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Title: Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 3, Volume 4 (Zoology)
Author: Various
Language: English
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Libraries.)



                             PROCEEDINGS

                                OF THE

                    CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

                             THIRD SERIES

                               ZOOLOGY

                               VOL. IV

                              1905-1906

                            SAN FRANCISCO

                       PUBLISHED BY THE ACADEMY

                                 1906



              INDEX TO VOLUME IV, THIRD SERIES, ZOOLOGY.


       New names in =heavy-faced type=; Synonyms in _italics_.

    _adamanteus atrox, Crotalus_, 18

    Amphispiza belli, 66

    _Anaides lugubris_, 5

    Anniella:
      The species of the Reptilian Genus Anniella with Especial
        Reference to Anniella texana and to Variation in
        Anniella nigra, 41-9
      nigra, 42, 43, 44, 48, 49
      pulchra, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48
      texana, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48

    anthonyi, Bascanion, 3, 4, 27

    Arizona:
      On the Shape of the Pupil in the Reptilian Genus Arizona, 66-7
      elegans, 66

    _atrox, Crotalus_, 18, 24

    attenuatus, Batrachoseps, 3, 6, 7, 16

    auriculata, Uta, 3, 4, 26

    _Autodax lugubris_, 4, 5
      =lugubris farallonensis=, 2, 3, 4, 5


    Bascanion, 25
      anthonyi, 3, 4, 27
      _laterale_, 26, 66
      laterale fuliginosum, 3, 4, 26

    Batrachoseps attenuatus, 3, 6, 7, 16
      pacificus, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11

    becki, Sceloporus, 2, 3, 4, 9

    _beldingi, Verticaria_, 23

    belli, Amphispiza, 66

    biseriatus becki, Sceloporus, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14


    Callisaurus ventralis, 3, 25

    catenifer, Pituophis, 3, 21

    _catenifer deserticola, Pituophis_, 21

    cerroense, Phrynosoma, 3, 4, 23

    clarionensis, Uta, 3, 4, 27

    clarki clarki, Sceloporus, 23

    Cnemidophorus labialis, 3, 4, 24
      multiscutatus, 3, 4, 24
      rubidus, 3, 25, 26
      _tessellatus rubidus_, 26
      _tessellatus multiscutatus_, 24
      tigris undulatus, 66

    Coluber, 66

    _confluentus confluentus, Crotalus_, 18

    copeii, Crotaphytus, 25

    _Crotalus adamanteus atrox_, 18
      _atrox_, 18, 24
      _confluentus confluentus_, 18
      exsul, 3, 4, 24
      _lucifer_, 16, 18
      mitchellii, 3, 26
      oregonus, 3, 16, 18

    _Crotaphytus copeii_, 25
      wislizenii, 25

    _curla_, Hyla, 23


    Dermochelys:
      On the Occurrence of the Leather-back Turtle, Dermochelys,
      on the Coast of California, 51-6

    Dipsosaurus dorsalis, 3, 24

    dorsalis, Dipsosaurus, 3, 24


    elegans, Arizona, 66

    =exsul,= Crotalus, 3, 4, 24


    Gerrhonotus, 18, 20
      _multicarinatus_, 14
      palmeri, 21
      scincicauda, 3, 10, 12, 14, 19, 20, 21
      scincicauda =ignavus= 2, 3, 19, 21
      _scincicaudus_, 14

    _Hemidactylium pacificum_, 6

    _hernandezi, Phrynosoma_, 23

    Hyla _curla_, 23
      regilla, 3, 13, 23

    hyperythra beldingi, Verticaria, 3, 23, 25

    Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus, 18
      On the Occurrence of the Spotted Night Snake, Hypsiglena
      ochrorhynchus in Central California; and on the Shape of
      the Pupil in the Reptilian Genus Arizona, 65-6


    =ignavus,= Gerrhonotus scincicauda, 2, 3, 19, 21

    intermedius, Plethodon, 61


    labialis, Cnemidophorus, 3, 4, 24

    laterale, Bascanion, 26, 66

    laterale fuliginosum, Bascanion, 3, 4, 26

    _lateralis fuliginosus, Zamenis_, 26

    _lucifer, Crotalus_, 16, 18

    _lugubris, Anaides_, 5

    _lugubris_, Autodax, 4, 5

    =lugubris farallonensis=, Autodax, 2, 3, 4, =5=


    =martinensis=, Uta, 2, 3, 4, =18=

    mitchellii, Crotalus, 3, =26=

    _multicarinatus, Gerrhonotus_, 14

    multiscutatus, Cnemidophorus, 3, 4, =24=

    _multiscutatus tessellatus, Cnemidophorus_, 24


    nigra, Anniella, 42, 43, 44, 48, =49=

    nigricauda, Uta, 3, =25=


    occidentalis, Sceloporus, 9, 10, 12

    ochrorhynchus, Hypsiglena, =65-6=

    oregonensis, Plethodon, 61, 62

    oregonus, Crotalus, 3, =16=, =18=


    pacificum, Hemidactylium, 6

    pacificus, Batrachoseps, 3, 4, =6=, 7, =11=

    palmeri, Gerrhonotus, 21

    Phrynosoma, cerroense, 3, 4, =23=
      _hernandezi_, 23

    Pituophis, 66
      catenifer, 3, =21=
      _catenifer deserticola_, 21

    _Pityophis sayi bellona_, 21

    Plethodon, 7
      intermedius, 61
      oregonensis, 61, 62
      =vandykei=, =61=
        Description of a New Species of Plethodon, =61-3=

    pulchra, Anniella, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, =48=


    regilla, Hyla, 3, =13=, =23=

    Rhinechis, 66

    riversiana, Xantusia, 3, 4, =15=, =16=, =17=

    rubidus, Cnemidophorus, 3, =25=, =26=

    rubidus, Cnemidophorus tessellatus, 26


    sayi bellona, Pityophis, 21

    Sceloporus =becki=, 2, 3, 4, =9=
      biseriatus becki, 3, 9, 10, =11=, =12=, =14=
      _clarki clarki_, 23
      occidentalis, 9, 10, 12
      undulatus, 9
      zosteromus, 3, =23=, =25=, =26=

    scincicauda, Gerrhonotus, 3, =10=, =12=, =14=, 19, 20, 21

    scincicauda =ignavus=, Gerrhonotus, 2, 3, =19=, 21

    scincicaudus, Gerrhonotus, 14

    stansburiana, Uta, 3, =13=, =14=, =16=, =17=, 21, =23=, =24=

    =stellata=, Uta, 2, 3, 4, =21=


    tessellatus rubidus, Cnemidophorus, 26

    tessellatus multiscutatus, Cnemidophorus, 24

    texana, Anniella, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48

    tigris undulatus, Cnemidophorus, 66


    undulatus, Cnemidophorus tigris, 66

    undulatus, Sceloporus, 9

    Uta, 18, 27
      auriculata, 3, 4, =26=
      clarionensis, 3, 4, =27=
      =martinensis=, 2, 3, 4, =18=
      nigricauda, 3, =25=
      stansburiana, 3, =13=, =14=, =16=, =17=, 21, =23=, =24=
      =stellata=, 2, 3, 4, =21=


    =vandykei=, Plethodon
      Description of a New Species of the Genus Plethodon, =61-3=

    ventralis, Callisaurus, 3, =25=

    _Verticaria beldingi_, 23
      hyperythra beldingi, 3, =23=, =25=


    wislizenii, Crotaphytus, 25


    Xantusia riversiana, 3, 4, =15=, =16=, =17=


    _Zamenis lateralis fuliginosus_, 26

    zosteromus, Sceloporus, 3, =23=, =25=, =26=



                        CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.

                             PLATES I-XI.


                                                                  PAGE

    Title-page                                                       i

    Contents                                                       iii

    No. 1. The Reptiles and Amphibians of the Islands of the
    Pacific Coast of North America from the Farallons to Cape
    San Lucas and the Revilla Gigedos. By John Van Denburgh.
    (Plates I-VIII)                                                  1

    (Published June 15, 1905)

    No. 2. The Species of the Reptilian Genus Anniella, with
    Especial Reference to Anniella texana and to Variation
    in Anniella nigra. By John Van Denburgh                          41

    (Published December 2, 1905)

    No. 3. On the Occurrence of the Leather-back Turtle,
    Dermochelys, on the Coast of California. By John Van
    Denburgh.
    (Plates IX-XI)                                                   51

    (Published December 2, 1905)

    No. 4. Description of a New Species of the Genus Plethodon
    (Plethodon vandykei) from Mount Rainier, Washington. By
    John Van Denburgh                                                61

    (Published March 14, 1906)

    No. 5. On the Occurrence of the Spotted Night Snake,
    Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus, in Central California; and
    On the Shape of the Pupil in the Reptilian Genus
    Arizona. By John Van Denburgh                                     65

    (Published March 14, 1906)

    Index                                                             69

    December 30, 1914.

  [Illustration: PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 3^D. SER. ZOOL. VOL. IV
  [VAN DENBURGH] PLATE I.

  PHOTO.-LITH. BRITTON & REY, S. F.]



                             PROCEEDINGS

                                OF THE

                    CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

                             THIRD SERIES

                        ZOOLOGY VOL. IV, NO. 1

                        _Issued June 15, 1905_

 =THE REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF THE ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC COAST OF
  NORTH AMERICA FROM THE FARALLONS TO CAPE SAN LUCAS AND THE REVILLA
                               GIGEDOS=

   BY JOHN VAN DENBURGH _Curator of the Department of Herpetology_.



                              CONTENTS.


                            PLATES I-VIII.

                              PAGE

    INTRODUCTORY REMARKS         2

    TABLE OF DISTRIBUTION        3

    FAUNAL RELATIONSHIPS         4

    SOUTH FARALLON ISLAND        4

    SAN MIGUEL ISLAND            6

    SANTA ROSA ISLAND           11

    SANTA CRUZ ISLAND           13

    ANA CAPA ISLAND             14

    SAN NICOLAS ISLAND          15

    SANTA BARBARA ISLAND        15

    SANTA CATALINA ISLAND       16

    SAN CLEMENTE ISLAND         17

    LOS CORONADOS               17

    SAN MARTIN ISLAND           18

    SAN BENITO ISLAND           21

    CERROS ISLAND               22

    NATIVIDAD ISLAND            24

    MAGDALENA ISLAND            24

    SANTA MARGARITA ISLAND      25

    SOCORRO ISLAND              26

    CLARION ISLAND              27

June 13, 1905


                        INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.


The first contribution to the herpetology of the islands of the
Pacific Coast of North America of which I have knowledge was,
curiously enough, a description of the lizard of Socorro, an island
perhaps the least accessible of them all. This description was
published by Professor Cope in 1871. Six years later Dr. Streets
recorded a few notes on the fauna of Cerros, San Martin, and
Los Coronados. Since that time there have appeared at intervals
contributions from Yarrow, Belding, Cope, Garman, Townsend, Stejneger,
and Van Denburgh, resulting in the gradual accumulation of a
considerable fund of knowledge. The papers in which this information
is contained are so widely scattered through journals and the
publications of various societies and museums as to be but little
available. It has, therefore, been thought expedient to review the
whole subject while reporting upon the material which in the last few
years has been accumulating in the collection of the Academy.

In this paper there are mentioned or described twenty-nine species and
subspecies, representing the fauna of eighteen islands. Of these four
are amphibians, nineteen are lizards, and six are snakes.

The following forms are here described as new:--

    _Autodax lugubris farallonensis_, South Farallon Island,

    _Uta martinensis_, San Martin Island,

    _Uta stellata_, San Benito Island,

    _Sceloporus becki_, San Miguel Island,

    _Gerrhonotus scincicauda ignavus_, San Martin Island.

The island distribution of the various species and subspecies is
indicated in the following table:

           DISTRIBUTION OF ISLAND REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS.

    Table Key:

    A: Farallon
    B: San Miguel
    C: Santa Rosa
    D: Santa Cruz
    E: Ana Capa
    F: San Nicolas
    G: Santa Barbara
    H: Santa Catalina
    I: San Clemente
    J: Los Coronados
    K: San Martin
    L: San Benito
    M: Cerros
    N: Natividad
    O: Magdalena
    P: Santa Margarita
    Q: Socorro
    R: Clarion
    S: Mainland

 ===============================+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
 Name                           |A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M|N|O|P|Q|R|S
 -------------------------------+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
 Autodax lugubris farallonensis |x| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
 Batrachoseps attenuatus        | | | | | | | |x| | | | | | | | | | |x
 Batrachoseps pacificus         | |x|x| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |?
 Hyla regilla                   | | | |x| | | | | | | | |x| | | | | |x
 Dipsosaurus dorsalis           | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| | | |x
 Callisaurus ventralis          | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| | |x
 Crotaphytus wislizenii         | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| | | |x
 Uta stansburiana               | | | |x|x| | |x|x| | | |x|x| | | | |x
 Uta martinensis                | | | | | | | | | | |x| | | | | | | |
 Uta stellata                   | | | | | | | | | | | |x| | | | | | |
 Uta nigricauda                 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| | | |x
 Uta auriculata                 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| |
 Uta clarionensis               | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |x|
 Sceloporus zosteromus          | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| |x|x| | |x
 Sceloporus becki               | |x| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
 Sceloporus biseriatus becki    | | |x|x| | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
 Phrynosoma cerroense           | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| | | | | |
 Gerrhonotus scincicauda        | |x|x|x| | | | | | | | | | | | | | |x
 Gerrhonotus scincicauda ignavus| | | | | | | | | |?|x| | | | | | | |x
 Xantusia riversiana            | | | | | |x|x|x|x| | | | | | | | | |
 Verticaria hyperythra beldingi | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| |x| | | |x
 Cnemidophorus rubidus          | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |x|x| | |x
 Cnemidophorus multiscutatus    | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| | | | | |
 Cnemidophorus labialis         | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| | | | | |
 Bascanion anthonyi             | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |x|
 Bascanion laterale fuliginosum | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| | |
 Pituophis catenifer            | | | | | | | | | | |x| | | | | | | |x
 Crotalus exsul                 | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| | | | | |
 Crotalus oregonus              | | | | | | | |x| |x| | | | | | | | |x
 Crotalus mitchellii            | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |x| | |x
 -------------------------------+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

Little can be stated about the faunal relationships of the various
islands beyond the fact that all except, probably, the Farallons are
clearly Sonoran. Of the island reptiles, only fourteen are not known
to live on the mainland. These are

    Autodax lugubris farallonensis,
    Batrachoseps pacificus,
    Uta martinensis,
    Uta stellata,
    Uta auriculata,
    Uta clarionensis,
    Sceloporus becki,
    Phrynosoma cerroense,
    Xantusia riversiana,
    Cnemidophorus multiscutatus,
    Cnemidophorus labialis,
    Bascanion anthonyi,
    Bascanion laterale fuliginosum,
    Crotalus exsul.

Although the evidence is thus too meager to enable one to speak
positively, it would seem that the probable faunal relationship is
about as follows:

   TRANSITION ZONE.

     _Pacific Fauna:_

       Farallon Islands.


   UPPER AUSTRAL ZONE.

     _Californian Fauna:_

       San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Ana Capa.

     _San Diegan Fauna:_

       San Nicolas, Santa Barbara, Santa Catalina, San Clemente.
       Los Coronados, San Martin.
       Perhaps San Benito, Cerros, Natividad.

   LOWER AUSTRAL ZONE.

       Perhaps San Benito, Cerros, Natividad.
       Magdalena, Santa Margarita.
       Socorro, Clarion.


                        SOUTH FARALLON ISLAND.

No reptiles have been found on the Farallon Islands and it is probable
that none occur there. The amphibians are represented on South
Farallon Island by a salamander which has been regarded as identical
with _Autodax lugubris_ Hallowell. Specimens from this island,
however, are much more profusely spotted or blotched with yellow than
is the mainland form of this species. In examining series of specimens
one finds a few individuals from the mainland as heavily spotted as
some of the Farallon specimens, but the average difference seems
constant and the extremes are very dissimilar. I therefore propose
that the Farallon Island form be called


           1. =Autodax lugubris farallonensis= subsp. nov.

                              PLATE II.

   _Anaides lugubris_ YARROW, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no.
   24, 1882, p. 158 [part].

   _Autodax lugubris_ COPE, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 34,
   1889, p. 185 [part]; KEELER, Zoe, v. 3, 1892, p. 154.

_Diagnosis._--Similar to _Autodax lugubris_ Hallow, but yellow spots
more numerous and often larger.

_Type._--Cal. Acad. Sci. No. 3731, South Farallon Island, Charles
Fuchs, February 8, 1899.

_Description of Type._--Head elongate, depressed, with truncate,
protruding snout; nostril small, a little above and behind the corner
of snout, with groove running down to edge of lip, separated from
its fellow and from orbit by length of eye-slit; lip margin long and
undulating; maxillary and mandibular teeth large; palatine teeth
small, in series running back from each inner nostril and forming a
V-shaped figure; a large well-defined patch of parasphenoid teeth
divided by a slight median groove and posterior notch; tongue large,
long, ovate, with a small posterior notch, free except along the
median line; neck short, somewhat constricted, a well-developed
gular fold; body subfusiform, diminishing toward both extremities;
13 transverse costal grooves between limbs, extending from a short
distance from vertebral line entirely across belly; tail conical
with similar transverse grooves; limbs well-developed, posterior
longer than anterior, toes overlapping when adpressed; digits 4-5,
well-developed, nearly free, with slight terminal disc-like expansion;
third finger longest, first short, second and fourth nearly equal;
first toe short, second and fifth and third and fourth nearly equal;
skin everywhere smooth, but dotted with the mouths of small glands.

Color above smoky seal-brown, lightest on the snout and limbs, dotted,
spotted and blotched with pale straw-yellow on top and sides of head,
neck, body, limbs and tail; largest blotches, on sides of neck, 2 by 4
millimetres. Lower surfaces dirty yellowish white.

    Length to anus       72[1]  38      58    66    67      75
    Length of tail       64     33      50    52    56      71
    Snout to gular fold  20     11      17    18    19      20
    Nostril to orbit      4      2½      3     4     3½      4
    Fore limb            21     13      18    19    20      22
    Hind limb            24     15      20    20    22      24

[Footnote 1: Type.]

Sixteen specimens were collected by Mr. Fuchs on South Farallon
Island, February 8, 1899, and four by Mr. L. M. Loomis, July 9, 1896.
They were found under piles of loose stone.

The spots on the type specimen are larger and somewhat more numerous
than on any of the others.


                          SAN MIGUEL ISLAND.

I know of no records of reptiles or amphibians from San Miguel Island.
Two species of lizards and a _Batrachoseps_ were secured on this
island by Mr. R. H. Beck while collecting for the California Academy
of Sciences.


                 =1. Batrachoseps pacificus= _Cope_.

                              PLATE III.

   _Hemidactylium pacificum_ COPE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
   Phila. 1865, p. 195.

   _Batrachoseps pacificus_ COPE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
   Phila. 1869, pp. 97, 98; YARROW, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus.
   no. 24, 1882, p. 153 [part?]; BOULENGER, Cat. Batrach.
   Grad. 1882, p. 59; COPE, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 34,
   1889, p. 129 [part?].

_Batrachoseps pacificus_ was described by Professor Cope, in 1865,
from a specimen said to have been collected at Santa Barbara,
California. Two specimens from San Francisco were afterward referred
to this species. All of the specimens I have examined from both these
localities are of the common form known as _B. attenuatus_. I was,
therefore, inclined to doubt the existence of _B. pacificus_ as a
distinct species until I examined eight specimens collected by Dr.
Eisen on Santa Rosa Island in 1897. In March, 1903, Mr. R. H. Beck
secured on San Miguel a large series of a _Batrachoseps_ which seems
to differ in no respect from that found on Santa Rosa Island, but
which is very distinct from the species of the mainland.

These island salamanders agree in all important points with the
original description of _B. pacificus_, but since the published
descriptions of this species are not very complete, I sent a specimen
from San Miguel Island to my friend Dr. Stejneger with a request that
he compare it directly with the type. This he has very kindly done,
and his conclusion is as follows:

"I have carefully compared it with the type of _Batrachoseps
pacificus_ and find them to agree completely. I have no doubt they
represent the same species. As for the origin of our specimen I can
only say that our record book shows the following entry: '6733.
_Batrichoseps pacificus_ (Type) Santa Barbara Cal. Dr. Hayes. 1881
Oct. 28. 1.' This entry is evidently made many years after the
numbering of the specimen which took place in 1866, probably at the
time tin-tags were substituted for the old labels most of which were
destroyed as in this case. The entry is in an unknown boyish hand
and is probably made from the destroyed label. The double error,
_i_ in _Batrachoseps_ and _e_ in Hays, shows that it was made by an
ignoramus. I can find no other record of specimens received from the
same source, but in the S. I. reports from 1864-67 I find noted that
a Dr. W. W. Hays sent birds and fishes to the museum from 'Southern
California'. The Santa Barbara locality is therefore not above
suspicion. The other two specimens credited in Cope's Man. Batr. p.
130 to _B. pacificus_, viz. No. 4006 San Francisco, Cal. R. D. Cutts,
have not been seen here since I took charge of the collection in 1889.
In the record book there is entered in the remark column 'Destroyed
(C)' (C) standing for Cope. The specific name _Batrachoseps pacificus_
is in Cope's handwriting, while the locality San Francisco and the
name of the collector are in Prof. Baird's hand."

In the light of all this it appears that the type of _Batrachoseps
pacificus_ may perhaps have been secured on some fishing trip from
Santa Barbara to Santa Rosa or San Miguel, and that the specimens from
San Francisco most probably were misidentified by Cope.

_Batrachoseps pacificus_ is a larger species than _Batrachoseps
attenuatus_. Its general appearance, owing to the greater broadness
of head and body, is very suggestive of the various species of
_Plethodon_. This resemblance is carried further in one specimen by
the presence of five digits on one hind foot. Structurally, however,
the species is a true _Batrachoseps_; that is to say, the tongue is
adherent anteriorly, the digits are normally 4-4, the premaxillary is
single, and there is a large parietal fontanelle.

   _Diagnosis._--Costal grooves usually seventeen (rarely sixteen
   or eighteen); head much broader than body; color yellowish brown
   above, white or yellow below.

   _Description._--General form elongate, slender; body cylindric
   or somewhat flattened; tail conical, a little longer than
   head and body; head depressed, rather broad, nearly circular
   in outline from above; snout rounded or truncate from above,
   truncate and high in profile; eyes large and rather prominent,
   separated anteriorly by about the length of the orbital slit;
   nostrils small, near corners of snout, separated by a little
   more than their distance from orbits; a very indistinct subnasal
   groove, not extending to margin of lip; upper jaw overhanging
   lower; line of lip nearly straight to below eye, then deflected
   downward; palatine teeth in 2 nearly straight very oblique
   series which nearly meet on the median line posteriorly and
   anteriorly do not extend to the internal nares; parasphenoid
   teeth separated by a narrow space posteriorly but confluent
   anteriorly, extending nearly to the palatine series; internal
   nares rather small, in front of the anterior ends of the
   series of palatine teeth; tongue large, oval, not emarginate,
   attached along the median line, free laterally and posteriorly;
   neck not distinct from body, with several vertical and 2 or
   3 longitudinal grooves; gular fold well marked, continued
   forward on side of neck to eye; 1 or 2 indistinct grooves
   anterior to gular fold; costal grooves between limbs usually
   17, occasionally 16 or 18,[2] continued nearly to midline on
   back and belly; limbs short, weak, each with 4 digits; digits
   with rounded knob-like ends, inner digit short, rudimental,
   others well-developed, second and fourth nearly equal, third
   longest, web small or absent; tail more slender than body, with
   well-marked lateral grooves; a more or less indistinct dorsal
   longitudinal groove, most distinct on neck and pelvic region;
   skin smooth with minute pits; adpressed limbs widely separated.

   [Footnote 2: In fifty specimens the costal grooves are 17 in
   forty, 16 in six, and 18 in four.]

   The color above in alcoholic specimens is yellowish brown
   (cinnamon to mummy brown) paler on the head and limbs and often
   becoming fawn-color on the tail. The upper lip and all the lower
   surfaces are white or dull yellow. Young specimens are much
   darker than adults, and the lower surfaces often are minutely
   dotted with brown.

    Length to anus       25      36      49      52      52      56
    Length of tail       20      31      64      56      63      59
    Width of head         3½      5       7       6½      7       8
    Snout to orbit        2       2       3       3       3       3
    Snout to gular fold   6       7½     10      10      10      10½
    Snout to fore limb    7      10      13      13      14      14
    Between limbs        15      22      31      36      33      38
    Fore limb             5       7       9       9       8½      9
    Hind limb             5½      7½      9½      9½      9½     10


                    =2. Sceloporus becki= sp. nov.

                              PLATE IV.

The _Sceloporus_ of the mainland at Santa Barbara is the ordinary _S.
occidentalis_; that is to say, it is the smaller form with a complete
series of scales between the large supraoculars and the median head
plates, with from thirty-five to forty-six dorsal scales between the
interparietal plate and the back of the thighs, with keeled scales
on the back of the thigh, and with two blue patches on the throat.
Five specimens from San Miguel Island resemble this species closely
in size, but are more nearly like _S. biseriatus_ in coloration,
and differ from both in the possession of certain characters most
unusual in a member of the _S. undulatus_ group. I take pleasure in
naming this island form in honor of Mr. R. H. Beck, who collected the
specimens.

   _Diagnosis._--Frontal and parietal plates separated from
   enlarged supraoculars by a series of small scales or granules;
   frontoparietal plate in contact with enlarged supraoculars;
   scales on back of thigh smaller than those in front of anus;
   43-48 dorsals between interparietal and back of thighs; scales
   on back of thigh keeled; whole throat and chin blue crossed by
   diagonal black lines which unite posteriorly with a large black
   patch extending across throat from shoulder to shoulder.

   _Type._--Adult male, Cal. Acad. Sci. No. 4537, San Miguel
   Island, California, R. H. Beck, March 26, 1903.

   _Description._--Head and body little depressed; nostril opening
   much nearer to end of snout than to orbit; upper head shields
   smooth, moderately large and slightly convex, interparietal
   largest; frontal divided transversely; parietal and frontal
   plates separated from enlarged supraoculars by a series of small
   plates or granules; frontoparietal in contact with enlarged
   supraoculars; superciliaries long and strongly imbricate; middle
   subocular very long, narrow and strongly keeled; rostral plate
   of moderate height but great width; labials long, low and nearly
   rectangular; symphyseal large and pentangular; some series of
   enlarged sublabials; gulars smooth, imbricate, often emarginate
   posteriorly; ear-opening large, slightly oblique, with anterior
   denticulation of smooth acuminate scales; scales on back
   equal-sized, keeled, mucronate with slight denticulation, and
   arranged in nearly parallel longitudinal rows; lateral scales
   smaller and directed obliquely upward; upper and anterior
   surfaces of limbs with strongly keeled and mucronate scales;
   posterior surface of thigh with small, acuminate, keeled scales;
   ventral scales much smaller than dorsals, smooth, imbricate, and
   usually bicuspid; tail furnished with slightly irregular whorls
   of strongly keeled and pointed scales which are much larger and
   rougher above than below, where they are smooth proximally;
   femoral pores 14-16; 9-12 dorsal scales equaling length of
   shielded part of head; number of scales in a row between
   interparietal plate and a line connecting posterior surfaces of
   thighs varying from 43-48; males with enlarged postanal plates.

   The color above is grayish, brownish, or greenish blue, with a
   series of dark brown blotches on each side of the back. A pale
   longitudinal band separates the dorsal from the lateral regions.
   The sides are brownish or grayish, mottled with darker brown
   and dotted or suffused with green or pale blue. The head is
   usually crossed by narrow brown lines, more or less irregular in
   distribution. A brown line connects the orbit and upper corner
   of the ear, and is continued backward on the neck. There is a
   large blue patch on each side of the belly, bordered internally
   with black in highly colored males. The chin and throat are
   blue, pale anteriorly and changing to black posteriorly, crossed
   by narrow oblique black lines which converge posteriorly and
   blend with the black patches on the throat and in front of the
   shoulders in males. There is a white patch at each side of the
   anus, and a yellowish white band along the series of femoral
   pores.

    Length to anus                      64  66  70  70[3]
    Length of tail                      76  68  78  79
    Snout to ear                        14  13  14  16
    Width of head                       14  12  14  15
    Shielded part of head               14  13  14  15
    Fore limb                           27  26  27  30
    Hind limb                           41  39  41  46
    Base of fifth to end of fourth toe  16  15  16  18

[Footnote 3: Type.]

This species is in general appearance similar to _S. occidentalis_,
but differs in the contact of the frontoparietal and supraocular
shields, the coloration of the throat, and the somewhat more feeble
carination and mucronation of its dorsal and caudal scales. Specimens
from Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz islands, as stated below, seem to show
that this form has been developed from _S. biseriatus_ stock.

Five specimens (Nos. 4534-4538) in the collection of the California
Academy of Sciences were secured by Mr. R. H. Beck on San Miguel
Island, March 26, 1903.


               =3. Gerrhonotus scincicauda= _Skilton_.

One specimen (Cal. Acad. Sci. No. 4539) was taken by Mr. Beck on San
Miguel Island, March 26, 1903. It has dorsals in 14½ × 49 rows,
temporals smooth, scales on arm and forearm smooth, and dark ventral
lines along the middles of the scale rows. It seems to differ from
the Santa Rosa Island specimens only in the slightly more feeble
carination of the scales generally, the small size of the azygous
prefrontal and of the scales on the under surface of the forearm, and
a tendency toward the formation of fourteen rows of ventral scales
shown by the presence of a few small scales along the edge of each
lateral fold in addition to the usual twelve longitudinal rows. There
are sixty-six ventrals in a row between the chin and the anus.


                          SANTA ROSA ISLAND.

I have examined one species of _Batrachoseps_ and two kinds of lizards
from this island. The _Gerrhonotus_ has already been reported from the
island, the others are new to its known fauna.


                 =1. Batrachoseps pacificus= _Cope_.

Dr. Gustav Eisen secured eight specimens of _Batrachoseps_ on Santa
Rosa Island in June, 1897. These are now in the collection of the
Academy (Nos. 3877-3880 and 3891-3894) and seem to differ in no
respect from the form found on San Miguel Island. All have seventeen
costal grooves.

The measurements of these specimens are

    Length to anus      21    22    24    32    33    35    41    42
    Length of tail      14    16    21    23    23    ..    46    27
    Width of head        3     3     3¾    5     4½    5     5     6
    Snout to orbit       1½    1¼    1½    2     2¼    2     2¼    2½
    Snout to gular fold  5     5     6     7¼    7     8     8½    9½
    Snout to fore limb   6     6     8    10     9    10    12    12
    Between limbs       13    14    15    21    19    23    26    26
    Fore limb            4½    4     5     6¼    6     6     7¼    8
    Hind limb            4½    4     5     6½    6     6¼    7½    8


           =2. Sceloporus biseriatus becki= _Van Denburgh_.

A series of eight _Scelopori_ collected on Santa Rosa Island by Dr.
Gustav Eisen in June, 1897, seems to show that the differentiation
from _S. biseriatus_ has not progressed so far on this island as on
San Miguel.[4] Thus although all the adult specimens from Santa Rosa
Island show the coloration of the San Miguel Island form, only two
have the typical arrangement of the supraoculars, while the other
six specimens have the frontoparietal separated from the enlarged
supraoculars. The less highly colored young males show a single
median blue throat patch, as in _S. biseriatus_, indicating that the
island lizard is more closely related to that species than to _S.
occidentalis_.

[Footnote 4: Dr. Merriam tells me that a parallel is found in the
island foxes, whose characters are constant on San Miguel but not on
the other islands.]

The fact that the characters of this form seem to be constant on
San Miguel while varying toward _S. biseriatus_ on Santa Rosa and
Santa Cruz islands raises an interesting question in nomenclature:
Should the San Miguel Island form be regarded as a species or as a
subspecies? If these lizards inhabited a peninsula one would use a
trinomial for them all, but since they are found on well separated
islands the facts seem to be best expressed by the nomenclature
adopted above.


               3. =Gerrhonotus scincicauda= _Skilton_.

                        PLATE VII, FIGS. 3-4.

   _Gerrhonotus scincicauda_ VAN DENBURGH, Occas. Papers,
   Cal. Acad. Sci. 5, 1897, p. 106.

I am unable to distinguish six specimens (Cal. Acad. Sci. Nos.
3881-3883 and 3896-3898) collected on Santa Rosa Island from the
species now known as _G. scincicauda_; that is to say, the form with
fourteen longitudinal rows of scales, single interoccipital plate,
large azygous prefrontal, longitudinal lines along the middle of each
row of ventral scales, and smooth temporals. This clearly is the form
to which Baird and Girard applied the name _G. scincicauda_, but that
it is the species originally described by Skilton seems far from
certain.[5]

[Footnote 5: Skilton's description, which seems to apply rather to the
species afterward named by Baird and Girard _Gerrhonotus principis_,
is as follows:

"=Tropidolepis scincicauda=, n. s. Slender, tail much longer than
body, cylindrical. Dermal plates of the body and tail, carinate above,
smooth beneath, verticillate. The carinate plates in nine rows. Color,
dusky green above, light ash color below. A row of small dark spots on
each flank. Another row of smaller ones along the vertebral line. Some
of the dark colored scales on the flanks tipped with a whitish color.
Length five to five and a half inches."

The plate accompanying Skilton's article is so poor as to throw no
light on this question, and it seems best to make no change in the
nomenclature until some one has examined Skilton's specimens, one of
which, according to Yarrow's Catalogue, is No. 3089 of the National
Museum collection.]

The specimens from Santa Rosa Island all have dorsals in fourteen
longitudinal series. The number of transverse series between the
interoccipital plate and the backs of the thighs is fifty in one
specimen, fifty-one in three, fifty-two in one, and fifty-three
in one. One has the brachial scales very weakly keeled. They were
collected by Dr. Gustav Eisen in June, 1897.


                          SANTA CRUZ ISLAND.

A _Hyla_ and two species of lizards have heretofore been recorded
as inhabiting Santa Cruz Island. Another lizard is here reported for the
first time.


                 =1. Hyla regilla= _Baird & Girard_.

   _Hyla regilla_ YARROW, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 24,
   1882, p. 171; COPE, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 34, 1889,
   p. 360.

Yarrow and Cope record this species as having been collected on
Santa Cruz Island by Mr. H. W. Henshaw in June, 1875, but another
portion of the same lot of specimens (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 8686) is
stated to be from Santa Cruz, California. Mr. Henshaw tells me he
never has collected in Santa Cruz County, and that these specimens
unquestionably came from Santa Cruz Island where he collected in the
summer of 1875.


               =2. Uta stansburiana= _Baird & Girard_.

   _Uta stansburiana_ YARROW, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no.
   24, 1882, p. 56; TOWNSEND, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. v. 13,
   1890, p. 144; VAN DENBURGH, Occas. Papers, Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 5, 1897, p. 68; COPE, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1898
   (1900), p. 310.

The register of the United States National Museum states that two
specimens of this lizard (No. 8619) were collected by Dr. O. Loew,
on Santa Cruz Island in June, 1875. These lizards are still in the
National collection and are of considerable interest since they, and
two from Ana Capa Island, are the only ones I have seen which approach
the San Benito Island _Uta_ (described below) in the character of
their dorsal lepidosis. That these specimens actually were collected
by Dr. Loew on Santa Cruz Island is, I think, open to little doubt,
since he, with Mr. H. W. Henshaw and Dr. J. T. Rothrock, visited this
island in June, 1875.[6]

[Footnote 6: See Report, Chief of Engineers, U. S. A. 1876, pt. 3,
pp. 435, 445, etc.]

A series of eight specimens collected on Santa Cruz Island, February
7, 1889, by Mr. C. H. Townsend of the U. S. Fish Commission, (U. S.
Nat. Mus. Nos. 15909-15917) are all of the ordinary _Uta stansburiana_
type with imbricate dorsals and mucronate caudals. Four others, taken
by Mr. Joseph Grinnell at Friar's Harbor, Santa Cruz Island, are also
of the usual type. These have femoral pores 13-14, 15-15, 12-13, and
15-15.


           =3. Sceloporus biseriatus becki= _Van Denburgh_.

Mr. Joseph Grinnell has kindly sent me five specimens of the
_Sceloporus_ of Santa Cruz Island, three of which he has given to the
Academy. All five show the characteristic coloration of _S. becki_.
Three have the supraoculars in contact with the frontoparietals on
both sides of the head, one has these scales in contact on one side
but separated on the other, and the fifth specimen has granules
intervening on both sides.


               =4. Gerrhonotus scincicauda= _Skilton_.

   _Gerrhonotus scincicaudus_ YARROW, Bull. U. S. Nat.
   Mus. no. 24, 1882, p. 48; VAN DENBURGH, Occas. Papers,
   Cal. Acad. Sci. 5, 1897, p. 106.

   _Gerrhonotus multicarinatus_ COPE, Report, U. S. Nat.
   Mus. 1898 (1900), p. 525.

Yarrow and Cope record two specimens (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 8626)
collected on Santa Cruz Island by Mr. H. W. Henshaw in June, 1875. One
of these is still in the National Museum, where I examined it some
years ago.


                           ANA CAPA ISLAND.

I believe no reptiles have been recorded from Ana Capa. Only the
following species has come into my hands.


               =1. Uta stansburiana= _Baird & Girard_.

Mr. Joseph Grinnell has sent me seven specimens collected on Ana
Capa Island, September 4, 1903. Five of these are typical _U.
stansburiana_, but the other two have dorsals similar to those of the
two specimens collected by Dr. Loew on Santa Cruz Island; that is to
say, they approach in this respect the _Uta_ of San Benito Island. The
dorsal scales, however, are well keeled and the caudals are of the
normal type. The femoral pores in the Ana Capa specimens are 14-14,
14-15, 14-?, 14-15, 14-14, 14-15, and 14-15.


                         SAN NICOLAS ISLAND.

San Nicolas Island is the type locality of _Xantusia riversiana_. No
other reptile has been found there.


                   =1. Xantusia riversiana= _Cope_.

                           PLATE V, FIG. 2.

   _Xantusia riversiana_ COPE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
   Phila. 1883, p. 29; RIVERS, Am. Nat. v. 23, 1889, p.
   1100; VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2d ser. v. 5,
   1895, p. 534; VAN DENBURGH, Occas. Papers, Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 5, 1897, p. 132; COPE, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus.
   1898 (1900), p. 552.

In describing this species Cope failed to state where his specimens
were collected. Rivers later assigned them to San Nicolas Island, but
the matter has remained open to question. I am, therefore, very glad
to be able to record the fact that Mr. Joseph Grinnell has sent me
three specimens of this _Xantusia_ taken by himself on San Nicolas
Island, May 22-23, 1897. One of these specimens is uniform drab, with
a few dark spots. The others are of the handsome striped style of
coloration (see plate).


                        SANTA BARBARA ISLAND.

I believe no reptiles or amphibians have been recorded from this
island. I have seen only the following species:


                   =1. Xantusia riversiana= _Cope_.

Mr. Joseph Grinnell has sent me four Xantusias from Santa Barbara
Island. They are smaller than the specimens I have seen from the other
islands, but seem to differ in no other respect. The largest is 64
mm. from snout to vent. All are dark drab above with small, discrete
black spots. One shows traces of longitudinal dorsal bands near the
tail.


                        SANTA CATALINA ISLAND.

One salamander, two lizards, and a rattlesnake have been taken on
Santa Catalina.


            =1. Batrachoseps attenuatus= (_Eschscholtz_).

A single specimen collected at Avalon, Santa Catalina Island, by Mr.
A. M. Drake (Cal. Acad. Sci. No. 3726) seems indistinguishable from
the mainland species. It has nineteen costal grooves, slender limbs,
and narrow head. The coloration is uniform slaty brown above, paler
below. Three specimens secured on this island by Mr. Fuchs differ from
this one only in the slightly paler coloration.


               =2. Uta stansburiana= _Baird & Girard_.

   _Uta stansburiana_ COPE, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1898
   (1900), p. 311.

This lizard has been recorded from Santa Catalina by Professor Cope.
Two specimens collected at Avalon by Mr. J. I. Carlson are in the
collection of the Academy (Nos. 4754 and 4755). They seem to be fairly
typical _U. stansburiana_ with moderately imbricate dorsals. The
femoral pores are thirteen or fourteen.


                   =3. Xantusia riversiana= _Cope_.

   _Xantusia riversiana_ RIVERS, Am. Nat. v. 23, 1889, p.
   1100; VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2d ser. v. 5,
   1895, p. 534; VAN DENBURGH, Occas. Papers, Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 5, 1897, p. 132.

I have seen no specimens of this lizard from Santa Catalina, but Mr.
J. J. Rivers states that he has received several from this island.


                  =4. Crotalus oregonus= _Holbrook_.

   _Crotalus lucifer_ YARROW, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no.
   24, 1882, p. 76; STEJNEGER, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus.
   1893 (1895), p. 447.

Yarrow records a rattlesnake as having been taken by Mr. P. Schumacher
on Santa Catalina Island in 1876. Stejneger also refers to its
presence there. I have seen no snakes from any of the Californian
islands.


                         SAN CLEMENTE ISLAND.

Two species of lizards are known from this island.


               =1. Uta stansburiana= _Baird & Girard_.

   _Uta stansburiana_ TOWNSEND, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. v.
   13, 1890, p. 144; VAN DENBURGH, Occas. Papers, Cal.
   Acad. Sci. 5, 1897, p. 68; COPE, Report, U. S. Nat.
   Mus. 1898 (1900), pp. 310, 311.

Two specimens were taken on San Clemente Island by C. H. Townsend in
1889. Mr. A. W. Anthony and Dr. E. A. Mearns also found the species
there and sent specimens to the National Museum.

I have examined those collected by Mr. Townsend and Mr. Anthony and
six specimens sent me by Mr. Joseph Grinnell, of which three are now
in the collection of the Academy, and am unable to distinguish the
island lizards from the form originally described by Baird and Girard.
The femoral pores in three specimens are eleven, twelve, and fourteen.


                   =2. Xantusia riversiana= _Cope_.

                           PLATE V, FIG. 1.

   _Xantusia riversiana_ COPE, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
   v. 12, 1889, p. 147; VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 534; VAN DENBURGH, Occas.
   Papers, Cal. Acad. Sci. 5, 1897, p. 132; COPE, Report,
   U. S. Nat. Mus. 1898 (1900), pp. 552, 553.

This lizard was found on San Clemente by Mr. C. H. Townsend. I have
examined several specimens in the collections of the University of
California and the California Academy of Sciences without finding
differences between them and specimens from San Nicolas and Santa
Barbara Islands.


                            LOS CORONADOS.

I believe that only one reptile from Los Coronados is represented in
collections, but I am informed that several other kinds, including
_Gerrhonotus_ and _Hypsiglena_, occur on these islands[7].

[Footnote 7: Since this was written I have been informed by Dr. F.
Baker, of San Diego, that he has taken the following reptiles on these
islands:--

 North Coronado:
    _Gerrhonotus scincicauda_ [_ignavus?_], July 3, 1898,
    _Eumeces skiltonianus_, July 3, 1898.
 South Coronado:
    _Uta stansburiana_, July 3, 1898,
    _Gerrhonotus scincicauda_ [_ignavus?_], July 3, 1898,
    _Cnemidophorus stejnegeri_, July 3, 1898,
    _Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus_, August 13, 1898,
    _Crotalus_ [_oregonus_], August 13, 1898.
]


                  =1. Crotalus oregonus= _Holbrook_.

   _Crotalus adamanteus atrox_ STREETS, Bull. U. S. Nat.
   Mus. no. 7, 1877, p. 40; YARROW, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus.
   no. 24, 1882, p. 75 [part].

   _Crotalus atrox_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2d
   ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 156 [part].

   _Crotalus lucifer_ STEJNEGER, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus.
   1893 (1895), pp. 445, 447.

   _Crotalus confluentus confluentus_ COPE, Report, U. S.
   Nat. Mus. 1898 (1900), p. 1173 [part].

Streets recorded as _Crotalus adamanteus atrox_ a rattlesnake which he
secured on Los Coronados. Dr. Stejneger has shown that this specimen,
which is still in the National Museum, is a Pacific Rattlesnake.


                          SAN MARTIN ISLAND.

The only reptile heretofore known from San Martin is a gopher snake
found by Dr. Streets. The Academy has also specimens of two species
of lizards from the island, both of which are here described as new.
The _Uta_ probably is confined to the island, while the _Gerrhonotus_
seems to be found throughout the San Diegan Fauna.


                    =1. Uta martinensis= sp. nov.

                              PLATE VI.

   _Diagnosis._--Similar to _U. stansburiana_ but larger; fifth
   toe reaching to or beyond end of second; dorsals imbricate,
   mucronate, strongly keeled; scales on upper surfaces of arm
   and thigh keeled; scales of ear-denticulation longer than the
   longest diameter of largest temporal; caudals large, imbricate,
   strongly keeled and mucronate.

   _Type._--Adult male, Cal. Acad. Sci. No. 4698, San Martin
   Island, Lower California, Mexico, R. H. Beck, May 3, 1903.

   _Description of the Type._--Body and head considerably
   depressed; snout low, rounded; nostrils large, opening upward
   and outward nearer to end of snout than to orbit; head plates
   large, smooth, nearly flat, interparietal largest; frontal
   divided transversely; 3 or 4 enlarged supraoculars, separated
   from the frontals and frontoparietals by 1 series of small
   plates; superciliaries long, narrow and projecting; central
   subocular very long, narrow and strongly keeled; rostral and
   supralabials long and low; 6 supralabials; symphyseal small,
   followed on each side by a series of 5 or more large plates
   which are separated from the infralabials by 1 or 2 series of
   sublabials; gular region covered with smooth, hexagonal or
   rounded scales changing to granules on the sides of the neck and
   to larger imbricate scales on the strong gular fold, largest
   on the denticulate edge of gular fold where larger than scales
   on belly; a group of enlarged plates in front of ear-opening;
   ear denticulation very long, of 3 scales, largest exceeding
   in length longest diameter of largest plate in front of ear;
   back covered centrally with nearly uniform imbricate, keeled
   scales which change gradually to granules on neck and sides of
   body, and become mucronate posteriorly; scales largest on tail,
   strongly imbricate, strongly keeled and mucronate above and
   on sides; posterior surfaces of thighs and arms covered with
   small granular scales similar to those on sides of body; other
   surfaces of limbs provided with imbricate scales, keeled on
   upper surfaces of arm, forearm, thigh, leg, and foot; adpressed
   fore limb not reaching insertion of thigh; fifth finger reaching
   about to end of second; fifth toe reaching to or beyond end of
   second; femoral pores 15; 17-23 of largest dorsals equaling
   shielded part of head.

   Head above grayish olive; central portion of neck and back dark
   brown, with 2 series of rather indefinite darker brown blotches
   each bordered behind and sometimes laterally by pale blue
   scales; some scattered pale blue dots on back and upper surfaces
   of limbs and tail; tail marbled with brown and blue; sides
   mottled with brown and pale bluish yellow, forming stripes on
   sides of neck; chin and gular region indigo, mottled with bluish
   yellow at sides; postaxillary blotch blackish indigo; lower
   surfaces of body, limbs and tail grayish indigo.

    Length to anus                      62
    Length of tail                      92
    Snout to ear                        15
    Shielded part of head               14
    Width of head                       13
    Fore limb                           26
    Hind limb                           46
    Base of fifth to end of fourth toe  18
    Fifth toe                           10

Only one specimen of this _Uta_ was secured.


           =2. Gerrhonotus scincicauda ignavus= subsp. nov.

                        PLATE VII, FIGS. 1-2.

   _Diagnosis._--Similar to _G. scincicauda_ but with scales
   generally more strongly carinate; temporal scales keeled; dorsal
   and caudal scales strongly keeled; scales of arm and forearm
   keeled; lower lateral caudals keeled; dorsals in 14 (sometimes
   12-2/2) longitudinal rows; dark lines along the middles of
   ventral rows; azygous prefrontal large; interoccipital single;
   back usually with complete dark cross-bands.

   _Type._--Cal. Acad. Sci. No. 4699, San Martin Island, Lower
   California, Mexico, R. H. Beck, May 3, 1903.

   _Description._--Body long and rather slender, with short limbs
   and very long tail; head pointed with flat top and nearly
   vertical sides, its temporal regions often greatly swollen in
   old specimens; rostral plate rounded in upper outline; on top
   of head behind rostral a pair of small internasals, a pair of
   small frontonasals, a very large azygous prefrontal, a pair of
   large prefrontals, a long frontal, a pair of frontoparietals, 2
   parietals separated by an interparietal, a pair of occipitals,
   and an interoccipital; 2 series (of 5 and 3) supraoculars and a
   series of small superciliaries; temporal scales keeled, lower
   sometimes only weakly; upper labials much larger than lower;
   2 series of large sublabial plates below infralabials, lower
   larger; gular scales smooth and imbricate; scales on arm and
   forearm keeled; scales on upper surfaces and sides of neck,
   body and tail large, rhomboidal, slightly oblique, strongly
   keeled, strengthened with bony plates, and arranged in both
   transverse and longitudinal series; number of longitudinal
   dorsal series 12-2/2-14; number of transverse series between
   interoccipital plate and backs of thighs 42-43; a band of
   granules along each side from large ear-opening to anus, usually
   hidden by a strong fold; ventral plates about size of dorsals,
   smooth, imbricate and arranged in 12 longitudinal series; number
   of scales between symphyseal plate and anus 60-63.

   The ground color above is olive-brown, more grayish on the
   sides, crossed by from 9-11 dark bands. These dark bands may be
   brown or brownish black, continuous or broken, and are darker
   laterally, where their scales are tipped with white. Tail
   proximally marked like back, distally unicolor. Head and limbs
   unicolor or with traces of olive-brown mottlings. Lower surfaces
   suffused with gray, edges of scales lighter, darker gray or
   slate-colored lines along the middle of each longitudinal scale
   row.

    Length to anus                     103  110     117[8]
    Length of tail                     167  128[2]  125[9]
    Snout to ear                        21   25      26
    Width of head                       14   19      20
    Head to interoccipital              17   20      21
    Fore limb                           27   30      33
    Hind limb                           34   38      41
    Base of fifth to end of fourth toe  11   12      13

[Footnote 8: Type.]

[Footnote 9: Reproduced.]

The three specimens of _Gerrhonotus_ from San Martin Island are
very similar to the species now known as _G. scincicauda_, but are
much rougher than specimens from central and northern California.
Reëxamination of the Californian material at hand shows that the San
Martin Island form is found throughout the San Diegan Fauna and the
western slope of the southern Sierra Nevada below the range of _G.
palmeri_. It may be distinguished from its more northern relative by
the following synopsis of characters:--

   a.--Temporals smooth; scales on arm smooth; scales on forearm
   smooth or weakly keeled; lateral caudals five scales behind anus
   smooth 6-9 rows from inferior mid-caudal line.
                                                     =G. scincicauda.=

   a.^{2}--Temporals keeled; scales on arm keeled; scales on
   forearm keeled; lateral caudals 5 scales behind anus smooth only
   4-5 rows from inferior mid-caudal line.
                                                      =G. s. ignavus.=


               =3. Pituophis catenifer= (_Blainville_).

   _Pituophis sayi bellona_ STREETS, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus.
   no. 7, 1877, p. 40; YARROW, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no.
   24, 1882, p. 106; COPE, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1898
   (1900), p. 876.

   _Pituophis catenifer deserticola_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc.
   Cal. Acad. Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, P. 149.

A young gopher snake taken on San Martin Island by Dr. Streets is
still in the National Museum. The Academy has an adult specimen (No.
4702) collected there by Mr. Beck, May 3, 1903.


                          SAN BENITO ISLAND.

I know of no records of reptiles from San Benito. The Academy has
received specimens of but one kind of lizard, which is here described
as new.


                      =1. Uta stellata= sp. nov.

                             PLATE VIII.

   _Diagnosis._--Similar to _U. stansburiana_, but with dorsal
   scales not imbricate, not mucronate, often separated by minute
   granules, a few of the dorsal rows weakly keeled; caudals weakly
   keeled and very shortly mucronate, not imbricate; fifth toe not
   reaching end of second.

   _Type._--Adult male, Cal. Acad. Sci. No. 4704, San Benito
   Island, Lower California, Mexico, R. H. Beck, May 6, 1903.

   _Description._--Body and head considerably depressed; snout
   low, rounded and rather long; nostrils large, opening upward
   and outward nearer to end of snout than to orbit; head plates
   large, smooth, nearly flat, interparietal largest; frontal
   divided transversely; 4 or 5 enlarged supraoculars, separated
   from the frontals by 1 and from the frontoparietals by 2 series
   of granules; superciliaries long, narrow and projecting; central
   subocular very long, narrow and strongly keeled; rostral and
   supralabials long and low; 6 or 7 supralabials; symphyseal
   moderately small, followed by 2 or 3 pairs of larger plates
   separated from the infralabials by 1 or 2 series of moderately
   enlarged sublabials; gular region covered with small, smooth,
   hexagonal or rounded scales which change gradually to granules
   on sides of neck and to larger imbricate scales on the strong
   gular fold, largest on denticulate edge of gular fold where
   somewhat larger than ventrals; several enlarged plates in
   front of ear-opening; ear denticulation short, of 3 scales,
   the largest not exceeding in length diameter of largest plate
   in front of ear; back covered with tubercular scales of nearly
   uniform size becoming granular toward neck and sides of body,
   scales of central rows very weakly keeled, not imbricate, not
   mucronate, often separated by minute granules; scales largest on
   tail, very weakly keeled, shortly mucronate above and on sides,
   not imbricate; posterior surfaces of thighs and arms covered
   with small granular scales similar to those on sides of body;
   other surfaces of limbs provided with imbricate scales, smooth
   on arm and nearly smooth on forearm and thigh, keeled on upper
   surface of leg; femoral pores 15 and 16; 26-30 largest dorsals
   equal shielded part of head; fifth finger not reaching end of
   second; fifth toe not reaching end of second; adpressed fore
   limb not reaching insertion of thigh.

   Head above uniform olive-brown; central portion of the neck,
   back and base of tail with a uniform brown ground with thickly
   scattered dots of pale blue on single scales; sides yellowish
   brown with scattered scales of pale yellow; upper surfaces of
   limbs and tail light brown dotted with pale blue; chin and
   gular region deep indigo with yellowish marks laterally and on
   labials; lower surfaces of body and limbs grayish indigo; large
   postaxillary blotch of blackish indigo.

   _Female._--Similar in all respects except femoral pores 13 and
   15; light dots on back, limbs and tail indistinct; 2 rows of
   dark brown dorsal blotches becoming 1 row on tail; an indistinct
   series of brown lateral blotches; limbs with faint brown
   cross-bars.

    Sex                                  ♀   ♂ (type)
    Length to anus                      49  61
    Length of tail                      59  76
    Snout to ear                        11  14
    Shielded part of head               11  13
    Width of head                       10  12
    Fore limb                           22  26
    Hind limb                           37  43
    Base of fifth to end of fourth toe  15  18

Two specimens of this lizard were secured.


                            CERROS ISLAND.

One amphibian and seven reptiles have been recorded from Cerros or
Cedros Island. I have no specimens from this island.

                 =1. Hyla regilla= _Baird & Girard_.

   _Hyla regilla_ STREETS, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 7,
   1877, p. 35; YARROW, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 24,
   1882, p. 171; COPE, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 34, 1889,
   p. 360; VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2d ser. v.
   5, 1895, p. 556.

   _Hyla curla_ BELDING, West Am. Scientist, v. 3, no. 24,
   1887, p. 99.

Found by Dr. Streets near a spring of fresh water on the southeastern
side of the island. It was also taken by Mr. Belding.


               =2. Uta stansburiana= _Baird & Girard_.

   _Uta stansburiana_ STREETS, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no.
   7, 1877, p. 37; YARROW, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 24,
   1882, p. 57; BELDING, West Am. Scientist, v. 3, no. 24,
   1887, p. 98; VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2d
   ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 105; COPE, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus.
   1898 (1900), p. 310.

This _Uta_ was collected by Dr. Streets and Mr. Belding.


                  =3. Sceloporus zosteromus= _Cope_.

   _Sceloporus clarki clarki_ BELDING, West Am. Scientist,
   v. 3, no. 24, 1887, p. 99.

   _Sceloporus zosteromus_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 110; BOULENGER, Proc. Zool.
   Soc. Lond. 1897, p. 498; MOCQUARD, Nouv. Arch. Mus.
   sér. 4, v. 1, 1899, p. 314.

This lizard has been taken only by Mr. Belding.


                =4. Phrynosoma cerroense= _Stejneger_.

   _Phrynosoma hernandezi_ BELDING, West Am. Scientist, v.
   3, 1887, p. 99.

   _Phrynosoma cerroense_ STEJNEGER, N. Am. Fauna, no. 7,
   1893, p. 187; VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2d
   ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 119; COPE, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus.
   1898 (1900), p. 428, fig. 75.

This form is known from a single specimen collected by Mr. Belding.


          =5. Verticaria hyperythra beldingi= (_Stejneger_).

   _Verticaria beldingi_ STEJNEGER Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
   1894, p. 17.

   _Verticaria hyperythra beldingi_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc.
   Cal. Acad. Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 131.

Cerros Island is the type locality of this form.

              =6. Cnemidophorus multiscutatus= (_Cope_).

   _Cnemidophorus tessellatus multiscutatus_ COPE, Trans.
   Am. Philos. Soc. v. 17, art. 3, 1892, p. 38; COPE,
   Report, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1898 (1900), p. 586.

   _Cnemidophorus multiscutatus_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal.
   Acad. Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 126.

Professor Cope described this form from specimens secured on Cerros
Island.


               =7. Cnemidophorus labialis= _Stejneger_.

   _Cnemidophorus labialis_ STEJNEGER, Proc. U. S. Nat.
   Mus. 1889, p. 643; COPE, Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. v. 17,
   art. 3, 1892, p. 51; VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 128; COPE, Report, U. S.
   Nat. Mus. 1898 (1900), p. 610.

Cerros Island is the type locality of this species also. Five
specimens were collected by Mr. Belding.


                    =8. Crotalus exsul= _Garman_.

   _Crotalus exsul_ GARMAN, Mem. Mus. Compar. Zool. Camb.
   v. 8, no. 3, 1883, pp. 114, 174; GARMAN, Bull. Essex
   Inst. v. 16, no. 1, 1884, p. 35; VAN DENBURGH, Proc.
   Cal. Acad. Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 157.

Under this name Garman has described from two specimens a small
rattlesnake from Cerros Island. It seems very closely related to _C.
atrox_.


                          NATIVIDAD ISLAND.

I have seen only one lizard from this island.


               =1. Uta stansburiana= _Baird & Girard_.

A single specimen (Cal. Acad. Sci. No. 4705) of this _Uta_ was secured
on Natividad by Mr. R. H. Beck, May 9, 1903.


                          MAGDALENA ISLAND.

I have elsewhere recorded six species of lizards from this island.
It is necessary only to mention them here. The specimens are in the
collection of the Academy.


             =1. Dipsosaurus dorsalis= _Baird & Girard_.

   _Dipsosaurus dorsalis_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 93.

One was secured by Mr. Bryant in March, 1889.

            =2. Crotaphytus wislizenii= _Baird & Girard_.

   _Crotaphytus copeii?_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 95.

Upon reëxamination, I am unable to separate two specimens from
Magdalena Island from the common form of this lizard.


                     =3. Uta nigricauda= _Cope_.

   _Uta nigricauda_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2d
   ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 108.

Mr. Bryant secured a number of these lizards on Magdalena Island in
1888 and 1889.


                  =4. Sceloporus zosteromus= _Cope_.

   _Sceloporus zosteromus_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 110; BOULENGER, Proc. Zool.
   Soc. Lond. 1897, p. 499; MOCQUARD, Nouv. Arch. Mus.
   sér. 4, 1899, P. 314; COPE, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus.
   1898 (1900), p. 358.

The Academy has eight examples of this lizard taken on Magdalena by
Mr. Bryant in February and March, 1889.


          =5. Verticaria hyperythra beldingi= (_Stejneger_).

   _Verticaria hyperythra beldingi_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc.
   Cal. Acad. Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 132.

Three specimens were collected by Mr. Bryant in March, 1889.


                 =6. Cnemidophorus rubidus= (_Cope_).

   _Cnemidophorus rubidus_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 127.

A lizard of this species was taken on Magdalena Island in March, 1889,
by Mr. W. E. Bryant.


                       SANTA MARGARITA ISLAND.

Five reptiles are known from this island. I have not seen specimens of
the _Bascanion_ and cannot judge of its distinctness.


              =1. Callisaurus ventralis= (_Hallowell_).

   _Callisaurus ventralis_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 98.

A female of this species, taken on Santa Margarita by Mr. Bryant,
March 5, 1889, is in the collection of the Academy.


                  =2. Sceloporus zosteromus= _Cope_.

   _Sceloporus zosteromus_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 110; BOULENGER, Proc. Zool.
   Soc. Lond. 1897, p. 499; MOCQUARD, Nouv. Arch. Mus.
   sér. 4, 1899, p. 314; COPE, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus.
   1898 (1900), p. 358.

Two examples were secured by Mr. Bryant on Santa Margarita, March 1,
1889.


                  =3. Cnemidophorus rubidus= _Cope_.

   _Cnemidophorus tessellatus rubidus_ COPE, Trans.
   Am. Philos. Soc. 1892, p. 36, pl. XII, fig. F;
   COPE, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1898 (1900), p. 584, fig.
   110.

   _Cnemidophorus rubidus_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 127.

Santa Margarita Island is the type locality of this species, which was
described from seven specimens brought back by the _Albatross_.


            =4. Bascanion laterale fuliginosum= (_Cope_).

   _Bascanion laterale_ COPE, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. v. 12,
   1889, p. 147.

   _Zamenis lateralis fuliginosus_ COPE, Am. Nat. v.
   29, 1895, p. 679; COPE, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1898
   (1900), p. 809, fig. 178.

This snake was described from two specimens taken by the naturalists
of the _Albatross_. I have seen none.


                   =5. Crotalus mitchellii= _Cope_.

   _Crotalus mitchellii_ VAN DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad.
   Sci. 2d ser. v. 5, 1895, p. 160; COPE, Report, U. S.
   Nat. Mus. 1898 (1900), p. 1196.

A single rattlesnake of this species, taken by Mr. W. E. Bryant in
February, 1889, is the only record for this island.


                           SOCORRO ISLAND.

The following lizard is the only reptile known from this island.


                     =1. Uta auriculata= _Cope_.

   _Uta auriculata_ COPE, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. v.
   14, 1871, p. 303; BOULENGER, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. v. 2,
   1885, p. 214; COPE, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 32, 1887,
   p. 35; TOWNSEND, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. v. 13, 1890, p.
   143; COPE, Report, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1898 (1900), p. 300.

This _Uta_ was first described by Cope in 1871 from material
collected by Grayson. Townsend secured nine specimens which are now in
the National Museum. The California Academy of Sciences has seventeen,
taken by its expedition to the Revilla Gigedo Islands in 1903.


                           CLARION ISLAND.

Although smaller than Socorro and farther from the mainland, Clarion
Island is better supplied with reptiles than its larger neighbor,
since it possesses a snake as well as a _Uta_, while Socorro has only
a _Uta_.


                  =1. Uta clarionensis= _Townsend_.

   _Uta clarionensis_ TOWNSEND, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. v.
   13, 1890, p. 143; STEJNEGER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. v.
   23, 1901, p. 715.

This lizard was first collected by Mr. C. H. Townsend who described it
from five specimens. Mr. A. W. Anthony also secured it, in 1897, and
sent specimens to the National Museum. The Academy has three taken by
Mr. Beck.


                 =2. Bascanion anthonyi= _Stejneger_.

   _Bascanion anthonyi_ STEJNEGER, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
   v. 23, 1901, p. 715.

Dr. Stejneger described this snake from thirteen specimens sent to the
National Museum by Mr. Anthony. The Academy has eight examples of the
species. The scale-rows are seventeen in all these specimens, while
the gastrosteges vary from one hundred and eighty-seven to one hundred
and ninety-six and the urosteges from ninety-three to one hundred and
seven.


                       EXPLANATION OF PLATE II.

             _Autodax lugubris farallonensis_ subsp. nov.

   _Type_, Cal. Acad. Sci. no. 3731, South Farallon Island,
   California, Charles Fuchs, February 8, 1899.

    Fig. 1. General view, natural size.
    Fig. 2. Head from above, × 2.
    Fig. 3. Head from below, × 2.
    Fig. 4. Head from side, × 2.
    Fig. 5. Mouth, × 2½
    Fig. 6. Hind limb, × 2.
    Fig. 7. Fore limb, × 2.

  [Illustration:

      PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 3^D. SER. ZOOL. VOL. IV.

      [VAN DENBURGH] PLATE II.

      MARY WELLMAN. DEL

      PHOTO.-LITH. BRITTON & REY. S. F.
  ]

                      EXPLANATION OF PLATE III.

                    _Batrachoseps pacificus_ Cope.

   Cal. Acad. Sci. no. 4601, San Miguel Island, California, R. H.
   Beck, March 23, 1903.

    Fig. 1. General view, natural size.
    Fig. 2. Head and neck from above, × 3.
    Fig. 3. Head and neck from below, × 3.
    Fig. 4. Head and neck from side, × 3.
    Fig. 5. Mouth, × 3½.
    Fig. 6. Fore limb, × 3½.
    Fig. 7. Hind limb, × 3½.

  [Illustration:

      PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 3^{D}. SER. ZOOL. VOL. IV.

      [VAN DENBURGH] PLATE III.

      MARY WELLMAN. DEL

      PHOTO.-LITH. BRITTON & REY. S. F.
  ]

                       EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV.

                     _Sceloporus becki_ sp. nov.

   _Type_, Adult male, Cal. Acad. Sci. no. 4537, San Miguel Island,
   California, R. H. Beck, March 26, 1903.

    Fig. 1. General view, natural size.
    Fig. 2. Head from below, × 2½.
    Fig. 3. Head from above, × 2½.
    Fig. 4. Head from side, × 2½.

  [Illustration:

      PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 3^{D}. SER. ZOOL. VOL. IV.

      [VAN DENBURGH] PLATE IV.

      MARY WELLMAN. DEL

      PHOTO.-LITH. BRITTON & REY. E. F.
  ]

                       EXPLANATION OF PLATE V.

                     _Xantusia riversiana_ Cope.

    Fig. 1.    Cal. Acad. Sci. no. 3571, San Clemente Island, California.
                 General view, × ⅔.

    Fig. 2.    Cal. Acad. Sci. no. 6613, San Nicolas Island, California,
                 Joseph Grinnell, May 22, 1897. Natural size.

  [Illustration:

      PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 3^{D}. SER. ZOOL. VOL. IV.

      [VAN DENBURGH] PLATE V.

      PHOTO.-LITH. BRITTON & REY. S. F.
  ]

                       EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI.

                      _Uta martinensis_ sp. nov.

   _Type_, Cal. Acad. Sci. no. 4698, San Martin Island, Lower
   California, Mexico, R. H. Beck, May 3, 1903.

    Fig. 1. General view, natural size.
    Fig. 2. Head from above, × 2½.
    Fig. 3. Head from side, × 2½.
    Fig. 4. Scales of back, × 3.
    Fig. 5. Hind limb, × 1¾.

  [Illustration:

      PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 3^{D}. SER. ZOOL. VOL. IV.

      [VAN DENBURGH] PLATE VI.

      MARY WELLMAN. DEL

      PHOTO.-LITH. BRITTON & REY. S. F.
  ]

                      EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII.

            _Gerrhonotus scincicauda ignavus_ subsp. nov.

   _Type_, Cal. Acad. Sci. no. 4699, San Martin Island, Lower
   California, Mexico, R. H. Beck, May 3, 1903.

    Fig. 1. Head from side, natural size.
    Fig. 2. Base of tail from side, natural size.

                _Gerrhonotus scincicauda_ (_Skilton_).

   Cal. Acad. Sci. no. 3897, Santa Rosa Island, California, Gustav
   Eisen, June 1897.

    Fig. 3. Head from side, natural size.
    Fig. 4. Base of tail from side, natural size.

  [Illustration:

      PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 3^{D}. SER. ZOOL. VOL. IV.

      [VAN DENBURGH] PLATE VII.

      MARY WELLMAN. DEL

      PHOTO.-LITH. BRITTON & REY. S. F.
  ]

                      EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII.

                       _Uta stellata_ sp. nov.

   _Type_, Adult male, Cal. Acad. Sci. no. 4704, San Benito Island,
   Lower California, Mexico, R. H. Beck, May 6, 1903.

    Fig. 1. General view, natural size.
    Fig. 2. Head from side, × 3.
    Fig. 3. Head from above, × 3.
    Fig. 4. Scales of back, × 3.
    Fig. 5. Scales of central part of back, much enlarged.
    Fig. 6. Hind limb, × 1¾.

 [Illustration:

     PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 3^{D}. SER. ZOOL. VOL. IV.

     [VAN DENBURGH] PLATE VIII.

     MARY WELLMAN. DEL

     PHOTO.-LITH. BRITTON & REY. S. F.
 ]



                             PROCEEDINGS

                                OF THE

                    CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

                             THIRD SERIES

                       ZOOLOGY VOL. IV, NO. 2

                      _Issued December 2, 1905_


             THE SPECIES OF THE REPTILIAN GENUS ANNIELLA,
                 WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO ANNIELLA
                      TEXANA AND TO VARIATION IN
                            ANNIELLA NIGRA

                         BY JOHN VAN DENBURGH

              _Curator of the Department of Herpetology_


The genus _Anniella_ was established by J. E. Gray[10], in 1852,
to contain a single species which he named _Anniella pulchra_ and
described in the following terms:

"Silvery (in spirits); upper part with very narrow brown zigzag lines
placed on the margin of the series of scales, the line down the center
of the back and two or three on the upper part of the sides being
thicker and nearly half the width of the scales.

_Hab._ California, _J. O. Goodridge, Esq., Surgeon R. N._"

This species has since been more completely described by Bocourt,[11]
Boulenger,[12] Cope,[13] and Van Denburgh.[14]

[Footnote 10: Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2d ser. v. 10, 1852, p. 440.]

[Footnote 11: Miss. Sci. au Mex. Recherches zool. 3d pt. p. 460.]

[Footnote 12: Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. v. 2, 1885, p. 299.]

[Footnote 13: Report, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1898 (1900), p. 674.]

[Footnote 14: Occas. Papers, Cal. Acad. Sci. 5, 1897, p. 116.]

In 1885 Fischer[15] described under the name _Anniella nigra_ a
specimen said to have been collected at San Diego, California.
This, he stated, differed from _Anniella pulchra_ in the following
characters:

   1. Twenty-eight longitudinal rows of scales.

   2. The three median preanal scales twice as long as those
   preceding.

   3. Tail one-third total length.

   4. Color above black.

[Footnote 15: Abh. Nat. Verein Hamburg, v. 9, Hft. 1, 1885, p. 9.]

I have elsewhere[16] stated that the number of scale rows in _Anniella
pulchra_ varies from twenty-four to thirty-four. The preanal scales
in both the dark and light forms may be small, moderately enlarged,
or twice the length of those preceding. The tail of _A. pulchra_
may equal or exceed one-third of the total length of the animal. I
have been unable to discover any differences in the squamation of
dark and light specimens; and since the recognition of _A. nigra_ as
distinct from _A. pulchra_ must rest solely upon the difference in
pigmentation, one is tempted to inquire whether this is not merely an
instance of melanism. Upon this subject I shall have more to say, but
I wish first to consider certain peculiarities of squamation which
have been held to distinguish another species.

[Footnote 16: Occas. Papers, Cal. Acad. Sci. 5, 1897, pp. 116, 118.]

_Anniella texana_ was described by Mr. Boulenger,[17] in 1887, from
a single specimen labeled El Paso, Texas--a locality so far beyond
the limits of the known range of the genus and of other Californian
reptiles that it must be regarded with much suspicion until confirmed
by the capture of additional specimens. The type of _A. texana_
agrees in coloration with _Anniella pulchra_, but Mr. Boulenger finds
it to differ in certain details of squamation. He assigns to it the
following characters:

   1. Head less depressed, snout more rounded than in _A. pulchra_.

   2. A horizontal suture from nostril to second labial.

   3. Frontal twice as broad as long.

   4. Anterior supraocular nearly as broad as its distance from its
   fellow.

   5. Interparietal and occipital divided (anomalously?) by a
   longitudinal suture.

   6. Six upper labials, etc.

   7. A narrow shield separates the third labial from the loreal.

   8. Five lower labials.

   9. Twenty-eight scales around middle of body.

   10. No enlarged preanal scales.

   11. Tail ending obtusely, three-eighths total length.

   12. Dark gray above, with three fine black longitudinal lines;
   sides and lower surfaces whitish.

[Footnote 17: Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 5th ser. v. 20, 1887, p. 50.]

I will now consider these characters in connection with variations
found in a series of specimens of _A. pulchra_ and _A. nigra_.

1. The shape of the head and snout is subject to some variation in
both _A. pulchra_ and _A. nigra_. Unless the difference in shape in
the type of _A. texana_ is very great, one is safe in ignoring it as a
basis of specific distinction.

2. One of my specimens of _A. nigra_ (Cal. Acad. Sci. No. 6255) shows
a horizontal suture extending from the nostril to the second labial.
Another (No. 6244) has such a suture between the nostril and the
rostral plate.

3. There is considerable variation in the shape and size of the
frontal plate in both _A. pulchra_ and _A. nigra_. It not infrequently
is twice as broad as long (No. 6236, etc.), but may be nearly as long
as broad. Sometimes it nearly touches the rostral (No. 5103).

4. The anterior supraocular is nearly as broad as the distance which
separates it from its fellow in some specimens of _A. pulchra_ (No.
5110) and _A. nigra_ (Nos. 6233, 6243, 6249, etc.). In some specimens
it has scarcely more than half this breadth.

5. I regard the plates which Mr. Boulenger calls interparietal and
occipital as frontoparietal and interparietal, respectively. The
former plate is not completely divided in any of my specimens. One
example of _A. pulchra_ (No. 5110), however, has it longitudinally
divided throughout the posterior third of its length. The
interparietal (occipital of Mr. Boulenger) is completely divided
longitudinally in one example of _A. nigra_ (No. 6228) and divided
through one-fifth its length in another (No. 6218).

6. This is the normal arrangement, but is subject to variation.

7. This shield may be absent.

8. The number of lower labials ranges from five to seven.

9. The number of scales around the middle of the body varies in _A.
pulchra_ from twenty-four to thirty-four, while in 54 specimens of _A.
nigra_ the number is twenty-eight in 12, thirty in 36, and thirty-two
in 6.

10. The preanal scales, as already stated, may be not enlarged,
moderately enlarged, or twice as long as those preceding them. This is
true in both _A. pulchra_ and _A. nigra_.

11. The length of the tail is subject to so much variation that it
cannot be regarded as furnishing a good specific character. The
longest ones I have seen are one-third the total length in _A. nigra_
and two-fifths in _A. pulchra_.

12. This is the coloration of some specimens of _A. pulchra_.

It will be seen that, with one exception, all of the characters of
_Anniella texana_ have been found in specimens of _A. pulchra_ and _A.
nigra_ either as the normal condition or as individual variations.
The single exception is the complete division of the frontoparietal
plate--a condition which is manifestly anomalous, since this plate
has been found partially divided in other specimens. It is evident
therefore that _Anniella texana_ must stand as a synonym of _A.
pulchra_ Gray.

_Anniella texana_ being thus disposed of, one is tempted to treat _A.
nigra_ in the same way, regarding it as based merely upon melanistic
individuals of _A. pulchra_. This view we certainly should have to
adopt if both dark and light colored specimens occurred in the same
localities, but I believe this has not yet been shown to be the case.
Fischer, to be sure, states that the type of _A. nigra_ came from San
Diego, where _A. pulchra_ is especially abundant, but it is quite
possible that his specimen did not really originate there. All of the
dark specimens I have seen, have been secured on the coast of Monterey
County; and, aside from Fischer's, I know of no records of the black
_Anniella_ from any other locality, except Cope's[18] reference to
specimens from San Francisco. Aside from the type locality, then, it
would seem that the dark form has a very limited range, being confined
to the southern part of the Pacific Fauna of the Transition Zone.

[Footnote 18: Report, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1898 (1900), p. 675.]

In a large series of alcoholic specimens from the coast of Monterey
County, I find very few showing a style of coloration similar to that
of _A. pulchra_. A specimen from San Ardo, in the interior of this
county, is typical of _A. pulchra_, but San Ardo is in the Upper
Austral Zone. Not more than four or five of the fifty-four specimens
from the coast zone could be in the least confusing, and all of these
are more deeply pigmented above than is any example of _A. pulchra_
before me. Forty-eight of these specimens were sent me alive, and in
that condition exhibited a greater range of coloration than they show
since preservation in alcohol, which seems to have intensified their
dark pigmentation while dissolving the beautiful yellow of their lower
surfaces. When the living lizards were received from Carmel and Point
Pinos, they were divided into ten groups according to the intensity of
the dorsal pigmentation, and measurements were taken of each specimen
in each group. These grades of pigmentation of the living specimens,
with measurements in millimeters from snout to anus and anus to tip of
tail, are as follows:

1. Entire upper surface (ten, twelve, or fourteen rows of scales)
and ventral surface of tip of tail very dark Indian purple. Chin and
throat lighter Indian purple. More or less suffusion with Indian
purple about anus. Rest of lower surfaces and sides bright gamboge
yellow with chromium green staining near center of belly. Mouth
flesh-color. Labials and temporals minutely dotted with iridescent
greenish, silvery, or bronze. Eye black with bronze or silvery
markings.

    153  15  Lateral line present         No dorsal line
    150  73  Lateral line                 Trace dorsal line
    150  70  Lateral line                 Trace dorsal line
    150  38  Lateral line                 No dorsal line
    147  40  No lateral line              No dorsal line
    146  75  No lateral line              No dorsal line
    146  25  Lateral line                 No dorsal line
    145  70  Trace lateral line           No dorsal line
    143  17  Trace lateral line           No dorsal line
    140  68  Lateral line                 No dorsal line
    140  50  Lateral line                 No dorsal line
    138  32  Faint trace lateral lines    No dorsal line
    137  68  Lateral line                 Trace dorsal line
    137  47  Lateral line                 Trace dorsal line
    136  45  Lateral line                 No dorsal line
    135  65  Lateral line                 No dorsal line
    135  53  Trace lateral line           No dorsal line
    134  65  Lateral line                 No dorsal line
    133  60  Lateral line                 No dorsal line
    132  63  Lateral line                 Trace dorsal line
    131  50  Lateral line                 No dorsal line
    131  16  Lateral line                 No dorsal line
    130  34  Lateral line                 No dorsal line

2. Dark hair-brown above; bright gamboge below; chin Indian purple.

    146  70  Lateral line                 No dorsal line
    131  20  Two lateral lines            Trace dorsal line

3. Dark purplish drab above; wax-yellow with Paris or chromium green
below; chin and throat lighter Indian purple.

    140  40  Two lateral lines            Trace dorsal line
    134  20  Lateral line                 Faint trace dorsal line
    123  25  Lateral line                 No dorsal line
    120  60  Lateral line                 Fair dorsal line

4. Hair-brown above; gamboge below; chin Indian purple.

    130  65  Two lateral lines            Dorsal line
    120  52  Lateral line                 Faint dorsal line

5. Dark drab above; waxy gamboge below.

    126  65  Two lateral lines            Distinct dorsal line
    126  60  Lateral line                 Indistinct dorsal line
    125  20  Two lateral lines            Faint dorsal line
    125  60  Two lateral lines            Indistinct dorsal line

6a. Bronzed drab above; light wax-color below; chin light Indian
purple.

    125  63  Two lateral lines            Faint dorsal line

6b. Drab above; light wax-color below; chin light Indian purple.

    117  55  Two lateral lines            Faint dorsal line
    116  55  Two lateral lines            Faint trace dorsal line
    112  20  Two lateral lines            Dorsal line
    105  48  Two lateral lines            Dorsal line

7. Grayish drab above; wax-yellow below; chin lighter Indian purple.

    126  30  Two lateral lines            Faint trace dorsal line
    122  60  Two lateral lines            Trace dorsal line
    121  20  Two lateral lines            Incomplete dorsal line
    119  55  Strong lateral line          Trace dorsal line
    116  55  Strong lateral line          Faint trace dorsal line

8. Dark drab-gray above; dull wax-yellow below; chin light Indian
purple.

    124  60  Lateral line                 Faint dorsal line

9. Drab-gray above; straw and Naples yellow below; chin light Indian
purple.

    118  56  Two lateral lines            Dorsal line

10. Bronzed drab-gray above; pale wax-yellow below; chin light Indian
purple.

    92  41  Two lateral lines             Very distinct dorsal line

These notes show clearly that the intensity of pigmentation increases
quite gradually and fairly regularly with the size of the individual,
and that while young specimens may be nearly as pale as some dark
individuals of _A. pulchra_, all of the large specimens are of the
dark type. It is also true in a general way that the smaller the
specimen the more distinctly the lines are shown.

In the light of our present knowledge, therefore, it seems
necessary to regard _Anniella nigra_ as a local and probably
recently differentiated race rather than as a melanistic phase of
_Anniella pulchra_. While the difference is purely one of color, no
intergradation has yet been shown to occur in adult specimens, and the
two forms must therefore be recognized as distinct species occupying
separate areas in different faunal zones.

If then we ignore the localities of the type specimens of "_A.
texana_" and _A. nigra_, as open to question until confirmed by the
finding of additional specimens, the known distribution of the species
of the genus _Anniella_ is as follows:

    =Anniella pulchra.=
      UPPER AUSTRAL ZONE.
        _San Diegan Fauna._
          San Diego County.
            San Diego, Coronado, mountains near San Diego.
          Riverside County.
            San Jacinto.
          San Bernardino County.
            San Bernardino.
        _Californian Fauna._
          Kern County.
            Oil City to Poso Creek.
          Tulare County.
            Sequoia National Park.
          Fresno County.
            Fresno.
          Monterey County (interior).
            San Ardo.
          San Benito County.
            Bear Valley.
          Contra Costa County.

    =Anniella nigra.=
      TRANSITION ZONE.
        _Pacific Fauna._
          Monterey County (coast).
            Monterey, Pacific Grove, Point Pinos, Carmel Bay.
          San Francisco County.
            San Francisco.

    SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA,
    August 18, 1905.



                             PROCEEDINGS

                                OF THE

                    CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

                             THIRD SERIES

                       ZOOLOGY VOL. IV, NO. 3

                      _Issued December 2, 1905_


                ON THE OCCURRENCE OF THE LEATHER-BACK
                     TURTLE, DERMOCHELYS, ON THE
                         COAST OF CALIFORNIA


                         BY JOHN VAN DENBURGH

              _Curator of the Department of Herpetology_


                             PLATES IX-XI

Records of the occurrence of the great marine Leather-back Turtle
in the Pacific Ocean are so few that any additional observations
are of much interest. Temminck and Schlegel[19] report upon a
specimen captured near the Bay of Nagasaki, Japan, in May, 1825.
Mr. Swinhoe[20] saw a large one at Amoy, China, in October, 1859.
Aflalo[21] has described a pair from Thursday Island, Queensland,
Australia. Krefft[22] mentions an example nine feet long from the
coast of New South Wales. McCoy[23] figures one caught at Portland,
Victoria, Australia, in 1862. Another was harpooned by Captain
Subritzky in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, in May, 1892.[24]
Boulenger[25] mentions a skull from the Solomon Islands. The
species has been recorded from the coast of Chile by Molina[26] and
Philippi,[27] and from Guaymas, Mexico, by Mr. Belding.[28]

[Footnote 19: Fauna Japonica, 1833, pp. 9, 12.]

[Footnote 20: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1870, p. 410.]

[Footnote 21: Sketch Nat. Hist. Australia, p. 188.]

[Footnote 22: Austral. Vertebr. p. 39.]

[Footnote 23: Prodrom. Zool. Victoria, v. 2, 1885, p. 2.]

[Footnote 24: Cheeseman, Trans. New Zealand Inst. v. 25, 1893, p. 108.]

[Footnote 25: Cat. Chelon. Brit. Mus. 1889, p. 10.]

[Footnote 26: Essai sur l'Hist. Nat. du Chili, 1789, p. 194.]

[Footnote 27: Ann. Univ. Chile, v. 104, 1899, [separate pp. 3-6], pl.--.]

[Footnote 28: West Am. Scientist, v. 3, no. 24, 1887, p. 99.]

Thus it appears that the only record of the occurrence of the
Leather-back Turtle in the waters of the western coast of the North
American continent is the brief note by Mr. Belding in the West
American Scientist, which reads as follows:

"I saw at Guaymas a Leather-back Turtle (Dermatochelys) which weighed
1,102 lbs."

I am now able to record the capture of three specimens of this turtle
on the coast of California.

Early in January of the present year I received word that a large
sea turtle had been caught near Santa Barbara, California, and at
once arranged to purchase it for the Academy. A photograph (Plate
IX) sent me at the time showed it to be a fine specimen of
the Leather-back Turtle. Upon its arrival in San Francisco this turtle
proved to be a female measuring six feet and seven inches from the tip
of its snout to the end of its tail. Its weight was given on the bill
of lading as 800 pounds, but this may have been estimated rather than
actually determined. It was secured by Mr. G. W. Gourley and Albert F.
Stafford, about January 2, in twenty-five fathoms of water in the open
sea about two miles south of Santa Barbara.

Mr. Gourley has given me the following glowing account of its capture:

   "SANTA BARBARA, CAL.,
   "Jan. 17, 1905.

   "_Dear Sir:_--Your note of 13th inst. received.... In regard to
   the details of the capture I will say that the turtle was first
   seen swimming on the surface about two miles off shore and to
   the southwestward of the Santa Barbara whistling buoy. I went
   after it (accompanied by a boy) in an 18 foot sailboat. I had
   a gaff with a hook on the end of it and bent about 200 feet of
   rope onto the handle. I had also prepared a number of other
   ropes with nooses on them to be ready for quick work.

   "On approaching the turtle it did not hear the wash of the boat
   until we were within about 25 feet of it, when it made a rush
   to windward and started to dive, but the momentum of the boat
   when I luffed into the wind carried her right along side of him
   and I dropped the tiller and got forward with the gaff-hook and
   swung over the side in the weather rigging and got the hook fast
   in the leathery part of his neck. He immediately sounded and
   run out the full length of the line--about 200 feet--and towed
   the boat about half a mile further out to sea. He then came to
   the surface and we over-handed the line and pulled up close to
   him again. When he caught sight of the boat he turned and came
   toward us and threw one of his flippers over the gunwale of the
   boat, nearly capsizing her.[29] I climbed up on the upper side
   and shoved him off with an oar. He grabbed the end of the oar
   and bit the end of it off like a piece of cheese. His movements
   in the water were very swift; using his fore flipper he could
   turn almost instantly from one side to the other and his head
   would project about 18 inches from the body. I succeeded in
   throwing a noose over his head and later by attracting his
   attention in the opposite direction got ropes around both
   flippers--finally having five lines on him--and started to tow
   him toward the shore. He repeatedly slipped the ropes off from
   his neck and flippers--several times getting almost entirely
   free. We were from 11:30 A. M. till nearly 4 P. M. in finally
   landing him. When about half way to shore he suddenly turned and
   made a break out to sea, towing the boat stern first with all
   sail drawing full for several hundred yards with little effort.
   He emitted at intervals a noise resembling the grunt of a wild
   boar. There were (when we first tackled him) about a dozen
   ramoras attached to different parts of the body. Most of them
   stayed with him all through the struggle and only deserted him
   when I hoisted him to the deck of the dock. I captured two of
   them and kept them in a bucket for several days. One was about
   ten inches long. The turtle lived for four days after taking out
   of the water--being very lively when first landed and gradually
   subsiding. I don't think this species ever come out of the water
   on their own responsibility.

   "So far as I can learn there has been but one other of this kind
   ever taken on this coast. It was less than half the size of
   this and was entangled in a fisherman's net and was wounded in
   capturing, so that it died soon after. The meat was sold to the
   hotels here and was very fine eating.

   "Respectfully,

   "G. W. GOURLEY."

   [Footnote 29: It is interesting to note the similarity of
   the account given by Captain Subritzky of the capture of his
   specimen, which is given by Cheeseman (Trans. New Zealand Inst.
   v. 25, 1893, p. 109) as follows: "When passing Cape Brett
   on a voyage from Awanui to Auckland, he noticed a floating
   object, which he at first took for a boat bottom upwards. The
   schooner's boat was lowered, and he proceeded to inspect it;
   when, to his astonishment, it suddenly disappeared, shortly
   afterward reappearing a little distance further away. Returning
   to his vessel, he secured a harpoon and line, and then pulled
   cautiously up to the creature, soon recognizing it to be a
   large turtle-like animal entirely new to him. After a little
   manœuvering he succeeded in harpooning it in the neck.
   According to him, it made a most determined resistance, making
   for the boat open-mouthed, snapping its jaws violently. It
   succeeded in getting its flappers over the side of the boat,
   nearly capsizing it, but was stunned by a blow on the head,
   towed alongside the schooner, and hoisted on board."]

Inquiry regarding the second specimen referred to in Mr. Gourley's
letter finally resulted, through the kindness of Dr. Frank M.
Anderson, in my securing from Mr. E. B. Hoyt of San Luis Obispo, a
photograph of this turtle, taken soon after its death. Mr. Hoyt tells
me that this photograph was taken by himself at Santa Barbara in July
or August, 1901. It shows the animal covering more than half the
length of the floor of a dray on which it was lying. This photograph
is reproduced in Plate X.

The third individual of this species was preserved in the museum at
Coronado, San Diego County, which I am told is now a thing of the
past. All that I have been able to learn of its history is contained
in the following note from Mrs. E. S. Newcomb, who was in charge of
the collection:

    "CORONADO, March 21, 1896.

   "_Dear Sir_:--I am only posted in regard to one marine turtle,
   which hangs in the entrance of our museum, and provokes various
   witty remarks from the travelling public.... This turtle was
   caught off Point Loma [San Diego Co.] by a fisherman, weight
   800 lbs. He sold it to the market, where Prof. Ward recognized
   the skin as belonging to the Harp or Lute turtle, and purchased
   it for this museum. It has been here eight years. I am sorry my
   information is so meagre, but it is the best I can give you.

    "Yours sincerely,

    "(MRS.) E. S. NEWCOMB."

With no material for comparison I am unable to form an opinion as to
the identity or specific distinctness of the Leather-back Turtles of
the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans; but Distant's photograph
of an individual from South Africa[30] certainly shows a style of
coloration very different from that seen in those reproduced here.

A view of the superior surface of the hyoid is given (Plate
XI) which makes it evident that the specimen figured by
Gervais[31] was incomplete.

    SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA,
    August 4, 1905.

[Footnote 30: Distant, Zoologist, 4th ser. v. 2, 1898, p. 500.]

[Footnote 31: Gervais, N. Arch. Mus. v. 8, 1872, pl. VII,
fig. 2.]

                       EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX.

   Photograph of Leather-back Turtle captured at Santa Barbara,
   California, January, 1905.

  [Illustration:

      PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 3^{D}. SER. ZOOL. VOL. IV.

      [VAN DENBURGH] PLATE IX.
  ]

                       EXPLANATION OF PLATE X.

   Photograph of Leather-back Turtle captured at Santa Barbara,
   California, in July or August, 1901.

  [Illustration:

      PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 3^{D}. SER. ZOOL. VOL. IV.

      [VAN DENBURGH] PLATE X.
  ]

                       EXPLANATION OF PLATE XI.

   Hyoid of Leather-back Turtle captured at Santa Barbara,
   California, January, 1905.

  [Illustration:

      PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 3^{D}. SER. ZOOL. VOL. IV.

      [VAN DENBURGH] PLATE XI.
  ]



                             PROCEEDINGS

                                OF THE

                    CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

                             THIRD SERIES

                     ZOOLOGY VOL. IV, NO. 4[32]

                       _Issued March 14, 1906_


    [Footnote 32: NOTE.--Only a few copies of the original
    edition of this paper (Third Series, Vol. IV, Nos. 4 and 5,
    Zoology, pp. 61-67) had been distributed prior to the great fire of
    April 18, 1906, in which practically the entire edition was lost.
    To enable libraries and individuals to complete their files of the
    Proceedings this _exact reprint_ is issued

    March 26, 1915.

    BARTON W. EVERMANN, _Editor_.]

    DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS PLETHODON (PLETHODON
               VANDYKEI) FROM MOUNT RAINIER, WASHINGTON


                         BY JOHN VAN DENBURGH

            _Curator of the Department of Herpetology_

In a small collection of amphibians secured in Washington by Dr.
Edwin Cooper Van Dyke, Curator of the Department of Entomology, is an
apparently undescribed species of salamander, which I take pleasure in
naming, in honor of its collector,


                    =Plethodon vandykei= sp. nov.

   _Diagnosis._--Similar in general appearance to _Plethodon
   intermedius_, but much larger and stouter; costal grooves 12-13;
   toes and fingers webbed, only 2 phalanges of third and fourth
   toes free; adpressed limbs separated by 1 costal interspace;
   tail but slightly compressed; paratoid well developed; a dorsal
   band, not red; lower surfaces black.

   _Type._--Cal. Acad. Sci. No. 6910, Paradise Valley, Mt. Rainier
   Park, Washington, Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, July 15-31, 1905.

   _Description._--General form similar to _P. oregonensis_, but
   body not quite so much flattened, tail less compressed, and
   limbs shorter and stouter; tail cylindro-conic, somewhat
   compressed in posterior half, nearly equal to length of head
   and body; head depressed, about width of widest part of body;
   snout broadly truncate from above, rounded in profile; eyes
   moderate, smaller than in _P. oregonensis_, rather prominent,
   separated anteriorly by nearly twice the length of the orbital
   slit; nostrils small, near corners of snout, separated by
   about their distance from pupil; subnasal groove descending
   nearly to margin of lip; line of lip descending slightly below
   corner of snout and ascending below posterior edge of orbit;
   palatine _teeth_ in 2 slightly curved series beginning some
   distance behind and a little internal to the internal nares,
   converging obliquely backward, and scarcely separated on the
   median line; parasphenoid teeth in 1 patch throughout, separated
   from palatine teeth by an interval equal to distance from
   nostril to edge of lip; internal nares rather small; tongue
   large, ovate, not emarginate, attached along median line but
   free laterally and for a short distance behind; neck a little
   narrower than body, with large elongate parotoid gland divided
   by a longitudinal groove running posteriorly and downward from
   eye to gular fold, other grooves behind, above and in front
   of parotoid; a groove along vertebral line; _costal grooves_
   between limbs 12 on right, 13 on left, not continued to midline
   either above or below; limbs a little shorter and stouter than
   in _P. oregonensis_, anterior with 4 and posterior with 5
   digits; digits rather short, with broad rounded ends each with
   a terminal pad below, inner shortest, third longest, second
   finger longer than fourth, second toe shorter than fourth which
   is but little shorter than third; web well developed, extending
   nearly to end of inner digits, 2 phalanges of third and fourth
   toes free, feet very broadly palmate; tail slender, slightly
   compressed in posterior two-thirds, with rather indefinite
   grooves on proximal half; skin shiny, but roughened above and
   laterally and pitted below by the mouths of small glands;
   adpressed limbs separated by about the distance between 2 costal
   grooves.

A broad band extends along the whole dorsal surface from the snout
to the tip of the tail. In the alcoholic specimen this band is dark
clay-color, dotted with black on the upper surface of the head. It is
broadest on the back of the head and narrowest above the anus. The
upper surfaces of the limbs and the side of the snout are clay-color
dotted with black. A black line runs from the eye to the nostril. The
hands and feet are black dotted with clay-color. The chin and central
gular region are white with a few scattered black dots. The sides of
the neck and the sides and lower surfaces of the body and tail are
intense black with a few scattered whitish dots on the belly and sides
of tail and with a zone of crowded white dots along the sides of the
neck and body.

    Snout to anus                     60
    Front of anus to end of tail      56
    Width of head                      9
    Nostril to orbit                   2
    Snout to orbit                     4
    Snout to gular fold               13
    Snout to fore limb                17
    Gular fold to anus                47
    Axilla to groin                   34
    Adpressed limbs separated by       3
    Fore limb                         15½
    Hind limb                         18½
    Heel to end of longest toe         7
    Breadth of foot                    6

    SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA,
    December 21, 1905.



                             PROCEEDINGS

                                OF THE

                    CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

                             THIRD SERIES

                      ZOOLOGY     VOL. IV, NO. 5

                       _Issued March 14, 1906_


                ON THE OCCURRENCE OF THE SPOTTED NIGHT
                 SNAKE, HYPSIGLENA OCHRORHYNCHUS, IN
                    CENTRAL CALIFORNIA; AND ON THE
                      SHAPE OF THE PUPIL IN THE
                       REPTILIAN GENUS ARIZONA


                         BY JOHN VAN DENBURGH

              _Curator of the Department of Herpetology_


       ON THE OCCURRENCE OF THE SPOTTED NIGHT SNAKE, HYPSIGLENA
                 OCHRORHYNCHUS, IN CENTRAL CALIFORNIA

The little snake to which Cope, in 1860,[33] gave the name _Hypsiglena
ochrorhynchus_ was first described from specimens secured at Cape
San Lucas, Lower California. It has since been found to range across
Arizona and northern Mexico to Texas. As recently as 1893, so little
was known of the distribution of this snake in California that Dr.
Stejneger,[34] in recording the single specimen secured by the
Death Valley Expedition in the Argus Range, Inyo County, California,
thought that it added a species to the known fauna of the State. This
snake had, however, already been taken at San Diego, California, as
mentioned by Professor Cope[35] in 1883. More recently, the species
has been recorded by Cope[36] from Witch Creek, San Diego County,
and by myself[37] from the Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County;
Strawberry Valley and San Jacinto, Riverside County, and Hesperia, San
Bernardino County.

[Footnote 33: Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1860, p. 246.]

[Footnote 34: N. A. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, p. 204.]

[Footnote 35: Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1883, p. 32.]

[Footnote 36: Report, U. S. Nat. Mus. 1898 (1900), p. 954.]

[Footnote 37: Occas. Papers, Cal. Acad. Sci. 5, 1897, p. 180.]

These localities are all in the Desert and San Diegan faunal areas.
It was with much interest, therefore, that I found this snake in
the Californian Fauna close to the edge of the Pacific Fauna. The
specimen was secured near Los Gatos, Santa Clara County, several
hundred miles beyond the range of the species as previously known. It
was found under a pile of recently cut hay, at an altitude of about
eight or nine hundred feet, in what is locally known as the warm belt
of the foothills, where _Bascanion laterale_, _Cnemidophorus tigris
undulates_, and _Amphispiza belli_ also occur.


       ON THE SHAPE OF THE PUPIL IN THE REPTILIAN GENUS ARIZONA

There has been, among herpetologists, much diversity of opinion as
to the merits of Kennicott's genus _Arizona_. The validity of the
single species for which he proposed the name _Arizona elegans_ has, I
believe, never been questioned, but the known generic characters have
been rather inadequate. Accordingly, while some authors have followed
Kennicott, others have referred the species variously to the genera
_Pituophis_ of Holbrook, _Rhinechis_ of Michahelles, or _Coluber_ of
Linnæus.

I believe that all authors (myself included) who mention the point at
all describe the eye of this snake as showing a round pupil. This is
true of most alcoholic specimens, for in these the pupil usually is
dilated. In two living specimens, however, I find that the pupil is
slightly irregular in outline so that it appears somewhat eccentric,
that it varies considerably in size from time to time, and that it
is distinctly elliptic, with the long diameter vertical, but becomes
nearly round when dilated. Some alcoholic specimens also show the
pupil somewhat contracted and elliptic.

This point is of some importance, since the possession of a vertically
elongate pupil is in itself ample basis for the recognition of the
genus _Arizona_ as distinct from the other colubrine genera with which
it has been confused.

    SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA,
    February 24, 1906.


Transcriber's Notes:

1. Pages 20, 25: The spelling of Reëxamination/reëxamination has been left
   with the dieresis.

2. Italics are shown as _text_ and bold as =text=.

3. Page 19, 20: The fraction 2/2 has been retained as such.

4. Carat numbers/letters have been retained with the carat symbol to
   represent an upper position.

5. Page 61: There is a date in the middle of a paragraph which does
   not seem to pertain to anything. This has been removed.





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