Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: A Complete History of Music - for Schools, Clubs, and Private Readings
Author: Baltzell, W. J. (Winton James)
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Complete History of Music - for Schools, Clubs, and Private Readings" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



                               A COMPLETE
                            HISTORY OF MUSIC

                FOR SCHOOLS, CLUBS, AND PRIVATE READING

                           By W. J. BALTZELL

                            Contributions by

                 H. A. CLARKE, Mus. Doc.; ARTHUR ELSON,
          CLARENCE G. HAMILTON, A.M., EDWARD BURLINGAME HILL,
                A.B., ARTHUR L. JUDSON, FREDERIC S. LAW,
                    AND PRESTON WARE OREM, Mus. Bac.

                            With Portraits,
                      Reproductions of Instruments
                          and Musical Examples

                           PHILADELPHIA, PA.

                            THEODORE PRESSER

                                  1908

                   Copyright, 1905, by THEO. PRESSER.
                       BRITISH COPYRIGHT SECURED.



                                PREFACE.


The plan of arrangement used in this book has in view a combination
of the recitation and lecture systems, and affords an opportunity for
teachers to apply the best principles of both. The paragraph headings
should be thoroughly fixed in mind and close attention should be given
to the words in heavy type and Italics that occur in the body of a
paragraph; together they form a convenient outline for the lesson. The
questions at the end of each lesson are to be used to test the pupils’
mastery of the lesson material; all available works of reference should
be consulted for fuller information than the limited space of one book
will admit of, each member of the class preparing one or more abstracts
to be read before the class. The review outlines and suggestions are
to be used in the same way, special attention being given to written
answers such as would be required in an examination.

With a view of furnishing the reader a considerable amount of material
on the _growth_ of music as an art, biographical sketches have
been made short, especially since so many excellent works of that
description are available at a small price. Emphasis has been laid on
the work of the men who developed music, on the influences which shaped
their careers and the permanent value of their contributions to music.
A clear knowledge of how music reached its present state is not to be
had by studying books, biographical and critical; the _works_ of the
composers must be examined, played and sung, compared, analyzed as to
methods of construction (Form) and expression (Melody, Harmony and
Rhythm), so that the student may appreciate the change from simple,
elementary processes to the free, polyphonic style found in the complex
modern piano and orchestral scores. Reference is made to representative
compositions by classical and modern composers, which are part of the
average teaching repertoire. The works of the earlier composers are
not, however, readily accessible, although good examples of the style
of the 16th and 17th centuries are in the cheap editions of Peters,
Litolff, Augener, Breitkopf and Härtel, and Ricordi.

The plan of this book provides for two lessons a week for thirty weeks.
This will occupy a school year and allow time for quizzes, reviews and
examinations. If more time is available, the work may be divided into
four, five or six terms and stress laid on the study of representative
compositions, the preparation of short papers on the suggested topics,
adding, as a feature to interest friends and music lovers generally,
public programs including music.

Musical clubs will find in this book material for several years’
programs, special attention having been given to the lessons on modern
composers and their music, the suggestions as to class-work applying
with equal force to the study classes of clubs. The individual reader
should follow out the suggested historical and biographical parallels
which help so strongly to fix in the mind the periods in which
composers lived.

of Pennsylvania; Lessons VIII to XIV by Mr. Arthur L. Judson, of
Denison University; Lessons XV and XVI by Mr. Preston Ware Orem, Mus.
Bac., of Philadelphia; Lessons XVII to XIX, XXI to XXIII, XXXVII to
XL by Mr. Frederic S. Law, of Philadelphia; Lessons XXV to XXXIII by
Mr. Clarence G. Hamilton, A. M., of Wellesley College; Lessons XLI to
XLVIII by Mr. Edward Burlingame Hill, A. B., of Boston; Lessons L to
LVI by Mr. Arthur Elson, of Boston.

                                                            W. J. B.

   NOVEMBER 1, 1905.
   SEPTEMBER 1, 1906.



                               CONTENTS.


  PREFACE                                                         v

  INTRODUCTION                                                    17

  LESSON       I. MUSIC OF THE CHINESE, JAPANESE AND HINDOOS      24
  LESSON      II. MUSIC OF THE BABYLONIANS, EGYPTIANS AND HEBREWS 35
  LESSON     III. MUSIC OF THE GREEKS: SCALES                     46
  LESSON      IV. MUSIC OF THE GREEKS (CONCLUDED)                 54
  LESSON       V. ECCLESIASTICAL SYSTEM                           61
  LESSON      VI. NOTATION                                        70
  LESSON     VII. MUSIC OUTSIDE THE CHURCH                        77
  LESSON    VIII. THE CAUSES OF POLYPHONIC DEVELOPMENT
                       AND THE IMPORTANCE OF THE POLYPHONIC ERA   88
  LESSON      IX. THE PARIS SCHOOL                                99
  LESSON       X. THE GALLO-BELGIC SCHOOL                        107

  LESSON      XI. THE ENGLISH SCHOOL                             115
  LESSON     XII. THE SCHOOL OF THE NETHERLANDS                  123
  LESSON    XIII. THE ITALIAN SCHOOL                             131
  LESSON     XIV. PALESTRINA AND HIS INFLUENCE ON THE
                      MUSIC OF THE ITALIAN SCHOOL. THE MADRIGAL  139
  LESSON      XV. MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS                            147
  LESSON     XVI. THE ORGAN, ORGAN PLAYING AND ORGAN MUSIC       156
  LESSON    XVII. THE BEGINNING OF THE OPERA                     171
  LESSON   XVIII. THE ORATORIO. DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERA         179
  LESSON     XIX. ALESSANDRO SCARLATTI AND THE NEAPOLITAN SCHOOL 187
  LESSON      XX. SINGING AND SINGERS                            195

  LESSON     XXI. OPERA IN FRANCE AND ENGLAND                    203
  LESSON    XXII. THE OPERA IN GERMANY. HANDEL AND GLUCK         211
  LESSON   XXIII. MOZART TO ROSSINI                              219
  LESSON    XXIV. THE ORATORIO                                   226
  LESSON     XXV. THE EVOLUTION OF THE PIANOFORTE                236
  LESSON    XXVI. THE EARLY ITALIAN CLAVIER COMPOSERS            246
  LESSON   XXVII. THE EARLY ENGLISH AND FRENCH CLAVIER SCHOOLS   255
  LESSON  XXVIII. THE GERMAN POLYPHONIC CLAVIER SCHOOLS          263
  LESSON    XXIX. THE GERMAN SONATA COMPOSERS TO HAYDN           274
  LESSON     XXX. FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN                             283

  LESSON    XXXI. WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART                        291
  LESSON   XXXII. LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN                           299
  LESSON  XXXIII. BEETHOVEN AND THE SONATA                       307
  LESSON   XXXIV. THE VIOLIN AND ITS MAKERS                      315
  LESSON    XXXV. VIOLIN PLAYING AND VIOLIN MUSIC                322
  LESSON   XXXVI. THE ORCHESTRA AND ABSOLUTE MUSIC               334
  LESSON  XXXVII. THE ROMANTIC OPERA. WEBER, SPOHR, MARSCHNER    345
  LESSON XXXVIII. THE FRENCH SCHOOL OF THE 19TH CENTURY          353
  LESSON   XXXIX. THE ITALIAN SCHOOL OF THE 19TH CENTURY         361
  LESSON      XL. RICHARD WAGNER’S MUSIC DRAMAS. OTHER SCHOOLS   369

  LESSON     XLI. PIANO PLAYING AND COMPOSITION:
                       CLEMENTI TO FIELD                         380
  LESSON    XLII. FRANZ PETER SCHUBERT                           391
  LESSON   XLIII. WEBER. MENDELSSOHN                             397
  LESSON    XLIV. ROBERT SCHUMANN                                407
  LESSON     XLV. FREDERIC CHOPIN                                417
  LESSON    XLVI. FRANZ LISZT                                    425
  LESSON   XLVII. PIANISTS AND TEACHERS SINCE LISZT. I           436
  LESSON  XLVIII. PIANISTS AND TEACHERS SINCE LISZT. II          446
  LESSON    XLIX. THE ART SONG. ORATORIO AFTER MENDELSSOHN       454
  LESSON       L. THE SYMPHONIC POEM IN GERMANY                  463

  LESSON      LI. GERMAN OPERA SINCE WAGNER                      472
  LESSON     LII. OLD AND NEW SCHOOLS IN FRANCE                  481
  LESSON    LIII. MUSICAL REGENERATION IN ITALY                  491
  LESSON     LIV. ENGLAND AND THE NETHERLANDS                    499
  LESSON      LV. NATIONAL SCHOOLS: BOHEMIA AND SCANDINAVIA      507
  LESSON     LVI. THE RUSSIAN SCHOOL                             515
  LESSON    LVII. MUSIC IN THE UNITED STATES                     525
  LESSON   LVIII. AMERICAN COMPOSERS:
                       WORKS IN LARGE INSTRUMENTAL FORMS         535
  LESSON     LIX. AMERICAN COMPOSERS: VOCAL FORMS;
                       PIANO AND ORGAN.—MUSICAL LITERATURE       543
  LESSON      LX. MUSICAL EDUCATION                              552

  INDEX                                                          561



                             INTRODUCTION.


=Purpose of the Study of the History of Music=.—The purpose of the
study of the history of music is to trace the development of the many
phases which make up modern music which we cannot but regard as a great
social force, an intellectual, an uplifting force. If we consider it
from the material side, it is one of magnitude; we need but think of
the money invested in buildings, opera houses, schools, concert halls,
publishing plants, factories, the sums spent on musical instruments,
instruction, concerts, opera, etc., to recognize the commercial
side. When we think of the great army of persons whose livelihood is
conditioned upon musical work, upon the great audiences that support
musical enterprises, we recognize the magnitude of music in a social
sense, and that it offers a large field for study. These conditions,
interesting as they are, represent only phases of musical work, not
Music itself, and serve to show the place which Music occupies in the
life of today. Our investigation is, then, a consideration of the
origin and development of Music, and the means by which it took shape.

=The Place of Intellect in Music=.—When we think of Music we have
in mind an organization of musical sounds into something definite,
something by design, not by chance, the product of the working of
the human mind with musical sounds and their effects upon the human
sensibilities. So long as man accepted the various phenomena of musical
sounds as isolated facts, there could be no art. But when he began
to use them to minister to his pleasure and to study them and their
effects, he began to form an art of music. The story of music is the
record of a series of attempts on the part of man to make artistic
use of the material which the ear accepts as capable of affording
pleasure and as useful in expressing the innermost feelings. The
raw material of music consists of the sounds considered musical, the
human voice, various musical instruments and the use of this material
in such ways as to affect the human sensibilities; that is, to make
an impression upon the hearer which shall coincide with that of the
original maker of the music who gives to his feelings expression in
music. We find in music, as in other branches, that man tries to reduce
phenomena to order and to definite form. The mass of musical material
is vague, incoherent, disorganized. Man seeks to devise ways to use it
intelligibly, and to promote esthetic pleasure. If musical sounds are
to be combined simultaneously or successively, this combination should
be in accordance with design, not haphazard, just as the builder of the
house or the temple puts together his material according to a regular
plan. Those who have been leaders in the Art of Music have labored in
two ways: to _extend_ the limits of expression in music, and to find
the means to _contain_ that expression. At one period stress is laid
on making music expressive, at another on the medium for conveying
expression to others, the latter being comprehended in the term Form.
In connection with this statement, the student will do well to remember
that every period of great intellectual activity, social or political,
reacted upon music and the other arts; to illustrate, we need but refer
to the formal, even artificial character of the music of the period
preceding the French Revolution and the freedom and vigor imparted by
the spirit of Romanticism which followed in the wake of that great
political movement, a difference strikingly illustrated in the music of
Haydn and Beethoven, Clementi and Schumann. There is also a constant
action and reaction of the various racial streams of power such as
the Aryan on the Semitic, East upon the West, Latin upon the Teuton,
Folk-music upon the Scholastic.

=The Principles in Music=.—The leading principles in music are: Rhythm,
Melody, Harmony, Color or Tone Quality, and in the execution of works
of music, Dynamic Contrast, an essential factor in Expression. For
ages after the birth of Music, Rhythm and Melody were the only real
elements, Rhythm being first recognized. The potency of Rhythm, strong
and irresistible in the early days of the race and with primitive man,
is still acknowledged. Music that lacks a clearly-defined rhythm does
not move the masses. Witness martial music, the dance airs and the
“popular song.” All primitive languages were characterized by concise,
figurative and picturesque qualities; they easily changed from the
ordinary into the lofty and the impassioned. Intonation and changing
inflection had much to do with meaning, as is the case with the Chinese
language of today. Historians ascribe the origin of Melody to this
principle of vocal expression. For years prior to the Christian Era,
and long after, Rhythm and Melody were the only accepted elements of
Music, and the art remained in a low grade of development. It was not
until Harmony appeared, clear and unmistakable, that Music was able to
claim a position equal to that accorded to the sister-arts, Poetry,
Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. These principles, Rhythm, Melody
and Harmony, became, when couched in the forms of expression adopted by
the great masters, what we call Modern Music, and the story is one of
a development from extreme simplicity to the complexity illustrated in
modern orchestral scores.

=Means of Expression=.—One more phase must be mentioned here, the means
used to present to others the thoughts or feelings of the composer,
that is, the human voice and its artistic use, instruments of various
kinds, their primitive forms and gradual development, their use singly
and in combination with other instruments. This phase is peculiarly
associated with modern music; for it was not until the art had freed
itself from the fetters imposed by vocal music, that absolute music,
availing itself of perfected instruments, came into its own. From that
time development was unprecedentedly rapid.

=What is to be Brought Forward=.—The history of Music is, then, a
recital of facts bearing upon the development of modern music and
we shall lay stress on such facts as show a permanent impress and a
solid contribution to progress in one or more of the lines marked out:
Form, Expression, Melody, Rhythm, Harmony and Instrumental Color. In
the study of a composer, the facts essential to the history of music
are critical rather than biographical; not a life chronicle so much
as a clear statement of what he specially contributed to forward the
art. To gain an educational value, the facts of the history of music
are to be studied so as to glean from them their significance, and an
understanding of the causes and conditions which made them possible;
then we go on to discern the consequences to which they in turn gave
rise. No man works for himself and out of himself. He builds upon what
others have done, and he builds for others. The student should discern
the lesson in the past, and receive guidance for the future.

=What We Learn from Archæology=.—The history of an art such as Music
must give the historical data in connection with the development of
art and artists, free of all questionable and false features, and
give as trustworthy, as accurate a picture of the various stages as
possible. If we go backward in our research we reach a point at which
ordinary records fail. If we make an inquiry into the beginnings of
music we must have recourse to the findings and interpretations of
Archæology. The results are by no means satisfactory. In all the
digging in the ruins of the once great cities of Egypt, and Western
Asia, and of Greece and Etruria as well, with perhaps one exception,
no music has been brought to light, and but a few instruments, and
these can scarcely be considered perfect. However, the pictorial
representations on tombs, monuments, temples and houses give valuable
aid, enabling scholars to reconstruct the story of music among the
older civilizations. We must not forget, however, that conjecture
plays a more or less prominent part in all the translations of the
old hieroglyphic and cuneiform writings. We have no direct knowledge
of the scales used or how the instruments were played together, what
was the nature of the science and system in use. What we have is mere
inference from the nature of the instruments and the representations
of musicians playing their instruments, together with fragments from
contemporary or later writings.

=What We Learn from Ethnology=.—Another source open to students of the
beginnings of music is the material gathered by Ethnology. Those who
place stress on this means of research lay down the proposition that
the primitive people of the world of today occupy a mental and social
stage similar to that of the primitive races from which the civilized
folk of today have sprung. Therefore, they study the music, the rude
chants, the dances, the instruments, etc., of various primitive tribes,
and then by comparison try to indicate the various stages through which
music came to have the art germ, from which the great product we know
has developed.

=Some Theories=.—We can give in this lesson only a few of the theories
offered by those who have discussed the matter of the origin of music:
The Dance, Poetry and Music form a group which cannot readily be
separated; they are not independent of each other, but most intimately
connected. This view fails to take account of the fact that Music
which is, externally, so closely connected with the Dance and with
Poetry, is, in its essence, absolutely distinct. Schopenhauer, the
philosopher from whom Richard Wagner drew inspiration, holds this view
very strongly. He says: “Music is quite independent of the visible
world, is absolutely ignorant of it, and could exist in a certain way
if there were no world; which cannot be said of the other arts.” The
other arts are essentially imitative and representative; they are
based upon Nature. Some writers, the Frenchman Dubos and the English
philosopher Herbert Spencer among them, claim that Music does represent
Nature. They say that as the painter imitates the forms and colors
he sees in nature, so the musician follows the various modulations
of the voice, finding there the basic conceptions of Rhythm, Melody
and Color. Singing, which Spencer considers the original music, is
the emphasizing and intensifying of the properties of speech. Gurney
says, _per contra_, that “Music creates audible forms, successions
and combinations of tones which have no prototype in Nature and
do not exist outside of Music.” Those who believe that Music is a
separate entity therefore seek to trace it to a completely independent
beginning.[1] Darwin offered another theory as to the way in which man
arrived at Music. His idea is that the faculty of producing musical
tones and rhythm was first acquired by our animal ancestors as a
means of attracting the opposite sex, the faculty being developed and
improved by the process of selection.

=The Conception of Fixed Scales=.—The question is sometimes raised:
How did man reach the conception of fixed scales? Here again opinions
differ. Some consider that the extreme notes were fixed by the average
compass of the human voice in impassioned speech, the interval being
variously divided. Others claim that along with the vocal phase
of music there was an instrumental side, and that the mechanical
conditions in connection with instruments had bearing in the matter
of organizing sounds into a scale; the rude, primitive trumpet of
wood or bark, still found among forest tribes in South America and
Africa, gives a series of harmonic notes. Whistles or flutes made
in prehistoric times with a series of several tones, examples of
combinations of little pipes, such as those known by the name of “Pan’s
Pipes,” also bear on this question. Yet the facts are few and we are
compelled to satisfy ourselves with mere conjecture.


                              REFERENCES.

Tylor.—Anthropology.

Rowbotham.—History of Music.

Smith.—The World’s Earliest Music.

Grosse.—The Beginnings of Art.

Raymond.—The Genesis of Art.

Helmholtz.—The Sensations of Tone.

Parry.—Evolution of the Art of Music.

Bosanquet.—History of Aesthetic.

Knight.—Philosophy of the Beautiful, Part II, Chap. IX.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Why do we consider music a force in civilization?

What do we mean by Expression in music?

The teacher will cite periods when “Expression” was the chief aim, when
Form was.

Cite periods when intense political and intellectual upheaval reacted
on music.

Give examples of the leading principles of Music.

What kind of facts are of importance to the history of Music?

What is the value of Archæology to the history of music?

Why is Ethnology valuable to the history of music?

Give several theories as to the origin of music.

Is the scale used by us the scale of all nations?

In preparing for recitation, students should get an outline of each
lesson by the use of the paragraph headings and then work out the
lesson by the use of the questions that follow. If the reference books
suggested are available, additional reading should be done. A good
plan is for the teacher to assign one or two paragraphs to a pupil and
have the latter bring in such other information of interest as can be
secured. Some questions may be grouped and pupils directed to prepare
a short essay to be read before the class. In regard to dates, the
suggestion is that pupils take turns, lesson by lesson, in presenting
a plan by which to memorize them. When the period is one that can be
related to some well-known event in general history, as the life of
Charlemagne, the Norman Conquest of England, the Crusades, the Wars of
the Roses, discovery of America, invention of printing, etc., it is
well to do so; or make a well-known musician a contemporary of some
artist, statesman, king, scientist, man of letters, etc. The teacher
should be prepared in this manner for each lesson. Events before the
Christian Era may be related to some event or character in Biblical
history.



                               LESSON I.

              MUSIC OF THE CHINESE, JAPANESE AND HINDOOS.


=Sources of Our Knowledge=.—When we study the music of the early period
of the human race, we find no records such as we are storing today in
our libraries. We must depend upon the discoveries of archæologists in
the buried cities of early civilizations. Of contemporaneous books,
properly speaking, tablets of music explaining the construction and
methods of playing the musical instruments then in use we have few;
if they exist they are in dead languages to which scholars are but
slowly finding the key. It is true that some instruments have been
found, but we can have no certainty that they are in perfect condition.
The principal sources of the information we possess have been the
paintings, decorations and sculptures on monuments and on the walls
of buildings and tombs that have been unearthed. Early languages
were largely pictorial, and records kept in this manner furnish us
representations of the religious, martial, and social life of the early
races.

=Countries with a Musical Past=.—The lands that offer the greatest
field for the study of the music of the past are Chaldea or Babylonia
and Egypt. Some of the old Greek cities, as well as cities in the
western part of Asia Minor and Palestine, have been the subject of
explorations. Still another country abounding in interest to the
student of the music of the past is China, living, yet dead! What a
contrast to Chaldea and Egypt! The civilization of the latter is dead;
China, the older, is still living. These races had a common home, yet
the former, having developed a high civilization and fulfilled its
mission, disappeared from the face of the earth, while China, having
also reached a high state of culture, has remained stagnant, all
energies toward a higher level being arrested.

=The Common Home of the Race=.—Scientists place the cradle of the
human race in the high plateau of Asia, extending from Persia eastward
through Thibet and including part of Manchuria. The yellow race,
according to some ethnologists, is the more akin to the primitive
race; the other two, the white and the black, being derived from it
by emigration, change of climate and mode of living. Van Aalst, the
leading writer on Chinese Music, says that “the first invaders of China
were a band of immigrants fighting their way among the aborigines and
supposed to have come from the country south of the Caspian Sea.” It is
outside the province of this work to detail the arguments that serve
to show the connection of the Chinese with the other races mentioned.
Berosus, the old Babylonian historian, writes: “There was originally
in the land of Babylon a multitude of men of foreign race who had
settled in Chaldea.” These men are known in history by the name of
Akkads or Akkadians, “from the northern mountains,” Sumerians, from the
“southern mountains”; that is, the highland ranges lying to the north
and east of the Euphrates Valley. There were two main types among these
tribes: a yellow, black-haired people, and a red type. The records
show that migrations from this central home came about by reason of
famines, plagues or floods. When did the black-haired, yellow people
swarm off? When did the “red” people, from which Egyptian tradition
claimed ancestry, go away? Probably the Chinese were the first to leave
the central home, taking with them the elements of a considerable
civilization, which also formed the basis of the later Chaldean,
Babylonian, Assyrian and Egyptian cultures, and through various
channels, of the Etrurian and Greek.

=High Place of Music Among the Chinese=.—The science of music had
a high place in Chinese philosophy; the sages alone comprehend the
canons, and the mandarins in music are considered superior to those
in mathematics. Some most interesting dates are given, showing how
early the Chinese had developed a science of music. We are told that
in 2277 B. C., there were twenty-two writers on the dance and music,
twenty-three on ancient music, twenty-four on playing the _Kin_ and the
_Che_, and twenty-five on construction of scales. These facts imply
many years of previous development before the time when works treating
of the science of music would be prepared. Confucius, the chief Chinese
philosopher, wrote about ancient music in 551 B. C. Unfortunately,
ancient records and books were almost entirely destroyed, 246 B. C.,
by order of the Emperor then on the throne; he excepted from this
destruction only works on medicine, agriculture and divination. A
comparison of recorded dates shows that the Chinese were writing
learned works on the science of music when the Pharaohs were building
the pyramids.

=Sonorous Bodies=.—The Chinese have always shown a fondness for
instituting likenesses between things in heaven and earth, and things
intellectual and material. According to their theory, there are eight
sound-giving bodies: Stone, Metal, Silk, Bamboo, Wood, Skin, Gourd and
Clay.

=The Sheng=.—One of the most important musical instruments in use among
the Chinese, one that is indispensable to their temple ritual, is the
Sheng. This instrument is the representative of the =gourd= principle;
originally the bowl was formed from a portion of a gourd or a calabash,
the top being covered by a circular piece of wood with holes around the
margin in which the pipes, seventeen in number, are fixed; in the side
of the gourd is placed a mouthpiece or tube covered with ivory, through
which the player _draws_ his breath. Each pipe is fitted with a small
free reed of copper. A small hole is made in each pipe just above the
bowl, which prevents a pipe from speaking when the air is drawn in by
the player, unless the hole is closed by a finger. The instrument is
placed to the mouth with the pipes slanting toward the right shoulder.
The notes sounded by the pipes of the _Sheng_ as they are arranged are:

[Music]

giving the following scale or series of sounds:

[Music]

four of the seventeen pipes are mutes, placed there doubtless for
purposes of symmetry.

[Illustration: KIN. SE OR CHE. SHENG.]

=The Kin=.—The principle of the sound of =silk= is exemplified in the
Kin or Ch’in, the strings, “made of twisted silk, being stretched
over a wooden frame.” This instrument was the favorite of Confucius,
the great law-giver, and in _his_ time was of _great antiquity_. The
number of strings was five, to agree with the five elements; the upper
part was rounded, to represent the heavens; the bottom was flat, to
represent the ground. The number of strings was later increased to
seven, which is the favored form, tuned to G, A, C, D, E, G, A, a
pentatonic scale.

=The Se=.—Another stringed instrument is the _Sê_, (also written
_Che_), which had originally fifty strings. As now used, it has only
twenty-five strings. Four kinds are in use, differing in size and in
number of strings; it is customary that they should give the sound of
two notes simultaneously, generally octaves. Some of these, used by the
most skilful performers, have only thirteen or fourteen strings. The
strings are plucked by two small ivory picks.

=Flutes=.—The sound of =bamboo= is exemplified in certain instruments
of the flute family. The bamboo plant is used by the Chinese in very
many ways; it is natural that they should use it for making musical
instruments. There are two types of pipes or flutes: those blown at
the end, as a whistle, and those blown across a hole near one end,
as is our modern flute; the Chinese flutes are of the latter class.
They varied in size and in the number of holes, from three to six, the
little finger of each hand not being used. A popular flute, called the
_Ti-Tzu_, has, in addition to the six finger holes, one for blowing
and one covered with a thin membrane, to vary the sound. Another kind,
very ancient, and much in use, according to Chinese writers during the
period 2205-1122 B. C., may be called, shortly, the _Tche_. It has six
finger holes, three near each end, and is pierced with another hole
at the middle, across which the player blows. The scale is said to
consist of six semitones, beginning with F, fifth line treble clef. The
peculiar construction of this flute presents some acoustical problems.

[Illustration: TCHE.]

=Other sonorous bodies= are, =metal= from which the Chinese make gongs,
bells and trumpets—they seem to have known the principle of the slide,
as in the trombone, but never developed it; =stone=, certain varieties,
in the shape of the letter L, pierced with a hole at the angle,
suspended in a frame and struck by a hammer; =skin=, from which drums
were made; =clay=, from which instruments were made in shape resembling
the ocarina, familiar to us.

=Chinese Scales=.—The vocal and the instrumental music have different
scales, the former _diatonic_—with two notes of the seven omitted,
forming a _pentatonic_ (five-tone scale), the letters of which, since
F is a favorite tonic, may be represented by F, G, A, C, D. The
instrumental scales are _chromatic_ in character. When the voice is
accompanied by instruments, the vocal scale is used. Singing is in
unison, modified by fourths, occasionally. The singing tone is a sort
of nasal sing-song, the favorite method a nasal falsetto, the mouth
being nearly closed.

[Music]

This represents the concluding strophes of the Hymn to Confucius. The
time is very slow; each measure represents a line of four syllables;
between the lines one of the instruments gives a sort of interlude.

So much space has been taken with Chinese music because the
conservatism of that race has preserved instruments and music that date
back to the early history of our race.

[Illustration: KOTO.]

=Japanese Music=.—In the Japanese system we find a _pentatonic_ scale
and a _semitonal_ division of the octave. Japanese music does not
proceed in semitones, the chromatic scale being demanded by the custom
of transposing a melody from one starting point to another, not more
than fourteen sounds for a melody. A favorite Japanese instrument is of
the clarinet type; it is called the _Hichi-riki_; in length it varies
from a little less than nine inches to a little more. The scale as set
forth by the Institute of Tokio is from G, second line, treble staff to
the A above, F, fifth line, being sharped. This instrument is played
by _drawing_ in the breath. The Japanese have an instrument called
the _Sho_, similar to the Chinese _Sheng_. The national instrument
is the _Koto_, which has thirteen strings, tuned thus: the first,
middle C sharp, the second, F sharp a fifth lower; subsequent strings
ascend in order, G sharp, A, C sharp, D, F sharp, G sharp, A, C sharp,
D, F sharp, G sharp; between the fourth and fifth sounds is a third,
which interval, in practice, was filled by pressing the string behind
the bridge, thus increasing the tension; each string can be raised
a semitone or even a tone by increasing the pressure. By this means
additional notes can be secured, giving a scale identical with the
Greek Dorian or ecclesiastical Aeolian. Much of the popular Japanese
music is written without the extra notes, and the series of tones can
be characterized as a pentatonic scale based on the natural minor. Thus:

[Music]

=The Hindoos=.—Among the Asiatic races that still retain national,
although not a separate political existence, and have a musical system
peculiar to themselves, the Hindoos are prominent. The Hindoos belong
to the Aryan race, (from which we also sprang), and had their home
originally in Central Asia, probably north of the Hindoo Koosh range.
When they swarmed off from the old home they made their way down
through the mountains along the river valleys to the great fertile
plains of India, and conquering the aboriginal races, developed the
system of caste, which has had so great an influence on their religion,
literature, science and art. The old Hindoo literature shows clearly
the high regard in which the art of song was held. Celebrated minstrels
were maintained in the royal courts whose duty it was to chant songs
in praise of their patrons. Music, or song, was just as indispensable
in the religious ceremonies. One of the holy books makes the statement
that “Indra rejects the offering made without music.” In time the
singer became a member of the priestly caste.

[Illustration: VINA. RAVANASTRON.]

=The Vina=.—From antiquity to the present time among the Hindoos pure
instrumental music held almost equal place with song or accompanied
vocal music. The Hindoo instruments belong to the percussion types,
trumpets and trombones, nose flute, and especially to the stringed
class. It is noteworthy that the simpler kinds, in which each string
gives but one tone, do not exist, whereas there are many varieties of
those which have fingerboards. The oldest and most important is the
Vina, which consists of a wooden pipe about four feet long attached to
two gourds or resonators. The seven metal strings are stretched over
nineteen bridges or frets, becoming gradually higher, and touch only
the last and highest one. The other eighteen serve to fix the pitch of
the tone desired, as in our guitar or mandolin, the strings being set
in vibration by being plucked with a metal thimble or ring like that
used by zither players. Another Hindoo instrument, considered by some
as the prototype of stringed instruments played with a bow, is the
Ravanastron.

=Hindoo Musical Philosophy=.—Hindoo myths ascribe a divine origin to
music. A close connection was established between the scale and their
religious ideas. Each single tone was under the protection of a nymph,
and the first syllables of the names of these nymphs, according to
Clement, the French historian, were given to the tones, thus: Sa, Ri,
Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, Ni, seven in all, differing in that respect from the
_pentatonic_ form _usually_ found among the early races. In their
endeavor to satisfy the melody of speech, the inflections of the voice
in speaking, the Hindoos divided the interval of the octave into
small parts, and transposed the scale freely up and down; so it is
easily conceivable that their complete system recognized 960 scales,
their sacred writings speaking of 16,000. In practice they contented
themselves with 36, some writers say 72. The following is given as the
scale:

[Music]

The principal feature of Hindoo music is the melody and rhythm, the
latter being very complicated. Of harmony in our sense of the word
there is no sign. In accompanying the voice the Hindoos used only the
pure fifth, which they considered a perfect consonance, the fourth, an
imperfect consonance, and the octave.

=High Esteem of Music Among the Hindoos=.—Music had a high place among
the Hindoos, all festivities made use of it, and the private and social
life demanded it. It was used freely in the Hindoo drama, the latter
calling for the dance, spoken and sung dialogue and instrumental
music and songs. The main reason why Hindoo music did not develop in
the past centuries doubtless lies in the fact that, as in Egypt, the
ruling power was vested in the priesthood, which controlled all the
arts and sciences. Music was so interwoven with their religious rites
and observances, and so hedged around with irrevocable and sacred
laws that the slightest alteration was considered a sacrilege. In
closing this section it may be added that investigators refer the
gipsies, particularly those of Hungary, who are noted for their musical
temperament, to Hindoo origin, probably the pariah caste. Their music,
with its wild, free rhythm and elaborate melodic embellishment, has a
marked resemblance to the music of the Hindoos.


                          REFERENCES.

Smith.—The World’s Earliest Music.

Anderson.—The Story of Extinct Civilizations.

Rice.—What is Music?

Piggott.—Music and Musical Instruments of Japan.

Day.—Musical Instruments of the Deccan.


                          QUESTIONS.

What is the source of our information as to the beginnings of music?

What countries are being explored by archæologists?

Where was the cradle of the human race?

Which branch was probably the first to “swarm off”?

How ancient are some Chinese records concerning music?

What are the sound-giving bodies according to Chinese theories?

Give an example of each kind.

Describe the _Sheng_, _Kin_, _Che_ and _Tche_.

What kind of scale is used in Chinese vocal music?

What is the Japanese national instrument?

What kinds of instruments did the Hindoos have? Their favorite
instrument? Describe the latter.

Tell about the Hindoo scale.

Why did music among the Hindoos fail to develop?



                               LESSON II.

            MUSIC OF THE BABYLONIANS, EGYPTIANS AND HEBREWS.


=History a Record of Change=.—History is a record of changing
conditions. Nations rise into prominence and fall again; cities are
built to be torn down by conquerors; even the face of the earth has
changed since the days when the scions of the Aryan race began to leave
their home in Central Asia. Arms of the sea have shrunk to rivers,
rivers to shallow streams, the desert sands have encroached on the once
fertile valleys, and choked the springs and brooks of the meadows.
Geologists tell us that the great valleys were made by the alluvial
deposit washed down from the hills and mountains by the streams. The
Chinese followed the course of the great rivers that made toward the
eastern seas, the Hindoos toward the southern ocean, and still another
“swarm” followed the great rivers Euphrates and Tigris, which came
from the mountains of Western Asia. The great valley lying between the
desert and the mountains, a scene of waste and ruin as far back as
the time of ancient Greece and Rome, was once a most important centre
of population and wealth, the home for centuries of races that had
reached a high degree of culture in the arts and sciences, and the
seat of what may be considered the oldest of extinct civilizations.
The valley was wonderfully fertile, was brought to a high degree of
cultivation and supported an enormous population. As an instance of
the physical changes that have taken place in this region, it may be
mentioned that about 4000 B. C., the Tigris and the Euphrates entered
the sea by different mouths, instead of joining as now and in the days
of Abraham, the patriarch, who came from this region, and the town
identified by modern scholars as “Ur of the Chaldees,” which is now 150
miles up the Euphrates, was an important seaport.

=The Chaldeans=.—When the Aryans came down into this valley they
found already established there a people whose records are now being
unearthed, called Akkads, belonging to the Mongolian family, who had
reached a high degree of cultivation in art and science. The records
found show that music was an important branch of study; at a very early
date the harp, pipe and cymbals are mentioned, and we infer that the
people were fond of singing, since many sacred hymns have been recorded
in tablets. This race, joined to others, founded the Chaldean kingdom,
the capital being Babylon. In the 12th century B. C., a king of
Assyria, in the northern part of the Tigris valley, conquered Babylon
and thus gained the ascendancy.

=The Practice of Music Among the Babylonians=.—In the great ruins now
being excavated, tablets of clay have been found which give a vivid
idea of the social and religious esteem in which music was held by the
Babylonians. One of these tablets, said to date back more than three
thousand years B. C., contains a representation of musicians. One
strikes with a hammer upon a metal plate, another carries a reed pipe,
a third plays upon a harp of eleven strings, while two others beat
time or give the accent by clapping their hands. Especially rich in
sculpture is the palace of Sennacherib. One of the relief decorations
shows a festival procession in honor of the returning conqueror.
In front walk five men, three with harps, a fourth with a kind of
lyre, whose strings were struck with a plectrum; the fifth bears a
double flute. Two of the harpers and the lyre player dance. Then
follow six women, of whom four carry harps, one blows a double flute,
while the last beats a sort of drum. Following the instrumentalists
come six women and six children singing, who indicate the rhythm by
clapping their hands. From the fact that in these sculptures a few
soldiers indicate an army, we infer that the Babylonians made use
of large bodies of players and singers in their great ceremonies.
These tablets indicate that the Babylonians made much use of trumpets
to give signals to the armies and when great masses of the people
were gathered together. That musicians were highly esteemed we judge
from the fact that on one occasion Sennacherib spared the lives of
musicians among his captives, all others being put to death. Since the
Chaldeans, especially, were famous as astronomers and mathematicians,
it is thought that they, like the Egyptian sages, had knowledge of the
mathematical relations of the various intervals.

[Illustration: ASSYRIAN HARP (SAMBUCA). SANTIR.]

=Chaldean Instruments=.—Two instruments seem to be especially
noticeable: the Symphonia and Sambuca. The former was carried to
Palestine by the Hebrews, at the end of their captivity, and, according
to their accounts, seems to have been a sort of bagpipe, an instrument
particularly suited to a pastoral people like the early Chaldeans.
As to the Sambuca we have no authentic knowledge; it seems, however,
to have been an instrument of the zither type, held horizontally and
played with a plectrum.[2] A stringed instrument, struck with a hammer,
called the Santir is credited to the Assyrians.

=Egyptian Music=.—When the great Alexandrian Library of 495,000 works
of Persian, Chaldean, Hebrew, Egyptian, Greek and Roman literature
was partly destroyed during Julius Cæsar’s battles with the native
Egyptians, in 47 B. C., and finally, A. D. 391, by Christian fanatics,
history suffered an irreparable loss. Treasures of learning in all
branches, the records of early civilizations perished, never to be
replaced. Today we are dependent upon the discoveries of explorers in
the ruins of the great Egyptian cities, temples, tombs and pyramids.
The Egyptians believed that articles of necessity to the living being
were necessary to the individual in a future existence. If certain
things could not, in reality, be placed in the tomb, a pictorial
representation would have almost equal value in the invisible world.
In Egyptian tombs pipes or “flutes” have been found, and in one
instance, in the tomb of a musician, the bronze cymbals he played
when alive. In the various tombs and ruins that have been examined by
explorers, pictorial representations of practically every phase of
Egyptian life have been found. The sources for our knowledge, almost
wholly inferential, are, then, the various pictorial and sculptured
representations of the Egyptian musical instruments and the manner in
which they were used, and a few fragments of their sacred books, which
were forty-two in number, two being devoted to music, although but one
fragment has been found. It must be noted, further, that the Egyptian
Government, although nominally a monarchy, limited, not absolute, was
in reality theocratic. The priestly caste had final power, and the
rules and regulations drawn up by them prescribed the minutest detail
of life, crushing all possibility of independent thought and freedom of
action, a condition fatal to high artistic development.

=Place of Music in Egyptian Life=.—To show the place of music in
Egyptian life, the following from Ambros’ history will serve admirably:
“From these decorations [on the walls of tombs] we perceive that the
Egyptians made great use of music. We find harps of many sizes and
shapes, small and easily portable, to others beyond the height of
a man, crude and of the utmost simplicity, to others elaborate and
extremely rich in decoration. We note an almost endless variety of
=lyres=, =guitars= and =mandolins= [that is, similar in type to the
instruments we know by these names], single and double flutes, played
by hands of numerous musicians, together with male and female singers.
Music was used to accompany the dance, the funeral cortège,[3] the
banquet and other social functions. Inscriptions show that there were
musicians of high social position at the court.”

=Egyptian Instruments=.—The records show a development of music from
a crude simplicity in early days to a brilliant and complex system
alongside of the changes in other arts and the sciences, some of the
discoveries going as far back as 1625 B. C. We give illustrations of
several forms of the Egyptian =harps=. The number of strings varied
from three or four to twenty-one. Mr. J. F. Rowbotham, the English
historian of music, says that “taking B below the bass staff as the
lowest note of the Egyptian scale, (since it likely followed the
Assyrian in this respect) the compass of the great harp would extend
to E, first line, treble staff. The small harps of various sizes had
a compass from D, third line, bass staff, to D or E above the treble
staff. Another series of stringed instruments, known under the general
name, lyres, had the same compass as the small harps; the lutes had
a low G, (bass) string, and the highest note was C or D on the
treble staff; various forms of the flutes had about the same compass;
pipes, [which may be represented by the flageolet of today] had a
compass of about one octave upward from E, fourth space, treble clef.
Other instruments were of the percussion character, =tambourines=,
=drums=, =cymbals=, etc. Although the Egyptians used their instruments
in combination, there is reason to believe their practice was the
alternation of groups, only occasionally using all simultaneously, to
secure fulness and power of tone.”

[Illustration: HORIZONTAL HARP. SMALL HARP. GREAT HARP.]

=Philosophy and Practice of Egyptian Music=.—The consensus of opinion
is that Egyptian music was melodic in character, the instruments
or voices playing or singing in different octaves, rejecting other
intervals. As the Greeks seem to have drawn from the Egyptians much
of their practice in music, it is reasonable to suppose that they
would have used harmony if the Egyptians had been accustomed to make
use of it. As to the Egyptian theory of music we have no information.
Since, however, Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher, was a student of
the Egyptian school for priests, we infer that his teachings were
founded on the science he acquired there; hence it is probable that the
Egyptians were familiar with a seven-fold division of the octave and
the mathematical relations of the fourth and fifth, as well as other
intervals of the scale. Of the old Egyptian hymns we have no remains
unless it be, as some assert, that fragments still exist among the
Coptic Christians.

[Illustration: TRANSVERSE FLUTE. DOUBLE FLUTE.]

=The Hebrews=.—What a wonderful history is that of the Hebrews! It
has seen nation after nation rise to power and go down. It has been
enslaved, seemingly beyond all possibility of recovering a national
existence, yet regained place. Egypt, Assyria, Persia, Rome, held
the Hebrews, yet the latter are still with us, as a distinct race,
while their conquerors have but pages of history. A glance at the
history of the race will show that they touched the sources of early
civilization. Abraham was a resident, according to the Bible story, of
Ur in the land of the Chaldees, where a considerable civilization had
been attained. From here he went to Canaan, thence to Egypt, and back
again to the country east of the Red Sea. When his descendants went to
Egypt they must have carried with them Syrian music and instruments,
doubtless preserving a trace of Chaldean influence. It was during the
four centuries’ sojourn in Egypt that the Hebrews, though for a time
enslaved, gained the proportions of a nation. As their duties placed
them in close relations to their masters, they gained considerable of
the Egyptian science, literature, customs, etc. At that time, musicians
were slaves, and tradition says that Miriam, the sister of Moses, was a
slave dancing-girl and singer. We know that Moses was instructed in the
learning of the Egyptian priesthood, and in that capacity officiated
in some of the functions of the temple services. Such facts as these
go far to justify the idea that the Hebrews gained their fundamental
notions of music and musical instruments during their long sojourn in
Egypt. Some writers claim that the songs of the Hebrews were adapted to
Egyptian chants. The pastoral life led by the descendants of Abraham,
the period of slavery which the Hebrews suffered in Egypt, and the
subsequent migratory life in the wilderness were not adapted to develop
a people’s song. The life in Palestine for many years was a strenuous
one; and then came another period of slavery among the Assyrians, by
which the Hebrew ideas were again modified.

=A Religious People=.—The Hebrews were an intensely religious people,
the code delivered to them by Moses fixing the status of music up to
the time of the pleasure-loving Solomon. Their music, in distinction
from that of the nations around them, was not sensuous but a true
_musica sacra_, in this respect more a matter of religion than of art.
During the reign of David, the Levites were organized as the singers
for the Temple services. Music and poetry were the chief subjects of
instruction. David himself composed many of the tunes to which his
Psalms were sung.

=Hebrew Poetry and Its Relation to Their Music=.—The key to the music
of the Hebrews is their poetry. They grew to numbers under the most
adverse circumstances, and developed a temperament indifferent to
environment and elevated to high spiritual aspiration, making them an
intensely religious people, whose life was little softened by artistic
practice. The effect of the injunction against the making of “graven
images,” as given them in the code of Moses, was to cut them off from
the exercise of the esthetic faculty in sculpture or painting; their
unsettled mode of life prevented outlet in architecture. So they poured
out the whole strength of their passionate, powerful natures in poetry
and song. The most striking characteristic of the Hebrew poetry is the
parallelism of the phrases, each sentence or complete thought being
made up of two similar or contrasted thoughts, and the accompanying
music must have had the same character. The following from the Psalms
shows this feature:

    “Lord, hear my voice: let thine ears be attentive
             to the voice of my supplication.”
    “I will not give sleep to my eyes,
             or slumber to mine eyelids.”

When the great choirs of men singers were organized for the Temple
services, this parallelism brought about the division into two bodies,
who sang alternately, a practice in use today in certain churches with
ritualistic services, and known as antiphonal singing.

=Hebrew Music=.—It is unfortunate that we have no reason to believe
that the hymns in use in the Jewish synagogues today are sung to the
tunes of thousands of years ago, even if modified. In the various
countries of Europe, Spain, Italy, Germany, Russia, the airs are
quite different, suggesting that tradition has failed to deliver
anything that can traced to the days of the poet-king of Israel. Some
authorities find in the Gregorian chants traces of Hebrew melodies
which came down from the early Christians of Jewish birth and
training. Clement of Alexandria says that their songs were earnest and
dignified; there must have been some special character in them as
shown by the command of the Babylonians, “Sing us the songs of Zion.”
The principal relation that the Hebrews have to the history of music
arises from the enduring impress the works of the Psalmist and other
portions of the Scriptures have made upon the music of the Christian
Church.

=Hebrew Instruments=.—The Hebrews borrowed their instruments from other
nations, principally from the Egyptians, the one most favored being a
form of the =harp=, small enough to be portable, used to give effect to
the chanting of the prophets. “To prophesy meant to sing,” and it is
quite likely that Isaiah, Jeremiah and the other inspired poets uttered
their thoughts in verse and song, both being extemporized.

The student should bear in mind that the various musical instruments
mentioned in the Bible must be understood as types. The harp of David
was not the same as our harp, the organ was not like our great church
instruments, viols, sackbuts, cornets, pipes, psalteries, etc., are
names given by the translators to the Hebrew terms used in the Bible.
They used words with which they were familiar, and which they thought
corresponded in type to the instruments used by the Hebrews.


                              REFERENCES.

Rowbotham.—History of Music.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. I.

Engel.—Musical Instruments.

Smith.—The World’s Earliest Music.

Anderson.—The Story of Extinct Civilizations.

Maspéro.—Ancient Egypt and Assyria.

Dickinson.—Music in the History of the Western Church.


                               QUESTIONS.

What great river valley was the home of the Chaldeans?

What do we know of music among the Akkads?

What evidence have we to show that the Assyrians held music in high
esteem?

What instruments did they use?

How do we learn of the ideas of the Egyptians in regard to music?

Who controlled the knowledge of music and other sciences and arts? Was
this beneficial to music?

What instruments did the Egyptians use?

What was the character of Egyptian music?

What was the origin of the Hebrew race?

What influences did they come under in Egypt?

What difference was there between the music of the Hebrews and that of
the nations around them?

Why did they express themselves in poetry and music?

What was a leading characteristic of their poetry?

Have any ancient Hebrew melodies been preserved?

What musical instruments did the Hebrews have? What was the origin of
these instruments?



                              LESSON III.

                      MUSIC OF THE GREEKS: SCALES.


When we think of Greece, it is Athens, the centre of Greek art and
culture, that comes to mind. An ancient city, Athens, as history
teaches us. The record is that it was founded by Cecrops, who brought
a colony from Egypt, in 1556 B. C., a period when Egypt was a centre
of power, wealth, education and science. Therefore we infer that these
colonists brought with them to Greece the ordinary, popular music and
instruments to which they had become accustomed in their home. But
there was an older Greece; for late discoveries show that there were
five cities, each built upon the ruins of an older city, the first
one going back to 2500 B. C. These earlier inhabitants, themselves an
offshoot of the great Aryan race, were absorbed by the colonists.

=Music and Myth in Greece=.—The beginnings of music in Greece are
mingled with myths: Pan, Apollo, Mercury, Athene and others appear as
the patrons and exemplars of the musical art. Aside from the names of
the mythical gods and goddesses, there are names of human beings that
stand out with clearness. These early musicians were singers or bards
who chanted the songs composed in honor of chiefs and tribal heroes.
Such were Hyagnis, 1506 B. C., Marsyas, his son, and Olympus the elder,
Orpheus, Musæus (1426 B. C.), chief of the Eleusinian mysteries, Linus,
Amphion, Thaletes, whose songs were favorites of Pythagoras; the
greatest of these bards was the blind Homer, to whom the date 900 B.
C. is assigned. “By the Greeks, music as an art was considered an aid
in regulating by rule the inflections of the voice, to mark the places
of emphasis, and to define the pauses in the recitation of their epic
poetry; and the rhythm of their songs followed strictly laws that had
been laid down; innovation was reprehended, and even prohibited.”[4]

=Early Greek Musicians and Writers=.—The earliest musician’s name
met with in the annals of music is that of =Terpander= (676 B. C),
who is said to have increased the number of strings on the lyre from
four to seven. Next in order was =Pythagoras= (585-505 B. C.), who
added an eighth string to the lyre. He was called the discoverer of
the Tetrachord, which is still known by this name, the inventor or
discoverer of the Octave Scale, also the discoverer of the ratios of
the consonances; but there is no doubt that he learned all these things
during his sojourn in Egypt. He is also credited with the invention of
the Canon or Monochord with movable bridges, a contrivance still in use
for investigating the ratios of intervals. Unfortunately none of the
writings—if any ever existed—of Pythagoras have come down to us. Our
knowledge of his theories is second-hand, gathered from the writings
of his disciples. Pythagoras seems to have studied sound more in the
manner of the acoustician than of the musician; hence his followers,
or rather those who called themselves by his name, were more concerned
with the ratios of sounds than with their musical effects.

Among the great philosophers who treated on music, =Aristotle= (384 B.
C.) holds an important place. We find his theories expressed in one
of his works called “Problems.” A pupil of his—=Aristoxenus= (350-320
B. C.), has left the most valuable treatise on music, of any of the
ancients, the oldest musical work known at the present time; it is,
unfortunately, not complete. Aristoxenus was a practical, in addition
to being a theoretical musician; he thought that the ear was the final
court of appeal in matters musical. Hence the musical world was divided
into two factions: the Pythagoreans, who held that music was purely
a matter for arithmetical investigation, and the Aristoxenians, who
claimed that the chief end of music was to be listened to. This dispute
lasted for many centuries. =Boethius=, the Roman philosopher, in his
writings takes sides with the Pythagoreans and pours contempt on the
mere musician. The successors of the Pythagoreans are even yet not
extinct, as every now and again some wiseacre turns up with a scheme
to secure just intonation, at the price of losing all that music has
gained under our present system. =Plato= (430 B. C.), the greatest
of philosophers, has much to say about music; but these sayings are
largely incomprehensible to modern understandings. =Euclid= (323 B.
C.), the great mathematician, treated largely of music.[5] =Aristides
Quintilianus= was another author of great weight. =Plutarch=, in
his _Symposia_, has one devoted to music, but unfortunately the
meaning of these authors is often so obscure that it cannot now be
discovered. Alexandria, in Egypt, came into prominence in music when
the great library was founded there by Alexander the Great, in 332
B. C. =Eratosthenes= (276-196 B. C.), the librarian, figures in the
mathematics of music. When we reach the Christian Era, we meet with two
more writers, =Didymus= (A. D. 60), who introduced the “minor”[6] tone
into the scale, and =Claudius Ptolemy= (A. D. 130).

=The Music of Ancient Greece the Foundation of Modern European
Music=.—Although the history of European music properly begins with the
music of Ancient Greece, we are still very ignorant of the subject,
owing to the fact that there is not in existence a note of music
anterior to the Christian Era. But lately, in the ancient treasure
house at Delphi, a hymn was found inscribed in marble on the inner
wall. Mr. J. P. Mahaffy, an authority in matters pertaining to Greek
literature, says: “The time is given by the metre, a long syllable
and three short, variously placed, or two long and a short between
them, in every case 5-8 in a measure.... As regards the accompaniment
or harmonizing of the air, there is none extant. [As to the melody]
although there is rhythm and even a recurrence of phrases to mark the
close of the period, nothing worthy of being called melody in any
modern sense is to be found.” The inscription dates from the third
century before Christ, is a hymn to Apollo and the Muses, and consists
of phrases equal to eighty measures in our modern reckoning. The blank
spaces in the measure were filled in by an instrument, probably the
cithara. Our knowledge is confined to the treatises of mathematicians
and musicians, previously mentioned, and these works are often so
obscure that there is much uncertainty as to their meaning. Besides,
these writings are scattered over a period of about 800 years; that
is, from 585 B. C., the date of Pythagoras, to 130 A. D., the date
of Claudius Ptolemy. Numberless changes took place in the art in
the course of this long period; hence the attempt to elucidate a
homogeneous system by comparing these writings is about as hopeless
as would be the attempt to deduce the modern system of music from the
collocation of the works of Guido and Hucbald of the 10th century with
those of Richter and Prout in the 19th.

[Illustration: Music HYMN TO APOLLO AND THE MUSES.]

We owe much to the labors of these bygone writers; in fact, the
Greek system of music is the foundation upon which the modern system
is the superstructure. No attempt will be made here to settle the
many disputed points that have puzzled the learned for ten or more
centuries, but a clear and concise account of all that is necessary
to an understanding of the place of this system in the historical
development of music will be given.

=Formation of the Greek Scale=.—The Greek Scale was founded on a
tetrachord or succession of four sounds, arranged as follows:

             E (half tone) F (whole tone) G (whole tone) A

It is commonly believed that these letters written on the bass staff,
thus:

[Music]

represent the exact pitch, as near as may be, of this tetrachord. In
early times the lyre was tuned to these four sounds, and was called
the _Tetrachordon_; that is, four strings. This gracefully shaped
instrument has remained to this day the symbol of music. This limited
scale was extended by adding another tetrachord, which began with the
last note of the first tetrachord, thus:

         A—B♭ C D
  E—F G A

making a scale of seven sounds, called the scale of _Conjunct_ or
_Joined Tetrachords_; also from its seven strings, the Heptachord
scale. The next step was to take in the limit of the octave. The first
way adopted was to raise the highest string a whole tone, thus making
it the octave of the lowest; the sixth string was also raised a whole
tone to make it a whole tone below the seventh. The result was a scale
of seven sounds with one degree omitted, thus:

         A—B♭ (C) D E
  E—F G A

The next form was:

  E—F G A B (C) D E

It will be seen that in this scale the second tetrachord begins a
whole tone above the first, instead of beginning with the final of the
first. It is therefore called the scale of _Disjunct_ or _Separated
Tetrachords_. The missing sound (C) is here added and the octave scale
is complete. When the lyre had seven strings, the middle string, that
is, the fourth, counting from either end, was called _Mese_, which
means “middle”; but this word soon gained a secondary meaning which, in
time, became the most important, viz.: _Keynote_.

=The Lesser Perfect System=.—There was in use at the same time a scale
called the _Lesser Perfect System_, which was made from the conjunct
seven-note scale by adding another conjunct tetrachord below, thus:

                    A—B♭ C D
             E—F G A
  (A) B—C D E

Then A was added below the first tetrachord to make an octave with the
note _Mese_. This A was the lowest sound admitted in the Greek System.
It was the Romans who gave to this series of sounds the first seven
letters of the alphabet, which they still retain. This octave (A to A)
is also the origin of our natural minor scale. This Lesser System was
the scale used in the Temple rites. It continued to be used for this
purpose long after the system about to be described was invented.

=The Greater Perfect System=.—This was made from the disjunct octave by
adding a conjunct tetrachord below and one above, thus:

                             E—F G A
             E—F G A B—C D E
  (A) B—C D E

The A below was also added, thus making a scale two octaves in extent.
In later times the disjunct tetrachord, B—C—D—E, was added at the top.
This E was the highest note admitted in the Greek System; consequently,
their music never exceeded the limits of two octaves and a fifth, and
the sounds included in these systems were as follows:

[Music: Greater Perfect System without B♭

Added Note Lesser Perfect System without B♮]

Peculiar interest attaches to this series of sounds, because in the
Middle Ages they were supposed to be the _only_ sounds admitted by the
Greeks. This accounts for the fact that B was the first note that it
was considered right to use in two forms.

=The Greek Scales=.—The Greeks did not by any means confine themselves
to these sounds, but changed the pitch of the starting note just as
we do with our scales; in other words, both of these systems might
be transposed. Therefore they not only had all the sounds at command
that we have, but as their scales were (theoretically, at least)
tuned acoustically true, they had a great many more. But their scales
were all diatonic (the scales they called Chromatic and Enharmonic
will be explained later), they were all like our natural minor. When
they said “Dorian Scale” they meant just what we mean when we say
scale of D minor; Phrygian Scale meant E minor; Lydian Scale, F-sharp
minor; Mixo-Lydian, G minor. In addition to these four scales there
were three that began a fourth below, one a fourth below the Dorian,
called the Hypo-Dorian, A minor; a fourth below the Phrygian, called
the Hypo-Phrygian, B minor; and a fourth below the Lydian, called
Hypo-Lydian, C-sharp minor; these were the standard scales of Greek
music. These names, Dorian, etc., were retained in the Ecclesiastical
System, but the mistake was made of supposing that the Greeks used
only the fixed sounds given by the untransposed Greater System. Hence
the Church Dorian has B natural, not B-flat; the Church Phrygian,
F natural, not F sharp; and the Church Lydian begins on F natural,
instead of on F sharp. Hence, no two church scales are alike in the
positions of the halftones.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Name some of the myths connected with music among the Greeks. Consult a
work on mythology.

Name the musicians and philosophers connected with Greek music; arrange
them in chronological order, with dates.

State the successive points of development.

Why do we consider that the history of music as we know it today begins
with Greek music?

Have we music that belongs to the Greek period?

On what was the Greek Scale founded?

How was this extended? What name did this form receive?

In what respect did the Disjunct form differ from the Conjunct?

What was the _Mese_?

What was the Lesser Perfect System?

What was the Greater Perfect System?

What was the highest note used by the Greeks? What was the lowest?

Were these systems transposable?

What is the meaning of the prefix “Hypo”?



                               LESSON IV.

                   MUSIC OF THE GREEKS (_Concluded_).


=The Greek Octave System=.—So far, everything is clear enough; but the
next step is not quite so sure. The Greeks spoke of the Dorian Octave,
the Phrygian Octave, and so on; and the word Octave, used in this way,
has been thought to be synonymous with Scale, which is doubtful, for
the following reasons:

The standard instrument of the Greeks was the octave lyre. The lowest
and highest strings were tuned respectively A, fifth line bass staff,
and A, second space, treble.

[Music:

Dorian Octave. Signature B♭ Phrygian Octave. Signature F♯

Lydian Octave. Signature F, C and G sharps. Mizo-Lydian Octave.
Signature B and E flats.

Hypo-Dorian Octave. Hypo-Phrygian Octave. Signature F and C sharps.

Hypo-Lydian Octave. Signature F, C, G & D sharps.]

These were fixed sounds, but the tuning of the remaining six strings
_might be changed_ at will; therefore, a series of sounds belonging
to any one of these scales could be made; and it will be seen, on
examining the following table, that all the seven scales may be
represented _without changing the extreme notes_, A to A. Suppose we
make the B flat. Now B-flat is the characteristic note of the Dorian
Scale, in our term, its signature. Therefore this octave would be
called the Dorian Octave, _not_ Dorian Scale. We speak of a scale as
beginning and ending on its _keynote_; if it does not, we call it a
scale passage in such and such a key.

The notes marked + are the keynotes (_Mese_). It will be seen at
once that the positions of the halftones differ in _each_ of these
octaves. One cannot help feeling a slight suspicion that some confusion
between scale and octave had a great deal to do with the growth of the
Ecclesiastical Scales.

One of the latest of the ancient writers on music, =Claudius Ptolemy=
(about 130 A. D.), proposed that all these octaves should be transposed
a _fourth lower_; this made the Dorian Octave E to E (all naturals).
One result of this change is that many authorities at the present
time call this the Dorian Scale, whereas it is evident that it is
simply the Dorian Octave, as given above, transposed a _fourth lower_.
Other scales were added from time to time, called _Hyper_-Dorian,
_Hyper_-Phrygian, etc., a _fourth above_ the standard scales; but it is
very uncertain whether they were in practical use; they were probably
purely matters of theory.

=Characteristics Attributed to the Different Greek Scales=.—The
Greeks attributed many fanciful characteristics to the various modes
or scales, much as some modern musicians, Berlioz, for example, do
to the different keys. But all seem to have agreed as to the Dorian.
This was considered the true Greek mode, and was called severe,
firm and manly, suitable for martial songs. The Lydian mode was
esteemed to be effeminate, suited to love songs, possibly because
the Lydian Octave corresponds with the scale of A major, and a major
scale was not relished by the Greeks, any more than it was by the
early ecclesiastical musicians. A more probable explanation of this
attribution of different characters to the different scales is, that it
was customary to use certain modes for songs on certain subjects, and
the character of the poetry was transferred to the music.

=The Greek Chromatic Scale= differed altogether from what _we_ call a
chromatic scale. It was made by _lowering_ the pitch of the _fourth_
and _seventh_ strings above the _keynote_ a halftone. Supposing the
octave lyre to be tuned to the Hypo-Dorian Mode or Scale, it would
begin and end on the Keynote (_Mese_), thus:

[Music]

Now, by lowering D and G we get the following scale:

[Music]

This is the scale that was called Chromatic. It is said to have been at
one time the most popular of all the scales, a statement we can easily
credit, since it contains in itself the two world-wide five-note or
_Pentatonic_ Scales, commonly known as the Scotch or Irish Scales, the
most widely distributed of all scales in Europe, Asia and America.

[Music: Major pentatonic scale Minor pentatonic scale]

=The Greek Enharmonic Scale=.—The scale called Enharmonic was made
thus: The fourth and seventh strings were lowered a whole tone; that
is, to the pitch of the second and sixth, the second and sixth were
lowered a _quartertone_, thus:

[Music]

C-flat is supposed to be halfway between B and C; F-flat halfway
between E and F. Our modern system does not provide for the notation of
quartertones.

[Illustration: LYRE. CITHARA. LYDIAN MAGADIS.]

=Greek Instruments=.—The standard instrument of the Greeks was the
=Lyre=. It bore many names, as Lyre, Tetrachordon, Chelys, Phorminx,
Cithara, etc. There may have been slight _differences_ in the _size
and the number of the strings_, but great uncertainty prevails on this
point. Under the name of =Flute= (_Aulos_) they seem to have included
both _Flutes_ proper and instruments of the _hautboy_ or _clarinet_
family. These instruments bore a bewildering number of names, the exact
meaning of which is lost. Judging from the pictorial representations
that remain, the Greek instruments were inferior both in variety and
extent to those of the Egyptians. They seem to have made little use
of the Harp, of which instrument the Egyptians had a great variety.
The Greeks seem to have used instruments chiefly, if not solely, to
accompany the voice; and they appear never to have combined large
numbers of instruments for any purpose. Even in their tragedies, which
were performed in immense theatres open to the sky, the Chorus was
limited to fifteen men, accompanied by two flutes. When accompanying
the voice with the lyre they may have occasionally struck the fourth,
fifth or octave of the vocal melody; but, in general, they played the
voice part. Their most highly developed instrument was a variety of
lyre, the strings of which passed over a bridge placed one-third of the
strings’ length from the lower end of the lyre, thus causing the lower
part of the string to sound the octave of the upper part. The shorter
part of the string was played with a plectrum in the right hand, the
longer part by the fingers of the left hand. This instrument was called
=Magadis=—from _Magas_, a bridge. The term _Magadize_ was eventually
used to signify playing or singing in octaves, and was _synonymous_
with _Antiphony_.

[Illustration: DOUBLE FLUTE. JOINED FLUTE. PHORBEIA.]

=Greek Musical Notation=.—Our knowledge of Greek musical notation is
very defective, being derived from only four or five specimens of
ancient music, and a few small fragments. They appear to have used a
_separate notation for each mode_, and these four hymns are apparently
all in the same mode, but authorities differ as to the mode. They
used the letters of their alphabet, both capital and small, written
in various positions, sometimes upright, sometimes lying on one side.
The notation for the lyre differed from that used for the voice. The
letters representing the _vocal_ part were written _above the words_,
those representing the _instrumental_ part, _below_ the _words_. These
_letters represented_ the _pitch_ of the sounds, but _not_ their
_duration_. The duration was regulated by the _meter_ of the poetry.
Instead of a portion of one of these hymns, the first three lines of
our National Hymn are given as a sample of this notation:

   R  R   Φ   Γ   R   Φ    σ     σ     Ρ σ  Φ  R  Φ  R    Γ R
  My country ’tis of thee, Sweet land of liberty, Of thee I sing.

These letters have been interpreted as indicating the following sounds,
the transposed Hypo-Lydian Scale in its old form; that is, the Lesser
Perfect System with G sharp as its keynote.

[Music]

=Greek View of Harmony=.—The question has been much debated as to
whether or not the Greeks practiced harmony. It seems hardly possible
with such a defective notation; but the best argument against it
is, that there is not a word in any of the extant treatises as
to combinations and successions of these combinations, and it is
impossible that any art of harmony should have existed unless some
rules for its employment should have been evolved.

=Greek Terms in Music=.—The modern terminology of music is largely
indebted to the Greek system, although many of the words have entirely
changed their significance. The word Music itself, to the Greek, meant
the whole circle of the sciences, especially Astronomy and Mathematics.
Melody meant the rising and falling of the voice in either speaking or
singing. Harmonia meant rather what we call Melody than our Harmony.
This latter, namely, the sounding together of different sounds, was
called Symphony. Antiphony originally meant singing in octaves, that
is, men with women or boys. Chromatic and Enharmonic have already been
explained. Diapason, now applied chiefly to organ stops, originally
meant the octave; that is, “through all.” Diatonic has nearly retained
its original meaning. Tone, Semitone and Tetrachord have retained their
meaning, with the exception that in the modern tetrachord the halftone
is at the other end.


                              REFERENCES.

Monro.—The Modes of Ancient Greek Music.

Rowbotham.—History of Music.

Oxford History of Music, Vol. I.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

What was the Greek use of the term Octave; “Dorian Octave,” for example?

What change did Claudius Ptolemy suggest? What confusion resulted?

What is the meaning of the prefix “Hyper”?

Explain the Greek Chromatic Scale.

Explain the Greek Enharmonic Scale.

What was the standard Greek musical instrument? What names were given
to modifications of it?

What instruments were comprehended under the term _Aulos_?

How were the instruments used in accompanying the voice?

What is meant by “magadizing”?

Give an account of Greek musical notation.

Did the Greeks use “Harmony” as we understand that term?

Name some musical terms that come from the Greek. Berlioz gives the
characters of different keys in his book on Instrumentation. “Auld
Lang Syne” is a pentatonic melody, scale of F, with fourth and seventh
omitted. Any series of five notes on the black keys of the piano will
make a pentatonic scale, major character. The language of music was
determined by scholars, hence the use of so many terms with Greek and
Latin roots.



                               LESSON V.

                         ECCLESIASTICAL SYSTEM.


=Rome the New Centre=.—The Power that rules in the affairs of men
seems to have made provision for the elevation of the whole race by
diffusing at intervals of centuries, the treasures of art, science and
thought accumulated by a nation of unusual power and energy. Egypt
dominated the northern part of Africa, the shores of the Mediterranean
and the western slopes of Asia Minor, and in course of time yielded
to the advance of the Greeks, but leaving behind, as a legacy, much
that has had enduring value. What had once been centred in one nation,
under the control of one caste, the priests, was spread through much
of the known world. Greece, in turn, shaped the destinies of expanding
civilization. In the Greek social life free art played a great part;
wherever the Greeks went as merchants and colonists, they carried with
them the principles of Greek art, including music. Greek musicians were
accounted stars of the first magnitude in Egypt, in the Greek colonies
of Italy, and later in Rome, which, after the fall of Greece as a
political factor, became the political, social and artistic centre of
the world; through her conquests and subsequent colonizing diffusing
throughout a larger world than Egypt and Greece knew, an increased
wealth of thought and action which greatly influenced later generations.

=Rome Dependent Upon Greece=.—The Romans did not show a native instinct
for art. Their national qualities were essentially warlike, and were
developed by years of struggle for existence. A people whose organized
life was political and martial, and for so long found expression first
in defence, later in conquest, would not develop a true art life. As
they grew stronger they built up their collections by pillage and by
purchase; they were taught music, oratory, architecture, sculpture
by Greeks who sought the capital of the world. Roman nobles imitated
Greek customs, learned the Greek language and literature, cultivated
music according to Greek methods, used Greek instruments, such as the
cithara, lyre and flute, sang Greek songs and formed companies of
singers and players to furnish entertainment at their feasts and at the
public spectacles. The Roman drama was modified by Greek principles,
and Greek actors replaced Roman artists; the pantomime was borrowed
from Egypt. Music was a favorite distraction in the high ranks of
Roman society, and men known to history were skilful players or
singers—Sylla, Flaccus, Calpurnius Piso, Titus, Caligula, Hadrian, and,
best known of all, Nero.

[Illustration: ROMAN HORN. SYRINX.]

=Growth of Christianity=.—While the Roman Empire, in its turn, had
served the purpose of the Ruling Power in the affairs of men, in secret
a new force was gaining strength, one that was soon to drive pagan
arts and pleasures from open cultivation. In the Catacombs, in remote
sections of the great city, pursued, hunted like beasts, martyrized,
the Christians clung to their faith with its simple rites of worship,
in which the singing of songs was a marked feature. Whence these songs
came is by no means certain, the prevailing opinion being that they
were of Greek origin, modified by Hebrew influence.[7] In the course
of years songs were introduced in the Christian service with no other
warrant than that of tradition. During the years of persecution no
systematic cultivation of music was possible. Later, when Constantine
accepted the Cross, 325 A. D., and Christianity had triumphed over
Paganism, the abuses became such that the ecclesiastical authorities
set themselves to the task of reform and of establishing a system of
song for the use of the Church.

[Music: Tonus Peregrinus as a chant]

=Origin of the Church Scales=.—It is absolutely unknown when or by whom
the system of scales, known as the Church Scales, was invented. The
latest writer on the Greek System was =Claudius Ptolemy= (about 130 A.
D.). In 330, =Pope Sylvester= established a school for training church
singers, but we have no information as to the system he employed. The
name of =Ambrose=, Bishop of Milan (333-397), has for centuries been
associated with what are called the _Authentic_ Scales, but there is no
valid evidence whatever that he had anything to do with their adoption.
The name of =Pope Gregory= (540-604) has also been associated with
another set of scales called _Plagal_, with as little authority as in
the previous case. There does not appear to have existed any system
of notation in the time of Ambrose or Gregory. The Greek notation by
letters was forgotten, and the very insufficient system of notation by
Neumes had not been invented. The only writer of any authority after
Ptolemy was Boethius, and he did more to confuse the subject of music
than to explain it.

=Foundation of the Church Scales=.—But if we know nothing of the
inventor of the Church Scales, or of the way in which they grew into
their final form, we are, nevertheless, perfectly well informed of
the fully-developed system which, it must be remarked, grew out of a
misunderstanding of the Greek Scales. The Church Scales were founded
on the Greater Perfect System of the Greeks, with this restriction,
namely, that it was _not transposable_; whereas, we have seen that the
various Greek modes were transpositions of either the Lesser or Greater
Systems.

[Music]

This is the series of sounds from which the Church Scales were made.
None of them might be _altered_ by sharp or flat, _except_ the _B_ in
the second octave (and this was a later addition which was probably
owing to a remembrance of the Lesser Perfect System in which the B was
flat.) The Greek names were retained for the Church Scales, but as not
one of the notes was inflected, it follows that the _halftones_ occur
in _different_ places in every scale. The scales to which these names
were given were called Authentic, those with the prefix _Hypo_ were
called Plagal. In the table on the next page, the Greek and Church
Scales, also the Greek _octaves_ are given side by side.

=Confusion Between the Systems=.—We may gather from this table how
the confusion between Dorian and Phrygian has arisen. The Phrygian
Octave is identical with the Church Dorian, and the Dorian Octave with
the Church Phrygian. A proof that the Church Scales originated in
the way indicated may be found in the fact that the Church and Greek
Hypo-Dorian Scales are identical, this being the only Greek Scale
without a sharp or flat. The Church Hypo-Lydian was also called the
Ionian Scale; its arrangement of tones and semitones is the _same_ as
that of the _modern major scale_. It was not considered appropriate for
church music, being looked upon as soft, effeminate and lascivious, by
both Greeks and mediæval churchmen.

[Music:

  GREEK OCTAVES          CHURCH SCALES    GREEK SCALES

  At the pitch as transposed by Ptolemy

  Phrygian Octave        Dorian           Dorian

  Dorian Octave          Phrygian         Phrygian

  Hypo-Lydian Octave     Lydian           Lydian

  Hypo-Phrygian Octave   Mixo-Lydian      Mixo-Lydian

  Hypo-Dorian Octave     Hypo-Dorian      Hypo-Dorian

  Mixo-Lydian Octave     Hypo-Phrygian    Hypo-Phrygian

  Lydian Octave          Hypo-Lydian      Hypo-Lydian

  Phrygian Octave        Hypo-Mixo-Lydian]

=Eight Modes in Use=.—The Church Scales were numbered from one to
eight; the Authentic Scales were given the odd, and the Plagal Scales
the even numbers, thus:

  1. Dorian             2. Hypo-Dorian
                  related scales.
  3. Phrygian           4. Hypo-Phrygian
                  related scales.
  5. Lydian             6. Hypo-Lydian
                  related scales.
  7. Mixo-Lydian        8. Hypo-Mixo-Lydian
                  related scales.

A melody in an Authentic Scale had to end on its Keynote, but a melody
in a Plagal Scale ended on the Keynote of its _related_ Authentic
Scale. Observe that the Dorian and Hypo-Mixo-Lydian Scales are
identical; but while the former had to end on the Keynote, D, the
latter ended on G, which is the fourth of its scale, and Keynote of its
_related_ Authentic Scale.

Traces of these Authentic and Plagal Scales may be found in many old
folk-songs. Thus, the melody of the “Last Rose of Summer” begins on the
Keynote, rises in the course of the melody to the octave, but ends by
falling to the Keynote; it is therefore Authentic. On the other hand,
the melody of “Robin Adair” begins on the fourth _below_ the Keynote,
rises to its octave, but ends on the fourth _above_ its initial note
and is Plagal; thus:

[Music:
                 Range                      Range

         Initial        Final       Initial        Final

           LAST ROSE OF SUMMER.        ROBIN ADAIR.]

The term _Hyper_ (above) was sometimes applied to the Authentic Scales.
In the Greek System the _Hyper_ Scales were the same distance _above_
the standard scales that the _Hypo_ Scales were _below_. Although
twelve modes were theoretically admitted in church music, it was for
the most part confined to the eight modes given above.

=The Dominant=.—In addition to the keynote there was another note
in every scale of almost equal importance, called the _Dominant_.
This name has been retained in the modern system, but with a total
_change_ of meaning. In the Church Scales it meant the _Reciting
Note_, that is, the note on which the principal part of the words was
chanted. In all the _Authentic_ Scales but the Phrygian, the _fifth_
of the scale is the _Dominant_; in the _Phrygian_ the _sixth_ is the
_Dominant_, because the B was a changeable note, that is, might be
natural or flat. The _Dominants_ of the _Plagal_ Scales are a _third
below_ the Dominants of the related Authentic Scales, except in the
Hypo-Mixo-Lydian, in which the Dominant is a second below that of its
related Authentic Scale. Therefore the _Dominant_ is the _sixth_ of all
the _Hypo_ Scales, but the _Hypo-Phrygian_ and _Hypo-Mixo-Lydian_, in
which it is the _seventh_.

=Hucbald’s Scale=.—Two attempts were made in the 10th century to
construct new scales, first by =Hucbald=, who founded his series of
sounds on a tetrachord, in which the halftone was between the second
and third, thus: A B C D. His object seems to have been to obtain a
series in which a succession of perfect fourths and fifths might be
secured, for which purpose he made use of the following series of
sounds:

[Music]

In the first tetrachord B was flat, in the third natural; in the
fourth, F was sharp. As to the use made of this scale, little or
nothing is known.

=Guido’s Scale=.—The other attempt, usually attributed to _Guido_, a
contemporary of Hucbald, resulted in the _Hexachord_ Scale (six-note
scale). This scale was formed by adding a whole tone above and below
the Hucbald tetrachord, thus: G, A, B, C, D, E. To complete the series
of Hexachord Scales, another sound was added, namely: the G below
the A on which the Greek scales and their derivatives, the Church
scales, began. The first seven letters of the Roman alphabet were
used to name the sounds already in use, hence to indicate this sound
the Greek letter, Gamma, was adopted. At the same time the syllables
_ut_—_re_—_mi_—_fa_—_sol_—_la_ were used to name the sounds of every
hexachord (precisely as the movable Do is used now); hence this lowest
sound was called _Gamma-ut_, corrupted into Gamut. The sounds in the
series were indicated by placing after the letter the syllables that
indicated its position in all the hexachords in which it was found,
thus:

  G A B—C D E
         C D E—F G A

1. _Gamma—ut_. 2. _A—re_. 3. _B—mi_. 4. _C—Fa—ut_, because C is _fa_
in the first, and _ut_ in the second hexachord. Consequently, to a
mediæval musician, _C—fa—ut_ meant what we would call C, second space
bass clef.

The following table gives all the Hexachord Scales with the names of
the sounds. It is of interest because this system of nomenclature
persisted long after the one which gave rise to it was obsolete.

         {  E                                        la
         {  D                                  la    sol
  Super  {  C                                  sol   fa
  Acute  {  B♮                                       mi
         {  B♭                                fa
         {  A                            la    mi    re

         {  G                            sol   re    ut
         {  F                            fa    ut
         {  E                      la    mi
  Acute  {  D                la    sol   re
  Octave {  C                sol   fa    ut
         {  B♮                     mi
         {  B♭              fa
         {  A          la    mi    re

         {  G          sol   re    ut
         {  F          fa    ut
         {  E    la    mi
  Grave  {  D    sol   re
  Octave {  C    fa    ut
         {  B    mi
         {  A    re
         {  Γ    ut

The Hexachords in which the B was flat were called Soft (_Mollis_);
those in which B was natural, Hard (_Dura_); the term _mollis_ has been
retained in the French word _Bemol_, a flat, and in the German name for
a minor key, _Moll_. The word _dura_ (hard) is also retained in the
German as a name for the major key _Dur_. When the letters were used
as a means of notation, the sound B-flat was indicated by the old form
of the letter b, which has been retained as the sign for a flat. This
was called B _rotundum_ (round B); when B natural was wanted, a stroke
was put on the right side of the ♭, called B _quadratum_ (squared B),
the sign to this day for a natural.

                               REFERENCE.

Oxford History of Music, Vol. I.

                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

What city became the centre of life after Athens and Greece fell?

What new influence was shaping in the Roman Empire?

When did music receive official attention and reform?

What names are associated with the early history of Church Music?

On which Greek system were the Church Scales founded?

What difference exists between the Greek and the Church Scales as to
the positions of the halftones?

What is meant by Authentic and Plagal?

What were the rules in regard to a melody in the Authentic forms? What
Plagal? Give an example of each.

What is meant by Dominant? Was the position of the Dominant the same in
each scale? Name some variations.

What attempts were made to construct new scales?

What is meant by “Gamut”?

What is meant by C—fa—ut?

What names were given to the different forms of the Hexachord? What are
the modern meanings of the terms?

What is the origin of the flat and natural signs?

Note the points of similarity and difference in the three scale forms
on page 65 in this lesson. As an exercise take well-known airs to see
if they are Authentic or Plagal. In the “Taming of the Shrew,” by
Shakespeare, is a passage in which reference is made to the names of
the notes as found in this lesson. Read this passage in class.



                               LESSON VI.

                               NOTATION.


=System of Notation by Letters=.—The earliest system of Notation,
attributed to =Boethius=, the Roman philosopher, seems to have been the
placing of letters over the syllables, thus:

   C   C  D    B   C   D
  My country ’tis of thee.

[Music: Boethius’ Notation]

During the period of history dominated by Pope Gregory the Great, a
change was made in this system by which capital letters, small letters
and double letters were used, an improvement, since only the first
seven letters of the alphabet were employed, thus:

[Music]

This system seems to have been used chiefly for theoretic
demonstration. These two methods indicated the _pitch_ sufficiently,
but _not_ the _duration_ of the sounds.

=Neumes=.—The next attempt was somewhat of a retrogression instead
of an improvement. Signs called _Neumes_ were placed over the words.
These signs consisted of points, lines, accents, hooks, curves, angles
and a number of other characters placed more or less exactly over the
syllables to which they were intended to be sung, in such manner as to
show, relatively, by the distance above the text, how much the voice
was to rise or fall. They did _not_ indicate _absolute pitch_ or
_duration_. The number of characters in use, according to manuscripts
still preserved, varied from seven to forty. In later forms they appear
in the notation used for the old Plain Song melodies (Gregorian) which
were recalled into general use by Pope Pius X, in 1904.

[Music:

                                Neumes.

                                Lettres.

          fh  f  gd  fff  efgfd  d g g  hg  hi  h  kk  hg  ef

                     Notation du treizième siècle.

                           Notation moderne.

                                Neumes.

                                Lettres.

     gfg  ef  hi  g  g  fd  f  de  de  c  d  gh  efg  f  d  c  dd.

                     Notation du treizième siècle.

                           Notation moderne.]

=Parallel Lines=.—Another plan was to use a variable number of _lines_,
writing the syllables in the spaces, thus:

[Illustration]

This clumsy contrivance indicated _relative_ pitch well enough, but
_not_ the _key_—or the duration. The next step was to use lines—which
varied in number—upon or between which the Neumes, which gradually
changed to square notes, were written. The pitch was indicated by using
a _red_ line for F, and a _yellow_ or _green_ line for C. A further
improvement was, to put the letters F or C and later G on one of the
lines at the beginning; the modern clefs are simply modifications of
these letters.

=Characters to Indicate Duration=.—The honor of suggesting characters
to indicate _duration_ is usually attributed to =Franco of Cologne=, an
ecclesiastic who lived in the latter part of the 12th century; but as
in the case of Gregory and Guido, we must believe that his name simply
stands as representative of a period. A system is rarely the work of
one man, rather a development from the labor of many. Franco’s treatise
on the subject marked an epoch. Up to the end of the 13th century
the notes in use were the Longa, Brevis, and Semibrevis, as well as
the Duplex Longa, or Maxima. The smaller values, the Minima, and the
Semiminima first occur about 1300. About the middle of the 15th century
white notes were introduced in place of certain of the black, the
latter color being reserved only for the smaller note values. The signs
underwent some change at this time. Maxima, Longa, Brevis, Semibrevis
(our whole note), Minima (half note), Semiminima (quarter), Fusa
(eighth), Semifusa (sixteenth).

[Illustration: Longa Brevis Semibrevis Duplex Longa or Maxima Minima
Semiminima]

[Illustration: Maxima Longa Brevis Semibrevis Minima Semiminima Fusa
Semifusa]

=The Beginnings of Harmony=.—Our information as to the beginning of
Harmony is very vague and uncertain. As early as the Saxon times
in England some rude kind of part singing, without written rules
apparently, seems to have existed. The first intimations we have of
any scientific attempts are _Faburden_ or _Falsoborden_ and Diaphony
or Organum. Faburden consisted of singing a melody while another voice
sang a _drone_ accompaniment below it; thus:

[Music]

Diaphony or Organum consisted of a succession of _fourths_ or _fifths_
and _octaves_, thus:

  [Music:  Two Parts     Three Parts]

It has been denied by some authorities that such a barbarous manner
of singing ever existed; but two considerations have been lost sight
of, in making this denial: First, the fourth, fifth and octave were
esteemed the _only consonances_. Secondly, the undisputed fact that as
late as the time of Chaucer, if not later, what was called “discanting
quatible” or “quinable” existed; this discanting was done as follows:
The performer while singing a melody accompanied himself on the lute,
playing the _same melody a fourth or fifth above_. It can hardly be
doubted that a style of performance that was esteemed in the 15th, was
perfectly satisfactory to the ears of the 10th century.

=Discant=.—Another early attempt at harmonic effect was the singing of
an _extemporaneous_ part or parts with the melody, called Discanting.
In course of time the Discant or Organum gradually crystallized
into rules, and other intervals were accepted. Strangely enough,
dissonances seem to have been admitted with great freedom, and thirds
and especially sixths, were avoided. The only dissonance that was _not_
allowed was the _minor second_.

=The New Organum=.—In the 11th century, a method of combining sounds,
called the New Organum, was developed. This kind of Organum admitted
thirds and sixths. The following example will sufficiently illustrate
this:

[Music]

=Measured Music=.—The next step in advance, and one that proved very
important and far-reaching in its results on the development of
music, was the invention of a notation that indicated, although not
very conveniently, the _relative duration_ of sounds. Thus it became
possible to express two or more parts in a permanent form. The plan of
this first attempt at a notation by means of which relative duration of
notes might be expressed was very complicated. Music written with these
signs was called Measured Music (_Cantus Mensurabilis_).

=The Record of Early Harmony=.—There are references to the manner of
using voices in combination in the writings of several men associated
with the Christian Church in its early days. =Censorinus=, who lived
in the 3d century, makes mention of a practice of using a melody in
octaves accompanied by the fifth to the lower note of the octave, which
is also the fourth to the upper. =Cassiodorus=, in the 6th century,
mentions various ways of accompanying the chant with consecutive
fourths and fifths. In a work called “Sentences About Music,” written
by =Bishop Isidore of Seville=, who lived in the 7th century, we read
that “harmony is a modulation of the voice, the concordance of many
sounds and their agreement.” In the 9th century we meet with the
names of several writers: =Remi d’Auxerre= who defines harmony as
“a consonance of voices, and their union in one group”; =Jean Scot
Erigene= who recognized that the succession of chords composed of
octaves, fifths and fourths is a rational one; =Odo= or =Otger=, a
churchman of the south of France, whose work was the first to mark
an epoch in the development of the art of music. Also another monk,
the Fleming =Hucbald=, who lived in the 10th century. They defined
consonance and dissonance, and appear to have been the first to give
rules for the construction of Diaphony. Hucbald says in his “_Musica
Enchiriadis_”: “Certain dissimilar sounds sung together make an
agreeable effect, and this mingling of voices is sweet to the ear.”

Their immediate successor, =Guido=, has been credited, unjustly, with
being the inventor of nearly every improvement in the art up to his
time. The old organum closed with his. The earliest writer who treats
of the new organum is =John Cotton=, in the 11th century. He was the
first to promulgate the rule that contrary motion is always to be
preferred to similar or oblique. He says: “At least two singers are
required in diaphony formed from different sounds. While one voice
sings a melody, the other surrounds it with different tones, and at the
end of the phrases the two voices unite at the unison or octave.” The
fullest development of the new organum was attained in the works of
=Guy de Chalis=, about the close of the 12th century. He gives examples
in which we find intervals of the eleventh and twelfth, a demonstration
of the existence of a system differing from the Gregorian, which does
not exceed the octave. In the same epoch, =Denis Lewts=, of Liége, a
Carthusian monk, gives rules to fix the use of accidental signs, a flat
to lower B, a sharp to raise F. He speaks of these as if they had been
in use for a long time, and indicated that the idea was to avoid the
occurrence of the diminished fifth or the _augmented fourth_, known
in harmony as the _tritone_. This process is called _Musica Ficta_,
and formed a part of the instruction of singers. The examples cited
by Lewts conform to this theory, and show that although in the songs,
motets and other compositions of the period the sharps and flats are
not found, it is because musicians knew the principles and made the
application for themselves. Instruction in those days was chiefly oral,
a method which placed a premium on a retentive memory. By the time that
the 13th century was reached, musical forms and melodies were widely
spread, and as we look back to the 9th century it is possible to note
the gradual development. Harmony always existed, in a limited sense;
but it did not take on a scientific development until the Middle Ages.
It is to the musicians of this latter period, from the 13th to the
15th centuries, that we must give the honor of having taken the germ
of a science of harmony and of having brought it forward to mature
development.

                               REFERENCE.

Williams.—The Story of Notation.

                               QUESTIONS.

Explain the earliest system of notation used for the Church scales.
What was the next improvement?

State the defects.

What was the system of Notation by Neumes? Did they indicate absolute
or relative pitch?

Give the successive steps making use of lines.

What was the origin of our Clef signs?

Who is credited with introducing signs to indicate Duration?

Name the signs adopted. Compare them to the notes now in use.

Explain Faburden; Diaphony; Organum; Discant; Measured Music.

Who were the early writers on the subject of music?



                              LESSON VII.

                       MUSIC OUTSIDE THE CHURCH.


Up to this, our study of music in the Christian Era has traced the
development of the art as fostered by the Christian Church, and mainly
among the people of Southern Europe, in whom there was a strong
admixture of the Latin blood and spirit. Before going farther on this
line we will look into the record of music among the races of Northern
Europe.

=Music of the Gauls=.—Roman writers give us some account of the
character of the music of the Gauls, which differed much from the
Greco-Latin songs. Roman historians make mention of the songs of the
Gallic bards, who were poets and musicians as well, composing both
religious hymns and songs in honor of their heroes. According to
Diodorus of Sicily, the Gauls practiced the musical art long before
the Christian Era, having regular schools for the instruction of the
younger bards. The instrument used in accompanying their songs was a
sort of lyre, judging from representations on some gold medals made in
the time of Julius Cæsar. Charlemagne ordered a collection of the early
Gallic songs to be made, but the work has not survived.

=The Celtic Bards=.—The Breton bards made use of an instrument the
name of which is variously spelled Crouth, Crowd, Chrotta, Crwth,
played with a bow, with an opening in the upper part through which
the performer placed the left hand in order to press the strings, the
number of which varied from three to six. The crouth of the Welsh
bards differed in some respects from those that were made use of by
the Breton bards. With them, however, a form of the harp became the
national instrument. The early history of Celtic music in Wales in
particular, is mingled with myth. We have only the names of bards,
Fingal, Fergus and Ossian, no authentic music. What is of importance to
us is the secular organization of the bards. One class included poets,
historians and those skilled in the science of heraldry; another class
comprehended musical bards, harp players bearing the title of doctors
of music, players of the six stringed crouth and singers, who must have
been skilled men, since nine years’ study was exacted of them.

[Illustration: BRETON CROUTH. LYRE (9TH CENT).]

[Illustration: IRISH HARP. ENGLISH HARP.]

=Ireland=.—The traditionary bard of Ireland is Fergus, whose songs
were of war and heroes. When St. Patrick introduced Christianity
into Ireland in the 5th century, learning and skill in the arts of
poetry and music grew to be cultivated as extensively as in more
favored lands. In the 10th century, the famous musician was the King
O’Brien Boru, whose harp is still shown in the Dublin Museum. This has
twenty-eight strings, and the sounding board, in which there are four
holes, is very large at the base. After Ireland was conquered by the
English its culture declined, owing to continuous wars and internal
strife.

=Scotland=.—The music of the Scotch, like the other Celtic races just
mentioned, is characteristic. Their harp was similar in form to the
Irish; their favorite instrument was the bagpipe. King James I is
credited with having done much to stimulate an interest in music among
his subjects. Having been a captive in England for a period of eighteen
years, he had acquired great skill in music, which was the solace
of his weary hours. According to a contemporary historian, the king
played a great many of the instruments in use in his day: the bagpipe,
psaltery, organ, harp, lute, flute and dulcimer. The music of Scotland
makes great use of the pentatonic scales, and it is likely that the
original form of many of the old Scottish folk-melodies was pentatonic.
A characteristic feature of Scottish music is the so-called “Scotch
snap,” illustrated in the short notes in the familiar air “Comin’ Thro’
the Rye,” and in the following dance tune:

[Music: STRATHSPEY]

An instrument of so marked characteristics as those displayed by the
bagpipe will naturally develop a characteristic style of music. The
pipers gave extraordinary study to the mastery of their instrument and
noted players acquired wonderful skill.[8]

=England=.—Until the time of the conquest of England by William of
Normandy (1066), music among the Anglo-Saxons was practiced by the
scalds or bards, minstrels (also called gleemen), and the monks in
the monasteries. Poetry and music were much encouraged by some of the
kings and Alfred the Great (849-901) was widely famed for his skill in
playing the harp and as a singer. In the manuscripts belonging to these
early days in England we read of such instruments as the psaltery, the
rota, little harps of eleven strings, viols, called fiddles, citharas,
cornets, trumpets, etc.

[Illustration: SCANDINAVIAN LUDR.]

=Scandinavia=.—The Runic style of writing,—which has numerous analogies
to the neumes,—used by the northern people, presents many difficulties
in the matter of translation, so that we have little chance to form
an opinion as to the early music of the Scandinavian races. They have
their national poems, a presentation of their myths in the Edda, and
the deeds of their great heroes in the Sagas, songs which inspired
both poets and musicians, an office most generally found united in one
person, called a scald, (equivalent to the Saxon bard). The sagas were
sung or chanted by the scalds to the accompaniment of a small harp. In
1639 and again in 1734, in the duchy of Schleswig, horns of pure gold
were found which had been used in the worship of Odin, covered with
Runic inscriptions, which have not yet been satisfactorily deciphered.
Other instruments belonging to this period that have been discovered
and preserved in museums are bronze horns somewhat curious in shape,
called lüdr. These instruments have been tested by experienced horn
players and give forth a fine, resonant tone. Up to the present nothing
has been discovered to indicate that the northern races had a system
of musical notation; melodies were undoubtedly transmitted by oral
communication.

=Finland=.—The people of Finland are intensely musical and have many
beautiful folk-songs. Their national epic is called the “Kalevala,” and
gives the history of the hero, Wainœmonien, god of music, who by the
exercise of his art, became the master of the universe, analogous to
the Greek myth of Orpheus. The Finnish bards used an instrument called
Kantèle or Harpu, a sort of psaltery with five strings forming the
first five notes of the minor scale, G fourth space, bass staff, to D
above.

=Progress in Southern Europe=.—As may be gathered from the hasty survey
of music among the nations in the west and north of Europe, they did
not contribute to its growth during the centuries under consideration.
It was in the south of Europe that the forces were forming, and not in
the Church as heretofore, but outside, among the people. We cannot say
who composed the songs of the people, so different in character from
the songs of the Church; they seemed to spring up spontaneously and
were passed from one to another orally. The _music of the Church lacked
measure_ or rhythm, as we may say, while the _music of the people_,
closely associated with dancing, was _rhythmic_. In fact, the scholarly
musicians of that period condemned the music of the people because
of its marked rhythmic character. On account of the crudeness of the
early instruments, often the lack of them and of competent players,
the people were accustomed to sing to their dancing, a custom still
followed in certain places. The next step was an easy one, that of
making new verses to familiar airs. Another factor in spreading music
among the people appears in the _traveling minstrels_. Without a fixed
residence, owing allegiance to no lord, by law, in many cases, out of
the pale of society, these free sons of art, who began to come into
prominence in the 11th century, roved from place to place, resting for
the night in castle, monastery, inn or wayside camp. In return for the
hospitality freely given, they sang the songs they learned from each
other and in the various lands they visited. Their accomplishments in
the music line were varied. One, Robert le Mains, said: “I can play
the lute, the violin, the pipe, the bagpipe, the syrinx, the harp, the
gigue, the gittern, the symphony, the psaltery, the organistrum, the
regals, the tabor and the rote. I can sing a song well and make tales
and fables.”

=Trouvères=.—Another influence was also at work, one that was greatly
to affect music, raising it from the level of common entertainment to
an art patronized by the highest social circles. The Crusades left a
permanent influence upon the people of Europe and upon the institution
of Chivalry, the knightly singers (trouvères) vying with each other
in verse and song, as well as in arms. Education took a higher place
and schools became more numerous (12th and 13th centuries), and music
was given recognition; this was the case not only in schools connected
with monasteries, but also in the newly established universities, such
as that at Paris. Secular music also had schools, so to speak, for,
during Lent, when all gay songs were forbidden, the trouvères and
minstrels would stop at some convenient point and teach their songs to
all who would learn; hither the great lords would send the minstrels
in their pay to renew their repertoires and learn the songs that were
most favored by the polite world. It was not possible that much advance
could be made in musical education, from a scientific side, for there
was _no_ general _system_ of _convenient notation_. Airs were taught by
playing them over, the singer with the ready ear having the advantage.
Still the efforts and studies made in the monasteries and schools were
not fruitless, although the systems evolved were very complicated,
making the reading of music a difficult matter.

=The Music of the Period=.—It is a fortunate thing for the investigator
of the history of music that, at the present time, a number of
collections of the airs of the 12th and 13th centuries are still in
existence; for example, in the National Library, Paris, which possesses
a number of magnificent manuscripts, containing songs noted down by
the French trouvères; also in the Library of the Medical School of
Montpelier there is a collection of nearly four hundred songs, secular
and religious, for two, three or four voices. The _melodic ideas_ of
this period, as indicated by these manuscripts, were _vague_ and the
_rhythms uncertain_. Yet this music, barbarous as it appears to us,
was not the product of chance, as we may think; it had its rules, just
like the music of today, the art of composing being called Discant,
referred to in Lesson VI. Sometimes these singers of the 12th and 13th
centuries tried to invent original airs, very frequently they would
take several familiar airs, two, three or four and combine them in
what seems to us a crude way, yet in a manner that was pleasing to the
hearers of their time. The style of the songs in use varied greatly, in
spite of the poverty of musical resources. In general, a song for one
voice was used only in setting the _Chansons des Gestes_, _Romances_,
_Pastourelles_, _Serventois_, _Lais_ and _Jeux Partis_. The discant
style was used in _Motets_, _Rondeaux_, _Conduits_; according as these
latter compositions were for two, three, four or five voices, they were
called _duplum_, _triplum_, _quadruplum_, and _quintuplum_.

=Troubadours=.—The cradle of the French troubadours was in Provence,
the south of France. They usually belonged to the nobility, and,
instead of performing their own pieces, had them performed by the
_jongleurs_, only occasionally consenting to sing for some company
of high-born nobles and ladies. We mention a few of those who were
counted among the troubadours: Richard the Lion-Hearted, of England,
Count William of Poitiers, Rambout, Count of Orange, Pierre d’Auvergne,
Pierre Ramon de Toulouse, Pierre Vidal, Pons de Capdueil, poet,
singer and violinist, Aimeric de Pequilain, Blagobres, a virtuoso on
all instruments, Blondel de Nesle, the Chatelain de Coucy, Thibault,
King of Navarre. Clement, the French historian, gives a list of 28
trouvères of the 13th century, less prominent socially than those
already mentioned. The most celebrated of them and the most important
from the historian’s standpoint is =Adam de La Hale= or =Halle=, born
1240. He wrote many pieces, of which we have thirty-three songs, some
rondeaux, six motets, some _Jeux Partis_, among the latter being a work
which is regarded as a sort of comic opera, sometimes called the “first
opera”: “Robin and Marion”; it consists of dialogue and airs.

[Music: AIR FROM ROBIN AND MARION.]

[Illustration: INSTRUMENTS OF THE MINNESINGERS.]

=Minnesingers=.—While the trouvères and troubadours were singing
in Provence and in France, an analogous association was forming in
Germany, to which the name Minnesingers (_Minne_, old German, “love”)
was given. A list of names belonging to the 13th century includes
162 men, among whom are several occupying thrones. Names that have
interest for us are Klingsor, Wolfram von Eschenbach (author of a poem
on “Parcival”), Gottfried of Strassburg (author of a poem “Tristan and
Isolde”), =Walter von der Vogelweide=, the =Chevalier Tannhaeuser= and
Heinrich Meissen, called Frauenlob. Richard Wagner has introduced some
of these men in his operas. The versification of the Minnesingers has
been much admired by critics; it was filled with art as well as beauty.
Their love themes differed from those of the Provençal singers in that
while the poetry of the latter declared love as a gallant sentiment,
the Germans gave it a loftier tone by mingling it with the Madonna
sentiment.

=Folk-Song=.—While the German nobles were employing themselves in the
service of art, the people were not idle. They had their tunes and
their verses. The _Locheimer Liederbuch_ (1452), contains a number of
songs, some of which are undoubtedly very old; they are melodious,
varied in rhythm and full of naïve simplicity. Some of them are
arranged in the popular _three-voice_ style, and show correct part
leading, the inclination being _toward our major and minor modes_
instead of the Church Modes.

[Illustration: HANS SACHS.]

=Mastersingers=.—The most noted musical organization among the people
was that of the Mastersingers (celebrated in Richard Wagner’s opera);
Nuremberg, Mayence, Strassburg and Frankfort were their centres. The
members were organized into a Guild, just as was the case in trade
affairs; they had a charter from the Emperor Charles IV. Their poetry
and music were not elevated, for the members of the Guild were not of
a standing and an education to give them real skill in the fine arts.
The records of the Mastersingers show that the members were principally
tradesmen, such as farriers, armorers, locksmiths, tailors, cobblers;
yet there were some members who could lay claims to culture and higher
standing, as engravers, physicians and a few gentlemen of leisure.
The most conspicuous of them all was =Hans Sachs=, the cobbler-poet
of Nuremberg. Their works were marked by _monotonous melody_, (for
the pitch is but little varied) and a heavy, clumsy rhythm. To make
up for the lack of real artistic idea they were _pedantic_ to an
extreme; composition was hedged about by a multitude of rules, to
which composers must give exact obedience. These rules were given in a
code called Tablatura. They held contests in which the members vied in
producing works exemplifying the principles of the organization.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

What country in Europe was inhabited by the Gauls?

Where did the Celts live?

What countries did the Scandinavians inhabit?

Give an account of their music.

Describe the work of minstrels, jongleurs, trouvères, troubadours.

Where did the Minnesingers live?

Tell about the Mastersingers.

Give the names of minstrels or other singers famous in history.

What was the condition of the artisan classes and guilds in the larger
German cities at this time?

If possible, get the stories of the operas, “Tannhäuser” and the
“Mastersingers of Nuremberg” and read them privately or in the class.


             SUGGESTIONS FOR A REVIEW OF PREVIOUS LESSONS.

Give an idea of the process by which music becomes an art and what the
principles of music are.

What sciences are drawn upon, and how, in the study of the beginnings
of music?

What countries offer interest to the student of musical beginnings? How
are these races related?

Give a summary of music among the Chinese. The Japanese. The Hindoos.

Give a summary of music among the Chaldeans. The Egyptians. The
Hebrews. What points in common did these races show?

Give an account of the writers on music among the Greeks, and their
works.

Describe the Scale of Conjunct Tetrachords. Disjunct Tetrachords. The
Lesser Perfect System. The Greater Perfect System.

Give the names of the various Greek Scales.

Give a summary of the Greek Octave System. Describe the Chromatic and
Enharmonic Scales.

Describe the Greek musical instruments; notation.

Tell the story of music among the Romans. How did the Church Scales
originate? State the differences between the Greek and the Church
Scales.

What is the function of the Dominant in the Church Scales? Describe the
Hexachord Scales and the names of the sounds.

Describe early systems of notation in music. Describe early attempts
at Harmony. What was Discant? Give a summary of the statements of the
early writers on the subject of Harmony.

Give an account of music among the Gauls and Celts, the Saxons,
Scandinavians, etc.

Tell about the great song movement outside the church, minstrels, etc.;
the Minnesingers; the Mastersingers.

Each of these questions or several together may be made the subject
of a written paper, giving a summary. Students should be encouraged
to make critical examination of a subject, to institute comparisons
showing progress, and the steps that mark that progress, wherein one
man has drawn from a predecessor, wherein new things have been done.



                              LESSON VIII.

              THE CAUSES OF POLYPHONIC DEVELOPMENT AND THE
                   IMPORTANCE OF THE POLYPHONIC ERA.


In the Introduction attention was called to the fact that the labors of
musicians to develop an art of music varied between the effort to make
artistic use of the material of music, that is, to give it definite
form, and to make it express the feelings of mankind; the first is in
the line of construction, the second, content. The period we now take
up was concerned most deeply, in its earlier stages, as we shall see,
with finding adequate and logical principles of construction by which a
musical composition of more or less length could be made from a simple
musical idea and in which more than one voice could be used.

This period should be studied with the greatest thoroughness, and all
possible examples of music of the composers representative of the
period should be examined that one may gather a clear idea of the
beginnings of composition and the development that shows from one
generation to the next. These first gropings after the principles
are matters of extreme interest to the musician when he compares the
results in the music of the twentieth century.

=The Polyphonic and Monophonic Styles=.—Students frequently express
surprise that the complicated polyphonic or contrapuntal system,
which began to take shape in the 11th century, should appear first,
historically. The pupil in composition begins his studies with the
harmonic or monophonic style and is afterwards inducted into the
polyphonic style. Why did the musical art develop along polyphonic
and not on the simpler lines? It is intended that this lesson and
those that follow shall show some of the influences that caused the
line of development to move in a polyphonic and not in a monophonic
direction. One thought is important to note. The elements of the
simple, monophonic style _were present_ in the music of the early
centuries, in the _people’s song_, principally; since, however, it was
the Church that determined the direction of artistic composition, the
simple, natural principles of melody-making _yielded precedence to_ a
more highly organized, _intellectual process_. Before taking up the
consideration of these matters it is well to get an understanding of
the terms Monophony and Polyphony.

There are two methods of giving harmonic support to a melody: by
adding an accompaniment of chords, in simple or elaborated form, or
by dividing the notes of the chords among three or more voices, which
notes are sung or played simultaneously with the melody (an example
is furnished by any simple air with accompaniment or a hymn-tune in
four parts, in which the “air” or melody is in the soprano); this is
Monophony, (_monos_—Greek for “one,” _phone_—“sound”); a second method
is to add to the given melody other melodies, each independent in its
movement up and down and in the duration of its successive sounds so
far as concerns the movement and duration of the sounds in the given
melody. This is Polyphony (_polus_, Greek for “many”).

=Relation of Polyphonic to Modern Music=.—The exact relation of the
Polyphonic Era to modern music has rarely been correctly estimated.
Writers on this phase of the development of music are apt to lose
themselves in wonder on noting the scientific growth of the art, and
to express their great surprise that so peculiar an evolution should
occur. This view of the question is totally inadequate. In order truly
to estimate the value and influence of the period, it is necessary to
inquire into the properties of the materials of musical construction
which were developed, and the value of those materials as a foundation
for the modern structure of music, apparently so different from the
early forms, but yet so intimately related to these forms.

Polyphonic music presents to the student so complex a form as to
require the aid of material imagery in order to help the mind to a
proper conception of it. Perhaps no more misleading idea has been
advanced than that which makes use of the Gothic cathedral as an
illustration of polyphonic form. It is true that in its multiplicity
and yet inter-relation of details the cathedral expresses one of the
dominant ideas of polyphonic music; but here the likeness fails. A
nicer perception of the subject may be gained by comparing _polyphonic
music_ to the _foundation of a Gothic cathedral_, strong and massive
in construction, of utmost need to the permanence of the building,
but entirely lost sight of in a general view of the whole structure;
the importance of the comparison being the likeness of the complex
and highly-developed superstructure to monophonic or modern music,
seemingly so independent of what lies beneath, but in reality,
dependent upon, and intimately connected with the established basis.
Only in this way can we apprehend the real value of the polyphonic
foundation to our superstructure of modern music; but for that
foundation our modern music must have remained in its infancy for
centuries to come. No freedom of artistic expression can be gained
until absolute command of the material to be used has been obtained,
and the principles thoroughly assimilated by the artist.

=Polyphony and Monophony Contrasted=.—In the concrete, _polyphonic_
music may be represented by a series of lines representing _separate_
and distinct _melodies_; though a principal melody is always used,
it is not supported by chords of harmonic structure but by other
melodies, or transpositions of the same melody, so used as to contrast
with and support each other. Polyphonic music was essentially
melodic, and, as has been very aptly stated, is to be thought of
horizontally. Monophonic music might best be represented by one
horizontal line supported at intervals by short, perpendicular lines.
In this case the horizontal line represents the only distinct melody,
and the perpendicular lines the subordinate or harmonic support or
accompaniment. The following example illustrates the process of using
the same melody to furnish the principal idea and also the accompanying
support, the latter being at the same time simply a transposition of
the original melody.

[Music: Lento 1st Voice 2d Voice 3d Voice]

Polyphonic Style. Bach Fugue. Subject (or melody) enters in measure
one; again, transposed to the fourth below in measure three, and one
octave below in measure ten. Enough is cited to show the horizontal
structure of polyphonic music.

To present the idea more clearly and for the sake of contrast, a melody
with accompaniment is shown in the next illustration, giving a single
melody with the subordinate chord accompaniment, the chords in whole
notes indicating the harmonic structure or basis.

[Music]

Beethoven, Op. 24, Monophonic Style. Sonata for Violin and Piano.
Melody enters in measure one with subordinate accompaniment.

=Search for Structural Principles=.—While this question of the relation
of polyphonic music to modern music may not apply to the first step in
the development of the polyphonic style, yet it furnishes a preface to
a discussion of the earliest stages of polyphonic evolution. The period
preceding the year 1000 A. D. was truly a _period_ of _fundamental
research_ into the underlying principles of melodic and harmonic
structure; but so crude and hesitating was the use of what was found
that it is certain that polyphonic material was entirely misused
until the birth of “measured music” dispelled this darkness by the
enlightening influence of Proportion and Form. So many forms of musical
growth, such as came in later years, were impossible without the
mensural proportion, that is, music written so as to indicate duration,
that this initial period gathered but a chaotic mass of musical
material which was left undigested and unassimilated until the epoch of
the Paris school.

=Beginning of Polyphony in Greek Magadizing=.—The music of the Middle
Ages has great interest for the historian and the student. It stands
between our music and the music of the ancients; it drove its roots
deep into the ancient time and extended its branches far into the
contemporaneous epoch. It is the struggle between the two elements,
the changes foreshadowed and apparent that give such interest to the
history of music in the Middle Ages.

Polyphonic music was long in growing. To understand clearly, one must
examine it from its very _beginning_ in Greek _magadizing_, referred to
in Lesson V. Music for many centuries was, in all its most important
phases, entirely vocal. The ancients, probably because of the crude
forms of their instruments, valued the human voice as the most suitable
means of expressing the feelings through music, thus causing the
peculiar phenomenon of the extremely late development of dissonances.
While instruments can easily perform even the harshest of the
dissonances, it is almost impossible for untrained voices to sing other
than the more simple consonances. For this reason, the dependence on
the voice as practically the only medium for the expression of musical
ideas forced the cultivators of music to use the simple consonances of
the octave, fourth and fifth. In its earliest stages music was entirely
melodic and was limited to the use of one distinct melody, so that,
no matter how many were singing, but _one melody_ was employed. Soon
arose the problem of accommodating the voices of boys and men to the
same melody. It was manifestly impossible to have men and boys sing
in unison, because of the difference in the compass of their voices;
so the Greeks hit upon the plan of causing them to _sing in octaves_,
a plan which science sanctioned, for had not Pythagoras proven that
the octave, after the unison, was the most perfect consonance? This
the Greeks called Magadizing. Why the Greeks, knowing as they did the
other consonances, did not magadize in the fourth and fifth cannot
be explained; the only argument that can be advanced is, that their
melodies were so limited in range that the voice of any man, whether
tenor or bass, could without difficulty reach the highest or lowest
tones of a melody in unison. While magadizing among the Greeks cannot
be counted as a great advance toward the realm of polyphony and
harmony, yet it was the first important step in the evolution, and as
such, is important. So far, the voices singing _simultaneously_, though
at a different pitch, and moving together in _similar_ time values,
followed monophonic methods.

=Organum the Next Step=.—Further development did not take place until
the destruction of Greek civilization had occurred and a sufficient
lapse of time had allowed the Christian Church to establish itself:
in a religious sense, in the hearts of the people, and in a permanent
sense, by building churches and monasteries. In these monasteries we
find the next great advance in magadizing, though now under the name
of Diaphony or Organum. The musical learning of the time was painfully
inadequate for the uses to which it was put. There remained in
existence only a few of the Greek scientific scales, and those woefully
distorted in form; no simple notation or musical literature; and in all
probability, only a tradition in regard to the melodic construction
and magadizing. Perhaps this was just as well, however, for the problem
confronting these monks differed greatly from that solved by the
Greeks. In the monasteries _only men’s voices were used_, and these
without special regard to the compass. The problem was this: Given a
melody to sing, using men’s voices of every range, from high tenor to
low bass, without using independent parts. The difficulties were two in
number: they had no conception of independent parts, and their melodies
were of greater range than those of the Greeks, thus forbidding the
practice of singing entirely in the octave or unison. The solution was
reached in the following way, as indicated in the preceding lesson: If
the octave, unison, fourth and fifth were consonances, why not _sing
in the fourth and fifth_ as well as in the unison and octave? They
had as yet no idea of singing two distinct melodies at the same time,
but thought only of singing the same melody in the most consonant or
agreeable manner. The result was music which sounded like the following
example; while it was crude and harsh, it gave every monk opportunity
to sing simultaneously the same melody, no matter what the range of his
voice:

[Music]

About the close of the ninth century, as we learned in Lesson VI,
at the time of =Otger= or =Odo=, an abbot of Provence, in France,
organizing had so developed as to be written for as many as four parts,
using, however, only the perfect consonances, as the next example will
show. In reality there are but two parts, as the two lower voices
double the upper.

[Music]

=Secular Organum=.—The most remarkable advance is shown in a form
called Secular Organum, probably because of some relation to the
Folk-song and the common people. This form showed the use not only
of perfect consonances but of the imperfect consonance of the third;
and, wonderful to relate, of a second, though only in a passing sense.
That such a discord should be used is a remarkable commentary on the
inherent sense of harmony which seemed to exist naturally, even at that
early day. This form may have had its germ in the drone bass supplied
by the bagpipe, which figured in the music of the people.

[Music]

Example of Secular Organum showing use of third and second.

=The Workers=.—Two men, as was shown in the preceding lesson, were
instrumental in remarkably furthering this growth of music. =Hucbald=,
of St. Amand, in Flanders, was born in 840 A. D. and died in 930. He
was a friend of Otger of Provence, and it is through the latter that
some of Hucbald’s work is preserved. Hucbald probably never wrote in
organum of more than two parts, though mention is made of an organum
credited to him and having in addition to the two voices, a third
singing a pedal-point, or a bass on one single tone. His principal work
is a manuscript on organum, a work of great reference value. =Guido
of Arezzo=, born 990, died 1050, is of even more importance. Unlike
Hucbald and Otger, he seems to have been more than a secluded monk,
for he visited Rome and was a well-known figure in the church. He was
a most active teacher, and while his chief work was in developing
notation, he nevertheless contributed important material in the form of
organum, writing in as many as four parts, though in respect to the use
of the less perfect consonances he was very little freer than Hucbald.

A short example, extracted from an 11th century three-part composition,
is given here as a specimen of the combinations and successions
that were tolerated by the ears of the Middle Ages, and to show the
tendency toward greater freedom in the direction of the motion of the
parts, pointing toward those principles which later formed the science
of Counterpoint.

[Music:

TENOR (sounds lower octave)

TENOR (sounds lower octave)

BASS]

Several interesting points may be seen in this barbarous composition:
First, the imitation by the second tenor of the phrase given by the
first tenor. This is evidently intentional, as this phrase occurs three
times in the course of the composition and is imitated in the same
way every time. This same phrase occurs near the end of the bass part
(which is the theme or _Cantus_) and it _may_ have been chosen for
this very reason for use in the Discant parts. Secondly, the initial
and final chords, viz.: root, fifth and octave—are familiar to all
students of Strict Counterpoint. Writers as late as Cherubini call this
combination the best for beginning and ending Three Part Counterpoint.

=Development Determined by the Church=.—The Church and its beliefs
were responsible for this singular yet not illogical development.
Considering the peculiar monastic conditions, the evolution could not
be expected to occur along lines which it would have taken had it been
developed among the people and under the influence of the Folk-song.
The learning of these monks was largely in church lore, and this, with
a desire for a peculiar church music, led to the _discarding_ of the
natural and vivacious _melodies_ and _rhythms_ of the _people_, for the
scientific and ascetic music and discipline of monastic religion. The
one great advantage of this period to modern music was the constant
association with the principal intervals of the scale; an association
which may be partially responsible for our modern Tonic and Dominant
harmonies. On the whole, this period represents the marking out of the
lines of musical development for the eight centuries following, though
the men responsible for this beginning could hardly have known or
appreciated the impetus which was to be given polyphonic music by the
invention of their simple devices to accommodate voices of different
compass and to secure concerted singing.


                              REFERENCES.

Oxford History of Music, Vol. I.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. I.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, articles on Harmony, Schools
of Composition, and Organum.

Hope.—Mediæval Music.

Williams.—Music of the Ancient Greeks. Hymn to Apollo. (Note small
compass of the melody.)

Rowbotham.—History of Music. Chapter on “Music in the Monasteries.”

Dickinson.—History of Music in the Western Church.

Parry.—Evolution of the Art of Music, Chapter IV.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

What is meant by Monophony? Polyphony?

Make an analogy between Polyphonic music and Architecture.

Contrast Polyphony and Monophony by the use of lines.

What was the nature of the researches in music before 1000 A. D.?

How did the Greek magadizing influence musical development?

What is Organum? Secular Organum?

Who were the prominent musicians of this period?

How did the Church influence musical development?

The teacher or one of the pupils may give a summary of the Gothic style
of architecture. Another pupil may give the most noted historical
events coinciding with this period; also historical characters.
Scholarship was cherished principally in the Church and in the
monasteries, hence the predominance of Churchmen in the early history
of music. Hucbald lived during the time of Alfred the Great; Guido
died 16 years before the battle of Hastings (1066). A useful device in
fixing the details of a lesson is for the teacher to arrange that the
pupils shall question him, the questions to be of such a nature as to
show that they know the lesson thoroughly.



                               LESSON IX.

                           THE PARIS SCHOOL.


=Influence of Art on Music=.—All of the fine arts, with the exception
of Music had, by the year 1100, reached a fairly high stage of
development due, no doubt, to the fact that they are to a great
extent composed of concrete materials. Music, owing to its lack of
the concrete and the inability of men literally to place their hands
upon its material, had lagged behind, so that in 1100 we find only a
small amount of material, and that in a most chaotic condition. This
material was, however, sufficient to produce definite musical forms
if united into a homogeneous whole; such a state, however, could
be produced only as the result of some great influence which would
galvanize the component parts into action. Fortunately, there was
just such an influence, one which had passed through an evolution
similar to that needed in music, though because of its more concrete
form and its necessity to man, this evolution had occurred at a
proportionately earlier date. This influence was an art form, a phase
of architecture known as the Gothic. Gothic architecture was a form
built up by the unifying of the principal styles of architecture into
one uniform whole, and composed of a _multiplicity_ of _details_, but
of such evident _relation to each other_ as to make a distinct art
form. This form was first used in Paris about the year 1000 A. D.
Music was, approximately, in the same condition as Architecture before
the birth of the Gothic principle, and needed a stimulus, a comrade
art undergoing much the same evolution, to start it on its path of
polyphonic development. In the year 1100 musical chaos became united
into one uniform art by means of Measured Music or Proportion, thus
allowing the systematizing of the mass of then existing material,
and the construction of definite art forms. Since Architecture had
undergone just such a change one century before, it is more than
probable that the effect of this change was the starting of a similar
one in Music, though the result was not to show until one hundred years
after its occurrence in the kindred art.

=Paris the Centre of Europe=.—It was natural that these two great
changes should take place in Paris, at that time the centre of wealth
and learning for all Europe. Paris, in addition to its many other
advantages, had long possessed a great university which had produced
many scholars and theologians. The influence of the Church in all art
was then paramount, for all art was employed in the service of the
Church; Architecture gave to the Church its Gothic cathedrals; Painting
and Frescoing its marvelous interior decorations; while Music made
possible the richer forms of the service or liturgy. In that sense the
Church, in its centre of theological study, would undoubtedly react on
the practice of music and produce more beautiful forms for the service.
In this period it is worthy of note that all the _famous musicians_,
as before, were _monks_, or men employed in the Church, and the reason
for this condition is plain: there was no art of music outside of the
Church.

=Measured Music=.—Just as the use of many voices produced singing
in parts, so did it produce Measured Music. To make it possible to
use more than two parts at the same time it was necessary to have
some definite agreement as to the value of the notes, in order to
have certain uniform times for beginning, ending and performing the
different portions of a composition agreeably; and so Measured Music
was born. It may be said here that the different metrical divisions
were not shown by means of bar lines as we now use them, but by
different groupings of the notes, the time value of each depending on
its relative position to the others. Perhaps of all forms produced by
this system, the _Organum Purum_ was the earliest and most peculiar.
It consisted of a _Cantus Firmus_ set to words, and metrical in form;
a second voice freely extemporized a higher part, evidently the only
rule being that the two finish together. At a late date, strict Discant
sometimes alternated with the old Organum, making it much less free in
character.

=The Important Forms=.—In reality, the important forms produced were
entirely in strict metrical divisions. Of these, the most important
were the so-called strict Organum, the Conductus, the Roundel and the
Motet. Of the strict Organum very little is known, excepting that it
was a strictly metrical form, differing, in that sense only, from
the Organum Purum; it had also words for all parts and not only for
the Cantus Firmus, as had the older forms. The Conductus, from the
Latin _conducere_, to conduct, was important, and was a secular form
having as its basis a popular melody or a newly invented one, secular
words and much freer intervals than church compositions. Each part
was expected to be melodious; and it varied from two to four in the
number of voices used. It was sung during a march, a funeral cortège or
procession.

[Music]

Conductus for three voices showing that each part is a distinct melody.
Oxford History of Music, Vol. I.

=The Roundel=, from an historical view-point, was the most important
form, for in it much use was made of Imitation. It can best be
explained in the words of Walter Odington, a theorist of the time:
“Let a melody, with or without a text, in one of the regular modes
of rhythm, and as beautiful as possible, be devised, and let each
voice sing this in turn. And at the same time let other melodies be
devised to accompany it in the second and (if there be three voices)
in the third voice; let them proceed in consonances, and so that when
one voice ascends another descends, and let the third not follow too
closely the movement of either of the others, except perhaps for the
sake of greater beauty. And let all of these melodies be sung by each
voice in turn.” While the use of Imitation is important in that it
recognizes the _repetition_ of a set phrase as an _aid_ to _Unity_, its
importance is detracted from, at least at this period, because it was
not used in any of the other forms then in vogue.

[Music]

Roundel for three voices showing Imitation. There are six distinct
melodic phrases, and by numbering these wherever they appear, the
Imitation can readily be observed.

=Imitation a Means of Securing Unity=.—An art form must submit to
the laws of the human mind, which demand that a work of art shall
show three principles: Unity, Variety or Contrast and Proportion or
Symmetry. The problem set before the old composers was to produce
musical works which should exhibit obedience to the canons of art
as determined in the sister arts which had already reached great
perfection. Unity in a musical work means that it is a development of
one central thought, in elaborate works, of several leading ideas. The
germ of a musical composition is in the Theme. The composer’s problem
is to elaborate a piece of some length from this Theme, in that way to
secure Unity of idea. If he were limited to writing in one part, he
would be compelled to _repeat_ the Theme a number of times, either on
the _same_ or on a _different_ degree. When he must write for three
or more voices the problem becomes more complicated. Let us imagine
a composer of the 12th-century at his work. He has a theme to use,
like the one in the example at the end of the preceding paragraph,
which he is to use in three parts. From the composers of the preceding
centuries he received the principle of _transposing_ the theme a fourth
or fifth or octave higher or lower, thus singing the same melody
_simultaneously_ at different pitches; but this he rejects as crude; he
has passed that stage and wishes to use a newer, more advanced method.
Obviously his recourse will be to let each of the other two voices sing
the opening theme _successively_ at the same pitch. To stop with this
change would result only in three successive repetitions of the opening
theme; so he makes the second and third voices sing the phrases used by
the first voice after the first theme has been given, which serve as
an accompaniment to the second and third entries of the first theme;
thus all the voices sing the various phrases, at different times and
in different successions, as shown by the numbering of the phrases.
In later times the principal phrases were sung _successively and
transposed_ at the same time. This principle of Imitation is the very
foundation of the later complicated polyphonic system.

=The Motet=.—In the form of the Motet we note many peculiarities. Each
voice had different words, though the Tenor or foundation of the
composition used but _one_ single word throughout; also, the Tenor
was composed of a certain metrical and melodic figure closely adhered
to and built up out of some popular song. The words and the form were
sacred in that they were used in worship.

=The Men of the Time=.—There are many men who wrote in these forms
but it is only necessary to examine those of importance. =Franco of
Cologne= (1150-1220), (dates disputed), an organist, was probably
the pioneer in the adoption of Measured Music. He first advocated
the use of triple meter and classified the dissonances of major and
minor thirds and sixths. He used his influence _against_ the use of
_consecutive fourths_ and _fifths_, and _for_ the use of _contrary
motion_. The result is in many ways shown in the following example:

[Music]

=Leonin= (about 1140) and =Perotin= (his pupil) were organists at
Notre Dame in Paris. The former was noteworthy in the reform of
notation, while the latter is known principally for his use of crude
Imitation, and a tendency not to use consecutive fourths and fifths,
though he never entirely succeeded in eradicating them. =Franco of
Paris= (1150———), often confused with his namesake of Cologne, was
a theoretician, improved notation, and wrote a treatise on Mensural
Music. =Jean de Garlande= (1170-125—) not only wrote a very valuable
treatise on Mensural Music, but was also a composer of note; his
writings contained specimens of Double Counterpoint, though probably
used without the intention of producing them. =Jerome de Moravie=
(1260) wrote a scholarly treatise on Discant, and such was his ability
that he illustrated it with his own compositions, making it one of the
most valuable reference works in existence. It is worthy of mention
that all of these men were churchmen in the sense that their work was
all done in, or with the approval of, the Church, and was therefore
influenced by the peculiar beliefs and customs then obtaining in that
institution. This point must ever be kept in mind, for any prolonged
contact with Folk-music must have changed the entire development of the
art; therefore we must regard the Church as the dominant influence of
early music.

=Summary=.—The work of this period can hardly be over-estimated.
First we see the influence of the Gothic in architecture, producing
a corresponding unity in music; a unity which was concomitant with
Measured or Mensural Music. We next see the attempt to combine metrical
with unmetrical forms in the Organum Purum, and the final result in
the strict form of Organum. Then we note the freedom shown in the
Conductus, Roundel and Motet, as well as freedom in the use of more
pleasing intervals, with the tendency to eradicate consecutive fourths
and fifths; the use of contrary motion instead of parallel, and the
consequent melodic freedom of the voices, and finally the use of
Imitation, though perhaps unintentionally, except in the Roundel. This
period then marks the acquisition not only of new intervals, new forms,
new styles of melodic writing, imitation, measured music and simple
counterpoint of note against note, but also forms the foundation for a
rapid development by bequeathing to the Gallo-Belgic School a wealth of
material, bound up with rules and only half-suspected as to its value,
it is true, but broad and firm enough to sustain a mighty structure of
true Polyphonic Music.


                              REFERENCES.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. I.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Article on Schools of
Composition, section relating to early French music.

Hope.—Mediæval Music. Technical Explanation of Mensural Music.

Oxford History of Music, Vol. I, pages 74-388. Technical explanation of
measured music.

Luebke.—History of Art, for an account of Byzantine, Romanesque and
Gothic Architecture.

Guizot.—History of France, for an account of Paris in 1100, with a
statement of manners and customs.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

How did art influence music?

What made Paris the centre of Europe?

What was Measured Music?

What forms of music were developed in this period? Explain them.

Why is Imitation a logical process toward securing Unity in musical
construction?

Who are leading composers of this period?

What are the successive steps of development as shown in this period?

The historical period corresponding with this lesson extends from the
death of William Rufus, son of William the Conqueror, to the death of
Richard the Lion-Hearted, and includes the Crusade in which that hero
was the principal figure. It will be remembered that Richard was a
great patron of minstrelsy.



                               LESSON X.

                        THE GALLO-BELGIC SCHOOL.


=A New Art Centre=.—The development of any art, and more especially
Music, requires the dominance of wealth, learning and general
civilizing forces, to form an epoch-marking school. Paris for a
time satisfactorily filled these conditions, and then gave place to
a school, stronger and better equipped: that of the Netherlands.
There were several reasons for this change in the centre of musical
activity. So long as Paris was dominant in wealth and civilization,
and so long as she maintained her supremacy in the intellectual fields
of the Church and university, so long did she retain the centre of
culture; but when her wealth became such as to produce degeneracy
in the taste for pure art, and love of show rather than real worth
became predominant, then her native pupils began to lose their
intellectual strength, and the pupils from foreign countries began
to furnish the real culture. The establishment of the Papal See at
Avignon in the south of France doubtless contributed to the supremacy
of France in music and the liberal arts. When the See was restored
to Rome, in 1377, Paris and her school of music were relegated to
the background. From this period on it was but a matter of time for
these pupils to carry the centre of musical culture from Paris to
a place possessing a foundation for musical growth, and a greater
number of strong minded scholars, and where political conditions were
favorable. The Netherlands surpassed Paris in all of these important
particulars, though not at the time when the Paris School ceased to be
of importance. There was a school of transition which filled the space
left between the important work of Paris and the supremacy of the
Netherlands; that school was the Gallo-Belgic, located northeast from
Paris on the borderline between France and Belgium, Tournay being the
centre. The school at Paris was occupied in acquiring material for use;
the school of the Netherlands developed polyphonic music emotionally;
the step from acquisition to arrangement of material was necessary
before emotional development could occur, and that was the work of the
Gallo-Belgic School. This school was located in the country of Hucbald
and Odo, who had built up there, a little while before, a system of
music which was the foundation of the polyphonic style, and which had
prepared the people for a culture of greater value and importance.
Thus we see that musical development followed the line of greatest
preparation, and utilized the preparatory work furnished by these two
men. And finally, it was a direct step toward the Netherlands which
were even then beginning the struggle in which they were victorious,
for supremacy in commerce, art, and music.

=Contribution of the Paris School=.—When the Paris school ceased to
be of utmost importance to the world of music it had bequeathed to
the later schools Measured Music, and its forms of Organum, Motet,
Conductus and Roundel, and the use of certain not unpleasing intervals,
though occasional consecutive fourths, fifths, and octaves appeared.
It was, then, the business of the Gallo-Belgic school to refine these
intervals, develop measured music, and so improve and develop these
old primary forms, eliminating some and evolving others, as to give
the school of the Netherlands, one century later, forms pleasing in
intervals and of sufficient unity and design to afford opportunity for
the infusion of the emotional. In the matter of intervals much was done
to develop and use the old ones, excepting the consecutive fourths and
fifths which were abolished never to appear again, and many new, or
previously unused intervals, were made use of. In the matter of forms,
we hear no more of the crude Organum and Conductus, but a little about
the Motet, and nothing at all in regard to the Roundel, as such. It
is, however, due entirely to this last form that polyphonic music
developed; though we hear no more of the Roundel, we do hear much in
regard to the Canon, and the Canon was but a highly developed species
of the Roundel.

=Imitation and the Canon=.—The use of Imitation, as we have seen,
gradually became more and more important. The old monks, in the very
beginning, imitated melody in the fourth and fifth; at the time of
the Paris school these melodies were combined with new ones making
Imitation with more than one melody, though the melody underwent no
real organic development. Now we see in the inception of the Canon a
development of real Imitation of only one melody, but given _Variety_
by use of the devices of Inversion, Augmentation, Diminution, etc. And
not only did this occur in the Canon, but we find it also in the other
forms, in a freer style, adding materially to the _Unity_. Imitation is
the foundation principle of polyphonic music, and this principle was
present in the crude efforts of the old monks, in the more intelligent
efforts of the Paris school, and now for the first time, receives, in
the Gallo-Belgic school, a partial recognition of its real value, and a
commensurate use.

[Music]

Naumann, History of Music, Vol. I, page 315, extract from a chanson by
Dufay. Figure 1 shows the principal melody, figure 2 shows the same
at the fifth below. The entire chanson is quoted in Naumann with the
various imitations fairly well marked; the student should refer to it.

=The Value of Imitation=.—We must understand, however, that mere
Imitation is in itself not a remarkable phenomenon. We imitate, more
or less unconsciously, in all arts, and even in our daily habits;
but this would be of no lasting importance did we not take that
imitation as a foundation for future development, as did the composers
of this school. And in these polyphonic schools the imitation was
unintentional, as a definite aid to the structure of a musical idea,
until it was seen that the _imitation_ must be _confined_ to _one
definite idea_ or melody. It was then that the original treatment of
melodic development began, and the various devices for developing
a melody, without changing its organic structure, inaugurated.
This marked the beginning of a school of musical art, a school of
definite, and not chance evolution; or in other words, arrangement and
development of the earlier acquired ideas.

=A Technical Principle=.—A little consideration will show how the
principle of Imitation was developed. The first step was to imitate a
melody at a lower or higher pitch and sing the two or more versions
_simultaneously_; the next step was to bring in the second and other
imitating voices _successively_, at the same or different pitch; thus
making the imitation more prominent. So long as composers confined
their efforts to using fixed melodies, they could not go far. When
they began to adapt well-known melodies and later to invent their
own it became possible to make a lengthy work, this leading to a
composition in which each of the accompanying voices imitated the
first; sometimes only two voices used imitation, the other having a
somewhat free part. A next step was to _vary_ the _imitation_, by
changing the motion of the imitating part; if the melody moved up,
the imitating part moved downward and _vice versa_; sometimes the
movement was reversed, the imitation beginning with the last note of
the phrase and proceeding to the first; sometimes it was made in notes
of smaller value (diminution), sometimes in larger (augmentation).
These and other devices were experimented with and worked out by the
Gallo-Belgic composers. One readily sees that this is _intellectual_
work, that it puts a premium on cleverness and lays expression aside.
Yet the technic of an art must first be acquired and the composers
of this period were doing this in working out a system of technic in
composition with Imitation as the foundation.

[Music]

Illustration from Naumann, “History of Music,” page 321, Vol. I,
showing at 1 and 2 the principal melody and its imitation, and at 3,
imitation and inversion. The student should examine the entire example
in Naumann.

=The Work of the Gallo-Belgic School=.—We note that many of the new
ideas came into being at this time, all of them, however, tending
toward the arranging of material or the preparing of it for the
emotional style. The Canon, and the principle of Imitation, developed
a set of strict rules which tended to produce more adequate command
of material and assisted in shaping the Fugue; though we, in our
own day, regard these rules as positively detrimental to the real
expression of emotion, yet they were necessary adjuncts to the real
command of _technic_. With Imitation came Counterpoint of a more
highly developed form; an inevitable step toward the fugal style of
the later polyphonic periods. And lastly came a use of _Folk-music
melodies_ and the _Leading Tone_, important because they foreshadow the
abandonment of the old Church Modes, and the _adoption of the Natural
Scale_. This marks the important point in the Gallo-Belgic school;
for with the introduction of the Natural Scale there came increasing
tendency for emotional expression, which could never have occurred had
the Church Modes retained their former position in music. The idea
of this preparation of material for emotional development cannot be
emphasized too strongly. Upon the Gallo-Belgic school rested the burden
of preparing this material for the later schools, so that these could
demonstrate to the world that while polyphonic music could not be
surpassed as a means of expressing certain impersonal, almost religious
emotions, it could not express to the fullest, the intimate, personal,
emotional ideas of the romantic composers.

=The Men=.—The men of this period are more important than any that have
yet been mentioned, and for that reason require more detailed study.
=H. de Zeelandia= (13—-1370), a native of Flanders, was a teacher and
composer, and author of a theoretical treatise with musical examples,
“De Musica”; with him the use of consecutive fourths, fifths and
octaves almost disappears, though it remained for a later composer to
abolish these entirely. =Guillaume Dufay= (1355-1435) was the one to
whom this reform must be finally accredited. He used in place of the
old church form of Cantus Firmus, the popular melodies of the people
with their tendency toward the Natural Scale and the use of the Leading
Tone and its decisive tonality; it may be said that these melodies
were not used in their entirety, or even in their original form, the
rhythm and meter oftentimes being altered so that the airs were hardly
recognizable, though the essential parts were there. It is Dufay who
is responsible for the first intelligent use of Imitation as a basis
for the Canon. =Gilles (Ægidius) Binchois= (1400-1465) was a noted
composer and, with Dufay, a joint founder of the Gallo-Belgic school.
He is said to have been a soldier before he entered the Church, and
must have been of a light-hearted disposition, as he was called “the
father of joyousness.” He was the teacher of Okeghem, Firmin Caron and
of Busnois. =Antoine de Busnois= (1440-1481) was the last famous master
of this school before it was merged into the school of the Netherlands.
In his works one can note a further progress in smoothness of style
and examples of well managed imitation. The character of the latter
is so scholarly and so clearly not a matter of improvisation that we
must consider him a man given to study and reflection, just the kind of
character to give scientific study to the principle of Imitation.

=The Importance of this School=.—This school occupied only a short
period of time (1360-1460), as compared to some of the other schools;
but in that time much was done. The material taken from the Paris
school was great and capable of being developed, though it was
encumbered by unusual intervals and a prejudice against the more
euphonious ones, and by a number of obsolete forms; so obsolete, in
fact, that with perhaps one exception, the Motet, none lasted until
the time of Bach. But the use of Imitation and Measured Music was
sufficient for the men of the Gallo-Belgic school, and with this
as a foundation, and the constantly-increasing tendency to use the
Folk-music and the Natural Scale, they succeeded in so arranging their
material that the men of the Netherlands had but to infuse emotion to
make it produce great music. Dufay and his contemporaries had done this
much: to create organically well-ordered tone combinations agreeable
both in melodic and harmonic relations. Both artists and public found
pleasure in the many transitions, the free use of suspensions, the
altered tones and chords borrowed from other scales, in the ensemble
of these methods which did not give rise in reality to chord-relations
as we understand them, yet suggested something of the kind, and
particularly were they pleased with the use of the variety-giving
changing notes. Because the Gallo-Belgic school did not invent new
forms, or develop old forms to a high degree of perfection, is no
reason why it should not be given a high rank among polyphonic schools,
for the process of refining and transition is often more difficult than
that of inventing.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Look up biographical
references of the men mentioned in this lesson, also the explanation of
Imitation and Canon.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. I.

Parry.—Evolution of the Art of Music.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Why did Paris lose her position as the centre of culture in art?

What did the Paris school contribute?

In what way was Imitation to be valuable to musical composition?

What new methods of Imitation now appear?

What are the important points in the work of the Gallo-Belgic school?

Who were the prominent musicians in this school?

What advance is marked over the work of the Paris school?

The teacher should place on the board an outline of the leading
countries of Europe, Italy, France, Germany and the Netherlands,
showing the cities concerned in the development of music up to the time
of Bach and Handel.

The reader can appreciate that the condition of France and Paris was
not favorable to the growth of art at this period, which was one of
wars between England and France in the territories of the latter. In
1346, Edward III of England won the battle of Crécy; the struggle was
continued for the next hundred years at intervals, when the appearance
of Joan of Arc (1412-1431) assisted the French. Monasteries were left
unmolested, hence the monks near the Belgian border were able to work
in comparative peace and quiet.



                               LESSON XI.

                          THE ENGLISH SCHOOL.


=The English Polyphonic School= is at once the least important and
the most peculiar of all the schools of the Polyphonic Period. It is
usually ignored by the writers on early music, not because there was
no musical culture, but because there was not continuous and original
development. English writers on this phase of musical development are
too apt, through a pardonable pride of nationality, to exaggerate the
value of British music, and in consulting such authorities, one should
be careful to examine thoroughly all proofs of a dominant national
school and discard such statements as are not perfectly authenticated.
It is hardly the Englishman’s fault that he has had no definite culture
which he may call genuinely English, for native composers have had more
encouragement in England than usually falls to the lot of a creative
musician. Indeed, England has always been a patron of the best in
music, native or foreign, and no one nation has, as a whole, been more
generous in appreciation; her treatment of Beethoven on his death-bed
is a notable example of disinterested generosity. But in real,
original, creative art England has had no great past; and especially is
this true of the Polyphonic Period.

=A Warlike People=.—This is almost entirely due to her geographical
position; there are many other reasons but they are almost all
dependent on this one, and so must be treated in a subordinate sense.
In her early days, England’s position served as a protection and
kept intact her wealth of native Folk-music; but with the advent of
the Romans and the spread of the knowledge of her natural wealth,
came invasion after invasion. Since the first invasion, England has
never been at peace; she has either been busily engaged in repelling
the enemy from her own shores, or aiding in a conquest of some less
fortunate foe. These wars and conquests not only served to cultivate
a militant and restless spirit, but also produced a race of fighters
from natural inclination. Look at the warlike Angles and Saxons,
note the mixture of Romans, Normans, Dutch and Huguenots, all at
the zenith of their fighting powers, and then cease to wonder that
England’s greatness has been in the power to fight, to govern, to make
conquests, rather than to cultivate art. England, when she reached the
stage of conquering rather than defending, began to give, more than
to acquire, and never reached the acquisitive stage until the present
time with Elgar and the lesser lights of the new school, unless we
except Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the realm of literature.
England’s cathedrals are but the results of European cathedral building
and the unity of Government and Church; had the Church and State always
been separate, it is safe to say that England would have waited much
longer for her cathedrals.

=The Kindred Arts=.—Literature was the only exception; and it is not
necessary to seek for a further reason than the fact that Literature,
as an art, always developed before Music. Art, in painting, was in
the early days borrowed from other countries, and not until modern
times did England acquire a national school of Painting; a noteworthy
fact, for like Literature, such an art almost always precedes a
national culture of Music. But these examples of the evolution of the
kindred arts of Literature and Painting are encouraging rather than
discouraging, for, having attained a high standard in these, England
may now hope to develop a national culture of Music. In Music much
the same conditions obtained as in Literature and Painting. With the
exception of one or two isolated composers, and these trained in
foreign schools, England always borrowed her music; note for example,
Handel, Buononcini, Mendelssohn, to quote just a few noteworthy foreign
composers. Each race as it conquered England brought its own music. St.
Augustine sang a Gregorian chant as he entered Canterbury; the Normans
and the Dutch had their own music; and Italian and German music long
held the boards in England. Thus little time was spent in developing a
native music, because the frequent wars and political troubles directed
the strength into other channels than those of art; the proximity of
a higher culture in Europe, and the tendencies of England’s foreign
rulers, enabled them to import and subsist on foreign music when they
should have been developing a native style. And finally, the isolation
of England in the early days, later became an actual help to the
acquirement of an alien style, because of the absolute necessity for
students to live abroad to acquire musical learning.

=Native Musical Life=.—There was a certain amount of native musical
life, but this did not tend to produce music along the conventional
lines. Of Folk-music there was much, and the development, as a general
rule, was aided rather than retarded by the conquests, though the
combination of Folk-music of different nationalities does not usually
tend to aid its unified evolution. The only real example of noteworthy
writing, in the early polyphonic school, is the canon “Sumer is icumen
in,” dated 1228, and attributed to an early English writer. There
is no proof excepting the fact that the manuscript is in English,
that the canon is of English origin; neither is there proof to the
contrary. Single instances, however, do not prove the existence of an
original school; and especially is this the case when that school, in
its writings, far surpasses any other school of that period of which
we know. In spite of the fact of the English text, and that this
canon may be but one of many surviving the destruction of the English
monasteries, impartial historians believe most strongly that the canon
is of French origin, reset to English words and carried to England by a
student of the Paris school. The Paris school was at its height at this
time, and was the only school of such writing in the world; and while
we have no other example of that school equal to this canon, yet it
is easier to believe it to be French than English, for England had no
such school at all. She had musicians (like Odington), but they were
all pupils of the Paris school; and even had this work been produced in
England, it would be safer to credit it to the Paris school, for the
man who wrote it would, almost of necessity, have studied there. The
only other way of accounting for it is to presume the date to be too
early.

It is but fair to say that while this canon _may_ owe its origin to the
principles of the Gallo-Belgic school, it stands alone as an article
of historical interest to the musician. Nowhere on the Continent has a
work of equal importance of so early a date been brought to view. Mr.
Wm. Chappell, the English antiquarian, brought to light several other
productions of early English composers, including a hymn in English,
scored for two voices, and another in Latin, for three voices. The
manuscript has been definitely attributed to the middle of the 13th
century. There can be little doubt that when so many monasteries,
with their treasures of learning, were suppressed and their inmates
scattered, in the time of Henry VIII, owing to the national change from
the Romish faith, many valuable manuscripts that would today have the
utmost interest to the musical historian were destroyed.

[Music: OLD ENGLISH CANON “SUMER IS ICUMEN IN.”]

[Music]

Whether this is purely English or not matters little, for it is a fine
specimen and exemplifies Walter Odington’s rule for the construction of
a Roundel, cited in a former lesson. This is more than a mere roundel,
having not only a little Inversion and much Imitation, managed in a
most ingenious manner, but also the whole canon is founded on a ground
bass in two parts, themselves in canonic form. This bass consists
of the regulation metrical form as seen at A and the following two
measures, has one measure forming a connecting passage, thus bringing
in the portion marked B which is the same as A only a fifth higher;
the whole forms a remarkable evidence of an early conception of the
relation of the Tonic and Dominant, hardly to be believed. This
metrical form is introduced, slightly changed and inverted, in the
upper voices at A and B. The first voice states in all five melodies
and the other voices follow at intervals of 4, 8, and 12 measures; in
ending voice number two omits part of theme V, voice number three all
of it and voice number four all of V and the imitation of the metrical
bass.

Outside this one example, England produced little but moderately
good polyphonic music in the form of motets and madrigals, and in
the time of Gibbons and Purcell, sonatas and operas. There were also
anthems, the old plain chant and much Folk-music, but nothing that
can be considered as important. The Folk-music is all that can claim
originality, and that ranks favorably with the best examples of other
nations and is, indeed, in advance of that of other nations considered
more musical.

=The Men of the Time=.—While English music was not, at this period,
very important, there were many composers whose names at least
should be familiar. After the passing of the bards and minstrels,
the monks controlled the composing of music until the dissolution of
the monasteries, when it passed into the hands of the schoolmen of
Cambridge and Oxford, where it remains today, though there are, at
present, signs of an important awakening, presaging the passing of
musical power from the hands of the conservative doctors of Oxford
and Cambridge, to the present generation of younger and more talented
writers. =Walter Odington= (1180-1250) was a pupil of the Paris school
and a theorist of note, writing on the Mensural System as exploited in
the French school. =Robert DeHandlo= (1326) was another theoretician
who wrote on the same subject. =John Dunstable= (1400-1458) was
contemporaneous with the men of the Gallo-Belgic school and did the
same for English music in reforming it as the latter did for the
foreign school. In recent years examples of his writings have been
unearthed in the cathedral libraries of Trent and Bologna, as well
as elsewhere, making it clear that in his lifetime he was regarded
as one of the foremost composers of Europe. The theorist, Tinctoris,
of the Netherlands school, considered in the next lesson, speaks of
the “source and origin of the new art [Counterpoint] being among the
English, the foremost of whom is John Dunstable.” A contemporary
who was also well-known in Italy was John Hothby, who wrote several
treatises on music. There were other musicians of prominence prior to
the Reformation under Henry VIII, but we know little about them save
their names. =John Merbecke= (1515-1585) adapted the Gregorian chant
to the English prayer book, which was published in 1550. =Christopher
Tye= (1515-1580) was a teacher and wrote much church music; so also was
=Thomas Tallis= (1515-1585), one of the most learned composers of his
time, who set the choral portions in the service to music. He is noted
for a celebrated canon in forty parts and for a hymn-tune, known as
“Tallis” or “Evening Hymn,” which contains a canon between the soprano
and tenor parts. =William Byrd= (1538-1623) was another noted composer
of this school, being also famous as a writer of instrumental music.
Queen Elizabeth granted to Tallis and Byrd the exclusive right to print
music and to rule music paper. =Orlando Gibbons= (1583-1625) wrote
motets and madrigals and is known as a writer of both polyphonic and
monophonic music. =Henry Purcell= (1658-1695) was the greatest composer
of the English Polyphonic school, writing operas in the English and
Italian style, songs, sonatas, motets and anthems. He seems to have
been in many respects a very able writer and musician, but died too
young to make any decided impression on his times.

=Summary=.—From this it will be seen that while England had a musical
people composed of a mixture of the most musical peoples of Europe, yet
because of geographical position, political disturbances, religious
troubles and wars, she was never able to produce a great and commanding
school. She did not lack force, but it was directed into other, and
for the time being, more important channels. Almost everything of
an artistic nature was borrowed, or was a transplanted culture; and
while the art of music never lacked men to cultivate it, yet these men
were not of the calibre of the men employed in the other works of the
nation, so that so far as the Polyphonic period is concerned, England
is not important, and but for such men as Dunstable and Purcell and
the canon “Sumer Is Icumen In,” England might be completely ignored in
respect to her influence on polyphonic development.


                              REFERENCES.

Crowest.—The Story of British Music. The entire book.

Davey.—History of English Music, Chapters I to V inclusive.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Article on Schools of
Composition, relating to England.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. I.

Oxford History of Music, Vol. I.


                               QUESTIONS.

Why did Music have so uncertain a growth in England?

What is the earliest English composition of value?

What were the causes for the loss of early English music manuscripts?

What principles are shown in this old Canon?

Who were the leading composers in England in the period considered in
this lesson?



                              LESSON XII.

                     THE SCHOOL OF THE NETHERLANDS.


=The Dominance of the Netherlands=.—The most important asset of a
nation is its commercial activity, for upon that depends its art life.
The fine arts are to an extent luxuries, and until a nation has,
by commercial activity, acquired wealth, they cannot be earnestly
cultivated, for all arts require from the artist his entire time and
life, and until there is money and inclination enough among the people
to support an artist in his commercially non-productive state, there
can be no art; hence we see a shifting of art centres in the Middle
Ages, just as the commercial centres changed.

The Netherlands were preëminently fitted to carry on great commercial
pursuits by virtue of their geographical situation and long combat
and association with the sea. Possessing the natural outlet to a
great part of Europe, it was reasonable that the Netherlands should
play an important part in the Hanseatic League, and that her fleets
should trade on every sea and her coffers be enriched by barter in
the produce of every clime. It was a golden age for the Lowlands,
from 1350 to 1625, for their trade made them one of the wealthiest
and most important nations in the world. Their situation between
the trading countries of the South and the North made them, as it
were, the commercial exchange of Europe. The consequent wealth could
not lie dormant, therefore much of it was used in building notable
architectural structures, encouraging Painting, and developing the then
infant art of Music. It is unnecessary to mention the famous structures
which were the result of this period, and it is but necessary to name
Hubert Van Eyck, Rubens, Van Dyck, to understand the prominence given
to the art of Painting by the acquisition of this enormous wealth. And
it is largely due to this commercial activity that the school of the
Netherlands attained such an undying fame.

One other influence, and that dependent on commercial activity,
produced great results. Art is not sectional, it is universal;
and great art works are produced not by local influences but by
association, or contact, with the world. For this reason, the
intercourse with the entire world generated by the great commercial
activity of the times produced the first great world School of Music.
Intercourse developed emotion and produced broader and less localized
view-points of life: it brought into close association the art life of
different nations and infused a unity of emotion wherever it occurred.
In short, Music, by being brought into contact with the ideas of the
world instead of a local association, took on a universal form and
feeling never before felt and never to be relinquished. For this
reason, Music unconsciously advanced from Paris to the Netherlands,
toward the greater sphere of influence, stopping for only a short
period with the Gallo-Belgic school, where it was prepared technically
for its new growth as a world form.

=The Gallo-Belgic and the Netherlands Schools Compared=.—The
Gallo-Belgic school, in the control of churchmen, was isolated from
any influence tending to develop a broad emotional scheme. And it is
doubtful whether it could have caused any change in musical evolution,
for the technical forms were not ready. And so the Gallo-Belgic school,
in its retirement from the great world activities, confined itself to
attaining the power to manipulate notes, for the sake of mere technical
effects, leaving emotional development entirely out of consideration.
With such a school, while its work was important, no real art feeling
could be gained; and so the school of the Netherlands marks the
departure into a new romantic school governed, to a great extent, by
the emotional. The Netherlands, because of their more comprehensive
view of the musical activities of the past and their constant
intercourse, commercially and artistically, with all nations, acquired
a more human sense of the beauty of music, and ceased to manipulate
musical material for technical ends, producing instead of cold,
lifeless forms, music pulsing with vigor, life and emotion. With this
primary change of view-point came a direct growth of form, the Canon
being perfected and immediately giving birth to the Fugue; the Madrigal
and Canzona and many other lesser forms sprang into being, all capable
of emotional development, and almost immediately producing great
results. For the first time music was free from consecutive fourths,
fifths and octaves because composers created from the standpoint of
emotional beauty and not that of technical utility. The result was a
musical technic capable of development, and refined beyond need of
further reformation.

=The Organ and its Influence=.—The organ was the third great
reformative power in this epoch. All music was vocal and no other
conception could be had, for effective instruments and instrumental
music were not yet in existence. The organ, because its tones were
suited to accompanying the human voice and because its tone color was
closely identical with that of the voice, was readily adapted to the
vocal forms then in use. This gave a greater resource, for what was
often technically impossible with the human voice became easy with
the organ. The mechanical improvement of this instrument immediately
gave greater freedom and range of technic, and it proved so well
suited to polyphonic development that it aided the evolution more than
any other one agency. The use of the organ must not be accounted as
the beginning of instrumental music, for the organ used only adapted
voice-forms, such as the Canon, Fugue, Madrigal, etc.; for this reason
it is to be doubted if it aided in emotional development except by
making technical resources much less restricted. In this sense, then,
the technic of this school was freed from most of its former rules, and
Music, previously cramped by narrow vocal restrictions, passed into the
comparative freedom of the polyphonic style of the organ.

=The Men of this School= are hardly to be separated from the men of the
Gallo-Belgic school. The work passes from one school to the next with
little or no perceptible pause, and the first men of the later school
are pupils or disciples of the last men of the Gallo-Belgic period.
Another noteworthy fact is, that so great was the musical growth,
of this school and the skill and learning of its followers that the
composers of the Netherlands expatriated themselves and settled in all
parts of Europe, founding famous schools in Paris, Madrid, Naples,
Venice, Munich and Rome; the celebrated _Italian school_ is really an
_offshoot_ of that of the _Netherlands_. It is this overflow which
marks this school as the greatest of the early polyphonic schools
and shows why and how it acquired its emotional supremacy. =Jean de
Okeghem= (1430-1512), pupil of Binchois, was the first prominent
worker. It is difficult to class him as a composer of the Belgian or
Netherlands school, for he has the earmarks of both. He lived during
the supremacy of the Netherlands, but worked with the material of the
Belgians. He developed the Canon to its highest technical point and
took the first step toward the originating of the Fugue. To him is due
the credit of introducing the use of retrograde, inverted, diminished
and augmented imitation in the Canon. Much of his work was done in
France. The tendency of his teaching was toward artificiality, as he
delighted in puzzle canons and other exhibitions of ingenuity.

=Antonius Brumel= (1460-1520), a pupil of Okeghem, is noteworthy
because of a foreshadowing of the use of chords in real harmonic
progressions.

[Music: 8ve lower]

Part of a motet by Brumel, Naumann, History of Music, Vol. I, page
333, used to illustrate the idea of the harmonic feeling of some of
the polyphonic writers. The rest of the composition is strictly in the
polyphonic style.

=Jakob Hobrecht= (1430-1506) was the first real Dutch composer, and is
noted, in his use of technical forms, for their emotional beauty rather
than mechanical excellence.

[Music]

Part of a composition by Hobrecht, cited by Naumann, “History of
Music,” Vol. I, page 331. Excerpt shows how strictly even this fragment
is written and yet how musical it is. At 1 is shown a figure in the
bass repeated in imitation a step higher at 2. At A is shown a melody
imitated at B in augmentation and with altered rhythm. The student
should refer to Naumann.

This is truly a remarkable work for that period, and shows that even
then composers were beginning to observe the emotional power of chord
relationship.

=Johann Tinctor= (1446-1511), a disciple of Okeghem, worked in Rome
and Naples, and will be considered with the Italian school. =Josquin
de Pres= (1450-1521), also a disciple of Okeghem, worked in Rome and
Paris, and must also be considered as one of the Italian school. It
may be here mentioned that he was one of the first to use music as a
vehicle for expressing human emotions rather than technical power. He
summed up in himself all the harmonic science of the 15th century. He
was renowned through all Europe as a composer, and if his music seems
to us somewhat dry and pedantic there is abundant testimony to the deep
impression it made upon his contemporaries, which is a test of its
power to excite and to express emotion. Compared with the works of his
predecessors and even the majority of his contemporaries, Josquin’s
writings show freedom from the bonds of the old scholasticism, greater
simplicity and esthetic beauty. Among those of his works that have come
to us is a _Miserere_ for five voices, and an _Ave Maria_ that cannot
be considered other than lovely music. =Nicholas Gombert= (1495-1570),
a pupil of Josquin de Pres, had a natural, tuneful and flowing style
similar to that afterwards shown by Palestrina. His work was done in
Madrid, and to him Spain and Portugal owe all they have of the ancient
polyphonic music. =Jacob Arkadelt= (1492-1570) and =Claude Goudimel=
(1510-1572) worked in Rome, =Adrian Willaert= (1480-1562) and =Cyprian
de Rore= (1516-1565) in Venice, and will be considered with the Italian
school. =Orlando di Lasso= (1520-1594) worked some in Italy, but mostly
in Munich, where his influence was great. His style was broad, flowing
and especially emotional, and as a writer of the Netherlands school his
name stands as one of the very highest. =J. P. Sweelinck= (1562-1621)
is the last, and while of the Netherlands, studied in Venice, but did
his work at home. He was a great organist and the last great master
of the school, and had the honor of being the link between it and the
German school, serving as an example for Sebastian Bach. His works have
recently been published in Germany. Of all these men it may be said
that they developed music steadily toward the goal of emotional freedom.

=Summary=.—The great work of this school was to make _technic
subservient to thought_. In all preceding schools, the material and
the forms were so new and the methods of handling them so crude,
that technic always dominated thought. And it was naturally so, for
expression cannot come until the power to master the material has been
attained; it was by this power that the Netherlands developed emotional
music. But the student invariably objects and says he does not see any
emotion in the polyphonic music of this period! The student must place
himself in the position of these old masters, supported by the church
and constantly imbibing the religious atmosphere of the institution
they served, until they unconsciously expressed, in their music, the
grandeur and power of their religion rather than the intimate personal
feeling of modern musicians; and then the student will understand
what is meant by polyphonic emotion. We must always remember that
_polyphonic emotion is not monophonic emotion_, and that its tremendous
technic and complexity of device were but the means of expressing
its peculiar form of emotion, which to understand, one must study
diligently, and then approach with a reverent feeling.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, article on Schools of
Composition, relating to the Netherlands.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. I.

Smith.—Music; How it Came to be What it Is.

Parry.—Evolution of the Art of Music, Chapters IV and V.

Langhans.—History of Music.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Why did the Netherlands become the musical centre?

How did geographical situation favor the Netherlands in the struggle
for commercial supremacy?

What circumstances gave their art a general rather than sectional
character?

Compare the Gallo-Belgic and the Netherlands schools.

How did the Organ aid in development?

Who are the most famous members of this school of composition?

What are the special characteristics of each?

What is a _Miserere_?

What is an _Ave Maria_?

What was the Hanseatic League?

What was the contribution of the Netherlands school?

Consult a general history for the events which made the Netherlands so
important at this time.

In selecting a historical epoch to accompany the period of the
Netherlands school and its successor, the Italian school, the central
figure that will be most familiar is Christopher Columbus, whose life
and work covered the early period, the close of the old polyphonic
school dating with Palestrina’s death in 1594, 100 years after the
discovery of America. This hundred years represents the flowering time
of polyphony as an art.



                              LESSON XIII.

                          THE ITALIAN SCHOOL.


=Italy the New Centre=.—Music developed in the Netherlands because of
commercial supremacy and the consequent world association. We shall now
see it pass to Italy, but because of a very different reason. From the
earliest Christian days Italy was the centre of religious influence;
it is only necessary to examine history to observe the ramifications
of that power in England, France, Germany, the Netherlands and other
countries. This influence, often more political than religious in
character, gave to the Italian Church (then the Italian State), a
predominance of authority, which was a great power in religious and
secular thought. This influence spread to music for various reasons. We
must remember that the school at Paris was controlled by the Church,
that the Gallo-Belgic school owed its foundation to the same cause,
and that the men of all three schools were employed as organists by
the Church. It is true that in Italy the Church had not the broadening
influence of commercial intercourse, but was more than compensated for
that lack by what we may call artistic intercourse. The Church was
the one stable institution in these times of war in which painters
could find a refuge for their works, and from which patronage flowed
in a steady stream to the ever-needy artists. Thus was caused and
maintained the artistic atmosphere necessary to the cultivation of
Music. As an art, the Church was the only support of artistic music.
When Music originated it needed an institution to protect and foster it
and safeguard its growth, and this it found in the Church; it repaid
this protection by evolving a style eminently suited to the needs of
the Church, but absolutely useless for the expression of secular and
natural emotion. To this patronage of its peculiar art is due the
importation into Italy of the best in music wherever found, to aid in
these services. And so we find singers from the Netherlands engaged
for the Church in Italy. This, and the fame of Italy as the home of
superior singers, undoubtedly led the majority of those numerous
Netherlandish masters to seek their homes abroad, and preferably in
Italy. The fact that all music was vocal in style and that the Church
was the only institution capable of supporting such a style, cannot be
too strongly stated; for upon that depended not only the evolution of
Music, but also the very life of the Polyphonic emotional style.

=Emotion in Polyphony=.—This style is worthy of examination. As
a preface we must remember that we have to deal with the Church
and _human voices only_, for instruments had not been perfected
sufficiently for church use, excepting the organ, and that we must
consider a voice because of its peculiar tonal qualities and the
adaptation of vocal forms and styles to its use. This vocal style
had developed gradually, through a long course of reforms, until it
reached its perfection in the later polyphonic schools, and expressed
the peculiar emotion suited for the services. _Lack_ of _rhythm_
was a pointed _characteristic_; for, in the first place, it had
been discarded as profane, and in the next place, a long course of
treatment in the management of voices to avoid anything like concerted
and accentuated dissonances had produced a peculiar flowing movement
which, however smooth it might be, certainly possessed no rhythmic
force. Then, too, the old scale forms caused anything written in
their idioms to sound grave, severe and dignified, if not harsh. The
transition to the modern major and minor in the Monophonic school of
1600 and the immediate cultivation of music by the people may be taken
as an example of the musical qualities of the two modes. All of these
causes tended to produce a suitable form of music and an emotional
expression peculiarly suited to the Roman services. In this style
there was little storm and stress, little of the personal appeal to
God; on the other hand, it was grave, severe and immovable, or in a
better sense, impersonal in its expression. Music of the polyphonic
period, even until the time of Sebastian Bach, in whose works it is
well exemplified, does not show us the appeal to God from the heart of
the active Christian worker, but rather the appeal to a vast impersonal
and majestic God far removed from the needs and supplications of the
mere individual. It was this kind of emotion that developed in the
Italian Polyphonic schools. The human and more expressive emotion of
the schools of the Netherlands was transmitted, in the schools of the
Italian, into the high, contemplative moods of religious expression;
and it was well that it should be so, for polyphonic music could
never have expressed the emotion of a Beethoven; and it was not only
best that it should express its own peculiar style of emotion, but
inevitable that it should do so.

[Illustration: ORLANDO DI LASSO.]

=Schools Outside Italy=.—The overflow from the Netherlands concentrated
its efforts on certain points or school centres. In Italy, these were
Naples, Venice and Rome. There were others throughout Europe, such
as Madrid, Paris and Munich, which we must consider first because of
their relation to Italy. =Nicholas Gombert= (1495-1570) influenced the
polyphonic development in Madrid, but so isolated was the work that
nothing great resulted. =Okeghem= (1430-1512) worked longer in Paris
than other masters, though several lived there for short intervals,
such as Arkadelt and Goudimel. =Orlando di Lasso= (1520-1594) did
almost all his work in Munich and established the most important school
outside of Italy. He was a most prolific writer and can be compared
in ability and style to Palestrina. His style was broad and bold and
contained much of that serious and earnest character now attributed to
his Teutonic associations. He wrote in all known forms and was well
nigh universal in his knowledge of form, technic and expression. His
facility in the art of writing was very great and was fully equalled by
his love for work. Although his work has somewhat less perfection than
that of his great contemporary, Palestrina, it has astonishing power
of expression. It shows the force of his genius that he was able to
make his works in the strict contrapuntal forms full of real feeling.
He was a man of interesting personal character. The most famous of his
works is his setting of seven “Penitential Psalms,” containing a number
of most curious effects for unaccompanied voices, with much that is
singularly characteristic and beautiful, and showing well the character
of his genius.

We give part of a composition by di Lasso showing his broad style and
the increasing use of what sounds suspiciously like our modern chord
progressions. The lack of rhythmic effect and the holding over of notes
past the accented beat is shown in this exercise. The whole example,
with words, may be found in Naumann, History of Music, Vol. I, page
387.

[Music]

=The Italian School=.—But it is with the Italian schools that we are
most concerned. The school at Naples had as its principal master
=Johannes Tinctoris= (1446-1511) a Fleming by birth, a doctor of laws
and a mathematician, one of those peculiar combinations seldom noticed
after the Paris school, and almost sure to mark the theoretician.
His work was principally theoretical and his treatises are of great
value. =Adrian Willaert= (1480-1562), born at Bruges, was a pupil of
Jean Mouton, at Paris. After visiting Rome and Ferrara, he settled in
Venice and, as organist of St. Mark’s, founded an important school.
He introduced the use of large double choruses which caused him to
write harmonically rather than polyphonically. This influence caused
him to relegate the imitative polyphonic part writing to smaller forms
(motets, etc.) and to write plain chord progressions in his larger
works; and before long he began to observe and to use the relationship
between the Tonic and the Dominant. This tendency and the invention
of the Madrigal furnished the basis for a new instrumental school at
a later date. His best-known pupil, =Cipriano di Rore= (1516-1565),
was short-lived, and worked in both Venice and Parma. He made some
investigation into the use of chromatics, thus showing the growing
tendency to abandon the Church modes for the natural scales. Following
these Dutch masters came the two Gabrieli’s, who were native Italians.
=Andrea Gabrieli= (1510-1586) was a great organist and wrote in the
style of Willaert, his famous master. =Giovanni Gabrieli= (1557-1613)
was a pupil of his uncle Andrea, and carried the latter’s methods
further toward perfection. He also wrote for instruments in conjunction
with voices, abandoning to a certain extent the _a capella_ style, and
opening that epoch of instrumental music foreshadowed by Willaert in
his madrigals. Rome was the centre of church government, of church art
and also of church music, and as such, had the largest and greatest of
Italian music schools. =Jacob Arkadelt= (1492-1570), a Netherlander,
lived nineteen years in Rome and did most of his work there; he wrote
both secular and sacred compositions in the strict polyphonic style,
and in that of Willaert. =Claude Goudimel= (1510-1572), though a
prominent master in Paris, worked much in Rome and was the teacher of
Palestrina. He set to music in four parts metrical versions of the
Psalms, published in 1565. In him is to be observed that clearness of
expression and beauty of melodic flow with which Palestrina attained
such a high point of expression.

=Palestrina=.—It remained for his pupil =Palestrina=, (Giovanni
Pierlugi Sante, 1514-1594) an Italian, to reach the highest point of
emotional expression and technical freedom; we must, however, rank
Orlando di Lasso with him. He carried to the highest fruition the
teachings of the Netherlands, tempered by the romantic and melodic
tendency of the Italian nature. His writings were so free technically
that they have been called simple in form; this they are, but the
simplicity is the simplicity of genius. His style is melodic, and has
a clearness never attained by any writer before his time, and yet his
music is written in the most severe forms. He founded a school of
music in Rome which, however, never produced any great masters, for
it was the time when the reformation of Opera began and carried the
development of music into other channels.

[Music: SOP. ALTO TENOR BASS]

The end of a composition by Palestrina, showing the melody in the upper
voice instead of the tenor, as was usually the case in polyphonic
compositions, and the use of our modern Minor mode. This composition,
at least this last part of it taken alone, might be by a modern writer,
so familiar do its progressions sound; indeed, the melody of the first
two measures is strikingly similar to a progression used by Beethoven
in one of his string quartets. The entire example with words may be
seen in Naumann, History of Music, Vol. I, page 510.

=Summary=.—The Polyphonic Era has many important characteristics and
results which make it worth while to sum it up. Its development is
largely the history of the _development of vocal music_ to its highest
point, and the consequent failure of it to provide accurate expression
for human needs. It marks the development of scales, intervals, forms,
instruments and emotion. In scales we find the trend to be always
toward the natural; in intervals, toward freedom, using only the ear as
a criterion; in instruments we note the development of the organ, but
the lack of others which would have changed music entirely; in emotion,
we note the evolution from crudeness to the highest and most polished
forms of impersonal expression. The lack of the Polyphonic school
was not in the intrinsic value of the music, nor in any lack of the
desire to express emotion; the failure to provide a suitable means of
musical expression was due to the idea of church relation to God rather
than to the personal individualistic relations established by Luther.
_After the Reformation_ music takes up this new idea and immediately
a _secular music_, vocal and instrumental, begins to _develop_,
culminating in an emotional school of a totally different and truer
style than the Polyphonic. Polyphonic music expressed the old monkish
ideas of religion perfectly, but monophonic music expresses the emotion
of the people, a universal emotion. Polyphonic music must always be
appreciated for its value, but it must be examined for its fundamental
principles and reasons for being, before it can be understood. Then we
may know its value as a foundation for our modern music.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, article on Schools of
Composition, section relating to Italy.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. I.

Langhans.—History of Music.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Why did the centre of music shift to Italy?

What kind of emotion is present in the polyphonic style of music?

What composers were prominent outside of Italy?

Name the prominent composers of the Italian school.

Sum up the Polyphonic Era.

Consult a history of art and give an account of the great painters,
sculptors, architects and their greatest works during the century
preceding the development of the Italian school.



                              LESSON XIV.

              PALESTRINA AND HIS INFLUENCE ON THE MUSIC OF
                   THE ITALIAN SCHOOL. THE MADRIGAL.


[Illustration: PALESTRINA.]

=A Church Composer=.—But one master of the Italian Polyphonic schools
is worthy of lengthy notice, more because of his influence on the
music of the Church than his contribution to the new instrumental
school then only in its infancy. Palestrina, while acquainted with
Galilei, the reformer of Opera, and Neri, the originator of Oratorio,
and with many of the men identified with the new style of vocal and
instrumental music, gave his entire life to the composing of Church
music, though in his poverty-stricken condition musical work under
wealthy patronage must have often appealed to him. At any rate, the
farthest he ever strayed from the Church was in the composing of many
madrigals, in which he excelled; it is almost certain that in these
he unintentionally influenced the development of instrumental music.
For the present, however, a consideration of his life and influence on
Church music is more important. But for him, Church music would have
lacked for at least a century that simple and individual note so often
struck by himself and Bach. Palestrina, by the enormous number of his
masses and by the fertility of his invention, placed the music of the
Latin Church on so high a plane that no composers, at least until the
time of Bach, even approached him, much less equalled him.

=Giovanni Pierluigi Sante=, known as Palestrina, after his birthplace,
was born in 1514 at Palestrina, a small town southeast of Rome. His
parents were peasants and the boy received but the ordinary education
of his class. While very young he seems to have become a choir-boy at
Rome, though it is recorded that his voice was anything but pleasing.
Upon this supposition rests the statement that he was, for a short
time, a pupil of Arkadelt; this is unimportant because eventually
(1540) he became a pupil of Goudimel, whose influence far overshadowed
that of any former teacher. In 1548 he married and four sons were the
result of the union, three, however, dying at an early age and the
fourth proving, in after-life, a worthless fellow. In 1551 he succeeded
Arkadelt as choir-master of St. Peter’s; later the dedication of three
masses to Pope Julian III won him a position as singer in the Papal
Choir. Owing to the jealousy of the other singers he finally lost his
position, but received an appointment at the Church of _Santa Maria
Maggiore_ where he stayed for ten years. Naumann says that in 1565 he
received the appointment of master of the Sistine Chapel, but never
occupied the position because of the opposition among the choir. Grove,
however, says that in 1565 he was made composer to the Pontifical
Choir and did not become master until 1585, holding the position from
that time on. In 1571 he was again connected with St. Peter’s; this
also marks his acquaintance with Neri, for whom he wrote some music,
and the founding of a music school, though it cannot have amounted
to much since most authorities give no particulars in regard to it.
Indeed, it is certain that he cannot have had much influence in that
line, for his pupils, outside of his own family, did not amount to more
than a scant half-dozen. In 1576 he was given the task of revising the
Gradual and Antiphonary of the Latin Church but, with the assistance
of a pupil, finished only a little more than one-half of the work. He
died in 1594 and was buried in the Vatican. His life is marked by the
usual jealousies and quarrels of musicians, though Palestrina himself
seems to have been nobleminded and more than reasonably free from all
such faults. He was in poor circumstances during his life, and his only
living son was a bitter disappointment. Altogether, as we examine his
life we are impressed by many things; first, his apparent failure from
a worldly point of view; secondly, the enormous amount of composing
which he did; and, finally, his devotion to the Church and her music,
and because of it, his glorious success as a musician, and his undying
fame.

=Reform of Church Music=.—The year marking the climax of his life was
1565. The Council of Trent, by a unanimous vote, decided to prohibit
the use of music in the Church unless some means could be devised to
make it more devotional and suited to its purpose. Naumann says that
it was the desire of the Council of Trent to simplify the music so
that the people might take part in the services; but Grove claims that
it was because of the use of secular music in the composition of the
masses. It seems that it was customary, for part of the singers at
least, to sing in services not only the _melodies of_ the _popular
songs_, but _also_ the _words_, thus producing confusion and defeating
the very purpose of the music. In all probability, both of these
reasons had something to do with the edict. It is plain that the
fundamental principle at stake was the lack of the personal devotional
note (which caused this action by the Council of Trent), and it was the
supplying of this want that made Palestrina the saviour of music in
the Church. A committee of Cardinals was appointed to see if proper
music for the service could be found. They commissioned Palestrina to
write a mass and submit it for trial. When the trial came, at the home
of Cardinal Vitellozzi, Palestrina submitted three masses, the last of
which was the best; this he afterwards called the “Missa Papæ Marcelli.”

=Palestrina’s Style=.—In these masses Palestrina had succeeded so
well in subordinating technic to expression, and in eliminating all
extraneous matter, that he was hailed as the greatest musician of
the Church, and honors were showered upon him. From this it would be
supposed that Palestrina had shown an entire change in style, yet this
was not the case. Goudimel, his master, shows traces of the so-called
Palestrina style, and Palestrina himself was gradually growing into
that simplicity which marked the music of his later days. This
simplicity was not only simplicity of emotion but also simplicity of
technic; only a man with a most consummate skill could have written
such great music with such little use of showy technic. Palestrina
wrote in all of the polyphonic forms, complex and simple, but he
reached his highest point in his most simple works; and those works
were written for his Church.

=Secular Art Song=.—The secular life of the 15th and 16th centuries, as
well as the Church, had an art music, which, like the other music of
the period was _vocal_, not solos with accompaniments, but _choral_,
consisting of three or more parts; this we may call a species of vocal
chamber music. We can trace the development of this form of musical
composition to an application of the principle of Discant to secular
or Folk-melodies. The minstrels, as mentioned in a previous lesson,
were accustomed to improvise accompanying parts to a familiar song—a
favorite custom was that of adding two parts—for the entertainment
of their hearers. This process was not a haphazard one, but followed
fixed rules. The absence of a simple system of notation, however,
prevented the accumulation of musical records. And when minstrelsy
ceased to exist as a calling, only the memory of the crude attempts of
the minstrels remained. But the principle was not lost. Fortunately
for the good of the art, the trained musicians of the Church took it
up, and, calling to their aid the resources of their art as used in the
music of the Church, applied them all to secular melodies, the songs of
the people.

=The Predecessors of the Madrigal=.—Several of the forms of secular
music found in Italy, the Frottole (song of the mass or crowd), and the
Vilanelle (village or peasant songs), were used in a crude way by the
musicians of the people as airs to which to add accompanying parts.
Both Germans and English made similar use of their folk melodies. But
since the text was usually of a humorous, or a witty character, the
accompanying melodies or “_counterpoints_” were simple in style. The
work of the trained composers along this line resulted in the Madrigal,
which shows a union of the musical spirit of the people with the finest
poetic art; the melodies had the style of the popular music, but they
were used with technical skill.

=The Madrigal=.—The text of the madrigal was erotic in character,
representing the emotions of a heart filled with noble, often hopeless
love. The Italian poets Tasso and Petrarch were masters in this style
of writing. The name Madrigal was first applied to this kind of
lyric, and afterward became identified with the music itself. There
is disagreement as to the origin of the name, the common explanation
being that it comes from the word _mandra_, a sheepfold, _mandriale_,
shepherd, in allusion to the frequent pastoral character of the text.
The Madrigal undoubtedly owes its origin to the composers of the
Flemish school. The musicians of the Netherlands, in the middle of the
15th century, had a polyphonic song, elaborate in construction, in the
old Church modes, modeled doubtless on the plan of the Motet, but using
the melody of some popular song as a _Cantus Firmus_. When the centre
of musical power was transferred to Italy, the madrigal principle came
into new hands, those of the composers of the Venetian school, who gave
it the character which made it so popular.

=The Italian School=.—The first great composer in this style was Adrian
Willaert. After him came Arkadelt, who published several books of
madrigals. The most famous composer of madrigals was =Luca Marenzio=
(1560-1599), called by his contemporaries “the sweetest swan of Italy,”
whose works attained extraordinary vogue. They are extremely melodious.
A composer who made considerable use of the chromatic element was
=Gesualdo=, Prince of Venusia (1560-1614). Other Italian composers of
madrigals are Festa, Palestrina, Anerio, Waelrant, Orlando di Lasso,
Cipriano di Rore, Vecchi and Gastoldi, the latter being credited with
the introduction of the “Fa, la.”

=The English School=.—The Madrigal never displaced the Folk-song in
Germany or the _Chanson_ in France, but it found a home in England, in
which country a number of composers were developed whose best work is
considered to be superior to that of their Italian predecessors. The
period of fifty years, beginning with 1588, when the first collection
of madrigals was published in London, is called the Madrigalian Era.
The composers of prominence are: William Byrd, Thomas Morley, Thomas
Weelkes, John Dowland, John Wilbye, Orlando Gibbons and Richard
Edwardes. So great was the interest in this class of music that it was
considered a necessary part of the education of a gentleman that he
should be able to sing, when requested, a part in a madrigal, as we
learn from a work or music study published by Thomas Morley in 1597.

=Characteristics of the Madrigal=.—The best means of securing an
understanding of the Madrigal style is to study good examples, and,
if possible, to hear them sung by a good choral organization. They
are written in three, four, five and six parts, the five part being
the one most favored. The principle of construction is _polyphonic_,
imitation being freely used, cross accents being frequent on account of
the syncopated style, each part being conceived as melody, not as the
result of the movement of successive chords.

=Influence of the Madrigal=.—The great number of madrigals written
by so many composers may be taken as an indication of the growth of
musical sensibility. The creative side developed. The composer was
no longer contented with taking a melody or some theme ready made,
and elaborating it or accompanying it; he _invented_ his own themes,
thus opening the way to the idea that each text should have a theme to
suit its special character, a principle which rules in modern music.
Since the themes thus took on greater significance, it became important
that accompanying parts should not obscure them by over-elaboration;
hence the counterpoint used became clearer and simpler, and therefore
more artistic. Another fact of great significance is that frequently
the madrigals were played by viols, instead of being sung by voices.
Composers marked the pieces as “Apt for viols or voices.” It was also
customary to sing one part and play the others on instruments, the
design being to cause the melody to stand out more clearly; this aided
in developing a feeling for the solo with instrumental accompaniment, a
fact of great significance in preparing the way for the opera.

=Petrucci=.—Music owes a great debt to =Ottaviano Petrucci=, who is
credited with devising a method for printing music from movable type.
He was born in 1466, died in 1523 or shortly after that date. Before he
began his great work all music was written out by hand, a fact which
necessarily interfered with its circulation; the works of the great
writers were jealously guarded and students had small chance to profit
by the work of experienced composers. Petrucci and his successors
changed this. In 1501, he printed a collection of ninety-six pieces in
three and four parts by Isaac, Josquin, Hobrecht, Okeghem and others;
in 1504, a collection of eighty-three motets for four, five and six
voices. By the time the composers of the Venetian Madrigal school
appeared on the scene, printing processes had been improved and spread
more widely; thus their works could be circulated freely and made
popular. We who know the tremendous power of the printing press can
appreciate the new force in the development of music inaugurated by
Petrucci in the early part of the 16th century.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, articles on Palestrina and
the Madrigal.

Dickinson.—Music in the History of the Western Church.

Parry.—Evolution of the Art of Music, Chapter V.

Barrett.—English Glee and Madrigal Writers.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Who was the most important of the earlier composers for the Church?

Give a sketch of his life.

What did he do for the music of the Church?

What peculiarities marked his style?

Give a brief résumé of the Council of Trent. (Consult a general history
or church history.)

What attempts at part music did the Minstrels make?

Who took up this work later?

What is the origin of the word Madrigal?

Name some composers of Madrigals in Italy.

In what other country did the Madrigal take hold?

Name some of the composers in that country who cultivated the Madrigal
style.

Name some characteristics of the Madrigal.

What influence did the Madrigal exert?

Who invented printing music from movable types?

If the members of the class cannot sing a madrigal or there is no
choral society at hand that sings them, a string quartet can play
the parts, or any combination of instruments that can represent the
necessary four, five or six parts; two or four players at two pianos
can give some idea. Novello & Co. publish in cheap octavo form many of
the finest madrigals by the Italian and English composers. The members
of the class should sing or follow the playing of each part of at least
one madrigal and note its essentially melodic character. This class of
compositions will also give an idea of the character of the old Church
motet and the methods used in the masses.



                               LESSON XV.

                          MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.


=Classification of Instruments=.—The means for the production of
musical sound are few in number, and of such universality and antiquity
that we cannot say when, how, or by whom they were invented. Modern
skill has not added one new means, but has simply improved the
contrivances by which musical sound is produced. We can, however, trace
the evolution and growth of the various instruments with considerable
accuracy, and to this end it is of the utmost importance to have a
clear understanding of the principles upon which musical instruments
are constructed, in order to avoid bewilderment among the endless
variety that have been and are yet made. All instruments may be divided
into three general classes: Percussion Instruments, Wind Instruments,
Stringed Instruments.

=The Percussion Instruments= are the instruments of rhythm. In this
class are included all instruments used for this purpose. It is
universally admitted that rhythm is the very basis of music, without
which it is vague and meaningless. Possibly the physical fact that lies
behind rhythm is the tendency of all repeated muscular action to become
regular; witness the blows of the hammer on the anvil, or the carpenter
driving in a nail. The psychologic reason is that when the will has set
a certain muscular action in motion, it leaves the carrying out of the
command to some subordinate function, so _long as it is continuous_;
but if the continuity is to be interrupted, the will must again exert
itself; hence, drumbeating and rattle shaking must of necessity be
rhythmic. Nearly all savages have dances of various kinds. Varieties
of drum rhythms arise from the almost universal custom of accompanying
dances with drums and rattles.

=Varieties of Percussion Instruments=.—Percussion instruments are
almost endless in variety. The most primitive example is that of a
hollow log beaten with a war-club by some prehistoric savage. The next
step leads to the hollow gourd or other hollow body, across the open
end of which is stretched the dried membrane of some wild animal.
From these descend all the long line of drums of all sorts, ending
with the modern orchestral kettle-drums (tympani) which, by means
of a mechanism for changing the tension of their parchment heads,
may be tuned in various keys. Percussion instruments of metal are of
very ancient origin. In this category are included cymbals of various
sizes and shapes, gongs of all sorts, and later, bells and triangles.
Comparatively few of the percussion instruments emit sounds of any
definite pitch. They were and are to a great extent noise-producing,
used for the purpose of marking rhythms.

=Wind Instruments: Vibrating Column of Air in a Tube=.—The next step
in advance of noise-producing instruments is the discovery of means
for the production of musical sound, which differs from noise in the
possession of _definite pitch_. This leads to a consideration of the
wind instruments that produce sound by means of a vibrating column of
air enclosed in a tube. This is an important class and has several
subdivisions, as will be seen. The simplest form of the wind instrument
is the plain tube, producing a single sound when blown across the top.
A series of such tubes fastened together side by side constitutes the
_Syrinx_ or Pan’s pipe, an instrument known over all the world from
the remotest ages. This is thought to be the instrument mentioned in
Genesis with the Hebrew name _Ugab_—translated _organ_, in the verse:
“Jubal was the father of all such as handle the harp or the organ.” It
is generally believed by scholars that the =Pandean Pipe= or =Syrinx=
is the oldest of musical instruments; but long before a sufficient
advance had been made to bind together several reeds giving different
sounds, the discovery was made that sound might be produced in this
way. Some prehistoric man found it out, perhaps by blowing across the
top of a hollow bone. A whistle of this kind, of prehistoric make,
bored from one of the bones of a reindeer’s foot, was found in a bone
cave in France. It may have been used as a signal, and we may imagine
that it may have guided a troop of palæolithic hunters in the chase of
the mammoth or rhinoceros, when these animals still roamed over the
plains of Europe.

=A Tube Pierced with Holes=.—The next advance was the discovery that
one tube could be made to give several sounds by piercing holes in
it. The effect of piercing is equivalent to shortening the tube; thus
the =Flute= came into existence. There are three forms of the flute;
the simplest is the old Japanese flute, blown at the end and pierced
with a few holes. Next, the endless variety of flutes blown at a hole
in the side, hence called the cross flute, or _Flauto Traverso_, in
German, _Querflöte_. A perfect series of these flutes may be made.
From the piece of bamboo with three or four holes, up to the exquisite
workmanship and musical possibilities of the orchestral Boehm flute,
all these flutes are identical in principle. The third kind of flute
is blown at the end and is furnished with a diaphragm, which directs
the air in a thin stream against the edge of the opening. Flutes of
this kind were once used under the names of =flageolet= and =recorder=.
Their chief interest lies in the fact that they have served as the
model for the flue pipes of the organ, from the ponderous thirty-two
foot Diapason to the half-inch extreme of the Mixture.

=The Tube with a Reed=.—The next subdivision is: The tube in
conjunction with a tongue or slip of cane, called a reed. Reed
instruments are further divided into _single_ and _double reed_
instruments. The double reed instrument is of great antiquity and
widely known. This is the instrument generally meant by the term
“flute” in the ancient Greek authors. It is known in China and
Thibet, and in its modern form as =Hautboy= (oboe), =English Horn=
or =Bassoon=, is an important member of the modern orchestra. The
beating or single reed is so-called because it is made a little
larger than the orifice over which it is fixed, and therefore beats
against this orifice at every vibration, closing it and causing the
air to be emitted in puffs. This form of reed instrument is also
widely distributed. By the Greeks it was called the Berecynthian
pipe; in modern Egypt _Arghool_, in early England the Shawm, which
is a corruption of an older French name—_Chalumeau_. Under the name
=Clarinet= it is another important member of the orchestra. The beating
reed also furnishes the model after which the reed stops of the organ
are constructed.

=The Tube with the Lips of the Player=.—The last subdivision is the
tube in conjunction with the lip of the performer, the lips assuming
the rôle of the reed. Countless varieties of =trumpets= have been
used from time immemorial, made at first from that natural tube that
has given them their generic name, the “horn” of the ox or goat or
antelope. The forms of the horn are endless, but from the conch shell
of the Japanese or the ram’s horn _Shofar_ of the Hebrews to the
perfectly tuned and mechanically perfect instruments of our bands and
orchestras the series is complete, and the acoustic principle in all
respects identical.

=Stringed Instruments Played by Plucking=.—The stringed instruments
are those which depend for their sound upon the vibration of stretched
strings. This class of instruments is of very ancient origin. As in
the case of the wind instruments, the discovery of the principle of
the vibration of a stretched string was probably accidental. The
twanging of a bow-string suggests a possible clue, or the membranes of
animals used for any purpose in which tension is required. Earliest
among stringed instruments are the various forms of =Harp= or =Lyre=,
in which each string gives a single sound, and is put in motion by
being _plucked_ by the finger or _struck_ by a rod or flat strip of
wood, ivory, etc., called a _plectrum_. In the next class are included
those instruments that are furnished with a neck or fingerboard,
with or without frets. In this class the strings are comparatively
few in number, as many sounds may be obtained from each string by
altering its length by the pressure of the fingers on the neck. These
instruments are also played either with the fingers or the plectrum; to
this class belong the =Guitar=, =Lute=, =Mandolin=, etc.

=The Lute Family=.—For many years, until displaced by instruments of
the violin family, the =Lute= occupied the foremost position among
instruments. It was a favorite instrument in the East, whence it
reached Spain and lower Italy. During the 14th century, it spread
over all Europe, retaining its popularity from the 15th to the 17th
centuries. In shape it was similar to the mandolin of the present
day. It had, however, a far greater number of strings. Five pairs of
these and a single melody string lay over the keyboard, while the bass
strings (finally five in number and used only as open strings) lay
at the side. More elaborate forms of the lute, owing to improvements
in the arrangement of the bass strings, were the =Theorbo= and the
=Archilute=. For the various forms of the lute the ordinary measured
notation was not used, but _special letters_ or figures were given to
indicate, not the pitch of the sound, but the _proper fret_ on the
fingerboard of the instrument to be used by the player. This method of
notation was called =Tablature=; it differed somewhat in the various
countries. Until displaced by the violin, the lute was in use as an
orchestral instrument. In addition, transcriptions of all sorts of
vocal and instrumental pieces were made for the lute, for home use,
much in the same manner as they are at the present day made for the
pianoforte.

=Stringed Instruments Played with a Bow=.—The next and most important
class resembles the last in being furnished with a neck or fingerboard,
but with strings put in vibration by a bow, the familiar Violin family.
A German writer on the stringed instruments played with a bow gives
the following as the successive steps in the evolution of the violin:
Rebec, Tromba Marina, Hurdy Gurdy, Fidel (Fidula), Chrotta, Viole, and
Violin. The early history of instruments is shrouded in darkness, which
existed up to the 16th century. Before that time, although writers on
music made reference to the instruments in use, they did not give
detailed descriptions. Virdung, who published a work in 1511; Agricola,
in 1528; and Gerle, in 1546, were among the first writers. Yet much
confusion has arisen from the fact that these writers used different
terms for the same instruments, a difficulty that confronts the student
of musical history who consults German, French, or Italian works.

1. The Rebec was of Oriental origin and consisted of a wooden frame,
which formed the side walls, the top and the bottom being spanned with
skin, like a drum. The instrument had only two strings, and was used
in accompanying singing. Later the number of strings was increased to
three. In the 8th or 9th century an instrument called the _Lyra_ (Lyre)
was in use. Its shape shows a change toward the pear-shaped body and
narrow neck of the lute.

[Illustration: REBEC. LYRE (ACCORDING TO GERBERT). BASS VIOL.]

2. The Tromba Marina (Eng., literally, “Marine Trumpet”), which the
Germans call _Trumscheit_, had a long, sonorous body, over which a
strong string, like that of the ’cello D, was stretched. This string,
when sounded with the bow, gave forth a harsh, somewhat nasal tone,
similar to that of the 8-foot wooden organ reed-pipe. But the proper
way to play it was by lightly touching the string with the finger,
as in making harmonics on the violin. This gave a series of tones,
according to the pitch of the open string, the same as the so-called
overtones. If the string were tuned to low C, the sounds were middle C,
then in succession E, G, C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C. This instrument was a
favorite with choirs of nuns to accompany their singing. Another name
given to this instrument from its single string is Monochord.

3. The Hurdy Gurdy, also called Vielle, Radleier (“wheel lyre”),
Bettlerleier (“mendicants’ lyre”), Organistrum and Chiffonie, was
a great favorite in the period from the 10th to the 12th century.
This peculiar instrument consisted of a resonant body, over which
four strings were stretched. It has analogies to bowed and keyed
instruments. Its shape was somewhat like that of the lute or the viola
d’amore or guitar. Two of the strings were tuned in unison, were
stopped by an arrangement of keys, directed by the player’s left hand
shortening the string, thus making it possible to play melodies of a
limited compass. The other two strings were usually tuned as Tonic and
Dominant, thus giving a drone like the bagpipe. The strings are set
in vibration by a wooden wheel, which, being well rosined, has the
function of a violin bow; this wheel is turned by a handle at the tail
end of the instrument, the player using his right hand for the purpose.

4. The Chrotta (Welsh Crwth—“crooth”) is one of the oldest of string
instruments played with a bow. The original home was possibly India,
but in its European use it was limited to England, and especially to
Wales. It was a favorite instrument of the Welsh bards. The oldest form
had three strings. In its later form it was mounted with six strings,
four stretched over the fingerboard and played with the bow, and two
lying at the side of the fingerboard, and pinched with the thumb of the
left hand.

5. Fidula (Fidel, Fiddle), equivalent to “viol,” is the comprehensive
term for the string instruments of the 8th to the 14th century. Its
resonant body was arched and pear-shaped. The French flattened it more
and called it Gigue, the Italians Giga, the Germans Geige, the latter
term still being used. Two varieties were in use—the small and the
large. The former had three strings tuned in fifths, the latter four to
six, usually tuned in fourths and one third. The “large” species was
made in four sizes for Discant (soprano), Alto, Tenor, and Bass. The
“large” instrument had no bridge such as the violin of today has, and
in its rounded form was difficult to play. Later it was cut out at the
sides, thus approaching the shape of our violin.

6. The Viol, which first appears in the 15th century, had a resonant
body which came almost to a point back of the neck, and the upper
part of the body of the instrument was smaller than the lower; the
fingerboard had frets like our guitar; the edges were higher, the _f_
holes were sickle-shaped, the top was flat, and the number of strings
was six. Viols were divided into two groups—those held with the arm
(like our violin), those played between the knees (like our ’cello).
They were named the soprano or discant viol (violetta), the alto and
tenor viols, and the bass viol (gamba). The contra-bass or double bass
has the viol form in certain respects.

From the viol family comes our violin through a diminution and
beautifying of the form, through lessening the number of strings and
doing away with the frets.


                              REFERENCES.

Lavignac.—Music and Musicians. Section on Instruments.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, articles on the various
instruments.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

What are the general classes into which musical instruments are grouped?

Name the percussion instruments.

Name the principles of classification for wind instruments.

Give examples of each class.

What is a reed? How many kinds are in use?

What methods of producing sound are used in playing stringed
instruments?

Give examples of each class.

Give a description of the lute.

Name the steps in the evolution of the violin.

The catalogues of the instruments contained in the Metropolitan Museum
(Crosby-Brown Collection), New York City, will be found very useful for
reference. This collection is one of the most complete in the world,
and is arranged so as to show the development of instruments of the
various types. They can be secured at slight expense by addressing the
Museum.



                              LESSON XVI.

               THE ORGAN, ORGAN PLAYING AND ORGAN MUSIC.


In the book of Genesis it is written: “Jubal, he was the father of all
such as handle the harp and organ.” It is not to be understood that the
word organ in this passage meant an instrument anything like that heard
in our churches at the present day. In fact, as St. Augustine tells us,
there was a time when all musical instruments were called organs.

=The Germ of the Organ=.—The invention of the organ is veiled in
deepest darkness. Its development from its earliest forms to its
present state has occupied a period of almost two thousand years.
Doubtless, the first idea of a wind instrument was suggested by the
breeze blowing across the open ends of broken reeds, the discovery
naturally following that reeds of different lengths gave forth sounds
of varying pitch. In course of time, reeds or pipes, differing in
length, began to be joined together, conveniently arranged so as to
produce a succession of musical sounds, the players blowing them with
the mouth. These instruments were called =Pan’s Pipes=, the =Syrinx= of
the ancient Greeks.

=The First Stage of Development=.—As the number of pipes was increased,
the moving of the head back and forth in order to blow them became
difficult. The pipes were then placed in a sort of box or wind chest,
a tube being added through which the player could blow, the pipes not
intended to sound being closed by the fingers. Furthermore, as the
pipes were increased in number and in size, it became necessary to
employ various mechanical accessories to furnish adequate wind supply,
and to open and close the pipes at will, the breath and fingers of the
player proving insufficient. A device was invented in the form of a
slide, rule or tongue of wood, which was placed beneath the aperture
of the pipe, and perforated so as to shut off or admit wind to the pipe
as it was drawn back or forth. The earliest form of bellows might be
suggested by the leathern bag of the bagpipe. In this the wind pressure
was unsteady and the tone necessarily disconnected.

  [Illustration: PAN’S PIPES (SYRINX).  EARLY FORM OF THE ORGAN.]

=The Hydraulic Organ=.—The first attempts to secure regular or steady
wind pressure were made by Ctesibus, who lived at Alexandria, about 180
B. C. To him is ascribed the invention of the so-called “=Hydraulic
Organ=.” This term seems somewhat of a misnomer, since the water was
used merely to give the necessary pressure to the bellows, and to
regulate the wind supply. This method was never developed, since the
device did not seem applicable to instruments of any considerable size.
The trend was rather toward a wind supply from a bellows operated on
the same principle as that of the blacksmith’s. In the Hydraulic Organ
the water was thus applied: An inverted air receiver, into which the
wind was forced by a bellows, was immersed in a tank of water, the
pressure of the water around and above the receiver forcing the air
through an aperture at the top into the pipes, the pressure being
regulated by the volume of water in the tank. The hydraulic organ
continued more or less in use up to the early part of the 14th century.

=The Earliest Organs=.—The organ developed little as to size or
mechanical improvements during the first ten centuries of the Christian
Era, and it is difficult to trace the progressive stages in point of
time, place or mechanical invention. The first organ known to the
people of Western Europe was a present from the Byzantine emperor,
Constantine, to Pepin the Short, Major-Domo of the Frankish Kingdom, in
742. It had brass pipes and the “keys” were struck by hands and feet.
Eastern organs also came into France in the time of Charlemagne, son
of Pepin. The first organ used in Germany was made in 812, modelled
after the one just mentioned. In 880, the Pope ordered an organ and
an organ builder from Germany, which seems to indicate that the art
had found support there at an early date. Although not considered
absolutely indispensable, the organ from that time on seems to have
been generally adopted for use in churches. Its many imperfections gave
ground for criticism, yet today it is considered, _par excellence_, the
ecclesiastical instrument.

=Increase in the Size of Organs=.—The organ builders of these early
days were mostly monks, Pope Sylvester II (1003) being eminent,
under the name of Gerbert, prior to his election to the papacy. They
built small organs called “=Portative=,” and large organs called
“=Positive=.” The old hydraulic organ, owing to its excessive weight,
was called “Positive” to distinguish it from the “Portative” or
portable organ, and these terms have been perpetuated to the present
time. An organ built for the Cathedral at Winchester, England, had ten
keys, four hundred pipes and twenty-six bellows, which were operated
by seventy men, “in the sweat of their brows.” Since forty pipes were
attached to a single key, it may be readily understood why its tone was
compared to thunder. The keys were very large, having a deep fall, and
required the whole force of the hand to press down a single one.

=Mechanical Improvements=.—The pipes in the early organs were made
of copper, lead, tin, silver, glass, ivory and various woods, but
experiments finally showed =tin= or =wood= to be best suited for the
purpose. The earliest organs had about twelve pipes, and the larger
instruments three octaves, but without the chromatic intervals. The
pipes were arranged according to the sequence of tones in the old
Church modes, the _octave containing_ but _three semitones_: between
E-F, A-B flat and B-C. The chromatic tones were added gradually, the
breadth of the keys being correspondingly reduced as the increased
number of keys occupied the same space as before. Heretofore, the
_wind_ had usually been _forced from_ the _bellows_ by the _weight_ of
men standing upon them, but in the 10th century use began to be made of
a =lever=, the bellows presumably being weighted.

=The Keyboard is Adopted=.—In the 11th century, the keyboard appeared,
supplanting the levers and slides, previously in use. The first organ
containing this marked improvement was made for the Cathedral at
Magdeburg, Germany. It had sixteen keys. In 1350, a monk at Thorn built
an organ with twenty-two keys, and in 1361 an organ was built for the
Cathedral at Halberstadt with fourteen diatonic and eight chromatic
tones in a compass extending from B, second line, bass staff, to A,
second space, treble. This organ had three keyboards, now termed
manuals.

=The Pedals=.—The invention of pedals is variously ascribed to Albert
Van Os (about 1120), to Van Valbeke, of Brabant, and to a German named
=Bernhard= (1470), an organist of Venice. The latter probably improved,
but did not invent the pedals. The pedals at first did not exceed the
compass of an octave, and were used only for sustaining prolonged
tones. They were _fastened_ to the broad _manual keys_ by stout cords,
thus enabling the performer to draw down the desired key with the foot.
About the year 1418 the pedals began to be attached to _independent
pedal-pipes_, thus imparting to the organ a certain dignity and
sonority, still a chief characteristic of the instrument. After 1475,
all important organs were built with pedal keyboard.

=The Introduction of Stops=.—Up to the 14th century, the different
registers (set of pipes with uniform tone quality) could not be sounded
separately, that is to say: _all_ the _pipes_ belonging to any one key
_sounded_ when that key was depressed. At the close of the 14th century
it was found possible to add =valves= to the pipes in such a manner
as to cause the wind to pass through or be cut off from any series of
pipes at will. The opening and closing was managed through a spring.
The next improvement was to introduce a =slide= to open or close the
passage of wind into the pipes. With these improvements it became
possible for builders to set themselves to the improvement of the
various “stops” or registers.

=Improvements in Stops=.—In the 15th century, pipes of sixteen and
thirty-two feet in length began to be used, necessitating a greatly
_enlarged bellows_. Pipes were _closed_ at the _top_, thereby lowering
the pitch an octave. They were given _smaller diameters_, producing a
softer tone quality. The _shapes_ of the pipes were _varied_, giving
additional variety in tone quality.

Thus began the broad classifications of “=Open=” and “=Stopped=” pipes
in all their varieties. The “=Reeds=” (pipes containing a vibrator
or tongue to set the column of air in motion) were familiar to the
earliest performers, but were not introduced into the organ until as
late as the 14th century. Further improvements were made in the bellows
at the beginning of the 16th century.

=St. Mary’s, Lübeck=.—In 1561, a three-manual organ was in use in St.
Mary’s, Lübeck, Germany. To this organ all the important improvements
were successively added at various intervals until it had, at the
beginning of the 18th century, in the three manuals, respectively,
thirteen, fourteen and fifteen stops, and in the pedal, fifteen stops.
It was to hear the famous Buxtehude play upon this organ that Sebastian
Bach walked fifty miles in 1705.

=Design of Improvements=.—Great improvements have been made in organ
building since the time of Bach, all designed to give the player
greater resources, and increased facility in the handling and control
of the resources, which in the present day are simply enormous.

=The Organ in the American Colonies=.—Although the first organs heard
in America were probably introduced by the Spaniards, of these there
are no authentic records. According to reliable historic data, the
famous old “Brattle” organ was “the first organ that ever pealed to the
glory of God in this country.” It was imported from London, in 1713,
by Mr. Thomas Brattle, who bequeathed it to the Brattle Street Church,
Boston, directing that the parish “procure a sober person that can play
skilfully thereon with a loud noise.” This organ became the property of
King’s Chapel, Boston, and was used until 1756.

=No Art in Early Organ Playing=.—The organs of the early Christian
period were of such a character that playing, in the sense in which we
now understand the word, was out of the question. For some time the
span of the hand possible to players did not exceed the distance of a
fifth. If an octave was to be struck, a second player was necessary.
Only with the narrowing of the keys did artistic playing become
possible. In fact, organ playing has invariably reflected the style and
development of contemporary musical art.

=Early Organists=.—The credit of being “father of organists” is given
to =Francesco Landino=, of Florence (1325-1390), and after him to
=Bernhard=, mentioned as the inventor of the organ pedals. The oldest
organ compositions are some works by =Konrad Paumann= (1410-1473),
who was born blind, yet, like many others since, became a thoroughly
trained musician in spite of his affliction. He also played other
instruments and was a fine contrapuntist. Another of the early
organists is =Benedictus Ducis= (or Hertoghs), born at Bruges, about
1480. He was a pupil of Josquin des Pres. From Ducis, representing the
second Flemish school, as founded by Okeghem, there is a chain almost
of master and pupil, between the early masters of organ playing and
polyphonic writing and Bach, who in these arts became the master of
all. Paumann’s pieces show the style of composing for the instrument
that was considered appropriate. They are essentially transcribed,
but elaborated, vocal works. The compositions of the next organists
of fame, Willaert, of Venice (1490-1562), and Cyprian di Rore
(1516-1565), pupil of the former, have distinct names. _Ricercari_,
_Intonationi_, _Contrapunti_, _Toccati_, _Praeambula_, and _Canzoni_,
but the character remains the same, vocal pieces, elaborated and
freely embellished with runs and other passage work. Later the term
_Ricercari_ came to mean a sort of fantasia in fugal form, often on
a popular air; _Toccata_ became a free fantasia with brilliantly
figurated passages, and a _Praeambulo_ a prelude to a larger piece.
Other famous organists of this period were =Bernhard Schmidt= (1520-?),
German; =Claudio Merulo= (1532-1604), organist at Venice, and his
successors, the two =Gabrieli’s=.

=Frescobaldi and His Successors=.—The greatest of all the organists
of the earlier days, to whom the title of “Father of true organ
playing” has been given, was =Girolamo Frescobaldi=, born in 1583 at
Ferrara, in Italy, educated in Flanders, and from 1608 to his death
in 1644 organist at St. Peter’s, Rome. His fame was so great that the
spacious cathedral was often filled when he gave an organ recital. His
compositions, many of which have been preserved, have a very decided
contrapuntal character, whence some have called him the inventor of the
organ fugue. Two prominent German organists, whose compositions were
studied by Bach, were =Caspar Kerl= (1627-1693), and =Jacob Froberger=
(———1667), both of whom lived in Vienna. The most eminent organist
of the 17th century was =Johann Peter Sweelinck= (1562-1621), pupil
of Zarlino, the famous Italian theorist, and of Andreas Gabrieli,
organist of Venice. Sweelinck occupied the position of organist at the
Cathedral in Amsterdam, and gave much attention to the development of
the fugal style of composition. His compositions are of the highest
importance historically, since they exhibit the first known examples
of the independent use of the pedals in a real fugal part. He was the
most eminent organist of his time (being called the organist maker),
and was the teacher of the following noted players: =Jacob Praetorius=
(died at Hamburg in 1651); =Heinrich Scheidemann= (1596-1663), also
located at Hamburg; =Jan Adams Reinken= (1623-1722), from 1663 organist
and successor to Scheidemann at the Catherine Church, Hamburg (Bach
came to Hamburg several times to hear Reinken play and to learn his
style); =Samuel Scheidt= (1587-1654), organist at Halle. Some of their
compositions are accessible.

[Illustration: JOHANN PETER SWEELINCK.]

Other famous organists of this period were =Johann Pachelbel=
(1653-1706), located at Nuremberg (Bach studied his works as a lad);
=Dietrich Buxtehude= (1637-1707), organist at Lübeck for thirty-nine
years. One of the most important names of this period of development is
that of =Johann Joseph Fux= (1660-1741). His “_Gradus ad Parnassum_,”
published in 1725, a treatise on counterpoint based on the practice of
the great masters, played an important part in the training of Haydn,
Mozart and Beethoven.

=English Organists=.—In the history of English organ playing, the
first great name to engage our attention is that of =Thomas Tallys=,
born about 1520. He is called the “Father of English church music.” He
served under Henry VIII, Edward VI, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth,
as organist of the Chapel Royal. English organists of distinction
contemporary with and succeeding Tallys were =John Merbecke=, =Richard
Farrant=, =William Byrd=, =John Bull=, =Thomas Morley=, =Orlando
Gibbons= (a contemporary of Frescobaldi), =Matthew Lock=, =John Blow=
and =Henry Purcell=. The last mentioned, born in 1658, became organist
of Westminster Abbey in 1680. The name of Purcell is one of the
strongest in the history of English music. It was his ambition to found
a distinctive school of English composition. Although not successful in
this, he made a lasting impression on English church music and produced
many charming secular works. It is on record that he stood high in the
estimation of his European contemporaries.

=Culmination in Bach and Handel=.—The Polyphonic Period culminated in
Bach and Handel, both born in 1685. These two, who never met, and who
worked upon dissimilar lines, were the most famous organists of their
day, in addition to their greatness in composition.

=The Organ and Polyphonic Music=.—Bach must be regarded as the source
of modern organ composition and playing. In him polyphonic composition
attained its highest perfection and the organ stands as the centre of
the Polyphonic school. The development of the Opera and its influence
towards a freer style in vocal and instrumental composition and the
tendency of instrumental music to develop along harmonic lines had the
effect of relegating polyphonic music to the Church with the organ
as its chief vehicle. It is only of comparatively recent years that
the organ has become a concert instrument. Bach’s treatment of the
instrument serves as a model for the composers of all time and the
study of his works is indispensable to the development of technical
command of the organ and the cultivation of the true organ style.
Handel’s permanent contribution to organ literature consists of sets
of =Concertos=. These concertos, a number of which are still played
and admired, excited the enthusiasm of Sir John Hawkins, who gives a
glowing account of them in his history. =Bach= was appointed Cantor
at the _St. Thomas Schule_, Leipzig, in 1723, and it was here that
much of his greatest work was accomplished. In addition to his duties
at the school, he directed the music in the Churches of St. Thomas
and St. Nicholas. As to the relative superiority of Bach and Handel
as organists, contemporary opinion seems to have differed widely.
Each undoubtedly had a style of his own as shown in his published
compositions. Each excelled in improvisation.

=The Chorale in Protestant Organ Music=.—In addition to his
incomparable preludes and fugues, toccatas, fantasias and pieces in
the larger forms, Bach made the polyphonic treatment of the =chorale=
an art peculiarly his own. In fact, the German style of organ playing
may be said to have developed from the chorale and from the music of
the Reformation. This furnished a fresher and very different source
of inspiration from the Gregorian chant which had been handled so
effectively by Frescobaldi and his Italian successors.

=Marchand=.—One of the most renowned of early French organists was
=Louis Marchand= (1671-1732). In 1717, while living under banishment
in Dresden, he was to have entered into a trial of skill with Bach,
but lost courage and departed on the morning of the appointed day. A
certain triviality has at times characterized the French school of
organ music, undoubtedly a reflection of the prevailing style and taste
in other branches of musical composition. Of later years, however, a
more serious and exalted style has developed.

=The German School=.—To return to the German organists. A name familiar
to all students of the organ is that of Rinck. =Johann C. H. Rinck=
(1770-1846) was a pupil of Kittel, who in turn was a pupil of J. S.
Bach. Rinck’s reputation is based largely on his “Practical Organ
School,” a work still in use. Another name of importance is that of
=Johann Gottlob Schneider= (1789-1864). He has had the reputation of
being one of the greatest German organists since the time of Bach. Of
the great composers since Bach, =Mendelssohn= stands conspicuous as
an organist and composer of organ music. Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven,
although occasionally using the organ in their scores, did not compose
for the instrument. Mendelssohn developed a decided fondness for the
organ, which he played admirably. His six sonatas and three preludes
and fugues are masterpieces. Among the representative German organists
and composers should be mentioned: =Adolph Hesse= (1809-1863), author
of the “Practical Organist” and a prolific composer; =Karl August
Haupt= (1810-1891), a celebrated teacher, numbering among his many
pupils from all countries such prominent American organists as Eugene
Thayer, Clarence Eddy and J. K. Paine; =Carl Ludwig Thiele= (1816-1848)
composer of some of the most difficult known works for the organ;
=Gustav Merkel= (1827-1885), a prolific composer, whose sonatas
are numbered among the standard works for the instrument; =J. G.
Rheinberger= (1837-1901), one of the finest organists and best teachers
of his time and a composer of great ability, whose twenty sonatas form
a permanent addition to the best organ literature. A number of American
organists were among his pupils.

=The French School=.—Prominent among organists of the French school in
the 19th century may be mentioned: =L. J. A. Lefébure-Wély= (1817-1869)
and =Antoine Eduard Batiste= (1820-1876). The works of both these
organists are still widely played and have won much popularity. Wely
has been called the “Auber of the organ.” His works display fertility
of melodic invention and a piquancy of harmonic treatment, but are
entirely lacking in the polyphonic element. Much the same may be said
of Batiste, who was a fine player and teacher, and who equalled Wely
in tunefulness but not in musicianship. =Nicholas Jacques Lemmens=
(1823-81), a great player (especially of Bach) and author of the
celebrated “Ecole d’Orgue” may be said to have laid the foundation of
the modern French school. Conspicuous among his successors have been:
=Camille Saint-Saëns= (1835-——), a most versatile musician and a noted
organist; =Théodore Dubois= (1837-——), =Théodore Salome= (1834-——)
and =Felix Alexandre Guilmant= (1837-——). Guilmant, one of the most
noted organists and composers of the present day, was a favorite pupil
of Lemmens. He has been one of the most prolific composers since the
time of Bach, is a master of all the resources of the modern organ,
and has a fertility of invention and a fluent command of contrapuntal
resources. Another eminent French organist is =C. M. Widor= (1845-——),
also a composer of distinction. A powerful influence was exerted on
modern organ music, as well as general composition, by the eminent
organist and composer, =César Franck=, who was, for a number of years,
in charge of the organ class at the Paris _Conservatoire_.

=The Italian School=.—Among recent Italian organists =Filippo Capocci=
(1840-——) and =Enrico Bossi= (1861-——) are worthy of mention. Both are
splendid organists and prolific composers. They are leaders in the
revival of good organ playing in Italy, where a determined effort is
being made to restore the art to its former supremacy.

=The English School=.—England has furnished a long line of 19th century
organists of ability, prominent among whom are: =Sir John Goss=
(1800-1880), =Henry Smart= (1813-1879), =E. J. Hopkins= (1818-1901),
=S. S. Wesley= (1810-1876), =Dr. Wm. Spark= (1825-1897). Foremost among
English organists stands the name of =Wm. T. Best= (1826-1897). He was
one of the most famous concert organists of his time, but is best known
to organ students by his “Arrangements from the Scores of the Great
Masters,” in which he demonstrated that the organ is in itself capable
of reproducing certain orchestral effects without transcending its
proper functions or descending to trickery. “The Organ,” by =Sir John
Stainer= (1840-1901), is one of the most widely used elementary works
for instruction in organ playing. Dr. Stainer was the successor of Sir
John Goss, at St. Paul’s, London, and was appointed Professor of Music
at Oxford University in 1889. =Frederic Archer= (1838-1901) has been
considered one of the greatest of organ players. After a successful
career in England, he came to America in 1880. He did much towards
popularizing and elevating the art of organ playing in this country.
Prominent among contemporary English organists stands =Edwin H. Lemare=
(1865-——), who succeeded Frederic Archer as organist of Carnegie
Hall, Pittsburg, in 1902. He is a skilful virtuoso, a composer of
originality, and a leading representative of the modern English school.

=Modern Organ Music=.—Organ playing and composition have kept pace
with the mechanical and artistic evolution of the instrument, and the
lines between the various schools are becoming less closely drawn.
The tendency of builders to imitate orchestral tone and effects
has had influence on composers and players alike. This tendency is
less noticeable in the works of the German school, where a modified
polyphony still flourishes, based on the principle of the classic
treatment of the chorale and growing out of the music of the Lutheran
Church. The organ compositions of the modern French school are
characterized by grace, refinement and originality, coupled with a
certain dignity and elegance. They combine free harmonic treatment and
modern polyphony, together with certain ornate characteristics, growing
out of the elaborate ceremonial music of the Latin Church, and bringing
into play all the resources of tone color and expressive treatment
of the modern instrument. Much the same may be said of the modern
English school, which nevertheless still shows traces of the early
English style, based on the dignity and purity of cathedral use and
tradition. The orchestral tendency, both in composition for the organ
and in the transcription of orchestral works for the instrument, shows
itself more or less in all schools, and the organ, in addition to its
position in the church, is becoming more and more a concert instrument.
The compositions of the American organists reflect, in a measure, the
characteristics of the schools in which they have been trained, and in
particular show traces of the styles of the masters with whom they have
chiefly studied.[9]


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Articles on the Organ, and
Organists mentioned in this lesson.

Williams.—Story of the Organ.

Lahee.—The Organ and its Masters.

Matthews.—Handbook of the Organ.

Pirro.—J. S. Bach: The Organist and His Works.

Audsley, G. A.—The Art of Organ Building, 2 vols.


                               QUESTIONS.

In what early instrument is the germ of the organ found? Describe its
gradual development.

Describe the general character of the early organs.

Describe the various mechanical improvements.

When and by whom were pedals introduced?

Mention some of the early organists.

In whom did the Polyphonic Period culminate? Who is the source of
modern organ composition and playing?

Mention some German organists since the time of Bach.

Mention some prominent French and English organists of the 19th century.

Describe the modern tendencies in organ composition.


            SUGGESTIONS FOR A REVIEW OF LESSONS VIII TO XVI.

Get a clear idea of the period, which includes the years between 1100
and the death of Palestrina in 1594, almost 500 years. The lesson on
the organ and organ playing belongs to this period, chronologically, in
part only.

The difference between the monophonic and polyphonic styles must
be clearly appreciated in order to get a clear grasp of the two
fundamental styles in music. Illustrations from the masters are to be
placed in contrast. Polyphony developed from melodic principles, the
simultaneous sounding of several melodies. Monophony depends upon a
harmonic basis.

Indicate the steps in the growth of Polyphony.

How did the Church contribute?

What political and other conditions made Paris the centre of Europe in
the 12th century?

What is the force of Imitation as a principle to secure Unity in
musical composition? How was it used by the composers of the Paris
school?

What advances in the use of Imitation did the men of the Gallo-Belgic
school make?

Indicate certain historical events and name prominent personages of the
periods included in this section.

Why did the early English school exercise so little influence on music?

What noted musical composition is credited to the English school? What
kind of work is it?

What historical periods coincide with the English school as described
in this section?

Compare the Gallo-Belgic and the Netherlands schools. What did the
former contribute to the latter?

What is the musical value of the principle of the Canon?

Why did the musical centre shift respectively from Paris to Belgium, to
the Netherlands and then to Italy?

Make a list of the composers of the different schools of this period
and trace the connection between them.

Give a sketch of Palestrina and show his contribution to church music.

Describe the madrigal. Compare a madrigal with a modern part-song and
note the difference in style.

Give the classification of musical instruments. Examples in each class.

Give a sketch of the development of the viol.

What is the germ of the principle of the organ?

What is the necessity for the use of a bellows?

What are the successive steps in improving the organ?

Mention the important players in chronological order.

Classify them in the proper schools.

Compare the German, French and English schools.



                              LESSON XVII.

                      THE BEGINNING OF THE OPERA.


=The Renaissance=.—The Opera, in its inception, was literary rather
than musical in nature. It was a result of what is known as the
Renaissance, so-called because its most prominent manifestation in
Italy was a revival of the learning of the ancients. This phase of
the movement was initiated by =Petrarch= (1304-1370), who devoted
his life to the study of the classical past of Italy. The Latin
classics had never been entirely lost, but those of the Greeks had
become practically extinct during the dark ages which followed the
conquest of the Roman Empire by the barbarians of the North, in the 5th
century. The arts had been kept alive only through the fostering care
of the Church, and all had taken on a conventionally ecclesiastical
character. Education had declined; it was practically confined to
churchmen—even kings and rulers could barely sign their names, while
the people at large were sunk in gross ignorance. The revival of Latin
literature through the influence of Petrarch led to an interest in the
Greek classics which soon became the engrossing study of the learned.
Diligent search was made for lost and forgotten manuscripts; academies
of learning were founded; lectures were given on Greek philosophy.
In the enthusiasm thus created it was even thought that not only the
arts and literature of the ancient world might be restored, but its
governmental, social and political structure as well.

=Scope of the Renaissance=.—The Renaissance, however, was not merely
literary in nature. It was in reality the awakening of man from the
spiritual and intellectual slumber which had bound him for nearly a
thousand years. Long before it was defined it had been perceptible in
many ways. First, materially, in a spirit of exploration, of adventure
and enterprise. Traders and travelers startled Europe with glowing
accounts of the far East; missionaries took long and dangerous voyages
in the hope of converting its heathen inhabitants. An eager desire for
increased commercial facilities with these favored countries by means
of a westward passage brought about the discovery of America, with
which modern history may be said to have opened.

With this extension of the world’s boundaries, the mind of man began
to expand as well. As he looked forward with eager anticipation to the
future, he studied the past with an eye newly alive to the treasures of
its buried culture. Instead of his former acquiescence in being one of
a dull, inert mass, serving without question those in authority over
him, he began to feel and to assert his own individuality, to resist
the crushing weight of feudalism which had hitherto oppressed him.
Freedom of intellect, of conscience, of science, of art, was in the air.

The effect of this transition from medievalism toward modern liberty
of thought and action varied with different nationalities. In northern
nations it took the direction of rebellion against prevailing religious
and political conditions, for example, in Germany and England. Italy,
however, remained steadfast in religion and government; the revolt was
against traditions in matters of art and literature. Roman law and
Greek philosophy were exhumed; the classics were zealously studied for
standards of taste and culture.

=Music of the Ancients=.—Notwithstanding this research, no trace
was found of the music actually in use among the ancients. From the
evanescent nature of the art and the total lack of examples, the
elaborate descriptions of its complicated system of scales and modes
given by Greek philosophers failed to yield a trustworthy clue to its
real character.

It was known, however, that the _drama_, owing to the enormous
proportions of the amphitheatre in which it was performed, was
_musically declaimed_, and that the voices of the actors and chorus
were sustained by lyres and flutes. Thus, in the Greek tragedy we find
the principal features of the modern opera—scenery, dramatic action,
solo and choral singing, the orchestra. It was also known that in the
music of the Greeks the _word_ was the _governing principle_; that
there was no independent instrumental music—nor was there elsewhere
for many centuries afterward. The tone was regarded only as a means of
heightening the effect of the poetry; the succession of long and short
syllables dictated both rhythm and melody. Of harmony in the modern
sense of the term, there was none; instruments and voices alike were in
unison.

=Music Chiefly Choral=.—In the 16th century, Florence was the centre
of the enthusiasm for Greek culture. She and her sister-cities in the
north of Italy were the arbiters in matters of taste, of learning and
erudition. There, toward the end of the century, a small group of
scholars and musicians, known as the _Camerata_ (Chamber), meeting at
the house of Count Bardi, discussed the possibility of reproducing
the musical declamation of Greek tragedy. The time was ripe for such
an experiment. The polyphonic school had reached its climax in the
intricate works of =di Lasso= (1520-1594) and =Palestrina= (1514-1594).
Though admirably suited to the Church, the contrapuntal style of these
great composers was manifestly unfit for dramatic purposes; it could
voice the aspirations of a body of worshipers swayed by a common
belief, but could not express individual feeling. No voice was more
important than another, all progressed according to canonic law, their
complex intertwining practically destroying the essentially secular
elements of accent and rhythm. It was, in short, the embodiment in
music of the medievalism which had so long controlled Church and State.

Thus far the spirit of emancipation which had produced such great
results in the other arts and in politics elsewhere had touched
music but lightly. Attempts had been made to break the restraints
of contrapuntalism, but there was a total ignorance as to what
steps would prove most effective in reaching that end, and nothing
definite had been accomplished. Aside from the Folk-song, which was
ignored by musicians save only as it served as Cantus Firmus for their
counterpoint, there was no music for the solo voice; it was conceived
solely from a choral standpoint.

=The Recitative=.—Their dissatisfaction with the school of music then
in vogue and the impossibility of adapting it to their purpose led
to various experiments by this band of enthusiasts to discover the
principles upon which the Greeks had founded the musical declamation
employed in their tragedies. They argued that it must have followed
as closely as possible the _inflections of the voice_ in speaking;
therefore they made this their study. Thus originated the Recitative,
the distinguishing feature of the lyric drama, which, though using the
definite pitches of the musical scale, reproduces in its progressions
and cadences the characteristic but intensified effect of an oratorical
delivery of the text. It was the exact contrary of the music of the
age in which the word counted for almost nothing, the art of combining
independent voices and of playing them off one against the other for
everything.

=The Cantata=.—The first result of their efforts was the Cantata
(from _cantare_, to sing), meaning a composition for the voice in
contradistinction to the Sonata (from _sonare_, to sound), which
was applied to one for instruments. The Cantata had but little in
common with what is now understood by the term. It was a recitation
on musical intervals for a single voice accompanied by but one
instrument. Anything like a formal melody was carefully avoided, and
the accompaniment, generally played on the lute, was of the most
unpretending character. The first of these cantatas was composed by
=Vincenzo Galilei=, the father of the celebrated astronomer, on the
tragic fate of Count Ugolino, as related by Dante in the _Inferno_.
This, therefore, was the _first art-song_ ever composed. Unfortunately,
it has been lost; but contemporary accounts tell of the profound
impression it created. Other cantatas were written and sung by =Giulio
Caccini= (1550-1618), a skilled and an admirable lutist as well, and
all awakened the utmost enthusiasm among the little company.

These works were known as _Nuove Musiche_ (new music) and such as have
survived are, in general, painfully thin and crude to modern ears. When
compared with the rich polyphony of the prevailing Church style they
seem at the first blush to indicate retrogression. Progress, however,
seldom advances in a direct line; it generally moves by spirals which
at times apparently retreat only to mount the higher at the succeeding
curve. These dull recitatives bore the _germ of emancipation_ from the
scholastic laws which had heretofore prevented music from expressing
individual emotion; they typify the spirit of the Renaissance and are
the foundation of the art as we now know it.

=The First Opera=.—Another of the number, =Jacopo Peri= (1561-1633),
also a musician, took the next step by composing music of the same
style to a drama, the _Dafne_ (Daphne) of the poet Rinuccini, who was
the life and soul of this attempt to revive the lost declamation of the
Greeks. This was performed privately in 1595 at the Corsi Palace, and
produced so strong an impression that it was repeated a number of times
at the Carnival seasons of the succeeding years. In 1600, Peri was
invited to compose a similar work for the marriage festivities of Henry
IV of France and Maria di Medici. This was _Euridice_, also written by
Rinuccini, which bears the distinction of being the _first opera_ to
receive public performance, and thus introducing the new art-form to
the world at large. The score of _Dafne_ has been lost, but that of
_Euridice_ still exists.

It was then known as a music drama (_melo dramma_ or _dramma per la
musica_); the term opera (abbreviation for _opera in musica_, that is,
musical work) did not come into use until the middle of the century.
The orchestra, which was played behind the scenes, consisted of a
harpsichord, two lutes and a bass-viol. In addition, three lutes played
a short _ritornello_ (interlude) in one scene. With this exception,
the instruments were used merely to support the voice; the tonality
was almost exclusively minor, and the harmony of the simplest. It is
thought that Peri sang the part of Orpheus and that Francesca Caccini,
daughter of the composer and one of the most gifted singers of the day,
sang Euridice.

[Music: Radoppia e fiamm’e lumi al memorabil giorno, Febo ch’il carro
d’or rivolgi intorno.

PART OF AN AIR BY CACCINI.]

Caccini claimed the new style as his invention, and it is certain that
parts of _Euridice_ were composed by him, though Peri’s name alone
appears on the title page of the published work. Emulating the success
of his colleague, the former soon set the same drama to music.

=Characteristics of the Early Opera=.—The two settings are so similar
that one might almost be taken for the other. Both display the same
characteristics. Of dramatic feeling or characterization as understood
at the present day there is no sign; development of musical thought,
none whatever; a dreary waste of recitatives is but slightly relieved
by the occasional flourishes (_giri e gruppi_, that is, runs and turns)
allowed the singers by the taste of the times. The choruses, however,
which are introduced freely, serve to vary the monotony somewhat. They
exhibit a singular mingling of the old and new styles, natural under
the circumstances. The voices sing either in a recitative-like unison,
or begin in fugato, and later move in simple harmonic progression.
Their distaste for the contrapuntal style led these reformers to
reject it so far as they could. Its appearance at all is due to the
fact that no other mode of writing for a number of voices had as yet
been devised—a strictly harmonic treatment had not been thought of.
Since, then, they were at a loss as to the management of choral masses,
they were obliged to have recourse in part to old methods.

Another name associated with the Florentine school deserving mention is
that of =Marco da Gagliano=, a priest who soon took the lead in the new
movement. His first opera was _Dafne_ (1607), composed to Rinuccini’s
drama which had already served Peri; it was a common practice in those
days for composers to use the same text. As a scholar and musician,
Gagliano was superior to his predecessors. He shows a greater warmth
of feeling and a tendency toward melody which they considered as a
lowering of their ideals.

=The Florentine School=.—One particular characteristic of the
Florentine school was a sedulous _avoidance_ of anything like _extended
melody_ or definite form. To the composers of this school, music was
not an end in itself; it was subordinate to the distinct, _impassioned
declamation_ of the poet’s verses. They held that any independent
development of musical thought was a weakness; that it tended to
distract the attention of the hearer from the drama, and to interfere
with its logical continuity. The predominant influence was that of
the scholar, not of the musician. This was to be expected from the
character of the little coterie interested in the new art-form. The
majority were wealthy amateurs, zealous students of the classics and
aflame with the desire for the actual revival of the Greek tragedy.
Peri and Caccini were the only musicians and they were strongly averse
to the contrapuntal music of the day. Its persistently ecclesiastical
effect debarred it from expressing the personal feeling which was
the object of their research. In the effort to escape its ban, they
unwittingly emancipated their art from the control of the Church, and
made it accessible to mankind in general. This, therefore, is the great
service of the Florentine reformers: the establishment of a purely
secular school of music susceptible of indefinite development.

Making allowance for the vast difference in means due to the practical
creation of independent instrumental music since the 17th century,
their practice was precisely the same as that of the modern composer
who writes a music drama and uses the same term to define his work.
When _Dafne_ and _Euridice_ first saw the light, however, there was
neither knowledge nor experience to point the way; it was found only
after a slow and laborious process of experimentation, involving the
acceptance of much that was rejected after having served its turn.
Though Peri and Caccini with their confrères did not succeed in the end
they had in view, they accomplished far more by originating the Opera,
the point of departure for the whole modern art of music.


                              REFERENCES.

Symonds.—The Renaissance in Italy.

Apthorp.—Opera Past and Present.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Articles on subjects
mentioned in this and following lessons.

Streatfeild.—The Opera.

These general works serve for other lessons on the opera.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

What was the Renaissance?

What was the effect of this idea on music?

What was the origin of Recitative?

What was understood by _Nuove Musiche_?

Who wrote the first opera? What term was applied to this kind of
musical work?

Give a description of the early opera.

Give an account of the Florentine school and their fundamental ideas.

Since the beginning of the Opera is practically the beginning of a
century, the 17th, it should not be a difficult matter to keep this
date in mind. It therefore antedates the settlement at Jamestown, Va.,
by a few years, making the beginning of American history under English
auspices and the Opera coincide.



                             LESSON XVIII.

                THE ORATORIO. DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPERA.


=The First Oratorio=.—The novelty of the new style, which was called
the _stilo rappresentativo_ (representative style), the vigor and
freedom it gave to an impressive delivery of the text, aroused
universal attention. Among the composers who essayed it was =Emilio
del Cavaliere= (1550-1599). By applying it to a sacred subject, he
originated the Oratorio. Roman by birth, he had passed part of his life
in Florence, and though not a member of the _Camerata_, was familiar
with its aims and practice.

The germ both of the Opera and Oratorio is to be found in the Miracle
Plays or so-called Mysteries of the Middle Ages. These were dramatic
representations of _Bible scenes_ or _religious allegories_ by means
of which a populace unable to read was taught the great truths of
sacred history. Cavaliere’s oratorio, _La Rappresentazione di Anima e
di Corpo_ (The Representation of Soul and Body), was given in 1600 in
Rome, at the Oratory of the Church of Santa Maria in Vallicella—hence
its name.

[Music: PASSAGE FROM CAVALIERE’S ORATORIO.]

=Its Characteristics=.—Save for the _nature_ of the _subject_, there
was no apparent difference between it and an opera. The allegorical
characters taking part appeared in costume and in action. The score
even gives directions by which it may be concluded with a dance if
so desired. By this, however, dignified and stately movements are
understood, in nowise resembling the rapid dance of modern times. The
composer in his instructions for performance, which are unusually full
and complete, lays great stress upon an expressive delivery of the
text, and the swelling and diminishing of the tones by the singers.
In vigor and characterization it far surpasses Peri’s and Caccini’s
operas. Cavaliere’s death, which occurred ten months before the
production of his work, and the great popularity of the Opera, put a
stop to the immediate development of the Oratorio; that was reserved
for Carissimi a generation later.

=Monteverde=.—The task of taking the opera from the experimental
stage and of placing it on the artistic foundation which it now
occupies was accomplished by =Claudio Monteverde= (1568-1643), a man
of extraordinary genius and originality. A harmonist of surpassing
force and boldness, he had always rebelled against the restraints
of the contrapuntal school, though, unlike Peri and Caccini, he
was skilled in its intricacies. He was viol player in the band of
the Duke of Mantua, and had composed masses and madrigals, many of
which were severely criticised by the pedants of the day. He joined
definite issue with them in his _freedom of treating dissonances_,
the distinguishing feature of modern harmony. Heretofore, sevenths,
ninths, augmented fourths and the like had never been heard without
preparation. Monteverde, however, introduced them without regard to
this restriction, little heeding the anathemas heaped upon his head by
those who considered his infractions of established rules unpardonable.
His ardent, restless temperament, seeking novel modes of expression,
often led to wild and extravagant combinations which even today appear
harsh and forced. At that time they must have seemed wilful attempts
at outraging the ear and the sense of harmonic propriety. These
innovations, however, are the cornerstone of modern harmony; of this as
well as of the opera, Monteverde is the real founder. What are defects
in his church music are excellences in his operas. The discords which
disturb the serenity of a religious atmosphere are admirably fitted to
produce dramatic effects and powerful climaxes. Monteverde belonged
to the stage as his great contemporary, Palestrina, belonged to the
church.

=Position of Music in the 17th Century=.—The interest which the
success of the Florentine composers would have for a man thus gifted
can be readily imagined. Yet he was obliged to wait a number of years
for an opportunity to emulate their achievements. Music then was the
especial pastime of the great; it was part of the state with which they
surrounded themselves. Almost all titled and wealthy families had their
own bands of musicians and choirs of singers. These assisted in their
private chapels and lent additional eclat to seasons of festivity.
Concerts and operas were given only at court or in the palaces of
noblemen; public halls for any kind of musical occasion were unknown.
A musician or composer could make his way only by attaching himself
to a noble house or by securing a patron in court circles. _Dafne_
and _Euridice_ were made possible through the interest and protection
of Count Bardi and Count Corsi. The opera was also attended with
great expense. The taste of the times demanded an enormous outlay for
mounting—costumes, scenery, decorations; only the extremely wealthy
could afford it, and they reserved it for occasions of especial
importance.

[Music: ARIADNE’S LAMENT.]

=Monteverde’s First Opera=.—In 1607, the marriage of Margaret of Savoy
to Francesco Gonzaga, son of the Duke of Mantua, opened the way for
Monteverde’s first opera, _Arianna_ (Ariadne), which was received with
the utmost enthusiasm. Unfortunately, but a fragment of it remains,
Ariadne’s lament after her desertion by Theseus, the most celebrated
opera air ever written. In its unprepared discords of the harshest
nature, in the poignant expression of grief and despair so at variance
with the placid art of the day, this shows how, by a single stroke,
Monteverde cut loose from all the traditions of the past. In its less
than a score of measures it also anticipates principles of artistic
structure which were not formulated for nearly a century later and
which hold good to the present day. It is said that it brought tears to
every eye.

[Music: RITORNELLO BY MONTEVERDE.]

=His Second Opera=.—The following year he produced his second opera,
_Orfeo_ (Orpheus), so called to distinguish it from Peri’s _Euridice_
on the same subject. Though most of Monteverde’s works have been
lost, the score of _Orfeo_ has been preserved. It shows a surprising
advance over the simplicity of the Florentine operas. First of all,
in the great _expansion of the orchestra_. This numbers thirty-seven
instruments which throughout are _combined in groups_ and as a whole
with an art prefiguring certain effects of orchestration supposed to
be purely modern. Like harmony, instrumentation dates from Monteverde.
Instead of the customary vocal prologue, it begins with a _Toccata_
(instrumental prelude). The composer’s keen dramatic instinct is
shown by the masterly way in which he avoids the monotony of his
predecessors; the recitatives are varied by the introduction of
_ritornelli_, and each act ends with a chorus and a stately passage for
the orchestra. Five years later, the most famous composer of the day,
he left Mantua for Venice, where until his death he was director of
music at St. Mark’s.

=Monteverde’s Characteristics=.—Monteverde’s greatest service to
the opera lay in enlarging the sphere of the orchestra, and in the
initiation of a thoroughly instrumental style adapted to the character
of each instrument. He increased the number of players and released
the orchestra from the subordinate position of being a mere support
for the voice by employing it to heighten the dramatic situation. He
originated many previously unknown effects, among them the _pizzicato_
and the _tremolo_ of the violins in precisely the same form as used at
present. The latter so astounded the players that at first they refused
to attempt it, saying that it was impossible. He endowed the Recitative
with far greater freedom and depth of expression; under his hand it
lost much of the dryness of the Florentine school. His manner of
_writing_ for the voice was _declamatory_ rather than melodious; what
traces of definite melody occur in his works are generally confined
to the instruments, in which he curiously anticipates the practice of
latter-day dramatic composers.

=Popularization of the Opera=.—Until 1637 the opera was restricted to
royalty and the nobility. In that year the first public opera house was
opened in Venice, and such was the popularity of the new amusement that
before the end of the century there were no fewer than eleven in that
city alone, then with a population of about 140,000. It spread through
Italy with almost like rapidity, bearing in its wake an unparalleled
development of the art of song.

=Change of Character=.—With its introduction to the people, it was
manifestly impossible for the opera to retain its original character.
So long as it was confined to the cultivated, the classical ideals of
its founders met with intelligent appreciation, but when confronted
with audiences drawn from the masses desirous only of being amused,
a change was inevitable. Mythological and classical subjects were
gradually discarded in favor of those involving intrigue and disguise;
comic personages were introduced to enliven the scene. As the dramatic
action was thus brought nearer the comprehension of the unlearned,
so the music departed from the oratorical standards of the early
school, and showed a frank _tendency toward melody_ and _regularity of
form_. What was lost in elevation of theme, however, was made up by
the human interest imparted to the play and the consequent endeavor
of the composer to express, by his music, the varying vicissitudes of
life. Thus it gained in warmth of feeling and flexibility in means of
expression, while the evolution of rhythmic melody and definite musical
structure laid the foundation of the art as we now have it.

=The Venetian School=.—Venice naturally became the centre of an
important development of the opera. Of the numerous composers forming
the Venetian school, =Francesco Cavalli= (1600-1676) and =Marco Cesti=
(1620-1669) are second only in importance to Monteverde. The first was
Monteverde’s pupil, and had much of his broad dramatic style modified
by the influences of which we have just spoken. Cesti came to Venice
from Rome, where he had been the pupil of Carissimi, and brought with
him the smoothness and melodic flow of his master, albeit lacking in
essential power. Other names of a later date are =Giovanni Legrenzi=
(1625-1690), especially noted for spirit and vivacity, and =Antonio
Lotti= (1667-1740), his pupil, known by one or two charming airs which
still survive.

=Carissimi and the Oratorio=.—=Giovanni Carissimi= (1604-1674), though
he never wrote for the stage, was the strongest musical influence of
his day. He was an ardent admirer of the new school, and adapted it in
the form of oratorios and cantatas to the Church. In such works the
necessity for form as regards definite tonality, distinct rhythm and
melodic sequence is naturally much greater than in the Opera where
music is used to illustrate the dramatic situation, and is furthermore
elucidated by the action of the play. When the ear alone is obliged to
pass judgment there must be evidence of design in these particulars,
else the effect is confused and bewildering. Carissimi’s musical
instinct grasped this truth. His oratorios and cantatas show a logical
arrangement of choruses and ensembles, recitatives and arias combined
with a unity of effect and a clearness of characterization heretofore
unknown. The choruses in particular are strongly rhythmic and far more
dramatic than those which were commonly heard on the stage.

[Music: FROM “JEPHTHA” BY CARISSIMI.]

=Secularization of Church Music=.—This introduction of the new style
into the Church marked the passing of the old school and strongly
affected methods of dramatic composition. The public had never been
in sympathy with the austere standards of the Florentine school and
welcomed the appearance of _intelligible melody_ and the _spirited
rhythms_ to which Carissimi gave the first direct impulse. Not only
this; he fixed the form that the music of the Church was to bear for
a century to come. This secularization of church music had its good
and bad sides; good by reason of the greater freedom and variety
of expression thus gained; bad because of the bold and mechanical
imitation of Carissimi’s purely formal details by his successors, which
in the end led to a tiresome monotony of style.

=Characteristics of the Venetian School=.—Thus was taken the first
step toward the complete reversal of the conditions under which the
early Opera had arisen. Instead of the music’s being subordinate to
the drama, the drama was soon to serve merely as an excuse for the
music; the opera was destined to sink to the level of a concert sung
in costume; the dramatic action reduced to a minimum. The Venetian
school marks the turning-point in this direction. The high ideals
of Monteverde and his predecessors were gradually thrust into the
background; the singer began to assume precedence over the actor; truth
of _expression yielded_ to the fascinations of _time_ and _tune_,
which even the musically uncultivated could enjoy without bothering
their heads as to real dramatic fitness. Closely connected with these
tendencies was the establishment of a school of singing which, if we
may believe contemporary accounts, surpassed in technical facility and
brilliancy any vocal art heard either before or since that time. The
result was that singers finally regarded the opera only as a field for
the display of their dazzling accomplishments and in this they were
willingly supported by a public eager to be entertained and amused.


                              REFERENCES.

Apthorp.—The Opera, Past and Present.

Elson.—The History of Opera.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, article on Opera.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Who wrote the first oratorio? In what respects did an opera and an
oratorio differ?

Give an account of Monteverde and his innovations in Opera.

What was the state of music in the 17th century?

Describe Monteverde’s first opera.

Describe Monteverde’s second opera.

What was understood by the terms Toccata, Ritornello?

What were Monteverde’s contributions to the Opera?

What change took place in the character of the Opera in the latter half
of the 17th century?

Who were the prominent members of the Venetian school?

Give an account of Carissimi and his work.

Give a characterization of the Venetian school.

A short account of the Mysteries or Miracle Plays of the Middle Ages
may be assigned to a pupil as special work. The Passion Play, still
given today at Oberammergau, Germany, is a relic of the old-time
religious plays.



                              LESSON XIX.

            ALESSANDRO SCARLATTI AND THE NEAPOLITAN SCHOOL.


=The Neapolitan School=.—What in the Venetian school had been a
_reaction_ in favor of _form_ and _melody_ became the established
practice of the Neapolitan school. Political disturbances had hindered
the spread of the Opera in southern Italy, particularly in Naples,
but at the end of the 17th century it assumed the position formerly
occupied by Florence and Venice. Before this, however, a strong
influence had been exerted by certain composers in Rome, of whom
Carissimi was first in importance. Had it not been for the disapproval
of the Church, a definite Roman school might have arisen. Such a school
would doubtless have been advantageous to the artistic growth of the
Opera, since the public taste at Rome in matters of art was more
serious in nature than at Naples. In 1697, public performances of opera
were forbidden by the ecclesiastical authorities, and thus the seat
of further development was transferred to Naples through the removal
thither from Rome of =Alessandro Scarlatti= (1659-1725), the founder of
the Neapolitan school. As a lad, he had been a pupil of Carissimi and
also probably of Legrenzi, whose influence is clearly seen in his early
works.

=Alessandro Scarlatti=.—Scarlatti invested his operas with a melodic
charm and a symmetrical form which thus far had appeared only
sporadically. Fascinated by the freedom of the new style, the early
composers had neglected the severe study which had been indispensable
to mastery in the Contrapuntal School, and had in the main relied on
natural gifts. Following the ideal of Peri and his associates, their
operas were largely a succession of recitatives which in the end grew
monotonous and wearisome; of form, of structure, of purely musical
effect they bore but slight traces. Scarlatti saw that the time had
come for a change in style—one that should combine the musical interest
of the old with the dramatic spirit of the new. The foremost musician
of his time, he perceived the weakness of the exclusively declamatory
opera—its lack of variety and want of appeal to the public in general.

[Illustration: ALESSANDRO SCARLATTI.]

=His Characteristics=.—He was not a reformer. He lacked the strong and
rugged dramatic fibre of his predecessor, Monteverde. Scholarship;
an inexhaustible fund of melody, pure, polished, refined; a gift of
characterization—general, not particular, and always subordinate to a
keen sense of beauty—are his distinguishing characteristics. He fell
in with the taste of the day and devoted his gifts to the production
of works which should satisfy the musician and please the public. The
solidity of his early schooling had made him a master of counterpoint,
and this he applied in the construction of logically worked-out
accompaniments, fuller, richer and more expressive than had been
attempted by his less learned contemporaries. In nobility of conception
and skill in solving contrapuntal problems he often shows that he is
not unworthy the name of the “Italian Bach,” as he is sometimes called.
Like Bach, also, he was one of the most prolific composers of all
times. He left one hundred and fifteen operas, sixty-six of which are
still extant, more than two hundred masses, besides many miscellaneous
works for church and concert, both vocal and instrumental.

=His Services to the Opera=.—To the simple recitative (recitativo
secco), invented by Peri, he added the important form known as the
_recitativo stromentato_ (accompanied recitative). This was not
strictly original with Scarlatti, since it had been introduced by
Purcell in his _Dido and Eneas_ ten years before the Italian had
first used it in his opera _Rosaura_ (1690). There is no probability,
however, that Scarlatti was acquainted with the Englishman’s works; it
is a not uncommon matter for two minds to arrive independently at the
same result. In the accompanied recitative, the voice, instead of being
supported by detached (_secco_) chords on the harpsichord, sometimes
with the addition of a single stringed instrument, as in the simple
recitative, was accompanied by the entire orchestra, which had grown to
proportions undreamed-of in Peri’s day. Vastly developed by the growth
of orchestral resources, it is the distinguishing feature of the modern
music drama. As a rule, however, it was but little used in Scarlatti’s
operas or in those of his contemporaries. Interest in the drama, as
such, was fast sinking to a negligible quantity; audiences assembled to
hear their favorite singers, not to follow the course of a more or less
involved dramatic action. The simple recitative was, therefore, more
frequently employed in order to hurry through the necessary details of
the play and reach the moment when the singer could delight by his art
in the aria.

[Music: AIR FROM SCARLATTI’S OPERA “TURNO ARICINO”.]

=The Aria=.—Scarlatti was not the inventor of the aria or air for
the single voice in the meaning of the term as applied to a certain
fixed form. Other composers had used it before him in its essential
principles, but he was the _first_ to _formulate_ it into a persistent
_type_, which it retained for nearly a century, despite its undramatic
character. The Scarlatti aria consisted of three parts: two contrasting
sections, concluding with a Da Capo or repetition of the first,
expressed by the formula A B A. The principle of Repetition as an
element of form is now a commonplace, but at the time it was a novelty,
and the emphasis given to it by the aria fascinated the public and
made it the principal feature of the opera. More than anything else,
it led to its degeneration. Singers found in the aria a means of
displaying their technical skill; it became the canvas on which they
embroidered the most astonishing _tours de force_. The art of acting
almost disappeared from the operatic stage; the poise of body and voice
required for such vocal efforts banished all but a few conventional
gestures.

=The Overture=.—Scarlatti’s powers were by no means confined to writing
for the voice; the instrumental portions of his works give evidence
of equal mastery, though the popular taste for singing allowed him
but little scope for extension in this direction. His overtures in
particular show a great advance over the simple preludes of the early
Italian operas. He perfected what is known as the Italian Overture in
contradistinction to the earlier form invented by Lully, and called
the French Overture. It consisted of three movements, the first and
last quick, the middle movement slow. In its arrangement, this was the
direct precursor of the modern symphony. At first the two terms were
interchangeable; an overture when played before an opera was called
a _Sinfonia_, and curiously enough, when played independently as a
concert number it was frequently called an overture. Some of the early
symphonies were even printed with one title outside and the other
inside.

=The Typical Italian Opera=.—Thus at the beginning of the 18th century
we find the Opera on an overwhelmingly musical basis instead of
the oratorical foundation which it had in its inception. Scarlatti
fixed its form for a century. He left it consisting principally of
recitatives and arias, each opera containing from fifty to sixty of
the latter. Aside from these there was but little formal music—only an
occasional march or dance besides the overture. The simple recitative
was used for ordinary dialogue; hence it was peculiarly applicable
to the _Opera Buffa_ (comic opera). The accompanied recitative was
reserved for situations of dramatic importance, and the aria served
to express individual emotion. The chorus was employed but sparingly,
generally appearing only at the end of the act to give greater eclat to
the finale. The dance, which in the early Opera had played a part of
some importance, was finally banished entirely from the scene, though
not from the stage. It was given between the acts as an intermezzo
(interlude), and thus developed into the formal ballet. Spectacular
features, too, assumed great prominence.

=The Intermezzo=.—The Intermezzo has a close connection with the opera.
It arose from the custom of introducing something _between the acts_ of
a play or opera to entertain the audience during the necessary period
of waiting. At first, songs or madrigals were sung, then by degrees
the entertainment took on a dramatic form, until at last a drama was
given totally independent of the principal play. Singularly enough,
the acts of the two plays were performed alternately, neither having
any connection with the other. The Intermezzo was always of a gayer,
lighter character; thus when the incongruity of the practice became
apparent, it naturally evolved into the _Opera Buffa_. This was brought
about by the success of the most celebrated comic opera ever written,
_La Serva Padrona_ (The Maid as Mistress), by =Giovanni Pergolesi=
(1710-1736). This was originally produced (1734) as an Intermezzo
between the acts of another play, and afterward made a triumphant
progress through all the opera houses in Europe as an independent work.

=The Opera Buffa=.—Though for the sake of contrast, comic characters
had been introduced into the opera during the early Venetian period,
the _Opera Buffa_ did not reach its full development until the
following century. Owing to the absence of certain conventions which
had grown around the _Opera Seria_ (serious opera) it became a more
characteristic mode of expression than the latter. Its melodies were
fresher, its dramatic action was less restrained and truer to life,
while it performed a valuable service by doing away with the strange
mingling of comic and serious styles which had previously disfigured
many otherwise impressive works. To it we owe the concerted Finale
which is such a feature of modern grand opera. It is attributed
to =Niccolo Logroscino= (1700-1763), who instead of the customary
conclusion of an act by a simple duet, trio, or quartet, brought all
the _Dramatis Personæ_ on the stage to take part in a characteristic
ensemble. Greatly developed by later composers, such finales were for a
long time confined to _Opera Buffa_, until Paisiello finally introduced
them into serious opera.

=Prominent Composers of the Neapolitan School=.—It is hardly possible
to mention more than a few of the numerous composers belonging to the
Neapolitan school. Besides Pergolesi, the most important works of
this school were composed by =Niccolo Porpora= (1685-1767), =Niccolo
Jommelli= (1714-1774), =Niccolo Piccini= (1728-1800), =Giovanni
Paisiello= (1741-1816) and =Domenico Cimarosa= (1749-1801). Most of
these were equally at home in the _Opera Seria_ and the _Opera Buffa_,
but their works in the latter style have proved the more enduring.

Porpora is more noteworthy for the singers he formed than for his
forty-six operas, all of which have sunk into oblivion. He was the
greatest of the many masters of singing who through their pupils
made the Opera of the 18th century the field of display for the most
remarkable singers the world has ever heard. Jommelli was one of the
most gifted composers of his day. He spent fifteen years in Germany
as capellmeister to the Duke of Wurtemburg, but the influence of this
long residence in a country where musical ideals were of a more austere
type than in Italy, though it added dignity and solidity to his art,
was fatal to his popularity when he returned to his native land; his
countrymen found his operas heavy in style and deficient in melody.
Piccini was the composer of the most popular _Opera Buffa_ of the
century, _Cecchina_, but is now remembered principally by the bitter
feud which arose in Paris in 1787 between his admirers and those of
Gluck. Paisiello’s most celebrated work was _Il Barbiere di Siviglia_
(The Barber of Seville), which held the stage for thirty years until
the success of Rossini’s masterpiece on the same subject forced it into
retirement. Cimarosa’s _Il Matrimonio Segreto_ (The Secret Marriage)
was an equal favorite; one of its numbers, the trio for women’s voices,
_Ti Faccio un Inchino_ (I make thee a reverence), sometimes appears on
modern programs.

=Influence of the Neapolitan School=.—Notwithstanding the formalism
of the Neapolitan school, which led to a regrettable neglect of the
dramatic signification of the Opera by an over-emphasis of its musical
element, it was of no small importance in the development of music in
general. By fixing the principles of form and melody at a time when
both were vague and undetermined, Scarlatti laid the foundation of the
great classical period, beginning with Haydn and Mozart and ending with
Beethoven. This was his contribution to absolute music, which cannot
exist without form, though its influence was disastrous to purity of
form in the branch of the art which he particularly cultivated.


                              REFERENCES.

Dent.—Alessandro Scarlatti: His Life and Works.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Which Italian city now became the centre of operatic development?

Who was the founder of this new school?

Tell about his style and training.

What did he contribute to the development of the Opera?

Describe the Aria.

Describe the Overture.

Describe a typical Italian Opera.

Describe the Intermezzo.

Describe the Opera Buffa.

Who were the prominent composers of the Neapolitan school?

What was the influence of this school?

The period of Scarlatti’s work extends approximately from the English
Revolution of 1688, which drove James II from the throne, to the end of
the reign of George I. In American Colonial history this period is one
of gathering strength in the various provinces on the Atlantic Coast.



                               LESSON XX.

                          SINGING AND SINGERS.


=Early Methods of Singing=.—As has been noted by the reader, music,
up to this time, developed principally along vocal lines. We have
no details as to the character of the training of singers among the
Chaldeans, Egyptians and Greeks except such as indicate that their idea
of singing was a sort of musical declamation. Such seems also to have
been the idea of the nations in the north of Europe.

We have seen that the Welsh bards were required to undergo a very
thorough and exacting course of study, but the practical side of
singing and the rules laid down for the training of the young minstrels
is not a part of our knowledge. The songs of the early Church, sung by
masses of worshipers, were of necessity simple in every way, requiring
no art. It was not until the use of Discant became popular, and the
Polyphonic school began to use florid writing that we can infer that
there must have been some methods of training vocalists for artistic
work. Although we have little or no details as to the course of
training which the early singers received, we are justified in assuming
that they must have possessed skill in execution of no mean order. It
must not be forgotten that practically all the composers of the early
Polyphonic school were singers, able to execute their own works. Hence,
studies in singing must have gone hand in hand with composition. The
voice parts of the masses, motets and madrigals of the composers of the
13th to the 16th centuries have absolute independence of progression,
syncopations, embellishments, etc., to such an extent that it taxes
the musicianship of the chorus singer of the present day to sing them;
they are not only exacting in intonation, rhythm and other musical
matters but also in mechanical points, such as flexibility and freedom
of voice and thorough breath control.

=Influence of the Opera on Singing=.—When the Opera was established,
after the declamatory style offered by the first composers had proven
unsuccessful in holding the public, the florid style of the old
discanters was revived and modified, which, as the Opera developed,
gave a great impetus to a systematic and thorough study of singing.
The new style of melody introduced by the opera composers of the 17th
century demanded purity of voice, wide range, flexibility, expressive
shading and a marvelous breath control, as well as great physical
endurance. Singers were expected to execute the most intricate
passages, abounding in diatonic and chromatic scales, arpeggios, turns,
gruppettos, trills, etc., of the most elaborate nature, passages such
as are considered purely instrumental today. =Alessandro Scarlatti=,
the composer, and himself a singer, is credited with having had much
to do with the great development in the art of singing. He trained a
number of singers and pupils, and thus founded the “old Italian” school
of singing. It was natural that the art side of singing should thus
develop in Italy for several reasons, notably, because Italy had a
great number of highly-trained composers, the character of the language
is such as to lend itself to the requirements of artistic singing,
broad full vowels, soft consonants, absence of final consonants, etc.,
and the enthusiastic, essentially lyric temperament of the race.

=The Training of a 17th Century Singer=.—We are given an idea of the
course of training which singers of the 17th century were obliged to
observe in a work _Historia Musica_, published by G. A. A. Buontempi,
in 1695. This contains an account of the regulations of a school for
singers in Rome, directed by Virgilio Mazzocchi, in which Buontempi was
a pupil: The pupils were obliged to devote one hour each day to the
singing of difficult passages with the idea of acquiring experience;
one hour to the practice of the trill, one to passages in agility, one
to literary studies, one to vocalises and to various other technical
exercises under the direction of a teacher and before a mirror to
acquire the certainty that the singer did not make a faulty movement of
the face, the forehead, the eyes or the mouth. This was the morning’s
work. In the afternoon, a half-hour was given to theory study, the same
amount to writing counterpoint on plain-song melodies, then to learning
and applying the rules of composition (writing on an erasable sheet);
then followed a half-hour of study of a literary nature, and the rest
of the day was given to practice on the clavichord, to the composition
of a psalm, motet, canzonetta, or any other kind of piece according to
the pupil’s choice. Such were the common exercises of those days when
the pupils were kept on duty at the school. On other days, they would
go outside the Angelica Gate to sing against the famous echo that was
found there, listening to the response in order to criticise their
work. Other duties were to sing in nearly all the musical solemnities
of the various churches, to study attentively the style of the great
singers of the day, to make a report of their observations to their
master, who, the better to impress the result of their studies upon the
minds of his pupils, added remarks and advice as he deemed necessary.
Under such discipline it is not astonishing that the Italian singers
attained a high degree of excellence, and became not only distinguished
singers but skilful composers as well. That the reader may gather an
idea of the character of passages executed by these singers an example
is given on the previous page.

[Music: AIR for BASS

FROM A “MISERERE” BY DENTICE, END OF 16TH CENTURY.]

=Growth of the Florid Style=.—As the art of singing developed, the
singers increased their capricious embellishments. With the idea of
securing brilliancy as well as the hope of winning success for their
works, composers yielded to the exactions of singers and the depraved
taste of the dilettanti. This explains the seemingly endless vocalizing
and those passages of pure agility which crowd the scores of the best
Italian masters of the 17th and 18th centuries. Before giving some
account of the famous singers of the old Italian school it will be
interesting to have a few notes upon a work on vocal music which bears
upon the matter of execution.

=A Work on Singing=.—In 1725, =Pier Francesco Tosi=, a renowned singer
(born about 1650, died 1730), published a work, translated into
English, and published in 1742 under the title “Observations on the
Florid Song, or Sentiments of the Ancient and Modern Singers,” which
contains some interesting and valuable statements for the student of
the history of the art of singing. The most minute principles are set
forth with much grace and spirit, in all cases showing enthusiasm on
the part of the author for his art and a high sense of the dignity of
the profession of singing. When the discussion is in regard to certain
kinds of passages in which the singer was accustomed to improvise
ornaments, Tosi demands the union of five qualities: intelligence,
invention, meter (rhythm), mechanism (technic) and taste; and in
addition, other qualities which he calls “secondary and auxiliary
graces”: the appoggiatura, the trill, the portamento di voce, phrasing.
This work by Tosi and one by Marcello entitled _Le Theatre à la Mode_
throw much light on the execution of the vocal music of the 18th
century.

=Seventeenth Century Singers=.—=Baldassare Ferri= (1610-1680) was
one of the most renowned of the male sopranos of the old school. His
voice had the greatest agility and facility, perfect intonation,
a brilliant shake or trill and his breath supply seemed to be
inexhaustible. In regard to his intonation, it is said that he was
able to ascend and descend in one breath a two-octave scale with
a continuous trill without accompaniment with such perfection of
intonation that when he finished he had not varied a shade from the
pitch of his starting-note. He was in high favor in the courts of
Poland, Germany, Sweden and England. A medal was struck in his honor.
=Antonio Bernacchi= (1690-1756) was a pupil of =Pistocchi= (1659-1720),
the most celebrated teacher in Italy at this time, whose principles
are represented in Tosi’s book. He commenced his career early and
appeared in opera in Italy, later in England and Germany. After some
years of experience with the public taste he altered his style, making
great use of the florid style, a veritable embroidery of roulades, an
innovation that was so successful as to be immediately followed by
other singers in spite of the protests of the older school of singers.
It is related that when Pistocchi heard his former pupil, he said:
“Ah! woe is me! I taught thee to sing and now thou wilt play!” He sang
in Handel’s opera company in London, 1729-30. He then returned to
Italy to take up the career of a teacher and brought out a number of
fine singers. =Francesco Bernardi Senesino= (1680-1750) was a great
favorite in England, where he sang in Handel’s operas. His voice was
exceptionally fine in quality, clear, penetrating and flexible, his
technic remarkable; his style was marked by purity, simplicity and
expressiveness, and his delivery of recitative was famous over all
Europe. The name of Niccolo Porpora was mentioned in connection with
the opera as a celebrated singing master as well as composer. No
singers before or since have sung like his pupils, notably Caffarelli
and Farinelli.

=Gaetano Majorano Caffarelli= (1703-1783)—the reader will note that
many of the old school of musicians lived to a ripe old age—was the son
of a Neapolitan peasant, who tried to repress the boy’s evident musical
inclinations. Cafaro, director of the Chapel Royal, at Naples, chanced
to hear him sing and succeeded in getting charge of him and gave him
his elementary instruction, which was followed by instruction from
Porpora, who was then living in Naples. Porpora was a most exacting
teacher, requiring implicit obedience and unceasing practice. The story
is told that Porpora kept Caffarelli for five or six years to the
unvaried study of a single page of exercises despite the pupil’s most
strenuous objections. At the end of the time, when Caffarelli declared
he would submit no longer, the old teacher said: “Go, my son. I have
nothing more to teach you. You are the greatest singer in Europe.”
When he first appeared in opera he sang female parts, for which his
beautiful face was well-suited. Some years later he took men’s parts.
He gained great popularity in the leading cities of Europe and amassed
an enormous fortune. He excelled in slow and pathetic airs, yet he was
most admirable in the bravura style, and his technic in the trill and
chromatic scales was unapproached by any other singer of his time. He
was fond of introducing chromatic passages in quick movements.

=Farinelli= (1705-1782), whose real name was Carlo Broschi, was a
pupil of Porpora. He made his first public appearance in Rome when
he was seventeen years old. It was on this occasion that he sang the
famous aria with trumpet obligato, written by his master, a piece which
became so associated with him as to be demanded at all his concerts.
In this piece, trumpet and voice vie with each other in holding and
swelling a note of extraordinary length and volume; when the trumpeter
had exhausted his breath Farinelli kept on with increased power and
ended with a great vocal display. This aria called for wonderful
vocal technic owing to the novelty and difficulty of the trills and
variations introduced. In 1727, he engaged in a musical duel with
Bernacchi, previously referred to, in which he was conquered. As a
result of this he placed himself under Bernacchi’s instruction, and
thus perfected his wonderful talent. In 1731, at the suggestion of the
Emperor Charles VI, he modified his style and devoted study to the
mastery of pathos and simplicity. During his public career he won the
greatest possible success in the European capitals and passed the last
years of his life in wealth. Mancini, a fellow-pupil of Farinelli and
later a famous singing master, says of Farinelli’s voice: “It was so
perfect, so powerful, so sonorous and so rich in its extent, both in
the high and the low parts of the register, that its equal has never
been heard in our time.... The art of taking and keeping the breath
so softly and easily that no one could perceive it began and ended
with him. The qualities in which he excelled were the evenness of his
voice, the art of swelling its sound, the portamento, the union of the
registers, a surprising agility, a graceful and pathetic style and a
shake as admirable as it was rare.”

A few other singers of this class may be mentioned: Giacchino Conti,
called =Gizziello= (1714-1761), =Giovanni Carestini= (1705-1758?)
a contralto, =Giuseppe Boschi=, the most celebrated basso of the
18th century, one of Handel’s singers, and =Girolamo Crescentini=
(1766-1846). So much space has been given to these singers because
their work laid the principles for vocal training that have ever since
been the foundation upon which the great masters and singers of later
times have built their art; to these principles has been given the name
of the old Italian School of Singing.

=Ill-effect of Virtuosity=.—The student who goes fully into the subject
of the relation of singers to the opera will find that the great
development of virtuosity among singers exerted an ill-effect and
called forth a very pronounced reform in which Gluck was the leader.
Singers were capable of such great vocal display, and the public showed
so much enthusiasm for the brilliant feats of vocalism, and so great
was the rivalry between singers and their partisans that composers vied
with each other in their efforts to introduce the most difficult and
florid passages possible. The text of an aria had no real value and
became merely a vehicle upon which to place the dazzling vocalization
of the singer. Dramatic truth was ruthlessly sacrificed. A singer,
supposed to be in the very throes of death, would give a virtuosic
display that would tax the lung power of a man in the most perfect
physical condition. Gluck’s reform consisted in requiring that the
arias should express the emotions suited to the situation, thus calling
for expressive singing, not mere vocal display. The history of the
opera and singing since then shows periods of change toward one idea or
the other until the principles of Richard Wagner as to dramatic truth
were generally accepted.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, articles on the singers
mentioned in this lesson.


                               QUESTIONS.

What circumstances show that the church singers of the 13th to 16th
centuries must have had considerable skill in singing?

What was the influence of the opera on singing?

What was the course of training required of young singers in the 17th
century?

What important work on singing dates from the early part of the 18th
century? Give some of its principles.

Describe the celebrated singers of this period and their work.

What was the influence of vocal virtuosity on music?



                              LESSON XXI.

                      OPERA IN FRANCE AND ENGLAND.


=Spread of Italian Opera=.—The fame of Italian opera soon spread to
other countries. Princes and kings, eager to hear the new style of
music, held out golden inducements to Italian composers and singers to
come to their courts; it was generally thought that none but an Italian
could compose an opera or sing an aria. The consequence was that in
almost all countries during the 18th century the prevailing musical
influence was Italian; native composers and singers were obliged to
study Italian models if they wished to attain to popular favor. In
France, however, this influence was only sufficient to _modify_ without
obscuring the features of an essentially national school. Independence
in matters of art has always been a marked characteristic of the
French; they have led rather than followed. The most distinguished
names in the history of French opera have been those of foreign birth,
but whatever their nationalities, all give evidence of the effect
exerted upon them by the definite form, the clearness of dramatic
intention demanded by the canons of French taste.

=Origin of French Opera=.—As the Italian opera was derived from the
classical tragedy, so the _French opera_ had its _origin_ in the
_Ballet_, the favorite form of amusement in France. The French Ballet
of the 17th century was by no means confined to the dance; it was a
heterogeneous mingling of dances and dialogues, songs and choruses,
corresponding to the English Masque. Like the early operas in Italy,
their spectacular features were on a large and expensive scale, which
confined them to occasions of especial festivity at court or among
the nobility. The taste for dancing had much to do with the direction
taken by the opera in France; it is still characteristic of the French
school, as is shown by the prominent place given to the ballet in the
Grand Opera.

=Lully=.—The founder of the French school, =Jean Baptiste Lully=
(1633-1687), was Italian by birth, but at the age of thirteen he was
taken from his native city, Florence, to France, as a page in the
service of the Chevalier de Guise. His musical gifts soon won him a
place in the royal band and finally the post of court composer. He
first wrote ballets in which the King (Louis XIV) himself danced, and
later turned his attention to the opera.

=Italian Opera in France=.—Italian opera had already been heard in
France. Through Cardinal Mazarin, an opera company from Venice had
visited Paris in 1645, and two years later Peri’s _Euridice_ had been
given also by a Venetian troupe; but these and later performances had
aroused no attempts at imitation by French composers. They contented
themselves with writing ballets which were performed as intermezzos
between the acts of Italian operas in order to bring them nearer the
French standards of taste. The superior vocal ability of the Italians
was acknowledged, but the lack of rhythmic form in their music made
an unfavorable impression. The king was passionately fond of dancing;
he and his courtiers frequently took part in the ballets produced at
court, hence the interest lay in the drama as illustrated by the dance
rather than by song.

=Beginning of French Opera=.—The first French opera to receive public
performance was _Pomone_ (Pomona), in 1671, by =Robert Cambert=
(1628-1677), who had previously written several others which had been
performed only in private. It awakened much more interest than the
Italian operas which thus far had been heard in Paris, and incited
Lully to the composition of his first opera, _Les Fêtes de l’Amour
et Bacchus_ (The Feasts of Love and Bacchus), which was produced the
following year. From that time until his death he composed fifteen
operas, which determined the form of French opera for practically a
century.

=Characteristics of Lully’s Operas=.—Lully’s operas, like those of the
Florentine school, were on the whole _declamatory_ in style, and like
them their subjects were generally taken from classical mythology.
They are destitute of the sustained melody which appeared somewhat
later in the Neapolitan school; but the recitatives are so skilfully
varied in rhythm and show such intimate knowledge of the genius of the
French language that in dramatic effect they are far superior to those
of the earlier school. To the overture, the ballet, the chorus, he
assigned music of a different type, rhythmic and formal in nature, thus
relieving the monotony of an exclusively declamatory style. A master
of stagecraft, his operas abounded in cunningly-devised spectacles and
original scenic effects which excited wonder and held the attention. In
short, so far as the means of the times allowed, we find in the Lully
operas the well-considered balance between the musical and dramatic
elements still characteristic of the French school.

=The French Overture=.—One of Lully’s greatest services was the
elaboration of the Overture into a larger and more dignified form.
The Italians had never paid much attention to the overture. At first
it appeared only as a _brief instrumental prelude_, sometimes but a
few measures in length. The introduction to Monteverde’s _Orfeo_, for
example, consists of only nine measures which the composer directs
to be played over three times to serve as overture. Later it was
somewhat _extended_ in length and provided with some regularity of
design, but the Overture as a fixed form dates from Lully. It began
with an impressive slow movement, followed by an Allegro in fugue
style. Sometimes this was all; but it generally concluded with another
slow movement, often one of the stately, dignified dance tunes of the
day, and often merely a repetition of the Introduction. This form was
known as the French Overture, and was soon adopted by composers of all
nationalities. About the middle of the 18th century it was supplanted
by the Italian Overture, perfected by Scarlatti, and described in
Lesson XIX.

=The Prologue=.—The overture was commonly followed by a Prologue.
This had nothing to do with the action of the drama; it introduced
mythological and allegorical characters who danced and sang, often
paying the most fulsome adulation to the king, who was compared to the
most celebrated heroes of mythology and antiquity. After the prologue,
either the overture was repeated, or another and a shorter one was
played. This pseudo-classical type of opera naturally flourished in the
artificial atmosphere of the court on which it was dependent for favor.
It lasted until the time of Gluck, when the influences which led to the
great uprising of the people in the latter part of the 18th century
swept it away with other traditions and conventions.

=Rameau=.—Until we come to =Jean Philippe Rameau= (1683-1764), none of
Lully’s successors succeeded in definitely extending the limits he had
fixed. Rameau had won the name of the first theoretician of the day,
and was a man of fifty when his first opera, _Hippolyte et Aricie_, was
produced. Even he made no essential change in the scheme established by
Lully beyond greatly enlarging the sphere of the orchestra, originating
novel rhythms and bolder harmonies. This was, however, a long step
in advance, since it saved the opera from sinking to the level of a
dull, mechanical imitation of Lully’s methods, into which contemporary
composers had fallen.

=The English School=.—Italian music, in the form of the Madrigal, had
been popular in England since the time of its introduction in 1598,
by =Thomas Morley= (1557-1604). Native composers immediately took it
into favor, a favor it has never lost; madrigals are still composed and
sung in England, though elsewhere the form has been dead for nearly
two centuries. The declamatory opera of the early Italian school,
however, never took root. It was, as we have seen, primarily a drama in
which music played a secondary part, and as such it was far too crude
and lacking in human interest to appeal to a public accustomed to the
plays of Shakespeare and his contemporaries, and whose taste in music,
moreover, was rather for melody than for recitative. Then, during the
Protectorate, the Puritanical spirit which led to the destruction of
church organs and for a time forbade all theatrical performances proved
an insuperable obstacle to any development of dramatic music.

=The First English Operas=.—In 1656, Sir William Davenant, the
playwright and theatrical manager, evaded this prohibition by
introducing music into his plays and calling them operas. Much of
this music, which was in the form of incidental songs, choruses and
instrumental interludes, was written by =Henry Lawes= (1595-1662) and
=Matthew Lock= (——d. 1677). The latter is well known for his music to
“Macbeth,” which up to within a few years was not infrequently heard
in performances of the tragedy. These so-called operas had little or
no effect on the development of a native school. They are principally
noteworthy in being the first English operas and the first theatrical
performances in England in which women appeared on the stage.
Previously the parts of women had been played by boys.

=Influence of the French School=.—At the Restoration in 1660, Charles
II found the prevailing style of music in England but little to his
taste. Fond of the gay measures and lively dances of the French opera,
in 1664 he sent =Pelham Humfrey= (1647-1674), the most talented of
the boys forming the choir in the Chapel Royal, to Paris to study
with Lully. Three years later he returned, and became the teacher of
England’s greatest composer.

=Henry Purcell=.—This was =Henry Purcell= (1658-1695), one of a family
of musicians of whom he stands first. As a child he is said to have
composed anthems while a chorister in the Chapel Royal, and at the
age of twenty-two he composed his first opera, _Dido and Eneas_, a
most remarkable work for a youth of his years. It is the only one of
his dramatic works in which there is _no spoken dialogue_, its place
being supplied by recitative, and therefore, strictly speaking, it
was his only opera. He can never have seen an opera of this type;
his acquaintance with the new style must have been largely based on
what Humfrey had told him of such performances in Paris, though it is
possible that he had the opportunity of studying Lully’s scores. In its
union of dramatic feeling and characterization with depth of musical
resource, _Dido and Eneas_ was far in advance of anything that had
yet appeared in France or Italy. Though it shows the influence of the
French school, the sturdy English character which distinguishes all of
Purcell’s music is plainly apparent.

[Illustration: HENRY PURCELL.]

=Purcell’s Dramatic Works=.—It was followed by a large number of works
for the stage, but these were in the main merely incidental music for
dramas; among them Shakespeare’s “Tempest,” “Midsummer Night’s Dream”
(known as The Fairy Queen), Dryden’s “King Arthur,” the last being the
most important and extended in form. Unfortunately, many of them have
been lost; but enough remain to show that in Purcell’s early death
England lost the most original musical genius she ever possessed. He
founded a distinctly national school which, for the lack of a successor
of equal gifts, was destined to succumb to foreign influences.

=Their Characteristics=.—His melodies bear the freshness and
spontaneity of the English Folk-song at a period when music was
generally cultivated, before civil wars and religious bigotry had
crushed the art spirit which, during the 16th century, had made the
English people the leaders in musical progress. His recitatives show
a vigor and an intuitive perception of dramatic effect unsurpassed by
any of his contemporaries on the Continent. He was an accomplished
contrapuntist and applied his knowledge of counterpoint with admirable
results to sacred music, yet never allowed it to become obtrusive in
his dramatic works. In these clear, expressive melody and vigorous
declamation were the distinguishing features; his learning served only
to secure a natural flow of the one and an appropriate setting for the
other.

=The Masque=.—The precursor of the English opera was the Masque. Like
the French Ballet, this was a dramatic entertainment consisting of
dialogues, dances, songs, and choruses. The subject was allegorical or
mythical in nature and the mounting of the most elaborate description.
The leading poets and dramatists of the day wrote many masques. The
most famous was Milton’s “Masque of Comus,” the music by Lawes, which
was performed at Ludlow Castle in 1634. The music in these masques
was at first designed merely to give variety to what was in the main
a pleasure to the eye, but Purcell relieved it of this subordinate
character by investing it with a weight and authority which made it an
integral factor in the dramatic expression.

=Typical English Opera=.—He thus fixed the form of the _English opera_
as a _play with songs, choruses, ensembles_, etc., connected by _spoken
dialogue_ instead of recitatives. The music, therefore, instead of
carrying on the action, is confined to the more quiet situations of
the drama, such as are naturally adapted to lyrical expression. The
inflexibility of this form has doubtless had much to do with the
lack of development in the English School of Opera compared with the
remarkable growth of other schools which have abandoned the union of
the spoken with the sung word in the serious opera.

=The Ballad Opera=.—The only characteristic creation of the English
school is the Ballad Opera. This had its origin in “The Beggar’s
Opera,” produced in 1728. Slight in texture, it was simply a play
with songs set to the most popular ballad tunes of the day. Its
extraordinary success in the face of the financial failure of Italian
opera left no doubt as to the real taste of the English people, and
was decisive as to the direction taken by later composers, such as
=Sir Henry Bishop= (1786-1855), =Michael Balfe= (1808-1870), =Arthur
Sullivan= (1842-1901).


                              REFERENCES.

Davy.—History of English Music.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

What circumstances attended the spread of the Italian Opera?

Which European country was the next to take up Opera?

Who was the founder of this new school?

What efforts had been made prior to his appearance?

Describe Lully’s opera form.

Describe the French Overture.

Describe the Prologue.

Who was Lully’s successor?

What prevented the spread of the principles of the early Italian Opera
in England?

Give names of men connected with the early history of Opera in England.

Give an account of Purcell and his works.

What was the Masque?

Describe the typical English Opera. The Ballad Opera.

The pupil will note that the development of French Opera took place
in the reign of Louis XIV, and that it was after the restoration of
Charles II in England that opera began there, Purcell’s work ending
with the close of the 17th century.



                              LESSON XXII.

                THE OPERA IN GERMANY. HANDEL AND GLUCK.


=Opera in Germany=.—The introduction of the opera into Germany dates
from 1627. In that year a German translation of Rinuccini’s _Dafne_,
which, it will be remembered, was the text of Peri’s first opera, was
set to music by =Heinrich Schuetz= (1585-1672) and performed on the
occasion of the wedding of the Landgraf of Hesse. Schütz, who also
composed the first German oratorio, _Die Auferstehung Christi_ (The
Resurrection of Christ), had been sent by the Landgraf to study in
Italy in 1609, only two years after the production of Monteverde’s
_Orfeo_. The score of his _Dafne_ has been lost, but it was doubtless
in accordance with the principles of the Florentine school. The Thirty
Years’ War and its lamentable consequences prevented any immediate
development of the new form. Occasional productions of Italian
opera were given in several German cities, but it was not until the
establishment of the Hamburg opera late in the century that the new
musical movement gained a permanent footing in Germany. Even then its
popularization proceeded but slowly.

[Illustration: HEINRICH SCHUETZ.]

=German Composers Barred=.—It is true that not long after the beginning
of the 18th century, great interest was manifested in Italian opera
at a number of courts, Berlin and Dresden in particular, but this had
_no influence_ in the formation of a _national school_. Its effect
indeed was the exact contrary. Singers and composers were brought from
Italy; among the cultivated classes opera in German was considered a
barbarism, so that native musicians met with little or no encouragement
in this field. They were obliged to write their operas to an Italian
text if they wished a hearing for them; the Church alone was freely
open to German composers. The Church, too, was the only place where
the people could hear music; public concerts were unknown and, save at
Hamburg, the opera could be heard only by invitation to those who had
entrée to court circles. This led to the remarkable activity in the
production of sacred music which is such a feature of that period. This
also, as shown by the early history of the Hamburg opera, was more in
consonance with German character than the light, ephemeral operas which
ruled the Italian stage.

=Characteristics of the Early German Opera=.—The Hamburg opera house
was opened in 1678 with a Biblical _Singspiel_ (literally song-play) of
an allegorical nature, _Adam und Eva; oder der erschaffene, gefallene
und wieder aufgerichtete Mensch_ (Adam and Eve; or the Created, Fallen
and Redeemed Man) by =Johann Theile= (1646-1724) a noted organist of
the day and a pupil of Schütz. This was the first performance of a
German opera on a public stage. The _Singspiel_ corresponds to the
English ballad opera in being a series of songs, ensembles, etc.,
mainly of a simple nature, connected by spoken dialogue. The curious
taste of the time is shown by the choice of subject; the work itself
was a survival of the Miracle Plays and Mysteries of the Middle Ages.
It begins with the creation of the earth, which is formed out of chaos
by characters representing the four elements; the Almighty descends by
means of a flying machine and calls man into being; Lucifer succeeds
in his temptation of Eve to the great joy of demons who sing an
exulting chorus, etc. As the Italians took the subjects for their early
operas from classical mythology, so the _Germans took_ theirs from
_Bible history_. _Adam and Eve_ was followed by a series of similar
_Singspiele_: _Michal and David_, _The Maccabean Mother_, _Esther_,
_Cain and Abel_, and many others.

=Change of Character=.—In time, however, these gave way to operas in
the Italian style. The chief agent in this change was =Reinhard Keiser=
(1674-1739) who, as composer and manager, brought the Hamburg opera
to its highest point. Associated with him was =Johannes Mattheson=
(1681-1764), a man of many and varied gifts as singer, composer,
conductor, scholar and diplomat, now chiefly remembered by his close
relations with =George Frederic Handel= (1685-1759). The latter at the
age of eighteen came from his native city, Halle, to Hamburg, then
the musical centre of Germany, to continue his studies. Mattheson
recognized the youth’s genius and opened the way for the performance of
his first opera, _Almira_.

=Handel and the Hamburg Opera=.—This, with _Nero_, was given in 1705
with such success that Keiser, jealous of the young composer, set them
both to music himself and banished his rival’s works from the stage.
Handel thereupon withdrew and the year following went to Italy, where
he spent several years. His connection with the Hamburg opera was too
slight for him to have exercised any influence upon it; then, too, he
had not yet reached artistic independence himself, and it is doubtful
whether he would have made any change in the direction it was taking
toward conventionalized Italian opera. At that time the Hamburg opera
was rapidly losing its national character; the style mainly cultivated
was that of the Neapolitan school; a tasteless mingling of languages
was even allowed in one and the same opera—the recitatives were often
sung in German and the arias in Italian. This decadence continued, with
a consequent loss of popular favor, until in 1738 opera in German was
given up entirely, and Italian opera reigned triumphant in Germany.

=The Conventionalized Italian Opera=.—Handel, on his return from Italy,
finally found his way to England, where he made his home for the rest
of his life. The series of operas he produced there form the _climax of
the type originated by Scarlatti_, which by this time flourished on all
stages to the exclusion of all others, save in France, where the ideals
of Lully and his school still prevailed. Its chief aim was to afford
singers an opportunity to display their accomplishments. To this end
the composer directed his attention principally to the production of
arias which should correspond to this demand. Exquisitely beautiful as
these often were, their preponderance completely obscured the dramatic
significance of the opera, and led the singers to entertain grossly
exaggerated ideas of their importance. They dictated to composers,
refused to sing what in their opinion failed to suit their voices, and
in many ways kept the opera from rising above the low artistic level
to which it had fallen. To please them, a highly artificial scheme of
arrangement was adopted to which the drama was totally subservient.
Only six characters were allowed, three men and three women; the arias
were strictly classified according to style and assigned to the singers
in a certain fixed order; no ensemble beyond a duet was permitted, and
the chorus sang only in the closing finale. No matter what the dramatic
exigencies might be, adherence to these formulæ was rigidly exacted.

=Handel’s Operas=.—Though Handel infused a vigor of spirit and a
wealth of characteristic melody into this form of opera, he made no
definite attempt to escape its restrictions. Many of his most beautiful
creations are buried in operas which are dead beyond possibility of
resurrection on account of his acquiescence in the sentiment of his
times. That this is not due to lack of innate power is shown by his
oratorios.

[Illustration: CHRISTOPH WILLIBALD GLUCK.]

=Gluck and His Reform of the Opera=.—This so-called concert opera
reigned with almost undisputed sway until the influence of =Christoph
Willibald Gluck= (1714-1787) wrought a momentous change. Persuaded of
the low estate to which the opera had been reduced, Gluck stood for a
return to first principles; he advocated a ruthless sacrifice of the
conventionalities which through the vanity of singers and the love of
sensation on the part of the public had grown up around the opera and
the placing of it upon its original foundation of the drama. He was a
man of mature years when in 1762 he put his theories into practice by
the production of _Orfeo_ in Vienna. He had composed many operas in the
prevailing Italian style, but his judgment, formed by extensive study
and travel, convinced him of the essential weakness of that school: its
concentration upon the purely musical element. This he saw made of the
opera a puppet-show for the display of vocal art which, great as it was
from a technical point of view, was mechanical and meretricious in
character. He was not alone in his condemnation; critics and thinkers
such as Addison and Steele in England, Diderot in France, Marcello and
Algarotti in Italy had employed the varied resources of wit, satire and
reason to expose the follies and inconsistencies of the opera. From the
nature of the case, however, they could work no change; most of them
were literary men who could criticise but not create.

=Gluck’s Travels and their Influence=.—Gluck had traveled much. There
was hardly an art-centre in Europe from Copenhagen to Naples which
he had not visited for the purpose of bringing out his works. In
England, he had heard Handel’s oratorios, which profoundly impressed
him; in Paris, he had made acquaintance with Rameau’s operas. Both
of these masters exercised a strong influence over his change of
style; the former by his powerful handling of the chorus which had
been practically banished from the Italian stage, the latter by his
consistent adherence to dramatic truth of expression. He was in
addition a zealous student of art and literature in all their phases;
he brought to his problem not only the ear of the musician but the
intellect of the scholar.

“=Orfeo=.”—In _Orfeo_, Gluck took the same stand which Peri had
taken in his opera on the same myth a century and a half before: the
_illustration of the drama through music_ which should give it a
poignancy of expression denied to the spoken word. The later composer
had the immense advantage of musical resources undreamed-of at the
time of the Florentine opera, but both stand upon the same artistic
platform. It was a daring task that Gluck had attempted. Orpheus,
robbed by death of Euridice, seeks to regain her by forcing entrance
to the place of departed spirits. On his descent to the nether world
he is confronted by a band of demons who bar his way, but finally
melted to tears by the pathos of his song, they allow him to pass. The
composer must make this appeal adequate to the effect; anything less
would result in an anti-climax totally disastrous to dramatic illusion.
Gluck passed this test triumphantly. Even today this scene remains one
of the most powerful known to the operatic stage. _Orfeo_, in its
strength and simplicity, was so opposed to the taste of the day that
its victory was by no means unquestioned, but it soon won universal
recognition and with its successor, _Alceste_ (1767), is the oldest
opera heard at the present day.

=Gluck in Paris=.—_Alceste_ was followed by _Paride ed Elena_ (Paris
and Helen), but the severity of the new style aroused such a storm of
hostile criticism that the discouraged composer turned to Paris with
his _Iphigenie en Aulide_ (Iphigenia in Aulis) to a French text after
Racine’s tragedy. Marie Antoinette, then the wife of the Dauphin, had
been his pupil in Vienna, and through her influence the opera was
produced, though not without arousing one of the most bitter wars in
musical annals. Twelve years before, Italian _Opera Buffa_ had gained
a footing in Paris. Its lightness, melodic grace, and witty dramatic
situations captivated many who immediately attacked the prevailing type
of French opera, of which Rameau was the head, as heavy and unmusical.
This opinion was strenuously combated by others who upheld native
art. Thus there were two strongly-opposed parties, one defending the
Italian, the other the French school of opera. After Rameau’s death,
the Italian party was in the ascendency, but on Gluck’s arrival with a
French opera he was taken as the representative of the national school.
Piccini, the most popular Italian composer of the day, was pitted
against him, but it needed only the production of Gluck’s _Iphigenie en
Tauride_ (Iphigenia in Tauris) to crush his rival’s claims. This was
his last great work. He retired to Vienna, which was his home until his
death.

=Influence of Gluck=.—The influence exerted by Gluck was far-reaching
and permanent. The reform he initiated did not create a school—it did
far more; it _profoundly affected all schools_. With no immediate
followers among the composers of his time he stood alone, as he
stands today, one of the most commanding figures in musical history.
His _Orfeo_ marks the beginning of a new era by rescuing a great
and important form of art from a decadence which had robbed it of
legitimate power and effect. The opera more than any other form of
music is dependent upon popular favor for existence. It is therefore
peculiarly susceptible to influences which tend to lower artistic
standards. Gluck, however, made it impossible that it should ever again
sink to the level of the mass of crudities and puerilities from which
he lifted it.


                               REFERENCE.

Oxford History of Music, Vol. IV.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Give an account of the introduction of opera into Germany.

Why did German composers develop slowly?

Describe the early German opera forms.

Who was the chief agent in a change?

Give an account of Handel’s work in connection with German opera.

What had been the influence of singers?

What were the influences to cause Gluck to set about opera reform?

Give an account of “Orfeo.”

Why did Gluck go to Paris and what success did he have there?

What was the influence of Gluck upon the future of the opera?

It will be noted that the Thirty Years’ War in Germany interfered with
the development of the Opera. Frederick the Great’s grandfather and
father laid the foundations of the Prussian kingdom. In France, Gluck’s
works carry us up to the period of social and political agitation
preceding the French Revolution. In England, the House of Hanover is
becoming more firmly established on the throne; in America, the period
is that of the struggles between the French and English colonists.



                             LESSON XXIII.

                           MOZART TO ROSSINI.


=The Opera after Gluck=.—After Gluck the first great name is that of
=Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart= (1756-1791). Haydn had indeed written a
number of operas, but they were, in the main, light in character and
exercised no influence whatever on the development of the form. At the
age of twelve, Mozart had composed two operas, but the first to receive
public performance was _Mitridate, Re di Ponto_ (Mithridates, King of
Pontus), which was produced at Milan two years later under his own
direction. This was followed by others, but these early works do not
call for any extended mention. Though they abound in melody and show a
maturity remarkable in so young a composer, they were frankly written
to please the taste of the time and do not in any essentials depart
from the accepted Italian style then in favor, as fixed by Scarlatti
and his contemporaries.

=Gluck and Mozart Compared=.—It was not until _Idomeneo, Re di Creta_
(Idomeneus, King of Crete) was brought out during the Carnival season
of 1781, that he demonstrated fully the gifts which made him the first
dramatic composer of his time. In this he shows a great advance over
the conventional opera of the period and an approach to the ideals of
Gluck, though neither in _Idomeneo_ nor in any of his later operas did
he attempt to embody these ideals in the uncompromising form chosen by
the older master. Though contemporaries, no two composers could well
be more unlike in character, temperament and methods than Gluck and
Mozart. The one, a man of years, ripened through travel and study,
conditioned his music according to the requirements of the drama; the
other, a youth of no great intellectual endowments aside from his art,
but aflame with the fire of genius, felt the drama in terms of music.
Thus they approached the task from opposite sides. Not that Gluck was
without feeling or Mozart without intellect; it was simply a case of
the dramatist and the musician solving the problem each in his own
way. At the same time it was impossible that Gluck’s theories should
be entirely without influence on Mozart. Even a genius must learn from
his environment, and Gluck’s position, though sharply disputed by the
Italian school to which Mozart belonged, could not be ignored by the
younger man. Then, too, Mozart had been in Paris during the height
of the Gluck-Piccini controversy, and it is known that he had made a
close study of _Alceste_, to which Gluck, in the form of a dedication
to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, had given a preface containing a clear
exposition of his principles of dramatic composition. It is hard to
say, however, what direction Mozart’s dramatic course might have taken
had his life not been cut so pitilessly short and if his outward
circumstances had been less constrained. He was obliged to adapt
himself to Italian influences which at that time were all powerful.

=The Singspiel=.—As already mentioned, the first attempts at German
opera took the form of the _Singspiel_, but it gradually died out
during the invasion of Italian opera in Germany. Its revival and
development to a higher standard was due to =Johann Adam Hiller=
(1728-1804), who received his first impulse through an English ballad
opera of a farcical nature, “The Devil to Pay.” This was translated
into German and given (1743) at Berlin with the original English
melodies taken from popular ballads. Hiller set this translation to
music and followed it with many others which soon acquired great vogue;
one or two, for example, _Der Dorfbarbier_ (The Village Barber),
are still heard in Germany. Hiller, though one of the most learned
musicians of the day, the founder of the celebrated Gewandhaus Concerts
in Leipzig and editor of the first musical periodical ever published,
adopted a simple, natural Folk-style in these operettas, as they were
also called. Goethe was particularly interested in this revival of a
national form of opera; it stimulated him to the writing of the ballads
which in turn acted so powerfully in developing the German song under
the hands of Loewe, Schubert, Schumann and others.

=Mozart’s First German Opera=.—Emperor Joseph II, wishing to establish
the _Singspiel_ in Vienna, commissioned Mozart to write a German opera
of a similar style. This resulted in _Die Entführung aus dem Serail_
(The Elopement from the Seraglio), and the composer’s hopes of founding
a national school of opera were high. Unfortunately, he was doomed to
disappointment. Though _Die Entführung_ was received with enthusiasm,
popular favor was averse to opera in any other tongue than Italian; the
German theatre was open only a few years and with the exception of _Die
Zauberflöte_, his future operas were composed to Italian texts.

=His Later Operas=.—_Le Nozze di Figaro_ (The Marriage of Figaro—1786),
_Don Giovanni_ (Don Juan—1788), _Die Zauberflöte_ (The Magic
Flute—1791) rank as Mozart’s greatest operas. Considered as music
alone, the last reaches a height which gives an idea of what he might
have done in nationalizing the opera if he had been spared a score of
years longer; but its confused, irrational plot stands in the way of
its popularization. The same objection holds good of _Così fan Tutte_
(Women are All Alike—1790), which contains some of his most exquisite
music.

=Characteristics of Mozart’s Operas=.—Mozart’s _conception_ of the
opera is that of the _musician_, _not_ of the _dramatist_. This
is plain from the indifferent texts he willingly accepted, yet so
universal was his genius that he fused the two elements into a complete
and consistent whole. Such a union of clearly-cut characterization and
musical beauty is unknown in the opera. He made his _characters eternal
types_ by means of music so apposite to their individuality that it
seems in each case to spring from inward necessity, yet which as music
has never been surpassed for intrinsic grace and charm. Italian melody
in its best estate on a foundation of German depth and solidity is
its distinguishing characteristic. This characterization is confined,
however, to details and personages; of the development of the drama
as a whole he apparently had but little idea. This, however, was not
called for by the taste of the times; the opera was not considered from
a dramatic standpoint, save by Gluck and the composers of the French
school; the libretto furnished a series of situations suitable for
musical illustration, not a consistent and logical dramatic action.

=Their Significance to German Art=.—Mozart marks the highest point
reached by the opera of the 18th century; he also _marks the passing
of Italian supremacy in Germany_. The Germans were already masters
of the other great forms, the Oratorio and the Symphony; Gluck and
Mozart captured the Opera also for Germany, though it was not for
several decades after Mozart’s death that German opera rose from its
discredited position at the close of the century.

=Beethoven’s Fidelio=.—A mighty impulse was given to the development of
a national school by the production of _Fidelio_ (1805), Beethoven’s
only opera. His two great predecessors had been obliged for the most
part to write their operas to French and Italian texts. =Beethoven=
(1770-1827), however, showed his independence and sturdy national
character by choosing a subject totally alien to the frivolous
intrigues which at that time ruled the Viennese stage—a story of
heroic, wifely devotion—and composed it to German words and in the
German style; that is, with dialogue instead of recitative. Essentially
symphonic in character, _Fidelio_ shows the same disregard of vocal
limitations which characterizes the Ninth Symphony and the Mass in D.
Difficult for the singers, it was still more difficult for the public.
In subject and treatment it was above their heads; they turned it the
cold shoulder and it soon disappeared from the boards. An appreciation
of its greatness was reserved for a later day.

=Italian Composers in France and Germany=.—The popularity of Italian
opera outside of Italy led to the expatriation of many Italian
composers who exercised a powerful influence in France and Germany.
Among these =Antonio Salieri= (1750-1825) deserves mention for his
career in Vienna, where he was the successful rival of Mozart in court
favor and later the teacher of Beethoven. More important was =Luigi
Cherubini= (1760-1842), who found his way to Paris just before the
Revolution. A master of the severe contrapuntal school, which was then
passing away, Beethoven considered him the first composer of the day
for the stage and studied his works zealously. Cherubini was present
at the first performance of _Fidelio_, which shows strong traces of
the influence exerted upon Beethoven by _Les Deux Journées_ (The Two
Days, known in Germany and England as The Water Carrier), Cherubini’s
greatest opera. The two were on intimate terms during the stay of the
latter in Vienna for the purpose of bringing out several of his operas.
There was much in common between them; the Italian had the solidity,
dignity and nobility of treatment generally associated with the German
character. Beethoven’s choice of a subject for his opera was doubtless
influenced by _Les Deux Journées_; the themes of both are much the
same, involving devotion and self-sacrifice of the highest order.

=Spontini and Rossini=.—Another Italian composer who went first to
France and afterward to Germany was =Gasparo Spontini= (1774-1851),
who with _La Vestale_ (The Vestal) enlarged the sphere of the opera
in Paris. Spectacular and pompous in character, sonorous and powerful
in instrumentation, it pointed directly to the type of grand opera
originated by Meyerbeer nearly a generation later. In 1820, he was
summoned to Berlin, where he remained as court composer and conductor
for twenty-two years, a period coincident with the most significant
development of the German school of opera. Spontini was the last
of the many Italians who had for a century and a half borne almost
uninterrupted sway in Germany.

The most brilliant and gifted of all these wandering sons of Italy was
=Gioacchino Rossini= (1792-1868). As rich in melody as Mozart, though
of a less refined type, he owed more to nature than to study. His
first successful opera, _Tancredi_ (1813), set all Italy agog with the
freshness and vivacity of its airs, and it was not long before he was
the most popular composer in Europe. Gifted with prodigious facility—in
one period of eight years he wrote twenty operas—his operas ruled all
stages and fixed the standard by which all others were judged.

[Illustration: GIOACCHINO ROSSINI.]

=Characteristics of Rossini’s Operas=.—They are, on the whole, a
_reversion_ to the conventionalized opera of Handel’s time in being
written for the singer to exhibit his art and not to express the
significance of the drama; this notwithstanding their undoubted charm,
the many piquant and original touches in rhythm and harmony, the
occasional suggestive instrumentation. An intensely _florid style_ is
used not only in the _buffa_ school where it can readily be justified,
but in operas of a tragic nature where it is manifestly out of place.
In _Semiramide_, for instance, a story of battle, murder and sudden
death is told in the same rippling rhythms and highly ornamented
melodies that illustrate the intrigues of his _Barbiere di Siviglia_
(Barber of Seville), where they are eminently appropriate.

=His Change of Style=.—This is true, however, only of his works
composed for the Italian stage. His _Guillaume Tell_ (William Tell),
produced in 1829, five years after his arrival in Paris, showed the
influence of his new environment by an almost startling change of
style. Elevated and dramatic in treatment, shorn of redundant ornament
as befits the character of the subject—taken from Schiller’s play of
the same name—it remains his greatest achievement; at least in serious
opera. It was also his last work for the stage. It is not known by what
strange caprice he practically closed his career as composer at the age
of thirty-nine.


                               REFERENCE.

Oxford History of Music, Vol. V.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Name the most prominent successor of Gluck in opera.

Compare the two.

Describe the Singspiel.

Name some of Mozart’s operas.

Mention their characteristics and influence.

Give an account of Beethoven’s work in Opera.

Tell about Salieri, Cherubini, Spontini, Rossini.

Give the characteristics of Rossini’s operas.

What change in his style is evident in “William Tell”?

We now approach the period preceding the American and the French
Revolutions which so greatly affected the masses of Europe, an
influence extended by the wars of Napoleon. Music shows traces of the
powerful forces at work, losing the former artificiality and becoming
more and more, in the hands of Beethoven, an expression of dramatic and
personal feeling.



                              LESSON XXIV.

                             THE ORATORIO.


=Oratorio in Italy after Carissimi=.—After the beginning made by
Carissimi, the next work of importance in Oratorio is that of
=Alessandro Scarlatti=, who established the Aria form as explained in
the study of the Opera. The composers of the Italian school of the
last part of the 17th and the early part of the 18th century used
practically the same methods in Opera and Oratorio, the difference
being mainly in the character of the text, and in the earnestness or
religious feeling of the composer. Scarlatti is also signalized by
his improvements in the Recitative, which resulted in several forms
made use of by his successors, _Recitativo Secco_ and Accompanied
Recitative. He wrote ten oratorios. Contemporaries whose work should
be mentioned are =Antonio Caldara= (1678-1763) and =Leonardo Leo=
(1694-1746), a pupil of Scarlatti, who wrote nearly a hundred works for
the church, the chief one being the oratorio, _Santa Elena al Calvario_
and a _Miserere_ for a double choir. He was strong in his writing for
chorus, making splendid use of the fugal style. Another contemporary of
the first rank was =Alessandro Stradella= (1645-1681), whose oratorio,
_San Giovanni Battista_ (St. John the Baptist) is a most beautiful
work. It contains a free treatment of the accompanying instruments,
the arias are clear and well-designed, the chorus writing for five
parts is effective as well as ingenious, and the work as a whole shows
considerable power of dramatic expression, forming a sort of transition
between Scarlatti and Handel. Stradella is said to have been a pupil of
Carissimi.

=Oratorio in Germany=.—In Oratorio as in Opera, the style spread to
other countries, there, in the case of the Oratorio, ultimately to
find a more congenial home; for the Oratorio, in Italy after the time
of Stradella, seemed to lose hold on composers and public. The latter
did not grasp the fact that the Oratorio had within it one element,
the chorus, to give to it a definite individuality. They submitted to
the public’s preference for solo singing and made up their oratorios
largely of conventional arias—thus inviting comparison with the Opera,
and reserved their writing in choral form for their works for the
Church service, such as psalms, magnificats, masses and motets. In
Germany, the attitude of the people toward religious music, doubtless
owing to the Reformation as well as to the serious nature of the
people, was much more favorable than in Italy. This temperament is
shown by the fact that when German composers cast about for themes
for their oratorios they seemed to choose the story of the Passion.
The oldest example of the German Oratorio is “The Resurrection of
Christ,” written by =Heinrich Schuetz= (1585-1672), a pupil of Giovanni
Gabrieli, which was produced at Dresden in 1623. The narrative portions
were committed almost entirely to the chorus. We mention also a setting
of the Passion, by =Johann Sebastiani=, published in 1672, which
contains interspersed chorales, sung as arias by one voice with violin
accompaniment, and by =Reinhard Keiser= (1674-1739).

=Use of the Chorale=.—A step in advance was taken when German composers
began to use the chorale of the German Protestant Church as the
subject for contrapuntal elaboration, a tendency shown in the work
of Sebastiani referred to in the preceding paragraph. The Chorale
had absorbed into itself the spirit of the Volkslied, and its use
supplied the medium for the public to enter fully into the spirit of
the oratorio. Two composers who developed the “Passion Music” idea to
its height, =Karl Heinrich Graun= (1701-1759) and =Johann Sebastian
Bach=, made the Chorale an integral part of their works. The greatest
work in oratorio form written by Graun was called _Der Tod Jesu_ (The
Death of Jesus), which was first produced in the Cathedral at Berlin in
1755. This work consists of recitatives, airs and choruses, the fugal
treatment of the latter being admirable in point of clearness of design
and breadth of form. Graun used in this oratorio six chorales. _Der Tod
Jesu_, owing to a bequest, is still given in Berlin.

=Bach=.—The greatest of all the settings of the Passion are those by
=Johann Sebastian Bach= (1685-1750). The first work in this style by
Bach was the one according to “St. John,” in 1723, first performed on
Good Friday, 1724, at Leipzig. This work, fine as it is, must yield to
the second setting, according to “St. Matthew,” first produced on Good
Friday, 1729, afterward revised and given again in 1740. A few notes
on the “Passion according to St. Matthew” will serve for both works.
The characters introduced are Jesus, Judas, Peter, Pilate, the Apostles
and the People. Certain reflections on the narrative are interpreted
by a chorus. The text which furnishes the narrative is assigned to
the principal tenor. Fifteen chorales of the Lutheran Church are
introduced, and in the singing of these the general congregation
was expected to join. The choruses contain powerful and dramatic
vocal effects, and though not strictly fugal are intricate in their
part-writing. A double chorus is used, each chorus having a separate
orchestra and organ accompaniment. The performance of this work (St.
Matthew Passion) was restricted to Leipzig in the 18th century, and was
discontinued altogether in the 19th until Mendelssohn revived it in
1829. It is given very frequently at the present day during the Lenten
season, in part or in full. The “Christmas Oratorio” (1734) is really
a series of cantatas for each of the first days of the Christmas week,
and contains no new ideas so far as form is concerned.

=Stabat Mater=.—In connection with the “Passion” reference should
be made to the Latin hymn, “Stabat Mater,” which has been made the
subject of treatment in oratorio form, by =Palestrina=, =Giovanni
Battista Pergolesi= (1710-1736) for soprano and contralto accompanied
by strings and organ, =Emanuele d’Astorga= (1681-1736) for four
voices with instrumental accompaniment, the more modern work, in
large form, by =Gioacchino Rossini= (1792-1868), most beautiful as
music if partaking too much, as critics say, of the sensuous, and the
magnificent setting of =Antonin Dvořák= (1841-1904). This work has been
placed, by musicians and the public, in the category of the world’s
masterpieces of choral writing.

=George Friedrich Handel= (1685-1759).—We now come to Bach’s
contemporary, the greatest name in the history of the Oratorio, to
the composer who brought to his work a musical learning equal to that
of Bach, German earnestness and mastery of contrapuntal science,
tempered by knowledge of and experience in Italian vocal methods,
producing simple, clear melody supported by rich, firm harmonies, a
complete mastery of the orchestra of the day, a clear understanding
of the value of the chorus in working out dramatic effects; and this
combination was offered a congenial field for labor in England, one
of the great Protestant countries of Europe, with a deep reverence
for religion and for the narratives of the Bible and the truths and
lessons they enforce. This latter point is strikingly present in the
texts of Handel’s oratorios; the symbolic meaning of the narrative is
clearly indicated and made the central thought of the work, producing
a remarkable effect of Unity. As a writer has said: “Handel preaches
through the voices of his chorus.” The orchestra for which Handel
wrote was smaller than the full orchestra to which we are accustomed
today. The proportion of string players to the whole number of players
was smaller, but on the other side, more than two oboes and bassoons
were used; flutes were most frequently used as solo instruments or to
double the part of the oboes; the clarinet Handel never used, doubtless
because of its imperfections, which were not remedied until later;
the brass instruments used were trumpets with kettle drums for their
natural bass, horns and the three trombones, alto, tenor and bass;
other instruments of a soft-voiced quality, like the harp, viola da
gamba, were occasionally used for obligato accompaniments. The organ
was always used, the part being written according to the figured bass
system, and the harpsichord was used by the conductor. The reader who
is able to analyze one of Handel’s oratorio scores will be surprised to
note the superb effects he makes with comparatively small resources.
Compared with the polyphonic writing of his predecessors and his great
contemporary, Bach, his fugues seem light and simple, but that very
thing gives them their admirable clearness and purity; compared with
later works, his diatonic progressions and harmonies based on common
chords seem colorless, especially so in contrast with the kaleidoscopic
chromatic figures and strongly dissonant harmonies of the newer school;
yet in this point is the strength of Handel’s works with the public;
simplicity is valued more highly than complexity, naturalness rather
than the indications of science.

Handel wrote seventeen works that can be classed as oratorios. The
first of these was “Esther,” in 1720, revised and brought out anew
in 1732. In 1733 “Deborah,” perhaps best-known for a powerful double
chorus, was offered to the public; “Athaliah” in the same year. In
1739 came “Saul” and “Israel in Egypt,” the former best-known today
for its famous “Dead March,” the latter for the music descriptive of
the plagues. In 1741, he wrote his greatest oratorio “The Messiah,”
which was first performed publicly, April 13, 1742, in Dublin. In this
we find a certain reflective character which recalls the Passion music
of the German school. The only other oratorio which is still given in
anything like entirety is “Judas Maccabæus” (1747); other works from
which certain portions are still in use are “Samson” (1743), “Solomon”
(1749), “Theodora” (1750), a work which Handel considered his best, and
“Jephtha” (1752). Great as was Handel’s fame in England, the character
of his works and the forms he used made little or no impression upon
German and Italian composers. =Johann Adolph Hasse= (1699-1783),
=Niccolo Porpora= (1686-1767), =Antonio Sacchini= (1734-1786),
=Giovanni Paisiello= (1741-1816), =Niccolo Jommelli= (1714-1774)
and =Pietro Guglielmi= (1727-1804) wrote in the Italian style, and
their works are, properly speaking, concert oratorios, scarcely
distinguishable from the opera save by the text.

=Franz Joseph Haydn=.—The next name of importance is that of Haydn
(1732-1809), who wrote “The Creation” and “The Seasons” toward the
end of a long life, after his work as a composer had given him a
command of musical resources excelled only by Beethoven, who did not
equal him in skill in writing effectively and suitably for voices. It
was in 1798 that “The Creation” was first given in Vienna. The score
abounds in effective writing for the solo voices, in the florid style
and in the conventional aria form, and in brilliant choruses which,
however, cannot compare in dignity and breadth with those of Handel.
The orchestral accompaniments are much more elaborate than those used
by Handel, as can naturally be expected from a composer who had given
his greatest efforts to the development of instrumental music. “The
Seasons” was first performed in Vienna in 1801. It proved as successful
as “The Creation.” Haydn’s simple, genial nature is apparent in this
beautiful work, really too light to bear the name of oratorio, which
has such close association with works of a deep, religious character.

=Mozart and Beethoven=.—As the orchestra developed under the masters
of tone and dramatic effects, Mozart, Gluck and Beethoven, so the
works in oratorio form took on a different texture. In the earlier
periods, the accompaniments were subordinate, the interest was centred
in the voices. But as composers realized the possibilities of the
constantly-improving orchestra and the opportunities for effective
combinations of voices and instruments, the tendency became more and
more marked to elaborate the instrumental parts and to create an
ensemble more complicated and gorgeous, based upon the orchestra and
its tone-color scheme rather than on pure vocal effects. =Mozart’s=
“Requiem” (1791), written just before the composer’s death, brings
into use the most powerful dramatic resources of orchestra and voices
to portray the spirit of the “mass for the dead.” In oratorio, as
in opera, =Beethoven= wrote but one work, “The Mount of Olives”
(1803). The style is florid and operatic, somewhat in the style of
the Italian composers; the resources of the orchestra are drawn upon
more extensively than marked the methods of Haydn. The chorus is
freely used, the “Hallelujah” being the strongest movement. The choral
movements in the Ninth Symphony suggest what Beethoven might have done
had he set himself to writing an oratorio in greater submission to the
capacity of the human voice.

=Spohr=.—From now on, oratorio composition is associated with the
masters of instrumental music, the orchestra is drawn upon for
its richest and most powerful resources to work out the emotional
and dramatic qualities of the texts; it is now no longer a mere
accompanying instrument; it is in the highest degree essential to
the effects designed by the composer. =Ludwig Spohr= (1784-1859), a
great violinist, wrote his first oratorio, “_Das Jüngste Gericht_”
(The Last Judgment), when he was but twenty-eight years old. A later
work produced in 1826, goes by the English name “The Last Judgment,”
although that is not the literal translation of the German title _Die
Letzten Dinge_. In this work we find the romantic idea clearly in
evidence. The composer’s style had been developed and individualized
by his long experience as player and conductor; he was a master of the
resources of instrumentation, conversant both as composer and conductor
with the limitations of voices—he wrote a number of operas—so that
he was prepared for the creation of a work which has a character of
its own. A striking feature of this oratorio is the frequent use of
chromatic progressions, which is indeed a characteristic of Spohr’s
writing.

=Mendelssohn=.—The next great composer in Oratorio was a German; like
him also his works had their greatest reception in England, =Felix
Mendelssohn Bartholdy= (1809-1847). His first work, “St. Paul,” was
given at Düsseldorf in 1836. His greatest oratorio, one that ranks with
Handel’s “Messiah” in public favor, is “Elijah,” which was written for
the Birmingham, England, Festival. It was first produced in 1846. As
a diligent and enthusiastic student of Bach, it seems natural that
Mendelssohn should have adopted the great master’s methods. In style
“St. Paul” and “Elijah” show leanings toward Bach and the German
oratorio rather than toward Handel. Mendelssohn, who produced Bach’s
“Passion according to St. Matthew” in Berlin, in 1827, was thoroughly
familiar with the plan of the German oratorio, a mingling of narrative,
dramatic and meditative or reflective elements, and especially the
Chorale to represent the Church, the chorus being, properly speaking,
a part of the _dramatis personæ_, representing masses of people who
share in the action, while the congregation represents the reflective
element. He uses a fugal style quite freely in his choruses, but a
strict fugue, in the style of Handel, is rare, as the composer’s
feeling for emotional effects demands a freer style; the accompaniments
are elaborate, partaking of the dramatic element and drawing upon
the fullest resources of the orchestra. Mendelssohn had started the
composition of another oratorio, “Christus,” on the lines of the
“Passion” music of Bach, but died before the work was completed. His
“Hymn of Praise” (1840), a large choral work that is occasionally sung,
well represents Mendelssohn’s skill in combining vocal and orchestral
effect. Riemann calls it a symphony-cantata, Parry says it “combines
the qualities of a symphony and of an oratorio.”


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, articles on Oratorio and on
composers named in this lesson.

Parry.—Evolution of the Art of Music, Chapters VII and XIII.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Give the names of the Italian composers who followed Carissimi in the
Oratorio.

What contributed to make Germany a congenial field for Oratorio?

Who are the early composers of the “Passion” music?

Give an account of Bach’s work in Oratorio.

Give the names of the leading composers of the “Stabat Mater.”

Describe Handel’s orchestra.

Mention Handel’s most important works in Oratorio form.

Give an account of Haydn’s work in Oratorio.

What works did Mozart and Beethoven write in Oratorio form?

Describe Spohr’s work in Oratorio.

Where did Mendelssohn’s work become most popular? Give an account of
his compositions in Oratorio form.

The class should, if the works are at hand, read through the text of
Bach’s, Handel’s, Haydn’s, Spohr’s and Mendelssohn’s oratorios, all or
as many as can be secured. Each pupil may be asked to write an account
of one work.


           SUGGESTIONS FOR A REVIEW OF LESSONS XVII TO XXIV.

The teacher or a pupil should study the subject of the Renaissance in
a history of literature and also of art, and then present to the class
an abstract of the study, to show the spirit of the movement and its
influence on art, especially music.

Use the paragraph heads in each chapter with the important sentences in
the paragraphs to make an outline of each lesson. This is a great help
in fixing the lessons in the mind in preparing for examination.

Sum up Monteverde and his work, his relations to predecessors and
successors.

Why did the centre shift from Florence to Venice?

Give a sketch of Scarlatti, his life and contributions to music.

If time will permit, some pupil should prepare a short account of such
composers as Pergolesi, Porpora, Piccini and Paisiello.

Give a summary of the development of the art of Singing.

A pupil should consult Grove’s “Dictionary” and make a paper on the
great singers of the olden times, their personality; also interesting
anecdotes.

Compare the Italian Opera with the form developed by Lully and Rameau.

In what respects did the English Opera differ from the Italian and
French form?

State the characteristics of the German Opera.

Handel’s work in Opera, especially in England, will make an interesting
study for a short paper to be read before the class by some member of
it.

Gluck’s career is full of interest and incident and his growth is
clearly a matter of experience. A pupil can, to advantage, study his
life in some biography or in Grove’s Dictionary and present an abstract
to the class.

In what respects did Mozart’s and Beethoven’s operas show differences
from the conventional Italian form?

A study of Rossini’s life and works is full of interest, on account of
his strong personality and striking characteristics.

What is “Passion Music”? Why is it specially suited to the German
Protestant Church?

Compare Handel’s, Haydn’s, Spohr’s and Mendelssohn’s work in Oratorio.

Excellent results will be obtained by having pupils prepare charts
which are filled up from lesson to lesson. Take a large sheet of paper,
divide it into columns, each column into quarter sections, each column
representing a century, each section, twenty-five years. Add dates of
birth and death of the great musicians, marking each name I, F, G, to
show nationality (Italian, French, German, etc.). Another chart should
show the various national schools, France, Germany, Italy, etc., by
centuries and quarter centuries; another the development of such phases
as opera, oratorio, singing, sonata, etc.

A very valuable chart is one showing contemporaries, in musical and
general history, also parallel events, for example, the musicians who
lived in a certain century, famous kings, statesmen, explorers, poets,
scientists, discoveries (such as America, printing, etc.), famous
battles, events in Biblical and American history, and other political
events of the same century. Credit should be given in class standing
for these charts.



                              LESSON XXV.

                    THE EVOLUTION OF THE PIANOFORTE.


While the violin, on account of the simplicity of its construction,
arrived early at a stage of perfection, the complicated mechanism of
the pianoforte required many generations and many scores of more or
less successful experiments to attain anything like a corresponding
plane. Indeed, such experiments are still constantly in progress; so
that the pianoforte of the future may conceivably realize possibilities
as far ahead of the present piano as that is ahead of its predecessors.
The first attempts at piano manufacture, however, had little in common
with our modern pianos, save the principle of the combination of the
keyboard with strings; since in construction and resulting tone few
points of similarity exist.

=Clavier a Substitute for the Organ=.—We are probably indebted to the
extensive use of the organ for the earliest combinations of keys and
strings. As the demand arose for a more conveniently-keyed instrument
than the large church organs, for practice or private houses, small
portable organs were invented; yet even these did not satisfy the want
entirely, owing to the _difficulties in their wind supply_, which
required an assistant as blower. Thus the organ keyboard came to be
applied, as early as the 11th century, to already existing stringed
instruments which were adapted to the purpose.

=Two Classes=.—There were two classes of these, each made on the
principle of the zither: namely, by stretching strings over a flat
surface or box, generally across bridges, this box serving as a
resonator, to reinforce the weak tone of the strings. One such
instrument, in which the strings were _struck by_ little wooden
_hammers_, was called the Dulcimer; another, in which the strings were
sounded by _plucking_ with the fingers or by a quill, was called the
Psaltery; and from these two were developed the earliest instruments
of the piano class, called by the general name of “Claviers,” from
_Clavis_, a key. The dulcimer type resulted in the =Clavichord=; the
psaltery type in the =Harpsichord=, and, although many other names were
given to varieties of these instruments, all may be placed in one of
the two classes of which they are the chief representatives.

[Illustration: CYMBALUM OR DULCIMER.]

[Illustration: PSALTERY.

This instrument also came in square and other forms; strings varied
from 6 to 38.]

=Principle of the Clavichord=.—The first of the Clavichord instruments
had the name of Monochord, or one-stringed instrument—a name of great
antiquity, first given by the Grecian Pythagoras to an instrument of
one string used by him in determining the relations of tones. Similar
experiments were made in the Middle Ages, in which the various tones
resulting from the vibrations of parts of a string were studied by
means of movable bridges; facility was gained by increasing the number
of strings to four or five, tuned in unison. Next, _keys_ were applied
to these in place of the bridges, which keys _struck the strings at
various_ definite _points_ by means of upright pins or _tangents_, as
they were called, producing varying pitches, according to the length
of the part of the string allowed to sound, the remaining segment
being silenced by a piece of cloth. Thus several tangents struck the
same string at different points, producing different degrees of pitch.
At first, when only the scales corresponding to the white keys were
employed, four or five strings sufficed to sound the necessary tones,
not over twenty-two in number. Later, however, when chromatic notes
were adopted, the number of strings and keys was increased, so that,
by the beginning of the 16th century, the keyboard had a range of
three or four full octaves. From this time on, this instrument, now
generally known as the Clavichord, won a popularity which extended
to the beginning of the 19th century, when the Pianoforte gradually
displaced it. A familiar instrument in England and Germany, it was
especially cultivated by musicians of note in the latter country, even
the renowned Bach preferring it to all other forms of its class.

=The Clavichord=.—In shape, the Clavichord was an oblong box, the
strings of brass extending lengthwise. The fact that one string
served for several keys made it impossible to sound certain intervals
together; yet the device of giving a separate string to each key seems
not to have come in till about the year 1725, and even then not to have
been generally adopted. Without legs, the Clavichord was supported
on a table when in use. Its tone was exceedingly weak and tremulous,
audible only within the distance of a few feet; yet the fact that
this tone could be given different degrees of intensity, and could be
varied to some extent even while sounding, by a peculiar pressure on
the keys (_bebung_), imbued its tone with a sympathetic quality which
helps to account for the tenacity with which musicians clung to it,
notwithstanding all its imperfections.

[Illustration: THE CLAVICHORD.]

=Principle of the Harpsichord=.—Instruments of the Harpsichord class
were especially numerous in Italy, France and England. They differed
from the Clavichord chiefly in the method of setting the string in
vibration. This was done by _plucking_ the string with a quill set
in a jack at the end of the key, the action so arranged that, after
the key was released, the jack fell back to its place, while a damper
came against the string, preventing its further vibration. Since
these strings could not be used as bridges, like the tangents of the
Clavichord, it was necessary from the first that each key should
have a separate string. Moreover, as these strings were thus made of
varying lengths and thicknesses, the Harpsichords were more often made
in a triangular shape, or one like our modern grand pianos, than in
the rectangular Clavichord shape. The chief defect, and the one which
makers tried in vain to remedy, lay in the fact that the _plucking_
of the strings, while producing greater brilliancy, _admitted_ of _no
variation_ in its degrees of _loudness_ or _softness_.

=Virginal and Spinet=.—Several small instruments of this kind preceded
its full development, differing mainly in shape and choice of
materials. In England these received the name of Virginal; in France,
that of Spinet. Both of these were introduced into polite society,
chiefly as small house instruments of limited compass, varied sizes,
and frequently with elaborate decoration. The difference between them
was principally one of shape, the Virginal taking the oblong form
of the Clavichord, while the Spinet was more often triangular. They
appeared both with and without supports; and in some cases the strings
were placed in a vertical position, as in our upright pianofortes.

[Illustration: THE VIRGINAL OR SPINET.]

=The Harpsichord=.—The Harpsichord proper was simply a larger form
of the Spinet and Virginal, and was made in the form of the grand
pianoforte. On account of its added brilliancy of tone, it was
admirably adapted for use in the orchestra, in which it became the
conductor’s instrument in connection with the opera. In Italy, the
terms Clavicembalo and Gravicembalo were given to it, while in Germany
it was called Flügel, or wing, from its wing-shaped cover. As it
became popular as a concert instrument, many inventions were added to
increase the brilliancy and variety of its tone: an extra keyboard was
placed above the first, as in the organ, and three or four strings were
given each note, which could be used to reinforce the single-string
tone, by means of the second keyboard. Moreover, various kinds of
quills were invented, giving different tone qualities; and such
effects were controlled by stops or pedals. These experiments were
especially numerous in the 18th century, in which the rapid growth of
musical resources demanded constantly more tonal possibilities. Large
manufacturers, such as the Ruckers family of Antwerp, and Tabel in
England, vied with each other in producing novel devices, such as the
imitation of other instruments, the tuning of an extra string for each
note an octave above its normal pitch, and the addition of a keyboard
connected with an organ. Attempts to produce a sustained tone resulted
in the Piano-Violin, in which a revolving rosined wheel was pressed by
the key against the string, to continue the tone; but all such were
abandoned finally as unsuccessful.

[Illustration: TWO-MANUAL HARPSICHORD.]

=Invention of the Pianoforte=.—To this exceptional activity in keyed
instruments, and the final failure to produce a singing tone capable of
variation in the Harpsichord, we owe the invention of the Pianoforte.
In 1711, =Bartolomeo Cristofori=, a noted harpsichord maker of
Tuscany, exhibited several “forte-pianos” in which the action was so
constructed that the keys, when depressed, threw little _leather-headed
hammers_, affixed to a bar above them, _against the strings_, thus
making it possible to modulate the strength of tone by the degree of
force with which the keys were struck. When the key was released,
a _damper_ came against the string from beneath, _stopping further
vibration_.

=Early Makers=.—Although this invention did not at first attract
widespread attention, it undoubtedly formed the basis of the others
which quickly followed it, and really asserted the principle afterwards
adopted for the piano action. In 1716, =Marius=, a French manufacturer,
submitted four models for piano actions, which, however, were never
developed. Also, =Schroeter=, a German, constructed two models of
piano actions, in 1717, in one of which the hammers struck on top of
the strings; but neither of these was put to practical use. Finally,
=Gottfried Silbermann=, of Saxony, distinguished as an organ and
harpsichord maker, made two pianofortes, the action of which was
evidently based on that of Cristofori, and which he exhibited to J.
S. Bach. While praising them in many respects, Bach criticised them
as too weak in the upper notes, and too hard to play. Silbermann
was exceedingly painstaking as a workman, having the reputation of
breaking to pieces with an axe even a finished product which showed
any imperfection. He therefore set to work to remedy these defects,
and, in 1737, produced several pianofortes which won Bach’s unqualified
approval.

=Superiority of the Piano=.—The Pianoforte was now placed upon a firm
basis; and although many years elapsed before its resources were
developed sufficiently to cause its universal adoption by musicians,
the final victory over its predecessors was complete. And this victory
was natural, since the Pianoforte was found capable of combining the
best qualities of the Clavichord and the Harpsichord, with the addition
of a tone capacity infinitely superior to either.

=Improvements=.—The story of succeeding piano manufacture and the
manifold inventions and improvements relative to it is one of infinite
details. Among these we notice that while Silbermann pianos were in
“grand” form, =Frederici= of Gera (died 1779) constructed them in
oblong or “square” shape; that the pianos of Spaeth (died 1796) and
of =J. Andreas Stein= (died 1792), whose pianos were adopted for use
by Mozart, showed considerable advancement. The Stein family became
allied with =Andreas Streicher=, an inventive genius, and founded a
manufactory in Vienna which has maintained a high standard to the
present time. The action invented by them, known as the Viennese
action, differs from that of Cristofori in having the hammers annexed
to the keys themselves, instead of on a bar above them; thus giving
a light touch and tone. In England, the principle of the Cristofori
action was developed by the renowned house of =Broadwood=, their action
becoming known as the English action; while in France, =Sebastian
Erhard=, or =Erard=, a Strasburg inventor, founded the Erard action,
which has a double hammer movement, allowing the hammers to fall
either entirely, or only partially into place after the key is struck,
at the will of the performer. The “cottage” action, introduced by
=William Southwell=, about 1800, was the beginning of the “upright”
form, which has now entirely superseded that of the square piano.
Thus, by continued experiments, the piano has gained in compass,
brilliancy, sustaining power and strength of construction, to meet the
constantly-increasing demands placed upon it, until the modern piano
seems to possess unlimited resources, and until the unending supply of
instruments of all grades from hundreds of factories is sufficient to
place one of these “household orchestras” within the reach of rich and
poor alike.

=Equal Temperament=.—An early difficulty in the case of keyed
instruments was the matter of tuning, caused by the fact that it was
found scientifically impossible to tune all the intervals of the scale
at the same time to the true pitch; that is, the pitch demanded by
the natural overtones of the fundamental note of the scale. At the
outset, for instance, it was found that if the fifths were tuned true,
the octaves would be a trifle sharp; and, conversely, if the octaves
were true, the fifths would be a trifle flat. In the case of stringed
instruments, where the tone was made by the performer, it could be
so modified as not to conflict seriously; but with keyed instruments
this was impossible. Thus, many systems of tuning or “temperaments”
were tried, such as having two keys for two notes nearly in unison,
like F-sharp and G-flat, most of these resulting in the possibility of
playing in a few nearly related keys, to the exclusion of the others.
Finally, through the influence of =J. S. Bach= (1685-1750) and the
Frenchman =Rameau= (1683-1764), the simple expedient was definitely
adopted of tuning the octaves true, and dividing each octave into
twelve equal parts, thus uniting such notes as F-sharp and G-flat in
one tone slightly out of tune with either, but not enough seriously to
offend the ear. This, called “_equal temperament_,” was a great gain to
music, since it not only removed a radical defect in keyed instruments,
but also opened the door to that free interchange of keys which has
done so much toward enriching the coloring and scope of succeeding
compositions.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, articles on the Clavichord,
Virginal, Spinet, Harpsichord, Pianoforte.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. I.

Weitzmann.—History of the Pianoforte.

Brinsmead.—History of the Pianoforte.

Rimbault.—The Pianoforte: Its Origin, Progress and Construction.

Spillane.—History of the American Pianoforte.


                               QUESTIONS.

What principle did the first attempts at piano-making recognize?

To what circumstance are we indebted for the attempt to make an
instrument of the Clavier type?

What are the two classes of stringed instruments with keyboard as known
in the 11th century?

State the steps in the development of the Clavichord principle.

Describe the Clavichord.

Describe the Harpsichord principle.

Describe the Virginal and Spinet.

Describe the Harpsichord.

Who was the inventor of the Pianoforte? When did he exhibit the first
instrument?

Who were the early makers?

What points of superiority did the Piano have over the Clavichord and
the Harpsichord?

What successive improvements were made by various makers?

What is meant by Equal Temperament?



                              LESSON XXVI.

                  THE EARLY ITALIAN CLAVIER COMPOSERS.


=Early Instrumental Music=.—The history of pianoforte composition and
playing really begins with that of the preceding keyed instruments
with strings, to all of which the convenient name of “Claviers” will
be given. As these early instruments were at first merely substitutes
for the organ, which in turn was used simply to reduplicate voice
parts, the music first played on them was in no wise different from the
vocal and organ music of the day. When, moreover, music written for
the organ had some features distinct from purely vocal music, it was
frequently inscribed to be _played on the organ or clavier_, without
discrimination.

=Influence of the Renaissance=.—As most of the patterns of musical
form have proceeded from Italy, so it was there, in Venice, that
instrumental music seems to have emerged from its union with vocal
music, and to have assumed the elements of a style of its own. This
was directly the result of the general awakening of thought after the
Dark Ages, known as the Renaissance, which, leading to independent
investigation in the domains of science and art, brought in the
once unheard-of inventions and the discovery of new worlds, and in
the other a freedom of treatment fitted to express the new ideas
surging throughout the civilized world. Thus, in the first part of
the 16th century, while Raphael and Michael Angelo were voicing
these thoughts in their immortal creations, in Venice, a school of
musicians was turning its attention toward instrumental music, and
striving to produce in music a richness of color, just as the great
Venetian painters, like Titian and Giorgione, were producing similar
effects upon canvas. Teachers and students were congregating there,
enthusiastic over the new ideas in music; and the focal point of all
this activity was the Church of St. Mark’s, whose magnificent double
organ furnished an incentive to genius.

=The First Sonata=.—Among these musicians were a number of apostles
of the Netherlands school, of whom =Adrian Willaert= (1480-1562) was
especially honored and beloved. He and his successors, as organists at
St. Mark’s, wrote compositions for organ or clavier, which they taught
to young ladies in the convents. Such compositions were made the more
possible by the fact that into the old Church Modes, formed by using
only the tones represented by the white keys of our piano, “chromatic”
or _colored_ tones came to be inserted; so that, in the course of the
16th century, the modern scales, with their characteristic keynotes,
or tonalities, came to vie with the old modes, and ultimately nearly
to displace them, thus giving a chance for a variety and grouping of
harmonies necessary in the elaboration of instrumental music. The name
Sonata, or “sound” piece, was at first given indiscriminately to such
instrumental works, in distinction from the Cantata, or vocal work.

=Willaert and His Pupils=.—Willaert was especially successful as a
teacher, and thus left a number of accomplished pupils to carry on
his labors. Of these, =Girolamo Parabosco= (1593-1609) was noted
for his free fantasias, and his improvisations of sonatas on the
harpsichord; while =Claudio Merulo= of Correggio (1533-1604) wrote a
number of toccatas, in which the old church chorale style was relieved
by contrasting passages consisting of brilliant runs. The Toccata,
or _touch_ piece, had, as its characteristics, such _quick running
passages_, probably first suggested by the light tone and action of
the Clavier. While these runs had at first very little relevancy to
one another, they were much delighted in by these early pioneers, who
sported with them as a child plays with a new toy.

=The Gabrieli’s=.—Two other organists of St. Mark’s, =Andreas
Gabrieli= (1510-1586), and his nephew and pupil, =Giovanni Gabrieli=
(1557-1613), added to the resources of instrumental music. The first of
these, a pupil of Willaert, himself became a famous teacher; and both
contributed many canzone and sonatas to organ and clavier literature.
In all these the subjects were distinct, and, in the canzone
especially, the many quick passages and changing rhythms were used in a
manner that contributed to unity.

=The Harpsichord in Opera=.—A new factor now appeared in Florence,
destined greatly to further the cause of clavier music: namely,
the Opera. Taking the position of the conductor’s instrument, the
harpsichord became the most useful member of the orchestra, and was
employed constantly to fill in vague harmonies, and to strike chords as
a support to the musical declamation of the singers. Such chords were
not generally written out, but were suggested by their bass note, over
which figures were written to show their positions. To this shorthand
system the name of Thorough-bass was given. In this way the value of
chord combinations came to be recognized, and the relationships of such
chords studied entirely apart from the voice writing; so the idea of a
single melody, supported by occasional chords, was transplanted from
the Opera, and the modern harmonic style of music came into being.

=Dance Tunes=.—But, in this new style, the old basis for Unity in
the composition, furnished by the imitation of one part by another,
had to be abandoned, since only one melodic part existed at a time;
hence a new _basis_ had to be found in the manner in which _harmonies
succeeded_ each other. In determining such chord relationships,
composers were obliged to look elsewhere than to the old Church music;
and so turned their attention to the forms of Dance Tunes which
had already been in use for a long time among the people in their
Folk-songs, and in the performances of the wandering minstrels. Most
of these dance tunes were formed in a very simple _two-part_ design
of harmony, consisting in a transition from the initial key to a
contrasting key, for the first part, and a return from the contrasting
key to the first key, in the second part.

=Origin of the Suite=.—A book of such dances, based, however, on the
clumsy church modes, was published in 1551. Later, however, such dances
came to be written in the new harmonic style; and by putting together a
set of dances all in the same key but differing in rhythm and mode of
expression, a larger form of composition was devised, combining Variety
with Unity. To this form the name of Suite was given.

[Illustration: GIROLAMO FRESCOBALDI.]

=Frescobaldi=.—Another element tending to give Unity to the composition
was developed when composers learned to work out a _single subject_,
or melodic phrase representing a definite musical idea, by introducing
it a number of times in the course of the composition, sometimes with
slight variation, but always recognizable and used in such a way as to
bind the various parts the more closely together by their similarity of
conception. Several organists at Rome wrote music which possessed such
unity of idea. One of these was =Girolamo Frescobaldi= (1583-1644), a
man who was a close student of the best Italian music of his time, and
who had, moreover, been brought into contact with Netherlands ideas
through travel in Belgium. On his first appearance as organist of St.
Peter’s in Rome, in 1615, so great fame had preceded him that over
30,000 people are said to have attended the performance. His skill on
the clavier was no less than that on the organ; and for both of these
instruments he wrote Ricercari, Canzone and Capricci, which showed
considerable unity of subject, together with fluency in the treatment
of chromatic progressions, and a wealth of invention, which displayed
itself in novel themes and unusual harmonies; his compositions are well
worth study.

=Pasquini=.—In the second half of the 17th century, =Bernardo Pasquini=
(1637-1710), a pupil of the opera composer Cesti, carried on the work
at Rome. In his toccati he shows great freedom in departing from the
strict vocal style, and his clavier works have features, like the
sustained trill, which distinguish them decidedly from organ works.

=Method of Playing the Clavier=.—The method of playing the clavier used
by these old masters was peculiar. In a work on the subject published
by Di Ruta, about the year 1600, the rules given include holding the
fingers out _flat_ on the keys, and scarcely using the thumb at all,
allowing it to hang below the level of the keyboard. The scales were
played each with _two_ fingers, according to fixed rules; so that
smoothness combined with rapidity seems to have been made impossible.

=The Sonata and Overture=.—Starting with the harmonic form of the old
dance tunes, composers now began to elaborate this to a form capable
of expressing more serious ideas, by giving more definiteness to the
musical subject treated, and by introducing material derived from
the old vocal forms. =Corelli=, the violinist (1653-1713), and the
violinists of his school, restricted the name Sonata to combinations
of such movements, in distinction from the lighter forms of the Suite;
and the celebrated opera composer, =Alessandro Scarlatti= (1659-1725),
applied similar methods to the composition of his operatic overtures,
writing them in three parts: first, a moderately fast movement, which
was followed by a slow movement, the whole closing with a movement in
quick tempo.

=Domenico Scarlatti=.—Clavier music lagged somewhat behind violin
music, owing to the greater perfection of the violin as an instrument,
and also to the popularity of the lute, which was much affected in
fashionable circles. Finally, however, a man appeared who possessed
the genius to develop the peculiar resources of the harpsichord to a
remarkable extent. This was =Domenico Scarlatti=, the son and pupil of
Alessandro Scarlatti. The latter was himself a skilful clavier player
and composer; but his son attained a proficiency so far eclipsing that
of any of his predecessors as to place him entirely without the pale of
comparison with any of them. Domenico Scarlatti, who was born at Naples
in 1683, two years before Handel and Bach, first attracted attention
when about twenty-one years old, as an opera composer; but achieved
his greatest successes as a virtuoso on the harpsichord, winning a
world-wide reputation for his wonderful playing, which was a revelation
of what could be done with this hitherto undeveloped instrument. In one
of Handel’s Italian journeys a contest of skill was instituted between
these two musical giants; and the result was a drawn battle so far as
the harpsichord was concerned, although Handel triumphed at the organ.
Scarlatti traveled about somewhat, spending most of his later life in
the position of court music master at Madrid. He finally returned to
his birthplace, where he died in 1757.

=Scarlatti’s Use of Form=.—In the matter of form, Scarlatti developed
still further the work of his predecessors, applying to the harpsichord
the principles asserted by Corelli and his school. His Sonatas were
written in _one movement_ only, and have very _definite subjects_,
which are carried out along recognized lines. His Capriccii—short
pieces written in a rhythmic and delicately staccato style—are some of
his best works, and undoubtedly paved the way for the Scherzi, written
by Beethoven and Mendelssohn. His compositions are short, but concise
and definite.

=Scarlatti’s Style of Playing=.—But his chief addition to musical
material lies in the new style of playing which he invented. Novel
effects, like crossing the hands, long leaps, broken chords in contrary
motion, rapidly repeated notes, and runs in thirds and sixths—effects
which were in many cases far ahead of his time, since they were not
used by succeeding composers until a much later period—were employed
by him with the utmost fluency, so that he has been aptly called the
father of modern pianoforte technic.

[Music: EXAMPLES OF SCARLATTI’S STYLE.]

=Durante=.—The Neapolitan school boasted several other worthy clavier
composers, who contributed in various ways to the composition of the
Sonata. One of these was =Francesco Durante= (1684-1755), who wrote
sonatas in two movements of different character but in the same key.
The first, called a Studio, was written as a free fugue with running
passages; the second, or Divertimento, was more animated and less
scholastic. =Domenico Alberti= (1707-1740) composed sonatas similar in
general form, but of less artistic worth, consisting as they did simply
of a single-voiced melody, supported by an harmonic accompaniment
having no independence of style. Much of this was in the form of broken
chords, a mannerism which was afterwards used to excess, and became
dubbed the “Alberti bass.” This accompaniment form doubtless suited
the clavichord and harpsichord, but is not so well adapted to the more
sonorous modern piano. It is still used by composers for very simple
accompaniments.

[Music]

=Pier Domenico Paradies= (1710-1792) deserves special mention as the
writer of elegant and well-balanced clavier music. He first won success
as a composer of operas, which were given in Italy, and afterwards in
London, where he finally settled as clavier teacher. His sonatas have
two movements, like Durante’s, and contain brilliant allegros, besides
attractive melodies. His two-part rapid contrapuntal work is excellent,
both for musical merit and for technical study.

=Summary=.—We have seen, then, that in the 16th century, in Italy,
instrumental music began to break from its union with vocal music; that
the Opera brought the harpsichord especially into notice in the 17th
century, on account of its availability for accompaniments, and that
finally, in the 18th century, the Neapolitan composers developed for
it a style which took advantage of its peculiar resources, and applied
them to the enrichment of the harmonic forms which were coming into
vogue.


                              REFERENCES.

Weitzmann.—History of Pianoforte Playing.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. I.

J. S. Shedlock.—The Pianoforte Sonata.

Henderson.—How Music Developed.

Henderson.—Preludes and Studies.


                         MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS.

Weitzmann’s History, pages 291-313.

Rimbault, “The Pianoforte,” pages 257, 306, 310.

Litolff edition, No. 397, second volume of “Music by Old Masters.”

Augener edition, No. 8298, Old Italian Compositions.

The Breitkopf Edition, Nos. 111, 112, 411, have reference to music for
the clavier, written during the 17th and 18th centuries.

Biblioteca d’Oro, Ricordi, contains examples of the compositions of the
leading composers of the 17th to 19th centuries.


                               QUESTIONS.

What influence did the Renaissance have on early instrumental music?

Give an account of the “sonatas” written by Willaert.

What other kinds of composition were written during this period?

What were the contributions of the Gabrieli’s?

How did the Opera influence harpsichord music?

What principles were used in making dance tunes?

What was the origin of the Suite?

How did these early composers attempt to give Unity to a composition?

Tell about the work of Frescobaldi and Pasquini.

What peculiarities of fingering were used by the early players?

What distinction did Corelli and his successors make between the Sonata
and the Suite?

Describe the career of Domenico Scarlatti.

What forms did he use in his compositions?

What characteristics did he show in his playing?

Tell about the work of Durante, Alberti and Paradies.

Give the successive stages of development from the 16th to the 18th
century.



                             LESSON XXVII.

             THE EARLY ENGLISH AND FRENCH CLAVIER SCHOOLS.


=English Schools to Henry VIII=.—Popular music, both vocal and
instrumental, was an early English institution. The many Folk-songs
which have come down from a very early period bear witness to the
English love of conviviality. Dance tunes, sometimes based on these
Folk-songs, were played on the instruments of the minstrels, which,
as early as 1484, included the clavichord; and the fact that such
instruments were cultivated by people of higher rank is shown by the
record that James IV of Scotland and his queen purchased clavichords
to play upon, in 1503, while the queen of Henry VII of England bought
a clavichord for her private use in 1502. The virginal is spoken of
in the reign of Henry VII; Henry VIII (reigned 1509-1547), who was an
accomplished musician, played upon both these instruments, and also
wrote music for them.

=To Queen Elizabeth’s Time=.—Edward VI (r. 1547-1553) had three duly
appointed virginal players among his court musicians; and after
Elizabeth (r. 1558-1603) ascended the throne, the virginal increased
in popularity; indeed, its name was formerly thought to have been
derived from her as the virgin queen; although the fact that the
instrument was spoken of as the virginal before her reign makes its
derivation from its popularity among young ladies the more probable.
Queen Elizabeth, as well as her sister Mary, received instruction in
virginal playing during her early youth, and became an accomplished
performer; and instances are shown of the former’s great pride in this
accomplishment. In the course of her illustrious reign, when all
the arts flourished to a remarkable degree, and when great wits and
litterateurs vied with each other in the genius of their productions,
the art of music received its share of attention also. The fact that
musical degrees were early given at the great universities, Oxford and
Cambridge, tended to raise the standard of musical knowledge, and to
produce a number of composers who were especially gifted in the more
serious Church forms of writing. Many such, connected with the Royal
Chapel and the court, wrote excellent anthems and secular part-songs;
and now, attracted by the popularity of the instrument, they began to
give a more worthy setting to the folk and dance tunes played on the
clavier.

=Dance Tunes=.—A clavier composition is extant, dated 1555, by =William
Blitheman=, an English church composer, consisting of a chorale-like
melody in whole notes, accompanied first by a flowing eighth-note
figure, and next by triplet quarter notes, with a third voice added
later. Such a serious style prefigured the variations upon dance tunes,
which were especially cultivated by =William Byrd= (1538-1623). In such
variations the melody was first harmonized in simple fashion, and was
afterwards played several times in the same part, with slight changes,
while the accompanying parts were varied in rhythm and style, becoming
generally quicker in tempo. To modern ears the result is monotonous,
as the same key and time signature is maintained throughout; but the
variety in presentation must have been grateful after the simplicity of
the dance tunes.

=The Virginal Book=.—Other popular forms were the Fancie, in which
several melodic subjects were imitated in the various voices; and
the Pavane, a dance in common time, whose theme was repeated in the
following Galliarde, a dance in triple time. These and other forms
are used in a curious collection of clavier pieces now preserved
at Cambridge, and known as Queen Elizabeth’s Virginal Book. This
collection, consisting of four hundred and eighteen manuscript pages,
written on a six-lined staff, contains seventy compositions by Byrd,
besides others by most of the composers of the Elizabethan era, like
Tallis, Dr. Bull, Giles, Farnaby and many others.

=Leading Elizabethan Composers=.—Byrd was a pupil of =Thomas Tallis=
(d. 1585), the renowned church composer, and together they were made
organists of Queen Elizabeth’s Chapel, in 1575, receiving also the sole
right to print music. Another musician who deserves special mention
is =Dr. John Bull= (1563-1628), who won world-wide fame as organist
and clavier player, finally becoming organist at Antwerp Cathedral,
which post he held until his death. His clavier compositions show great
technical fluency. =Orlando Gibbons= (1583-1625), a Doctor of Music at
Oxford, and organist at Westminster Abbey, wrote excellently in the
prevailing style. Shakespeare testifies to the popularity of clavier
playing at this time in one of his sonnets, where he speaks of the keys
as

    “O’er whom thy fingers walk with gentle gait.”

Although these early English composers wrote with musical solidity,
their compositions can scarcely be said to have added much to the
development of the instrumental style, or to clavier technic; and,
in fact, they amounted to little more than a side issue in music,
withdrawn from the general advancement, and valuable chiefly as
curiosities. The melodies were apt to be wearisome, through monotonous
repetitions, the rhythms to lack variety, and the modulations to appear
chiefly in the form of unsuccessful attempts.

=The Parthenia=.—During the first half of the 17th century the virginal
retained its popularity, although political turmoils prevented much
positive advancement in music. The “Parthenia,” a volume containing the
first printed collection of virginal music, appeared in 1611, composed
of twenty-one pieces by Byrd, Bull and Gibbons; and a similar volume
followed, with compositions for virginal and bass viol, by Robert Hole.

=Purcell=.—In the reign of Charles II (1660-1685) music again came
to the fore, and was ably promoted by =Henry Purcell=, who was born
in the year when Cromwell died, 1658, and died in 1695. Purcell is a
shining figure in English musical history, through his ability as an
opera composer, in which capacity he produced bright and pithy works,
thoroughly English in spirit, and healthy in tone. He published a
volume of twelve clavier sonatas in 1683, with parts also for two
violins and a bass viol, founded on the model of the Italian violin
sonatas, each having an Adagio, a Canzona, a slow movement and an Air.
Later he published other sonatas, besides suites and separate pieces
for the clavier. Upon the advent of Handel, however, the English
composers became, for the most part, mere imitators of his style, which
had so caught the national ear as to well-nigh eclipse all other kinds
of music. The early English school, therefore, can be said to have had
its last exponent in the person of Purcell.

=Rise of the French School=.—In France a school of clavier compositions
developed during the brilliant reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715), which
did much toward imparting elegance and polish, besides characteristic
rhythms and technical figures, to clavier music. The head of this
school and the personal teacher of many succeeding clavier composers
and players was =Andre Champion de Chambonnières= (d. 1670), who
became court clavier player to the king. He is said to have been
master of a full tone on the harpsichord attained by none other than
himself; he also published two books of clavier compositions, written
in the pure harmonic style, and showing the tendency toward brilliant
embellishments which became a characteristic of his successors. Of
his pupils, =Jean Henry d’Anglebert= (d. 1691), was clavier player at
court, and published in 1689 a book containing clavier arrangements
of airs and dances from the operas of Lully, with rules for their
execution.

=The Couperin Family=.—Two, at least, of the famous musical family of
Couperin also came under the instruction of Champion. These were =Louis
Couperin= (1630-1665), and =François Couperin= (1631-1701), who, with
their brother =Charles Couperin= (1638-1669), and his son =François
Couperin=, called “le Grand” (1668-1733), were all at various times
organists of the church of St. Gervais, at Paris. The Couperins may be
considered as classic composers for the clavier, as their style, though
having an harmonic basis, was mostly in the line of instrumental voice
writing. The first-named published three suites of dances for clavier;
and the second was eminently popular as a teacher.

=François Couperin=.—François Couperin, “le Grand,” deserves special
attention, and has been called the _first great composer_ distinctively
_for the clavier_. He was a pupil of the organist Thomelin, and rose
quickly to so commanding a position as player of the organ and clavier
that, in 1701, he was appointed court clavier player and organist
at the Royal Chapel. He was very accurate as a composer; and in the
four books of clavier pieces which he published successively, he gave
minute directions for interpreting the wealth of ornamentation with
which his melodies are surrounded. Most of these pieces are _written
in two voices_, with the upper melody most prominent; and they reflect
the artificial show and glitter of the French court in their endless
_turns_ and _embellishments_. Yet for this very reason they have
amplified the resources of clavier compositions, preparing the way for
composers like Scarlatti, Bach and Handel. Many of them show the French
taste toward attaching definite meaning to music, by their fanciful
titles, like “La tendre Nanette,” “La Flatteuse”—a custom followed by
others of this school. Couperin wrote also a treatise on clavier touch,
and was _one of the first to make use of the thumb in playing_.

=Louis Marchand= (1669-1732) was a brilliant though dissipated figure
in clavier playing. Becoming organist at the court of Versailles, he
lost the post through his reckless habits, and, going to Dresden, he
was somewhat subdued in his conceit by the evident superiority of Bach.
On his return to Paris, he became exceedingly popular as a teacher,
although his extravagant style of living brought him finally to
poverty. His pupil, =Louis Claude Daquin= (1694-1772), received through
him an appointment as organist at the church of St. Paul, in preference
to Rameau, of whose superiority Marchand became jealous. Daquin
published a number of rather superficial clavier pieces.

[Illustration: JEAN-PHILLIPPE RAMEAU.]

=Jean-Phillippe Rameau=, the last and greatest light of this school,
has even greater fame as an opera composer. He was born at Dijon in
1683, and displayed so great musical talent when a mere child that,
although his parents had intended him for another profession, he was
finally sent to Italy to study music. After spending some time there,
he joined the orchestra of an opera troupe, traveling about France and
gaining an insight into dramatic composition. Upon going to Paris he
studied with Marchand, who recognized and feared his talent, and who
finally was the means of his leaving Paris. Later, however, he obtained
an organ position outside of Paris, and soon attracted attention
not only by his playing, but also by the publication, in 1726, of a
treatise on Harmony. In this he _reduced_ the study of _chords_ to
a _scientific foundation_, and won his title of the name of creator
of the modern science of Harmony. Returning to Paris, he now secured
an organ position there, and set to work upon the series of dramatic
productions which made him the foremost opera composer of his day,
superior even to the popular Lully. In 1737, he published another
theoretical work, in which the principles of Equal Temperament, which
J. S. Bach had adopted fifteen years before, were so clearly stated as
to make their establishment permanent for future composers. Rameau’s
theories were the subject of much controversy in his day; but many
distinguished contemporaries, like Rousseau and Voltaire, were his warm
partisans. He died in 1764.

=Rameau’s Clavier Works=.—His numerous _clavier compositions_ show
great advance in freedom of expression, and are written mostly in
_three parts_, with an occasional succession of full chords. Many of
these have _descriptive titles_, such as “La Poule,” in which the
cackling of a hen is cleverly imitated. Others are in the form of dance
suites. The order of Prelude, Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue was
made the basis of these suites as well as those of Couperin, although
this order admitted of considerable variation; and no other principle
of Unity appears in them, with the exception of a _common key_.

=End of the Early French School=.—The growing importance of the German
school now came to be felt in France so strongly that the French school
came to lose its individuality. We therefore turn our attention to the
important developments in instrumental music which were effected in
Germany.

                              REFERENCES.

Weitzmann.—History of Pianoforte Playing.

Rimbault.—The Pianoforte.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. I.

Henderson.—Preludes and Studies.

Naylor.—An Elizabethan Virginal Book.


                         MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS.

Weitzmann’s History, pages 314-329.

Rimbault.—“The Pianoforte,” pages 237, 240, 245, 248, 253, 262-283, 316.

Litolff Ed., No. 397, 2nd vol. of “Music by Old Masters.”

Augener Ed., Nos. 8300, 8299.

Breitkopf Ed., as for Chapter II.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Tell about early English instrumental music.

Tell about music in Queen Elizabeth’s time.

Describe the Variation form used by Byrd.

What was the Virginal Book?

What was the style of the Elizabethan composers?

What was the “Parthenia”?

Give an account of Purcell and his work.

Who was the founder of the French school?

What family figures prominently in the French school?

Who was the greatest member of this family? Tell about his work.

Tell about Marchand and Daquin.

What great theorist is prominent in French clavier music? Tell about
his work.

Note that the English school was at its height in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth, Purcell, in the reign of Charles II, being the greatest
light of the school. The strength of the French school was during the
reign of Louis XIV.



                             LESSON XXVIII.

                 THE GERMAN POLYPHONIC CLAVIER SCHOOL.


=German Mastery of Polyphonic Music=.—The Italians, with their quick
perception of structural beauty, have been the pioneers in the
invention and use of most art forms. So it happened, in the history
of instrumental music, that they were the ones to invent and give to
other nations the vehicle of expression, while it remained for their
pupils, notably, in this case, the composers of Germany, to fill these
forms out with the expression of real and deep feeling. The German
tendency toward serious and philosophical thought found the intricacies
of polyphonic music, or the simultaneous flow of independent melodies,
admirably adapted to their need of expression; and when this style
of voice writing was applied to instrumental compositions, German
musicians found a branch of art in which they were admirably qualified
to excel. So, from being mere pupils of the Italians, they advanced
to the production of works of much more distinguished character and
deeper, richer content than was possible to mere beauty of form and
melody.

=Hasler=.—In the second half of the 16th century, the clavier was
popular in Germany, disputing the place of the lute as a social
instrument, although organ and clavier compositions were identical, as
in Italy. There is a record of the publication of two books of pieces
for organ and “instrument”—by which is meant the clavier—in 1575-77,
in which there were dance tunes with accompanying chords. =Hans Leo
Hasler= (1564-1612), a pupil of A. Gabrieli, and fellow-student with
G. Gabrieli, was especially prominent as organ and clavier player and
composer during this epoch, publishing a number of such dances written
for the organ or the clavier.

=Froberger=.—The devastating Thirty Years’ War (1618-48) put an end to
artistic ambition during its progress. However, art quickly recovered
at its close, and a number of worthy musicians appeared. An interesting
figure among them, and a man who has been called the first German
clavier virtuoso, was =Johann Jacob Froberger= (1605-1667). Showing
great promise as a boy, he was brought to the notice of the Austrian
Kaiser, Ferdinand III, who sent him to Rome, where he studied with
Frescobaldi for three years. After this we hear of him as a successful
performer at Paris, and, on his return to Vienna, as court organist,
in which position he won widespread fame. A remarkable story is told
of a perilous journey to England, where he arrived penniless, and
of his subsequent recognition and his cordial reception by Charles
II, who was delighted with his improvisation upon the harpsichord.
Afterwards returning to Vienna, he resigned his post there, through
some disagreement, and lived afterwards in retirement. In a number of
Caprices, Toccatas and the like, written in the contrapuntal style,
he definitely adopted the five-lined staff, and introduced many
embellishments, after the French fashion. He possessed much charming
melodic invention, and, in his Toccatas employed a treatment of his
subject in definite sections, which afterwards appeared in the fugue
form. Froberger anticipates the _program style_ of music, as he is said
to have improvised descriptions of events, like that of the Count von
Thurn’s crossing of the Rhine, which he depicted in twenty-six pieces.

=Johann Kaspar Kerl= (1625-90), also sent by Ferdinand III to
Rome, studied there with Carissimi, the oratorio writer, becoming
accomplished as an extemporizer. He occupied a number of organ
positions in Vienna and Munich, also teaching the clavier, and wrote
compositions which show a tendency toward the modern scale systems.
=Johann Pachelbel= (1653-1706), celebrated as organ and clavier
player, wrote pleasing works for the clavier, in which he tried to
follow out the characteristics of the instrument. Many of these were
in the form of variations. =Georg Muffat= (d. 1704) showed in his
compositions a tendency toward French ornamentation, and his son
=Gottlieb= (1683-1770), a pupil of the contrapuntist J. J. Fux, was
organist to the Kaiser Charles VI, in Vienna, and clavier teacher to
the Imperial family. His clavier compositions were in the form of
Versettes and Toccatas.

=Eighteenth Century Clavier Composers=.—The Thirty Years’ War
exercised a demoralizing influence upon music trades, and many
excellent musicians were unable to have their compositions published
in consequence. The result is, that comparatively few specimens of the
works of the composers mentioned have come down to us in available
form. Approaching the 18th century, we now come to a group of composers
who represent the most brilliant epoch of early clavier work. Their
productions, while retaining the dignity and complexity of the
contrapuntal school, yet use its material with a freedom of modulation
and of dissonant chords sufficient to express genuine emotional ideas
through their medium.

=Reinken and Buxtehude=.—The Hamburg organist =Johann Adam Reinken=
(1623-1722), a native of Holland, wrote a number of clavier
compositions, publishing in 1704, pieces for two violins and
harpsichord. =Dietrich Buxtehude= (1637-1707), organist at St. Mary’s
Church, Lübeck, from 1668, excelled in free style of writing for
clavier. The latter gave a series of Sunday evening concerts at his
church which gained renown through all the surrounding country; and J.
S. Bach himself is said to have walked to these concerts, a distance of
fifty miles.

=Instrumental Polyphonic Forms=.—These men have been mentioned largely
because their work made possible the results which Bach afterwards
attained from an elaboration of what they had already accomplished. It
was among such eminent German organists that the instrumental Fugue,
the highest instrumental type of polyphonic music, took definite
shape, consisting of an Exposition, in which the Subject, Answer and
Countersubject were announced by the various voices; and a subsequent
Development, in which, according to certain laws more or less strict,
the material presented was carried through a variety of phases and
brought finally to a triumphant close. Of other forms, like the Toccata
and Canzona, the tendency came to be toward more freedom of treatment
on the one hand, and an increasing definiteness and consistency on the
other.

=Handel’s Early Life=.—A composer must now be mentioned whose work
lay chiefly in other fields than the clavier, but who nevertheless
drew much of his inspiration from the strings of the harpsichord. This
was =George Frederick Handel= (1685-1759), who was born at Halle, and
whose musical genius asserted itself so strenuously that, although
his father was strongly opposed, he learned the harpsichord as a mere
child, and became so proficient a performer that the reigning Duke
of Saxe-Weissenfels, hearing him play, insisted on his receiving a
thorough musical education. So he was placed under Zachau, a competent
organist and musician, at his native place, with whom he studied
diligently. After his father’s death he went to Hamburg, entering the
orchestra of the Opera house and rising to the post of harpsichordist.
Launching out as an opera composer, he began to acquire a reputation,
and in 1706 went to Italy, meeting many distinguished musicians there,
among them Domenico Scarlatti, with whom he had a contest as to ability
as clavichordist and organist, and winning fresh laurels.

=Handel in England=.—In 1707, he became music director to the Elector
of Hanover, but quickly left the post for England, where, with the
exception of short intervals, he passed the remainder of his life,
becoming a naturalized English subject. It was no wonder that he was
so warmly attached to his adopted country, since he became the popular
idol, even winning over the king, George I, formerly Elector of
Hanover, who, on his accession to the throne, was at first angry with
Handel for his desertion of the post in his service at Hanover.

[Illustration: GEORGE FRIEDRICH HANDEL.]

=Handel’s Operas and Oratorios=.—Handel was of an irascible
disposition, and, living in the artificial atmosphere of London,
among wits and satirists like Dr. Johnson, Addison and Pope, he was
constantly embroiled with the cabals of his rivals, and the fickleness
of the public. He produced a great number of operas, most of them
successful; but as theatrical manager he met with severe losses, and
finally gave up opera writing in despair, and turned to the composition
of oratorios. The result was that in this form he has left his most
enduring and elevated compositions; for while his operas were sometimes
written down to the popular taste for empty Italian melody, the lofty
themes of his oratorios inspired him to his grandest and most sincere
style, which, moreover, was rendered the more dramatic and intelligible
by his knowledge of the requirements of his audiences.

=Handel’s Clavier Works=.—Handel was an expert performer on the
harpsichord, for which he wrote two sets of Suites, besides a number of
single pieces. The Suites, of which the first set is by far the better,
are written mostly in the _dance forms_, but with the interpolation
of more serious forms, such as Airs, Variations and Fugues. The
_contrapuntal style_ is here most _prominent_, although _with harmonic
basis_, and with a laxity in the strictness of the voice writing,
caused by the occasional use of extra notes to complete chords. Some of
the variations are worked up to effective climaxes, and have running
passages and broken chords, in which the resources of the clavier are
cleverly drawn upon.

=Handel’s Last Years=.—Handel became blind in 1752, but continued to
take part in the performances of his works till the year of his death.
Choleric as was his temperament, the known generosity of his nature and
his devotion to the ideals of his art made him the idol of the English
people. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

=Mattheson=.—A close associate of Handel, when he was in the Hamburg
orchestra, was =Johann Mattheson= (1681-1764), famed for his literary
writings on musical subjects no less than for his musical ability. He
wrote suites, a sonata and fugues in two parts, for clavier, which were
of excellent workmanship.

=Bach’s Early Life=.—But all other names in the domain of polyphonic
instrumental music pale before that of =Johann Sebastian Bach=, the
culmination of the school of voice writing, and the musician who put
the stamp of greatness on all former styles, while at the same time
acting as guide to future fields of composition. Born at Eisenach in
1685, as a scion of a family the members of which had been musical
leaders for generations, he seems to have embodied in himself the
sum of the genius of his forefathers. The story of his life is a
prosaic one, as he filled it with unflagging industry, carrying out
his unswerving ideals of his art, caring little for mere popularity,
and rearing a large family of sons and daughters, some of whom proved
worthy to continue his work. As a boy, he lost both parents at the
age of ten, and was taught clavier playing by his elder brother,
Johann Christian, who took him in charge. He seized with avidity every
opportunity to study his beloved music, copying hundreds of pages of
manuscript, listening to every musical performance possible, drinking
in and assimilating the ideas thus gained, to reproduce them later on,
stamped with his genius.

=Later Life=.—At his brother’s death he went to Lüneburg as choir
boy, where he became acquainted with Reinken’s work. At eighteen he
was violinist in the court band at Weimar, shortly afterward becoming
organist at a church at Arnstadt. His next position was as court
organist at Weimar, in 1708, where many of his most important organ
compositions were written. This post he left in 1717 for that of court
chapel-master at Anhalt-Köthen, where he remained six years, after
which he went to Leipzig, as Cantor of the Thomasschule, staying there
till his death, in 1750.

=Incidents of Bach’s Career=.—Bach’s life was not altogether a happy
one, as he was much annoyed at the persecutions of his rivals; and,
like Handel, he was afflicted with blindness in his last years. Never
considering the element of mere popularity in his work, his greatness
was little appreciated in his lifetime; and it was fifty years after
his death before it began to receive recognition. A pleasant incident
of his declining years was his cordial reception by Frederick the Great
at his court, in 1747, where Bach’s son was in favor as harpsichord
player, and where Bach was shown a number of excellent new Silbermann
pianofortes. It is a curious circumstance that he and Handel, although
born in the same year, were destined never to meet.

=The Well-Tempered Clavichord=.—It has been stated that Bach adopted
the principle of Equal Temperament for clavier tuning. In support
of this he wrote twenty-four preludes and fugues, one in each major
and minor key, requiring, therefore, equal temperament for their
performance; and later added a second similar volume. The whole
forty-eight make up the monumental work called the “Well-Tempered
Clavichord”; and this work, written originally for the clavichord,
has remained the bulwark of piano playing to the present day. Its
fugues, written with consummate mastery of the technic of instrumental
polyphony, are not only models of skill in voice writing, but also are
made the vehicles of genuine moods and emotions; while each preceding
prelude gives the keynote of expression to its following fugue,
although written in a much freer style, frequently closely allied with
the works of the purely harmonic school.

[Illustration: JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH.]

=Bach’s Other Clavier Works=.—Bach wrote also sonatas and concertos,
the latter for one, two or three claviers, sometimes with string
accompaniment. These works, although comprising several movements, _do
not_ otherwise _coincide_ with the _harmonic sonata form_, since their
style is more polyphonic, and since they are occupied mainly with the
_development_ of a _single_ subject. His suites, of which he wrote two
sets, called respectively English and French, are no less important,
since in them the dance forms are invested with a seriousness and an
artistic finish hitherto unattained. Of other clavier works, his famous
“Chromatic Fantasie” has a wealth of harmonic combinations, fiery runs
and arpeggios, and dramatic recitative which give it a worthy place in
the Romantic school developed much later, and of whose style it was
the forerunner. His “Inventions,” studies written originally for his
children, in two or three parts, are an excellent introduction to the
study of his larger works.

=Reforms in Fingering=.—Another gift of Bach’s to coming generations
was his _thorough revision of clavier playing_. Raising the hand above
the keys from its former flat position, he _brought the thumb into
use_, and by inventing the scale fingering, afterwards universally
adopted, he opened the way to the style of brilliant and smoothly
running passages which was afterwards so highly developed. Thus Bach,
while putting the final touch to the old forms, gave an impetus to the
harmonic style, which was then in its infancy, and of which we shall
now trace the course.

                              REFERENCES.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. I. Vol. II, Bach and Handel.

Weitzmann.—History of Pianoforte Playing.

Henderson.—Preludes and Studies.

Spitta.—Life of Bach.

Parry.—Evolution of the Art of Music, Chapter VIII.

Williams.—Bach (Master Musicians Series).


                         MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS.

Weitzmann’s History, pages 330, 336.

Rimbault.—The Pianoforte, pages 299, 332, 340.

Litolff ed., No. 396, 1st volume of Music by Old Masters.

Augener ed., No. 8297.

Breitkopf Ed., as before.

Works of Handel and Bach, published in all the cheap
editions.


                               QUESTIONS.

Compare the Italian and the German tendencies.

Give an account of Hasler.

Tell about Froberger. In what styles did he write?

Tell about Kerl, Pachelbel and the Muffats.

What advances do we find in the works of the composers of the early
part of the 18th century?

What forms now begin to take definite shape?

Give a sketch of Handel’s early life.

Give a sketch of Handel’s work in England.

State the characteristics of Handel’s clavier works.

What affliction befell him during the last years of his life?

What associate of Handel’s was famous as writer and composer?

Tell about Bach’s early life.

Tell about Bach’s later life.

What great king invited Bach to visit his court?

Describe the “Well-Tempered Clavichord.”

Mention other clavier works by Bach.

What improvements in technic did Bach introduce?



                              LESSON XXIX.

                 THE GERMAN SONATA COMPOSERS, TO HAYDN.


=Formation of Harmonic Design=.—Side by side with the ultimate
development of polyphonic music in its perfected instrumental form,
the forms of the new harmonic style were being worked out, by long
processes of development. Finally, just as the Fugue came to be adopted
as the highest form of the old school, so the Sonata was chosen as
the most dignified exponent of the new art. But, while the old school
arrived at a high state of perfection at the hands of Handel and Bach,
the necessity for inventing and experimenting with the possibilities of
the new forms made the first attempts in this direction seem childish
and crude beside Bach’s work; so that it was several generations
after him before the harmonic style was brought to the stage at which
it could be made to express ideas of equal magnitude, and do it
successfully.

=Development of the Sonata=.—The original plan associated with the
Sonata was that of combining several movements in such a way as
to appeal, in the completed product, to all kinds of _emotion_,
_intellectual_, _spiritual_ and _physical_. In the hands of its
founders, the Italian violinists, the exposition of this thought had
been mainly contrapuntal. We have seen how Domenico Scarlatti arrived
at a style in which a single part, supported by an accompaniment, was
applied to the clavier, in a manner which brought out its striking
characteristics; and we have now to trace the progress of this style in
Germany, up to the point where the various contributions of different
composers could be united into a systematic and fixed form, sufficient
for the free expression of the highest musical inspiration, and adapted
to all the varied demands of instrumental music.

=Essential Elements of a Sonata=.—Certain points seem to have been
generally agreed upon as necessary components of the Sonata. The
first was its _union_ of _several movements_, from two up to five, or
occasionally even more. The second was that the _first movement_ should
display the most _ingenuity_ and _elaboration_. This movement thus
came to receive the most attention, and showed a process of evolution
from the simple dance form consisting of a modulation from a principal
key to a contrasting key and back again, to a _highly organised_ and
conventional _art-form_—a form, moreover, of such a capacity that it
could be used as the mould for the principal movement of a wide range
of compositions, from a short pianoforte sonata to a grand symphony.

=Changes in the Old Dance Form=.—In this evolution, the first half
of the dance form was made to consist of a Subject, either thematic
or melodic, clearly defining the key, and then a modulating passage,
generally freer in its runs and arpeggios, leading up to the point of
contrast; and the first section was then repeated. The greatest changes
took place in the second half. At first, this consisted in the repeat
of the Principal Theme in the contrasting key, and a return to the
first key through modulations similar to those in the first section;
later, however, since this design gave little opportunity for a display
of the composer’s originality, the enunciation of the Subject in the
contrasting key was followed by a free passage, which gave ample scope
to the composer’s fancy; after which the subject again appeared in the
principal key, with a concluding passage in the same key.

=Establishment of the Cyclic Form=.—The form as a whole was now
practically divided into three sections, and a better balance was
given to this division by the omission of the second appearance of the
Subject in the contrasting key, and the substitution of other material,
either relevant or contrasting. The movement now assumed a cyclic
form—a statement, leading to a point of contrast, a free fantasia,
and finally the statement, leading to a close. This was practically
the course of development of what has been named the Sonata Form, up
to the time of Haydn. We are now prepared to consider the especial
contributions of composers to this form.

=First Printed Clavier Sonata=.—The first printed clavier sonata seems
to have been published by =Johann Kuhnau= (1660?-1722). This was in the
key of B-flat, and was the last of several pieces in the same volume.
In the preface, the author gives a semi-apology for its introduction,
saying that he sees no reason why sonatas should not be written for the
clavier as well as for any other instrument. This sonata begins with
an Allegro, followed by a fugal movement; and in the following Adagio
movement, the tendency to put the slow movement into a contrasting key
is illustrated, as this is in D-flat major. After another Allegro,
there is a _Da Capo_ to the first part.

=Other Sonatas by Kuhnau=.—It was difficult for the early sonata
writers to break away entirely from the old polyphonic style; and when
a part appeared in the nature of a Free Fantasia, they generally had
recourse to fugal work, having _no precedent_ in _harmonic music_ to
fall back upon. Thus, in his seven sonatas published in 1696, entitled
“Fresh Fruits for the Clavier,” which show more individuality in
melodic invention, Kuhnau uses the fugal style whenever the harmonic
forms fail him. These sonatas show a prevalence of ornaments, which,
he says, are “sugar to sweeten the fruits.” A remarkable collection of
clavier pieces are his six Bible sonatas, in which the form is entirely
outside of the development traced above, since the various movements of
each sonata simply follow the lines of a Bible story, like that of the
“Combat between David and Goliath,” which they illustrate. As samples
of program music, they proceed in the steps of Pachelbel, and others on
record. Kuhnau studied law, and was from 1682 organist at St. Thomas’
Church, at Leipzig, where he preceded J. S. Bach.

=Frederick the Great’s Influence=.—A great impetus was given to German
clavier music by the interest with which, like all other forms of
instrumental music, it was viewed by Frederick the Great of Prussia
(r. 1740-86). This warlike but thoroughly Teutonic monarch gathered
at his court a brilliant coterie of instrumentalists, delighting to
perform with them on his favorite instrument, the flute. Although this
musical inspiration was disturbed by the wars in which he engaged, and
especially by the Seven Years’ War (1756-63), the growth of clavier
music was nevertheless steady.

=Musical Journals=.—A number of musical journals which appeared from
1760 on, contributed also to this enthusiasm, in giving clavier
composers a medium for bringing their works before the public, and also
in giving them the chance to profit by one another’s experiments. Many
writers thus came to the fore, who aided materially in the elaboration
of harmonic music material.

=Other Early Composers=.—Of these, =Gottfried Heinrich Stoelzel=
(1690-1749), chapel-master at Saxe-Gotha, wrote an “enharmonic” clavier
sonata in three parts, a Largo in C minor, in 4/4 time; a short
fugue; and a 3/8 movement, in harmonic form, in which experiments in
modulation were tried. His successor at Saxe-Gotha was =Georg Benda=
(1721-95), who published a number of clavier pieces and sonatas,
besides two concertos for clavier and string quartet, all of which
show a desire for genuine expression in the harmonic form. The first
four-hand sonatas seem to have been published by =Charles Heinrich
Müller=, of Halberstadt, in 1783, and another appeared in 1784, by
=Ernst Wilhelm Wolf= (1735-92), court chapel-master in Saxe-Weimar,
the writer of numerous other clavier sonatas and concertos showing
great purity and originality of style. At the court of Frederick the
Great, at Berlin, =Christoph Nichelmann= (1717-62), a pupil of Bach,
and =Carl Fasch= (1736-1800) were successively second harpsichordists.
Both wrote sonatas, those of the former in two movements, while those
of the latter had generally three, of a brilliant and attractive
style. =Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg= (1718-95), the distinguished Berlin
theoretician, was more successful in contrapuntal work than in his
sonatas, written in freer style.

=Georg Christoph Wagenseil= (1715-77), pupil of J. J. Fux, court music
teacher and celebrated clavier virtuoso, wrote sonatas for clavier and
violin and a number for clavier alone.

=Wilhelm Friedemann Bach=.—Perhaps the most striking developments,
however, were at the hands of the sons of J. S. Bach, who were all,
having come under his direct instruction, of refined musical judgment,
while some of them possessed marks of his genius. Of these, =Wilhelm
Friedemann Bach= (1710-84), the eldest, called the Bach of Halle,
from his long residence there, studied at the University of Leipzig,
distinguishing himself in mathematics; was organist at Dresden and
Halle successively, and finally came to Frederick the Great’s court,
at Berlin, through the influence of his brother Carl. Although he
possessed great gifts as a player and composer, his dissipated habits
brought him to disgrace, and he died in poverty. He wrote many clavier
compositions, showing a bold use of harmonies, and including sonatas
which have decidedly instrumental themes and development. A large
number of his father’s manuscripts known to have been in his possession
have been irretrievably lost.

=Johann Christian Bach=, the London Bach, youngest of J. S. Bach’s
sons, was born at Leipzig in 1735, and died at London in 1782. He
studied with his brother, Carl, after his father’s death, and,
afterwards going to Italy, became organist at the Milan Cathedral.
Gaining great favor in this capacity, he was appointed concert-director
at London in 1759, and there he became a popular favorite, producing
several operas and receiving the appointment of music master to the
royal family. His Italian experiences influenced his sonata writing,
as his _subjects_ are in the style of the popular, though somewhat
trivial _Italian melody_. Yet he introduced some striking improvements,
notably that of employing a _second contrasting subject_, instead of a
mere modulating or closing passage, at the end of the first and third
sections of the sonata form. His graceful and melodious works were
fashionable in London society.

[Illustration: C. P. E. BACH.]

=C. P. E. Bach=.—The third and greatest of Bach’s sons was =Carl
Philip Emanuel Bach=, the Berlin Bach. Inheriting his father’s love of
genuine and forceful expression, he had no less lofty ideals of his
art, though recognizing his inferiority in talent. Also, perceiving
that the harmonic school was in the line of progression, he devoted
himself to it, thus producing purely _harmonic works_, which were only
limited by the lack of resources thus far discovered. He was born
at Weimar, in 1714, and, though a student of law and philosophy at
Leipzig, he finally decided to give rein to his natural bent toward
the musical profession. Conducting and composing for a musical society
at Frankfort, he was appointed first clavier player at the court of
Frederick the Great, at Berlin, where he stayed from 1740 to 1767, in
high favor on account of his sterling musicianship, and enjoying the
society of many distinguished musicians of the day. In 1767, he became
musical director of the principal church in Hamburg, where he remained
till his death, in 1788. A vigorous worker throughout his life, he left
a large number of compositions, including two hundred and ten clavier
pieces and fifty-two concertos for clavier and orchestra, besides much
chamber music, eighteen symphonies, oratorios and cantatas.

=C. P. E. Bach’s Sonatas=.—His most enduring and important work was in
connection with the pianoforte sonata, since under his hands it began
to assume _definite shape_. In the six sets of sonatas published,
the number of movements is generally fixed at three, of which the
third is frequently in the harmonic form of the Rondo, which consists
in the recurrence of a principal theme, with modulatory episodes
between its appearances. Hence the order of movements, which, in the
earlier writers, took all sorts of forms from fugue to dance form,
becomes Allegro, Adagio, Rondo. Bach’s _themes_ are also made very
characteristic, founded upon some easily-recognized _instrumental
figure_. In the _development_ portion of the sonata form he does not
resort to the polyphonic style, but _uses phrases or sections from
the first part in new combinations and keys_. Sometimes, also, the
direction is given in the repeat of the first section, to introduce
variations of the text at will.

=His Theoretical Works=.—Bach published at Berlin, in 1753, an essay on
“The True Method of Playing the Clavier,” in which he gives a definite
exposition of his father’s reforms in playing, treating the position of
the hand, embellishments and artistic rendering, which he says should
touch the hearts of the hearers. A second part, published in 1762,
discusses the science of accompaniment and improvisation.

=Adoption of the Piano=.—The clavichord, notwithstanding its feeble
tone, remained his favorite instrument on account of its powers of
expression, in which he delighted. His brother, Johann Christian, was
one of the first definitely to adopt the new pianoforte. J. G. Müthel
published in 1771 what were probably the first compositions mentioning
the pianoforte for their performance, a duet for two pianofortes or
harpsichords; after the time of C. P. E. Bach, clavier compositions
were written in general distinctively for the pianoforte and not for
the clavier.


                              REFERENCES.

Weitzmann.—History of Pianoforte Playing.

Shedlock.—The Pianoforte Sonata.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, article “Sonata.”

Parry’s “Evolution of the Art of Music,” Chapter IX.

Henderson.—How Music Developed, Chapter X.


                         MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS.

Weitzmann, pages 338, 340, 342-355.

Rimbault.—“The Pianoforte,” pages 357-368.

Edition Litollf, Augener, Breitkopf, as for Chapter IV.

Works of C. P. E. Bach, in Peters’ edition.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

What forms of composition were being worked out while the polyphonic
style was reaching a culmination?

What style had been most prominent in the early sonata?

What points had been agreed upon as necessary in the construction of
the sonata?

What changes were made from the simple dance form?

In what part of the sonata did the greatest change occur?

What was the course of development in sonata form up to Haydn?

Tell about Kuhnau and his work.

Tell about other early composers.

Tell about Wilhelm Friedemann Bach.

Tell about Johann Christoph Bach.

Tell about Carl Philip Emanuel Bach.

Tell about Carl Philip Emanuel Bach’s contribution to the development
of the sonata.

What other works did C. P. E. Bach write?

A comparison of the dates from Kuhnau’s published work in Sonatas to
that of C. P. E. Bach, the immediate predecessor and model for Haydn,
shows that the form took definite shape in the course of about fifty
years.

[Illustration: FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN.]



                              LESSON XXX.

                          FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN.


=The Three Great Sonata Writers=.—In the year of C. P. E. Bach’s death,
1788, three men had already entered the arena as champions of that
Sonata Form to which he contributed so much. Haydn was then fifty-six,
Mozart thirty-two and Beethoven eighteen years of age. All three added
to the glory of Vienna by making it their dwelling-place in their later
years; and the three formed a triumvirate which not only gave to the
Sonata a permanent and complete form, but also brought this form into
absolute subservience to the expression of every variety of emotional
thought.

=Haydn’s Childhood=.—Franz Joseph Haydn, a native of Rohrau, in lower
Austria, was born on March 31, 1732, the second of a family of twelve
children. His father, an humble wheelwright, was accustomed to bring
his family together in the evenings and holidays, as was the German
custom, to unite in song; and the true ear and feeling for rhythm of
little “Sepperl,” as Joseph was called, was quickly noticeable. So a
cousin of his father, who was a schoolmaster at Hainburg, was allowed
to take the boy home with him, placing him in the school choir, and
directing his studies, which included singing, and the playing of the
violin and other instruments.

=St. Stephen’s Choir, Vienna=.—George Reutter, precentor of St.
Stephen’s Cathedral, at Vienna, paid a visit to the school and was
attracted by the child’s “sweet, weak voice,” as he expressed it, and
offered him a position in his choir. As this was considered a rare
opportunity, he was allowed to go, and at the age of eight we find him
installed in the choir school at Vienna, attending the daily service
and choir practice, besides the regular school studies. But Reutter
seems to have lost his personal interest in the lad, neglecting him
in various ways, doing nothing with his work in musical theory, and
finally dropping all his tuition. Haydn was fond of mischief; and when
his voice began to break and his brother Michael became soloist in his
place, his cruel master took the pretext of some trifling prank to turn
him adrift, penniless, into the street.

=Hardships in Vienna=.—At the age of seventeen, therefore, he wandered
the streets all of one rainy November night, with no friend to whom
to turn. Finally, in the morning, he met an acquaintance formerly at
the school, Spangler, a tenor singer, himself nearly as poor as Haydn.
Nevertheless, he took the outcast home to his garret, where he was
eking out an existence with his family; and thus temporarily provided
for, Haydn set about finding work to do. Small jobs, like playing in
bands, or at weddings and baptisms, and singing in choirs, he eagerly
sought; his spare moments he occupied in writing music for serenades
or garden-parties. While undergoing these hardships, however, he was
becoming familiar with the music dear to the people’s heart, and also
with the varied effects of instrumental combinations.

=Studies and New Friends=.—In 1750, he rented a garret in a house
in Vienna, and, having secured a dilapidated spinet, set himself
diligently to work to study all available musical compositions, notably
those of the new sonata order, and especially the sonatas of C. P.
E. Bach. Theoretical works, also, like the “Gradus ad Parnassum” of
J. J. Fux, and Mattheson’s work on conducting, were eagerly devoured
by the youthful enthusiast. By a piece of good fortune, Metastasio,
the popular opera librettist, roomed in the same house, and learning
of the talent hidden away in the garret, sought Haydn out, gave him
Italian lessons, and ultimately started him on the road to success
by recommending him as clavier teacher to a Spanish lady, to whose
daughter he gave lessons.

=Connection with Porpora=.—Her singing master was the renowned opera
composer, Porpora, who recognized Haydn’s talent as accompanist, and
proceeded to make him useful to himself, giving him instruction in
composition in return for his services, which were frequently of even a
menial nature. Accompanying Porpora on his journeys, he met musicians
like Wagenseil and Gluck; and at the age of twenty had written many
compositions, including a mass in F, an opera and many works of the
sonata order, founded on the style of C. P. E. Bach.

=Better Times=.—Better times now opened before Haydn. Gaining
influential friends, he won, through them, the post of music director
and composer to Count Morzin, a position which he held only a short
time, since the Count gave up his musical establishment soon. But he
was immediately engaged by the wealthy and cultivated Prince Paul
Esterhazy, who had been charmed at hearing a symphony of Haydn’s, as
assistant director of music at his estate at Eisenstadt. The same year
Haydn made an unhappy marriage with the daughter of Keller, a wigmaker,
which he had cause to regret for the remainder of his life.

=Orchestras in Germany=.—To understand Haydn’s work with the Esterhazy
family, it will be necessary to review the state of music in Germany
at this time. When the orchestral overtures of the Italian operas had
become used as concert pieces, a great stimulus was given to this kind
of music. Concertos, string quartets, trios, and, most important of
all, symphonies, came to be written in great numbers; and throughout
Germany a mania for orchestral music arose. Wealthy families vied with
each other in the size and prestige of their musical establishments,
which included instrumentalists and vocalists; and the smaller gentry
even pressed their domestic servants into the service, inducing them
to study instruments, and to perform string quartets and the like on
occasions. Inasmuch as a great part of the music written for these was
not published, and exchange of music in manuscript between different
establishments was attended with some difficulty, it was necessary that
the music director should have the ability to write his own music, as
well as to direct it.

=Haydn’s Work at Esterhazy=.—A rare opportunity therefore opened to
Haydn, with his exceptional gifts as a composer, when he was placed
at the head of an establishment like that of the Esterhazys’, which
was perhaps the most brilliant and competent in Europe. He remained
in active service with this family for thirty-three years, during
which Prince Nicolas Esterhazy succeeded his brother Paul, upon the
death of the latter, in 1762. Nicolas, called the “Great,” on account
of his love of magnificence and his lavish style of living, built a
sumptuous summer palace near Süttor, in Bohemia; and here he spent most
of his time, with his troup of retainers, entertaining royalty, in a
style comparable with that of Versailles. Werner, his head director,
who had never appreciated Haydn’s gifts on account of his old-school
principles, died in 1766, and Haydn, who had made a firm friend of
Prince Nicolas, was given his place. The orchestra and singers were
now entirely under his command; the former was increased from the
original number of sixteen to thirty, all capable performers; so that
his life was spent in a round of rehearsals, dramatic performances and
concerts for the numerous entertainments constantly in progress. Two
well-equipped theatres, one for operas and dramas, and the other for
marionette plays, gave him an opportunity for adequate performances;
he thus had an exceptional chance to study the effects in his numerous
quartets, trios, symphonies and operas, at first hand.

=Journeys to Vienna=.—On several occasions, Prince Nicolas took his
entire troupe of musicians to Vienna, where Haydn conducted the
performances, meeting also the distinguished musicians of the day. It
was on one of these journeys, in 1785, that he met Mozart, whose genius
he was quick to appreciate, and who, from being his pupil, finally gave
to Haydn the added inspiration of his own brilliant thoughts. Haydn’s
reputation had now spread abroad, and his compositions were eagerly
looked for throughout the musical world.

=Haydn in London=.—On Prince Nicolas’ death, in 1790, Prince Anton, his
brother, succeeded, who, however, dismissed the orchestra, providing
for Haydn by a liberal pension. Haydn’s time was now his own; and he
decided to settle in Vienna; but an English impresario and publisher
named Salomon now offered him such exceptional inducements to come to
London that he accepted the offer. He was received with great honor,
being granted the degree of Doctor of Music from Oxford University.
He also conducted twelve grand symphonies, especially written for
this visit, which were, moreover, some of his finest productions. On
a second visit, in 1794-5, he excited even greater enthusiasm; and he
returned to Vienna supplied with money sufficient to insure an old age
free from pecuniary want. Some of his latest works were the Austrian
National Hymn, and his oratorios of “The Creation” and “The Seasons,”
which immediately attained a popularity that has even yet hardly
diminished.

=Honors=.—Haydn, in his old age, was showered with honors both at home
and abroad; a culminating point was reached when, on his seventy-sixth
birthday, at a performance of “The Creation,” his friends, including
many representatives of royalty, united to do him honor. His genial,
child-like disposition won him the sobriquet of “Papa Haydn”; and
this brightness and simplicity of thought he so transmitted to his
compositions that they carry his atmosphere of sunshine wherever they
are performed. He died in Vienna, soon after its capture by the French,
in the Napoleonic wars, May 31, 1809.

=Importance of His Work=.—Haydn has been called the father of the
Symphony and the String Quartet. In neither case is this strictly
true, since he had predecessors in both fields; but his work was
none the less important, since he collected the scattered threads of
their attempts, and wound them into a concise and definite art form,
stamped with the hallmarks of his own genius. The seal of artistic
completeness which he placed on the form of the Sonata was his greatest
achievement; and, written in this form, his symphonies and quartets
were simply an enlargement of his clavier works, the symphonies having
an added Minuet movement between the second and last movements of the
clavier form of sonata, thus extending the piece to larger proportions.

=Sonata-Form as Fixed by Haydn=.—In these clavier sonatas, Haydn fixed
the form which had been the subject of so many experiments, once and
for all. The number of movements with him is almost invariably three,
of which the first, at least, is in the sonata-form. This consists
of a first section, the =Exposition=, in which the first subject, a
distinct melody having the Teutonic individuality, is stated, defining
the principal key; and a second subject, more lengthy and diverse in
character, brings on a close in the contrasting key. In the second
section, or =Development=, phrases or motives from the first section
are cleverly intertwined in modulating keys, with running scales or
arpeggios as connecting links. These, however, lead naturally into the
first subject, in its original key, which opens the third section, or
=Reprise=. This section is practically like the first, save that the
second subject and the close are transferred into the principal key, in
which the movement ends.

=The Second Movement=.—The second, or slow movement, is cast sometimes
in the same form, abbreviated, and sometimes in a simpler form. The
lack of sustaining power in Haydn’s pianoforte, and his attempt to
atone for this by trills and ornaments, make this less successful
than the other movements; a result which is also caused by the fact
that intensity and depth of emotion had not yet been developed in the
harmonic school of music. In key, this movement was contrasted with the
first, sometimes quite sharply, as in one of the sonatas in E-flat, in
which the slow movement is in E major.

=Third Movement=.—The lively third movement is frequently in the
lighter form of the Rondo, or it may be a set of Variations, or a
Minuet. This movement, though sprightly, is apt to be somewhat thin in
its harmonies, and trivial in development. Nevertheless, these last two
movements show an expansion of the forms of the older writers, and a
definiteness of character which insured their future development.

=Definiteness and Unity=.—This element of absolute definiteness is the
most striking feature of Haydn’s work—definiteness none the less in
the general form than in each individual component. Each part of each
section ends with a cadence, giving it absolute finality, and making
the whole a combination of small entities, which, though distinct, are
yet relevant and nicely balanced.

=Humor and Freshness=.—Another quality which he introduced was
that of humor, which is prominent not only in the general tone of
geniality, but in little unexpected twists of harmony, melody or
rhythm, which give an irresistibly comic effect. Especially is this
true in his symphonies, where the various tone colors are used for such
results. Especial mention should also be made of his Masses, in which
tunefulness of melody and sprightly rhythms combine to give an enduring
popularity. Altogether, Haydn’s work is redolent of the spring of
musical activity, where the novelty of each harmonic effect is employed
with an outburst of joy, and where one travels, as it were, through a
sunny garden, filled with the flowers of musical thoughts.


                              REFERENCES.

Shedlock.—The Pianoforte Sonata.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. II, chapter on Haydn.

Parry.—Evolution of the Art of Music, Chapter XI.

Weitzmann.—History of Pianoforte Playing.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, article “Haydn.”

Various lives of Haydn.

Haydn appears as one of the characters in George Sand’s musical novel
“Consuelo.”

For musical illustrations, see especially Haydn’s pianoforte sonatas,
in Edition Peters, No. 713, a, b, c and d, or in other cheap editions.


                               QUESTIONS.

Who are the three great sonata writers?

Tell about Haydn’s childhood.

Tell about Haydn’s life in Vienna.

Give an account of Haydn as a student.

What great singing master did he meet?

What patrons did Haydn gain? What was the value to the musical art of
the patronage of the great nobles and princes?

Describe Haydn’s duties and opportunities in Prince Esterhazy’s service.

What great composer did Haydn meet in Vienna in 1785?

When Haydn’s service ceased, to what city did he go? What works did he
bring out there?

What was the importance of his work to the Sonata and the Symphony?

Describe the first movement-form as fixed by Haydn.

Describe the second movement as fixed by Haydn.

Describe the third movement as fixed by Haydn.

Name certain qualities characteristic of Haydn’s music.

What great American was born in the same year as Haydn?

Name men and women of prominence who were contemporaries of Haydn.



                              LESSON XXXI.

                        WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART.


While Haydn’s genius was shining steadily as a fixed star, Mozart
flashed across the musical heaven, meteorlike, throwing a flood of
light over the music world. The knowledge which others spent years in
acquiring seemed his by birthright; and thus, although the years of his
life were few, the period of his artistic activity was proportionately
long.

=Mozart’s Early Musical Training=.—Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born at
Salzburg, January 27, 1756. His father, himself of some reputation as
a composer and as the author of the first German violin method, was
quick to perceive the child’s sensitiveness toward music; and began
instruction in clavier playing when Wolfgang was but four years old,
teaching also his daughter, Maria Anna, five years older. Wolfgang was
an exceedingly delicate and receptive child; and at the age of six he
had not only acquired remarkable proficiency on the instrument, but had
composed a number of little pieces, and a clavier sonata.

=First Concert Tours=.—Realizing the remarkable talent of his children,
Mozart, the father, in 1762, ventured on a concert trip with them to
Munich, and later to Vienna, where their playing became the sensation
of the hour, and where they were received by the Emperor, Franz Josef
I, at his palace. Having been presented with a small violin, Mozart
acquired facility in its technic with extraordinary quickness, as also
was the case when he attempted the use of organ pedals. The brilliant
French court was then the Mecca of artists; and in 1763, the children
were taken to Paris, where their successes were redoubled, and where
they gave two brilliant concerts, after having played before the
royal family at Versailles. At Paris, moreover, the opus 1 and opus 2
of the little Mozart were published, each comprising two sonatas for
harpsichord, with accompaniment of violin or flute.

=England=.—Proceeding now to England, the children won fresh laurels,
remaining there fifteen months; during which time Wolfgang excited the
admiration of the king, George III, by his sight-reading of works by
Handel, Bach and others. He also wrote other sonatas, and his first
symphonies. Returning to Salzburg, after a three years’ absence, Mozart
applied himself to serious study, composing his first oratorio and
opera, which latter was not performed in public, and also appearing as
conductor at a concert in which his “Solemn Mass” was performed.

=Honors in Italy=.—Renewed triumphs awaited him in Italy, where
his father took him in 1769, and where his genius was immediately
recognized in the leading cities. At Rome he was honored by the Order
of the Golden Spur, conferred by the Pope; and in Bologna was admitted
to membership in the exclusive Philharmonic Academy, passing with ease
an examination which would have appalled many mature musicians; in
Milan his opera “Mitridate” was received enthusiastically, and given
twenty consecutive performances, under his own direction.

=Journey to Paris=.—Returning to Salzburg, Mozart took up the post
previously given him of music director to the Archbishop; but his
emolument, at first wholly wanting, was insignificant, and the
Archbishop, having little appreciation of his abilities, proved a
thankless taskmaster. During this time he made several journeys
to Milan, producing new dramatic works there; and in 1777, as his
Salzburg position had become intolerable, he resolved to give it up,
and to repair to Paris. Starting on this journey with his mother, he
stopped at Munich, and then at Augsburg, where he became interested
in the Stein pianofortes, henceforth adopting them for his concert
work. At Mannheim he heard the famous orchestra, of which Stamitz
was the founder, whose command of instrumental brilliancy and color
made so powerful an impression upon him that he transmitted it to his
succeeding orchestral compositions.

[Illustration: WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART.]

=“Idomeneo” and “Il Seraglio.”=—At Paris, he found society divided
into two warring operatic factions, led by Gluck and Piccini, and
averse to anything else in music. Saddened also by the death of his
mother, he returned to Salzburg, and resumed his former post with the
Archbishop. Receiving an order to write an opera for the Carnival at
Munich, he produced his “Idomeneo” there in 1781. Shortly after, he was
compelled, through ill-treatment, to break finally with the Archbishop,
and he resolved to settle in Vienna. In the same year, 1782, in which
he produced there his opera, “Entführung aus dem Serail,” composed by
command of the Emperor, he married Constance Weber.

=Financial Troubles=.—His life from this time was a constant struggle
against poverty; for notwithstanding his wonderful genius, he received
only scant recognition from his patron, the Emperor, although loyal
to him to the end. His existence was eked out chiefly by the sale of
his compositions, which publishers purchased at a low price, by giving
lessons and by playing at concerts; while the jealousy of rivals
furnished a constant source of annoyance.

=“Figaro,” “Don Giovanni” and Symphonies=.—His comic opera, “The
Marriage of Figaro,” produced in Vienna in 1786, came near failing
through these enemies, but was an unqualified success in Prague, where,
in the following year, his masterpiece, “Don Giovanni,” was produced.
On a concert tour in 1786 he was offered an excellent post in the
service of King Frederic Wilhelm II, of Prussia, which he refused,
through loyalty to his Emperor—a devotion which received no reward save
an order to write another opera. In the same year, 1789, his three most
important symphonies were completed—the “Jupiter,” in C, and those in G
minor and E-flat major.

=Other Operas=—=Death=.—His succeeding operas were “Così fan Tutte,”
performed at Vienna in 1790; “The Clemency of Titus,” given at Prague
in 1791, for the coronation festivities of King Leopold II of Bohemia,
and “The Magic Flute,” produced at Vienna in 1791, which, through its
German subject and style, was a signal success, especially in his own
country. Discouragements and hard work now told upon him; and in the
midst of his labors upon a grand Requiem, he was stricken down, and
died December 5, 1791.

=Relations with Haydn=.—No one admired Mozart’s genius more than Haydn;
and a proof of the latter’s freedom from the petty jealousies of lesser
men is found in the fact that, while he was at first Mozart’s teacher,
he was afterward glad to adopt many of the innovations which were
the result of Mozart’s genius. The labors of the two men admirably
supplemented each other; for Mozart assimilated and blended what Haydn
had definitely stated, adorning the rugged outlines with the graceful
draperies which his skill as a performer and his artistic nature
dictated.

=Italian Influences=.—Thus, while Mozart adopted the form of the
Sonata practically as enunciated by Haydn, he was able to impart new
elements to it, drawn from his own experience and individuality. His
Italian journeys, for instance, had brought him into close touch with
the highly-adorned Italian opera style, then everywhere popular; and
this he introduced into his instrumental _themes_, making them at once
_singing_ and _graceful_ in tone. In the Sonata Form, he made the
_second theme_ more definite, _contrasting_ it with the _first_, and
frequently casting it in the form of an Italian style of melody, in
distinction from a more terse and thematic principal subject.

=Mozart as Piano Virtuoso=.—As a virtuoso, Mozart immensely developed
the resources of the piano. After the Bachs, J. S. and his son C.
P. E., had established a rational scale fingering, and it was found
possible to introduce passages at once quickly running and smooth
upon the clavier, such scale passages became very frequent in the
compositions of the time, and they were, moreover, well adapted to the
light Viennese action found in the Stein pianos, which Mozart used.
Hence we find _scale-runs_ as the _cornerstone of his virtuosity_,
constantly employed in florid and transitional passages.

=Classic Finish=.—But Mozart’s compositions were not simply an advance
in brilliancy, since his slow movements and themes are full of much
genuine sentiment, and give opportunity for that expressive song-style
which he emphasized so strongly. Moreover, his feeling for artistic
finish caused him, by rounding off every detail, to avoid abruptness,
replacing them by little delicate turns of musical expression and
graceful embellishments, which give an atmosphere of _classic repose_
and finish to the whole.

=Variations=.—Embellishments of this kind are introduced invariably
with such naturalness and fitness as to make them seem perfectly
adapted to the subject in hand, and growing unconsciously out of it.
So Mozart throws a network of _embroidery about his themes_ at their
recurrence which shows their beauties to ever greater advantage. The
ability to do this makes him a specially felicitous composer in the
Variation form, in which some of his most attractive movements and
salon pieces are written.

=Piano with Other Instruments=.—His sense of fitness is shown also in
the vivid _contrasts_ which occur, especially in his Fantasias, in
which brilliant passages are relieved by bits of exquisite melody,
in artistic proportion. All these qualities are manifested in his
pianoforte concertos, which, while replete with flights of virtuosity,
yet always subordinate, cause him to bring this into equal prominence
with the piano, so that the one ably seconds the other in the attempt
to produce a well-rounded and thoroughly genuine musical effect. The
same qualities are exhibited in his sonatas for violin and piano, and
in his piano trios.

=Especial Characteristics=.—Mozart considered three elements necessary
for the true interpretation of piano music, namely, an _expressive
legato touch_, _moderation_ in the rate of _speed_ of performance, and
_strictness_ in adhering to the _time_ adopted. With an unfeeling touch
or a breakneck velocity he had no patience, and so had no sympathy with
many noted pianists of his day, and notably Clementi. It has been said
that Mozart, almost from his infancy, thought in music as others do in
words; and this thought in music was regulated by a sense of artistic
combination and proportion which permeated all his works. As samples of
virtuosity his piano works have long been surpassed by the astonishing
developments since his time, and particularly by the added resources
of the instrument itself; but as samples of pure and unaffected music
their worth can never be diminished.


                              REFERENCES.

Shedlock.—The Pianoforte Sonata.

Parry.—Evolution of the Art of Music, Chapter XI.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. II, Chapter XXX.

Weitzmann.—History of Pianoforte Playing.

Jahn.—Life of Mozart.

Articles in Grove’s Dictionary on subjects treated.


                         MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS.

Works of Mozart, especially the Sonatas.


                               QUESTIONS.

Give a sketch of Mozart’s childhood.

Give an account of Mozart’s first concert tour.

Tell about the first trip to Italy.

What drawbacks did he suffer from his connection with the Archbishop of
Salzburg?

Where did he come into contact with the piano? With a first-class
orchestra?

Why was his life full of financial trouble?

Summarize his work in opera.

What additions did Mozart make to the form of the sonata as developed
by Haydn?

Give an account of Mozart’s work as a virtuoso.

What qualities besides brilliancy are shown in his works?

In what form are some of his most delightful pieces written?

Tell about Mozart’s compositions for orchestra.

What three elements did Mozart consider necessary for the
interpretation of piano music?

[Illustration: LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN.]



                             LESSON XXXII.

                         LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN.


=Formalism of Haydn and Mozart=.—It has been seen that the forms
of harmonic music, growing out of numerous and sometimes crude
experiments, were brought to a high state of perfection through the
genius of Haydn and Mozart; and that they left a definite structure,
nicely balanced, capable of expressing definite thoughts in a
unified form, and at the same time of allowing free rein to the
composer’s fancy. Of their instrumental works, the definition of the
musician-philosopher J. J. Rousseau (d. 1778), that “music is the art
of combining sounds in a manner agreeable to the ear,” gave a fitting
characterization; for while a tinge of melancholy is occasionally
perceptible, and there are passages of some dramatic intensity,
nevertheless such elements are introduced mainly to give a pleasing
contrast from the even flow of polished and idealized sound.

=Their Gift to Beethoven=.—In other words, neither Haydn nor Mozart
ever sacrifices his sense of artistic finish to the expression of
the heights and depths of human emotion. Putting the seal of genius
upon instrumental forms, they transmitted these forms to another more
colossal mind, which should make use of them, to be sure, but should
absolutely subordinate them to the expression of the burning thoughts
and passions of a great individuality; a mind which, like that of
Shakespeare, was able to look fearlessly upon universal truths, and to
bring these to the light, in this instance through the medium of tone.
While their predecessors, by unwearying attempts, made possible this
determination of a capable art form, so Haydn and Mozart, in their
turn, paved the way for the fuller expression which Beethoven gave to
music, and which would otherwise not have been possible, since the
vehicle for his thoughts would have been wanting. Thus the opportunity
had arrived for broadening the definition which Rousseau gave, and
announcing the fact that music is the art of the expression of every
emotion, whether pleasurable or painful, through the medium of highly
organized sound.

=Beethoven’s Early Life=.—Ludwig van Beethoven, the last and
greatest of this triumvirate of sonata writers, was a native of
Bonn-on-the-Rhine, where he was born December 16, 1770. His parents
were lowly people, his father a tenor singer in the Elector of
Cologne’s chapel, and his mother a cook; and, moreover, Beethoven’s
early life was an unhappy one, through his father’s irascible
disposition and tendency toward dissipation. Beethoven, of an acutely
sensitive nature, inherited his father’s quick temper and annoyances
at trifles, so that all through his troubled life he was constantly in
a state of irritation against something or someone. Like Mozart, he
showed early and unmistakable signs of a musical susceptibility; unlike
him, however, the unfolding of his genius was ultimately slow, since he
attained to his greatest powers much later in life than his phenomenal
predecessor. His early instruction was begun with his father; but soon
he was placed in the care of several local musicians: Pfeiffer, music
director and oboist; Van der Eeden, the court organist; and especially
the successor to the latter, Neefe (1748-1798), a man of reputation as
organist and composer for the pianoforte. As a result, Beethoven played
the violin well at eight, and at twelve had mastered the works of
Handel and the “Well-Tempered Clavichord” of J. S. Bach. This intimate
study of the best works of the old polyphonic school was of great
advantage later in solidifying his gifts as a musician.

=First Compositions=.—In 1782, were published his first attempts at
composition—a set of variations, and three sonatas; and these, together
with his remarkable extempore playing, began to attract the attention
of persons of influence. He was appointed organist at Bonn, and at
sixteen was sent by the Elector Max Franz, brother of the Emperor
Joseph II, to Vienna, where he received praise from Mozart, who
predicted a brilliant future for him.

=The Breuning Family=.—In 1787, his mother died; and this loss,
together with his father’s intemperate habits, made his home extremely
unpleasant. Fortunately for Beethoven, however, the enthusiasm for
music which was rife in Germany at this time among people of culture
and position was the cause of attracting to his side many true
friends, who, appreciating his sterling qualities, were able to pardon
his rough exterior and manners. Thus he was received as teacher and
friend into the home of the cultivated von Breuning family, under
whose refining influence he came into touch with the masterpieces of
English and German literature. Here he first met his staunch friend,
Count Waldstein; and here he had leisure for long walks amid the rural
retreats which he heartily loved, and for meditation upon those musical
ideas which he was accustomed to jot down in rough sketches, and which
should later be translated into his immortal creations.

=In Vienna=.—Haydn, passing through Bonn, warmly praised a cantata of
Beethoven’s; and the Elector, moved by such marks of approbation, sent
him again to Vienna, in 1792, for serious study. Here he was instructed
by Haydn till the latter’s departure for England, in 1794, when he
went to Albrechtsberger, the celebrated contrapuntist, and others; but
these exponents of an earlier school looked somewhat askance at the
bold innovations which Beethoven introduced into recognized principles,
and failed to understand the irrepressible genius which prompted them.
Nothing daunted, he launched zealously into composition, supported
by a growing circle of admirers to which the Elector’s patronage had
introduced him; and soon became a favorite at the private soirées of
the nobility, where, on account of his eccentric manners, he was known
as an “original,” but where his wonderful extemporizing was received
with ecstasy.

=Successes as a Pianist=.—Beethoven’s first public performance in
Vienna occurred in 1795, when he performed his pianoforte concerto in
C major at a concert. During a journey soon after, he played before
King Friedrich Wilhelm II, at Berlin, who distinguished him with marks
of favor, and to whom Beethoven dedicated two sonatas written for
pianoforte with ’cello. Here also he met the conductor, =Friedrich
Himmel= (1765-1814), a pianist and composer of high rank. We hear next
of his trial of pianistic skill with Steibelt, a popular virtuoso,
in which Beethoven won an overwhelming victory. With Wölfl, another
distinguished rival, his relations were those of mutual esteem, and
the two masters delighted to extemporize dashing capriccios on two
pianofortes.

=First Period=.—The thirteen years, from 1790 to 1803, are usually
considered to embrace his first period of activity as a composer,
comprising his works to opus 50. His opus 1, three trios for piano,
violin and ’cello, appeared in 1795, and soon after three piano
sonatas, opus 2, dedicated to Haydn, were published. Among the other
noteworthy works of this period were his first two symphonies, in C
and D, three piano concertos, the piano sonatas including opus 27, the
Kreutzer sonata for piano and violin, and his famous Septet for strings
and wind instruments. In general, these compositions _follow_ closely
the lines laid down by _Haydn_ and _Mozart_, although there is, notably
in the piano sonatas, a gradual tendency toward freedom of expression,
and the assertion of individuality.

Troubles now began to gather about him. About 1800 his hearing became
defective, and the malady grew steadily from bad to worse, so that
by 1816 he was obliged to use an ear-trumpet, and by 1822 he was
stone-deaf. To add to his discomforts, his brothers Karl and Johann
treated him shamefully, and a son of the former, to whom he was left
guardian at the father’s death, and upon whom he lavished a father’s
care, turned out a scapegrace, repaying his affection with the basest
ingratitude. Weighed down by these misfortunes, Beethoven became
irritable and morbid, distrusting his most faithful friends, and
constantly imagining plots against himself. His utter ignorance of
worldly matters, too, brought him into financial troubles, and involved
his domestic affairs in a state of continual confusion.

=Second Period=.—Yet, as if to prove man’s ability to rise superior to
every affliction, during this very time he was writing compositions
which, for joyous freshness and spiritual elevation, have been
scarcely, if ever, equalled. During his second period, extending to
1815, and including his compositions to about opus 90, he adopted a
_freedom of expression_ entirely untrammelled by formal limitations,
enlarging and vivifying the Sonata Form, and varying it to suit his
changing moods. The joy of living, with its intensity of passion
and depths of emotion, is reflected in these works, which assert a
character strong in its struggle against adverse fate, confidently
looking toward the goal of ultimate good.

=Compositions of this Period=.—His most popular symphonies were written
during this period, which embraces those from the third to the eighth,
inclusive. The “Eroica,” number three, was originally written in
homage to Napoleon, whom Beethoven honored as the guide of the French
nation toward that assertion of independence and individuality which
he dearly loved; but when the news arrived that Napoleon was declared
Dictator, in 1804, he tore up the dedicatory page in a fit of anger.
Another of his greatest compositions was his opera of “Fidelio,” upon
which Beethoven spent an amazing amount of time and pains, whose
overture he rewrote twice. Produced in Vienna, in 1805, soon after the
occupation of the city by the French, it was received coldly; and only
after several revisions did it score a success at all in keeping with
its grand and inspiring conception. Several orchestral overtures; his
violin concerto; an oratorio; a mass in C; some of his best chamber
music, including the celebrated Rasumovsky string quartets; and his
piano concertos in G and E-flat, were other fruits of about this time.
Of fourteen piano sonatas, we find several which have continued in
unbroken popularity, notably the two in opus 27, the “Pastorale,” opus
28, the “Waldstein,” opus 53, and the “Appassionata.”

=Latter Years of His Life=.—The latter part of Beethoven’s life, after
1815, was spent in Vienna, in a state of despondency from his troubles
which his general recognition as the foremost musician of his day could
scarcely alleviate. His many friends placed him, by their efforts, in
comfortable pecuniary circumstances; yet he constantly imagined himself
struggling with poverty. Sensitive to his affliction, he made himself
exceedingly inaccessible, and passed his days in unceasing labor upon
those works which eclipsed, in profundity and individuality, all of
his former compositions, and which were an index to the conflicting
struggles in his mind. Stone-deaf, he yet revelled in a spiritual world
of tone, hearing his greatest compositions only in the realms of his
imagination. An attack of pneumonia in 1826 left effects which proved
lasting, and which caused his death on March 26, 1827. In his last
illness he was surrounded by his circle of unfailing friends, among
whom the modest Schubert was admitted; and a proof of his hold upon his
countrymen is shown in the fact that 20,000 persons are said to have
attended his funeral.

=Last Great Works=.—The greatest fruit of these later years was his
last symphony, the Ninth, or “Choral,” in which, for the first time,
he introduced voices as an aid to the instrumental climax. The free
vent which he gave to his radical tendencies in this symphony, its
unheard-of boldness of harmonic progressions, and its defiance of all
conventional rules, aroused a storm of protest from his critics which
was only lulled after succeeding generations had placed the stamp
of unmistakable approval upon the work, and had recognized it as a
monument of genius. Near to this in importance stands his “Solemn Mass”
in D, a work imbued with all the religious fervor of his declining
years.

=Sonatas of Third Period=.—Other notable achievements, in the line
of chamber music, mark this period; and the last five piano sonatas,
extending from opus 101 to opus 111, exhibit the same undaunted
freedom that is found in the Ninth symphony. Enormous in their demands
upon the pianist, they are food for none but virtuosi; but analyzed,
they show a _compendium of_ all known _musical resources_, from the
choral fugue to the most daring flights of harmonic expression.

=Beethoven’s Dual Personality=.—Beethoven furnishes an example of a
personality whose dual nature is remarkably apparent. Often unkempt,
and rude in his outward bearing, he seemed at times absolutely
oblivious to his surroundings and to chafe at his bodily limitations;
yet his apparent rudeness toward his friends was as often humbly atoned
for by his confession of his haste in judging them. His independence
of spirit could brook no submission to authority other than his own
conscience; and that conscience prompted him to stand firm in support
of the genuine, the pure and the ideal; firm, thus, in its abhorrence
of artificiality and deceit. In his ignorance of worldly wiles he was
on a par with a little child; finding his true sphere when buried in
the lofty problems of his art, giving to the world the fruits of his
innermost spirit, which were ever animated by nobility and truth of
expression.

=Beethoven Stood Alone=.—Detesting the fetters of teaching work, he
left few pupils. Among these =Ferdinand Ries= (1784-1838) enjoyed an
intimate association with him, and afterwards became prominent as piano
virtuoso and composer. With the great men of his day he affiliated but
little. Goethe (1749-1832) he met but once, on one of his journeys;
but the meeting had no further results. Like other great minds, his
original ideas had to make their way amid a shower of abuse from more
conventional contemporaries, who lauded as his equal or superior others
whose works have long since passed into oblivion; but, fortunate in
finding staunch defenders, he made steady progress against his enemies,
until his position in the music world became unique and unassailable.


                               QUESTIONS.

What did Haydn and Mozart give to Beethoven?

Give a sketch of Beethoven’s early life.

What works did he particularly study?

What were his first compositions?

What intimate friends did he make in early life?

What city did he select as his home?

What years embrace his first period?

What are the leading works of this period?

What affliction developed in 1800?

What years compose the second period?

What changes came into his style?

Name the leading works of the second period.

Tell about Beethoven’s later life, from 1815 on.

What are the leading works of this last period?

Describe the personality of Beethoven.



                             LESSON XXXIII.

                       BEETHOVEN AND THE SONATA.


=Bach and Beethoven Contrasted=.—We now consider the exact nature
of the work which Beethoven did, in distinction from that of Haydn
and Mozart. It has been said that Bach gave the Old Testament in
music, while Beethoven gave the New; that is, that Bach consummated
the old polyphonic school, while Beethoven did an equal work for
the new harmonic school. Yet this is only a half truth; for Bach,
besides perfecting former styles, gave glimpses of modern chromatic
modulation and free expression; while Beethoven, a student of the old
masters, employed polyphonic forms as well as harmonic, making all
work together to translate his thought, and so moulding them into a
means of portraying every emotion as to open the door forever to the
untrammelled presentment of thought, through the medium of music.

=Beethoven’s Gradual Development=.—But Beethoven did not arrive at
this result in an instant. It is true that, even in his early works, a
distinction of style is shown which removes them from a mere imitation,
but, as has been shown, he _began_ practically at the point _where
Haydn and Mozart left off_, with compositions which can hardly be
placed on a higher level than theirs; and, in the course of a life full
of strenuous experiences, he gradually _unfolded the resources_ which
he had received from his predecessors, until he made them adequate to
give vent to the mighty ideas which welled from his soul. Thus we find
in his works a period in which _form is rigidly observed_; and we pass
thence through an era of expansion, during which _form becomes more
elastic_, through the added requirements placed upon it, until the
thought and emotion become so paramount that the _formal lines_ have
entirely _disappeared_, and are only to be traced by careful analysis.

=Beethoven and the Orchestra=.—As the great exponent of instrumental
music, Beethoven found the orchestra his best and fullest vehicle of
expression. So his massive mind, grasping with ease the effects of
manifold combinations of instruments, was able to mould his thoughts
into terms of tone color in which each instrument should be employed to
bring out the exact shade of feeling required. So the orchestra becomes
with him a great individual instrument, responding to the slightest
change of mood.

=Use of the Piano=.—But as a preparation for such orchestral work,
Beethoven realized the value of the pianoforte. Attaining a marvelous
degree of virtuosity in the use of the keyboard at an early age, he
later found this of the greatest advantage in working out his ideas,
and, further, in actually trying their effects upon auditors. Thus
we find in his first pianoforte sonatas effects which appeared much
later in the greater elaboration of his symphonies; thus also is shown
the necessary imperfection of any division of his works into distinct
periods, since his pianoforte style was so greatly in advance of his
orchestral.

=Improvement in the Piano=.—In this connection, it is important to note
that Beethoven’s resources were greatly increased by the improvements
which had been made in piano manufacture. The demand for instruments,
created by the growing popularity of the pianoforte, stimulated
manufacturers to redoubled energy in perfecting them; and, conversely,
the added resources thus developed were an instigation to composers to
test their abilities in the invention of new effects. Thus Beethoven
was placed in command of a piano of much greater power than Mozart’s;
and the work of technicians, like Clementi, for whom he had great
respect, was already hinting at new and marvelous possibilities.

=Added Sonority and Sustaining Power=.—This strength of construction
resulted in greater sonority. Hence we find full chord progressions
and rich floods of tone in Beethoven’s works, in place of the dainty
harmonic accompaniment of former writers. Moreover, the increase in
sustaining force, enhanced by the use of the pedal, made possible a
sustained legato tone for singing passages, which had formerly to be
merely hinted at through shakes and other embellishments. A consequent
tone variety made it possible to emphasize a single voice in this way,
while the accompanying harmonies could be kept well in the background.
Again, this range of tone proved an incentive for long crescendos, from
the softest suspicion of sound to an overwhelming tonal climax.

=Increased Compass=.—The added range which the keyboard developed also
enhanced such effects, by the chance for brilliancy in the treble,
and for profundity in the bass; moreover, Beethoven was quick to make
use of the variety of effects caused by _playing in the different
registers_; sometimes suggesting in this way the contrast in the
orchestra between different groups of instruments, such as the strings
and woodwind.

=Structure of Beethoven’s Sonatas=.—With such resources at his command,
Beethoven was able to give a fuller scope to the Sonata than was
formerly possible, filling out each movement, and perfecting it for the
expression of an integral part of the general idea, and finally placing
it in its proper relationship to the whole. The Sonata Form, as settled
by Haydn, was made the point of departure, serving almost invariably
as the basis of the first movement, and frequently, in shortened form,
for the second, generally slow, movement. For the third movement,
Beethoven at first employed the Minuet, following the custom in the
symphonies of Haydn and Mozart; but later this was generally omitted in
the pianoforte sonatas, while in the symphonies its time was quickened
into that of the dainty, sparkling Scherzo. For the finale, the Rondo
form was most frequent; though, in order to give a fuller compass to
the thought, a combination of the Rondo and Sonata forms was invented
by Beethoven, and used even in his first sonatas. The Rondo form also
appeared occasionally in the slow movement. Add that other forms,
notably that of the Variation, sometimes supplanted one or the other of
these, and we have the structure generally followed by Beethoven.

=Unity of Conception=.—All these movements were associated in an
organic unity of conception which made one grow out of another with
perfect naturalness. Sometimes, indeed, as in opus 27, a continuity of
performance was indicated; always, however, the feeling of dependence
of one movement upon another is present; so that the criticism made
upon Haydn’s symphonies, that a movement of one could be interchanged
with a similar movement of any other without perceptible difference,
could never be made with regard to Beethoven’s works.

=Key Relationship=.—In key relationship, Beethoven struck out from
stereotyped paths, frequently using _contrasting keys related to the
third of the initial chord_; thus a movement or passage in C major
might be followed by any key related to E, the third of the chord of
C, such as E or A major or minor. The original key was most widely
departed from in the slow movement, where the beauty of contrast was
exceptionally noticeable.

=Number of Movements=.—The number of movements which he adopted was
at first four, but this afterwards varied considerably, two or three
movements prevailing; while in the fantasie-sonatas, and especially in
the last five sonatas, an indefinite number of movements, some of them
very short, appeared. He explained this discrepancy on the ground that
he adapted the number of movements to his thought; and when he felt
that he had given complete expression to this, the sonata was brought
to a close.

=Development of First Movement Form=.—Of Beethoven’s first movements,
it may be said that no one has ever spoken with the perfect freedom
and naturalness which he displays. Each part of the movement he
strengthened and developed; the first section announced two themes,
contrasting, but still closely identified; sometimes with a slow
introduction to usher them in; the Development was given a contrapuntal
treatment, solidified by rich harmonies; the third section was varied
by rhythmic or tonal devices, tending to broaden its effect; and,
finally, the Coda was sometimes developed to the length of a fourth
section, in which reminiscences of material used previously were worked
up to a fitting climax.

=Devices for Giving Unity=.—But the most evident characteristic which
Beethoven put into this form was that of _Unity_, or _Continuity of
idea_. This he accomplished by several means. Of these, the first was
by separating the most striking parts of his subjects into short,
definite phrases or motives, and by introducing these in every variety
of manner throughout the movement, sometimes in a sequence on different
degrees of the scale, sometimes by imitation in different voices, again
by varying the length of the component notes, and finally by dropping
off portions, while the portions remaining keep the idea still before
the auditor. Or, some casual phrase, in an unimportant section, will
strike his fancy and he will develop it with a wealth of imagery
astonishing in its inventiveness.[10]

=Continuity of Various Parts=.—This constant presentment of a thematic
idea also serves to bind passages closely together which, in the
sonatas of Haydn and Mozart, were separated by definite pauses. Indeed,
Beethoven sedulously _avoids a complete cadence_, seeking, by leading
the listener eagerly on from one connecting phrase to another, to
retain the interest and make it mount up higher and higher, as the
effects grow in intensity. So phrases are made to overlap one another,
with their boundaries practically eliminated. It has been said that
Beethoven tore down the fences which Haydn and Mozart had erected
between the various parts of the Sonata Form; and this is proven by the
fact that, in the Beethoven sonatas, authorities frequently differ as
to where one part ends and another begins, so close and continuous is
the bond between them.

=Dramatic Effects in Climaxes=.—This close connection is made a
ready element toward the dramatic expression which finds vent in the
climaxes, made from culminating tonal effects, where the thematic
phrase mounts up step by step, higher and higher, growing breathless by
shortened rhythm, until the hearer is brought to the summit of dramatic
intensity; and here thunderous arpeggios, mingled together by the use
of the pedal, hold him spellbound with their sonorous waves of sound.
The supreme passion which Beethoven does not wholly conceal even in
his quieter moods appears frequently in strange, agitated rhythms and
startling accents thrown upon unexpected notes or in unexpected places.
He also used many more marks of expression than his predecessors.

=Freedom in Modulations=.—The boldness of his modulations has already
been mentioned; and these appear with the most freedom in the
development sections, where tonalities pile upon one another, until the
auditor is apparently inextricably involved in a maze of harmonies;
from which, naturally as the awakening from a dream, he finds himself
transported back to the original key, in which the first theme is
taking its course. Beethoven’s sense of proportion, however, sees to it
that this intricacy of keys is well prepared by the definite tonality
of his original subjects, and by the final complete restatement of the
original key. His harmonies frequently shocked his contemporaries by
their violations of conventional rules; but they have long since been
justified by succeeding musicians, who have departed from them to much
bolder flights.

=Program Music=.—It has been said that Beethoven furnishes examples
of the program style—that is, the depicting of definite ideas through
music. We have already found a tendency of this sort among the early
French clavier composers—Rameau, the Couperins and others of their
school; also in some of the German writers, like Pachelbel and Kuhnau.
Viewed in relation to these early composers, Beethoven’s work seems to
have little in common, since his nearest approach to program music was
in attaching to some of his works certain moods, inspired by events or
scenes. Thus he gives the name “Pathétique” to the sonata, opus 13,
“Appassionata” to opus 57, “Les Adieux” to opus 81; while we have the
“Pastoral” symphony, depicting the mood inspired by country scenes,
and the “Eroica,” showing the mood arising from the contemplation of a
hero’s career.

=Pianoforte Concertos=.—The same characteristics which are noted in his
pianoforte sonatas appeared, developed still further, in his larger
works, such as his symphonies and piano concertos. The latter, five in
number, display the resources of the virtuosity of Beethoven’s day, and
yet keep this always subordinated to the inspired musical sentiment,
with which the orchestra nobly accords. The last two of these,
belonging to the maturity of his genius, amply display the powers of
genuine expression.

=Variations=.—Of numerous other piano compositions, the sets of
Variations are prominent. He was fond of taking some short and simply
constructed musical thought, sometimes from some song or opera, and
treating it in every variety of manner that his fertile genius could
suggest. Such compositions, while generally playful in mood, have the
finish which Beethoven never failed to give to his work.

=Beethoven’s Accuracy in Writing=.—It is this seriousness toward his
art which most fully accentuates the real underlying drift of his
nature. In the midst of his untidy ménage, when confusion of material
goods reigned about him, Beethoven nevertheless treated each work
which flowed from his pen with the most careful and critical revision,
never allowing it to go out until he had absolutely fixed each note in
its proper place. Where his art was involved, his usually irritable
nature acquired a fund of patience; so that sometimes whole scores were
rewritten, until he arrived at accurate expression; and, when that
point was reached, his fiat was irrevocable. It is thus a satisfaction
to note that he has not left us the erratic wanderings of an eccentric
mind; but the completed and matured product of a genius, speaking with
authority and precision.


                              REFERENCES.

Weitzmann.—History of Pianoforte Playing.

Parry.—Evolution of the Art of Music, Chapter XII.

Shedlock.—The Pianoforte Sonata, Chapter VII.

Naumann.—History of Music, Vol. II, Chapter XXXII.

Schindler.—Life of Beethoven.

Other lives of Beethoven, especially that in Grove’s Dictionary.

For musical illustrations, consult the works of Beethoven, especially
the Pianoforte sonatas, published complete in all the cheap editions.


                               QUESTIONS.

Contrast Bach and Beethoven.

Characterize Beethoven’s three periods.

What was the greatest means of expression in Beethoven?

What was the value of his work for the piano in relation to the
orchestra?

What was the effect of the improvements in the piano of Beethoven’s
time over that of Mozart?

Give a statement of the Sonata as constructed by Beethoven.

What changes did he introduce: Key relationship? Number of movements?

What qualities are found in his first movement form?

How does he secure great unity and continuity of idea?

How does he secure dramatic expression?

Where does he introduce bold modulations? With what effect?

What use did Beethoven make of the program idea?

Tell about his Concertos. His Variations.



                             LESSON XXXIV.

                       THE VIOLIN AND ITS MAKERS.


=Change from the Viol to the Violin=.—The reader who has studied the
principles of construction and playing of the old string instruments,
as explained in Lesson XV, or examined them in museums, will not have
failed to note that they were complicated and limited in technic. The
members of this family were large and cumbersome, troublesome to handle
and not particularly graceful or pleasing to the eye; the position in
which the player was forced to hold them was difficult to maintain
and not conducive to a rapid, facile technic. Now, the direction of a
perfected art is always toward simplicity; the various members of the
viol family were to yield place to a new instrument, a modification of
the original type, and one that possessed some striking and valuable
advantages over the viol. Another element that aided in the change
from the viol was the efforts of composers to produce a distinctive
instrumental music, a style which demanded an instrument with a higher
range than the viols, corresponding to the highest female voice. Still
another element to be considered was the stir in intellectual, social,
political and commercial life which was evident everywhere, the product
of the Renaissance. Music was influenced by this spirit; composers were
seeking new forms in which to express their thoughts and were calling
for new and better media for presenting them to others. As composers
gained in breadth and power of conception, instruments were improved
even beyond their demands; the increase in resources stimulated, in
turn, the composers. At this period music was on the threshold of a
splendid activity in instrumental lines, the reign of the old choral
music and the contrapuntal composer was being challenged, and the way
prepared for Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.

=Beginning of the Violin=.—With regard to the violin, as in other
beginnings, there is disagreement; the strongest claims are set
forth for France and Italy, with German historians by no means lax
in attributing the first instruments to one of their own countrymen.
We give the following facts which seem to divide the honors: In the
scores of Italian works of the 16th century, a part may be found for
what is called the _piccolo violino alla francese_ (little French
viol), a fact which would argue that an instrument of this kind,
perhaps most commonly used in France, had been known for some time.
The oldest known instrument of the violin type is one which bears the
date 1449, and is signed Jean Kerlin, a Breton luthier (lute maker,
a term applied also to violin makers), whose name is also given as
Kerlino, living in Brescia, Italy, in the middle of the 15th century.
About the same time there lived in Bologna, Padua and Venice, members
of a celebrated lute-making family, named Duiffoprugcar, Italian
equivalent for the German name, Tieffenbrucker, for the family came
from the Italian Tyrol. The most celebrated member of this family was
Gasparo Duiffoprugcar (Casper Tieffenbrucker), who was born about 1469,
lived in Bologna until 1515, when he went to Paris. Later he removed
to Lyons, where he spent the rest of his life. Six instruments having
violin characteristics (high, not sloping shoulders, deeper curves in
the waist and better-defined _f_ holes) are attributed to him, bearing
dates of 1510, 1511, 1515 and 1517.

=Early Italian Makers=.—The next name is that of Gasparo di Salo,
founder of the Brescian school of violin-making, who was born at a
little village called Salo, on Lake Garda; hence his name. His model
varied, sometimes it was high, at other times flat; as his instruments
produced a full, sonorous tone, the model was revived in later years
by Joseph Guarnerius. His tenors and double-basses are considered his
finest work, his violins being a trifle small. The favorite double
bass of Dragonetti, the famous contrabassist, was by di Salo; Ole
Bull frequently played on a di Salo violin in his concerts. The
greatest successor of di Salo was his pupil, =Giovanni Paolo Maggini=
(1590-1640), whose violins are highly prized. They are characterized by
a brown varnish and a double purfling.

=The Cremona School=.—With the public the name Cremona is indissolubly
connected with violin-making. In the 16th century this city was a
famous art centre, rivaling Bologna in music and painting. The first
great maker and founder of the Cremona school was Andrea (Andrew)
Amati, born about 1520 and died 1577 or 1580.[11] He used mostly a
small pattern, top and back high, the varnish amber in color. A number
of his instruments furnished for the Chapel Royal of Charles IX were
known to have been in Versailles prior to the French Revolution. The
Amati style was continued by Andrea’s two sons, Antonio (Anthony) and
Hieronymus (Geronimo or Jerome) Amati. The former is said to have lived
1550-1638, the latter 1551-1635. They worked conjointly, although the
latter made some experiments with a larger model than the usual Amati.

=Nicolo Amati=.—The greatest of the Amati family and the one whose
instruments are still highly prized was =Nicolo (Nicolaus) Amati=
(1596-1684), the son of Geronimo. He forms one of the great triumvirate
of violin-making, Amati, Guarnerius and Stradivarius. At first he
followed the small form adopted by his father and his uncle, although
he improved on the workmanship. But about 1625, no doubt as the result
of an experiment, he began to use a slightly larger pattern which is
known to connoisseurs as the “Grand Amati.” These instruments represent
his best work and command a high price. The Amati tone is sweet, mellow
yet somewhat delicate, although remarkable in purity; the instruments
are unsuited to orchestral work, although admirable in chamber music,
particularly of the old style. The varnish is yellowish or amber
colored.

=Joseph Guarnerius=.—In our study of the piano we noted how the small,
weak tone of the clavichord and harpsichord gave way before the fuller
toned, sonorous pianoforte, which, with its greater possibilities,
came into use at a time when composers were seeking for means to give
increased breadth and power to the reproduction of their music. It
would have been unfortunate for instrumental music if the small though
sweet tone of the Amati violin had been accepted as the ideal. We could
not have had the surging tumult of Beethoven’s “Eroica” symphony, the
great dramatic pictures of Wagner with the Amati to lay on the colors.
More tone, more sonorousness, more virile singing was needed. One of
the men to place in the hands of executants the instrument to work
out the conceptions of the great composers was =Giuseppe Guarneri=
or, as he is generally called, Joseph Guarnerius del Gesu. He was
born at Cremona, 1683, and belonged to a family of lute and violin
makers. He has been credited with having been a pupil of Stradivari,
yet his instruments show no trace of that maker’s influence. He seems
to have been impressed with the tone-producing qualities of the di
Salo violins, for his best instruments have something of their bold,
vigorous style. He was an experimenter, ever seeking, it would seem,
for the means of producing big, sonorous tone, and changed his model
frequently, for which reason his instruments vary much in value.
His work was not so highly favored by connoisseurs until Paganini
showed the value of a Guarnerius from the standpoint of tone. His
best instruments are now greatly admired and, because so few in good
condition are known, command a high price. The date of Guarnerius’
death is not known. Others of the Guarnerius family who lived and
worked at Cremona were Andreas Guarnerius, uncle to Giuseppe, his son
also called Joseph and known as “_filius Andreæ_” (Son of Andreas) to
distinguish him from his cousin, Joseph del Gesu, another son Peter,
“of Cremona,” and a son of Joseph _filius Andreæ_, known as Peter of
Venice.

=Antonius Stradivarius=.—The greatest of violin-makers who united in
his instruments the brilliant and powerful tone of di Salo and the
Brescian school and the purity and finish of the Amati was =Antonius
Stradivarius= (Antonio Stradivari is the Italian form), born in 1644,
one year after the death of Monteverde, and died in 1737, five years
after the birth of Haydn, a period of nearly a century in which a
most significant development took place in music. He was apprenticed
to Nicolo Amati, and the instruments of his early years are faithful
copies of that master’s work; but as he grew in years and experience
he improved on the Amati model, every change tending to produce a more
powerful and resonant tone. The differences that strike the eye most
strongly are the larger proportions, the flatter arch of the top, and
the shape of the sound holes. In his earlier instruments he used a
yellowish varnish; after 1684, one of a reddish tint. Stradivarius
also fixed the form and adjustment of the bridge. He left two sons,
Francesco and Omoboni, who finished some of their father’s instruments
after his death. They both died five or six years later. Pupils of
Stradivarius who made excellent instruments were =Carlo Bergonzi=
(1712-1750), =Lorenzo Guadagnini= (1695-1740) and his son =Johannes
Baptista Guadagnini= (1750-1785) and =Alessandro Gagliano=.

=Other Makers=.—Germany’s contribution to violin-making dates from
=Jakob Stainer=, of Absam in Tyrol (1621-1683). Tradition has it that
he learned his art at Cremona; if so, his work shows no influence of
the Amati; his model is different, somewhat broader and shorter, the
arch of the belly is greater, and the sound holes are set differently;
the varnish varies from a brown to an amber color; the tone is sweet
and quick to respond, but lacks intensity. A follower of Stainer was
=Ægidius Klotz= (1653-1743), many of whose instruments were sold as
of Stainer’s make. France contributed no makers of great renown. The
names of importance are =Nicholas Lupot= (1758-1824), a follower
of Stradivarius, and =J. B. Vuillaume= (1799-1875). In England the
most distinguished names are =Richard Duke= and =Benjamin Banks=
(1727-1795).

=The Violin Bow=.—A few words must be said in regard to the bow, the
means for producing tone from the violin strings. In its earliest
form it was simply a bow with a stretched string. Hair came into use,
to replace the string, about the 13th century, and the bow lost its
original shape, becoming straight for nearly its entire length, curving
downward at the point. Corelli used a bow of this shape. Tartini’s
bow had the same shape, but was made longer. At the end of the 18th
century, =François Tourte= (1747-1835), a Paris bow-maker, lengthened
the bow still more, and bent it slightly inward, giving it the form
familiar to us today. Viotti was the first great player to use this
style of bow, and is credited with a share in perfecting it. It is no
exaggeration to say that upon Tourte’s improvements to the bow rests
the whole fabric of modern violin-playing, with its wonderful variety
of execution and consequent nuances in expression.

=The Viola and the Violoncello=.—Two other instruments of the violin
type are in use, the Viola, the _tenor_ violin, and the Violoncello,
the _bass_ violin; both these instruments shared in the development of
the violin, and were made by the great makers, Amati, Guarnerius and
Stradivarius. The Contra-bass, the bass-viol, as it is often called,
while it is used to furnish the bass to the string orchestra, is a
member of the viol family, having the special characteristics, sloping
shoulders and flat back. Instruments were made on the violin pattern,
but given up as less satisfactory than the viol type.

The impetus given to instrumental composition by the perfecting of
the instruments of the string group stimulated makers to work for
improvement in those belonging to the family of wind instruments,
flutes, oboes, clarinets, horns, harps, etc., thus offering the means
to reproduce for hearers the great conceptions of the tone-masters.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, article on the violin.

Stoeving.—Story of the Violin.

Hart.—The Violin. Its Famous Makers and their Imitators.

Heron-Allen. Violin-Making as it Was and Is.

Haweis.—Old Violins.


                               QUESTIONS.

Why did the Viol type yield to the Violin?

Who is credited with being the originator of the Violin type?

Give the names of the early Italian makers.

What noted family of violin makers started the fame of Cremona?

What was the model used by the Amati family?

What improvements did Joseph Guarnerius make?

What was Stradivarius’ contribution?

Who was the greatest German maker? Name French and English makers.

Compare the great makers of violins and their work.

The author suggests that a violin, viola, ’cello and double bass and
the respective bows be exhibited to the class and examined, the
descriptions as given in the reference works to be compared with the
instruments. The catalogue of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
City, contains some fine illustrations for the use of students, as well
as descriptions. A copy of this should be in every teacher’s library.
It can be secured for a small amount by addressing the Museum as above.



                              LESSON XXXV.

                    VIOLIN PLAYING AND VIOLIN MUSIC.


=Reciprocal Influences of Instruments and Composition=.—The development
of the violin, of violin playing and violin music, in a certain sense
shows reciprocal influences, and went hand in hand. This was the more
certain because the composers who wrote for the instrument were also
players, in almost every instance the virtuosi of their times. During
the polyphonic period, composers were singers or organists; during the
period when the violin dominated instrumental composition, composers
in that form were usually violinists. In the next period, when the
pianoforte was coming to the front, the representative composers were
clavier composers. And since then with but few exceptions the great
composers have also been pianists.

=Earliest Violin Compositions=.—In the music of the viol period no
demands were made upon the instrumental player except that he should
double the voice part, which was simple, viewed from the standpoint of
modern violin playing. Even later when music was written for quartets
of viols the parts were vocal in character and did not exceed voices
in range. The earliest known solo composition was published in 1620,
by Marini. It demands but little from the executant. The next work
of importance was in 1627, when Carlo Farina, an Italian living at
Dresden, published a collection of pieces which show quite an advance
technically, including variety of bowing, double stopping and chords.
The names applied to violin compositions were: _Sonate_, _Canzone_
and _Sinfonia_, the principle of the first named being an alternation
of slow and quick movements. About 1650 the term Sonata comes into
general use, and a further distinction is made between _Sonata da
Chiesa_ (church sonata) and _Sonata da Camera_ (chamber sonata), the
former consisting of three or four movements varying in tempo, the
latter being really a suite of dances, with slow and quick movements
in alternation. The Church, always ready to make use of the fine arts,
soon discovered the capabilities of the violin and its music, and
adopted it as one of its musical forces, not merely for assisting in
accompaniments but for independent performances. As a result of this
patronage, the violin sonata, the only form of serious composition for
the instrument, took on the severer character of the church sonata,
giving an impulse toward the establishment of sonata form.

=Composers of the 17th Century=.—Among those who prepared the way for
the great ones to follow was =Giovanni Battista Vitali= (1644-1692),
who shows in his chamber sonatas the tendency to adopt the form of
the church sonata. His name is best known in violin literature by a
Chaconne with variations, which makes no inconsiderable demands on the
technic of a player, and must have marked him out as a conspicuous
player in his own time. This is a worthy forerunner of Bach’s great
work in a similar form. In Germany the significant name is =Heinrich
Biber= (1644-1704), who had a highly developed technic for that period,
for his works carry the player up to the sixth position and introduce
difficult double stopping and arpeggios. The next name to be noticed
is =Giuseppe Torelli= (1660-1708), who lived many years in Bologna as
leader of a church orchestra. He is credited with having been the first
to apply the principles of construction as shown in the church sonata
to concerted music, which later developed into the Concerto.

[Illustration: ARCANGELO CORELLI.]

=Corelli=.—In any great movement one man seems to sum up the best
of the work of his predecessors. The name associated with putting
violin music and playing on a firm foundation is that of =Arcangelo
Corelli= (1653-1713), eminent both as composer and player. He was
a contemporary of Guarnerius and Stradivarius, who brought the
instrument to perfection. Of Corelli’s early life little is known. He
traveled in France and was also in Munich for some years. In 1681 he
returned to Italy, making his home at Rome. As a teacher, he acquired
great fame and pupils came to him from all parts of Europe. The most
eminent violinists who were under his instruction were Geminiani,
Locatelli, Somis, Baptiste, and Castrucci. Corelli did not invent new
forms of composition or of technic—in the latter respect he did not
equal certain of his contemporaries—he was a reformer rather than
an innovator. He had, however, a keen sense for effects that were
specially suited to the instrument, and his conservatism put the art
of playing the violin on a solid basis upon which others were able to
add newer and more difficult technic. His works included forty-eight
three-part sonatas for various combinations, twelve two-part sonatas
for violin and cembalo, nine for two violins and cembalo, and six
concertos for two violins and ’cello with a quartet accompaniment.
The violin being so preëminently a singing, a melody instrument, it
is singular that Corelli and his contemporaries did not grasp the
principle of using clearly defined melodic themes. This fact shows that
the influence of the church sonata and its rejection of a formal tune
as unsuited to serious art was still strong. Therefore, while Corelli’s
works do not show themes such as are characteristic of the next period
of the sonata, his construction is logical and his handling of his
form-material is concise and clear. The student of Form in music will
find the germs of sonata-form in Corelli’s works.

=Corelli’s Pupils=.—Among Corelli’s pupils must be mentioned =Francesco
Geminiani= (1680-1762), who spent part of his life in England. He
published the first work of a pedagogic character, a “Method for Violin
Playing,” in London, in 1740. He also recommended holding the violin on
the left side instead of on the right, as was customary in his time.
=Pietro Locatelli= (1693-1764) greatly influenced the development
of violin technic. =Giovanni Battista Somis= (1676-1763) lived at
Turin, was the teacher of Pugnani, the instructor of Viotti. =Antonio
Vivaldi= (1675-1743) devoted himself to virtuosity and influenced the
Concerto from this point. He was fertile and ingenious in making new
combinations and devising new effects. J. S. Bach arranged his works,
sixteen for the clavier, four for the organ, and one as a concerto for
four claviers and a quartet of stringed instruments. Still another name
is to be mentioned, that of =Francesco Maria Veracini= (1685-1750),
who greatly influenced Tartini by his playing. He was a player full of
temperament, which made his playing powerfully expressive. His sonatas
are bold in harmonic and melodic treatment, and well constructed. Their
technical difficulty is considerable. (His lifetime coincides with
Bach.)

[Illustration: GIUSEPPE TARTINI.]

=Giuseppe Tartini= (1692-1770) is one of the commanding figures of
musical history. He was intended for the profession of law by his
parents but, fortunately for music, did not fall in with the plan.
A hasty marriage with the niece of an archbishop brought him into
trouble, and he fled to a monastery, where he spent two years, devoting
the greater part of his time to musical studies. At the end of this
time he was allowed to rejoin his wife, and went to Venice, where he
learned to know Veracini, with whom he studied to correct the faults
he had acquired through pursuing his studies undirected. Again he went
into retirement and gave himself up to the study of violin technic.
Among other things he made some improvements in the bow, increasing
the range of effects. His contemporaries ascribe to him “a fine
tone, unlimited command of fingerboard and bow, perfect intonation
in double stops, a most brilliant trill and double trill as well,
which he could execute equally well with all fingers.” His celebrated
composition “_Il Trillo del Diavolo_” (“The Devil’s Trill”) shows his
skill in embellishments. A technical work “_Arte dell’ Arco_” (“The
Art of Bowing”) gives a clear idea of his method in that branch of
the violinist’s art. In his compositions he shows advance on Corelli
and Vivaldi, for his melody is broader, his phrases more developed
and clearer, his harmonies richer and better contrasted, with many
passages of a strongly emotional character. He wrote a great number
of pieces, sonatas and concertos. In addition to his work as player
and composer, Tartini devoted himself to teaching. His school at Padua
was the Mecca of violinists from all Europe. In those days there were
no instruction books; Tartini’s pupils looked to him for everything,
and his character as a teacher can be learned in a letter addressed by
him to a pupil.[12] Tartini’s contribution to music also includes work
of a theoretical character. He discovered the so-called combinational
sound, by which is meant the sounding of a third sound when two tones
are sounded together.[13] He published a treatise on the subject.
Two pupils of Tartini’s who deserve mention are =Pietro Nardini=
(1722-1793) and =Gaetano Pugnani= (1726-1803), who was also a pupil of
Somis, thus uniting in himself the teachings of the two great masters,
Tartini and Corelli, which he transmitted to later generations through
his great pupil, Viotti.

With Tartini the violin sonata of the old type lost its place, being
succeeded by the sonata for the piano which was being developed by
composers, giving rise to a form that was later to be the basis of
a new sonata for violin and piano in which each instrument filled
an equal place. In the earlier days the tone of the clavichord and
harpsichord, weak and thin, was not suited save for accompanying the
full-toned brilliantly effective violin; but after Tartini’s time
the instrument gained in power and sonorousness and formed a worthy
helpmeet for the violin.

[Illustration: GIOVANNI BATTISTA VIOTTI.]

=Violin playing in France= was largely influenced by Italian players.
Lully, the opera composer, was a violinist, but the Italian school
had not developed when, as a lad, he left his native country. The
Corelli principles were carried to France by =Leclair= (1687-1764), who
received his training from Somis, a pupil of Corelli. His treatment of
the bow showed the lightness and agility that later became distinctive
of the French school. =Pierre Gaviniés= (1726-1800) lent strength to
the establishment of an independent French school of playing. He is
best known today by a set of difficult studies. =Giovanni Battista
Viotti= (1753-1824), an Italian by birth, greatly influenced violin
playing in his day. As a lad of seventeen he traveled through Europe
with Pugnani, his teacher, winning great success. Later he located in
Paris, teaching and composing, giving regularly private performances at
which he brought out his concertos. His themes have a marked singing
character, and all his writing is eminently suited to the instrument.
In his concertos he used the elaborated sonata-form as developed by
Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, and in his accompaniments draws fully
on the resources of the orchestra. His works include a fine set of
duets for two violins. His most eminent pupils were =Pierre Rode=
(1774-1830) and =Pierre Marie François de Sales Baillot= (1771-1842)
who with =Rodolphe Kreutzer= (1766-1831) were teachers in the Paris
Conservatoire, for which they prepared the famous “Méthode de Violin.”
Rode and Kreutzer are famous in violin literature for their studies
for advanced players. Beethoven dedicated his great sonata for piano
and violin, Op. 47, to Kreutzer, for which reason it is known by
the latter’s name. In connection with the educational writers just
mentioned, =Federigo Fiorillo=, born 1753, in Germany, of Italian
parents, is to be noted. His thirty-six etudes or caprices rank with
the works of Rode and Kreutzer. =Antonio Lolli= (1730-1802) was a
virtuoso and nothing else. His execution was marvelous, and he was, in
many respects, a forerunner of Paganini.

=Violin playing in Germany= had its source and inspiration in the
concert tours made in that country by the great Italian virtuosi,
a number of whom lived for periods of some length at the courts of
Berlin, Dresden, Mannheim and other capitals, where they trained
pupils for the various ducal orchestras. The orchestra at Mannheim was
the most famous for its work and sent out a number of fine players
and musicians. Space does not permit the mention of these men. The
first great name in the violin world of Germany is =Ludwig Spohr=
(1784-1859), who was also one of the great composers of his time, his
activity leading him into the domain of the oratorio and opera as well
as orchestra and instrumental music. (His principal teacher was =Franz
Eck= (1774-1804), who belonged to the Mannheim school.) Later he had
opportunity to hear Rode, by whose playing he was much impressed. He
spent some years in concertizing, and in 1822 located at Cassel as the
director of the orchestra there. Here he taught many noted pupils,
the best known being Ferdinand David. While Spohr was a great player
and a great teacher, he influenced modern violin playing more by his
compositions. Some of his concertos still figure in the violinist’s
repertoire and his duos and concertantes for two violins and for
violin and viola are unsurpassed by any compositions in that style.
In 1831, he published his “Violin School,” which was a standard work
for many years. The direct successor of Spohr was =Ferdinand David=
(1810-1873), a great player and a great teacher who was associated with
Mendelssohn in the founding of the famous Leipzig Conservatorium. From
this institution David’s pupils went over all Europe into positions of
responsibility and reputation. His greatest pupil was =August Wilhelmj=
(b. 1845). After David’s death supremacy in the field of violin playing
gradually fell away from Leipzig and centred in Berlin around Joseph
Joachim, the Nestor of the present-day[14] violin world.

[Illustration: LUDWIG SPOHR.]

=The Vienna School=.—The southern Germans had certain characteristics
wherein they differed from their northern kin; they were in closer
touch with Italy and were also influenced by their Hungarian
neighbors. In Beethoven’s time considerable attention was given by
Viennese violinists to chamber-music. Four names are prominent: =Karl
Dittersdorf= (1739-1799), =Anton Wranitzky= (1756-1808), =Joseph
Mayseder= (1789-1863) and =Joseph Bœhm= (1795-1876), the latter
being the teacher of a number of famous violinists, =Hellmesberger=,
=Dont=, =Remenyi=, =Ernst= and =Joseph Joachim= (b. 1831), the latter,
representing the solid, classical style of his teacher, joined to a
mastery of the technic of his instrument that enabled him to win and
maintain the highest rank as virtuoso, quartet player and composer
for his instrument. Up to the time of his death, August 15, 1907, he
was director of the Royal High School of Music in Berlin. He was the
teacher of hundreds of players, including many celebrated artists of
the present day.

[Illustration: JOSEPH JOACHIM.]

[Illustration: NICOLO PAGANINI.]

=Paganini=.—The most unique, most startling figure in music belongs
to the violin, a law unto himself in his playing, one for whom the
violin seemed to have been perfected long years before by Guarnerius
and Stradivarius and one who seemed to have been made for the violin,
the hero of fictions innumerable, to whom was attributed in his day
all manner of occult power. This mysterious king of the violin was
=Nicolo Paganini=, born in Genoa, February 18, 1782, died May 27,
1840. Never strong in body, in his early youth he gave himself up to
dissipation to such an extent that he undermined his constitution, and
passed through the world as a spectre rather than as a man. Paganini
was self-developed, he belonged to no school and he founded none, yet
so great was his command of the technic of the violin and the bow, that
no other player so profoundly influenced contemporaries and successors
on the matter of virtuosity. He taught but one pupil, =Camille Sivori=
(1815-1894). Paganini greatly influenced the younger French violinists
of his day, among whom may be mentioned =Alard= and =Dancla=. After
these men come =Charles de Bériot= (1802-1870), who represents the
Belgian School, his pupil =Henri Vieuxtemps= (1820-1881) and third
generation in the line of pupilage, =Eugen Ysaye= (b. 1858). Others who
belong to the Belgian School are =Massart= (teacher of =Wieniawski=,
=Kreisler= and others), =Léonard= (teacher of =César Thomson=,
=Marsick=, =Musin=, =Marteau=, etc.). At the present time the centre
of interest in the violin world has shifted to Prague, where =Ottokar
Ševčík= has sent out young violinists of the Slav race who display the
most astonishing technical mastery.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, articles on Violin Playing,
Sonata, Concerto, and players mentioned in this lesson.

Stoeving.—Story of the Violin.

Ehrlich.—Celebrated Violinists.

Hart.—The Violin and its Music.


                               QUESTIONS.

What was the form of early violin music?

What difference was there in sonatas?

What were Corelli’s contributions to music?

What were Tartini’s contributions to music?

Trace the connection between the French and Italian schools.

Trace the connection between the German and the Italian schools.

Trace the connection between the Vienna and the Italian schools.

What composers contributed most largely to the educational side of
violin music?

Prepare a short sketch of Paganini.



                             LESSON XXXVI.

                   THE ORCHESTRA AND ABSOLUTE MUSIC.


=The Orchestra as a Means of Expression=.—The most perfect means for
expression in music is presented by the orchestra, which, in its
complete form as shown today, is the result of a long development in
many directions. To give us this magnificent mass-instrument required a
sifting of the various instruments and the choice of those that offered
the best possibilities, a perfecting of these instruments, a shaping of
systems of playing them, of technic that should draw out all possible
effects, and an understanding, on the part of composers, of the nature
and demands of absolute music and how best to shape their conceptions
in accordance with these demands. The orchestra and its music,
therefore, represents the extreme height of man’s work in music, for
even when choral forces are joined to the orchestra, the instrumental
idea dominates, as, for example, in the Ninth Symphony of Beethoven, in
which the chorus is simply a _vocal band_ added to the other groups.
The orchestra is a great means for musical expression because it
offers to the composer the maximum of resources. In modern days, when
the esthetic principle of Unity in Variety receives the most elastic
interpretation due to the demand for the greatest possible contrasts
in tone-color, power and in nuances, all, however, intended to exhibit
and illumine the themes invented by the composer in their various
transformations, in these days the orchestra is truly the most complete
art-means known.

=Groups in the Orchestra=.—The orchestra is composed of groups
of instruments allied by similarity of construction. The usual
classification is into three main groups, =strings=, (bowed
instruments), =wind= and =percussion= instruments. In the former are
included the violins, viola, violoncello and double or contra-bass;
=wind= instruments subordinate into =wood wind= and =brass=, the
former include instruments of the flute, oboe, bassoon and clarinet
families, the latter horns, trumpets, trombones, tuba or other bass
instruments; the =percussion= includes kettle drums, other drums,
triangles, cymbals, etc.; the =harp=, while a stringed instrument, is
not included in that class. These instruments offer a great variety
of effects, singly and in many possible combinations, in the peculiar
effects possible by variety in playing, which in bowed instruments
is considerable, and particularly by contrast with each other. While
the orchestra today is in a highly developed condition, composers are
seeking to extend the limits of their art by the use of more elaborate
and subtle forms; so that we cannot in any wise predict the course and
limits of absolute music with the almost unlimited resources at its
disposal in the modern orchestra.

=Purpose in Combination=.—When we consider the orchestra as a
combination of instruments we must bear in mind that this combination
is the result of a definite purpose to produce music independent
of restrictions such as were shown to have existed in the days of
the domination of the Church. The composers of the early polyphonic
period and up to the 17th century bent their efforts to the
composition of choral music which was sung for many years without
instrumental support. When later the organ, and still later, viols
and other instruments were drafted into the service of church music,
the accompaniments were not independent of the voice, but merely
doubled the various parts. Composers thought in _terms of voices_
and their limitations, _not in_ the greater range and endurance of
_instruments_. Then, too, the instruments were crude and their tone
lacked distinctiveness as well as the comparative sweetness and purity
of the vocal music of that day. Combinations of instruments existed in
the Middle Ages, but not according to a system, and were due to the
executants who assembled them rather than to the demand for them in the
works of composers. It was in the attempts at light dramatic music that
preceded the establishment of the opera that instruments were grouped
together, showing a great weakness, from our point of view, in stringed
instruments played with the bow, and a corresponding preponderance of
brass.

=Influence of the Opera=.—The first composers of opera and oratorio
gave instrumental support to the singers, although it was very meager.
Yet the opera gave the help of that great principle of invention,
necessity, and composers began to experiment with various combinations
of instruments to secure a more adequate accompaniment for the voice as
well as to heighten the effects demanded by the drama. =Monteverde=, an
independent thinker and innovator, marked out lines in which efforts
should be made by successors. He studied the _characteristic effects
of_ the various _groups_ and made use of them as he felt them. His
orchestra for “Orfeo” (1608) was made up of two harpsichords, ten tenor
viols, two bass viols, two “little French violins,” one double harp,
two organs of wood, one regal, two viole de gamba, two large guitars,
two cornets, two trombones, three trumpets with mutes, one octave
flute, one clarion. The most significant item is found in the “little
French violins,” which presages the appearance of the instrument
which was, a century later, to be recognized as the backbone of the
orchestra. Among the distinctive instrumental effects which Monteverde
introduced was the =tremolo= for bowed string instruments as well
as the =pizzicato=. In looking over the instruments of Monteverde’s
orchestra we will note but _one_ wood wind, the flute. This shows that
composers, doubtless through the military use of brass and drums, had
accepted the latter as means for special effects. Instruments of the
_wood wind_ type were still too _crude_ to be admitted. =Alessandro
Scarlatti=, who did so much for the opera from the side of form and
content, also contributed to the development of orchestral music. He
evidently perceived the importance of having a nucleus around which
to build his harmonies, a group of instruments which should furnish a
firm support and which could blend the various tone qualities. With the
intuition of genius he selected the =string tone= for this purpose, and
in this he was greatly aided by the fact that the Amati family, and
their successors, Guarnerius and Stradivarius, had already perfected
the violin, although the great players were yet to come. Scarlatti
wrote in four parts for the string instruments, the treble part to the
first violin, the alto to the second, the tenor part to the viola,
which previously had often played in unison with the double bass, while
the bass part was taken by ’cellos and basses. He also added =oboes=
and =bassoons= to the strings and brass. Lully in France used an
orchestra similar to that adopted by Scarlatti. The =kettle-drums= now
come into use. The works of Corelli and his violinist successors, which
showed the possibility of writing for strings, undoubtedly influenced
orchestral writing.

=Bach and Handel=.—We now come to the period of Bach and Handel, each
distinct in methods, the latter the more immediately influential in the
development of the orchestra, the former’s principles of writing in
the =polyphonic style= not being taken up until after years by Wagner
and more recently by the extreme modern composers with their free
polyphony. In a Bach score each instrument had an independent part to
sing, and was treated from a musical standpoint, whereas the tendency
of other composers was to seek figures and passages which should be
characteristic of the instrument, the standpoint of effect. This
particularly applies to the wind instruments. =Handel’s= idea seemed
to be the building up of great =mass effects=, his style partook of
the =harmonic= rather than the polyphonic. He used all the important
instruments found in the modern orchestra except the _clarinet_,
although the proportion of the wind instruments to the strings is
greater, due to the relatively inferior power of these instruments in
Handel’s time.

=Haydn and Mozart=.—From Handel we pass to the first of his three great
successors, =Haydn=, who has been called the “father of the symphony,”
who determined, in fact, the course of orchestral development. And
we should not overlook the fact before-mentioned, namely, that the
professional violinists, most of whom were also directors of orchestras
in the pay of great princes, were testing the capacities and resources
of the instruments used. In the period which Haydn represents, the
_proportions of the instruments_ in the orchestra were definitely
_fixed_ and the size of the string band became relatively greater,
the _’cello_ coming in to greater prominence in its use as a _melody
instrument_. Haydn’s last symphony, written in 1795, calls for two
flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two kettle drums, and
the usual string band. This was the combination which Haydn selected
as the most useful and effective, as the result of his experience as
a conductor for many years. It was to =Mozart= that the introduction
of the =clarinet= into the orchestra is due, for Haydn did not employ
this instrument in his earlier works. The clarinet began to take an
effective form about the end of the 17th century, yet it was not until
the 19th century that it received the improvements that now make it one
of the most useful instruments in the orchestra, with a wonderfully
facile technic and correct intonation. The greatest of these changes
was the application, to the clarinet, of the system of keys and
fingering invented by =Theobald Boehm= (1794-1881) for the flute. In
addition to showing the value of the clarinet as an instrument, Mozart
pointed the way to some uses of the =trombone=. His E-flat Symphony
is scored for one flute, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two
trumpets, tympani and strings; in the score of the “Jupiter” symphony,
the clarinet does not appear.

=Beethoven= established the orchestra as “the composer’s instrument.”
He added but little to the instruments used but he took the resources
established by his predecessors and demonstrated what could be done
with them. Every group of instruments was used with more detail and
to produce characteristic effects both separately and in combination.
In his first and second symphonies he uses the same orchestra:
two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two
trumpets, tympani and strings; in the “Eroica,” a third horn part is
added; the fourth has the same orchestra as the first two, except
that one flute is dropped; the fifth calls for piccolo, two flutes,
two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, contra-bassoon, two horns,
two trumpets, three trombones, tympani and strings; in the sixth
he uses the same orchestra as in the fifth, except that he drops
the contra-bassoon and one trombone; in the seventh and eighth the
orchestra is the same as in his first and second symphonies. In the
ninth (Choral Symphony) he calls for a larger orchestra: piccolo, two
flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, contra-bassoon, four
horns, two trumpets, three trombones, tympani, triangle, cymbals, bass
drum and strings. It will be noted that Beethoven does _not use the
harp_. It was not until 1820, seven years before Beethoven’s death,
that Erard invented the double-action harp, an effective and a playable
instrument.

=Berlioz, Wagner and Richard Strauss=.—The composer who first made
an exhaustive study of orchestral instruments, their distinctive
qualities, separately and in combinations, was =Berlioz=, who gave
to the world his knowledge in his “Treatise on Instrumentation,”
published in 1844. Berlioz gave to every one of his works a more or
less distinctive quality by varying the composition of his orchestra
instead of using the conventional combinations. He made frequent use
of the harp, bass clarinet, English horn, bass tuba, besides other
less frequently used instruments. He very much enlarged the scope of
orchestral music by the new effects he devised. =Richard Wagner=, in
his great music dramas, makes use of many new means of dramatic musical
effects, introducing new instruments, enlarging the various families,
dividing the strings into eight parts, increasing the number of brass
instruments, giving to his scores a richness of power and a sonorous
quality unknown before his time. =Richard Strauss= is, today, the
greatest master of the technic of orchestral writing. His tone-poems
make greater demands on the resources of the instruments and contain
effects beyond those of Wagner.

[Illustration: HECTOR BERLIOZ.]

=Hector Berlioz= (1803-1869) was the son of a French physician, who
designed him for his own profession. But the lad’s bent for music was
so strong that when sent to Paris to prepare for a medical degree, he
spent most of his time in going to the opera and in studying the scores
of the masters. Much against the will of his parents, he determined to
give up medicine and entered the _Conservatoire_. His early musical
training had been far from thorough and his career was at first not
successful. This added to his father’s displeasure, and he finally
withdrew all support from his son, who, rather than abandon his art,
struggled with the most crushing poverty until a violent illness
brought on by privation reconciled his parents to his choice of a
profession. After several unsuccessful attempts, he gained the great
Roman Prize, which entitled him to a period of study in Italy and
Germany at the cost of the State, but throughout his life he battled at
home with adverse and discouraging conditions, artistic and domestic.
Until after his death his works never received the recognition gladly
paid them in foreign countries, where he made frequent tours for
the purpose of producing them. His demand for exceptional means of
performance, based upon their large scope and previously unheard-of
effects, was ridiculed in France, where they were also considered
dissonant and bombastic; he encountered jealousy and intrigue at every
turn and bore them, too, in no patient spirit.

=His Important Works=.—As a winner of the Roman Prize, however, he
had a claim on the State. Thus his great “Te Deum,” written for three
choruses, soli, and orchestra, was one of several commissions from
the Government and was composed for the opening of the Exposition of
1855. Another similar colossal work is his “Requiem,” with its four
small orchestras of brass stationed at the corners of the principal
orchestra. These cross and re-cross with thrilling effect, simulating
the blowing of the last trump. His most popular and widely-known work,
“The Damnation of Faust,” a dramatic cantata now frequently heard in
this country and in Europe, failed to awaken the slightest interest
at its first performance in 1846 and involved the composer heavily in
debt. His enthusiasm for Shakespeare led to the composition of what
some consider his most important work, “Romeo and Juliet,” a symphony
for orchestra, solo voices and chorus. Berlioz’ genius was essentially
instrumental and symphonic in character; hence, though he composed a
number of operas, none was successful. Indeed, the failure of “Les
Troyens” (The Trojans), the subject of which was taken from the “Æneid”
and which he intended to be his masterpiece, was his death-blow.

=His Genius as an Orchestral Composer=.—Berlioz was the founder of
the modern school of orchestration, as well as the pioneer in the art
of expressing a definite program in terms of absolute music. Like
his great contemporary, Wagner, he was no executant; he played but
little and, curiously enough, only such insignificant instruments as
the flute, flageolet, and guitar. The orchestra was his instrument
and no one has ever had a more unerring instinct for its capabilities
either as a whole or in its component parts. In the origination of
weird, unearthly effects he had been anticipated by Weber, whom he
greatly admired; but he went beyond him in devising bold and daring
combinations, which he justified by the end in view, though it
cannot be said that a refined taste always finds this end in itself
justifiable. For example, in the last movement of his “Fantastic
Symphony,” he pictures an execution by the guillotine. A company
of witches and demons dance around the headless body and perform a
burlesque requiem—the whole supposed to be a nightmare suffered by
an artist under the influence of opium. Color rather than outline,
thrilling and novel effects of sonority, rhythmical variety and
animation, intensity of expression and dramatic climax are the
principal characteristics of Berlioz’ music. Yet delicacy and charm are
by no means lacking in his works. Irregular in proportion and unequal
in inspiration as they frequently are, they undoubtedly entitle him
to the distinction of being the greatest composer that France has yet
produced.

=The Music of the Orchestra= includes Symphonies, Overtures, Symphonic
Poems, Tone-Poems and Suites and the Concerto for a solo instrument
with orchestral support. The symphony is an elaborated sonata, and the
first movement is usually constructed on the principles recognized
under the term Sonata-form; the same principles are used in the
Overture, which consists of but a single movement. Liszt, in his
efforts in the program music style, devised the Symphonic Poem, which
aims to present a series of emotional pictures in the Symphonic style,
but with the various movements continuous. He advocated deriving _all_
themes from a _common source_, transforming them rhythmically as needed
to work out his conception. His successors in this style of music still
use the thematic methods devised by the writers in the true symphonic
style, but are free in their methods of construction and elaboration.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, articles on the Orchestra and
the various instruments used, the Sonata, Symphony, Overture, Suite,
etc., and Sonata-Form.

Henderson.—The Orchestra and Orchestral Music.


                               QUESTIONS.

Why is the orchestra the greatest means for musical expression?

Classify the instruments used in the orchestra.

What difference is there in the combination of instruments in the
modern orchestra and in the first attempts?

How did the opera influence the development of the orchestra and
orchestral music?

Contrast Bach and Handel. Whose methods are used today to the greater
extent?

What did Haydn and Mozart contribute?

What did Beethoven contribute?

Contrast the orchestra used by the composers mentioned.

Give an account of the work of Berlioz in the orchestral field.

Give an account of the great writers of modern times.

What form is the basis of writing for the orchestra?


           SUGGESTIONS FOR A REVIEW OF LESSONS XVII TO XXIV.

Independent research on the part of pupils is essential to real mastery
of a subject. The following topics can be used as subjects for short
essays to be prepared by pupils. The material will be found in this
book and in the reference works mentioned in connection with the
various lessons.

LESSON XXV.—1. The Pianoforte in America. 2. Pianoforte Makers in the
19th Century. 3. Points of difference between the early Claviers and
the Modern Piano.

LESSON XXVI.—1. Comparison between the Early Venetian schools of
Painting and Music. 2. The composers of the Early Venetian school.
3. The composers of the Later Venetian school. 4. The development of
the Science of Thorough-Bass.

LESSON XXVII.—1. Queen Elizabeth as a Patron of Art. 2. Characteristics
of the Early French Clavier school. 3. Influence of the Early English
and French Clavier schools on subsequent Writings.

LESSON XXVIII.—1. German character as reflected in early music.
2. Comparison of Bach and Handel’s Clavier Works. 3. Influence exerted
by the Well-Tempered Clavichord.

LESSON XXIX.—1. Comparison between the Polyphonic and Harmonic styles.
2. Musical influence of J. S. Bach’s Children. 3. The First Sonatas
compared with Modern Music.

LESSON XXX.—1. German appreciation of music in Haydn’s time. 2. Haydn
as a man. 3. Haydn’s connection with Mozart.

LESSON XXXI.—1. Mozart’s character. 2. Mozart’s struggles with poverty.
3. Mozart’s contributions to form. 4. The Viennese school of this
period.

LESSON XXXII.—1. Beethoven’s character as shown in his letters.
2. Beethoven’s peculiarities. 3. Beethoven and his contemporaries.

LESSON XXXIII.—1. Beethoven’s manner of composing. 2. Beethoven’s love
of nature. 3. Effect of Beethoven upon succeeding composers.

LESSON XXXIV.—1. The points of superiority of the Violin over the Viol.
2. The three great makers of violins. 3. Why the violin is called the
King of Instruments.

LESSON XXXV.—1. The character of early violin music. 2. The development
of violin playing and composition. 3. Arrange the great players in
their respective schools.

LESSON XXXVI.—1. Classify the instruments of the orchestra. 2. Give a
sketch of the development of the orchestra, instruments added, etc.
3. Contrast Beethoven’s work with that of his predecessors and
successors. 4. What is the form of a Symphony? In what respects does
the form used by modern composers differ from that of the classical
symphony?



                             LESSON XXXVII.

              THE ROMANTIC OPERA. WEBER, SPOHR, MARSCHNER.


=The Romantic Movement=.—The revolutionary spirit which arose in Europe
toward the end of the 18th century had its counterpart in a similar
intellectual and artistic reaction, commonly known as the Romantic
Movement. In Literature, this movement was led by France; in Music, by
Germany. Briefly described, it consisted in casting aside the classical
traditions which the Renaissance had imposed upon art in general and
in a substitution of themes and a treatment more in consonance with
the atmosphere of freedom which had inspired such momentous social and
political changes.

=Its Effect on Music=.—The musician also felt the influence of the
general unrest. In seeking new modes of expression, he rose to a
consciousness of independence both as man and artist; he refused longer
to occupy the position of an upper servant which had been decreed him
by court and nobility. Mozart marked the passing of the old order of
things by his indignant rejection of the humiliating conditions of
service under the haughty Archbishop of Salzburg, only remembered
by later generations through his connection with the musician he
treated so contemptuously. Heretofore music had been the privileged
entertainment of the great and wealthy. Like other privileges, it was
to pass into the possession of the people, hitherto shut out from its
enjoyment save in the Church. It was to draw inspiration from a rich
store of Folk-lore and poetry heretofore disregarded by the scholar
and the musician, but soon to be recognized as a national heritage of
high import; it was to create new forms instead of being dependent on
time-worn formulæ which were repressing growth and development.

=The Romantic Opera=.—The Romantic Movement had the effect of finally
banishing from the stage the characters of classical mythology, the
heroes and personages of antiquity who had been thought alone worthy
of representation by the poets and savants who had thus far prepared
the texts for operas. In the romantic opera their places were taken
by figures of legend or chivalry, elves and spirits of earth or air;
the action paid no regard to the unities of time and place; it was
brisk and animated and the supernatural played an important part in
it. The music, instead of being governed by the restraints of definite
forms, adapted itself to the varying exigencies of the drama; the
sharp division between the recitative and the aria was softened by
the introduction of the Scena, a peculiarly effective mingling of the
features of both; the overture became an integral part of the whole
by the use of themes associated with leading dramatic situations.
The orchestra not only supplied an harmonic and a rhythmically
interesting accompaniment but its power of independent expression was
enormously enlarged; it became, so to speak, one of the _Dramatis
Personæ_ and vied with the singers in indicating psychological and
dramatic crises. This was largely due to the development of a new
phase of instrumentation, perhaps the most striking detail of the
Romantic school—that of novel and original combinations of instruments
to produce varying and expressive shades of tone color. Heretofore
the orchestra had been considered in the main in its more obvious
divisions; sonority and beauty of tone had been the chief aim of the
classical composers. =Carl Maria von Weber= (1786-1826) was the first
to utilize the individual timbres of orchestral instruments to secure
effects of a weird, unearthly character.

[Illustration: CARL MARIA VON WEBER.]

=Weber and the Romantic Opera=.—In his _Der Freischütz_ (The
Freeshooter) we first find the union of all these characteristics.
Hence Weber is rightfully considered the founder of the romantic opera;
but it would be a mistake to assume that he was the originator of all
its features. These had been long in the air. In Haydn, the works of
Mozart and Beethoven, in the ballads of Loewe, the songs of Schubert,
unmistakable romantic traits can often be found, but they are embodied
in established forms. Weber, however, brought together the qualities
now associated with the term romantic in music, and in applying them to
the drama freed them from the restrictions of a fixed musical structure.

=Influence of “Der Freischütz.”=—The effect of _Der Freischütz_ on
its production in Berlin in 1821 was instantaneous. The story of the
hunter’s recourse to unholy arts in order to win success in the chase,
of his rescue from Satanic power and the final triumph of good over
evil; the music, fresh, vivid, essentially national in color, appealed
to the people to whom the legend was well known. It meant the birth
of German opera, German alike in drama and music; it gave the final
blow to the supremacy of foreign influences in Germany. This success
at first, however, was confined almost entirely to the people. Critics
and musicians generally could not reconcile themselves to its mingling
of styles; the supernatural element seemed to them exaggerated, the
introduction of the Folk-song wanting in dignity. Only the greatest
of them all, Beethoven, deaf and cynical as he was, realized the
signification of _Der Freischütz_ as the beginning of a new era for
German art. He said to Rochlitz: “Weber should now write operas—one
after the other without hesitation.”

=Euryanthe=.—Weber’s next opera was _Euryanthe_, produced in 1823 in
Vienna. In this he was hampered by a text of more than doubtful merit
and lacking the national element which had been so strong a factor in
_Der Freischütz_. The story is laid in the medieval chivalric epoch and
strongly resembles Shakespeare’s _Cymbeline_. He also ventured upon
an innovation which was not in favor with the German public: he set
it to music throughout, the place of the dialogue customary in German
opera being taken by accompanied recitative. _Euryanthe_ and Spohr’s
_Jessonda_, which appeared several months before the former, were the
first German operas in this style since Schütz’s _Dafne_. This and
its confused plot kept _Euryanthe_ from the popular success achieved
by _Der Freischütz_, yet it contains some of Weber’s most thrilling
inspirations, and is the direct prototype of the modern music drama.

=Oberon=.—In _Oberon_ (1826), composed for London to an English text,
Weber returned to his former manner, though somewhat against his
will. He found the English opera much the same as in Purcell’s time,
practically a play with music as an incidental feature rather than as
an integral part of the drama. He intended casting _Oberon_ into a
larger mould, reducing the dialogue and adding to the music, but this
was prevented by his premature death in London two months after its
production.

=Recitative and Dialogue=.—The chilling effect of alternating speech
and song has already been spoken of in connection with the English
opera. At that time, both English and German taste was against the
use of recitative in the narrative parts of an opera. The _recitativo
secco_, which it will be remembered is a recitative supported only
by chords on the harpsichord or piano, sometimes accompanied with a
single stringed instrument, has never met with favor outside of Italy,
where its intonations nearly approach the half-singing inflections of
Italian speech. The exclusive use of accompanied recitative—that is,
the recitative accompanied by the full orchestra, however, delays the
action and moreover appears weighty and overwrought unless applied to
subjects of an elevated or heroic character. In Germany and England the
desire to understand clearly the dramatic movement led to the retention
of dialogue in all operas. In France a distinction was made between
operas with dialogue and operas with recitative only. The first is
called Opéra Comique, originally an offshoot from the Italian _Opera
Buffa_, in which the _recitativo secco_ was replaced by dialogue. Later
the term assumed a technical meaning by which it was applied to all
operas containing spoken dialogue whether their subjects were comic or
tragic, in contradistinction to what is known as Grand Opéra, in which
the accompanied recitative is used exclusively.

=The Melodrama=.—The so-called melodrama is a compromise between the
dialogue and the recitative. In this the performer recites in the
speaking voice while the orchestra supplies an accompaniment which
seeks to intensify the dramatic situation. This device originated in
Germany and has found the most favor from German composers. It was
first employed by =Georg Benda= (1721-1795) in a recitation, _Ariadne
in Naxos_ (1744), which created much interest. Two of the most striking
instances of the melodrama are to be found in the grave-digging scene
in _Fidelio_ and in the incantation scene in _Der Freischütz_. But
however effective its occasional use may be, the ear suffers from the
inevitable dissonance between the fixed pitches of the musical scale
and the natural inflections of the speaking voice. This is now so
generally recognized that it has been practically ignored by modern
composers in their works for the stage.

=Spohr and the Romantic Opera=.—=Ludwig Spohr= (1784-1859), Germany’s
greatest violinist and a composer of eminence in many fields, wrote
a number of operas. Of these, _Faust_ and _Jessonda_ stand first
in showing a vein of genuine romanticism, albeit they lack the
Folk-element which brought Weber’s music so close to the hearts
of the people. Full of beauty as they undoubtedly are, like all
of Spohr’s music they are weakened by the constant recurrence of
certain mannerisms, such as chromatic progressions of a persistent
type, enharmonic modulations, the over-frequent use of diminished
intervals. Spohr exercised a strong influence in favor of the new
direction on account of his high position as the most esteemed composer
and performer of the day. His significance in the romantic movement
consists in his being, as it were, an intermediary between the late
classical period represented by Beethoven and the modern music drama.
He knew Beethoven in Vienna, and in his latter days, when director of
the opera in Cassel, did his utmost to introduce Wagner’s early operas
to the German public.

=Marschner, Weber’s Successor=.—Weber’s legitimate successor in the
romantic opera was =Heinrich Marschner= (1795-1861). He had been
associated with Weber as assistant conductor at the opera in Dresden,
and a strong friendship existed between them. Weber’s influence,
however, was wide and far-reaching; it extended beyond the opera.
Marschner’s sphere was practically confined to the stage, which he
enriched with a series of strongly characterized works mainly of a
gloomy, uncanny nature. He shows but little of the genial art with
which Weber avails himself of the supernatural merely as a background
for the doing and striving of his characters, and thus never
compromises the human interest they have for us. Marschner makes it the
salient characteristic of his strongest works. In these his principal
_Dramatis Personæ_ are demons and evil spirits who tempt and torment
the innocent and loving. His first romantic opera was _Der Vampyr_
(1825) composed to a text prepared from Byron’s poem, “Lord Ruthven,”
which is founded upon a Scotch legend. Notwithstanding the repulsive
nature of the subject, its powerful treatment brought it immediate
success in Germany and a little later in England. It was followed by
_Der Templar und die Jüdin_ (The Templar and the Jewess), a version
of Scott’s “Ivanhoe.” This, however, met with less success than _Der
Vampyr_ or its successor, _Hans Heiling_, Marschner’s masterpiece.

=The Spieloper=.—The Romantic school had a strong influence in the
development of a form known as the _Spieloper_ (literally play-opera),
which occupies a place between the works we have been considering and
the _Singspiel_. As thoroughly German as the latter, it shows more
finish and greater elaboration of musical effect. Though essentially
romantic in the freedom of its scope and choice of means, its real
sphere is neither the heroic nor the mystic; it concerns itself rather
with the lighter aspects of life, those which require no exalted powers
of imagination or wide culture to appreciate—humor, good cheer, the
merriment and mirth of the people in holiday mood. =Albert Lortzing=
(1803-1851) is accepted as the creator of this type, of which his most
popular opera, _Zar und Zimmermann_ (Czar and the Carpenter), is the
best known example.

=Influence of the Romantic Opera=.—The value of the application of
all the resources of music to the unfettered delineation of feeling
and emotion in all their phases inaugurated by the romantic opera
can hardly be over-estimated. From the opera it has won its way into
absolute music, creating new and original forms. The change it has
wrought in the progress and development of the art in general is only
second to the revolution occasioned by the birth of the opera itself,
three centuries ago. The impulse of the romantic movement in music
is far from being exhausted at the present day. On the contrary, it
seems to have gathered strength and if it has reached its culmination,
as some would have us believe, the signs are not yet apparent to an
unprejudiced observer.


                               QUESTIONS.

What was the Romantic Movement? Its effect on music?

Tell about the Romantic Opera.

Who was the founder of the Romantic Opera?

Give an account of Weber’s operas.

Contrast the use of Recitative and Dialogue in opera.

What is the Melodrama?

Give an account of Spohr and his work.

Give an account of Marschner and his work.

What is the Spieloper?

What was the influence of the Romantic Opera?



                            LESSON XXXVIII.

                THE FRENCH SCHOOL OF THE XIXTH CENTURY.


=French Schools of Opéra=.—As already explained, French opera is
divided into two styles, known as Opéra Comique and Grand Opéra,
according to the use of dialogue or recitative. Not that this is the
only difference. The Grand Opéra is naturally adapted to subjects of
a large or heroic scope; the Opéra Comique, like the _Spieloper_ in
Germany, to lighter episodes of a romantic or humorous nature. As will
be seen, however, it not infrequently happens that the latter form is
adopted for serious subjects, owing to the fact that it is generally
easier for a composer to find acceptance at the Opéra Comique than
at the Grand Opéra. The youthful composer or the one who has not yet
acquired a name for himself is expected to win his spurs in the former
before attempting to enter the latter. Hence, even if his work is
somber or tragic in character he often finds it advisable to cast it
into the lighter form for the sake of having it produced.

=The Opéra Comique=.—The Opéra Comique had its origin in the
introduction of the Opéra Buffa in Paris by an Italian company about
the middle of the 18th century, which led to the Gluck-Piccini
controversy. Pergolesi’s _La Serva Padrona_ in particular awakened
great admiration and brought about the creation of a similar type of
French opera. It was at first hardly more than an elaboration of the
already existing vaudeville, or play with songs. =François Philidor=
(1726-1795) and =Andre Grétry= (1741-1813) were its founders. Grace
and simplicity, scrupulous adaptation of the music to the clearness
of diction always demanded by French taste were its distinguishing
characteristics.

=Its Development=.—=Étienne Méhul= (1763-1817), a pupil of Gluck,
gave it a larger musical development and a greater depth of dramatic
feeling. His _Joseph_ (1807), founded on Biblical history, is a classic
of this school. Its dignity, its severe and noble style won less
cordial recognition in France than in Germany; a generation later it
was to exercise a decisive influence on the future creator of the music
drama. It was through a performance of _Joseph_ that Richard Wagner,
then director of the opera in Riga, first felt inspired to battle
against the empty conventionalities of the operatic stage. Méhul’s
enlargement of the Opéra Comique was carried on by Cherubini, who
through the ill-will of Napoleon found the doors of the Académie de
Musique, the technical title of the Grand Opéra, closed against him.
Even his greatest tragic opera, _Medée_ (Medea), was produced (1797) as
an opéra comique without recitative and ballet, the latter being also
reserved exclusively for Grand Opéra. Thus it often happened that there
was little, in many cases no intrinsic difference between the music of
the two schools.

=The Typical Opéra Comique=.—There was, on the other hand, a
development of a type more closely corresponding to the original scheme
of the Opéra Comique. Strongly influenced by the romantic tendencies
of the day, its romanticism by no means resembles that of the German
school as represented by Weber and his followers. This, in its appeal
to the deeper emotions by the idealization of nature and recourse
to the supernatural, is thoroughly alien to the Gallic temperament,
and had no appreciable effect on French composers. Gaiety and humor,
freshness of invention, lightness of touch, elegance and finish
characterize the true Opéra Comique. Its pathos never sinks below
a certain sentiment which is skilfully used rather for the sake of
contrast than from any persistent attempt at awakening the more somber
feelings. The singer and the actor both meet with consideration; the
former by sparkling melodies, expressive and grateful to sing, not
over-burdened with the technical difficulties in which the Italian
school abounds; the latter by a drama furnishing piquant situations,
seasoned with wit and interesting in itself as a play.

=Boieldieu, its Founder=.—As Méhul gave the impulse to the graver,
more dignified style, so =François Boieldieu= (1775-1834) laid the
foundation of the typical Opéra Comique, the most original and
essentially national French operatic form. His _Jean de Paris_ (John of
Paris) and _La Dame Blanche_ (The White Lady) placed him at the head of
this school. The latter in particular, based on a curious combination
of situations taken from two of Scott’s novels, “The Monastery” and
“Guy Mannering,” has been sung the world over and still remains an
unsurpassed example of the Opéra Comique in its best estate.

=Auber=.—The most prolific composer in this style was =Daniel Auber=
(1782-1871). Though he began as an amateur and after years spent
in other pursuits, he outlived all his early contemporaries and
became its most widely known representative. With one exception,
to be noticed later, his works reveal the salient characteristics
of the school—freshness and melodic charm, finesse of rhythm and
instrumentation, delicacy and refinement rather than power and depth.
His most popular opera, _Fra Diavolo_ (1830), has been sung on all
stages and in almost all languages. Others less known but equally
meritorious are _Le Maçon_ (The Mason and the Locksmith), _Le Domino
Noir_ (The Black Domino) and _Les Diamants de la Couronne_ (The Crown
Diamonds.)

=Hérold and Adam=.—=Louis Hérold= (1791-1833), as a pupil of Méhul,
inclines to a more serious style. His _Zampa_ contains strongly
romantic features which made it more successful in Germany than the
melodious _Le Pré aux Clercs_ (The Clerks’ Meadow—a noted duelling
ground in Paris during the 17th century), though in France this vies
with _La Dame Blanche_ in the distinction of being the most popular
Opéra Comique in the repertory. Though less significant than any of the
foregoing, =Adolphe Adam= (1803-1856), the composer of _Le Postillon
de Longjumeau_ (The Postilion of Longjumeau), deserves mention for
the grace and fluency of his melodies, albeit they show a decline in
character and style which prefigures the decadent school of the _Opéra
Bouffe_ (burlesque opera).

=Opéra Bouffe=.—The attentive observer can hardly fail to perceive that
the opera as appealing to the people at large more than any other form
of music is peculiarly susceptible to social and political influences.
The Opéra Bouffe being a degenerate offshoot from the Opéra Comique,
it is no mere accident that the period of its most extended popularity
coincided with the extravagance and folly of the Second Empire. As a
distinct type it is due to =Jacques Offenbach= (1819-1880), a German
by birth, who took advantage of the taste of the time by turning his
attention to the parody of the classical and mythological subjects
which had furnished material for the early operas. Frivolous and
mocking in text, sprightly and vivacious in melody and rhythm, his
operettas possess undoubted piquancy and an effervescent style which
for a time intoxicated the public. Their vogue was happily broken by a
series of light operas of much more worth. Of these, _Les Cloches de
Corneville_, known to Americans as “The Chimes of Normandy,” by =Robert
Planquette= (1840-1903) is the best example.

=The Influence of the Opéra Comique=.—The Opéra Comique, as founded
by Boieldieu and continued by Auber and Hérold, bears a distinctively
national character to a much greater degree than the more cosmopolitan
Grand Opéra. Unlike this, its development was entirely due to native
composers who gave it the thoroughly Gallic impress of spirit,
vivacity, and truth to nature which carried it triumphantly through
all the theatres of Europe. Thus it served to counteract in part
the reactionary tendency of Italian opera. In Paris, as elsewhere,
during the first quarter of the 19th century Italian influences
were very powerful; Rossini’s works and those of his imitators
had the undesirable effect of reviving in a modernized form the
conventionalized opera of the 18th century, the chief object of which
was the display of the singer. The Opéra Comique, though limited to
the lighter phases of the drama, performed a service of no small value
in upholding a standard of legitimate musical expression at a time when
the allurements of florid song were obscuring the dramatic ideals which
Gluck had established at the cost of so much labor and effort.

=Grand Opéra=.—About the same time, important changes were impending
in Grand Opéra, though these were more in the nature of a development
from the type founded by Lully and afterward enlarged by Rameau,
Gluck and Spontini than a revolution such as Weber and his followers
had effected in Germany. They were, however, the outcome of the same
romantic influences modified by the characteristic French adherence to
established form. A grand opera according to tradition must have five
acts, consisting of arias, ensembles, choruses, etc., connected by
recitatives, with a ballet in one or two of the middle acts, generally
the second and fourth.

=Its Change of Style=.—Auber’s _La Muette de Portici_ (The Dumb Girl of
Portici—known also as Masaniello), produced at the Académie de Musique
in 1828, formed the point of departure for the new style. Though it
held to the traditional form of Grand Opéra, it was in spirit, theme
and treatment a startling change from the ordinarily genial works of
this composer, characterized as it was by a force and fire, a vigor and
decision which he had never shown before and was never to show again.
It marks the beginning of the modern historical opera, the complete
abandonment of classical and ancient history as the only appropriate
material for Grand Opéra. The people were brought upon the stage not as
slaves or as meekly acquiescing in the will of those in authority, but
as insurrectionists demanding rights of which they had been defrauded.
The story of the Neapolitan fisherman leading his comrades into
rebellion against their tyrannical rulers had a powerful effect in the
agitated state of political affairs which culminated in the revolutions
of 1830. It is significant that a performance of _La Muette de Portici_
immediately preceded the riots in Brussels, which in that year resulted
in the expulsion of the Dutch from Belgium. Rossini’s _William Tell_,
which followed in 1829, manifested precisely the same tendencies,
musically as well as dramatically. Both were destined to be cast into
the shade by the works of a third composer who gave the French grand
opera a style which practically dictated conditions on all stages for
half a century and is still not without influence.

[Illustration: GIACOMO MEYERBEER.]

=Meyerbeer=.—This composer was =Giacomo Meyerbeer= (1791-1864), German
by birth and early education, Italian by training in more mature years,
and finally French by adoption. A juvenile pianist of great promise,
he studied with Clementi; he went through a severe course of fugue and
counterpoint with Zelter, the teacher of Mendelssohn; in composition
he was a fellow-student with Weber under the famous Abbé Vogler. In
Vienna he knew Beethoven and was advised by Salieri to study in Italy,
where he wrote a number of Italian operas after the style of Rossini.
In 1826, he went to Paris, the Mecca of all opera composers, with the
design of making himself familiar with the conditions of Grand Opéra.

=His First Grand Opera=.—The result of his studies was _Robert le
Diable_ (Robert the Devil) produced in 1831. This created a veritable
sensation. Nothing of so comprehensive a style had been seen or heard
before. Meyerbeer’s cosmopolitan education, his receptive rather than
original mind, enabled him to combine the outward characteristics at
least of the three schools—French, German, Italian—as no one had ever
attempted. The story of the arch-enemy of mankind seeking to ensnare a
son by an earthly mother into sharing his lost condition, the struggle
between the powers of good and evil for the mastery of the tempted
soul gave full scope to such an amalgamation of styles. The ballet
and spectacular effects of Lully, the supernaturalism of Weber, the
roulades of Rossini were all brought together with an art that dazzled
and intoxicated an admiring public.

=His Other Grand Operas=.—Five years later _Robert_ was followed
by _Les Huguenots_ (The Huguenots), which achieved a still greater
success, and is the one opera of Meyerbeer which continues to hold
its own against the encroachments of time. In one or two episodes of
_Le Prophète_ (The Prophet), which was produced in 1849, the composer
reached the highest level of his creative activity, notwithstanding the
manifest artificiality of his scheme. His last work, _L’Africaine_ (The
African), was brought out the year after his death and like the others
owed its success to a skilful mingling of all the elements, musical,
spectacular, and dramatic, which go to make up this type of opera. His
_L’Étoile du Nord_ (Star of the North) and _Le Pardon de Ploërmel_
(better known as Dinorah) were composed for the Opéra Comique.

=Influence of Meyerbeer=.—Meyerbeer so held the public in his grip
that other composers of Grand Opéra gained but slight attention
during his lifetime. Only =Jacques Halévy= (1799-1862) was able to
meet him on equal terms in this field with _La Juive_ (The Jewess),
in which he shows the earnest spirit of his master Cherubini. Though
Meyerbeer’s watchword was success at any cost and his aim to assure
it by the accumulation of cunningly devised sensations rather than
through the innate power of his music, his works had a powerful and,
on the whole, a beneficial influence on the course of modern dramatic
music. They placed living, palpitating beings on the stage instead
of the cold abstractions of mythology and antiquity; the singer was
forced to impersonate as well as to sing. His insistence on all means
of expression—vocal, instrumental, and scenic—though often exaggerated
and fatal to purity of style, led to an extension of technical ability
in all these directions, and prepared the way for a master of greater
power and higher aims. It must not be overlooked that Richard Wagner
frankly modeled his _Rienzi_ (1842) after _Les Huguenots_, and that
Meyerbeer in _Le Prophète_ shows plainly the influence of this work by
his German contemporary.


                               QUESTIONS.

What two styles are found in French opera?

Tell about the origin of Opéra Comique.

Tell about the development of Opéra Comique.

Describe the typical opéra comique.

Mention the prominent composers in this form and their work.

Describe Opéra Bouffe.

What composers were prominent in this form?

What was the influence of the Opéra Comique?

What was the established form of Grand Opéra?

Who contributed to a change of style? What were the changes?

Give an account of Meyerbeer and his work in Opera.

What was his influence?



                             LESSON XXXIX.

                THE ITALIAN SCHOOL OF THE XIXTH CENTURY.


=Later Italian School=.—While Meyerbeer was dominating the French stage
and through it exerting a powerful influence on serious opera in all
countries, the Italian school was recovering in part from the impulse
given it by Rossini. The highly ornamented style which he brought into
vogue was modified in the works of several composers who also gave
more consideration to truth of expression. With these, melody still
reigned supreme, but it was shorn of the excessive ornamentation which
overloaded Rossini’s music; in character and rhythm it was also more
generally in accord with sentiment and situation. The florid element
was by no means suppressed; it had been an integral factor in Italian
music for two centuries and was too strongly entrenched in public favor
to be banished so completely as it had been in the German romantic
opera, but it was kept in subordination and in the main not allowed to
dictate the melodic idea. This was a step in advance for the Italian
school of that period, which through the fluent warblings of Rossini
and his imitators, had approached dangerously near the Scarlatti-Handel
type of the previous century.

=Donizetti=.—This reaction in the direction of greater simplicity
and sincerity was led by =Gaetano Donizetti= (1797-1848). At first a
follower of Rossini, he only attained success after the latter had
ceased composing and he himself had acquired a style of his own.
Donizetti was not without innate force, but his great melodic facility
led him to rely upon melody rather than upon musical development
or dramatic characterization. Hence his tragic operas, though
often admirable in detail, lack the sustained strength demanded by
their subjects. Of these, _Lucia_ (founded upon Scott’s “Bride of
Lammermoor”) achieved the greatest popularity, while in _La Favorita_
(composed for the Grand Opéra) he shows more dramatic power than in any
of his more than three-score operas. In many of his lighter works he
is particularly happy; for example, in _Don Pasquale_, which compares
favorably with Rossini’s _Il Barbiere_, and in _L’Elisire d’Amore_
(The Elixir of Love). _La Fille du Régiment_ (The Daughter of the
Regiment—written for the Opéra Comique) has made the tour of the world.

=Bellini=.—His younger contemporary, =Vincenzo Bellini= (1801-1835),
on the contrary, displays no capacity for humor nor is he much better
fitted to cope with the somber or the heroic. Essentially a lyrical
temperament, neither broad nor deep but endowed with exquisite
sensibility within certain limits, his sphere is the emotional, the
tender and the elegiac. For this reason his charming opera, _La
Sonnambula_ (The Somnambulist), on account of its idyllic subject, is a
more representative work than _Norma_ or _I Puritani_ (The Puritans),
though both enjoyed high popularity until within recent years. Much of
Bellini’s vogue was due to the admirable singing of a number of Italian
artists who were identified with his works—Pasta, Grisi, sopranos;
Mario, tenor; Tamburini, baritone; Lablache, basso, not to forget
Jenny Lind, who was at her best in his operas. With their passing and
the establishment of the modern school of dramatic composition, in
which the voice is only one of many factors instead of being the chief
element of expression, they have gradually dropped from the repertory.

=Verdi=.—A far more significant personality than either Donizetti
or Bellini is =Giuseppe Verdi= (1813-1901). Not merely a melodist
but a dramatist as well, his long life gave him the opportunity of
profiting by the many influences which brought about the mighty musical
development of the last hundred years. The fact that he did so without
compromising his artistic or national individuality shows the inherent
genius which gives to him the distinction of being the great Italian
composer of the century. Strong and sturdy from the first, his early
works, if somewhat coarse in fiber, seemed doubly powerful in contrast
with those of his contemporaries, which were distinguished by sweetness
and melody rather than by depth or vigor. From _Ernani_ to _Rigoletto_,
from the much sung _Trovatore_ to _Don Carlos_, to mention only a few
of his thirty operas, Verdi shows a steady growth in largeness of
style and command of means which culminated in _Aïda_, written for the
Khedive of Egypt to celebrate the opening of the Suez canal in 1871.

[Illustration: GIUSEPPE VERDI.]

=Aïda=.—_Aïda_ is the full fruition of the Romantic movement beyond the
Alps, manifested, however, in a style and manner thoroughly Italian.
Unmistakably influenced by the uncompromising stand taken in Germany
by Wagner, Verdi here shows the definite adoption of a new standard,
yet by methods which make no decided break with what he had hitherto
accomplished. In form, _Aïda_ is closely allied to the Meyerbeer type
of Grand Opéra through its succession of dramatic and spectacular
features, but these develop naturally in the course of the action
and are combined with a sincerity and unity of effect lacking in the
more artificial creations of the German composer. The florid style
is strictly avoided; without the continuous flow of the music drama,
the different movements, recitatives, arias, ensembles, etc., are yet
more closely connected and are sustained by a richer, more fluent
orchestration than he had hitherto given to his operas, the local color
called for by the Egyptian theme receiving adequate consideration.

=Significance of Aïda=.—_Aïda_ marks the beginning of the new Italian
school, one more in sympathy with the original conception of the opera
as a drama, while retaining the characteristic Italian grace and
charm of vocal treatment. This school was still further enlarged and
developed by Verdi, but this extension belongs to a later period and
will be considered in its logical connection.

=Wagner and the Music Drama=.—It is to =Richard Wagner= (1813-1883)
that we owe the renaissance in modern form of the primitive ideal of
the opera as embodied in the works of Peri and Caccini. Simple and
formless as these now appear, they contain the germ of all that he
has accomplished, apart from the question of means, even to the very
name of music drama. This he revived because, in his opinion, the term
opera had acquired a preponderantly musical signification which made it
inappropriate for his later works in view of their dramatic character.
An exception to the general rule of precocity among musicians, it was
not until his sixteenth year that he resolved to devote himself to
music. Like Weber, whom as a child he saw frequently and regarded with
the utmost reverence, his early associations were with the theatre and
the drama, a fact of no small significance in the careers of both. _Der
Freischütz_ was his favorite opera, a liking which bore abundant fruit
in later years.

[Illustration: WAGNER IN 1853.]

=His Early Operas=.—The future master of the music drama, however,
began by composing operas—operas, moreover, in which he shows
originality in one feature only—that of writing their texts himself,
and this remained his invariable practice. In other respects they gave
no hint of the startling individuality he was to unfold so unexpectedly
in his _Flying Dutchman_. His first opera was _Die Feen_ (The Fairies).
It was based on a fairy tale of but slight worth, and the music was
strongly reminiscent of Weber and Marschner. As the work of a youth
of twenty, without reputation or influence, it is hardly surprising
that he found no manager willing to produce it. He was somewhat more
fortunate with his second opera, _Das Liebesverbot_ (The Love Veto), an
adaptation of Shakespeare’s “Measure for Measure.” This was performed
once, in 1836, at Magdeburg, where he was director of the opera, and
had thus come under the influence of the French and Italian composers
then popular in Germany. The music is such a palpable imitation of
Adam, Auber, Donizetti, and Bellini that it has never been given since.
_Die Feen_ was never produced during his lifetime, but a few years
after his death received a number of representations in Munich.

=His Sojourn in Paris=.—In 1839, he determined to go to Paris. Many
foreign composers had succeeded in entering the Grand Opéra, among
them Meyerbeer, then in the full flush of the renown he had gained
with _Les Huguenots_. What one German had done, another might attempt.
Accordingly, with the utmost faith in his star and amid manifold
discouragements, Wagner made his way to the French capital, where he
hoped through the influence of Meyerbeer to secure the acceptance of
his _Rienzi_ at the Grand Opéra. He had prepared it from Bulwer’s
novel of the same name with the express intention of utilizing it as a
framework for the large spectacular style demanded by the Académie de
Musique. His sojourn in Paris brought him nothing but disappointment.
Neither _Rienzi_ nor _Der Fliegende Holländer_ (The Flying Dutchman),
which he wrote during his stay of two and a half years, was successful
in winning a hearing, while he lived the greater part of the time in
the most painfully straitened circumstances.

=Rienzi=.—Before long, he realized the hopelessness of his endeavor
and sent _Rienzi_ to Dresden, where it was accepted and after a long
delay performed in 1842. The result was a triumphant success and led
to the speedy production of _The Flying Dutchman_. This, however, by
no means made a similar impression. _Rienzi_ was an opera of the type
made familiar by Meyerbeer, in which effect was secured by the heaping
together of every device known to stagecraft. The ballet, the march of
the Messengers of Peace, the final catastrophe of the burning of Rome,
had as much to do with its enthusiastic reception as the music, which
was noisy, showy and brilliant, as befitted a work of such calibre.

=The Flying Dutchman. Change of Style=.—_The Flying Dutchman_, however,
showed Wagner in an entirely different light. With it, instead of
receiving his inspiration from without, as had been the case with
the preceding operas, it came from within. On his way to Paris he
had made a stormy voyage of several weeks from a port on the Baltic
to London. He was familiar with the myth of the Flying Dutchman, and
found that the sailors on board his ship believed it implicitly. This
in connection with Heine’s version of the legend, which represents the
unhappy mariner as doomed to perpetual wandering on stormy seas until
he finds a woman faithful unto death, made a strong impression on him,
and while in Paris he wrote the poem and composed the music within
seven weeks after finishing _Rienzi_. A more sudden metamorphosis of
style is unknown in the history of music. The earlier work was an opera
pure and simple, in the ordinary acceptation of the term, characterized
by pomp, brilliancy, sonority. Its successor was conceived as a
drama in which music served to emphasize the action and to intensify
the emotional situations; instead of being master, it was servant;
external effects were disregarded save only as they were in harmony
with this conception. Not that the composer entirely achieved this
ideal; _The Flying Dutchman_ displays not a few lapses into operatic
conventionalities, but as a whole it was a startling and radical change
which puzzled and displeased the public. They had looked for something
in the style of _Rienzi_ and could make nothing of a work so contrary
to the popular idea of what an opera should be. Accordingly, after a
few performances, it was dropped from the repertory.

=Tannhäuser=.—Nothing daunted by the lack of favor shown his change of
style, Wagner carried it to a still greater extent in his next opera,
_Tannhäuser_ (1845), founded on a medieval legend. The dramatic motive
of this is much the same as that of _The Flying Dutchman_, one of which
Wagner was particularly fond—the power of love to redeem and save from
the consequences of sin and error. _Tannhäuser_ brought about his head
the full storm of hostile criticism which with _The Flying Dutchman_
had only begun to lower. He was reproached for its difficulty, for
its lack of pleasing melodies, for the audacious harmonies which many
critics considered inexcusable dissonances. Singers objected to the
broad declamation it required; they complained that it would eventually
ruin their voices.

=Lohengrin=.—This almost general dissatisfaction, however, led to no
concessions by the composer in his next opera, _Lohengrin_, which
marked a further advance in the unpopular direction taken by its
predecessors, but it interfered with its performance. Though he was
conductor of the Opéra at Dresden, he could not secure permission to
produce it. Baffled and discouraged in his artistic schemes, a radical
in politics, he joined the insurrectionists during the revolution of
1849. The failure of the rebellion necessitated a hasty flight from
Germany. He took refuge in Switzerland and remained in exile until a
proclamation of amnesty in 1861 allowed him to return. In the meantime
he had sent the score of _Lohengrin_ to Liszt, then conductor of the
opera at Weimar, and there it was brought out in 1850.

_Lohengrin_ proved the turning-point in his fortunes. The romance of
the subject, its dramatic treatment and undeniable beauty gradually
reconciled the public to the novelty of its style. Before Wagner was
relieved from his sentence of banishment it had become one of the most
popular operas in Germany—he once ruefully remarked that he would soon
be the only German who had not heard it.


                               QUESTIONS.

Who led in the changes in Italian Opera after Rossini?

Give an account of Donizetti and his work.

Give an account of Bellini and his work.

Give an account of Verdi and his earlier works.

What is the significance of Aïda in the history of Opera?

Tell about the changes that Wagner was to make.

Give an account of his early operas.

Why did he go to Paris?

Describe Rienzi, The Flying Dutchman, Tannhäuser, Lohengrin.



                               LESSON XL.

             RICHARD WAGNER’S MUSIC DRAMAS. OTHER SCHOOLS.


=Wagner’s Theory of the Music Drama=.—_Lohengrin_, like _The Flying
Dutchman_, was transitional in character and led into Wagner’s third
manner. It was his last opera; all his later works were known as music
dramas. In these he pursued unhesitatingly the logical conclusions of
the theories which he expounded at great length in his controversial
writings, though he was far from being always consistent with himself.
Thus he reasoned that since in the spoken drama but one speaker is
heard at a time, the same practice should prevail in the music drama,
which would naturally do away with all concerted music, choruses,
etc. This rule he observed in _The Ring of the Nibelungen_, but he
wisely abandoned it in his later works. In _Die Meistersinger_ he also
failed to follow his theory that mythical and legendary subjects were
the only suitable material for the music drama. Briefly stated, his
ultimate conclusion was as follows: that the art-work of the future,
as he called it, should consist of a synthesis of all the arts. Music,
poetry, painting, sculpture, architecture, he asserted, had exhausted
all that was possible to them as separate arts; a higher plane could
be reached hereafter only by a combination which should gain unity by
subordination to a single principle. This principle he found in poetry.
Beethoven, he argued, had felt the insufficiency of music alone to
express his deepest inspiration, and for that reason had incorporated
in his last and greatest symphony a choral movement to the words of
Schiller’s “Ode to Joy.” In the music drama, therefore, the scene
painter replaces the artist and the architect, the actor by plastic
poses the sculptor, while the musician must allow his music no form
but that dictated by the poet in his verses. He ascribed the thrilling
effect of the Greek drama to such a union of the arts and this it was
his aim to revive through his own works.

=The Leading Motive=.—The part assigned by the Greek dramatists to the
chorus who expounded and commented on the events of the play was in
his scheme transferred to the orchestra. This he did by means of the
_Leitmotiv_ (leading motive). A leitmotiv is a characteristic theme or
harmonic progression associated with each of the _Dramatis Personæ_ and
which appears with such modification of mode, rhythm, or any of its
component parts as the dramatic situation demands. It is not confined
to personages alone; in _The Ring of the Nibelung_, for instance,
the stolen gold, the ring formed from it, the sword which plays such
an important part in _Die Walküre_ and in _Siegfried_ all have their
corresponding motives. It is through these motives that Wagner is
able to give his orchestra an all but articulate speech and to weld
the music drama into an organic whole. By their transformation and
development he succeeds in indicating psychological states and changes
as well as material conditions and objects. Reminiscent themes of a
somewhat similar nature had been used as far back as Mozart and had
been employed more freely by composers of the Romantic school, notably
by Weber in _Der Freischütz_ and _Euryanthe_, but they were undeveloped
and elementary in character. Berlioz in his _Fantastic Symphony_ was
the first to conceive a typical theme and to alter it in logical
accordance with the progression of his program, but he did not adopt
the practice in his operas.

[Illustration: WILHELM RICHARD WAGNER.]

=The Unending Melody=.—Beginning with _Lohengrin_, Wagner abandoned
fixed forms and substituted what he called unending melody, a
practically continuous flow of tone divided alike between voices and
instruments. For the most part he assigned the singer a declamation
as far removed from the set aria on the one hand as it was from dry
recitative of the early Italian opera on the other. Yet like the latter
it was conditioned by principles of speech. Like the early composers,
also, his subjects with but two exceptions were mythical or legendary.
This, because the supernatural and the unreal correspond more closely
with the ideal element introduced by the use of song for speech than
material drawn from everyday experience or from the exact chronicles of
history.

=The Ring of the Nibelung=.—In the old Teutonic folk-epic, the
_Nibelungen Lied_ (Lay of the Nibelung), Wagner found the inspiration
for his next and most extended work. This is the great tetralogy, _Der
Ring des Nibelung_ (The Ring of the Nibelung), composed of four dramas
designed for continuous representation: _Das Rheingold_ (The Rhine
Gold), _Die Walküre_ (The Valkyrie), _Siegfried_, _Die Götterdämmerung_
(The Twilight of the Gods). It was begun and partially finished during
his stay in Switzerland, but his discouragement over what he felt to be
the hopeless task of ever securing its performance led him to abandon
it and to set to work on another drama which he decided should be
lighter in character and less difficult to execute, in order the more
readily to find acceptance.

=Tristan and Isolde=.—The result of this resolution was _Tristan und
Isolde_, but far from being a return to his earlier style, as he had
planned, it was and probably still is the most intricate operatic
score in existence. It was accepted by the Opera in Vienna, but after
fifty-seven rehearsals the singers declared themselves unable to
learn it and it was given up as impossible of execution. Three years
after his return to Germany an unlooked-for change took place in his
fortunes. The young king of Bavaria, Ludwig II, who had just ascended
the throne, had been an ardent admirer of Wagner since as a boy of
fifteen he had heard _Lohengrin_. Hardly had he taken his seat before
he summoned the discouraged composer to Munich and assured him support
and protection. _Tristan und Isolde_ was soon brought out (1865), and
Wagner busied himself with the composition of _Die Meistersinger von
Nürnberg_ (The Master Singers of Nuremberg), produced in 1868.

=Die Meistersinger=.—This is his only comic work, full of hitherto
unsuspected humor and geniality. The story of the young poet
endeavoring to gain admission to the jealously-guarded ranks of the
master singers who, notwithstanding the beauty of his song, reject
him because he has violated their hide-bound rules has a distinctly
autobiographic value. Wagner had endured too much from similar pedants
to be lenient with the picture he drew of their prototypes in medieval
Nuremberg. As strikingly diatonic in style as _Tristan und Isolde_
is chromatic, these two works are the strongest illustrations of his
versatility.

=Bayreuth and the Festival Theatre=.—Wagner had long cherished the
plan of a festival theatre for the performance of his _Ring of the
Nibelung_. Jealousy of his favor with the king led to various intrigues
which prevented the building of such a theatre in Munich. The quiet
town of Bayreuth, therefore, as being a central point, was chosen, and
there in 1876 the _Festspielhaus_ was opened with the first complete
performance of the Tetralogy. It made a profound impression, but the
expense of the undertaking was so great that it resulted in a heavy
loss and the theatre was closed for a number of years. In 1882,
however, it reopened with _Parsifal_ and since then its triumphant
career has been part of musical history.

=Parsifal=.—Until 1903, when it was given in this country, _Parsifal_
was heard only in Bayreuth. Its semi-sacred character, its mingling
of religious mysticism and sorcery, its unrivaled stage effects, its
overwhelming power of climax, the consummate art of its thematic
construction have made it the most discussed of Wagner’s works. What
place it may eventually hold in respect to the others can be decided
only by time. As it is, it stands alone; a second _Parsifal_ is hardly
conceivable.

=Influence of Wagner=.—Unlike Weber, Wagner did not create a school—he
belonged to the school which Weber founded. Like Gluck, his influence
permeated all schools but to a much greater extent; none has succeeded
in escaping it. Thus far in Germany it has been felt more in the
development of program music, the symphonic poem, etc., than in the
music drama itself. Many have attempted to follow directly in his
steps, among them =August Bungert= (1846———) with a cycle of music
dramas, _Die Homerische Welt_ (The World of Homer), founded upon
the Iliad and the Odyssey, and =Richard Strauss= (1864———) with his
_Guntram_, _Feuersnoth_ (Fire Famine) and _Salome_, but none has yet
shown the power to bend the bow of Achilles. =Engelbert Humperdinck=
(1854———) is the only one of Wagner’s successors to develop a new phase
of the music drama. This he did by applying it to the fairy tale in his
_Hänsel und Gretel_ (1893), which soon found its way to all stages, the
first German opera to have such a success since the death of Wagner.

=Wagner in France=.—In France, Wagner acted at first not so much
directly as indirectly, and more in his connection with the Romantic
school of Weber than through his individual style as revealed in the
music drama. The characteristic conservatism of the French school was
shown in holding to forms which had been fixed for generations, but
little by little these were filled with the new romantic spirit. This
comes to the fore in =Charles Gounod= (1818-1893), whose _Faust_ (1859)
has exercised a strong and lasting influence on the lyric drama in
France. Though set forms are not abandoned, they are closely joined by
a melodious declamation which approaches the song-speech of Wagner; the
orchestration, too, is unmistakably romantic in treatment. =Georges
Bizet= (1838-1875) in _Carmen_ (1875), an opéra comique notwithstanding
its tragic denouement, produced a work of great individuality, which
shows even more plainly the influence of modern romanticism. Had the
composer’s career not been cut short by his untimely death, it is
possible that the French school would have maintained a more commanding
position. For Paris no longer holds her former preëminence as operatic
centre; she has been distanced by Bayreuth. Of late years the works
that have had the most pronounced success in the French capital have
been Wagner’s music dramas. A little more than a generation ago, in
the palmy days of Auber and Meyerbeer, a success at the Grand Opéra
or the Opéra Comique had an international import and meant a speedy
transference to foreign stages. Now the interest is largely local;
but few of the modern French operas are heard outside of France. The
influence of Wagner is evident in a new French school, consisting in
the main of young composers whose works manifest strongly transitional
features. At present this school is in its storm and stress period; it
is yet too early to forecast its ultimate effect.

=Wagner in Italy=.—Italy proved more responsive to Wagner’s influence
than France. The performance of _Lohengrin_ (1868), in Bologna, created
much enthusiasm among the young musicians of northern Italy, but it was
the septuagenarian Verdi who inaugurated the era of the music drama
by his _Otello_ (1887) and _Falstaff_ (1893). Strictly speaking, he
had been anticipated by =Arrigo Boïto= (1842———), who, thrown under
Wagner’s influence in Germany, had followed his example in being the
poet and composer alike of _Mefistofele_ (1868), a version of the Faust
legend. But this was Boïto’s only opera, and though he gave the initial
impulse to the movement, it was Verdi who carried it to a triumphant
issue.

=Verdi’s Latest Style=.—_Aïda_ had been a grand opera with strong
musico-dramatic tendencies. In _Otello_ and _Falstaff_, Verdi made
a definite entrance into the music drama. The latter in particular,
founded on Shakespeare’s “Merry Wives of Windsor,” is an astonishing
_tour de force_ for a man of four-score years. Full of the sparkle
and freshness of youth, yet in every measure revealing the ripeness
of matured genius, it is one of an immortal trio of lyric comedies of
which the others are Mozart’s _Figaro_ and Wagner’s _Meistersinger_.
The set and traditional forms of the opera here disappear entirely; the
music is conditioned by the text and its dramatic requirements; the
orchestra supports the voices in a full, melodious, and comprehensive
flow, but never overpowers them. Hardly anything can be detached from
its context without losing significance and interest; and this, by the
way, is one of the most distinctive peculiarities of the music drama
and more than anything else points the radical difference between it
and the opera. Yet though this change of manner is undoubtedly due to
Wagner, Verdi is in no sense an imitator. The style remains his own and
is essentially Italian in character—that is, it is based upon vocal
rather than instrumental capabilities.

=The New Italian School=.—The latest development of the music drama in
Italy has been in the direction of so-called naturalism. This consists
in the choice of brutal phases of life for illustration, told in
short, concise forms which concentrate and hasten the dramatic action.
A greater contrast to the inordinately long and heroic operas of
Meyerbeer and Wagner can hardly be imagined; it is more than probable,
indeed, that the reaction against the excessive length of the music
drama led to the great and sudden vogue of this school. The first
impulse to naturalism was given by =Pietro Mascagni= (1863———) in his
two-act opera, _Cavalleria Rusticana_ (Rustic Chivalry), in 1890.
This is a tale of love, jealousy, and revenge told in music admirably
adapted to the vivid, crude representation of elemental passions.
Two years later followed _I Pagliacci_ (The Clowns) by =Ruggiero
Leoncavallo= (1858———), a work of precisely the same character. Though
many others have essayed the same style, these two thus far remain
the most representative of their class. Their popularity has been
approached only by =Giacomo Puccini= (1858———) in _La Bohême_ (The
Bohemians), produced in 1896. Four years later his _Tosca_ appeared and
did much to strengthen the impression given by its predecessor—that in
Puccini Italy possesses her most promising dramatic composer.

=Schools Compared=.—Thus at the beginning of the 20th century we find
the principles of the music drama as enunciated by Wagner influencing
all the three great schools of dramatic composition. It is worthy of
note, however, that these schools, though thus approaching in artistic
ideals, still retain the characteristics which distinguished them
from the very beginning: the Italian, melody and beauty of tone; the
French, clearness of form and logical dramatic development; the German,
elevation of subject and harmonic richness.

=Younger Schools=.—Younger schools having a strongly national character
exist in Russia and Bohemia, but as yet they possess only local
signification and have produced no practical effect outside of their
respective countries. =Michael Glinka= (1803-1857) with his patriotic
opera, _Life for the Czar_, founded the Russian opera in 1836. The
Bohemian opera is of more recent origin and is associated principally
with the names of =Friedrich Smetana= (1824-1884) and =Antonin Dvořák=
(1841-1904).

=Resumé=.—From its dual nature, the opera is necessarily a compromise.
Composed of two elements, the musical and the dramatic, it is
peculiarly susceptible to disintegration; its history is a record of
almost continuous veering from one to the other of these two phases.
We have seen how the immense proportions of the ancient amphitheatres
led to the musical declamation on which the opera is founded, from
the fact that the tones of the singing voice are far more reaching
than those of the voice in speaking. The Florentine experimenters, in
seeking to restore this declamation, soon discovered the capabilities
for emotional expression latent in the varying timbres and vastly
extended range of the former. As for its musical possibilities, these
were entirely beyond their ken. The steps taken in that direction they
regarded with disfavor as indicating a deviation from the oratorical
standards which were their sole aim. After Carissimi and Scarlatti had
developed the elements of symmetrical form and melody, music emerged
from this dependent condition and dictated to the drama, which sank
to an almost negligible factor. The reaction led by Gluck served to
restore the balance for a time, but through Rossini and his followers
the pendulum again swung in the other direction. The Romantic movement
then brought the drama again to the fore; the spirit of the age was
behind it and all schools felt its influence, though each manifested it
in characteristic fashion.

=Influence of the Opera on Music in General=.—These alternations have
had a powerful effect on the development of music in general, an
effect both technical and expressive in nature. From the harpsichord
and the few viols used at first merely to support the voice and to
give it pitch, the orchestra expanded into a large body of instruments
capable in itself of dramatic utterance. From the tiny ritornello of
eight measures played by three flutes in Peri’s _Euridice_, there has
grown an independent instrumental art of vast significance. The opera
also created a school of singing which though often unworthily used
for purposes of purely personal display is the basis of the vocal art
of today. In short, it is not too much to say that the little band of
scholars and musicians who met three centuries ago with the aim of
reviving a lost art practically originated a new one.


                              REFERENCES.

Finck.—Wagner and His Works.

Modern Composers and Their Works.


                               QUESTIONS.

Give an account of Wagner’s theory of the Music Drama.

What is meant by the term Leading Motive? Unending melody?

What works compose the Ring series?

Tell about “Tristan und Isolde,” “Die Meistersinger.”

In what city was a theatre built for Wagner’s dramas?

Describe “Parsifal.”

What composers has Wagner influenced?

What was his influence on French composers and the names of those most
prominent; their works?

What was his influence upon the Young Italian school?

Who are the prominent members of that school?

What changes did Verdi show in his latest works?

What are the characteristics of the various schools?

Give a résumé of the development of opera.

What has been the influence of opera upon music?


               REVIEW SUGGESTIONS, LESSONS XXXVII TO XL.

What was the effect of the Romantic movement on the Opera?

Write a sketch of Weber and his work in Opera.

What differences are there between Opéra Comique and Grand Opéra?

Compare the works of Spohr and Marschner with those of Weber.

Describe the typical Opéra Comique and name some notable work in this
style.

What changes took place in Grand Opéra through the influence of Auber
and Meyerbeer?

State the differences between the German, French and Italian opera
styles.

Write a sketch of Verdi and his works.

Give an account of Wagner and the works of his first period. His second
period.

What was Wagner’s theory of the music drama?

Explain the two essential principles he used.

Describe Wagner’s later works: “Ring” series, “Tristan und Isolde,”
“Die Meistersinger,” “Parsifal.” (Each one may be made the subject of
an essay.)

How did Wagner influence opera in Italy and in France?

Give a sketch of the later schools of opera.



                              LESSON XLI.

           PIANO PLAYING AND COMPOSITION: CLEMENTI TO FIELD.


During the period after Mozart to the beginning of the Romantic
movement, one name alone attains the first rank—that of Beethoven.
At the same time there are several epoch-making pianists, whose
compositions display talent rather than genius, but who have each
rendered indisputable service in accomplishing the transition from the
classic to the romantic composers. The landmarks, so to speak, of this
period are Clementi, Cramer, Hummel, Czerny, Moscheles and Field.

=Muzio Clementi= (1752-1832) was born at Rome. His father was quick
to perceive his son’s gift for music, and strove to develop it by the
best teaching available. While he was still a lad, an Englishman,
Bedford or Beckford, took young Clementi with him to England where
he lived with his benefactor until 1770, perfecting himself in piano
playing and composition. At his first appearances in London he created
a furore, and from 1777-1780 he conducted at the piano in the Italian
opera there. In 1781, he began his travels as a virtuoso. At Vienna he
made the acquaintance of Josef Haydn, and also had a sort of musical
combat with Mozart. Each read at sight, played his own compositions and
improvised. Opinion was divided as to the outcome. Clementi displayed
more virtuosity, while Mozart charmed by his singing-tone, finished
phrasing and expressive style. For the following twenty years, Clementi
lived in London. He became interested in a piano manufactory and when
the firm failed, he established another, which is still carried on.
In 1802, Clementi went on a concert-tour with two favorite pupils, J.
B. Cramer and John Field. They visited Paris, Vienna and even St.
Petersburg, arousing great enthusiasm everywhere. In 1810, he settled
in London permanently, devoting himself to composition and business. In
1817, he published his _Gradus ad Parnassum_, a series of one hundred
studies treating every branch of technic and every problem of piano
playing then known.

[Illustration: MUZIO CLEMENTI.]

=Clementi as Composer and Pianist=.—In addition to his early works,
Clementi composed symphonies, more than one hundred sonatas for piano,
preludes, toccatas, canons and other piano music and finally the
_Gradus_. As Clementi was a true Italian by temperament, and German in
his education, the sonatas show the influence of Domenico Scarlatti, as
well as of Haydn and Mozart. They are technically in advance of their
day, though inclined to dryness musically. However, Beethoven admired
them, and is said to have preferred them to those of Mozart. Clementi’s
monumental work, the studies, treats every difficulty and style of
piano playing so very comprehensively that it is still indispensable
to the student. In his youth Clementi was a bravura-player, pure and
simple. “Strong in runs of thirds, but without a pennyworth of feeling”
was Mozart’s verdict. But later, when Clementi had become acquainted
with the larger tone of the English pianos, he cultivated expressive
playing. At his best, his brilliancy and facility were dazzling, and he
invariably carried all before him. Considering the fundamental value of
his studies, and his preëminent abilities as a pianist, it is just to
give him the title of “The Father of Piano Playing.”

=Johann Baptist Cramer= (1771-1858) was born at Mannheim, Germany. When
he was but a year old his father moved to London. As a boy he studied
the violin and the piano, as well as the theory of music, but soon
showed the greater aptitude for the piano. Later he became a pupil of
Clementi. Handel, Bach, Scarlatti, Haydn and Mozart were the objects
of his attention, thus establishing a taste for the classics. In 1788,
Cramer began a series of tours on the Continent, living at London in
the intervals. In 1828, he founded the music publishing firm of J.
B. Cramer & Co. He lived in Paris from 1832 to 1845, but returned to
London, where he remained until his death.

=Cramer as Composer and Pianist=.—Of Cramer’s numerous compositions,
such as seven concertos and one hundred and five sonatas for the
piano, besides variations, rondos, fantasias, etc., a quartet and
quintet, little is worth survival. His representative work is a series
of seventy-six studies, Op. 50, to which he afterwards added. These
studies long enjoyed a reputation second only to those of Clementi.
They do not aim primarily at virtuosity, but towards the cultivation
of musical style; at the same time they exhibit novelty of technical
invention, and demand a decided proficiency. Thus they tend to
supplement the studies of Clementi which are chiefly concerned with
technic. As a performer, Cramer was greatly admired for his perfect
legato, distinctness of phrasing and quiet singing tone. Beethoven
is said to have preferred him to all other pianists of his time.
While Cramer does not present a technical advance over Clementi, he
undoubtedly did much for the cultivation of the more strictly musical
qualities and thus stands for a definite progress.

[Illustration: J. B. CRAMER. J. N. HUMMEL.]

=Johann Nepomuk Hummel= (1778-1837) was born at Presburg, Hungary.
His father, who had been instructor in music at a military school in
Wartburg, moved to Vienna in 1786 to become director at the theatre of
Schikaneder, (the author of the libretto of Mozart’s opera “The Magic
Flute”). Mozart soon took so deep an interest in young Hummel that he
took him to live with him and taught him for two years. From 1788 to
1795, Hummel traveled as a virtuoso. On returning to Vienna he studied
composition with Albrechtsberger, and received advice from Salieri and
Haydn. From 1804 to 1811 he was music-director under Prince Esterhazy,
Haydn’s patron. In 1816, he became conductor at Stuttgart, and in
1819 he occupied a similar position at Weimar. From here he went to
Russia, where he made a successful concert-tour, playing at Warsaw,
where the youthful Chopin heard him. From 1825 to 1833 he traveled on
concert-tours, returning to Weimar, where he passed the remainder of
his life.

=Hummel as Composer and Pianist=.—Hummel’s compositions include
operas, ballets, masses and other church music, a quintet, trios,
rondos, studies and other music for the piano, but he is best known
for the piano concertos in A-flat, A minor and B minor, the sonatas
in F-sharp minor and D major, the Septet, Op. 74, and a voluminous
instruction-book for the piano, chiefly remarkable for its pedantry
and absence of practicality. As a pupil of Mozart, he followed his
teacher’s form and style, without exhibiting marked creative genius.
His technic is noticeable chiefly for its superficial glitter of
brilliant passages, which constitute a certain development in
themselves. His compositions were in great vogue at one time, and he
was once even regarded as the equal of Beethoven. As a pianist, Hummel
was unusual. His style was distinguished by precision, clearness, and
command of brilliant effect. His influence as a concert pianist was
very great, and in this direction his extension of the province of the
virtuoso is considerable. He undoubtedly affected Chopin’s piano style
for a time and for this reason alone should claim our attention.

=Carl Czerny= (1791-1857) was born at Vienna. His father, an excellent
musician, taught his son piano playing at an early age. Beethoven
became interested in him, and gave him lessons. He also learned much
from Hummel and Clementi. Czerny soon became in great demand as a
teacher. He made concert-tours to Leipzig, Paris, London and Lombardy.
For the most part he lived quietly in Vienna, teaching and composing.
In 1850, his health gave way from overwork. His most celebrated pupils
were Franz Liszt and Theodore Leschetizky.

=Czerny’s Compositions=.—Czerny was an indefatigable and over-fluent
composer who weakened his powers by over-productivity. Hence, of more
than a thousand works, his masses, requiems, symphonies, overtures,
chamber-music, etc., are obsolete, but his educational works are
destined to live. Of many valuable sets of studies, the most used are
those for Velocity, Op. 299, and Finger Training, Op. 740. Musically,
they are of slight importance, but they are invaluable to this day
in acquiring facility. Czerny had an immense knowledge of the higher
mechanism of piano playing, and a keen perception of practical methods.
His fame as a pianist was overshadowed by his ceaseless work as teacher
and composer.

[Illustration: CARL CZERNY.]

=Ignaz Moscheles= (1794-1870), described as “the foremost pianist after
Hummel and before Chopin,” was born at Prague. He studied the piano
with Dionys Weber, director of the Prague Conservatory, and at fourteen
played a concerto of his own in public. After the death of his father,
he went to Vienna to make his way as a teacher, and to continue his
studies in composition. He soon became in great demand as a pianist and
teacher, and for ten years lived the life of a traveling virtuoso. In
1824, he gave lessons to Mendelssohn, then a boy of fifteen, at Berlin.
Soon after his marriage at Hamburg, in 1826, he went to London, where
he remained with some interruptions for nearly twenty years of activity
as pianist, teacher and conductor. In 1845, he took the post of teacher
of the piano at the Leipzig Conservatory, founded by Mendelssohn.

[Illustration: IGNAZ MOSCHELES.]

=Moscheles as Composer and Pianist=.—As a composer, Moscheles was
divided between his classical training and his unmistakably romantic
instincts. Hence, a long list of variations, fantasias, rondos, written
to please publishers, in accordance with the fashion of the time,
have not survived, but his best works, the concerto in G minor, the
“Pathetic” concerto, the sonata, Op. 49, his duet for two pianos,
“Hommage á Handel” and especially the studies, Op. 70 and 95, combine
a respect for classic form with the growing Romantic movement. The
studies may be regarded as the legitimate successors to those of
Cramer, and paved the way for the more romantic etudes of Chopin.
Moscheles was a solidly trained pianist of great brilliancy. He had
many characteristics of the classical school; he used the pedals
sparingly, he played octaves with a stiff wrist, his phrasing was
precise and his accents were sharply marked; but in the brilliant style
he had no rivals. He was famous for his improvisations; his cadenzas to
concertos and his extempore treatments of well-known themes were marked
by spontaneity, brilliance and exquisite feeling.

=John Field= (1782-1837), one of the last connecting links between the
Classical and Romantic schools, was born at Dublin. Early in life,
he was taken to London and apprenticed to Clementi, who gave him
lessons, and employed him to show off his pianos. In 1802, he went on
a concert-tour with Clementi to Paris, Germany and Russia. Field lived
for many years as pianist and teacher at St. Petersburg and Moscow.
After returning to England, he made a long tour through Belgium,
Switzerland, and finally, Italy, where his health gave way. Shortly
after he returned to Moscow, where he died.

=Field as Composer and Pianist=.—Field’s compositions in classical
forms include seven concertos, four sonatas, rondos, variations, etc.
They are forgotten now, although Chopin had a partiality for his
concerto in A-flat and gave it to his pupils; but his lyric pieces for
piano, entitled nocturnes, are still played. They are the forerunners
of the type so extended and developed by Chopin. He is thus one of the
first of the romanticists in spite of his classical training. In 1802,
Field astonished the Parisians by his masterly playing of Bach and
Handel, but his individuality later took a more romantic turn. His tone
was tender and melancholy, and his phrases gently expressive. Shortly
before his death, though broken in health, he created a stir in Vienna
by his interpretations of his own nocturnes. In some respects his
playing was akin to Chopin’s highly individual style.

=To sum up=, it will be seen that Clementi was the originator of a
system of technic that has served as the foundation of modern piano
playing; Cramer was the conserver of classic style and purity of
standard; Hummel, as a brilliant pianist, had a decided influence on
the piano playing of his time, but as a composer attempted to pass
superficial brilliance for the true coin of musical substance; Czerny,
one of the greatest educators in the history of piano playing, has had
an immense influence through his invaluable educational works, and as
the teacher of Franz Liszt, the epitome of modern piano playing, and
also of Theodore Leschetizky, possibly the foremost teacher of the
present day; Moscheles, the classic pianist, gave decided impetus to
the cause of romanticism by his best compositions; Field, though the
pupil of Clementi, prepared the way through his own individuality for
the greatest piano composer of the Romantic period, Chopin, and thus
became an important factor in the transition from the Classic to the
Romantic period.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, articles on Pianoforte
Playing and players mentioned in this lesson.

Weitzmann.—History of Piano Playing.

Bie.—The Piano.

Fillmore.—Pianoforte Music.


                               QUESTIONS.

What composers form the transition from the Classic to the Romantic
school?

Give a summary of this transition period.

Give a sketch of Clementi.

What was Clementi’s greatest work?

What were his contributions to piano playing?

Give a sketch of Cramer.

What work is most representative of Cramer as a composer?

Mention his contributions to piano playing.

Give an account of Hummel’s life.

What classic pianist was a pupil of Mozart?

What was his influence on piano playing?

Give a sketch of Czerny’s career.

Who were Czerny’s most famous pupils?

What influence did he exert on piano playing?

Give a sketch of Moscheles’ life.

What composer was the intimate friend of Moscheles?

What is the value of his educational works?

Give a sketch of Field’s career and his influence on piano playing.

What form did Field originate?

[Illustration: FRANZ PETER SCHUBERT.]



                              LESSON XLII.

                         FRANZ PETER SCHUBERT.


The rise of the Romantic school involves a greater freedom in form, a
fuller play of poetry and imagination, a general artistic evolution and
independence in comparison with the formality of the Classic period.
The struggle to establish these principles was long and obstinate, but
the outcome was as inevitable as the victory won by Beethoven’s sonata
and symphonic forms over the more primitive types of Haydn and Mozart.
The first departures from the classic attitude were made by Schubert,
whose influence has been permanent in the development of romanticism.

=Schubert’s Early Life= (1797-1816).—Franz Peter Schubert was born in
a suburb of Vienna, January 31, 1797. At an early age he had lessons
on the violin from his father, who was a school teacher, and on the
piano, from his elder brother. He so quickly outstripped both teachers
that he was sent to Michael Holzer, choir-master of the parish, who
taught him piano, organ, violin, singing and theory. In later years,
Holzer disclaimed the value of his instruction, saying: “If I ever
wished to teach him anything new, I found he had already mastered
it.” After singing in the parish choir, he passed an examination for
admission to the Imperial _Convict_ or school for the Royal choristers.
The training included general education as well as music; there was
also an orchestra among the boys in which Schubert played the violin
and sometimes conducted. There were privations connected with life at
the _Convict_, the practice rooms were insufferably cold, and the food
insufficient. In 1810, Schubert began to compose, dating his pieces
carefully, and the only check to his inspiration was the lack of
music-paper, which he was too poor to buy. A generous friend made up
the deficiency. In 1813, he left the _Convict_, although his general
education was by no means complete, since he had neglected his studies
on account of his increasing passion for composition. After leaving
the _Convict_, Schubert taught elementary classes at his father’s
school, but the drudgery became insupportable. An ardent friend and
admirer, Franz von Schober, realizing that Schubert’s creative powers
were greatly hampered by the conditions of his life, gave him a home.
Already he had composed some of his most famous songs, including “The
Erl-King.”

=Later Years= (1816-1828).—From 1816 on, Schubert appears to have
lived in Schober’s apartments, except for two years shared with the
poet Mayerhofer, and a period spent with a friend, Schwind. It is
a mystery how Schubert managed to live, for he taught little, and
his few publications could have brought him at best only small sums
at irregular intervals. He had already failed to secure a position
in a Government school of music, but in 1818 he passed the summer
as music teacher to the household of Count Johann Esterhazy, in
Zelescz, Hungary. The record of his life hereafter is one of incessant
composition, with few interruptions or facts of interest. In 1823, he
showed Weber his eighth work for the stage: “Alfonso and Estrella.” The
only advice he received was that “first operas, like first puppies,
should be drowned.” The summer of 1824 was spent again with the
Esterhazys and many characteristic compositions, such as the quartet in
A minor, the “Hungarian Divertissement,” the piano sonata in B-flat,
etc., date from this time. In 1826, Schubert failed to obtain either
of two positions, which would have placed him above need, the second
because, like Beethoven, he refused to alter a trial aria to suit the
voice of a capricious singer. Schubert was taken to see Beethoven
during his last illness, in 1827. In 1828, he went to live with his
brother Ferdinand in a new and damp house. His health, which had
been troublesome before, now gave way, and he died of typhoid fever,
November 28, 1828, in his thirty-second year.

=Personal Traits and Habits of Work=.—Schubert was short of stature,
thickset and rather heavy in features. His face in repose was rather
devoid of expression, but when interested in anything, his eyes glowed
with enthusiasm and his whole appearance changed. His disposition was
even and good-tempered, he was simple and trusting by nature, and
could rarely be induced to put himself forward. Although receiving
many favors from friends, his generosity often led him to give to
others when he could ill spare it. He began composing early in the
morning and worked uninterruptedly for several hours; he walked much
in the afternoon or paid visits to friends, spending his evenings with
congenial spirits at various taverns. Composing was the mainspring of
his existence, and he often wrote down his ideas while in the midst
of conversation with others. Thus he wrote his immortal “Serenade” on
the back of a bill-of-fare at a tavern; a piece for four-hands while
waiting at a hospital for a friend, “and dinner missed in consequence”;
a movement of a string quartet was begun about midnight and finished in
the early morning. Although he set many poems by Goethe, Schiller and
Heine, his inspiration was quite as effectively aroused by second-rate
poems of his friends Mayerhofer, von Schober, or the artless poems of
Müller. Schubert was shy and reserved in what might be called “good
society”; he preferred the company of congenial friends in an humbler
social station. He seems to have cared little for literature, and his
love of poetry was limited to its availability as texts for songs.
In early life he played the violin and the viola in a family string
quartet. Schubert was no virtuoso on the piano, but he played exquisite
accompaniments, and he read well at sight in spite of defective
eyesight. His performance was marked by earnestness and attention to
the inner sentiment of the music rather than by the superficial polish
of the mere pianist. It was said that no one could forget the effect
of Schubert’s songs as performed by himself and his friend Vogl; the
two seemed absolutely united, the ideal condition for the rendering of
vocal works.

=Schubert’s Compositions=.—Schubert completed more than eleven hundred
pieces in about eighteen years. Such fertility is unique in the history
of composition, and is scarcely equalled even by Mozart, whose activity
extended over nearly thirty years. Schubert’s powers of spontaneous
invention have never been approached; he composed generally without
making sketches; he seldom revised, for his ideas came faster than he
could write them down. It is impossible to enumerate all Schubert’s
works, but the following comprise the most important: Nine symphonies,
eleven works for the stage, six masses, over seventy part-songs,
choruses, etc., for various combinations, twenty-four sonatas for
piano, fantasies, overtures, variations, marches and dances for piano
duet, impromptus, moments musicals, fantasies, variations and over
two hundred dances for piano solo, two trios for piano and strings,
a quintet for strings and piano, a string quintet and several string
trios, twenty-four string quartets, besides about six hundred songs
with piano accompaniment and occasionally with obligatos for other
instruments. It is obvious that such fertility is not consistent
with evenness of quality; we must pick and choose to find the real
Schubert. However, the symphonies in C and B minor (“Unfinished”),
the string quartets in D minor and G major, several sonatas for
piano, the impromptus, moments musicals, the fantasy in C for piano,
the Hungarian Divertissement, several marches and other compositions
for four hands, many charming two-hand waltzes, and, finally, such
song-cycles as the “Miller-Songs,” the “Winter Journey,” those called
“Swan-Songs” by the publishers, as well as about thirty separate songs
“The Erl-King,” “The Wanderer,” “To Sylvia,” “The Omnipotent,” “The
Young Nun,” the “Serenade,” “Hark! Hark! the Lark,” “Sei mir Gegrüsst,”
“Du bist die Ruh,” “Ave Maria,” “Litany,” and others, are the works
of Schubert which will live. Schubert at his best entrances us by his
wonderful flow of melody, his spontaneity, his symmetrical form, which,
however, is sometimes diffuse. His chief qualities lie in the simple
expressiveness of his music, a direct appeal to sincerity of emotion,
and to the sense of the poetic. He began by imitating the form and
style of Mozart and Beethoven; but from his eighteenth year onward
he developed an individuality entirely apart. Despite the virtues
of his instrumental music, his great achievement was the creation
of the German song, in which department he stands unrivalled in the
inexhaustibility of his melody, the variety of mood which they display,
the subtlety and harmonic beauty of his accompaniments, as well as art
in creating vocal effects.

=Schubert’s Influence on Music=.—In abundance of resource, poetic
feeling and true imagination, Schubert has brought new forces into
music. His influence on romantic composers was widespread and deep.
Schumann was a thorough admirer of Schubert. Schumann’s songs could
hardly have come into existence but for those of Schubert, and
the latter’s short pieces for piano were undoubtedly as potent an
inspiration for his piano works. Brahms, too, had a real reverence
for Schubert, that is plainly exhibited in his works. Despite the
differences of their artistic individuality, there are traces of
Schubert in the former’s songs as well as in some of his short piano
pieces. Liszt’s partiality to Schubert was untiring in its zeal. He
played his piano music, transcribed the “Hungarian Divertissement,”
arranged some of the marches for two hands and for orchestra; he made
a version of the fantasy in C for piano and orchestra, which is still
popular; and, finally (perhaps his greatest service to Schubert) he
transcribed no less than fifty-seven of his songs for piano. In this
form he created an interest in Schubert where the original versions
were unknown, and did much to spread their renown. In spite of all
shortcomings, Schubert’s genius was so remarkable, and his immediate
effect upon the Romantic movement so apparent and his legacy to the
musical world so imperishable that it is difficult not to agree with
Sir George Grove when he wrote: “There has never been one like him and
there never will be another.”


                              REFERENCES.

Grove.—Dictionary of Music and Musicians, article on Schubert.

Frost.—Life of Schubert.

Von Hellborn.—Life of Franz Schubert.

Dvořák.—Franz Schubert. (Century Library of Music.)


                               QUESTIONS.

From what rank in life did Schubert come?

Give the leading incidents in his life.

What kind of man was he physically, mentally and socially?

How did Schubert compose?

In what forms of composition did Schubert work?

What form of composition did he especially enrich?

Which of his productions have the greatest vogue today?

What influence did Schubert exert on music?

Who did much to spread a knowledge of his works?

Name some composers who have felt his force.



                             LESSON XLIII.

                          WEBER. MENDELSSOHN.


Schubert’s operas had no appreciable effect on the Romantic composers,
for the simple reason that they were never heard on account of the
absurdities of their librettos and the weakness of their stage
situations. At about the same period, a slightly older composer was
beginning a series of works destined to place German Opera on a firm
basis, to exercise a decided influence on Wagner, besides contributing
not a little to the development of piano technic.

=Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber= was born at Eutin, December 18,
1786. His father, a restless man of many talents, was a theatrical
manager during Weber’s early years, when constant traveling was the
rule, and music lessons the exception. His irregular early instruction
under several teachers, of whom Michael Haydn was the most eminent, was
supplemented by two years of solid study under the gifted and eccentric
Abbé Vogler. From 1804 to 1806, Weber was music-director at the Breslau
theatre, and soon made a name for himself as composer and pianist as
well as conductor. After this he remained under the protection of the
Duke of Wurtemburg, earning a living by giving lessons, and acting as
secretary to the Duke’s brother. During this period he composed an
opera “Silvana,” overtures, a cantata, piano music, etc. Three years
of wandering, chiefly on concert tours, ensued after his banishment
from Wurtemburg on account of unjustly suspected complicity in an
intrigue for a position at court. To these years belong a comic opera,
“Abu Hassan,” the piano concertos in C and E-flat, three concertos for
clarinet, the piano sonata in C, etc. In 1814 and 1815, he composed
the choruses, “Lyre and Sword,” and a cantata, “Battle and Victory,”
both the outcome of political events, and widely popular from their
patriotic character. In 1816, he became music-director of the German
opera at Dresden. He revived interest in German opera, stimulated
public support and in the following years began the composition of
“Der Freischütz,” an opera thoroughly German in its character and the
keystone of Weber’s fame. It was not finished until 1820, for in the
meantime he wrote much of his best piano music, songs and incidental
music for a gipsy play “Preciosa.” Just after the completion of his
popular Concert-piece for piano and orchestra, “Der Freischütz” was
given for the first time at Berlin, June 18, 1821, and the result was
one of the greatest triumphs ever bestowed on a German composer. It
was soon given in all the principal theatres in Germany, including
Dresden, and also in Vienna. In 1823, Weber’s most ambitious opera,
“Euryanthe,” was given in Vienna and proved almost a failure. Weber’s
health, which had not been satisfactory for some years, showed signs
of being undermined. “Euryanthe” was performed with greater success
during 1824 and 1825, at Dresden, Leipzig and Berlin, where Weber was
almost too ill to conduct. In spite of his ill-health he agreed to
write an opera for the Covent Garden Theatre, in London, beginning the
music to “Oberon” early in 1825 and finishing the last number in the
spring of 1826. The performances were more than satisfactory, and Weber
was received everywhere with enthusiasm. His strength was now entirely
overtaxed, and he hoped to return to his family, but he died suddenly
from consumption, on June 4, 1826.

=Weber’s personality= was pleasing; of excellent birth, his experience
of the world through his positions as opera-director and his frequent
concert-tours, made him an agreeable companion and a favorite in
society. He was cultivated, well read in philosophy and science; he
possessed considerable literary and critical ability. In consequence
of his intellectual and social gifts, he was a new type of musician,
who did much to improve the social status of the composer. He was a
remarkable pianist, with an immense command of technic, original in
style and eloquent in expression; also a forceful conductor.

=Weber the Composer=.—Weber is, first of all, the composer of the
three operas, “Der Freischütz,” “Euryanthe” and “Oberon,” which are
discussed in Lesson XXXVII. The overtures to his operas are his best
orchestral works; his symphonies and chamber-music are unimportant.
However, his three concertos for clarinet and orchestra are classics
in the literature of that instrument. Weber’s songs are interesting
for the sidelight they throw on the development of the Folk-song
tendency, but in this line he was entirely overshadowed by Schubert
and Schumann. However, Weber’s piano music is exceedingly important.
The concertos for piano are seldom heard, but the “Concert-piece” is
still amply worth study. The piano sonatas (especially those in C and
A-flat) show great technical inventiveness, melodic charm and original
effects, but they are less happy in point of form. Next to the sonatas
in interest comes the delightful Op. 65, “Invitation to the Dance,” so
well-known in Berlioz’ orchestral version. In addition are the “Momento
Capriccioso,” Op. 12, the Rondo in E-flat, Op. 62, the “Polacca
Brillante,” Op. 72, the Polonaise, Op. 21. Weber did much to develop
the technic of the left hand; his piano compositions are thoroughly
pianistic and rank high in the music of the Romantic period.

=Weber’s Influence=.—Weber’s position in the evolution of the Romantic
school is extremely important. In Opera his exploration of the
imaginative field in so many directions not only opened a new vein
in dramatic music, but its influence was felt in every branch of
composition. Thus several of Schumann’s choral works, Mendelssohn’s
“Midsummer Night’s Dream” music, the “Walpurgis Night” cantata, the
concert overtures, and pieces for piano and orchestra are direct
musical descendants of Weber. Mendelssohn’s Concerto in G minor, the
“Serenade” and “Allegro Giojoso,” his scherzos and “Songs Without
Words” are the direct outcome of Weber’s example. In general, the
technical style of Weber’s piano music was thoroughly absorbed by both
Mendelssohn and, to some extent, Liszt, who edited Weber’s sonatas
and solo pieces with tempting additions; he transcribed for piano
the overtures “Jubilee,” “Freischütz” and “Oberon,” and arranged the
“Polacca Brillante,” Op. 72, for piano and orchestra. Liszt was very
fond of Weber’s music, his piano style was sympathetic to him, his
interpretation of the Concert-piece, Op. 79, never failed to produce
an overwhelming effect. Finally, Weber’s influence on Wagner must
be mentioned. Wagner greatly admired Weber’s dramatic insight, his
picturesqueness, and especially the poetry and novel color of his
orchestral style.


                              MENDELSSOHN.

The influence which Mendelssohn exercised during two-thirds of the
19th century among the more conservative German musicians and in
England was nothing short of extraordinary. He undoubtedly gave great
impetus to the study of the classic masters, especially Bach, and his
romantic tendencies were so balanced and controlled as to gain a speedy
recognition for his music. Today, Mendelssohn the classicist is less
admired, and his music will live chiefly for its romantic qualities.

=Mendelssohn’s Life=.—Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy[15] was
born at Hamburg, February 3, 1809. His father, a prosperous banker,
moved to Berlin in 1811. His first lessons in music were given him by
his mother, but he soon began to study the piano with Ludwig Berger, a
pupil of Clementi, and composition with Zelter. In 1820, he began to
compose systematically. In 1821, he made the acquaintance of Weber,
and his enthusiasm for the romantic composer lasted all his life. In
1824, he formed a life-long friendship with Moscheles, who gave him
piano lessons. Already he was remarkable for his improvisations and
for playing from scores. In 1825, a trip to Paris brought him into
contact with the celebrated musicians there. In this year he composed
his octet for strings, in which his individuality first asserted itself
strongly. In the following summer he wrote the overture to “A Midsummer
Night’s Dream,” a precocious evidence of originality. In 1827, he made
the first draft of his overture “A Calm Sea and a Prosperous Voyage,”
a further step into the realm of imagination. In 1829, he organized
the first performance of Bach’s “St. Matthew Passion” music since
the composer’s death. In this year a visit to England, where some of
his compositions were performed, was followed by a trip to Scotland,
the Hebrides and Wales, of which his impressions are recorded in the
“Hebrides” overture, the “Scotch” symphony and other works of later
years. He traveled much during the following years. In 1833, after
another visit to England, where his recently composed “Italian”
symphony was played, he conducted a musical festival at Düsseldorf, the
first of many similar engagements. During the next few years he was
constantly employed in conducting, playing and composing, especially
his oratorio “St. Paul.” In 1837, he married Miss Cécile Jeanrenaud.
From this time dates his second piano concerto in D minor, in which are
to be seen traces of Thalberg’s piano style. During the next few years
Mendelssohn lived at Leipzig. In 1843, he established a conservatory
at Leipzig, long the most celebrated in Europe. Schumann, and later
Moscheles, were among the teachers as well as Mendelssohn himself. In
1846, Mendelssohn’s oratorio “Elijah” was given a triumphant first
performance at Birmingham under the composer’s direction. In 1847,
he made his tenth visit to England for performances of “Elijah,” of
his completed “Midsummer Night’s Dream” music (composed in 1845), the
“Scotch” symphony and other works. The death of his sister, Fanny,
following soon after those of his parents, was so great a shock to
him that he went to Switzerland for a rest. He returned improved in
health, but could not consider commissions for new works from England,
Frankfort and Cologne. He was considering a trip to Vienna to hear
Jenny Lind sing in “Elijah” when he was taken suddenly ill and died,
November 4, 1847.

=Personal Traits=.—Mendelssohn is described as having an unusually
animated, winning personality. He was immensely fond of society, which
he could enjoy without detriment to his work. His letters describe
in detail his innumerable professional engagements, his round of
social festivities and his journeys with equal fidelity. Mendelssohn
was fond of out-of-door life, walking, riding and swimming; he also
greatly enjoyed dancing. One of his favorite relaxations was to sketch
from nature or paint in water-colors. Mendelssohn was a remarkable
pianist, of an unaffected type, not a virtuoso, yet his interpretations
were full of vigor, charm and a thoroughly musical spirit. His
improvisations were remarkable for their spontaneous invention,
brilliance and science displayed, and his cadenzas to Beethoven’s 4th
concerto and Mozart’s, in D minor, were striking examples of his skill.
Mendelssohn was also a remarkable organist, if English testimony is
to be credited. At all events, he did much to further the knowledge
of Bach’s organ works. Mendelssohn’s incessant activity undoubtedly
hastened his death; the amount that he compressed into his short life
was incredible.

=Compositions=.—The works most representative of Mendelssohn are the
“Scotch” and “Italian” symphonies, the overtures “A Calm Sea and a
Prosperous Voyage,” “A Midsummer Night’s Dream,” “The Hebrides,”
“Melusina,” “Ruy Blas”; the concertos and two smaller pieces for piano
and orchestra; the concerto for violin; the octet for strings; two
quintets and seven quartets; three quartets for piano and strings; two
trios; two sonatas for piano and ’cello; for the piano, six preludes
and fugues; three sonatas; the “Serious Variations”; six books of
“Songs Without Words”; many smaller pieces, including the “Capriccio,”
Op. 8; the “Rondo Capriccioso,” Op. 14; the Caprices, Op. 33; the
Scherzo à Capriccio and others; sonatas, preludes and fugues for organ;
the oratorios “St. Paul,” and “Elijah”; music to “A Midsummer Night’s
Dream,” to the dramas “Athalie,” “Antigone” and “Œdipus”; the cantata
“Walpurgis Night.” He also wrote a great deal of church music, psalms,
hymns, motets, and cantatas for various occasions, including the
“Lobgesang,” a symphony-cantata; many part-songs, duets and songs for
single voice with piano accompaniment.

[Illustration: FELIX MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY.]

=Mendelssohn’s Tendencies=.—Although he wrote almost exclusively in the
conventional forms, Mendelssohn cannot be regarded as a continuator
of the classics. In form, thematic development, counterpoint,
part-writing, etc., he imitated the letter of classic example closely,
but could not attain the inner spirit. To some extent he followed Bach,
Handel, Mozart and Beethoven, but the chief source of his individuality
is the romanticism of Weber. His piano style is adapted from that of
Weber with some extensions of his own. Showered with praise as he was
during his lifetime, as the possessor of all the classic virtues, we
now admire him chiefly for his romanticism, timid and fastidious though
it appears by comparison with the genuine innovations of Berlioz,
Liszt and Wagner. In the light of the sturdy qualities of Brahms, his
classicism seems superficial. His style was too polished to admit
of real vigor. Nevertheless, Mendelssohn of the two symphonies, the
“Midsummer Night’s Dream,” “Melusina” and “Hebrides” overture, the
violin concerto, the piano concerto in G minor, the sonata for piano
and ’cello in D, the scherzo of the octet, the “Serious Variations,”
the Scherzo à Capriccio and some half a dozen of the “Songs Without
Words” shows us a delicate and charming individuality with the
refinement and decided perceptions of the poet, who regarded the
world with the eyes of a romanticist recording many impressions of
picturesqueness and grace, if seldom of strength.

=Mendelssohn’s Influence as an Artist=.—For a time, Mendelssohn’s
influence was unbounded. His symphonies and overtures were considered
worthy successors to those of Beethoven; his chamber-music was equally
valued; his oratorios were regarded as on a level with those of
Handel; his piano music, especially the “Songs Without Words,” were in
universal vogue. His orchestral style contained many novel features,
it is true, but his chamber-music was not written in the genuine
manner and is far inferior to that of the later master, Brahms. His
oratorios contain some notable choruses and airs, but on the whole are
only faint imitations of the real oratorio style. Still they sufficed
to form the foundation of an English school of composition in this
form. His piano music contains much that is trivial, but at its best
undoubtedly did something to prepare the way for the deeper romanticism
of Schumann, Chopin and Liszt. His songs also have far less variety of
mood and lyric inspiration than those of Schubert and Schumann, but
they too acted as prophets of the more vital creations to follow.

That this reverence for Mendelssohn was no mere infatuation of the
moment but a sober respect can best be judged from the diversity in
nationality and temperament of those who came under his influence:
Gade, the Norwegian; Sterndale Bennett, the English composer and
pianist; Hiller and Reinecke among the Germans, and Rubinstein from
Russia. These names constitute but a small proportion of Mendelssohn’s
disciples, his personality dominated musical England in every branch
of composition for many years; and English composers are only just
beginning to throw off the yoke of adherence to the traditional
oratorio form as exhibited in “St. Paul” and “Elijah.” Schumann admired
Mendelssohn without reserve and without a suggestion of jealousy,
although the tide of popular favor neglected him for his more easily
understood contemporary. Today, criticism has swung possibly too far in
the opposite direction, and Mendelssohn suffers from depreciation.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove’s and Riemann’s Dictionaries.—Articles on Weber and Mendelssohn.

Benedict.—Carl Maria von Weber.

Rockstro.—Life of Mendelssohn.

Lampadius.—Life of Mendelssohn.

Reinecke.—Mendelssohn (Century Library of Music), Mendelssohn’s Letters.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Mention the significant events in Weber’s life.

Describe Weber the man.

Sketch the work of Weber as a composer.

Show the influence of Weber upon music.

Name some of Weber’s best-known piano works.

What composers were greatly influenced by Weber?

Give an account of Mendelssohn’s boyhood, manhood.

What educational work in music did Mendelssohn originate?

In what lines of musical work did Mendelssohn excel?

Name representative compositions of Mendelssohn.

What composers did Mendelssohn follow?

What influence did Mendelssohn exert on music?

For students who wish to study Weber’s characteristics, the Momento
Capriccioso, Op. 12, the “Invitation to the Dance,” Op. 65, the
piano sonatas in C and A-flat are the most representative, while the
overtures to “Der Freischütz,” “Euryanthe” and “Oberon” show his style
as a dramatic composer.

The following suggestions may aid the student in his study of
Mendelssohn’s works: The “Italian” and “Scotch” symphonies, the
“Midsummer Night’s Dream,” “Hebrides” and “Melusina” overtures, the
Nocturne and Scherzo from the “Midsummer Night’s Dream” music, the
violin concerto, the concerto in G minor and the Capriccio Brillante
for piano and orchestra, the pieces for piano, Op. 7, Nos. 3 and 7, the
Rondo Capriccioso, Op. 14, the Caprice, Op. 16, No. 2, the Prelude and
Fugue, Op. 35, No. 1, the Serious Variations, Op. 54, the Scherzo à
Capriccio without opus number, and the following “Songs Without Words,”
Op. 19, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 6; Op. 38, Nos. 2, 3, 5; Op. 62, Nos. 3, 6; Op.
67, No. 4, and Op. 102, No. 3. Liszt has made an exceedingly effective
transcription of Mendelssohn’s song “On the Wings of Song,” which is a
popular concert number today.



                              LESSON XLIV.

                            ROBERT SCHUMANN.


=The Romantic Movement before Schumann=.—Schubert gave a decided
impetus to the Romantic movement through his spontaneous melody and
deep fund of imagination. He infused poetry into the classic forms, his
piano works in the small forms showed the way to future achievement in
these lines, but especially he founded German song, which had scarcely
been hinted at by Mozart and Beethoven. Although Weber extended the
province of piano technic, and exhibited further possibilities of
romantic feeling in combination with the rondo and sonata forms, his
chief work was the realization of German opera, elsewhere described.
But still another German was destined to contribute richly to
romantic piano literature, to prove no mean successor to Schubert
in the province of song, and to add further proofs of his genius in
chamber-music, choral works and the symphony.

=Schumann’s Early life=.—Robert Alexander Schumann was born at
Zwickau, in Saxony, June 8, 1810. His father was a bookseller with
some attainments as an author. Schumann’s gift for music asserted
itself early. He had piano lessons from a local organist at the age of
six, and began to compose soon after. A taste for improvisation also
developed. For several years his literary interests were as pronounced
as those for music. He read assiduously, and was especially devoted to
poetry. His general education was continued at the Zwickau Academy,
where he studied until 1828. In 1827, he came under the joint influence
of the writings of Jean Paul (Richter) the poet and novelist, and of
Schubert’s music, both of which played an important part in his mental
and artistic growth. In 1828, he entered the University of Leipzig
with the intention of studying law. He kept up his music, however, and
not only became enthusiastic over the clavier works of Bach, but took
piano lessons of Friedrich Wieck, a celebrated teacher in Leipzig. In
1829, Schumann went to Heidelberg. Here he continued his law studies
in a desultory fashion, but worked with the greatest persistence at
piano playing. In 1830, he resolved to study law with more seriousness,
but it was intensely repugnant to him, and after some reflection,
he determined, with Wieck’s advice, to adopt music as a profession.
Accordingly, he returned to Leipzig to study the piano with Wieck,
but having the misfortune to injure a finger in his zeal for speedy
perfection, he was obliged to forego the career of a virtuoso, perhaps
to the great gain of music.

=Schumann’s Professional Career=.—He now devoted his attention to
thorough study of composition with Heinrich Dorn. In 1834, Schumann
founded the “New Journal of Music” in the interests of a higher
critical standard, and the furtherance of worthy compositions. During
ten years of editorship, Schumann found abundant outlet for his
literary interests, and his paper exerted a considerable force on
public opinion. Two of his greatest piano works, the Carnival, Op. 9,
and the Symphonic Studies, Op. 13, belong to the year 1834. During
the years 1836 and 1837, he had some intimacy with Mendelssohn. From
1836-39 date most of Schumann’s important works for the piano. In 1840,
Schumann married Wieck’s daughter, Clara, the celebrated pianist,
after several years’ struggle to gain her father’s consent. Schumann’s
marriage was the turning-point in his artistic career, and his wife’s
sympathy was a great stimulus to his creative activity. In the year
following his marriage, Schumann turned to song-composing, producing
more than one hundred songs in this period. In 1841, he gave himself up
wholly to orchestral composition, writing his symphony in B-flat, the
first draft of his D minor symphony, a third work, afterwards published
as Overture, Scherzo and Finale, as well as the first movement of his
piano concerto. In 1842, he confined himself almost exclusively to
chamber-music, composing three string quartets, the masterly quintet,
Op. 44, the quartet, Op. 47, for piano and strings, and a trio. To
1845 belong the “Variations” for two pianos, and a large choral work,
“Paradise and the Peri.” In 1844, Schumann began the music to Goethe’s
“Faust,” but ill-health interrupted him for more than a year. However,
in 1845 he completed the piano concerto, wrote several works for pedal
piano, and in 1846 finished his second symphony. In 1847, he began his
opera “Genoveva,” which was not given until 1850. Late in 1850 he went
to Düsseldorf to take a position as director. While here he composed
his third symphony. In the following years he wrote several overtures,
works for solo instruments and orchestra, the overture and incidental
music to Byron’s “Manfred,” “The Pilgrimage of the Rose” and many
other choral works, including a Mass and a Requiem. Early in 1854,
symptoms of a mental disorder, which had been increasing of late years,
culminated in an attempt at suicide. He passed the remaining years of
his life in an asylum near Bonn, where he died July 29, 1856.

[Illustration: ROBERT SCHUMANN.]

=Schumann’s Personality=.—By reason of his two-fold activity as critic
and composer, Schumann was a new force in music. Highly cultivated in
literature, philosophy and poetry, he possessed a keen and discerning
critical taste, and a literary style that was picturesque and eloquent.
Schumann was shy and reserved by nature, he talked little but observed
and reflected abundantly. He was never fond of society, and as years
went by he lived more and more like a hermit, absorbed in composition
and family life. For ten years, however, he was in touch with the
public by reason of his editorship of the “New Journal,” and by his
championship therein of all that was good and progressive in the music
of the day, did much for the encouragement of true art. His articles
on Schubert, Mendelssohn, Gade, Chopin, Berlioz, Liszt, Brahms and
others formed a new epoch in musical criticism, and helped the cause
of Romanticism immeasurably. No estimate of Schumann’s character is
complete without taking into account these distinct tendencies as
critic and composer. His collected writings give a graphic illustration
of his views on music, and form a supplement to his personality as
expressed in his music.

=Schumann’s Compositions=.—Schumann’s most representative works include
four symphonies and the “Overture, Scherzo and Finale,” the overtures
“Genoveva” and “Manfred”; three string quartets, a piano quintet,
a piano quartet, three piano trios and two sonatas for piano and
violin; the music to “Faust” and “Manfred”; “Paradise and the Peri,”
“The Pilgrimage of the Rose” and other works for solos, chorus and
orchestra; more than two hundred songs; the piano concerto and two
smaller works for piano and orchestra, besides a monumental series
of works for piano alone. In addition there are duets, part-songs,
choruses, pieces for piano duet, a concert piece for four horns and
orchestra, a concerto for ’cello and orchestra, a fantasy for violin
and orchestra, besides short pieces for oboe, viola, clarinet and
’cello with piano accompaniment, the opera “Genoveva,” the overtures
“The Bride of Messina,” “Julius Cæsar” and “Herman and Dorothea,” the
Mass, Op. 147, and the Requiem, Op. 148.

It will be seen that Schumann wrote much in the sonata or symphonic
form, yet his command of it was far from complete. In this respect and
in instrumentation, Schumann was inferior to his romantic contemporary,
Mendelssohn. On the other hand, he was far more original and his music
has a much greater depth of sentiment, a higher sense of beauty and
a noble human breadth that forms one of the highest points in the
development of romanticism. What he lacked in technical attainment,
he more than made up in beauty of themes, vigor and spontaneity of
treatment, and thorough-going romanticism in moods. It is difficult to
say which is his best symphony, they all have merits of their own; of
the overtures, that to “Genoveva” (almost the only surviving portion of
the opera) and “Manfred” are examples of Schumann’s ardent romanticism
at its best. The string-quartets are not always in quartet style and
their structure is sometimes open to criticism, but they are individual
and contain much that is beautiful. The piano-quartet is a genial work
of great spontaneity that took Europe by storm. It was immediately
hailed as the greatest work since Beethoven, although its position
might now be assailed by the piano quintets by Brahms and César Franck.
The piano quartet, as well as the quintet, is a pioneer in this form
of chamber-music, but has not the same flow of melody as the former.
The trios and sonatas for violin and piano, although not on a level
with the other chamber-music, have nevertheless striking qualities to
commend them. Schumann’s choral music is decidedly unequal, but the
“Paradise and the Peri,” and portions of the “Faust” and “Manfred”
music display the same breadth of human emotion so characteristic of
his best music. In the field of song, Schumann is a worthy successor
to Schubert. Schumann’s songs have not the inexhaustible melody of
Schubert’s, but they are richer harmonically, the accompaniments more
individual, and the character of the poems more subtly brought out.

=Schumann’s Contribution to the Short Piece=.—Perhaps Schumann’s most
conspicuous service to music lies in his development of the short
piece. In this direction he has cultivated a branch of expression,
with an originality, a freedom and a richness that have no parallel
in the Romantic movement except in Chopin. Mendelssohn undoubtedly
did something for the short piece, but his “Songs Without Words” are
limited to a few types, while Schumann made the short form serve every
variety of expression. He undoubtedly owed much to the examples of
Schubert with his waltzes and other dances, the impromptus and moments
musicals, but in richness of resource and spontaneity of expression
he went much beyond the older master. His piano style is highly
distinctive; it does not offer much that is new in finger technic, but
in polyphonic treatment of melodies, in striking rhythms and harmonic
effects and in original use of the pedal it is remarkable. Both in the
sets of small pieces, such as the “Papillons,” Op. 2, the “Davidsbund
Dances,” Op. 6, the “Carnival,” Op. 9, or the Flower pieces, Op. 19,
and in the Novellettes, Op. 21, the Fantasie pieces, Op. 12, the
Symphonic Studies, Op. 15, the Toccata, Op. 7, and the great Fantasy,
Op. 17, Schumann displays a wealth of imaginative poetry that makes him
one of the greatest romanticists in piano music. His piano works from
Op. 2 to Op. 28 are matchless, although the sonatas, Op. 11 and 22,
suffer from lack of coherence. The variations for two pianos, Op. 46,
and the concerto, Op. 54, are models of their type. The “Album for the
Young,” Op. 68, the “Forest Scenes,” Op. 82, the “Varied Leaves,” Op.
99, and the “Album Leaves,” Op. 124, are all admirable, and contain a
great variety of short pieces, many of which were composed early in his
career. Schumann’s songs and piano pieces are the best examples of his
contribution to romanticism.

Schubert and Jean Paul Richter (the romantic novelist and poet)
were the earliest influences in Schumann’s studies, nevertheless he
admired Beethoven greatly, and shut himself up with his quartets as
a preparation for his own chamber-music. As a student in Leipzig, he
was devoted to Bach’s clavier works, and later in life he renewed
his enthusiasm for Bach while writing the works for pedal piano and
the piano fugues. Fugal form and romantic sentiment do not go well
together, however, and Schumann’s compositions in this form are not his
greatest. Schumann’s influence is strongest upon composers of songs
and short piano pieces. It would be difficult to name even the most
representative, but the most signal example is Brahms, whose songs and
piano pieces could hardly exist but for Schumann. In many of the modern
Russian composers we find distinct traces of Schumann, as well as
among the Frenchmen Gabriel Fauré and Vincent d’Indy, the German Adolf
Jensen, the Italian Sgambati, and many others.

=Compositions Suggested for Study=.—The symphonies, overtures, the
chamber-music and the larger choral works are all characteristic
of Schumann at his best, but for more detailed study of his piano
music and songs the following are suggested. Of the piano works,
the “Papillons,” Op. 2; the “Paganini Caprice,” Op. 3, No. 2; the
“Davidsbund” dances, Op. 6, Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17,
18; the “Toccata,” Op. 7; the “Carnival,” Op. 9; the Sonata, Op.
11, especially the “Aria” and “Scherzo”; the “Fantasy Pieces,” Op.
12, entire except the “Fable”; the “Symphonic Studies,” Op. 13; the
“Scenes from Childhood,” Op. 15, Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 13; the
“Kreisleriana,” Op. 16, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8; the “Arabesque,”
Op. 18; the “Flower Pieces,” Op. 19; the “Humoreskes,” Op. 20; the
“Novellettes,” Op. 21, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8; the Sonata, Op.
22; the “Night Piece,” Op. 23, No. 4; the “Carnival Prank,” Op. 26,
Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4; the “Romance,” Op. 28, No. 2; the Variations for
two pianos, Op. 46; the Concerto, Op. 54; the “Album for the Young,”
Op. 68; “The Happy Farmer,” “May, Lovely May,” “First Loss,” “Small
Romance,” “Remembrance,” November 4, 1847 (the date of Mendelssohn’s
death); “Canonic Song,” “Theme,” two pieces without name, “Northern
Song”; Op. 76, Nos. 1, 3 and 4; “Forest Scenes,” Op. 82; “Entrance,”
“Lovely Flower,” “Inn,” “Bird as Prophet,” “Hunting Song,” “Elves”; Op.
99, Album Leaf, and Novellette; “Album Leaves,” Op. 124, Nos. 1, 2, 3,
4, 10, 13, 15 and 17. Of the songs: “Dedication,” “The Nut Tree,” “The
Lotus Flower,” “Highland Cradle Song,” “Two Venetian Songs,” “Thou Art
like a Flower,” and “Conclusion,” “The Boy with the Magic Horn,” “To
the Sunshine,” “Forest Dialogue,” “Moonlight,” “Spring Night,” “Woman’s
Love and Life,” “Spring Journey,” “In the Wondrous Month of May,” “From
My Tears,” “The Roses, the Lily,” “When I Look into Thine Eyes,” “I
Grudge it Not,” “The Two Grenadiers,” “Folk-Song.”


                              REFERENCES.

Grove’s and Riemann’s Dictionaries.—Article on Schumann.

Grieg.—Robert Schumann (Century Library of Music).

Hadow.—Studies in Modern Music. (Chapter on Schumann.)

Maitland.—Schumann.

Wasielewski.—Life of Schumann.

Finck.—Chopin and Other Essays. (Chapter on Schumann.)


                               QUESTIONS.

Who represented the Romantic movement prior to Schumann?

Give the important events in Schumann’s early life.

Give the important events in Schumann’s professional career.

Give an account of Schumann as a man and as a critic.

How did Schumann help in musical progress?

What composers influenced him in his development?

In what forms did Schumann write?

Name representative works in the different forms.

What contribution did Schumann make to the development of the short
piano piece?

What composers did Schumann influence?

[Illustration: FREDERIC CHOPIN.]



                              LESSON XLV.

                            FREDERIC CHOPIN.


=Schumann and Chopin=.—Among Schumann’s many able reviews of new
music, showing the keenest critical insight, none exhibit a more just
appreciation of an original talent than his article on some variations
by a young composer who was destined to exert so deep and widespread an
influence on piano style and piano composition. Chopin’s romanticism,
somewhat affected at first by both Hummel and Field, is one of the most
individual developments of the entire period.

=Chopin’s Early life=.—Frederic Chopin was born at Zelazowa-Wola, near
Warsaw, in Poland, on March 1, 1809. His father, who had served in
various positions as a teacher, finally established a boarding-school
in Warsaw. Chopin showed great sensitiveness towards music at an
early age. His first lessons on the piano were given him by a Polish
teacher of some celebrity, Adalbert Zwyny. He soon became famous as a
pianist, and from the age of nine, played constantly at the houses of
the nobility, and was eagerly received by them. In 1824, he entered
the Warsaw Lyceum in order to pursue his general studies. About the
same time he began lessons in composition with Elsner, who had a high
reputation as a teacher. He had already composed pieces for the piano
on his own account, and continued with such success that as early as
1825 his Op. 1, a Rondo, was published. In 1827, he left the Lyceum,
and gave thereafter all his time to playing and composing. Soon after,
he made great strides in composition, and many of his studies and
smaller pieces, as well as his two concertos, belong to this period,
or were begun then. Early in 1829, Hummel played in Warsaw, and the
influence of his piano style is evident in the works of Chopin for some
time to come. Later in this year, Chopin went to Vienna, where he gave
two concerts, winning instant recognition both as pianist and composer.
After his return to Warsaw he continued to compose much.

=Chopin’s Manhood=.—A second visit to Vienna occurred toward the end
of 1830. He gave concerts, came into contact with many musicians, and
even found time to compose; but being dissatisfied with conditions in
Vienna, determined to go to Paris. Early in 1831, after giving concerts
on the way, he arrived at Paris, which was henceforth to be his home.
Here he was soon thrown with many of the leading musicians, his playing
caused an immediate sensation, and as at Warsaw, he was welcomed in
the most exclusive society. In 1832, he began to acquire fame as a
piano teacher, especially of pupils from the aristocracy. From 1833 to
1835, his compositions began to appear, and gained him much approval
as a composer. In 1835, he went to Leipzig, where he saw Wieck and
his daughter, afterwards Clara Schumann, Mendelssohn and Schumann. In
1837, he met Madame George Sand, the famous writer, whose influence on
his life was so great. During this year the first sinister symptoms
of ill-health made their appearance. With the idea of benefiting his
health, Chopin passed the winter of 1838-39 on the island of Majorca,
with Madame Sand and her two children. The climate had a bad effect
upon him; he could compose but little, and the condition of his lungs
obliged a return to France. He was so ill as to be obliged to spend
several months at Marseilles, recuperating. After a summer at Nohant,
Mme. Sand’s country home, he was again at Paris in the fall of 1839.
From 1840 to 1848, he lived in Paris, with occasional visits to Nohant
in the summer, teaching as much as his health would allow, passing much
time in the most aristocratic society. He seldom played in public,
and would only play for pupils, or when persuaded by devoted friends
to display his extraordinary gifts as a pianist. During these years,
however, his health grew more and more precarious.

=The Last Years of Chopin=.—In 1847, the intimacy of Chopin and Madame
Sand came to an end, for various causes, but largely because of a
character caricatured from Chopin in one of Madame Sand’s novels, and
because she was tired of taking care of him. Ill as he was, he went
to England, after a farewell concert in Paris, arriving in the spring
of 1848. He gave two concerts in London with some success, besides
playing at friends’ houses. He went to Scotland at the instance of a
pupil, Miss Stirling, gave concerts at Edinburgh and Glasgow, besides
one in the interval at Manchester. During this entire tour he suffered
greatly from ill-health and exhaustion, and after one more appearance
in London, he returned to Paris, exceedingly ill, in January, 1849. He
was not able to teach and was obliged to depend upon the generosity
of friends; among them his pupil, Miss Stirling. After several months
of hopeless struggle to regain his health, he died of consumption on
October 17, 1849, surrounded by devoted friends.

=Chopin’s Personality=.—Chopin was extremely refined and delicate by
nature. He was fastidious about the color and fit of his clothes,
the furnishing and arrangement of his rooms, and other details of
everyday life. He was always extremely fond of society and moved
in the highest circles. As a rule, he was averse to seeing much of
musicians, in spite of his friendship with Liszt, Hiller, Berlioz and
Schumann. As a young man he was fond of dancing, acting and practical
jokes; though sensitive, he was well and strong, and able to endure
rough stage-journeys. He was a capital mimic all his life, and a witty
companion who pleased by his gentle irony or sarcasm. He was extremely
reserved in spite of his sociability, his intimate friends (either
Polish or favorite pupils) even quarrelled as to which knew him best.
He was genuinely confidential only in his music. Chopin was exceedingly
patriotic; he was always ready to appear in concert in behalf of Polish
refugees, he corresponded untiringly with his Polish friends, and gave
many proofs of his devotion to Poland, which he never forgot in spite
of years of absence.

=Chopin as Pianist=.—Chopin was a pianist of extraordinary distinction,
in spite of the preëminence of Liszt. His technic, founded in the
school of Clementi and Cramer, with great attention to Bach, was
influenced to some extent by Hummel and Field, but later became highly
original, and expressive of great individuality. Although he possessed
great brilliancy, the most prominent trait in his playing was its
all-pervading and inexhaustible fund of poetry. It had nothing harsh,
unmelodious or ungraceful. His sense of rhythm was unusually piquant,
and one of its features was the skilful use of _tempo rubato_, a slight
variance from strict time without disturbing it fundamentally. In later
life, Chopin became disinclined to appear in public, his performances
were limited to the drawing-rooms of aristocratic friends, where he
would play or improvise for hours. He was never a robust pianist at his
strongest, and the transparent delicacy of his playing during his last
years was almost incredible.

=Chopin’s Compositions=.—Chopin’s music constitutes the true revelation
of himself. His life, not full of action, was, however, rich in emotion
and sentiment of great variety and subtlety. Its mainsprings were his
patriotic love of Poland and everything connected with it, and the
poetic impressionability of his temperament, which were all transferred
to his music. Although Chopin composed a number of works in which he
uses the orchestra, some chamber-music, and a set of Polish songs, he
was first and last a composer for the piano. In addition to the works
referred to, he wrote three sonatas, four ballades, four scherzos,
ten polonaises, fourteen waltzes, twenty-eight studies, fifty-five
mazurkas, twenty-five preludes, seventeen nocturnes, three impromptus
and a fantasie-impromptu, three rondos, besides a superb fantasy, a
concert allegro, a barcarolle, a berceuse, a tarantelle, a bolero, a
rondo for two pianos, and a few trifles.

Of his two concertos, the second published (although the first
composed) is the finer. It is riper and more poetic, the slow movement
reaches a high point of lyric style, and the treatment of form
throughout the concerto is less awkward. Chopin is not at home in the
sonata form, the concertos are interesting in spite of, rather than
on account of, their treatment of form. The piano sonatas, Op. 35 and
58, have faults of structure, and occasional incoherence, but they are
so full of poetry, romantic melody and dramatic mood that one almost
overlooks their technical shortcomings.

=Chopin Most Successful in Free Forms=.—The most representative works
of Chopin are those in which he adopts no conventional form, but
follows his own instinct entirely. Thus, in his ballades, scherzos,
and especially in the fantasy, Op. 49, one finds freedom of invention
and variety of treatment combined with logical development and real
coherence. The ballads are dramatic poems in which sentiment and
virtuosity are happily united. The scherzos are original conceptions
quite distinct from the accepted type; they have bold outlines, variety
of mood and demand virtuosity in their performance. The fantasy
is instructive in its logical structure, there is no sign of the
constraint of the sonatas, and its contents are both dramatic on a
large scale and lyric by contrast. The impromptus are shorter pieces
of a lyric nature, although the element of virtuosity is not lacking.
The nocturnes are lyric pieces of simple form but intimate style.
Their general plan was at first copied from Field, but the imitator
went so far ahead of his model as almost to eclipse it. Some of them
portray idyllic moods, others are sentimental or even dramatic in their
outlines. The studies, Op. 10 and 25, epitomize in a remarkable way
Chopin’s technical innovations, and piano style. They are brilliant,
poetic and highly dramatic by turns, and in their contents are the most
musical studies composed up to their time.

=National Spirit in Chopin’s Music=.—Chopin, the patriot, was devoted
to the dances and Folk-melodies of his own country. He was thoroughly
national as a composer; hence in some respects his mazurkas and
polonaises are the most characteristic of his compositions. The
mazurkas with their vital rhythms and novel harmonies, contain much
poetry of mood and variety of expression within small limits. The
polonaise, as treated by Chopin, was less a dance form, and more an
independent form with characteristic rhythms. The polonaises, Op. 44
and 53, are virtually patriotic poems. The preludes are sketches of
varying size; some are genuine lyrics; some frankly technical in their
object; others have a distinct touch of the dramatic. Some of the
waltzes suggest the _salon_, but in others Chopin has individualized
the type until it has risen above its origin. Among the single
pieces, the Concert Allegro is large in dimensions, very interesting
technically and musically. The Barcarolle, in nocturne-form on a larger
scale, is almost heroic in its outlines, and a superb example of his
mature style. Another piece equally deserving of distinction is the
Berceuse, an ingenious series of variations on a persistent bass. The
Tarantelle and Bolero are merely fascinating salon pieces.

Of the youthful works with orchestra, the variations on a theme from
Mozart’s “Don Juan” are more interesting from the novelty of their
piano styles than as variations; the Fantasie on Polish themes attracts
attention chiefly on account of its Folk-song character, while the
“Krakowiak” rondo is remarkable for its spirited national-dance
rhythms. The orchestral accompaniments to these pieces are not
significant; in fact, Chopin’s use of the orchestra was his weakest
point. The Polish songs are unequal, and at best add little to his
fame. Liszt, however, has transcribed six, of which two are frequently
heard in concert, while Sgambati has arranged one.

=Originality and Freshness of Invention=.—The most extraordinary trait
of Chopin as a composer is that, in spite of the limitations imposed by
repeating the same form over and over again, he is almost inexhaustible
in variety of expression. As the poet of lyric mood he accomplished
almost as much as Schumann for the development of the short piece,
while in his longer pieces of dramatic mood and large contours he
has shown that the sonata-form is not the only structure by which to
convey heroic sentiment. His was the most subtle originality, the
most personal style which stamped itself indelibly on nearly every
composition. He immeasurably broadened the technical treatment of the
piano, not only as a virtuoso, but in the direction of variety of
expression, delicate accentuation and exquisite tone. Among romantic
composers he has done more for the advancement of piano style than
anyone except Liszt. In spite of the latter’s gigantic achievement,
the value of Chopin’s contribution is still unimpaired. From the point
of view of expression, Chopin is more individual even than Schumann,
but the honors as the most important composer for the piano during
the Romantic period must be divided between them. Chopin’s influence
has been immense not only on the composers and pianists of France and
Germany but also markedly among living composers in Russia. Chopin is
the preëminent poet of the piano.

=Representative Compositions=.—The following list for the student
contains the works and pieces most thoroughly characteristic of his
genius: The sonatas, Op. 35 and 38; the scherzos, Op. 20, 31 and 39;
the ballades, Op. 23, 38, 47 and 52; the polonaises, Op. 22, 26, 40,
44 and 53; the waltzes, Op. 18, Op. 34, Nos. 1 and 2; Op. 42, Op. 64,
Nos. 1, 2, and Op. 69, No. 1; the studies, Op. 10, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6, 7, 10 and 12; Op. 25, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11 and 12; the
mazurkas, Op. 6, Nos. 1, 2; Op. 7, Nos. 1, 2, 3; Op. 17, Nos. 2, 3, 4;
Op. 24, Nos. 1, 3, 4; Op. 30, Nos. 2, 4; Op. 33, Nos. 1, 3, 4; Op. 41,
Nos. 1, 2; Op. 56, No. 2; Op. 59, Nos. 2 and 3; Op. 63, No. 3; Op. 68,
No. 2; the nocturnes, Op. 9, Op. 15, Nos, 2, 3; Op. 27, Op. 37, Op. 48,
No. 1; Op. 55, Op. 62, No. 1; the preludes, Op. 28, Nos. 1, 3, 4, 6, 7,
8, 9, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23 and 24; the prelude, Op. 45; the
impromptus, Op. 29, Op. 35, Op. 51, and the Fantasie-Impromptu, Op. 66;
the Fantasy, Op. 49; the Tarantelle, Op. 43; the Berceuse, Op. 57; the
Barcarolle, Op. 60, and the Concert Allegro, Op. 46.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove’s and Riemann’s Dictionaries.—Article on Chopin.

Finck.—Chopin and Other Musical Essays.

Hadow.— Studies in Modern Music. (Chapter on Chopin.)

Huneker.—Chopin: The Man and His Music.

Niecks.—Frederic Chopin.


                               QUESTIONS.

Give an account of Chopin’s early life.

Name the important events in his manhood and later life.

What were the striking traits of Chopin as a man?

What were Chopin’s qualities as a pianist?

In what forms did Chopin compose?

In what form was Chopin most successful?

In which of his compositions is the national spirit strongly evident?

What characteristics do we note in Chopin as a composer?

Name some representative compositions.

What composer influenced Chopin’s piano style in his early life?

What celebrated musicians were friends of Chopin?



                              LESSON XLVI.

                              FRANZ LISZT.


The piano music of Chopin and Schumann reached the highest level
attained during the Romantic period, in subtle originality of style and
deep human sentiment, respectively. Notwithstanding their preëminence
in these particulars, a master was destined to come who summed up the
entire development of piano technic in his achievements, the greatest
virtuoso of the century, to whose influence all piano playing since has
been obliged to acknowledge its indebtedness. In addition, his services
in breaking away from symphonic tradition, in achieving propaganda for
various composers of epoch-making works, including Wagner, in giving up
himself as teacher without remuneration, are equally significant.

=Liszt’s Early Life=.—Franz Liszt was born October 22, 1811, at
Raiding, Hungary. His mother was of Austrian birth; his father, a
Hungarian, occupying an official position on the estates of Prince
Esterhazy, was devoted to music. Liszt was a somewhat delicate child
of acute sensibilities, especially in the direction of music. At the
age of six he received piano lessons from his father. The intensity
of his interest in music and his phenomenal progress soon showed the
uncommon extent of his gifts. At the age of nine, he gave his first
concert before an audience composed largely of Hungarian nobility. His
performance was so extraordinary that some of those present agreed to
give Liszt a pension for six years to insure his proper education.
Accordingly, father and son went to Vienna, where the boy studied
the piano with Carl Czerny and composition with Salieri. Czerny put
Liszt through so thorough a course of discipline that at eleven years
of age Liszt was known for his playing from scores, and reading the
most difficult compositions at sight. In 1823, he gave two successful
concerts; Beethoven was present at the second, and publicly kissed the
boy in token of his approval. Liszt’s father now took him to Paris
to study at the Conservatory, but the director, Cherubini, refused
to allow him to enter because he was a foreigner. Liszt studied
composition, however, with Paer and afterwards with Reicha. In the
meantime, letters of introduction from Liszt’s Hungarian patrons soon
sufficed to make him known throughout the most aristocratic circles,
where he created an absolute furore. A public concert produced the same
results on a larger scale. Later, Liszt made two visits to England; he
was received at the Court of George IV, played in private, and gave
concerts. On returning to Paris, he completed an opera, which was
performed in Paris. This opera and other compositions of this period
have entirely disappeared. Tours through France and a third visit to
England followed. In 1827, Liszt’s father died, and his mother came
to Paris to live; he supported her by giving lessons, and was soon in
great demand as a teacher. An unfortunate love-affair caused him to
consider entering the church. He lost interest in music, fell ill,
and was supposed to be dead. Liszt gradually recovered, however.
He now underwent a remarkable series of formative influences; he
read widely, formed the acquaintance of many celebrated personages,
including Chateaubriand, Lamartine, Victor Hugo and George Sand, became
interested in the principles of St. Simonians, a somewhat socialistic
sect, dallied with free-thinking and revolutionary tendencies, formed
a friendship with the Abbé Lamennais, and became intimate with Berlioz
and Chopin.

[Illustration: FRANZ LISZT.]

=Period of Preparation=.—Of far deeper result was the appearance of
Paganini in Paris during 1831. Liszt bent all his energies towards
devising a transcendent piano technic to reproduce Paganini’s caprices
on the piano. It was at this time that he laid the foundations of his
gigantic achievements in piano technic, not merely in the interest of
virtuosity, but for extending the limits of expression. He was also
much affected by Chopin’s poetic individuality. In 1834, Liszt entered
into an intimacy with the Comtesse d’Agoult, which lasted for several
years. Three children were born of this union, of whom two survived.
One daughter married M. Ollivier, a French statesman, the other became
successively Mme. von Bülow and Mme. Wagner. During this period Liszt
composed much for piano, made many transcriptions, and began his
literary activity on musical subjects. He gave concerts, chiefly for
charity. In 1837, he made a trip to Paris to contest the supremacy of
the piano with Thalberg. Among his compositions of this period may be
mentioned the etudes, the Rossini transcriptions, many arrangements of
Schubert’s songs, the piano scores of several Beethoven symphonies,
besides opera-fantasies, original pieces for piano, etc.

=Professional Activity=.—In 1838, Liszt created an extraordinary
sensation by his concerts in Vienna, and from 1839 to 1847 lived
the life of a traveling virtuoso, giving an unparalleled series of
recitals throughout the length and breadth of Europe, which were a
series of triumphs such as no artist had ever before experienced. In
1832, he was made court music-director at Weimar, his duties only
requiring his presence for three months in the year. In 1847, Liszt
met the Princess von Sayn-Wittgenstein, who exercised a remarkable
influence over him. She persuaded him to give up his career as a
virtuoso, and turn to composition. From 1848 to 1861 Liszt passed the
most significant period of his life at Weimar. From his position as
conductor he was of inestimable service to the cause of romantic music
through his performance of operas and orchestral works by Wagner,
Berlioz, Schumann, Raff, Cornelius and others. He was equally active
with his pen in deference to the new artistic principles. To this epoch
belong Liszt’s most important orchestral works, the concertos and other
compositions for piano and orchestra, many transcriptions and editions
of the classics.

=Later Life=.—In 1859, opposition to Liszt’s progressiveness became so
pronounced that he resigned. He did not leave Weimar, however, until
1861. The rest of his life was somewhat irregularly divided between
Rome, Weimar and Budapest. During the first few years at Rome he
composed chiefly church music and oratorios; in 1865, he took minor
orders in the Church of Rome. From 1869 on, persuaded by the Duke and
Duchess of Saxe-Weimar, he passed portions of every year at Weimar in
a beautiful house especially furnished for him by the Duke. Pupils
flocked to him, he held a sort of musical court, and was treated with
the respect due to royalty. His later years were full of activity,
and generous sympathy to all that was worthy, and he was the constant
object of homage and affection. In 1886, Liszt became overtaxed by a
series of trips to hear his own works performed, including a reception
in his honor at London. He also made exceptional effort to attend a
performance of “Tristan and Isolde” at Bayreuth. A cold was speedily
followed by pneumonia, from which he died on July 31, 1886.

=Liszt’s Personality and Character=.—Liszt’s character was remarkable
for its conspicuous virtues and almost equally prominent faults. His
was a large, noble nature, with deep humanitarian traits. His life was
one long service to his art, accompanied in his later years by devotion
to the church. Though not highly educated, except in experience of men
and the world, he had an extremely keen mind, omnivorous in its tastes,
and his interests were wide and penetrating. Perhaps his salient
characteristics were generosity and unselfishness. Often during his
career as a virtuoso he gave freely of the proceeds of his concerts
to charity. After the close of his concert-tours he taught for years
without remuneration. His help to younger artists was incalculable
in its extent. As conductor at Weimar his motto was to help living
composers first, and by his energy he did valiant work in helping
Wagner’s cause. Largely endowed with wit, a fund of irony and charm of
manner, men and women alike almost literally fell at his feet, and it
is all the more admirable that in spite of the homage so unsparingly
lavished upon him, he did not swerve from his artistic purposes. The
strain of mysticism so marked in his youth, became later so pronounced
that he felt compelled to give it expression by entering the church.

=Liszt as a Pianist=.—Liszt was the most phenomenal pianist in
the history of music. Other pianists have surpassed him in single
qualities, but no one has united in so stupendous fashion as much
as he. Beginning with a strictly classical education, Liszt evolved
a new technic which completely summed up the difficulties of piano
playing. In velocity, wide stretches, double-notes, octaves, and a
whole system in itself of interlocking passages, he all but attained
the impossible. He carried independence of fingers, especially in fugue
playing, to a pitch hitherto unequalled. His performance of brilliant
music represented the last word in bravura; in the classics his
interpretation was, as Wagner says: “not reproduction, but production,”
so vivid and glowing was it. His so-called “orchestral style” in its
bold color and rich pedal effects was as distinct from the piano
playing before him as the modern orchestra was from that of Mozart
and Haydn. As he assimilated everything in the field of piano playing
before him, so has everything since him been forced to take his method
into account.

=Liszt’s Compositions=.—Among Liszt’s chief compositions are the
“Faust” and “Dante” symphonies, with choral epilogues; twelve symphonic
poems, a form which he invented, and which is epoch-making in the
development of music; many shorter orchestral works; two concertos,
the Hungarian fantasy, the “Dance of Death” for piano and orchestra,
besides several compositions for the same combination on themes of
other composers; the oratorios “St. Elizabeth” and “Christus,” a
Solemn Mass, the Hungarian Coronation Mass, several other masses,
twelve sacred hymns for chorus, five psalms, and many other pieces
of church music, choruses for men’s voices, several compositions for
solos, chorus and orchestra for various festival occasions; fifty-five
songs for voice with piano accompaniment; three collections containing
twenty-five pieces for piano, entitled “Years of Pilgrimage,” a
collection of the piano pieces named “Poetic and Religious Harmonies,”
twelve “Etudes of Transcendent Technic,” three concert studies, a
sonata, two ballades, two “Legends,” a concert solo, afterwards
arranged as a “Pathetic” concerto, a Valse Impromptu, two polonaises,
six Consolations, a Spanish Rhapsody, and nineteen Hungarian Rhapsodies
are the best known of the piano music. There are five ballades for
declamation with piano accompaniment. For organ, there is a fantasy and
fugue on a choral from Meyerbeer’s “Prophet,” a fugue on B. A. C. H.,
and variations on a theme from a Bach cantata.

=Liszt’s Arrangements=.—Of almost equal importance with Liszt’s
original compositions are his matchless transcriptions. Instead of a
trivial and literal process of transcribing, he penetrated the intimate
spirit of the piece, and translated it into his own piano idiom, often
adding considerably but always with supreme artistic effect. What is
lost in fidelity of transfer is more than gained in added charm, new
harmonic significance and a subtle enhancing of individuality. Liszt
started the evolution of his epoch-making technic while experimenting
with his arrangement of Paganini’s caprices, and of Berlioz’ “Fantastic
Symphony.” He made easy arrangements from operas of Rossini, Mercadante
and Donizetti. Then he turned to setting Schubert’s matchless songs for
the piano, arranging in all fifty-seven; he continued by making piano
scores of Beethoven’s symphonies, of Rossini’s overture to “William
Tell,” and to Weber’s overtures “Jubilee,” “Freischütz” and “Oberon.”
He also made many transcriptions from Wagner’s operas, including “The
Flying Dutchman,” “Tannhäuser,” “Lohengrin,” “Die Meistersinger,”
“Tristan and Isolde” and “Parsifal,” besides a fantasy on themes from
“Rienzi,” and an arrangement of the “Walhalla” motive from “The Ring of
the Nibelungs.” Liszt’s arrangements of six preludes and fugues as well
as the fantasy and fugue in G minor by Bach are not only remarkable for
the extent to which they reproduce organ-effect, but as pioneers in the
transfer of organ pieces to the piano, in which Liszt has been followed
by Tausig, d’Albert and Busoni. In addition he transcribed fourteen
songs by Schumann, thirteen by Franz, eight by Mendelssohn, seven by
Beethoven, six by Chopin and two by Weber, besides an arrangement from
Mendelssohn’s music to “A Midsummer Night’s Dream,” and “piano scores”
of the septets by Beethoven and Hummel. Liszt arranged Weber’s “Polacca
Brillante,” Op. 72, and Schubert’s Fantasy, Op. 15, for piano and
orchestra. There are also many transcriptions of pieces by Palestrina,
Di Lasso, Arcadelt, Mozart, Glinka, Dargomischky, Saint-Saëns, Verdi,
Raff, Gounod, Rubinstein, Tchaikovsky, César Cui and others. Liszt
scored the accompaniment of several Schubert songs for orchestra, he
also orchestrated several of the Schubert four-hand marches. He also
arranged many of his own songs, orchestral and choral works for piano
and for organ. His transcriptions as a whole are monumental not only on
account of their artistic merit, but because they served an educational
purpose in spreading the works of little known composers. In this way
Liszt cultivated the public taste for Schubert’s songs, and brought
Wagner within the reach of the average concert-goer.

=Liszt as Writer=.—As a critic, Liszt must stand as a pioneer although
in a different direction from Schumann. Liszt’s early essay on the
position of the artist is extremely significant; his criticisms during
the Weimar period, especially his analyses of Wagner’s operas were
of great value; his “Life of Chopin,” while untrustworthy in detail
and somewhat overdrawn, is nevertheless graphic; “The Gipsies and
Their Music” is picturesque if not entirely accurate. Liszt’s letters
contain glimpses of his high qualities as well as vital presentations
of his musical views. The correspondence between Wagner and Liszt gives
conclusive evidence of the latter’s unselfishness in Wagner’s behalf.

=Liszt’s Position and Influence as a Composer=.—Liszt’s rank as a
composer was undoubtedly overshadowed by his fame as a pianist and
teacher, and by his facility as an arranger. For many years neither
critics nor public would acknowledge his creative gifts. Whatever our
opinion of the symphonies, the symphonic poems and the concertos,
there is no doubt that Liszt rendered an inestimable service to the
development of music in breaking away from the sonata form, and in
demonstrating that form and substance can go hand-in-hand without
detriment to organic unity and coherence. His forms are novel, his
orchestration highly effective in spite of the achievements of Berlioz
and Wagner in this direction. Liszt’s church music and his oratorios
are worthy efforts towards a reform of ecclesiastic music. His songs
are truly spontaneous lyrics, which are not appreciated at their true
value. In spite of Liszt’s unquestioned attainments as a composer,
there is a suggestion of skilful assimilation in his individuality
rather than of unique and unquestioned personality. Nevertheless his
influence has been vast. In his old age he encouraged Borodin and
Glazounoff, he conducted works by Rimsky-Korsakoff, he made his pupils
play Balakireff’s “Islamey.” In turn, the “new-Russian” school owes
much to him. Tchaikovsky could hardly have written his symphonic poems
without Liszt’s pioneer work to show the way. Saint-Saëns admits a
similar influence. In fact, the entire development of the symphonic
poem is directly due to Liszt; it is so considerable in extent that
the details cannot be examined here, but while both Wagner and Berlioz
contributed much to the growth of orchestral style and individuality
of expression, the originality of the symphonic poem form belongs
entirely to Liszt. Thus Liszt’s share in the evolution of ultra-modern
orchestral music, as well as in the development of piano playing, is
very important, and the greatest living composer, Richard Strauss,
although also influenced by both Berlioz and Wagner, frankly avows
himself to be a disciple of Liszt.


                              REFERENCES.

Grove’s and Riemann’s Dictionaries.—Article on Liszt.

Newman.—A Study of Liszt. (Century Library of Music.)

Ramann.—Franz Liszt as Artist and Man.

Saint-Saëns.—Franz Liszt. (Century Magazine, Feb., 1803.)


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

What was the nature and extent of Liszt’s early musical education?

What was the effect of his wide travels and meeting with notable persons
on his character?

What set him to perfecting his technic?

Name the most important events in his career.

What educational work was the feature of his later years?

Sketch Liszt’s personality and character.

Give an account of Liszt’s contribution to piano technic.

In what styles and forms of composition did Liszt write?

What works did he transcribe for the piano?

What literary work did he do?

What composers did he influence?

What song composer was brought into greater prominence by Liszt?

Whose symphonies did he arrange for the piano?

What opera composer did he assist greatly?

What important form did Liszt originate?

What has been Liszt’s share in the development of the “modern school”?

The student who wishes to examine Liszt’s works for himself, should
study the symphonies and symphonic poems in Liszt’s own arrangement for
two pianos. They require, however, a technic beyond the average player.
The same difficulty applies to his piano music, but the following
may serve as guides to Liszt’s style: The “Lake of Wallenstadt,” and
“Eclogue,” Nos. 2 and 7, in the Swiss “Years of Pilgrimage”; the
“Gondoliera” and “Tarantelle” from “Venice and Naples,” the “Valse
Impromptu,” “Ave Maria,” “Waldesrauschen” and “Gnomenreigen,” the
pieces for Lebert and Stark’s Piano School, the Concert Studies in
F minor and D-flat, the Love Dreams, the Consolations, Nos. 1, 2
and 4; the Legends, the “Benediction of God in the Solitude” and
“Love Song” from “Poetic and Religious Harmonies,” and the Fantasie
on “Rigoletto.” For the more advanced player may be suggested the
Etudes, Nos. 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 12; the Mephisto Waltz, the Second
Ballad, “Au Bord d’une Source” from the Swiss “Years of Pilgrimage,”
the Second Polonaise, the “Funerailles” from “Poetic and Religious
Harmonies,” the Sonata, the Hungarian Rhapsodies, Nos. 2, 4, 6, 10,
11, 12, 15, and the Spanish Rhapsody; the two concertos in E-flat and
A, the Hungarian Fantasy, and the concert piece “The Dance of Death,”
the Fantasy on “Don Juan.” Among the transcriptions, the Schubert
songs, “Hark! Hark! the Lark,” “Du bist die Ruh,” “Frühlingsglaube,”
“The Wanderer,” “By the Sea,” “Meeresstille,” “Barcarolle,” “Trockne
Blumen,” “Wohin,” “Ungeduld,” “Erl-King”; the Mendelssohn song, “On
Wings of Song”; the Schumann songs, “Dedication,” “To the Sunshine,”
and “Spring Night”; the Weber “Slumber Song” may be suggested. Of the
Wagner arrangements, “The Evening Star”, from Tannhäuser, the “Spinning
Song,” from “The Flying Dutchman,” and “Isolde’s Love Death,” are the
most characteristic. The Paganini Studies, Nos. 2, 3 and 5; the waltz
from Gounod’s “Faust,” the Tarantelle after Auber, and the Overture
to “Tannhäuser” are among the best. Of the songs, “Mignon’s Lied” and
“Ueber allen Gipfeln,” “Comment disaient-ils,” “Angiolin dal biondo
crin,” “Es muss ein wunderbares sein,” “Die drei Zigeuner,” and “Der du
von dem Himmel bist” and “Die Lorelei” are the best.



                             LESSON XLVII.

                 PIANISTS AND TEACHERS SINCE LISZT. I.


=Introduction=.—The achievements of Liszt in developing piano
technic, in enlarging the scope of piano playing through his masterly
transcriptions, in variety and intensity of interpretation, have
brought results that are enormous in extent and far-reaching in their
developments to the generations that have succeeded him. When Liszt
was in the height of his career as a virtuoso, few could master the
difficulties which his epoch-making works presented. Gradually the
secrets of his technic were revealed to the ambitious few; now they are
almost common property. The great concert pianists of today possess
a technic that would have been unique forty years ago. The repertory
which all pianists worthy the name play from memory (a practice
which Liszt initiated) is exceedingly extensive, while the endurance
which they display and the facility with which they reproduce the
masterpieces of piano literature is stupendous.


                            PUPILS OF LISZT.

Liszt was undoubtedly the greatest revealer of the secrets of piano
playing in the 19th century, and his pupils and those who have
assimilated his teachings occupy a large part of the pianistic activity
of today. Among the first of Liszt’s pupils to become famous were
Tausig and von Bülow. =Carl Tausig=, born in 1841, died in 1871, was
trained by his father, and later studied with Liszt, under whose
guidance he achieved a phenomenal accuracy of technic, and a commanding
power of interpretation. His short life was spent mainly in concert
tours. He established a school of music in Berlin for advanced piano
playing. His untimely death cut short a brilliant career. His edition
of Clementi’s _Gradus_ and a collection of finger exercises are
invaluable to teachers and to students. =Hans von Bülow=, born in 1830,
died 1894, was intended for the law, although he studied the piano
as a boy under Friedrich Wieck. In 1850, he became so absorbed in
Wagner’s music that he abandoned all idea of the law. He studied the
piano with Liszt at Weimar, and soon acquired a remarkable technic. He
was never a pianist of the virtuoso type; his strength lay in striving
to reproduce the intention of the composer as faithfully as possible.
His interpretations of Beethoven were especially famous, although he
was progressive in his tastes. In 1876, he made a tour in the United
States, where he did much to advance the cause of new music. As early
as 1865 he conducted performances of Wagner’s operas, and later his
association with orchestras at Meiningen and of the Berlin Philharmonic
Society placed his reputation as a conductor in the front rank. He was
extremely energetic in Wagner’s behalf and did much to bring his works
to a public hearing. His editions of Cramer’s studies and Beethoven’s
sonatas are of great value.

Among Liszt’s later pupils, one of the foremost is =Eugen D’Albert=,
born in 1864. He received his early training in England, but in 1881,
as a prize scholar, he studied with Liszt at Weimar. After brilliant
concert tours through Europe, he came to America, in 1889, with
Sarasate, where his ability was at once recognized. He has since
largely renounced the career of virtuoso for that of composer, although
he made a visit to the United States in 1905, giving a number of
recitals.

=Moritz Rosenthal=, possibly the most fully equipped virtuoso
technically now before the public, was born in 1862. At first a
pupil of Mikuli, a disciple of Chopin, and later of Joseffy, he came
ultimately to Liszt, with whom he studied for ten years. After numerous
European tours he came to the United States in 1888, where he dazzled
his audiences by his unusual command of technic. He reappeared in
America in 1896-97, and has since made triumphal progress through
Europe. As an interpreter he is less successful than as a virtuoso.
He is court pianist of Roumania. He has published a collection of
technical exercises with Ludwig Schytté.

=Bernhard Stavenhagen=, born in 1862, is another noted Liszt pupil.
He acted as Liszt’s secretary during his later years, and at the same
time received lessons. In 1890, he became court pianist at Weimar. In
1894-95, he visited America. Since then he has acted as conductor at
Dresden and Munich.

=Emil Sauer=, another phenomenal pupil of Liszt, was born in 1862.
At first a pupil of Nicholas Rubinstein, he studied with Liszt from
1884 until the latter’s death. He possesses an extraordinary technic,
and is almost unrivalled for the extreme brilliancy of his effects.
He has received many decorations from various courts of Europe. In
1897-98, he visited the United States, where he made a sensation. Since
1901, he has been at the head of the piano department in the Vienna
Conservatory, giving his attention to pupils in the artist department.

Among other talented pupils of Liszt may be mentioned Alfred
Reisenauer, Arthur Friedheim and Richard Burmeister, all of whom have
been heard in this country. The foregoing account does not begin to
enumerate all, merely the celebrated pupils of Liszt. Others will be
referred to in the course of this and the next lesson.

=Belgian Pianists=.—In piano playing, the Brussels Conservatory
is far below the level of the Paris Conservatory, although the
director =Gevaërt= has a world-wide reputation for his text-book on
orchestration, and the symphony concerts at the conservatory, led
by him, have a high place in orchestral standards. Nevertheless, in
the piano department two names deserve mention: Brassin and Dupont.
=Louis Brassin= (1840-1884) studied at the Leipzig Conservatory under
Moscheles, where he remained five years, winning numerous prizes. In
1866, he became first piano teacher at the Stern Conservatory in
Berlin. Later he joined the Brussels Conservatory, as professor of
piano playing, where he taught from 1869-1878. In 1879, he accepted a
position at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, where he remained until
his death, in 1884. Brassin was not only known as a fine pianist
and teacher, but also by his transcriptions from “The Ring of the
Nibelung.” He also composed piano pieces and even two operettas.
=Auguste Dupont= (1828-1890) studied at the Liége Conservatory. After
several years of wandering life, he became professor of piano at the
Brussels Conservatory, a position which he held until his death, in
1890. He is known also as a composer of graceful piano pieces, a
concerto and a concert-piece, in all of which the influence of Schumann
is seen.

=Johannes Brahms= (1833-1897), famed both as composer and pianist,
was the son of an orchestral musician in Hamburg, whose circumstances
were of the humblest. As a child he developed remarkable ability as a
pianist, but his first lessons in composition awakened an enthusiasm
that absorbed his entire being. He was comparatively unknown when at
the age of twenty Schumann brought him into public notice by hailing
him as the successor of Beethoven.

Unlike most composers, Brahms was mature from the very beginning.
His early works bear no trace of the uncertainty and imitation
generally associated with youth, and it was this remarkable maturity
that interested Schumann and gave point to his predictions for the
future of the young musician. Unaffected by the pomp and glow of
the ultra-romantic tendency initiated by Berlioz and culminating at
present in the works of Richard Strauss, he remained true to the great
classical school which rests on Bach and Palestrina. Unlike the modern
impressionistic school, his art is based on essentially musical ideas
and their contrapuntal treatment; it is architectural rather than
pictorial. In such a scheme, color is subordinate to thematic interest,
hence his instrumentation often appears heavy and austere to those who
look for the brilliancy and tone painting of Liszt or Wagner. His music
in general is founded on Bach and Beethoven.

[Illustration: JOHANNES BRAHMS.]

His works for the piano are large and orchestral in style, and demand
a technic of their own, which was at first considered unsuited to the
nature of the instrument. Von Bülow remarks that while in Bach we hear
the organ, in Beethoven the orchestra, in Brahms we hear both organ and
orchestra. Notwithstanding their dignity and nobility of conception,
they won their way but slowly to favor. Their newness of style and
difficulty of execution estranged both public and musicians. Though
Brahms’ four symphonies have become reasonably familiar, his piano
works have not even yet achieved widespread popularity. They comprise
two concertos, three sonatas, many variations, and a host of smaller
pieces—ballades, scherzos, intermezzos, capriccios, etc. Brahms never
wrote for the stage but was active in all other departments of music.
His greatest choral work is the “German Requiem,” composed in memory
of his mother, to texts selected by himself from the Scriptures and
sung in German, instead of in Latin, hence its name. He drew no little
inspiration from the Folk-song, which he uses not only in the form
of harmonies and rhythms distinctly based on Folk melodies, but in
literal quotations serving as themes in several of his instrumental
compositions. This contact with the people through their songs gives
particular freshness and vigor to much of Brahms’ music, as well as a
sturdy Teutonic character that stamps it as distinctively national in
spirit.

It is perhaps too soon to deliver an authoritative judgment as to the
ultimate rank that Brahms will take among the great composers of the
past. There is no doubt, however, that he is one of the commanding
figures of the last century and that he has enriched the world with
a mass of noble music, all of which deserves to be known for its
elevation and consummate mastery of detail.


                           RUSSIAN PIANISTS.

Of a somewhat independent development from Liszt, although much
influenced by his personality and his method, was =Anton Rubinstein=,
born in 1829, died in 1894. He studied the piano at Moscow with
Villoing, who gave him so thorough a training that he had no other
teacher. From 1840, after concerts in Paris, he had universal
recognition as a pianist. Further European tours increased his fame.
He lived successively in Berlin and Vienna, and later returned to St.
Petersburg. In 1872-73, he made a remarkable tour through America,
arousing an enthusiasm only equalled in later years by Paderewski.
Although he passed most of his life in constant activity as a composer,
he directed the Russian Symphony Concerts in St. Petersburg. As
early as 1862 he founded the St. Petersburg Conservatory, which has
had a prominent place in Russian music. He was a complete master
of the piano, his technic was gigantic, although his vitality of
interpretation was so intense that details paled before it. His
historical recitals covering the entire literature of the piano were
his most conspicuous achievements as a pianist. He may be regarded as
second only to Liszt, and in some respects he even surpassed him. He
was disappointed at not being accorded high rank as a composer, as well
as a pianist.

His brother, =Nicholas Rubinstein=, born in 1835, died in 1881,
although not so distinguished a pianist, and a composer of slight
account, exerted almost as strong an influence on Russian music. A
pupil of Kullak, he founded the Russian Musical Society at Moscow, in
1859, and in 1864 the Moscow Conservatory, which has been exceedingly
active in Russian musical affairs. He directed the Moscow Conservatory
until his death; he was an intimate adviser of Tchaikovsky, while his
worth as a teacher may be guessed from the prominence of his pupils,
Karl Klindworth, Emil Sauer and Alexander Siloti, possibly the foremost
Russian pianist today.

=Mili Balakireff=, born in 1836, has been a considerable force in
Russian music, besides being a capable pianist. After studying physics
and mathematics at the University of Kazan, he turned to music. In
1862, he founded a Free School of Music in St. Petersburg. Among
his associates were César Cui, Nicholas Rimsky-Korsakoff, Alexander
Borodine and others. He has done much to aid the Neo-Russian school
of composition. His piano music is effective and highly colored,
especially his fantasy on Georgian themes, “Islamey.”

=Alexander Siloti=, undoubtedly the most widely-known of Russian
pianists, born at Charcow, 1863, was a pupil in piano playing of
Nicholas Rubinstein, at the Moscow Conservatory. From 1883-1886, he
studied with Liszt. His technic is enormous; while not intensely
magnetic, his intellectual grasp of music is remarkable. He made an
American tour in 1898, when he introduced much Russian piano music that
was new. Although Siloti has taught at the Moscow Conservatory, he has
lived of late years at Leipzig and Paris.

Among other Russian pianists are =Vassili Sapellnikoff=, born 1868, a
pupil of Kessler, Louis Brassin, Sophie Menter; =Vassili Safonoff=, a
pupil of Leschetizky and Zaremba in St. Petersburg, since 1887 director
of the Moscow Conservatory, and more lately a conductor; =Sergei
Rachmaninoff=, born 1873, a pupil of Siloti, not only a brilliant
pianist but also a composer of originality; =Alexander Scriabine=, born
1872, a pupil of Safonoff, who has made successful European tours, and
like Rachmaninoff, has composed much for his instrument.

Two German pianists, Henselt and Klindworth, were so associated with
Russian music as to warrant their mention here. =Adolph Henselt=, born
1814, died 1889, at one time a pupil of Hummel, was for the most part
self-taught. He passed most of his life in St. Petersburg, giving
lessons and playing frequently in public. He also had an official
position as music inspector. As a pianist, Henselt was exceedingly
eminent, and may be ranked next to Rubinstein and von Bülow, although
in later years nervousness prevented his playing in public. His etudes
are distinct additions to the technical resources of the piano, his
arrangements of Cramer etudes with second piano accompaniment are
praiseworthy.

=Karl Klindworth=, born 1830, was a pupil of Nicholas Rubinstein and
later, of Liszt. After living in London, he became professor of piano
playing at the Moscow Conservatory, from 1868-1884. Later he settled
in Berlin, became conductor of the Philharmonic Society, and opened a
conservatory with von Bülow, which was merged with that of Scharwenka
in 1893. Klindworth’s edition of Chopin is in some respects the best.
He has also edited Beethoven’s sonatas, and he prepared the piano score
of the entire “Ring of the Nibelung.”


                            FRENCH PIANISTS.

In presenting the famous French pianists, =Charles Henri Valentine
Alkan=, born 1813, died 1888, must not be forgotten. A brilliant
pianist, he claims our attention chiefly on account of his etudes,
introducing novel and extremely difficult problems of technic.
Musically his studies cannot be compared with those of Chopin or Liszt,
but they merit attention, particularly in the modern editions.

Although =Camille Saint-Saëns= is known chiefly as a composer, he was,
during his early years, a remarkable pianist. His contributions to
piano literature, five concertos, etudes and smaller pieces, are all
valuable.

A group of Paris Conservatory professors constitute the most
distinguishing teaching talent in France today. Further than that,
Paris is one of the great centres of piano playing in Europe. Its
teachers follow their own traditions, yet have assimilated from Liszt.

The oldest of these is =Georges Mathias= (b. 1826), pupil of Chopin,
Kalkbrenner and the Paris Conservatory, who has been professor of piano
playing since 1862. =E. Delaborde=, a pupil of Alkan, Moscheles and
Liszt, has taught at the Paris Conservatory since 1873. One of the most
successful teachers now living is =Louis Dièmer=, born 1843, a pupil
of Marmontel. Winning the first piano prize at the age of thirteen,
he succeeded his former teacher in 1888. Dièmer has turned out many
first prizes; he has an impeccable technic; he has done much to foster
interest in the harpsichord, the oboe d’amore and other obsolete
instruments. He has published valuable collections of old French
harpsichord music, besides original works. A Conservatory teacher
well-known in America is =Raoul Pugno=, born 1852. A pupil of the
Paris Conservatory, he obtained first prizes in piano playing, organ
and harmony. He came to America in 1897-98 with Ysaye and others, and
again in 1902. He has taught at the Paris Conservatory since 1897. He
has a superb technic, and is versatile as an interpreter. He has also
composed much. A teacher of unusual insight into technic is =Isidor
Philipp=, born 1863, a pupil of Mathias, Saint-Saëns and others. He
possesses a flawlessly accurate technic, and has appeared frequently
in public, although he devotes the greater part of his energy to
teaching. He has published many valuable sets of exercises, collections
of difficult passages, some transcriptions and original pieces. He has
been professor at the Conservatory since 1904.

=Louis Breitner=, a pupil of the Milan Conservatory, Anton Rubinstein
and Liszt, has lived for many years at Paris as pianist and teacher. He
also has visited America. Among the younger French pianists are =Leon
Delafosse=, =Edouard Risler=, an eclectic pianist, a pupil of Dièmer,
D’Albert and Stavenhagen.


                REFERENCES FOR LESSONS XLVII AND XLVIII.

Fay.—Music Study in Germany.

Walker.—My Musical Memories.

Lahee.—Pianists of the Past and Present.

Grove’s Dictionary.—Article on Pianoforte Players.

Finck.—Paderewski and His Art.

Leschetizky.—Autobiography.

Mason.—Memories of a Musical Life.

Lenz.—The Great Virtuosos of our Time.


                               QUESTIONS.

Who were the earliest of Liszt’s pupils?

Name some later pupils of Liszt.

Who are the leading exponents of the Belgian school?

Whose principles did Brahms follow?

What are the characteristics of his works?

What was Anton Rubinstein’s chief characteristic as a pianist?

Whom did Nicholas Rubinstein assist greatly?

By what piano piece is Balakireff best known?

What Russian pianist has visited America?

Name two young Russian composer pianists.

Give some account of Henselt.

Who made the piano score of Wagner’s “Ring of the Nibelung”?

Name some successful teachers of the piano at the Paris Conservatory.
Which one has twice visited America? Which has published many valuable
sets of exercises?



                             LESSON XLVIII.

                 PIANISTS AND TEACHERS SINCE LISZT. II.


One of the greatest living teachers in authority and breadth of
influence is =Theodor Leschetizky=, born in 1831. A pupil of Czerny,
he began to teach at the age of fifteen, having played in public since
1842. He became a teacher in the St. Petersburg Conservatory, where
he taught for many years. Soon after 1880 he settled in Vienna, where
he has lived ever since. Since the success of his pupil Paderewski,
Leschetizky has been the most sought-after teacher in the world. He has
been obliged to have assistants to prepare pupils for him. Students
have come to Vienna from all parts of the world. A brilliant pianist,
he has written piano music and even an opera, but his merit as a
teacher is due to the foundation given him by Czerny, who acquired his
traditions from Beethoven, to the keenness of his ability to prescribe
for the individual needs of the pupil and the simplicity and directness
of his “method.” His pupils have met with great success, although he
has not yet produced a second Paderewski.

=Ignaz Paderewski=, probably the greatest pianist since Liszt, although
like him excelled in some respects by others, was born in 1859. A
pupil of the Warsaw Conservatory, he also studied at Berlin. He taught
piano at the Warsaw Conservatory from 1878-83, and also at Strassburg.
Later he went to Leschetizky for a thorough course of study. After his
début at Vienna, in 1887, he conquered by degrees Paris and London.
His first visit to America was in 1891, when he carried all before
him. Since then he has visited the United States three times, he has
traveled over all Europe, and has visited Australia with overwhelming
success, financial and artistic. His most noticeable qualities are
a magnetic personality, a virtuoso technic, the color and piquant
rhythm of his playing, and the poetry and deep human intensity of his
interpretations. He has written several sets of pieces for the piano,
a concerto, and a fantasy with orchestra, and an opera. His generous
gift of the endowment of triennial prizes to American composers is an
admirable instance of his warm-heartedness.

=Josef Slavinski=, born 1865, who studied with Stroeble, Anton
Rubinstein and finally Leschetizky, is a pianist of great ability who
came to the United States in 1873, and again in 1901. Other Leschetizky
pupils are =Ossip Gabrilowitsch=, born 1878, also a pupil of Anton
Rubinstein and the St. Petersburg Conservatory, who came to America in
1900 and 1902; =Mark Hambourg=, born in 1879, who first studied with
his father, and after a tour of the United States in 1900, has had
brilliant successes in Europe and England; =Martinus Sieveking=, born
1867, a pupil of Röntgen at Leipzig, who visited America in 1895 and
again in 1896-97 and afterwards went to Vienna. There are many other
brilliant pupils of Leschetizky, but the foregoing are some of the best
known.

Paderewski has not taught, as a rule, since his great triumphs as a
virtuoso, but he has made exceptions. =Sigismond Stojowski=, born 1870,
was a pupil of the Paris Conservatory, where he won first prizes in
piano playing and composition. Later he studied with Paderewski, and
lived as pianist, teacher and composer in Paris. In 1905, he accepted
the position of head of the piano department at the Institute of
Musical Art, New York City. =Antoinette Szumowska-Adamowska= was born
in 1868. She studied at Warsaw, and later, for several years, with
Paderewski. She has made successful appearances in Europe and America.
Later she accepted a position at the New England Conservatory, in
Boston, U. S. A.

Another pianist of great ability who has profited by Paderewski’s
suggestions is =Harold Bauer=, born in 1873. A student of the violin,
as well as of the piano, he did not consider making a career as a piano
virtuoso until encouraged by Paderewski. In 1892, he studied with
Paderewski, although he is largely self-taught, for his individuality
and musical style show slight effects of Paderewski’s influence.
Bauer’s technic is superb, although he is not a virtuoso pure and
simple. His interpretations are healthy and vigorous, and especially
faithful to the composers’ intentions. His repertory is enormous. He
has made several extremely successful tours to the United States. He
has traveled also widely in Europe as well as to South America. Bauer
is one of the most eminent of living artists.

Among Norwegians, =Edvard Grieg=, born 1843, is a remarkable
interpreter of his own individual works. =Christian Sinding= and
=Wilhelm Stenhammar= also deserve mention.

The Italians have not produced many remarkable pianists, nevertheless,
several are well known. Chief among them is =Giovanni Sgambati=, born
1843, a pupil of Liszt. Sgambati has composed charming music for
the piano, as well as chamber-music, a concerto and symphony. He is
director of the Academy of St. Cecilia, at Rome. =Giuseppe Buonamici=,
born 1846, a pupil of the Munich Conservatory and of von Bülow, has
done much to promote music in Florence. He has been connected with
several musical societies in that city, and has been active as a
teacher. His editions of Beethoven’s sonatas, of Bertini’s etudes, and
a treatise on scale playing are of great value to the student. The
most prominent Italian pianist, who has lived a cosmopolitan life, is
=Feruccio Busoni=, born in 1866. Early in life he became a member, as
a pianist, of the Bologna Philharmonic Academy, after a severe test.
In 1888, he accepted a position at the Helsingfors Conservatory. In
1890, he won the Rubinstein prize as composer and pianist. Subsequently
he taught the piano in the Moscow Conservatory, and later he was
connected with the New England Conservatory at Boston. Since then he
has lived in Europe as a pianist and conductor of ultra-modern music.
Busoni has one of the most formidable technics of any pianist living.
He has edited Bach’s “Well-Tempered Clavichord,” with many helpful
technical suggestions, also the smaller preludes and inventions; he has
made masterly transcriptions of Bach’s organ works for the piano, of a
fantasy for organ by Liszt, the same composer’s “Mephisto Waltz,” etc.
He re-visited America in 1904.

=Stephen Heller=, born 1814, died 1888, was much influenced by Chopin.
He was a talented pianist, who will be remembered chiefly by his
studies, and a few other pieces, which have decided educational value.

Among other living pianists who escape classification for one reason
or another are =Moritz Moszkowski=, born 1854, a pupil of the Dresden,
Kullak and Stern Conservatories; while a successful pianist and
teacher, he is known chiefly for his fluent and graceful piano music,
although he has composed works in larger forms. =Franz Rummel=, born
1853, died 1901, a pupil of Brassin and the Brussels Conservatory,
toured Europe and visited America several times; he taught at the
Stern Conservatory in Berlin; =Rafael Joseffy=, born 1853, went to
the Leipzig Conservatory, he then studied with Carl Tausig and later
with Liszt; of late years he has taught at the National Conservatory
at New York. His concert appearances have invariably been successful,
although he has devoted himself largely to teaching. A pianist of
especial distinction is =Vladimir de Pachmann=, born in 1848, a
pupil of the Vienna Conservatory; in spite of a brilliant début
he retired for many years’ study; on reappearing he gave concerts
over all Europe, and has made several visits to America; his chief
triumphs have been as the inimitable interpreter of Chopin; =Leopold
Godowsky=, born 1870, appeared as a prodigy at the age of nine; he
studied at the _Hochschule_ in Berlin, made European tours, and studied
with Saint-Saëns from 1887 to 1890; he taught at conservatories in
Philadelphia and Chicago; in 1902, he returned to Europe, where he has
given concerts constantly with phenomenal success. A composer of piano
pieces, he has devised many extraordinary versions of Chopin’s studies.

Among English pianists, =Frederic Lamond=, a pupil of the Raff
Conservatory, of von Bülow and Liszt, and =Leonard Borwick=, a pupil of
Mme. Schumann, are the best known, although there are many pianists of
rising reputation.

Two young pianists deserving of especial recognition are Ernst von
Dohnanyi and Josef Hofmann. =Dohnanyi=, born 1877, is a pupil of
Kessler and D’Albert. In 1898, he won a double success as pianist and
composer with a piano concerto. In 1900, he made a brilliant tour in
America. Since then he has devoted himself largely to composition.
=Josef Hofmann= was a pupil of his father, and later, of Anton
Rubinstein. He played the piano when six years old; in public at the
age of nine. In the following year he gave fifty-two concerts in the
United States. After retiring for study under Rubinstein, he reappeared
a mature artist. He has since visited America several times. Hofmann
has an unusual technic; his individuality is not striking, but he is an
artist of conspicuous merit.


                           AMERICAN PIANISTS.

The rapid progress of music in America renders it impossible to do
justice to piano playing in this country. However, the pioneer work of
=William Mason=, a pupil of Moscheles, Dreyschock and Liszt, active
as pianist and teacher, the author of “Touch and Technic” and other
technical treatises; of B. J. Lang, a pupil of his father, F. C. Hill,
Salter and Alfred Jaell, an active pianist, teacher, and conductor,
of W. S. B. Mathews, Otto Dresel, Ernst Perabo, and others, was of
great importance. Later =Carl Baermann=, a Liszt pupil, Carl Faelten,
=William Sherwood=, also a Liszt pupil, Carl Stasny, Arthur Whiting,
Edward MacDowell and many others have continued the work so ably begun.
=Edward MacDowell= is easily the most noted American composer-pianist.
His technical equipment, personality, and interpretative gifts justly
entitle him to this distinction. A pupil of Mme. Carreño, Marmontel
and Carl Heymann, he has had thorough training. His pianistic career
has been limited by his efforts as a composer, and by his work as
Professor of Music at Columbia, which position he resigned in 1904, as
well as his activity as a teacher. His studies, concertos and smaller
pieces show great individuality of technical style, besides being
among the most valuable contributions to piano literature since Liszt.
MacDowell has appeared with leading orchestras in this country; he has
given many recitals, including a tour of the United States in 1904.


                            WOMEN PIANISTS.

Of the many distinguished women pianists since Liszt, the most eminent
was =Mme. Clara Schumann=, a pupil of her father, Friedrich Wieck. She
played in public from the age of thirteen, winning instant recognition.
Her marriage to Schumann diminished her public activity, but after
his death in 1856, she resumed her career. She taught at the Hoch
Conservatory at Frankfort, besides playing in public in Europe and
England. Among other famous women pianists were Madame Clauss-Szavardy,
=Mme. Arabella Goddard Davidson=, and Mme. Sophie Menter. =Mme.
Teresa Carreño=, a pupil of L. M. Gottschalk and G. Mathias, has had
a remarkable career as concert-pianist. =Mme. Essipoff=, a pupil of
Wielhorski and Leschetizky, taught for many years at the St. Petersburg
Conservatory, after brilliant concert tours. Miss Fanny Davies, a
pupil of Reinecke and Mme. Schumann, Mme. Roger-Miclos and Mlle.
Clotilde Kleeberg, pupils of the Paris Conservatory, are all pianists
of distinction. In this country Miss Adele aus der Ohe, a pupil of
Kullak and Liszt, =Mme. Bloomfield-Zeisler=, a pupil of von Wolfssohn
and Leschetizky, and =Mme. Helen Hopekirk=, a pupil of the Leipzig
Conservatory and of Leschetizky, now a teacher at the New England
Conservatory, and =Mme. Szumowska-Adamowska=, before mentioned as a
pupil of Paderewski, are all pianists of great ability.

In conclusion, it may be stated that while Liszt’s pupils have done
much to carry on the traditions which he originated, much has also been
accomplished for the advancement of pianistic art by Leschetizky and
his pupils, a remarkable group of teachers at the Paris Conservatory,
and by such independent pianists as de Pachmann, Busoni, Siloti,
Godowsky, Bauer and Hofmann, while many able conservatories and private
teachers in America are enabling the American pianist to compete
favorably with Europe.


                               QUESTIONS.

Who is the best-known piano teacher of today?

Name some of his famous pupils. Which one instituted prizes for
American composers?

Name some pianists who have profited by Paderewski’s advice. Which one
has made successful tours of America?

Name the most famous Italian pianists. Which one has made masterly
transcriptions of Bach and Liszt?

What pianist has made a specialty of Chopin?

What young pianist has made an especially brilliant impression in
America?

Name the pioneer pianists of America.

Who is the most famous of American composer pianists?

Name some talented women pianists.


           SUGGESTIONS FOR A REVIEW OF LESSONS XLI TO XLVIII.

This period is of great interest to the student, as the greater part of
the piano literature in use today is the work of composers belonging to
the Romantic and Post-Classical schools. It must not be forgotten that
in studying the history of music the object is to learn to know the
music of the best composers, not merely certain facts and dates in the
lives of these composers. The works cited in the lessons give a wide
latitude in the matter of choice and a clear idea of the contribution
of the different composers.

LESSON XLI.—1. Take a composition by each of the composers mentioned
and show its distinctive qualities. 2. Show the deeper, fuller, more
poetic character of the compositions of Field as compared with Clementi.

LESSON XLII.—1. Give a sketch of Schubert the man. 2. Name the special
qualities of Schubert’s music. Why does he belong to the Romantic
school?

LESSON XLIII.—1. What is the nature of Weber’s contribution to music?
2. What are the special qualities of Mendelssohn’s works?

LESSON XLIV.—1. Compare Schumann’s work in the short pieces and in the
large forms. In which was he the more successful? 2. Give an analysis
of some of his short pieces.

LESSON XLV.—1. In what forms did Chopin do his best work? Mention some
pieces as illustrations. 2. In what ways did he show national spirit?
Mention pieces.

LESSON XLVI.—1. Give a sketch of the important factors in the making of
Liszt the pianist. 2. What influence did he exert on music?

LESSON XLVII.—1. Compare Rubinstein and Liszt. 2. What influence did
Brahms exert on music?

LESSON XLVIII.—1. Make a list of the various pianists and classify them
as to nationality and school.



                              LESSON XLIX.

               THE ART-SONG. ORATORIO AFTER MENDELSSOHN.


=Development of the Art-Song Idea=.—A most significant phase of musical
activity is that centred around the art-song for solo voice. In the
period before the opera, choral singing was the principal medium for
vocal music. With the Opera came a style of composition from which
was developed the principle of the Aria, the latter dominating both
Opera and Oratorio for many years, as the form for an art-song for a
solo voice. In this form, as we have seen, the production of vocal
effects, the making of attractive melody, and the opportunity for
virtuosic display were sought first of all. It was not until the
beginning of the 19th century, when Schubert’s peculiar genius asserted
itself, that we meet what can be truly called the art-song, a form of
composition without the artificiality of the operatic aria and with
higher musicianly and artistic qualities than those that mark the
people’s song. Several tendencies contributed to bring this about.
Gluck’s theories and practice led both composers and people to pay
closer attention to the text and to its delivery. The development of
instrumental music, particularly the principles of thematic treatment,
led composers to the inventing of new melodic and rhythmic figures that
should serve as the basis of accompaniments of higher artistic quality
than those founded on some variation of the Alberti bass figure. Piano
technic had greatly improved, and so had the instrument. And it may
also be said that the verse of this period was better suited for a
dramatic musical setting than the formal, often stilted and artificial
lyrics of earlier days, with their shepherds and shepherdesses and
constant reference to pastoral and classical life.

=Italian, French and English Forms=.—A study of musical conditions
in Italy, France, Germany and England shows a different style of the
solo song in each country, each having some distinctive feature that
maintains today, and one that may be said to characterize the song-idea
of that people. The Italians were so taken with the opera and in the
course of its development it so fully embodied the national love for
sweet, graceful melody that a species of art-song apart from the opera
had little or no chance to shape itself. The French _Chanson_ has never
yielded place to the methods which distinguish the modern art-song.
The French language has certain qualities which seem to call for a
treatment that centres the attention in the voice part rather than on
the song as a whole, according to the German idea. Yet French composers
have produced and still make most beautiful and charming songs which
unmistakably embody the national characteristics, clearness, polish
and an effective singing melody. The old English Ballads are pieces of
narrative verse; but the term has been used so freely and for almost
every kind of verse that it is not possible to give it a precise
definition. Thomas Morley, in a work on music, which he published in
1597, mentions “songs which, being sung to a dittie may likewise be
danced”; in 1636, in a book called “The Principles of Musicke,” the
author, Butler, refers to “the infinite multitude of Ballads set to
sundry pleasant and delightful tunes by cunning and witty composers,
with country dances fitted to them.” The principles of musical
construction and the character of the text are such that we do not find
in the English ballad the true germ of the art-song.

=The German “Lied”=, a poem intended for singing, as it came from the
hands of the great poets, such as Goethe and Heine, seems to have
afforded to composers the inspiration to the making of a style of song
that should have the value of a musical setting in full consonance
with the character of the text. As instrumental music developed, the
_Volkslied_, the people’s song, the natural medium for expression,
gradually disappeared. Yet composers made use of it as a medium, such
masters as Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Weber giving attention to it,
although the demand for a simple, clear melody, due to the dominance
of the Italian opera, and for an accompaniment that was always much
subordinated, prevented the art-song (_Kunstlied_) from taking a high
place. Since then the accompaniment has been given more and more
prominence, less attention being paid to pure melody and more to the
value of harmony and rhythm as the means for characteristic color and
expression. Melody, which is made up of a succession of phrases, cannot
furnish a sequence of sharp effects so readily as can well contrasted
chords; hence the old idea of tune changed as harmony became better
understood. The methods of song composers vary, and a classification
is made by German writers: A song that has simple form and tune akin
to that of the Folk-song is called “_Volksthümlich_”; one that has the
same tune to the different stanzas is called strophic; one that is
carefully worked out, the music illustrating every shade of meaning
and emotion is called “_Durchcomponirt_”; a narrative song is called
a “Ballad” or “Ballade.” The great masters in song composition are
Schubert, Schumann, Franz and Brahms.

=Schubert as a Song Writer=.—A consideration of Schubert’s education
and his general make-up shows clearly why he should seek outlet for
self-expression in song rather than in the large instrumental forms. We
find that he was not systematically educated in musical science, like
Mozart, Beethoven or Weber, and that he was by nature very spontaneous
and amenable to external influences. Such a composer is particularly
open to the effect of a poem and will turn to the small song form
rather than to the elaborate instrumental forms. Many of Schubert’s
songs were written on the spur of the moment in response to an impulse
from reading a chance bit of verse. The first reading of the poem
usually gave the complete idea, both tune and accompaniment; whether it
should have the simple folk-song character, a more declamatory style,
strophic or the more elaborate form, depended upon the character of
the text. It is fortunate for music that he was brought into contact
with some of the finest lyrics in the field of poetry, such as called
forth his highest powers in melody, harmony, rhythm, modulation,
declamation and recitative, for he aimed to the very fullest extent
possible to heighten the thought of the text by the emotional power of
music. It is a phase of Schubert’s genius that some of his finest songs
were written before he had reached his majority.

=Schumann and His Songs=.—Schumann brought to song writing a different
type of mind from that of Schubert, more poetic, more gloomy, more
emotional, a fine literary training, a faculty for expression in word
as well as in tone, a fund of new forms of expression in instrumental
music, particularly the piano, so that we find in his songs certain
elements that indicate development toward a more highly organized
structure. Schumann was highly intellectual, hence we find in his
songs a close union of voice and instrumental parts in working out the
fundamental conception of the poet’s meaning; and so deeply does he
carry out this plan that the accompanist must enter most thoroughly
into the singer’s part, and _vice versa_, that the full effect be
brought out; as compared with the songs of Schubert and Mendelssohn we
can say that the latter are the “verses set to tunes, while Schumann’s
songs are poems in music.” The piano part of a Schumann song contains
the atmosphere of the poem, is an attempt to heighten the meaning by
suggesting thoughts and feelings which the words, spoken or sung,
cannot express; sometimes it is an entirely independent composition,
and carries out to a final close the thought left unfinished by the
voice, thus avoiding the conventional ending, by the singer, on the
tonic chord. Schumann’s effort was to express his own reading of the
poet’s lines by the musical means that seemed to him best suited to
the purpose. To this end he refused to allow himself to be bound by
conventional treatment, either of voice or instrument.

=Robert Franz= (1815-1892) combined in his songs the romanticism and
general methods of Schumann, with a polyphonic treatment inspired by
his deep study of Bach. He wrote to various styles of verse, hymns,
love-songs, lyrics of the field, the forest, the hunter, the soldier,
and though his songs lack the tender, passionate, melodious quality
of Schubert’s and the deep poetic feeling of Schumann’s, they are
nevertheless models of perfect, even elaborate workmanship in which
the composer follows with great faithfulness the mood of the poet;
Schumann, on the contrary, seems to project his own interpretation of
the poem into his music, while Schubert seems to grasp the emotion at
its highest moment and the song pours out as the spontaneous expression
of the singer.

=Three Modern Writers=.—Of modern writers, those who contributed most
to the development of the art-song are Wagner, Brahms and Richard
Strauss, the first-named by his style and treatment of the voice and
the instrumental part rather than by his songs, which are few in
number. =Brahms= wrote nearly two hundred songs, varying in character
and quality, and using a highly-developed accompaniment, often
intricate in its construction, complicated in rhythm and restless in
harmonic support, employing all the resources which his mastery of
chromatic harmony placed at his disposal. He frequently wrote in the
style of the Folk-song, making use of its simple melodic quality,
enriching it, however, by his great skill in elaboration in the
accompaniment. Brahms’ songs are great favorites on concert programs.
=Richard Strauss= (b. 1864) is the leading composer of today, and has
used in his songs the principles that distinguish his large works.
These songs are very difficult, both for voice and accompaniment, and
are full of tonal coloring, for Strauss has adapted to the miniature
form of the song the means of harmonic and rhythmic effects which he
uses so powerfully in his orchestral scores. When well sung and well
played, the hearer cannot but be absorbed by the wealth of musical
effects of the highest emotional and picturesque quality displayed in
Richard Strauss’ songs. In a full study of songs and song writers, many
more names would be mentioned; those selected for consideration in this
lesson represent those who have contributed most significantly to the
development of the modern art-song.

=Oratorio Composers after Mendelssohn=.—The later history of the
Oratorio requires some consideration at this point. After Mendelssohn,
many of the leading composers of Europe turned their attention to
this form of composition, influenced, in many instances, by the
splendid opportunities for production offered by the strong choral
organizations and festival associations of Germany and England, as
well as by the great advances made in orchestral playing, which gave
to composers resources far beyond those at the hand of Mendelssohn
and his predecessors. We may mention, among the Germans, =Schumann=,
whose “Paradise and the Peri” was produced in 1843; =Liszt=, who was
much attracted to sacred subjects, wrote two oratorios, “The Legend of
St. Elizabeth” and “Christus”; =Rubinstein=, who used his great skill
in tone painting with orchestral masses in “Paradise Lost” and in his
sacred opera “The Tower of Babel”; =Brahms=, whose “German Requiem” is
a standard work to be done well only by thoroughly disciplined vocal
and instrumental forces; and =Dvořák=, who has shown great power in
his “Stabat Mater.” Among the French writers most prominent in this
form of composition are =Berlioz=, whose “Requiem” is a colossal work
in which he drew upon all the resources of the orchestra to heighten
the powerful, dramatic character of the text; =Gounod=, who wrote his
remarkable works, “The Redemption” and “Mors et Vita” for English
production; =Saint-Saëns=, whose “Noël,” a Christmas work, is oratorio
in style and construction, although small in dimensions; and =César
Franck=, the most modern of all, whose “Beatitudes” has been made the
subject of much discussion. English composers, following the lead
of Handel and Mendelssohn, have given great attention to this form.
=Bennett=, the friend of Mendelssohn, produced a beautiful work, “The
Woman of Samaria”; =Costa=, an Italian by birth, spent a great part
of his professional life in England; hence his oratorio, “Eli,” may
be classed with English works; =Sullivan= wrote two oratorios, “The
Prodigal Son” and “The Light of the World”; =Macfarren’s= “St. John
the Baptist” and =Mackenzie’s= “Rose of Sharon” can be classed among
oratorios. The most eminent in this form at the present day is =Elgar=,
“The Dream of Gerontius” and “The Apostles.” Young Italy has lately
shown interest in this form, the most noteworthy being the =Abbé
Perosi=, who is under the patronage of the Pope. In the United States
the leading representatives are =J. K. Paine=, of Harvard University,
with the oratorio “St. Peter,” =Dudley Buck=, “Golden Legend,” and =H.
W. Parker=, “Hora Novissima.”

=The Cantata=.—More popular even than the Oratorio with choral
societies is the Cantata, both sacred and secular, and the great
increase in strong choral organizations, particularly in England,
Germany, France and the United States, has resulted in the production
of a number of splendid works which show dramatic power and the
highest skill in handling voices and instruments. These works contain
opportunities for the use of the finest quality of melody, variety of
rhythm, solid harmonic or the more fluent polyphonic style, richness
of harmonic coloring and every accessory in the way of tone painting
by the orchestra, which such masters as Berlioz and Wagner pointed
out. The important works are too many to be mentioned here; only the
composers’ names can be given. In Germany, Brahms, Bruch, Dvořák, Gade,
Goetz, Hiller, Hofmann, Rheinberger; in France, Berlioz and Massenet;
in England, Bennett, Corder, Cowen, Macfarren, Mackenzie, Smart,
Sullivan, Coleridge-Taylor among the younger men; in the United States,
Buck, Foote, Chadwick, Gilchrist, Paine, H. W. Parker, and Carl Busch.


                              REFERENCES.

Finck.—Songs and Song Writers.

Grove’s and Riemann’s Dictionaries.—Articles on composers mentioned, on
Song, Lied, Volkslied, Chanson, Oratorio and Cantata.

Parry.—Evolution of the Art of Music, Chapter XIII.

Upton.—Standard Oratorios. Standard Cantatas.


                               QUESTIONS.

Compare the Aria and the Song.

Mention the characteristics of the Italian, French and English people’s
songs.

What are the characteristics of the German _Lied_?

Give a sketch of Schubert as a song writer.

Give a sketch of Schumann as a song writer.

Compare the two.

Give a sketch of Franz as a song writer.

Compare him with Schubert and Schumann.

Who are eminent among modern song writers?

Mention the special characteristics of each.

Name the leading composers of Oratorio after Mendelssohn, and their
works.

What is the difference between an oratorio and a cantata?

What composers have done successful work in this line?

Songs of the leading composers, classic and modern, should be studied.
The lessons on Schubert, Schumann, Liszt, etc., mention notable songs.
Analyze an oratorio by one of the composers mentioned in this lesson,
also one or more cantatas.

[Illustration: FELIX WEINGARTNER. GUSTAV MAHLER.

RICHARD STRAUSS. SIEGMUND HAUSEGGER.]



                               LESSON L.

                     THE SYMPHONIC POEM IN GERMANY.


=Wagner’s Influence=.—The genius of Wagner produced and applied to
Opera a far richer and more complicated orchestration than had existed
before his day. Since then, in many periods and in many countries,
composers have tried to adopt his style, and apply it to the symphonic
as well as to the operatic stage. In the field of purely orchestral
music, Liszt and Berlioz had already formulated a free style, and their
symphonic poems, departing from the set form of the symphony, have also
served as models for later composers. Almost the only recent exponent
of the strict form was Johannes Brahms, for Anton Bruckner, working on
similar lines, did not achieve great success with the public.

=Richard Strauss=.—For many years it was thought that Wagner’s
orchestration would remain unrivalled in the field of music. But
Richard Strauss (born at Munich, Germany, 1864) has made a further
advance in this respect, and handles the full modern orchestra with
the utmost skill. Son of a court horn-player, his musical genius
showed itself in his earliest years, and his studies with the court
capellmeister, F. W. Meyer, resulted in the publication of several
works. At first he followed Brahms and the stricter school, and his
F-minor symphony is a worthy production in that form. A meeting with
von Bülow led to his appointment as assistant-conductor at Meiningen.
To show his ability, Strauss had to conduct, without rehearsal, his
Serenade, Op. 7, for thirteen wind instruments; and the excellence of
this work brought him the desired position. It was at this time that
he met Alexander Ritter, a man of broad intellect and radical ideas.
Under the new influence, Strauss renounced his classical style, and
began to compose the tone-pictures and symphonic poems that have made
his name so important. As he is the chief modern representative of the
new school, his works merit detailed examination.

=His Early Symphonic Poems=.—After an Italian trip in 1886, Strauss
gave his impressions of that country in the form of the symphonic
fantasie “Aus Italien,” his first work in the free style of
subjective emotion-painting. It is in four movements, each a complete
tone-picture. The first, “On the Campagna,” gives a vivid impression
of spacious solitude, with a hint of the pageants and battles once
witnessed by this great Roman field. The second movement, “Amid Rome’s
Ruins,” aims also to give “fantastic pictures of vanished splendor,
feelings of sadness in the midst of the sunlit present.” The third
movement, “On the Shores of Sorrento,” resembles the symphonic scherzo,
while the finale gives an animated picture of “Neapolitan Folk-Life,”
introducing the air of “Funiculi” and other popular Italian tunes.

After four years of conducting at the Munich court theatre, Strauss
settled in Weimar, where he produced three more important works. The
first of these, “Macbeth,” showed that he had abandoned the old form in
favor of the symphonic poem, in which the different movements are fused
into one large whole, free in form. The picture of Macbeth, ambitious
and cruel in spite of his timidity, is ably developed, but the
portrayal of Lady Macbeth brings a still stronger climax of magnificent
orchestral power.

“Don Juan,” the second of the three, is founded on Lenau’s poem. The
hero is not a ruffian adventurer, as in Da Ponte’s libretto, but is
depicted as an arch pessimist, hunting through the world for perfection
in pleasure, but never finding it. There are restless and uncertain
melodies at the opening, to illustrate the hero’s unsatisfied longing.
A knightly theme follows, typical of Don Juan himself. Then come
various episodes, full of attractive enthusiasm, but always ending with
the same vague unrest. A wild carnival, followed by sudden silence and
the cutting theme of a trumpet, announce the hero’s end.

“Tod und Verklärung” (Death and Transfiguration) is a work of great
power and beauty. It depicts an exhausted sufferer, asleep in the quiet
sick-room, dreaming of the beauty of his lost youth. Then follows a
more discordant episode, which may well picture a fierce contest with
the powers of disease, ending in defeated exhaustion. A third portion
brings renewed memories of the morning of life; passages of joyous
enthusiasm and noble aspiration suggest the high hope of youth and the
glorious achievement of manhood; but again comes the struggle with
the powers of Fate, ending in despair and death. The fourth part is
an apotheosis, representing the triumph of man’s upward striving over
death. This section contains some of the most impressive orchestral
beauties in the range of Strauss’ works.

=Program Music=.—In the older symphonic form, it was not necessary
for the composer to suggest a title for his work. Many have done
so—Beethoven in his “Pastoral Symphony,” Mendelssohn in the “Scotch,”
for example; but the exquisite beauty of Schubert, or the romantic
charm of Schumann will impress the hearer without the use of extraneous
suggestions. In the modern school of program music, founded by Liszt,
the composer gives the audience a more or less detailed account of the
subject that inspired him, and tries to paint in tones the events or
moods suggested by the title. Much, therefore, depends on the choice
of the subject. If it is well-known, and gives definite suggestions of
certain moods which can find expression in the orchestra, then it may
receive legitimate treatment by being set to music. But if the subject
is not one that lends itself to broad emotional treatment, or if the
composer aims to picture definite events or objects, he is departing
from the true function of his art. Music deals with expression of
emotion, and should not attempt something that belongs rather to other
arts, such as Literature or Painting. Many persons think that Strauss
has gone too far in this direction, especially in his later works.

=His Later Symphonic Poems=.—In “Till Eulenspiegel,” the hero is a
mediæval rogue, whose adventures are found in an old German tale. He
is a wandering mechanic, who does anything but tend to business. He is
always indulging in madcap pranks, in which he manages to escape from
his well-merited punishment. In the composition, Strauss has given
free rein to his fancy, and portrayed, with rare orchestral skill,
the fantastic jokes, the sly humor, and the rollicking disposition of
the graceless rogue. The work is in rondo form, with definite themes
to typify the hero. These themes form the basis of the music, and are
varied and developed with infinite skill and remarkable orchestral
irony.

“Also Sprach Zarathustra” (Thus Spake Zarathustra) is based on
Nietzsche’s mystic philosophy. Zarathustra, or Zoroaster, alms to teach
the doctrine of the “Over-Man,” by which man is to become a sort of
demigod who rises above good and evil into realms of joy. A picture
of the “Hinterweltlern,” or dwellers in the Rear-World of common
humanity, portrays their yearnings, their joys, and passions, while
their sorrows find voice in a tender “Grave-Song.” Science and its
futility are represented by a fugue replete with chromatics. A passage
entitled, “The Convalescent,” shows the defeat of the spirit of sorrow
and evil, and the triumph of joy. Then follows the wild, chaotic, but
strangely-effective “Dance-Song,” the exultation of the “Over-Man.”
Yet his triumph is not lasting, for at the close, after a sudden
stroke of the bell, comes the weird “Song of the Night-Wanderer,” and
the piece ends mystically in two different keys, as if representing
eternal doubt. Strange as this work may seem, its effect is one of
vast sublimity, and Nietzsche’s wild philosophy is translated into
orchestral effects of remarkable grandeur.

With “Don Quixote” Strauss enters the more definite field of program
music, and aims to picture events. It is cast in the variation form,
but is much more free in style than that title would imply. There is a
theme for the Don, clear at first, but becoming obscure and illogical,
to show that he loses his sanity. He is represented by a solo ’cello,
while his faithful squire Sancho, strange to say, appears mostly in
viola passages. Each variation treats of one adventure. The windmills
are attacked, with disastrous results. The flock of sheep are heard,
bleating in full chorus until put to flight. The bands of pilgrims are
dispersed as robbers. The blindfold ride through the air on the wooden
horse is made realistic by the use of the theatrical wind-machine.
Other adventures follow, and at the end the knightly theme recurs in
a clarified form, to show Don Quixote’s return to reason and death.
It will readily be seen that this work is more experimental than the
earlier ones.

“Ein Heldenleben” represents the fight of Strauss with his adverse
critics. There are six well-marked sections. First comes the hero
himself, portrayed by definite themes that are woven into a strong
climax. Then his enemies are depicted, with remarkable irony, by a
medley of crackling, snarling figures for woodwind. The hero’s helpmate
is represented by a solo violin, and in this section an instrumental
love-duet is introduced. Then follows a picture of the hero’s
battlefield, ending in a song of victory. The hero’s works of peace are
then described, and the meaning of the composition is made clear by the
introduction of themes from the earlier works of Strauss. The final
section shows the hero’s departure from an ungrateful world. This piece
is grandly planned, but like other orchestral works of Strauss, its
themes are not melodic and lack musical charm.

The “Sinfonia Domestica” pictures a day in the composer’s family life.
Here, again, the subject is one that the hearer cannot understand
without an arbitrary explanation. Strauss has given no complete
analysis, but has deigned to explain that the three themes in the early
part represent father, mother and child, that the picture begins in the
afternoon and lasts until the next morning, and that the final fugue
represents the education of the child. The unmelodic style of Strauss
is little suited to such a subject, and the effect is such as to make
the work seem puzzling, at first, if not actually ridiculous.

=His Other Works=.—Of the two early operas by Strauss, “Guntram”
and “Feuersnoth,” neither has had real success; nor does his third
production, “Salome,” seem important. Guntram is a fighter for love,
a member of a mystic fraternity. He rescues Freihild from the tyranny
of Duke Robert, who loves her, and in the struggle he kills Robert.
Freihild falls in love with him, but he must renounce her, as he knows
that he killed Robert out of rivalry in love, an unworthy motive.
“Feuersnoth,” lighter in style, is based on the old legend of a
scornful maiden, whose pride meets punishment. All fire in the town
goes out, and no light can be rekindled, save by a touch of her body;
so that she finds herself exposed to the multitude. In this work, as in
“Heldenleben,” Strauss has introduced veiled attacks on his critics.
The music to both operas shows the usual richness of coloring and
orchestral intricacy, but their themes lack the direct power of the
guiding motives in Wagner’s works.

=The Songs of Strauss= are many in number, and include some with
orchestral accompaniment. They show a modulatory style, combined with
a rare melodic beauty that seems strange in a composer who indulges in
so much orchestral ugliness. Some of these songs, such as “Traum durch
die Dämmerung” or “Allerseelen,” are gems of purest water. The songs
are often involved in style, but always possess unity and directness
of effect. Their beauty shows that the discords in the composer’s
orchestral works are intentional, and not due to lack of melodic
invention. Yet it would seem as if his great mastery of instrumental
coloring could have been employed as effectively in scoring beautiful
themes, instead of the commonplace passages so often found in his
larger works.

=Hausegger=.—Siegmund von Hausegger (Graz, Austria, 1872) is another
master of the modern orchestra. His father was a musician of broad
experience and sound learning, so that it is not strange that his
son’s gifts developed quickly. After his regular studies at the
gymnasium and the university, Siegmund took up music in earnest, under
his father and Degener. His youthful works were now augmented by a
piano quartet, a fantasia, the orchestral ballad “Odinsmeeresritt,”
the one-act drama “Helfried,” and the opera “Zinnober,” based on
a tale of Hofmann. These were followed by a number of songs and
choruses, but Hausegger’s real greatness was first revealed by the
“Dyonisiac Fantasie,” a symphonic poem for full orchestra. This was
followed by a still greater work, “Barbarossa,” while in 1904, at the
Frankfort festival, came “Wieland der Schmied.” “Barbarossa” is in
three movements. The first shows the happiness of the people gradually
fading into sorrow and pain, until the Barbarossa theme at last is
heard; for tradition says that the great emperor is not dead, but
sleeps in the mountain Kyffhäuser, waiting to arise when the need of
his people is too great to be borne. The second movement is a weird,
ghostly picture of the enchanted mountain and the sleeping emperor;
while the last depicts his awakening, his coming forth at the head of
his knights, their victory, and the rejoicing of the people. Wieland
is the wonderful smith whose swords cut off a head so cleanly that it
remains in place. The first movement shows his vision of the beautiful
maid Schwanhilde, appearing from celestial regions; but when he would
claim her, she retreats, terrified. A second part shows his sorrow and
despair. In the third movement hope again triumphs, and he forges for
himself a pair of wings. In the last movement the united lovers leave
the dull world behind, and take their flight to regions of eternal
sunlight.

=Other Orchestral Composers=.—=Gustav Mahler= (Kalisht, Bohemia, 1860)
gained his musical experience as a director in some of the lesser
theatres, and is largely self-taught. Besides two operas and a number
of beautiful songs, he has composed five symphonies. He has tried to
enlarge the symphonic form without departing from it. His symphonies
all aim to express some definite thought, such as pessimism finding
its cure in simple faith, love of nature leading to a high idea of
Pantheism, or doubt clearing in the joys of immortality. The movements
are arranged in contrasting groups, and voices are introduced, at first
solo, and then often in a final chorus of triumph. Mahler’s works are
planned on a grand scale, but his music is often unclear and restless
in effect. =Paul Felix Weingartner= (Zara, Dalmatia, 1863) is another
musician who served his apprenticeship in the smaller theatres, and
became one of the world’s great conductors. He is known by his two
symphonic poems, “King Lear” and “The Elysian Fields,” as well as by
two symphonies in strict form, and by several chamber works. His opera
“Genesius” and his classical trilogy “Orestes” are other successful
works. =Jean Louis Nicodé= (Jerczik, Posen, 1853) is somewhat older
than the modern tone-poets, and if less important is still noteworthy
as an exponent of the program tendency. His two greatest works are
the “Symphonic Variations,” Op. 27, and “Das Meer,” for male chorus,
soloists, orchestra, and organ. The latter is not a cantata, but rather
a great suite, in which vocal movements are balanced against orchestral
numbers. Among younger men, =Hugo Kaun= is familiar to Americans
because of his long sojourn in Milwaukee. His symphonic poems based on
Longfellow’s “Hiawatha” show much fluency and taste. Switzerland now
has its set of young composers, with =Hans Huber= as their leader in
the orchestral field.

=The Present Situation=.—The rich harmonies and free modulations of
Wagner, combined with the setting aside of symphonic form by Liszt,
have caused the more recent composers of Germany to give up almost
wholly the writing of symphonies. The free style of tone-picturing has
been widely adopted, in consequence of the example of Strauss. He has
gone so far that some of his works seem merely colossal experiments in
this direction, and it is not improbable that a revulsion from such
extreme musical impressionism will take place some time in the future.


                    REFERENCES FOR LESSONS L TO LVI.

Baker.—Biographical Dictionary of Musicians.

Elson.—Modern Composers of Europe.

Hale, Philip, Editor.—Famous Composers and Their Works, new series.

Huneker, James.—Mezzotints in Modern Music.

Weingartner, Paul Felix.—The Symphony Since Beethoven.


                               QUESTIONS.

What was the influence of Wagner’s style on symphonic music?

What was the nature of Richard Strauss’ training and the direction of
his early compositions?

Describe his early symphonic poems.

What is program music?

Describe Richard Strauss’ later symphonic poems.

In what other styles of composition has he written?

Give a sketch of Hausegger.

Give an account of the work of Gustav Mahler.

Give an account of the work of Felix Weingartner.

Give an account of the work of other German writers of symphonic poems.



                               LESSON LI.

                       GERMAN OPERA SINCE WAGNER.


=Goldmark=.—Among those opera composers who are not direct imitators
of Wagner, Carl Goldmark (Keszthely, Hungary, 1830) is the most noted.
Son of a cantor in a synagogue, he showed decided musical taste while
still a child, and at twelve played the violin in public. After a few
conservatory lessons at Vienna, he was forced to make his own way, and
live on the small salary obtained in theatre orchestras. He taught
himself piano and singing, and was soon able to teach others also.
He trained himself by reading the scores of the great master-works.
In purely orchestral composition, his first success came with the
“Sakuntala” overture, inspired by the story of the Oriental nymph of
that name, who is wooed, forgotten, and found again by the Indian king,
Dushianta. Later overtures are “Penthesilea,” “Spring,” “Prometheus
Bound,” and “Italy.” Goldmark wrote two symphonies, the first (“Rustic
Wedding”) resembling a suite of tone-pictures, while the second is in
stricter form. He has also published a violin concerto, some chamber
works, and vocal pieces. His music is marked by richness of harmony and
warmth of instrumental coloring.

=Goldmark’s Operas=.—His first opera was the “Queen of Sheba,” dealing
with the infatuation of Assad for that queen, at the court of King
Solomon. Its scenes of splendid festivity and dramatic power, and
its delightful music, won it an immense success, and Goldmark was
nicknamed “Court Composer to the Queen of Sheba.” “Merlin,” his next
work, is based on that wizard’s love for Viviane, in the days of King
Arthur. It contains much noble music, but the libretto is weak and
confused. “Heimchen am Herd” is an example of the style of Folk-opera
introduced by Humperdinck. It is a setting of Dickens’ “Cricket on the
Hearth,” and its music shows a most delightful freshness and charm.
“Die Kriegsgefangene” treats the story of Achilles and Briseis with
much expressive power, while “Götz von Berlichingen” is a setting of
Goethe’s novel of that title. “Der Fremdling” (The Stranger) is a
manuscript work.

[Illustration: ENGELBERT HUMPERDINCK.]

=Humperdinck=.—Engelbert Humperdinck (Bonn, Germany, 1854) won a
remarkable success with his Folk-opera “Hänsel and Gretel,” a work
which has almost founded a new school in Germany. Humperdinck studied
architecture at first, but at Hiller’s advice took up music. “Hänsel
and Gretel” is the story of two poor children who are left in the
woods by their stepmother. They find a gingerbread house, inhabited
by a witch who wishes to eat them; but Gretel pushes her into her own
oven, and frees all the children previously under her spells. The
greatness of this work, like that of Weber’s operas, in their day,
lies in its union of the popular Folk-song style with the richness of
modern orchestration. The music is fresh and tuneful, with an appealing
sincerity that carries it directly to the heart. At a period when
other composers seemed able to produce nothing but weak imitations
of Wagner’s operas, this work won universal recognition. Humperdinck
has produced several other fairy operas, such as “Dornröschen,” “Die
Königskinder,” “Saint-Cyr,” and “Die Sieben Geislein,” but none of them
has gained any lasting success.

=Kienzl=.—Another composer of originality is =Wilhelm Kienzl=
(Waizen-Kirchen, Austria, 1857). He studied at Graz, Prague, Leipzig,
and, finally, with Liszt, at Weimar. He, too, served as conductor in
small theatres. His first opera, “Urvasi,” is based on an East Indian
subject. Its music is brilliant, but lacking in dramatic effect.
“Heilmar der Narr” deals with the magic healing qualities of a seventh
son, who forfeits his power if rewarded; he cures his sweetheart, but
loses his gift because he wins her, whereupon she sacrifices herself
to bring back his skill. Kienzl’s greatest work is “Der Evangelimann,”
treating of a true story of two brothers in a small Austrian hamlet.
Both love the same girl, Martha, but she prefers Mathias. Johannes,
out of jealousy, sets fire to a house where the lovers are meeting,
and denounces Mathias as the incendiary. Martha tries in vain to save
him, and he is imprisoned for twenty years. At the end of this term,
Johannes, who has been prosperous and respected, is confronted on his
death-bed by Mathias, who forgives him. This opera has been given
in many countries, and translated into several languages. Its music
shows much dramatic force, and goes far to redeem those scenes in the
libretto that are lacking in action. A fourth opera by Kienzl is the
tragi-comedy “Don Quixote.”

=Schillings=.—Among the composers who have modelled their works on
those of Wagner is Max Schillings (Düren, Germany, 1868). He studied
law at first, like Schumann, but soon turned to music, and became one
of Wagner’s active assistants at Bayreuth. His “Ingwelde” is one of
the many Viking operas that have followed in the lead of “Tristan and
Isolde,” and aimed at effects of dramatic power. Ingwelde is forced by
a careless oath to follow Klause, enemy of her husband, Gest. Bran,
Klause’s brother, loves her also, and kills Klause. She returns to
Gest, but Bran follows and kills him too, after which the pair die
together. “Der Pfeifertag,” a later work, is evidently inspired by
“Die Meistersinger.” It is a confused account of various adventures
on “Pipers’ Day,” a mediæval festival. The chief episodes are the
reduction of an excessive toll paid by the pipers, the pretended death
of one of that Guild, who thus obtains a eulogy from a rival, and the
union of two pairs of lovers. The music, though worthy, can hardly
stand comparison with that of the great work upon which the opera was
modelled.

=Cyrill Kistler= (Augsburg, Germany, 1848) was at one time thought
to be Wagner’s real successor, but nearly all his works are now laid
aside. They show an evident striving after musical grandeur, but are
not wholly successful in attaining that effect. Kistler studied with
Lachner and others at Munich, but became a Wagner enthusiast in spite
of their formal training. In his first opera, “Kunihild,” the heroine
is wooed by one of three brothers, who is successful in the magic ride
necessary to win her. But there has been a feud between the houses,
and another brother, to prevent the marriage, kills the bridegroom. A
comic opera, “Eulenspiegel,” preceded by ten years the symphonic poem
of Strauss. “Baldurs Tod” is based on the beautiful Norse Saga of the
Sun-God. “Im Honigmond” is a smaller work, in romantic style. A more
important production in the same vein is “Röslein im Hag,” which bids
fair to be successful. “Der Vogt von Mühlstein” is a work of still more
recent date.

=August Bungert= (Mühlheim, Germany, 1846) studied at Cologne and
Paris, taking up composition at Berlin under the renowned Fr. Kiel. He
has produced a light opera, “Die Studenten von Salamanca,” a “Tasso”
overture, and the symphonic poem “Auf der Wartburg.” But his life-work
has been the composition of a Hexalogy, or set of six operas, on
Homeric subjects. The first two, “Achilles” and “Klytemnestra,” are
from the Iliad, while the Odyssey furnishes the material for “Kirke,”
“Nausikaa,” “Odysseus Heimkehr,” and “Odysseus Tod.” The abiding beauty
of the old Greek poems has been faithfully preserved in the librettos,
and the music has reflected, to some degree, the noble dignity of these
epics. The first three works of the Odyssey cycle have been given, and
have produced an excellent impression on the critics.

[Illustration: SIEGFRIED WAGNER.]

=Siegfried Wagner= (Triebschen, Switzerland, 1869), son of the immortal
Richard, has an undoubted right to carry on the family traditions.
He studied with Kniese and Humperdinck, and became a very energetic
conductor. His first opera, “Der Bärenhäuter,” is the story of a
mediæval soldier who sells himself to the devil, but is redeemed
by finding a sweetheart who will remain true during three years of
absence. “Herzog Wildfang,” the next work, treats of a fiery duke who
is made unpopular and supplanted by his crafty adviser, Mathias Blank.
Mathias is afterward caught in trying to win the beautiful Osterlind by
trickery, and his dishonesty in office is also exposed; whereupon the
rightful duke comes to his own again, and Osterlind marries her real
lover. “Der Kobold,” a third work, treats of the legend that the souls
of murdered children wander about as kobolds until released by the
sacrifice of the last of their race. “Bruder Lustig,” the fourth opera,
is based on an Austrian subject.

=D’Albert=.—In Eugen d’Albert (Glasgow, Scotland, 1864), we find a man
of real musical gifts. He studied under such men as Stainer and Prout
in England, but he claims that his true musical education began only
in later days, under Richter and Liszt. He has won international fame
as a pianist, and has shown real musicianship in his purely orchestral
works. These include two concertos for piano, one for violoncello,
the “Esther” and “Hyperion” overtures, and a worthy symphony; all
showing harmonic beauty and richness of color, without any inflation or
exaggerated effects. His first opera, “The Ruby,” tells of a princess
imprisoned in the form of that magic gem, but released by a poor young
man who wins her. “Ghismonda” deals with the love of a princess for
a young man of low degree, but noble character. On being surprised
with the princess, he dies rather than reveal her love for him, but
she proclaims his chivalry to the world. “Gernot” is an elfin opera,
with much delicate music. “Die Abreise” shows the reconciliation of
a married couple who have begun to drift apart, and the departure
of the over-amorous cavalier who tried to widen the breach for his
own purposes. “Kain” is a weirdly effective one-act drama, of the
realistic school. “Der Improvisator” has for its libretto a rather weak
arrangement of Hugo’s “Angelo, Tyrant of Padua,” while “Tiefland” is
founded on a Spanish tale, in which true love triumphs over the schemes
of a wicked Alcalde.

=Hugo Wolf= (Vienna, Austria, 1860—Vienna, 1902) had a constant
struggle with poverty, and enjoyed but a short period of fame before
yielding to insanity and death. His opera, “Der Corregidor,” is a
delightful work, in comic vein, and the humorous scenes on the stage
are treated with remarkable animation and skill in the orchestra.
The Corregidor is a Spanish magistrate, who is too much smitten with
Frasquita, the beautiful wife of the miller, Tio Lucas. The pair play
him many tricks, and the opera ends with his discomfiture before his
own consort. Wolf’s fame is much increased by the rare power and beauty
of his many songs. Especially worthy of note are the “Feuerreiter,”
“Gebet,” “Gesang Weylas,” and the “_Italienisches Liederbuch_.” His
symphonic poem, “Penthesilea,” is another important work. His style is
sometimes bizarre and involved, but his themes are always effective and
significant.

=Other Composers=.—=Max Bruch= (Cologne, Germany, 1838) studied under
Hiller, Reinecke, and Breuning. His chief opera, “Hermione,” is not
important, but he has won lasting fame by the breadth and nobility
of his epic cantatas, such as “Frithjof,” “Odysseus,” “Arminius,”
and others. His concertos and serenade for violin are favorite works
with soloists. =Ludwig Thuille=, a friend of Strauss, is given high
praise by musicians, and his new opera “Gugeline” has been well
received. =Heinrich Zollner= has won a popular success by his setting
of Hauptmann’s delicate play, “The Sunken Bell.” =Hans Pfitzner=
has produced an excellent work in his romantic forest-opera, “Die
Rose vom Liebesgarten.” =Leo Blech’s= “Alpenkönig und Menschenfeind”
has received numerous performances, while =E. Klose’s= fairy opera,
“Ilsebill,” is a worthy example of its school.

=Opera in Germany=.—Since Wagner’s time, there has been no striking
development in German opera, and his works still remain by far the most
important in that field. None can rival him in the power, variety, and
expressive qualities of his music. Strauss surpasses him in intricacy
and novelty of instrumental effects, but Wagner himself first cleared
the path in which Strauss was to follow. The greatest successes of
Goldmark are those of twenty and thirty years ago. Humperdinck’s
one chief work is frankly popular in style, and its attractiveness
cannot fairly be compared with the grandeur of the music-dramas, even
though it should found a school of its own. Bungert’s works, though
well received, have not been given many performances, while many of
those who have tried to imitate Wagner have echoed merely his outward
mannerisms, and not the inward greatness of his works. It must be
remembered, however, that a world-genius like that of Wagner does not
appear in every country or every century, and that his importance
prevents his successors from gaining their full meed of appreciation.


                              REFERENCES.

Maitland, J. A. Fuller.—Masters of German Music.

Elson, Arthur.—Modern Composers of Europe.


                               QUESTIONS.

Give a sketch of Carl Goldmark and his works.

In what style of opera has Humperdinck been most successful?

Give an account of Kienzl and his most important works.

Whose works seem to have furnished models for Max Schillings’ operas?

Give an account of the works of Kistler.

What is the great work of August Bungert?

Give the stories of Siegfried Wagner’s operas.

Give an account of Eugen d’Albert and his works.

Give an account of Hugo Wolf’s works.

What other composers have done important work in this field?

Summarize the work of the leading composers mentioned in this lesson.

[Illustration: VINCENT D’INDY. CÉSAR FRANCK.

CAMILLE SAINT-SAËNS. JULES MASSENET.]



                              LESSON LII.

                     OLD AND NEW SCHOOLS IN FRANCE.


=Saint-Saëns=.—The end of the 19th century in France has been marked
by a decided contrast between the old and the new, Saint-Saëns and
Massenet writing in the older style, while the pupils of Franck have
striven after novelty in effect. Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (Paris,
France, 1835) witnessed the rise and fall of Meyerbeer, and the
triumphs of Gounod, and was himself famous before the influence of
Wagner reached France. His style is marked by great diversity, and
displays equal skill in many different veins; but his music always
shows the utmost facility of expression, a mastery of the technic of
composing, and a remarkable ease and fluency. His has been a true
musical development, founded on rational lines. He was always a warm
admirer of Bach, Beethoven, and the Classical school, and while he
appreciated Liszt, Wagner and other modern masters, he did not abandon
the old ideas of form and melody. His works show the most exquisite
symmetry of detail, like that of a finely-carved monument enriched by
delicate tracery.

=His Works=.—Saint-Saëns studied at the _Conservatoire_, under Stamaty,
Halévy, and Benoist. Though he failed in trying for the _Prix de Rome_,
he produced a worthy symphony when only sixteen. In opera, his first
success was the Biblical “Samson and Dalila,” a work of expressive
power and vivid coloring. “Le Timbre d’Argent” and “La Princesse
Jaune” are of earlier date. “Le Deluge,” is an operatic cantata.
“Etienne-Marcel” won some success in Paris, while “Henry VIII” is a
skilful blending of old and new styles. “Proserpine” and “Ascanio”
followed, while “Phryne” is a dainty example of opéra comique.
“Parysatis,” “Déjanire,” and “Les Barbares” introduce grandiose effects
for open-air performances. “Helène” is a shorter work, again on a
Grecian subject. The composer’s versatility and smoothness of style
prevent him from obtaining the highest dramatic intensity, but his
music is always excellent. In the orchestral field, he has produced
four later symphonies, five piano concertos (that in G minor being
the favorite), and two suites. His symphonic poems include “Le Rouet
d’Omphale,” a delicious orchestral spinning-song; “Phaeton” and “La
Jeunesse d’Hercule,” also on mythical subjects; and the weird “Danse
Macabre.” His violin concerto in B minor is a great favorite.

=Massenet=.—Jules Emile Frederic Massenet (Montreaux, France, 1842) is
another _Conservatoire_ pupil. Rejected at first by Bazin, as lacking
talent, he worked steadily onward, and from a player in small cafés
became one of the foremost figures in French music. His first great
triumph came with “Marie Madeleine” and “Eve,” which are not strictly
oratorios, but are more properly called sacred dramas. “La Vierge” and
“La Terre Promise” are of later date. These works treat their subjects
with modern spirit and passion, instead of the more classic oratorio
style. Massenet is hardly the equal of Saint-Saëns in orchestral
work, but his “Phedre” overture and his suites of tone-pictures are
remarkably attractive. In opera, he won his spurs with “Le Roi de
Lahore,” a spectacular Oriental subject. “Herodiade” is a sacred work,
while “Manon” is a graceful setting of Prevost’s novel of that name.
“Le Cid” is not so strong a work, for Massenet’s style is sentimental
and passionate rather than heroic. “Esclairmonde,” with a romantic and
legendary plot, displays remarkable beauty and richness of effect.
“Werther,” based on Goethe’s novel, is another success. “Le Mage,” an
Oriental subject, and “Thais,” with an Egyptian plot, were comparative
failures. “La Navarraise,” with its love amid battles, is an echo of
Italian realism. Massenet’s tender feeling and vivid emotion show at
their best in his later works for the stage—“Le Portrait de Manon,” a
delightful love-idyl, “Cendrillon,” a fairy opera, “Griselidis,” an old
legend of wifely constancy, and “Le Jongleur de Notre-Dame.” The last
is a touching story of a despised minstrel who wins favor with the Holy
Virgin by his earnest desire to do something in her name, even if it be
only to amuse her with his juggling tricks.

=French Opera=.—Among other French composers for the stage, Meyerbeer,
Gounod and Bizet belong to a previous generation. =Delibes= won some
notice with “Le Roi l’a Dit” and “Sylvia,” but his best work is
“Lakmé,” another example of rich Oriental warmth and color. =Ambroise
Thomas= is known chiefly as the composer of “Mignon,” a remarkably
graceful setting of a libretto from Goethe’s “Wilhelm Meister.” “Le
Songe d’un Nuit d’Été,” an earlier work, has also met with deserved
success, but “Hamlet” is a ridiculous perversion of Shakespeare, and
“Françoise de Rimini” failed to attain real tragic grandeur. =Guiraud=
is known by his comic opera “Piccolino”; =Poise= set many of Molière’s
plays; =Lalo’s= only notable work is “Le Roi d’Ys”; =Godard’s= dainty
“Vivandière” is frankly light in style; while =Salvayre’s= ambitious
“Dame de Monsoreau” is not a great success. =Reyer’s= “Erostrate” and
“La Statue” were praised in their day, but he is better known by two
later works—“Sigurd,” on the subject of “Die Götterdämmerung,” and
“Salammbô,” a setting of Flaubert’s story of Carthage.

=Franck and His Influence=.—The new French school is almost
wholly due to the work of one man, César Auguste Franck (Liége,
Belgium, 1822—Paris, 1890). He settled in Paris, and studied at the
_Conservatoire_. Modest and retiring by nature, “le bon père Franck,”
as he was called, divided his time between teaching, composing, and
playing the organ of the Ste. Clotilde Church. His simple faith and
earnest work recall the spirit of the old mediæval artists, who devoted
their lives and their music to the glory of the Lord. Franck’s works
show a mastery and power that his pupils are scarcely able to equal,
and his compositions have fairly won the esteem that was denied to
them during the composer’s lifetime. Among them are the great D minor
Symphony, the oratorios “Ruth,” “Rebecca,” and “The Redemption,” the
opera “Hulda,” and the symphonic poems “Psyche” (with voices), “Les
Djinns,” “Les Eolides,” and “Le Chasseur Maudit.” But Franck’s most
notable work is “Les Beatitudes,” an eight-part oratorio treating the
Sermon on the Mount. Franck’s style is radically different from that
of Saint-Saëns or Massenet. It is harmonic rather than melodic, and
extremely modulatory in effect. His progressions remind the hearer
of Wagner; but they do not always possess the broad simplicity that
underlies Wagner’s most intricate passages. Franck’s pupils have often
fallen into the error of imitating his weakest points, and have brought
about a style of harmonic vagueness that seems meaningless to many
modern critics.

=D’Indy=.—Vincent d’Indy (Paris, France, 1852) is the greatest of
Franck’s pupils, and the leader of the modern French school. As
conductor, he has been an ardent champion of new and little-known
works. His own compositions include many forms, and have all
attracted attention. His first great work to reach the public was
the “Piccolomini” overture, a part of his orchestral trilogy based
on Schiller’s “Wallenstein.” Two important vocal compositions are
“La Chevauchée du Cid,” for baritone, chorus, and orchestra, and “Le
Chant de la Cloche,” a dramatic legend that won the prize given by the
city of Paris. In the orchestral field, “Antony and Cleopatra” is an
early work, as is also the “Jean Hunyadi” symphony. Of d’Indy’s two
later symphonies, the first, based on a mountain air, contains many
passages of sweetness and purity, while the second is more involved and
modulatory in style. His earliest symphonic poem, “La Forêt Enchantée”
is a delicate tone-picture based on a ballad of Uhland; “Saugefleurie”
is founded on a story by de Bonnières; while “Istar” is inspired by
parts of the old Assyrian epic “Idzubar.” D’Indy’s music is hardly
popular in style, for its themes are not definitely melodic; but his
skill in weaving them into an orchestral tissue is admired by all
musicians. In opera, “Les Burgraves” and the lighter “Attendez-Moi
Sous l’Orme” are youthful works, while “Fervaal” is a music-drama
(_action musicale_) on a Druidic subject, and “L’Etranger” is symbolic
in style. He has written some important works in musical literature and
theory.

=Charpentier=.—Gustave Charpentier (Dieuze, France, 1860) was a
_Conservatoire_ pupil. The _Prix de Rome_ took him to Italy, and his
life there resulted in the pleasing orchestral suite “Impressions
d’Italie.” This consists of five tone-pictures, entitled, “Serenade,”
“At the Fountain,” “On Muleback,” “On the Summits,” and “Naples.”
On his return he lived among the working-people of Montmartre, and
their life is reflected in his later works. “La Vie du Poète” is a
symphony-drama, giving episodes in the life of an unsuccessful genius.
In the beginning, all is aspiration and enthusiasm. Then doubt follows.
At first the poet is consoled by the serene beauty of the summer night,
but his fears gain the upper hand. Then comes a picture of impotent
raging and vain anger against fate, after which the poet tries to blot
out his sorrows in the cheap gayety of the city. “La Couronnement de la
Muse” is a pantomime, written with the idea that a working girl in each
town or city should annually be chosen and crowned amid festivities.
The composer’s greatest work, however, is the opera “Louise.” This
tells the story of a poor working girl, whose parents forbid her to
marry the somewhat wayward Julien. At the latter’s persuasion, she
finally flies with him. Her parents try to reclaim her, but again she
is drawn away, and her father is left shaking his fist at the terrible
city that entices young girls from their homes. The music of “Louise”
is full of power and realism, and even the street cries of Paris are
echoed in its measures.

=Bruneau=.—Operatic realism has found a more prolific, if less
successful, champion in Alfred Bruneau (Paris, France, 1857), another
_Conservatoire_ pupil. He has confined himself to librettos drawn from
the novels of Zola. “Le Rêve,” an early work, is a psychological study
of love, in the person of the dreamy Angelique, who dies from excess
of happiness when her wedding is completed. “L’Attaque du Moulin” is
a spirited story of the Franco-Prussian war, set in a more melodic
and popular style. “Messidor” is again symbolic in style, the theme
being a contrast between greed for gold and the simple pleasure of
honest toil. “L’Ouragan” deals with the tempests of human passion and
jealousy, as well as the hurricanes of nature. “L’Enfant Roi,” and the
music to “La Faute de l’Abbé Mouret,” are more recent works. Bruneau is
sincere and earnest in his efforts at realism, but his music is often
heavy and uninspired. He has produced works in other fields, among
them being a great “Requiem,” a “Heroic Overture,” and the symphonic
poem “Penthesilée,” for voice and orchestra. His three books on French
composers, and his many criticisms, have made him known in the domain
of musical literature.

=Debussy=.—The new school of French music finds its most radical
expression in the compositions of Achille Claude Debussy (Paris,
France, 1862). A musician of great gifts, he chooses to imbue his
music with a studied vagueness of effect, and wanders through a maze
of changing keys and harmonies. Many persons find the result wholly
incomprehensible at first, but on repeated hearing his works show
a weird, elusive beauty that is worshipped by his adherents as the
acme of musical expression. He, too, was a _Conservatoire_ student,
and won the _Prix de Rome_ with the cantata “L’Enfant Prodigue.”
Two lyric scenes, “La Demoiselle Élue,” and “Chimène,” first drew
attention to the young artist. Then came the orchestral prelude to
Mallarmé’s “L’Après-Midi d’un Faune,” a delicately-woven rhapsody,
with much beauty and much weirdness in its harmonies. The Nocturnes,
entitled, “Nuages” and “Fêtes,” are described by De Bréville as
possessing the ethereal charm of a perfume that pervades the air,
but defies analysis. A string quartet is in stricter form, but the
“Proses Lyriques,” on subjects of Beaudelaire, also the “Chansons de
Bilitis” and “Les Estampes” for piano, again show the free style.
Debussy’s most ambitious work is “Pelleas et Mélisande,” an opera based
on Maeterlinck’s play of that name. The poet’s words offer the same
shadowy suggestions that the composer gives in music, and the harmonic
effects of vague mystery are entirely in place here.

=Chausson=.—Ernest Chausson (Paris, France, 1855—Limay, 1899) proved
himself a composer of real greatness, and was still in the prime of
life when he met with a fatal bicycle accident, in 1899. Trained for
law, he turned to music from choice, as Schumann did before him. A
pupil of Massenet and Franck, he combined the direct expression of the
former with the harmonic style of the latter, and produced works of
a most attractive orchestral coloring. Among his compositions are a
worthy symphony, the beautiful symphonic poem “Viviane,” the orchestral
pictures “Solitude dans les Bois” and “Soir de Fête,” a “Poëme” for
violin and orchestra, some chamber-music, and many pleasing songs and
choruses. His one great opera was “Le Roi Arthus.” His works are full
of tenderness and charm, yet not lacking in vigor and breadth; they
have the modern harmonic richness and orchestral color, and are growing
steadily in favor.

=Other Composers=.—=Alexis Emanuel Chabrier=, wholly self-taught
in music, produced the brilliant orchestral rhapsody “España,” an
attractive “Suite Pastorale,” a lively “Marche Joyeuse,” and some
effective cantatas. In opera, his “Le Roi Malgré Lui” is an excellent
example in lighter vein, but his greatest work is “Gwendoline,” on
a Viking subject. Of all the Frenchmen, he was the one best fitted
to attempt the bold, virile style required by the libretto. The most
prominent orchestral writer of the younger generation is =Paul Dukas=,
whose “Apprenti Sorcier” treats a humorous subject with rare skill.
=Théodore Dubois=, for many years head of the _Conservatoire_, is best
known by his oratorios, such as “Paradise Lost,” and his “Frithjof”
overture. =Gabriel Fauré=, the organist, who succeeded Dubois as
director of the _Conservatoire_ in 1905, has produced a symphony,
two string quartets, and a number of songs whose intricacy cannot
obscure their exquisite grace. Other organist-composers are =Charles
Marie Widor=, who wrote the opera “Maître Ambros” and the ballet
“La Korrigane,” and =Alexandre Guilmant=, known by his great organ
symphony and sonatas. =Bourgault-Ducoudray= has written many cantatas,
and made a valuable collection of Breton Folk-songs. =Pierné=,
=Coquard=, =Erlanger= and =Hue= won their fame in opera, while
=Duparc= gained notice with his symphonic poem “Lenore.” =Ropartz=
and =de Bréville= rank with the best of Franck’s pupils, while among
women-composers, =Augusta Holmés= won renown by her mastery of broad
orchestral effects, and =Cécile Chaminade= is known by her dainty songs
and piano pieces.

=The New French School=.—When Wagner showed the harmonic resources
of the modern orchestra, he led the way for a host of imitators, who
have often done more harm than good. Such operas as “Fervaal” and
“Gwendoline,” in large measure the result of “Tristan,” are proper
applications of this style. But the idea of finding new harmonic
effects has exerted its influence on orchestral writers also, and some
modern composers, especially in France, have devoted all their energy
to this, and have apparently sacrificed all thoughts of musical beauty.
The French have even invented the term “cérébral,” which describes a
composer who puts no emotion or feeling into his music, but works it
out wholly from the brain. Thus many of the modern compositions must be
regarded as great orchestral experiments, and the composer who combines
this instrumental technic with real feeling and directness of utterance
is the one who will meet with the greatest success.


                              REFERENCES.

Hervey, Arthur.—Masters of French Music.

Hervey, Arthur.—Music in the 19th Century: France.

Elson, A.—Modern Composers of Europe.


                               QUESTIONS.

Which French composers represent the older style; which the new?

Give a sketch of the works of Saint-Saëns.

Give a sketch of the works of Massenet.

Name other important opera composers in France.

Who was the leader of the new French school? Give an account of his
works. Name some of his pupils.

Who is the leading representative of this school today (1905)? Give an
account of his works.

Which is the most important work of Charpentier?

In what lines of musical work did Bruneau labor? Name some of his works.

Who is the most extreme representative of the new French school?

What are the distinguishing characteristics of Chausson’s works?

Name other important French composers.

What is the character of some of the works of the advanced school of
composition?

[Illustration: PIETRO MASCAGNI. GIACOMO PUCCINI.

G. SGAMBATI.

ABBÉ PEROSI. ENRICO BOSSI.]



                              LESSON LIII.

                     MUSICAL REGENERATION IN ITALY.


=Musical Decadence=.—When a nation clings to its own musical ideas, and
persistently disregards the growth and progress of other nations, it
usually enters upon a period of decay. This is what took place in Italy
during the 19th century, and the country that produced Palestrina and
the Scarlattis seemed for a time to understand nothing but the trivial
operatic melodies of Rossini’s successors. In 1850, there were scarcely
any concert halls in the country, and even the churches were content
with operatic airs set to sacred words. Soon after this, Pinelli tried
to give an orchestral concert, with sixty musicians; and the box-office
receipts left only fourteen francs with which to pay them. Sgambati
produced a Beethoven symphony, but had to do it at his own expense.
As late as 1879, Saint-Saëns, who gave an organ recital at Milan,
found the organ scarcely fit for an artist to play upon. In opera,
it was only the broad judgment of Verdi that was able to look beyond
the borders of his native land, and his “Aïda,” as well as Boïto’s
“Mefistofele,” was the beginning of a new order of things.

=Mascagni=.—In 1890, the publisher Sonzogno offered a prize for the
best one-act opera submitted to him, and this prize was awarded to
Pietro Mascagni (Leghorn, Italy, 1863), then an unimportant musical
leader at Cerignola. Mascagni was the son of a baker, who wished him to
study law, and locked him up because he practiced the piano in secret.
The boy was rescued by his uncle, and under the protection of Count
Florestan pursued his studies at the Milan Conservatory. The opera
that brought him such fame, which has since become world-wide, was
“Cavalleria Rusticana,” or “Rustic Chivalry,” based on a tale by Verga.
The scene is a village square, before a church. The heroine, Santuzza,
is forsaken by Turiddu, who carries on an intrigue with Lola, wife of
the carter Alfio. Santuzza, in despair, denounces him to Alfio, who
challenges and kills him. The music is hardly of the highest standard;
but it is popular and vigorous in style, and intensely powerful. The
work is scarcely comparable to the music-dramas, yet every number is
animated by the spirit of the words, and it is therefore dramatically
true. Among the many favorite selections from its score are the
“Siciliana” of Turiddu (sung as part of the overture, before the
curtain rises), the broad and noble “Regina Coeli,” Lola’s serenely
confident aria, “My King of Roses,” and the jolly “Brindisi,” or
drinking chorus, to say nothing of the saccharine “Intermezzo.” The
power and vividness of “Rustic Chivalry” made it an epoch-making work;
but Mascagni’s later operas have not met with the same success. They
include “L’Amico Fritz,” “William Ratcliff,” “Silvano,” “Iris,” “Le
Maschere,” and the one-act “Amica.”

=Leoncavallo=.—The success of “Rustic Chivalry” aroused Ruggiero
Leoncavallo (Naples, Italy, 1858) to try his hand in the same school.
His early opera “Chatterton” was practically a failure, while his
ambitious “Medici” trilogy (“I Medici,” “Savonarola,” and “Cesare
Borgia”) met with no better reception. In “I Pagliacci,” however, he
produced a work of the new school, that has taken its place beside
Mascagni’s opera as an example of the new realism. The “Pagliacci”
are strolling players. Canio, the leader, is aroused to madness by
learning of the proposed elopement of his wife, Nedda, but she will not
betray her lover’s name. They enact for the villagers a mimic tragedy
of love and jealousy, but Canio makes it real by actually stabbing the
faithless Nedda. Her lover then leaps from the audience to save her,
only to meet a similar death at Canio’s hands. The music to this play
is of a higher standard than Mascagni’s, though less directly popular
in style. “Trilby” and “Zaza” are later works of little importance,
while “Roland of Berlin,” composed by order for a libretto by the
Emperor of Germany, aroused only passing interest.

=Puccini=.—When the great Verdi retired from active life as a composer,
he named as his probable successor, Giacomo Puccini (Lucca, Italy,
1858). Descended from a musical family, Puccini could devote himself
to his art without parental opposition, and he completed his studies
under Ponchielli, at the Milan Conservatory. His “Le Villi” was really
the origin of the modern one-act plays. “Edgar” resembles “Carmen”
somewhat, but has a weak libretto, and music that is not always
effective. “Manon Lescaut” is rather a succession of detached scenes
than a single whole, but at times it displays a mastery of dramatic
contrast far beyond Massenet. “La Bohême” is a delightfully sympathetic
setting of Murger’s well-known novel, and its scenes of rollicking
defiance to poverty and hunger remind one of the composer’s early
struggles. The note of haunting sweetness that pervades the score marks
Puccini as a man of rare musical gifts. In “Tosca,” the heroine of that
name loves the artist, Mario, who aids a political refugee, at the risk
of his own life. The governor, Scarpia, who captures him, loves Tosca
also, and tortures him to make her yield to his desires. To save Mario,
she consents, but stabs Scarpia at the last moment. But Scarpia’s
treachery survives him, for the pretended execution, which was to let
Mario escape, turns out to be real, and Tosca takes her own life in
despair. The music shows a ripe mastery of dramatic power. The climax
of the first act, merging into the church service, and the tragic power
of the second, well contrasted with the strains of a festival cantata
that float in through the window, are scenes that win unqualified
praise from all critics. “Madame Butterfly,” on a Japanese subject,
lacked the necessary delicacy, but the two preceding works have made
Puccini the foremost man in Italian opera today.

=The Realistic School=.—Many composers of the “Verismo” school adopt a
realism that deals only with the more brutal side of life, and their
plots, though strong, are not always pleasing. =Giordano’s= “Andrea
Chenier” and “Fedora” show musical worth, but =Spinelli’s= “A Basso
Porto,” =Coronaro’s= “Festa a Marina,” and =Tasca’s= “A Santa Lucia”
picture some of the coarsest phases of existence. Yet this defect may
be condoned when we consider that the movement has infused new life and
power into Italian music. Among those composers who have stood somewhat
aloof from the new school, =Franchetti= is the most noteworthy. His
operas include “Cristoforo Colombo,” “Germania,” and the later “Figlia
di Jorio,” and he has written symphonies that place him among the best
of the later Italian composers.

=Perosi=.—The revival in sacred music has been brought about wholly
by one man, Don Lorenzo Perosi (Tortona, Italy, 1872). He studied
faithfully, in spite of sickness—first at Milan, then under the
learned Fr. Haberl at Ratisbon. He became a conductor at Imola, and
afterwards at Venice, where he led his forces with decided vigor.
Soon after this, he began to compose the oratorios that have made
him so famous. His sacred trilogy, “The Passion of Christ,” included
the “Last Supper,” the “Sermon on the Mount,” and the “Death of the
Redeemer.” It made a sensation that reverberated through all Italy,
and caused his appointment in the following year as honorary master of
the Papal Choir. He has been untiring as a composer, producing no less
than fifteen masses and nearly a dozen oratorios. Among the latter are
“The Transfiguration,” “The Annunciation,” “The Raising of Lazarus,”
“The Birth of the Redeemer,” and the two-part “Moses.” He writes with
enthusiasm, and sees the actual picture before him while he works. His
music does not possess the calm dignity shown by Palestrina, but its
semi-popular style is well adapted to his hearers, and may lead the way
to something better.

=Sgambati=.—The leading position among Italy’s new symphonic composers
belongs to Giovanni Sgambati (Rome, Italy, 1843). Like many musicians,
he was at first destined for a lawyer’s career, but began his musical
studies in time to become known as a boy-prodigy. He settled in Rome,
and soon grew famous as a pianist. He played Beethoven, Schumann and
Chopin, and did much to introduce their works into Italy. He planned
a trip to Germany, but when Liszt came to Rome he remained there to
study under that great master. At this time his earlier compositions,
mostly chamber works, brought him into notice in a new field. These
quartets and quintets were followed by a festival overture, a piano
concerto, and three symphonies in succession. His compositions are
somewhat lacking in spontaneity, but they display great learning, and
undeniable skill. His works show the influence of Liszt and Berlioz,
mingled with the stricter style of the old Italian contrapuntal writers.

=Other Orchestral Composers=.—With Sgambati, =Martucci= also deserves
mention in the instrumental field. He became identified with the
artistic life of Naples, where he fought a similar fight for the cause
of good music. Among several others, =Del Valle de Paz= is noted
for his valuable educational work in Florence, no less than for his
compositions. =Busoni=, so well known as a pianist, has also tried his
hand at orchestral writing in the most extreme modern vein. Eugenio di
Pirani is another composer who has identified himself with the German
instrumental school. The literary champion of the new order of things
has been Luigi Torchi, whose work in the magazines deserves the highest
praise.

=Bossi=.—The most prominent figure among the younger devotees of the
German style is Marco Enrico Bossi (Salo, Italy, 1861). He studied
organ at first, and for ten years held the post of organist in the Como
Cathedral. Four years of teaching at Naples were followed by similar
work in Venice, where he gained deserved prominence. His compositions
show great originality, and include many different forms. An early
overture was given at the Crystal Palace, in London, which he visited
during a piano tour. The one-act opera “Paquita” was followed by
“L’Angelo della Notte” and “Il Veggento,” also a large work for the
Milan Exposition of 1905. He has composed many masses, and the oratorio
“Christus.” A more recent triumph is “Paradise Lost,” with Milton’s
words—a work suggested by Mme. Rubinstein. His organ concerto won
a decided success at the Chicago Fair, and his symphonic poem, “Il
Cieco,” has been well received. He aims to blend the old polyphonic
style with the rich instrumentation of modern Germany.

=Buongiorno=.—Among the adherents of German standards, Buongiorno
(Bonito, Italy, 1864) is one who has devoted himself to opera. Studying
at the Naples Conservatory, he became leader of an operetta troupe,
for which he wrote many popular works. His first great opera was “Das
Mädchenherz” (Il Cuor delle Fanciulle), which treats with admirable
delicacy the love-story of Alba and Marino. She grows to be court
singer, and defeats an older rival, but ambition makes her careless of
love. Marino becomes a priest, and only when Alba is old and forsaken
does his consolation show her what she has missed. The music displays
much emotional beauty, and the “play within the play,” at the ducal
court, allows the composer to imitate Bach, Handel, and other old
masters with exquisite humor. “Michelangelo and Rolla” is a one-act
play, again uniting a subject of real poetic worth with beautiful
music. These two operas are far removed from the crudities of the
“Verismo” school.

=Wolf-Ferrari=.—A composer who may fitly follow German ideals is
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari, son of a German father and an Italian mother.
His “Cenerentola” (Cinderella) has a rather tedious first act, but the
second act shows all the appealing beauty and sympathetic feeling that
mark the new romanticism. “Le Donne Curiose” is an excellent example of
sparkling comedy, and has won much success in Germany. It treats of the
misadventures of some women, who try to investigate a mysterious club
formed by their husbands. A work in a different vein is the composer’s
“Vita Nuova,” a fresh and inspired setting of sonnets and other
selections from Dante’s great work.

=Music in Italy=.—It is difficult for one nation to adopt the musical
expression of another, but this is practically what Italy has done.
Verdi first gave up the trivial melodies so dear to the Italian
populace, and adopted a worthier style. Like Boïto, he denied being
influenced by Wagner, but his works show that he felt the force of
the German master’s orchestral power. The realistic school of opera
has brought into Italian music a vividness and power that are not
surpassed by any other nation, while a still later generation has
striven to cast off the crudities of this school and produce works of
real orchestral value. Italy has already done much, and the progress of
the last few decades seems to predict a bright future for her music.

=Music in Spain=.—During the last half-century, Spain, too, has
developed some native composers. One of the best is =Isaac Albeniz=,
whose “Pepita Ximenes” is a delightful comedy of love and intrigue.
His Zarzuelas also have met with success. =Felipe Pedrell=, well known
in European journalism, has written an ambitious trilogy on subjects
illustrating the national motto, “Patria, Fides, Amor.” Larrocha,
Vives, De Lara, and Antonio Noguerra are also worthy of mention. The
Zarzuela is the peculiar Spanish form of light opera, resembling the
Italian opera buffa, but possessing more brilliance and delicacy.


                              REFERENCES.

Streatfeild, R. A.—Masters of Italian Music.

Elson, Arthur.—Modern Composers of Europe.


                               QUESTIONS.

What circumstances contributed to Italy’s musical decadence?

Give an account of “Cavalleria Rusticana” and how it came to be written.

What composer was influenced by the success of Mascagni? Describe his
works.

Who wrote “La Bohême”? Tell about his education and his works.

What composers are prominent in the “Realistic” school in Italy?

Give an account of the work of Perosi in Oratorio.

Give an account of the works of Sgambati and other composers for the
orchestra.

What composers follow German methods? Describe their works.

Tell something about music in Spain.

[Illustration: C. H. H. PARRY. A. C. MACKENZIE.

EDWARD ELGAR.

S. COLERIDGE-TAYLOR. GRANVILLE BANTOCK.]



                              LESSON LIV.

                      ENGLAND AND THE NETHERLANDS.


=Music in England=.—In the Middle Ages, the much-used art of
Counterpoint was developed by the people of England and the
Netherlands. In the Elizabethan age, the music of England was scarcely
less important than her literature. Under Charles II, she could boast
of Henry Purcell, one of the few great names in music. But in the 19th
century her musical glory had faded, and sentimental songs and popular
ballad-operas seemed all that she could produce. Her musical leaders
went bravely to work, importing such composers as Mendelssohn and
Wagner, and building up great music schools. There was, however, no
high standard of taste in the country, so the task proceeded slowly.
A race that is gifted with real love of music, and possesses worthy
Folk-songs, can easily develop great composers; but England, like the
United States, is too commercial for the best results. Dvořák once said
of the English people: “They do not love music; they respect it.”

=Stanford=.—For some years, a group of five men were the advance guard
of England’s development. While none of them showed any remarkable
inspiration, their work was learned and thorough, and prepared the way
for men of more originality. The foremost of them was Charles Villiers
Stanford (Dublin, Ireland, 1852). After studying under Reinecke and
Kiel, he became organist and conductor at Cambridge University. His
works include five symphonies (among them the “Irish”), two overtures,
an “Irish Rhapsody,” a piano concerto, two oratorios, and several
cantatas; but he is best known by his operas. Of these, “Shamus
O’Brien” is most popular, because of its subject, while “Much Ado
about Nothing” shows much grace and elegance. “The Canterbury Pilgrims”
aims to picture old England, as the “Meistersinger” did old Germany.
Stanford’s work is always carefully planned, but not deeply inspired.

=Parry=.—Charles Hubert Hastings Parry (Bournemouth, England, 1848)
fills a similar position at Oxford University. He has composed four
symphonies, and two overtures, the “Tragic” and “Guillem de Cabestanh,”
but his most important work has been in the field of oratorio. His
sacred works include “Judith,” “De Profundis,” “Job,” and “King
Saul,” also a great Magnificat and Te Deum. These, too, show excess
of erudition, and are somewhat academic in character; but in all
his choral work, Parry displays a breadth and power that deserve
high praise. His incidental music to the “Frogs” and the “Birds” of
Aristophanes is also worthy of mention. His contributions to musical
literature are very important.

=Other Musical Leaders=.—=Alexander Campbell Mackenzie= (Edinburgh,
Scotland, 1847) became teacher and conductor in his native city,
afterwards joining the University forces. His “Colomba,” an early
opera, displays much real dramatic worth; more, in fact, than his
later productions. Among his other works are two oratorios, “The Rose
of Sharon” and “Bethlehem,” while his entr’actes for “Manfred” and
his powerful “Coriolanus” music also deserve notice. =Frederic Hymen
Cowen= (Kingston, Jamaica, 1852) studied with Reinecke, Moscheles, and
Kiel, and conducted in many cities, including Melbourne, Australia.
He has written two oratorios, “Ruth” and “The Deluge,” four operas,
including “Pauline” and “Harold,” and several cantatas, of which “The
Sleeping Beauty” and “The Water Lily” are delightfully poetic. But
his six symphonies are his most valuable works, the “Scandinavian,”
“Idyllic,” and “Welsh” ranking in the order named. =Arthur Goring
Thomas= (Eastbourne, England, 1850—London, 1892) devoted himself to
the lighter style of romantic music, in which his opera “Esmeralda”
and his posthumous cantata “The Swan and the Skylark” met with the
most success. With these five should be classed =Sir J. Frederick
Bridge=, often called in jest “The Westminster Bridge” because of
his post as organist in Westminster Abbey. His works include many
cantatas, oratorios, and lesser sacred pieces. His teaching has been
made delightful by his inimitable humor, which often appears in
his compositions also. Other men of this school are =Walter Cecil
Macfarren=, =Sir Walter Parratt=, and =Charles Harford Lloyd=, while
the excellent work of =Sir Arthur Sullivan= in light opera must not be
forgotten.

=Elgar=.—In Edward William Elgar (Broadheath, England, 1857) we find
a man who is possessed of real originality, and takes rank with the
world’s great composers. This is all the more remarkable when we
consider that he is almost wholly self-taught. Son of an organist, he
soon grew familiar with the instrument, and gained further musical
experience by playing in a theatre orchestra at Worcester. Too poor to
go to Germany, he lived by teaching violin at first. He went through
various books on harmony and orchestration, gaining much from Mozart’s
“Thorough-Bass School,” and Parry’s articles in Grove’s dictionary.
He ruled a score for the same number of bars and instruments as in
Mozart’s G-minor symphony, and wrote a work in this form—an exercise
which he considers of the utmost value. When he obtained a new
orchestral work, he would go into the fields to study it.

=His Works=.—Elgar first won attention by his cantata “The Black
Knight,” given at a Worcester festival. Its success caused him
to continue with “The Light of Life” and “King Olaf,” the latter
displaying much direct power and orchestral mastery. His “Variations,”
which won a London triumph, possess great intrinsic worth; but each one
is intended to portray some friend of the composer’s, and the work thus
has an added meaning for his acquaintances. “The Dream of Gerontius,”
a setting of Cardinal Newman’s sacred poem, met with remarkable favor.
It is not altogether unified in effect, but contains many passages of
compelling beauty and sublimity. It has been heard in many countries,
and one German writer considers it the greatest sacred work of the
last century, except the “Requiem” of Brahms. “The Apostles,” a later
oratorio, is the first part of a proposed trilogy. It displays similar
excellence, but at times is too mystic and psychological in effect.
Other works by Elgar are three overtures: the attractive “Froissart,”
the broadly-popular “Cockaigne” (typical of London), and the more
recent “In the South.” The music to “Diarmid and Grania” is also
worth mention, while the five songs, entitled, “Sea Pictures,” show
remarkable breadth and nobility.

=Coleridge-Taylor=.—England boasts the first great negro composer in
Samuel Coleridge-Taylor (London, England, 1875). Son of an educated
African father and a white mother, he began violin lessons at six.
At a more mature age, he studied piano with Ashton and composition
with Stanford. His early works included a number of anthems, some
chamber-music, and a symphony in A-minor. For his beloved violin he
wrote the passionate “Southern Love-Songs” and “African Romances,”
also the “Hiawatha” sketches. In 1898, he became world-famous by his
cantata “Hiawatha’s Wedding-Feast,” which he followed with “The Death
of Minnehaha” and “Hiawatha’s Departure.” These display a strength and
profusion of passion that sway all hearers, and the glowing richness
of the instrumentation forms an appropriate frame for Longfellow’s
picture. Later vocal works are “The Atonement” and “The Blind Girl of
Castel-Cuillé.” His other compositions include an orchestral ballade
with violin, an Idyll, a Solemn Prelude, the music to “Herod,” and four
waltzes. All show breadth of treatment, and effects of real beauty
attained by simple means.

=Bantock=.—Some younger composers have headed a movement for greater
originality, under the lead of Granville Bantock (London, England,
1868). His one-act operas “Caedmar” and “The Pearl of Iran” show much
warmth of color, and his musical ideas are always worthy of the great
literary conceptions in which he delights. His two overtures, “Eugene
Aram” and “Saul,” the suite of “Russian Scenes,” and the more recent
rhapsody, “The Time Spirit,” are the work of a truly musical nature.
His greatest effort, however, is a set of twenty-four symphonic poems,
illustrating Southey’s “Curse of Kehama.”

=Other Composers=.—In the new movement are William Wallace, Erskine
Allon, Reginald Steggall, Stanley Hawley, and Arthur Hinton. Clarence
Lucas and Cyril Scott are two other young men of prominence.

=Edward German= is a composer of remarkable gifts, for he attains
effects of the utmost grace and musical beauty by the simplest diatonic
themes. His “Rival Poets” and “Merrie England” are worthy examples of
light opera, while the “English Fantasia,” the symphonic poem “Hamlet,”
the suite “The Seasons,” and the “Welsh Rhapsody” are all works of
pleasing freshness and originality. German has also made a name in the
special field of incidental music, his settings including “Romeo and
Juliet,” “As You Like It,” “Much Ado about Nothing,” “The Tempest,”
and several other plays. In a period when many composers are losing
themselves in the intricacies of the modern orchestral style, the clear
simplicity of German’s compositions is an example of the utmost value.

=The Belgian School: Benoit=.—The new school of Belgium, fostered by
the Brussels Conservatory, owes its origin chiefly to Peter Benoit
(Harelbeke, Flanders, 1834—Antwerp, 1901), who broadened its influence
by his teaching at the Flemish School of Music, in Antwerp. His early
opera, “Het Dorp in t’ Gebergte” (The Village in the Mountains),
showed delightful local color. A second opera, a mass, a concerto, and
a choral symphony increased his fame, but he is identified chiefly
with the cantata. His great works in this field include “Oorlog”
(War), “Lucifer,” “De Schelde,” “De Rhyn,” the Rubens cantata, and
“Promethée.” They are modern in effect, and show breadth of conception
and real inspiration, united with ripe technical mastery. They have
been described as great decorative pictures in tone, suggesting vistas
of grand palaces, armies in battle array, rich fields of grain, mystic
visions of the spirit world, or gorgeous triumphal marches.

=Gilson=.—Paul Gilson (Brussels, Belgium, 1865) has written for
orchestra a Dramatic Overture, a Festival Overture, a Canadian and an
Irish Fantasy, half a dozen suites, the “Bucolics” of Virgil, and other
lesser works. But his best-known composition is the set of symphonic
sketches entitled, “La Mer.” This illustrates a poem of Levis,
frequently read before the performance. The different movements depict
sunrise at sea, and the many-colored splendors of dawn; the rollicking
songs and lively dances of the seaman; a love-duet and parting between
a sailor and his sweetheart; and a fatal tempest, in which the themes
of the sailors’ choruses are introduced in mocking irony as the ship
goes down. Through it all runs a vein of poetic fancy, well suggesting
the beauty and mystery of the sea. The oratorio “Francesca da Rimini”
is another strong work, the best of Gilson’s productions in that form.

=Lekeu=.—Guillaume Lekeu (Verviers, Belgium, 1870-1894) was a composer
whose early death cut short a career of great promise. His chief
studies were pursued in Paris, where he came under the elevating
influence of Franck. The subtle delicacy of his harmonic effects is a
result of this teaching, and Lekeu seems like a member of the French
school who strayed across the border by mistake. His early cantata
“Andromède,” and his Fantasie on popular Angevin airs, gained him some
notice. His works include two Symphonic Studies, an attractive “Poeme”
for violin and orchestra, and an exquisite Adagio for violin, ’cello,
and strings. His greatest vocal composition is the “Chant Lyrique,” for
chorus and orchestra, but he has produced many songs of lofty melodic
style. His music is marked by great originality and fertility of
invention, but tinged with a spirit of melancholy and gloom.

=Other Composers=.—=Edgar Tinel= (Sinaai, Flanders, 1854) is another
pupil of the Brussels Conservatory, where he studied with Fétis. His
great work is the three-part oratorio “Franciscus,” treating the story
of St. Francis of Assisi. Other works are “Sainte Godelieve” and the
music to “Polyeucte.”

=Jan Blockx= (Antwerp, Belgium, 1851) is the most popular opera
composer of his country. His greatest success is the “Herbergprinses”
(Princess of the Inn), a work with a strong dramatic plot and music
of remarkable freshness and vigor. “Thyl Uylenspiegel,” in Blockx’s
opera of that name, is no longer the graceless rogue of the old German
story, but a popular hero who rescues Maestricht from the Spaniards.
Other operas of this composer are “The Bride of the Sea,” and “Maître
Martin,” an earlier work. Other composers prominent in the new movement
are Keurvels, Wambach, Mortelmans, Vleeshouwer, and Mathieu. The first
place among the women is occupied by Juliette Folville, the young
violinist, who has written the opera “Attala,” a march, parts of a
symphony, and many smaller works.

=Music in Holland=.—=Richard Hol= was for many years the Nestor of
the Dutch composers. His fame was assured by the patriotic hymn,
“Comme je t’aime, O mon pays,” and his long career of activity was
of great service to the cause of music in Holland. He was a prolific
composer, and an excellent critic and journalist. =Julius Roentgen=,
who studied under Reinecke and Lachner, was better known as pianist
than as composer, but produced an excellent concerto, also “Das Gebet,”
for chorus and orchestra, and other works. The best of the younger
men are =Bernard Zweers= and =Alphonse Diepenbrock=, while others
deserving mention are Van t’Kruys, Gottfried Mann, Dirk Schaefer, and
the Brandt-Buys brothers. Among the women-composers, Catherine van
Rennes and Hendrika van Tussen-Broek have done excellently in small
forms, while Cornelia van Oosterzee attempts ambitious orchestral work,
and Cora Dopper has entered the field of opera. Amsterdam has become a
great musical centre, and Holland, no less than Belgium, is reaping the
result of the widespread educational movement.


                              REFERENCES.

Maitland, J. A. Fuller.—Music in the 19th Century; England.

Willeby, Charles.—Masters of English Music.


                               QUESTIONS.

What obstacles have hindered the English in developing composition?

Tell about the work of Stanford.

Tell about the work of Parry.

Name other important English composers.

Give an account of Elgar and his works.

What characteristics are strong in the works of Coleridge-Taylor?

Name other prominent composers of the new English school.

Give an account of the work of Benoit, of Gilson, Lekeu, and other
Belgian composers.

Who composed the most popular Belgian opera? Tell about other works by
this composer.

Name some leading composers of Holland.



                               LESSON LV.

               NATIONAL SCHOOLS: BOHEMIA AND SCANDINAVIA.


=The Influence of Folk-Music=.—Some races are endowed with a better
musical taste than others. Among these favored peoples the Folk-song,
the music that appeals directly to the popular heart, needs only the
touch of a gifted composer to fashion it into a great national school.
In the case of England and Belgium, we have seen that even the most
thorough musical education cannot wholly atone for a lack of real
public taste in music. Scotland, possessing a wealth of beautiful
Folk-songs, has not yet given birth to a composer who can employ its
style in larger forms. But in Bohemia and the countries of Northern
Europe, the Folk-music has not only been worthy in itself, but has been
properly developed and amplified by gifted composers.

=Smetana=.—František Škroup (1801-1862) composed many popular Bohemian
_Volkslieder_, and wrote the first national opera, but the real founder
of the Bohemian school was Bedřich, or Frederick, Smetana (Leito
mischl, Bohemia, 1824—Prague, 1884). Parental opposition could not
prevent his studying music, and we find him at Prague, under Proksh,
and, later on, taking lessons of Schumann. That master recommended a
course with Mendelssohn, but as the pupil was too poor, he changed his
advice and suggested a study of Bach. Smetana became an ardent admirer
of Liszt, at whose house his own career was decided. Hearing Herbeck
remark, while there, that the Czechs were merely reproductive, he made
a solemn resolution to devote his life to the building up of a national
school of music in Bohemia.

=His Works=.—While conductor at Gothenburg, Sweden, he produced three
worthy symphonic poems: “Richard III,” “Wallenstein’s Camp,” and “Hakon
Jarl.” On his return, he wrote “The Brandenburgers in Bohemia,” the
first of the eight operas that have made him so famous in his native
land. This was Wagnerian in style, and at once the critics assailed him
fiercely for trying to bring Bohemia under the musical domination of
Germany. To show that he could write in a more popular vein, Smetana
produced a second opera, “Prodaná Nevĕsta,” (The Bartered Bride), which
proved a marvel of musical grace and delicacy, and was enough in itself
to establish the reputation of any composer. “Dalibor” is a dramatic
work in serious vein, while “Libuše” is based on a national subject.
“The Two Widows” and “The Kiss” are light operas of marked success,
the latter being often cited as a perfect model for this style. “The
Secret” is in the same vein, while “The Devil’s Wall” is again on a
national legend. Other notable works are the string quartet “Aus Meinem
Leben,” and the “Carnival of Prague”; but Smetana’s greatest orchestral
work is the set of six symphonic poems entitled “Ma Vlast” (My
Fatherland). These depict “Vyšehrad,” a historic fortress; “Vltava,”
the river Moldau; “Sarka,” a mythical Amazon; “Bohemia’s Groves and
Meadows,” “Tabor,” the Hussite camp; and “Blanik,” the magic mountain
where the warriors sleep. Smetana’s music shows an inspiration and
depth of feeling that make him rank with the world’s great composers,
and his struggles against poverty and disease form a story of the
utmost pathos.

=Dvořák=.—The greatest of Smetana’s pupils was =Antonin Dvořák=
(Mühlhausen, Bohemia, 1841—Prague, 1904). Son of a butcher, he
persuaded the village schoolmaster to give him lessons. He began
composition at Zlonitz, and soon sent home a polka to surprise his
family; and as he had written it without considering the transposing
instruments, thus causing three different keys to sound together,
the resulting discords certainly accomplished that purpose. After
further study at Prague, he was able to gain a Government pension,
and to interest such men as Hanslick and Brahms. He spent his time in
“hard study, occasional composition, much revision, a great deal of
thinking, and little eating.” Being asked what teacher helped him most,
he replied: “I studied with God, the birds, the trees, the rivers,
myself.”

[Illustration: ANTONIN DVOŘÁK. CHRISTIAN SINDING.

EDVARD GRIEG. FRIEDRICH SMETANA.]

=His Works=.—Dvořák’s many operas, including “Wanda,” “Dimitri,”
“Armida,” and others, have been surpassed in importance by his
orchestral works. His “Stabat Mater” and the cantata “The Spectre’s
Bride” are important vocal compositions. His overtures include such
well-known examples as the “Husitzká,” “Mein Heim,” “Othello,” “In der
Natur,” and the “Carneval.” Other instrumental works are the famous
“Slavic Dances,” the Slavonic Rhapsodies, the “Scherzo Capriccioso,”
three Ballades, and a “Hero Song.” Before coming to New York, in 1892,
he had written four great symphonies; but the fifth, “Aus der Neuen
Welt,” is of the greatest interest to Americans, since Dvořák here
adopted the plantation style in his themes, to show what could be done
in building up an American school of music. He was eminently successful
in handling his material, and he produced a greater and more truly
national work than any resident composer has yet done. In general,
Dvořák’s style is more cosmopolitan than that of Smetana, and his
faculty of melodic invention makes his works attractive. He enriched
the symphony by two Bohemian dance-movements—the Dumka, and the Furiant.

=Other Bohemians=.—=Zdĕnek Fibich=, though little known outside of
his own country, was another famous opera-composer. He devoted some
efforts to melodrama also, “Hippodamia” being his chief work in this
field. He published two symphonies and several symphonic poems, the
latter showing the influence of Liszt. =Reznícĕk=, who has recently
identified himself with the musical life of Germany, has produced five
operas, of which the sparkling comedy “Bonna Diana” and the later
“Till Eulenspiegel” are the best. =Josef Suk=, son-in-law of Dvořák,
has composed some attractive instrumental music, while =Nápravník=,
of an earlier generation, won operatic successes in St. Petersburg.
Hungary, too, has a national school of opera, founded by =Franz Erkel=.
This school is carried on by such men as Alexander Erkel, the Doppler
brothers, Mihalovitch, Zichy, and Hubay, while Dohnanyi is better known
as pianist than as composer. Poland is represented by =Paderewski=,
while =Soltys= has won renown in symphony, and =Stalkowsky= in opera.

=Norwegian Music=.—Norway is preëminently a land of song. Its sombre
fiords, dark forests, and smiling meadows have at all times inspired a
school of Folk-music whose plaintive sweetness exerts the utmost charm
on the musical auditor. In =Edvard Hagerup Grieg= (Bergen, 1843-1907)
we find a composer of wonderful melodic gifts and expressive power,
who has preserved admirably the flavor of the local Folk-songs and
dances. Grieg owed much to the wise training of his mother, a woman of
rare gifts. At Ole Bull’s advice, he took a course at Leipzig, after
which he studied further with Gade, at Copenhagen. There he met Rikard
Noordraak, who first aroused his enthusiasm for the songs and legends
of his native land.

=Grieg’s Works=.—Grieg’s genius was essentially lyric and melodic, but
this in no way detracts from the greatness of his orchestral works.
The “Autumn” overture is clear and beautiful, with the simplicity of
strength, not of weakness. The “Norwegian Dances” mark the beginning
of the national style that is carried out in the melodrama “Bergliot,”
the two “Peer Gynt” suites, and “Sigurd Jorsalfer.” The piano concerto,
somewhat in the style of Schumann, is one of Grieg’s best works, and
shows the utmost perfection of melodic and harmonic architecture. The
“Elegiac Melodies,” the “Norwegian Themes,” and the “Holberg Suite,”
all for strings, are further examples of his rich fulness of romantic
utterance. His choral and chamber works show the same sympathetic
treatment, while his piano works and songs include some of the most
exquisite gems in the entire musical repertoire. His works show endless
melodic invention, great power of expression, and a warmth of tender
sentiment that seems never to lose its charm.

=Christian Sinding= (Kongsberg, Norway, 1856) studied at Leipzig also,
and won a royal scholarship that took him to Munich and Berlin. He
belongs to an artistic family, for one brother, Otto, is a painter, and
another, Stefan, a sculptor. Sinding’s music is melodic in character,
and distinctively Norwegian in style, but less so than that of Grieg.
His orchestral works include an excellent symphony, brought out under
Weingartner and later by Thomas; an attractive concerto for piano,
and two for violin; a “Rondo Infinito”; and the interesting suite,
“Episodes Chevaleresques.” His chamber-music, violin sonatas, piano
solos, and songs are made of the most attractive material.

=Other Norwegians=.—=Johann Severin Svendsen=, though prominent
in Danish music, is really Norwegian by birth. Son of a military
bandmaster, he soon obtained a position similar to his father’s. But
he longed for higher things, and after a tour as violin virtuoso,
he studied at Leipzig, under Reinecke. He traveled much, meeting in
Paris an American woman whom he afterwards married in her own country.
After some experience in Christiania, he became court conductor in
Copenhagen, where he owns the baton used by von Weber and inscribed
with that composer’s name. His orchestral works include two symphonies,
four Norwegian Rhapsodies, the legend “Zorahayde,” and the “Carnival
at Paris,” but they are too conventional to take foremost rank. A
prominent composer among the younger Norwegians is =Ole Olsen=, of
Hammerfest, whose symphonic poem “Asgardsreien” is but one of his
many successes. =Gerhard Schjelderup= is one of the modern radicals,
and shows all the complexity and dissonance of Strauss. =Agathe
Backer-Grohndahl= is the leader of the Norwegian women-composers.

=Music in Denmark=.—In Denmark, the fame of Gade obscured that of other
composers, and such a man as J. P. E. Hartmann could gain scarcely more
than local reputation. The most important name in recent years is that
of =August Enna=, who won a popular operatic triumph in 1892 with “Die
Hexe.” He was almost wholly self-taught, for poverty prevented him from
taking lessons, sometimes even from buying music paper. “Cleopatra”
is a later work, while “The Little Match-Girl” was the beginning of a
series of fairy operas. Enna handles his orchestra with boldness and
skill, and displays vocal fluency and thematic excellence. =Eduard
Lassen= gained more renown by his melodious songs than by his operas or
orchestral works. =Otto Malling= is known for his piano pieces, while
=Victor Bendix= has attempted the symphonic poem. =Ludwig Schytté=, a
friend of Liszt, has made Berlin his home, and is identified with light
opera as well as piano music.

=Music in Sweden=.—The national opera of Sweden was brought into being
by =Ivar Hallstrom=, soon after the middle of the 19th century. Since
then, a new school has arisen, showing the influence of Liszt, Wagner,
Schumann, and at times, Berlioz, with the plaintive sweetness of the
native Folk-music pervading it all. =Anders Hallen=, the first of the
new romanticists, has written four operas (of which “Hexfallen” is
the best), several symphonic poems and Swedish Rhapsodies, a number
of ambitious cantatas, and some beautiful Swedish and German songs.
He unites the charm of his native music with strength of passion and
richness of instrumentation. =Emil Sjögren= shows a harmonic feeling
worthy of Grieg, but his boldness in modulation often produces bizarre
effects. He excels in the smaller forms, such as his “Spanish Songs,”
“Tannhäuser Lieder,” and several piano cycles. =Wilhelm Stenhammar=,
pupil of these two, shows much enthusiasm and spirit in his music,
but his operas are now laid aside. =Wilhelm Peterson-Berger= is the
best of the new opera-composers, his music-drama “Ran” being a recent
success. =Hugo Alfven= has attempted the symphony, with fair success.
=Tor Aulin=, a famous violinist, has produced concertos and other works
for his instrument, while =Erik Akerberg= has devoted his energy to
choral works. =Elfrida Andree= is the most prominent of the Swedish
women-composers.

=Music in Finland=.—The national epic of Finland is the _Kalevala_,
a work of real poetic beauty. There is also a collection of shorter
lyrics, called the _Kanteletar_. These have furnished inspiration for a
large number of modern composers, of whom the most important is =Jean
Sibelius=. He studied with Becker in Berlin and Goldmark in Vienna.
On his return to Helsingfors, the capital, he became the leader of the
new Finnish school. His two symphonies are worthy if not absolutely
great, but his symphonic poems, and the suite “King Christian IV,” show
real musical beauty. He has been active in the smaller forms also, and
holds the Government pension for musical excellence. =Armas Jarnefelt=
is another good orchestral composer, while =Ernest Mielck=, who died at
twenty-two, showed a lyric beauty not unworthy of Schubert. =Richard
Faltin= is one of the older song-composers. =Martin Wegelius=, died
1906, did valuable work as director of the Musical Institute, while
=Robert Kajanus= became prominent as the founder and leader of the
Helsingfors Philharmonic Orchestra. Both are excellent composers, the
former working chiefly in vocal forms, the latter in the orchestral
field.


                               QUESTIONS.

Who founded the Bohemian school of composers?

Who was his greatest pupil?

Name the most important works of these two composers.

What contribution did Dvořák make to the symphony?

Who is the leading Norwegian composer?

Name some of his best-known works.

Compare Grieg and Sinding.

What composers of Danish birth have won appreciation?

Name the leading Swedish composers.

Who is the most important Finnish composer?



                              LESSON LVI.

                          THE RUSSIAN SCHOOL.


=Folk-Music in Russia=.—The Slav nature differs greatly from that of
the races of Western Europe, and this difference appears also in the
Slavonic music. For a proper understanding of the Russian Folk-songs,
the student should be familiar with the country and its history, its
vast steppes, its lonely summers and dreary winters, and the patient
poverty of its long-suffering peasants. It is rich in legendary lore,
and the poetry of Pushkin and Gogol has wrought the wild beauty of
these tales into permanent form. The popular melodies trace their
origin back to pagan times, and show infinite variety. There are
epic chants, songs of weddings and funerals, and weirdly beautiful
cradle-songs, Their delicate, capricious rhythm, and their strangeness
of harmony and cadence, possess the utmost attraction. At times the
songs are strong and savage, at times tranquil and majestic, or brisk
and graceful; but usually they are tinged with the profound melancholy
of an oppressed race. The church music, too, with its old modes and
deep-voiced choirs, flourishes in unusual purity.

=The Rise of Russian Music=.—In the middle of the 18th century, the
Imperial Court began to import foreign composers, and St. Petersburg
was enabled to hear and see such men as Paisiello, Cimarosa, and
Boieldieu. Works in the native language soon followed, and the Venetian
Cavos became so identified with Russian music that he might almost have
passed for a native. The first Russian composer, however, was =Glinka=,
whose “Life for the Czar” (1836) was received with profound enthusiasm
by the entire nation. Other composers followed, the best of whom were
=Dargomishky= and =Seroff=. The former died only recently, and his
later works show the Wagnerian influence. Instrumental music flourished
also. The rich melodic beauty of Rubinstein charmed all Europe, and
only the passionate power of Tchaikovsky placed it in the background.
But now even he, the greatest of the Russians, is not considered truly
national by his countrymen, who think him too German in style.

=Balakireff=.—Of the five men who strove to make Russian music
distinctively national, =Mily Alexejevitch Balakireff= (Nijni-Novgorod,
Russia, 1836) was not the greatest, but may justly be called the
founder of the movement. After his university studies, he came under
the influence of Alexander Oulibicheff, a retired diplomat who devoted
himself to music. The young man soon settled in St. Petersburg, where
he met Cui, and began with him the work of developing the new school.
Balakireff has been active as pianist, teacher, and concert leader. The
musical principles adopted by him and his four associates called for
the use of Russian Folk-music in just the way that Dvořák employed the
plantation style in his “New World” symphony. This idea is at least as
old as the days of Weber, whose “Freischütz,” written in the popular
vein, made such an overwhelming triumph in Germany. With the wealth
of beautiful Folk-songs in Russia, it has been possible to produce an
immense amount of interesting music, with which the Western world is as
yet by no means fully acquainted. Balakireff himself was not prolific
as a composer, but his works, though few in number, show real value.
They include a symphony, three overtures (Russian, Czech, and Spanish),
incidental music to “King Lear,” the symphonic poem “Russia,” and a
second one, “Tamara,” based on the legend of a beautiful Caucasian
princess who entertained the passing cavalier for a night, while in the
morning the river Tarek bore away his corpse. Another Oriental subject
is the difficult piano fantasie “Islamey.” His lesser works include
mazurkas, some four-hand pieces, and a score of remarkable songs,
masterly in their perfection of detail.

[Illustration: ANTON ARENSKY. CÉSAR CUI.

ALEXANDER GLAZOUNOV. MILY BALAKIREFF.

NICHOLAS RIMSKY-KORSAKOFF. SERGEI RACHMANINOFF.]

=César Antonovitch Cui= (Vilna, Russia, 1835) has been the literary
champion of the new school. Son of a French soldier, Cui studied
engineering, and became professor of fortification. In his writings we
may see that the new Russians seem unwilling to admit the greatness of
Wagner, but they have none the less adopted nearly all his dramatic
theories. Like him, they revolted against the inanities of the old
Italian opera, which was merely a singing-concert. They admitted that
after Beethoven and Schumann, the symphony could say little of new
import, but reform was needed in opera; the plot should be worthy, and
the music not only good in itself, but appropriate to the sentiment.
Yet Russian opera has not followed Wagner, but has proceeded along
its own lines; and Cui even writes: “I would like to preserve my
compatriots from the dangerous influence of Wagner’s decadence. Whoever
loves his music, ceases to appreciate real music; whoever admires
his operas, holds Glinka as a writer of vaudevilles. The desire to
find something deep where nothing exists can have only dangerous
consequences.” These strictures are not unlike certain early German
criticisms of Wagner, now happily forgotten. Cui’s own operas include
“The Prisoner of the Caucasus,” “William Ratcliff,” “Angelo,” “Le
Filibustier,” and “The Saracen,” but none has won any real success. His
music is good, but even his own countrymen admit that it lacks novelty
or individuality. “Angelo” is the composer’s favorite. He, too, has
done much in the smaller forms.

=Moussorgsky=.—The strangest figure in the group of five was, by
all odds, =Modest Petrovitch Moussorgsky= (Karevo, Russia, 1839—St.
Petersburg, 1881). Like Cui, he received a military training, and
became an officer, but his restiveness soon caused his resignation, and
two later attempts at Government work were again failures. His fondness
for drink, and his many excesses, soon marked him as a Bohemian whose
dominating passions and savage independence could brook no restraint.
The same qualities are shown in his music. He was a poet by nature,
expressing in great thoughts the passion and misery of humanity, but
never taking the trouble to master the technic of his art. Thus his
two operas, “Boris Godunoff” and “Chovanstchina,” did not meet with
favor until smoothed and polished by his more learned friends. The same
is true of his “Night on Calvary” and “Intermezzo” for orchestra. His
“Defeat of Sennacherib” is one of many “Hebraic Choruses,” while the
“Tableaux d’une Exposition” are among the best of his piano pieces.
His songs include settings of Goethe and Heine, as well as the Russian
poets.

=Alexander Porphyrievitch Borodin= (St. Petersburg, Russia, 1834-1887)
could claim kinship with the old princes of Imeretia, the former
Caucasian kingdom whose rulers boasted of their descent from King
David. He studied medicine and surgery, and wrote several important
works on chemistry. He was active in the cause of higher education for
women, and founded a medical school for them. In music he owed his
development chiefly to Balakireff, though he composed at an early age,
almost by instinct. The success of his first symphony encouraged him
to write two others, as well as an orchestral scherzo. His two string
quartets are full of originality, and his choral and piano music shows
the same quality. He is best known in America by the “Steppenskizze,” a
tone-picture of the vast Russian plains traversed by Oriental caravans.
His greatest work, however, is the opera “Prince Igor,” on an old
Russian war-legend treated by Pushkin. Borodin is a master of sombre
effects, and his dissonances are at times almost too striking; but
there is real musical worth, also, in his compositions.

=Rimsky-Korsakoff=.—The best of the renowned group of five is decidedly
=Nicolai Andreievitch Rimsky-Korsakoff= (Tikhvin, Russia, 1844). He,
too, adopted a vocation other than music, graduating from a Government
school and afterwards attaining the rank of admiral. His chief
musical work has been in opera, and his dozen productions in this
form are nearly all widely popular in his native land. “The Czar’s
Betrothed” is the best known, but the “May Night,” “The Snow Maiden,”
and “Sadko” are not far behind it in favor. “Mozart and Salieri” is
a one-act version of a poem by Pushkin, based on the suspicion that
Mozart was really poisoned by his Italian rival. In the orchestral
field, “Antar,” “Scheherezade,” and “Sadko” are three symphonic poems
that show remarkable mastery of expression. Other orchestral works
are an overture on popular melodies, another on church themes, a
“Serb Fantasie,” a “Spanish Caprice,” and a “Fairy Legend.” He has
written a noble and dignified concerto, dedicated to Liszt, and the
usual number of lesser works. He shows the greatest skill in handling
instrumental color, an art for which the Russians are noted. His
music is descriptive, dramatic. His inspiration never flags, and his
treatment of the thematic material is always interesting and skilful.
His music may perhaps be criticised as lacking unity, but its breadth
and originality are undoubted.

=Glazounoff=.—Among men of a later generation, =Alexander
Constantinovitch Glazounoff= (St. Petersburg, Russia, 1865) is the most
prominent, and the only one who may dispute with Rimsky-Korsakoff,
his former teacher, the position of greatest of the living Russian
composers. Son of a rich bookseller, he was able to devote all his
energies to music, and produced at eighteen a symphony that won
the congratulations of Liszt. Since then he has composed works as
beautiful as they are numerous. His early creations show a tendency to
fantastic and imaginative subjects. The haunting beauty of the forest,
the inspiring charm of spring, the compelling magic of the sea, the
gorgeousness of the Orient, the majesty of the historic Kremlin, all
find an echo in his great orchestral rhapsodies. His seven symphonies
are marvels of harmonic richness and melodic beauty. His “Triumphal
March” for the Chicago Exposition, and a “Coronation Cantata” for the
Czar, were both written to order. His early overtures are based on
sacred themes, but the “Carnival” and the “Ouverture Solennelle” are
again in the style of vivid coloring to which he has accustomed his
hearers. His eighty or more published compositions include ballades,
marches, suites, mazurkas, and other numbers for orchestra, to say
nothing of chamber works, songs, cantatas, and two piano sonatas.
For a time, he renounced his early style, and wrote serious works in
classical German vein, but he returned to it with a number of ballets,
or pantomimes with real plot and full orchestral accompaniment.

=Anton Stepanovitch Arensky= (Nijni-Novgorod, Russia, 1861-1906) is
another of a younger generation, and like Glazounoff, did not limit
himself to the style of Russian Folk-music, but aims to be more
cosmopolitan. Educated at St. Petersburg, Arensky soon became known by
a symphony and a piano concerto, and was called to Moscow as professor
of counterpoint. In that city he increased his reputation by a grand
opera, “A Dream on the Volga.” “Raphael,” a one-act work, was followed
by the ballet, “A Night in Egypt,” but Arensky’s greatest opera is “Nal
and Damajanti,” on an East Indian subject. His other works include
a second symphony, a fantasie with piano, a violin concerto, and a
“Memorial March.” He displays real strength of feeling, and he shows
the influence of Schumann and Tchaikovsky, especially in his piano
music.

=Other Composers=.—=Taneieff=, one of those who held apart from the
national movement, has written a symphony, some string quartets, and
numerous choruses, but is best known by his “Oresteia,” an orchestral
trilogy based on the tragedies of Aeschylus. This is a work of dignity
and power, but at times lacking in inspiration. =Rachmaninoff=, a
pupil of Arensky, is one of the younger men who won fame as a pianist
and piano composer before attempting larger works. His more ambitious
compositions include two concertos, a symphony, a symphonic poem,
and the cantata “Spring,” also two operas “The Bohemians” and “The
Avaricious Knight.” Another piano composer is =Stcherbatcheff=, a
pupil of Liszt, who displays excessive boldness in his effects, though
his “Fairy Scenes” are charming in style, and his “Fantasies Etudes”
show the influence of Schumann. =Liadoff= is another composer of piano
works, such as the “Arabesques” and the “Birioulki.” =Scriabine= is
one of the more recent piano writers who has won his spurs in the
symphonic field also. =Pachulski=, too, has become known by his piano
compositions. =Wihtol= has done much valuable work in collecting the
Lett Folk-melodies. =Solovieff= has attempted opera, though not with
any remarkable success. =Ippolitoff-Ivanoff=, active in the musical
life of Moscow, has produced operas, suites, and the set of lyric
scenes, entitled “Asia.” =Michael Ivanoff= is another opera composer,
whose “Sabawa” has met with some favor. Among many others worthy of
mention, =Sokoloff= has written chamber-works, =Alpheraki= is noted for
his songs, =Antipoff= and =Blumenfeld= have produced excellent piano
music, while =Rebikoff=, known for the same reason, has won new laurels
with his so-called mimodrame, “Genius and Death.”

=Tchaikovsky=.—Although the new Russian school does not recognize Peter
Iljitsch Tchaikovsky as an exponent of national musical ideas and
although he represents a blending of Teutonic and Slavonic methods,
yet his music partakes of the latter, rather than of the former
temperament, and he is therefore included among the Russian composers
in this lesson. He was born May 7, 1840; at ten he went to St.
Petersburg. He was intended for the legal profession and was appointed
to a place in the Ministry of Justice when only nineteen years old.
Shortly after, he entered the harmony classes at the Conservatory,
resigned his Government position, and entered the musical profession.
In 1866 he became professor of harmony at the Moscow Conservatory;
in 1867, brought out his first symphony and his first opera. In 1877
he resigned his post at the Conservatory and gave himself up to
composition. In 1891 he visited the United States. He died, October 12,
1893, in St. Petersburg.

His compositions include eight operas, six symphonies, eight overtures
and fantasias for orchestra, seven works for special occasions, eight
orchestral suites, three string quartets, a trio and sextet, three
concertos and two other pieces for piano and orchestra, three works for
violin and orchestra, and two for ’cello and orchestra, a large number
of piano pieces and vocal works.

An English critic sums up Tchaikovsky’s orchestral works thus: _Good
points_, beauty of melody, brilliancy of workmanship, beauty of color;
_weak points_, undue pursuit of the morbid, extravagance of idea,
noisiness of orchestration.

=Conclusion=.—At the beginning of the 20th century, the chief
characteristic of music seems to be a development of national
schools. As already explained, in those countries that have worthy
Folk-music, composers find the material ready for them to fashion.
Such has been the case in Norway, Sweden, and Bohemia, as well as in
Russia. Countries that have not this advantage, such as England, the
Netherlands, or America, atone for it in part by study and education;
but this seldom produces great musical geniuses. Italy, where the
common people cared for nothing but the lighter style of tune, has
had to build anew, upon foreign foundations. France is making a brave
struggle after novelty, but seems to lack the needed inspiration;
while Germany, for the moment, seems content with mastering the modern
orchestra. The Russian school is today the most spontaneous, the least
artificial; and it cannot fail to grow in appreciation during the next
few years.


                              REFERENCES.

Habets.—Borodin and Liszt.

Newmarch.—Life of Tchaikovsky.

Lee.—Tchaikovski, Music of the Masters Series.


                               QUESTIONS.

What is the character of the Slavonic Folk-music?

Who was the first Russian composer of prominence?

Give a sketch of the work of the composers, Balakireff, Moussorgsky,
Cui, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakoff and Glazounoff.

What composition and by whom is it considered one of the most difficult
pieces written for the piano?

What composer’s influence is shown in the works of Arensky?

Name other prominent Russian composers.

[Illustration:

              THEODORE THOMAS.

     LOWELL MASON.       STEPHEN C. FOSTER.]



                              LESSON LVII.

                      MUSIC IN THE UNITED STATES.


=The Cavaliers and the Puritans=.—The English settlers who came to this
country and located at Jamestown, and their successors, brought with
them from their home the songs they sang there—gay songs, cavalier
songs, love-ditties and the countryside tunes; but they left them
at this, making no attempt to adapt them to their new surroundings.
Indeed, it was as much a matter of fashion to be able to play or
to sing some new ballad just brought from London as it was to have
the latest fashion in dress. The Cavaliers were not the people to
give a distinctive tone to music in their adopted home. The stern,
severe, religious atmosphere of the New England Colonies did more for
the beginnings of American music, although the first efforts were
unpromising enough, since the Puritans discountenanced all music except
that of Psalm tunes, which were probably sung in unison, since at that
time there could be little question of singing in parts. Owing probably
to a scarcity of hymn-books, it was customary to read the hymn line by
line, and to sing in alternation with the reading, a custom observed in
some sections of the United States even in the latter part of the 19th
century. It was inevitable that the more progressive among the clergy
and the people should demand better singing of the Psalms; and from
this came the first singing schools, the beginning of musical education
in the Colonies. A singing school is noted in Boston in 1717. As this
movement spread, choirs were organized, since those who had gained
some skill in singing and in reading from notes would naturally draw
together, at first informally, later in regular organizations. This
occurred as early as the middle of the 18th century.

=Hymn-Tune Composers=.—The prominence given to the singing of Psalms
and hymns is doubtless due to the fact that the first composers
developed in the Colonies confined their efforts to the production of
hymn-tunes. The first to gain prominence was William Billings, born in
Boston in 1746, died there, 1800. He was a tanner by trade and was,
of course, self-taught. His efforts at harmonizing were rather crude,
as is to be expected, since he had but few models in composition.
He introduced a somewhat florid style, although without training in
counterpoint. Yet the critic can see in the work of the early composers
such as Billings, a rough vigor and a striving for a more distinctive
melodic and rhythmic character than is to be found in the tunes brought
over from England, showing traces of the forces already at work to
differentiate the American character from the English. Billings’ first
collection of tunes was published in 1770. Other composers of this
period were Oliver Holden, who wrote the widely-sung “Coronation,”
Andrew Law, Jacob Kimball, Daniel Read and Timothy Swan. The two other
important cities, Philadelphia and New York, had some musical activity
during the Colonial period. In 1741, Benjamin Franklin published a
collection of hymns, performances were given of operas, and concerts
for charitable purposes were organized, yet nothing in the way of
native composition developed.

=Early Musical Organizations=.—A musical atmosphere is essential to
musical development and progress, and a musical atmosphere comes only
from organized effort in musical work. The first efforts in this
direction were vocal, following the same line of development as that
we observed in the history of music as a whole, namely: first, vocal
and choral music; secondly, instrumental and particularly orchestral.
The earliest important society of this kind was the Stoughton (Mass.)
Musical Society, which grew out of a singing class formed in that town,
by Billings, in 1774. This organization still exists. The most famous
and most significant body for musical development was the Handel and
Haydn Society, still in existence, which was organized in Boston, in
1815, with a chorus of nearly one hundred voices. Boston had at this
time some well-trained musicians, and others came there from Europe in
later years, making it the centre of American musical life for years.

=Lowell Mason=.—In 1826, a young man from the South, but born in
Massachusetts, came to Boston to begin a musical career, which formed
a link between the early singing school stage and the work of the
present day. This was Lowell Mason, who was born in 1792, but spent his
younger days in Savannah, Ga., where he studied music as an amateur.
As the fruit of his efforts in composition, he published a collection
of church music which was endorsed by the Handel and Haydn Society,
and proved very successful, encouraging him, some years later, to take
up music as a profession. He was essentially a man of the people among
whom he lived and by nature an efficient teacher, to which he added
a skill and training that ensured him the respect of those who came
under his instruction. He traveled over New England and parts of New
York State, holding musical conventions, and teaching the principles of
music to hundreds of singers and teachers from far and near. His work
thus closely touched the people, and in a day when music was not taught
in the public schools, contributed greatly to spread a love for and a
knowledge of vocal music. He died August 11, 1872.

=Musical Instruments=.—When instrumental music began to receive a share
of public attention, a great step was taken toward development of music
in the United States. In cities like Boston, New York, Philadelphia and
some Southern homes, instruments of the spinet and virginal type could
be found in the 17th and 18th centuries. The flute was a gentleman’s
instrument in those days, following the English custom. The violin
also received some attention. (Thomas Jefferson was very fond of
this instrument.) Naturally, the first instruments were brought from
England, yet the record shows that John Harris, of Boston, who had
learned the trade in England, offered for sale spinets of his own
make, in 1769. Some church organs were built several years earlier. The
harpsichord and piano followed in due course of time, as we can gather
from advertisements and concert programs. There is controversy as to
the making of the first pianos in the United States. Both Philadelphia
and Boston seem to have had makers in a small way before the beginning
of the 19th century. The pioneer in this industry was Jonas Chickering,
who served his apprenticeship in Boston and started in business on his
own account, in 1823. The growth of interest in music arising from
the organization of choral societies and the labors of Lowell Mason,
and the musicians of foreign birth who came to this country created a
demand for music outside of that for the voice, organ and piano, for
many of these musicians had been players in orchestras in Europe.

=Early Orchestras=.—The first permanent body of orchestral players,
the Philharmonic Society, was formed in Boston. The chief promoter
was a German, named Graupner, who came to the city named, in 1798. He
gathered round him a few professionals and some amateurs, so that the
nucleus of an orchestra existed before the Handel and Haydn Society was
formed. Graupner also kept a music store and printed music. A large
orchestra was established in 1840, which remained active for nearly
a decade. New York had an organization of instrumentalists which was
started about the same time as Graupner’s society in Boston, but its
real work in this line did not occur until 1842, when the Philharmonic
Society was founded, with a strength of from fifty to sixty players.
This society still exists. The strongest musical force in Philadelphia
was the Musical Fund Society, which came into existence in 1820, one
object of which was to spread musical knowledge in the city. It built
a hall, which still stands, and gave both vocal and instrumental
concerts. Beethoven’s first symphony was given there, as early as 1821.

=Permanent Orchestral Organizations=.—The credit for raising the
standard of orchestral work and of spreading a popular appreciation
of the classics in absolute music belongs to Theodore Thomas, born
in Germany, in 1835, whose family came to this country in 1845. He
became a proficient violinist while still a boy. His first efforts in
the line of the higher music were in the domain of chamber-music; in
these concerts he was associated with Dr. William Mason and others. In
1864, he began his work in the orchestral field, in New York, visiting
other cities with his men and spreading a knowledge of the works of the
masters. Mr. Thomas conducted a series of concerts in Philadelphia,
but finished his labors in Chicago, as the conductor of the Chicago
Orchestra, which was established for him. He died in 1905. Following
the increased interest in orchestral music in New York City, due to
the work of Thomas, the Boston musical public called for a higher
standard and a more skilled set of players than the successors of
the old Philharmonic Orchestra, the Germania and the Harvard Musical
Association, which had kept up the work in a creditable manner. The
outgrowth of this sentiment was the establishment of the celebrated
Boston Symphony Orchestra, which gave its first concerts in the fall of
1881, under the direction of Mr. Georg Henschel. The financial needs
of the organization were guaranteed by Mr. Henry L. Higginson. Mr.
Henschel was succeeded, in 1884, by Wilhelm Gericke, who was followed
five years later by Arthur Nikisch; in 1893, Mr. Emil Paur was made
director, to be succeeded in 1898 by Wilhelm Gericke, who is still
(1905) at the head of the organization. The work of the orchestras
mentioned stimulated music lovers in other cities and at the present
time, worthy rivals of the older bodies exist in Philadelphia, Mr.
Fritz Scheel, director, the New York Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Walter
Damrosch, director, and the Pittsburgh Orchestra, under the direction
of Mr. Emil Paur. Baltimore has a good orchestra in connection with
the Peabody Conservatory, Cincinnati has a permanent body with a
guarantee fund, under the conductorship of Mr. Frank Van der Stucken.
The orchestras mentioned give concerts in other cities, so that their
work has more than a local significance. Other cities in which efforts
are being made to develop orchestral music are New Haven, Buffalo,
Washington, Cleveland, Atlanta, St. Louis, Kansas City, San Francisco,
Los Angeles and Denver.

=Other Organized Bodies=.—Other means for promoting musical progress
in the United States were the societies in different parts of the
country, which provided concerts, aided musical education, kept up
public interest, the great German singing societies, music festival
associations, lecture courses, etc. A prominent example of this kind
was the Musical Fund Society of Philadelphia which, among its other
activities, opened a music school that remained in existence for six
years. The Harvard Musical Association, an organization of alumni who
labored particularly for the advancement of music, formed the nucleus
of a musical library and conducted orchestral concerts at its own
expense or guarantee. In later years Pittsburgh had an active society
to promote musical appreciation and the example is being followed by
other cities. The greatest growth in this line, that of the formation
of music festival associations and the development of the idea, was
doubtless stimulated by the great festivals held in Boston in 1869
and 1872. Of these, the most important is the one held in Cincinnati,
for a number of years under the direction of Theodore Thomas; after
his death, under Mr. Van der Stucken. It is impossible to give here a
list of such organizations; they are growing in numbers over all the
country and form a hopeful sign of an increasing and healthy interest
in music. In addition to the work of these societies must be mentioned
the series of chamber-music concerts given by quartet organizations in
all the important cities, a kind of music which demands a higher class
of musical culture than any other and which is, therefore, a good index
of the musical appreciation of a community. The great public libraries
have collections of musical literature, as well as the printed works of
the great masters. Notable among these is the Brown Collection, in the
Boston Public Library; the Newberry Library of Chicago has a very fine
collection of musical literature, including many rare works, and the
new public library in New York City will also have works of great value
to musicians. The Crosby-Brown Collection of musical instruments in the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, is one of the most valuable
in the world; another collection of note is that which belongs to the
University of Michigan.

=Folk-Music=.—In a study of conditions connected with the development
of music in the United States, we will not find the wealth of material
in the direction of Folk-music that European countries possess. The
American people being a composite one cannot have a true Folk-music
as yet. There are but two types of music that can be classed in this
category, the music of the Indians and that of the negro in his
plantation life. The characteristics of both have been used by American
composers in large works (Edward Mac Dowell: “Indian Suite,” for the
orchestra; Frederic Burton, in a choral work), yet the Indian race
forms no part of the dominant Caucasian people of the United States
and can hardly have any claims to being considered American Folk-song.
Among the negroes of the South, during the time of slavery, a type of
song developed that possesses distinctive qualities, and is thoroughly
pervaded with the emotional quality which characterizes the Folk-song
of the musical races of Europe. It is not the song of the African in
his native land, but the product of his new environment. Particularly
is this the case with regard to the songs in which the religious
element is the leading one. Many of them have the spontaneous character
of the old minstrel poets, the leader improvising the verses, the
chorus joining in the refrain. Several composers have used material
based on negro musical idioms, notably Antonin Dvořák, in his “From
the New World” symphony and G. W. Chadwick, in the scherzo of one
of his symphonies, but the most famous examples of the Folk-song
of the plantation type are found in the works of Stephen C. Foster
(1826-1864), the one most widely-known being “The Old Folks at Home”
or “Suwanee River,” incomparable in its sweet melancholy and tender
pathos, yet of extreme simplicity in harmonic basis and diatonic
progressions.

=The Opera=.—The development of the opera in the United States is a
story of change from the simple style of the English ballad opera to
the elaborate music dramas of Richard Wagner, in the North, with New
York City as the leading centre, while New Orleans, in the South,
with its large French population, furnishes a home for the French and
Italian school of opera. The “Beggar’s Opera,” by Gay, which had won
extraordinary popularity in England, was given in New York, in 1750,
and as early as 1791 New Orleans had a company of French singers.
Philadelphia also had performances before the end of the 18th century.
It was not until after the wars with England, when the country was
growing and becoming prosperous, that foreign managers and singers
considered it an inviting field. The first company of real artistic
worth was brought here in 1825, headed by Manuel Garcia, which included
his daughter, afterward Mme. Malibran. In 1832, the poet Da Ponte,
librettist of Mozart’s opera “Don Giovanni,” who was a resident of New
York City, brought another strong company of singers to the United
States. From that time on, for a number of years, opera was furnished
by visiting companies of foreign singers, who gave performances in
the leading cities of the country, New Orleans being the first to
establish a permanent opera season with a resident company. It was in
1859 that Adelina Patti made her first appearance, in New York City. In
1878, Mapleson, the impresario, commenced the “all star” system that
developed a taste for opera by giving the American public the chance to
hear the best singers in the world, and set a standard which has made
the people dissatisfied with a company well-balanced but lacking in
great singers. More real work is done to develop a community by hearing
a number of performances well done than one or two in a sensational
style. In 1883, the Metropolitan Opera House, in New York City, was
opened with a “star” company, managed by Henry E. Abbey. German opera
(Wagner music dramas) gained a foothold in this country through the
efforts of Dr. Leopold Damrosch, who directed the first artistic
performance of Wagner’s Tannhäuser, in 1884, in the Metropolitan Opera
House; from this time, operas of the three great schools were given
here, Italian, French and German. The following year, Anton Seidl was
called to the conductorship and his labors put the performances of
Wagner’s operas on a plane equal to any in the world; the company had
seasons in the other leading American cities. After Seidl’s death, in
1898, the performances continued along the same lines and with the
same high artistic quality, the greatest singers being engaged. In
1903, on Christmas Eve, under the direction of Mr. H. Conried, the
first American representation (and the first outside of Bayreuth) of
“Parsifal” was given. In assigning credit for work of an educational
character in opera, mention must be made of certain traveling
companies, such as the “Ideals” and “Bostonians” who gave highly
artistic performances of the standard operas, and of the companies
under the direction of Mr. Henry W. Savage, who gave grand opera in
English during the first decade of the present century.


                              REFERENCES.

Mathews.—Hundred Years of Music in America.

Elson.—American Music.

Elson.—Our National Music and its Sources.

Ritter.—Music in America.

Brooks.—Olden Time Music.

Perkins and Dwight.—Handel and Haydn Society of Boston.


                       QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.

Who contributed the greater influence to American music, the Cavaliers
or the Puritans?

What was the influence of the latter?

Who were the early hymn-tune composers? Name some tune by the more
prominent. (If any are available, play them over or have them sung for
the class.)

Which of the three leading American cities of the 18th century was the
most advanced musically?

What were the first societies to organize?

Who was a great factor in musical education in the early part of the
19th century?

What was the state of instrumental music in the Colonial period and in
the years following?

Where was the first orchestra formed? What other cities had organized
bodies of orchestral players?

Give an account of the work of Theodore Thomas.

Tell about the other great orchestras of the United States.

What other organizations have aided in musical progress in the United
States?

What are the sources of Folk-Music in the United States? What use have
composers made of this material?

Give a sketch of the Opera in the United States.

We advise that a somewhat detailed study of music in the United States
be made, following the outline of this lesson, by the use of the
reference works mentioned above. If there is time for this extra work,
we advise that two lessons be made of this chapter and that pupils be
assigned the duty of collecting additional material on the subject of
the separate paragraphs. The work will be divided in this way and each
pupil will have a personal interest. Old hymn-tune collections should
be examined to find examples of the tunes used by our forefathers.
Music representative of the various periods will be found in the books
mentioned or indicated in other sources; both vocal and instrumental
music should be performed at the recitations.



                             LESSON LVIII.

         AMERICAN COMPOSERS: WORKS IN LARGE INSTRUMENTAL FORMS.


=American Music Still Young=.—Musical composition in the United States
is still too young in comparison with the work of European composers
to have made marked impress on history. American composers owe their
training largely to European teachers, the models upon which they
have based their work come from European art, and the principles
of construction were developed by the European masters. Hence the
disposition to view American composition as still in a state of
pupilage. Yet the record shows a number of men who have done worthy
work, many of them winning far more than a local reputation, and not
a few enjoying international fame. And this work, especially such as
is cast in the large forms, for orchestra, chamber-music or chorus
with orchestra, is the product of the years since the close of the
Civil War, a very short period, indeed, when compared with the story
of composition in most of the European countries. It speaks volumes
for the native capacity and sturdy industry of American composers that
they have, in less than a half-century, won a high place in the use
of the materials of musical composition and that they have so readily
assimilated the work and teachings of European masters.

=Paine=.—The earliest composer in large instrumental forms was John
K. Paine, born, Portland, Me., 1834, died 1906. In 1858, he went to
Germany to study and gave particular attention to the organ. He quickly
gained rank as the chief American organist, on his return to the
United States, several years later. In 1862, he became connected with
Harvard University as an instructor in music, a full professorship
being created in 1875. His first important works were choral, with
orchestral accompaniment. His first symphony was brought out in 1876,
his second, called “Spring,” in 1880. Other large works for orchestra
are a symphonic fantasy based on Shakespeare’s “Tempest,” a symphonic
poem “An Island Fantasy,” the inspiration of which came from several
paintings of marine scenes, and an overture to Shakespeare’s “As
You Like It.” Prof. Paine’s large choral works are: a Mass in D, an
oratorio “St. Peter,” music to “Œdipus Tyrannus,” “Phœbus, Arise,”
“Nativity,” drawn from Milton, “Song of Promise,” hymns for the
Centennial and Columbus Exhibitions, music to Aristophanes’ “Birds,”
an opera “Azara,” besides organ compositions, chamber-music, songs and
part-songs.

=Gilchrist=.—A composer whose training was entirely American is William
W. Gilchrist, born in Jersey City, in 1846, a resident of Philadelphia
for many years, where his professional activity has included important
work as teacher of singing, and chorus conducting. His musical
education was received mainly from Dr. H. A. Clarke, of the University
of Pennsylvania. His compositions include a symphony, a suite for
orchestra and a great deal of chamber-music. He has written a number
of works for chorus with orchestra, his most notable being a setting
of the Forty-sixth Psalm, to which was awarded a $1000 prize, offered
by the Cincinnati Festival Association. His other compositions include
choral works in smaller forms, with string or other accompaniment
suited to chamber-music, part-songs, church music, and a number of fine
songs. He is especially happy in writing for women’s voices.

[Illustration:

W. W. GILCRIST. J. K. PAINE. HORATIO PARKER.

ARTHUR FOOTE. EDWARD MACDOWELL. MRS. H. H. A. BEACH.

G. W. CHADWICK.]

=Chadwick=.—A composer who has won appreciation in Europe is George
W. Chadwick, born in Lowell, Mass., in 1854. His studies were carried
on in the New England Conservatory, at Boston, which institution he
entered in 1872. Five years later he went to Leipzig to study, giving
special attention to composition. In 1879, he went to Dresden to study
with Rheinberger. In 1880, he returned to the United States and settled
in Boston. His professional activities included work as organist,
conductor, and teacher at the New England Conservatory. In 1897, he was
called to the directorship of the Conservatory. His compositions are
written in all the various forms, his reputation as a composer of high
rank being based upon his large orchestral works, which include three
symphonies, four overtures, chamber-music, a comic opera, a sacred
opera, “Judith,” two cantatas, popular with choral societies, “Phœnix
Expirans” and the “Lily Nymph,” a ballad for chorus and orchestra,
“Lovely Rosabelle,” part-songs, church music, and a number of songs of
high merit.

=MacDowell=.—An American composer in thorough accord with the modern
musical tendencies in composition is Edward Alexander MacDowell, born
in New York, in 1861. His most famous teacher was Mme. Teresa Carreño,
the celebrated pianist. He became a pupil of the Paris _Conservatoire_,
in 1876, and after three years under French masters and influences,
went to Germany, where he studied under Ehlert, Heymann and Raff, the
latter giving him a thorough grounding in the technic of composition.
His musical education, therefore, included both French and German
ideas. He remained in Germany as pianist, composer and teacher until
1888, when he returned to the United States and settled in Boston.
In 1896, he accepted the position of professor of music in Columbia
University, New York City, which he held until 1904, when he resigned
to devote himself to composition exclusively. MacDowell was trained to
a thorough understanding of form, yet his works show that he regards
only the spirit of form, that he is its master and not its servant. He
has plenty of force, vigor and originality of melody and rhythm and is
resourceful in his command of modern harmony. Critics of high authority
have unhesitatingly awarded him the highest rank among American-born
composers. His compositions include works in the large forms, two
concertos, two suites, four poems for orchestra, four piano sonatas of
striking romantic content, a number of smaller works for the piano,
studies, songs and part-songs, principally for male voices.

=Horatio Parker=.—It is significant of the advance in music over
other sections of the United States that New England should have been
the birthplace of a number of composers of reputation. Besides Paine
and Chadwick, two others have achieved eminence in the large forms:
Horatio Parker and Arthur Foote. Mr. Parker was born near Boston,
in 1863; his father was an architect, his mother a woman of fine
literary and musical culture. His first lessons in music, piano and
organ, were received from his mother, and such was his interest that
he made attempts at composition. At sixteen, he was appointed to a
position as organist and was thus launched into musical life. He kept
up his studies with Boston teachers, in composition with Chadwick, and
afterwards with Rheinberger, in Germany, in which country he remained
until 1885. His first appointment was director of music at Garden City
Cathedral Schools, Long Island, afterwards filling organ positions in
New York City, the most notable one being at the Church of the Holy
Trinity. He also taught in the National Conservatory. In 1893, he went
to Boston as organist and director of music at Trinity Church, and
in 1894, to Yale University, as professor of music. In addition to
the work in composition and history of music, Mr. Parker conducts a
series of orchestral concerts given by an orchestra supported by the
University. Mr. Parker’s compositions in large form include a symphony,
several overtures, a concerto for organ and orchestra, chamber-music,
cantatas for chorus and orchestra, and in smaller forms, piano and
organ pieces, songs and many part-songs. His cantata “Hora Novissima”
is one of the best works in this style produced by an American
composer, and has been given in England with success. The legend of
“St. Christopher” furnished material for a work of a secular character
that has been taken up by some important choral organizations.

=Arthur Foote= was born at Salem, Mass., in 1854. His musical education
was wholly acquired in Boston, his leading teachers having been
Stephen A. Emery and B. J. Lang. Mr. Foote is also a graduate of
Harvard University. His home is in Boston, where his professional
work is that of an organist, and teacher of piano and composition.
His most important work in large form is a suite for orchestra, Op.
36; in addition to this he has written successfully in the domain of
chamber-music, works for string orchestra, a quartet, a quintet, a trio
and a sonata for piano and violin; he has also written excellent works
for chorus with orchestra, “Wreck of the Hesperus,” piano and organ
pieces, a number of fine songs and part-songs. He is perhaps at his
best in writing for male voices, notable works being “The Skeleton in
Armor” and “Farewell to Hiawatha.”

=Hadley=.—A younger composer than those mentioned, whose work in the
large forms has received commendation, is Henry K. Hadley, born at
Somerville, Mass., in 1871. His father was a member of the musical
profession, and first taught his son, who later went to Boston to study
with Emery, Chadwick and Allen (violin). In 1894, he went to Vienna
to study and wrote several works for orchestra while there. In 1896,
he returned to the United States and taught in St. Paul’s School, at
Garden City. He has written several symphonies, suites, an overture,
a cantata and a number of songs; two comic operas are also among his
works. He has won the Paderewski Prize for composition.

=Frank van der Stucken=, born in Fredericksburg, Texas, in 1858, of
Belgian descent, was educated abroad, mainly under Benoit, at Antwerp,
and entered professional life in Europe, yet he is classed with
American composers, for he has spent a great part of his active musical
life in this country. It was in 1884, that he came to New York City as
conductor of a large German singing society, at the same time giving
much attention to conducting orchestral works, in which branch he had
had considerable experience in Europe. In 1895, he went to Cincinnati
as conductor of the Symphony Orchestra of that city and two years
later, was dean of the College of Music, from the active management
of which he retired in 1903. Although he has written a number of
orchestral pieces, his most important work, modern in form and scored
for the full modern orchestra is “William Ratcliffe,” a symphonic
prologue, which has a very dramatic program. He has also written songs
that are in the extreme style of the most advanced composition.

=Mrs. Beach=.—Few women have won any success in composition in the
large musical forms. A most notable exception is Mrs. H. H. A. Beach
(Amy Marcy Cheney), who was born at Henniker, N. H., in 1867. She
showed marked inclination for music while still a child and was given
regular instruction when only six years old. Soon after this her
parents moved to Boston and she continued her musical education there
under Ernst Perabo and Carl Baermann. Her studies in composition were
largely made without teachers, guided principally by the most thorough
and extensive study of the scores of the masters. She was married in
1885 to a prominent Boston physician. Mrs. Beach’s most important works
are her “Gaelic” symphony, a mass for chorus with organ and small
orchestra, a sonata for violin and piano and a piano concerto. In
addition to this she has written a number of piano pieces and songs.

=Loeffler=.—An account of music in the United States would not be
complete without reference to the work of Mr. Charles M. Loeffler, one
of the most important figures in modern musical composition. Although
he was born in Europe (1861) and educated there, he has spent his
adult life in this country, having been for many years a violinist in
the Boston Symphony Orchestra. His best-known work is the “Death of
Tintagiles,” founded upon Maeterlinck. Rollinat and Verlaine have also
furnished inspiration to him. A concerted work for violin and orchestra
shows his skill both as composer and violinist. Of late years, Mr.
Loeffler has turned his attention to song composition.

=Other Composers=.—In a concise account of the work of American
composers, short mention only can be given to a number of men who have
worked earnestly in composition, a field in which appreciation seems to
be granted freely to the foreigner but grudgingly to the compatriot.
Conditions are not favorable to development along the lines of public
performance of works in large forms, orchestras are under the control
of foreign conductors, most of the players are foreigners, and the
concert-going public gives but scant attention to works by an American.
Therefore much credit is due to those who have worked quietly and
with but little hope of hearing their works, doing their best to
produce music in accord with the best canons of the art. Such men are
=Frederick Grant Gleason=, born at Middletown, Conn., 1848 (died in
Chicago, 1903), studied at home and abroad; =Adolph M. Foerster=, born
in Pittsburgh, Pa., 1854, who was educated in Germany, and is now a
resident of his native city; =Ernest R. Kroeger=, born at St. Louis,
1862, educated at home, and still a resident of the city of his birth;
=Henry Schoenefeld=, born at Milwaukee, 1857, educated at home and
abroad; =Henry Holden Huss=, born in Newark, N. J., in 1862, studied in
New York and at Munich, under Rheinberger, now a resident of New York
City; =Arthur B. Whiting=, born in Cambridge, Mass., 1861, educated
in Boston and by Rheinberger, at Munich, a resident of Boston; =Louis
A. Coerne=, professor of music at Smith College, who was educated in
Boston and Munich (Rheinberger); and =Harry Rowe Shelley=, of New York
City, who was born at New Haven, Conn., 1858, studied there and in New
York (Buck and Dvořák). These composers have by no means confined their
work to compositions for orchestra, chamber-music, cantatas, etc., but
have also written useful piano and organ pieces, and in a number of
cases, songs that have become extremely popular.



                              LESSON LIX.

               AMERICAN COMPOSERS: VOCAL FORMS; PIANO AND
                       ORGAN.—MUSICAL LITERATURE.


=Cantata Composers=.—A number of American composers have turned their
attention to composition in opera and cantata forms. Some of the
composers already mentioned have written works of this character. The
first of American composers to work in the field of the cantata was
=J. C. D. Parker=, born in Boston, in 1828, a graduate of Harvard, and
a teacher with many years of splendid work to his credit. His musical
education was received at Leipzig. In 1854, he located in Boston and
took up a varied career as organist, conductor, and teacher of piano
and harmony, at the New England Conservatory. His large works include
a cantata, “Redemption Hymn,” a secular cantata, “The Blind King,”
and two works in oratorio form “St. John” and “The Life of Man,” the
latter showing him at his strongest. =Dudley Buck=, organist, composer
and teacher, is also one of the veterans of American music. He was
born at Hartford, Conn., in 1839, attended Trinity College several
years, began his musical instruction at sixteen years of age, went
to Germany several years later, giving his attention principally to
the organ and composition. In 1862, he returned to the United States,
worked professionally in Hartford, Chicago, and Boston; in 1874, he
went to New York, later to one of the leading churches of Brooklyn,
which position he retained until 1905. His choral works in large form
are “Don Munio,” “The Voyage of Columbus,” “The Golden Legend,” and the
“Light of Asia,” his largest and most important work, which has been
given in England. He has written many works for church use, much organ
music, songs and concerted vocal music, especially for male voices.

=Opera=.—In opera we note the work of =Paine= (“Azara”); =Chadwick=
(“Judith,” a sacred opera); =Walter Damrosch=, composer and conductor,
born in Germany, in 1862, but a resident of the United States in
childhood, and hence identified with music in this country, who
has written a work of serious character to a libretto founded on
Hawthorne’s “Scarlet Letter”; =Reginald de Koven=, born at Middletown,
Conn., in 1859, with a list of several successful light operas to his
credit, as well as many songs which have had wide appreciation; =Edgar
Stillman Kelley=, born at Sparta, Wisconsin, in 1857, educated in
Chicago and Germany, a resident of San Francisco for a number of years,
where he brought out several notable works of a popular character for
the stage as well as the orchestra, employing in the latter Chinese
musical idioms with success in a humorous direction. A composer whose
work in light opera has had much success is =Victor Herbert=, born in
Dublin, Ireland. His professional career has been largely spent in this
country, his work as conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra
being notable.

=Song Composition=.—In the field of song composition, American
composers have done very good work. The American seems to turn
naturally to song and few of the most prominent of the native composers
have neglected this field, as will have been noticed in previous
paragraphs. Among those who have won high reputation in this line we
note =George L. Osgood=, of Boston, born in 1844, composer, singer and
teacher; =Frank Lynes=, of Boston, born in 1858, who has also written
good concerted vocal music and piano pieces; =Clayton Johns=, born in
Delaware, in 1857, but a resident of Boston during the greater part of
his professional career, with a long list of part-songs and some piano
pieces to his credit; and =Ethelbert Nevin=, born near Pittsburgh, in
1862, educated in the United States and in Europe, whose songs have a
truly poetic character joined to music of a high order; a number of his
piano pieces have also been most favorably received. He died in 1901.

[Illustration:

WM. MASON. L. M. GOTTSCHALK. DUDLEY BUCK.

H. M. DUNHAM. J. C. D. PARKER. B. J. LANG.

WALLACE GOODRICH.]

=Piano Composition=.—The dean of American teachers of the piano and
of composers for that instrument is =William Mason=, born in Boston,
in 1829, a son of Lowell Mason, who studied at home and abroad and
spent two years with Liszt at Weimar. It was in 1854 that he came
back to the United States and located in New York City. In addition
to his works for the piano, some of which have been widely played,
he is the author of an important technical work, which stamps him as
an educator of originality and strength. A composer who is generally
classed as American, although his ancestry, education and environment
incline strongly to the French, is =Louis Moreau Gottschalk=, born
in New Orleans, in 1829. He early showed marked inclination for
music and was sent to Paris to study. His first reputation was won
as pianist. He traveled over Europe, the United States and parts of
South America, giving concerts, in which he gave the principal place
to his own compositions. He died in Brazil, in 1869. In later years,
American composers for the piano have not done such distinctive work
as the two writers just mentioned, yet the names of =Charles Dennee=
(1863), =Wilson G. Smith= (1855), =James H. Rogers= (1857), and
=William H. Sherwood= (1854), composer, pianist and teacher, whose
work in the educational field is most important; =Edward Baxter Perry=
(1855), who has splendidly triumphed over the infirmity of blindness,
and through his unique lecture recitals has been a strong factor in
musical progress in the United States; and several men of foreign
birth who have identified themselves with American musical education:
=Rafael Joseffy=, in New York City, =Carl Baermann= and =Carl Faelten=
in Boston, =Constantin von Sternberg= in Philadelphia, and =Emil
Liebling= in Chicago. Two other names should be mentioned here, =Henry
Schradieck=, of New York, whose influence as a violinist and teacher
has been great, and =F. L. Ritter=, who occupied the chair of music in
Vassar College, a pioneer in college musical work.

=Organ Composition=.—Nearly all of the best-known American composers
have been organists, yet certain men have made that line of musical
work peculiarly their own. Such men are =B. J. Lang= (1837), of Boston,
organist, conductor and teacher; =George E. Whiting= (1842), who in
addition to his high rank as an organist and teacher, has written
most acceptably for his instrument, and also for the orchestra and in
the large choral forms; =George W. Warren= (1828), and =S. P. Warren=
(1841), whose sphere of activity is identified with New York City;
=E. M. Bowman= (1848), organist, conductor, pianist and teacher;
=Samuel B. Whitney= (1842), organist, noted for his work in training
boy choirs, also his musical compositions for the Episcopal Church
service; =Clarence Eddy= (1851), organ virtuoso with an international
reputation; =Henry M. Dunham= (1853), who has written well for his
instrument and has had an active and useful career as a teacher.
Among the younger men of prominence as American organists who have
put themselves abreast with modern progress, and have studied all
schools, may be mentioned =Everett E. Truette=, =Wallace Goodrich=,
=Wm. C. Carl=, =Gerrit Smith=, =Charles Galloway=, =J. Fred Wolle=,
who organized the Bach Festival at Bethlehem, Pa., =H. J. Stewart=, a
representative California organist.

=Musical Criticism=.—When indicating the various agencies for the
shaping of musical appreciation in the United States, special mention
must be made of a group of writers whose contributions to musical
magazines, to the daily press in the large music centres, as well as
their work in permanent form have influenced the taste of the American
public to a degree not paralleled in any other country. These writers
have enjoyed unusual opportunities and have used them well. The leading
newspapers of the United States give much space to reports of musical
events and have called to their aid writers of keen insight into
musical matters, thorough equipment on the score of musical knowledge,
and gifted with much skill in expression as well as mastery of literary
style.

=The Older Critics=.—The first of these critics to claim our attention
is =John S. Dwight=, born in Boston, in 1813, a graduate of Harvard,
and a student of theology as well. Gifted with a sound taste in art
matters, his reviews of musical works, concerts, etc., were very useful
and helpful and much appreciated by the best circles of the city, for
his associations were with the most famous literary and scientific
men of his day. In 1852, he established a musical paper, _Journal of
Music_, which lasted nearly thirty years. He died in 1893. Another of
the older writers is =George P. Upton=, born in Boston, in 1834, a
graduate of Brown University, who entered journalism at twenty-one,
as a member of the staff of the Chicago _Journal_; after some years
of service with that paper, he went to the _Tribune_, with which he
has ever since been associated. Mr. Upton’s critical work covers the
period of the growth of Chicago, which has been phenomenal in art
as well as in commercial directions, and has been a most valuable
factor in musical upbuilding. In recent years his pen was a great aid
to Theodore Thomas in his efforts to establish the Chicago Symphony
Orchestra. His works in permanent form are “Woman in Music,” a series
of books descriptive of the principal oratorios, operas, cantatas,
and symphonies, translations from the German of Nohl’s biographies of
musicians, and a “Life of Theodore Thomas.” Coincident with Mr. Upton’s
work in the West is that of =W. S. B. Mathews=, born in London, N.
H., in 1837. He was educated in Boston; after some years of musical
work in the South, he located in Chicago, as organist, teacher, writer
on musical matters. His reviews on local musical affairs appeared
in several of the leading dailies, he was a contributor to Dwight’s
_Journal_, and to all the musical papers that have come into the
field since. Perhaps no contemporary writer on education in music has
influenced, and so strongly, as many teachers and students of music
as Mr. Mathews. He has written a “Popular History of Music,” “Hundred
Years of Music in America,” “How to Understand Music,” “Primer of
Musical Forms,” and several works on the great composers, with critical
studies of their works.

[Illustration:

W. S. B. MATHEWS. G. P. UPTON. L. C. ELSON.

H. E. KREHBIEL. PHILIP HALE. W. F. APTHORP.

JAMES HUNEKER.]

=Boston Writers=.—The three leading Boston writers of recent years are
Louis C. Elson, Wm. F. Apthorp and Philip Hale. =Louis C. Elson= was
born in Boston, in 1848. He was educated for the musical profession,
at home and at Leipzig. In 1880, he became connected with the New
England Conservatory, and at the present time is head of the theory
department of that institution. His journalistic activity covers a
period of about thirty years and his writings have appeared in Boston
and New York papers, as well as in the leading musical journals. His
works in book form are ten in number, the most valuable to the student
of history being a large volume on the “History of American Music.”
The other works are critical, technical, and biographical. =Wm. F.
Apthorp= was born in Boston, in 1848, graduated at Harvard, and began
his critical work in music in 1872, being connected with several Boston
papers. Mr. Apthorp’s published works are few in number, “Musicians
and Music Lovers” and “The Opera, Past and Present.” In addition to
this he supplied program material for the Boston Symphony Concerts for
a number of years, educational as well as descriptive and critical.
=Philip Hale= was born at Norwich, Vt., in 1854, graduated from Yale
and was admitted to the Bar in New York in 1880. His interest in music
and musical work proved too strong for him and he went abroad to
Germany and France to study. In 1889, he located in Boston and began
work as musical critic on the staff of several of the papers. For a
number of years he was Boston correspondent for the _Musical Courier_
of New York. Two other men whose work in musical literature has been
significant are =Alexander W. Thayer=, born at Natick, Mass., in 1817,
who wrote the standard biography of Beethoven, and =Thomas Tapper=, of
Boston, who has written a number of valuable educational works in music.

=New York Critics=.—New York City has four men of the first rank
as writers on music, not only for critical acumen and technical
knowledge, but also for literary style. =Henry T. Finck= was born in
Missouri, in 1854, graduated from Harvard University, and studied at
German universities for three years. When he returned to the United
States he joined the editorial staff of the _Evening Post_ and the
_Nation_, which places he still holds. His works in musical literature
are “Wagner and His Works,” “Paderewski and His Art,” “Songs and Song
Writers,” and “Chopin and Other Essays.” =Henry E. Krehbiel= was born
at Ann Arbor, Mich., in 1854. His first newspaper experience was in
Cincinnati; later he went to New York to the _Tribune_, which place he
still holds. His contributions to musical literature are “Studies in
the Wagnerian Drama,” “How to Listen to Music,” and “Music and Manners
in the Classical Period,” besides contributions to the leading musical
papers and general magazines. =William J. Henderson= was born at
Newark, N. J., in 1855, graduated from Princeton University, afterward
entering journalism in New York City, being connected with the _Times_,
and later with the _Sun_. His books are distinctly educational in tone:
“The Story of Music,” “How Music Developed,” “What is Good Music,”
“The Orchestra and Orchestral Music,” “Richard Wagner: His Life and
Dramas,” and “The Art of the Singer.” A writer on music who has made a
fine reputation in literary and dramatic criticism as well is =James
Huneker=, a native of Philadelphia, whose active work has been done
in New York City. His books of interest to the musician are a “Life
of Chopin,” “Mezzotints in Modern Music,” “Melomaniacs,” “Overtones,”
“Iconoclasts” and “Visionaries.”

=Other Writers= in this field whose work deserves mention are =Edward
Dickinson=, of Oberlin, O., with two works, “History of Music in the
Western Church” and “The Study of the History of Music”; =Philip
Goepp=, of Philadelphia, “Symphonies and their Meanings”; =Daniel
Gregory Mason=, of Boston, “From Grieg to Brahms”; =Lawrence Gilman=,
of New York, “Phases of Modern Music”; Professor =Hugh A. Clarke=, of
the University of Pennsylvania, “Music and the Comrade Arts,” “Highways
and By-ways of Music,” and several excellent theoretical works; =O. B.
Boise=, Peabody Conservatory of Baltimore, with a work of a historical
and critical nature, “Music and Its Masters,” and some theoretical
works; =Rupert Hughes=, “Contemporary American Composers.



                               LESSON LX.

                           MUSICAL EDUCATION.


=Early Musical Education=.—The training of students in music has been
the special care of the greatest men connected with the art, a subject
close to the heart of men of rank and of means, and the object of
Governmental and municipal subvention. In most of the countries and
many of the larger cities of Europe, Art is considered a legitimate
object for public aid and fostering, and music receives a fair share of
funds set aside for that purpose. In the period before the Christian
Era, musical education was carried on to prepare singers and players
either for the religious service, and in the hands of the priests,
or for entertainment and by slaves. Pope Sylvester founded a school
for singers, at Rome, in the 4th century, and the Church all through
its history has laid stress on means for training executants for its
musical services. Guido of Arezzo, credited with a number of reforms in
the teaching of vocal music, is said to have had a school for training
singers to read musical notation. Like him, many of his successors in
prominence were in charge of classes of pupils, yet this method by no
means accords with our ideas of systematic, logical education in music.
It was largely the personal power and eminence of the master that
attracted and retained pupils.

=Musical Education in Italy=.—The first examples of the founding of
schools of music or conservatories take us to Italy. The noted theorist
Tinctor or Tinctoris started a school at =Naples=, in 1496, but this
did not last very long. In the early part of the 16th century, several
institutions were founded by private contribution for the purpose of
affording homes and instruction to orphaned children. Ecclesiastical
music was at first the special object of these schools. The pupils
sang in choirs, various religious offices, processions, etc. There were
four of these institutions: _Santa Maria di Loreto_, founded in 1535,
which had on its roster such eminent musicians as Alessandro Scarlatti,
Durante, Porpora, Sacchini and Guglielmi; _San Onofrio_, founded in
1576, some famous pupils being Gizzi, Jommelli, Piccini and Paisiello;
_De Poveri di Gesù Cristo_, established in 1589, numbering among its
pupils, Greco, Vinci, and Pergolesi; _Della Pietà de’ Turchini_,
started in 1584, having among its pupils, Leo, Cafara, and Feo. In
1797, the first two named were united, the third was changed into a
seminary for priests in 1744, and in 1808, the last was closed, and
a school of music was established to take the place of the remaining
institutions. This school, which received the title _Reale Collegio di
Musica_, still exists.

=Venice= rivaled Naples in devotion to music, and early took measures
to give musical instruction to the wards of charitable institutions.
These schools were not named _Conservatorio_, as at Naples, but
_Ospedale_ (hospital), since they were a part of the foundation
for institutions to receive the poor and infirm, their work as
conservatories developing gradually. Such masters as Lotti, Galuppi,
Scarlatti, Cimarosa presided over the four schools best known. When the
Republic fell, these institutions collapsed in the financial crisis
that followed. The principal music school in Venice at the present time
is the _Liceo Benedetto Marcello_, which is subsidized by the city. An
Italian conservatory of ancient date is the one at =Palermo=, which was
established in 1615. At the present time it is a State institution.
The Academy of St. Cecilia, at =Rome=, dates its original foundation
to a society of musicians formed in 1566, a charter being granted by
Pope Gregory XIII, in 1584. The Academy possesses the largest and most
important musical library in Italy. =Milan= had a school of music as
early as 1483. The celebrated theoretician, Gafurio, was the first
great teacher. It was not permanent, however, and though there were
schools for singers there from time to time, it was not until 1807 that
the municipality established a regular school of music. The first
school of music at =Bologna= was established in 1482, but it did not
become permanent. In later years, musical affairs were in the hands of
academies for the promotion of arts and sciences. In 1864, a school was
opened on modern lines. =Genoa= has a school which was founded in 1829;
it is subsidized by the city. The school at =Florence= was opened in
1862, and is richly endowed. A school was heavily endowed by Rossini
and located at =Pesaro=, his birthplace.

=The Paris Conservatoire=.—To France belongs the honor of following
closely in the footsteps of the Italian authorities. In 1784, a
Royal School of Singing was opened in =Paris=, under the direction
of Gossec, the composer; in 1793 it was enlarged in scope and was
called the National Institute of Music; in 1795 the name was changed
to the _Conservatoire de Musique_, which it still bears. In 1800
the organization was further modified by Bonaparte. The institution
receives an annual subvention from the Government. This school is
justly considered as one of the greatest in existence and has been the
centre of musical training for practically all the prominent French
musicians. A great incentive is the celebrated _Prix de Rome_ (Roman
Prize), which enables the winner to spend three years in study in Italy
and Germany. The library is one of the most important in France, and
dates from the foundation of the school. The Museum, which has one of
the finest collections in Europe, was established in 1864. Affiliated
schools have been established in the principal French cities, such as:
=Marseilles=, =Toulouse=, =Nantes=, =Dijon=, =Lyons= and =Rouen=.

=Musical Education in Germany=.—Among the German conservatories, that
at =Prague= is the oldest. It was founded in 1811. Besides music, the
course of study provides for instruction in general branches. The
violin department of this school is one of its strongest features.
The conservatory at =Vienna= was opened in 1817, under the direction
of Salieri, as a vocal school; other branches were added and by 1821
the foundation was that of a true conservatory. The course of study
is comprehensive and the school has graduated a number of eminent
musicians. It is under the patronage of the Society of the Friends of
Music. Probably the German conservatory best known to American readers
is that founded at =Leipzig=, in 1843, by Mendelssohn, and of which he
was the first director. The fund used in starting the school was one of
20,000 thalers bequeathed by a Government official “for the purposes of
art and science.” Such masters as Schumann, Moscheles, Ferdinand David,
Plaidy, Richter and Reinecke were members of the faculty at different
periods in the history of the school. This conservatory has had a
larger number of American pupils than any other German institution.
The oldest conservatory in =Berlin= was a private institution. The
most important school is the Royal High School for Music, which is a
branch of the Royal Academy of Arts, and is under the patronage of
the Prussian Government. This school has three sections, the one for
church music was opened in 1822, for musical composition in 1833, that
for executive art in 1869. The violin school, under the direction of
Joseph Joachim, attracts pupils from all parts of the world. =Cologne=
has a conservatory which is aided financially by the municipality.
This school was established in 1850, Ferdinand Hiller being the first
director. The Royal Conservatory at =Dresden= was organized in 1856,
and has paid considerable attention to its department for opera.
=Munich= has a school which receives State aid. It was founded in 1867.
Rheinberger, who was teacher of composition here, drew a number of
Americans to the school. Other schools receiving State or municipal
subventions are those at =Wuerzburg=, =Weimar=, =Frankfort= and
=Wiesbaden=.

=Other European Music Schools=.—The other European countries have also
promoted the organization of schools for teaching music. The strongest
schools in Switzerland are those at =Zurich=, =Geneva=, =Basle= and
=Berne=. In Belgium are several fine schools: at =Brussels=, founded
in 1813, which is now a Government institution, at =Liége= (1827),
at =Ghent= (1833), and at =Antwerp=, the latter founded in 1867,
by the noted Belgian composer, Peter Benoit. These four schools
receive State aid. Holland has three conservatories in her three
large cities, =Amsterdam=, =Rotterdam= and =The Hague=. Scandinavian
musical education is cared for by the conservatories at =Copenhagen=,
=Christiania= and =Stockholm=, the last being under Government
patronage. Spain has conservatories at =Madrid=, =Saragossa= and
=Valencia=, and Portugal, one at =Lisbon=. Greece sustains a school at
=Athens=.

=St. Petersburg Conservatory=.—A conservatory of great importance is
that founded at =St. Petersburg= through the exertions of the famous
composer, Anton Rubinstein. In 1859, he organized the Russian Musical
Society, the first object of which was to give amateurs an opportunity
to practice orchestral playing. Changes in the policy of the Society
were gradually introduced, branches were founded in several other
cities, among them Moscow, and serious efforts were inaugurated to
organize a music school in the Capital. The first instruction was
given gratuitously, money was raised in private circles and a floor
was rented in a private house in 1862 for the use of the school. The
Emperor Alexander II gave to the school an annuity of 5000 rubles and
a building which was the property of the Crown. In 1866 the name was
officially designated as Conservatory, and from that time on several
members of the Royal family became patrons of the school, socially as
well as financially. Rubinstein was the first director. The building
at present occupied by the school was formerly the Grand Theatre and
is very completely furnished for the purposes of the Conservatory,
having two concert halls, museums, library, class rooms, chapel, etc.
Among the graduates of the institution are Tchaikovsky, Glazounoff,
Balakireff, Arensky, Liadow, Gabrilowitsch, Sapellnikoff and Felix
Blumenfeld.

=Musical Education in England= is well cared for, principally by
the strong schools in London, of which there are four that call
for particular notice. =The Royal Academy of Music= is the oldest;
it was founded in 1822. This institution has had royal patronage
from the beginning. The British public has generously replied with
subscriptions to appeals made for funds at different periods in the
history of the school, the Government grant being revoked on several
occasions. At the present time the revenues are a Government grant,
subscriptions, donations, and students’ fees. Such eminent musicians
as Dr. Crotch, Sterndale Bennett and Sir George Macfarren have filled
the position of principal of the school. Sir A. C. Mackensie is the
present head. A strong rival to the Royal Academy is the =Royal College
of Music=, which is the outgrowth of the National Training School for
Music, founded by the Society of Arts in 1876, Sir Arthur Sullivan,
first principal. It was in 1883 that the institution passed into the
hands of the newly-organized Royal College of Music. The funds of the
college come from fees, subscriptions and endowments. Sir George Grove
was director for a number of years and was succeeded by Sir C. H.
Hubert Parry, the eminent composer and theorist. =Trinity College= is
the outgrowth of the activity of a musical society formed to promote
church music and singing. In 1881 it was incorporated under the name
it now bears and the scope of its instruction extended. The =Guildhall
School of Music= is under the patronage of the authorities of the City
of London. This institution was founded in 1880, and has a very large
attendance. The present director is Mr. W. H. Cummings. The leading
English universities, Cambridge, Oxford, London, Durham, and that at
Edinburgh and Dublin have courses in the theory of music, leading to
degrees.

=Musical Education in the United States: Boston=.—The United States
has no schools of music under Governmental or municipal direction, and
none which receive subventions, and but one, established in 1905, in
New York City, which is endowed. The spread of musical education has
been due to the energies and in many cases the sacrifices of musicians
and music lovers in the larger cities. In Lesson LVII reference was
made to societies in the three large American cities, Boston, New York
and Philadelphia, to further musical education. The oldest true music
school in the United States is the =New England Conservatory of Music=,
in Boston, founded by Dr. Tourjée, in 1867. A notable feature was
the dormitory for female students. Eminent instructors were engaged,
both foreigners and Americans, and the school quickly established
a reputation as the leading institution for musical education. Dr.
Tourjée was succeeded in the directorship by Mr. Carl Faelten, who
resigned after several years of service and was followed in the office
by Mr. George W. Chadwick, the present director, in 1897. In 1902 a
new building was erected largely through the benefactions of several
public-spirited citizens of Boston. Among the teachers who exerted a
strong influence on American pupils may be mentioned Stephen A. Emery,
A. D. Turner, Lyman W. Wheeler, Carlyle Petersilea, Otto Bendix and
George E. Whiting. A school in Boston, with special strength in the
violin department, was the Boston Conservatory, founded by Julius
Eichberg.

=The West=.—In 1878, several music-loving citizens of Cincinnati
established the =Cincinnati College of Music=, with Theodore Thomas
as the first director. After him came various members of the faculty,
and in 1897, Mr. Frank Van der Stucken accepted the post of dean of
the faculty. In connection with the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra and
the Festival Association, the College of Music has been a powerful
factor in the musical life of the city. As an educational force it
has done much for music in the West and the Southwest, and its pupils
have carried into all sections of the tributary States sound musical
precepts. =Chicago= has, at the present day, several schools, organized
and conducted by private enterprise, which are doing splendid work
and have made the city the musical centre of the West. Musicians of
the highest rank have been brought to the United States by several of
these conservatories, to the benefit of musical art in Chicago and the
Western States.

=Oberlin Conservatory of Music=, a department of Oberlin College,
may be taken as a type of the American idea of musical work in an
institution of learning. The school has a strong faculty and a large
number of pupils, whose work receives credit for graduation in the
college courses; the students in music have all the privileges of those
entered in the regular colleges. Oberlin has been a great factor for
musical progress in the Middle West.

=The East=.—New York City has two schools that deserve mention: the
=National Conservatory of Music=, founded by Mrs. Jeannette Thurber,
a school which has offered as teachers to the American pupils such
musicians as Rafael Joseffy and Antonin Dvořák; the =Institute of
Musical Art=, opened in 1905, with Frank Damrosch as director, with
a faculty of high repute, both Europeans and Americans. This school
started with an endowment of $500,000 given by Mr. James Loeb, a New
York banker. A school of music managed on conservative lines has
existed for a number of years in =Baltimore=, in connection with the
Peabody Institute, which was endowed by the banker, George Peabody. At
the present time nearly every city of importance in the United States
contains one or more conservatories, managed on a strictly business
basis, and furnishing to the people of their communities thorough
instruction at reasonable cost.

=In the Colleges=.—The important American institutions for higher
education, both for men and for women, have recognized the claim of
music to a place in the curriculum, and have provision for instructions
in the theory, history and esthetics of music, many also having
facilities for instructions in the practical side of music. =Harvard=,
=Yale=, =Columbia=, =Pennsylvania=, =Michigan=, =California= and
=Northwestern= Universities have established professorships of music,
and have called eminent musicians to the posts. The work done in
hundreds of schools of less reputation is a great factor in spreading
musical culture throughout the country.



                                 INDEX.


  Adam, 355
  Aeolian, 30
  Akkadians, 25, 36
  Albeniz, 497
  Alberti, 252
  Alkan, 443
  Amati (_Amáhtee_), 317
  Ambrose, 63
  American Indian Music, 531
  American Music, 525
  Anglebert d’, 258
  Antiphony, 59
  Apollo, Hymn to, 48, 49
  Apthorp, 550
  Archæology, 20
  Archer, 168
  Archilute, 151
  Arensky, 521
  Arghool, 150
  Aria, 190
  Aristotle, 47
  Aristoxenus, 47
  Arkadelt, 128, 136, 140, 143
  Astorga, 229
  Auber (_O-bare_), 355, 357
  Authentic, 64, 66

  Babylonian Music, 24, 36
  Bach (_Bakh_), C. P. E., 279
  Bach, J. C., 278
  Bach, J. S., 128, 164, 228, 244, 269, 337, 439
  Bach, W. F., 278
  Baillot (_Ba-yo_), 328
  Balakireff (_Balakeéreff_), 442, 517
  Balfe (_Bolf_), 210
  Ballad, 455
  Ballad Opera, 210
  Ballet (_Ballay_), 203
  Bantock, 502
  Bards, 77
  Bassoon, 149
  Batiste (_Bateest_), 166
  Bauer (_Bower_), 447
  Beach, 541
  Beethoven (_Baytoven_), 18, 22, 231, 299, 307, 338, 439
  Bellini (_Belleénee_), 362
  Benda, 277, 350
  Bennett, W. S., 405, 459
  Benoit (_Benwah_), 503
  Bergonzi (_Bergontsee_), 319
  Bériot, de (_Bareeoh_), 332
  Berlin, 555
  Berlioz (_Bareleoh_), 339, 433, 459, 463
  Bernhard, 159
  Bernacchi (_Bernákkee_), 199
  Best, 167
  Biber, (_Beeber_), 323
  Billings, 526
  Binchois (_Banshwah_), 112
  Bizet (_Beezeh_), 374
  Blockx (_Block_), 505
  Blow, 164
  Blumenfeld, 522
  Boethius, 48, 70
  Böhm, J. (_Bame_), 331
  Böhm, T., 338
  Boieldieu (_Bwah-el-dyu_), 355
  Boise (_Boyce_), 551
  Boïto (_Boéto_), 375
  Bologna, 554
  Borodin, 519
  Boschi (_Boskee_), 201
  Bossi (_Bossee_), 167, 495
  Brahms, 439, 458, 459, 463
  Brassin (_Brahssan, nasal n_), 438
  Breitner (_Britener_), 445
  Bridge, 501
  Broadwood, 243
  Bruch (_Brookh_), 478
  Brumel (_Broomel_), 126
  Bruneau (_Bruno_), 485
  Brussels, 555
  Buck, 460, 543
  Bull, J., 164, 257
  Bülow (_Beelow_), von, 437
  Bungert (_Boóngert_), 374, 476
  Buonamici (_Bonameéchee_), 448
  Buongiorno (_Bonzhórno_), 496
  Busnois (_Binwah_), 112
  Busoni, 448
  Buxtehude (_Bookstehóodeh_), 163, 265
  Byrd (_Bird_), 121, 144, 164, 256

  Caccini (_Cacheénee_), 175, 177
  Caffarelli, 199
  Caldara (_Caldáhra_), 226
  Cambert (_Cambare_), 204
  Canon, 109, 111, 126
  Cantata, 174
  Capocci (_Capóchee_), 167
  Carestini (_Caresteénee_), 201
  Carissimi, 184, 226
  Carreño (_Carainyo_), 451
  Cassi odorus, 74
  Cavalière (_Cavaliáire_), 179
  Cavalli (_Cavállee_), 184
  Celts, 77
  Censorinus (_Censoreenus_), 74
  Cesti (_Chestee_), 184
  Chabrier (_Chahbrieh_), 487
  Chadwick, 536, 544
  Chaldæans, 24, 36, 37
  Chambonnières (_Shambonniair_), 258
  Chaminade (_Shaminahd_), 488
  Chanson (_Shanson, nasal n_), 144, 455
  Charlemagne (_Charlmanye_), 77
  Charpentier (_Sharpahntieh_), 485
  Chausson (_Showson_, _nasal n_), 487
  Che, 26, 28
  Chelys (_Kellis_), 56
  Cherubini (_Karoobeénee_), 223
  Chinese Music, 25-29
  Chopin (_Showpan, nasal n_), 387, 417, 425
  Chorale, 165, 227
  Chorus, Greek, 57
  Chromatic Scale, Greek, 55
  Church Scales, 64
  Cimarosa (_Chimaroza_), 193
  Cincinnati College of Music, 558
  Cithara (_Kítara_), 56
  Clarinet, 150, 338
  Clarke, 551
  Claudius Ptolemy, 48, 63
  Clavicembalo (_Clavichembálo_), 240
  Clavichord, 237
  Clementi, 18, 380
  Coleridge-Taylor, 502
  Cologne, 555
  Concerto (_Conchairto_), 323
  Conductus, 83, 101
  Confucius, 26, 27, 29
  Contra Bass, 321
  Corelli, 250, 323
  Cotton, John, 75
  Council of Trent, 141
  Counterpoint, 111
  Couperin (_Kooperan, nasal n_), 258
  Cowen, 500
  Cramer (_Krahmer_), 382
  Crescentini (_Creschenteénee_), 201
  Cristofori (_Cristofóree_), 241
  Crouth (_Crooth_), 77, 153
  Cui (_Koóee_), 518
  Czerny (_Chairny_), 384, 425

  D’Albert (_Dolbare_), 437, 477
  Damrosch, W., 529, 544
  Dance Tunes, 248
  Daquin (_Dahkan, nasal n_), 259
  David (_Dahvid_), 330
  Debussy (modified _u_, similar to German ü), 486
  DeHandlo, 121
  Dekoven, 544
  Delaborde, 444
  Delibes, (_Deleeb_), 483
  Diapason, 59
  Diaphony, 73, 93
  Dickinson, 551
  Didymus, 48
  Dièmer (_Diaimeh_), 444
  Di Ruta (_Di Roota_), 250
  Di Salo (_Di Sahlo_), 316
  Discant, 73, 104
  Dominant, 66
  Donizetti, 361
  Dont (_Don, nasal n_), 331
  Dorian, 30, 52, 54, 64
  Dowland, 144
  Drama, 172
  Dresden, 555
  Dubois (_Doobwah_), 167, 487
  Ducis, 161
  Dufay, 112
  Dulcimer, 237
  Dunstable, 121
  Dupont (_Doopon, nasal n_), 439
  Durante (_Dooráhntay_), 252
  Dvořák (_Dvorzhak_), 377, 459, 508
  Dwight, 547

  Ecclesiastical Scales, 52, 64
  Eck, 329
  Eddy, 547
  Edwardes, 144
  Egyptian Music, 38-41
  Elgar, 460, 501
  Elson, 550
  English Music, 80, 115
  English Opera, 207
  English Opera, typical, 209
  Enharmonic Scale, Greek, 56
  Enna, 512
  Equal Temperament, 243
  Erard (_Airar_), 243
  Erkel (_Airkle_), 510
  Ernst, (_Airnst_), 331
  Essipoff, 451
  Ethnology, 21
  Euclid, 48

  Faburden, 73
  Farinelli, 200
  Fasch (_Fahsh_), 277
  Fauré (_Foray_), 413, 487
  Ferri, 199
  Fibich (_Feebikh_), 510
  Fidelio (_Fidaylo_), 222
  Fidula, 153
  Field, 387, 421
  Finck, 551
  Finland, 81
  Fiorillo (_Feeorillo_), 329
  Florence, 173, 554
  Florentine School, 177
  Flute, 28, 38, 56, 149, 338
  Folk-Song, 85, 96, 111, 507, 516, 531
  Foote, 539
  Form, 18
  Franchetti (_Frankettee_), 494
  Franck, 167, 459, 483
  Franco of Cologne, 72, 104
  Franco of Paris, 104
  Franz (_Frahnts_), 457
  French Opera, 203
  Frescobaldi (_Frescobahldee_), 162, 249
  Froberger (_Frobairger_), 162, 264
  Fugue (_Fewg_), 111, 126, 265
  Fux (_Fooks_), 163

  Gabrieli, A., 136, 162, 247
  Gabrieli, G., 136, 162, 248
  Gabrilowitsch (_Gabrílovitch_), 447
  Gade (_Gahdeh_), 405
  Gagliano (_Galyáno_), 177, 319
  Galilei (_Galilaee_), 174
  Galio-Belgic School, 107, 124
  Gamut, 67
  Gastoldi, 144
  Gauls, Music of the, 77
  Gaviniés (_Gavíniez_), 328
  Geminiani (_Zhemineáhnee_), 325
  Genoa, 554
  German, E, 503
  German Opera, 211
  Gevaërt, 438
  Gibbons, 121, 144, 164, 257
  Gilchrist, 536
  Gilson (_Zhilson, nasal n_), 504
  Giordano (_Zhordáhno_), 493
  Gipsies, 33
  Glazounoff (_Glazoónof_), 520
  Glinka, 377, 516
  Gluck (_Glook_), 215
  Godowsky (_Godóffsky_), 449
  Goldmark, 472
  Gombert (_Gombare_), 128, 134
  Goss, 167
  Gottschalk, 546
  Goudimel (_Goodimel_), 128, 136, 140, 142
  Gounod (_Goonoh_), 374, 459
  Grand Opera, 349, 353, 356
  Graun (_au_, like _ow_ in _how_), 227
  Gravicembalo (_Gravichembahlo_), 240
  Greater Perfect System, 51, 64
  Greek Drama, 172
  Greek Music, 46
  Greek Scale, 50, 52, 55
  Gregorian, 43
  Gregory, Pope, 63, 70
  Grétry (_Greatry_), 353
  Grieg (_Greeg_), 448, 511
  Guadagnini (_Gwahdanyeénee_), 319
  Guarnerius (_Gwarnáirius_), 316, 318
  Guglielmi (_Goolyélmee_), 230
  Guido (_Gweédo_), 67, 74, 95
  Guilmant (_Geelman, nasal n_), 167, 487

  Hadley, 540
  Hale (_Hahl_), Adam de la, 84
  Hale, P., 550
  Halévy (_Halaivy_), 359
  Hallstrom, 513
  Handel, 164, 213, 229, 266, 337
  Handel and Haydn Society, 526
  Hambourg, 447
  Harmony, 18, 19, 59, 73, 75
  Harp, 39, 44, 150
  Harpsichord, 237
  Hasler (_Hassler_), 263
  Hasse (_Hasseh_), 230
  Haupt (_Howpt_), 166
  Hausegger (_Howsegger_), 468
  Haydn (_Hyden_), 18, 237, 283, 295, 299, 307, 311, 337
  Hebrew Music, 41
  Heller, 449
  Hellmesberger, 331
  Henderson, 551
  Henselt, 443
  Herbert, 544
  Hérold, 355
  Hesse, 166
  Hexachord, 67, 68
  Hiller, F., 405
  Hiller, J. A., 220
  Himmel, 302
  Hindoo Music, 30-33
  Hobrecht, 127, 145
  Hofmann, J., 450
  Hopkins, 167
  Huber (_Hoober_), 470
  Hucbald (_Huckbald_), 67, 74, 95
  Humfrey, 207
  Hummel (_Hoommel_), 383
  Humperdinck (_Hoomperdinck_), 374, 473
  Huneker, 551
  Hurdy Gurdy, 153
  Hydraulic Organ, 157

  Imitation, 102, 109
  Indian Music, 531
  Indy d’ (_Dandy, French nasal n_), 413, 484
  Intermezzo, 192
  Ireland, 79
  Isidore of Seville, 74
  Italian School, Early, 131

  Japanese Music, 29, 30
  Jean de Garlande (_Zhan, nasal n_), 104
  Jean Scot Erigene, 74
  Jensen (_Yensen_), 413
  Jerome de Moravie (_Morahvee_), 104
  Joachim (_Yoáhkim_), 331
  Jommelli (_Yomméllee_), 193, 230
  Jongleurs (_Zhongler_), 83
  Joseffy (_Yoséffy_), 449, 546
  Josquin de Pres (_Zhoskan, nasal de Pray_), 127, 145

  Keiser (_Kyser_), 213, 227
  Kelley, 544
  Kerl (_Kairl_), 162, 264
  Keyboard, 159
  Kienzl (_Keenzel_), 474
  Kin, 26, 27
  Kistler, 475
  Klindworth (_Klindwort_), 443
  Klotz, 319
  Koto, 30
  Krehbiel (_Kraybeel_), 551
  Kreutzer (_Kroitzer_), 329
  Kuhnau (_Koonow_), 276

  Landino (_Landeeno_), 161
  Lassen (_Lahssen_), 513
  Lasso (_Lahsso_), di, 128, 134, 136, 144, 173
  Lawes, 207
  Leclair, 328
  Lefébure-Wéy (_Lefayber-Waily_), 166
  Legrenzi (_Legrentsee_), 184
  Leipzig Conservatory, 401, 555
  Lekeu (_Lekuh_), 504
  Lemare, 168
  Lemmens (_Lemman, nasal_), 166
  Leo (_Lao_), 226
  Leoncavallo, 376, 492
  Leonin (_Leonan, nasal_), 104
  Leschetizky (_Leshetitsky_), 388, 446
  Lesser Perfect System, 51, 64
  Lewts, Denis, 75
  Liadoff (_Leahdoff_), 521
  Lied (_Leed_), 455
  Liszt, 425, 436, 459, 463, 465
  Locatelli, 325
  Lock, 164, 207
  Loeffler (_Lerfler_, not sounding the first _r_), 541
  Logroscino (_Logrosheéno_), 192
  Lolli, 329
  Lortzing, 351
  Lotti, 184
  Lully, 204
  Lupot (_Lüpoh_), 319
  Lute, 151
  Luther, 138
  Lydian, 52
  Lyre, 39, 50, 56, 150

  MacDowell, 450, 538
  Mackenzie, 460, 500
  Madrigal, 143
  Magadis, 58, 92
  Maggini (_Madgeéni_), 317
  Mahler, 469
  Marchand (_Marchan, nasal_), 165, 259
  Marenzio (_Marentsio_), 144
  Marpurg (_Marpoorg_), 277
  Marschner, 351
  Martucci (_Martoóchee_), 495
  Mascagni (_Mascányee_), 376, 491
  Mason, L., 527
  Mason, Wm., 450, 546
  Masque, 203, 209
  Massenet (_Massenay_), 482
  Mastersingers, 85
  Mathews, 548
  Mathias (_Matiah_), 444
  Mattheson (_Matteson_), 213, 268
  Measured Music, 74, 100
  Méhul (_Mahul_), 354
  Melodrama, 350
  Melody, 18, 19, 20, 21, 59
  Mendelssohn, 166, 232, 400
  Merbecke, 121, 164
  Merkel (_Mairkel_), 166
  Merulo (_Maróolo_), 162, 247
  Mese (_Mayseh_), 51
  Meyerbeer, 358
  Milan, 553
  Minnesingers, 84
  Minstrels, 81
  Miracle Plays, 179, 213
  Mixo-Lydian, 52
  Monochord, 47, 237
  Monophony, 88
  Monteverde (_Montevairday_), 180, 188, 336
  Morley, 144, 164
  Moscheles (_Móschehless_), 383, 401
  Moszkowski (_Moskoffskee_), 449
  Motet, 83, 101, 103
  Moussorgsky, 518
  Mozart (_Motsart_), 219, 231, 291, 299, 307, 311, 337
  Muffat, 265
  Munich, 555
  Musica Ficta, 75
  Music Drama, 175
  Mysteries, 179, 213

  Naples, 552
  Nardini (_Nardeénee_), 327
  Neapolitan School of Opera, 187
  Negro Music, 531
  Neri (_Néhree_), 140
  Netherlands, 107, 123
  Neumes (_Nooms_), 70
  Nevin, 544
  New England Conservatory of Music, 557
  Nicordé (_Nikóhday_), 470
  Nocturne, 387, 421
  Notation (Greek), 58, 70

  Oberlin, 558
  Oboe, 149, 337
  Octave System (Greek), 54
  Odington, 101, 118, 121
  Odo (Otger), 74, 94
  Offenbach, 356
  Okeghem, 126, 134, 145
  Opera, 175, 196, 336
  Opera Buffa (_Booffa_), 191, 349, 356
  Opéra Comique (_Comeek_), 349, 353
  Oratorio, 179, 226
  Orchestra, 308, 334
  Organ, 125, 156, 236
  Organ Pedals, 159
  Organum, 73, 93, 101
  Organum (Secular), 94
  Orpheus, 46
  Overture, 191, 205, 342

  Pachelbel (_Pakhelbel_), 163
  Pachmann (_Pakhmann_), de, 449
  Paderewski (_Padreffski_), 446, 511
  Paganini (_Paganeénee_), 331, 426
  Paine, 460, 535
  Paisiello (_Paheesiéllo_), 193, 230
  Palermo, 553
  Palestrina (_Palacetreena_), 136, 139, 173
  Pan’s Pipes, 22, 148, 156
  Parabosco, 247
  Paradies (_Paradees_), 253
  Parallelism in Hebrew Poetry, 43
  Paris Conservatoire (_Conservatwar_), 554
  Paris School, 99
  Parker, H., 460, 539
  Parker, J. C. D., 543
  Parry, 500
  Parthenia, 257
  Pasquini (_Paskweénee_), 250
  Passion Music, 227, 233
  Paumann (_Powman_), 161
  Pedals (Organ), 159
  Pentatonic, 27, 30, 32, 56, 60, 70
  Pergolesi, (_Pergolazy_), 192, 228
  Peri (_Perry_), 175, 177
  Perosi (_Perozy_), 460, 494
  Perotin (_Perotan, nasal n_), 104
  Perry, 546
  Petrucci (_Petroóchee_), 145
  Philipp, 444
  Phorminx, 56
  Phrygian, 52, 54, 64
  Pianoforte, 241, 295, 308
  Piano Playing, 295, 420, 430
  Piccini (_Picheénee_), 193
  Pizzicato (_Pitsicácto_), 183
  Plagal, 64, 66
  Plato, 48
  Planquette (_Planket, nasal n_), 356
  Polyphony, 88, 129, 132, 164, 337
  Porpora, 193, 230, 285
  Prætorius, 163
  Prague, 554
  Program Music, 312, 465
  Psalms, 42, 43
  Psaltery, 237
  Puccini (_Poocheénee_), 376, 493
  Pugnani (_Punyáhnee_), 327
  Pugno (_Poonyo_), 444
  Purcell, 121, 164, 207, 258
  Pythagoras, 41, 47

  Rachmaninoff (_Rakhmaneénoff_), 443, 521
  Rameau (_Rahmo_), 206, 244, 260
  Ravanastron, 32
  Rebec, 151, 152
  Recitative (_Resitateév_) 174, 189
  Reed, 149
  Reformation, The, 138
  Reinecke (_Rynekeh_), 405
  Reinken (_Rhineken_), 163, 265
  Remenyi, 331
  Renaissance (_Renasahns, nasal n_), 171, 246
  Reyer (_Ryer_), 483
  Rheinberger (_Rhineberger_), 166
  Rhythm, 18, 19
  Ries (_Reese_), 305
  Rimsky-Korsákoff (_Rimsky-Kórsakoff_), 519
  Rinck, 165
  Rinuccini (_Rinoocheenee_), 175, 177
  Risler, 445
  Rode, 328
  Roentgen (_Rentghen_), 505
  Roman Music, 62
  Romantic Movement, 345, 404, 407, 423, 439
  Rome, 553
  Rondeau (_Rondo_), 83
  Rore (_Roara_), 128, 136, 144, 162
  Rosenthal (_Rosentall_), 437
  Rossini (_Rosseénee_), 224, 229
  Roundel, 101
  Rubinstein, A., 405, 441, 459
  Rummel (_Roomel_), 449
  Russian Music, 441

  Sacchini (_Sakeénee_), 230
  Sachs (_Sakhs_), 86
  Safonoff (_Safónoff_), 443
  Saint Petersburg Conservatory, 556
  Saint-Saëns (_San-Sahnz, nasal n_), 167, 444, 459, 481
  Salieri (_Solyairee_), 223
  Sambuca, 37
  Santir, 38
  Sapellnikoff (_Sapéllnikoff_), 442
  Sauer (_Sour_), 438
  Scales, 22, 29
  Scandinavian Music, 80
  Scarlatti, A., 187, 196, 226, 250, 336
  Scarlatti, D., 251, 266
  Scheidemann (_Shydemann_), 163
  Scheidt (_Shite_), 163
  Schillings, 475
  Schmidt, B., 162
  Schneider, 166
  Schopenhauer (_Shopenhower_), 21
  Schröter (_Shrayter_), 242
  Schubert, 391, 456
  Schumann, Clara, 451
  Schumann, R., 18, 395, 401, 407, 417, 425, 439, 457
  Schütz (_Sheets_), 211, 227
  Schytté (_Skittay_), 513
  Scottish Music, 79
  Scriabine (_Skreáhbeen_), 443, 522
  Se, 28
  Seidl (_Sidle_), 533
  Senesino (_Seneseeno_), 199
  Sevcik (_Shevchik_), 333
  Sgambati (_Sgambáhtee_), 448, 494
  Shawm, 150
  Shelley, 542
  Sheng, 26
  Sherwood, 450
  Sho, 29
  Shofar, 150
  Sibelius (_Seebailius_), 513
  Sieveking (_Seevehking_), 447
  Silbermann, 242
  Siloti, 442
  Sinding, 448, 511
  Sinfonia, 191, 322
  Singing, 195
  Singspiel (_Singspeel_), 212, 220
  Sjögren (_Shagreén_), 513
  Slavinski, 447
  Smart, 167
  Smetana, 377, 507
  Somis (_Somee_), 325
  Sonata, 247, 274, 288, 295, 303, 309, 322, 411
  Song, 395, 454, 468
  Spark, 167
  Spieloper (_Speeloper_), 351
  Spinet, 239
  Spohr (_Spoar_), 232, 329, 350
  Spontini (Sponteénee), 223
  Stabat Mater (_Stahbat Mahter_), 228
  Stainer, Jakob (_Styner, Yahkob_), 319
  Stainer, John (_Stayner_), 167
  Stanford, 497
  Stavenhagen (_Stahvenhahgen_), 438
  Stcherbatcheff, 521
  Stein, (_Stine_), 243
  Sternberg, von, 546
  Stojowski (_Stoyoffski_), 447
  Stradella, 226
  Stradivarius, 319
  Strauss (_Strous_), R., 339, 374, 433, 458, 463
  Streicher (_Strikher_), 243
  Stringed Instruments, 147, 150
  Suite, 249
  Sullivan, 210, 460
  Sumer is Icumen in, 117
  Sumerians, 25
  Svendsen, 512
  Sweelinck (_Swalink_), 128, 162
  Sylvester, Pope, 63
  Symphonia, 37
  Symphonic Poem, 342, 433
  Symphony, 59, 342, 411
  Syrinx, 62, 148, 156
  Szumowska-Adamowska, 447

  Tablatura, 86, 151
  Tallis, 121, 164, 257
  Taneiéff (_Tanaéeff_), 521
  Tangent, 238
  Tartini (_Tarteénee_), 325
  Tausig (_Tousig_), 436
  Tchaikovsky (_Chikoffsky_), 522
  Tche, 28
  Terpander, 47
  Tetrachord, 47, 50
  Tetrachordon, 56
  Thayer, 550
  Theile (_Tyleh_), 212
  Theorbo, 151
  Thiele (_Teeleh_), 166
  Thomas (_Toamah_), A., 483
  Thomas, T., 528
  Tieffenbrucker (_Teefenbrooker_), 316
  Tinctoris, 127, 135
  Tinel, 504
  Ti-Tzu, 28
  Tonus Peregrinus, 63
  Torelli, 323
  Tosi (_Tozy_), 198
  Tourte (_Toort_), 320
  Tremolo, 183
  Trent, Council of, 141
  Tritone, 75
  Tromba Marina (_Mareéna_), 151, 152
  Troubadours, 83
  Trouvères (_Troovair_), 82
  Trumpet, 150
  Tye, 121

  Ugab (_Oogabh_), 148
  Unity, 102, 109
  Upton, 548

  Van der Stucken, 540
  Venetian School, 184
  Venice, 553
  Veracini (_Vairacheénee_), 325
  Verdi (_Vairdee_), 361, 375
  Vienna, 554
  Vieuxtemps (_Vyutom, nasal_), 332
  Vina (_Veena_), 31, 32
  Viol, 145, 151, 154, 315
  Violin, 315, 320
  Violin Bow, 319
  Violin Playing, 322
  Violoncello (_Veeolonchéllo_), 320
  Viotti (_Veeótti_), 328
  Virginal, 239
  Virginal Book, 256
  Vitali (_Vetáhlee_), 323
  Vivaldi (_Veeváhldee_), 325
  Vuillaume (_Vweleyome_), 319

  Waelrant (_Walerant_), 144
  Wagenseil (_Vahgensile_), 278
  Wagner (_Vahgner_), R., 339, 360, 364, 458
  Wagner’s (R.) Theory, 369, 433
  Wagner, S., 476
  Weber (_Vaber_), 346, 397
  Weelkes, 144
  Weingartner (_Vinegartner_), 470
  Well-Tempered Clavichord, 271, 300
  Wesley, 167
  Widor (_Weedo_), 167, 487
  Wieck (_Veek_), 408
  Wilbye, 144
  Wilhelmj (_Vilhelmyeh_), 330
  Willaert, 128, 135, 143, 162, 247
  Wind Instruments, 147, 148
  Wolf, H., 478
  Wolf-Ferrari (_Ferráhree_), 496

  Ysaye (_Esyeh_), 332

  Zeelandia (_Zalahndia_), 112
  Zeisler (_Ziseler_), 451



                               FOOTNOTES:


[1] In his work “The Power of Sound” Gurney has taken up in detail
Herbert Spencer’s theory of the origin of music.

[2] Stainer, in “Music of the Bible,” inclines to believe that the
Sambuca was a large harp of the kind used in Egypt.

[3] Maspéro, the Egyptologist, says that after the tomb has been
sealed, the family and guests return to the house of the deceased, to a
banquet, after which the “last link which holds the dead to the family
is broken. The sacred harpist plays a prelude, then, standing before
a statue of the deceased, chants the dirge first sung long ago at the
funeral of the Pharaoh Antouf: ‘The world is but perpetual movement and
change.... Not all the lamentations in the world will restore happiness
to the man who is in the sepulchre; make then a good-day and do not be
idle in enjoying thyself.’”

[4] Smith.

[5] This treatise is now attributed to Cleonidas, writing about
120 A. D.

[6] By this is meant that all intervals of the major second, so-called,
are not equally large and cannot be, if a correct division of fourths
and fifths be desired. Didymus made the interval from C to D smaller
than the other seconds of the scale; Ptolemy put the “minor” tone
between D and E, where it is now placed.

[7] Some investigators claim that some of these melodies were part of
the Temple service at Jerusalem, making the specific statement that
the melody used in some liturgical services, and known as the _Tonus
Peregrinus_, is based on a Temple chant.

[8] A fine account of their methods is found in Robert Louis
Stevenson’s novel “Kidnapped.”

[9] Mention of prominent American organists and teachers is made in
Lesson LIX.

[10] See especially Op. 14, No. 2, first movement.

[11] Grove’s Dictionary says 1611.

[12] See Wasielewski: _Die Violine und Ihre Meister_.

[13] This third sound will correspond to the difference of the
vibration numbers of the other two.

[14] 1907.

[15] His mother’s name, Bartholdy, was added to distinguish this branch
from other Mendelssohn families.

Transcriber's Notes:

  Underscores "_" before and after a word or phrase indicate _italics_
    in the original text.
  Equal signs "=" before and after a word or phrase indicate =bold=
    in the original text.
  Small capitals have been converted to SOLID capitals.
  Illustrations have been moved so they do not break up paragraphs.
  Old or antiquated spellings have been preserved.
  Typographical errors have been silently corrected but other variations
    in spelling and punctuation remain unaltered.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Complete History of Music - for Schools, Clubs, and Private Readings" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home