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Title: The Voiage and Travayle of Sir John Maundeville Knight - Which treateth of the way towards Hierusalem and of - marvayles of Inde with other ilands and countreys
Author: Ashton, John, Maundeville, John
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "The Voiage and Travayle of Sir John Maundeville Knight - Which treateth of the way towards Hierusalem and of - marvayles of Inde with other ilands and countreys" ***









  _Author of "Chap Books of the 18th Century," "Social
  Life in the Reign of Queen Anne," "English Caricature and
  Satire on Napoleon I.," &c._

  [Illustration: Logo]







I HAVE edited, and illustrated "The Voiage and Travayle of Syr John
Maundeville, Knight," for two reasons. First, that a popular edition
has not been published for many years--so much so, that many otherwise
well educated people hardly know his name; or, if they do, have never
read his book of Marvels. Secondly, a good edition has not yet been
published. Putting aside the chap-books of the eighteenth century,
which could only cram a small portion of his book into their little
duodecimos, the only English versions of this century are the reprint
by Halliwell, in 1839, of the _reprint_ in 1725-1727, of the early
fifteenth century MS. (Cotton, Tit. c. 16), which he again reprinted
in 1866,[1] the edition in "Bohn's Classical Library" ("Early Travels
in Palestine"), 1848; and "The English Explorers," which forms part
of Nimmo's "National Library," 1875. There was also a small edition
published in Cassell's "National Library" in 1886 in modern English.

Halliwell's reprint of the Cotton MS. is open to objection, because
the language of the MS. is specially rude, and can only be understood
by professed antiquaries, no footnotes explanatory of the text being
given, only a glossary at the end of the book. Also, Mr. Halliwell has
taken his illustrations from various sources, not confining himself to
English woodcuts--the Cotton MS. having no illustrations. If, however,
the language in Halliwell's edition is too archaic, Bohn and Nimmo
err in the opposite direction. Without illustrations, and clothed in
modern English, they are bald in the extreme; whilst the editors of
both have not been over careful to closely copy the text.

Seeing these difficulties, and dearly loving Sir John, in spite of his
romancing, I cast about for a book which should fulfil the conditions
of an edition I should like for my own reading; which should have the
spice of the old language, without being unreadable, like the Cotton
MS., and which contained the original quaint illustrations. This
I have found in a reprint of Pynson's unique edition (now in the
Grenville Library, British Museum), from which it varies very
slightly, except in the modernizing of the language, which is rather
an advantage; and which, by means of the copious footnotes I have
made, will, I hope, be easily read by anybody.

This edition, too, was particularly rich in woodcuts, which I have
faithfully facsimiled; and, in the Appendix, I have reproduced a few
from other editions, showing the different treatment of some subjects.
In the Appendix, also, I have given a list of all the editions of Sir
John Mandeville's Travels now in the British Museum. A glance at this
will show how popular his book was, in all civilized countries, and
in all ages, since its first publication.[2] I have thought that an
edition should be produced which could be read by all, and therefore
have given explanations of words and facts, perfectly familiar to
advanced students, by means of which they will not be inconvenienced,
and the general reader much benefited.

Perhaps the Illustrations in one or two of the early foreign editions
are quainter, but I wanted, and have got, a thoroughly representative
_English_ Edition, which gives Sir John's adventures, with their
concomitant "Travellers' Tales," without the apocryphal stories which
were introduced into some of the MSS. and foreign editions.

Of East, the printer of the exemplar I have chosen, very little is
known; and, curiously, he is ignored in Herbert and Dibdin's edition
of _Ames' Typographical Antiquities_. According to Ames, he was made
free of the Stationers' Company 3rd December, 1565, and he gives his
first known printed book as 1569, or a year later than the book I have
copied. East, according to the same authority, was granted a patent
for ruled paper for music, and worked both for Bird and Tallis.
The date of his death does not seem to be known, but his widow, or
daughter, printed a book of Bird's music in 1610.


    [Footnote 1: This has again been reprinted in 1884.]

    [Footnote 2: Colonel Yule, in "The Book of Ser Marco Polo,"
    &c. (1871), says:--"And from the great frequency with which
    one encounters in catalogues both MSS. and early printed
    editions of Sir John Maundeville, I should suppose that
    the lying wonders of our English knight had a far greater
    popularity and more extensive diffusion than the veracious
    and more sober marvels of Polo. In Quaritch's last catalogue
    (November, 1870) there is only one _old_ edition of Polo;
    there are nine of Maundeville. In 1839 there were nineteen
    MSS. of the latter _catalogued_ in the British Museum Library.
    There are _now_ only five of Marco Polo. At least twenty-five
    editions of Maundeville, and only five of Polo were printed in
    the fifteenth century."]




I KNOW of nothing more likely to be provocative of a literary war
than the question of Sir John Mandeville's personal entity. Were I to
express an opinion either way--that he was a real being, or that he
never existed--fierce would be the criticism on my views, and much
good ink be spilt, which might well be devoted to a better purpose,
so that I prefer letting the reader form his own opinion thereon,--a
course which will save everybody any trouble or vexation of spirit.

We labour under this difficulty--all that is known about him is what
he tells us himself, and no one who reads the book can altogether
trust his absolute verity. If his book is a mere compilation from
other sources, so then is that of Odorico (who died January, 1331),
which I place in an Appendix, and which agrees with Mandeville in
so many particulars, that one might reasonably suppose him to be the
"fellawe," or companion, whom he frequently mentions, and connect him
with that Minorite friar from Lombardy (for Odorico was born at Udine
or Friuli) who shrove them before their entrance into "y^e Valey of
Divels."[1] According to his own account, he was a knight, that he was
born at St. Albans, and that he left England on his wonderful voyage
on 29th September, 1322. He informs us that he travelled through Asia
Minor, Armenia, Tartary, Persia, Syria, Arabia, Upper and Lower Egypt,
Libya, Chaldæa, a large portion of Ethiopia, Amazonia, Lower India,
and the greater part of Upper India, together with the neighbouring
islands. If his narrative can be trusted, he lived in most friendly
relations with the ruler of Egypt, whom he served in his war against
the Bedouins, and was on such familiar terms that they would privately
argue on religious topics, and he was even offered a richly dowered
princess as a wife, if he would but change his creed, and become a
Mahometan. If he can be believed, he wandered all over the then known
world, and gratified his military instincts by helping the Emperor
of China in his war against the sovereign of Manzi. He tells us that
after thirty-four years of wandering and exile he returned to England,
taking Rome in his way home, in order to get the Pope's Imprimatur to
his book, for which he naïvely gives as reason: "and, for as much as
many men beleve not that they see with theyr eyen, or y^t they may
conceiue & know in their mynde, therefore I made my way to Rome in
my coming homewarde, to shew my boke to the holy father the pope, and
tell him of the mervayles y^t I had sene in diverse countreys; so that
he with his wise counsel wold examine it, with diverse folke y^t are
at Rome, for there dwell men of all nations of the world, and a lytle
time after whan he & his co[~u]sel had examined it all through, he
sayde to me for a certayne that it was true, for he sayd he had a
boke of latin contayning all that, and much more, of y^e which _Mappa
Mundi_ is made, the which boke I saw, & therefore the pope hath
ratyfied & confirmed my boke in all poyntes." If any portion of this
is true, it is probable that the "boke of latin" may have been Pliny,
Solinus, or some other equally veracious writer.

As to the "Mappa Mundi" constructed from such sources, that at
Hereford may be taken as a type of ideal geography of the time. This
was almost contemporary with Mandeville, and is ascribed to the very
early part of the fourteenth century. Indeed, it can be proved to
be of this date, for, among other inscriptions on the map, is the

  "Tuz Ki cest estoire ont.
  Ou oyront ou lirront ou veront.
  Prieut a ihesu su deyte.
  De Richard de Haldingdam e de Lafford eyt pite.
  Ki lat fet e compasse.
  Ki ioie eu cel li seit donc."

Which may be thus translated:--

    "All who have, or shall have, or shall read, or shall see this
    history--pray to Jesu in deity (or as God) that he may have
    pity on Richard of Haldingham and of Lafford, who has made and
    contrived it, that joy in heaven may be given unto him."

Richard of Haldingham, or Holdingham, whose real name was Richard
de la Battayle, or de Bello,[2] held the prebend of Lafford (now
Sleaford), in Lincoln Cathedral up to the year 1283, and afterwards
held the prebend of Norton, in Hereford Cathedral. Hardy, in his
edition of Le Neve's _Fasti Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ_, says he was
appointed to this stall in 1305. He was afterwards preferred to the
Archidiaconate of Berkshire. Perhaps the best description of this
map is in a paper read before the Geographical Society of Paris,
30th November, 1861, by M. D'Avezac, President of the Society, a
translation of which may be found in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ of
May, 1863. He considers it to have been executed early in the year
1314, because Lyons was not annexed to France till the 30th of April,
1313, and gives other reasons, equally strong, in support of his

Thus, then, we have a contemporary map as a guide, and on
this Hereford map are portrayed all the monsters described by
Mandeville--the one-eyed men, those with their heads in their breasts,
even the big-footed one-legged man--all those things which are
regarded as fable in Mandeville--are here drawn, and evidently must
have been currently believed in. So that when Mandeville, or some
subsequent editor, challenged the _Mappa Mundi_ as confirmatory
evidence, he clearly knew what he was about.

A strong presumption of his personal being is drawn from the fact that
Liège is said to be the place of his burial, _see Appendix Harl._,
3589. 2, "qui obiit Leodii A.D. 1382." That he was believed to have
lived at Liège is also shown in _Appendix Grenville_, 6728/3, where he
is said to have written his book in the year 1355; and if Weever[3]
is to believed, he died there, but at an earlier date, namely, 1371.
Speaking of St. Albans, he says: "This Towne vaunts her selfe very
much of the birth and buriall of _Sir Iohn Mandeuill_ Knight, the
famous Trauailer, who writ in Latine, French, and in the English
tongue, his Itinerary of three and thirty yeares. And that you may
beleeue the report of the Inhabitants to bee true, they haue lately
pensild a rare piece of Poetry, or an Epitaph for him, vpon a piller;
neere to which, they suppose his body to haue beene buried, which I
think not much amisse to set downe; for although it will not bee worth
the reading, yet do but set it to some lofty tune, as to the _Hunting
of Antichrist_, or the leke, I know it will be well worth the singing:
marke how it runs.

  "'All yee that passe, on this pillar cast eye,
      This Epitaph read if you can;
  'Twill tell you a Tombe onc't stood in this roome,
      Of a braue spirited man.
  _Iohn Mandeuill_ by name, a knight of great fame,
      Borne in this honoured Towne.
  Before him was none that euer was knowne,
      For trauaile of so high renowne.
  As the Knights in the Temple, crosse-legged in marble,
      In armour, with sword and with sheeld,
  So was this Knight grac't, which time hath defac't,
      That nothing but ruines doth yeeld.
  His Trauailes being donne, he shines like the Sun,
      In heauenly Canaan.
  To which blessed place, O Lord of his grace
      Bring vs all man after man.'

"That he was borne heere in this Towne I cannot much deny; but I am
sure that within these few yeares, I saw his Tombe in the Citie of
Leege, within the Church of the religious house of the _Guilliammits_,
with this Inscription vpon it, and the verses following hanging by on
a table.

"_Hic iacet vir nobilis D. Ioannes de Mandevile, Al;[4] D. ad Barbam
miles; Dominus de Campdi: natus de Anglia, Medicine professor,
deuotissimus orator: et bonorum largissimus pauperibus erogator qui
toto quasi orbe lustrato. Leodij diem vite sue clausit extremum. Ann.
Dom. M.C.C.C.lxxi. Mens. Nouemb. die xvi._


  "'_Hoc iacet in tumulo, cui totus patria vino
    Orbis erat; totum quem peragrasse ferunt.
  Anglus Equesque fuit, nunc ille Britannus Vlysses
    Dicatur, Graio clarus Vlysse magis._

  _Moribus, ingenio, candore, & sanguine clarus
    Et vere cultor Relligionis erat.
  Nomen si queras, est Mandevil, Indus, Arabsque
    Sat notum dicet finibus esse suis._'

"The Churchmen will shew you here his kniues, the furniture of his
horse, and his spurres, which he vsed in his trauells."

Thus speaks Weever, and nobody doubts but that there was a tomb of
a Jehan de Maundeville in the Abbey of the Guilelmites,[5] which is
mentioned by Bollandus in his _Acta Sanctorum_ (Februarius, Tom. 2,
p. 481, edit. 1658) as "Domus de Motta extra Leodium, inchoata, anno
CI[C]CCLXXXI." The abbey, or hospital, is now destroyed; but, as
side proofs, let me give two extracts from different works of the
eighteenth century. One, "Abrégé curieux et nouveau de l'histoire de
Liege," &c. (no date), 24mo., p. 117. "L'Hôpital & la Chapelle de S.
Guilleaume aux Faux-bourgs de S. Walburge furent fondez l'an 1330,"
and in "Abrégé Chronologique de l'histoire de Liege, jusqu'a l'année
1784, &c." Liege, 1784, 12mo., p. 66. It says, "L'hôpital & la
chapelle de Saint Guillaume au fauxbourg de Sainte Walburge furent
fondés l'an 1330."

As I said before, regarding Mandeville it must be a question of faith.
If Weever is to be relied on, he was a physician, and from the fact
of his wearing a beard, probably acquired in his eastern travels, he
received the sobriquet of "ad Barbam." This title, however, is claimed
for a certain "Jehan de Bourgoigne dit à la Barbe," but the bare fact
of anyone wearing a beard in France, in the clean-shaven fourteenth
century, was sufficient to make him remarkable.

If, again, Weever and others are to be relied on, he died in 1371, and
it is a curious fact that the earliest French, or Romance, manuscript
known in this country is one of that date, and, moreover, it is
circumstantially dated, as will be shown hereafter. This MS. is in the
Earl of Ashburnham's collection (catalogued Barrois 24), which every
lover of literature will regret was not secured for the nation in its
entirety. Its text is most beautiful, and the few illuminations
are fine examples of fourteenth century French art. But what I
want particularly to point out, is the curious coincidence of
dates--absolutely contemporaneous. Whether there were any MSS.
published before then I cannot tell, but here is a book published the
year of his death, when inquiry would have proved easily whether such
a man had ever lived, but the whole style of the MS. shows that he was
well known as a traveller, and it is evidently copied from an earlier
edition, as at the end it says, "Ce livre cy fist escrire honorables
homes sages et discret maistre Gervaise crestien, maistre en medicine,
et premier phisicien de tres puissant noble et excellent prince
Charles, par la Grace de Dieu, roy de France, Escript par Raoulet
dorliens lan de grace mil ccclxxj le xviij jour de Septembre."

Here we have an authentic date, which there could be no earthly reason
to falsify, and this MS. was written--unless Weever and others are
liars--during the man's lifetime. For, according to their authority,
he did not die until _November_ of that year, and we must not fail to
remember that Liege was not a very far cry from Paris, and that his
fame must have been great, or his book would never have been written
as a present for the king, as it probably was.

This manuscript, being the earliest known, is also useful in another
way. By some singular chance, all the English versions make out
that Mandeville wrote his book first in Latin, then in French, and
afterwards in English. But this manuscript settles the point, as it
says, "Et sachies [~q] je eusse cest livret mis en latin pour
plus briefment deviser. Mais pour ce que pluseurs entendent mieulx
ro[~m]ant que latin je lay mis en ro[~m]ant par quoy [~q] chacun
lentende." Which I translate: "And know that I should (or might) have
written this book in Latin, for the sake of brevity. But, because more
people know the Romance (or French) tongue, than Latin, I have written
it in Romance, so that anyone may understand it." And this translation
is endorsed by E. M. Thompson, Esq., the head of the MS. department
in the British Museum. It all depends on the words "je eusse." They
do not mean _I had_; and, even in modern French, might be used for _I
should have_, although of course _j'aurais_ would be better.

For many years he has been called the "father of English Prose," but
this title, after the above, is doubtful, even if his existence is
granted, and belongs of right to Wyclif.

Another book, and a very rare and curious one it is, is attributed to
Mandeville. There is a copy of this book in the British Museum (C. 27,
f. 2), which, although in Gothic letter, gives no clue as to its date,
or place of birth, nor do any of the bibliographical authorities which
I have consulted (and they are all that can be found in the British
Museum) throw any light upon it. The museum authorities catalogue it
as _Lyons? 1530?_ Its title is "LE LAPIDAIRE _en francoys compose
par messire Jehan de mandeuille chevalier_." Its contents are of
little worth, except that they contain a store of legendary lore
relating to precious stones, such as are met with in most medieval
treatises on jewels and it winds up with a prayer. The authorship of
this book, too, must be a matter of faith, since it has nothing to
guarantee it but its title-page.

It is somewhat singular too, that the Latin letter supposed to be
written by Mandeville to King Edward the Third, and which is _apropos_
of nothing, only exists in the French edition.

In the appended Travels of Oderico, the Minorite Friar, I have
italicized many of the passages which are identical with Mandeville's
description in order that the reader may have easier reference.

    [Footnote 1: "And there were in our company two friers minours
    of Lombardy, & sayd, if any of us wold go in, they wold also,
    as they had sayd so, and upon trust of them we sayd that we
    wold go, & we dyd sing a masse, and were shriven & houseled,
    and we went in xiiii men, and wh[=e] we came out we were but

    [Footnote 2: Havergal's _Fasti Herefordenses_, p. 161.]

    [Footnote 3: "Ancient Funerall Monuments, &c. Composed by
    the Travels and Studie of John Weever." Lond. 1631. It is
    exceedingly singular that a book published at Antwerp in 1584,
    "The Itinerarium per nonnullas Galliæ Belgicæ partes Abrahami
    Ortelii et Joannis Viviani," confirms Weever, in such almost
    identical words, that it is not worth while to append a
    translation. Ortelius, or Ortell, writes (p. 16):--"_Est
    in hac quoq. regione Gulielmitar[~u] C[oe]nobium in quo
    epitaphi[~u] hoc Joannis à Mandeuille excepimus_: HIC IACET

    "_Hæc in lapide, in quo c[oe]lata viri armati imago, leonem
    calcantis, barba bifurcata, ad caput manus benedicens, &
    vernacula hæc verba_: VOS KI PASEIS SOR MI POVR LAMOVR DEIX
    PROIES POR ME. _Clypeus erat vacuus, in quo olim laminam
    fuisse dicebant æream, & eius in ea itidem c[oe]lata
    insignia, leonem videlicet argenteum, cui ad pectus lunula
    rubea, in campo c[oe]ruleo, quem limbus ambiret denticulatus
    ex oro. Eius nobis ostendeb[~a]t & cultros, ephippioque, &
    calcaria, quibus usum fuisse affereb[~a]t in perigrando toto
    fere terrarum orbe, vt clarius eius testatur Itinerarium, quod
    typis etiam excusum passim habetur._"]

    [Footnote 4: "Otherwise called the Bearded Knight."]

    [Footnote 5: An order founded by Sir William of Maleval--a
    hermit--who died 10th Feb., 1157. The order was somewhat
    austere, as the members went barefoot, and their fasts were
    almost continual. They have nearly all been absorbed into the




  CAP.                                                            PAGE

          Preface                                                    v

          Introduction                                              ix

       I. He that wyl go toward Hierusalem on horse, on
          foote, or by sea                                           4

      II. Of the Ilands of Greece                                   14

     III. To come againe to Constantinople for to go to the
          Holy Land                                                 19

      IV. Of a terrible dragon                                      22

       V. Of a yong man and his lemm[=a]                            25

      VI. Of the maner of hunting in Cipres                         27

     VII. Of the haven named Jaffe                                  29

    VIII. Of the haven of Tyre                                      29

      IX. Of the Hyll Carme                                         30

       X. How Sampson slew the King and his enemies                 32

      XI. The way to Bebilon whereas the Sowdan dwelleth            33

     XII. Yet here foloweth of the Sowdan & his Kingdomes
          that he hath conquered, which he holdeth strongly
          with force                                                35

    XIII. For to returne fro Sinay to Hierusalem                    37

     XIV. As men are passed this wildernesse againe coming
          to Hierusalem                                             39

      XV. Here foloweth a little of Adam & Eve and other
          things                                                    41

     XVI. Of the dry tree                                           43

    XVII. Fro Bethlehem                                             44

   XVIII. Of a fayre mayden that shold be put to death
          wrongfully                                                45

     XIX. Of the citie of Hierusalem                                48

      XX. Yet of y^e holy citie of Hierusalem                       50

     XXI. Of y^e church of y^e holy sepulchre                       55

    XXII. Of the temple of God                                      57

   XXIII. Yet of the temple of God                                  59

    XXIV. Of King Herode                                            64

     XXV. Of S. Salvatours church                                   66

    XXVI. The fielde of Acheldemack which was bought
          with y^e xxx p[=e]ce                                      69

   XXVII. Of the mount Joye                                         70

  XXVIII. Of the castell Berthania                                  72

    XXIX. Of Jerico and other things                                72

     XXX. Of the holy place betwene Bethany and from
          Jordan, and other things                                  73

    XXXI. Of Abram and his Generation                               75

   XXXII. Of the river Jordan                                       76

  XXXIII. Of many other marvailes                                   78

   XXXIV. Of the Samaritanes                                        81

    XXXV. Of Galyle                                                 82

   XXXVI. Of the way of Nazareth to y^e mount or hyll of
          Tabor                                                     84

  XXXVII. Of the sea of Galyle                                      85

 XXXVIII. Of the table whereon Christ eate after his resurrection   85

   XXXIX. Of straunge maners & divers                               87

      XL. For to turne againe on this side Galile                   91

     XLI. How a man may go furdest and longest in those
          countreis as hereafter ben rehersed                       93

    XLII. Of other wayes for to go by lande unto Hierusalem         95

   XLIII. Yet an other waye by lande toward the lande of
          promission                                                97

    XLIV. Of the faith of the Sarasins and of the booke of
          their law, named Alkaron                                  99

     XLV. Yet it treateth more of Mahomet                          101

    XLVI. Of the byrth of Mahomet                                  104

   XLVII. Of the yles and divers maner of people and of
          marvailous beastes                                       107

  XLVIII. Of the haven of Gene, for to go by the Sea into
          divers countreys                                         109

    XLIX. Of the country of Job, and of the kingdome of
          Caldee                                                   115

       L. Of the kingdome of Amazony whereas dwelleth
          none but women                                           117

      LI. Of the lande of Ethiope                                  119

     LII. Of Inde the more, and Inde y^e lesse, and of
          diamonds, and small people and other things              121

    LIII. Of divers kingdomes and yles which are in the land
          of Inde                                                  123

     LIV. Of the kingdome of Mabar[=o]                             130

      LV. Of a great countrey called Lamozy where the people
          go all naked                                             134

     LVI. Of the countrey and yle named Jana which is a
          mighty land                                              137

    LVII. Of the kingdome of Pathen or Salmasse which is
          a goodly lande                                           138

   LVIII. Of the kingedome of Talonach, the king thereof
          hath many wyves                                          140

     LIX. Of the ylande called Raso where men be hanged
          as sone as they are sicke                                143

      LX. Of the ylande of Melke wherein dwelleth evill people     144

     LXI. Of an ylande named Macumeran whereas the
          people have heads lyke houndes                           146

    LXII. Of a great yland called Dodin wher are many
          divers men of evil condicions                            149

   LXIII. Of the kingdome named Mancy, which is the best
          kingedome of the world                                   153

    LXIV. Of the lande of Pygmeen, wherein dwell but smal
          people of three spanne long                              156

     LXV. Of the citie of Menke wher a great navy is               158

    LXVI. Of the lande named Cathay & of y^e great riches
          thereof                                                  158

   LXVII. Of a great citie named Cadon wherein is the great
          Caanes palaice and sege                                  159

  LXVIII. Wherfore that the Emperoure of Cathay is called
          y^e great Caane                                          163

    LXIX. How the great Caane was hid under a tree, and so
          escaped his enemies because of a bird                    165

     LXX. Of the great Caanes letters and the writing about
          his seale                                                166

    LXXI. Of the governaunce of the country of the great
          Caane                                                    167

   LXXII. Of the great riches of y^e Emperour and of his
          dispending                                               170

  LXXIII. Of the ordinaunce of the Lordes of y^e Emperour
          when he rideth from one countrey to an
          other to warre                                           171

   LXXIV. How the Empyre of the great Caane is departed
          into 12 provinces and how that they doe cast
          ensense in the fyre wher y^e great Caane passeth
          thorough the Cities and townes, in worship
          of the Emperour                                          172

    LXXV. How the great Caane is the myghtiest lord of
          all the world                                            173

   LXXVI. Yet of other maners of his countrey                      174

  LXXVII. How the Emperour is brought unto his grave
          when he is dead                                          175

 LXXVIII. When the Emperour is dead how they chose
          and make an other                                        176

   LXXIX. What countries and kingedomes lye next to the
          lande of Cathay and the frontes thereof                  177

    LXXX. Of other wayes comming fro Cathay toward
          the Grekes sea, and also of the Emperour of
          Percey                                                   179

   LXXXI. Of the lande of Armony, which is a good land,
          and of the land of Middy                                 180

  LXXXII. Of the Kingdome of George and Abcan and many
          marvayles                                                181

 LXXXIII. Of the land of Turkey, and divers other countreys,
          and of the lande of Mesopotamy                           182

  LXXXIV. Of divers countreys, kingdomes and yles, and
          marvayles beyond the land of Cathay                      183

   LXXXV. Of the land of Bactry and of many Griffons and
          other beastes                                            186

  LXXXVI. Of the way for to goe to Prester John's lande,
          which is Emperour of Inde                                187

 LXXXVII. Of the fayth and belyefe of Prester John, but
          he hath not all the full beliefe as we haue              190

LXXXVIII. Of an other yland where also dwelleth good
          people therein and is called Sinople                     191

  LXXXIX. Of two other yles, one is called Pitan wherein be
          little men that eat no meate, and in an other
          yle are the men all rough of fethers                     193

      XC. Of a rich man in Prester John's l[=a]d named Catolonapes
          and of his gardeine                                      194

     XCI. Of a marvailous valey that is beside the river of
          Phison                                                   196

    XCII. Of an yland wherin dwell people as great as
          gyants of 28 or 30 foote of length and other
          things                                                   198

   XCIII. Of women which make great sorow as their
          children are borne and great joy when they are
          dead                                                     199

    XCIV. Of an yland where men wed their owne daughters
          and kinswom[=e]                                          200

     XCV. Of an other yland wherein dwell full good people
          and true                                                 202

    XCVI. How King Alexander sent his men thither for to
          winne the land                                           203

   XCVII. How the Emperour Prester John when he goeth
          to batayle he hath iii Crosses borne before him
          of gold                                                  204

  XCVIII. Of the most dwelling place of Prester John in a
          citie called Suse                                        205

    XCIX. Of the wilderness wherein groweth the trees of
          the sonne and the moone                                  207

       C. Of a great yland and Kingdome called Taprobane           208

      CI. Of two other yles, one is called Orel, and the other
          Argete, where are many gold mynes                        209

     CII. Of y^e darke country and hyls and roches of stone
          nigh to Paradise                                         210

    CIII. A little of Paradise Terrestre                           211

     CIV. How Prester Johns land lieth fote against fote to
          England                                                  213

      CV. Of the Kingdome of Ryboth                                214

     CVI. Of a rich man that is neither King, Prince, Duke
          ne Erle                                                  216

    CVII. How of all these lands, yles, and kingdomes, and
          the men thereof afore rehersed haue some of
          the articles of our faith                                217

   CVIII. How John Maundevyl leveth many mervayles unwritten
          and the cause therefore                                  218

     CIX. What time John Maundevil departed out of England         219


  The journall of Frier Odoricus.--Of the maners of the
    Chaldeans, and of India.--How peper is had: and where it
    groweth.--Of a strange and uncouth idole: & of certaine
    customes and ceremonies.--Of certaine trees yeelding
    meale, honey, and poyson.--Of the abundance of fishes
    which cast themselues upon the shore.--Of the Island of
    Sylan: and of the mountaine where Adam mourned for his
    sonne Abel.--Of the upper India: and of the province of
    Mancy.--Of the citie of Fuco.--Of a Monastery where
    many strange beastes of divers kindes doe live upon an
    hill.--Of the citie of Cambaleth.--Of the glory and
    magnificence of the great Can.--Of certain Innes or
    hospitals appointed for traveilers throughout the whole
    empire.--Of the foure feasts which the great Can
    solemnizeth euery yeere in his court.--Of divers
    provinces and cities.--Of a certaine riche man, who is
    fed and nourished by 50 virgins.--Of the death of Senex
    de monte.--Of the honour and reverence done unto the
    great Can.--Of the death of frier Odoricus.                    221

  Extra Plates in Illustration of the Book                         267

  List of the Editions in the British Museum                       277



+The Voiage and Travayle of Syr John Maundeville, Knight.+

  _Here beginneth a lyttle treatise or boke, named John Maundevile
    Knight, borne in England in the towne of Sainct Albone, &
    speaketh of the wayes to Hierusalem, to Inde, and to the greate
    Cane,[1] and also to Prester Johns land, & to many other
    countreys, & also of many marvailes that are in the holy Lande._

FOR AS MUCH as the lande over the sea, that is to say, the holy land,
that men cal the land of Behest,[2] among all other lands is most
worthy & Soveraine, for it is blessed, halowed, and sacred of the
precious bloud of our Lord JESU CHRIST, in the which land, it liked
him to take flesh and bloud of the Virgin Mary, & to environ that
lande with his owne feete, and there he wold do many myracles, preach
and teach the fayth and the law of Christen men, as unto his children,
& there he would suffer many reprouves and scornes for us, and he that
was King of heaven and hell, of ayre, of sea, of lande, and of all
things that are contained in them, wold alonely[3] be called King of
that land, when he sayde, _Rex sum Judeorum_, I am King of Jewes: For
that tyme was that lande of Jewes, and that lande he chose before all
other landes, as the best & most worthy of vertues of all the world.
And as the Philosopher sayth, _Virtus rerum in medio consistit_. That
is to say, the vertue of things is in the midst: and in that lande he
would leade his lyfe, and suffer passion and death of the Jewes for
us, to save and deliver us from the paines of hell, and from deathe
without ende, the which was ordeyned to us for the sinne of our father
Adam, and our owne synnes also, for as for himself he had none evil
done ne[4] deserved, for he never thought ne dyd any evyll, for he
that was King of Glory and of joy might best in that place suffer
death. For he that will do any thinge that he will haue knowen openly,
he wyll proclayme it openly in the myddle place of a towne or of a
citie, so that it may bee knowne to all parties of the citie, so he
that was King of glory and of all the worlde would suffer death for us
at Hierusalem, which is in the mydst of the worlde, so that it might
be knowen to all nations of the worlde how deare he bought man, that
he made with his handes in his owne likenesse, for the great loue that
he had to us. Ah dere God, what love he had to his subjects, when he
that had done no trespasse, would for us trespassours suffer death:
for a more worthy catell[5] he might not have sette for us, then his
owne blessed bodie and his owne precious bloud the which he suffered
for us: right wel ought men to love, worship dreade, and serve such a
Lord, and prayse such an holy lande that brought forth a lord of
such fruite, through the which eche man is saved but if it be his own
defaute. This is that lande prepared for an heritage to us, and in
that lande would he dye as seased,[6] to leaue it to his children.
For the which eche good Chrysten man that may & hath wherewith, should
strengthen him for to conquere our righte heritage, and purchace[7]
out of the evill peoples handes: for we are cleped[8] christen men
of Christ our father, and if we be the ryght children of Christ, we
oughte to challenge the heritage that our father lefte us & take it
out of straunge mens handes. But now Pryde, Covetyse and Envy hath so
inflamed the hearts of the lordes of the worlde, that they are more
busy for to disheryte theyr neighbours than to challenge or conquere
their right heritage aforesayde. And the common people that would put
their bodies and theyr catell for to conquere our heritage, they
may not do so without lordes: for assembling of the people without a
chiefe lorde, is as a flocke of sheepe without a sheepherd, the which
depart asunder, and wot not whether they shall go. But would[9] God,
the worldly Lordes were at a good accorde, and with other of their
common people would take this holy voyage over the sea. I trust well
that within a little tyme our right heritage before sayd should be
reconsiled and put into the hands of the right heires of Jesu Christ.
And for as much as it is long time that there was any general passage
over the sea, and that many men desire to here speaking of the holy
lande, and have therefore great solace and comfort, therefore ye shall
here by me John Maundevile Knight which was borne in England in the
towne of Saint Albones, and passed the sea in the yeare of our Lord
JESU CHRIST A. MIII.C.[10] on the day of Sainct Michael, and there
remained long tyme, and went through many landes, and many provinces,
kingdomes and yles, & have passed through Turkey, and through
Armony[11] the lyttle and the great, through Tartary, Percy,[12]
Surre,[13] Araby, Egypt the high and the low, through Libie, Caldee
and a great part of Ethiope, through Amazonie through Inde the lesse
& the more a great part, and through many other yles which are about
Inde, where many people dwelleth of divers lawes and shapes. Of the
men of which landes and yles I shall speake more plainly and I shall
devise[14] a parte of the things what they are when time shall be,
after it may best come to my mynde & specially for them that will,
and are in purpose, for to visite the holy citie of Hierusalem and
the holy places that are there aboute & I shall tell the way that they
shall holde[15] thither, for I have many times passed and ridden it
with good company and with many lordes.

    [Footnote 1: Khan.]

    [Footnote 2: Promise.]

    [Footnote 3: _Pynson_, all oonly.]

    [Footnote 4: Nor.]

    [Footnote 5: Treasure, money, goods, property, possessions.]

    [Footnote 6: Possessing (seized).]

    [Footnote 7: _Pynson_, "and _chase_ out the ylle trowand."]

    [Footnote 8: Called.]

    [Footnote 9: (to) omitted.]

    [Footnote 10: _Pynson_ and other authorities say MCCCXXXII.]

    [Footnote 11: Armenia.]

    [Footnote 12: Persia.]

    [Footnote 13: Syria.]

    [Footnote 14: Relate.]

    [Footnote 15: Travel or journey.]


  _He that will go toward Hierusalem on horse, on foote, or by sea._

IN the name of God Almightie. He that will passe over the sea, he may
go many wayes both by sea and by lande, after the countreys that he
cometh from, and many of them cometh to one ende, but think not that
I will tell all the townes, cities & castelles that men shall goe by,
for then I should make to long a tale, but only some countries and
most principall cities and townes that men shall go by and through to
go the right way.

First, if a man come from the west side of the worlde as England,
Ireland, Wales, Scotland and Norway, he may if he wyl, go through
Almayne[1] and throughout the Kingdome of Hungary, which Kinge is
a great lord and a mightie, and holdeth many landes & great, for he
holdeth the land of Hungarie, Savoy,[2] Camonie,[3] a great part of
Bulgary, that men call the land of Bugres, and a great part of the
Kingdome of Rossie,[4] and that lasteth to the land of Mifland,[5] and
marcheth on Siprus,[5] and men passe thus through the land of Hungary
and through the Citie that men call Cipanum,[6] and through the
castell of Nuburgh,[7] and by the yll Torwe,[8] towarde the ende of
Hungarie and so by the river of Danubie, that is a full great ryver
and goeth into Almayne, under the hilles of Lumbardy, and it taketh
into him 40 other ryvers and it runneth throughout Hungary and through
Cresses[9] and Crochie,[9] and goeth into the sea so strongely and
with so great might that the water is freshe xxx[10] myle within the
sea and afterwards go men to Belgrave[11] and entereth the lande of
Bugres and there pass men a bridge of stone that is over the river
Marrock,[12] and so men passe through the lande of Pinseras[13]
and come to Grece to the citie of Stermis,[14] and to the citie of
Affinpane,[15] that was sometime called Bradre[16] the noble and so
to the citie of Constantinople that was sometime called Bessameron[17]
and there dwelleth commonly the Emperor of Grece.


At Constantinople is the best and the fairest church of the worlde,
and it is of sainct Steven.[18] And before this church is a gylte
image of Justinian the Emperour, and it is sitting upon an horse and
crowned, and it was wont to holde a round appell[19] in his hand, &
men say there that it is a token that the Emperour hath lost a part of
his landes, for the appell is fallen out of the images hand: and also
he hath lost a great parte of his lordshippe. For he was wont to be
Emperour of Rome, of Grece, and of all Asia the lesse, of Surry, and
of the land of Jude,[20] in the which is Jerusalem, & of the land of
Egipt, of Percie & Arabia, but he hath lost all but Grece, and that
lande he holdeth all onely. Men would put the appell in the images
hande, but it will not holde it. This appell betokeneth the lordship
that he had over all the world, and the other hand he lifteth up
against the East,[21] in token to manasse[22] misdoers. This image
standeth upon a pyller of marble.


At Constantinople is the crosse of our Lord and his cote without
seame, the sponge and the rede with which the Jewes gave our Lord gall
to drinke on the Crosse, and there is one of the nayles that our Lorde
Jesu Christ was nayled with to the Crosse. Some men think that halfe
the Crosse of Christ be in Cipres in an Abbey of Monkes, that men call
the hill of the holy crosse, but it is not so, for the crosse that
is in Cipres is the crosse on which Dysmas[23] the good theefe was
hanged, but all men wot[24] not that, & that is evil done but for the
getting of the offering they say that it is the crosse of our Lorde,
and ye shall understande that the crosse of our Lorde Jesus Christ
was made of foure maner of trees, as it is conteyned in this verse

  _In cruce fit Palma, Cedrus, et Cypressus, Oliva._


For the piece that went ryght up from the earth unto the head was of
Cipres, and the piece that went overthwart, to the which his handes
were nayled, was of Palme, and the stock that stood within the earth
in the which they had made a morteys, was of Cedre, and the table
aboue his head was a foote and a half long, on which y^e tytle was
written, y^t was of Olyve. Y^e Jewes made this crosse of these foure
maner of trees for they thought y^t our Lord shold have hanged as long
as y^e crosse might last, therefore they made the foote of Cedre, for
Ceder may not in the erth ne[25] in water rot; they thought that the
body of Christ shold have stonken, they made the piece y^t went from
the yearth upwarde of Cipres so that the smell of his body shold
greve no man that came by, and that overthwart was made of Palme
in signification of Victory. And the table of the tytle was made of
Olive, for it betokeneth peace, as the story of Noe witnesseth,
when y^e dove brought y^e braunch of Olive that betokened peace made
between God and man. And you also shal understande, that the Christen
men that dwell over the sea, say that the pece of the Crosse that we
call Cipres was of the tree that Adam eate the appell of, and so finde
they written, and they say also that their scripture saith, that when
Adam was sicke he sayd to his son Seth that he shold go to Paradise
and pray that the Aungel that kepeth Paradise, y^t he wold send
him oyle of the tree of mercy for to anoynte him that he might have
health, & Seth went, but the Aungel would not let him com in at the
gate, but said unto him that he might not have y^e oyle of mercy, but
he took him three carnels[26] of the same tree that his father eate
the appell of, and bad him as sone as his father was dead, that he
should put these carnels under his tongue and bury him, and he did so,
and of these three carnels sprang a tree, as the Angel sayd and when
the tree bare fruite, then shold Adam be made whole. And when Seth
came againe and founde his father dead, he did with the carnels as
the Aungell commaunded him, of the which came three trees, whereof
a crosse was made that bare good fruite, that is to say, our saviour
Jesu Christ, through whom Adam and all that came of him should be
saved and delivered from everlasting death, but[27] if it be their
owne defaute.[28] This holy crosse had the Jewes hid under the earth
in y^e rock of the mount of Calvery, & it laye there two hundreth
yeares and more, as they say, unto the tyme that Saint Elene found it,
the which Saint Elene was daughter of Coel King of Englande, that then
was called Britaine, and after maried to Constantius, fyrst Consul and
after Emperour of Rome, who had by hir issue Constantine the great,
born in England and afterward Emperour of Rome, which Constantine
turned the name of Bezansium into Constantinople, he reedified that
citie, and made it monarcall seate of all Europa and Asia Minor. Also
ye shall understande that the crosse of our Lord was in length viii
cubites and that the piece that went overthwart was three cubites[29]
and a halfe.


A part of the crowne of our Lord Jesu wherewith he was crowned & one
of the nayles, and the speare head and many other reliques are in
France at Paris in the chapell of the King, and the crowne lyeth in a
vessell of cristall wel dight and richly, for y^e French King bought
these reliques sometime of the Jewes, to whome the Emperour had laid
them to pledge for a great sume of golde. And although men say
that this Crowne was of thornes--ye shall understand that it was
of Jonkes[30] of the sea, which be white and pricketh as sharp as
thornes, for I have seene and beheld many times that at Paris, and
that at Constantinople, for they were both of one, and made of Jonkis
of the sea. But men have departed him in two partes, of the which one
parte is at Paris, and the other part at Constantinople, and I haue a
point thereof that seemeth a white thorne, and that was given me for
a great friendeship--for there are many of them broken and fallen into
the vessell, when they shew the Crowne to great men or lordes that
come theither. And ye shall understande that our Lord in that night
that he was taken, he was led into a garden, and there he was examined
sharply, & there the Jewes crowned him with a crown of abbespine[31]
braunches that grew in the same garden & set it on his head so fast,
that the blood came downe by many places of his visage, necke, and
shoulders, and therefore hath the abbespine many vertues, for he
that beareth a braunche of it about him, no thunder, nor any maner of
tempest may hurt him, nor the house that it is in may no evill ghost
come, nor in no place where it is. And in that same garden Sainct
Peter denied our Lord thrise. And afterward was our Lord led before
the Bishop and ministers of the lawe into another gardein of Anne[32]
and there was he examined, scorned & crowned efte[33] with a swete
thorn that men called barbareus[34] that grew in the same gardein
and that hath many vertues. And afterward he was led to a gardein of
Caiphas, and there he was crowned again with eglentine,[35] and after
that he was led to a chamber of Pilate & there he was crowned, and the
Jewes set him in a chaire and clad him in a mantell of purpure[36] and
then made they a crowne of Jonkes of the sea and there they kneled
to him & scorned him saying _Ave rex Judeorum_. That is to say, haile
King of Jewes. And of this crowne, halfe is in Paris and the other
halfe at Constantinople, the which our Saviour Jesu Christ hadde on
his head, when he was nayled on the crosse, and therefore shall men
honour and worship it, and holde it more worthy then any of the other.
And the speare shaft hath the Emperour of Almaine, but the head which
was put in his side is at Paris they say, in the holy chappell, and
oft tymes sayth the Emperour of Constantinople, that he hath the
speare head & I have often seen it, but it is greater than that at
Paris. Also at Constantinople lyeth Sainct Anne our ladie's mother,
whom Saint Elene caused to be brought from Hierusalem, and there
lieth also the body of Saint John Chrisostome that was bishop of
Constantinople. There lyeth also sainct Luke the Evangelist, for his
bones were brought from Bethany where he was buried: and many other
relyques are there, and there is of the vessell of stone as it were
marble, which men call Idryus, that evermore droppeth water & fylleth
himselfe every yeare once. And ye shall wete that Constantinople is
a fayre citie and well walled & it is three cornered, and there is
an arme of the sea that men call Hellespon, and some men call it the
bunch[37] of Constantinople and some call it the brace[38] of sainct
George, and this water encloseth two partes of the citie, and upward
to the sea upon that water was wont to be the great citie of Troy in a
fayre plaine, but that citie was destroyed by the Grekes.

    [Footnote 1: Germany.]

    [Footnote 2: Sclavonia.]

    [Footnote 3: Comania may now be placed as being on the
    north-west side of the Caspian Sea.]

    [Footnote 4: Or Rosia, was Russia proper, by the Baltic; the
    huge Empire now so termed being then called Muscovy.]

    [Footnote 5: _Pynson_ says Nyflond, and in some MSS. it is
    written indifferently Nyfland, Nyflond, Nislan, and Neflond;
    but I have no doubt but that by it is meant Livonia, as
    is explained Apian's _Cosmographie_: "qui est la derniere
    Province d'Alemaigne, et de la Chrestiété, vulgairement
    appelee Liefland;" and this is the more likely as Siprus
    is spelt in _Pynson_ and other editions Pruysse, _i.e._,

    [Footnote 6: _Pynson_ says Chypron, other authorities
    Schyppronne, Cypron, and Chippronne.]

    [Footnote 7: Neuburgh; sometimes written Neaseburghe, Newbow,
    or Newborewe.]

    [Footnote 8: In other editions "evyll."]

    [Footnote 9: Cresses is rendered in other editions as Grece
    or Greece, but this is impossible, as also is Crochie, which
    _Pynson_ calls Tracy, and others call Thracie or Thrace. It
    probably means Croatia, and he has muddled up the Save or Sau,
    a tributary to the Danube, which rises not far from Lombardy,
    joining the Danube at Belgrade.]

    [Footnote 10: _Pynson_ and others say 20 miles.]

    [Footnote 11: Belgrade.]

    [Footnote 12: Now called the Morava.]

    [Footnote 13: _Pynson_ says Pynteras, others Pyncemartz, and

    [Footnote 14: _Pynson_ says Sternys, others Sternes, or

    [Footnote 15: Written elsewhere Affynpayn, Assynpayn, and ad
    fines Epapie.]

    [Footnote 16: This will best explain the difficulty of placing
    the localities, for this means Adrianople.]

    [Footnote 17: Byzantium, the ancient name for Constantinople,
    the seat of the Western Empire.]

    [Footnote 18: _Pynson_ has Sophy, now the Mosque of St

    [Footnote 19: Probably an orb.]

    [Footnote 20: Judæa.]

    [Footnote 21: _Pynson_ says West, but others give East.]

    [Footnote 22: Menace.]

    [Footnote 23: The names of the penitent and impenitent thieves
    vary slightly in different accounts. In the Apocryphal book of
    Nicodemus, cap. 7, vv. 10, 11, they are thus given: "But one
    of the two thieves who were crucified with Jesus, whose name
    was Gestas, said to Jesus, If thou art the Christ, deliver
    thyself and us. But the thief who was crucified on his right
    hand, whose name was Dimas, answering, rebuked him, and said,
    Dost thou not fear God, who art condemned to this punishment?
    We indeed receive rightly and justly the demerit of our
    actions: but this Jesus, what evil hath he done?"

    But in the Apocryphal book, I. Infancy, cap. 8, vv. 1-7 (a
    Nestorian and Gnostic book), the names are given differently:
    "In their journey from hence they came into a desert country,
    and were told it was infested with robbers; so Joseph and St.
    Mary prepared to pass through it in the night.

    And, as they were going along, behold they saw two robbers
    asleep in the road, and with them a great number of robbers,
    who were their confederates, also asleep.

    The names of those two were Titus and Dumachus; and Titus
    said to Dumachus, I beseech thee let those persons go along
    quietly, that our company may not perceive any thing of them;

    But Dumachus refusing, Titus again said, I will give thee
    forty groats, and as a pledge, take my girdle, which he gave
    him before he had done speaking, that he might not open his
    mouth, or make a noise.

    When the Lady St. Mary saw the kindness which this robber did
    show them, she said to him, The Lord God will receive thee to
    his right hand, and grant thee pardon of thy sins.

    Then the Lord Jesus answered and said to his mother, When
    thirty years are expired, O Mother, the Jews will crucify me
    at Jerusalem.

    And these two thieves shall be with me at the same time upon
    the cross, Titus on my right hand, and Dumachus on my left,
    and from that time Titus shall go before me into Paradise."]

    [Footnote 24: Know.]

    [Footnote 25: Nor.]

    [Footnote 26: Kernels--another edition says Greynes.]

    [Footnote 27: Except.]

    [Footnote 28: Fault.]

    [Footnote 29: This measure varied. It was generally accepted
    as being the length of a man's arm from the elbow to the
    extremity of the little finger. The Roman cubit is usually
    reckoned as 17-4/10 in., the Scriptural cubit at 22 in., and
    the English cubit at 18 in.]

    [Footnote 30: Rushes. _Juncus Maritimus._]

    [Footnote 31: Albespine--probably meant for _White thorn_.]

    [Footnote 32: Annas.]

    [Footnote 33: Again.]

    [Footnote 34: ? _berberis_.]

    [Footnote 35: Honeysuckle.]

    [Footnote 36: Purple.]

    [Footnote 37: _Bouche_, the mouth.]

    [Footnote 38: Arm. _Lat._ _brachium_, as we should say, an arm
    of the sea.]


  _Of the Ilandes of Grece._


ABOUT Grece be many yles that men cal Calastre,[1] Calcas Settygo,
Thoysoria, Mynona, Faxton, Molo, Carparte and Lempne, and in this yle
is mount Athos that passeth the clowdes & there are divers
speaches and many countries that are obedient to the Emperour of
Constantinople, that is to say Turcoply, Pyncy, Narde, Comage and many
other, Tracy & Macedony, of which Alexander was king. In this countrey
was Aristotle borne, in a citie that men call Strages, a little from
the citie of Tragie, & at Strages is Aristotle buried, and there is an
aulter on his tombe, and there they make a greate feast every yeare
as he were a saint, & upon his aulter the lordes holde their great
counsayles and assemblies and they think, that through the inspiration
of God & him, they should have the better councill. In this countrey
are right highe hilles, there is an hill that men call Olimphus that
departeth Macedonie and Tracy, and is as high as the cloudes, and the
other hill that men call Athos is so highe, that the shadow of him
stretcheth unto Olimphus and it is neare lxxvii myle between, and
above that hill is the aire so cleere, that men may fele no wynde
there, and therefore may no beast live there the ayre is so drye, and
men say in the countrey that Philosophers somtyme went up to these
same hilles and helde to their noses a sponge wet with water for to
have ayre, for the ayre was so drye there & above in the pouder[2] of
the hill they wrote letters with their fingers, and at the yeares ende
they came againe and found those letters which they had written the
yeare before without any defaute,[3] and therefore it seemeth well
that these hilles passe the cloudes to y^e pure aire.

At Constantinople is the Emperours palaice which is fayre and well
dight,[4] and therein is a palaice for justing,[5] and it is made
about with stages that eche man may well see and none greve,[6] other
& under these stages are stables vauted for the Emperours horses and
all the pillers of these stables are of marble. And within the church
of Saint Sophy, an Emperour wold haue layd the body of his father when
he was dead, and as they made the grave they found a body in the
earth & upon that body lay a great plate of fine gold & there upon
was written in Ebrew, Greke & Latin letters that sayde thus: _Jesus
Christus nascetur de virgine Marie, et ego credo in eum_. That is to
say, Jesu Christ shal be borne of the Virgin Mary & I believe in him.
And the date was that it lay in the earthe 200[7] yeare before our
Lord Jesu Christ was borne, and yet is that plate in the treasory of
the Church, and men say that it was Hermogenes[8] the wise man. And
neverthelesse if it be so that men of Grece be Christen, yet they vary
from our fayth, for they say that the holy ghoste commeth not out of
the sonne, but all onely of the father, and as they are not obedient
to the Church of Rome, nor to the Pope, and they saye that theyr
Patryarkes haue as much power over the sea, as the Pope hath on this
syde the sea. And therefore Pope John the XXII. sente letters to
them, how Christen fayth should be all one, and that they shoulde be
obedient to a pope that is Christes Vykar in earthe, to whome God gave
plaine[9] power to binde and to assoyle,[10] and therefore they should
be obedient to him. And they sent him divers aunsweres, and among
other they said thus. _Potentiam tuam summam circa subjectos tuos
firmiter credimus. Superbitatem tuam sustinere non possumus. Avaritiam
tuam satiare non intendimus. Dominus tecum fit, quia Dominus nobiscum
est. Vale._ That is to say, we beleve wel that thy power is great upon
thy subjectes. We may not suffer thy pryde. We are not in purpose to
fulfille thy covetyse.[11] Our Lorde be with thee, for our Lorde is
with us. Farewell. And other aunswere might not be haue of them. And
also they make theyr sacrament of the aulter of therf bread,[12] for
our Lord made it of therf bread when he made his maunde.[13] And on
sherthursday[14] make they theyre bread in tokening of the maunde, and
they dry it at the sonne,[15] and kepe it all the yeare & give it to
sick men instede of gods body. And they make but one unction when they
Christen Children, and they anoynt no sick men, and they say there is
no purgatory, and soules shall haue neither joy ne payne untill the
day of dome.[16] And they say that fornication is no deadly sinne, but
a kindly thing, and that men & women shoulde wed but once, and who
so weddeth more than once theyr children are bastards and gotten in
sinne, and theyr priestes also are wedded, and they say that usury or
simony is no deadly sinne and they sell benefices of holy churche,
and so did men of other places and is great sclaunder,[17] for now is
Simony King crowned in holy churche, God amende it when his will
is. And they say that in Lent men should not singe masse but on the
Saterday and on the Sonday, and they fast not the Saterday no tyme in
the yeare, but if it be Christmas or Easter even. And they suffer no
man that is on this side the Grece sea to sing at theyr aulters, and
if it fall that they do through any hap,[18] they wash theyr aulters
as sone without tarieng with holy water, and they say that there
should be but one masse sayde at one aulter in a day. And they say
that our Lorde did neuer eate meate but that he made a token[19]
of eating. And also they say that we sinne deadly in shaving of our
berdes, for the berde is a token of a man, and a gift of our Lord and
they saye that we sinne in eating of beastes that were defended[20] in
the olde lawe, as swyne, hares and other beastes.

And thus they saye that we sinne in eating of fleshe on the dayes
before Ashwednesday, and in eating of fleshe on the Wednesdaye, and
when we eate chese or egges on the Fryday and they curse all
those that eate no fleshe on the Saterday. Also the Emperour of
Constantinople maketh the Patriarkes, Archebishoppes and Bishoppes,
and he giveth all the dignities of the churches, and depryveth them
that are unworthy, although it be so that these touch not the way,
nevertheless they touch that which I haue behight[21] to shew a parte
of the custome, maners, and diversitie of countries, and for this is
the first countrey that is discordaunt from our faithe and letteth[22]
our faithe on this side the sea, therefore haue I sette it here that
ye may see the diversitie between our faith & theirs, for many men
haue great liking to here speake of straunge things.

    [Footnote 1: Calliste, which Ferrarius, in his _Lexicon
    Geographicum_ (edit. 1670), says is an island in the Ægean
    Sea. The other islands have different names in different MSS.,
    but are not worth the trouble of identifying, except Lampne
    as Lemnos--where Mandeville places Mount Athos. _Plutarch_
    and _Pliny_ said that, in the summer solstice this mountain
    projected its shadow on the market-place of Myrina, the
    capital city of Lemnos, and that a brazen cow was there
    erected to mark the termination of the shadow; but this is as
    probable as the distance given, namely, seventy-seven
    miles, which is manifestly erroneous. The spelling of the
    geographical names is very bad, and renders it a difficult
    task to identify them: for instance, if it were not a
    well-known fact that Aristoteles was born and buried at
    Stagira, it would be very difficult to identify Strages as
    being the same place. Again, Olimphus is used instead of
    Lemnos, in connection with the shadow of Mount Athos.]

    [Footnote 2: Powder, dust.]

    [Footnote 3: Uninjured.]

    [Footnote 4: Furnished.]

    [Footnote 5: Jousting or tilting.]

    [Footnote 6: Inconvenience.]

    [Footnote 7: _Pynson_ and other editions say Two thousand.]

    [Footnote 8: Here the chronology is somewhat involved, as
    Hermogenes lived in the time of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus,
    _who was born_ A.D. 121.]

    [Footnote 9: Plenary.]

    [Footnote 10: Absolve.]

    [Footnote 11: Covetousness.]

    [Footnote 12: Unleavened bread.]

    [Footnote 13: Last Supper.]

    [Footnote 14: Shrove Thursday.]

    [Footnote 15: In the sun.]

    [Footnote 16: Doom, or the day of judgment.]

    [Footnote 17: Scandal.]

    [Footnote 18: If by chance they should do so.]

    [Footnote 19: Only seemed to eat.]

    [Footnote 20: Forbidden.]

    [Footnote 21: Promised.]

    [Footnote 22: Hinders.]


  _To come againe to Constantinople for to go toward the holy land._


NOW come we againe for to know the way from Constantinople. He that
will go through Turkey, he goeth through the citie of Nyke,[1] and
passeth through the gate of Chivitot that is right highe, and it is
a myle and a halfe from Nyke, and who so wyll go by the brache[2] of
Sainct George, and by the Greeke sea there as Sainct Nicolas lyeth,
and other places. First men come to the yle of Silo, and in that ile
groweth mastike upon small trees as plomtrees, or chery trees. And
then after men go through the ile of Pathmos, where Saint John the
Evangelist wrote the Apocalips and I do you to wete,[3] when our Lorde
Jesu Christ died, Saint John the Evangelist was of the age of xxxii
yeare and he lived after the passion of Christ lxiii[4] year and then
died. Fro Pathmos men go to Ephesim which is a faire citie and neare
to the sea, and there died sainct John & he was buried behind the high
aulter in a tombe, and there is a fayre church, for Christen men were
wont to holde that place, but in the tombe of sainct John is nothing
but Manna, for his body was translated[5] into paradise, & the
Turkes hold now that citie and the church, and all Asia the lesse,
& therefore is Asia the lesse called Turkey. And ye shall understand
that sainct John did make his grave ther in his lyfe and laied
himselfe therein all quick[6] & therefore some say he dyed not, but
that he resteth there unto the day of judgement, and therefore truely
there is a great marvaile, for men may see there apertly[7] y^e earth
of the tombe many times stirre and move, as there were a quick thing
under. And from Ephesim, men go through many iles in the sea unto the
citie of Pateran[8] where sainct Nicolas was borne and so to Marca[9]
where he by the grace of God was chosen Bishop, and there groweth
right good wyne and strong, that men call the wyne of Marca. From
thence men go to the yle of Crete, which the Emperor gave sometime
to Jonais.[10] And then men passe through the yles of Cophos and
Lango[11] of the which yles Ipocras[12] was lord, and some say that in
the yle of Lango is Ipocras daughter in maner of a Dragon, which is a
hundred foote long as men saye, for I have not seene it, and they of
the yles call hir the lady of the countrey, and she lyeth in an olde
castell and sheweth hir thrise in the yeare, and she doth no man harme
and she is thus changed from a damosell to a dragon through a goddesse
that men call Diana, and men say that she shall dwell so unto the tyme
that a knighte come that is so hardy as to go to hir and kisse hir
mouthe, and then shall she tourne againe to hir owne kinde, and be
a woman, and after that she shall not live long. And it is not long
sith[13] a knight of the Rodes[14] that was hardy and valiant said
that he would kisse hir, and whan the Dragon began to lifte up hir
head againste him, and he saw it was so hideous, he fled awaye, and
the Dragon in hir anger bare the knight on a roche, and of[15] that
cast him into the sea and so he was lost.

    [Footnote 1: ? Salonika.]

    [Footnote 2: See foot note, _ante_, p. 19.]

    [Footnote 3: Know.]

    [Footnote 4: _Pynson_ says 67.]

    [Footnote 5: Taken up to heaven.]

    [Footnote 6: Living, alive.]

    [Footnote 7: Openly.]

    [Footnote 8: Patera, a city of Lycia.]

    [Footnote 9: Myra, also in Lycia.]

    [Footnote 10: The Genoese.]

    [Footnote 11: The island of Cos.]

    [Footnote 12: Hippocrates, the famous physician, who was born
    at Cos.]

    [Footnote 13: Since.]

    [Footnote 14: The island of Rhodes.]

    [Footnote 15: Off.]



  _Yet of the same Dragon._


ALSO a young man that wist not of the Dragon, went out of a shippe and
went through the yle till he came to a Castell, and came into the cave
and went so long till he founde a chamber, and there he saw a damosell
that kemde[1] hir heade & loked in a mirrour, and she had much
treasure aboute hir, and he trowed[2] she had been a common woman that
dwelled ther to kepe men, and he abode[3] the damosel, and the damosel
saw the shadowe of him in the mirrour, & she tourned toward him
and asked what he would, and he said he would be hir paramoure or
lemman,[4] and she asked him if he were a knight, and he sayd nay, and
she sayd then might he not be hir lemman, but she bad him go againe to
his fellowes and make him knighte and come againe on the morow and
she woulde come oute of the cave and then hee shoulde kisse hir on the
mouth, and she badde him haue no dread, for she would do him no
harme, although she semed hidious to him, she sayd it was done by
inchauntment, for she sayd that she was such as he saw hir then, and
she sayd that if he kissed hir, he should haue all the treasure, and
be hir lord, and lord of all those yles. Then he departed from hir and
went to his fellowes in the ship, and made him knight, and came againe
on the morow to kisse the damosel, and when he saw hir come out of the
cave in forme of a dragon, he had so great dread, that he fled to
the ship, and she folowed him, and when she saw that he tourned not
againe, she began to crye as a thing that had much sorow, and tourned
again, and sone after the knight dyed, and sithen[5] hetherto might no
knight see hir but he died anon. But when a knight commeth that is so
hardy to kisse hir, he shall not dye, but he shall tourne that damosel
into hir right shape and shal be lord of the countrey aforsayde. And
from thence men go to the yle of Rodes, the which the hospitallers
held and governed, and that they took sometime from the Emperour,
and it was wont to be called Colles[6] and so yet the Turkes call it
Colles. And sainct Paule in his Epistels writeth to them of the yle
Collocenses.[7] This yle is nere CLxxx[8] myle from Constantinople.
And from this yle of Rodes, men go into Cipres where are many vines,
the first is red and after a yeare they war all white, and those vines
that are most white, are most cleare and best smelling, And as men
passe by the way by a place where was wont to be a great citie that
men call Sathalay, and all that countrey was lost through the folly of
a young man, for he had a faire damosell that he loved well, and she
dyed sodenly & was buried in a grave of Marble & for the great love he
hadde to hir, he went in a nighte to hir tombe and opened it, & went
and lay by hir and when he had done he went away, & when it came to
the ende of ix monthes a voice came to him & sayd in this maner as in
the next chapter foloweth.

    [Footnote 1: Kemped or combed.]

    [Footnote 2: Thought.]

    [Footnote 3: _Pynson_ says "obeyed unto the damsell"--that is,
    made obeisance, or bowed to her.]

    [Footnote 4: Sweetheart.]

    [Footnote 5: Since then.]

    [Footnote 6: From the Colossus there, a statue of Jupiter 70
    cubits high, and which was accounted as one of the wonders of
    the world.]

    [Footnote 7: This is not so. The Epistle to the Colossians
    was addressed to the inhabitants of Colossæ, a city in
    Phrygia--which is clearly shown by his referring in cap. 4, v.
    13, to two neighbouring cities. "For I bear him record, that
    he hath a great zeal for you, and them that are in _Laodicea_,
    and them in _Hierapolis_."]

    [Footnote 8: _Pynson_ and others say 800.]



  _Of a young man and his lemman._


GO unto the tombe of the same woman that you hast lien by & op[=e] it,
behold well that which thou hast begotten on hir and if thou let for
to go, thou shalt haue a great harme, and he went and opened the tombe
and there flew out an head[1] right hideous for to see, the which head
flew all about the citie and countrey, and sone after the citie and
the countrey sanke downe, & ther are many perilous passages. Fro Rodes
to Cipres is five hundred mile and more, but men may go to Cipres and
come not at Rodes. Cipres is a good yle & a great, and there are many
good cities, and there is an Archbishoppe at Nichosy,[2] and foure
other Bishops in the lande. And at Famagost is one of the best havens
on the sea that is in the worlde, and there are christen men and
Sarasins and men of all nations. In Cipres is the hill of the holy
crosse, and there is the crosse of the good thefe Dismas, as I sayd
before, and some wene[3] that there is halfe of the crosse of our
lord, but it is not so, and they do wrong that make men to believe
so. In Cipres lieth S. Simeon, of whome the men of the countrey make
a great solempnitie, and in the Castell of Amours lyeth the body of
Saint Hillarion, and men kepe it worshipfully, and beside Famagost was
sainct Barnarde[4] borne.

    [Footnote 1: An edder, or adder--really meaning a winged

    [Footnote 2: Nicosia.]

    [Footnote 3: Imagine.]

    [Footnote 4: Barnabas.]



  _Of the maner of hunting in Cipres._


IN Cipres men hunte with Pampeons[1] that be lyke to Leopards, and
they take wylde beastes right well and they are somewhat more than
lions, and they take more sharply wilde beastes then houndes. In
Cipres is a maner that lordes and other men eate upon the earthe, for
they make diches within the earth all about the hall depe to the knee,
and they pave them, and when they will eate, they goe therein & sit
there, this they do to be more freshe, for that lande is hotter then
it is here. And at great feastes and for strange men, they set formes
and bordes as they do in this countrey, but they had lever[2] sit in
the earth. From Cipres men go by lande to Hierusalem, and by sea, and
in a day and a night he that hath good wind may come to that haven of
Tyre that now is called Sur, and it is also at the entre of Surry.[3]
There was sometime a fayre citie of christen men, but the Sarasins
haue destroyed the most parte thereof, and they kepe y^e hauen righte
well, for dread that they haue of Christen men. Men might go right
to that haven and come not in Cipres, but they go gladly to Cipres to
rest them on the lande, or else to by[4] thinges that they haue nede
of to their living. Upon the sea side men may find many rubies, and
there is a well that holy write speaketh of

  _Fons ortorum et puteus aquarum viventum._

That is to say, The well of gardeines and diches of waters living. In
the citie of Tyre sayde the woman to our Lorde, _Beatus venter qui te
portavit et ubera que succisti_. That is as much to say, Blessed be
the body that bare thee, and the pappe of the which thou suckest. And
there our Lorde forgave the woman of Canee hir sinnes, and there was
also in that place wont to be the stone on which our Lord sat and
preached & on the same stone was founded the Church of Sainct Saviour.
And upon that See is the citie of Saphon, Sarep, or Sodome and there
was wont to dwell Elias the prophet & there was raised Jonas the
prophete the widowes sonne, and fiue myle from Saphen is the citie of
Sydon, of which citie Dido that was Eneas wife after the destruction
of Troy was queene, and that founded the Citie of Carthage in
Affryke and now is called Didonsart. And in the citie of Tyre raigned
Achilles, the father of Dido and a myle[5] from Sidon is Beruth, &
from Beruth to Sardena is three days journey and from Sardena is five
myle to Damas.

    [Footnote 1: Large wild dogs; they are described by _Jacobus
    de Vitriaco_ (the Cardinal), in his _Historiæ Orientalis_,
    thus: "_Papiones_ quos appellant, canes silvestres, acriores
    quam lupi."]

    [Footnote 2: Liefer, rather.]

    [Footnote 3: Syria.]

    [Footnote 4: Buy.]

    [Footnote 5: Other editions say 16 miles.]


  _Of the haven of Jaffe also named._

WHO so will go lenger upon the sea and come nerer to Hierusalem--you
shall go from Cipres by sea to porte Jaffe, for that is the next haven
to Hierusalem, for from that haven it is but a days journey & a halfe
to Hierusalem And that haven is called Jaffe, and the towne Affe after
one of Noyes[1] sonnes that men call Japheth that founded it, and now
it is called Jops. And ye shall understand that it is the eldest town
of the world, for it was made before Noes floud and there be the bones
of a giaunts side that be XL fote long.

    [Footnote 1: Noah's.]


  _Of the haven of Tyre._

AND who arriveth at the first haven of Tyre, or of Surrey beforesayde,
may go by land if he will to Hierusalem, and he goeth to the citie
of Acon in a day, it was called Tholomayda, and it was a citie of
christen men sometime, but it is now destroyed and it is on the sea.
And it is from Venice to Acon by the sea two thousand and Lxxx myle of
Lombardy & from Calabre or fro Cicill it is to Acon a thousand three
hundred miles of Lombardy.


  _Of the hill Carme._


AND the yle of Grece[1] is right in the mid way, and beside this citie
of Acon towarde the sea at viii[2] hundred furlonges on the righte
hande towarde the southe is the hil Carme[3] where Elias the prophet
dwelled, and there was the ordre of Carme[4] fyrst founded. This
hyl is not ryghte greate, ne hygh, and at the foote of this hill was
sometime a good citie of chrysten men, that was called Cayphas, for
Cayphas founded it, but it is nowe all wasted. And at the lyfte syde
of the hyll is a Town that men call Saffre, and that is sette upon
another hil, there was Sainct James and saynt John borne, and in the
worshippe of them is there a faire church made. And from Tholomayda
that men now call Acon, to a great hill that men call Ekale[5] de
Tyrreys is an hundred furlongs, and beside that citie of Acon runneth
a lyttle ryver that men call Belyon, and there nere is the fosse of
Minon[6] all round that is a hundred cubytes or shaftments[7] broade,
and it is all full of gravell, cleare shyninge, whereof men make white
glasse cleare, and men come from far countreys by shippe, and by lande
with cartes to take of the gravell & if there be never so much taken
thereof in a daye, on the morow it is full againe as ever it was, and
that is great marvaile, and there is alwaye winde in that fosse that
styreth alway the gravell and maketh it troubled. And if a man put or
do therein any mettal, as sone as it is therein it waxeth glasse,
and the glasse that is made of this gravell if it be done[8] into the
gravell tourneth againe into the gravell as it was before & some say
that it is a swallow[9] of the sea gravell.[10]

    [Footnote 1: Crete.]

    [Footnote 2: _Pynson_ and others say 120 furlongs.]

    [Footnote 3: Carmel.]

    [Footnote 4: Carmelite friars.]

    [Footnote 5: The scale, or ladder, of Tyre.]

    [Footnote 6: Meaning the sepulchre of Memnon.]

    [Footnote 7: A shaftment was a measure taken from the top of
    the extended thumb to the outmost part of the palm--usually
    taken as six inches.]

    [Footnote 8: Buried.]

    [Footnote 9: Whirlpool.]

    [Footnote 10: This story is said to come from Solinus, and is
    mentioned in Münster's Cosmographia, and in other books.]


  _How Sampson slew the King and his enimies._


ALSO from Acon beforesaid, men go three[1] journeys to the citie of
Philisten, that now is called Gaza, that is to say the rich citie & it
is right fayre and full of folke and it is a little uppon the sea,
and from that citie broughte the strong Sampson the gates of the Citie
uppon a highe hill, where he was taken in the Citie, and there he
slewe the King in his palace, and many thousande more with him, for
he made an house to fall on them. And from thence shal men go to the
citie of Cesaryen,[2] and so to the castell of Pylleryns[3] and then
to Askalon, and so forth to Japhat[4] and so unto the holy citie of

    [Footnote 1: _Pynson_ and others say four.]

    [Footnote 2: Cæsarea.]

    [Footnote 3: Pilgrims.]

    [Footnote 4: Jaffa.]


  _The waye to Babylon whereas the Soudan dwelleth._


AND whoso wyll go through the lande of Babylon where the Soudan[1]
dwelleth, to have leave to go more sykerly[2] throughe the Churches &
countreys, and to go to mount Sinay before he come to Hierusalem, and
then turne agayne by Hierusalem; he shall goe from Gaza to the
castell Dayre. And after a man commeth out of Surry, and goeth in the
wildernesse, where the waye is full sandy, and the wyldernesse lasteth
eyght Journeys,[3] where men findeth all that them nedeth of vytayles
and men call that wyldernesse Archelleke,[4] and whan a man commeth
out of this deserte, hee entreth into Egypte, and they call Egypte,
Canopat,[5] and in another language men call it Mersyne,[6] and the
fyrste goode towne that men fynde is called Beleth, and it is at the
ende of the Kingdome of Alape,[7] and from thence men come to Babylon
and to Kayre,[8] and in Babylon is a fayre churche of our lady, where
she dwelled vii yeare when she was oute of the lande of Jewes, for
dreade of Kynge Herode. And there lyeth the bodye of Saynte Barbara
vyrgyn, and there dwelled Joseph whan he was solde of his brethrene,
and there made Nabugodonosor put the children in (_the_) fire, for
they were of right[9] trouth, the which chyldren men call Anania,
Azaria, and Misael (as y^e psalme of Benedicite saith) but
Nabugodonosor called them thus, Sydrac, Mysac, Abdenago, that is to
say, God glorious, God victorious, God over all Kingedomes, and that
was for myracle that he made Goddes sonne, as he sayd, go wyth those
chyldren throughe the fyre. There dwelleth the Soudan, for there is
a faire citie and a stronge castell and it standeth upon a rocke. In
that Castell is always dwellyng to kepe the castell and to serve the
soudan, above viii[10] thousand persons or folk that take all theyr
necessaries at the Soudans courte. I should well knowe it, for I
dwelled with him soudiour[11] in his warres a great while agayne the
Bedions,[12] and he wold haue wedded me to a great princes daughter
ryght richly, if I would haue forsaken my faith.

    [Footnote 1: Sultan.]

    [Footnote 2: Certainly, surely.]

    [Footnote 3: Day's march.]

    [Footnote 4: Athylec, Abylech, Alhylet, Alhelet, Abylet.]

    [Footnote 5: Query Canopus, a city 12 miles from Alexandria,
    named after the pilot of Menelaus' vessel, who was buried

    [Footnote 6: Mersur, Morsyn.]

    [Footnote 7: Aleppo.]

    [Footnote 8: Cairo.]

    [Footnote 9: True faith.]

    [Footnote 10: Other editions say 6,000.]

    [Footnote 11: Soldier.]

    [Footnote 12: Bedouins.]


  _Yet here followeth of the Soudan and of his Kingdomes that he
    hath conquered, which he holdeth strongly with force._

AND ye shall understand that the Soudan is lorde of v Kingdomes: the
which he hath conquered and gotten to him by strength, and these be
they--the Kingdome of Canopate (_that is_) the Kingdome of Egipte,
the Kingdome of Hierusalem: whereof David and Salomon were Kings, the
Kingdome of Surry, of the which the citie of Damas[1] was the chiefe,
the Kingdome of Alape in the lande of Dameth, and the Kingdome of
Arabya: which was one of the three Kinges that made offeryng to our
Lorde when he was borne, and many other landes he holdeth in his
hande, and also he holdeth Calaphes[2] that is a great thing to the
Soudan, that is to say, among them Roys[3] yle and this vale is colde.



And then men go uppon the mount of Sainct Katherina and that is
much higher than the mount Moyses. And there as saint Katheryn was
graven[4] is no church ne castell, ne other dwelling place, but there
is an hyll of stones gathered togither, about the place there she was
graven of Aungels, there was wont to be a chapell, but it is all cast
downe & yet lyeth there a great parte of the stones.

But under the foote of mount Sinay is a monasterie of Monkes,
and there is the church of Sainct Katherine wherein be many lamps
brenning, and they have oyle onlye enough to eate and to brenne, and
that they haue by myracle of God, there come certaine of all maner of
byrdes euery yeare once, lyke pylgrymes and eche of them bringeth a
braunch of olyve in token of offering, whereof they make much oyle.

    [Footnote 1: Damascus.]

    [Footnote 2: Khalifs.]

    [Footnote 3: Who are accounted there as kings.]

    [Footnote 4: Buried.]


  _For to returne fro Sinay to Hierusalem._

NOW sythen a man hath visited this holy place of Sainct Katheryn and
he will torne to Hierusalem, he shall fyrst take leave of the Monkes,
and recommend him specially to their prayers, then those Monks will
freely giue to Pilgrims victuals to pass through the Wildernesse to
Surry & that lasteth well xiii Journeys. And in that wyldernesse dwell
many Arabyns that men call Bedoins and Ascoperdes,[1] these are folk
that are full of all maner of yll condycyons, and they have no houses,
but tentes, the wyche they make of beastes skinnes, as of camelles and
other beastes the whyche they eate, and thereunder they lye, and they
dwell in places where they maye fynde water, as on the rede sea, for
in that wildernesse is greate defaute of water, and it faileth ofte
where a man findeth water one time, he fyndeth it not another tyme,
and therefore make they no houses in those countreys. These men that I
speake of tyll not the land, for they eate no breade, but[2] yf it be
anye that dwelleth neare a goode towne. And they rost al theyre fishes
and flesh upon the hote stones agaynst the sonne, and they are stronge
men and well fyghtynge, and they do nothinge but chace wyld beastes
for theyr sustenaunce, and they sette[3] not by theyr lyves, therfore
they dreade not the Soudan nor no prince of all the worlde. And they
haue greate warre wythe the Soudan, and the same tyme that I was
dwelling with him they bare but a shelde and a speare for to defende
them with, and they holde[4] none other armour, but they wynde theyr
heades and neckes in a great lynnen clothe,[5] and they are men of
full yll kynde.



    [Footnote 1: Or Giants from the Arabic _askhaf_, a tall,
    big-boned man. It will be remembered that Sir Bevis of
    Southampton brought home a Giant Ascapart--who probably was
    one of them.]

    [Footnote 2: Unless.]

    [Footnote 3: They value not.]

    [Footnote 4: Have.]

    [Footnote 5: A turban.]


  _As men are passed this wyldernesse againe comming to Hierusalem._

AND when men are passed this wyldernesse towarde Hierusalem they come
to Barsabe[1] that was sometime a fayre and a lykyng towne of Christen
men, and yet is some of their churches, and in that towne dwelled
Abraham the Patryarke. This towne of Barsabe founded Uryas wife, of
whom David engendred Salomon the wyse that was Kyng of Hierusalem,
and of the xii kindes[2] of Israell, and he raigned xl yeare. And from
thence go men to the vale of Ebron, that is from thence nere xii myle
and some call it the vale of Mambre,[3] and also it is called the vale
of Teeres, for as much as Adam in that vale he wept a hundred yeare
the death of his sonne Abel that Cayne slew. And Ebron was sometime[4]
the principall Citie of the Philistines & there dwelled giaunts &
there it was so free, that all that had done evill in other places
were there saved. In Ebron Josue and[5] Calope and theyr felowship
came fyrst to espy how they might wynne the lande of promyssion. In
Ebron David raigned fyrst vii yeare and a halfe & in Hierusalem he
raigned xxxii[6] yeare and a halfe, and there be the graves of
the Patryarkes--Adam, Abraham, Jacob and theyr wyves, Eve, Sare,
Rebecca[7] and they are in the hanging[8] in the hyll. And under them
is a right fayre Churche Kirnelde[9] after the facion and maner as it
were a Castell, the which the Sarasins keepe right well, and they haue
that place in greate worship for the holy Patryarkes that lieth there,
and they suffer no Christen men ne Jewes to come therein but they have
speciall grace of the Soudan, for they holde Christen men and Jewes
but as houndes that should come in no holy place, and they call the
place Spelunke[10] or double cave or double grave; for one lyeth on
another, and the Sarasins call it in theyr language Caryatharba, that
is to say the place of Patryarkes, and the Jewes call it Arboth. And
in that same place was Abrahams house, and that was the same Abraham
which sat in his dore, and saw three persons and worshipped but one,
as holy wryt witnesseth saying, _Tres videt et unum adoravit_. That
is to saye, he saw three and worshipped but one, and him took Abraham
into his house.

    [Footnote 1: Beersheba.]

    [Footnote 2: Tribes.]

    [Footnote 3: Mamre.]

    [Footnote 4: Formerly.]

    [Footnote 5: Jehoshua and Caleb (see Numbers, cap. 13).]

    [Footnote 6: _Pynson_ and others say 33 years and a half.]

    [Footnote 7: All other editions have "and of Lya," or Leah,
    who is evidently here forgotten.]

    [Footnote 8: Caves cut in the side of the rock.]

    [Footnote 9: Crenelated or battlemented.]

    [Footnote 10: Lat. _Spelunca_, a cave.]


  _Here foloweth a lyttle of Adam & Eve and other things._


AND right nere to that place is a cave in a Roche where Adam and Eve
dwelled whan they were dryven out of Paradyse, and there got they
theyr chyldren. And in that place was Adam made as some men saye, for
men called sometime that place the felde of Damasse,[1] for it was
in the worshippe[2] of Damasse; and fro thence he was translated into
Paradyse as they saye, and afterwarde he was driven out of Paradyse,
and put there agayne, for the same daye that he was put into Paradyse,
the same day he was driven out, for so soone he synned. And there
begynneth the yle[3] of Ebron that lasteth nere to Hierusalem, and the
Aungell bad Adam that he should dwell wyth his wyfe, and there they
engendred Seth, of the which kyndred[4] Jesu Christ was borne. And in
that vale is the felde where men draw out of the earth a thinge the
which men in that countrey call Chambell and they eate that thinge in
the stede of spyce & they beare it to sell, and men may not grave[5]
there so deepe ne so wyde, but it is at the yeares ende full againe up
to the sydes through the grace of God. And two myle from Ebron is the
grave of Loth[6] that was Abraham's brother.

    [Footnote 1: Damascus.]

    [Footnote 2: _Pynson_ and others say lordship.]

    [Footnote 3: Vale.]

    [Footnote 4: Kindred or tribe.]

    [Footnote 5: Dig.]

    [Footnote 6: Lot.]


  _Of the dry tree._


WHEN a lyttle from Ebron is the mounte of Mambre, of the which mount
the vale toke his name, and there is the tree of oke that the Sarasins
call dypre,[1] that is of Abraham's time, that men call the dry tree.
And they say that it hath ben from the beginning of the worlde, and
was sometime grene and bare leaves, unto the tyme that our Lorde dyed,
and so did all the trees in the worlde, or else they fayled in their
heartes, or else they faded, and yet is there many of those in the
worlde. And some prophesies say, that a lorde or prince of the weste
syde of the worlde shall winne the lande of promission, that is the
holy lande, with the helpe of Christen men, and he shall do singe[2] a
masse under that tree, and the tree shall waxe grene and beare fruite
and leaves, and through that miracle many Sarasins and Jewes shal
be turned to the Christen fayth, and therefore they do great worship
therto, and kepe it right[3] basely. And yet though it be dry, it
beareth a great vertue, for certainly he that hath a lyttle thereof
about him, it healeth a sicknesse called the falling evill, and hath
many other vertues also, and therefore it is holden right precious.

    [Footnote 1: _Pynson_ and others read Dyrpe or Dirpe.]

    [Footnote 2: Cause a mass to be sung.]

    [Footnote 3: To keep it carefully.]


  _Fro Bethlehem._

FROM Ebron men go to Bethlehem in halfe a daye, for it is but five
myle, and it is a fayre waye & thorow[1] woddes full pleasaunt.
Bethlem is but a little citie long and narowe, and well walled, and
enclosed with a great diche and it was wont to be called Effrata as
holy wryte sayth _Ecce audivimus eum in Effrata_ &c., That is to saye,
Lo we herde him in Effrata. And toward the ende of the citie toward
the East, is a ryght fayre churche and a gracious and it hath many
toures, pinacles and kirnelles[2] full strongly made & within that
Church is xliiii great pyllers of marble & betwene this church the
field[3] florished, as ye shall here.

    [Footnote 1: Through woods.]

    [Footnote 2: Battlements.]

    [Footnote 3: The flowered field.]


  _Of a fayre mayden that should be put to death wrongfully._


THE cause is, for as much as a fayre maiden y^t was blamed wyth wrong
that she hadde done fornication, for the which cause she was demed[1]
to dye and to bee brente[2] in that place to the which she was ledde.
And as the woode began to brenne about hir, she made hir prayer to
our Lorde as she was not gyltie of that thing, that he would helpe hir
that it might be knowne to all men. And whan she had thus sayde, she
entred the fyre and anone the fyre went out, and those braunches that
were brenninge became red Roses and those braunches that were not
kindled became white Rosiers[3] full of white roses, and those were
the fyrst roses and rosyers that any man sawe, and so was the mayden
saved through the grace of God, and therefore is that felde called
the feeld of God florished, for it was full of Roses. Also besyde the
quire of that Church aforesayd at the right side as men come downwarde
xii[4] grees[5] is the place where our Lorde was borne that is now
full well dyght[6] of Marble & full rychely depaynted of golde, sylver
and asure and other colours. And a lyttle thens by three paces is the
crybe[7] of the Oxe and the Asse, and besyde y^t is the place where
the sterre[8] fell that lede the three Kinges Jasper, Melchior and
Balthasar, but men of Grece call the Kinges thus, Galgalath, Saraphy,
Malgalath. These three Kinges offered to our Lorde, Encence, Gold &
Mirre and they came together through myracle of God, for they mette
togither in a citie that men call Chasak, that is liii journeys from
Bethleem, and there they were at Bethleem the fourth[9] daye after
they hadde seene the sterre. And under the cloyster of this church
xviii grees[10] at the righte syde is a great pytte where the bones
of the Innocentes lie, and before that place where Chryst was borne
is the tombe of Sainct Jerom that was a priest and a Cardinal that
translated the Byble and the Sauter[11] from Hebrew into Latyn, and
beside that church is a Church of Saynte Nycolas, where our Lady
rested hir whan she was delivered of chyld, and for as much as she
had so much mylke in hir pappes that it greved hir, she mylked it out
uppon the redde stones of Marble, so that yet may the traces bee seene
whyte uppon the stones. And ye shall understande that all that dwell
in Bethleem are Chrysten men, and there are fayre vynes all aboute
the citie and great plentie of wine, for their booke that Mahomet
betoke[12] them, the which they call Alkaron and some call it Massap
and some call it Harme, forbiddeth them to drinke any wyne, for in
that booke Machomet curseth all those that drynke of that wyne and all
that sell it, for some men saye that he onse slewe a good hermite in
his dronkennesse which[13] he loved much, and therefore he cursed the
wyne, and them that drynke wyne, but his malyce is torned to
hymselfe, as holye writ sayth "_Et in verticem ipsius iniquitus
ejus descendit_," That is to say in Englyshe, His wickednesse shall
descende on his owne head. And also the Sarasins bringeth forthe no
geise,[14] ne they eate no swines fleshe, for they say it is brother
to manne and that it was forbidden in the olde lawe. Also in the lande
of Palestine ne in the lande of Egypte they eate but lyttle veale and
beefe but it be so olde that it may no more travayll[15] ne werke, not
that it is forbidden but they kepe them to tylling of their lande. In
this castell of Bethleem was Kyng David borne and he had Lx wives and
ccc lemmans. From Bethleem to Hierusalem is two myle, and in the way
of Hierusalem halfe a myle from Bethleem is a Church where the aungell
sayd to the shepherdes of the bearing of Christ. In that waye is the
tombe of Rachel that was Josephs mother the Patryarke and she dyed as
soone as she hadde borne Benjamyn and there she was buried, and Jacob
hir husbande set xii great stones upon hir in tokening that she
had borne xii children. In this way to Hierusalem are many Christen
churches by the which men go to Hierusalem.

    [Footnote 1: Condemned.]

    [Footnote 2: Burnt.]

    [Footnote 3: Rose bushes.]

    [Footnote 4: Other editions say 16.]

    [Footnote 5: Steps.]

    [Footnote 6: Adorned.]

    [Footnote 7: Crib or Manger.]

    [Footnote 8: Star.]

    [Footnote 9: Other editions say "thirteenth."]

    [Footnote 10: Paces.]

    [Footnote 11: Psalter.]

    [Footnote 12: Gave.]

    [Footnote 13: Whom.]

    [Footnote 14: Breed no pigs.]

    [Footnote 15: Plough or draw loads.]


  _Of the citie of Hierusalem._

FOR to speake of Hierusalem, ye shall understande that it standeth
fayre among hylles, and there is neither ryver nor well, but water
commeth by conduit from Ebron, and ye shall wete that men called
it first Jebus and sythen it was called Salem unto the time of King
David, and he set those two names togither and called it Hierusalem
and so it is called yet. And aboute Hierusalem is the Kingdome of
Surry, & thereby is the lande of Palestyne and Askalon, but Hierusalem
is in the lande of Jude, and it is called Judee, for Judas Maccabeus
was King of that lande, and also it marcheth afterward on the
Kingedome of Araby, on the South side on the lande of Egipt, on the
west side on the great sea, on the north syde on the Kingdome of Surry
and the sea of Cipres. About Hierusalem are these cities. Ebrone at
viii[1] myle, Jerico at vi myle Barsebe at viii myle Askalon xviii[2]
myle, Jaffa at xxv[3] Ramatha at iiii[4] mile. At Bethlem towarde the
South is a church of saint Markerot,[5] that was abbot there, for whom
they made much sorow when he should dy & it is painted there how they
made dole[6] when he dyed, and it is a piteous thing to beholde.
This lande of Hierusalem hath ben in dyvers nations hands, as Jewes,
Cananens, Assyrians, Percians, Macedons, Grekes, Romayns & Chrysten
men, Sarasins, Barbaryans, Turkes & many other nacions. For Chryste
wyll not that it be long in the handes of traytours ne sinners be
they Christen or other. And now hath the mistrowing[7] men holden that
lande in theyre handes Lx yeare & more, but they shall not holde it
long and if[8] God wyll.

    [Footnote 1: Other editions say respectively 7, 17, 16.]

    [Footnote 2: As Footnote #1.]

    [Footnote 3: As Footnote #1.]

    [Footnote 4: Other editions say 3 miles.]

    [Footnote 5: Variously written, Markertot, Karitot, Karscati,
    and Mercaritot.]

    [Footnote 6: Grieved, from _Lat._ Dolor.]

    [Footnote 7: Unbelieving, or heathen.]

    [Footnote 8: Unless it is God's pleasure.]



  _Yet of the holy citie of Hierusalem._


AND ye shall understand that whan men fyrst come to Hierusalem, they
go fyrste a pylgrimage to the Church, where that the holy grave is,
the whiche is out of the citie on the North syde, but it is now
closed in with the wall of the towne, and there is a full fayre church
rounde, all open aboue, and well covered with leede and on the west
syde is a fayre toure and a strong for belles.

And in the middes of the church is a Tabernacle made like a little
house, in maner of halfe a compasse, ryght well and richly of gold
and asure and other coloures well dyght & on the ryght syde is the
sepulchre of oure Lorde, and the tabernacle is viii foote long and
v fote wide and xi fote of height. And it is not longe sythen the
sepulchre was all open, y^t men might kysse it and touche it: but for
men that came thether payned[1] them to breake the stones in peces or
pouder, therefore the Soudan hath made a wall about the sepulchre that
no man may touch it. On the lefte syde is no wyndowe, but therein
is many lampes light, and there is a lampe that hangeth before the
sepulcre lyght brenning and on the fryday it goeth oute by itselfe,
and lyghteth againe by itselfe at the houre that our Lorde rose from
death to life. And within that church upon that right side is the
mount Calvary, where our Lord was done on the crosse, and the crosse
was sette in a morteys[2] in the roche that is white of coloure, and a
lyttle redde medled[3] with, and upon that roche dropped the bloude
of the woundes of our Lord whan he was pained on the crosse & that is
called Golgatha and men go up to that Golgatha upon greces.[4] And in
that mortays was Adams head founde after Noyes flood, in token that
the sinnes of Adam, shoulde bee boughte in the same place, and
aboue that roche made Abraham sacryfice to our Lord, and there is an
auter,[5] and before that auter lyeth Godfry of Boleyn,[6] Bawdewyn[7]
and other that were Christen and kinges of Hierusalem. And ther as our
Lord was done[8] upon the crosse, is thys wrytten in greke, _Otheos[9]
basylon, ysmon persemas, ergaste sothyas oyos_. That is to say in
latine, _Hic Deus Rex noster ante secula operatus est salutem in
medio terræ_, That is to saye, This God our King before worldes, hath
wrought healthe in the myddes of the earth. And also upon the roche
where the crosse was fyxed is wrytten within the roche, _Eros[10]
guyst basys, thou, pestes, thoy, thesmoysy_. That is to say in latin,
_Quod vides est fundamentum totius mundi et hujus fidei_. And it is to
saye, that thou seest, is grounde of all the world and of this faith.
And ye shall understande that our Lorde whan he dyed was thyrty &
two[11] yeare olde and three monethes and the prophecie of David sayth
that he should haue xl yeares, when he saith thus. _Quadraginta annis
proximus fui generatione huic_, that is to say, fourtie yeare was I
neighbour to this kinde, and thus it should seme that prophecie were
not sothe,[12] but it is. For in olde time men called yeares of ten
monethes of the which Marche was the fyrst & December the last. But
Cayus Cezar[13] that was Emperour of Rome dyd sette to these two
moneths Januarie & Februarie and ordeyned the yere of xii months. That
is to say ccc[14] dayes without lepe yere the proper course of the
sonne and therefore after the accompting of x moneths to the yeare, he
dyed in xl yeare and three moneths.


Also within mounte Calvary at the ryghte syde is there an aulter where
the piller lyeth that our Lorde was bound to when he was scourged and
thereby are three[15] other pyllers that alwaye drop water, and some
saye that those pyllers weepe for our Lords death, and neare this
aulter in a place xlii grees[16] depe was founde the verye crosse by
the assent[17] of sainct Eleyn[18] under a roch where the Jewes had
hydde it and it was assayed, for they founde three crosses, one of our
Lorde and two of theves. And Saint Elene assayed them on a dead body
that rose as sone as the very[19] crosse of our Lorde was laid on him.
And thereby, in the vale, is the place where the foure nayles of our
Lord were hyd, for he had two nayles in his handes and two in his
fete, and one of those nailes the Emperour of Constantinople[20] dyde
make a bridell for his horse to beare him in bataile, for by[21] the
vertue that it had, he overcame his enimies, and wan[22] all the
land of Asye, Turky, Damasse the more[23] and the lesse, Surrey and
Hierusalem, Araby, Percy, and Mesopotamy, the Kingdome of Alabe,[24]
Egipt the high and the lowe, and other kingdomes many full nyghe all
unto Ethyope the low, and also unto Inde the lesse, that then was
chrysten. And there was in that tyme many good men and holy hermits,
of whome the booke of[25] the fathers lyves speaketh, and they are now
in Paynims & Sarasins handes, but whan God will righte[26] as these
landes are lost through sinne of Christen men, so shall they be won
againe by christen men throygh the helpe of God. And in the myddes of
this Church is a compasse,[27] in the which Joseph of Armath[28] layd
the body of our Lord whan he had taken him of[29] the crosse & upon
the same place dyd he wash the fete of our Lorde, & that compasse men
say is in the myddes of the world.

    [Footnote 1: Tried hard.]

    [Footnote 2: Mortise.]

    [Footnote 3: Mixed.]

    [Footnote 4: Steps.]

    [Footnote 5: Altar.]

    [Footnote 6: Bouillon.]

    [Footnote 7: Baldwin.]

    [Footnote 8: Placed.]

    [Footnote 9: Should read "[Greek: Ho Theos Basileus hêmôn pro
    aiônôn eirgasato sôtêrian en mesô tês gês.]"]

    [Footnote 10: Should read "[Greek: Ho eides, esti Basis tês
    pisteôs holês tou kosmou toutou.]"]

    [Footnote 11: Other editions have 33 years and 3 months.]

    [Footnote 12: Sooth, true.]

    [Footnote 13: Caius Julius Cæsar.]

    [Footnote 14: Other editions give the proper number of days,
    _viz._, 365.]

    [Footnote 15: Other editions say four, which is the number
    represented in the engraving.]

    [Footnote 16: Paces.]

    [Footnote 17: Perception, or sagacity. _Lat._, sensus.]

    [Footnote 18: Helena, mother of Constantine.]

    [Footnote 19: True, veritable.]

    [Footnote 20: Another is said to be incorporated in the
    so-called Iron Crown of Lombardy. Guisto Fontanini, Archbishop
    of Ancyra, gives a list of twenty-three places claiming to
    have a nail--Venice having _three_. M. Rohault de Fleury gives
    six more--whilst, according to tradition, Helena sent two
    to her son, and threw one in the sea to still a storm, thus
    leaving but one to meet all demands.]

    [Footnote 21: Through.]

    [Footnote 22: Won or conquered.]

    [Footnote 23: Greater.]

    [Footnote 24: Aleppo.]

    [Footnote 25: The Vitæ Sanctorum Patrum, many old printed
    copies of which exist.]

    [Footnote 26: When God thinks fit.]

    [Footnote 27: A linen swathing-band.]

    [Footnote 28: Arimathæa.]

    [Footnote 29: Off.]


  _Of the church of the holy sepulchre._

IN that Churche of the sepulcre on the north syde is the place where
our Lord was done[1] (_in_) prison, and there is a part of the
cheyne with which he was bound, and there he appeared fyrst to Mary
Magdeleyne when he was risen from death and she trowed[2] that he
had bene a gardeiner. In the Church of the sepulcre was wont to be[3]
Chanons of sainct Benet and they had a pryour; but the Patryarke was
theyr soveraigne.

And without the dores of the Churche on the righte syde as men go up
xviii grees,[4] our Lorde sayde to his mother[5] _Ecce filius tuus_.
That is to say, Woman beholde thy sonne, _De inde dixit discipulo,
Ecce mater tua_. That is to say, Then said he to his disciple, Behold
thy mother.[6] And these wordes he sayde when he hanged upon the
crosse. And upon these greces went our Lorde when he bare the crosse
uppon his shoulder, and under these greces is a Chappell where the
priestes synge, but not after our lawe, and alway they make theyr
Sacrament of the aulter of bread, say _Pater noster_ &c., and other
prayers, as with the which thing they say the wordes of whome the
sacrament is made, for they know not of the addicions that many Popes
haue made but they singe in good devocion. And nere there is the stone
wher our Lord rested him when he was wery for bearing of the crosse.
And ye shall understand that before the Churche of the Sepulcre is the
citie most strong[7] for the great playne that is betwene the citie
& the church; on the East side without the walles of the citie is the
vale of Josaphat that commeth to the walles. In that vale of Josaphat
without the citie, is the churche of sainct Stephen where he was
stoned to death, and thereby is the gate gylted that may not be
opened. Through this gate our Lord entred on palme Sonday upon an
asse, and the gate opened against him whan he would go to the Temple,
and yet are the steppes of the asse sene in three places the which
stand[8] in full harde stones. Before the churche of the sepulcre
two hundred paces, is a great hospitall of Sainct John, in the which
hospytall are liiii pyllers made of stone.


And to go towarde the East from the hospitall is a righte fayre
churche that men call our lady the greate, and then is there another
church after that, that men call our lady of the latyn,[9] and there
it was Mary Cleophe and Magdeleyne drew[10] theyr here whan oure Lord
was put to death.

    [Footnote 1: Put.]

    [Footnote 2: Thought or believed.]

    [Footnote 3: Were formerly Canons of the Order of St.

    [Footnote 4: Should be _greces_ or steps.]

    [Footnote 5: The printer has omitted the word "_Mulier_ ecce,"

    [Footnote 6: Gospel according to St. John, cap. 19, vv. 26,

    [Footnote 7: _Pynson_ says, "most wake" or weak, and other
    editions say, "feeble."]

    [Footnote 8: _Pynson_ has this passage: "The wyche are full of
    harde stones."]

    [Footnote 9: _Pynson_ says "Nostre dame de Vatyns."]

    [Footnote 10: Tore.]


  _Of the Temple of God._

AND from the churche of the sepulcre towarde the East at xviii[1]
paces is _Templum Domini_. That is a fayre house and it is all rounde
and ryghte high & covered with leed,[2] and it is well paved with
white marble, but y^e Sarasins wyl suffre no christen men ne Jewes to
come therein, for they say that so[3] foule men should not come into
that holye place, but I came therein and in other places where I
woulde, for I had letters of the Soudan, wyth hys great seal, and,
commonly, other men but have of his signet, and men beare hys letter
with his seale before them hanginge on a speare, and men do great
worship thereto, and kneele against[4] it as it were against God's
body: for those men that it is sent to, before they take it, they
encline[5] thereto and then they take it, and laye it upon their
heads, and afterward they kisse it, and then they reade it, all
enclining with great worship, and then they profer[6] them to do all
that the bringer will. And in this Templum Domini were wont to be
Chanons regulers, and they had an Abbot to whome they were obedient,
in this Temple was Charlemaine when the Aungell brought him the
prepuis of our Lorde when he was circumsised, and after King Charles
brought it to Acon[7] into our Ladies Chapell.


    [Footnote 1: Other editions say 160 paces.]

    [Footnote 2: Lead.]

    [Footnote 3: Such unclean.]

    [Footnote 4: Before.]

    [Footnote 5: Bow.]

    [Footnote 6: Proffer or offer.]

    [Footnote 7: _Pynson_ and others say Paris.]


  _Yet of the temple of God._

AND ye shall understande that this is not the temple that Salomon
made, for that temple lasted but a thousand, an hundred and two yeare.
For Titus, Vespasianus Son, that was Emperour of Rome that layde
syege about Hierusalem for to discomfyte the Jewes, for they hadde put
Chryst to death without leave of the Emperour, and when he had taken
the citie he did brenne the temple and caste it downe, and toke all
the Jewes and put to death CXIM and the other he put in prison, and
solde xxx for a peny for they sayd that they bought Jesu Christ for
xxx pence. And sithen[1] gave Julian Apostata leve to y^e Jewes to
make the Temple of Hierusalem againe for he hated christen men, and
yet he was Chrysten, but he forsoke his lawe. And whan the Jewes hadde
made the Temple, then came an earthe quacke (as God woulde) and caste
downe all that they had made. Sythen Adryan the Emperour that was of
them of Troye made Hierusalem againe and the Temple in that same maner
that Salomon made it, and would that no Jewe should dwell there but
all christen men, for if all it were[2] so that he was not chrystened,
he loved the christen men more than other men, save men of his owne
fayth. And this emperour dyd enclose and wall the church of the holy
sepulcre within the citie, that before was farre without the citie,
and he would have chaunged the name of Hierusalem and called it
Helyam,[3] but that name lasted not longe. And ye shall wete[4] that
the Sarasins do greate worship to that Temple and they saye that place
is right holy, and when they go therein they go bare foote and knele
many times downe. And when I and my felowes came therein, we did of[5]
our harnesse[6] and came bare foote into the Temple & thought that we
should doe as much or more than they that were mistrowing.[7] And this
Temple is three score[8] and three cubites of wydenesse and as much of
length and xxxii[9] cubites in height and covered with lead and it is
within full of pillers of Marble. And in the middes of the Temple is
a stage of twenty[10] and foure greces of height and good pillers all
about. This place called of Jewes _Sancta Sanctorum_. That is to say
Holy of Holyest and in that place cometh none but their prelate that
maketh theyr sacrafyce, and the people standeth all about in divers
stages, after they are[11] of dignitie and worshippe, and there be
foure entrings into that Temple and the dores are of Cipres
well dighte,[12] and within the East dore our Lord sayd, here is
Hierusalem. And on the northe syde within the dore is a fountaine but
it runneth not; of the which holy writ speaketh & saith thus--_Vidi
aquam egredientem de templo_. That is to saye, I saw water comming
out of the temple. And upon the other side is a roche that men calle
sometyme Moryach, but after it was called Belet,[13] or the arke of
God, with the reliques of the Jewes. Thys arke did Titus cary with him
to Rome when he had discomfited all the Jewes. In that same arke were
the ten commandementes and Aarons rodde and Moyses rodde with which he
departed[14] the red sea, when the people of Israell passed through
on dryefoote & with that rod he did many wonders, and there was the
vessell of gold ful of manna, & clothing & ornaments & the tabernacle
of Aaron, and a table square of golde with twelve precious stones, &
a box of Jasper graven with four figures & eight names of our Lorde
within, & seven candlesticks of golde, & foure sensers of golde, and
an aulter also of fine gold & foure lions of gold, uppon the which
they had Cherubin of gold twelve spanne long, & a tabernacle of golde
& also twelve[15] trumpets of silver & a table of sylver & seven barly
loves and all other reliques that were before the nativitie of Jesu.
Also upon this roch slept Jacob, when he sawe Aungels go up and downe,
and sayde, _Vere locus iste sanctus est, et ego ignorabam_, That is
to say Forsooth this place is holy & I wist[16] it not. And there the
Aungel chaunged Jacob's name and called him Israell. And in that same
place David saw the aungell that slew the people with a sworde, and
put it all blody in the shethe. And in this roch was saynct Symeon
when he received our Lorde into the temple, and on this roch he set
him when the Jewes would have stoned him and the roch rived in two and
in that refte[17] he hid him and after a sterre came downe & gave him
light. And on this roch sat our Lady and learned hir sauter.[18] And
there forgave our Lord the sinnes of the woman that was taken and
found in adoultry, and there was our Lorde Jesu Christ circumcised,
and there the Aungell denounced to Zachary the nativitie of sainct
Jhon Baptist, and there offred fyrst Melchisedech bread and wine and
water to our Lorde in tokening of the sacrament that was to come, and
there fell Davyd, praying to our Lorde for mercy for him and for his
people, when he sawe the Aungell slea[19] his people, and our Lorde
anon herde his prayer, & therefore woulde he make the Temple in that
place, but our Lorde Jesu Christ forbadde hym by an Aungell, for he
had done treason when he did slea Euryas, a good knight, for to haue
his wyfe. And therefore all that he had ordeined for to make the
Temple he betoke[20] it to Salomon hys sonne, and he made it, and he
prayed our Lorde, that all those that prayed in that place devoutly,
and wyth good hearte, that he woulde heare theyr prayer and graunt
that they asked ryght wysely, and our Lorde graunted it, and therefore
Salomons son called it the Temple of counseyll and helpe of God.
Wythout the dores of that Temple is an auter, where Jewes were wont to
offer doves[21] and turtylles, and in that Temple was Zachary slayne,
and on that pynacle the Jewes sette Sainct James that was the fyrst
Byshoppe of Hierusalem. And a lyttle from this temple on the right
syde, is a church covered with lead, that is called the scole[22] of
Salomon. And toward the south is the temple of Salomon that is full
fayre, and a greate place, and in this place dwell knightes y^t are
called Templars and that was the founder thereof and of theyr order
and in that Templum Domini dwell Chanons. From this Temple towarde
the East xxvi[23] paces in a corner of the citie, is the bathe of our
Lorde, and (_in_) thys bath was wont to go[24] to Paradise & beside
is our Ladies bed and nere there is the tombe of Saynt Symeon. And
without the Cloyster of the Temple towarde the North is a ryght
fayre Churche of Sainct Anne our Ladies mother, & there was our ladye
conceyved, and before that churche is a great tree that began to grow
that same nighte. And as men go downe from y^t Church xxii greces
lieth Joachim our ladyes father, in a tombe of stone and there nere
was layde sometyme sainct Anne, but saint Eleyne did translate hir to
Constantinople. In this churche is a well in maner of a cesterne that
is called _Probatica piscina_ that hath five entrings, and in that
cesterne was wont an Aungell to discende and sterre the water, and
what man that bathed him firste therein after the morning,[25] was
made hole that was sicke, what sycknesse so euer he had, and there was
the man of the palsye made hole, that was sicke xxxviii yeare and
our Lorde sayde to him in this maner of wyse _Tolle grabatum tuum et
ambula_. That is to say, take thy bed and go. And there besyde, was
the house of Pylate and a little thence was the house of Kinge Herode
that dyd slea the Innocentes.

    [Footnote 1: Since then.]

    [Footnote 2: For even if he were not baptised.]

    [Footnote 3: Ælia.]

    [Footnote 4: Know.]

    [Footnote 5: Put off.]

    [Footnote 6: Armour.]

    [Footnote 7: Unbelieving.]

    [Footnote 8: Other editions say, respectively, 64, 120, and

    [Footnote 9: As Footnote 8.]

    [Footnote 10: As Footnote 8.]

    [Footnote 11: According to their dignity, &c.]

    [Footnote 12: Finely ornamented.]

    [Footnote 13: Bethel.]

    [Footnote 14: Divided.]

    [Footnote 15: Other editions say 2.]

    [Footnote 16: Knew.]

    [Footnote 17: Rift or cleft.]

    [Footnote 18: Psalter.]

    [Footnote 19: Slay.]

    [Footnote 20: Bequeathed.]

    [Footnote 21: Pigeons and turtle doves.]

    [Footnote 22: School.]

    [Footnote 23: Other editions say 120.]

    [Footnote 24: Others say, "wont to come water _from_

    [Footnote 25: _Pynson_ has it "moving."]



  _Of Herod the King._

THIS King Herod was a full wycked man and a fell,[1] for he did firste
and formost slea his wife which he loved full well, and for the greate
love of hir, he went out of his witte,[2] and so was he a long time,
and afterwarde he came againe to himselfe. And sythen he did slea his
own children that he had gotten of that same wyfe, and after he made
slea[3] the other, his second wife & a son that he had gotten of that
same wyfe, and after he did slea his owne mother, & he wold also haue
slaine his owne brother, but his brother died sodeinly, and thus he
did all the yll that he might. And then he fell syke and when he sawe
that he should dye, he sent for his sister, and all the great lordes
of that countrie, and when they were there, he did put all the Lordes
into a toure and sayde to his syster, he wist well that the men of
the countrey should make no sorowe for him when he was deade, and
therefore he made hir for to sweare unto him that she should[4] do
smite of the heads of his lordes every one, after his death and then
shoulde men of the countrey make sorowe for his death or else they
woulde not sorowe and then he made his testament. But his sister
fulfylled it not as of that thing that pertayned unto the lordes, for,
as sone as he was deade, she delyvered the lordes out of the toure,
and sent every one home to theyr houses, and tolde them what hir
brother would that she do unto them. And ye shall understande that in
that tyme was three Herodes of great name. This of whome I speake,
men called him Herode Ascolonite, and he that did smite of Saint John
Baptist heade, was called Herode Antipa and the thirde was called
Herode Agrypa that did sleay Saint James and put Saint Peter in

    [Footnote 1: Crafty.]

    [Footnote 2: In _Pynson's_ version it is "and for the greate
    love that he had to hir, whan she was dede, he behelde her,
    and want out of his wyt."]

    [Footnote 3: Killed.]

    [Footnote 4: Cause to be smitten off.]



  _Of Saynte Salvators church._


A LYTTEL within the citie is saynct Salvatours church & therein is
Saint Jhon Crysostoms arme, and the most part of Sainct Stephens head.


And on the other syde towarde the south as men go to mount Syon is a
fayre church of sainct James where his head was smitten of, and there
is mounte Syon and there is a fayre church of God and of our Lady
where she was dwelling and dyed, and there was sometime an Abbey of
Chanons regulers and from that place she was borne of the Apostles
unto the Vale of Josaphat. And there is the stone that y^e aungel bare
to our ladye from mount Synay & it is of that colour that the roche of
Sainct Katheryne is of, and there besyde is the gate where our Ladye
when she was with Childe went through to Bethlem. Also at the entrynge
of Mount Syon is a chappell and in that Chapell is that stone greate
and large, with which the Sepulcre was covered when Christe was layde
therein, the which stone as it is wrytten y^e three Maryes saw turned
upward when they came to the sepulcre, and they found an Aungell that
sayd to them, that Christ was rysen from death to lyfe. And there is a
litle piller to the which our Lord was bounde and scourged, and there
was Anas house that was bishop of the Jewes in that time, and in that
same place forsoke Saint Peter our Lord thrise before the Cocke crewe.
And there is a part of the table on the which God made his maunde with
his disciples & yet is there the vessell with water out of the which
his disciples feete were washed, and thereby is Sainct Stephens grave
and there is the Aulter where our Lady heard the Aungels sing
masse and there appeared Christ fyrst to his disciples after his
resurrection, and when the gates were sperde,[1] and sayde _Pax
vobiscum_. That is to saye, Peace be to you. And on that Mount apeared
Christ to Sainct Thomas, and badde him assaye hys Wounde, and that was
the viii daye after his resurrection and then he beleved perfectly &
sayde _Dominus meus & deus meus_. That is to say in English, My Lorde
& my God. In that same Chappell behind the highe aulter were all
the Apostles on Witsonday, when the holy ghoste descended on them in
likenesse of fyre, and there made God Paske[2] with his disciples, and
there slepte Saynt Jhon the Evangelyst on our Lordes breast and saw
sleping many privy things of heaven. And mount Syon is within the
Citie, and it is a lyttle hygher than the other syde of the Citie, and
that Citie is stronger on that one syde than on the other, for at the
fote of mount Syon is a fayre Castell & strong which the Soudan
did cause to be made there. On mount Syon was King David buried and
Salomon and many other Kings of Hierusalem, and here is the place
where saint Peter wepte full tenderly when he had forsaken our Lorde,
and a stones cast from that is another place where our Lord was
judged, for that time was there Caiphas house & betwene that Temple
(_of_) Salomon and Mount Sion is the place where Christ raysed
the mayden from death to lyfe. Under mount Syon toward the vale of
Josaphat is a well that men call Natatorium[3] Sylo, there was our
Lord washed after he was baptized. And thereby is the tree on which
Judas hanged himselfe for dispaire when he had soulde Christ. And
thereby is the synagoge where the Bishops of Jewes and the Pharyses
came to hold theyr counsel and there Judas cast the xxx pence before
them & said _Peccavi tradens sanguinem justum_, That is to saye, I
haue sinned in betraying the innocent bloude.


    [Footnote 1: Shut.]

    [Footnote 2: Kept the Passover.]

    [Footnote 3: The Pool of Siloah.]


  _Of the feelde of Acheldemack[1] which was bought with the
    xxx pence._

ON the other syde of mount Syon towarde the South a stons Cast, is the
feeld that was bought with those xxx pence for which Christe was sold,
that men call Acheldemack, that is to say the feeld of bloude, in
that feelde is many tombes of Chrysten men for there bee many pylgrims
graven.[2] And also in Hierusalem toward the weast, is a fayre churche
where the tree grew of which the crosse was made and thereby is a
fayre churche where our lady mette with Elizabeth when they were
both with Chylde & sainct Jhon styrred in his mothers wombe and made
worship to our Lord his maker, and under the aulter of the church is
a place where Sainct Jhon was borne and thereby is the castell of

    [Footnote 1 Aceldama.]

    [Footnote 2 Buried.]

    [Footnote 3: Emmaus.]


  _Of mount Joye._

TWO myle from Hierusalem is the mounte Joye that is a fayre place and
a liking, & there lieth Samuell the prophete in a fayre tombe, and it
is called mount Joye for there many pylgrims se first Hierusalem. And
in the middle of the Vale of Josaphat is a lyttle ryver that is called
Torrens[1] Cedron, and over thwart this laye a tree, of the which
the crosse was made, that men passed over on. Also in y^e vale is a
churche of our lady, and there is the sepulchre of our lady, and our
lady was of age when she dyed, lxxii yeare. And there nere is the
place where our Lorde forgaue Sainct Peter all his sinnes and mysdedes
that he had done. And beside that is a chappell where Judas kissed our
Lorde, that men call Getsemay,[2] and he was taken of the Jewes, and
there lefte Christ his disciples before his passion, when he went to
praye, and seyd, _Pater Si fieri potest, transeat a me calix iste_,
that is to say in English, Father if it may be done, let this chalice
go from me. Also thereby is a chapell where our Lord swet both bloud
& water and there is the tombe of King Josaphat, of whom the Vale had
the name, and on the syde of that Vale is the mount Olivet, and it is
called so for there groweth many Olive trees, and it is higher than
Hierusalem & therefore from that hill men may see into the streetes
of Hierusalem. And betwene that hill and the citie is nothing but the
vale of Josaphat and that is not full large, and uppon that hyl stode
our Lorde when he went into heaven, and yet semeth there the steppe[3]
of his left foote in the stone. And there is an Abbey of black chanons
that was great sometime, but now there is but a church. And but a
little thence xviii paces is a chapell, and there is the stone on the
which our Lord God sate and when he preched, and sayde thus, _Beati
pauperes spiritu, quoniam ipsorum est regnum celorum_. That is to saye
in English, Blessed be they that are poore in spirite, for theyrs is
the Kingdome of heaven, and ther he taught his disciples theyr _Pater
noster_. There also is a churche of that blessed woman Mary Egypcian,
and there is she buryed. And uppon the other side towarde the East
three bow shotes from thence, standeth Bethephage, where our Lorde
Jesu Christ sente Sainct Peter and saynte James, for to fetch an asse
on Palme Sonday.

    [Footnote 1: The Brook Kedron.]

    [Footnote 2: Gethsemane.]

    [Footnote 3: Footprint.]



  _Of the Castell Bethania._

THERE toward the East is a castel, that men call Bethania and there
dwelled Symon the lepruse, that harborowed[1] our lord, and them that
were Baptysed of his disciples, and he was called Julyan and was made
Bishop and that is he that men call on for good harborow.[2] In that
same place our lord forgave Mary Magdeleyne hir sinnes, and there she
washed his fete with teares & wiped them with hir here & there was
Lazarus raised that was foure dayes deade.

    [Footnote 1: Lodged.]

    [Footnote 2: Protection.]


  _Of Jerico and other things._

IN the returning to mount Olivet, is the place where oure Lorde wept
uppon Hierusalem and thereby[1] our Lady apeared to Sainct Thomas
after hir assumption and gave him hir gyrdell and thereby is the stone
on the which our Lorde sat often upon and preched and thereon he shall
syt at the day of Judgement, as himselfe sayd. And there is mount
Galile where the appostels were gathered when Mary Magdelein tolde
them of Christe's rising. Betwene mount Olivet & mount Galile is a
church, where the Aungell sayde to our Lady when she should die. And
from Bethany to Jerico is fiue myle. Jerico was sometime a little
citie but it was wasted, and now it is but a lyttle towne, that towne
toke Josue through miracle of God, & bydding of the aungell, and
destroyed it, & cursed all those that builded it againe. Of that citie
was Raab that common woman, that received messengers of Israel & kept
them from many perils of deth, & therefore she had a good rewarde,
as holy writ sayth "_Quando accepit prophetum in nomine meo mercedem
prophetæ accipiet_." That is to say, He that taketh a prophet in my
name, he shall take mede of a prophet.[2]

    [Footnote 1: Close by.]

    [Footnote 2: Matt. x. 41, "He that receiveth a prophet in the
    name of a prophet, shall receive a prophet's reward."]


  _Of the holy place betwene Bethany and flom Jordane and
    other things._

ALSO from Bethany men go from Jordan thorow the Wildernesse and it is
nere a daies journey betwene. Toward the East is a great hill where
our Lord fasted XL dayes & upon this hill was Christ brought of the
fende[1] of Hell, & sayd to him thus, _Dic ut lapides isti panis
fiant_. That is to say, Commaund that these stones be made bread.
And there is an Hermitage wher dwelled a maner of Christen men called
Georgins[2] for sainct George converted them, and upon that hill
dwelled Abraham a great whyle. Also as men go to Jerico, in the way
sate many sicke men crying, _Jesu fili David, misere nobis_. That is
to say, Jesu the sonne of David have mercie upon us. And two myle from
Jerico is flom[3] Jordan & ye shall wete the dead sea departeth the
lande of Jude and of Araby and the water of the sea is right bitter
and this water casteth out a thinge that men call _aspatum_[4] as
great pieces as a horse. And Hierusalem is cc furlonges from this
sea, and it is called the dead sea, for it runneth not, nor no man, ne
beast, that hath life, that is therein, may lyve, and that hath bene
proved many times, for they have cast therein men that were judged to
death, nor no man may drinke of that water & if men cast yron therein
it commeth up againe, and if a man cast a fether therein it goeth to
the grounde, and that is against kinde.[5]


And there about grow trees that beare fruite of faire color and seme
rype, but when a man breaketh them or cut them, he findeth naught in
them but coales or asshes, in tokening that throughe the vengaunce of
God these cities were brent with the fyre of hell. And some men call
that lake the lake of Alphytedde,[6] and some call it the flome of
the divell, and some call it the stinking flome, for the water thereof
stynketh. There sanke these five cities through the wrath of God, that
is to saye, Sodome, Gomor,[7] Aldema,[8] Solome,[9] and Segor, for the
sinne that raigned in them, but Segor through the prayer of Loth,
was saved a great while, for it sat on an hyll, and yet apeareth much
thereof above the water, and men may see the walles in cleare weather.
And in this citie of Segor, Loth dwelled a great while . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . and at the ryght side of this see dwelled Lothes wife in
a stone of salt for that she looked againe when the citie sanke downe.

    [Footnote 1: Fiend.]

    [Footnote 2: Georgians.]

    [Footnote 3: River. _Lat._, Flumen.]

    [Footnote 4: Asphaltum.]

    [Footnote 5: Nature.]

    [Footnote 6: Assa f[oe]tida.]

    [Footnote 7: Gomorrah.]

    [Footnote 8: Aldama.]

    [Footnote 9: Seboym.]


  _Of Abraham and his generation._

AND ye shall understande that Lothe was Arons sone, Abraham's brother,
and Sara Abraham's wyfe was Loths syster, and Sara was xc yere olde
when she gate Ysaac and Abraham had another son named Ismael that he
had gotten on his mayden Ager. And when Ysaac was viii days olde he
was circumcised and his other son Ismaell was cyrcumcised the same
day and was xiiii yeare of age, therefore the Jewes that be of the
generation of Isaac do circumcyse them at the viii day of theyr age
and the Sarasyns that be of Ismaels kinde doe cyrcumsise them at theyr
xiii yeare of age. And into that dead sea aforesayde runneth flome
Jordan and maketh there an ende and this is within a myle of saint
Jhons church & a lyttle beneth that same church Westward, were the
Christen men are wont to bath them & a myle thence is the river Loth,
through which Jacob went when he came from Mesopotamye.


  _Of the river Jordan._

THIS flom Jordan is no great ryver nor depe, but there is much good
fishe therein, and it commeth from mount Lybany from two welles, that
men call Jor and Dane and of them it taketh the name. And upon the one
syde of that river is mount Gelboe,[1] and there is a fayre playne.
And on that other syde men goe by mount Lybany, to the desert
of Pharon.[2] These hylles departe the kingdome of Surry and the
countreys of Phenys.[3] On that hyll grow Cedres that beare longe
apples which are as muche as a mannes heade. Thys flom Jordan
departeth Galily and the lande of Idumea and the lande of Botron[4] &
it runneth into a playne that men call Meldam[5] in Sarasyns language,
and in Englyshe, fayre, because ofte tymes bee there kepte great
fayres, and in the playne is the tombe of Job. In this flom Jordane
our Lord was baptised, and there was the voice of the Father hearde
saying, _Hic est filius meus dilectus, in quo mihi bene complacui,
ipsum audite_. That is to saye in English, Here is my sonne that
I love, in whome I am well pleased, heare him. And the holy ghost
descended on him in lykenesse of a doue & so was there in thys
baptysing all the Trinitie. And through the flome Jordan passed the
children of Israell all dry, and they sette stones in the myddest of
the water, in token of great myracle. And also in that flome Naaman of
Surry bathed him, that was mesel, and he was made hole, and a lyttle
from thence is the citie of Hay, the which Josue assayled and toke.
And about flom Jordan are many churches where Christen men dwel,
also by flom Jordan, is the vale of Mambre that is a fayre vale & a


    [Footnote 1: Gilboa.]

    [Footnote 2: Pharan.]

    [Footnote 3: Ph[oe]nicia.]

    [Footnote 4: Betron.]

    [Footnote 5: In all probability the same as the Arabic word
    _Multamin_, which means a congregation of visitors.]


  _Of many other mervailes._

AND ye shall understande, that for to go from the dead sea afterward
out of the marche of the land of promissions, is a stronge Castell
that men call Carran[1] in Sermoys, that is to saye, the kinges hyll
in English. This castell did a King of Fraunce make, that men call
Baudewin, that had conquered all that lande, and put it into Christen
mens handes to kepe, and under that castell is a fayre towne that men
call Sabaoth, and there about dwell many Christen men under tribute.
And then go men to Nazareth, of the which our Lord had his name. And
from Nazareth unto Hierusalem is three dayes journey. Also men go
through the province of Galyle, through Romacha,[2] through Sophyn,[3]
and through the hygh hill of Effrayne,[4] where Anna that was Samuells
mother the prophet dwelled, & there was the prophete borne and after
his deathe was buried at mount Joye as I have sayde. And after come
men to Sybula,[5] where the Arke of God was kepte under Helye[6] the
Prophete. And there made the people of Israell[7] theyr sacrafyce unto
our Lorde. Also there spake our Lorde fyrst unto Samuell and there
mynistered God the sacrament. Also nere there at the lefte side is
Gabaon[8] and Rama[9] & Benjamin of the which holy writ speaketh.
After that come men to Sychem, that some men call Sycar and this is in
the province of Samaritanes, and sometime there was a Church, but it
is all wasted, and it a faire vale and plenteous, and there is a good
citie that men call Neople,[10] and from thence it is a dayes journey
unto Hierusalem. And there is the well where oure Lorde spake to the
woman of Samaritane, and Sechen is ten myle from Hierusalem and it is
called Neople, that is to saye, the new towne. And there is the Temple
of Joseph, Jacobs sonne, that governed Egipte, and from thence were
his bones brought and layde in the temple, and thyther came Jewes
often in pilgrimage with great devotion, and in that citie was Jacob's
daughter Diana ravished, for whom hir brethren slewe many men, and
thereby is the citie of Garysim[11] where the Samaritanes make their


On this hill wold Abraham haue sacryfised his sonne Isaac and there
nere is the vale Dotaym,[12] and there is the cesterne that Josephe
was cast in of his bretherne before that they solde him, and it is two
myle to Sichar, and fro thence men come to Samary,[13] that men call
Sabaste, and that is the chiefe citie of that countrey, and in that
citie was the seat of the twelve Kynges of Israell, but it is not so
great as it was. And there was saint John Baptist buried betwene two
prophetes Helyas[14] and Abdon,[15] but he was beheaded in the castell
of Makaryn besyde the dead sea and he was translated[16] of his
disciples and buried at Samary, but there dyd Julius apostata take
hys bones and brente[17] them, for he was that tyme Emperour, but that
finger with whiche hee shewed our Lord saying, _Ecce Agnus dei_, That
is to say, Beholde the lamb of God, and that finger might not bee
brent, and sainct Tecla[18] the Virgin did bring this finger under the
Alphen,[19] that be mountaynes, where they do it great worshippe. And
there was sainct Jhon Baptist head closed in a wall, but the Emperour
Theodosius did take it out, and found it lapped in a clothe all
bloudie, and bare it to Constantinople, and there is yet the one halfe
of the head, and the other is at Rome in Saint Sylvesters church, &
the vessell wherein his head was layde when it was smitten of is at
Geene,[20] and they do it great worship. Some saye that Sainct Jhons
hedde is at Amiens in Pycardy, and some say it is saincte Johns head
the byshop. I wot not but to God it is knowne.

    [Footnote 1: In some other editions called Carak.]

    [Footnote 2: Ramoth.]

    [Footnote 3: Sodom.]

    [Footnote 4: Ephraim.]

    [Footnote 5: Shiloh.]

    [Footnote 6: Eli.]

    [Footnote 7: Hebron.]

    [Footnote 8: Gibeon.]

    [Footnote 9: Ramah.]

    [Footnote 10: Neapolis.]

    [Footnote 11: Gerizim.]

    [Footnote 12: Dothan.]

    [Footnote 13: Samaria.]

    [Footnote 14: Elisha.]

    [Footnote 15: Abdias.]

    [Footnote 16: Carried away.]

    [Footnote 17: Burnt.]

    [Footnote 18: Was an English woman, and was invited by St.
    Boniface into Germany, where she was made Abbess of Kissengen,
    near Wurtzburg in Bavaria.]

    [Footnote 19: Alps.]

    [Footnote 20: Genoa.]


  _Of the Samaritanes._


FROM Sebasten to Hierusalem is xii myle and betwene the hylles of this
countrey is a well, that men call _fons Jacob_, That is to say
Jacobs well, that chaungeth foure times in the yeare his coloure, for
sometyme it is redde, sometymes cleare, sometime grene and sometyme
thycke, and men that dwell there are called Samarytanes, & they were
converted through the Apostles and theyr law varieth from Christen law
and Sarasins lawe and also from Jewes & Paynims. They beleve well in
one God that all shall deme,[1] and beleve the Byble after the lettre,
and they lappe theyr heads in redde linnen cloth, for difference of
other, for Sarasins wrap theyr heads in white cloth & christen men
that dwell there in blew cloth, and Jewes in yelow, and in this
country dwell many Jewes paying tribute as Christen men doth.

    [Footnote 1: Regard, consider, or suppose.]


  _Of Galyle._

FROM this countrey that I have spoken of, men go to the playne of
Galyle and leave the hyll on the one side and Galyle is of the
province of the lande of promyssion and in that province is the lande
of Naym and Capharnaym and Corasaym and at Bethsayda was Saint Peter &
Saint Andrew borne. At Carasaym shall Antechrist be borne, and as some
men say he shall be borne in Babilon therefore sayd the Prophet, _De
babilonia Coluber exiet, qui totum mundum devorabit_, That is to say,
Of Babilon shall come a serpent that shall devoure all the worlde. And
this Antechrist shall be nourished in Bethsayde and shall raign in
Corasaym, therefore sayth holy writ, _Ve tibi Corasaim Ve tibi
Bethsayda_, that is to say, Wo be to the Corasaim, Wo be to the
Bethsayda. And the cave of Galyle is foure myle from Nazareth. Of that
citie was the woman of Cananee, of whome the Gospell speaketh, and
there our Lorde did the fyrst myracle at the wedding at the
Archedeclyne[1] when he turned water into wine. And from thence men go
unto Nazareth that was sometime a great Citie, but now there is but a
lyttle towne and it is not walled, and there was our Lady borne, the
name toke our Lorde of this Citie, but our Ladie was gotten at
Hierusalem. At Nazareth Joseph toke our lady to wyfe whan she was
fourtene yeare of age, and there the aungell saluted hir sayinge, _Ave
gratia plena Dominus tecum_, That is to saye, Hayll full of grace the
Lord be with thee. And there was sometime a great Church, and now is
there but a lyttle closet to receive the offryngs of the Pylgrymes,
and there is the well of Gabryell where our Lorde was wont to bathe
him in wan he was lyttle. At Nazareth was our Lord nouryshed, and
Nazareth is to say floure of gardeyn & it may be well called so, for
there was nourished the floure of lyfe, that was our lorde Jesu
Christ. At halfe a myle from Nazareth is the bloude[2] of our Lorde,
for the Jewes ledde him upon an hyghe roche to cast him downe & slea
him, but Jesu Christ passed them and lepte on a roche where his steps
be yet sene, & therefore some when they dreade them of theves or else
of enemies, say thus, _Jesus autem transiens per medium illorum ibat_.
And they say also these verses of the Psalter three tymes, _Irruat
super eos formido & pavor in magnitudine brachii tui Domine Fiant
immobiles quasi lapis, donec per transeat populus tuus domine, &
populus iste quem redemisti_. And so when all this is sayd, a man may
go without any lettyng.[3] Also ye shall understande and know that our
blessed Lady bare hir chylde whan she was xv yeare of age, and she
lived with hym xxxii[4] yeare and three monethes, and after his
passion she lived xxii[4] yeare.

    [Footnote 1: _Pynson_ says Archetryclyne, [Greek:
    Architriklinos], the president of a banquet.]

    [Footnote 2: Should be _leap_.]

    [Footnote 3: Hindrance.]

    [Footnote 4: Other editions say 33 and 24, which would make
    the Virgin's age 72 when she died (see _ante_, p. 70).]


  _The way of Nazareth to the mount or hyll of Tabor._

AND from Nazareth to the mounte Tabor is thre[1] myle, and there our
Lord transfygured hym before sainct Peter, sainct Jhon & sainct James.
And there they saw ghostly[2] our Lorde and Moyses and Helye the
prophetes. And therefore Sainct Peter sayde, _Bonum est nos hic esse,
faciamus tria tabernacula_, That is to say, It is good to us to be
here, make we three tabernacles. And our lord Jesu Chryste bad them
that they should say it to no man, unto the time that he was rysen
from death to lyfe. And uppon the same hyll shall foure aungels
sowne[3] theyr trompets, and rayse all men that are dead to lyfe,
and then shall they come in bodie and Soule to the Judgement, but the
Judgement shall be in the Vale of Josaphat on Easterday, at the same
tyme as our Lorde rose from death to lyfe. And also a myle from mounte
Tabor is mount Hermon, and ther was the citie of Namy,[4] before the
gates of the Citie our Lord raysed the wydowes sone, that had no more

    [Footnote 1: Others say 4.]

    [Footnote 2: In a spiritual shape.]

    [Footnote 3: Sound.]

    [Footnote 4: Nain.]


  _Of the sea of Galyle._

AND from thence men go to a citie that men call Tyberyen,[1] that
sitteth[2] on the sea of Galyle, it is no sea ne arme of the sea,
for it is but a staumble[3] of fresh water, and it is no more than an
hundred furlongs long and XL brode, and therein is many good fyshes.
And by that same sea, standeth many good cities, and therefore thys
sea chaungeth often his name after the cities that stande thereupon,
but it is all one water or sea and upon this sea, our Lorde went dry
fote and there sayde he to Peter when he came on the water, & was
nere drowned, _Modice fidei quare dubitasti?_ That is to saye, Thou of
lyttle fayth, why hadst thou doubte.

    [Footnote 1: Tiberias.]

    [Footnote 2: On the borders of.]

    [Footnote 3: A pool or lake.]


  _Of the table whereon Christ eat after his resurrection._

IN this citie of Tiberyen is the table that Christ eat on with his
disciples after his resurrection & they knew him in breaking of bread
(as holy writ saith) _Et cognoverunt eum in fractione Panis_. That
is to say, they knew him in breaking of bread. And aboute the hyll of
Tiberien is the citie where our Lord fed v thousand people with five
Barly loves and two fishes, and in that same citie did men cast
in anger a fierbrand or burning stick after our Lord, but the same
burning sticke did fall on the earth, and incontinent grew out of the
same sticke a tree, and is waxen a bigge tree, and groweth yet, and
the scales of the tree be all blacke. And ye shall understand that
flom Jordan beginneth under the hill of Libany, & there beginneth the
lande of promission, and it lasteth under Barsabe[1] of length, & from
the North part to the South, it holdeth ix score myle and of breadth
from Jerico to Jaffe it is XL mile, and ye shall understande that the
lande of promission beginneth at the Kingdome of Surry and lasteth
unto the wildernesse of Araby.


    [Footnote 1: Beersheba.]


  _Of straunge maners and divers._


AND in this countrey & in many other landes over the sea, it is a
maner when they have warre and cities or castels beseged so strongly
that they may send no messages to any lordes for socour then they
write their letters & binde them about the neckes of doves and let
them flie their wayes, bicause the dove is of that nature that he will
returne againe to the place where he is brought up, and thus they do
commonly in that countrey. And ye shal wete that among the Sarasins in
many places dwel christen men under tribute and they are of divers
maners, and divers maners of monkes, and they are all christened and
have divers lawes, but they all beleve well in our Lord God, the
father, the sonne, & in the Holy ghost, but yet they fayle in the
articles of our faith, and they are called Jacobyns. For sainct James
converted theym to the fayth, and sainct John baptised them, and they
say that men shall onely shryve[1] them unto God, & not unto man for
they saye that God bad not man shryve him unto another man. And
therefore saith David in the Psalter in this maner of wise,
_Confitebor tibi, domine in toto Corde meo, &c._ That is to saye, Lord
I shall shrive me unto thee in all my hart. And in another place he
saith thus, _Delictum meum tibi cognitum feci_. That is to saye, My
trespasse I have made knowne unto thee. And in another place, _Deus
meus es tu & confitebor tibi_. That is to saye, Thou art my god and I
shall be shriven to thee. And in another place _Quoniam cogitatio
hominis confitebitur tibi_, &c. That is to say, The thought of man
shal be shriven to thee, and they knowe well the Bible and Psalter but
they say it not in latin, but in their owne language, and they saye
that David and other prophetes have sayde it. But Sainct Austyn and
Saynct Gregory say, _Qui scelera sua cogitat, & conversus fecerit,
veniam sibi credat_, That is to say, Who so knowith his syn and
turneth, he may beleve to have forgivenesse. And Sainct Gregory sayth
thus, _Dominus potius mentem, quam verbum considerat_, That is to
saye, Our Lord taketh more kepe[2] to thought, than to worde, and
Sainct Hilarius sayth, _Longorum temporum crimina, ictu oculi pereunt,
si cordis nata fuerit compunctio_, That is to say, Synnes that are
done of olde tyme perysh in twinkling of an eye, if despising of them
be born in a mans heart. And therefore say they, men shal shrive them
onely to God, by these authorities, & this (_it_) was the Apostles, &
popes that came sithen haue ordeyned, that men shall shrive them to
priestes & men as they are, & the cause is this, for they saye that a
man that hath a sicknesse, men may giue him no good medecines but they
know y^t kinde of the sicknesse, also they say a man may give no
covenable[3] penaunce but if he know y^e sin. For there is a maner of
synne that is grevouser to one man than it is to another, and
therefore it is nedefull that a man should know and understande the
kinde of sinne. And there be also other men that men call Surryens and
they hold halfe our faith, and halfe the faith of the Grekes and they
have longe berdes as the Grekes have.



And there ben[4] other that men call Georgiens, whome sainct George
converted, and they doe more worship to halowes[5] of heaven than
other doe, and they haue their crownes shaven, the clerkes haue rounde
crowns, and the lewde[6] have crownes square, & they holde the Grekes
lawe. And there be other that men call christen men of gyrding,[7]
for as much as they were gyrdels underneth, some other men call
Nestoryens, some Aryens, some Nubyens, some Gregours, and some Indiens
that are of Prester Johns lande, and euery one of those haue some
artycles of our belefe. But eche of them varye from other, and of
their varyaunce it were to muche to declare.[8]


    [Footnote 1: Confess.]

    [Footnote 2: Heed.]

    [Footnote 3: Convenient.]

    [Footnote 4: Be.]

    [Footnote 5: Saints.]

    [Footnote 6: Common people.]

    [Footnote 7: This arose from a curious ordinance in A.D. 856
    of the Khalif Motawakkel, who ordered both Jews & Christians
    to wear leather girdles; hence those Christians who lived in
    Syria were called "Christians of the girdle."]

    [Footnote 8: Tell.]


  _For to turne on this syde of Galyle._

NOW sythen I haue tolde you of many maners of men, that dwell in the
countreys before said, now will I tourne againe to my waye for to
tourne uppon this side. Now he that will tourne from the lande of
Galyle, that I spake of, to come on this syde, he shall go through
Damas that is a fayre citie & full of good marchaundises, and it is
three Journeys from the sea and five journeis from Hierusalem, but
they cary marchaundises upon camels, mules, horses and dromedaries and
other maner of beastes. This citie of Damas founded Helyzeus, that was
Abrahams servaunte before Ysaac was borne, and he thought to haue bene
Abrahams heyre and therefore he named that citie Damas. And in that
place slew Cayne his brother Abel, and besyde Damas is y^e mount of
Syry, and in y^t Citie is many a Phisicion & y^t holy man S. Paule was
a phisicion to saue mens bodys before y^t he was Converted, and after,
he was a phisicyon of soules. And from Damas men come by a place
called our Lady of Sardmarch,[1] that is fiue myle from Damas & it is
on a roch & there is a fayre churche and there dwell Monkes & Nunnes,
crysten, in the church, behynde the high auter is a table of tree,[2]
on the whiche table the ymage of our lady was depainted that many
tymes was turned into fleshe, but the ymage is now sene but a lyttle,
but evermore through grace of God, the table droppeth oyle, as it were
an Olyfe, & there is a vessell of marble under the table to receive
the oyle, thereof they giue to Pylgrimes, for it maketh whole many
sicknesses, and he that kepeth it clenely a year, after a yeare, it
turneth to fleshe and bloud. Betwene the citie of Darke and the citie
of Raphane is a ryver that men call Sabatory, for on the Saterday it
runneth fast, and all the weeke else it standeth styll and runneth not
or little. And there is another ryver that in the night freseth fast
and upon the day no frost is seene. And so men go by a citie that men
call Berugh,[3] and there men go into the sea that will go into Cipres
and they aryve at a porte of Sur or of Thyrry[4] & then men go to
Cipres, or else men go or may goe from the porte of Thyry ryght, and
come not to Cypres and arryve at some haven of Grece & there come men
into those countreys by ways that I haue spoken of before.


    [Footnote 1: Others say Sardenak.]

    [Footnote 2: On wood panel.]

    [Footnote 3: Others say Beruthe.]

    [Footnote 4: Tyre.]


  _How a man may go furdest and longest in those countreys as
    heare are rehersed._

NOWE have I tolde you of wayes by the whiche men goe furthest and
longeste, as by Babylon and mount Synay, and other places many,
through the which landes men turne againe to the lande of promission.
Now will I tell you the way of Hierusalem, for some men will not passe
it, some for they have no company[1] and many other causes resonable
and therefore I shall tell you shortely how a man may go with lyttle
coste and short tyme.

A man that commeth from the lande of the Weast, he goeth through
Fraunce, Burgoyn,[2] Lumberdy & to Venys or to Geen[3] or some other
haven of those marches, and take there a ship and go to the yle
Gryffe,[4] and so arryveth he in Grece, or else at port Myrock,[5] or
Valon or Duras or some other haven of those marches, and to go lande
for to reste hym, and goeth againe to the sea and arryveth at Cypres
and commeth not in the yle of Rodes and arriveth at Famagost that is
the Chiefe haven of Cypres or else at Lamaton, And then enter shyppe
againe, and passe besyde the haven of Tyre and come not to lande, and
so passeth by all the havens of the coste, untill he come to Jaffe,
that is the next hauen to Hierusalem, for it is xxviii[6] myle
betwene. And from Jaffe men go to the Citie of Ramos[7] & that is but
little thence, & it is a fayre citie & beside Ramos is a fayre churche
of our lady, where our lord shewed hym unto hir in three shadowes,
that betokeneth the trinitie, and there nere is a church of Sainct
George where his head was smitten of, and then to the Castell
of Emaux, and then to the mount Joye & from thence pilgrimes see
Hierusalem, and then to mount Modyn & then go to Hierusalem. At mount
Modyn lyeth the prophet Machabe,[8] and over Ramatha[9] is the towne
of Donke, whereof Amos the prophet was.

    [Footnote 1: _i.e._, it was unsafe to go alone.]

    [Footnote 2: Burgundy.]

    [Footnote 3: Genoa.]

    [Footnote 4: In some editions Gryffh, Grif, or Gresse,
    probably Crete.]

    [Footnote 5: In other editions Moroche or Myroche.]

    [Footnote 6: Others say 27.]

    [Footnote 7: Rames, Ramla.]

    [Footnote 8: Maccabeus.]

    [Footnote 9: Ramah Gibeon.]


  _Of othar wayes for to go by lande unto Hierusalem._

FOR as muche, as many men may not suffer the savour of the sea, &
better it is to go by lande even if it be more payne, and a man shall
go to one of the havens of Lumberdy as Venys or another, and he
shall passe into Grece to port Myroche, or another and shall goe to
Constantinople, and shall passe the water that is called the brache of
Saynt George that is an arme of the sea. And from thence ye shall come
to Pulveral, and then to the castel of Synople. And from thence shall
ye go unto Capadoce, that is a great countrey, wherein is many great
hylles and he shall go thorow Turky, and to the citie of Nike, the
which they wan from the Emperour of Constantinople, and it is a faire
citie and well walled, and there is a river that men call the Lay,
and there go men by the Alpes of Mormaunt, & through the vales of
Malebrynes and the vale of Ernax, and so to Antioche lesser, that
sitteth on the river richly, and there is about many good hills &
fayre and many fayre woddes and wild beastes. And he that will go
another way, he goeth by ye plaine of the Romain[1] Coste and the
Romaine sea. On that coste is a fayre castell that men call Florage,
and when a man is oute of the hilles, he passeth through the citie of
Moryach and Artose, where there is a great bridge upon the river of
Ferne, that men call Fassor,[2] & it is a great river bering ships,
and beside the citie of Damas, is the river that cometh from the mount
of Libany, and that men call Alban,[3] at the passing of this river
Sainct Eustache lost his two sonnes when he had lost his wife. And it
goeth through the playne of Archades, & to the red sea, and then men
go to the citie of Fermyne, and so to the citie of Ferne, and then to
Antioche & that is a fayre citie and well walled, for it is two myle
long, and there is a bridge over the river, that hath at eche pillar,
a good tower, and is the best citie of the Kingdome of Surrey. From
Antioche, men go to the citie of Locuth[4] and so to Geble[5] and to
Tortouse,[6] & thereby is the lande of Lambre & a strong castell, that
men call Mambeke. And from Tortouse, men go to Trypelle[7] on the
sea, and upon the sea men go to Dacres,[8] and there is two wayes to
Hierusalem, on the lefte way men go first unto Damas by flom Jordan,
and on the right syde men go throughe the lande Flagme and so to the
citie of Cayphas,[9] in which citie Cayphas was lorde, & some call
it the castell Pelleryus and from thence it is foure dayes journey
to Hierusalem & they go throughe Cesarye Phylyp,[10] and Jaffe, and
Ramas, Eumaux, & so forth to Hierusalem.

    [Footnote 1: Roumanian.]

    [Footnote 2: ? Pharphar of the Scriptures.]

    [Footnote 3: ? Abana.]

    [Footnote 4: Latakijah.]

    [Footnote 5: Jebili.]

    [Footnote 6: Tortosa.]

    [Footnote 7: Tripoli.]

    [Footnote 8: Acre.]

    [Footnote 9: Caiffa.]

    [Footnote 10: Philippi.]


  _Yet another way by lande toward the lande of promission._

NOW haue I tolde you some wayes by land and by water how men may go to
Hierusalem. And if it be so that there be many other wayes that men go
by, after the countreys that they come from, neverthelesse they tourne
all to one ende, yet is there a way all by land to Hierusalem, &
passe no sea from Fraunce or Flaunders, but that way is full longe
and perylous & of great travaile, & therefore few go that way, he that
goeth that way, he goeth through Almayn & Pruse and so to Tartary,
this Tartary is holden of the great Cane,[1] of whome I shall speake
afterwarde, for thether lasteth[2] his lordeshippe, and all the lords
of Tartary yelde to him tribute. Tartary is a full evill land, sandy
and a lytle fruite bearing, for there groweth but little corne or
fruyte, but bestes are there great plentie, and therefore eate they
but fleshe without breade, and they sup the broth, and they drynke
mylke of all maner of bestes, they eat Cattes, and all maner of
wyld bestes, rattes & myce, and they haue but lyttle wodde,[3] and
therefore they dyght[4] theyr meate with horse dounge & other bestes
doung, when it is dry. Princes and other lordes eate but ones in the
day, and ryght lyttle, and they be ryght foule folke, and of evyll
lyking, and in somer there is many tempests and thonders, that sleaeth
many men & bestes (_sodainly it is_) right colde, and sodainly it is
right hot. The Prince that governeth that land they call him Roco and
he dwelleth at a Citie that men call Orda, and forsoth there is no
man that will dwell in that lande, for it is good to sow in thornes
& wedes, other good is there none, as I herd say, for I was not that
way, but I have bene in other lordes landes marching thereon, and the
land of Rossye and Nyflonde & the Kingedome of Grecon[5] and Lectowe,
and the kingdome of Grasten[6] & in many other places, but I went
neuer that way to Hierusalem & therefore I may not tell it, for I haue
understande, that men may not well go that way but in winter, when the
waters and marys[7] that be in that lande be frosen and covered with
snow, so that men may passe thereon, for were not the snow,
there might no man go in that lande but he wer lost. And ye shall
understande that a man shall go three days journey from Pruse to passe
this waye, tyll he come to the lande of Sarasyns, that men dwell in.
And if by fortune any christen men passe that way, as once a yeare
they doe, they cary theyr vitale with them, for they shoulde finde
nothing there but a maner of things that they call Syleys, and they
cary theyr vytales upon the yce on sleddes[8] and charyottes without
wheles, and as long as theyr vitayles laste, they may dwell there, but
no longer. And when spyes of the countrey see christen men come, they
runne to the towns and castels and cry right loude, Kera, Kera, Kera,
and as sone as they haue cryed, then dothe the people arme them. And
ye shall understande that the yse there is harder than it is here, and
euery man hath a stew[9] in his house, and therein they eat and do all
things that them nedeth. And that is at the North part of the world,
where it is commonly colde, for the Sonne cometh ne shineth but a
little in that countrey, and that lande is in some places so colde,
that there may no man dwel therein, and on the South side of the world
it is in some places so hote, that there can no man dwel, the son
giveth so great heate in those countreys.

    [Footnote 1: Khan.]

    [Footnote 2: For his dominions extend as far.]

    [Footnote 3: Wood.]

    [Footnote 4: Cook.]

    [Footnote 5: Cracow.]

    [Footnote 6: Darestan, or Silistria.]

    [Footnote 7: Marais or marshes, meres.]

    [Footnote 8: Sledges.]

    [Footnote 9: Stove.]


INASMUCH as I haue told you of the Sarasins and of other landes, if ye
will I shall tell you a parte of theyr law, and of theyr beleve, after
as theyr boke sayeth, that they call Alkaron,[1] and some call that
boke Mysap,[2] some call it Harme[3] in diverse language of countreys,
which booke Machomet gave them, in y^e which boke he wrote among other
things as I have often red and sene, that they that are good shall goe
to Paradise, and the evill folkes to hell, and that beleeve all the
Sarasyns. And if a man aske of what Paradise they meane, they say it
is a place of delytes, where a man shall finde all maner of fruites at
all times, and waters, and rivers running with milke & hony, wine
and fresh water, and they shall have faire houses & good as they have
deserved, and those houses are made of precious stones, gold & sylver
& every man shall haue ten[4] wives and all maydens. Also they speake
often & beleve of the Virgin Mary and tell of the Incarnation, that
Mary was learned[5] of Aungels and that Gabriel sayd to hir that she
was chosen before all other from the beginning of the world, and that
wytnesseth well theyr booke, & Gabriel tolde hir of the incarnation of
Jesu Christ, and that she shoulde conceive and beare a childe and they
saye that Christ was a holy prophet in word & dede, and also meke &
rightwise to all men, and without any blame worthy. And they saye that
when the Aungell tolde hir of the incarnation, she hadde great dread,
for she was righte younge, and there was one in the countrey
that medled with sorcery, that men called Takina,[6] that with
enchauntements could make him lyke an Aungell and he went often and
lay with maidens, and therefore was Mary the more aferde[7] of the
Aungell, and thought in hir mynde that it had bene Takina that went to
maydens, and she conjured him that he should tell hir if he were the
same Takina, and the Aungell bad hir have no dreade for he was for
certayne a true messenger of Jesu Christ. Also theyr booke of Alkaron
saith, that she had a child under a palme tree, then was she greatly
ashamed and sayde that she woulde she had bene dead. As sone as hir
childe was borne, he spake and comforted hir and sayd, _Ne timeas
Maria_, That is to say, Be not afraide Mary. And in many other places,
sayth theyr booke Alkaron, that Jesu Christ spake as sone as he was
borne, & the booke sayth that Jesu Christ was sent of Almighty God to
be ensample to all men, and that God shall deme[8] all men, the
good to heaven and the wicked to hell & that Jesu Christ is the best
prophete of all other and nexte to God and that he was a holy prophet,
for he gave to the blynde theyr sight, and heled Mesels[9] & raysed
men and went all quick[10] to heaven. And if they may finde a boke
with gospels, namely, _Missus est Angelus_, they doe it great worship,
they fast a moneth in the yere & they eate but in the night, and they
kepe them from theyr wyves, but they that are syke are not Constrayned
to that. And that booke Alkaron speaketh of Jewes and sayth, they are
wicked people for they will not beleve that Jesu Christ is of God.
And they say, y^t the Jewes lye on our Lady and hir sonne Jesu Christ,
saying that they did him not on the crosse, for Sarasyns beleve so
nere our fayth, that they are lightly converted when men preche
the lawe of Jesu Christ, and they saye that they wote well by theyr
prophicies, that theyr lawe of Machomet shall fayll as doth the law of
Jews and that Christen mens laws shall last unto the worlds ende. And
if a man aske them wherein they beleve they say that they beleve in
god almightie, that is the maker of heaven and earth and all other
things and without him is nothing done and at the day of Judgement
when euery man shall be rewarded after his deserving, & that all
things is soth[11] that Christ said through the mouthes of his

    [Footnote 1: The Koran.]

    [Footnote 2: Some say Meshaf. Mishaf means written sheets of

    [Footnote 3: Harme is "Haram," _sacred_.]

    [Footnote 4: Some say 80.]

    [Footnote 5: Taught by.]

    [Footnote 6: Other editions have Taknia.]

    [Footnote 7: Afraid.]

    [Footnote 8: Judge.]

    [Footnote 9: Lepers.]

    [Footnote 10: Alive.]

    [Footnote 11: True.]


  _Yet it treateth more of Machomet._

ALSO Machomet badde in his boke Alkaron, that euery man shoulde
haue two wives or three or foure, but now they take nine and as many
lemmans as them liketh, & if any of their wives doe amisse against
their husbandes, he may driue hir out of his house, and take another,
but he must giue to hir part of his goodes. Also when men speake of
the Father, and the Sonne, and holy Ghost, they saye they are three
persons, but not one God, for their boke Alkoran speaketh not thereof,
nor of the trinitie, but they say that God spake or else he was dumb,
and that God hath a ghost,[1] or else he were not alive, & they say
Gods word hath great strength, and so saith theyr Alkaron & they say
that Abraham and Moyses were greatly in favor with God, for they spake
with him, & Machomet was right messenger of God. And they haue
many good articles of our faith and some understand the scriptures,
profites, gospels, and the Bible, for they haue them written in theyr
language, in this maner they knowe holy writ, but they understande it
not, but after the letter and so do the Jewes, for they understande it
not, but after their letter ghostly, and therefore saith Sainct Paule,
_Litera occidit: Spiritus vivificat_--that is to say, Letter dieth,
and ghost maketh quicke. And the Sarasins say y^t Jewes are wicked,
for they kepe not y^e lawe of Moyses the which he toke to them, &
also chrysten men are yll, for they kepe not the commaundments of the
gospels that Jesu Christ sent unto them & therefore I shall tell you
what the Soudan tolde me upon a daye in his chamber, voiding[2] out
all other men, as Lordes, Knightes & other, for he woulde speke with
me in counsel, and then asked he me how christen men governed them in
our countrey and I aunswered him & sayd, right well thankes be to God;
& he sayd, secretly nay, for he sayd that our priestes made no force
of gods service, for they shoulde giue good example to men, to doe
well, and they giue ill example, and therefore when the people should
go on the holy daies to church to serve God they go to the taverne to
sin in glotony both day and nighte, and eate and drink as bestes, that
wot not when they haue had ynough, and also Christen men he sayde,
inforced them to fight together & eche to begile other and they are
so proude, that they wot not how they may cloth them, now short, now
long, now straite now wyde, of all manner of fassions. They shoulde
be simple, meke and softe, and doe theyr almes as Jesu Christe dyd,
in whome they beleve, and he sayde they are so covetouse, that for a
lyttle money they sell theyr children, theyr systers, and theyr wyves,
and one taketh another mans wife, and none holdeth his fayth to other,
therefore sayde he, for theyr sinnes hath God given these landes to
our handes, and not through our strength, but all for your synnes. For
we wot well, that when that ye serve well your god, that he wyll helpe
you, so that no man shall winne of you, if that ye serve your god as
ye oughte to doe, but while they lyve so sinfully as they doe, we have
no dread[3] on them, for theyr God shall not helpe them. And then I
asked him how that he knew the state of Chrysten men in that maner,
& he sayde that he knewe well both of lordes and of commons, by
his messengers which he sent through all the countreys as it were
merchants with precious stones & other marchandise to know the manner
of euery countrey. And then he did call againe all the lordes into his
chamber to us & then shewed he unto me iiii persons that were great
lordes of that countrey, that shewed me the maner of my countrey, and
of all Christendome, as though they had bene men borne in the same
partes, and they speak french right well and the Soudain also, and
then I had greate marvaile of this slaunder of our faith and so they
that should bee turned by our good examples to the fayth of Jesu
Christe, they are drawen away through our evyl living, and therefore
it is no wonder if that they call us evyll, for they saye soth, but
the Sarasins are true for they kepe truly the commaundements of their
Alkaron that God sent them by his messenger Machomet, to whome they
say, Gabryell the Aungell spake often, and tolde to him the will of

    [Footnote 1: Spirit.]

    [Footnote 2: Turning.]

    [Footnote 3: Fear of.]


  _Of the byrth of Machomet._

AND ye shall understande y^t Machomet was borne in Araby, and that he
was first a pore drudge & kept horse & went after marchaundise. And
so he came once into Egipt with marchaundise & Egipt was the same time
Christen, & there was a chappell besyde Araby, & there was an hermite
& when he came to the chappell y^t was but a lyttle house and a lowe,
as sone as he entered, it began to be as great as it were of a palas
gate and that was the first miracle that the Sarasyns saye that he did
in his youth. After began Machomet to be wise and rich and became a
great Astronomer, and sithen was he keper of the lande of the prince
Corodan and governed it full well, in such maner that when the prince
was dead he maryed the lady y^t men call Quadryge.[1] And Mahomet fell
often in the falling evill,[2] wherefore the lady was wroth that she
had taken him unto hir husband, & he made hir to understande that
every tyme that he fell so, he said that Gabriel the aungell spake to
him, and for the great brightnesse of the aungell he fell downe. This
Machomet raigned in Araby the yeare of our Lord, vi hundred and xx[3]
and he was of the kinde of Ismael that was Abrahams son that he begat
of Agar, and other are called Sarasins of Sara, but some are called
Moabites and some Amenites after the two sons of Loth. And also
Machomet loved well a good man an hermite that dwelled in the
wildernesse a myle from Mounte Sinay in the way as men go from Araby
to Caldee, and a dayes journey fro the sea where marchaunts of Venice
come, and Machomet went so often to this hermyte that all his men were
wroth, for he harde[4] gladly the hermit preach, and his men did
walke all the night & thought they would this hermyte were dead. So it
befell on a night that Machomet was full dronken of good wine, and he
fell in a slepe, and his men toke Machomets sworde out of his sheath
whyles he lay and slept, and therewith they slew the Hermit, and
afterwarde they put up the sword againe all bloudy, and upon the morow
when that he founde the Hermite thus dead, he was in his mynde verye
angry, and right wroth, and woulde haue done his men unto the death,
but they all with one accorde, and with one will sayde that he
himselfe hadde slaine hym when he was dronken, and they shewed his own
swerd all bluddy & then he beleved that they sayde soth, & then cursed
the wine & all those that drank it. And therefore Sarasins that are
devout drinke no wine openly, else they should be reprouved but they
drynke good beverage & sweete & nourishing that is made of Calamelles,
and thereof is suger made.


And it befel[5] sometime, y^t christen men became Sarasins, either
through povertie, simplenesse, or wickednesse & therefore theyr
Archbishop when he received them, sayd thus,[6] _Laeles ella Machomet
roses ella_. That is to say, there is no God but one, and Machomet is
his messengere. And sithern[7] I have told you a part of theyr law,
and of theyr customes, now I shall tell you of theyr letters that they
haue with theyr names. First they have for A- almoy, B- bethath, c-
cathi, d- delphoy, e- ephoti, f- forthy, g- garophin, h- hechum,
i- iocchi, k- kattu, l- lothum, m- malach, n- nahalgt, o- orthy, p-
choziri, q- zothii, r- rucholat, s- routhi, t- solathy, v- chorimus,
x- yrithom, y- mazot, z- alepin & ioheten- com--these are the names.
These foure letters have they yet more for diversitie of their
language, for as much as they speake so in their throtes, as we have
in our language and speake in England. Two letters may they then have
in theyr A. B. C that is to say, y &, the which are called thorne- and

    [Footnote 1: Kadijah.]

    [Footnote 2: Had epileptic fits.]

    [Footnote 3: Other editions have it 610, but it was A.D. 611
    when Mahomet professed to have received his call.]

    [Footnote 4: Heard.]

    [Footnote 5: _Pynson_ says "befalleth."]

    [Footnote 6: The Mahometan Confession of Faith is Lá iláha
    illá 'lláh Muhammadun rasúlu 'lláh.]

    [Footnote 7: Since.]


  _Of the yles and divers maner of people and of marvaylous beastes._

AND sithen I have devised before of the holy land and countreys there
about, and many wayes thether, and to mount Synay, and to Babilon, and
other divers places which I have spoken of, now will I tell & speake
of iles and of divers bestes, and divers folke and countreys that be
departed[1] by the flouds that came out of Paradise terrestre.
For Mesopotame and the kingdome of Calde and Araby are between two
floddes, Tigre and Eufrace, and the kingedome of Media and Perce are
betwene two flouds Tigre and Nyle, & the kingdome of Surrey, Palestine
and Femines[2] are betweene Eufrace and the sea Mediterranean, it is
of length from Marroch on the sea of Spaine, unto the great sea,
and so lasteth it beyonde Constantinople three M and xx[3] myle of
Lombardy and to the Occean sea. In Inde is the kingdome of Sichem,[4]
that is all closed among hils, and beside Sichem is the lande of
Amazony, wherein dwell none but women.


And thereby is the kingdome of Albany, which is a great lande and
it is called so bicause that men are more whiter there than in other
places, & in this countrey are great houndes and stronge, so that they
overcome Lions and slay them. And ye shall understande that to those
countreys are many iles and landes, of the which were too long to
tell, but of some I will speake more plainly afterwarde.

    [Footnote 1: Parted.]

    [Footnote 2: Ph[oe]nicia.]

    [Footnote 3: Others say 3,040.]

    [Footnote 4: Scythia.]



  _Of the haven Gene, for to go by the sea into divers countreys._

FOR he that wyll goe to Tartary, Percy, Caldee or Inde, he entreth the
sea at Gene or at Venyce, or at any other haven, and so passeth by the
sea, and arriveth at Topasonde,[1] that is a good citie, that sometime
men call the haven of bridge, and there is the haven of Perce, of
Medes, and of other marches.[2] In this citie lieth saint Athanasius,
that was bishop of Alexandry, that made the Psalme, _Quicunque vult
salvus esse_. This man was a great doctour of divinitie, and of
the godheade, he was accused unto the Pope of Rome that he was an
heritike, and the pope sent for hym and put him in prison, and while
he was in that prison he made this Psalme and sent it unto the Pope &
sayde if that he were an heretyke, then that was heresie, for y^t
was his faith and his belefe: and when the Pope saw that he had sayde
therein was all our faith, then anon he did deliver him out of prison,
and he commaunded that Psalme to be sayd every day at prime, & so he
held Athanasius for a good christen man, but he never would after goe
to his bishoprych for they accused him of heresie.

Topasond was some tyme holden of the Emperour of Constantinople, but
a great man that he sent to help that countrey against the Turkes, did
holde it to himselfe, & called himself Emperour of Topasonde.


And from thence men go through lyttle Armony,[3] & in that countrey is
an olde castell that is on a rock, y^t men call the castell of Spirys,
& there men finde an hawke sitting upon a perch right well made & a
faire lady of Fayry that keepeth it, & he that will wake[4] this same
hawke seven days and seven nightes, and some say that it is not but
three days and three nightes, alone without any company and without
slepe, this faire ladie shall come unto him at the vii dayes or iii
dayes ende & shall graunte unto him the first thing that he will aske
of worldly things, and that hath often ben proved. And so uppon a time
it befell that a man which that tyme was Kinge of Armonye that was a
righte doughty[5] man waked uppon a tyme, and at the seven dayes ende
the lady came to him and bade him aske what he would for he had wel
done his devoure,[6] and the king aunswered and sayde that he was a
great lorde and in good peace, and he was riche, so that he would aske
nothing but all onely the body of the fayre lady, or to haue his will
of hir. Then this fayre lady aunswered and sayde unto him, that he was
a foole, for he wist not what he asked, for he might not have hir,
for he shoulde not haue asked hir but worldly thinges & she was not
worldly. And the king sayde he woulde nought else, and she said sith
he would aske nought else, she should graunt him three thinges and
all that came after hym, and sayde unto him, Sir kinge you shall haue
warre without peace unto the ix degree, and you shall be in subjection
of your enemies, and you shall have greate nede of good and cattell,
and sithen that tyme all the Kynges of Armonye have been in warre and
nedefull[7] and under trybute of the Sarasyns. Also a poore mannes
sonne as he waked on a tyme, and asked the lady that he might be rych
and happy in marchaundise and the ladye graunted him, but she sayde to
him that he hadde asked his undoynge for great pryde that he shoulde
haue thereof. And this became so greate a marchaunte bothe by sea and
lande, that he was so ryche that he knew not the thousande parte of
hys goods. Also a Knight of the Templers waked likewise and when he
had done, he desired to haue a purse full of golde and what soever he
tooke thereof it shoulde ever be full againe and the ladye graunted it
hym, but she tolde him that hee had desyred his destruction for great
mistrowing that hee shoulde have of the same purse, and so it befell.
But he that shal wake hath great nede for to kepe him from slepe, for
if he sleepe he is lost that he shall neuer bee sene, but that is not
the righte way, but for the mervaile. And from Topasonde men go to
greate Armony to a citie that men call Artyron[8] that was wont to be
a great Citie, but Turkes have destroyed it, for there neyther groweth
no wyne nor fruyt. From this Artyron men go to an hyll that is called
Sabissacol & there nere is another hil that men call Arath,[9] but the
Jewes call it Thano where Archa Noe[10] rested after the diluvie[11]
& yet it is on that hyll, a man may se it from ferre in cleare wether,
& the hilles be xii[12] myle of height & some saye they haue bene
there & put theyr fingers in the holes where the fende[13] went out
when Noe sayde in this maner of wyse _Benedicite_. But they note well,
for none may go on that hyll for snowe, that is alwaye uppon that hyll
bothe wynter and somer, that no man may go by and never yode[14] syth
Noe was, but a monke, through the grace of God, broughte a planke that
yet is at the Abbey, at the hyll foote, and he had great desyre to
go uppon that hyll, and aforced him thereto, and when he was at the
thyrde part upwarde he was so wery that he might goe no further, and
he rested him & slept and when he was awake he was downe at the hyll
foote, and then prayed he to God devoutly that he would suffer him to
go upon the hill, and the Aungell sayd that he should go upon the hil,
and so he dyd, and since that tyme no man came there. And therefore
men shoulde not beleve such wordes.



And from thence men go to a citie that men call Tanziro[15] and that
is a fayre citie & good. Besyde that citie is an hyll of salte, and
thereof every man taketh what he wyll and there dwelled many Christen
men under tribute to the Sarasyns. From thence men go through many
cities, townes, and castels towarde Inde, and then come to a citie
that men call Cassaye that is a fayre citie, and in that citie is
aboundance of corne wynes, and all maner of goods, and there met the
three kynges togither that wente to make theyr offeryng to our Lord in
Bethlehem. From that citie men go to a citie that men call Cardabago,
and paynims say y^t Christen men may not dwell there, by[16] they dye
sone and they know not the cause. And from thence men go through many
countreys, cities & townes, that it were to long to tell, & to the
citie of Carnaa, that was wont to be so great, that the wall about was
of xxv myle, the wall sheweth yet, but it is not inhabited now with
men, and there endeth the land of the Emperour of Perce.

    [Footnote 1: Trebizond.]

    [Footnote 2: Neighbouring countries.]

    [Footnote 3: Armenia.]

    [Footnote 4: Watch.]

    [Footnote 5: Brave.

      In the old Romance of Melusina, which was written
      by Jean d'Arras, Secretary to the Duc de Berri, brother to
      Charles V. of France--in 1387 (at the command of his master)
      is the legend of the Lady of the Sparrow Hawk, which shows how
      current it was at the time. According to his version, a fairy,
      named Presine, married King Helmas, and made him vow that he
      would never go near her at the time of childbirth. She bore
      him three daughters--Melusina, Melior, and Palestine--and
      at the birth of the latter the king broke his vow. When
      his children grew up they learnt this fact, and were very
      indignant at their father's conduct, to punish which (being
      gifted with supernatural power) they enclosed him in an
      enchanted mountain until he died. Presine was powerless
      to undo this deed, but she visited their unnatural conduct
      severely upon her daughters. Melusina was to become half
      serpent, half woman, every Saturday; Palestine was ever to
      watch their father's treasure on the top of a mountain in
      Arragon; while Melior's fate is thus told by the chronicler:--

      "And thou Melyor to the I gyve a Castel in the grette Armenye,
      whyche is fayre and riche, wher thou shalt kepe a Sperschak
      unto the tyme that the grett maister shall hold his Jugement.
      And al noble and worthy knyghts, descended and come of noble
      lynee, that wil you watche there the day byfore the even, and
      th' even also of Saint Johan Baptiste, whiche is on the xx day
      of Juny, without any slep, shal have a geft of the of suche
      thinges, without to demande thy body, ne thy love, by maryage,
      nor other wise. And al thos that shal demande the without
      cesse, and that wol not forbere, and absteyn them not, shal
      be infortunat unto the IX lynee, and shal be put from theire

    [Footnote 6: Devoir, duty.]

    [Footnote 7: Poor, needy.]

    [Footnote 8: Erzeroum.]

    [Footnote 9: Ararat.]

    [Footnote 10: Noah's Ark.]

    [Footnote 11: Flood.]

    [Footnote 12: Others say seven.]

    [Footnote 13: Fiend.]

    [Footnote 14: Never went there.]

    [Footnote 15: Tabreez or Tabriz.]

    [Footnote 16: For.]


  _Of the countrey of Job, and of the Kingedome of Caldee._

ON the other side of the citie of Carnaa men enter into the land of
Job, that is a good lande & great plentie of all fruites & men call
that land of Swere.[1] In this lande is the citie of Thomar. Job was
a Paynim & also he was Cofraas son & he helde that lande as prince
thereof, & he was so riche that he knew not the hondreth parte of
his good, and after his povertie God made him richer than ever he was
before, for after he was Kinge of Idumea after the death of King Esau,
& when he was king he was called Joab, and in that kingedome he
lived c yeare and lxx so that he was of age when he dyed cc yeare and
xlviii. And in this lande of Job is no defaute[2] of nothing that is
nedefull to mans body. There are hilles where men finde manna, and
manna is called Aungell's bread that is a whit thing right sweete &
much sweter than suger or hony, and that commeth of the dew of heaven
that falleth on the herbes, and there it congeled and waxeth white and
men doe it in medecines for riche men.


This lande marcheth to the lande of Caldee that is a great land, &
there is full faire folke & well apparaited & they go richly araied
with cloth of gold & with perls & other precious stones. But the
women are righte foule & evill clad & go bare fote & bare an ill cote,
large, wide, & short, unto theyr knees, & haue long sleves down to the
fote, & they haue great black here long hanging about theyr shoulders
& they are right foule for to loke upon that I dare not tell it all
bicause that I am worthy for to haue a great reward for my praising of
them. In this land of Caldee aforesayde is a citie that men call Hur &
in y^t citie was Abraham y^e patriark born.

    [Footnote 1: Susiana.]

    [Footnote 2: Want of anything.]


  _Of the Kingedome of Amazony whereas dwelleth none but women._


AFTER the lande of Caldee is the lande of Amazony that is a land where
there is no man but all women as men say, for they wil suffer no men
to lyve among them nor to haue lordeshippe over them. For sometyme
was a kinge in that lande and men were dwelling there as did in other
countreys, and had wives, & it befell that the kynge had great warre
with them of Sychy, he was called Colopius and hee was slaine in
bataill and all the good bloude of his lande. And this queene when she
herd that, & other ladies of that land, that the king and the lordes
were slaine, they gathered them togither and killed all the men that
were lefte in their lande among them, and sithen that time dwelled no
man among them.

And when they will have any man they sende for them in a countrey that
is nere theyr lande, and the men come and are ther viii dayes or as
the woman lyketh, & then go they againe, and if they have men children
they send them to theyr fathers when they can eate & go, and if they
have maide chyldren they kepe them, and if they bee of gentill bloud
they brene[1] the left pappe[2] away for bearing of a shelde, and if
they be of little bloud they brene the ryght pappe away for shoting.
For those women of that countrey are good warriours and are often in
soudy[3] with other lordes, and the queene of that lande governeth
well that lande, this lande is all environed with water. Beside
Amazony is the lande of Termagute that is a good lande, King Alexander
did make a citie ther that men call Alexandry.

    [Footnote 1: Burn.]

    [Footnote 2: Breast.]

    [Footnote 3: War.]



  _Of the lande of Ethiope._


ON the other side of Calde toward the south side is Ethyope a great
lande. In this lande on the south are the folke right blacke. In that
side is a well that in the daye the water is so colde that no man may
drinke thereof, & in the nighte it is so hote that no man may suffer
to put his hand in it. In this lande the rivers and all the waters are
troublous and some dele salte for the great hete, and men of y^t lande
are lightly dronken & haue little appetite to meate, and they haue
commonly the flixe of body and they live not long. In Ethiope[1] are
such men that have but one foote, and they go so fast y^t it is
a great marvaill, & that is a large fote that the shadow thereof
covereth y^e body from son or rayne when they lye uppon their backes,
and when their children be first borne they loke like russet, and when
they waxe olde then they be all blacke. In Ethiope is the lande of
Saba, of the which one of the three Kings that sought our Lorde at
Bethleem was King.


    [Footnote 1: Like many other marvellous stories related by
    Sir John Mandeville, they were told by Pliny, in his Natural
    History, nearly 1200 years previously. For instance, in Book
    7, chap, li., devoted to Man, he quotes Ctesias as saying that
    in India is another race of men, who are known as Monocoli,
    who have only one leg, but are able to leap with surprising
    agility. The same people are also called Sciapod[oe], because
    they are in the habit of lying on their backs during the time
    of extreme heat and protect themselves from the sun by the
    shade of their feet. For other types of these "peculiar
    people" see Appendix.]


  _Of Inde the more, & Inde the lesse, & of diamonds, and small
    people, & other things._

FROM Ethyope men go into Inde through many dyverse countreys, and it
is called Inde the more, and it is departed in three parties, that is
to say, Inde the more that is a full hote lande, & Inde the lesse is a
temperate land, and the thyrde part that is toward the north there
it is right cold, so that for greate colde, frost & yce, the water
becommeth Cristal & upon that groweth the good diamondes y^t is like a
trouble[1] colour, & that Diamonde is so harde that no man may breake
it. Other Diamonds men finde in Araby that are not so good for they
are more softer and some are in Cipres and in Macedony men also finde
diamondes but the best are in Inde & some are founde many times in a
masse that cometh oute where men fynde golde from the myne when men
breake the masse in pyeces, and sometyme men finde some of greatnesse
of a pese,[2] and some lesse, and those are as harde as those of Inde,
and all if it be that men fynde good dyamondes in Indie upon the
Roch of Crystall, also menne finde good dyamondes upon the Roch of
Adamante[3] in the sea and on hilles, as it were haysell noutes,[4]
and they are all square and poynted of theyre owne kynde, and they
grow both togither, male and female, and are noryshed with the dewe of
heaven, and they engendre commonly & bring forth small children that
multiply & growe all the yeare. I haue many times assayed that if a
man kepe them with a lyttle of the roche, and wette them with many
dewes oft times, they shal grow euery yeare, and the small shall waxe
greate. And a manne shall bere the Diamonde in his left side, and then
it is of more vertue, for the strength of theyr growing is toward the
North, that is on the lefte side as men of those countreys say. To him
that beareth the diamond upon him it giveth him hardinesse, it kepeth
his lims of his body hole, it giveth victory of[5] enimies if a mans
cause be ryght, and hym that bereth it in good will, it kepeth
him from strife, from ryote, ill dreames, and sorcerys, and
enchauntements, and no wylde beste shall greve him nor assaile him.
And also the Dyamonde shoulde be given freely without covetyse and
bying, & then it is of more vertue, it healeth him that is lunatyke,
and he that is travailed with a divell, and if venym or poyson be
brought in the presence of the Diamonde so soon it moysteth and
beginneth to sweate, and men may well polyce[6] them to make men
beleve that they may not be polyshed. But men may assaye them well in
this maner, fyrst cut with them an diverse precious stones, as Saphyrs
or other uppon Crystall and then men take a stone that is called
Adamande, lay a nedell before that Adamande and if the Diamond is
good & vertuous the Adamande draweth not the nedell to him whiles the
Diamonde is there. And this is the proof that they make beyonde the
sea. But it falleth sometime that the good diamond loseth his vertue
through him that wereth it, and therefore it is nedefull for to make
it to recover his virtue againe, or else it is lyttle of value.[7]

    [Footnote 1: Prismatic.]

    [Footnote 2: Pea.]

    [Footnote 3: Rocks of Magnetic Loadstone were then firmly
    believed in.]

    [Footnote 4: Hazel nuts.]

    [Footnote 5: Over.]

    [Footnote 6: Polish.]

    [Footnote 7: This description of the diamond is largely taken
    from Pliny, book 37, chap. iv.]


  _Of diverse countreys & Kingdomes & yles of the lande of Inde._


MANY diverse countreys & Kingdoms are in Inde, and it is called Inde
of a river that runneth through it, which is called Inde also & there
are many precious stones in that river Inde. And in that ryver men
finde Eles of xxx foote long & men y^t dwell nere that river are of
evill colour, yelowe & grene. In Inde is more than fyve thousande yles
that men dwell in good and great, beside those that men dwel not in.
And in eche one of those is great plenty of cities and muche people,
for men of Inde are of that condicion that they passe not out of theyr
lande commonly, for they dwell under a planet that is called Saturne,
& that planet maketh his course by the xii signes in xxx[1] yeare
and the Mone passeth through the xii signes in a moneth and for that
Saturne is of so late sterying,[2] therefore men that dwell under him,
& in that clymate have no good will to be much sterying aboute. And
in our countrey is it contrary, for we are in a climate that is of the
mone, & of light stering and that is the planet of way, & therefore
it giveth us will to much moving & steryng and to go into diverse
countreys of the world, for it goeth about the worlde more lyghtly
than any other planet dothe. Also men passe through Inde by many
countreys unto the great Occean Sea. And then they fynde the yle of
Hermes where marchaunts of Venis and of Gene and of other diverse
partes of christendome come for to by them marchaundise.



In this lande men and women lye all naked in the ryvers and waters,
from undren[3] or heate of the day tyll it be past none, and they ly
all in the water but the face, for the great heat that is there,
and the women be not ashamed for the men. In that yle are the ships
without nayles of yron, or bond, for roches of Adamand[4] that are in
the sea would draw shippes to them. From this yle men go by the sea to
the yle of Lana where is great plenty of corne, and the King of this
yle was sometime so mighty that he helde war against King Alexander
with great strength. Men of this yle have many maner beleves and
faithe & have also diverse lawes, for some do worship the Sunne, some
the fyre, some the trees, & some the serpents, or any other
thinge that they fyrst meete in the morning, and some doe worship
simulacres[5] and Idoles, but betwene symulacres & ydoles is no[6]
difference, and that is to understande, ymages made to what lykenesse
of thing that man may invent, for some ymage hath an head lyke an Oxe,
some haue three or foure heddes, on of a man or an hors or Oxe or any
other best that no man hath seene. And ye shall understande that they
that worship symulacres they worship them as for worthy men that were
sometime, as Hercules, and other that dyd many mervayles in theyr
tymes. For they saye they know well that they are not god of kynde[7]
that made all thinges, but that they are wel[8] with god for the
mervayles that they did, and therefore they worship them. And so say
they of the sonne, for it chaungeth oft tymes, for it giueth sometime
great heate for to nourych[9] all things on earth, & bicause it is of
so greate profyte they knowe well that it is not God but it is well
with God & that God loveth it more than any other thing, and for this
cause they worshippe it. And also they saye theyr reasons of other
planettes, and of fyre also, for it is profitable, and nedefull. And
of ydolls they say the Oxe is the holyest that they may finde here in
earthe, and more profitable than any other, for he doth much good,
and none ille, and they knowe well that it maye not bee without the
speciall grace of God, and therefore they make theyr God of an Oxe,
the one halfe, and the other halfe a man, for man is the fairest and
the best creature of the worlde. And they doe worship to serpentes,
and other beastes that they fyrste meete with in the morninge, and
namely those bestes that have good, meting after whome they speake[10]
well all the day after, the which they have proved of long time,
& therefore they say that this meting cometh of Gods grace, and
therefore they doe make ymages lyke unto those things that they may
worship them before they meete anythinges else. And there are some
christen men that say that some bestes are better for to meet than
some, for hares, swine, and other bestes are ill to meete first, as
they saye. In this yle of Cana is many wilde bestes, & rattes in
that countrey are as great as houndes here, and they take them with
mastifes, for cattes may not take them. Fro thence men come to a citie
that men call Sarchys, and it is a faire and a goode citie and there
dwell many christen men of Gods faith, and there be men of religion.
From thence men come to the land of Lombe & in that lande groweth
peper in a forest that men call Tomber & it groweth in none other
place more in all the worlde than in that forest, and that forest is
well L[11] daies journey. And there by the lande of Lombe is the Citie
of Polomes,[12] and under that Citie is an hyll that men call Polombe
and thereof taketh the citie his name. And so at the fote of the same
hill is a right faire and a clere well, that hath a full good and
sweete savoure, and it smelleth of all maner of sortes of spyces, and
also at eche houre of the daye it changeth his savour diversly, and
who drinketh thries on the daye of that well, he is made hole of all
maner (_of_) sickenesse that he hathe. I have sometime dronke of that
well, and methinketh yet that I fare the better; some call it the well
of youth, for they that drinke thereof seme to be yong alway, and live
without great sicknesse, and they saye this well, cometh from Paradise
terrestre, for it is so vertuous, and in this lande groweth ginger,
and thither come many good marchauntes for spyces. In this countrey
men worship the Oxe for his great simpleness and mekenesse, and the
profite that is in him, for they make the Oxe to travaile vi or
vii yere and then men do eate him. And the Kinge of that land hath
euermore one Oxe with him, and he that kepeth him euery day taketh hys
fees for the keping. And also euery daye he gathereth his uryne and
his dong in a vessell of gold, and bereth it to the prelate that they
call, Archi porta papaton[13] and the prelate bereth it to the King,
and maketh thereupon a great blessing and then the King putteth his
hande therein, and they call it gaule and hee anoynteth his fronte,
and his breste therewith, and they doe it great worship, and saye he
shall be fulfilled with the vertu of the Oxe before sayde, and that he
is halowed through vertue of that holy thinge as they saye. And when
the Kinge hath this done, then doe it other lordes, and after
them other men after theyr degree, if they may haue any of the
remenaunt.[14] In thys countrey theyr ydoles are halfe men and halfe
oxe, as the figure sheweth in the seconde lefe here before, and out of
these ydolles the wycked ghost[15] speaketh unto them, and giveth them
aunswere of what thing that they aske him, and before these ydolles
they many times sleay theyr children, and sprinkle the blood on
the ydoles, and so make they sacrifice. And if any man die in that
countrey, they brene them in tokening of penaunce that he should
suffer no penance if he were layd in the earth for eating of wormes.
And if his wife haue no children then they burne hir with him, and
they saye that is good reason that she keepe him company in the other
worlde, as she dyd in this, & if she haue children she may liue with
them and[16] she will; and if the wyfe dye before, she shall be burnt,
& hir husbande also, if he will. In this countrey groweth good wine, &
women drink wine & men none, and women shaue theyr berds & not men.


    [Footnote 1: _Pynson_ says 20 years.]

    [Footnote 2: Slow motion.]

    [Footnote 3: An early hour before noon. A Latin edition has
    it:--"_A diei hora tertia, usq: ad nonam_."]

    [Footnote 4: Loadstone rocks.]

    [Footnote 5: Images.]

    [Footnote 6: Other editions have "a gret difference," which
    the context shows should be the right reading.]

    [Footnote 7: Similar to Him that made, &c.]

    [Footnote 8: They were helped by God in the marvels, &c.]

    [Footnote 9: Nourish.]

    [Footnote 10: Speed, _i.e._ have good luck.]

    [Footnote 11: Other editions say 18.]

    [Footnote 12: Quilon, on the Malabar Coast.]

    [Footnote 13: Archi proto papaton.]

    [Footnote 14: Remnant.]

    [Footnote 15: Wicked spirit.]

    [Footnote 16: An, if.]


  _Of the Kingedome of Mabaron._


FROM this lande men go many journeys to a countrey that men call
Mabaron,[1] and this is a greate Kingdome, therein is many fayre
cities & townes. In this lande lyeth Sainct Thomas in a fayre tombe,
in fleshe and bones, in the Citie of Calamy, and the arme and hande
that hee put in our Lordes syde after his resurrection, when Christ
sayde unto hym, _Noli esse incredulus sed fidelis:_, that is to saye,
Be not of vaine hope but beleve; that same hande lyeth yet without
the tombe bare, and with this hande they giue theyr domes[2] in that
countrey, to mete[3] who saith righte, and who doeth not, for, if any
stryfe be betwene two parties, they write their names, & put them into
the hand, & then incontinently the hande casteth away the byll[4] of
him that hath wronge and holdeth the other still that hathe righte,
and therefore they come from farre countreys to have Judgementes of
causes that are in doubte. In this church of Saint Thomas is a great
image, y^t is a simulacre, & it is richly beset with precious stons
& perles, to that image men come in pilgrimage from farre countreys,
with great devocion, as Christen men go to Saint James, & there come
some pilgrims y^t beare sharp knives in theyr handes, & as they go by
the waye they shere[5] theyr shankes & thyghes, that the bloude may
come out for the love of that ydoll and they saye that he is holy that
will dye for that ydols sake. And there is some that for the time that
they go out of their houses at eche third pace they knele till that
they come to this idole. And when they come there they have ensence[6]
or such other thing for to ensence the ydole, as we would do to Gods
body. And there before that mynster or church of this ydol, is a river
full of water, & in that river pilgrims cast gold, silver, perles
& other precious stones without number, in stede of offerings, and
therefore, when y^e maister of the minster hath any neede of helping,
as sone they go the river & take thereout as much as they haue neede
to helping of y^e minster. And ye shall understande when that any
greate festes come of y^e Idol, as the dedication day of the church,
or of the throning of the Idol, all the countrey there about assemble
them there togither and then men set this Idoll with great reverence
& worship in a chaire well dressed with cloth of gold, and other
tapistry, & so they carry him with great reverence & worship, rounde
about the citie, and before the chaire goeth firste in procession all
the maidens of the countrey two & two togither, & so after them go the
pilgrimes that are come fro far countreys, of the which pilgrims some
fall downe before the chaire, & letteth all go over them and so are
they slaine, and some haue theyr armes broken & leggs,[7] and this
they doe for love of the Idol, and they beleve the more paine that
they suffer here for their Idol the more joy shall they haue in y^e
other world, & a man shall finde few Christen men will suffer so
much penaunce for our Lordes sake as they do for the ydoll. And nighe
before the chaire go all the mynstrels of the countrey, as it were
without nomber with many divers melodyes. And when they are come
againe to the Church they sette up the ydol againe in his throne, and
for worship of the ydoll two or three[8] are slaine with sharpe knives
with their good will. And also a man thinketh in our countrey that he
hath a great worshippe to haue an holy man in his kyn, lykewise they
saye that those that are there slayne are holye men and sayntes & they
are wrytten in their letany, and when they are thus dead theyr frendes
brene theyr bodies & they take the ashes, and those are kepte as
relykes, and they say it is an holy thing, & that they doubte of no
perill when they haue of those ashes.



    [Footnote 1: Identical with the Maabav of Marco Polo, book 3,
    cap. xvi., where he gives a very interesting account of the
    place. It was what we call the Coromandel Coast.]

    [Footnote 2: Judgments.]

    [Footnote 3: Find out.]

    [Footnote 4: Paper.]

    [Footnote 5: Cut their legs.]

    [Footnote 6: Incense.]

    [Footnote 7: Mandeville probably describes the Car of

    [Footnote 8: Other editions have it "two or three hundred."]


  _Of a great countrey called Lamory, where the people go all naked
    & other things._


FROM this countrey LII journeys is a countrey that men call Lamory,[1]
and in that lande is greate heate, and it is the custome there, that
men and women go al naked and they scorne all them that are clade, for
they say that God made Adam & Eve all naked, and that men shoulde haue
no shame of that God made, & they beleve in the same God that made
Adam & Eve and all the world, and there is no woman wedded, but women
are all common there, and they forsake no man. And they say that God
commaunded to Adam & Eve and all that come of them saying, _Crescite &
multiplicamini, & replete Terram_. That is to say in English, Encrease
& multiply and fyll the earth, and no man may say there, This is my
wife, & no woman may say, this is my husbande. And when they haue any
children they give them to whom they will of men that haue medled with
them. Also the lande is all common, for every man taketh what he
will, for that one man hath in one yere now, an other man hath another
yeare. Also all the goods, as corne, beastes and all maner thing of
that countrey are all in common. For there is nothing under locke,
and as riche is one man as an other, but they haue an evill custome
in eating of fleshe, for they eate gladlier mans fleshe than other.
Neverthelesse in that lande is abundaunce of corne, of fleshe, of
fishe, of golde of silver and all maner of goods. And thether doeth
the marchauntes bring their children for to sell, and those that are
fatte they eate them, & those that be lean, they kepe them tyll they
befatte, & then are they eaten. And besyde this yle of Lamory, is
another yle that men call Somober,[2] and is a good yle, men of that
yle do marke them in the visage with an hot yron, bothe men & women
for great nobility & to be knowen from other, for they hold themselfe
the worthiest of y^e world and they haue warre evermore with those men
that are naked that I spake of before. Also there are many other yles
and diverse maner of men, of the which it were overmuch for to speake
of all.



    [Footnote 1: Sumatra.]

    [Footnote 2: ? Sumatra. One or other, Lamory or Somober, is
    evidently this island.]


  _Of the countrey and yle named Java, which is a mighty lande._


AND there is also a great yle that men call Java & the kinge of that
countrey hath under hym seven kinges, for he is a full mightie prince.
In this yle groweth all maner of spyces more plenteously than in any
other place, as ginger, clowes, canell[1] nutmyge[2] and other, and ye
shall understande that the nutmyge beareth the maces, & of all thing
therein is plenty savinge wine. The King of this lande hath a riche
palace and the best that is in the worlde, for all the greces of his
hall and chambres are all made one of gold & another of silver, & all
the walls are plated with fine gold and silver, & on those plates are
written stories of knightes, and batayles, and the pavimente of the
hall and chambres is of golde and silver, and there is no man that
woulde beleve this riches that is there except hee had sene it, and
the Kynge of this yle is so mightie, that he hath many times overcom
the great Caane of Cathay which is the myghtiest Emperour that is in
all the worlde, for there is often warre amonge them, for the great
Caane would make hym hold his land of him.

    [Footnote 1: Cinnamon.]

    [Footnote 2: Nutmeg.]


  _Of the Kingdome of Pathen or Salmasse, which is a goodly lande._

AND for to go forth by the sea, there is an yle that is called Pater,
and some call it Salmasse, for it is a great kingedome with many faire
cities. In this lande groweth trees that beare meale, of which men
make faire bread & white & of good savour, and it seemeth lyke as it
were of wheate. And there be other trees that beare venym,[1] againe
the which is no medicine but one, that is to take of the leaves of the
same tree and stampe them, and tempre them with water and drinke it,
or else he shall dye sodainly, for Treacle may not helpe. And if you
will know how this tree beare meale, I shall tell you, men hew with a
hatchet aboute the rote of the tree by the earth, and they perce him
in many sundry places, and then cometh out a lycoure the which they
take in a vessell, and sette in the sonne and dry it, and when it is
dry, they cary it unto the mille to grynde, and so it is faire meale
and white. Also hony wyne, and venym are drawen out of other trees in
the same maner, and they put it in vessels to keepe. In that yle is a
dead sea, which is a water that hath no grounde and if anythinge fall
therein it shall never be founde, besyde that sea groweth great canes
and under theyr rootes men finde precious stones of great vertue,
for he that beareth one of those stones uppon him, there may no yron
greve[2] him nor drawe blood on hym, and therefore they y^t have those
stones fyght full hardely, for there may no quarell[3] nor such thing
greve them, therefore they that knowe the maner make their quarell
without yron & so they sleay them.


    [Footnote 1: Poison, _i.e._, are poisonous.]

    [Footnote 2: Wound or hurt.]

    [Footnote 3: Arrow.]


  _Of the Kingdome of Talonach, the king thereof hath many wyves._


THEN is there another yle that men call Talonach, that is a greate
lande, and plenteous of goods & fyshes, as you shall hereafter heare.
And the King of the lande hath as many wives as he will, a thousande
& mo, and lyeth never by one of them but once, and that lande hath a
marvayle that is in no other land, for all maner of fyshes of the sea
cometh there once a yeare, one after another, and lyeth him nere the
lande, sometime on the lande, and so lye three dayes, and men of that
lande come thither and take of them what he will, and then go those
fyshes awaye and another sorte commeth, and lyeth also three dayes and
men take of them, and doe thus all maner of fyshes tyll all haue bene
there, and menne have taken what they wyll. And menne wot[1] not the
cause why it is so. But they of that countrey saye, that those fyshes
come so thyther to do worship to theyr king, for they say he is
the most worthiest king of the worlde for he hath so many wives and
geateth so many children of them. And that same kinge that XIIII M
Olyfauntes or mo which be all tame, and they be all fedde of the men
his countrey, for his pleasure bicause that he may haue them redy to
his hande when he hath any warre against any kyng or prince, and then
he doth put uppon theyr backs castels & men of warre as the use is of
the lande, and lykewyse do other kyngs and princes thereabout.



    [Footnote 1: Know.]



  _Of the ylande called Raso[1] where men be hanged as sone as
    they are sicke._


AND from this yle menne go unto another yle that men call Raso, and
menne of this yle when that theyr friendes are sicke & that they
beleve surely that they shal dye, they take them & hange them al quick
on a tree, and say that it is better that byrdes, that are aungels of
God, eate them, than wormes of the earthe. Fro thence men go to an
yle where the men are of ill kinde, for they nourishe houndes for to
strangle men. And when theyr friendes are sicke that they hope they
shal dye, then do those houndes strangle them, for they wyll not that
they dye a kyndely death, for then shoulde they suffre to great paine
as they say, & when they are thus dead they eate theyre flesh for

    [Footnote 1: _Pynson_ and others say Gaffolo or Caffolos.]


  _Of the ylande of Melke wherein dwelleth evill people._


FROM thence menne go through many yles by sea unto an yle that men
call Melke, and there be full yll people, for they haue none other
delyte but to fyght and slee men, for they drinke gladly mans blood,
which blood they call good, and they that maye most sleay is of moste
name amonge them. And if two men there be at stryfe and after bee made
at one, it behoveth them to drink eyther others blood, or else the
accorde is nought. From this yle men go to an yle that is called
Tracota where all men are as beastes & not reasonable, they dwell in
caves, for they haue not wyt to make them houses, they eate adders[1]
and they speake not, but they make such a noyse as adders doe one to
another, and they make no force of ryches but of a stone that hath
forty colours, and it is called Traconyt after that yle, they know not
the vertue thereof but they covete it for the great fayreness.


    [Footnote 1: Pliny speaks (Book 7, cap. 2) of adder-eating
    people in India and elsewhere, but he says they live to the
    age of four hundred years, which is supposed to be owing to
    the flesh of vipers, which they use as food, in consequence
    of which they are free from all noxious animals, both in their
    hair and their garments. In book 29, c. 38, he also gives
    directions for the preparation of viper's flesh for food.]


  _Of an yland named Macumeran, whereas the people haue heads lyke


FROM that yle menne go to an yle that is called Macumeran, whiche is
a greate yle and a fayre and the men and women of the countrey haue
heads like houndes, they are reasonable & worship an oxe for their
god, they go all naked but a little clothe before them, they are good
men to fighte, & they beare a great target with which they couer all
the body and a speare in theyr hande, and if they take any man in
batayle they sende him to theyr King which is a great lorde & devoute
in his faith, for he hath about his necke on a cord thre hondred
pearles great & orient,[2] in maner of Pater noster, and as we saye
Pater noster, and Ave maria. Right so ye King saith euery day three
hundred prayers to his god before he eate, & he beareth also about hys
necke a ruby, oryent, fine & good, that is neer a foote & five fingers
long. For when they chuse theyr Kyng they giue to him that Ruby to
beare in his hande, and then they lead him riding about the citie,
and then euer after are they subjecte to him, and therefore he beareth
that Ruby alway about his necke, for if he beareth not the Ruby, they
woulde no longer holde hym for kynge. The greate Caane of Cathay hath
much coveted this Ruby: but he might never haue it, neither for war
nor for other catell,[3] and this Kinge is a full true & a righteous
man, for men may go safely & surely through his lande & beare y^t he
will, for there is no man so hardy to let[4] them. And from thence men
go to an ile that is called Silo, this ile is more than a hundred[5]
myle about and therein be many serpents which are great with yelow
stripes & they haue foure feete, with short leggs & great claws, some
be five fadome[6] of length & some of viii & some of x & some more and
some lesse & be called Cocodrylles & there are also many wylde beasts
& Olyfants.[7] Also in this yle & in many yles thereabout are many
wyld geese with two heads, and there be also in y^t countrey white
lyons and many other dyverse mervaylous beastes, & if I should tell it
all it should be to long.



    [Footnote 1: Again in Book 7, cap. 2, Pliny speaks of
    _Cynocephali_, or dog-headed people, for he says that on many
    of the mountains there is a tribe of men, who have the heads
    of dogs, and clothe themselves with the skins of wild beasts.
    Instead of speaking, they bark; and, furnished with claws,
    they live by hunting and catching birds.]

    [Footnote 2: Oriental,--coming from the East.]

    [Footnote 3: Nor in exchange.]

    [Footnote 4: Hinder.]

    [Footnote 5: Others say 800.]

    [Footnote 6: A fathom is 6 feet.]

    [Footnote 7: Elephants.]


  _Of a great yland called Dodyn, where are many diverse men of
    evill conditions._


THEN there is another yle that men call Dodyn, & it is a great yle. In
this yle are maner diverse maner of men y^t haue evyll maners, for the
father eateth the son & the son the father the husband his wyfe and
the wyfe hir husbande. And if it so be that the father be sicke, or
the mother, or any frend, the sonne goeth soone to the priest of the
law & prayeth him that he will aske of the ydoll if his father shall
dye of that sicknesse or not. And then the priest and the son kneele
downe before the ydole devoutly & asketh him, and he aunswereth to
them, and if he say that he shall lyve, then they kepe him wel, and if
he say that he shall dye, then commeth the priest with the son or with
the wyfe or what frende that it be unto him y^t is sicke, and they lay
their hands over his mouth to stop his breath, and so they sley him &
then they smite all the body into peces & praieth all his frendes
for to come and eate of him that is dead, and they make a great feste
thereof and haue many minstrels there, and eate him with great melody.
And so when they haue eaten al y^e flesh, then they take the bones and
bury them all singing with great worship, and all those that are of
his friendes that were not there at the eating of him haue great shame
and vylany, so that they shall never more be taken as frends. And
the King of this yle is a great lord and mightie, & he hath under him
LIIII grete Yles and eche of them hath a King, and in one of these
yles are men that haue but one eye, & that is in the middest of theyr
front and they eate not flesh & fishe all rawe. And in another yle
dwell men that haue no heads & theyr eyen are in theyr shoulders &
theyr mouth is on theyr breste.[1] In another yle are men that haue no
head ne eyen and theyr mouth is in theyr shoulders. And in another yle
are men that haue flatte faces without nose and without eyen, but they
haue two small round holes in stede of eyen, and they haue a flatte
mouth without lippes. And in that yle are men also that haue their
faces all flat without eyen, without mouth & without nose, but they
haue their eyen and their mouth behinde on their shoulders. And in
an other yle are foule men that haue the lippes aboute the mouth so
greate that when they sleepe in the sonne, they cover all theyr face
with the lippe. And in another yle are lyttle men as dwarfes, and haue
no mouth but a lyttle rounde hole & through that hole they eate their
meat with a pipe, & they haue no tongue & they speake not but they
blow & whistle and so make signes one to another. And in another yle
are men with hanging eares unto their shoulders.[2] And in another yle
are wild men with hanging eares & haue feete lyke an hors & they run
faste & they take wild beastes and eate them. And in another yle are
men that go on theyr handes & feete lyke beasts & are all rough and
will leape upon a tree like cattes or apes. And in an other yle are
men that go euer uppon theyr knees mervaylosly, and haue on euery
foote viii Toes.[3] Many other maner of folke bee in the sea in yles
thereabout, of whome it were to longe to tell all.




    [Footnote 1: Here again Pliny says in his 7th book, cap.
    2:--"These people dwell not very far from the Troglodytæ
    (_dwellers in caves_) to the west, of whom again there is
    a tribe who are without necks, and _have eyes in their

    [Footnote 2: See Appendix.]

    [Footnote 3: Here a paragraph is omitted, not being suitable
    for general readers.]


  _Of the Kingedome named Mancy which is the best kingedome of
    the worlde._

TO go from this yle toward the east many journies a man shall finde a
kingdome that is called Mancy[1] & this is in Inde the more, & it is
y^e most delectable and plenty of goods of all the worlde. In this
lande dwell christen men and Sarasins, for it is a great lande, and
therein are II M great cities & many other townes. In this lande no
man goeth a begging, for there is no pore man, and there men haue
beardes of heare[2] as it were cattes. In this lande are faire women,
and therefore some men call that lande Albany, for the white folke,
and there is a citie that men call Latorim and is more[3] than Paris,
and in that land are birdes twise greater than they be here and there
is all maner of vytayles good cheape.[4] In this countrey are whyte
hennes, and they beare no feathers but woll[5] as shepe doe in our
lande; and women of that countrey that are wedded beare crownes uppon
theyr heads that they may be knowne by. In this countrey they take a
beast that is called Loyres, and they keepe it to goe in to waters or
ryvers, and straighte waye hee bringeth out of the water great fishes,
and thus they take fishe as longe as they will, and as them nedeth.
Fro this citie men go by many journeys to an other citie that is
called Cassay,[6] that is the fayrest citie of the worlde, and that
citie is fifty myle about and there is in that citie mo than xii[7]
principall gates without. From thence within three myle is an other
great citie, and within this citie are more than xii thousand bridges
and upon eche bridge is a stronge toure where the kepers dwell to kepe
it against the great Caane, for it marcheth[8] on his land. And on one
side of the citie runneth a great river, and there dwell christen men
& other for it is a good countrey and plentious, & there groweth right
good wine. In this noble citie the King of Mancy was wont to dwell and
there dwell religious men, as fryers. And men go vpon the river till
they come to an Abbey of Monkes a lyttle from the citie & in y^t Abbey
is a great gardeine, and therein is many maner of trees of divers
fruites, in that gardein are divers kindes of beastes, as Baboyns,[9]
Apes, Marmosets and other, & when the covent[10] haue eaten, a monke
taketh the reliefe[11] & beareth it into the gardein, & smiteth once
with a bell of silver which he holdeth in his hand, anone come out
these beastes that I speake of and many nere II or III thousand,[12]
and he giveth them to eate of[13] faire vessels of silver, & when they
haue eaten he smyteth the bell againe and they go away, and the monke
sayth that those beasts are soules of men that are dead, and those
beastes that are fayre are soules of Lordes and other rich men, &
those that are foule beastes are soules of other commons, and I asked
them if it had not been better to give that relife to pore men, & they
sayde there is no pore men in y^e countrey and if there were yet
were it more almes to give it to those soules y^t suffer there their
penaunce & may go no farther to get their meat, than to men that haue
wit & may travail for theyr meat. Then come men to a citie y^t is
called Chibens & there was the first sege[14] of the King of Mancy. In
this citie are LX brydges of stone as fayre as they may be.


    [Footnote 1: Or Manzi, that part of China south of the river

    [Footnote 2: _Pynson_ has "berdes _thynne_ of here, as it were

    [Footnote 3: Larger.]

    [Footnote 4: _Pynson_ here has, "and there is plenty of great
    neddres (_adders_) of whyche they make a greate fest and ete
    theym at great solemnytees. For, if a man make a greate fest,
    and had gyven them all the mete that he myght gete, and he
    give theym no neddres, he hath no thanke for all that he

    [Footnote 5: Wool.]

    [Footnote 6: Hangchow-fu.]

    [Footnote 7: _Pynson_ says, "There is in y^t citie mo than VII
    thousand gates and each of III gate is a good toure where the
    kepers dwell," &c.]

    [Footnote 8: Borders.]

    [Footnote 9: Baboons.]

    [Footnote 10: Convent.]

    [Footnote 11: What is left over.]

    [Footnote 12: _Pynson_ says III Thousand or IIII Thousand.]

    [Footnote 13: Off.]

    [Footnote 14: Seat or settlement.]


  _Of the lande of Pygmen,[1] wherein dwell but smal people of
    three spanne long._

WHEN men passe from that citie of Chibens, they passe over a great
river of freshe water, and it is nere IIII mile brode & then men enter
into the lande of the great Caan. This river goeth through the land of
Pigmeens, and there men are of little stature for they are but three
span long, and they are right fayre bothe men and women, though they
bee little, and they are wedded when they are halfe a yere olde, and
they live but viii[2] yeare, and he that liveth viii yeare is holden
right olde, and these small men are the best workemen in sylke and of
cotton in all maner of thing that are in the worlde, and these smal
men travail not nor tyl land but they haue amonge them great men, as
we are, to travaill for them & they haue great scorne of those great
men, as we would haue of giaunts or of them if they were among us.

    [Footnote 1: Pigmies, dwarfs. Homer, in the third book of the
    Iliad, has immortalized the Pigmies and their battles with the
    Cranes. (See Appendix for a curious engraving.) Pliny, in his
    7th Book, cap. 2, speaks thus of them: "Beyond these people,
    and at the very extremity of the mountains, the Trispithami
    (_from_ [Greek: treis], _three, and_ [Greek: spithamai],
    _spans_), and the Pigmies are said to exist; two races that
    are but three spans in height--that is to say, twenty-seven
    inches only. They enjoy a salubrious atmosphere and a
    perpetual spring, being sheltered by the mountains from the
    northern blasts: it is these people that Homer has mentioned
    as being waged war upon by cranes. It is said that they are in
    the habit of going down, every spring, to the sea shore in a
    large body, seated on the backs of rams and goats, and armed
    with arrows, and there destroy the eggs and the young of those
    birds; that this expedition occupies them for the space of
    three months, and that otherwise it would be impossible for
    them to withstand the increasing multitudes of the cranes.
    Their cabins, it is said, are built of mud, mixed with
    feathers and egg-shells. Aristotle, indeed, says that they
    dwell in caves; but, in other respects, he gives the same
    details as other writers."]

    [Footnote 2: Other editions say six or seven years.]



  _Of the citie of Menke where is a great navy._

FROM this land men go through many countreys cities & towns, till they
come to a citie that men call Menke. In that citie is a great navy of
ships and they are as white as snow of the kind of the wod that they
are made of & they are made as it were great houses with halles and
chambres and other easements.[1]

    [Footnote 1: Conveniences.]


  _Of the land named Cathay and of the great riches thereof._

AND from thence men go uppon a river that men call Ceremosan, and this
river goeth throughe Cathay[1] & doth many times harme when it
waxeth great. Cathay is a faire countrey & rich, ful of goods and
merchandises, thether come marchauntes everye yeare for to fetch
spices and other marchandises more commonly than they do in other
countreys. And ye shall understand that marchaunts that come from
Venice or from Gene or from other places of Lombardy, or of Italy,
they go by sea and land, xi monthes and more or they may come to

    [Footnote 1: Northern China.]


  _Of a great citie named Cadon therein is the great Caanes
    palaice and sege._

IN the province of Cathay towards the East, is an olde citie & beside
that citie the Tartariens have made an other citie that men call
Cadon,[1] y^t hathe xii[2] gates, and betwene eche two gates is a
great myle, so those two cities the olde and the new is round about
xx myle. In this citie is the palaice and sege of y^e great Caane in
a full faire place and great, of which the wals about is two myle, and
within that are many fayre places, and in the gardeyne of that palaice
is a right greate hill on the which is an other palaice, and it is the
fayrest that may bee founde in any place, and all about that hyll
are many trees berynge divers fruites, and about that hyll is a great
dyche, and there nere are many rivers on eche syde, and in those are
many wylde foules that he may take and not go out of the palayce.
Within y^e hall of that palaice are xxiiii pillers of gold and all the
walks are covered with rych skynnes of beastes that men call Panthera.

Those are fayre beastes and well smelling and of the smell of those
skynnes, none evyll smell may come to the palayce, those skynnes are
as redde as bloude, and they shine so against the Sonne that a man can
scarcely beholde them and those skynnes are estemed there as much as

In the myddest of the palace is a place made that they call the
Monture[3] for the great Caane, that is well made with precious stones
and great hanging about, and at the foure corners of that Montour
are foure nedders[4] of golde, & under that mountour and about are
conduites of bevrage that they drink in the Emperour's courte. And the
hall of that palayce is richly dight and wel, and firste at the upper
ende of the hall is the throne of the Emperour right hie where he
sitteth at meate (_at a_) table that is well bordered with gold and
that bordure is full of precious stones and great pearles, and the
greces on which he goeth up are of diverse precious stones bordred
with golde.

At the left syde of his throne is the sege of his wife a degree lower
than he sitteth and that is of Jasper bordred with gold and the sege
of his seconde wife is a degree lower than the fyrste, and that is
also of good Jasper bordred with golde and the sege of the thyrd wife
is a degree lower than the seconde for alwaye he hathe three wives
with him wheresoeuer he is, besyde these wives on the same side
setteth other ladies of his kin eche one lower than other, as they are
of degree, and all those that are wedded, haue a counterfaite[5] of a
man's foote uppon their heads a cubite long and all made with precious
stones, & about they are made with shining fethers of pecockes or such
other in tokening that they are in subjection to man & under men's
feete, & they that are not wedded haue none such. On the right side
of the Emperour sitteth fyrste his sonne the which shall be Emperour
after him, and he sitteth also a degree lower than the Emperour in
such maner of seges as the Emperour sitteth, and by him sitteth other
lordes of his kyn, eche one lower than other as they are of degree.
And the Emperour hath his table by himselfe alone that is made of
golde and precious stones, or of white Crystal or yelowe, bordred with
golde, and eche one of his wyves hath a table by hirselfe. And under
the Emperours table sitteth foure clerkes at his feete that wryteth
all that the Emperour sayth be it good or ylle. And at great feastes
about the Emperours table, and all other tables in the hall is a vine
made of gold that goeth all about the hall, and it hath many braunches
of grapes lyke to grapes of the vine, some are white, some are yelowe,
some red, some grene, and some blacke, all the red are of rubies of
cremes[6] or allabonce, the white are of cristall or byrall,[7] the
yelowe are of topaces, the grene are of Emeraudes & Crysolytes, and
the blacke are of Quickes and Gerandes, & this vyne is made thus
of precious stones so properly that it seemeth that it were a vyne
growinge. And before the borde of the Emperour standeth great lordes
and no man is so hardy to speke unto hym, except it be musicians for
to solace the Emperour. And all the vessell that is served in his hall
or chambres, are of precious stones and namely at tables where great
lordes eate, that is to say, of Jasper, crystall, amatyst, or fyne
golde, and the cuppes are of Emeraudes, saphyres, topaces, and many
other maner of stones; and (_of_) silver haue they no vessell, for
they praise silver but little to make vessell of, but they make of
silver greces, pylers & paviments of halles & chambres. And ye shall
understande that my felaw & I were in wages with him xvi moneths
against the Kinge of Mancy,[8] uppon whome he made warre, and the
cause was we had so great desire to see the nobilitye of his court,
if it were suche as we heard speake of, and forsoth we founde it more
richer & solempne than ever we harde speake of, and we should neuer
haue beleved it, had we not seene it. But ye shall understande the
meat and drinke is more honest among us than it is in those countreys,
for all the comons eate upon skines of beastes on theyr knees and eate
but fleshe of all maner of beastes, & when they haue all eate they
wipe theyr handes on their skirtes & they eate but once in the day &
eate but little bread but the maner of the lordes is full noble and

    [Footnote 1: Others call it Sugarmago or Eugarmago.]

    [Footnote 2: _Pynson_ says seven.]

    [Footnote 3: This is a curious term, which can scarcely
    be translated. A French edition has _Mountaynette_, which
    _Cotgrave_ says is a little mountain. A Latin edition says

    [Footnote 4: Serpents.]

    [Footnote 5: Representation.]

    [Footnote 6: I have up to the present failed in finding
    equivalents for these two words, also for Quickes (spelt
    in _Pynson_ Onichez, which may probably mean onyxes,) and
    Gerandes. This latter word is spelt in one MS. _Garantez_,
    and may mean garnet. Cotgrave gives _Alabandique_, "a kinde of
    blacke stone mingled with purple."]

    [Footnote 7: Beryl.]

    [Footnote 8: _Marco Polo_ gives a graphic description of the
    invasion and subjection of Manzi, or Southern China, in the
    year 1268, by Kublai's great general _Bayan_ (great or
    noble) _Hundred eyes_. If, therefore, there is any truth in
    Mandeville, he and his "felaw" may have helped to put down an
    insurrection in the kingdom of Manzi.]



 _Wherefore that the Emperour of Cathay is called the great Caane._

AND ye shall understande why he is called y^e great Caane, ye knowe
y^t all the worlde was destroied with Noes floud but Noe his wife &
children. Noe had three sons, Sem, Cham & Japhet. Cham when he saw his
father naked when he slept, scorned him & therefore he was cursed and
Japhet covered him againe. These three brethrene hadde all the land.
Cham toke the best parte eastward that is called Asia. Sem toke Afryke
and Japhet toke Europe. Cham was the mightiest and richest of his
bretherne and of him are come the Paynim folke & divers maner of men
of the yles, some headlesse, and other men disfigured, and for this
Cham the Emperour there called him Cham and Lord of all. But ye shall
understande that the Emperour of Cathay is called Caane, and not
Cham, & for this cause, it is not long ago that all Tartary was in
subjection and thrall to other nations about, and they were made
herdemen to kepe beastes, and among them was vii linages[1] or kindes,
the firste was called Tartary that is the best, the second linage is
called Tamghot,[2] the third Furace,[3] the fourth Valaire, the fifth
Semoth,[4] the sixth Menchy,[5] the seventh Sobeth.[6] These are all
holding of the great Caane of Cathay. Now it befell so that the first
linage was an olde man & hee was not ryche and men called him Chanius.
This man lay and slept on a nighte in his bedde, and there came to him
a knighte, all white, sitting uppon a white hors, and sayde to him,
Caane slepeste thou? God that is almighty sent me to thee, & it is
his will that thou saye to the vii linages y^t thou shalt be theyr
Emperour, for ye shall conquere all the lande about you, and they
shall be in your subjection as you have bene in theirs. And when morow
came he rose up and sayde it to the vii linages, and they scorned him
and sayde he was a fole, and the next night the same knighte came to
the vii linages and bad them of gods behalfe to make Chanius their
Emperour, and they shold be out of all subjection. And on the morow
they chose Chanius to be Emperour, and dyd him all worship that they
might do, & called him Caane as the white knighte called him, and they
sayde they would doe as he badde them. Then he made many statutes and
lawes, the which he called Ysakan.[7] The firste statute was, that
they shoulde be obedient to God almyghtie, and beleve that he should
deliver them out of thraldome, and that they shoulde call on him in
all their workes. Another statute was, y^t all men that might beare
armes shoulde be nombred, and to eche x shoulde be a master, and to
a hundred a master, and to a thousand a master. Then he commaunded
to all the greatest and principallest of the vii linages, that they
should forsake all that they had in heritage or lordship, and that
they should hold them payed of that he wold give them of his grace,
and they did so. And also he bad them y^t eche man should bringe
his eldest sonne before him, and sleay his owne sonne with his owne
handes, and smyte of their heads, and as sone they did his bidding.
And when he saw they made no letting[8] of what he bad them, then bad
he them folow his baner, and then he put in subjection all the landes
about him.

    [Footnote 1: People or tribes.]

    [Footnote 2: Tangut, or Tanghút, is the name given to certain
    tribes of Thibetan extraction, who lived on the north-west
    frontier of China.]

    [Footnote 3: Called variously Eurache, Semoche, Megly and
    Coboghe, whose relative positions can scarcely now be defined

    [Footnote 4: As Footnote #3.]

    [Footnote 5: As Footnote #3.]

    [Footnote 6: As Footnote #3.]

    [Footnote 7: Others write it Ysya-Chan.]

    [Footnote 8: Hindrance.]


  _How the great Caane was hid under a tree, and so escaped his
    enimies bicause of a byrd._

AND it befell on a day that the Caane rode with a fewe men to see the
lande that he had wonne, and he met with a greate multitude of his
enimies and there he was caste downe of his horse, and his horse
slayne, and when his men saw him at y^e earth[1] they went[2] he had
been deade, and fledde, & the ennimies folowed after, and when he
sawe his ennimies were fer,[3] he hid him in a bushe, for the wod was
thicke there, and when they were come againe from the chace, they went
to seke among the wood if any were hid there, and they founde many,
and as they came to the place where he was, they saw a birde sitte
uppon a tree, the which byrd men call an Oule, and then sayd they,
that there was no man, for the birde sat there, and so went they away,
and thus was the Caane saved from death, & so he went awaye on a night
to his owne men, which were glad of his comming, and from that time
hitherwardes men of that countrey haue that byrde in great reverence,
and for that cause they worship that byrd aboue all other birds of
the worlde. And incontinent he assembled all his men, rode uppon his
enimies and destroyed them, and when he had won all the landes that
were aboute him, he helde them in subjection. And when the Caane had
won all the lordes to mounte Belyan, the white knighte came to him in
a vision againe, and said unto him, Caan the will of God is, that thou
passe the mounte Belyan, and thou shalt win many landes, and for thou
shalt find no passage, go thou to mount Belian that is upon the sea
side and knele ix times thereon against the east in the worship of
God, & he shall shew thee a way how thou shalt passe, and Caan did
so, & anon the sea that touched the hil, withdrew him, & shewed him
a faire way of ix foote brode betwene the hill and the sea, & so he
passed right wel with al his men, & then he wan the land of Cathay
that is the best land and the greatest of all the worlde, and for
those ix knelings and the ix foote of way, Caane and the men of
Tartary have the number of ix in great worship.

    [Footnote 1: On the ground.]

    [Footnote 2: Weened--supposed, imagined.]

    [Footnote 3: Far away.]


  _Of the great Caanes letters and the wryting about his seale._

NOW when he had wonne the lande of Cathay he dyed, and then raigned
after Cythoco[1] the eldest sonne of Caane, & his other brothers went
to winne them landes in other countreys, and they wan the land of
Pruisse, and of Russy & they dyd cal themselfe Caane, but he of Cathay
is the greatest lorde of all the worlde and so he called him in his
letters and sayth thus, _Caane filius dei excelsi, universam terram
coulentium summus imperator, & dominus dominantium_ That is to say,
Caane Gods son, Emperour of all those that tyll all the lande, and
Lorde of all lordes. And the writing about his great seale is, _Deus
in celo & Caane super terram ejus fortitudo omnium hominum imperatoris
sigillum_ That is to say, God in heaven, Caan uppon earth, his
strength the seale of the Emperor of all men. And the wryting
about his privy seale is, _Dei fortitudo omnium hominum imperatoris
sigillum_ That is to say, The strength of God, seale of the Emperour
of all men. And if it be so that they be not christen, yet the
Emperour and the Tartarins beleve in God Almightie.

    [Footnote 1: In other editions Ecchecha. In reality,
    Ok-lar-Khan, who succeeded his father in 1229, and reigned
    over the Tartars till 1241.]


  _Of the governaunce of the countrey of the great Caane._

NOW haue I tolde you why he is called the great Caane, now shall I
tell you of the governinge of his courte when they make great feastes,
and he kepeth foure principall feastes in the yeare, the fyrste of his
byrth, the seconde when he is borne to the Temple to be circumcised,
the third is of his ydoles when they begin to speake, and the fourth
when the ydole beginneth fyrst to do myracles, & at those tymes he
hath men well arayed by thousands and by hundreds and eche one wote
well what he shal do. For there is fyrst ordeined 4000 rich barons and
mighty for to ordeine the feast & to serve the Emperour & all these
barons haue crowns of gold well dight with precious stones and
pearles, and they are clad in clothes of golde & camathas[1] as richly
as they may bee made & they may well have suche clothes for they
are there of lesse pryce than wollen cloth is here. And these foure
thousande barons are departed in foure parties, & eche company is clad
in diverse colour ryght richely, and when the first thousand is passed
and hath shewed them, then come the seconde thousande, and then the
thirde thousande & then the fourth, and none of them speketh a word.
And on the one side of the Emperours table sitteth many phylosophers
of many sciences, some of Astronomie, Nygromancie[2], Geometry,
Pyromacy,[3] & many other sciences, and some haue before them
Astrolabes[4] of golde or of precious stones full of sande or of coles
brenning, some haue horologes[5] well dight and richly, and many other
instruments after their sciences. And at a certaine houre when they
see time, they say to men that stand before them, make peace, and
then saye those men with a loude voyce to all the hall, now be
styll awhile, and then saith one of the philosophers, eche man make
reverence and encline to the Emperour, that is Gods sonne, and lorde
of the worlde, for now is time and houre, and then all men enclyne
to him, and knele on the earth, and then the Phylosopher biddeth them
rise up againe. And at another houre another philosopher biddeth them
put their fingers in theyr eares and they do so, and at another houre
another philosopher biddeth that all men shall laye their hande on
their heads, and they do so, and then he biddeth them take them away
and they doe so, and thus from houre to houre they bid divers thinges.
And I asked privily what it shoulde meane and one of the masters said
that the enclining and the kneling on the earth at that time hath this
token, that all those men that kneled so shall evermore be true to the
Emperour, that for no gift nor thretning they shal never be traitours
nor false to him and the putting of the finger in the eare hath this
token, that none of those shall here any yll spoken of the Emperour
or his counsayll. And ye shall understande that men dight nothing,
as clothes, bread, drinke nor no such things to the Emperour but at
certaine hours that the Philosophers tell, and if any man reyse
war against the Emperour in what countrey so ever it bee these
Philosophers know it sone, & tell y^e Emperour or his counsail and he
sendeth men thether, for he hath many men. Also he hath many men
that kepeth birdes, as gerfaukons[6], sperhaukes,[7] faucons,[8]
gentils,[9] lavers, sacres,[10] popyniaye[11] that can speake, and
many other, ten thousande olyphants, baboynes, marmosets and other and
he hath ever aboute him many Physicions more than two hundred that are
Christen men & xx sarasyns, but yet he trusteth more to Christen men
than in Sarasyns. And there is in that countrey many Sarasins and
other Servaunts that are Christen and converted to the faith, through
preching of good Christen men that dwel there, but there are many that
will not that men[12] wete that they are Christen.

    [Footnote 1: A rich silken or thread stuff.]

    [Footnote 2: Necromancy, or foretelling events by pretended
    communion with the dead.]

    [Footnote 3: Divination by fire.]

    [Footnote 4: An astronomical instrument.]

    [Footnote 5: Timepieces.]

    [Footnote 6: Girfalcons.]

    [Footnote 7: Sparrowhawks.]

    [Footnote 8: Falcons.]

    [Footnote 9: Gentles.]

    [Footnote 10: Sakers or Peregrine hawks.]

    [Footnote 11: Parrots.]

    [Footnote 12: Will not let men know.]


  _Of the great ryches of the Emperour and of his dispending._

THIS Emperour is a great lorde, for he may dispend what he will
without nombre, bicause he spendeth nother sylver nor golde & maketh
no money but of lether or skynnes, and this same money goeth through
all his lande, and of the sylver & gold buylded he his palaces. And
he hath in his chambre a piller of golde in the which is a Ruby, and
carbuncle of a foote[1] long, the which lighteth all his chambre by
night & he hath many other precious stones & rubies, but this is the
most.[2] This Emperour dwelleth in the sommer towardes the North in a
citie that men call Saydus and there it is colde enoughe, and in the
winter he dwelleth in a citie that men call Camalach, and there it
is right hot, but for the most part is he at Cadon, that is not farre

    [Footnote 1: Others say half a foot. There were always rumours
    in the East of wonderful rubies, especially one belonging
    to the King of Ceylon, which Kublai Khan is reported to have
    coveted, and wished to purchase.]

    [Footnote 2: The greatest.]


  _Of the ordynaunce of the lordes of the Emperour when he rideth
    from one countrey to another to warre._

AND when this great Caane shall ryde from one countrey to another
they ordeyne foure hostes of people, of which the fyrst goeth before
a daies journey; for that hoste lyeth at even where the Emperour shall
lye on the morow, and there is plenty of vitailes. And another host
commeth at the right side of hym and an other at the left side, and
in eche hoste is muche folke. And then commeth the fourth hoste behind
hym a bowe draught, and there is more men in that than in any of the
other. And ye shall understande that the Emperour rideth on no horse,
but when hee will go to any seacrete place with a privy meyny[1] where
he will not be knowne, but he rideth in a chariot with four wheles &
there uppon is a chamber made of a tree that men call _Lignum aloes_
that commeth out of Paradise terrestre, & that chamber is covered
with plates of fyne gold, and precious stones and perles, and foure
Olyfants & foure Oxen all white go therein, and five or sixe great
lordes ride about him, so that none other men shal come nigh him,
except the Emperour call any, and in the same manner with a chariot
& such hostes rideth the Empres by another side, and the Emperours
eldest sonne in that same aray, and they haue so much people that it
is a great marvaile for to see.

    [Footnote 1: Private retinue.]


  _How the empyre of the great Caane is departed[1] into xii
    provinces & how that they do cast ensence in the fyre where
    the great Caane passeth through the cities & townes in worship
    of the Emperour._

THE land of the great Caane is departed in xii provinces, and euery
province hath more than two thousande cities and townes. And when the
Emperour rideth through the countrey, & he passeth through cities
& townes, eche man maketh a fyre before his house, & caste therein
ensence & other things that giue good smell to the Emperour. And if
any man of relygion that are Christen men dwel nere as the Emperour
cometh they mete him with procession, with crosse and holye water, and
they singe, _Veni creator spiritus_ with a loude voyce, and when he
seeth them comming he commaundeth the lordes that they ride nere to
him to make way that the religious men may come to him, and when he
seeth the crosse, he doeth[2] of his hat that is made of precious
stones and greate perles, & that hat is so riche that it is marvaile
to tel, and then he enclineth to the crosse, & the prelate of the
religious men sayth orisons before him and giveth him the benison[3]
with the crosse, and he enclineth to the benison ful devoutly, and
then the prelate giveth him some fruite to the number of ix in a
platter of gold,[4] peares or apples or other fruite, & then the
Emperour taketh one thereof and the other he giveth to his lordes,
for the maner is such there, that no strange man shall come before the
Emperour but he giue him somewhat, after the olde law that sayth, _Non
accedat in conspectu meo manis_[5] That is to say, No man come into
my sight idle. And then y^e Emperour biddeth these religious men that
they shall goe forth, so that the men of his hoste defyle them not,
and those relygious men that dwell where the Empresse or the Emperours
sonne cometh, they do in the same maner.

    [Footnote 1: Partitioned.]

    [Footnote 2: Taketh off.]

    [Footnote 3: Blessing.]

    [Footnote 4: Others say silver.]

    [Footnote 5: Misprint for _vacuus_, empty-handed.]


  _How the great Caan is the mightiest lord of all the worlde._

THIS great Caane is the myghtiest lorde of the worlde, for prester[1]
John is not so great a lorde as he, nor the Sowdan of Babilon, ne y^e
Emperour of Percy. In this lande a man hath a hundred wives & some
xi,[2] some more some lesse, & they take of their kin to wives, all
saue their sisters, their mothers & daughters and they take also wel
theyr stepmother if their father be dead, and men & women haue all one
maner of clothing, so that they may not bee knowne, but y^t women that
are wedded beare a token on theyr heads, & they dwell not with their
housbandes, but he may lye by which he will. They have plenty of all
maner of beastes save swine, and forsoth they wyll (_have_) none, and
they beleve well in God that made all thing, & yet have they ydoles of
golde and sylver, and to those Idols they offer theyr fyrst mylke of

    [Footnote 1: In the 12th and 13th centuries there was a firm
    belief that ruling over a vast population in the far East was
    a most wealthy and powerful monarch of that name, who claimed
    to be descended from one of the three kings who adored the
    infant Christ.]

    [Footnote 2: Others say 60.]


  _Of other maners of this countrey._

THIS Emperour the great Caane hath three wives, and the principall
wife was Prester Johns daughter. And the people of this countrey begin
to doe all theyr thinges in the newe Moone, and they worshippe muche
the Sonne and the Moone, those men ryde commonly without spoores, &
they holde it a great sinne to breake one bone[1] with another, and to
spyll mylke on the grounde, or any other lycour y^t men may drinke.[2]
And when they haue eaten they wipe their handes uppon theyr skyrts,
for they haue no table clothes except it be right great lordes, and
when they haue all eaten they put their dishes or platters not washed
in the pot or cauldron with flesh that is left when they haue eaten,
until they will eate another time, & rich men drink milke of mares, of
asses, or other beastes, and other beverage that is made of milke and
water togither, for they haue neither beere nor wine. And when they go
to warre, they warre full wysely, and eche man of them bereth two or
three bowes and many arowes and a great hatchet, gentilmen haue short
swords,[3] and he that flyeth in batayle they sleay him, & they are
ever in purpose to bring all the land in subjection to them, for they
say prophecies say that they shall be overcome by shot of archers,
and that they shall turne them to their law, but they wot not what men
they shall be, and it is great peril to pursue the Tartaries when they
flee, for they will shoot behinde and slea men as well as before, and
they have small eyen[4] as little birdes, and they are commonly false
for they holde not their promise. And when a man shal die among them,
they stick a speare in the earth beside him, and when he draweth to
the death, they go out of the house till he dead, and then they put
him in the earth in the fielde.

    [Footnote 1: A bone.]

    [Footnote 2: A passage is here omitted.]

    [Footnote 3: Other editions say spears.]

    [Footnote 4: Eyes.]


  _How the Emperour is brought unto his grave when he is dead._

AND when the Emperour is dead, they set him into a carte[1] in the
middes of his tente, and they set before him a table covered with
a cloth, & there upon they set flesh and other meat & a cup full of
milke of a mare, and they set a mare with a colte by him, & a horse
sadled & bridled, and they lay upon the horse golde & silver, and all
about him they make a greate grave, and with all the things they
put him therein, as the tente, hors, golde & silver, and all that is
aboute him & they say, when he cometh in to another worlde he shall
not be without an house, nor hors, ne silver nor gold, and the mare
shall give him milke & bringe forth more horses till he be well stored
in the other worlde, & one of his chamberlaines or servants is put
with him in the earth for to doe him service in the other worlde, for
they belieue that when hee is dead he shall go to another world, and
be a greater lord there than here; & when that he is laid in the earth
no man shal be so hardy[2] for to speake of him before his frendes.

    [Footnote 1: Other editions say a chair.]

    [Footnote 2: _I.e._, his name is never mentioned.]


  _When the Emperour is dead how they chose and make an other._

AND then when the Emperour is dead the seaven linages gather them
togither, and they touch his son or the next of his blood, & they say
thus, We wyll, and we ordeyne, and we pray thee that thou wilt be our
lord & Emperour, and he enquireth of them and sayth, if ye will that I
raigne upon you, then must ye doe all that I bidde you to doe. And if
he bid that any shal be slaine, he shal be slaine, & they aunswere all
with one voyce, y^t ye bid shall be done. Then saith ye Emperour, fro
henceforth, my word shal cut as my sword, and then they set him in a
chaire, & crowne him, & then all the good townes thereabout send to
him presents, so much that he shall haue more than a C Camelles[1]
laden with gold and silver, beside other Jewels y^t he shall haue
of lords, of precious stones & gold without number & horse, & riche
clothes of Camacas[2] and Tarins,[3] & such other.

    [Footnote 1: Other editions say 60 chariots.]

    [Footnote 2: See footnote, _ante_, p. 168.]

    [Footnote 3: Tartarins, a kind of silken fabric.]


  _What countreys and kingdomes lye next to the land of Cathay
    and the frontes thereof._

THIS lande of Cathay is in Asia the depe,[1] and this same lande
marcheth toward the west upon the kingdome of Sercy,[2] the which
was sometyme to one of the three kings that went to seke our Lord in
Bethlem and all those that come of his kin are christen men. These men
of Tartary drinke no wine. In y^e land of Corosaym,[3] y^t is at the
north side of Cathay is right great plenty of goods, but no wine, the
which hath at the east side a great wildernesse, that lasteth more
than an hundred journeys, and the best citie of that land is called
Corasaym, & after the name of that citie is the lande called after,
and men of this lande are good warriors and hardy, and thereby is the
Kingedome of Comayne, this is the most & the greatest kingedome of the
world, but it is not all inhabited, for in one place of the lande is
so great cold, that no man may dwel ther for colde, and in an other
place is so great heat, that no man may dwell there, & there are so
many faithes[4] that a man wot not on what side hee may turne him, &
in this lande are fewe trees bering fruite. In thys lande men ly in
tentes, and they burne donge[5] of beastes for defaut of wood. This
lande descendeth toward Pruse & Rossy & through this land runneth the
river Echell,[6] that is one of the greatest rivers in y^e world &
it is frosen so hard euery yeare that men fight thereupon in great
battayles on horse and footemen more than a C.M[7] at once. And
a lyttle from y^e river is the great sea of Occyan, that they cal
Maure[8] and betwene this Maure & Caspy[9] is a full straight passage
to go towarde Inde and therefore King Alexander did make there a citie
y^t men call Alexander, for to kepe that passage, so that no man
may passe but if he haue leave, & now is that citie called Port de
fear,[10] and the principall citie of Comayne is called Sarachis,[11]
this is one of the thre ways to go to Inde, but through this way
may not many men go but if it be in winter, & this passage is called
Berbent.[12] And another way is to go from y^e land of Turkescon[13]
through Percy, & in this way are many journeys in wildernesse. And y^e
third way is that cometh from Cosmane & goeth through y^e great citie
& through y^e Kingedome of Abachare.[14] And ye shall understand y^t
all these kingedomes & lords unto Percy are holden of y^e great Caan &
many other & therefore he is a great lorde of men & of lande.

    [Footnote 1: Lower Asia.]

    [Footnote 2: Others write it Tharse.]

    [Footnote 3: ? Khorassan.]

    [Footnote 4: A misprint for flies.]

    [Footnote 5: The usual fuel in an unwooded Asiatic country.]

    [Footnote 6: Volga.]

    [Footnote 7: Others say 200,000.]

    [Footnote 8: The Black Sea.]

    [Footnote 9: The Caspian Sea.]

    [Footnote 10: Port de Fer, or Iron Gate. Other editions have
    it "Gate of Hell."]

    [Footnote 11: Sarai, or Sara, on the Volga. Chaucer, in
    "Cambuscan," speaks of it thus:--

      "At _Sarra_ in the Londe of Tartarie
      There dwelt a King that werriëd Russie."

    [Footnote 12: The Pass of Derbend, still called in Turkish
    _Demir Kapi_, or the Iron Gate.]

    [Footnote 13: Turkestan.]

    [Footnote 14: Variously written Abcaz or Abkhas.]


  _Of other wayes comming from Cathay toward the Grekes sea
    & also of the emperour of Percy._

NOW I haue devysed you the landes towardes the North, to come from the
lands of Cathay to the lands of Pruse & Rossy where Christen men dwel.
Now shall I devise unto you other lands & kingdoms, in comming down
from Cathay to the Grekes sea wher Christen men dwell, and for as
muche as next the great Caane of Cathay the Emperour of Percy is
the greatest lorde, therefore I shall speake of him, & ye shall
understande that he hath two kingdomes, the one beginneth eastward and
it is the kingdome of Turkescon & it lasteth westward to the sea of
Caspy & southward to the lande of Inde. This lande is good & playne
and well manned,[1] with good cities but two most principal, ye which
are called Bacirida & Sormagaunt.[2] The other is the kingedome of
Percy, and lasteth from the river of Phison[3] unto great Armony,[4] &
northward unto the sea of Caspy & southward to the land of Inde &
this is a full plenteous countrey and good. In this lande are three
principall cities Nessabor, Saphan, & Sermesse.[5]

    [Footnote 1: Peopled.]

    [Footnote 2: Bokhara and Samarcand.]

    [Footnote 3: Pison.]

    [Footnote 4: Armenia]

    [Footnote 5: Otherwise spelt Messabor, Caphon, and


  _Of the lande of Armony, which is a good land & of the lande
    of Middy._[1]

THEN is the lande of Armony, in the which was sometime three
kingdomes, this is a good land and a plentious, & it beginneth at
Percy, & lasteth westward to Turkey of length, and in breadth lasteth
from the citie of Alexander (that is now called Port de fear) unto the
lande of Myddy. In this Armony are many fayre cities, but Cauryssy[2]
is most of name. Then is the land of Myddy, and it is full long and
not brode & beginneth eastward at the land of Percy, & Inde the lesse,
and lasteth westward to the kingdome of Calde,[3] & northward to
little Armony. In this Myddy are many great hyls, & little (_of_)
plaines & ther dwel Sarasins & other maner of men, that men call

    [Footnote 1: Media.]

    [Footnote 2: Other editions have it Taurizo--in all
    probability the modern _Tabriz_ is meant.]

    [Footnote 3: Chaldæa.]

    [Footnote 4: Kurds.]


  _Of the Kingdome of George & Abcan, and many marvayles._

THEN next is the kingdome of George,[1] that beginneth eastward at a
great hil that men call Abiorz,[2] this land lasteth to Turkey to the
great sea, & to the land of Myddy, and great Armony & in this land are
two kynges, one of Abcan, and another of George but he of George is in
subjection of the great Caane, but he of Abcan hath a strong countrey,
and defendeth him well against his enimies, & in this land of Abcan
is a great marvaile, for there is a countrey in this land that is nere
III dayes long and about, & is called Hanison, and that countrey is
all covered with darknesse, so that it hath no light that no man may
see there, and no man dare go into that countrey for darkenes. And
neverthelesse men of that countrey thereby say that they may sometime
heare therein the voyce of man and horse crying, and cocks crow, and
they know wel that men dwel there, but they know not what maner of
men, and they saye this darknesse came through miracle of God that he
dyd for Christen men there. For there was a wicked Emperour y^t was of
Poy[3] & was called Saures, & he pursued sometime all Christen men to
destroy them, and did make them do sacrifice to their false gods, & in
that countrey dwelled many Christen men y^e which left al their goods
& catel, and riches, and wold go to Grece, and when they were all in a
great plain y^t is called Megon the Emperour and his men came to sley
the Christen men, & then the christen men kneled down & prayed to God,
and anon came a thick cloude and covered the Emperour and al his host,
so that he might not go away, and so dweled they in darkness, and they
neuer came out after, and y^e Christen men went there as they would,
and therefore they might say thus, _A domino factum est istud, & est
mirabile in oculis nostris_, that is to say, of our Lord is this done,
& it is wonderful in our eyes. Out of this lande cometh a river y^t
men may se by good tokens y^t men dwel therein.

    [Footnote 1: Georgia.]

    [Footnote 2: Probably Mount Elburz, one of the Caucasian

    [Footnote 3: Misprint for Persia.]


  _Of the land of the land of Turky & divers other countreys and
    of the land of Mesopotamy._

THEN next is the land of Turky, that marcheth to Great Armony and
therein are many countreys as Capadoce, Saure,[1] Bryke, Quecion,
Patan & Genethe, in eche one of the countreys are many good cities,
and it is a plaine land, & few hills and few rivers, and then is the
kingdome of Mesopotamy that beginneth eastwarde at flom of Tygre[2] at
a citie that men call Mosell,[3] and it lasteth westwarde to the flom
of Euphraten, to a citie that men call Rochaym[4] & westwarde from
high Armony unto the wildernesse of Inde the lesse, and it is a good
land and playne, but there is few rivers, and there is but two hils
in that lande, the one is called Simar, and the other Lison, & it
marcheth unto the lande of Caldee, and ye shall understande that the
land of Ethyope marcheth eastward to the great wildernesse westwarde
to the land of Nuby,[5] southwarde to the lande of Maratan[6] and
northward to the redde sea & then is the Maritan that lasteth from the
hilles of Ethiope unto Liby,[7] the high, and the low that lasteth to
the great sea of Spayne.[8]

    [Footnote 1: Otherwise written Brique, Quesiton, Pytan, and

    [Footnote 2: The river Tigris.]

    [Footnote 3: Mosul.]

    [Footnote 4: Otherwise Roiantz.]

    [Footnote 5: Nubia.]

    [Footnote 6: Mauritania.]

    [Footnote 7: Lybia.]

    [Footnote 8: The Mediterranean.]


  _Of divers countreys kingedomes & yles, and marvayles beyond
    the land of Cathay._

NOW haue I sayd and spoken of many things on this side of the great
Kingedome of Cathay, of whome many are obeysant[1] to the great Caane.
Now shall I tell of some landes, countreys & yles that are beyond the
lande of Cathay. Whoso goeth from Cathay to Inde the high and the
low, he shal go through a kingdome that men call Cadissen[2] & it is
a great lande, there groweth a maner of fruite as it were gourdes, &
when it is ripe men cut it a sonder, and men fynde therein a beast
as it were of fleshe and bone and bloud, as it were a lyttle lambe
without wolle, and men eate the beast & fruite also, and sure it
semeth very strange. Neverthelesse I sayd to them that I held y^t for
no marvayle, for I sayd that in my countrey are trees y^t beare
fruit y^t become byrds flying, and they are good to eate, & that that
falleth on the water liveth & that that falleth on earth dyeth, & they
marvailed much thereat. In this countrey & many other thereabout
are trees that beareth cloves, & nutmigs and canel[3] and many other
spyces, & there be vines that beare so great grapes that a strong man
shall enough to beare a cluster of grapes. In that same lande are the
hils of Caspy that men cal Uber & amonge those hilles are the Jewes of
the x kindes[4] enclosed therein, that men call Gog & Magog & they may
not come out on no syde. There were inclosed xxii kynges with theyr
folke that dwelled betwene y^e hills of Syche,[5] and King Alexander
chased them thither among those hilles, for hee trusting for to haue
enclosed them there through the working of men, but he might not, and
when he saw he might not, he prayed to God that he woulde fulfyll that
which hee had begun. God heard his prayer and enclosed the hilles all
about them but[6] at the one side, and there is the sea of Caspy. Here
some men mighte aske, there is a sea on one side, why go they not out
there, for thereto aunswered I that all if it be called a sea, it is
not a sea, but a stange[7] standing among hyls, and it is the greatest
stange of all the world, and all if they went over the sea, they wot
not wher to arive, for they can no speach[8] but their own. And ye
shall understand that the Jewes haue no law[9] of their owne in all
the world, but they dwell in those hils, and yet they pay tribute for
their land to the quene of Armony[10] & sometime it is so that some of
the Jewes go over the hils but many men may not passe there togither,
for the hils are so great and high. Neverthelesse men say in that
countrey therby, that in the time of Antechrist they shall doe much
harme to Christen men and therefore all the Jewes that dwell in
diverse partes of the worlde lerne for to speake Ebrew, for they hope
that the Jewes that dwel among the hils aforesayde, shall come out
of the hils and speake all Ebrew and nought else, & then shall these
Jewes speake Ebrew to them and lede them into Christendome for
to destroye Christen men. For these Jewes say they know by their
prophecies that those Jewes y^t are among those hils of Caspy shall
come out, and Christen men shall be in their subjection, as they
bee under christen men. And if ye wyll know how they shall finde the
passage out, as I have understand I shall tell you. In the time of
Antechriste a foxe shall make his denne in the same place wher King
Alexander dyd make the gates & he shall dyg in the earth so long til
he pearce it through and come among the Jewes, and when they see the
Foxe, they shall haue great marvaile[11] of him, for they saw neuer
such a beast, for other beastes have they among them many, and they
shall chase this foxe and pursue him until y^t he be fled againe to
his hole that he came from, & then shall they dig after him untill
they come to y^e gates y^t Alexander did make of great stones well
dight[12] with siment, then shall they brake these gates, and they
shall find the issue.


    [Footnote 1: Obedient, or under the rule of.]

    [Footnote 2: Other editions say Caldithe.]

    [Footnote 3: Cinnamon.]

    [Footnote 4: Tribes.]

    [Footnote 5: Scythia.]

    [Footnote 6: Except.]

    [Footnote 7: Lake or pool.]

    [Footnote 8: Can only speak their own language.]

    [Footnote 9: Misprint for _land_.]

    [Footnote 10: Other editions say Amazony.]

    [Footnote 11: Be astonished at him.]

    [Footnote 12: Well cemented.]


  _Of the land of Bactry, and of many Griffons and other beastes._

FROM this land men shal go unto the land of Bactry,[1] where are many
wicked men & fell,[2] in that land are trees that beare wol,[3] as
it were shepe, of which they make cloth. In this land are ypotains[4]
that dwel sometime on land, sometime on water, and are halfe a man and
halfe a horse, and they eate not but men, when they may get them. In
this land are many gryffons, more than in other places, and some say
they haue the body before as an Egle, and behinde as a Lyon, and it is
trouth, for they be made so; but the Griffen hath a body greater than
viii Lyons and stall worthier[5] than a hundred Egles. For certainly
he wyl beare to his nest flying, a horse and a man upon his back, or
two Oxen yoked togither as they go at plowgh, for he hath longe nayles
on hys fete, as great as it were hornes of Oxen,[6] and of those they
make cups there to drynke of, and of his rybes[7] they make bowes to
shoote with.

    [Footnote 1: Bactria.]

    [Footnote 2: Crafty.]

    [Footnote 3: Wool.]

    [Footnote 4: Hippopotamuses.]

    [Footnote 5: Stouter, braver.]

    [Footnote 6: The editor of the edition of 1827 says, in a
    footnote, p. 325: "One 4 foot long, in the Cotton Library,
    has a Silver Hoop about the end, whereon is engraven _Griphi
    Unguis, Divo Cuthberto Dunelmensi sacer_. Another, about an
    Ell long, is mentioned by _Dr. Greis_, in his History of the
    Rarities of the Royal Society, p. 26; tho' the Doctor there
    supposes it rather the horn of a Rock Buck, or of the _Ibex
    mas_." Such was science a little over fifty years since!]

    [Footnote 7: Ribs.]


  _Of the way for to go to prester Johns land which is Emperour
    of Inde._

FROM this lande of Bactry men goe many dayes Jorneyes to the lande of
Prester John, that is a great Emperour of Inde, and men call his lande
the yle of Pantoroze.[1] This Emperour Prester John holdeth great
land, & many good cities, and good townes, in his kingedome is many
great yles & large for this land of Ynde is departed in yles because
of great flods that come out of Paradise, and also in the sea are many
great yles, the best citie that is in the yle of Pantoroze is called
Nile,[2] that is a noble citie & a rich. Prester John hath under him
many kings and many diverse people, and his land is good & rych, but
not so rich as the land of the great Caane, for marchaunts come not so
much thyther as they do unto the lande of the greate Caane, for it is
so long a journey. And also they finde in the yle of Cathay all thing
that they haue nede of, as spycery, clothes of gold, and other riches,
and all if they might haue better cheape in the lande of Prester John
than in the land of Cathay, and more finer, neverthelesse they would
let[3] it, for the long waye and great perils on the sea, for there
are many places in the sea where are many roches of a stone that is
called Adamand, the which of its own kinde, draweth to him all maner
of yron, & therefore there may no ships that hath yron nayles passe,
but it draweth them to him, and therefore they dare not go into that
countrey with ships for dread of the Adamand. I went once into that
sea & sawe along as it had bene a great yle of trees, stockes &
braunches growinge, and the shipmen told me that those were of great
shippes that abode there, through the vertue of the Adamandes and of
things that were in the ships, whereof those trees sprong and waxed.
And such roches are there many in diverse places of that sea &
therefore dare there no shypman passe that waye. And another thing
also that they dread the long way, and therefore they go moste to
Cathay, and that is nerer unto them. And yet it is not so nere, but
then behoveth[4] for Venice or Gene be in ye sea toward Cathay xi
or xii moneths. The land of Prester John is long, & marchaunts passe
thither through the lande of Persy, and come unto a citie that men cal
Hermes,[5] for a Philosopher that was called Hermes founded it, and
they passe an arme of the sea, & come to another citie that men call
Saboth,[6] & there fynde they all marchaundises, & popiniayes, as
great plentie as larkes[7] in our countrey. In this countrey is little
wheat or barly, and therefore they eate ryce mylk and chese, & other
fruits. This Emperour Prester John weddeth commonly the daughter of
the greate Caane, and the great Caane his daughter. In the land of
Prester John is many divers things, and many precious stones so great
& so large that they make of them vessels, platters, and cuppes, and
many other things of which it were to long to tell, but somewhat of
his law and of his faith I shall tell you.

    [Footnote 1: Other editions say Pentexoire.]

    [Footnote 2: Nyse in other copies.]

    [Footnote 3: Would not go that.]

    [Footnote 4: This must be a misprint, and the text must read
    that travellers from Venice or Genoa to Cathay must make a
    voyage lasting 11 or 12 months.]

    [Footnote 5: Ormuz.]

    [Footnote 6: Other editions say Colbache.]

    [Footnote 7: Others say _geese_.]


  _Of the faith and belyfe of Prester John, but he hath not all
    the full beliefe as we haue._

THIS Emperour prester John is christen & a great part of his lande
also, but they haue not all the articles of our fayth, but they beleve
well in the Father, the Sonne, & the Holy Ghost, & they are full
devout and true to one another, & they make no force of Catal,[1] and
he hath under him Lxxii provinces and countries, and in eche one is
a king, & those kings haue other kinges under them. And in this lande
are many marvailes, for in that lande is the gravely sea, that is of
sande and gravaile and no drop of water, and ebbeth and floweth with
righte great waves as another sea doth, and it is never standing
still, nor never in rest, and no man may passe that land beyond it.
And al if it so be that there bee no water in the sea, yet men may
finde therein right good fishe, and of other fashion & shape than is
in any other seas, and also they are of full good savour & swete, and
good to eat. And three jorneys from that sea are many greate hills,
through which runneth a great floud that cometh from Paradise, and it
is full of precious stones, and no drop of water, and it runneth with
great waves into the gravely sea. And this floud runneth three dayes
in the weke so fast, & stirreth great stones of the roches with him
that make muche noise, and as sone as they come into the gravely sea,
they are no more sene, and in those three dayes when it runneth thus,
no man dare come in it, but the other dayes men go therein where they
will. And also beyond that floud towards that wildernesse is a great
plaine all sandy and gravely among hills, & in that plain grow trees
that at the rising of the Son ech day begin to grow, and so grow they
to midday, and beare fruit, but no man dare eate of that fruite, for
it is a maner of yron,[2] and after myddaye it turneth againe to the
earth, so that when the Sonne goeth downe it is nothinge seene, and so
doeth it every day. And there is in y^t wildernesse many wild men with
horns on their heads righte hidious, and they speke not but rout[3]
as swine & in y^t countrey are many popiniayes, y^t they call in theyr
language (pistak) & they speke through their own kind as a part as a
man, & those that speake well haue long tonges and large & on every
fote five toes, but there are som that haue but three toes but those
speake nought and very ill.

    [Footnote 1: They care not for property.]

    [Footnote 2: In other editions it is "for it is a thing of
    Fayrye," or Magic.]

    [Footnote 3: Root like hogs.]


  _Of an other ylande where also dwelleth good people therein,
    and is called Sinople._

THEN is there an other yland that is called Synople, wherein also are
good people and true, & full of good faith, & they are much lyke in
their living to y^e men before sayd, and they go all naked. Into that
Iland came King Alexander, & when he saw their good faith and trouth,
and theyr good belefe, he said that he wold do them no harme and bad
them aske of him riches and nought[1] else, and they shoulde haue it.
And they aunswered, that they had richesse ynough, when they had meat
& drinke to sustaine their bodies, & they sayde also that richesse
of this world is nought worth, but if it were so that he might
graunt them that they should never dye, that would they pray him. And
Alexander said that might he not do, for he was mortal and shold die
as they shold. Then sayd they, why art y^e so proude & woldest win all
the world, and haue it in thy subjection as it were a god & hast no
terme[2] of thy life, & thou will haue all riches of y^e world,
the which shall forsake thee or thou forsake it, & thou shalt beare
nothing with thee, but it shal dwel to other, but as thou were borne
naked, so shalt thou bee done in earth. And Alexander was greatly
astonied of this aunswere, & if it be so that they haue not the
articles of our faithe, neverthelesse I beleve that God loveth their
service to gree,[3] as he did of Job that was a Paynim, the which
he held for his true servant and many other. I beeleve well that God
loveth al those that love him and serve him mekely and truely, and
that despise the vaine glory of the world as these men doe, and as
Job did, and therefore saide our Lorde through the mouth of the holy
prophet Isay,[4] _Ponam eis multiplices Leges meas_, That is to say,
I will put my laws to them in many maners, & the gospell saith thus,
_Alias oves habeo, que non sunt ex hoc ovili_, That is to say I
haue other shepe that are not of this folde, and thereto accordeth the
vision that saint Peter saw at Jaffe how the aungell came from heaven,
& brought with him of all maner of beastes, as serpents and divers
foules, and said to sainct Peter, Take and eat. And sainct Peter
aunswered, I eat never of uncleane beste. And the aungell sayde to
him, _Non dicas inmunda, que Deus mundavit_. That is to saye, Call
thou not those things uncleane that God hath clened. This was done in
token that men sholde not haue many men in despite for their divers
lawes, for we wot never whom God loveth & whom God hateth.

    [Footnote 1: Misprint for _aught_, anything.]

    [Footnote 2: End, termination.]

    [Footnote 3: Pleasure, "please Him."]

    [Footnote 4: Others say Hosea.]


  _Of two other iles, the one is called Pitan where in be little
    men that eate no meat, and in that other ile are the men all
    rough of fethers._

THERE is another yle that men call Pitan, men of this lande till no
lande, for they eate nought and they are smal, but not so smal as
Pigmes. These men liue with smell of wild aples,[1] & when they go
far out of the countrey, they beare apples with them, for anon as they
lose that savour of apples they dye, they are not reasonable but
as wyld beastes. And there is another yle where the people are all
fethers,[2] but the face and the palmes of theyr handes, these men go
as well about the sea as on the lande, and they eate fleshe & fish
all raw, in this yle is a great river that is two mile brode & a halfe
that men call Renemar.

    [Footnote 1: Pliny (book 7, cap. 2) says: "At the very
    extremity of India, on the eastern side, near the source of
    the River Ganges, there is the nation of the Astonei, a people
    who have no mouths; their bodies are rough and hairy, and they
    cover themselves with a down plucked from the leaves of trees
    (_probably cotton_). These people subsist only by breathing
    and by the odours which they inhale through the nostrils. They
    support themselves upon neither meat nor drink: when they
    go upon a long journey they only carry with them various
    oderiferous roots & flowers, and wild apples, that they may
    not be without something to smell at. But an odour which is a
    little more powerful than usual easily destroys them."]

    [Footnote 2: Other editions read, _rough hair_.]


  _Of a rich man in Prester Johan's lande named Catolonapes and
    of his gardeine._

IN an yle of Prester Johans land y^t men call Miscorach, there was
a rich man y^t was called Catolonapes, he was ful rich & had a fair
castel on a hil & strong, & he made a wal all about ye hill right
strong & fayre, within he had a faire gardeine wherein were many
trees bearing all maner of fruits y^t he might find, & he had planted
therein al maner of herbes of good smel and that bare flowers, & ther
wer many faire wels, & by them was made many hals & chambers wel dight
with gold & asure, & he had made there dyverse stories of beastes
and birds y^t song & turned by engin and orbage[1] as they had been
quick,[2] & he had in his gardeine al thing that might be to man
solace & comfort, he had also in that gardeine maydens within y^e age
of xv yeare, y^e fairest y^t he myght find, & men children of the same
age, & they were clothed with clothes of gold, & he sayd that they
were aungels and he caused to be made certain hils,[3] & enclosed them
about with precious stones of Jaspy & christal & set in gold & pearls
and other maner of stones, and he had made a coundute[4] under y^e
earth, so that when he wold y^e walls[5] ran somtime with milke,
somtime with wine, somtime honey, & this place is called Paradise &
when any yong bacheler of y^e countrey, knight or sqyer, cometh to him
for solace and disport, he ledeth him into his paradise & sheweth them
these things, as the songs of birds & his damosels and wels, & he did
strike diverse Instruments of musyke, in a high tower that might
be sene, and sayde they were the aungels of God, & that place was
Paradise, that God hath graunted to those that beleved, when hee sayde
thus, _Dabo vobis terram fluentam lac & mel_. That is to say, I shall
giue you land flowing with mylk and hony. And then this rych man
dyd[6] these men drinke a maner of drinke, of which they were dronken,
& he said to them if they wold dye for his sake & when they were dead
they shold come to his paradise, and they should be of the age of
those maydens, and shold dwell alway with them, and he shold put them
in a fayrer paradise where they shold se god in his joy, and in his
majesty & then they graunted to do that he wold, and he bad them go
and sleay such a lord, or a man of the countrey that he was wroth
with, and that they should haue no dread of no man and if they were
slaine themselfe for his sake, he shold put them in his paradise when
they were dead. And so went those bachelers to sleay great lordes of
the countrey, & were slaine themselfe in hope to haue that Paradise,
and thus was he avenged of his enimies through his desert,[7] and when
rich men of the countrey perceived this cautell[8] and malice and the
will of this Catolonapes, they gathered them to gither & assayled the
castel & slew hym & destroyed all his goods and his faire places and
riches that were in his paradise, and the place of the wales[9] are
there yet, and it is not long ago since it was destroyed.

    [Footnote 1: This word is very puzzling. It seems to me that
    it probably means _wheel work_, from Lat. _orbis_, a circle;
    but Rd. Braithwaite, in his _Arcadian Princesse_, says:
    "In the lowest border of the garden, I might see a curious
    _orbell_, all of touch, wherein the Syracusan tyrants were
    no lesse artfully portrayed, than their severall cruelties to
    life displayed."]

    [Footnote 2: As if they had been alive.]

    [Footnote 3: Misprint for Wells.]

    [Footnote 4: Conduit.]

    [Footnote 5: Wells.]

    [Footnote 6: Made.]

    [Footnote 7: Deceit.]

    [Footnote 8: Ill intent, evil mind.]

    [Footnote 9: Wells.]


  _Of a marvelous vale that is beside the river of Physon._

AND a lyttle from that place, on the left syde besyde the river of
Physon is a great marvaile. There is a vale betwene two hils, and that
is foure myle longe, and some men call it the valay enchaunted, some
y^e valey of Divels, some the valey perylous,[1] and in that valey are
many tempests & a great noyse very hydeous bothe day & night & sound
as it were a noise of Taburines[2] of nakers[3] & of trumpets as it
were a great feast. This valey is all full of devils, and hath ben
alway, and men say thereby y^t it is a enter[4] to hell. In this
valey is muche golde & silver, wherefore many Christen men & other go
thether for covetise of that golde and silver, but few of them come
out againe, for they are anon strangled with divels. And in the middes
of that vale on a roche is a visage, & the head of a fiend bodely,
right hideous and dreadfull to see, and there is nothing sene but the
head to y^e shoulders, but there is no christen men in y^e world nor
other so hardy but y^t he should be greatly afraide to beholde it, for
he beholdeth eche man so sharply & felly[5] & his eyes are so staring
& so sprinkling[6] as fyre & he chaungeth so often his countenaunce
that no man dare come nere for all the worlde, and out of his mouth &
his nose cometh great plenty of fyer of divers colours, & sometime
is the fyer so stynking, that no man may suffer it, but alway a good
christen man, and one that is stedfast in the fayth may go therein
without harme, if they shrive them well and blesse them with the token
of the crosse, then shall the divels haue no power over them. And ye
shall understande that when my felowes & I were in that valey, we had
full great dought[7] if we shold put our bodies in a venture to go
through it, & some of my felows agreed therto, & some wold not, and
there were in our company two friers minours of Lombardy & sayd if any
of us wold go in, they wold also, as they had sayd so, and upon
trust of them we sayd that we wold go, & we dyd sing a masse and were
shriven & houseled,[8] and we went in xiiii men & when we came out we
were but x[9] & we wist not whether our felowes were loste there, or
that they turned againe, but we saw no more of them, others of our
felowes that would not go in with us, went about another way for to
be before us, and so they were. And we went through the valey and saw
there many marvailous things, gold silver precious stones & jewels
great plenty, as we thought, whether it were so or no, I know not, for
divels are so subtill & false, that they make many times a thinge
to seme y^t is not, for to deceive men, and therefore I wold touch
nothing for dread of enimies that I saw there in many likenesses, and
of dead bodies that I saw lye in the valey, but I dare not saye that
they were all bodies, but they were bodies through making of divels.
And we were often cast down to the earth by winde, thunder & tempest,
but God helped alway, and so passed we through that valey without
peryl or harme thankes be to God.

    [Footnote 1: Perilous.]

    [Footnote 2: Tambourines.]

    [Footnote 3: A kind of drum, probably a kettledrum.]

    [Footnote 4: Entrance.]

    [Footnote 5: Evilly.]

    [Footnote 6: Sparkling.]

    [Footnote 7: Doubt.]

    [Footnote 8: Received the Sacrament.]

    [Footnote 9: Others say 9.]


  _Of an yland wherein dwell people as great as giants of xxviii
    or xxx fote of length & other things._

AND beyond that valey is a great yle, where people as great as giaunts
of xxviii fote long & they haue no clothinge but beasts skyns that
hang on them, & they eate no bread but flesh raw and they drink milke,
& they haue no houses, & they eat gladlyer fleshe of men, than other,
& men saye to us, that beyond that yle is a yle where are greater
giaunts as xlv or L fote long, & some sayd L cubits long, but I saw
not them, and among those giaunts are great shepe, as it were young
oxen, and they beare great wolle, these shepe haue I sene many times.
An other yle is there northward where are many evill and fell women
and they haue precious stones in their eies, & they haue suche
kinde y^t if they beholde any man with wrath, they sley them of the
beholding as the Basalysk doeth.[1]

    [Footnote 1: Here a passage is omitted.]


  _Of women which make great sorow as theyr children are borne
    & great joy when they are dead._

AN other yle there is, where women make great sorow when theyr
children be borne & when they are dead they make great joy and caste
them in a great fier and burne them, and they that loue well theyr
husbands, when they are dead they cast them in a fyer to burn them,
for they say that fyer shall make them clean of all filth & vices &
they shall be cleane in another world, and the cause why they wepe
when their children are borne, and y^t they joye at their death, they
say a child when he is borne cometh into this world to haue travaile,
sorow & heavinesse, & when they are dead they go to Paradise where
rivers are of mylke and honey, & there is lyfe & joy and plenty of
goods without travaile or sorow. In thys yle they make their kings by
chosing, & they chose him not for his riches and noblenesse, but him
that is of good conditions and most righteous and trew that judgeth
euery man truely, little & much after their trespasse, and ye king may
judge no man to death without counsel of his barons, & that they all
assent. And if it so be y^t the king do a great trespasse, as sley a
man or such lyke, he shall dye also, but he shall not be slaine, but
they shall defend and forbid that no man be so hardy to beare him
company, nor to speake to him, ne giue him meat nor drinke and thus he
shall dye, for they spare no man y^t hath done a trespasse, for loue,
lordeship riches nor noblenes, but they do him right after y^t he hath


  _Of an yland where men wed theyr owne daughters & kinswomen._

THERE is another yle where there is great plenty of people & they eate
neuer flesh of hares, nor of hens, nor geese, yet is there many of
them but they eate of all other beastes, and they drink mylk, in this
countrey they wed theyr owne daughters and other of theyr kyn as them
liketh, and if there be x or xii men in one house, eche one of theyr
wyves shal be comon to other, & at night shal one haue one of y^e
wives and another night another. And if she haue any chylde, she may
give it to whome she would so that no man knowe if it be his or not.
In this land & many other places of Inde, are many cocodrilles, that
is a maner of a long serpent, and on nights they dwell on water, and
on dayes they dwell on land and rocks, and they eat not in winter.
These serpents sley men and eate them weping,[1] and they haue no
tongue. In this countrey and many other, men caste sede of cotton, and
sow it eche yeare and it groweth as it were small trees, and they bere
cotton. In Araby is a kynde of beast that some men call Garsantes,[2]
that is a fayre beast, & he is hyer than a great courser or a stead[3]
but his neck is nere xx cubytes long, and his crop and his taile
lyke a hart and he may loke ouer a high house and there is many
Camilions,[4] that is a lytle beaste, & he eateth nor drinketh never,
and he chaungeth his colour often, for sometime he is of one colour &
sometime of another, and he may chaunge him into all colours that he
will, saue black and red. There are many wilde swine of many colours
and as great as Oxen, & they are spotted as it were smal fawnes, and
there are lions all white, and there be other beastes as great steedes
that men call Lauhorans,[5] and men call them Toutes, and their head
is blacke, and three long hornes in his fronte, as cutting as sharp
swords, and he chaseth and wil sley Olifants. And there is many other
maner of beastes, of whom it were to long to write all.


    [Footnote 1: This curious belief gave rise to the term
    "Crocodile's tears," _i.e._, hypocritical tears.]

    [Footnote 2: Giraffes.]

    [Footnote 3: A steed or horse.]

    [Footnote 4: Chameleon.]

    [Footnote 5: A rhinoceros is here evidently meant.]


  _Of an ylande wherein dwell full good people and true._

THERE is another yland good and great, and plentiouse, where are good
men and true and of godly lyfe after their faith, & all if they be not
christen neverthelesse of kinde they are full of good vertues and they
fly all vices, and all sinne and malice, for they are not envious,
proud, covetous, lecherous nor glotenus, and they do not unto
another man but that they wold he did to them, and they fulfill the x
commaundementes and they make no force of ryches nor of having, & they
Swere not, but they say ye and nay, for they say he that swereth will
deceive his neighbour, and some men call this yle the yle of Bragamen,
and some call it the land of faith, and through it runneth a great
river that men call Thebe, and generally al men in those iles, and
other iles thereby are truer and rightwiser than in other countreys.
In this ile are no theves, murderers nor beggers. And for as much as
they are so true and so good, there is no tempest nor thunder, warre,
hunger, nor tribulation, and thus it semeth well that God loveth them
wel, and he is well payed of theyr dedes, and they beleve in God y^t
made all thing & him they worship and they live so ordinately in meate
and drinke that they live right longe, and many of them dye without
sicknesse, that kinde[1] faileth them for age.

    [Footnote 1: They only die of old age.]


  _How King Alexander sent his men thither for to winne that lande._

AND King Alexander sometime sent his men to win that lande, and they
sent him letters that sayde thus, What behoveth a man to have all the
worlde, that is not content therewithal: thou shalt fynde nothing at
al in us, why that thou shouldest make warre upon us, for we haue no
ryches nor treasure, and all the cattell of our countrey are common,
our meates that we eate are our riches, and instede of gold and
silver, we make our treasure peace & concorde of love, and we have
nought but a cloth uppon our bodies, our wyves are not arrayed rychely
to pleasing, for we holde it a great foly for a man to tryme up his
body with costly aparel to make it seme fairer than God made it. We
haue ben evermore in peace til now y^t thou wilt disherite us. We haue
a king among us, not for nede of the law, nor to judge any man, for
there are no trespassours among us, but all onely to learne us to be
obedient to him & so maist you take from us but our good peace. And
when King Alexander saw this letter he thought he shold doe to much
harme if he troubled them, and sent to them that they should kepe well
theyr good maners, & haue no dread of him.


  _How the Emperour Prester John when he goeth to batayle, he
    hath three crosses borne before him of fine gold._

THIS Emperour Prester John, when he goeth to batayle, he hath no baner
borne before him, but he hath borne before him three crosses of fine
gold, & those are large & great, and well set with precious stones,
& for to kepe eche crosse, is ordeyned a thousand[1] men of armes,
in maner as men kepe a standerde in other countreys, and he hath men
without number when he goeth in any batayle against any other lord.
And when he hath no battayle but rydeth with privy company, then doth
he beare before him a crosse of tree[2] not painted, and without gold
or precious stones, and all playne in token that our lord Jesu Christ
suffered death on a cross of tree. And also he hath borne before him
a platter of gold ful of earth, in token y^t lordship and noblenesse
shal tourne to nought, & his flesh shall turne to earth. And also he
has borne before him another vessell full of Jewels, and golde and
precious stones, in token of his noblenes and of his might.

[Footnote 1: Others say 10,000.]

[Footnote 2: A wooden cross.]


  _Of the moste[1] dwelling place of Prester John in a citie
    called Suse._

AND he dwelleth commonly at the citie of Suse, & there is his
principall palaice that is so riche that marvayle is to tell, & about
the principall toure of the palaice are two pomels[2] of gold all
round, and eche one of those hath two carbuncles great & large,
y^t shine ryght clere in the night, and y^e principal gates of this
palaice are of precious stones that men call Saraine[3] & the borders
of the barres are of Ivory, & windowes of the hall and chambers are
of Cristall, and tables that they eate of, some Emerandes, some are of
Mayk,[4] some of golde and precious stones, and the pillers that beare
the tables are of such stones also, and the greces on the which
y^e Emperour goeth to his sege where he sitteth at meat, one is of
Mastik,[5] another of Cristal, another of green Jasphy,[6] another of
Diasper,[7] another of Serdin,[8] another of Cornelin,[9] another of
Seuton, & that he setteth his fote upon, is of Crisolites, and all
these greces are bordered with fine gold, and well set with great
perles and other precious stones, and ye side of the sege are Emerauds
bordred with gold and with precious stones, the pillers in his chambre
are of fine gold with many Carbuncles and other such stones that giue
great light in the night, and all if the Carbuncles giue great light,
neuerthelesse there burneth xii[10] great vessels of Cristall full of
balme to giue good smell, and to drive away evill ayre. The fourme[11]
of his bedde is all of Saphire well bound with gold to make him slepe
well & for to destroy lechery, for he will not lye by his wives but
thrise[12] a yeare, after the seasons, and all onely for getting of
children. And he hath also a fayre palayce in the city of Nyse where
he dwelleth when he wil, but the aier there is not so well tempered as
it is in the citie of Suse. And he hath euery day in his courte more
than xxx thousand men, besides comers and goers, but xxx thousand
there or in the court of the great Caane spendeth not so much as xii
thousand in our countrey. He hath euermore vii kinges in his court to
serve him and eche one of them serveth a moneth, and with these kinges
serue alway Lxxii Dukes & CCC[13] erles, and euery day eat in his
court xii archbishops and xx byshops. The patryarke of saint Thomas is
as he were a pope and Archbishops and byshops & abbotes, all are kings
in that countrey, and some of the lordes is master of the hall, some
of the chambre, some steward, some marshal, and other officers, and
therefore he is ful rychley served. And his land lasteth in breadth
four moneths journey and it is of length without measure.

    [Footnote 1: The greatest.]

    [Footnote 2: A ball or knot.]

    [Footnote 3: ? Sardonyx.]

    [Footnote 4: Another edition says Amethysts.]

    [Footnote 5: Another edition says Onyx.]

    [Footnote 6: Probably Jasper.]

    [Footnote 7: Another edition says Amethyst, but as the whole
    is so apocryphal it does not much matter.]

    [Footnote 8: Sardine or Sardonyx.]

    [Footnote 9: Cornelian. What Seuton is I will not even venture
    to guess at.]

    [Footnote 10: Another edition says, "a great vessel."]

    [Footnote 11: The framework.]

    [Footnote 12: Others say four times.]

    [Footnote 13: Elsewhere it is 360.]


  _Of the wildernesse wherein groweth the trees of the sonne
    & the Moone._

AND beyond that river is a great wildernesse as men that haue ben
there say. In this Wildernesse as men saye are the trees of the Sonne
and of the Mone that spake to Kyng Alexander and tolde him of his
death, and men saye that folke that kepe these trees & eate of the
fruits of them, they live foure or five hundred yeare through vertue
of the fruite, and we woulde gladly haue gone thyther, but I beleve
that an hundred thousand men of armes shold not passe that wildernesse
for great plenty of wilde beastes, as dragons and serpents that sley
men when they pass that way. In this lande are many Oliphantes
all white and blew without number, and unicornes & lyons of many
maners.[1] Many other yles are in the land of Prester John that were
to long to tell, and much ryches and nobly of precious stones in great
plenty. I beleve y^t we haue herd say why this Emperour is called
Prester John but for those that know it not I wil declare. There was
sometime an Emperour that was a noble prince, & doughty, & he had many
christen Knights with him and y^e Emperour thought hee woulde see the
service in Christen churches, and then was churches of christendome in
Turkey, Surry and Tartary, Hierusalem, Palistine, Araby and Alappy,[2]
and all the lordes[3] of Egypte. And thys Emperour came with a
Christen Knight into a church of Egipt and it was on a saterday after
Whit sonday when the byshop gaue orders, and he behelde the service
and he asked of the Knight what folke those should be that stode
before the Byshop, and the Knight sayd they should be prestes, & he
sayde he wold no more be called Kinge ne Emperour but preest, and he
would haue the name of him that came first out of the prestes and
he was called John, and so haue all the Emperors sythen[4] be called
Prester John. In this lande are many Christen men of good faith &
good lawe, and they haue prestes to sing masse, and they make the
sacrements as men of Grece do, but they say not but that y^e Apostles
said as saint Peter, and saint Thomas, and other apostles when they
song masse and said _Pater noster_, and the wordes with the which
Gods body is sacred; we haue many addicions of Popes that haue bene
ordeyned of which men in those countreys know not.

    [Footnote 1: Kinds or sorts.]

    [Footnote 2: ? Aleppo.]

    [Footnote 3: Other editions read _land_.]

    [Footnote 4: Since then.]


  _Of a great yland and kingedome called Taprobane._[1]

TOWARDE the East side of Prester John's lande is an yle that men call
Taprobane, & is right good and fructuous,[2] and there is a great Kyng
and a rych, and he is obedient unto Prester John & the King is alway
made by eleccion. In this yle is ii wynters and two somers, and they
shere[3] corne twise in the yere, all times in the yeare gardeins
florysheth. There dwelleth good people and reasonable and many
Christen men among them that are full rich, and the water betwene the
syde of Prester John and this yle is not full depe for men may see the
grounde in many places.

    [Footnote 1: There seems a difference of opinion whether this
    island is Ceylon or Sumatra.]

    [Footnote 2: Fruitful.]

    [Footnote 3: Reap.]


  _Of two other yles, one is called Orel, & the other Argete where
    are many gold mines._

THERE are more eastward two other yles--y^e one is called Orell and
the other Argete of whom all the land is mine of gold & silver. In
those yles many men se no sters[1] clere shining, but one starre y^t
is called Canapos[2] and there many men se not y^e Mone but in the
last quarter. In that yle is a great hyll of golde that pismyres[3]
kepe, & they do fine golde from the other that is not fine golde, and
the pismyres are as great as houndes, so that no man dare come there
for dread of pismyres that should assayle them so that men may not
worke in that gold nor get thereof but by subtiltie, and therefore
when it is righte hote the pismyres hide them in the earth from
undern[4] to none of the daye, and then men of the countrey take
Cameles and dormedaries and other beastes & go thither and charge them
with gold and go away fast or the pismyres come out of the earth. And
other times when it is not so hot y^t the pismyres hide them not, they
take mares that haue foles, and they lay upon these mares two long
vessels as it were two small barels and the mouth upwards and drive
them thether and holde theyr foles at home, and when the pismyres se
these vessels they spring therein, for they haue[5] of kinde to leue
no hole nor pyt open, and anone they fyl these vessels with golde, and
when men think that the vessels be full they take the foles and bring
them as nere as they dare, and then they whine, and the mares heare
them, and anone they come to theyr foles and so they take the gold,
for these pismyres will suffer beastes for to go among them, but no

    [Footnote 1: Stars.]

    [Footnote 2: Canopus, a star of the first magnitude, in the
    rudder of the constellation _Argo_.]

    [Footnote 3: Ants.]

    [Footnote 4: See footnote, _ante_, p. 125.]

    [Footnote 5: For it is their habit.]


  _Of the darke countrey and hils and roches of stone nigh to

BEYOND the yles of the lande of Prester John and his lordeship of
wildernesse to go right East, men shall not finde but hils, great
rocks and other myrke[1] lande, where no man may see a day or night as
men of the countrey say, and this wildernesse and myrke land lasteth
to Paradise terrestre, where Adam and Eve were sette, but they were
there but a lyttle while, and that is toward the East at the beginning
of the earth, but that is not our East that we call where the Son
ryseth in those countreys towarde Paradise, and then it is midnight in
our countrey for the roundnesse of the earth, for our Lorde made the
earth all rounde in the middest of y^e fyrmament. Of Paradise can I
not speake properly for I haue not bene there, but that I haue heard
I shall tell you. Men say that Paradise terrestre is the highest lande
in all the worlde, and it is so high that it toucheth nere to the
cyrcle of the Mone, for it is so high y^t Noes floude might not come
thereto which covered all the earth about.

    [Footnote 1: Dark, murky.]


  _A lyttle of Paradise terrestre._

THIS Paradise terrestre is enclosed al about with a wall, and that
wall is all covered with mosse as it semeth, y^t men may see no stone
nor nothing else whereof it is, and in the highest place of Paradise
in the middest of it is a well that casteth out the foure flouds that
run through divers landes. The first floud is called Phison or Ganges,
and that runneth through Inde, in that river are many precious stones
and much _Lignum Aloes_ & gravel of golde. Another is called Nilus or
Gison, and y^t runneth through Ethiope & Egipt. The third is called
Tigre & that runneth through Assyry & Armony the great. And the fourth
is called Eufrates, y^t runneth through Armony and Percy & men say
that the sweete and fresh waters of y^e world take their springing of
them. The first river is called Phison, that is to say, gathering of
many rivers together & faling into one, and some call it Ganges, for a
King y^t was in Inde that men cal Gangeras, for it runneth through his
land & this river is in some places cleane, in some places troble,[1]
in some places hot, in some places cold. The second river is called
Nilus or Gison, for it is ever trouble, for Gison is to say troble.
The third river is called Tigris that is to say fast running, for it
runneth faster than any of the other, & so is a beast that men call
Tigris for he runneth fast. The fourth ryver is called Eufrates y^t
is to say well bearing, for there groweth many good things upon that
ryver. And ye shall understande that no man living may go unto y^t
Paradise, for by land he may not go for wylde beastes which are in the
wyldernesse, and for hylls and rocks where no man may passe. Nor by
those ryvers may no man passe, for they come with so great course and
so great waves that no ship may saile against them. Many great lordes
haue essayed many times to go by those rivers to Paradise, but they
might not spede in theyr way, for some dyed for werynesse of rowinge,
some waxt blynde and some defe for noise of the waters, so no man may
passe there but through speciall grace of God--for I can tell you no
more of that place. I shall tell you of that I haue seene.

    [Footnote 1: Troubled or muddy.]



  _How Prester Johns land lyeth foote against[1] foote to

THERE yles of the land of Prester John, they are under the earth to
us, & other yles are there whoso wold pursue them for to environ the
earth whoso had grace of God to hold the waye, he mighte come right
to the same countreys that he were come of and come from & so go about
the earth, and for that it asketh so long tyme, & also there are so
many perils to passe that fewe men assay to go so, and yet it might
be done, & therefore men come from these yles to other yles costing of
the lordship of Prester John, & men come in the coming to one yle y^t
men cal Cassoy, & that country is nere Lx journeys long & more than
L of bredth, that is the best land that is in those countreys saue
Cathay & if marchants came thither as commonly as they do to Cathay,
it would be better than Cathay, for it is so thick of cities & towns
y^t when a man goeth out of a citie he seeth another on eche side.
There is great plenty of spices and other goods. Ye king of this ile
is rich & mighty & he holdeth his land of y^e great Caan for y^t is
one of y^e xii princes[2] that the great Caan hath under him beside
his owne lande.

    [Footnote 1: Antipodes.]

    [Footnote 2: Misprint for provinces.]


  _Of the Kingedome of Ryboth._

FROM this yle men go another kyngdome that is called Riboth, and that
is also under y^e great Caan. This is a good countrey and plentious of
corne, wine & other things, men of this lande haue no houses but they
dwell in tentes made of tree. And the principall citie of the countrey
is all blacke made of black stones and white and all the streetes are
paved with such stones and in the citie is no man so hardy to spil
blood of man ne beast, for worship of a mawment[1] that is worshiped
there. In that citie dwelleth the Pope of their lawe, that they call
Lopasse, and he giveth all dignities & benefices that fall to y^e
mawmet. And men of religion and men that haue churches in that
countrey are obedient to him as men here to the pope. In this yle they
haue a custome through all the countrey that when a mans father is
dead they wil do him great worship, they send after all his friends,
religious priests and many other, and they beare the body to an hill
with great Joy and myrth, and whan it is there, the greatest prelate
smiteth of his head, & laieth it upon a great plate of gold, or
silver, and giveth it to his sonne and his son taketh it to his other
friends, singing and sayinge many orysons,[2] and then the prestes
and the religious men cut the flesh of[3] the body in peces and say
orysons, and the byrds of the countrey come thether, for they know
well the custome, and they flye about them as they were egles and
other birds that eate flesh, and the priestes cast the pieces unto
them, and they beare it away a little from thence and then they eate
it, and as priestes in our countrey sing for soules _subvenite sancti
dei_ and so forth, so those prestes ther syng with high voyce in their
language in this maner wyse. Se and beholde how good and gracious a
man this was, that ye aungels of God come for to fetch him & beare him
into Paradise. And then thinketh y^e son of the same man that he is
greatly worshipped when birds haue eaten his father, and where are
most plenty of byrds, there is most worship. And then cometh the sonne
home with all his friendes, and maketh them a great feast, the sonne
maketh cleane his fathers head and giveth them drynke thereof, & the
fleshe of the head he cutteth of, and giveth it to his moste
speciall fryends, some a lyttle, & some a lyttle, for deynty. And in
remembrance of this holy man that the birds haue eaten, the sonne doth
make a cuppe of the scalpe[4] & thereof drinketh he all his life, in
remembrance of his father.

    [Footnote 1: A puppet or doll, or mammet--an idol--probably so
    called as a contraction for Mahomet.]

    [Footnote 2: Prayers.]

    [Footnote 3: Off.]

    [Footnote 4: Skull.]



  _Of a rych man that is neyther king, prince, duke nor erle._

AND from this men go ten journeys through the land of the great Caan,
which is a full good yle & a great kingdom & the king is ful mighty.
And in this yle is a rich man which is no king, prince, Duke nor Erle,
but he hath eche yere cccc[1] thousand horses charged[2] with ryce
and corne, and he hath a noble & a rich life after the maner of the
countrey, for he hath L damosels that serve him every day at his meate
& bed and do what he wil. And when he sytteth at the table they bring
him meat, & at eche time fiue meates togither, and they sing in the
bringing a song, and they cut his meate and put it in his mouth, and
he hath righte long nayles on his hands, that is a great nobility in
that countrey & therefore they let theyr nayles grow as long as they
may,[3] and some let them growe so long that they come about theyr
handes and y^t is a great nobility & gentry, and the gentry of a woman
is to haue small fete, and therefore anon as they are borne, they
binde their feete so straight that they cannot wax halfe as they
shoulde. And he hath a full faire palaice, & rich, wher he dwelleth,
of which the wall is two myle about, & there is many faire gardeins,
and all the pavement of the hal, & chambres, is of gold & silver, and
in the midst of one of these gardeins is a lyttle hyl, whereon is a
place made wyth toures and pynacles all of golde, and there he wyll
syt often to take the ayer and disport, for it is made for nothing
else. From this land men may go through y^e land of the great Caane.

    [Footnote 1: Other editions say 300,000.]

    [Footnote 2: Loaded.]

    [Footnote 3: Similar to the Chinese custom of the upper


  _How all these landes yles and kingdomes, and the men therof
    afore rehersed, haue some of the articles of our faith._

AND ye shall understand that all these men & folke that haue reason
y^t I haue spoken of, haue some articles of our faith, all[1] if they
be of divers lawes and divers beleves, yet they haue some good poynts
of our fayth, & they beleve in God of kinde as theyr prophecie sayth,
_Et metuent eum omnes fines terræ_, That is to say, And all endes
of the earth shall dread him. And in another place, _Omnes gentes
servient ei_, That is to say, All folk shall serve him, but they
cannot speak parfitly but as theyr kyndly wit teacheth them, neither
of the Son nor of the Holy Ghost can they speake, but they can speake
well of the Byble, and specially of Genesis, and of the bokes of
Moyses. And they say that those creatures y^t they worship are no
gods, but they worship them for great vertue that is in them which may
not be without special grace of God, & of simulacre and ydoles, they
say that all men haue simulacres, and that, say they, for us christen
men haue ymages of our Lady & other, but they wot not that we worship
not the ymages of stone nor of wood, but the saynts of whome they
are made, for as the letter teacheth clarkes how they shal beleve,
so ymages and paynture teacheth lewde[2] men. They say also that the
aungell of God speaketh to them in their ydoles & do miracles,
they say soth,[3] but it is the evil aungell that doth myracles to
maintaine them in their ydolatrie.

    [Footnote 1: Even.]

    [Footnote 2: Unlearned.]

    [Footnote 3: Truly.]


  _How John Maundevyl leveth many mervailes unwrytten & the
    cause wherefore._

THERE are many other countreys where I haue not yet ben nor sene &
therefore I can not speke properly of them. Also in countreys where I
haue bene are many marvailes that I speke not of, for it were to long
a tale and therefore hold you payd at this time y^t I haue sayd, for
I will say no more of mervailes that are there, so that other men that
go thither may fynde ynough for to say that I haue not tolde.



  _What time John Maundevil departed out of England._

AND I John Maundevil that went out of my countrey and passed the sea,
the yeare of our lord MCCCXXII and I haue passed through many landes
and yles and countreys, and now am come to rest. I haue compyled this
boke and do wryte it the yeare of our Lord MCCCLXVI at XXXIV yeare
after my departing from my countrey, & for as much as many men beleve
not that they see with theyr eyen, or y^t they may conceive & know in
their mynde, therefore I made my way to Rome in my coming homewarde,
to shew my boke to the holy father the pope,[1] and tell him of the
mervayles y^t I had sene in diverse countreys; so that he with his
wise counsel wold examine it, with diverse folke y^t are at Rome, for
there dwell men of all nations of the world, and a lytle time after
when he & his counsel had examined it all through, he sayde to me
for a certayne that it was true for he sayd he had a boke of latin
contayning all that and much more, of y^e which _Mappa Mundi_ is made,
the which boke I saw, & therefore the pope hath ratyfied & confirmed
my boke in all poyntes. And I pray to all those that rede this boke,
that they will pray for me and I shall pray for them, & all those that
say for me our Lord's prayer & that God forgive me my sinnes, I make
them parteners & graunt them part of all my good pylgrimages and other
good dedes which I ever dyd or shall do to my lyves ende & I pray
to God of whome all grace cometh, that he will, all the readers and
hearers that are christen, fulfil with his grace, and saue them body
and soule & bring them to his Joy that euer shall last. He that is in
the Trinitie, the Father, the Sonne, and the Holy Ghost, that liveth &
raigneth God without ende


    [Footnote 1: Urban V.]

Imprinted at London in Breadstreat at the nether ende
    by Thomas East. An 1568
        The 6 day of October



  _Here beginneth the journall of Frier Odoricus, one of the
    order of the Minorites, concerning strange things which hee
    sawe among the Tartars of the East._

ALBEIT many and sundry things are reported by divers authors
concerning the fashions and conditions of this world: notwithstanding
I frier Odoricus of Friuli, de portu Vahonis being desirous to travel
unto the foreign and remote nations of infidels, sawe and heard great
and miraculous things, which I am truly able to avouch. First of
al therefore sayling from Pera by Constantinople, I arrived at
Trapesunda.[1] This place is right commodiously situate, as being an
haven for the Persians and Medes, and other countries beyonde the
sea. In this lande I behelde with very great delight a very strange
spectacle, namely a certain man leading about with him more than foure
thousande partriges. The man himselfe walked upon the grounde, and
the partriges flew in the aire, which he ledde unto a certaine castle
called Zavena, being three days journey distant from Trapesunda. The
saide partriges were so tame, that when the man was desirous to lie
downe and rest, they would all come flocking about him like chickens.
And so hee led them unto Trapesunda, and unto the palace of the
Emperour, who tooke as many of them as he pleased, and the reste the
saide man carried unto the place from whence he came. In this citie
lyeth the body of Athanasius, upon the gate of the citie. And then
I passed on further unto Armenia major, to a citie called Azaron,[2]
which had been very rich in olde time, but nowe the Tartars haue
almost layde it waste. In the saide citie there was abundance of bread
and flesh, and of all other victuals except wine and fruits. This
citie also is very colde, and is reported to be higher situated, then
any other city in the world. It hath most holesome and sweete waters
about it: for the veines of the saide waters seeme to spring and flow
from the mighty river of Euphrates, which is but a dayes journey from
the saide city. Also, the saide citie stands directly in the way
to Tauris.[3] And I passed on unto a certaine mountaine called
Sobissacalo. In the foresaide countrey there is the very same
mountaine whereupon the Arke of Noah rested; unto the which I would
willingly haue ascended, if my company would haue stayed for me.
Howbeit the people of that countrey report, that no man could euer
ascend the saide mountaine, because (say they) it pleaseth not the
highest God. And I travailed on further unto Tauris that great
and royal city, which was in olde time called Susis. This city is
accompted for traffique of merchandize the chiefe citie of the world:
for there is no kinde of victuals, nor any thing else belonging unto
merchandize, which is not to be had there in great abundance. This
citie stands very commodiously: for unto it all the nations of the
whole worlde in a maner may resort for traffique. Concerning the saide
citie, the Christians in those parts are of opinion, that the Persian
Emperour receives more tribute out of it, then the King of France out
of all his dominions. _Neare unto the saide citie there is a salt-hill
yeelding salt unto the city: and of that salt ech man may take what
pleaseth him, not paying ought to any man therefor._ In this city many
Christians of all nations do inhabite, over whom the Saracens beare
rule in all things. Then I traveiled on further unto a city called
Soldania,[4] wherein the Persian Emperour lieth all Sommer time: but
in Winter hee takes his progresse unto another city standing upon the
sea called Baku.[5] Also the foresaide city is very great and colde
having good and holesome waters therein, unto the which also store of
marchandize is brought. Moreover I travelled with a certaine company
of Caravans toward upper India: and in the way, after many days
journey, I came unto the citie of the three wise men called Cassan,[6]
which is a noble and renowned city, saving that the Tartars haue
destroyed a great part thereof, and it aboundeth in bread, wine, and
many other commodities. From this citie unto Jerusalem (whither
the three foresaid wisemen were miraculously led) it is fifty days
journey. There be many wonders in this citie also, which for brevities
sake, I omit. From thence I departed unto a certain city called Geste,
_whence the sea of sand is distant one dayes journey, which is a most
wonderful and dangerous thing_. In this city there is abundance of all
kinds of victuals and especially of figs, raisins, and grapes: more
(as I suppose) then in any part of the whole world besides. This is
one of the three principall cities of all the Persian Empire. Of this
city the Saracens report, that no Christian can by any means live
therein above a yeere. Then passing many dayes journey on forward, I
came unto a certain city called Comum[7] which was a huge and mightie
citie in olde time, conteyning well nigh fiftie miles in circuite, and
hath done in times past great damage unto the Romanes. In it there are
stately palaces altogether destitute of inhabitants, notwithstanding
it aboundeth with great store of victuals. From hence travailing
through many countreys, at length I came unto the land of Job called
Hus, which is full of all kinde of victuals and very pleasantly
situated. Thereabouts are certaine mountaines having good pastures for
cattell upon them. Here also Manna is found in great aboundance. Four
partriges are here solde for lesse than a groat. In this countrey
there are most comely olde men. Here also the men spin and card, and
not the women. This land bordereth upon the North part of Chaldea.

    [Footnote 1: Trebizonde.]

    [Footnote 2: Erzeroum.]

    [Footnote 3: Tauris, a city of Persia.]

    [Footnote 4: Or Sultania.]

    [Footnote 5: The Caspian Sea.]

    [Footnote 6: Or Cassibin.]

    [Footnote 7: Como.]

  _Of the maners of the Chaldeans, and of India._

FROM thence I traveled into Chaldæa, which is a great kingdome and
I passed by the tower of Babel. This region hath a language peculiar
unto itselfe, and there are beautiful men and deformed women. _The men
of the same countrey used to haue their haire kempt, and trimmed like
unto our women: and they weare golden turbants upon their heads
richly set with pearle, and pretious stones. The women are clad in
a course smock onely reaching to their knees and having long sleeves
hanging downe to the ground._ And they goe barefooted, wearing
breeches which reach to the ground also. They weare no attire upon
their heads, but their haire hangs disheaveled about their eares: and
there be many other strange things also. From thence I came into the
lower India, which the Tartars overran & wasted. And in this countrey
the people eat dates for the most part, whereof 42 li are there sold
for lesse than a groat. I passed further also many dayes journey unto
the Ocean Sea & the first lande where I arrived, is called Ormes,[1]
being well fortified, and having great store of merchandize and
treasure therein. Here also they use a kinde of Bark or shippe called
Jase, being compact together onely with hempe. And I went on board
into one of them, wherein I could not finde any yron at all, and in
the space of 28 days I arrived at the city of Thana,[2] wherein foure
of our friers were martyred for the faith of Christ. This countrey is
well situate having abundance of bread and wine, and of other victuals
therein. This Kingdome in olde time was very large and under the
dominion of King Porus, who fought a great battell with Alexander the
great. The people of this countrey are idolaters worshipping fire,
serpents and trees. And ouer all this land the Saracens do beare rule,
who tooke it by maine force, and they themselues are in subjection
unto King Daldilus. There be divers kinds of beasts, as namely blacke
lyons in great abundance, and apes also, and monkeis, and battes as
bigge as our doves. And there are mise as bigge as our countrey dogs,
and therefore they are hunted with dogs, because cats are not able to
encounter them. Moreouer in the same countrey every man hath a bundle
of great boughs standing in a water-pot before his doore, which bundle
is as great as a pillar, and it will not wither, so long as water is
applied thereunto: with many other novelties and strange things, the
relation whereof would breed great delight.

    [Footnote 1: Ormus.]

    [Footnote 2: Thana, whereof Frederick Cæsar maketh mention.]

  _How peper is had: and where it groweth._

MOREOUER, that it may be manifest how peper is had, it is to be
understood that it groweth in a certaine kingdome whereat I myself
arrived, being called Minibar,[1] and it is not so plentifull in
any other part of the worlde as it is there. For the wood wherein it
growes conteineth in circuit 18 dayes journey. And in the said wood
or forrest there are two cities one called Flandrina,[2] and the other
Cyncilim. In Flandrina both Jewes & Christians doe inhabite, betweene
whom there is often contention and warre: howbeit the Christians
overcome the Jewes at all times. In the foresaid wood pepper is had
after this maner: first it groweth in leaves like unto pot-hearbes,
which they plant neere unto great trees as we do our vines, and they
bring forth pepper in clusters, as our vines doe yeeld grapes, but
being ripe, they are of a green colour, and are gathered as we gather
grapes, and then the graines are layd in the Sunne to be dried, and
being dried are put into earthen vessels: and thus is pepper made and
kept. Now, in the same wood there be many rivers, wherein are great
store of Crocodiles, and of other serpents, which the inhabitants of
that countrey do burne up with strawe and with other dry fewel, and so
they go to gather their pepper without danger. At the South End of
the said forrest stands the city of Polumbrum,[3] which aboundeth
with marchandize of all kinds. All the inhabitants of that countrey do
worship a living oxe, as their god, whom they put to labour for sixe
yeres, and in the seventh yere they cause him to rest from al his
worke, placing him in a solemne and publique place: and calling him an
holy beast. _Moreouer they use this foolish ceremonie: Every morning
they take two basons, either of silver or of gold, and with one they
receive the urine of the oxe, and with the other his dung. With the
urine they wash their face, their eyes, and all their fiue senses. Of
the dung they put into both their eyes, then they anoint the bals of
their cheeks therewith, and thirdly their breast: and then they say
that they are sanctified for all that day: And as the people doe, euen
so doe their king and Queene._ This people worshippeth also a dead
idole which from the navel upward, resembleth a man, and from the
navel downward an oxe. The very same Idol delivers oracles unto them,
and sometimes requireth the blood of fourtie virgins for his hire.
And therefore the men of that region do consecrate their daughters and
their sonnes unto their idols, euen as Christians do their children
unto some Religion or Saint in heaven. Likewise they sacrifice their
sonnes and their daughters, and so, much people is put to death before
the said Idol by reason of that accursed ceremony. Also, many other
hainous and abominable villainies doeth that brutish beastly people
commit: and I saw many more strange things among them which I meane
not here to insert. Another most vile custome the foresaide nation
doeth retaine: _for when any man dieth they burne his dead corpse to
ashes: and if his wife surviveth him, her they burne quicke,
because (say they) she shall accompany her husband in his tilthe and
husbandry, when he is come unto a new worlde. Howbeit the said wife
having children by her husband, may if she will, remaine still alive
with them, without shame or reproche: notwithstanding, for the most
part, they all of them make choice to be burnt with their husbands._
Now, albeit the wife dieth before her husband, that law bindeth not
the husband to any such inconvenience but he may marry another wife
also. _Likewise, ye said nation hath another strange custome, in that
their women drink wine, but their men do not. Also the women haue the
lids & brows of their eyes & beards shaven, but the men haue not_:
with many other base and filthie fashions which the said women do use
contrary to the nature of their sexe. From that kingdome I traveiled
10 daies journey unto another kingdome called Mobar,[4] which
containeth many cities. Within a certaine church of the same countrey,
the body of S. Thomas the Apostle is interred, the very same church
being full of idols: and in 15 houses round about the said Church
there dwell certaine priests who are Nestorians, that is to say,
false, and bad Christians and schismatiques.

    [Footnote 1: Malabar.]

    [Footnote 2: Or Alandrina.]

    [Footnote 3: _Query_, whether this is not _Kaulam_ or
    _Ballád-ul-Falfal_, the Pepper Country, or Malabar, latinized
    into Columbum or Columbus.]

    [Footnote 4: Malabar.]

  _Of a strange and uncouth idole: & of certaine customes
    and ceremonies._

IN the kingdome of Mobar there is a wonderfull strange idole, being
made after the shape and resemblance of a man, as big as the image of
our Christopher, & consisting all of most pure and glittering gold.
And about the necke thereof hangeth a silke riband, ful of most rich
& precious stones, some one of which is of more value than a whole
kingdome. The house of this idol is all of beaten gold, namely the
roofe, the pavement, and the sieling of the wall within and without.
Unto this idol the Indians go on pilgrimage, as we do unto St. Peter.
Some go with halters about their necks, some with their hands bound
behind them, some with knives sticking on their armes or legs: and if
after their peregrination, the flesh of their wounded arme festereth
or corrupteth, they esteeme that limme to be holy, & thinke that their
God is wel pleased with them. _Neare unto the temple of that idol is a
lake made by men in an open and common place, whereinto the pilgrimes
cast gold, silver and precious stones, for the honour of the idol
and the repairing of his temple. And therefore when anything is to be
adorned or mended, they go unto this lake taking up the treasure which
was cast in. Moreouer at euery yerely feast of the making or repairing
of the said idol, the king and queene, with the whole multitude of the
people, & all the pilgrimes assemble themselues, & placing the said
idol in a most stately & rich chariot, they cary him out of their
temple with songs, & with all kinds of musical harmonie, and a great
companie of virgins go procession-wise two and two in a rank singing
before him. Many pilgrims also put themselves under the chariot
wheeles, to the end that their false god may go ouer them, and al
they ouer whom the chariot runneth, are crushed in pieces, & divided
asunder in the midst, and slaine right out. Yea, & in doing this,
they think themselves to die most holily & securely, in the service
of their god._ And by this meanes every yere, there die under the said
filthy idol, mo then 500 persons, whose carcases are burned, and their
ashes are kept for reliques, because they died in that sort for their
god. Moreover they haue another detestable ceremony. For when any man
offers to die in the service of his false god, his parents & all his
friends assemble themselues together with a consort of musicians,
making him a great & solemne feast: which feast being ended, they hang
5 sharpe knifes about his neck carrying him before the idol & so soone
as he is come thither, he taketh one of his knives crying with a loud
voice, For the worship of my god do I cut this my flesh, and then he
casteth the morsel which is cut, at y^e face of his idol: but at the
very last wound wherewith he murthereth himselfe, he uttereth these
words: "Now do I yeeld myself to death in the behalfe of my god" and
being dead his body is burned, & is esteemed by al men to be holy.
The king of the said region is most rich in silver, gold, and precious
stones, & there be the fairest unions in al the world.

Traveling from thence by the Ocean sea 50 daies journey southward,
I came unto a certaine land named Lammori,[1] where, _in regard of
extreeme heat, the people both men and women go stark-naked from top
to toe: who seeing me apparelled, scoffed at me, saying that God made
Adam and Eve naked. In this countrey al women are common, so that no
man can say, this is my wife. Also when any of the said women beareth
a son or a daughter, she bestowes it upon anyone that hath lien
with her, whom she pleaseth. Likewise al the land of that region
is possessed in common, so that there is not mine & thine, or any
propriety of possession in the division of lands: howbeit euery man
hath his owne house peculiar unto himselfe._ Mans flesh, if it be fat,
is eaten as ordinarily there as beefe in our countrey. And albeit the
people are most lewd, yet the countrey is exceeding good, abounding
with al commodities, as fleshe, corne, rise, silver, gold, wood of
aloes, Camphir, and many other things. Marchants coming unto this
region for traffique do usually bring with them fat men, selling them
unto the inhabitants as we sel hogs, who immediately kil and eat them.
In this island towards the south, there is another kingdome called
Simoltra,[2] where both men and women marke themselves with red-hot
yron in 12 sundry spots of their faces: and this nation is at
continual warre with certaine naked people in another region. Then I
traveled further unto another island called Java, the compasse whereof
by sea is 3000 miles. The king of this Iland hath 7 other crowned
kings under his jurisdiction. The said Island is throughly inhabited
& is thought to be one of the principall Ilands of y^e whole world.
In the same Iland there groweth great plenty of cloves, cubibez, and
nutmegs, and in a word all kinds of spices are there to be had, and
great aboundance of all victuals except wine. The king of the said
Iland of Java hath a brave and sumptuous pallace, the most loftily
built, that euer I saw any, & it hath most high greeses[3] and stayers
to ascend up into the roomes therein contained, one stayre being of
silver, & another of gold, throughout the whole building. Also the
lower roomes were paved all ouer with one square plate of silver, &
another of gold. All the walls upon the inner side were seeled ouer
with plates of gold, wherupon were ingraven y^e pictures of knights,
having about their temples, ech of them a wreath of golde, adorned
with precious stones. The roofe of the palace was of pure gold. With
this King of Java the great Can of Catay hath had many conflicts
in war; whom notwithstanding the said king hath always overcome and

    [Footnote 1: Perhaps he meaneth Cammori.]

    [Footnote 2: Sumatra.]

    [Footnote 3: Steps.]

  _Of certaine trees yeelding meale, honey, and poyson._

NEERE unto the said Iland is another countrey called Panten, or
Tathalamasin.[1] And the king of the same countrey hath many Ilands
under his dominion. In this land there are trees yeelding meale, hony,
& wine & the most deadly poison in all y^e whole world: for against it
there is but one only remedy: & that is this: if any man hath taken
of y^e poyson, & would be delivered from the danger thereof, let
him temper the dung of a man in water, & so drinke a good quantitie
thereof, & it expels the poyson immediatly, making it to avoid at the
fundament. Meale is produced out of the said trees after this maner.
They be mighty huge trees and when they are cut with an axe by the
ground, there issueth out of the stock a certain licour like unto
gumme, which they take and put into bags made of leaues, laying them
for 15 days together abroad in the sunne, & at the end of those 15
dayes, when the said licour is throughly parched, it becometh meale.
Then they steepe it first in sea water, washing it afterward with
fresh water, and so it is made very good & savorie paste, whereof they
make either meat or bread, as they thinke good. Of which bread I my
selfe did eate, & it is fayrer without & somewhat browne within.
By this countrey is the sea called Mare mortuum, which runneth
continually Southward, into y^e which whosoever falleth in (_is_)
never seene after. In this countrey also are found canes of an
incredible length, namely of 60 paces high or more, & they are as
bigge as trees. Other canes there be also called Cassan,[2] which
overspread the earth like grasse, & out of euery knot of them spring
foorth certaine branches, which are continued upon the ground almost
for the space of a mile. In the said canes there are found certaine
stones, one of which stones, whosoever carryeth about with him, cannot
be wounded with any yron: & therefore the men of that countrey for the
most part, carry such stones with them, whithersoever they goe. Many
also cause one of the armes of their children, while they are yong,
to be launced, putting one of the said stones into the wound, healing
also, and closing up the said wound with the powder of a certaine
fish (the name whereof I do not know) which powder doth immediatly
consolidate and cure the said wounde. And by the virtue of these
stones the people aforesaid doe for the most part triumph both on sea
and land. Howbeit there is one kinde of stratageme, which the enemies
of this nation, knowing the vertue of the sayd stones, doe practise
against them: namely, they provide themselues armour of yron or steele
against their arrowes, & weapons also poisoned with the poyson of
trees & they carry in their hands wooden stakes most sharpe and hard
pointed, as if they were yron: likewise they shoot arrowes without
yron heads, & so they confound and slay some of their unarmed foes
trusting too securely unto the vertue of their stones. Also of the
foresayd canes called Cassan they make sayles for their ships, and
litel houses, and many other necessaries. From thence after many dayes
travell, I arrived at another kingdome called Campa, a most beautiful
and rich countrey, & abounding with all kind of victuals: the king
whereof, at my being there, had so many wives & concubines, that
he had 300 sonnes & daughters by them. This king hath 10004 tame
Elephants, which are kept even as we keepe droves of oxen or flocks of
sheepe in pasture.

    [Footnote 1: _Query_, The Tathsiaulu of Marco Polo, or

    [Footnote 2: An exaggeration for bamboos.]

  _Of the abundance of fishes, which cast themselues upon
    the shore._

IN this countrey there is one strange thing to be observed, y^t euery
several kind of fishes in those seas come swimming towards the said
countrey in such abundance, that, for a great distance into the
sea, nothing can be seene but the backes of fishes: _which casting
themselues upon the shore when they come neere unto it, do suffer
men, for the space of 3 daies to come & take as many of them as they
please, & then they return again to the sea. After that kind of fishes
comes another kind, offering itselfe after the same maner, & so in
like sort all other kinds whatsoever: notwithstanding they do this but
once in a year. And I demaunded of the inhabitants there how, or by
what meanes this strange accident could come to passe: They answered,
that fishes were taught, even by nature to come and do homage unto
their Emperour._ There be Tortoises also as bigge as an oven. Many
other things I saw which are incredible, unlesse a man should see them
with his own eies. In this countrey also dead men are burned, & their
wives are burned aliue with them, as in the city of Polumbrum
aboue mentioned: for the men of that countrey say that she goeth to
accompany him in another world, that he should take none other wife in
mariage. Moreouer I traveled on further by the ocean-sea towards the
South, & passed through many countries and islands, whereof one is
called Moumoran, & it containeth in compasse ii. M miles, wherein
men & women haue dogs faces, and worship an oxe for their god: and
therefore euery one of them cary the image of an oxe of gold or silver
upon their foreheads. The men & women of this country go all naked,
saving that they hang a linen cloth round their loins. The men of the
said country are very tall and mighty, and by reason that they goe
naked, when they are to make battell, they cary yron or steele-targets
before them, which do cover and defend their bodies from top to toe:
and whomsoever of their foes they take in battel not being able to
ransome himselfe for money, they presently devoure him: but if he be
able to redeeme himselfe for money, they let him go free. Their king
weareth about his necke 300 great & most beautiful unions,[1] and
saith euery day 300 prayers unto his god. He weareth upon his finger
also a stone of a span long, which seemeth to be a flame of fire, and
therefore when he weareth it, no man dare approach unto him: and they
say that there is not any stone in the whole world of more value than
it. Neither could at any time the great Tartarian Emperour of
Katay either by force, money, or policie obtain it at his hands,
notwithstanding that he hath done the utmost of his indeavour for this

    [Footnote 1: Large and fine pearls.]

  _Of the Island of Sylan: and of the mountaine where Adam
    mourned for his sonne Abel._

I PASSED by also another island called Sylan,[1] which conteineth in
compasse aboue ii M miles, wherin are an infinit number of serpents,
& great store of lions, beares, & al kinds of ravening & wild beasts,
and especially of elephants. In the said countrey there is an huge
mountaine, whereupon the inhabitants of that region do report that
Adam mourned for his son Abel y^e space of 500 yeres. In the midst of
this mountaine there is a most beautiful plain, wherin is a litle lake
conteining great plenty of water, which water y^e inhabitants report
to haue proceeded from the teares of Adam & Eve: howbeit I proved that
to be false, because I saw the water flow in the lake. This water is
ful of hors-leeches, & blood suckers, & of precious stones also, which
precious stones the king taketh not unto his owne use, but once or
twise euery yere he permitteth certaine poore people to diue under
water for ye said stones & al that they may get he bestoweth upon
them, to the end that they may pray for his soule. But y^t they may
with less danger dive under water, they take limons[2] which they
pil,[3] anointing themselves with the juice thereof, & so they may
diue naked under y^e water, the hors-leeches not being able to hurt
them. From this lake the water runneth even unto the sea, and at a low
ebbe the inhabitants dig rubies, diamonds & perles, and other precious
stones out of the shore: wherupon it is thought, that ye king of
this island hath greater abundance of pretious stones, then any other
monarch in the whole earth besides. In the said countrey there be all
kinds of beastes and foules: & the people told me, that those
beasts would not invade nor hurt any stranger but only the natural

_I saw in this island fouls as big as our countrey geese, having two
heads, and other miraculous things, which I will not here write off.
Traveling on further South, I arrived at a certaine island called
Bodin,[4] which signifieth in our language unclean. In this island
there do inhabit most wicked persons, who devour & eate rawe flesh,
committing all kinds of uncleannes & abominations in such sort, as it
is incredible. For the father eateth his son, & the son his father,
the husband his owne wife & the wife her husband: & that after this
maner. If any mans father be sick, the son straight goes unto the
sooth-saying or prognosticating priest, requesting him to demand of
his god, whether his father shall recover from his infirmity or no;
Then both of them go unto an idol of gold or silver, making their
prayers unto it in maner folowing: Lord, thou art our god, & thee we
do adore, beseeching thee to resolve us, whether such a man must die,
or recover of such an infirmity or no: Then the divel answereth out
of y^e aforesaide idol: if he saieth (he shal liue) then returneth his
son and ministreth things necessary unto him til he hath attained unto
his former health: but if he saith (he shall die) then goes y^e
priest unto him, & putting a cloth into his mouth doth strangle him
therewith: which being done, he cuts his dead body into morsels, &
al his friends and kinsfolk are invited unto the eating thereof, with
musique & all kinde of mirth: howbeit his bones are solemnely buried._
And when I found fault with that custome demanding a reason thereof,
one of them gaue me this answere; this we doe lest the wormes should
eat his flesh, for then his soule should suffer great torments,
neither could I by any meanes remoove them from that errour. Many
other novelties and strange things there bee in this countrey, which
no man would credite, unles he saw them with his owne eyes. Howbeit,
I (before almighty God) do here make relation of nothing but of that
onely, whereof I am as sure, as a man may be sure. Concerning the
foresaid islands, I enquired of divers wel-experienced persons, who
al of them, as it were with one consent, answered me saying, that this
India contained 4400 islands under it, or within it, in which islands
there are sixty and foure crowned kings: and they say moreouer,
that the greater part of those islands are wel inhabited. And here I
conclude concerning that part of India.

    [Footnote 1: Ceylon.]

    [Footnote 2: Lemons.]

    [Footnote 3: Peel.]

    [Footnote 4: Or Dadin.]

  _Of the upper India: and of the province of Mancy._[1]

FIRST of al therefore, having traveled many dayes journey upon the
Ocean-sea towards the East, at length I arrived at a certaine great
province called Mancy, being in Latine named India. Concerning this
India I inquired of Christians, of Saracens, & of Idolaters, and of al
such as bare an office under the great Can; who all of them with one
consent answered, that this province of Mancy hath mo then 2000 great
cities within the precincts thereof & that it aboundeth with all
plenty of victuals, as namely with bread, wine, rise, flesh, and fish.
All the men of this province be artificers & marchants, who, though
they be in never so extreme penurie, so long as they can help
themselues by the labor of their handes, will neuer beg almes of any
man. The men of this province are of a faire and comely personage, but
somewhat pale, having their heads shaven but a little, but the women
are the most beautiful under the sunne. The first city of the said
India which I came unto, is called Ceuskalon, which being a daies
journey distant from the sea, stands upon a river, the water whereof,
nere unto the mouth, where it exonerateth it selfe into the sea,
doth overflow the land for the space of 12 daies journey. All the
inhabitants of this India are worshippers of idols. The foresaid city
of Ceuskalon hath such an huge navy belonging thereunto, that no man
would beleeve it unlesse he should see it. In this city I saw 300
li of good and new ginger sold for lesse than a groat. There are the
greatest, and the fairest geese, & most plenty of them to be sold in
al the world, as I suppose: they are as white as milke, & haue a bone
upon the crowne of their heads, as bigge as an egge, being of the
colour of blood: under the throat they haue a skin or bag hanging
down halfe a foot. They are exceeding fat and wel sold. Also they haue
ducks and hens in that countrey, one as big as two of ours. There be
monstrous great serpents likewise, which are taken by the inhabitants
& eaten; whereupon a solemne feast among them without serpents is not
set by.

And to be briefe, in this city there are al kinds of victuals in great
abundance. From thence I passed by many cities & at length I came unto
a citie named Caitan,[2] wherein ye friers Minorites haue two places
of abode, unto which I transported the bones of the dead friers, which
suffered martyrdom for the faith of Christ, as it is aboue mentioned.
In this citie there is abundance of al kind of victuals very cheap.
The said city is as big as two of Bononia,[3] & in it are many
monasteries of religious persons, al which do worship idols.

I myselfe was in one of those monasteries, & it was told me, that
there were in it III M religious men, having XI M idols; and one of
y^e said idols which seemed unto me but litle in regard of the rest,
was as big as our Christopher. These religious men euery day do feed
their idol-gods: wherupon at a certaine time I went to behold the
banquet: and indeed those things which they brought unto them were
good to eate, & fuming hote insomuch that the steam of the smoke
thereof ascended up unto their idols, and they said that their gods
were refreshed with the smoke: howbeit all the meat they conveyed
away, eating it up their owne selves, and so they fed their dumb gods
with the smoke only.

    [Footnote 1: Or China.]

    [Footnote 2: Thsiuanchau or Chiuchau, the great mediæval port
    of China.]

    [Footnote 3: Bologna.]

  _Of the citie of Fuco._

TRAVELING more eastward, I came unto a city named Fuco,[1] which
containeth 30 miles in circuit, wherein be exceeding great & faire
cocks, _and al their hens are as white as the very snow, having
wool in stead of feathers, like unto sheep_. It is a most stately &
beautiful city & standeth up the sea. Then I went 18 daies journey on
further, & passed by many provinces & cities, and in the way I went
over a certain great mountaine, upon ye one side whereof I beheld al
living creatures to be as black as a cole, & the men and women on that
side differed somewhat in maner of living from others; howbeit, on
the other side of the said hil every living thing was snow-white &
the inhabitants in their maner of living, were altogether unlike unto
others. There, al maried women cary in token that they haue husbands,
a great trunk of horne upon their heads. From thence I traveled
18 dayes journey further and came unto a certaine great river, and
entered also into a city, whereunto belongeth a mighty bridge to passe
the said river. And mine hoste with whom I sojourned, being desirous
to show me some sport, said unto me, Sir, if you will see any fish
taken, goe with me. Then hee led me unto the foresaid bridge, carrying
in his armes certain dive-doppers[2] or water-foules, bound unto a
company of poles, and about every one of their necks he tied a thread,
lest they should eat the fish as fast as they took them: and he
carried three great baskets with him also; then loosed he the
dive-doppers from the poles, which presently went into the water, &
within lesse then the space of one houre, caught as many fishes as
filled the 3 baskets: which being full, mine hoste untied the threeds
from about their neckes, and entering a second time into the river
they fed themselves with fish, and being satisfied they returned
and suffered themselves to be bound unto the said poles as they were
before. And when I did eate of those fishes, we thought they were
exceeding good. Travailing thence many dayes journeys, at length I
arrived at another city called Canasia,[3] which signifieth in our
language, the city of heaven. Never in all my life did I see so great
a city: for it containeth in circuit an hundreth miles; neither sawe I
any plot thereof, which was not throughly inhabited: yea, I sawe many
houses of tenne or twelve stories high, one aboue the other. It hath
mightie large suburbs containing more people then the citie it selfe.
Also it hath twelue principall gates: and about the distance of 8
miles, in the high way unto euery one of the saide gates standeth a
city as big by estimation as Venice, and Padua. The aforesaide city
of Canasia is situated in waters or marshes, which always stand still,
neither ebbing nor flowing: howbeit it hath a defence for the winde
like unto Venice. In this citie there are mo than 10002 bridges,
many whereof I numbered and passed over them: and upon every of those
bridges stand certaine watchmen of the citie, keeping continuall ward
and watch about the saide citie, the great Can the Emperour of Catay.
The people of this countrey say, that they haue one duetie injoyned
unto them by their lord: for euery fire payeth one Balis in regard of
tribute: and a Balis is five papers or pieces of silk, which are worth
one floren and an halfe of our coine. Tenne or twelue housholds are
accompted for one fire, and so pay tribute but for one fire only. Al
those tributary fires amount unto the number of 85 Thuman, with other
foure Thuman of the Saracens, which make 89 in al: And one Thuman
consisteth of 10000 fires. The residue of the people of the city are
some of them Christians, some marchants, and some traveilers through
the countrey. Whereupon I marveiled much how such an infinite number
of persons could inhabite and liue together. There is great aboundance
of victuals in this city, as namely of bread and wine, and especially
of hogs-flesh with other necessaries.

    [Footnote 1: Probably Fuchau in Fokieu.]

    [Footnote 2: Cormorants.]

    [Footnote 3: Now Hangchau.]

  _Of a Monastery where many strange beastes of divers kindes
    doe live upon an hill._

IN the foresaide citie foure of our friers had converted a mighty and
rich man unto the faith of Christ, at whose house I continually abode,
for so long time as I remained in the citie, Who upon a certain time
said unto me: Ara, that is to say, Father, will you go and behoulde
the citie? And I said, yea. Then embarked we ourselves, and directed
our course unto a certaine great Monastery: where being arrived, he
called a religious person with whom he was acquainted, saying unto
him concerning me: this Raban Francus, that is to say, this religious
Frenchman commeth from the Westerne parts of the world and therefore
you must show him some rare things, that when he returnes into his
owne countrey, he may say, this strange sight or novelty haue I seene
in the citie of Canasia. Then the said religious man tooke two greate
baskets full of broken reliques which remained of the table, & led
me unto a little walled parke, the doore whereof he unlocked with his
key, and there appeared unto us a pleasant faire green plot, into the
which we entred. In the said greene stands a litle mount in forme of
a steeple, replenished with fragrant herbes, and fine shady trees. And
while we stood there, he tooke a cymbal or bell, and rang therewith,
as they used to ring to dinner or bevoir in cloisters, at the sound
whereof many creatures of divers kindes came downe from the mount,
some like apes, some like cats, some like monkeys, and some having
faces like men. And while I stood beholding of them, they gathered
themselves together about him, to the number of 4200 of those
creatures, putting themselues in good order, before whom he set a
platter, and gaue them the saide fragments to eate. And when they had
eaten he rang upon his cymbal the second time, and they all returned
unto their former places. Then, wondring greatly at the matter, I
demanded what kind of creatures those might be? They are (quoth he)
the Soules of noble men which we do here feed, for the love of God who
governeth the world: and as a man was honorable or noble in this life,
so his soule after death, entreth into the body of some excellent
beast or other, but the soules of simple and rusticall people do
possesse the bodies of more vile and brutish creatures. Then I began
to refute that foule error: howbeit my speech did nothing at all to
prevaile with him, for hee could not be perswaded that any soule might
remaine without a body. From thence I departed unto a certaine citie
named Chilenso, the walls whereof contained 40 miles in circuit. In
this citie there are 360 bridges of stone, the fairest that euer
I saw, and it is wel inhabited, having a great navie belonging
thereunto, & abounding with all kinds of victuals and other
commodities. And thence I went unto a certaine river called Thalay
which where it is most narrow, is 7 miles broad: and it runneth
through the midst of the land of the Pygm[oe]i whose chiefe city is
called Cakam, and is one of the goodliest cities in the world. These
Pygm[oe]ans are three of my spans high, and they make larger and
better cloth of cotton and silke, then any other nation under the
sunne. And coasting along by the said river, I came unto a certaine
city named Janzu, in which citie there is one receptacle for
the Friers of our order, and there be also three Churches of the
Nestorians. This Janzu is a noble and great citie, containing 48
Thumans of tributarie fires, and in it are all kindes of victuals, and
great plenty of such beastes, foules, and fishes, as Christians doe
usually liue upon. The lord of the same citie hath in yeerely revenues
for salt onely, fiftie Thuman of Balis, & one balis is worth a floren
and a halfe of our coyne: insomuch that one Thuman of balis amounteth
unto the value of 15000 florens. Howbeit the sayd lord, favoureth
his people in one respect, for sometimes he forgiveth them frely 200
Thuman, lest there should be any scarcity or dearth among them. There
is a custome in this citie, that when any man is determined to banquet
his friends, going about unto certaine tavernes or cookes houses
appointed for the same purpose, he sayth unto euery particular hoste,
you shall haue such and such of my friends, whom you must entertain
in my name, and so much I will bestowe upon the banquet. And by that
means his friendes are better feasted at diverse places, then they
should haue beene at one. Tenne miles from the sayde citie, about the
head of the foresayd river of Thalay, there is a certaine other citie
called Montu, which hath the greatest navy that I saw in the whole
world. All their ships are as white as snow, & they haue banquetting
houses in them, and many other rare things also, which no man would
beleeve unlesse he had seene them with his owne eyes.

  _Of the citie of Cambaleth._

TRAVELING eight dayes journey further by divers territories and
cities, at length I came by fresh water unto a certaine citie named
Leucyn, standing upon a river of Karavoran[1] which runneth through
the midst of Cataie, and doeth great harme in the countrey when it
overfloweth the bankes, or breaketh foorth of the chanell. From thence
passing along the river Eastward, after many dayes travell, and the
sight of divers cities, I arrived at a citie called Sumakoto,[2] which
aboundeth more with silke then any other citie in the worlde: for when
there is a great scarcity of silke, fortie pound is solde for
lesse then eight groates. In this citie there is abundance of all
merchandize, and all kinds of victuals also, as of bread, wine, flesh,
fish, with all choise and delicate spices. Then travelling on still
towards the East by many cities, I came unto the noble and renowned
citie of Cambaleth, which is of great antiquitie, being situate in
the province of Cataie. This citie the Tartars tooke, & neere unto
it within the space of halfe a mile, they built another citie called
Caido. The citie of Caido hath twelve gates, being each of them two
miles distant from another. Also the space lying in the midst betweene
the two foresayde cities is very well and thoroughly inhabited, so
that they make as it were but one citie betweene them both. The whole
compasse or circuit of both cities together is 40 miles. In this citie
the great emperour Can hath his principall seat, and his Imperiall
palace, the wals of which palace containe foure miles in circuit: and
neere unto this his palace are many other palaces and houses of his
nobility which belong unto his court. Within the precincts of the
said palace Imperiall, there is a most beautifull mount, set and
replenished with trees, for which cause it is called the Greene mount,
having a most royall and sumptuous palace standing thereupon, in
which, for the most part, the great Can is resident. Upon the one side
of the sayde mount there is a great lake, whereupon a most stately
bridge is built, in which lake a great abundance of geese, ducks, &
all kinds of water foules, and in the wood growing upon the mount,
there is a great store of all birdes and wilde beastes. And therefore
when the great Can will solace himselfe with hunting or hauking, he
needs not so much as once to step forth of his palace. Moreover, the
principall palace, wherein he maketh his abode, is very large, having
within it 14 pillers of golde, and all the walles thereof are hanged
with red skinnes, which are said to be the most costly skinnes in all
the world. In the midst of the palace stands a cisterne of two yards
high, which consisteth of a precious stone called Merdochas, and is
wreathed about with golde, & at ech corner thereof is the golden image
of a serpent, as it were furiously shaking and casting forth his head.
This cisterne also hath a kinde of network of pearle wrought about it.
Likewise by the sayd cisterne there is drinke conveyed thorow certaine
pipes and conducts such as useth to be drunke in the emperours
court, upon the which also there hang many vessels of golde, wherein
whosoever will may drinke of the said licour. In the foresayd palace
there are many peacockes of golde: & when any Tartar maketh a banquet
unto his lorde, if the guests chance to clap their hands for joy and
mirth the said golden peacocks also will spread their wings abroad,
and lift up their traines, seeming as if they danced, and this I
suppose to be done by arte magicke or by some secret engine under the

    [Footnote 1: Karamoron.]

    [Footnote 2: Sumacoto.]

  _Of the glory and magnificence of the great Can._

MOREOVER, when the great emperour Can sitteth on his imperiall throne
of estate, on his lefte hand sitteth his queene or empresse and
upon another inferior seate there sit two other women, which are to
accompany the emperour, when his spouse is absent, but in the lowest
place of all, there sit all the ladies of his kinred. _All the married
women weare upon their heads a kind of ornament in shape like unto a
man's foote of a cubite and a halfe in length, and the lower part
of the said foote is adorned with cranes feathers_, and is all ouer
thicke set with great and orient pearles. Upon the right hande of the
great Can sitteth his first begotten sonne and heire apparent unto his
empire, and under him sit all the nobles of the blood royall. There
bee also foure Secretaries, which put all things in writing that the
emperour speaketh. In whose presence likewise stand his Barons and
divers others of his nobilitie, with great traines of folowers after
them, of whom none dare speake so much as one worde, unlesse they haue
obtained licence of the emperour so to doe, except his jesters and
stage players, who are appointed of purpose to solace their lord.
Neither yet dare they attempt to doe ought, but onely according to
the pleasure of their emperor, and as hee enjoineth by lawe. About the
palace gate stand certaine Barons to keepe all men from treading upon
the threshold of the sayd gate. When it pleaseth the great Can to
solemnize a feast, he hath about him 14000 Barons, carying wreathes &
litle crownes upon their heads, and giving attendance upon their lord,
and eueryone of them weareth a garment of golde and precious stones,
which is worth ten thousand florens. His court is kept in very good
order, by governours of tens, governours of hundreds, and governours
of thousands, insomuch that euery one in his place performeth his
dutie committed to him, neither is there any defect to bee found.
I Frier Odoricus was there present in person for the space of three
yeares and was often at the sayd banquets: for wee friers Minorites
have a place of aboad appointed out for us in the emperours court,
and are enjoined to goe and to bestow our blessing upon him. And
I enquired of certain courtiers concerning the number of persons
pertaining to the emperors court. Moreouer, when he will make his
progresse from one countrey to another, hee hath foure troupes of
horsemen, one being appointed to goe a dayes journey before, and
another to come a dayes journey after him, the third to march on his
right hand and the fourth on his left, in the maner of a crosse, he
himselfe being in the midst, and so euery particular troupe haue
their daily journeys limited unto them, to the ende they may provide
sufficient victuals without defect. Nowe the great Can himselfe is
caried in maner following: hee rideth in a chariot with two wheeles,
upon which a majesticall throne is built of the wood of Aloe, being
adorned with gold and great pearles and precious stones, and foure
elephants bravely furnished doe drawe the sayd chariot, before which
elephants foure greate horses richly trapped and covered doe lead
the way. Hard by the chariot on both sides thereof, are foure Barons
laying hold and attending thereupon, to keepe all persons from
approching neere unto their emperour. Upon the chariot two milke-white
jer-falcons doe sit, and seeing any game which hee would take, hee
letteth them fly, and so they take it, and after this maner doeth hee
solace himselfe as hee rideth. Moreover, no man dare come within a
stone's cast of the chariot, but such as are appointed. The number of
his owne followers, of his wives attendants, and of the traine of his
first begotten sonne and heire apparent, would seem incredible to any
man; unless he had first seene it with his owne eyes. The foresayd
great Can hath divided his Empire into twelue parts or provinces, and
one of the said provinces hath two thousand great cities within the
precincts thereof. Whereupon his empire is of that length and breadth,
that unto whatsoever part thereof he intendeth his journey, he hath
space enough for six moneths continual progress, except his islands
which are at the least 5000.

  _Of certaine Innes or hospitals appointed for traveilers
    throughout the whole empire._

THE foresayd Emperor (to the end that travailers may haue all things
necessary throughout his whole empire) hath caused certaine Innes
to be provided in sundry places upon the highwayes, where all things
pertaining unto victuals are in a continuall readinesse. And when any
alteration or newes happen in any part of his Empire, if he chance
to be farre absent from that part, his ambassadors upon horses or
dromedaries ride post unto him, and when themselves and their beaste
are weary, they blowe their horne, at the noise whereof, the next Inne
likewise provideth a horse and a man, who takes the letter from him
that is weary, and runneth unto another Inne: and so by divers Innes,
and divers postes, the report, which ordinarily could skarce come
in 30 dayes, is in one naturall day brought unto the Emperour: and
therefore no matter of any moment can be done in his empire, but
straightway he hath intelligence of it. Moreouer when the great Can
himselfe will go on hunting, he useth this custome. Some 20 days
journey from the citie of Kambaleth there is a forrest containing six
dayes journey in circuit, in which forrest there are so many kinds of
beasts and birds as it is incredible to report. Unto this forrest,
at the ende of euery thirde or fourthe yeere, himself with his whole
traine resorteth, and they all of them together environ the said
forrest, sending dogs into the same, which by hunting doe bring foorth
the beasts: namely lions and stags, and other creatures, unto a most
beautifull plaine in the midst of the forrest, because all the beasts
of the forrest doe tremble, especially at the cry of hounds. Then
cometh the great Can himselfe, being caried upon three elephants, and
shooteth fiue arrowes into the whole herd of beasts, and after him all
his Barons, and after them the rest of his courtiers and family doe
all in like maner discharge their arrowes also, and euery mans arrow
hath a sundry marke. Then they all goe unto the beasts which are
slaine (suffering the living beasts to returne into the wood that they
may haue more sport with them another time) and euery man enjoyeth
that beast as his owne, wherein he findeth his arrow sticking.

  _Of the foure feasts which the great Can solemnizeth euery
    yeere in his court._

FOURE great feasts in a yeere doeth the emperor Can celebrate: namely
the feast of his birth, the feast of his circumcision, the feast of
his coronation, and the feast of his mariage. And unto these feasts he
inviteth all his Barons, his stage players, and all such as are of
his kinred. Then the great Can sitting in his throne, all his Barons
present themselves before him, with wreaths and crowns upon their
heads, being diversely attired, for some of them are in greene, namely
the principall: the seconde are in red, and the third in yellow: and
they hold each man in his hand a little Ivorie table of elephants
tooth, and they are girt with golden girdles of halfe a foote broad,
and they stand upon their feete keeping silence. About them stand the
stage-players or musicians with their instruments. And in one of the
corners of a certaine great pallace, all the Philosophers or Magicians
remaine for certaine howers, and do attend upon points or characters;
and when the point and hower which the sayd Philosophers expected for,
is come, a certain crier crieth out with a loud voice, saying, Incline
or bowe your selves before your Emperour; with that all the Barons
fall flat upon the earth. Then hee crieth oute againe: Arise all, and
immediately they all arise. Likewise the Philosophers attend upon a
point or character the second time, and when it is fulfilled the crier
crieth out amaine: Put your fingers in your eares; and foorthwith
againe he saieth: Plucke them out. Againe, at the third point he
crieth, Boult this meale. Many other circumstances also doe they
performe, all which they say haue some certaine signification, howbeit
neither would I write them, nor giue any heed unto them, because they
are vaine and ridiculouse. And when the musicians houre is come, then
the Philosophers say, Solemnize a feast unto your Lord: with that all
of them sound their instruments, making a great and melodious noise.
And immediately another crieth, Peace, Peace, and they are all whist.
Then come the women-musicians, and sing sweetly before the Emperour,
which musike was more delightfull unto me. After them come in the
lions and doe their obeisance unto the great Can. Then the juglers
cause golden cups full of wine to flie up and downe in the ayre & to
apply themselves unto mens mouths that they may drinke of them. These
any many other strange things I sawe in the court of the great Can,
which no man would beleeve unlesse he had seen them with his owne
eies, and therefore I omit to speake of them. I was informed also by
certaine credible persons of another miraculous thing, namely, that
in a certaine Kingdome of the sayd Can, wherein stand the mountains
called Kapsei (the Kingdomes name is Kalor) there _groweth great
Gourds or Pompions,[1] which being ripe, doe open at the tops, and
within them is found a little beast like unto a yong lambe, even as I
my selfe have heard reported, that there stand certain trees upon the
shore of the Irish Sea, bearing fruit like unto a gourd, which at a
certaine time of the yeere doe fall into the water, and become birds
called Bernacles, and this is most true_.

    [Footnote 1: Pumpkins.]

  _Of divers provinces & cities,_

AND after three yeeres I departed out of the empire of Cataie,
traveiling fiftie dayes journey towards the West. And at length I came
unto the empire of Pretegoani,[1] whose principall citie is Kasan,
which hath many cities under it. From thence passing many dayes travel
I came unto a province called Casan, which is for good commodities,
one of the onely provinces under the Sunne, & is very well inhabited,
insomuch that when we depart out of the gates of one city we may
beholde the gates of another city, as I myselfe sawe in divers of
them. The breadth of the said province is 50 dayes journey and the
length aboue sixtie. In it there is great plenty of all victuals, and
especially of chesnuts, and it is one of the twelve provinces of the
great Can. Going on further, I came unto a certaine Kingdome called
Tebek,[2] which is in subjection unto the great Can also, wherein I
thinke there is more plenty of bread and wine then in any other part
of the worlde besides. The people of the sayd countrey do, for the
most part, inhabit in tents made of blacke felt. Their principall
city is invironed with faire and beautifull walls, being built of
most white and blacke stones, which are disposed checkerwise one by
another, and curiously compiled together: likewise all the high wayes
in this countrey are exceedingly well paved. In the said countrey none
dare shed the bloud of a man, or of any beast, for the reverence of
a certaine idol. In the aforesayd citie their Abassi, that is to say,
their Pope is resident, being the head and prince of all idolaters
(upon whom he bestoweth and distributeth gifts after his maner)
euen as our Pope of Rome accounts himselfe to be the head of all
Christians. The Women of this countrey weare aboue an hundreth tricks
& trifles about them, and they haue two teeth in their mouthes as long
as the tuskes of a boare. _When any mans father deceaseth among them,
his sonne assembleth together all the priests and musicians that
he can get, saying that he is determined to honour his father:
then causeth he him to be caried into the field (all his kinsfolks,
friends, and neighbours, accompanying him in the sayd action) where
the priests with great solemnity cut off the fathers head, giving
it unto his sonne, which being done, they divide the whole body into
morsels, and so leaue it behinde them, returning home with prayers in
the company of the said sonne. So soone as they are departed, certain
vultures, which are accustomed to such bankets, come flying from
the mountains, and cary away all the sayd morsels of flesh: and from
thenceforth a fame is spread abroad, that the sayd party deceased was
holy, because the angels of God carried him into paradise. And this is
the greatest and highest honour, that the sonne can devise to performe
unto his father. Then the sayd sonne taketh his fathers head, seething
it and eating the flesh thereof, but of the skull he maketh a drinking
cup, wherein himselfe with all his family and kinred do drinke
with great solemnitie and mirth, in the remembrance of his dead and
devoured father._ Many other vile and abominable things doth the sayd
nation commit, which I meane not to write because men neither can nor
will beleeve, except they should haue a sight of them.

    [Footnote 1: Prester John.]

    [Footnote 2: Or Thibet.]

  _Of a certaine riche man, who is fed and nourished by
    50 virgins_.

WHILE I was in the province of Mancy, I passed by the palace of a
certaine famous man, which hath fifty virgin damosels continually
attending upon him, feeding him euery meale as a bird feeds her yoong
ones. Also he hath sundry kinds of meat served in at his table and
three dishes of ech kinde: and when the said virgins feed him, they
singe most sweetly. This man hath in yeerely revenues thirty thuman of
tagars of rise, euery of which thuman yeeldeth tenne thousand tagars,
and one tagar is the burthen of an asse. His palace is two miles in
circuit, the pavement thereof is one plate of golde and another
of silver. Neere unto the wall of the sayd palace there is a mount
artificially wrought with golde and silver, whereupon stand turrets
and steeples, and other delectable things for the solace and
recreation of the foresayd great man. And it was tolde me that there
were foure such men in the sayd kingdome. It is accounted a great
grace for the men of that countrey to haue long nailes upon their
fingers, and especially upon their thumbes which nailes they may folde
about their handes: but the grace and beauty of their women is to haue
small and slender feet: and therefore the mothers when their daughters
are yoong, do binde up their feete that they may not grow great.
Travelling on further towards the South, I arrived at a certain
countrey called Melistorte, which is a pleasant and fertile place. In
this countrey was a certain aged man called Senex de monte, who round
about two mountaines had built a wall to inclose the said mountaines.
Within this wall there were the fairest and most chrystall fountaines
in the whole world: and about the sayd fountaines there were the most
beautifull virgins in great number, and goodly horses also, and in a
word, euery thing that could be devised for bodily solace and delight,
and therefore the inhabitants of the countrey call the same place
by the name of Paradise. The olde Senex, when he saw any proper and
valiant yoong man, he would admit him into his paradise. Moreover
by certain conducts he makes wine and milke to flow abundantly. This
Senex when he hath a minde to revenge himselfe or to slay any king or
baron, commandeth him who is governor of the sayd paradise, to
bring thereunto some of the acquaintance of the sayd king or baron,
permitting him a while to take his pleasure therein, and then to give
him a certaine potion being of force, to cast him into such a slumber
as should make him quite voide of all sense, and so being in a
profound sleepe to convey him out of his paradise: who being awakened
and seeing himselfe thrust out of the paradise, would become so
sorrowfull, that he could not in the world devise what to do, or
whither to turne him. Then would he goe unto the foresaid old man,
beseeching him that he might be admitted again into his paradise, who
saith unto him, You cannot be admitted thither, unlesse you will slay
such or such a man for my sake, & if you will giue the attempt onely,
whether you kill him or no, I will place you againe in paradise, that
there you may remain always: then would the party without faile put
the same in execution, indevouring to murther all those against whom
the old man had conceived any hatred. And therefore all the kings of
the east stood in awe of the sayd olde man, and gaue unto him great

  _Of the death of Senex de monte._

AND when the Tartars had subdued a great part of the world, they
came unto the sayd olde man, and tooke from him the custody of his
paradise: who being incensed thereat, sent abroad divers desperate and
resolute persons out of his forenamed paradise, and caused many of
the Tartarian nobles to be slaine. The Tartars seeing this, went and
beseiged the citie wherein the sayd olde man was, tooke him, and put
him to a most cruell and ignominious death. The friers in that place
haue this special gift and prerogative, namely, that by the vertue of
the name of Christ Jesu, & in the vertue of his precious blood, which
he shedde upon the crosse for the salvation of mankinde, they doe cast
foorth devils out of them that are possessed. And because there are
many possessed men in those parts, they are bound and brought ten
dayes journey unto the sayd friers, who being dispossessed of the
uncleane spirits, do presently beleeve in Christ, who delivered them,
accounting him for their God, and being baptised in his name, and also
delivering immediately unto the friers all their idols and the idols
of their cattell, which are commonly made of felt or of womens haire:
then the sayd friers kindle a fire in a publicke place (whereunto the
people resort, that they may see the false gods of their neighbors
burnt), and cast the sayd idols thereinto: howbeit at first those
idols came out of the fire againe. Then the friers sprinkled the sayd
fire with holy water, casting in the idols the second time, and with
that the devils fled in the likenesse of black smoake, and the idols
still remained till they were consumed unto ashes. Afterward, this
noise and outcry was heard in the ayre: Beholde and see how I am
expelled out of my habitation. And by these means the friers doe
baptise great multitudes, who presently revolt againe unto their
idols; insomuch that the sayd friers must eftsoones, as it were,
underprop them, and informe them anew. _There was another terrible
thing which I saw there: for passing by a certaine valley, which is
situate beside a pleasant river, I saw many dead bodies, and in the
said valley also I heard divers sweet sounds and harmonies of musike,
especially the noise of citherns, whereat I was greatly amazed. This
valley conteineth in length seven or eight miles at the least, into
the which whosoeuer entreth, dieth presently, and can by no means
passe aliue thorow the middest thereof; for which cause all the
inhabitants thereabout decline unto the one side. Moreover, I was
tempted to go in & to see what it was. At length, making my prayers
and recommending my selfe to God in the name of Jesu, I entred, and
saw such swarmes of dead bodies there, as no man would beleeve unless
he were an eyewitnesse thereof. At the one side of the foresayde
valley upon a certaine stone, I saw the visage of a man, which behelde
me with such a terrible aspect that I thought verily I should haue
died in the same place. But alwayes this sentence, the word became
flesh, and dwelt amomgst us, I ceased not to pronounce, signing my
selfe with the signe of the crosse, and neerer than seven to eight
pases I durst not approach unto the sayd head: but I departed & fled
unto another place in the sayd valley_, ascending up into a little
sande mountaine, where looking about, I saw nothing but the sayd
citherns, which methought I heard miraculously sounding and playing by
themselves without the helpe of musicians. And being upon the toppe of
the mountaine, I found silver there like the scales of fishes in great
abundance, and I gathered some part thereof into my bosome to shew
for a wonder, but my conscience rebuking me, I cast it upon the earth,
reserving no whit at all unto my selfe, and so, by God's grace I
departed without danger. And when the men of the countrey knew that I
was returned out of the valley alive, they reverenced me much, saying
that I was baptised and holy, and that the foresayd bodies were men
subject unto the devils infernall who used to play upon citherns, to
the end they might allure people to enter, and so murther them. Thus
much concerning these things which I beheld most certainly with mine
eyes, I frier Odoricus haue heere written: many strange things also
I haue of purpose omitted, because men will not beleeue them unlesse
they should see them.

  _Of the honour and reverence done unto the great Can._

I WILL report one thing more, which I saw, concerning the great Can.
It is an usuall custome in those parts, that when the foresayd Can
traveileth thorow any countrey, his subjects kindle fires before their
doores, casting spices thereinto to make a perfume, that their lord
passing by may smell the sweet and delectable odours thereof, and much
people come forth to meet him. And upon a certaine time when he was
comming towardes Cambaleth, the fame of his approch being published,
a bishop of ours with certaine of our minorite friers and myselfe went
two dayes journey to meet him: and being come nigh unto him, we put a
crosse upon wood. I my selfe having a censer in my hand, and began to
sing with a loud voice: Veni creator spiritus. And as we were singing
on this wise he caused us to be called, commanding us to come unto
him: notwithstanding (as it is above mentioned) that no man dare
approche within a stones cast of his chariot, unlesse he be called,
but such onely as keep his chariot. And when we came neare unto
him, he vailed his hat or bonet being of an inestimable price, doing
reverence unto the crosse. And immediately I put incense into the
censour, and our bishop taking the censer perfumed him, and gaue him
his benediction. Moreouer, they that come before the said Can, do
alwayes bring some oblation to present unto him, observing the ancient
law: Thou shalt not appear in my presence with an empty hand. And for
that cause we carried apples with us, and offered them in a platter
with reverence unto him: and taking out two of them he did eate some
part of one. And then he signified unto us, that we should go apart,
lest the horses comming on might in ought offend us. With that we
departed from him, and turned aside, going unto certaine of his
barons, which had been converted to the faith by certaine friers of
our order, being at the same time in his army: and we offered unto
them of the foresayd apples, who received them at our hands with great
joy, seeming unto us to be as glad, as if we had giuen them some great
gift. All the premisses above written frier William de Solanga hath
put downe in writing euen as the foresayd frier Odoricus uttered them
by word of mouth, in the yeere of our Lord 1330 in the moneth of May,
and in the place of S. Anthony of Padua. _Neither did he regard to
write them in difficult Latine, or in an eloquent style, but even as
Odoricus himselfe rehearsed them, to the end that men might the more
easily understand the things reported._ I Odoricus frier, of Friuli,
of a certaine territory called Portus Vahonis, and of the order of
the minorites, do testifie and beare witnesse unto the reverend father
Guidotus minister of the province of S. Anthony, in the marquisate of
Treviso (being by him required upon mine obedience so to doe) that
all the premisses above written, either I saw with mine owne eyes,
or heard the same reported by credible and substantiall persons. The
common report also of the countreys where I was, testifieth those
things, which I saw, to be true. Many other things I haue omitted
because I behelde them not with my owne eyes. Howbeit from day to day
I purpose with my selfe to travell countreys or lands, in which action
I dispose myselfe to die or to live, as it shall please my God.

  _Of the death of frier Odoricus._

IN the yeere therefore of our Lord 1331 the foresayd frier Odoricus
preparing himselfe for the performance of his intended journey, that
his travel and labour might be to greater purpose, he determined
to present himselfe unto Pope John the two and twentieth, whose
benediction and obedience being received, he with a certaine number of
friers willing to beare him company might convey himselfe unto all the
countreys of infidels. And as he was travelling toward the pope, and
not farre distant from the city of Pisa, there meets him by the waye a
certaine olde man, in the habit and attire of a pilgrime, saluting
him by name and saying: All haile frier Odoricus. And when the frier
demaunded how he had knowledge of him: he answered: Whilest you were
in India I knew you full well, yea, and I knew your holy purpose also:
but see that you returne immediately unto the coven[1] from where
you came, for tenne dayes hence you shall depart out of this
present world. Wherefore being astonished and amazed at these words,
(especially the olde man vanishing out of his sight, presently after
he had spoken them) he determined to returne. And so he returned in
perfect health feeling no crazedness nor infirmity of body. And being
in his coven at Udene in the province of Padua, the tenth daye after
the foresayd vision, having received the Communion, and preparing
himselfe unto God, yea, being strong and sound of body, hee happily
rested in the Lord: who sacred departure was signified unto the
Pope aforesaid, under the hand of the publique notary in these words

In the yeere of our Lord 1331, the 14 day of Januarie, Beatus Odoricus
a Frier minorite deceased in Christ, at whose prayers God shewed many
and sundry miracles, which I Guetelus publique notarie of Utina, sonne
of M. Damianus de Porto Gruaro at the commandment and direction of
the honorable Conradus of the Borough of Gastaldion, and one of the
Councell of Utina, haue written as faithfully as I could, and haue
delivered a copie thereof unto the friers minorites, howbeit not of
all, because they are innumerable, and too difficult for me to write.

    [Footnote 1: Convent.]


























  EGERTON MSS. 672.  Johannis de Maundevilla
  Itinerarium ad partes Ierusolumitanas, &c.
  Vellum, 14 Cent., small 4^o.

  Grenville XXXIX.  A 14 Cent. MS. fol. on
  vellum in double columns, which evidently has belonged to
  one of the French Royal Libraries, as the binding testifies.
  It commences "Ci comence le liure qui parle des diuersités
  des pais qui sunt par universe monde: le quel liure fut compile
  par mesire Jehan Mandeuille chlr ne dangleterre de la
  uille con dit Saint Albain."

  Harl. 3954.  A MS. on vellum, end of 14th Cent., with unfinished
  illuminations; fine copy.

  Sloane, 1464.  Voyage in 1356.  Vellum, in French.  Early
  15 Cent.

  Harl. 212 (1).  Le Geste de S^r John Maundeville de Mervailles
  de Monde.  Small 4^o.  French.  Vellum.   Early 15
  Cent. MS. note at end seems to place it as having been written
  previous to 1425.

  Harl. 212 (2).  La Copie de la Lettre maunde ovesque cest
  Escrit a tres noble Prince Monsire E. de Wyndesore Roy
  d'Engleterre, et de Fraunce, par Monsire Johan de Maundeville,
  autour susdit.

  Cotton, Tit. C. 16. English MS. 4^o. Vellum.  Early 15 Cent.

  Sloane, 560.  De la Terre Seinte, que houme l'appelle Terre
  de Promissionis de Ierusalem.  Vellum.  French.  15 Cent.

  Add. MSS. 17,335.  Travels of Sir John de Mandeville
  translated into German by Otto von Diemeringen, Canon of
  Metz.  Vellum and paper, 15 Cent., with coloured drawings.

  Add. MSS. 10,129.  The Voyages and Travels of Sir John
  Mandeville; in German.  On paper.  15 Cent.  Fol.

  Egerton MSS. 1982.  "Ye buke of (_the voiage and travaile_
  of Sir) John Maundeville." The text differs considerably from
  that of the printed editions, and the prologue does not include
  the apocryphal passage found in Cotton MS. Titus C. xvi., in
  which the author states that he translated the work from Latin
  into French, and from French into English.  _Vellum._  15
  Cent.  On the fly-leaf, f, 2, is a note by E. Hill, M.D., 22
  Mar. 1803, stating that on a leaf of paper pasted on the inside
  of the old cover, was written, "Thys fayre Boke I have fro
  the Abbey of Saint Albons in thys yeare of our Lord
  M.CCCCLXXXX the sixte daye of Apryll.  Willyam Caxton,"
  together with the name of Richard Tottyl, 1579, by whose
  descendant, the Rev. Hugh Tuthill, the book was given to E.
  Hill.  Small quarto.

  Harl. 82  (4).  Itinerarium D. Joannis de Maundevyle
  Militis, [Greek: akephaloi], et in fine Truncatum.
  Vellum, fol. 15 Cent.  In Latin.

  Harl. 175.  Itinerarium Dñi Johannis de Maundeville Militis,
  de Mirabilibus Mundi.  In Latin, 15 Cent. 12^o.  Vellum.

  Harl. 204.  In French. On vellum.  4^o. 15 Cent.  On the
  last page is a copy of the letter to Edward III.

  Harl. 3589 (2). A Latin MS. commencing "Incipit Itinerarius
  magistri Johannis de Mandevelt ad partes Hierosolymitanas,
  et ulteriores partes transmarinas; qui obiit Leodii
  A.D. 1382."  Paper.  15 Cent.

  Harl. 3940.  Le Livre de Jeh. de Mandeville, chevalier, le
  queil fut ney du pais d'engleterre, le queil parle de l'estat de
  la terre, et de marveilles que il y a veues.  15 Cent.  Vellum.
  French.  4^o.

  Harl. 4383.  Voiage de D. Jean Maundeville.  15 Cent.
  Vellum.  French.  Fol.

  Harl. 1739.  A French 4^o MS. of 15 Cent. on vellum and
  paper, with letter to Edward III., in Latin, at the end.

  Arundel, 140 (2).  English MS. Fol. Paper, 15 Cent., ending
  "Her endys the boke of Johne Maundevile, Knyghte, of
  wayes to Ierusalem and of merveyles of Ynde and othere

  Add. MSS. 18,026.  The Voyages and Travels of Sir John
  Mandeville Knight; translated into German, and written by
  Johann Segnitz de Castel.  1449.  Paper.  4^o.

  Egerton MSS. 1781, f. 129.  Translation into Irish of the
  Travels of Sir John Mandeville made by Fineen Mac Mahon
  in 1475.

  Cotton, App. 4, art. 2.  Iter. Johannis Mandevill.  Vellum.
  Small fol., in Latin.  Late 15 Cent.

  Grenville XII.  An English MS. on paper, fol., end of 15
  Cent., commencing "Here begynñth the boke of Moundevyle
  Knyzt that techyth the weyes to Je[~s]lm and of the Meruelis of
  ynde and of the londe of P[~s]t John, and of the grete Cham.
  and of Constantinople and of many oder Contreys."



  GRENVILLE, 6775.  This is, probably, the oldest printed
  "Mandeville" extant, certainly the oldest dated copy,
  except a folio copy printed at Lyons on the 8th day of
  February of the same year, and there was also an Italian 4^o
  edition previously printed at Milan. As far as is known this
  copy is unique, and it is in B. L. double columns, fol.  It has,
  unfortunately, no name of printer, nor place of publication.
  "Ce liure est eppelle mandeuille et fut fait et compose par
  monsieur jehan de mandeuille cheualier natif dangleterre de la
  uille de sainct alein.[1]  Et parle de la terre de promission cest
  assauoir de ierusalem et de pluseurs autres isles de mer et les
  diuerses et estranges choses qui sont es dites isles.  Cy finist
  ce tres plaisant liure nome Mande ville parlant moult autentiquement
  du pays et terre doultre mer Et fut fait lan Mil.
  CCCCLXXX le IIII iour dauril."  Folio.  B. L.

  Grenville, 6702.  Itinerario.  Explicit Johannes de Mandeuilla
  impressus Mediolani ductu et auspiciis _Magistri Petri de
  corneno_ pridie calendas augusti MCCCCLXXX.  4^o. B. L.
  This is said to be the first Italian edition.

  Grenville, 6700.  Itinerarius Domini Johannis de Mandeville
  militis. This is a curious edition, printed in semi-Gothic
  Letter, and is the first known of the Latin editions. Its date
  is unknown, as is also the place where it was printed, but its
  date is fixed _circa_ 1480.

  C. 32, m. 5.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The
  travels of Sir J. M. translated into Dutch.  G. L. (no place).
  1470?  Fol.

  566, f. 6/1.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Beginning
  (fol. 4, verso) Liber pr[=i]s cui auctor fe[~r][~t] joh[=a][=n]es
  de m[=a]deville militari ordis, agit de divers patrijs, etc.
  G. L.  Alosta? 1478?  4^o.  Imperfect.

  Grenville, 6774.  Hie hebt sich an das püch (_sic_) des Ritters
  herz Hannsen von Monte Villa.  Gedrucht zü Augspurg _von
  hannsen schönsperger_ am freitag nach Galli.  Anno domini

  Grenville, 6773.  Johannes von Mondeuilla, Ritter.  Getruckt
  zü Strassburg Johannes Prüssz.  1484.  Fol. B. L.  This
  is a very rare German edition, and is attributed to Michelfeld
  or Michelfelser.

  Grenville, 6728/3.  Explicit Itinerarius a terra Anglie in
  partes Ierosolymitanas et in vlteriores transmarinas editus
  primo in lingua gallicana a domino Johanne de Mandeville
  milite suo auctore.  Anno incarnacionis domini MCCCLV in
  civitate leodiensi et paulo post in Eadem civitate translatus in
  dictam forinam latinam.  Quod opus ubi inceptum simul et
  completum sit ipã elementa seu singularum seorsum caracteres
  literarum quibus impressum vides venatica, monstrant manifeste.

  789,  a. 19.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Tractato
  de le piu maravegliose cose e piu notabile che si trovino [=i] le
  parte del mondo reducte e colte sotto brevita in lo [~p]sente
  comp[~e]dio dal strenuissimo cavalier a speron doro J. de Mandavilla
  anglico, &c.

  G. L. p. U. Rugeri[~u] boñ(_oniæ_).  1488.  4^o.

  Grenville, 6703.  Another copy of Sir John Mandeville's
  travels printed at Bologna, "_per mi Ugo di Rugerii_."  1488.
  4^o.  B. L.

  Grenville, 6704.  Another copy of Sir John Mandeville's
  travels, printed at Venice, "_per mi Nicolo de li ferari de
  pralormo_."  1491.  4^o.  B. L.

  C. 4, h. II.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Joanne
  de Mandavilla.  G. L.  Nicolo de li ferari de pralormo.
  Venetia, 1491.  4^o.

  Grenville, 6705.  Tractato belissímo, delle piu marivigliose
  cose, &c. scripte dallo cavaliere asperondoro Giov. Mandavilla
  Frazese ridocto in lingua thoscana. Impresso ne la cipta di
  Firenze, _per Lorenzo de_ Morgiani et Giovanni da Maganza.
  Adi VII. di Giugno MDCCCCLXXXXII.  4^o.  This edition is very

  Grenville, 6706.  Johanne de Mandauilla.  Bologna, _per
  mi Joanne jacobo et Joanne antonio di benedetti da Bologna_.
  1492.  4^o.  B. L.

  Grenville, 6709.  Another copy of Sir John Mandeville's
  travels, printed at Milan, _per Uldericho Scinzenzeler_.  1497.
  4^o.  B. L.

  Grenville, 6707.  A Dutch copy of Sir John Mandeville's
  travels, printed at Antwerp bii nuy Govaerdt Back.  1494.
  4^o.  B. L.

  Grenville, 6699.  Itinerarius in partes Iherosolimitanas.  Et
  in ultiores transmarinas.  B. L. 4^o.  There is no certainty
  when or where this was printed, but it contains a MS. note
  attributing its production to P. Friedberg, of Maintz,
  _circa_ 1495.

  Grenville, 6713.  The boke of John Maunduyle Knyght of
  wayes to Ierusalem and of maruelys of ynde and of other
  countrees, Emprented _by Richard Pynson_.  4^o.  B. L.  This is
  considered the oldest English printed version extant, older
  even than that of Wynkyn de Worde's of 1499.  It is unfortunately
  undated.  Pynson began to print 1493.

  Grenville, 6708.  Tractato, etc.  Venexia, _per Maestro
  Manfredo da Monferato da Streuo da Bonello_.  1496.  4^o.

  789, a. 20.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_ Johanne
  de mandauilla. Tractato de le piu marauegliose cose e piu
  notabili che si trouino in le parte del mondo, etc. per Maestro
  Manfredo da Mõferato da streno de Bonello. Venice, 1496. 4^o.

  100 77, b.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Johanne
  de mandavilla.  Tractato de le piu maravegliose cose e piu
  notabile che se trouino in le parte del mõdo, etc.

  G. L. St[=a]pado p Ulfrycho scienz[=e]zeler, Milaõ.  149(7).  4^o.

  Grenville, 6710.  Che tracta de le piu marauegliose cose e
  piu notabile che si trouyns in le parte del Mondo.  Bologna,
  _per mi Piero et Jacobo fratelli da Campii_, 1497.  4^o. B.L.

  C. 32, e. 2/2.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller._
  Johannis de montevilla Itinerari in partes Iherosolimitanas.
  Et in ulteriores transmarinas.  G.L.  1500?  4^o.

  Grenville, 6711.  Another copy of Sir John Mandeville's
  travels.  Impressa in Venetia, per _Zuan Baptista Sessa_. Anno
  1504.  Adi 29, Luio. 4^o. B.L.

  280, f. 32.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  I. de
  Mandavilla.  Tractato de la piu maraviliose cose e piu
  notabili che si trovino in le parte del monde redutte....
  sotto brevita in lo presente compendio, etc.

  Manfredo da sustrevo dacã Bonis.  Venezia, 1505. 8^o.

  148, c. 3. Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_. Von . der.
  erfarung . des. streugen . Ritters . johannes . võ . montaville.

  G. L.  J. Knoblouch.  Strassburg, 1507.  4^o.

  Grenville, 6701.  Tractato bellissimo delle piu marauigliose
  cose, et piu notabile che si trouino nelle parte del mondo.
  Impresso nella excelsa cipta di Firenze appetitione _di Ser Piero
  da Pescia_, etc.  Circa, 1512.  4^o.

  Grenville, 6712.  Another copy of Sir John Mandeville's
  travels printed at Milan, _per Rocho et fratelli da Valle_.  1517.
  4^o. B. L.

  Grenville, 6656.  Another copy of Sir John Mandevilles
  travels, printed at Venice, _per Marchio Sessa e Piero de rauani._
  1521.  8^o.

  1051, c. 1/1.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  I. de
  Mandavilla, qual tratta della piu maravegliose cose e piu
  notabile che si trovino, etc.  Venetia, 1537.  8^o.

  567, i. 5.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Juan de
  Mandavila.  Libro de las Marauillas del mundo y del viage
  d' la tierra santa di Hierusal[~e] & de todas las provincias &
  hombres monstrussos que hayen las Indias.  G. L. Valencia,
  1540, fol.

  149, e. 6.  Libro de las maravillas del mondo que trata
  del viage de la Tierra Santa de Hierusalem y de todas
  las provincias y Ciudades de las Indias y de los hombres
  mostruosos que ay en el mundo. Alcala de Heuares.  1547,

  1074, k. 4/1.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Maistre
  Iehan Mandeville Chevalier natif du pays Dangleterre, lequel
  parle des grandes Adventures des pays estrange, tant par mer,
  que par terre.... Ensemble la terre de promission & du
  sainct voyage de Hierusalem.  G. L. _Jehan Bonfons_.  Paris,
  1560?  4^o.

  Grenville, 6657.  Another copy of Sir John Mandeville's
  travels. Nel quale si contengono di molte cose maravigliose.
  Venetia, 1567.  8^o.

  1046, a. 26/4.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  I. de
  Mandavilla, nel quale si contengono di molte cose maravigliose,
  etc.  Venetia, 1567.  8^o.

  1045, h. 2.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The
  Voiage and travayle of Syr I. M. which treateth of the way
  toward Hierusalem, and of marvayles of Inde, with other Ilands
  and Countryes.  B. L. Lond. 1568.  8^o.

  10,076, a.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Reysen
  und Wander schafften, durch das Gelobte Land, Indien und
  Persien, dess ... Ritters J. de Montevilla ... von ihm
  in Frantzösischer unnd Lateinischer Sprach ... beschrieben.
  Nachmals durch O. von Dameringer ... verteutscht ... auffs
  neuw corrigieret und mit ... Figuren gezieret.
  Franckfurt am Mayn, 1580.  8^o.

  790,  m. 16.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Reysen
  ins gelobte Land ... Persien, Indien, Tartary, etc.  1584,

  Grenville, 6714.  Another copy of Sir John Mandeville's
  travels in English, unfortunately mutilated, said to be probably
  printed by Thomas East or Este[2]--but it is unlike his type--and
  the engravings are totally different.

  791, l. 12.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Reysen
  ... durch das gelobte Landt, Indien, und Persien, etc.
  1609, fol.

  Grenville, 6715.  Another copy of Sir John Mandeville's
  travels. "Wherein is set downe the way to the Holy Land,
  and to Hierusalem: as also to the land of the great Caane,
  and of Prester John; to Inde, and diuers other countries:
  together with the many and strange Meruailes therein. London,
  _by Thomas Stansby_.  1618.  4^o. B. L.

  10,056,  bbb/2.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  De
  wonderlijcke Reyse van I. Mandevijl, be schrijvende eerst de
  Reyse ende gheschiedenisse van den H. Lande.... Daer
  na de ghestaltenisse ende zeden van den Lande van Egipten,
  Syrien, Persen ... Indien, ende Ethiopien, &c.--t'Amsterdam.
  1650.  4^o.

  Grenville, 6716.  Voyages and travels, wherein is set down
  the way to the Holy Land, &c. London, 1657.  4^o. B. L.

  791, l. 25.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_. Reysen
  unnd Wanderschafften durch das gelobte Landt, Indien und
  Persien ... durch Otto von Demeringen ... verteutscht.
  1659, fol.

  10,055, a. Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller._  The
  voyages and travels of Sir J. Mandevile, Knight. Wherein is
  set down the way to the Holy Land, and to Hierusalem; as
  also to the lands of the Great Caane, and of Prester John, &c.
  (Woodcuts).  B. L.  Lond. 1670.  4^o.

  12,410, f. 10.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  De
  Wonderlycke Reyse van I. Mandevyl.  Naer het H. Landt,
  ghedan in 't Jaer 1322 &c.  Antwerpen, 1677.  4^o.

  Grenville, 6717.  Another copy of Sir John Mandeville's
  travels. London, for R. Scot, 1684.  4^o.

  1045, h. 30.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The
  voyages of Sir I. M., &c. B. L.  Lond. 1684.  4^o.

  Grenville, 6718.  Another copy of Sir John Mandeville's
  travels.  London, for R. Chiswell, &c. 1696.  4^o.  The woodcuts
  in this edition are the same as in Grenville 6717.

  12,315, c. 5/4.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Des
  vortrefflich Welt-Erfahrnen ... Ritters Johannis de Montevilla,
  curieuse Reiss-Beschreibung wie derselbe in das gelobte
  Land, Palästinum, Jerusalem, Egypten, Türkey, Judäam,
  Indien, Chinam, Persien, angekommen, und fast den ganzen
  Erd-und Welt. Kriebs durchzogen seye; ... Nunmehrins
  Teutsche übersetzt ... Jetzt von neuem auferlegt, vermehrt
  und verbessert, &c. (no place named) 1700?  8^o.

  1077, g. 35/2.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The
  voyages and travels of Sir J. M., &c.  Lond. 1705.  4^o.

  10,056, c.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The
  voyages and travels of Sir J. Mandevile ... where in is set
  down the way to the Holy Land.... As also to the lands of
  the Great Caan, and of Prester John; to India, and divers
  other countries, &c.  Lond. 1710.  4^o.

  10,055, a.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The
  Travels and voyages of Sir J. M., &c.  Lond. 1720?  12^o.

  Grenville, 2247.  Another copy of Sir John Mandeville's
  travels.  London, for J. Osborne.  (A chap book.)  No date
  ? 1720-30.  12^o.

  683, f. 18.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The voiage
  and travaile of Sir I Maundevile, which treateth of the way
  to Hierusalem, and of marvayles of Inde, with other ilands,
  and countreyes. Now publish'd entire from an original MS. in
  the Cotton Library.  Lond. 1725.  8^o.

    _Note._ There is another title page, with the date 1727.

  149, b. 8.  Another edition of the same in the King's
  Library--without the 1727 title page.

  The Grenville Library also has copies of the 1727 edition
  of the Cotton M.S. and Halliwell's reprint of same, edition

  212, e. 6.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Receuil
  ou abrègè des voiages et observations de, &c.  (Receuil de
  divers Voyages Curieux, &c.) Vol. 2.  1729.  4^o.

  435, a. I.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_. The Travels
  and Voyages of Sir I. M.  Lond. 1730?  8^o.

  454, f. 6.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  See Bergeron
  (P.) _Parisien_ Voyages faits principalement en Asie dans les
  XII. XIII. XIV. et XV siecles, &c.  1735.  4^o.

  100,56, cc.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  De
  Wonderlÿke Reyse van Ian Mandevyl, &c.  Amsterdam,
  1742?  4^o.

  790, b. 34.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  De wonderlyke
  Reize van Jan Mandevyl, &c.  Amsterdam 1750?  4^o.

  1077, i. 14/23.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The
  foreign travels of Sir I. M., &c.  (A chap book.)  Aldermary
  Church Yard, Lond. 1750?  12^o.

  10,056, aa.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  De wonderlyke
  Reize van Ian Mandevyl, &c. Amsterdam, 1760.  4^o.

  10,055, b.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  De wonderlyke
  Reize von I. Mandevyl, &c.  Amsterdam, 1779.  4^o.

  12,315, aaa. 6/3.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The
  foreign travels of Sir I. M., &c.  London, 1780?  12^o. (A
  chap book.)

  1295, c.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  De wonderlyke
  Reyse van Ian Mandevyl, naer het H. Land, gedden in 't
  jaer 1622 (1322) ... Menheeft desen nieuwen Gendsehen
  Druk van alle Touten gesuyverd, &c.  Gend. 1780?  4^o.

  1076, l. 3/12.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The
  foreign travels and dangerous voyages of Sir I. M.  (A chap
  book).  London, 1785?  12^o.

  209, h. II.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Liber
  Præsens ... agit de diversis patriis ... & insulis, Turcia,
  Armenia, &c. Hakluyt's Collection of the early Voyages, &c.
  Vol. 2. 1809, &c.  4^o.

  790, g. 17.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The
  Voiage and Travaile of Sir I. Maundeville ... which treateth
  of the way to Hierusalem; and of Marvayles of Inde, with
  other Islands and Countryes. Reprinted from the Edition of
  A.D. 1725, with an Introduction, Additional Notes, and Glossary,
  by J. O. Halliwell. Lond. 1839.  8^o.

  836, i. 23(I).  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.
  Bibliographische Untersuchungen über die Reise.  Beschreibung
  des Sir I. M., &c.  1840.  4^o.

  2101, a.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Early Travels
  in Palestine, comprising the narratives of Arculf, Willibald ...
  Sir I. Mandeville (the latter entitled The Book of Sir I. M.
  A.D. 1322-1356), &c.--Bohn's Antiquarian Library, 1847, &c.

  1007, 6, aa.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  Des
  edlen engelländischen Ritters ... J. v. Montevilla ... Reis
  Beschreibung ... von Neueman's Licht gestellt durch O. F. H.

  Reutlingen, 1865.  8^o.

  10,075, g.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The Voiage
  and Travaile of Sir J. Maundevile ... Reprinted from the
  edition of 1725. With an introduction, additional notes, and
  glossary, by J. O. Halliwell, &c. Lond. 1866.  8^o.

  11,900, bb.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) the _Traveller_.  A Translation
  of a portion of Sir J. M.'s travels.  (Irish.)  See _Todd_
  (J. H.), _D.D._  Some account of the Irish manuscript, &c.
  1867.  8^o.

  12,226, bbbb.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  I.
  Viaggi di G da Mandavilla.  Volgarizzamento antico Toscano,
  ora ridotto a buona lezione coll' ainto di due testi a penna per
  cura di F. Zambrini.  2 vols.  Bologna, Imola (printed) 1870.

  10,027, aaa.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _the Traveller_.  The
  English Explorers, &c.

    _Note._ Forming part of "Nimmo's National Library," Lond.
    Edinburgh (printed), 1875.  8^o.

  Ac. 9057.  Mandeville (_Sir_ John) _The Traveller_.  Mandevilles
  Rejse, på danok fra 15^{de} århundrede,... udgiven af
  M. Lorenzen.  1881, &c.  8^o.

    [Footnote 1: St. Albans.]

    [Footnote 2: This edition has no date, but _Brunet_ says (vol.
    iii. p. 1359) that it is printed from the same type used by
    _Gerard Leeu_ at Antwerp in 1484 or 1485. As _Graesse_ also
    confirms this, I attribute that date to it.]

    [Footnote 3: The dated works of Est, Este, East, or Easte
    range from 1565 to over 1600.]


[Illustration: Logo]


Transcriber's Note:

  - - indicates italic print;
  = = indicates bold print;
  + + indicates Old English font;
  ^ or ^{} indicates a superscript.

  [=] signifies a letter with a macron (straight line over) accent;
  [~] signifies a letter, or letters, with a tilde over,
  usually indicating an omitted letter (often 'n').
  [°u] is small letter 'u' with ring above.

  The spelling of this book is from the 14th Century, is often
  phonetic, and is not necessarily consistent.

  e.g., 'hear' (auditory) is also spelt 'here' and 'heare';
  'here' (location) is also spelt 'heere', 'heare';
  'here' has also been used to spell 'hair';
  'were' is sometimes used for 'where';
  'Jhon' is 'John', etc.

  'y^t' usually means 'that', and 'y^e' is 'the'.

  'to' is used for 'to' and 'too';
  'by' for 'by' and 'buy';
  'of' for 'of' and 'off';
  and 'off' for 'off' and 'of'....

  'li' = libre = a pound (both weight and money, depending on
  a groat = 4 pence; a florin = 2 shillings.

  A word or name can be spelt several ways in the same paragraph,
  and names capitalised and non-capitalised in the same sentence.

  Apostrophes (of ownership) were sometimes present, sometimes
  absent, even in the same paragraph.

  Also, (e.g.):

  'le IIII iour dauril' = 'le IIII jour d'avril' = the 4th day of April;
  'natif dangleterre' = 'natif d'angleterre' = 'native of England', etc.

  "And ye shall understande that Lothe was Arons sone, Abraham's
  brother, and Sara Abraham's wyfe was Loths syster, and Sara was
  xc yere olde when she gate Ysaac and Abraham had another son named
  Ismael that he had gotten on his mayden Ager."

  14th century spellings have not been modernised. 'u' was often,
  but not always, printed for 'v'

  Modern spelling rules did not apply until later in the reign of
  Queen Victoria (19th century).

  Many strange spellings of personal and place names have been
  explained by the author in the Footnotes.

  This book has many Footnotes, and the Footnotes have been placed
  at the ends of their relevant Chapters.

  Some missing or damaged punctuation has been repaired, though
  punctuation was not always present.

  Some Greek and Latin typos have been corrected.

  Some illustrations which interrupted paragraphs have been moved to
  more appropriate places. There are also some small 'glyphs' or
  small drawings at the ends of some chapters, which have been
  placed after the footnotes for the relevant chapters, thus
  following the layout of the book.

  Some illustrations have been re-used. One illustration has been
  used multiple times. This was common practice with Chap Book
  woodcuts, which would have been hand-carved.

  Page xv: The inscription has a character which looks like a reversed
  capital C, shown as [C], but which is actually a ROMAN NUMERAL

  The date of the inscription is given as CI[C]CCLXXXI,

  i.e. hundreds, ten, (1000)
  plus 200 plus 81,
  or the year 1281.

  Page 2: catell[5] = chattel ('goods and chattels').

  Pages 5-6: Footnotes #5 and #9 each have 1 answer for 2 queries.

  Page 42: 'Araham's' corrected to 'Abraham's'
      (Not corrected in a Footnote).

    "And two myle from Ebron is the grave of Loth[6] that was Abraham's
    brother." (F. 6: Lot.)

  Page 47: 'is' corrected to 'it'.

    "... and that it was forbidden in the olde lawe."

  Page 53. "... and thereby are three[15] other pyllers...."

      Footnote 15: [Other editions say four, which is the number
      represented in the engraving.] So this edition would appear to be
      correct, as one pillar, plus three other pillars = four pillars.

  Page 54: 'me' corrected to (second) 'men'. (original printer error?
  or original author's careless style?)

    "... as these landes are lost through sinne of Christen men, so
    shall they be won againe by christen men throygh the helpe of God."

  Page 58: "... they encline[1] thereto & and then they take it, and
  laye it upon their heads, and afterward...."

  Either '&' or 'and' is extraneous. For consistency, transcriber
  removed '&'.

  Page 84: Footnote #4 has 1 answer for 2 queries.

  Page 91, Footnote 7: 'Khalif Molawakkel' corrected to
  Khalif Motawakkel (i.e. Al-Mutawakkil) ...
    (https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Mutawakkil).

  Page 94: "... or else at Lamaton, And then enter shyppe againe,..."
  is as printed, and it does make sense, in the context.

  Page 110, Footnote 5: There are two Footnotes #5 and one Footnote
  reference #5, all matching original, but they _are_ connected.

  Page 120, Footnote 1: 'Monscoli' corrected to 'Monocoli'

    "For instance, in Book 7, chap, li., devoted to Man, he (Plini)
    quotes Ctesias as saying that in India is another race of men,
    who are known as Monocoli, who have only one leg, but are able to
    leap with surprising agility."

  Page 152: Illustration removed: duplicate of illo on previous page.

  Page 157, Footnote 1(cont): first letter 'tau' corrected to first
  letter 'sigma' [Greek: 'tpithami' should be 'spithamai'], 'span'.

  Page 162: Removed extraneous 'his'

    "and the cause was we had so great desire to see the nobilitye of
    his [his] court,..."

  Page 167: 'coulentium' ... perhaps 'colentium'? 'coulentium' may
  be an acceptable medieval spelling.

  Page 167, Footnote 1: Ok-lar-Khan ... or Oktaï-Khan.
  But some 19th century books give the name as Oktar, and there are
  other possibilities.

  Page 187, Footnote 6: Removed extraneous "on".

    Silver Hoop about the end, whereon [on] is engraven _Griphi

  Page 206: 'if' correct as printed.

  Middle English "All if" = "even though":

    "even though the carbuncles give great light, nevertheless ...".

  Page 233: Removed extraneous 'are'.

    "In this countrey also are [are] found canes of an incredible

  Page 243, Footnote 1: 'Fokieu' corrected to 'Fokien' (typo).

  Pages 277-289: The extra spaces in the book's layout have been
  retained, as necessary to show the library cataloguing.

  Page 277: 'chlr' is as printed. Abbreviation for chevalier (knight).

    Grenville XXXIX. A 14 Cent. MS. fol. on vellum in double

    It commences "Ci comence le liure qui parle des diuersités des
    pais qui sunt par universe monde: le quel liure fut compile par
    mesire Jehan Mandeuille chlr ne dangleterre de la uille con dit
    Saint Albain."

  Pages 280 et seq: GRENVILLE

    GRENVILLE, Thomas [1755-1846]. 'The Grenville Library'. Scope:
    Approximately 16,000 works (in 20,240 volumes) collected by the
    statesman and British Museum Trustee Thomas Grenville. The
    collection contains printed books from the 15th to 19th centuries,
    and complements the King's Library in terms of incunabula and
    post-incunabula, early voyages, bibles, vernacular poetry and
    romances (especially Italian and Spanish), and English literature.
    The collection is particularly noted for its fine bindings.
    Bequeathed to the Museum in 1846. Although part of the Grenville
    Library, the volumes at G.20276-78 were absent from the collection
    when it arrived at the British Museum. They were subsequently
    acquired though the book trade by either the British Museum or the
    British Library.

  Page 281: 'zii' corrected to 'zü'. 'zu' may have been better, but
  'zü' is used in the entry above, 'Gedrucht zü Augspurg' and now used
  here, 'Getruckt zü Strassburg', to match. The entries are from 1482
  and 1484, when spelling was more or less invented to suit the
  writer's personal preferences.

  Another copy has 'Gedruckt z[°u] Augspurg....'

  Page 284-5: 'unnd' (as printed) is common in 16th century German.

*** End of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "The Voiage and Travayle of Sir John Maundeville Knight - Which treateth of the way towards Hierusalem and of - marvayles of Inde with other ilands and countreys" ***

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