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Title: A Few Suggestions to McGraw-Hill Authors. - Details of manuscript preparation, Typograpy, Proof-reading - and other matters in the production of manuscripts and - books.
Author: Company, McGraw-Hill Book
Language: English
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  A FEW SUGGESTIONS TO

  McGRAW-HILL AUTHORS



  A FEW SUGGESTIONS TO

  McGRAW-HILL AUTHORS


  DETAILS OF MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION,
  TYPOGRAPHY, PROOF-READING AND
  OTHER MATTERS INVOLVED IN
  THE PRODUCTION OF
  MANUSCRIPTS AND
  BOOKS



  MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.
  NEW YORK: 370 SEVENTH AVENUE
  LONDON: 6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C. 4
  1922



  COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY THE
  MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.



INTRODUCTION


The McGraw-Hill Book Company was formed on July 1, 1909, by a
consolidation of the book departments of the McGraw Publishing
Company and the Hill Publishing Company, then separate publishers of
engineering journals and books. For over twenty years, prior to
the formation of the McGraw-Hill Book Company, the several journals
controlled by Mr. McGraw and Mr. Hill (now published by the
McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., a separate organization) had been producing
books in their special fields; but the publication of technical books
had not been brought to the high standard of technical journals.

From the beginning we adopted the slogan, _Better Books in Text and
Manufacture_. It was evident to the men who had brought the leading
technical journals of the country from comparative insignificance
to positions of influence that there was need of a new technical
literature--a literature for classroom and reference which should
adequately supplement their periodicals.

Our first efforts were largely in the field of engineering, but
presently we set new goals for ourselves. By processes which seemed
natural to us, we have extended our publishing not only into the
fields of chemistry, physics, mathematics and English, with a view
always of supplying better fundamental textbooks for students, but
also into the fields of agriculture, business administration and
economics. Similarly our range of publishing has broadened from the
somewhat restricted field of _applied science_, to include numerous
works of high standard dealing with _pure science_.

In all these fields the aim has been, not only to produce a better
grade of text and reference book, but to put behind each book a
selling organization so competent that the maximum market, both
in this country and abroad, would be reached. Without this the
possibility of persuading important men, in all branches of science,
to produce textbooks seemed futile, for the author's return must
always be in proportion to the distribution.

The association with the journals of the McGraw-Hill Company, which we
represent in all matters pertaining to the production of books,
brings us into close contact with the widest range of engineering and
industrial activities. The circulations of these journals include the
leading engineers and executives of the world. The list follows:

  _American Machinist_
  _Electric Railway Journal_
  _Electrical World_
  _Engineering and Mining Journal-Press_
  _Coal Age_
  _Engineering News-Record_
  _Power_
  _Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering_
  _Electrical Merchandising_
  _Industrial Engineer_
  _Bus Transportation_
  _Journal of Electricity_
  _Ingenieria Internacional_

From these journals we draw both editorial guidance and marketing
power. They are the "natural resources" which simplified the problems
of our early years and made possible our rapid development and growth,
until today, by the application of the same editorial standards and
marketing methods, in broader fields, we are able to offer to the
author of technical books a highly developed machinery of publication
and distribution.



TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                                  PAGE

   I. UNIFORMITY AND STANDARDS                                       1

  II. PREPARING THE MANUSCRIPT                                       3

        Typing--Numbering the Pages--Copy for Footnotes--Copy
        for Illustrations--Subdividing the Text--Some Details
        of Typography--Bibliographies--Tables of Contents--
        Indexes--Some Details of Style--Copyright Infringements
        --Shipping the Manuscript.

 III. ILLUSTRATIONS                                                 10

        Line Drawings--Halftone Illustrations--Wax Cuts--In
        General--The Number of Illustrations.

  IV. MANUFACTURING THE BOOK                                        14

        Sample Galleys--Galley Proofs--Page Proofs--Answering
        Queries--Proof-reading--Author's Corrections.

   V. WHEN THE BOOK IS PUBLISHED                                    19

        Marketing a Book--Corrections and Revisions--Translations
        --Prompt Publication.



A FEW SUGGESTIONS TO McGRAW-HILL AUTHORS



I

UNIFORMITY AND STANDARDS


The purpose of these suggestions is fourfold:

    (1) To assist our authors in preparing their manuscripts and
    in understanding the general process of publication.

    (2) To lighten the burden of the editors, typesetters, and
    proof-readers in securing uniformity and adherence to high
    standards.

    (3) To avoid complications and delays and--worst of all--the
    item of author's corrections.

    (4) To obtain a standard of editorial details as uniformly
    high as that of the subject-matter of our books.

Let it be understood, first of all, that these are suggestions, not
rules. Although we endeavor to maintain high standards, we do not
insist upon uniformity of style or consistency throughout the books
in our widely diversified list. The editor of a periodical or the
proceedings of a society properly insists upon uniformity, generally
issues a style sheet to guide his contributors, and edits all
manuscript to fixed standards. But since our books cover nearly all
branches of science, we feel that absolute uniformity would accomplish
no good purpose.

Throughout a single manuscript, however, in details of punctuation,
spelling, abbreviation, compounding of words, side- and
center-headings, notation, bibliographic references, etc., we do ask
for the adoption of a conservative, well-recognized standard. Even
uniformity throughout a manuscript seems, curiously enough,
most difficult to secure, although the lack of it leads to
misunderstandings, delays and author's corrections, with their
attendant avoidable expenses.

We have used the phrase "conservative, well-recognized standard"
advisedly. Departure from such standards, either in spelling,
punctuation, systems of notation or otherwise, is not advisable, for
whatever convictions the author and the publisher may have it is quite
certain that the majority of the readers of any given book will be
conservative and more often annoyed than otherwise by any radical
departures from common practice.

Without reference to our own views on simplified spelling, for
example, we are confident that the radical simplified speller is
neither surprised nor disturbed to find in a book what he would term
old-fashioned spelling. The conservative speller, on the other hand,
is shocked even at _tho_ and _thru_, and the book suffers accordingly.
Nevertheless, we have no quarrel with _sulfur_ in our manuscripts on
chemical subjects, or with any other spelling which has been approved
officially by the leading technical society in the particular field of
the manuscript.

To secure consistency in details throughout his manuscript it is best
for an author to adopt as his guides, at the very beginning of
his work, some standard unabridged dictionary and an authoritative
writer's manual, and to stick to these alone until his book is on the
market. By this method he will give his book not only a high standard
but uniformity in details.



II

PREPARING THE MANUSCRIPT


The first requisite of good manuscript is obviously legibility. To
this end we suggest the following:

=Typing.=--Manuscript should be typewritten in black on one side of
white paper, uniform in size and preferably 8-1/2×11 inches. A paper
of reasonable thickness and toughness is desirable. Thin, "manifold"
paper should not be used for the publisher's copy.

The same spacing should be used as far as practicable on each sheet
to facilitate estimates as to the number of words in the complete
manuscript. A margin of at least an inch should be left at top,
bottom, and left-hand side. Single spacing should be avoided.

A carbon copy should invariably be made and retained by the author,
both for his reference and to protect him against possible loss of the
original. The original or ribbon copy should be sent to the publisher.

=Numbering the Pages.=--Sheets should be numbered consecutively in the
upper right-hand corner from beginning to end and arranged in order
of their numbers. Interpolated pages may be marked 36a, 36b, and so
forth, in accordance with the number of the preceding page. If any
pages are removed from the manuscript for any reason, the preceding
page should be double numbered, as, for example: 36 & 7 or 36-40.

=Copy for Footnotes.=--Footnotes, if used, should be put into the body
of the manuscript immediately following the reference and separated
from the text by parallel lines above and below. The number referring
to the footnote should be placed in the text and before the footnote.
Generally speaking, we prefer the use of arabic numerals for
footnotes,[1] which should be carried out consecutively through each
chapter, when the footnotes are numerous, with a new series for each
chapter. In cases where footnotes are relatively few, the numerals
may be repeated without risk of confusion from page to page as the
footnotes occur.

    [Footnote 1: This footnote is to show the size of type (8
    point) which we generally use for footnotes. Incidentally
    this booklet is set up in 10 point, and in the general
    typographical style of our reference and textbooks, as
    distinguished from handbooks. The dimensions of the type page
    and the trimmed size of the page are those we usually adopt
    for the standard 6×9-inch book.]

=Copy for Illustrations.=--Drawings and photographs, which are
discussed more fully later, should not be inserted in the manuscript,
because illustrations are sent to the engraver at the same time that
the manuscript is sent to the printer. Small drawings should be pasted
on separate sheets of paper, one drawing to the sheet, but large
drawings and photographs should not be treated in this manner. Mounted
photographs are entirely satisfactory, but unmounted photographs
should not be pasted on sheets or mounted, except by an expert. All
illustrations should be referred to by figure numbers in the text and
numbered correspondingly for identification on the copy. We prefer to
have illustrations numbered consecutively from the beginning to the
end of the manuscript.

=Subdividing the Text.=--In modern textbooks and scientific works the
tendency is toward clearly marked subdivisions of the text. To this
end center-headings, side-headings, and subheadings are constantly
used. It is in general advisable that all manuscripts be prepared in
this way. As far as is possible the divisions should be of reasonable
length in order that the text may be broken up sharply into its
subdivisions. In the case of textbooks intended for classroom use, we
find that teachers generally prefer divisions of approximately equal
size and not over a page in length. Where the division is longer than
a page, subdivisions with side-headings in italics may be used.

Bold-face headings may be indicated in the manuscript either by the
letters =b. f.= or by underlining with a wavy line. Italics may be
indicated by underlining with a straight line. If bold-face capitals
are required, mark =b. f. caps=.

In the designation of headings and subheadings particular care should
be taken to follow a consistent and easily understood plan.

Some of our editors strongly recommend that every chapter should begin
with an uncaptioned introductory paragraph to avoid the bald-headed
appearance that results if a chapter begins immediately with a
bold-face caption.

If a text is designed for one of the numerous series which we publish,
the author should consult the editor of the series for his preference
in this and similar matters.

=Some Details of Typography.=--For classroom use the majority
of teachers seem to prefer to have the side-headings numbered
consecutively throughout the book.

Tables and illustrations should be numbered consecutively throughout
the book but in separate series. Tables should have an appropriate
caption above, and, generally speaking, illustrations should have a
descriptive legend below. Tables should be arranged, if possible, so
that they can be printed across the page.

When equations and formulas are numerous, and especially in books
designed for classroom use, it is often advantageous to number them
consecutively throughout the text.

For chapters and tables roman numerals should be used; for all other
series, arabic.

Excerpts from the works of other authors (when they are more than
a phrase or sentence), problems, examples and test questions are
generally set in smaller type than the body of the text itself.
Accordingly they should be clearly marked.

=Bibliographies.=--Bibliographic references by footnotes serve in
most books. Bibliographies of greater extent should be arranged
alphabetically at the end of each chapter of the book, or numbered
serially and referred to by numbers in the text. The custom is to
print the titles of books in roman and the titles of periodicals in
italics. Abbreviations should conform to the well-established
style sheets of technical societies. We recommend particularly the
abbreviations of:

                                { Issued by the American Society of
  ENGINEERING INDEX             {   Mechanical Engineers, 29 West 39th
                                {   Street, New York.

                                { Issued by the American Chemical
  CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS            {   Society, 1709 G Street, N. W.,
                                {   Washington, D. C.

                                { Issued by the Board of Control of
                                {   Botanical Abstracts, Dr. Donald
  BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS           {   Reddick, Business Manager, Cornell
                                {   University, Ithaca, N. Y.

                                { Issued by the Zoological Society of
  THE ZOOLOGICAL RECORD         {   London, Regent's Park, London.

  THE INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUE   { Issued by the Royal Society of
    OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE    {   London.

The extent of the bibliography will vary, of course, with the nature
of the subject and the treatment. The tendency to-day appears to
be toward rather excessive bibliographies, which do not seem to
us generally to be justified. For a simple rule, we recommend
"bibliographies of easily accessible sources."

=Tables of Contents.=--Detailed tables of contents to run in the front
of the book serve a useful purpose. They should, however, be kept down
to reasonable limits.

There are three forms of contents used in our books:

    (1) A simple list of chapter headings. In many cases this is
    sufficient.

    (2) Chapter headings with all articles or sub-headings given
    underneath. These may either be listed or "run in." With a
    good index, such a full table of contents seems hardly to
    serve a useful purpose.

    (3) The chapter headings with the outstanding sub-headings
    listed or "run in" underneath. When these headings are
    selected carefully they give a quick but comprehensive picture
    of the contents.

Lists of illustrations are nowadays generally regarded as unnecessary
in a technical book, and should be prepared only for the guidance of
the author and the publisher.

=Indexes.=--A good subject index is necessary in all technical works.
A widely-read periodical in New York at one time published regularly
the following notice of subject books which were submitted to it for
review and found to be without indexes:

    The publisher and the author did not think well enough of this
    book to supply it with a suitable index. We feel, therefore,
    that it is hardly worthy of a review in our columns.

A good index is one which enables the reader or student to locate
readily the subject or item which he seeks. It is usually best for an
author to make his own index. A professional indexer is inclined to
overload an index; the author, with his knowledge of the subject and a
little study, will generally produce a better working index.

Our usual style of index is two columns to the page, set in 8-point
type, with not more than two indentions. The following example shows
the use of the single and double indentions:


INDEX

  A

  Acetylene starters, 263

  Air cooling, 125
    valve, 425
      auxiliary, 72
      dashpot, 74

  Alcohol, heating value, 70
    use in radiator, 128

  Alignment of wheels, 421

  Alternating current generator, simple, 280

  Ammeter, method of connecting, 133
  operation of, 337

  Ampere, definition of, 132

  Anti-friction bearings, 364

  Armature type magneto, 191

  Arm, torque, 400

  Atwater-Kent ignition systems, 163, 167


  B

  Battery, effect of overcharging, 245
      overfilling, 257
      undercharging, 245
    freezing temperature of, 250
    ignition systems, 159
      care of, 186
      timing, 185
    jars and covers, 242
    markings, 244
    necessity of pure water in, 247
    operation of, 245
    rundown, causes, 260
    sediment, 260
    specific gravity, change in, 247
    sulphation, 256
    testing with hydrometer, 247, 248
      with voltmeter, 255
    voltage, 244

Serious objection is properly made to numerous page references under
a single heading. For example, in a book on Petroleum, references to
every page on which the word _petroleum_ appears would obviously be
valueless. The solution lies in concise qualifications of the main
titles to reduce to the minimum the actual number of page references
opposite each heading.

In the preparation of an index the use of 3×5-inch cards, or paper of
sufficient weight to be handled easily and of similar dimensions,
is advisable. This enables the author to arrange his subject matter
alphabetically and assemble his duplicate references easily. The
single and double indentions should be marked on these cards, and the
guide words stricken out when indentions are indicated. For single
indentions use this mark [sq]. For double indentions use [sq][sq].
If, after the cards are so arranged and marked, it is possible for the
author to have the index typewritten in manuscript form, the risk of
mixing and loss of cards is minimized and the work of the printer is
facilitated.

=Some Details of Style.=--Because we do not seek uniformity throughout
our entire list of books but ask only for uniformity within
a manuscript itself, with adherence to any conservative and
well-recognized standard, we do not issue a style sheet.

The periodicals with which we are associated (the publications of the
McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., Tenth Avenue and 36th Street, New York)
have a sheet which is excellent, and which may well serve as a guide
to the author who is undertaking the preparation of a manuscript. Or
the author may use as his guide any good writer's manual. At the risk
of monotonous repetition, however, we urge once more the importance of
uniformity throughout the manuscript itself. To this end, we suggest
the following:

_Spelling._--Follow any one of the standard and well-recognized
dictionaries, but follow it consistently. We encounter difficulties
especially in the matter of hyphenated words; in using hyphens follow
the dictionary.

_Abbreviations._--Again, any well-recognized standard will satisfy us.
Dictionaries do not, in general, cover the abbreviations of scientific
words to a satisfactory extent. We would suggest, therefore, that
the author secure the style sheet of one of the leading technical
societies in the field in which he works.

  For Chemistry                American Chemical Society

  For Civil Engineering        American Society of Civil
                                 Engineers

  For Electrical Engineering   American Institute of Electrical
                                 Engineers

  For Mechanical Engineering   American Society of
                                 Mechanical Engineers

  For Mining and Metallurgy    American Institute of Mining
                                 and Metallurgical Engineers

  For Economics and Business   American Economic Association

All of these technical societies have not only worked out their style
sheets with care, but they have, in general, accustomed their numerous
members to the details of these style sheets.

=Copyright Infringements.=--All publishers have noted in recent years
a great increase in the number of copyright infringement cases. Many
of these appear to spring from the habit of first preparing lecture
notes, which are compiled or dictated from various sources without
thought of publication. By the time the plan to produce a book
matures, the source of the original material is often entirely
forgotten.

No question is more common in the technical publishing field than "How
far can I make excerpts, with credit but without permission, from the
writings of other authors?"

To this question no definite and entirely satisfactory answer can be
given. Certainly, where illustrations, tables, or important abstracts
are to be made, the author should ask permission of the publisher or
author from whose work he wishes to quote. In addition he should take
special pains to see that full credit is given in the form required by
the author or publisher from whom he has secured permission.

The copyright law and the penalties for infringement of copyright are
drastic, but the decisions which have been rendered in cases that have
gone to trial do not furnish any particularly safe guide.

In our experience the safest guide is a simple rule of courtesy.
Neither the author nor the publisher of a work will refuse any
reasonable request, though he may greatly resent borrowing without the
courtesy of a request. It is safer, therefore, to obtain permission
from author or publisher before borrowing from another work.

=Shipping the Manuscript.=--Manuscript should invariably be shipped
flat, not folded or rolled.

Manuscript and drawings should be sent together and not in
instalments. Except in rare instances, we do not undertake piecemeal
manufacture of a book. In our experience such publication methods save
little or no time and more often result in confusion and expense.

Manuscript, before it has been set up in type, should be shipped by
express with a suitable valuation placed thereon. After the manuscript
has been set up in type, the manuscript and proof may best be sent by
parcel post, special delivery.



III

ILLUSTRATIONS


In technical work such as ours the illustrations are of two classes:
(1) line drawings; (2) photographic or halftone illustrations.

=Line Drawings.=--Copy for line drawings should be made two to three
times the dimensions of the completed illustration. The weight of
line, and especially the lettering, should be carefully worked out
to give desired results. The following illustrations, taken from
"Engineering Drawing," by Thomas E. French, will serve as a guide to
the draftsman preparing these illustrations. We suggest, however,
that when the completed copy for a few characteristic illustrations
is ready, the author send the samples to us in order that we may
determine their suitability or even, if desirable, reproduce the
samples in order that the author may examine the results with us. When
difficulty is encountered in securing suitable lettering, which will
give a finished appearance to the illustrations, we are willing to
accept the drawings with the lettering penciled in. We, in turn,
engage draftsmen, who are experienced in lettering for reproduction,
to finish the work. As this often leads to errors, however, we prefer
the completed drawings ready for reproduction.

Line drawings from periodicals, catalogues and other publications can
be reproduced direct without material reduction in size, when the copy
is suitable for the book, and, of course, when permission to reproduce
has been secured by the author.

=Halftone Illustrations.=--Halftone illustrations can be made
satisfactorily only from photographs or wash drawings. Photographs
on a high-finish or glossy paper produce the best results. We cannot
produce good results by making a halftone from a halftone print.
A halftone engraving is photographed through a screen, and when we
undertake to reproduce a halftone from a halftone print we throw one
screen upon the other. In rare cases passable results can be obtained
in this way, but such copy should be used most sparingly.

[Illustration: Drawing for one-half reduction.]

[Illustration: One-half reduction.]

If photographs are unmounted, they should not be mounted or pasted on
sheets of paper. Smoothly mounted photographs present no difficulties
to the engraver.

Numbers, letters or marks should not be placed on the face of
photographic prints or wash drawings. If numbers or letters are called
for, they should be indicated in pencil at the proper point on the
back of unmounted prints. This can be done easily by holding the
print against a window facing a strong light. In the case of mounted
photographs, a fly leaf of thin paper pasted on the back of the
photograph at the top and folded over the face of the photograph, can
be used for the numbers or letters. In both cases the engraver adds
the numbers or letters on the print in the manner best suited to
reproduction.

[Illustration: Drawing for two-thirds reduction.]

[Illustration: Two-thirds reduction.]

Manufacturers' cuts can sometimes be used when the nature of the text
calls for them. If possible the manufacturer should be asked to supply
the original photograph or drawing. If this is not available, then the
original cut--not an electrotype--should be secured. Electrotypes can
often be used, but the results are not of the standard which we like
to maintain.

=Wax Cuts.=--Formerly many textbooks were illustrated by engravings
made by the wax process. This is the process ordinarily used for the
production of maps. The cost of these engravings has risen, however,
to a point which makes them now practically out of the question for
the average book. They may be used in special cases. Their chief
advantage is that they can be made from rough pen or pencil sketches
and do not call either for finished lines or careful lettering.

=In General.=--Wherever possible illustrations to occupy a full page
should stand vertically on the page. This is, we think, obviously more
satisfactory to the user of the book.

Folded plates and charts should be avoided as far as possible,
not only because they involve an unreasonable expense, but because
American readers, at least, do not like them. Furthermore any
considerable number of inserted charts weakens the binding of the
book.

Color plates and maps in color are prohibitively expensive for most
technical books, but systems of shading and cross-hatching can be
employed as a substitute for colors in many forms of illustration.

=The Number of Illustrations.=--The cost of engravings of all types
has risen out of all proportion to the costs of other details of book
manufacture, and there is no present prospect of a reduction in
the scale of prices. This proves to be especially burdensome to the
publishers of technical and scientific books where the texts generally
contain a large number of illustrations. Accordingly we ask authors
to consider carefully the possibilities of reducing the number of
illustrations. In books of the character of ours illustrations are
essential, and wherever they aid the reader in grasping the subject
or are essential to the understanding of the subject, they cannot be
eliminated. But we do not believe in illustrations that are merely
"pictures" and are not essential to the understanding of the text.
Wherever they can be dispensed with, without injury to the text, they
should be eliminated in order that the retail price of the book may be
kept within reasonable limits.



IV

MANUFACTURING THE BOOK


=Sample Galleys.=--When the manuscript has been prepared in our
offices for the printer, and the time has come to undertake the
manufacture of the book, we ask the printer, first, to set a few pages
of the manuscript and submit them to us in galley proofs. These are in
turn submitted to the author in order that he may study the typography
and inform us if we have in any way misunderstood his manuscript and
the marks on it. This step is, of course, dispensed with if a definite
agreement has been reached in advance as to the typographical details
of the book.

When the author has looked over these first galleys, not with the idea
of proof-reading but of determining upon the style, we instruct the
printer to proceed with the typesetting.

=Galley Proofs.=--These proofs in duplicate (one set is for the
author's files) are first submitted to the author, and accompanying
these is a cut dummy which shows the illustrations reproduced as they
will appear in the book.

Galley proofs should be read with extreme care, and wherever possible
the author should call in some associate or assistant to read them as
well, for it is our experience that the author who has spent a great
deal of time in the preparation of a manuscript often reads with his
memory rather than his eyes and passes the most obvious errors.

When the author returns the galleys with his corrections marked
thereon, he should at the same time return the original manuscript.
At this time also figure numbers and captions should be added to
the illustrations, and an indication should be made by number in
the margin of the galleys of the approximate location of the
illustrations.

Illustrations are inserted in the pages by the printer as near the
point of reference as the limitations of make-up will permit. If, as
happens in rare cases, an illustration must be inserted in a given
paragraph, this should be clearly indicated on the galley proof.

=Page Proofs.=--The printer then proceeds to make the book up into
pages, and duplicate page proofs are forwarded to the author. These
again should be read carefully to make sure that all corrections which
were indicated in the galleys have been properly made, and returned
to us for final casting into plates. Changes, and additions other
than typographical corrections, which involve the overrunning and
rearranging of lines or pages, often mean the remake-up of many pages
of type and an expense that is usually out of all proportion to the
good accomplished. Corrections and changes should, therefore, always
be made in the galley proofs, to avoid the difficult question of
author's corrections, which is discussed on page 18.

The duplicate set of page proofs should be retained by the author for
use in preparing his index, in order that the copy for the index
may be forwarded as soon after the final shipment of page proofs as
possible.

=Answering Queries.=--Frequently the proof-readers query certain
points in the manuscript on the galley or page proofs. It is important
that the author note these queries in all cases and indicate his
decision regarding the questions so raised.

=Proof-reading.=--In technical books especially, good proof-reading is
essential. We use every effort to submit proofs which follow closely
the original copy, but the experienced author knows that he himself
cannot exercise too much care in proof-reading. The amount of damage
which has been done to the reputation and sales of many otherwise
excellent technical books, by carelessness in proof-reading, would
astound the inexperienced author.

One set of galley and one set of page proofs which the author receives
are marked with the printer's corrections, generally in green or red
ink. The set containing the printer's marks should be returned with
the author's corrections added. The duplicate set the author should
keep for his own files.

For the guidance of those who are inexperienced in proof-reading,
we give herewith a reproduction of a sheet showing the ordinary
proof-reading marks. It is helpful if the author follows this general
system in marking his proofs. It is essential that the corrections be
clearly marked.



PROOFREADER'S MARKS

  [symbol] Insert the letter, word or punctuation mark indicated.
  [symbol] Insert or substitute a period at the place indicated.
  [symbol] Insert an apostrophe.
  [symbol] Insert quotation marks.
  [symbol] Insert a hyphen.
  [symbol] Make a space at the point indicated.
  [symbol] Close up or join separated letters or words.
  [symbol] Delete or take out.
  [l.c.]   Change from capital to small letter.
  [Cap.]   Change to capital letter.
  [s.c.]   Change to small caps.
  [ital.]  Change to italics.
  [rom.]   Change to roman type.
  [w.f.]   Wrong font letter.
  [tr]     Transpose.
  [symbol] Words or letters inclosed by line should change places.
  [¶]      Paragraph here.
  [No ¶]   No paragraph here.
  [Stet or ... ] Restore word or sentence mistakenly marked out.
  [? or Qy.] Is this right?
  [X]      Broken letter.
  [symbol] Move to left.
  [symbol] Move to right.
  [symbol] Push down space.


In preparing copy for the printer the writer should underline:

  _One line_, words to be put in italics.
  _Two lines_, words to be put in small caps.
  _Three lines_, words to be put in large caps.
  _Wave line_ (~~~~~~), words to be put in heavy face type.


[Illustration: A CORRECTED PROOF-SHEET]


=Author's Corrections.=--No problem in the publishing of technical
books gives the publisher and the author more trouble than the
question of author's corrections. The term "author's corrections"
covers, technically, changes made in content, arrangement or
typographical style, or additions to the manuscript, after the type
has been set.

The publisher, to protect himself against the author who practically
rewrites his manuscript after it has been set up in type, usually
provides in his contract that corrections in excess of a certain
percentage of the cost of composition shall be charged to and paid
for by the author. The printer makes a careful distinction between
printer's corrections and author's corrections. Corrections marked in
galley and page proofs of a book where the printer has not followed
copy are printer's corrections. Author's corrections are changes and
additions made in the proof. Obviously, where these changes make
a distinct improvement in the text--that is, a better book--the
publisher takes a sympathetic attitude; but when the item of author's
corrections runs to a total of twenty-five or fifty per cent or more
of the cost of setting up the book, there is clear indication that the
author did not complete his book in the manuscript but in the proof.

For a general rule it should be kept in mind that corrections in the
galley proofs cost much less than corrections in the page proofs
where remake-up of pages involving a large expense may result from
the addition of a single line, or even a few words. But it is most
important of all for the author to realize that every correction made
after the manuscript has been set up in type is time-consuming and
expensive, and that such delay and expense are reduced to a minimum
when the author submits a clean, carefully prepared manuscript which
embodies his final judgment of content and style.



V

WHEN THE BOOK IS PUBLISHED


Within a short period after the author returns the proofs of the
index, the book is ready for publication. The author's work is then
practically done.

Immediately upon the arrival of the bound books from the bindery,
the publisher places the work upon the market, copyrights it in this
country and abroad, and undertakes campaigns for its distribution.

This section of the _Suggestions_ is intended to show the author how
he can help in this work and to answer certain questions which are
asked constantly.

=Marketing a Book.=--We take pride in the thoroughness with which we
seek the market for all books bearing our imprint. The spirit of
the agreement which we make with the author is that each book is a
separate business venture into which we have entered as a partner of
the author.

In marketing his book the author can be of material assistance to us.
He knows the subject better than we can ever know it, and he knows the
type of man to which he intends his book to appeal. For these reasons
we always welcome the assistance and suggestions of the author.

At the time when the author begins to receive page proofs of the book,
we are outlining our campaign for its distribution. At that time we
like to receive from the author, first, a brief but exact definition
of the scope and purpose of the book. This we use, not for our
advertising, but as the basis of our advertising. Second, we find
distinctly helpful a list of points to emphasize in our circular and
periodical advertising, and for such a list we look to the author. A
cut-and-dried table of contents often fails to give as good a picture
of a book as do a few well-selected points.

At the same time the author's suggestions of special periodicals to
which copies should be sent for review, and of special lists which may
well be circularized, will also be helpful. These we generally know
about, but sometimes we overlook obvious points of attack in our
campaigns.

=Corrections and Revisions.=--In practically every instance our books
are printed from electrotype plates. Consequently the first printings
are rarely large, because we are able to produce further copies, from
our electrotype plates, as needed.

Before a book is reprinted the author is given an opportunity to send
in corrections of typographical and other errors which have escaped
notice in the earlier printing or printings. Such reprints, however,
are not called new editions nor is the title page date of the book
changed. We follow strictly the policy of designating as new editions
only books which have been more or less thoroughly revised, and the
title page date of one of our books is an indication of the date of
the text--not of the reprint.

When, in the author's opinion or our own, the text requires revision,
we discuss the details with the author and arrange for as complete a
revision as the condition of the text calls for. Since the printings
of our books are rarely large, we are able to arrange for the
production of a new edition in normal cases as soon as the author
feels that it is required and can complete his portion of the work.

=Translations.=--We arrange, where possible, for translations of books
into foreign languages, dividing the proceeds with the author. The
underlying theory of this division is that, with the publication of a
translation, both the author and the publisher suffer from the loss of
sales of the edition in English.

The foreign publisher generally has to pay to his translator about the
royalties usually paid to an author, and accordingly the amount which
can be charged to a foreign publisher for rights of translation
is, except in rare cases, small. Translations must be regarded as a
by-product.

Our attempts to market books in foreign languages from New York,
or from one of our foreign agencies, have not been encouraging.
Accordingly, the first question, when we are endeavoring to arrange
for a translation, is for us to find a publisher in the country
selected who will undertake the work of securing a translator and
publishing the book. When a translator offers his services, we find it
necessary to ask him first to interest a publisher in his own country
in the venture.

=Prompt Publication.=--From the standpoint of both the author and the
publisher it is desirable that a book should be put on the market as
soon as possible after the manuscript is completed.

From the moment the publisher undertakes to manufacture a book he has
an investment which grows rapidly and yields nothing until the sales
of the book begin.

The production of technical books is delayed, generally, by one of the
following causes:

    (1) The author wishes to submit his material to his associates
    or to specialists in the field. Except for purposes of
    proof-reading such submission should be made in manuscript.

    (2) The author fails to return his proofs and manuscript copy
    promptly. The prompt reading and return of proofs is of the
    greatest importance.

    (3) The copy for the index does not follow closely upon the
    return of the final batch of page proofs.

The printer, the engraver, the paper manufacturer, the binder or
the publisher may also interfere with prompt publication; but if the
author's end of the work is handled systematically and promptly, we
are generally able to control the manufacturing details.

       *       *       *       *       *



  Transcriber's Note


  _ _ indicates italic script;

  = = indicates bold script;

  [sq] indicates a hollow square.


  Sundry missing or damaged punctuation has been repaired.


  Page 6, etc.: 'sub-headings', and 'subheadings' both appear in
  this book, as do 'Proof-reader' and 'Proofreader', and some other
  instances of hyphenated and non-hyphenated words.

  As it is a book of suggestions on layout and style from a respected
  publishing house, it can be assumed they knew what they intended,
  so both hyphenated and non-hyphenated words have been retained.

  Page 9: 'instalments'.

    From Webster's Dictionary, 1913 Edition
    (http: //www. bibliomania.com/2/3/257/frameset.html):

    Installment
    (In*stall"ment) n. [Written also instalment.]

  'instalments' has therefore been retained.





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