N.; longitude, 119° W. of _Greenwich_.”

    Since the _British_ have had possession of _Canada_, a strong
competition has arisen between the people of that country and the
_Hudson’s-Bay_ traders. It is therefore doubtful whether the opening of
a free trade into _Hudson’s Bay_ would be productive of those very
advantageous results which Mr. _Pinkerton_ has supposed: the
indefatigable _Canadians_ have contrived to carry their mercantile
expeditions into almost every part of the N. W. continent of _America_;
and it can be of little political consequence to the mother country,
whether the peltry trade is made to pass through _Canada_ or _Hudson’s
Bay_; except, indeed, that the opening of a free intercourse with the
Bay might operate as a stimulus upon the _Esquimaux_, to animate their
exertions in the seal and whale fisheries; as they would be then certain
of finding an adequate market for their oil, whalebone, and seal-skins.

    That nothing serves so effectually to deaden the spirit of
mercantile application as an unjust monopoly, is evident, from an old
record of the year 1742; which runs thus:—

  “When the _Indians_ came to the factory in _June_ 1742, they could get
  but a pound of gunpowder for four beaver skins, a pound of shot for
  one beaver, an ell of coarse cloth for fifteen, a blanket for twelve,
  two fish-hooks or three flints for one, a gun for twenty-five skins, a
  pistol for ten, a hat with a white lace for seven, an axe for four, a
  hedging-bill for one, a gallon of brandy for four, a checked shirt for
  seven; all which was sold at the monstrous profit of 2000 per cent.
  Notwithstanding which discouragement, the _Indians_ brought down to
  _Port Nelson_ that season 50,000 beaver skins, and 9000 martens; these
  beaver skins being worth five or six shillings a pound; whereas those
  which the _English_ purchase at _New York_ are not worth more than
  three shillings and sixpence a pound.

  “Besides these skins, the _Indians_, during the same year (1742),
  brought to the factory, at _Churchill_, 20,000 beaver skins.”

If the _Indians_ were industrious at a season when their labour was so
miserably repaid, they would consequently become, at this moment, much
more diligent; because, owing to the competition before noticed, they
are certain of meeting with something like an adequate return for their

To this increased activity of the natives is probably owing the late
very visible diminution in the staple article of their commerce, the
beaver skins; as it is evident that those animals are becoming much more
scarce, in consequence of the perseverance with which their haunts are
sought out and invaded.

The 28th of _September_ having at length arrived, and the mercury in
_Fahrenheit_’s thermometer having sunk to 20°, we gave up all hopes of
the schooner returning from _Churchill_; and came to the melancholy
conclusion, that she must have perished on her voyage. We therefore
weighed anchor from _York River_, and steered our course towards the
north, with an intention of touching, if possible, at the former place,
to seek information of the schooner, and to get the furs from that
factory; but a brisk gale springing up from the N. W. which was
immediately against us, we gave up our design of visiting _Churchill_,
and bore away for _Hudson’s Straits_. From henceforward we had one
continued gale in our favour, until we reached the _Orkneys_, after an
unparalleled quick voyage of nineteen days. In passing through _Hudson’s
Straits_, we could perceive none of the drift-ice or _Esquimaux_, which
were so plentiful in our voyage outwards: the former had been carried
away to the ocean, by the prevalence of the southerly currents; and the
latter had most probably retired to their winter habitations.

We saw, however, many _icebergs_ of enormous magnitude in the _Straits_;
but, after leaving _Cape Resolution_, we reached the _Orkneys_ without
noticing any more of those dangerous islands[42].

We remained at the _Orkneys_ nineteen days before the other
_Hudson’s-Bay_ ship arrived from thence; but she had experienced much
bad weather, and made a much longer passage than ourselves.

A few straggling remarks, made during our stay at the _Orkneys_, will
conclude this Journal.

Entering _Stromness Harbour_, by the _Hoy Passage_, the view on either
hand is extremely awful and sublime. _Hoy Head_ is a tremendous height;
and it appears doubly so from a ship sailing near to it, as the western
side of this craggy mountain is nearly perpendicular; so much so,
indeed, that it obtained the appellation of _Hoy Walls_. At a particular
part of this awful cliff, an immense rent has torn a large fragment from
the wall; and this huge disjointed mass is now washed, on all sides, by
the most terrific breakers. It stands however erect, repelling all their
shocks; and it has assumed so completely the human form, as to be styled
the _Old Man of Hoy_. This gigantic figure may be about five hundred
feet high.

If the lowness of the eastern shore gives it a less grand appearance,
yet the ledges of sunken rocks, on which many a gallant vessel has
perished, together with the horrid breakers roaring mountain high above
them, do not fail to inspire a spectator with equal awe and terror.

The Cathedral of _St. Magnus_, at _Kirkwall_, is built of a reddish kind
of stone, in the shape of a cross; and it looks, at a short distance,
much like a brick edifice. It is of very large dimensions; and appears
to a stranger in a more imposing light, because it is erected on an
eminence. The square tower issuing from the top of the cathedral, in the
centre of the cross, was formerly surmounted by a magnificent spire; but
being shattered some few years ago, by lightning, a mean brick
substitute has since been erected. There is an amazing number of
windows; many of which have been lately broken; and there are two in the
shape of a rose, exceedingly antique and beautiful.

The doors of this structure are low and arched, surrounded by a curious
embroidery of the same red stone as the rest of the building. On
entering the main portal, the space not allotted to public worship, the
roof is supported by a double row of enormous columns, eight on each
side: they are very simple and plain, composed of square stones laid
over each other horizontally, and the shafts of the pillars are of the
same diameter from their capitals to their bases. Owing to the moisture
of the place, a green mould has covered them, and given to the interior
a most venerable aspect.

Passing up the centre of the isle between these aged pillars, we arrive
at the centre of the cross, where four immense fluted columns support
the spire, bells, and clock. A boarded partition then runs across the
church; and a scrap of Scripture painted over a door marks out the place
of modern worship. The interior of this part is neat, and ornamented
with some fine specimens of carved oak, about two hundred years old.
Over many of the seats are antique escutcheons of the former Earls of
_Orkney_. The one appertaining to Earl Patrick Stuart, last Earl of
_Orkney_, (who was beheaded,) was quartered with lions and ships, and
inscribed thus:

    E    SIC · FVIT · EST · ET · ERIT
  P : S

We had the curiosity to go up to the belfry, by spiral staircases
between the outer and inner walls of the cathedral. The number and
intricacy of these dark passages was really astonishing; and the
darkness of the place inspiring gloomy ideas, we fancied that it was in
such dismal recesses that the bigotted monks used formerly to immure
their victims. There is one fine bell, and two inferior ones, in the
church, and a noble clock by a _Scotch_ mechanist. From the belfry, a
small door opens upon a rough ledge about two feet wide: the view from
this dizzy height was extremely fine, as the town of _Kirkwall_, the
adjacent islands, and numerous lochs, appear to lie in a panoramic view
beneath the feet: but we were truly glad to re-enter the belfry, as the
want of security on the ledge quite destroyed the pleasure arising from
so fine a prospect.

On leaving the Cathedral of _St. Magnus_, we stepped aside, between the
enormous circular columns before mentioned, to observe the only
sepulchral arch of any antique appearance in the place. There was a
shield sculptured at the apex, bearing three _hearts_ as a device; from
which we conjectured that it must have received the ashes of a
_Douglas_—the _heart_ having been the device of this family ever since
the heart of the far-famed _Bruce_ was conveyed, by that king’s desire,
to the _Holy Land_, by an Earl _Douglas_[43].

This noble cathedral is said to have been built in the year 1200, and is
in an excellent state of preservation.

On the right of _St. Magnus_ stand the ruins of the palaces formerly
inhabited by the Earls and Bishops of _Orkney_. The cathedral and palace
are within a stone’s throw of each other; but the latter stands on each
side of a space which appears to have been the former court-yard of the
building. The entrance to this court-yard is by a low arched gateway.
The palace of the Earls is in better preservation than the cathedral;
and it is to be regretted, that the dilapidations to which it is exposed
are suffered to take place.

The corners of the Earl’s palace are laden with immense turrets, which
give the building a very heavy appearance. The main portal is a massy
low doorway; and the ascent to the great hall is by a fine broad flight
of stone steps. Within the hall are two arched fire-places, each
sufficiently capacious to roast a whole ox at a time. One of the
fire-places is formed beneath an arch constructed in the usual way; but
the other is considered as a curiosity in architecture: it is a plane
arch, supported by the transverse joining of the stones without the aid
of cement. The windows of the hall are high and arched, but without
either frame-work or glass.

The Bishop’s palace is now nearly destroyed; and, from the unceasing
attacks made upon it, will soon be entirely so.

It is difficult to ascertain the original shape of this venerable
structure; there being but two walls now remaining. At the end of one of
these walls is a circular tower, of great strength and solidity, which,
probably, was intended for the defence of the palace. Although the Earl
and the Bishop had their residences so near to each other, yet the
temporal and ecclesiastical Chiefs were ever at variance, and their
quarrels and intrigues occupy a large portion of the _Orkney_ history.

The town of _Kirkwall_ consists of one long narrow street, which, from
its proximity to the sea, and its central situation, was chosen to be
the metropolis of the _Orkneys_ many years ago: it is now a royal burgh,
and it sends one member to Parliament. The street is generally damp and
muddy, and there are very few good-looking houses in it. The house of a
gentleman of the name of _Baikie_ has five or six trees growing before
it; and these are, I believe, almost the only trees in _Orkney_;
although it be proved, from the number of roots dug up occasionally,
that the _Orkneys_, in former times, were by no means destitute of

The town is badly lighted; but, in this respect, it is superior to
_Stromness_; which place cannot boast of a single lamp. When we
mentioned this inconvenience, during a conversation with one of the
magistrates, he most ingeniously parried the attack, by asserting that
the inhabitants were all so sober and good, that they never quitted
their houses after dark; consequently the lighting of the town would be
attended with _unnecessary_ expense and trouble.

The people of _Kirkwall_ boast much of the _Ayr_, a public promenade
belonging to the town. The _Ayr_ is a natural embankment, projecting
like a pier into the sea, and it is washed on both sides by the water.
In summer time, the _Ayr_ must prove a very refreshing walk, and an
agreeable escape from the filthy street of _Kirkwall_.

With regard to the people of _Orkney_, it will be only necessary to add,
that a most unbounded hospitality is their leading characteristic; and
perhaps an eager curiosity is also an equally prominent trait. When a
stranger enters the town of _Kirkwall_, the intelligence of his arrival
flies with the rapidity of wild-fire: the old women, with their knitting
apparatus in their hands, stand staring at the doors; and they hardly
suffer him to pass, before his ears are assailed by a general inquiry of
“_D’ye ken wha that chiel is?_” This exclamation is repeated by a dozen
voices at once, at every door he passes in his route; and he will
perhaps feel uneasy in thus becoming an object of scrutiny to the whole

The people of _Orkney_ are naturally grave and sober, with much outward
appearance of devotion; yet, at the annual fair which is held at
_Kirkwall_, they suddenly relax into the most unbridled licentiousness:
neither are they in general to be admired for the honour or liberality
of their dealings, as they delight in making what is called a “_gude
bargain_;” and they feel no hesitation in overcharging a stranger, to
accomplish this desirable end.

I shall here conclude this Narrative; merely adding, that the _Rosamond_
and her convoy again sailed from the _Orkneys_ on the 7th of _November_,
and arrived safe at the _Nore_ on the 17th of the same month; when an
inspection having been made of the _Rosamond_’s defects, she was
reported to be totally unfit for sea, in consequence of the damage she
had sustained amongst the ice of _Hudson’s Straits_; and she was
accordingly put out of commission, and immediately advertised to be sold
out of His Majesty’s service.

                             Appendix (A).
             STATEMENT _of the_ VARIATION _of the_ COMPASS,
                           WEST FROM LONDON.

  From the Latitude of                                         59°  00 N.
  From the Longitude of         3° to 6°                            28°
                              6° ... 12°                            31°
                             12° ... 16°                            32°
                             16° ... 18°                            34°
                             18° ... 22°                            36°
                             22° ... 26°                            38°
                             26° ... 30°                            40°
                             30° ... 34°                            42°
                             34° ... 39°                            44°
                             39° ... 42°                            45°
                             42° ... 60°                            45°
                             60° ... 63°                            47°
                             63° ... 78° into Lat. 63° N.    48° &  49°
                             78° ... 81°           62° 40′          48°
                           81° 45′ ... —           62° 38′          46°
                             82° — ... —           62° 36′          44°
                           82° 15′ ... —           62° 34′          42°
                           82° 00′ ... —           62° 32′          40°
                           82° 45′ ... —           62° 30′          38°
                             83° — ... —           62° 25′          36°
                           83° 30′ ... —           62° 00′          33°
                           85° 00′ ... —           61° 30′          28°
                           87° 00′ ... —           60° 45′          22°
                             89° — ... —           59° 45′          19°
                           91° — ... 92°           59° 00′          11°
                           92° — ... 95°           59° 00′          5°

  Lat. of _Hoy Head_                 58° 58′ N.    Long. 3° 30′ W.
  —— of _York Factory_               57°  2′ N.      —— 92° 40′ W.
  —— of _Cape Churchill_             58° 50′ N.      —— 93°  4′ W.
  —— Where the Ships lay at _York_   57°  8′ N.      —— 92° 30′ W.

                             Appendix (B).
                         _since the Year 1773_.

 Date.    Arrived        Arrived       Arrived     Whither   Arrived at
        abreast of     abreast of     abreast of    bound.   _Hudson’s
        _Charles_.    _Cape Diggs_.   _Mansfield               Bay_.

      1773  Did not see      Aug. 12    Did not see it CR         Aug. 20
      1774    Aug. 6          . . .         Aug. 9     MR         Sept. 5
      1779    Aug. 22        Aug. 24       Aug. 25     MR         Sept. 3
      1780    Aug. 21        Aug. 25        . . .      MR         Sept. 4
      1783    Sept. 2        Sept. 4        . . .      MR         Sept. 17
      1784    Aug. 21        Aug. 25       Aug. 26     YF         Aug. 31
      1788    July 31        Aug. 1         . . .      MR         Aug. 15
      1789    Aug. 4         Aug. 7         Aug. 7     YF         Aug. 16
      1791    Aug. 19        Aug. 21       Aug. 22     CR         Aug. 31
      1793    July 29        Aug. 2         . . .      YF         Aug. 11
      1794    Aug. 4         Aug. 6         . . .      CR         Aug. 16
      1796    Aug. 1         Aug. 2         . . .      MR         Aug. 20
      1797    July 29        Aug. 4         . . .      MR         Aug. 28
      1798    Aug. 22        Aug. 26        . . .      MR         Sept. 5
      1799    Aug. 19        Aug. 21        . . .      MR         Aug. 30
      1800     . . .         Aug. 29        . . .      YF         Sept. 6
      1801     . . .         Aug. 6         . . .      CR         Aug. 16
      1802    Aug. 4         Aug. 9         . . .      MR         Aug. 11
      1803     . . .         Aug. 4         Aug. 5     MR          Aug. 5
      1804    July 28        July 30        . . .      MR          Aug. 5
      1805    Aug. 9         Aug. 10       Aug. 11     MR         Aug. 16
      1806    Aug. 1         Aug. 5         . . .      MR         Aug. 17
      1807    Aug. 22        Aug. 29       Aug. 31     YF         Sept. 18
      1808    July 20        July 24        . . .      MR         Aug. 14
      1809    Aug. 16        Aug. 20        . . .      MR         Aug. 30
      1810    July 21        July 30        . . .      MR         Aug. 10
      1811    Sept 13         . . .        Sept. 16    MR         Sept. 26
      1812     . . .          . . .         . . .      CR
      1813     . . .         Aug. 11        . . .      CR         Aug. 19

  _Note._—CR signifies _Churchill River_—MR _Mouse River_— YF _York

                             Appendix (C).
                                MADE AT
                       OXFORD HOUSE, HUDSON’S BAY
                           _In the Year 1811_
                    UPON THE SCALE OF _FAHRENHEIT_.
      Shewing the _Extreme Heat_ and _Extreme Cold_ of each Month.


                                                   State of the Atmosphere.
                                 _Extreme Heat._
      At Noon on the 20th, 38 degrees above 0        Rainy.
                                 _Extreme Cold._
      At 8 A.M. on the 12th, 51 degrees below 0      Clear.


                                 _Extreme Heat._
      At 8 P.M. on the 24th, 39 degrees above 0      Cloudy.
                                 _Extreme Cold._
      At 8 A.M. on the 20th, 35 degrees below 0      Clear.


                                 _Extreme Heat._
      At 8 P.M. on the 17th, 44 degrees above 0      Overcast, Rain.
                                 _Extreme Cold._
      At 6 A.M. on the 5th, 31 degrees below 0       Clear.


                                 _Extreme Heat._
      At 8 P.M. on the 14th, 57 degrees above 0      Overcast.
                                 _Extreme Cold._
      At 6 A.M. on the 3d, 22 degrees below 0        Clear.


                                 _Extreme Heat._
      At 8 P.M. on the 30th, 65 degrees above 0      Cloudy.
                                 _Extreme Cold._
      At 5 A.M. on the 10th, 15 degrees above 0      Clear.


                                 _Extreme Heat._
      At 4. A.M. on the 22d, 85 degrees above 0      Thick fog.
                                 _Extreme Cold._
      At 5 A.M. on the 1st, 32 degrees above 0       Showers.


                                 _Extreme Heat._
      At 5 A.M. on the 18th, 85 degrees above 0      Clear.
                                 _Extreme Cold._
      At 5 A.M. on the 29th, 35 degrees above 0      Cloudy.


                                 _Extreme Heat._
      At 8 P.M. on the 17th, 80 degrees above 0      Clear.
                                 _Extreme Cold._
      At 5 A.M. on the 26th, 37 degrees above 0      Clear.


                                 _Extreme Heat._
      At 5 A.M. on the 6th, 78 degrees above 0       Clear.
                                 _Extreme Cold._
      At 6 A.M. on the 30th, 18 degrees above 0      Clear.


                                 _Extreme Heat._
      At 6 A.M. on the 4th, 45 degrees above 0       Clear.
                                 _Extreme Cold._
      At 6 A.M. on the 21st, 11 degrees below 0      Clear.


                                 _Extreme Heat._
      At 6 A.M. on the 2d, 37 degrees above 0        Rather overcast.
                                 _Extreme Cold._
      At 6 A.M. on the 18th, 26 degrees below 0      Overcast.


                                 _Extreme Heat._
      At 8 P.M. on the 6th, 22 degrees above 0       Clear.
                                 _Extreme Cold._
      At 6 A.M. on the 23d, 31 degrees below 0       Cloudy.

                               Appendix (D.)
            ROSAMOND, _from_ HUDSON’S STRAITS _to the_ ORKNEYS.

   Date.     Course   Distance  Latitude by   Latitude  Longitude     REMARKS.
           corrected.   run.    Observation.     by         by
                                              Account.   Account.

     _Oct._ 6. At 6 P.M. we took our departure from _Cape Resolution_, bearing North
               by Compass, distant 15 miles.
            7.  S. E. by  62 miles       No      60°.46′N.  62°.50′W.  A very thick
                E. ¼ E.             observation                        misty day,
                                                                       with a
                                                                       tumbling sea.
            8.  S. E. by  90 miles  Sun obscured   60. 7      59.48    In the
                E. ¾ E.                                                morning the
                                                                       wind shifted
                                                                       to the N. N.
                                                                       E. and blew a
                                                                       heavy gale
                                                                       with a high
            9.  E. S. E.  187 miles Sun obscured   58.55      54.00    Scudding
                                                                       under a
           10.  E. by S.  154 miles Sun obscured   58.25      49. 6    The wind
                                                                       by heavy hail
           11.  E. by S.  187 miles Sun obscured   57.54      43.20    A strong wind
                                                                       with a heavy
                                                                       sea. We
                                                                       this day
                                                                       abreast of
           12.  E. ¼ S.   200 miles              57°.46′N.    57. 2    A very heavy
                                                                       gale from the
                                                                       under the
                                                                       goose wings
                                                                       of the
           13.  E. ½ N.   229 miles                58. 5      29.52    A tremendous
                                                                       high sea
                                                                       under a
           14.  E. ½ N.   203 miles                58.17      25.34    Scudding in
                                                                       very fierce
                                                                       _Prince of
                                                                       Wales_ in
           15. N. 89° E.  165 miles                58.23      18.24    A fine day.
                                                                       Wind in the
                                                                       N. W.
                                                                       quarter, much
                                                                       more moderate.
           16.    East    186 miles                58.23      12.24    Weather
                                                                       with a fine
                                                                       fair breeze.
           17.  E. ¼ N.   152 miles Sun obscured   58.32       7.38    On a
                                                                       we lost time,
                                                                       since leaving
                                                                       3 hrs. 49
                                                                       min.; for
                                                                       which loss we
                                                                       allow 28
                                                                       miles. This
                                                                       makes the
                                                                       8°.31′ W.
           18. At day-light we saw the Butt of the _Lewis Islands_, having run 70
               miles E. ¼ S. since yesterday at noon. Observed the Isles of _Barra_
               and _Rona_.
           19. In the morning, made all sail; and at noon we anchored in _Stromness_
               Harbour, after the shortest passage from _York Fort_ ever before
               known. The _Prince of Wales_ accompanied us into the harbour.

                               Appendix (E).
                                   OF THE
                   DRESSES, &c. OF THE ESQUIMAUX INDIANS
                            IN HUDSON’S STRAITS
             _Brought by His Majesty’s Ship_ Rosamond _in_ 1814
 Presented by LIEUTENANT CHAPPELL to the University Library at _Cambridge_.

Dress of the Men, made of Seal-skins.

Dress of the Women, with a Hood and Tail, made of the Moose-Deer Skins.

Seal-skin Boots of the Men, water proof.

Boots of the Women.

Gloves of ditto.

Dress of an _Esquimaux_ Child, made of the Skins of Sea Mice.

Pouch of Seal-skin.

Ditto of the Dog-fish, with the Fins remaining, as Ornaments.

Small Box made of Rushes, in which they carry their Trinkets.

A most curious Mask for defending the Eyes from the Snow, with a Place
for the Ornaments of their Foreheads.

Barb of a Harpoon, with Sculptured Images of Water-Fowls.

Instrument whereby they hurl their Darts, Arrows, and Harpoons.

Two of their Images; the one representing a _Man_, and the other a
_Woman_, in the _Esquimaux_ Dress; shewing the first dawning of
sculpture, and their inability to represent the human countenance,
hands, or feet.

LIST _of Articles illustrating the Manners and Customs of the Natives of
the North-western Coast of_ America; _brought to_ Europe _by Commodore_

Machines used in casting their Arrows; from the neighbourhood of _Cook’s

Harpoons of Bone, with Ropes made of the Tendons of Animals.

Ditto of Fossil Ivory, with ditto.

Idols of Wood and Hair, brought to the Coast from the interior of the
_North-American_ Continent.

Bone Fish-hooks.

Pouches, worn by the Men for covering the Genitals, made of a Marine

Head-dresses of the Women, made of the Entrails of Fishes.

Dresses of Men and Women, made of Skins of Moose-Deer.

Bracelets and Fishing-lines made of Fishes’ Entrails.

Thread for Sewing, manufactured of the same materials.

Needle-work of the Women, ditto.

Circular Rattle of the Enchanters or Sorcerers, made of the Beaks of

Bonnet worn by the Men; adorned with long Spikes made of the Beard of
the Sea-Lion.

Hatchet for making Canoes; the Handle being of wood, to which, by
thongs, a piece of _Jade_ is fastened.

Lancet for Bleeding, made of _Pitchstone_.

Idols made of the Sea-Mouse, adorned with Porcupine’s Quills.

Work-bags and Needle-cases, made of Fishes’ Entrails; the Needles, of
Fishes’ Bones; &c. &c.; from _Prince William’s Sound_.

Small Boxes, and Pouches for carrying Trinkets, &c.

Fish-hooks, False Worms as Baits, Idols, Ornaments for Bonnets, &c.

Seal-skin Boots.

                             Appendix  (F).
                              A VOCABULARY
                                 OF THE
                                 OF THE
                        _CREÉ or KNISTENEAUX[45] INDIANS_
Presented to the Author by a Trader who had resided Thirty Years in that

 _Athis_,                             implies what is past, and could
                                      not be avoided.
 _As-tum_,                            Come here.
 _As-tum-et-tay_,                     On this side of any particular
 _As-kow-wee_,                        Rotten.
 _Ap-pah-qua-soon_,                   Tent leather alone.
 _Ap-pus-swy-uch_,                    Tent-poles.
 _Ah-chakk_,                          The soul.
 _As-tum-as-taik_,                    In the sunshine.
 _Awoos-us-pee_,                      Past such a time.
 _Astum-us-pee_,                      Prior to such a time.
 _A-gues-spee_,                       At such a time.
 _Ath-tha-gusk-cow_,                  Broad.
 _Ah-to-we-thah_,                     It certainly was so.
 _Ah-tues-cay_,                       To work, toil, labour, or attend
                                      as a servant.
 _Ah-too-ska-thog-gan_,               An attendant, or servant.
 _Asse-che_,                          Also, Besides.
 _Ke-we-Assas-su-min_,                You mean to deceive me.
 _Ah-tah-mah_,                        Very often repeated.
 _Ke-we-Ath-the-mah-hittin_,          I mean to be troublesome to you.
 _As-cow_,                            Sometimes.
 _Aquay-thakk_, or _Aqua-thoch_,      The first time.
 _Athee-mis-sue_,                     Ill-natured, Hard to please.
 _Assus-kee_,                         Earth, or mould.
 _Abby-tow_,                          Half.
 _Abby-tham-oo-tuch_,                 Middle of a canoe.
 _An-nis-coo-tah-pan_,                A knot of any kind of line.
 _Ah-tie_,                            Fur.
 _Ah-spee-che_,                       In the meanwhile, whilst.
 _An-nouch_,                          Just now.

     _Che-pai-tuck-guow_,                 Blue.
     _Cow-ish-she-moo_,                   Go to bed.
     _Ne-we-Cow-ish-e-moon_,              I want to go to bed.
     _Cow-wow_,                           Rough.
     _Chim-mah-sin_,                      Short.
     _Cat-tah_,                           Conceal it.
     _Ke-gah-Cah-twah-tin_,               I will conceal it from you.
     _Co-ke-oo_,                          Dive.
     _Cup-pah-she-moo_,                   To bathe.
     _Cap-pah-she-mow_,                   To boil meat.
     _Chick-ka-mah_,                      Yes.
     _Che-powee_,                         Narrow.
     _Copan-na-sue_,                      A common man,
     _Cooke-kay_,                         Always.
     _Cock-ke-thoue_,                     All of them.
     _Che-che_,                           Finger.
     _Che-che-coom_,                      Wart.
     _Che-che-kin_,                       To scratch.
     _Chah-kiet-tin-now_,                 A hill, Rising ground.
     _Cas-pow_,                           Brittle.
     _Chup-pah-shish_,                    Below, Beneath.
     _Cup-pow-a-thoue_,                   Leaving off paddling at the
                                          approach of winter.

     _Ke-Chim-mah-cah-pow-wis-in_,        You are short.
     _Ke-Co-pah-chemoon_,                 You disappoint yourself.
     _Cos-see-hah_,                       To wipe, To rub out.
     _Cos-see-quan_,                      A towel.
     _Cos-sah-higgan_,                    The implement used in rubbing out
                                          any thing.
     _Che-man_,                           Name of a canoe.
     _Check-a-gam_,                       Close to the shore.

     _Es-kah_,                            N.B. In recounting a dream, this
                                          word is much made use of.
     _Ethin-artick_,                      A small kind of pine.
     _Es-skun_,                           Home.
     _Ethe-e-coke_,                       Striving.
     _Eth-e-coke-queth-e-mow_,            Strive.
     _Eth-the-boak-cow_,                  Wise, Sensible.
     _Numma-Ethe-boak-cow_,               Foolish, Not wise.
     _Ethin-nut-took_,                    In reality.
     _Ethin-nut-to_,                      Common, The most common kind of
                                          any thing.
     _Ethee-pin-nay_,                     Truly.
     _Egah-waudge-no-gun_,                Any thing almost imperceptible.
     _Egah-pittah_,                       Stop a little.
     _Esqua_,                             Presently.
     _Es-pee-hum-moak_,                   Flying high.
     _Ethin-ne-woo_,                      Living, Still alive.
     _En-coo-se-queth-e-moon_,            I think myself a conjurer, or
     _Espim-mick_,                        Above.
     _E-sput-tin-now_,                    Steep; or rising ground.
     _Es-pum-me-seek_,                    A little above.
     _Es-qui-an-mek_,                     The end.

     _Ke-Guy-as-sues-stah-tin_,           I will hide myself from you.
     _Gay-tow-woo_,                       Reflection, To reflect.
     _Gay-tak-tin-e-thick_,               The whole number.
     _Gay-te-un_,                         It happened to you.
     _Gay-te-an_,                         It happened to me.
     _Guy-tut_,                           You to him.
     _Guy-tat_,                           He to him.
     _Guy-tow-wut-oo-punny_,              You said so to him.
     _Guy-tow-wat-oo-punny_,              He said so.
     _Guy-tack-oo-punny_,                 He said so of him.
     _Guy-tisk-oo-punny_,                 He said so of you.
     _Guy-sus-takee_,                     At the same place.

     _Hay-wee_,                           A word of notice.
     _Hay-way_,                           Have you found it—inanimate.
     _Hay-waw_,                           Have you found it—animate.
     _How-wee-gas-take_,                  Not exposed to the ray of the sun.
     _Hook-e-moow_,                       A Chief.
     _Hay-e-tus-see-chick_,               As many as there are.
     _Huth-thee-wah-ka-kin_,              A word of surprise.

     _I-es-cue_,                          Tired.
     _I-es-coo-tai-oo_,                   Tired with walking.
     _I-es-coos-se-man_,                  Tired with paddling.
     _Iam-me_,                            Talk, or Speak.
     _Ith-e-cah-pah-low_,                 Run away, Not to be found.

     _Kit-Ithe-cah-hittan_,               I have eat or drunk without saving
                                          you any, or without asking you to
     _Is-see-boy-tayoo_,                  To set off by land.
     _Kiska-tow-a-cow_,                   A high bank.
     _Ke-shich_,                          The blue sky.
     _Ke-shi-cow_,                        Day.
     _Ke-too_,                            Any noise made by an animate being
     _Ke-too-mah-gun_, or                 Any noise made by an inanimate
     _Ke-too-mah-gusk_,                   object.
     _Kis-sway-way_,                      Talk loud.
     _Egah-Kis-sway-way_,                 Don’t talk loud.
     _Kis-tuck-gah-much_,                 Main land.
     _Kin-wow_,                           Long.
     _Ke-che_,                            Equal to you.
     _Ke-hitch-chu_,                      Any thing grand.
     _Kin-no-koo-mow_,                    A long lake.
     _Kis-ki-ow-wow_,                     Deep water.
     _Kisshe-as-tun_,                     Fast sailing.
     _Kishee-puthen_,                     Any thing moving fast.
     _Kisshe-wahk_,                       Nigh at hand.
     _Kissas-tow_,                        Middling.
     _Ka-ke-che-moo_,                     Insignificance.
     _Kis-steth-e-moo_,                   Proud, Haughty, Opinionated.
     _Ke-Kuck-quay-che-met-tin_,          I ask you.
     _Kuck-quay-che-that-hit-took_,       Strive to excel each other.
     _Kuck-qua-che-pus-ke-that-hit-took_, To support a spirit of emulation.
     _Koos-coon_,                         To awaken.
     _Koos-coon-ne-gan_,                  Awaken me.
     _Kas-ses-cow_,                       The present opportunity.
     _Kis-tin-natch_,                     Perhaps.
     _Kis-pin_,                           When (future).
     _Ke-kah-nah-gun_,                    Plain to be seen.
     _Ke-too-his-ca_,                     Calling like a goose.
     _Ke-ke-toon_,                        You did speak.
     _Kis-scut-tah_,                      Cut it in two, (a stick or piece
                                          of wood.)
     _Kis-scut-ta-higgan_,                A stump, the remaining part of a
                                          tree cut down.
     _Ke-hoo-tay-oo_,                     To visit.
     _Ke-hich-coo_,                       Any thing escaping.
     _Kith-the-pah_,                      Be quick, Make haste.
     _Kit-tis-kin-now_,                   To let fall.
     _Ke-mo-he-how_,                      You teaze it.
     _Ke-ket-te-mah-how_,                 You are cruel to him.
     _Ne-Kit-te-mah-tin-na-wow_,          I feel for him.
     _Kuth-ke-tai-wap-pit_,               Black eyes.
     _Ke-kick_,                           Your house or cabin.
     _Kis-pin-nut-tow_,                   To earn, To come at, To purchase.
     _Kut-che-wap-pum-mut_,               That you should see it, was the
     _Go-pa-she-wug-geet_,                reason we brought it.
     _Ke-thas-kah-che-moo_,               To tell falsehood.
     _Kis-sha-wah-tis-sue_,               Good-natured.
     _Ke-wak-tis-sue_,                    Friendless.
     _Kis-kah-mut-tin-now_,               Steep hill.
     _Ke-satch_,                          Immediately.
     _Ke-satch-ut-tow-way-win_,           Debt, or buying before you intend
                                          to pay.
     _Kee-sin-ne-gun_,                    A dressed skin.
     _Kee-sin-nah_,                       Dress it.
     _Kis-sis-sah_,                       To warm. To make warm.
     _Kee-sis-sah_,                       To cook, either by boiling or
     _Ky-as-en-equn_,                     Any thing old or worn out.
     _Kusketh-etum-etah-goos_,            A person talking impatiently.
     _Ka-ke-che-moo_,                     Boasting, To boast.
     _Ke-kas-sis-po-min_,                 You speak ironically.
     _Ke-Ka-pah-tis-sin_,                 You are not clever or acute.
     _Ke-they-e-tou_,                     Making a noise like scratching.
     _Kis-quay-can_,                      A fool.

     _Manito_,                            God.
     _Mus-cow-wow_, or _Mus-cow-wis-sue_, Strong.
     _Ne-Me-thou_,                        I gave it to him.
     _Ne-Meeth-ick_,                      He gave it to me.
     _Ne-Meeth-ick-gowin_,                It was given to me.
     _Ne-Meeth-ick-wuck_,                 They gave it to me.
     _Ne-Meeth-thou-uck_,                 I gave it to them.
     _Ne-Meeth-thee-ammet_,               He or she gave it to us.
     _Ne-Meeth-ick-coo-nan_,              It was given to us by him.
     _Ke-Meeth-ick_,                      It was given to you.
     _Ke-Meeth-it-tin_,                   I give it to you, or I gave it to
     _Owee-nah-gah-Me-thisk_,             Who gave it to you?
     _Owee-nah-wah-Mee-thut_,             Who do you design to give it to?
     _Owee-nah-wah-Mee-thut_,             Who does he intend to give it to?
     _Owee-nah-gah-Mee-that_,             Who did he give it to?
     _Owee-nah-gah-Mee-thick-coot_,       Who was it given to?
     _Owee-na-hah-Mee-thick-coot_,        Who?
     _Mee-thick-coot_,                    Any thing given from one person to
     _Mee-thee-coot_,                     Hairy nose.
     _Mee-this-tow-wan_,                  Beard.
     _Mee-the-chap_,                      Hairy face.
     _Mith-coo_,                          Blood.
     _Mith-coo-sue_, or _Mith-gwow_,      Red.
     _Mah-tow-wee_,                       Poor flesh, Any thing not fat.
     _Mah-Mah-tow-wee-wick_,              Ditto, (plural.)
     _Mee-gee-wap_,                       A tent, when erected.
     _Mut-too-gaph_,                      Where a tent formerly stood.
     _Min-nis-tick_,                      An island.
     _Min-nay-he-wat-tun_,                Point of land.
     _Mess-kaik_,                         A plain, or swamp.
     _Mis-sick-a-mow_,                    A large lake.
     _Matoon-eth-e-chiggan_,              The mind.
     _Musqua_,                            Black bear.
     _Oo-sow-we-Musqua_,                  Brown ditto.
     _Missee-musqua_,                     Grizzlier, great bear.
     _Wah-pisk_,                          White bear.
     _Minna-hig_,                         Large pine.
     _Metuse_,                            Poplar.
     _Mithqua-pim-mook_,                  Red willow.
     _Mun-na-win_,                        Barren country, not plentiful.
     _Me-chim-is-skum-my-gon_,            A country abounding in provision.
     _Ke-Meth-tho-tho-tow-wow_,           You use him well.
     _N’ Ne-mith-too-too-lakk_,           He uses me well.
     _Ne-me-tah-tow_,                     I regret the loss without crying.
     _Ne-mow-wee-cah-tow_,                I regret the loss with crying.
     _Missa-gow_,                         To arrive.
     _Missa-gow-uck_,                     They are arrived, or I arrived.
     _Missa-gy-ack_,                      We have arrived.
     _Missa-gy-eg_,                       You arrived (plural.)
     _Ne-Missa-gan-nau_,                  I and my companions arrived.
     _Muthch-e-puthue_,                   Any thing moving slowly.
     _Math-e-puthue_,                     Any thing that does not go well,
                                          as a gun that does not throw its
                                          shot well.
     _Mach-wange_,                        At that time.
     _Mack-was-kah_,                      To overtake.
     _Mah-that-tun_,                      Bad.
     _Me-tho-was-sin_,                    Good.
     _Me-tho-sis-sue_,                    Handsome
     _Me-tho-nah-gun_,                    Good-looking.
     _Much-il-nah-gun_,                   Ordinary.
     _Much-ethe-lah-gun_,                 Disagreeable.
     _Metho-tah-gun_,                     Agreeable talking.
     _Ne-Meth-thoot-tow-wow_,             I dislike talking.
     _Ne-Much-in-nak-wow_,                I think it ugly.
     _Ne-Mith-thoo-now-wow_,              I think it handsome
     _My-itch-che_,                       Exactly.
     _N’ Ne-Mith-thoo-wah-tan_,           I am happy.
     _Ne-Mah-mus-kah-tain_,               I am surprised.
     _Ma-muh-lah-coo-sue_,                Proud.
     _Me-tow-wee_,                        Longing for any thing eatable.
     _N’me-tow-with-e-moon_,              I am longing, or I am a longer.
     _Mun-nus-qua_,                       To make ready with a gun.
     _Me-tho-mah-qun_,                    Sweet smell.
     _Me-tho-gow_,                        Fine, Soft, Mossy.
     _Misse-hen_,                         To occasion a difference between
                                          two persons
     _Ke-Misse-ken_,                      You have injured me in the opinion
                                          of such a person.
     _Muck-coo-sa_,                       To feast.
     _N’gah-muck-coo-san_,                I will feast, or I will make a
     _Mahtin-nah-wayoo_,                  To divide, To share.
     _Mah-hum_,                           To go before the current.
     _Mah-kis-cum_,                       To walk from inland to the shore.
     _Mo-tway-tayoo_, or _Matway-way_,    Report of a gun.
     _Mun-nah-che-tow_,                   To spare, or be frugal.
     _Mun-nah-che-how_,                   To avoid offending.
     _Ke-mun-nah-che-hittan_,             I do not wish to offend you.
     _Ke-gah-mow-wee-mittan_,             I shall hurt your feelings.
     _Moo-schuck_,                        Always.
     _Mis-cow-wow_,                       To find.
     _Mus-cow-wow_,                       Hard.
     _Misshe-way_,                        The whole.
     _Ne-moo-see-how_,                    I feel it inwardly or outwardly,
     _Ne-mee-scoo-nau_,                   I feel it with my hand.
     _Ne-moo-see-tan_,                    I feel its motion.
     _Mis-ske-shick_,                     Eyes.
     _Mith-quah-pit_,                     Red eyes.
     _Mis-kee-shick-cake_,                The face.
     _Missah-gow_,                        To arrive by water.
     _Missa-gow-ma-as-tun_,               To arrive by sailing as a ship.
     _Min-a-ho_,                          To provide provender.
     _In-ne-tah-mina-ho_,                 Applied to a good hunter,
                                          signifies he is not deficient in
                                          providing for his family.
     _Nut-to-min-nah-ho_,                 A man in the employ of a hunter.
     _Mus-hu-kee_,                        Physic.
     _Mus-cow-wun_,                       A strong mind, A strong opinion.
     _Ne-Me-tay-win_,                     I am a conjurer.
     _Ne-Me-tay-with-emoon_,              I think myself a conjurer.
     _Ne-Mun-to-win_, or                  I am godlike.
     _Ne-Me-tow-wan_,                     I long for it.
     _Mah-that-chis-la-hay-oo_,           Ill-natured, Quarrelsome,
     _Ne-much-ethe-mow_,                  I have a bad opinion of him.
     _Miss-sa-gy-akk_,                    We arrive by water.
     _Mis-sa-gy-eg_,                      You arrive by water.
     _Mis-sa-gow-wuck_,                   They arrive by water.
     _Mis-sah-gow_,                       To arrive.
     _Mis-sah-gan_,                       I arrive.
     _Mis-sah-gan-nan_,                   We arrive.
     _Ne-Mis-sah-gah-nan_,                We arrived.
     _Ne-Mis-sah-gan_,                    I arrived.
     _Ke-Mis-sah-gan_,                    You arrived.
     _Gah-Mis-sah-gy-akk_,                When we arrived.
     _Gah-Mis-sah-gy-eg_,                 When you arrived.
     _Mis-sah-gy-akk-ke_,                 When we arrive, (speaking to a
                                          person not of the party.)
     _Mis-sah-gy-akk-coo_,                When we arrive, (speaking to one
                                          of the party.)
     _Mis-sa-gy-eg-co_,                   When you arrive.
     _Mis-sah-gy-ahny_,                   When I arrive.
     _Moos-tus-cum-meek_,                 The ground, The earth.
     _Moo-cheek_,                         On the ground.
     _Mah-chis-tun_,                      Breaking up of the river-ice.
     _Ke-Me-me-shick-ke-tin_,             You are large.
     _Ke-Mitho-nah-goo-sin_,              You are handsome.
     _Ke-Much-ee-nah-goo-sin_,            You are ugly.
     _Ke-Mitho-nah-tin_,                  You appear handsome to me.
     _Ke-Mitho-nah-k_,                    He thinks you handsome.
     _Ke-Much-nak-tin_,                   I think you ugly.
     _Ke-Much-e-hah-k_,                   He thinks you ugly.
     _Mah-nah-goo-tee_,                   Mind if it is not so.
     _My-ak-quam_,                        Mind if I do not, (a threat.)
     _Muchee_,                            Indifferent, Not good, Not
     _Moi-see_,                           Much.
     _Mis-tay-hay_,                       A great quantity.
     _Mis-te-sue_,                        Scalded or burnt.
     _Mes-tin-nah_,                       To expend, Expended.
     _Mes-tun-mick_,                      The white skin that is between the
                                          bark and body of a tree.
     _Me-sah-hum_,                        To patch, To mend by patching.
     _Me-sah-higgan_,                     The patch.
     _May-che-moose_,                     A little.
     _May-che-how_,                       To extirpate.
     _Ne-May-hay-pit-chin_,               To move toward the sea-shore.
     _Muck-co-to-pay-oo_,                 A stomach that can bear a great
                                          quantity of liquor.
     _Missina-higgan_,                    Writing.
     _Maith-waith-e-mai-oo_,              To be very careful of any person.
     _Minne-quog-gan_,                    A vessel used for drinking, A pot.
     _Metch-chis-kun_,                    A fishing-wire.
     _Ne-Meth-oon_,                       Handy, Not aukward.
     _Mitho-wo-gass_,                     A length of time.
     _Mah-no-kay_,                        To build a house, To erect a tent.

     _Ne-that-mis-sue_,                   Weak.
     _Nip-as-cue_,                        Applied to a great sleeper.
     _Nippow_,                            He is a-sleep, or Sleep.
     _Un-too-we-nip-pow_,                 Go to sleep.
     _Tan-tee-wah-nip-pee-an_,            Where do you want to sleep?
     _Tan-ta-gah-nip-pe-an_,              Where shall I sleep?
     _Nee-kee-nan_,                       Our dwelling, or tent.
     _Nut-toot-tow-in_,                   Listen to me.
     _Nai-ow_,                            A point.
     _Nai-ah-pisk_,                       Rocky point.
     _Nuh-pow-wis_,                       A word of surprise.
     _Nuggy-nah-gun_,                     Land in sight at a great distance.
     _Nuthin_,                            To the north.
     _Nah-me-win_,                        To the south.
     _Na-puck-ka-see-tuck_,               Silver pine.
     _Nepisee_,                           Willow.
     _Nis-sten-ne-gaw-win_,               A landing-place.
     _Ke-Nay-cut-teth-emoon_,             You grieve.
     _Nuggisk_,                           For a little time.
     _Nug-gisk-cow-wow_,                  Two walking parties meeting on a
     _Nuck-ka-wow_,                       To meet by water.
     _Ne-hee_,                            Right.
     _Ne-ach-toa-win_,                    Aukward.
     _N’ Nah-qut-tick_,                   He left me behind.
     _N’ Ni-hah-tow-wis-scane_,           It does not fit well, or It fits
     _N’ Ne-he-scane_,                    It fits me right.
     _Ne-ha-tow-win-nah-gun_,             Aukward appearance.
     _Nip-pue_,                           Dead.
     _Nip-pee_,                           Water.
     _Na-Nip-patchick_, or                When they were asleep.
     _Nas-pit-too-tah_,                   To imitate,
     _Nus-pit-tahk_,                      Likeness.
     _Nogun_,                             In sight.
     _Nah-Nah-lay-oo_,                    Trembling, Shivering, Shaking, &c.
     _Nah-nah-tay-we-nah-gun_,            Any thing that appears to shake.
     _Nah-cow-we-nah-gun_,                Variety.
     _No-che-chig-gay_,                   To work at any job, &c.
     _Na-mah_,                            That.
     _Nut-toom_,                          Tell him to come here.
     _Num-mum-ne-kee-toon_,               I did not speak.
     _Numma-no-che-etwan_,                I never said so.
     _Numma-ne-ke-e-twan_, _Nah-pait_,    I cannot say it.
     _Nutha-hum_,                         To go against the current.
     _Nut-too-tum-wow_,                   To ask for it.
     _Nut-tah-aes-cum_,                   To walk inland from the sea-shore.
     _Nee-shoo_,                          Two.
     _Ne-shoo-stoo-wow_,                  A double shot, killing two at a
     _Nub-but-lay-stow-in_,               A hut with a back and two sides,
                                          open in front.
     _No-tum-me-hick_,                    I am puzzled or plagued by him.
     _Nay-pay-catch_,                     Moderate, Not in the extreme
                                          either way.
     _Ne-gan_,                            Going before.
     _Nay-pay-quan_,                      To break one’s fast.
     _Nay-pay-kah-hoo-soo_,               To break one’s fast with the
                                          produce of his hunt.
     _Nut-to-ko-how_,                     To administer physic.
     _Ne-mutch-che-the-wa-sin_,           I am disappointed.
     _Ne-mow-win_,                        Provisions for a journey.
     _N’ Ne-ne-mah-hick_,                 Goods entrusted to the disposal of
     _No-che-how_,                        To work at.
     _N’ Gah-no-chi-chiggan_,             I will employ myself.
     _No-sin-na-wow_,                     To go after any thing.
     _No-hak-wow_,                        To go after any thing on the water.
     _No-at-tick-way_,                    The act of going after deer with a
     _Not-attick-way_,                    Hunting deer by land or water.
     _Ke-Nah-nah-toke-kat-how_,           You tease it.
     _Nup-puch-is-sue_,                   Flat, Thin.
     _Ne-Nut-tay-hay-pitchin_,            To move inland.
     _Nis-to-pay-oo_,                     Not having a fill.
     _N’ Nis-to-pan_,                     I have not had my fill.
     _Ke-Nus-coo-mittan_,                 I give you my consent.
     _Ke-Nus-coo-moon_,                   You have given your consent.
     _No-chim-mick_,                      From the water in the woods.
     _Nass_, or _Nah-tah_,                Fetch it, or Go for it.
     _Noo-tow-wee_,                       My father.
     _Nick-gow-wee_,                      My mother.
     _Noo-tah_,                           Father.
     _Nic-cah_,                           Mother.
     _Nis-slais_,                         My elder brother.
     _Oo-slais_,                          His or her elder brother.
     _Ne-seem_,                           My younger brother or sister.
     _Ne-mis_,                            My elder sister.
     _N’che-waham_,                       My brother.
     _Ne-che-san_,                        My nearest relation, as brother or
     _Ne-shisk_,                          My uncle.
     _No-kum-mis_,                        My father-in-law.
     _N-to-shisk_,                        My mother-in-law.
     _Nis-se-coos_,                       My aunt or step-mother.
     _No-cum_,                            My grandmother.
     _Ne-moo-soom_,                       My grandfather.
     _No-sis-sim_,                        My grand-son or grand-daughter.
     _Nis-tim_,                           My niece.
     _Kis-gim-mis_,                       My cousin—female.
     _Ne-tim_,                            My cousin—male.
     _Nees-tow_,                          My brother-in-law.
     _N-cha-coose_,                       A relation on the woman’s side
     _N-teet-tow-wow_,                    The relationship between two
                                          people whose children are united
                                          in marriage.
     _No-tassuee_,                        Good for nothing.
     _Ke-Ninne-ke-twan_,                  You are in a hurry.

     _Oo-ne-gaph_,                        Carrying-place.
     _Oo-skah-ta-gow_, or _Oo-shisk_,     Fur.
     _Oo-skun_,                           Bone.
     _Oo-tay-hee_,                        The heart.
     _Oo-tay_,                            Boiling.
        And, _See-cah-che-wut-tay-oo_,    Boiling over.
     _Oo-mah-moggah_,                     This too, or This also.
     _Oo-mah_,                            This.
     _Oo-tahk_,                           Going behind.
     _Oa-sow-we-quay_,                    Brown face.
     _Owanah-n’gah-nut-to-mine-nah-hook_, Who will hunt for me?
     _Oo-tah-coo-sin_,                    Evening.
     _Ow-wee-how_,                        To lend.
     _Oo-wee-hah-sue_,                    To borrow.
     _Oo-tee_, and _Oo-see_,              Names of a canoe.
     _Oo-tahk-athuck_,                    Stern of a canoe.
     _Oo-sken-equm_,                      Any thing new or not much used.
     _Oo-scooh-tim_,                      A beaver dam.
     _Oth-this-sah_,                      To cut anything out, as shoes, &c.

     _Ne-Pah-wah-min_,                    I dream.
     _Pemee_,                             Fat, melted and prepared.
     _Pus-coo-na-oo_,                     Fat animal.
     _Pis-seth-che-hin_,                  Listen to me.
     _Ke-pay-tow-in_,                     You hear me.
     _Ke-Pay-tartin_,                     I hear you.
     _N’ Ne-Pay-tah-soon_,                I hear myself.
     _Ke-Pay-tahk_,                       You are heard.
     _Ke-Pay-tahk-coo-wow_,               They hear you, (plural.)
     _Pow-is-stick_,                      A waterfall.
     _Pe-chow_,                           A long distance by land.
     _Pe-tahk-ho-gun_,                    A long distance by water.
     _Pe-tis-quon-my-gow_,                A long distance by ice.
     _Pus-quas-qua-ow_,                   A hummock of wood.
     _Pay-soo-sin_,                       A short distance.
     _Pim-mith-e-hick-oo-mow_,            A lake broader than long.
     _Pah-kahk_,                          A ghost, or skeleton.
     _Pow-woggan_,                        Morpheus, or the God of Dreams.
     _Pe-wee-tog-gun_,                    A shooting-place; _i.e._ a
                                          waterfall, practicable for boats
                                          to go down.
     _Parqua-sin_,                        Shoal water.
     _Parquow_,                           Dry, or little water.
     _Pim-mah-gam-mah-hummock_,           Canoes crossing a lake or river
     _N’ Ne-Pee-kis-curtain_,             I am uneasy.
     _Pee-kis-kah-tethe-tah-gun_,         The case is melancholy.
     _Ke-Pait-twah-tin_,                  I have brought it you.
     _Ke-Pait-tah-hoo-twah-tin_,          I have brought it you by water.
     _Ke-Pait-lah-hoo-tow-in_,            You have brought me something.
     _Pemass-sue_,                        To sail.
     _Pimiss-scow_,                       To paddle.
     _Peen-me-gun_,                       Crooked-grained wood.
     _Peemow_,                            Crooked.
     _Pah-tuce_,                          Afterwards.
     _N’ Ne-Puk-kis-cah-tam_,             I am unhappy.
     _Pis-sin-nah-tis-sue_,               Mischievous.
     _Pus-ke-thahk_,                      To excel, He is excelled.
     _Ne-Pus-ke-thak-gan_,                I have excelled.
     _Pay-pay-me-tah-che-moo_,            To crawl.
     _Pem-oo-tah_,                        To walk.
     _Pe-mo-at-tah-muck_,                 To ride.
     _Pim-me-thow_,                       To fly.
     _Pepoon_,                            Winter.
     _Pepurisue_,                         To winter. Also the name of a
     _N’-Pe-pun-is-sin_,                  I wintered.
     _Pe-mah-tah-gas-gun_,                To go on the ice.
     _Pah-mah-ta-gow_,                    To go into the water—deep.
     _Pah-coo-pay_,                       To walk ditto—shoal.
     _Pay-coo-pay_,                       To come up after diving.
     _Pan-nis-swow_,                      To split meat.
     _Pus-sah-wow_,                       To split wood, and work it with a
     _N’gah-Pus-sa-higgan_,               I will go and sit down and split
                                          some wood.
     _Pah-pe-tues-is-se-nah-gun_,         Variety.
     _Pus-sah-qua-pue_,                   To shut the eyes.
     _Pus-pah-pue_,                       To look through, or peep.
     _Pus-pah-pue-win_,                   A window.
     _Pun-mis-cah-tayoo_,                 To go to a house any distance in
     _Puah-pee-tway-tin_,                 Missing fire.
     _Pwas-tow-we-mah-tway-tayoo_,        Hanging fire.
     _Pwas-towe-we_,                      Tedious, Not quick.
     _Pah-ke-tit-tow_,                    To let fall.
     _Pay-catch_,                         Slow.
     _Pet-tah_,                           Thirst.
     _Pah-too-mah_,                       By-and-bye.
     _Pah-pue_,                           Laugh.
     _Pah-pisk_,                          A great laughter.
     _Pah-pin-nah-ne-woo_,                Very laughable.
     _Ke-Pah-pe-pin_,                     You laugh at me.
     _Ke-Pah-pi-hittan_,                  I laugh at you.
     _Poo-see_,                           To set off by water.
     _Pim-mah-hum-moak_,                  Flying towards the sea-shore.
     _Pemah-tis-sue_,                     Living, Still alive, Longevity.
     _Pe-mah-tis-se-win_,                 Any thing that promotes life.
     _Pe-mah-che-how_,                    To bring to life.
     _Peth-coo-wow_,                      To penetrate.
     _Puck-queth-qua-sue_,                To let blood.
     _Pah-coo-moo_,                       To vomit.
     _Pah-puthe-tow_,                     To bring up any thing accidentally
     _Pis-se-quah-tis-sue_,               Mischievous.
     _Pee-kis-quay_,                      To sing, or make a noise.
     _Pah-mit-tis-saw-wow_,               To run after any thing.
     _Peway-pisk_,                        Iron, Almost all kinds of metal.
     _Pah-pus-qua-hum_,                   Breaking-up of lake-ice.
     _Ka-Pah-tis-sue_,                    Dull, Not clever.
     _Pis-us_,                            To doubt.
     _Pee-tah_,                           Any thing that frustrates a design.
     _Pit-tah_,                           Stop.
     _Pitche-coo_,                        To move about from one place to
     _Ne-Pit-chin_,                       I have moved.
     _Ne-Pus-cay-wan_,                    I parted.
     _Ne-Pus-cay-pitchin_,                To part company, A party taking
                                          different routes.
     _Pus-ca_,                            To part with a companion by ditto.
     _Pus-cay-tah_,                       To tear with the mouth.
     _Pah-pow-wah-hah_, or _Poo-two-wah_, Shake it.
     _Pah-ke-puthee_,                     A swelling.
     _Pay-nass_, or _Pach-nass_,          Come for it.

     _Qui-usk_,                           Straight, In a direct line.
     _Ne-Qui-usk-queth-eten_,             I have fixed my mind, or come to a
     _Ke-Qui-usk-co-mitten_,              Candidly.
     _Qua-pah-kay_, or _Qua-pah-hah_,     Dip a drink.
     _Qua-pah-hum-mow-in_,                Dip me a drink.
     _Qua-pah-hum-nah-sue_,               Dip a drink yourself.
     _Qua-pah-hum-mow-win-nan_,           Dip us a drink.
     _Ques-ke-tai_,                       The other side.
     _Ke-Qui-ske-queth-e-tin_,            You have come to a determination.

     _Sepun_,                             Strong.
     _Sepen-nay-oo_,                      Strong in health, Not easy killed.
     _Sow-with-coo-sue_,                  Bloody.
     _Oo-Sow-wow_,                        Yellow.
     _Oo-Sow-us-quow_,                    Green.
     _Ta-na-Sin-ne-cow-take_,             What is the name of it?
     _Soo-sow-wow_,                       Smooth.
     _Sug-goo_,                           Thick, One after another.
     _Sug-gow_,                           Thicket of woods.
     _Sack-ka-higgan_,                    A lake.
     _Ke-we-Sah-wan-ne-how_,              You do not use him well.
     _Sem-mahk_,                          At first.
     _Sack-ke-how_,                       I love.
     _Sacke-how-e-wah-bah-ne_,            If I had loved.
     _Sack-ke-how-wahk-oo-punny_,         If we had loved, If they had loved.
     _Sack-ke-hitch-che_,                 If she loves her or him.
     _Sack-ke-huck-ke_,                   If I love her.
     _Sack-ke-hit-too-uck_,               They love each other.
     _Sack-ke-hit-too-nan_,               Loving each other.
     _Sack-kee_,                          Love.
     _Sack-ke-hin_,                       Love me.
     _Ke-Sack-ke-hitten_,                 I love you.
     _Ke-Sack-ke-hick_,                   He loves you, or You are loved by
     _Ke-Sack-ke-hick-wuck_,              They love you.
     _Ke-Sack-ke-how_,                    You love him.
     _Ke-Sack-ke-hich-coo-wow_,           He loves you both.
     _Ke-Sack-ke-hittan-now-wow_,         I love you both.
     _Ke-Sack-ke-hin-now-wow_,            You both love him.
     _Ke-wee-Se-gan-nis-qua-pis-sin_,     You want to pull my hair.
     _Se-gan-nis-qua-pis_,                Pull his hair.
     _See-tap-pah-quan_,                  A tent made with leather.
     _Soak-ethe-tum_,                     Obstinate.
     _Sa-sah-gis-sue_,                    Stingy.
     _Suthe-an_,                          Any kind of coin, A medal.
     _Suthe-an-ahpish_,                   The metal of which any coin is
     _Soo-Sow-wah-pisk_,                  Any smooth stone.
     _Sepah_,                             Underneath.
     _Sepayow_,                           Hollow, like a bridge.
     _Sa-cooleh_,                         It must be so.
     _Ke-Sack-cooch-e-hitten_,            I overpower you.
     _Sah-puaw-pow-way_,                  Wet through.
     _Sah-paw-pwow-we-nah-gwun_,          Any thing that has a wet look.
     _Sah-puaw-pum-e-nah-gwun_,           Transparent.
     _See-coo-win_,                       Spittle.
     _Soake-sue_,                         Strong wood.
     _Sag-ga-wow_,                        Narrow.

     _Tan-na-twe-un_,                     What do you say?
     _Tan-na-tway-un_,                    What do I say?
     _Tan-na-twit_,                       What does he or she say?
     _Tan-natwit-twow_ or                 What do they say?
     _Tibbis-cow_,                        Night.
     _N’Tit-tah-pah-tain_,                I dreamed.
     _Tah-nah-twan-nick_,                 What is the meaning of it?
     _Ta-bith-e-tah_, _Tho-theth-e-tah_,  You direct.
     _N’Took-e-moam_,                     My chief.
     _N’Tut-tah-min-na-wow_,              I overtook or came up with him.
     _Tah-nah-the-coke_,                  What distance?
     _Thah-than-nah_,                     To swim.
     _Thow-we-nah-gun_,                   A long distance, but in sight
     _Ke-took-e-maam-in-now_,             Our chief.
     _N’Tas-tah-gat-tis-soon_,            I think I am not sufficient for
                                          the task.
     _Tho-is-cow_,                        Soft.
     _Tho-skeg-gan_,                      Soft skin, Well dressed.
     _Tay-poy_,                           Call.
     _Tay-pois_,                          Call him.
     _To-kin_,                            To open.
     _To-kap-pue_,                        To open the eyes.
     _Ke-Tah-hah-ee-mow_,                 You adopt him.
     _Tah-nah-tah-co-mut_,                In what line of relationship do
                                          you hold him?
     _Tan-na-tah-co-misk_,                In what line of relationship does
                                          he hold you?
     _Tah-nait-te-gowan_,                 What is my name? or, What am I
     _Tah-nait-te-gow-we-en_,             What is your name?
     _Tah-na-sin-ne-caw-swa-an_,          What is my name?
     _Tah-na-sin-ne-caw-soot_,            What is it’s name?
     _Tah-hutch-e-tow-in-nah_,            Tools, Utensils.
     _N’-Tah-but-teth-emow_,              I think him, or it, useful.
     _Tow-weg_,                           The middle of a skin.
     _Ke-Tis-qua-how-uck_,                You killed a great many.
     _Ke-Tis-coo-now_,                    You left some.
     _Tick-cuck_,                         All of them.
     _Tah-to_,                            The number.
     _Than-tah-to_,                       What number?
     _Tahn-a-tah-tin-e-thick_,            What number were there?
     _Tahn-as-takee_, or _Tan-a-koo-tu_,  What of that?
     _Tahn-a-te-theme-un_,                What do you think of me?
     _Tahn-a-teshe-tum-mun_,              What do I think of it?
     _Tahn-a-teshe-tum-man_,              What do I think?
     _Tahn-a-teshe-tum-me-u’onny_,        Whatever you think or have thought.
     _Tuck-ke-coom_,                      Phlegm.
     _Tethe-coom_,                        Nostril.
     _Tuck-oo-sin_,                       To arrive by land.
     _Tah-pa-tah-hum-moak_,               Flying low.
     _Tabeth-a-way_,                      Real.
     _Ta-bith-was-sue_,                   Possessed of property.
     _Tah-ti-sue_,                        The behaviour of a person.
     _To-is-pis-sue_,                     Good-natured.
     _Tus-swow_,                          Straight.
     _Tah-cuoch_,                         Above, Uppermost.
     _Tus-tow-widge_,                     Middle, Between.
     _Ke-keppah-Tow-a-gan_,               Your ears are sloped.
     _Tah-but-tis-sue_,                   Useful.
     _Tah-na-tah-but-tis-sue_,            For what use?
     _N’-Tah-coo-sin_,                    I am ill.
     _Ke-Tith-e-wee-cah-pow-wis-tow-wow_, You are taller than him.
     _Ke-Tap-pe-se-si-sin_,               You are little.
     _Ke-Tay-ack-quam-ethe-mittan_,       I have a great opinion of him.
     _Tay-poo-pay-oo_,                    Satisfied with drinking.
     _N’-Tay-poo-pan_,                    I am full of liquor.
     _Tip-pah-hum_,                       To pay, To measure.
     _Tip-pah-higgan_,                    A measure, A rule.
     _Ke-Tow-we-hah-soon_,                You borrow.
     _Ke-Tul-tow-wan_,                    You trade.
     _Kit-Tut-tah-mittan_,                I trade with you.
     _Ke-Tus-tum-mah-tin_,                I hinder you.
     _Ke-Tit-twes-tum-mah-tin_,           I am your interpreter.
     _Ta-ow-wedge_,                       A word used by way of confirmation.
     _Ta-tow-wedge_,                      The middle.
     _Tow-weidge_,                        Far from the shore.

     _Us-to-gum-moo_,                     Still water.
     _Utch-chahk_,                        A star.
     _Un-ne-mah_,                         That
     _Un-to-wappun_,                      Make use of your eyes, Look well
                                          for him.
     _Uh-tah-meek_,                       Underneath.
     _Uh-tah-mus-cum-meek_,               Under ground.
     _Us-kee_,                            A country.
     _Us-kee-ah_,                         Moss
     _Us-keek-wah_,                       Lead
     _Us-keek_,                           A kettle.
     _Us-too-thoo_,                       To build canoes.
     _Us-tay-boo_,                        Sober.
     _Us-pah-che-gun_,                    An ingredient or sauce, as gravy
                                          to beef.
     _Us-put-tis-ewin_,                   Payment.
     _Us-put-tis-sin_,                    Pay me.
     _Uttow-way_,                         To trade or barter.
     _Uttah-muck_,                        Inside.
     _Um-misk_,                           A beaver.
     _Um-misk-wy-an_,                     A beaver’s skin.
     _Us-skah-tie_,                       A green fur-skin, or undressed
     _Up-pwooy_,                          Paddle.

     _Wah-ha-wun_,                        Weak.
     _Wappun_,                            Daylight.
     _Wappas-sue_,                        An early riser, One who rises by
     _Wee-kee_,                           What used to be.
     _Weggee-moggan_,                     Mate, (a person that lives in the
                                          same tent.)
     _Wiggee_,                            Place of abode.
     _Nis-tais-Weggee-mah-gun_,           He lives with my elder brother.
     _Weggee-wow_,                        Their dwelling.
     _Wethin_,                            Fat in its natural state.
     _Wee-thin-noo_,                      Fat (as a fat animal), Fat meat.
     _Wah-thou_,                          A great distance.
     _Wah-thoue_,                         A hollow or vacuum.
     _Wappow_,                            Narrow part of a lake, where the
                                          two shores almost meet.
     _Wap-pick-oo-mow_,                   A narrow lake.
     _Wow-we-ick-oo-mow_,                 A round lake.
     _Wappusk_,                           A white bear.
     _Wah-ke-nog-gan_,                    Jumper.
     _Wus-qui_,                           Birch.
     _Ke-Wan-nay-too-tow-wow_,            You do not use him well.
     _Wah-gow_,                           Crooked.
     _Wee-lah_,                           Tell it.
     _Wee-tum-mow_,                       Tell him.
     _Wee-rup-pow_, _Ne-Wee-rup-pan_,     He wants to sleep.
     _We-thun-e-taggay_,                  Disjointing and cutting up an
     _We-thun-e-how_,                     To cut up, To disjoint.
     _Walhow-nah-gun_,                    Any thing seen far off.
     _Wee-cheg-gun_,                      Stink.
     _Wo-waudge_,                         Also.
     _Kee-Wappin_,                        You see.
     _Wy-ais_,                            Something.
     _Ke-Wah-co-mow_,                     You call him your relation.
     _Ke-We-way-a-se-min_,                You hinted to deceive me.
     _We-co-to_,                          To feast.
     _We-co-too-nah-me-woo_,              Feasting.
     _Weeth_,                             Name it, Mention its name.
     _Wee-this-sue_,                      Mention your own name.
     _Was-cah_,                           Around.
     _Was-cah-higgan_,                    A house.
     _Was-keig_,                          The edge of a skin.
     _We-ug-ge-tow_,                      Not to be frugal, To be wasteful.
     _Wun-ny-hov_,                        To loose, Lost.
     _Ne-Wan-eth-etum-mow-mick_,          He makes me at a loss what to say.
     _Wan-eth-etum_,                      He is quite at a loss.
     _Was-tai-ab-bel_,                    Light eyes.
     _We-the-gre-quay_,                   Dirty face.
     _Wow-we-ec-quay_,                    Round face.
     _Wow-we-eg-se-nah-goo-sue_,          Droll looking.
     _Wo-we-et-tis-sue_,                  A funny person.
     _Ke-Wo-we-ase-hittan_,               I was jesting with you.
     _N’-Wo-we-etwan_,                    I spoke it in jest.
     _Wee-kee_,                           Accustomed.
     _Wutchee_,                           A hill.
     _Wah-gis-cow_,                       Any thing that bends well.
     _Ne-Wap-pah-tin_,                    I saw it.
     _Ne-Wap-puh-tith-ick_,               It was shown to me.
     _Was-dis-sue_,                       To appear bright with the
                                          reflection of the sun.
     _Wah-thoue_,                         Hollow, like an empty nut-shell.
     _Wow-we-ah-sue_,                     The full moon.
     _Wow-we-a-sue_,                      Round.
     _Was-cum-mis-sue_,                   Not intoxicated, Sober.
     _Wus-kitch_,                         Outside.
     _Wes-kutch_,                         Formerly.
     _Wee-sin-now_,                       Castorum.
     _Wee-pus-cow_,                       Burnt wood, lying on the ground.
     _Wan-nah-scootch_,                   The end, edge, or extremity.
     _Wenne-peg,_                         The sea called by that name; also
                                          a lake.

                                  THE END.

                            R. Watts, _Printer,
                         Crown Court, Temple Bar_.


[1]See Appendix (E).

[2]This duty is considered by all naval officers as the severest trial
    of health and spirit to which the profession of a seaman is liable:
    and in proof of this, it will appear, by the following Narrative,
    that, upon the _Rosamond_ being ordered a second time to this
    station, her Captain obtained leave to quit his ship, and eight of
    her crew deserted the first time the boat went to shore, after the
    order arrived from the _Admiralty_.

[3]See the narrative of this circumstance, as it appeared, at the time,
    in the _Naval Chronicle_ and other public journals. Upon this signal
    instance of _British_ valour in a person so young as to be almost a
    child in the service, and who had gallantly volunteered to accompany
    the expedition upon this dangerous enterprise, the Captain of his
    ship presented Mr. _Chappell_ with the sword of the _Spanish_
    Commander, as the prize of his valour.

[4]The Gunner was tried by a Court-martial, during our stay at the
    _Nore_; and was sentenced, to be reprimanded, and to receive an
    admonition to be more cautious in future.

[5]This is one of the most remarkable examples of the _Cyclopéan
    architecture_ of the _Celts_ which is known to exist; owing to its
    remote situation with regard to the rest of _Europe_.

[6]The _Fucus Vesiculosus_ of _Linnœus_, or _Bladder Fucus_; called also
    _Sea Oak_, and _Sea Wrack_. The _alkaline_ salt obtained from these
    ashes is the common _carbonate of soda_.

[7]For an accurate Table of the different degrees of variation, see
    _Appendix_ (A).

[8]For any further particulars respecting the Settlements and progress
    of the _Moravians_, on the Coast of _Labrador_ and elsewhere, the
    Reader is referred to a “History of the Mission of the _United
    Brethren_ among the _Indians_ in _North America_,” in Three Parts,
    by _George Henry Laskiel_; translated from the _German_, by
    _Christian Ignatius La Trobe_, 1794. Also to “The Periodical
    Accounts of their Missions,” published by the _Brethren’s Society_,
    for the furtherance of the Gospel, at No. 10, _Nevil’s Court, Fetter
    Lane, Holborn, London_.

[9]See the _Vignette_ to p. 1.

[10]See the rough Sketch of a Canoe, made by the Author on the spot.
    _Plate_ I.

[11]Mr. _Hearne_, in his Journey to the Mouth of the _Coppermine River_,
    observes, that the _Esquimaux_, on the sea coast to the northward,
    used kettles made of _lapis ollaris_.

[12]It was probably _Sea-weed_; a kind of food eaten as a stew, or soup,
    by the natives of the Isle of _St. Kilda_, in the _Hebrides_.

[13]A List is contained in the _Appendix_, of the different articles of
    _Esquimaux_ manufacture which were presented, by the Author, to the
    University Library at _Cambridge_; accompanied, also, by a List of
    things of a similar nature brought to _Russia_ by Commodore
    _Billings_, from the N. W. coast of _America_.

[14]This gallant officer lost his arm in the attack on _Java_, by a
    cannon-ball. The seamen seeing him knocked backwards by the shock,
    and lying senseless, conjectured that he had been killed outright;
    but as they were bearing him off the field, the Captain recovered
    his senses, and feeling the hot beams of a vertical sun striking
    directly on his face and head (his hat having rolled off when he
    fell), he immediately exclaimed to one of his men, “_Damme, Sir!
    fetch me my hat._”

[15]Some of the arrows brought to _England_ by the Author were barbed
    _flint_, and exactly resemble the arrow-heads found in the _Tomb of
    the Athenians_ in the _Plain of Marathon_.

[16]See the Plate.

[17]See _Hearne’s_ “Journey to the _Northern Ocean_,” p. 154, _London_,

[18]This practice was common to almost all the antient world; especially
    to the _Celtic_ and _Gothic_ tribes, as manifested by the
    antiquities now found in their sepulchres. Possibly, therefore, the
    _Asiatic_ origin of the _Esquimaux_ may hence be deduced. The same
    custom also exists among the _Greenlanders_; who are, in fact, a
    branch of the _Esquimaux_. “They like,” says _Crantz_, “to make the
    grave in some remote high place, laying a little moss upon the bare
    ground (for the rock admits of no digging), and spread a skin upon
    it. . . . . Near the burying spot they deposit the _kajak_ and darts
    of the deceased, and the tools he daily used.”—See _Crantz’s
    Greenland_, _vol._ I. _p._ 237. _London_, 1767.

[19]_Moschetos_ are considered as among the winged agents of the _Evil
    Spirit_, by some of the _North-American_ tribes.

[20]See the Sketch of this remarkable _Cape_, taken on the tops.

[21]_Hearne’s_ Journey to the Northern Ocean, p. 224. _Lond._ 1795.

[22]See the Voyages of _Frobisher_, _Davies_, and others.

[23]This is the denomination of the bottom of _Hudson’s Bay_ to the
    southward of _Cape Henrietta Maria_.

[24]The Beluga.

[25]The account of the above transaction was derived from the most
    indubitable authority.

[26]Memoirs of Mrs. _Mary Robinson_.

[27]See the account of Expeditions through the North-West Continent of
    _America_ to the _Pacific Ocean_.

[28]The infant colony is called by his Lordship, _Osna Boia_ (two
    _Gaelic_ words signifying _Ossian’s Town_), from the resemblance
    between _that_ and the _Indian_ name of _Red River_—_Asnaboyne_.

[29]See _Appendix_ B.

[30]It is astonishing, that, before the return of the ships, the whole
    of the drift ice in the _Straits_ disappeared.

[31]I should have before mentioned, that the _Prince of Wales_ did not
    arrive at _York Flats_ until the day after our ship.

[32]As it may be amusing to some people, I have added a few
    thermometrical observations made at _Oxford House_, in the year
    1811.—See _Appendix_ C.

[33]Instead of tracing the _Nelson River_ from its source to the sea, it
    will be expedient to annex a map of the river from _Lake Winnipeg_
    to the _Gull Lake_, shewing also the portages, &c.; and this part of
    the river may be taken as a sample of the whole.

[34]The badge of his dignity among the _Indians_.

[35]The title by which he distinguished the officers of the ship from
    the gentlemen of the factory.

[36]A very expressive name given by the _Indians_ to spirituous liquors,
    signifying _Mad-Water_.

[37]Whilst this Journal was preparing for the press, the following
    article appeared in many of the Daily Prints.

    “Intelligence has been received, by a late arrival from _Canada_, of
    the entire dispersion of the Colony founded by Lord _Selkirk_, in
    conjunction with the _Hudson’s-Bay Company_, on the River
    _Asnaboyne_, in the interior of the N. W. Continent of _America_.
    Disputes with the _Metiffs_ of the Country, a race of people between
    _Canadians_ and _Indians_, inflamed the natural jealousy which the
    latter have always felt, relative to the agricultural encroachments
    on their hunting-grounds in the interior, and, we understand,
    compelled his Lordship’s Governor to abandon the establishment which
    had been made.”—“About one hundred and forty settlers were conveyed
    by the _Canadian_ traders to Lake _Superior_, on their way to
    _Canada_; and the remainder are supposed to have gone to _Hudson’s
    Bay_, with a view of finding a passage to _Great Britain_.

    “The Governor, Mr. _M^cDonald_, and a Sheriff, also appointed by
    Lord _Selkirk_ (Mr. _Spencer_), were brought down prisoners to
    _Montreal_; the one for having granted, the other for having
    executed, a warrant, under the authority of which, provisions, the
    property of _Canadian_ traders, were seized during the preceding
    winter, for the maintenance of the colonists; and these gentlemen
    were admitted to bail in the Courts of _Lower Canada_, to take their
    trials for this alleged offence.”

    Whatever may be the decision of the Judges on this trial, the
    _Metiffs_ will have succeeded in their malevolent intention, that of
    destroying all prospect of the Colony ever arriving to a flourishing

[38]See _Pinkerton’s Geography_.

[39]Here Mr. _Pinkerton_, although perfectly correct in every other
    respect, has fallen into the same error as other geographers;
    namely, in peopling _Hudson’s Bay_ with _Esquimaux_: whereas, the
    _Cree Indians_, who inhabit the Bay, are not savage, take no care of
    their eyes, and are clothed by the _European_ traders.

[40]Here he plainly alludes to the _Esquimaux_ of _Hudson’s Straits_;
    not to the _Cree Indians_ of the Bay.

[41]At present they employ but two ships, and consequently considerably
    fewer seamen.

[42]For the amusement of persons who are desirous of such information, I
    have annexed an abstract of the ship’s reckoning from _Cape
    Resolution_ to the _Orkneys_. See Appendix D.

[43]See _Walter Scott_’s Notes on _Marmion, a Tale of Flodden Field_.

[44]Fossil timber, in a mineralized state, is found in the _Orkneys_ and
    in the _Hebrides_. In the island of _Skie_ there was found part of a
    large tree mineralized by _Hornstone_; which is now in the
    possession of the Professor of Mineralogy at _Cambridge_.

[45]So called by the _Canadians_.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

Transcriber’s note:

--Silently corrected obvious typographical errors.

--Retained non-standard spellings and dialect.

--Re-ordered items in the Table of Illustrations, to match actual order
  in the text.

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