By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Art of Architectural Modelling in Paper
Author: Richardson, T. A.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Art of Architectural Modelling in Paper" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.




                                THE ART


                        ARCHITECTURAL MODELLING

                               IN PAPER.


                           T. A. RICHARDSON,



                     JOHN WEALE, 59, HIGH HOLBORN.




In offering the following practical dissertation (the first ever yet
published) upon the Art of Architectural Modelling, the Author feels
that he is supplying a want that must have been long felt by many
students and others in the architectural profession. The utility of the
“Model,” coupled with its beauty, is ample recommendation of the study;
and the modeller will be able to furnish the architect with sure and
certain means that he may find weighty difficulties surmounted,
especially in the case of uncomprehending clients, by giving to them the
designs of their edifices with a distinctness almost equal to the real
work when completed. With many clients, even “perspectives” are poorly
understood, which seldom fails to cause some slight dissatisfaction on
their part when they see too late certain things that the eye would have
detected in the model and corrected in the outset. Models are becoming
very general, where buildings are subjects of competition; and as this
course of procedure and honourable encounter bids fair (when weeded of
some of its present objections) to open up a good and honourable system,
whereby the “race _may be_ to the swift,” the importance of the
following brief and simple Treatise on the subject, becomes doubly

                                                                T. A. R.

 CHESTER, _March, 1859_.



 PREFACE                                                             iii

 INTRODUCTION                                                         13

                                 PART I.

                       OF THE MATERIALS REQUIRED.

 PAPER                                                                19

 ADHESIVE MATERIAL                                                    21

 OTHER REQUISITES                                                     22

                                PART II.

                      OF THE INSTRUMENTS NECESSARY.

 CUTTING BOARD                                                        24

 MODELLING PRESS                                                      25

 =T= SQUARE                                                           29

 ADJUSTING STRAIGHT EDGE                                              31

 CUTTING KNIVES                                                       33

 ADJUSTING KNIFE COMPASS                                              36

                                PART III.


 OUTLINE PLAN                                                         40

 THICKNESS OF PAPER FOR WALLS                                         40

 OUTLINING THE ELEVATION                                              41

 WINDOW FRAMES                                                        44

 GROUND PLAN, OUTLINE PLAN                                            45

 GLASS OR OTHER BACKING TO WINDOWS                                    48

 DOORS                                                            49, 51

 FORMING MITRES                                                       52

 INCIDENTAL PRESSURE DURING PROGRESS                                  54

 FIXING THE MODEL TOGETHER                                            54

 BLOCKING PIECES TO ANGLES                                            54

 PREPARATION FOR FINAL FASTENING TO STAND                             56

 METHOD OF INSERTING THE WOOD STAY                                    57

 THE CORNICE                                                          59

 MOULDING TOOLS                                                       60

 DETAILS OF WINDOWS                                                   61

 CIRCULAR PEDIMENTS                                                   64

 QUOINS                                                               64

 CIRCULAR ARCHITRAVES                                                 65

 KEYSTONES                                                        65, 66

 CANTALIVERS                                                          66

 CUTTING, CURVES                                                      66

 PLAIN ARCHITRAVES                                                    67

 CUTTING IN GENERAL WITH THE KNIFE                                    68

 DETAILS OF WINDOWS                                                   69

 THE GREENHOUSE                                                   73, 75

 PILASTERS                                                            75

 CAP AND BASE                                                         75

 ROOF OF GREENHOUSE                                               76, 77

 CORNICE AND PLINTH                                                   79

 CHIMNEYS                                                             79

 ROOF OF HOUSE                                                83, 84, 85

 REMOVING THE MODEL                                                   88

 PREPARATION OF FINAL STAND                                           88

 PREPARATION OF GLASS SHADE                                           89

 FIXING THE MODEL TO ITS STAND                                        89


                                PART IV.

                      HINTS ON LANDSCAPE GARDENING.

 INTRODUCTION                                                         91

 PEDESTALS, SUN DIALS, GATE PIERS, BALUSTERS                          93

 IMITATIONS OF LAWNS, GRASS, ETC.                                     94

 WATER, ROCKS, AND GROTTOES                                           94

 WALKS, DRIVES, FLOWER BEDS, TREES, AND SHRUBS                        95

                                 PART V.


 TO THE READER. FINIS.                                               111


                                THE ART


                        ARCHITECTURAL MODELLING

                               IN PAPER.


The art of Architectural Modelling is not so difficult to acquire, as an
observer, examining a model and admiring the minuteness of its parts,
would be led to suppose. But in order to gain a certain degree of
proficiency, a large amount of patience and perseverance is absolutely
necessary. The great beauties of a model consist, firstly, in perfect
symmetry and correctness of parts, all the angles being clear,
well-defined, and sharp, the various minutiæ of detail accurately
delineated; and secondly, to the straightness and evenness of the
horizontal and perpendicular lines. It will be, therefore, readily
understood, that it is these portions of the manipulation which demand
the student’s attention, more particularly as the joining of the paper
or cardboard by means of a mitre, as well as the cutting of lines on the
slant in either a horizontal or curved direction, is somewhat difficult.
These difficulties which arise in the student’s path are, however,
easily to be overcome, and he must not grow faint-hearted if, after
repeated trials, he does not succeed in producing the required effect.
Rather at this juncture let him examine some model by an adept in the
art, comparing his work with it. By these means he will be enabled to
see the points in his own requiring improvement, and then let him
continue to labour perseveringly and diligently until he gains a perfect
command of his knife and materials, and few will be found but will admit
that the result at last obtained fully repays him for his time and
labour. There is no doubt that the art is of very great antiquity, and
that in former times no building of importance was erected without one
having been previously constructed. This not only aided the successful
carrying out of the architect’s drawings, but enabled him and his
employer to judge better as to the general effect the work would have
when completed.

We have mention made of models as early as 1546, when San Gallo (a pupil
of Bramante, the original architect of St. Peter’s, at Rome), either
himself constructed, or caused to be, a model of his proposed designs
for that magnificent structure, in order that the whole might be carried
out in the same spirit in the event of his death. On this latter event
occurring, the immortal Michael Angelo Buonarotti undertook the
important office of architect to St. Peter’s. One of his first tasks was
to set aside the model of his predecessor, which had occupied many years
in constructing, at a cost of many thousand pounds, while he constructed
himself, at a trifling expense and in a few days, another model of his
intended work. Numerous other instances of the practical utility of this
branch of art might be cited, but the author deems it unnecessary, its
importance being at once obvious; and this little work, though devoid of
all technicalities, too frequently the fault of works of this
description, yet is intended shall be eminently practical. To a large
and increasing body, the architectural assistants, it is hoped that this
little hand-book will prove to be acceptable; and though written
principally for the professional man, it is hoped it may not prove
utterly useless or uninteresting to others, who though not members of
the architectural profession may yet possess sufficient taste and skill
to wish to perpetuate

                           A DESIGN IN PAPER.

                                PART I.
                       OF THE MATERIALS REQUIRED.

The materials the architectural modeller will require for his work, are,
for the most part, few, simple, and inexpensive. They are also easily
procured at any of the Artists’ Repositories. It is not, therefore, so
much in the material employed, but in the skill displayed in the
working, that the beauties of a model consist. The principle in this
description of modelling being, that every possible part be constructed
of paper, it is necessary that this should be procured of the
description best suited to the nature of the work, and of the best
possible quality. Inferior papers are hard, contain knots and other
imperfections, and are very frequently gritty; this latter imperfection,
by destroying the delicate edge of the knife, prevents the work having
that sharp appearance so much to be desired. The paper I use, and have
always found the best for all purposes, has a surface similar to that of
Whatman’s double-elephant drawing paper, and is, I believe, sold under
the name of Crayon paper: a specimen is bound with this book, forming
the _next page_; it is of a pale cream-colour, bearing a strong
semblance in tint to Bath-stone, but I have procured it from this to the
shades necessary for the roofs of models. It is firm, though not hard,
in texture, and not being too spongy, does not absorb to too great a
degree the paste used in fastening together the sheets for the various
thicknesses required, thus ensuring their firmness, a matter of the
highest importance, otherwise in thin strips consisting of four, five,
or more thicknesses of paper, upon their being cut each would part and
defeat the desired end.

The most useful tint of this paper is the one already described, as it
can be easily tinted to represent bricks or rubble, &c., should it be
necessary,—for instance, in a building where the quoins, dressings, &c.,
were in stone, the rest in random rubble or brick, it would enable you
to mark them with a HHH pencil, and tint before your work was made up. I
have constructed several models in pure white Bristol board, but it is a
tedious hard material to work in, though the result is very fine.

The next most important auxiliary is an adhesive material for fastening
the sheets together to produce the necessary thicknesses of cardboard,
and to fix the whole together and the several parts in their places. For
the former a paste of flour made in the following manner, will be found
to be the best. To every two tablespoonfuls of the best wheaten flour,
add a teaspoonful of common moist or brown sugar, and a little corrosive
sublimate, the whole to be boiled, and while boiling continually stirred
to prevent lumps, till of the right consistency. If a few drops of some
essential oil, say lavender or peppermint, be added, the usual
mouldiness will not appear, and the paste will keep for a great length
of time. For the latter, a gum must be used, prepared by the following
proportions. To each six ounces of the best gum arabic, add an ounce or
less of moist or lump sugar, one teaspoonful of lavender or other
essential oil, and a table-spoonful of gin, the whole to be mixed in
_cold_ water (no heat being in any way applied) to the consistency of a
thick syrup.

Other requisites are sheets of mica or talc, to be procured at the
ironmonger’s, and used for windows, skylights, &c.; pieces of soft deal
or beech wood, to form any small detail such as pinnacles to barge
boards, &c., that it may not be advisable or possible to form in paper;
wire, lead, cord, velvet, and numerous other nick-nacks, which will
occur to the modeller as his work proceeds, and which will hereafter, in
their place, be carefully described.

                                PART II.
                     OF THE INSTRUMENTS NECESSARY.

The first thing the artist must procure must be a board of fine,
close-grained wood, free from knots, to prepare and cut the several
parts of his work upon. The best for this cutting-board is beech,
sycamore, or pear-tree wood; it should be, at the least, one and a-half
inch thick, by twelve inches broad, and about eighteen inches in length.
I should prefer it even thicker than stated, as continual planing of the
surface to erase the marks of the knife soon reduces its thickness. Let
it be squared perfectly every way to allow the T square to work
accurately along its edge. As before stated, care must be taken, when
the surface has become too much cut up, to have it re-planed, or
otherwise the knife is apt to follow the marks in the board, and cut the
paper irregularly upon the under side. The size of board mentioned will
be found most useful for all ordinary purposes; should the work be of
very large dimensions, of course another must be procured,
proportionally larger. Two or three boards of close-grained deal will
also be found of service for cutting obliquely, &c., &c.

                          THE MODELLING PRESS.

This apparatus will be found of essential service to the artist, as by
its aid he forms the cardboard which is the basis of his model. It may
be either of iron or wood; the former is lighter, and more elegant in
appearance, but the latter, though plain and homely, is in my opinion
preferable in many respects. A common copying press may be used, care
being taken not to place the damp paper between the iron, but between
two hard, close-grained pieces of wood. On page 27 is an illustration of
the press I use, which any joiner can construct for a few shillings. It
consists of a cross-beam, A, through which the screw passes; two
uprights, B B; a bottom, C, to which, and to the cross-beam, the
uprights must be firmly mortised. Between them is a moveable top-piece,
D, which by means of cord running through two small pulleys, E E, keeps
it pressing continually against the screw; the weight F, at the end of
the cord being slightly heavier than will balance the top-piece. By
these means, as you unwind the screw, either to place under, or look at
the progress of work already there, the top-piece moves out of your way.
The sizes of the wood for the different portions is given, and care must
be observed in not breaking it by too great a pressure of the screw; as
the object of the press is to keep the sheets flatly and firmly
together, while the adhesive material sets, no undue degree of force is
necessary; indeed it will, for reasons hereafter to be described, be
found a disadvantage to press them too closely.




         C   Bottom piece 18 inches by 12 inches by 2  inches.
         B B Uprights     12  do.   —   4  do.   —  1½   do.
         A   Cross beam   15  do.   —   4  do.   —  2¼   do.
                   The screw 1⅜ths inch in diameter.



This square is formed like the ordinary drawing-squares, with the
exception that the blade A is made of steel; this is firmly screwed to a
stock of hard wood, which has on each side of the blade a small piece at
C C cut out; the object of this is to allow the knife to cut completely
to the edge of the paper. The advantage, in fact, the necessity for a
steel blade, will be obvious; were it of wood, the pressure of the knife
along its edge would indent, or cut it. This square will be found
adapted for every description of large and small work, but should the
cardboard be of great thickness it is apt to stir, and by so doing cause
irregularity of line. To remedy this an instrument is used, called an
adjusting straight-edge. A is a straight ruler of flat brass, or of
steel, like the blade of the T-square. It is contrived to move to and
from the surface of the board upon the upright screws, B B, while a
dovetail groove is fitted with a piece of brass to run along it, to
allow of the horizontal movement of the ruler. The paper (upon which the
cutting-off line has been previously marked) is placed upon the board,
the straight-edge adjusted to the line; the straight-edge being then
firmly screwed down upon it by means of the two small thumb-screws, 3 3,
it is rendered immoveable during the progress of the work, this will be
better understood from the annexed engraving.



No. 1 is a section of the cutting-board, showing the groove in which the
piece of brass runs. 2, The brass, to which is attached the
thumb-screws, by means of a screw through the eye at B. 3 3 3,
Thumb-screws, to screw down the ruler upon the paper. The brass rule
should not be less than an eighth of an inch in thickness, otherwise it
may bend; if steel it will do a little less.



This instrument will be found particularly useful in cutting the
necessary mitres for joining together the edges of the work, or for any
other work of similar description, such as the copings to walls,
mouldings of every description, &c., &c. Having now described these very
important instruments in a way we hope may prove perfectly intelligible,
we proceed to state the requirements in those necessary ones, knives.
The number of these the artist will use, is regulated more by his own
fancy than anything else; but there are three shapes he will find
absolutely necessary. In modelling, as in painting, there are numerous
tricks and contrivances for producing various effects; and as the
painter will often value a bit of old scrubby, worn-down brush, so the
modeller will find various cutting instruments materially assist him,
such as the broken blade of a knife, a steel pen, a bradawl, &c., &c.,
many of these producing effects that more elaborate instruments would
have failed doing. On page 33 will be found an engraving representing
three requisite varieties of knives. No. 1. This knife is long in the
blade, and, as will be found in all the others, is perfectly straight on
the cutting edge; this knife is used to cut straight lines in all
directions through strong work, cutting oblique lines, mitres, splays,
&c. No. 2. One for lighter work used in forming or modelling ornaments,
or, in general, cutting work of a lighter and neater character. No. 3.
This blade is used solely for cutting all descriptions of circular work,
and curves of every description. It may be useful to remark that this is
the only shape of blade that will cut, with clearness and sharpness,
curved lines through thick cardboard. The instrument next illustrated is
called a knife compass, and is extremely valuable for cutting out
circular architraves, &c., &c., doing its work in a way that the hand
and knife could not equal, and with the least possible trouble. See
illustration, page 36. They resemble, in some respects, an ordinary pair
of compasses, but of a little stronger make than the common. A is a
moveable sweep of brass, to regulate the opening of the legs of the
compasses, which, being opened to the requisite width, are firmly held
by tightening the thumb-screw, F. B, the moveable leg to which the
cutting-knife C is attached by means of a shoulder to the blade at G,
and a socket at H, into which it fixes, and is secured by the screw at
D. E and I are two screws working on the rod, K, on each side of the
moveable bar, B.



By means of this contrivance the knife is always kept perfectly upright,
and in consequence cuts perpendicularly through the cardboard. There may
be several knives to fit in the socket for light and heavy work, but a
blade of the same shape as that shown in the engraving, will be found
sufficient for nearly every purpose. The instrument might perhaps be
more useful if half as large again as represented. The dotted lines are
given to show the instrument open wider, in order fully to illustrate
the utility of the moveable leg at B. The method of using this
instrument is this: Having a curve to cut, and having found the centre
of the arc, place the point of the leg L within it, then adjusting the
moveable leg to the perpendicular by means of the screws I and E,
stretch the legs to the requisite radius, and by gradually increasing
the pressure on the blade, the curve may be cut with the most perfect
ease and truth.


  H L Horizontal line.

                               PART III.

Assuming that the student has now procured the various instruments and
materials for his work, and that he has also determined upon the design
he intends in paper, the next thing necessary is to give him as far as
it is possible by a book copiously illustrated, an exact description of
the method of proceeding. We will therefore imagine a design which is to
be modelled (see frontispiece), a Villa, in the domestic Italian style,
for example; and taking it to pieces bit by bit, endeavour to raise it
up again in renewed beauty and effect.

Having the four elevations, together with the ground and roof plans, the
latter being essential to show the position of the chimneys, skylights,
&c., we take a common drawing-board, about the size of the intended
model, and upon it strain as for a drawing that size, a piece of drawing
cartridge, say an inch and a half wider all round than the intended
model is to be. Upon this, when dry, draw an _outline plan_ of the
intended building, not putting in any internal walls, for these will not
be required as this is only to form lines whereon to erect the intended
building. To make it more readily to be understood we have given a
sketch of the outline plan on page 45.






This being completed, we have now the edifice, as it were, set out. The
next matter for consideration is the thickness of the walls; that is,
the requisite thickness of paper we shall require. Suppose we take, as
in the plan given, the outside reveal or recess back of the window
frame, at four inches and a half; this would require four sheets of
paper, but as it is always better to exaggerate slightly in modelling
both projections and recesses, place six or even seven sheets together;
paste them together in twos, putting them as pasted under the press, and
afterwards, when nearly dry, paste them the full thickness required and
subject them once more to the action of the press. The most convenient
size of paper to work at for an ordinary-sized model will be made by
doubling a sheet of the paper as first procured into four. On the paper
becoming perfectly dry, the student must carefully draw each elevation
of the building the full height from the ground line to the top of the
blocking, being particular that every line both perpendicular and
horizontal is perfectly true and square, and marking along faintly the
lines for the cornice, strings, &c., &c., that may occur. This being
done and the whole drawn in, of course not drawing in the window frames
but merely the outline of the square of the window, the side will
present the appearance shown in the accompanying elevation, and which is
merely sketched and not drawn to any scale.


  A Lines for cornice.      B Lines of upper string.      C Ditto lower
    cornice.      D Ditto Plinth.





The four or more elevations having been drawn, proceed to cut out all
windows, doors, and other openings cleanly and accurately. The windows
and their frames must now be made and gummed at the back of the several
openings; where panels occur paper of the same tint must be used,
sometimes the pieces cut from the windows will form very good backing
for such parts. For the window frames take some large-sized cream laid
paper, and colour it to the tint you wish your frames to be. Should a
representation of oak be preferred, it may be imitated successfully
thus: First paint your paper yellow, gamboge and a little burnt sienna
will do, and then prepare a thick colour with Chinese white and burnt
sienna; when the first colour is dry lay this last-mentioned on, and
before _it_ has time to dry grain it by means of a fine comb; a small
tooth comb will answer best for this purpose, and if skilfully performed
a most admirable imitation will be the result. Three or four thicknesses
of paper (cream laid or other white paper) must then be pasted together,
with the oak-coloured one upon the top, and submitted to the action of
the press.

This paper being ready for use, take one of the pieces cut from the
windows, and mark by it the size of the window-opening, then lightly
draw the frames in and cut them out, if the white paper of the under
sheets should show where cut through sectionally, touch it along with a
little burnt sienna or brown colour. You must now tint another sheet of
the same description of paper blue or neutral, not in an even tint, but
carelessly and artistically leaving bright lights; this when pasted as
for the oak-paper two or three thicknesses, will form the backing to the
frames. Then place the frames face down, on them gummed a sheet of mica;
on that again the blue backing; the whole then to be put in the press,
care being taken not exhibit too much pressure, otherwise you will have
the backing bulge out. It may, perhaps, be thought that these
thicknesses of paper for the frames and backing are unnecessary, and
that one might serve as well; but from experience I can assert, that
unless this method be adopted, that flatness the work should have, will
not be obtained. It may also be as well here to caution the reader
against pressing with too great a degree upon the cardboard when it is
under the action of the press. If too great a pressure is given, the
cardboard will become so hard as to resist all efforts of the knife to
cut through it. The paper usually presses to a little less than an inch,
to a scale of one-eighth of an inch to the foot; so that six thicknesses
or sheets of paper will answer for four and a half of brickwork or
stonework. The doors will be formed first from two thicknesses[1] and
backed with the same. This is for plainest description, but if mouldings
are inserted in the panels, adopt the following:—

Footnote 1:

  One thickness, two thicknesses, three thicknesses, and so forth, will
  be used throughout, to express the number of sheets to be pasted


  DETAILS No. 1.




First draw the door with the extreme size of the opening of each panel,
on a two-thickness sheet; on another two-thickness sheet, draw the same
panels a size smaller; on a third two-thickness sheet, draw them a size
smaller still; these being cut out and placed behind one another, and
finally the backing; will admirably represent mouldings: by producing
three separate lines round the inside of each panel. For work to ⅛ scale
no further trouble will be necessary; but if larger, the mouldings must
be formed before the door is gummed together, as hereafter described for
the formation of mouldings in general. The doors, windows, and backs to
all openings are now ready, but cannot be yet fixed till all the
necessary mitreing is completed, which mitres will be wherever an
outside angle occurs thus, fig. 1. (See page 53, figs. 1 and 2.)


  Fig. 1.



  Fig. 2.


In the inner angle (see fig. 2) no mitre is required; the end of one
piece being cut square, they may be made to overlap one another. Lay the
piece, whatever it may be you wish to mitre, face down upon the
cutting-board; and then at a distance (equal to the whole thickness of
the cardboard) from the edge draw a line; and at a short distance back
from this line sufficient to let the point of the knife touch it when
held slanting to the required angle, fix the adjusting straight-edge
previously described; screw firmly upon it, and cut through the paper at
an angle of 45°, which will, of course, be by cutting from the line on
the top side of the paper, A, to the extreme edge of the underside, B
(see illustration page 55), which represents the side of a building, and
the piece may be seen curling up as cut from the mitre. Great steadiness
of hand, and a few trials on waste cardboard are necessary before the
operator will perform this skilfully. The straight-edge holding the
paper firmly, it may be cut through at two or three strokes, observing
to hold the knife always at the same angle. All mitreing work finished,
affix the windows at the back, placing the whole under a slight
pressure.[2] Then the model must be blocked up. First cut a number of
squares, all sizes, from waste or other cardboard; let them be perfectly
square; cut these diagonally, and they will form the blocks to hold the
work together at the angles. Now take any two sides that are to be
joined at the mitred angle, and fix them accurately together with gum
pretty thick, so that it may dry while you hold each side in its place.
When set, lay them down and work the others in a similar manner. Take
now the outline plan, and having previously numbered the sides to
correspond with the plan, fix them (by touching slightly their under
edge with gum) to it, and when all are in their places fix, at a
distance apart of an inch and half or so, above one another the
previously described blocking pieces with gum not so thick in
consistency. To make our meaning perfectly plain, we annex an engraving
of the appearance of an internal angle when at this stage of the
proceedings. A piece of wood (deal) about ½ inch thick, should now be
attached to the model from one side to the other (see page 57). This is
for the purpose of fastening the model, when completed, to its stand; it
may be blocked with waste pieces, such as the cuttings from doors,
windows, &c., and gummed firmly. Pieces or strips of cardboard should
also be gummed along in the inside, at the level of the intended gutters
of the house, to rest the roof upon. All portions of the work completed,
we will now assume, are fitted together and in their places. The student
will now be able to form some idea of the general effect his work will
have when finished; but there is yet more—much more—to be done, and work
requiring a still further amount of skill, practice, and patience.

Footnote 2:

  As there are many little matters during the progress of a model
  requiring a slight pressure, a pressure sufficient to hold the pieces
  in their several places till dry, I have found weights answer very
  well. I have pieces of square lead from one pound upwards covered with
  paper; and by covering, the humble brick may be usefully pressed into
  this service.






  A A Cardboard angle stays.      B B B B B Wood stay by which the model
    is affixed to its stand by a screw passing through at C C.
    D E F G Sides of model.

The two principal elevations are given to the same scale as the plan
(page 41); but in order to insure our being understood, the principal
portions of the details are given to a larger scale.

The cornice next demands our attention, a detail of which is given on
page 61, fig. 1, and in order to model which we proceed thus, the
numbers indicating the various pieces of which it is composed. No. 2 is
a piece worked of the required thickness demanded by the depth of the
cornice from A to B, and the necessary projection, in a sufficient
series of lengths to go entirely round the building. Now, as this is to
be cut through the several thicknesses of paper required, a method must
be found out to hide the different layers that would consequently be
exposed to view; this is by cutting from one or two thicknesses a piece
the whole length of the cornice, forming a facia, 8, and coming slightly
below the depth of the other under piece to 4; thus, while at the same
time it hides the layers of paper, it forms the bed of the cornice.

The next members, Nos. 1, 3, 5, and 7, are formed, first by preparing
the size and length on the square; secondly, by cutting off at any angle
necessary to get as near to the mould as possible; and, lastly, forming
the mould itself.

The manner of moulding being applicable to every description of either
Italian or Gothic pattern, we proceed to describe it.

Procure from the comb-manufacturers some pieces of _ivory_ of various
sizes, and with different files, some round, some square, &c., file on
one end of a square piece the _reverse_ of the mould you require; smooth
it well; and for greater power and convenience, fix it in a handle of


  DETAILS No. 2.

  1 Elevation and section of main cornice.      2 Elevation of window.
        2_a_ A detail of section through window.      3 Architrave
    mould.      5 Elevation of small window.      5_a_ Section of small
    window.      6 Elevation of quoins.      7 Section and elevation of
    tower cornice.



  A, Handle with socket to secure the moulding tool (1).      B,
    Thumb-screw.      1, 2, 3, Moulding tools.

Nos. 1, 2, 3, &c., &c., will be found generally available and useful in
the formation of all kinds of mouldings, besides numbers of other shapes
that will occur to the artist. The method of using the instrument is by
indenting the pattern along the edge of the cardboard, guided by means
of the straight-edge. The sharp arris left from the file upon the edge
of the ivory mould, had better be slightly taken off, to prevent the
paper being torn in its passage.

The circular pediment over windows (fig. 2, page 61) must be modelled on
the flat, and the moulding returned at the ends. When each member is
finished, they must be gummed up and bent to the required curve, over a
circle of cardboard or a cylinder of wood, separately. The panels that
occur form thus: Cut as before directed for doors, the extreme size of
the opening, and at the back place the successive sizes and thicknesses
to form the mouldings, indented into hollows or worked to rounds, &c.,
&c., by means of one or more of the moulding tools; to be backed last of

Commence the preparation of the quoins (fig. 6, p. 61) by cutting pieces
the required thickness and width of both long and short quoins, and in
long strips, with the _height_ of each one marked up its length
previously by the dividers.[3] Cut first the requisite splay at the edge
of the quoin, along the whole length both sides. Cut where marked for
height, and splay top and bottom. They are then finished, and may be at
once fastened to the work.

Footnote 3:

  The small hair dividers, with the adjusting screw, will be found
  extremely useful in modelling work.



  K Keystone.      R Radius.      H L Horizontal line.

The circular architraves must be formed by cutting, with the little
instrument previously described as a knife-compass (page 36), circles of
different diameters and thicknesses of paper suited to the mould to be
represented; gum together while in the circle, as shown below, the
horizontal divisional line being marked, and the radiating lines for the
insertion of the keystones. When dry cut off by the divisional line, and
then the segments, by the lines at each side of the keystone. The key
must be of paper sufficiently thick to allow of the highest mould of the
architrave abutting against it, and either left plain, cut diamond-wise,
or carved, or any other way the fancy may suggest or the design demand.

The cantalivers in tower (fig. 7, page 61) and main cornices (fig. 1,
page 61) to be worked by preparing paper the required thickness; then
procuring a piece of very thin copper or lead, mark on it with
considerable accuracy the design of the cantaliver, and cut it out; you
will thus have prepared a mould or templet, which you can place upon the
cardboard, and by running a hard pencil round it, mark each one
precisely the same in size.

Any portions of the dressings, &c., having curves in them, had better be
cut with knife No. 3[4]; in fact, this is the only shape of blade which
will leave the edge of a curved line after cutting, what is technically
called “sweet.”

Footnote 4:

  In using this knife, care must be taken to hold it perfectly upright,
  nor lean it either to right or left.

The positions the cantalivers have to occupy along the cornice, must be
checked along and regularly divided. Care must also be taken in gumming
them in their places, as one out of place or leaning would immediately
be detected by a correct eye, and mar completely the effect of the

The architrave mould (fig. 3, page 61) next demands our attention. It
will from our former description be readily understood that all
mouldings are formed by representing in paper of various thicknesses
their several component parts. Thus, in the mould last named, we have
first the groundwork of or thickness from A to B; another thickness,
forming the sinking, from C to D; and finally, the mould, E to F. Square
first, the required slant next cut from the edge, and lastly, the slant
hollowed by means of one of the ivory moulding tools. The keystones and
the blocks under the window sills are cut from paper the thickness
required, then splayed down each way from the centre to the sides at
_one_ cut, and with a sharp knife. This operation must be performed with
some dexterity, as it is important that the edges should be sharp and
free from woolliness. This effect can only be obtained by giving one cut
or slice in the direction required: for this purpose use knife No. 1,
which will be found the best for this description of work. Some
modellers use for this purpose a thin chisel with a keen edge; and of
course all means in art are legitimate that produce the desired end; but
we would recommend the use of the knife only, wherever possible, the
modeller’s object being to work with as few tools as possible, and to
trust much to his knife alone.






We have, in describing the method of working several important details
connected with the building, and illustrated on page 61, been, we fear,
somewhat premature, and have not sufficiently urged upon the student the
necessity of preparing his groundwork for these details in a perfectly
accurate manner. For, as it is well known, no colouring, however fine,
will in a picture make up for bad and incorrect drawing, so in a model,
walls out of square or windows and other apertures ill-cut will not
present the wished-for appearance, though all the details be most
skilfully and beautifully modelled. Draw in all doors, windows, &c.,
&c., with a very hard pencil, in order that the lines may be as fine as
possible, and cut them out with knife No. 1, or No. 2, whichever may be
considered most suitable to the size of opening it is required to cut;
the knife No. 3, as before observed, being used exclusively for curved
and circular work. In cutting out the windows, hold your knife perfectly
upright; and, as you arrive at the end of the cut, let the _edge_ of the
blade be perpendicular, thus avoiding cutting past the line. In cutting
through thick, or indeed even through one thickness of paper, do not be
too anxious to sever the piece with one cut, as this way of proceeding
is almost sure to cause unevenness of line. But commence by _drawing_ a
line, as it were, in the required direction; that the rule may guide it
accurately, press but slightly at first; and as the track of the knife
gets deeper, exert more pressure. Simple as this direction may appear,
it is nevertheless of the utmost practical utility, as will readily be
found upon trial, as it is only by these means that the paper will be
left at the edge clean, sharp, and even.



The next object we would call attention to is the Greenhouse, page 73,
and state that there are two ways of modelling this very general
appendage to a modern mansion. The first and the simplest method is to
form the backing of blue paper behind the mica. The other, by doing away
with the blue backing, and allowing the mica to remain transparent. The
former method saves some amount of labour; but the latter being in our
opinion the best and most artistic method, we shall proceed to describe
it: First form the pilasters (you will require double the number than
for the opaque backing), and cut them in their length from A to B (see
elevation, page 73), from the commencement of the base mouldings to the
underside of those of the cap. The way of proceeding in modelling cap
and base will be readily understood from the accompanying sketch, where
it will at once be seen better than we can describe. The best way to cut
them is as if they were a window or opening, cutting the piece out of
the centre at A, after having moulded the edge all round. Then dividing
them into two along the line D L as below, fix them in their respective
places. The angle ones must be double, to avoid having to mitre them. A
piece of mica or thin glass cut to the size of the one side is now
taken, and the pilasters and other portions, divisional bars, &c., are
gummed to it, on both sides; and when with the end it is finished, let
it occupy its intended position on the outline plan.


  D L Divisional line.

Now proceed to the roof, to be constructed really of iron and glass, to
be modelled of paper and mica: First, bend round a paper or other
cylinder the piece of mica for the roof, and proceed to cut a number of
strips of cardboard for the ribs, which may be coloured any suitable



  Scale      ¼ inch one foot.

These are then to be affixed in their places, as shown upon the drawing,
some in thicker, others in thinner paper. A ledge of cardboard must be
left at the back of the blocking, and also on the same level against the
side of the house; this will be for the purpose of resting the roof
upon.[5] The cornice will be constructed in the manner described for the
others; the pieces on the frieze C, C, C (page 73) will be placed on the
required thickness for the return, but the return of the cornice must be
cut in it. The plinth must now be moulded, cut, and fixed; and the whole
is complete.

Footnote 5:

  This description is for a circular roof; that, however, in the
  engraving represents a flat hipped roof. The method of proceeding is
  the same, except that for the latter no cylinder is required.

Chimneys, those great ornaments to a house, at least they should be
rendered so, but, alas! for the taste of some of our modern architects,
are far more frequently the reverse, and what in able hands and with
judicious treatment would prove a crowning feature and a material
assistance to the design, becomes a glaring error and ruins the whole.
So much for the architect: but should he fortunately possess the ability
and taste to produce those necessaries to our comfort, with equal credit
to himself and benefit to the design, how often do we see his work
marred by the introduction of Messrs. Somebody’s patent never-failing
revolving smoke preventer; a hideous monster of some seven feet high,
whirling and screeching upon the slightest appearance of wind. As our
little Handbook has its mission to instruct in the Art of Modelling an
architect’s production, and as smoke-jacks are but little indebted to
him for their uneasy existence, we beg to apologise for this digression,
and resume our original topic. Details of the chimneys will be found
upon page 81 and 83; for the body of the chimney use two thicknesses,
and it will not be found necessary to mitre the join; for, if even
ordinary care be taken, the union will be scarcely perceptible, while
the labour will be considerably diminished. Form any strings, cornices,
&c., &c., that occur, by cutting the piece flat, and then cutting the
square out of the middle to admit of the shaft, slip it over the shaft
or body of the chimney, till it arrives at the position required by the
design, where it is at once to be secured in its place. Perhaps our
meaning may be rendered clearer by the accompanying illustration. A
represents the cornice prepared in the manner described, and only
requiring to be fixed in its place. B, the shaft or body of the chimney
over which the cornice is to be slipped till it arrives at the dotted
lines; the chimneys may be fixed to the roof (shortly to be described)
in the following manner: Should the chimney come on the roof lower down
than the ridge, the bottom of the shaft will have to be cut to the angle
required by the rake of the roof only; but should the chimney be cut
into by the ridge, then the angle will follow that of the roof on both
sides, diverging from the apex. For illustration of this we give the
annexed sketches, page 83.





A represents a chimney, the base of which is cut simply _one way_, to
suit the slope of the roof. B, a chimney into which the ridge cuts, and
the angle cut both ways from the apex. It will, as a general rule, be
found better to put chimneys together with thin paper, even in the
smallest models, a squareness being thus produced not to be obtained
otherwise. The base to be formed out of thickness equal to the
projection, and treated in (as regards fitting it to the roof) a similar
manner to the shaft, so that if the rake of shaft had chanced not to
have been truly cut, there is no need to throw it away, as it could
easily be blocked under with small pieces till straight, the base hiding
all defects underneath. The method of working the strings, cornices,
&c., has already been fully described in those for the tower and main
building. Figs. 1 and 7, page 61.

Our model now draws near to its completion. We had arrived at a stage
ready for the roof, but stopped for the preparation of the chimneys, in
order that when the roof was completed, they might be at once fixed in
their respective places. The roof may be either scored, or gauged with
paper strips overlapped. The groundwork for either method will be
prepared in the same manner. First cut, as if for a lid or top to fit
the inside of the model, a strong piece of cardboard; let it be just so
that it will slip into its place between the walls, but be prevented
slipping down by the strips or ledge on the level of the gutter, as
described for Greenhouse, page 73.


  DETAILS No. 4.

  Fig. 1.


  Fig. 2.

  B Bottom piece.      C Cornice.      L Ledge.      S S S Slates.
    T Top piece.      W Wall.
  The cross hatching shows the number of separate pieces the cornice is
    composed of.


  Fig. 3.


Sections must now be taken in various parts, through the roof, to
ascertain the length of the respective sides. Thus if the angle A B C
(see fig. 1, page 85) represents the rake of the roof, the length of the
side will be found from A to B and B to C. The sides thus formed must be
splayed to fit at the valleys, apex, &c., and at the base splayed and
fixed to the top piece on which the roof plan has been drawn, observing
to leave space enough all round for the gutter. If the pieces on which
the sections have been drawn are cut out, they will answer for internal
stays to the roof.

The roof plan is given upon page 85, fig. 3, as also an outline section
for the finishing of the roof, fig. 2, page 85; it will explain itself.
The lead flat will be formed by the bottom piece, but it must be covered
by a paper resembling in tint that of the lead itself. When the
groundwork of the roof is completed, it must be covered in imitation of
slates by one or other of the previously-mentioned methods. We will,
however, describe both, leaving the reader to use his own judgment as to
which he may adopt, our preference being for the strips of overlapping
paper. In the simple scoring, proceed to cut out of the slate tinted
paper pieces accurately fitting to the groundwork of the roof, then with
the knife handle score these sides along, as you would ink in the roof
lines in a drawing, closer at the ridge, becoming wider at the base, and
parallel to each other. The latter by cutting layers of paper, gauged
decreasing in size as before directed, fixing them to the groundwork of
the roof beginning at the base, and overlapping them about 1/16th of an
inch; after all, submitting to the press. The roof assumed to be
finished, affix the chimneys, generally make good all imperfections,
&c., and the model is ready for removal to its final destination; cut
therefore the paper it was built upon from the board, and also tear from
the bottom edges the paper that may have adhered to it, holding it by
the wood stay.

Prepare a piece of dry wood about two or three inches wider all round
than the building itself, cover it with cloth or velvet, the latter
preferable, the best colour green, and cut a small groove out of the
upper edge; this is to receive the glass shade, which construct thus:
procure five pieces of glass, the sizes rendered necessary by your stand
to form a square or oblong shade, and fasten all together by means of
strips of thin paper and gum (the dull gold paper to be procured in
sheets at any of the artists’ repositories will look best) at their
edges. The model must now be secured to the stand, for which purpose the
piece of wood mentioned at page 56 was inserted, a hole is drilled
through the bottom of the stand, and a screw passed through it into the
wood stay. Do not screw the model down too tightly upon the stand, or
you may force away the stay from its fastenings and destroy your work.

We have now described all the necessary materials and manipulations to
complete in every respect a model similar to the mansion given in the
illustrations, and which, though containing the general detail of a
building of that description, was wanting in numerous varieties of
detail that will occur in many other buildings of the same class more
ornate and considerably more elaborate in design than our example.

While all our attention is being turned towards Italian architecture,
Gothic must not be forgotten, and though the general method of procedure
is the same for both, yet there are numerous things which exist only in
the latter style, and in consequence demand separate instructions. In
order, therefore, that nothing shall escape being described in the
various styles, that the student may have nothing to retard his
operations, we append the methods of working the various details in the
form of an illustrated glossary, the alphabetical arrangement of which
will, we think, enable the student more readily and quickly to find the
particular information he may require.

                                PART IV.

We have, as yet, proposed to finish the model in the plainest and most
simple way, completely unaided and unadorned by the adjuncts of gardens
or trees. And yet, that models are frequently considerably improved in
appearance by these imitations of natural objects, when taste and skill
go hand in hand, will be admitted by all, but we often see them
completely spoiled by such additions. It is indeed somewhat difficult to
say how far we may venture with propriety upon this path, and where to
draw the line requires some tact; we will not, therefore, lay down any
rule absolutely as to how far the laying out of grounds and the
modelling of the trees, &c., may be admissible, only giving some
instructions for modelling the objects themselves. And though the
grounds are laid out, the picturesque undulations of the surface, the
ponds, flower-beds, arcades, terraces, lawns, shrubs, and trees,
faithfully represented, let it not for one moment be supposed that by so
doing we render what was before a work of art, a mere toy. Far from it.
We do not wish the reader, when he thinks of a model, to remember those
of York Minster, or Strasbourg Cathedral, and which, borne aloft upon
the shoulders of some wandering Italian, tempt the vulgar by the rich
colours of the stained glass inserted in their chalk sides, and
brilliantly illuminated by the light of a farthing candle placed within;
or of the grounds, as bearing any resemblance to those interesting toys
representing a “_castle in cork_,” about an inch high, whose clinging
ivy is represented by one of the largest species of moss, and in whose
luxurious gardens bloom roses two inches in diameter, roses which should
have decked some matron’s cap, but which for the nonce were pressed into
this more noble service. But, to proceed. Balusters of grotesque,
Elizabethan, or other patterns, when cut out of the solid stone, must be
made by gumming the paper in different thicknesses, till that required
is obtained, carefully drawing the pattern, and then cutting out with
knife No. 3. Turned work, as circular pedestals for statues, sundials,
gate-piers, balusters, &c., cannot be successfully imitated in paper,
but are better turned in wood of some light colour, and then tinted with
body colour to the required shade; all work of the same description that
is _square_ may be constructed in exactly the same manner as before
described for chimney-stacks. For a representation of lawns and grassy
slopes, meadow, &c., we may take white velvet, and tint it to any
required shade, or use cloth which can be obtained any shade of green,
or even flock paper may be procured, which, when cleverly laid on the
work, gives an excellent imitation of grass; but of all these methods,
velvet tinted will be found the most effective and best. Water,
represent with looking-glass, or with mica, to the back of which is
gummed paper of suitable tint for the situation of the water. For rocks,
grottoes, &c., take stout white paper, and thoroughly soak it in water
until it is rendered quite pliable, and then with the fingers, pieces of
wood, or any thing that may suggest itself as being useful, mould or
model it to the required shapes fancy or skill may suggest, and
afterwards tint it to resemble nature. An effect better still may be
obtained by gumming it, when perfectly dry, with thick gum, and then
dusting or sprinkling it with fine sand, which may be procured of
various shades. This method adopt also for walks, carriage-drives, or
any place where a representation of road, or gravel, may be required.
Cut out your flower-beds in thin cork, and then burn the upper surface;
this will give the appearance of rich mould, or earth, and also serve as
a good groundwork to stick the shrubs and flowers into. In your trees,
rather aim at a general or suggestive effect, than at much minutiæ of
detail; procure pieces of twigs, and shape them for the trunks and
branches, and then gum on them the smallest-leaved moss, in good outline
to represent nature; this moss will, when perfectly dried, bear tinting
well. Flower-patches, the same moss with a bit of bright scarlet, or
other paper, here and there gummed among it.

We have now given sufficient general instructions to enable the student
to proceed with this branch, should his fancy lead him; and with these
suggestions, and his own practice, he may in a short time be enabled to
imitate successfully the quaint gardens of the Elizabethan period, or
the more natural taste evinced in the landscape gardening of our own

            ... “Does airy fancy cheat
            My mind well pleased with the deceit?
            I seem to hear, I seem to move,
            And wander through the happy grove,
            Where smooth springs flow, and murmuring breeze
            Wantons through the waving trees.”


                                PART V.

                               A GLOSSARY



ARCH.—As a general rule, every description of arch may be successfully
modelled by means of the knife-compass; each separate moulding that
occurs must consist of separate pieces of paper, the edge of which has
been moulded by one or other of the means described, and these layers
gummed over one another when finished. To make our meaning clearer, in
fig. 1 next page, a section of a cornice is given, as illustrating the
method to be adopted for arches. It will here be seen that it is
composed of six separate pieces, or, more properly speaking,
thicknesses, for each portion will be made of the number of thicknesses
required by its depth; No. 1, the fillet, square, No. 2, the cyma recta,
first splay, as shown by the dotted line; and then press with the
moulding tool to the required shape, and thus proceed with all the other

This cornice is not drawn to any scale.


  Fig. 1.

  No. 1 Fillet.      No. 2 Cyma recta.      No. 3 Fillet.      No. 4
    Casetto.      No. 5 Facia.      No. 6 Continuation of facia.
    No. 7 Bed mould.

Where deep hollows occur, as in Gothic mouldings, a different method
must be adopted, see fig. 2, the moulding for a Gothic window jamb; here
the deep hollows are constructed by bending thin paper to the required
curve, and gumming it in the right angles, or other angles required. A
and B represent the outside walls of the work, and C C C C the various
angles required by the mouldings. As will be seen, the other mouldings
are formed on the ends of angle-pieces, in the same manner as adopted
for the cornice.


  Fig. 2.

ARCHITRAVE.—In forming these, the same method may be adopted as for
cornices, cutting the mouldings separately, and laying them one over the
other in the order in which they come. Circular architraves are easily
and beautifully cut with the knife-compass.

ACANTHUS.—The method of modelling the leaves of this plant, so much used
in ornamentation, will be afterwards described under the general head of

ASHLAR.—In representing work of two kinds, namely, quoins of dressed
work, and filling in of random tooled ashlar:—Draw the quoins in with a
H H H pencil, score in the ashlar, and tint as may be desired.



ASTRAGAL.—First cut your paper square, thus—███; next bevel the edge
thus )██), and then, with one of the hollow ivory moulding tools run
along the edge by pressure, give the intended round.

ACROTERIA.—May be modelled in exactly the same manner as previously
described for chimney shafts (see page 80, _ante_).


BARGE BOARD.—First determine on the thickness your board is to be, and
then let the paper for it be pressed closer together than that used for
ordinary work; carefully draw the pattern, and cut out with knife No. 3,
splaying the tracery with knives Nos. 1 and 2, and smoothing with an
ivory or agate burnisher.



BUTTRESS.—If they are to a large scale, say quarter-inch, one foot, they
are best boxed out; the angles carefully and accurately mitred. Less
scale, they may be boxed out of double thickness, as described for
chimney shafts; or, if very small size, they may be cut from the solid.





BALUSTRADE.—Model the capping as described for cornices, with the
exception, this will be worked upon both faces.

BLOCKING.—To a cornice. This, if large, is best constructed by being
boxed out. If small in size, cut them out of the solid.

BRACKET.—Brackets in Gothic work are to be constructed in layers, in a
similar manner as described for cornices; other brackets may be cut from
the solid paper, first by making a pattern, or template, in thin tea
lead, or sheet copper, and marking round the edge upon the paper,
uniformity of size being thus ensured.


CORNICES.—The construction of cornices is fully described in that of the
House, illustrated, and also under the head of Arch, where a cornice is
described as illustrating the formation of moulded arches.

COINS, or QUOINS; see those described for House, page 64, _ante_; also

COPING.—If the coping be small scale, cut from the solid by the
adjusting straight-edge; otherwise they are better boxed out.

CRESTING.—Proceed in much the same manner as described for barge boards;
use a template to save trouble in pencilling out, and cut with knife No.
3; three thicknesses are ample for eighth scale work.

CUSPS.—See description of Tracery; window-cusps being circular work, No.
3 knife must be used.

CORBEL.—Refer to Cantilevers in House Tower Cornice, the method of
modelling being the same, except such as are composed of a series of
horizontal mouldings, in which case proceed as for cornices.

CONSOLE.—The console given for example is composed vertically of five
separate pieces; horizontally of two, each separate part receiving its
proper form, and when completed, gummed together.


CAPITAL, CORINTHIAN.—We choose for illustrating the method adopted for
modelling capitals, a Corinthian one, as most useful for our purpose.
The example given is from the Temple of Vesta, at Tivoli, a beautiful
and peculiar example, to model which proceed thus


  A A A Flowers in the abacus.      1 2 3 Abacus.      B B Volutes.
    C C Caulicoles.      C* Bell.      1 2 3 Astragal.      D D D

Compose the abacus of three layers, 1, ovolo, 2, fillet, 3, cyma; then
the bell of the capital must be turned out of some close-grained wood,
and attached to the astragal, composed of three pieces, 1, fillet, 2,
astragal, 3, fillet. The leaves are then to be modelled, as described
under the head of ornaments, also the flower in the abacus; the volutes
and caulicoles in a similar manner to that described for consoles. When
all are prepared, they must be fixed most accurately in their places.
The bell of the capital must be tinted previously, to resemble in colour
the rest of the work.


COLUMN, CIRCULAR.—This description of columns must be formed out of very
thin paper, rolled as close as possible to the required lengths and
diameters, thinning the paper at the extreme edge with a very sharp
knife to conceal the join. If the columns are too small to be cleverly
rolled, they may be turned as described for balusters; should the
columns (as in classic work,) diminish, then procure a wood core to roll
the paper round, and when the paper is gummed and dry, withdraw the
core. It will now be obvious that combinations of various descriptions
occurring so frequently in Gothic work, may easily be represented as
this column in plan, being nothing more than four rolls joined together.
If the columns are too small for paper, turn shafts, bases, and caps at
once; by this means much unnecessary trouble will be saved, and a
superior effect produced.


DENTILS.—Model dentils in the same manner as previously described for
brackets, cantilevers, &c.

DOME.—Whatever the shape of the dome you wish to model may be, a pattern
on which to form it had best be turned in wood; this forms a basis upon
which the paper casing may remain until dry, and then the mould may be
removed. It has not been thought necessary within the limits of this
work to include the development of the various shapes of domes and
cupolas, the student being deemed master of this branch of science. If,
however, he should not be, any work on practical geometry will supply
his wants.

DOORS.—A copious description of the manner of modelling doors is given
in those described for the House, page 51, _ante_.


FLUTES.—In order to flute a column, we proceed thus: first roll the
column up as before described, taking care to have it smaller than if
plain, to allow the fluted piece to make up the required diameter; then
prepare a piece of paper (one thickness will do), cut it of sufficient
size to go once round the column, and join exactly; upon this piece
carefully space or mark out the divisions of the flutings. Now procure a
piece of soft straight-grained _deal_, perfectly free from knots, and
with some blunt, round-headed instrument (one of the modelling tools, or
a piece of ivory filed smooth,) indent the wood with a groove the exact
length of the required flute, upon which (the paper having been
previously _damped_ only), press it into the wood groove all along the
flute with the same tool the groove was made with, and so proceed with
each in succession, gumming them to the column when dry.


HOLLOWS.—In forming hollows in mouldings, &c., if large, proceed as
described under the head of Arch; if small, first cut by means of the
“adjusting straight-edge,” an angle, thus, =V=; and then with a curved
ivory tool give it the required concavity by pressure along the whole
length of the previously cut angle.

HOOD MOULD.—These may be cut with the “knife-compass,” and the mouldings
worked by fitting a piece of ivory filed to the required form in lieu of
the knife; they must be slightly gummed upon the underside to the
cutting-board, to keep them steady while being worked.


IRONWORK.—May be represented in either paper, tea-lead, thin sheet
copper, or wire, depending on size and form; perhaps the easiest and
best material for general purposes is tea-lead, _i. e._, the lead with
which the tea chests are lined.


ORNAMENTS.—Under this head is included every description of foliage,
leaves, &c. All the leaves, &c., must be carefully drawn and cut out,
and then indented on either side, as concavity or convexity is desired,
in a similar manner to the operation of fluting a column, with the
different _ivory_ modelling tools on a piece of soft yielding deal.
Bosses, crocketts, finials, festoons, wreaths, in short every
description of foliage, and even sculpture in bas-relief, may be
beautifully modelled by these simple means.


TRACERY WINDOW.—The general method of modelling windows of this
description is very simple, but the practice difficult. First, paper
upon which you intend to cut out any tracery, must be _pressed_ closer
together than that used for ordinary work, so as to afford more
assistance to the knife when cutting on the splay. Having drawn the
design of your window, proceed to cut out all the interstices with knife
No. 3; then splay down from the nosing with knives Nos. 1 and 2, as each
may be found useful, cutting through with one stroke, or rather with a
succession of short strokes right through on the slant, boldly and
without leaving a jagged edge; afterwards smooth your work with ivory or
agate. You had better place the pieces that came from between the
mullions while cutting the splay, in their places again between the
mullions, to offer resistance to the knife and prevent them bending. The
eyes may be successfully formed by packing-needles of diamond shape,
fixed in a handle.

                          END OF THE GLOSSARY.

                             TO THE READER.

It will have afforded the Author sincere gratification if the contents
of this little work have found favour in the eyes of the Reader, and
have been a ready help to him in his efforts in Architectural Modelling.
Next to the pleasure of learning, is that of imparting knowledge. The
Author has endeavoured, to the best of his ability, to render all his
instructions clear and practical, at the same time divesting them of all
unnecessary technicalities, and rendering them as terse as possible.




                          TRANSCRIBER’S NOTES

 1. Item number 4 was not included in the caption on p. 61.
 2. Silently corrected typographical errors.
 3. Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.
 4. Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.
 5. Enclosed bold font in =equals=.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Art of Architectural Modelling in Paper" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.