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Title: Phrases and Names Their Origins and Meanings
Author: Johnson, Trench H.
Language: English
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                          Transcriber’s Note:

This version of the text cannot represent certain typographical effects.
Italics are delimited with the ‘_’ character as _italic_. Bold
characters are delimited with ‘=’, as =bold=.

Footnotes have been moved to follow the paragraphs in which they are
referenced.

Minor errors, attributable to the printer, have been corrected. Please
see the transcriber’s note at the end of this text for details regarding
the handling of any textual issues encountered during its preparation.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           PHRASES AND NAMES
                           THEIR ORIGINS AND
                                MEANINGS

------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           PHRASES AND NAMES
                           THEIR ORIGINS AND
                                MEANINGS

                                   BY
                           TRENCH H. JOHNSON

          “_How did such and such a country, city, town,
          street, river, natural curiosity, or world-renowned
          edifice obtain its name? Whence arose a particular
          sobriquet, nickname, byword, epithet, or slang term?
          What was the origin of the thousand-and-one phrases
          and expressions engrafted upon our vocabulary which
          would appear to have no meaning whatever? These
          things are worthy of investigation._”

                              PHILADELPHIA
                        J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY
                                 LONDON
                            T. WERNER LAURIE



                                PREFACE


_Few words are necessary to introduce this work to the reader. It
partakes of the nature of an encyclopædia, with the saving clause that
the information it sets forth is confined to a plain statement of facts.
Verbal embellishments have been studiously avoided. Those who seek for
additional intelligence may easily obtain it from ordinarily available
sources. To account for the origin of popular phrases and names has been
the author’s sole design. To the best of his knowledge, no other work of
the kind exists. From the stores of his own knowledge, acquired through
many years of omnivorous reading, patient inquiry, and investigation, he
has been enabled to bring together an_ Olla podrida _which should go far
towards supplying a want_.

_The origin of place-names is interesting in that it opens up the
history of peoples and the civilising influences, if so one might term
it, of conquest. London street-names, in particular, convey in one word
to a person of antiquarian tastes as much meaning as “a volume of
forgotten lore.” As to phrases and expressions, the author has made a
special study of the subject. A great many Americanisms have been
included, but as the number is daily increasing it would require a
monthly publication of such home-made phrases to keep fully abreast with
the times. That nothing should be wanting in the way of exhaustiveness,
it has been thought advisable to incorporate in the text a number of
slang terms and expressions which daily assail one’s ears. To the author
the compilation of this volume has been a pleasant recreation in the
intervals of more exacting literary labours. If it be found to contain a
plethora of good things, the reader will, of course, take them out in
small doses._

                                                          _T. H. J._

LONDON, 1906.



                           Phrases and Names


                                   A


=A1.= An expression meaning “first-rate.” Derived from Lloyd’s “Registry
    of Shipping,” in which letters denote the quality of a ship’s hull,
    and figures that of its equipment. A vessel registered A1 is of the
    first class in all respects.

=Abbey Laird.= An insolvent debtor who in former times sought the
    sanctuary of the precincts of Holyrood Abbey against arrest.

=Abbey Road.= From the ancient abbey of the Holy Virgins of St John the
    Baptist in St John’s Wood.

=Abbotsford.= The name given by Sir Walter Scott to his residence on the
    banks of the Tweed, from the poetical assumption that the abbots of
    Melrose must have forded the stream hereabouts in olden times.

=A.B.C. Girls.= Waitresses at the depots of the Aerated Bread Company
    Limited.

=Aberdeen.= From the Celtic _aber_, estuary, confluence; the town at the
    mouth of the Dee.

=Abernethy Biscuits.= From the name of the baker who introduced them.
    Their connection with Dr Abernethy was repudiated by the great
    physician himself.

=Aberystwith.= The town at the mouth of the Ystwith.

=Abigail.= The generic name for a waiting-maid, in allusion to the
    handmaid who introduced herself to David (1 Sam. xxv. 23). Its
    popularity during the second half of the seventeenth century may be
    accounted for by the fact that the maiden name of Mrs Masham, the
    waiting-woman of Queen Anne, was Abigail Hill.

=Abingdon.= A corruption of Abbendon, the town of abbeys, being a place
    famed for religious houses far back in Anglo-Saxon days.

=Abingdon Street.= From the ancient town residence of the Earls of
    Abingdon.

=Abney Park.= From Abney House, now a Conservative Club, the residence
    of Sir Thomas Abney, Lord Mayor of London. Dr Isaac Watts passed
    away at Abney House in 1748.

=Abode of Love.= See “Agapemonites.”

=Abolitionists.= The party sworn to the total and immediate abolition of
    slavery in the United States.

=Above Board.= Open, not playing an underhanded game. The owners of the
    gaming-tables on a race-course unsuspectedly regulated the issue of
    the spinning hand on the board by means of a treadle.

=Abraham Newlands.= Bank of England notes, so called from the signature
    they bore early in the last century.

=Absinthe.= From the Greek _apsnithion_, wormwood.

=Absquatulate.= A Far-West Americanism. A squatter who suddenly left his
    claim was said to have absquatulated.

=Abyssinia.= The country of the Abassins, or “mixed races.”

=Academy.= From the garden of Academus, where Plato taught his
    disciples; called on this account the Academics, or Academic School
    of Philosophy.

=According to Cocker.= Strictly correct. After Edward Cocker of Paul’s
    Chain, who published a most popular arithmetic.

=According to Gunter.= An expression much used in America for anything
    done properly and systematically. The allusion is to Edmund Gunter,
    the celebrated mathematician, who invented a chain and scale for
    measuring.

=Achilles Tendon.= The tendon reaching from the calf of the leg to the
    heel. See “Heel of Achilles.”

=Acknowledge the Corn.= An Americanism of extremely popular application.
    Its origin is thus given by _The Pittsburg Commercial Advertiser_:
    “Some years ago a raw customer from the upper country determined to
    try his fortune at New Orleans. Accordingly he provided himself with
    two flat boats--one laden with corn and the other with potatoes--and
    down the river he went. The night after his arrival he went up town
    to a gambling-house. Of course, he commenced betting, and, his luck
    proving unfortunate, he lost. When his money was gone he bet his
    ‘truck’; and the corn and potatoes followed the money. At last, when
    evidently cleaned out, he returned to his boats at the wharf, where
    the evidences of a new misfortune presented themselves. Through some
    accident or other the flat boat containing the corn was sunk, and a
    total loss. Consoling himself as well as he could he went to sleep,
    dreaming of gamblers, potatoes, and corn. It was scarcely sunrise,
    however, when he was disturbed by the ‘child of chance,’ who had
    arrived to take possession of the two boats as his winnings. Slowly
    awakening from his sleep, our hero, rubbing his eyes and looking the
    man in the face, replied: ‘Stranger, I acknowledge the corn--take
    ’em; but the potatoes you _can’t_ have, by thunder!’ Since that time
    it has become customary for a man who frankly admits having been
    hoaxed or beaten to say: ‘I acknowledge the corn.’”

=Acropolis.= From the Greek _akros_, highest, and _polis_, city. A
    citadel or fortress overlooking a city, as at Athens.

=Acton.= Anglo-Saxon for “Oak Town,” built in the neighbourhood of a
    great oak forest.

=Actors’ Day.= A day--the third Thursday in October--set apart for a
    performance in all the theatres of the United Kingdom in aid of the
    various theatrical charities--actors being pledged to give their
    services, dramatic authors to forego their fees, and managers to
    devote the entire receipts to the good cause.

=Adam Street.= After the Brothers Adam, who built the streets
    collectively styled the “Adelphi.”

=Adam’s Needle.= A plant so called from its long, pointed leaves.
    Whether he and his spouse strung their aprons together by its means
    is doubtful.

=Adam’s Wine.= Drinking water, because Adam knew not the fermented juice
    of the grape.

=Ada Rehan.= This American actress is of Irish extraction, her name
    being “Regan,” but on entering the dramatic profession she changed
    it to “Rehan.”

=Addison of the North.= The literary sobriquet of Henry Fielding, author
    of “The Man of Feeling,” on account of the purity and elegance of
    his style.

=Addison Road.= After the great English essayist, who, having married
    the Dowager Countess of Warwick, lived and died at Holland House,
    Kensington.

=Addled Parliament.= A memorable session during the reign of James I.,
    which, though it lasted from 5th April 1614 to 7th June 1615, passed
    no new measure whatever.

=Adelaide.= The capital of South Australia, an island, and also a noted
    hostelry on Haverstock Hill, named in honour of the consort of
    William IV.

=Adelphi.= The collective name for several streets and a noble terrace
    on the south side of the Strand, built by the Brothers Adam.
    _Adelphi_ is Greek for “brothers.”

=Adieu.= Originally a popular commendation to the care of God--_A Dieu!_

=Adonis.= The name given to a beautiful youth, and also to the anemone,
    after Adonis, who was beloved by Venus. The flower is said to have
    sprung from his blood when he was gored to death by a wild boar in
    the chase.

=Admirable Crichton.= The designation of one accomplished in all the
    arts. “Admirable” Crichton was a noted Scottish prodigy of the
    sixteenth century.

=Admiral.= From the Arabic _emir-el-bahr_, Lord of the Sea.

=Adrianople.= The city founded by the Emperor Hadrian.

=Adriatic Sea.= After the Emperor Hadrian.

=Adullamites.= Those who in 1866 seceded from the Reform Party. John
    Bright said they had retired to the Cave of Adullam, there to gather
    around them all the discontented. The allusion was to David’s flight
    from Saul (1. Sam. xxii. 1, 2).

=Ad valorem.= A Customs term for duties levied according to the stated
    value of goods imported. The duty on various qualities of the same
    goods may therefore differ.

=Ædiles.= Civil officers of Rome who had the care of the streets and
    _ædes_, or public buildings.

=Æolian Harp.= A lute placed in the trees for the zephyrs to play upon,
    so called after Æolus, the god of the winds.

=Æsculapius.= The generic term for a physician, after the one of this
    name mentioned by Homer, who was afterwards deified in the Greek
    mythology.

=Afghanistan.= Pursuant to the Persian _stan_, the country of the
    Afghans.

=Africa.= From the Phœnician _afer_, a black man, and the Sanskrit
    _ac_, earth, land, country. This great continent is the natural home
    of the blacks--the negroes of North America and the West Indian
    Islands being descended from the slaves carried thither from the
    west coast of Africa since the time of the original slave trader,
    Sir John Hawkins, in 1562.

=Agapæ.= Love feasts of the Romans, from the Greek _agape_, love.

=Agapemonites.= An old term which has newly come into vogue in our day.
    _Agapemone_ is Greek for “abode of love.” There was such a retreat
    early in the nineteenth century at Charlynch, Somerset, the seat of
    the Agapemonists or Agapemonites, followers of Henry James Prince,
    an ex-Churchman.

=Agar Street.= After William Agar, a wealthy lawyer, who resided in it.
    See “Agar Town.”

=Agar Town.= A now vanished district covered by St Pancras Railway
    Station, the lease of which was acquired by William Agar in 1840 for
    building purposes.

=Agate.= From _Achates_, the Greek name of a Sicilian river, in the bed
    of which this gem was found in abundance.

=Agnostic.= From the Greek _a_, without, and _gnomi_, to know. One who
    professes a belief only in what he knows or can discover for
    himself. Literally a “know-nothing.”

=Agony Column.= At first this newspaper column was confined to
    distressful inquiries for missing relatives and friends. Latterly it
    has become a tacit means of communication between persons who, for
    various reasons, cannot exchange letters sent through the post.

=Ahoy.= From _Aoi_, the battle cry of the Norsemen as they ran their
    galleys upon the enemy.

=Aigrette.= A French word, denoting the tall white plume of a heron.
    From a feather head-dress the term has now come to be applied to an
    ornament of gems worn by a lady on the crown of her head when in
    full evening dress.

=Air of a Gentleman.= In this sense the word “air” is synonymous with
    “manner” and “deportment.”

=Air Street.= When laid out and built upon in 1659 this was the most
    westerly street in London. The allusion to fresh air is obvious.

=Aix-la-Chapelle.= The _Aquis Granum_ of the Romans, famous for its
    baths. Hence the German name Aachen, expressive of many springs. The
    place is also noted for its many churches; the cathedral, which grew
    out of the original chapel, contains the shrine of Charlemagne.

=Alabama.= Indian for “here we rest.”

=A la Guillotine.= The name given in France after the Revolution to the
    fashion of wearing the hair very short, in memory of friends and
    relatives who had fallen victims to the “Guillotine.”

=A la Watteau.= The name given to a stage ballet in which the pretty
    rustic costumes are after the style of those ever present in the
    pastoral paintings of Antoine Watteau, the famous French artist.
    Reproductions of his pictures frequently also figure on expensive
    furniture--screens in particular.

=Albania.= From the Latin _albus_, white, “the country of snowy mountain
    ranges.”

=Albany.= A commodious range of bachelor chambers in Piccadilly, at one
    time the residence of Frederick, son of George III., created Duke of
    York and Albany.

=Albany Street.= After the Duke of York and Albany, _temp._ George III.

=Albemarle Street.= In the West End street of this name resided
    Christopher Monk, second Duke of Albemarle. The other, in
    Clerkenwell, was built upon when General Monk, the first Duke of
    Albemarle, was at the zenith of his popularity.

=Albert.= After the Prince Consort, to whom the jewellers of Birmingham
    presented a short gold watch-chain on the occasion of his visit to
    that city in 1849.

=Albert Gate.= After Prince Albert, the consort of Queen Victoria. The
    Albert Bridge, Albert Memorial, and Royal Albert Hall likewise
    perpetuate his name.

=Albigensis.= Christian heretics of the twelfth century, drawn from the
    Albigeois, whose capital was Albi, in Languedoc.

=Albion.= The name given to Britain by the Romans on account of its
    (_albus_) white cliffs, as approached from the sea.

=Alcantara.= From the Arabic _Al-kantarah_, “the bridge,” referring to
    the fine stone bridge built by Trajan.

=Alcove.= From the Arabic _El-kauf_ through the Spanish _alcoba_, a
    tent.

=Aldermanbury.= The _bury_ or enclosed place in which stood the first
    Guildhall prior to the reign of Henry IV.

=Alderney.= In French Aurigny, from the Latin Aurinia, Isle of Light.

=Aldersgate Street.= From the ancient city gate near which grew several
    fine alder-trees.

=Aldgate.= From the Auld Gate of Saxon London, the earliest of the city
    gates.

=Aldine Editions.= Early editions of the classics produced and given to
    the world by Aldo Manuzio, the celebrated printer of Venice, in the
    sixteenth century.

=Aldwych.= An old name for a magnificent new thoroughfare which has
    taken the place of quaint, out-of-date Wych Street, anciently
    described as _Auld Wych_, leading as it did to the old village,
    whose parish church was that of St Giles’s in the Fields.

=Ale-stake.= The pole anciently set up in front of an alehouse. This was
    at first surmounted by a bush, in imitation of a wine bush; later it
    became exchanged for a sign.

=Ale-wife.= An old name for the wife of a tavern keeper.

=Alexandra Limp.= When our present Queen, as Princess of Wales, having
    sustained an injury to her knee, was walking lame, it became the
    fashion to imitate her gait.

=Alexandria.= The city founded by Alexander the Great, B.C. 332.

=Aleutian Islands.= From the Russian _aleut_, “bald rock.”

=Alfreton.= Properly Alfred’s Town, identified with Alfred the Great.

=Algiers.= From the Arabic _Al Jezair_, “the peninsula.”

=Alhambra.= From the Arabic _Kal-at-al-hamra_, “the red castle.”

=Alibi.= Latin for “elsewhere.”

=A Little too Previous.= An Americanism for being in too great a hurry;
    rushing at conclusions; saying or doing a thing without sufficient
    warranty.

=All Abroad.= Provincial for scattered wits; “all over the place.”

=Allahabad.= Arabic and Persian for “City of God.”

=All Bosh.= The introduction of the term “Bosh” into our vocabulary must
    be accredited to James Morier, in whose Oriental romances, “The
    Adventures of Haiji Baba of Ispahan” and “Ayesha,” it frequently
    appears. _Bosh_ is Persian and Turkish, signifying rubbish,
    nonsense, silly talk.

=Alleghany.= A corruption of Alligewi, the name of an Indian tribe.

=Allemanni.= Teutonic for “All Men”; expressing a confederacy.

=All-fired.= An Americanism for “great”--_e.g._ “He came in an all-fired
    hurry.”

=All-hallowe’en.= The vigil of “All-hallows’ Day.”

=All-hallows’-Barking.= This ancient church, dedicated to All the
    Saints, belonged to the Abbey at Barking, Essex.

=All-hallows’ Day.= The old-time designation of All Saints’ Day, from
    Anglo-Saxon _halig_, holy.

=All Moonshine.= As the light of the moon is reflected from the sun, so
    an incredible statement received at second hand is said to be “all
    moonshine.”

=All my Eye and Betty Martin.= A corruption of _Ah mihi, beate Martine_
    (Woe to me, Blessed Martin), formerly used by beggars in Italy to
    invoke their patron saint. The story goes that a sailor who wandered
    into a church in that country, hearing these words, afterwards told
    his companions that all he could make out from the service was: “All
    my eye and Betty Martin.”

=All Saints’ Bay.= Discovered by Amerigo Vespucci on the Feast of All
    Saints, 1503.

=All Saints’ Day.= The day set apart by the Church for the invocation of
    the whole body of canonised saints.

=All Serena.= From the Spanish _serena_, used by sentinels as a
    countersign for “All’s well.”

=All Souls’ College.= Founded at Oxford by Henry Chichely, Archbishop of
    Canterbury, for the perpetual offering up of prayers on behalf of
    the souls of those who fell in the wars of Henry V. in France.

=All Souls’ Day.= The day of special prayers for the liberation of the
    suffering souls in Purgatory. The French people make it a point of
    duty to visit the graves of their deceased relatives on this day.

=All the Go.= Originally a drapers’ phrase, meaning that a certain line
    of goods is “going” fast and will soon be gone. A publisher, too,
    thinks a book should “go” with the reading public.

=All There.= An Americanism expressive of one who has all his wits about
    him.

=Almack’s.= Fashionable assembly-rooms in King Street, St James’s,
    opened 12th February 1765 by MacCall, a Scotsman, who inverted his
    name to remove all suspicion of his origin. The next proprietor
    called them Willis’s Rooms, after himself. In 1890 they were
    converted into a restaurant.

=Almighty Dollar.= For this expression we are indebted to Washington
    Irving, who in his sketch of “The Creole Village” (1837) spoke of it
    as “the great object of universal devotion throughout our land.”

=Alnwick.= The _wick_, or village, on the Alne.

=Alpaca.= Cloth made from the wool of the Peruvian sheep of the same
    name, akin to the llama.

=Alps.= From the Latin _albus_, white, the mountains eternally capped
    with snow.

=Alsace.= Teutonic for “the other seat,” being the abode of their own
    people west of the Rhine. With the Celtic suffix the name became
    “Alsatia.”

=Alsatia.= Anciently the district of Whitefriars, which, being a
    sanctuary for law-breakers, received the name of the Rhine province
    notorious as the common refuge of the disaffected.

=Alter Ego.= Expresses the Latin for “my other self” or “double.”

=Amadeus.= The family name of the House of Savoy, from its motto: “Love
    God.”

=Amain.= A nautical phrase meaning suddenly, at once--_e.g._ “Strike
    amain,” “Lower amain.”

=Amateur Casual.= The literary sobriquet of Mr James Greenwood, who in
    1866 spent a night in Lambeth Workhouse, and wrote his experiences
    in _The Pall Mall Gazette_. Within the last few months he has
    undertaken a similar up-to-date commission for _The Tribune_.

=Amati.= A violin of rare excellence made by Andrea Amati of Cremona.

=Amazon.= The Spaniards first called this river the Orellana, in honour
    of their countryman who navigated it, but after hearing accounts of
    the fighting women on its banks they gave it the name of the fabled
    African tribe of warlike women who cut or burnt off the right breast
    in order the better to steady the bow. The word Amazon is Greek,
    from _a_, without, and _maza_, breast.

=Ambrosian Chant.= Ascribed to St Ambrose, Bishop of Milan in the fourth
    century.

=Ambuscade.= From the Italian _imboscata_, concealed in a wood.

=Amen.= Hebrew for “Yea,” “Truly,” “So be it.”

=Amen Corner.= Old Stow tells us this lane was suddenly stopped up in
    his time, so that people said “Amen” on finding they had to turn
    back again. There may be something in this; but the greater
    likelihood is that it was here where the monks finished the recital
    of the Paternoster before they took up the Ave Maria while on their
    way in solemn procession to St Paul’s at the great Church festivals.

=America.= After Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine adventurer, who chanced
    to be at Seville when Columbus was preparing for his second voyage
    to the West. With Ojeda, Vespucci embarked upon an independent
    expedition. Subsequently he made further voyages in Portuguese
    ships, and discovered the Bay of All Saints. His remaining days were
    spent in the service of the King of Spain, preparing charts and
    prescribed routes to the New World. Although these official
    publications bore his signature, Vespucci never claimed to have
    discovered the great Western Continent. A wonderful narrative of his
    voyages, however, purporting to have been written by Vespucci, found
    its way into the hands of Martin Waldseemuller of Freiburg, Baden.
    This he translated, and caused it to be published by a bookseller at
    St Die in Lorraine in 1507. In his preface to the work Waldseemuller
    suggested that the newly discovered country should be called
    America, after the author, who had visited it. Hence the name really
    originated in Germany.

=American Indians.= See “Indians.”

=Americanism.= A coined word or phrase in the United States which,
    freely repeated, tickles the popular ear and soon becomes engrafted
    upon the national vocabulary. Many Americanisms are now as common in
    England as in the land of their origin. The term may also be applied
    to such American deviations from British custom, as the substitution
    of “Depot” for Railway Station, “News-stand” for Bookstall, “On the
    street” for “In the street,” etc. etc.

=Amiens.= From the Latin _ambiens_, surrounded by water. Three branches
    of the River Somme run through the city.

=Ammonites.= The descendants of Ben-ammi, the son of Lot (Gen. xxix.
    38).

=Among the Gods.= At the time when the expression first came into use,
    the ceiling of Drury Lane Theatre was embellished with classical
    deities disporting themselves among the clouds in an azure sky.

=Among the Missing.= An Americanism for an absentee. When a person
    wishes to be “out” to a visitor, he tells the servant that he
    prefers to be “among the missing.”

=Amorica.= The country of the Armorici, “dwellers on the sea.”

=Ampthill Square.= From Ampthill Park, Bedfordshire, one of the seats of
    the ground landlord, the Duke of Bedford.

=Amsterdam.= The town built on the dam of the Amstel.

=Amwell Street.= After one of the wells in Hertfordshire, whose waters
    were drawn upon by Sir Hugh Myddleton for the New River.

=Anabaptists.= Conformably to the Greek _ana_, twice, the designation of
    the original Baptists, who, having been baptised at birth, went
    through the ceremony a second time on reaching maturity.

=Anacreon Moore.= The sobriquet of Thomas Moore, who translated the
    _Odes_ of Anacreon, and constructed his own verses on the same
    classic model.

=Anatolia.= The Turkish and Greek description of Asia Minor, from
    _anatolie_, east--_i.e._ of Constantinople.

=Ancient.= Iago is described as Othello’s “ancient.” Even in
    Shakespeare’s day this word was a corruption of _ensign_, or
    standard-bearer.

=Ancient Lights.= After having enjoyed the light of a window on his
    premises for twenty years uninterruptedly a person may, subject to
    displaying the notice “ancient lights,” prevent that light from
    being intercepted by any other building.

=Ancona.= From the Greek _agkon_, elbow, relative to its position on an
    angle of the coast.

=Andalusia.= Properly Vandalusia, the country of the Vandals.

=Andes.= From the Peruvian _anta_, copper.

=Andrea Ferrara.= A world-famous Italian sword blade made by Andrea of
    the city of Ferrara.

=Angel.= An inn sign, originally the “Angel and Salutation,” depicting
    the visit of the angel who announced to the Virgin that she was to
    be the mother of the Redeemer.

=Angelic Doctor.= One of the sobriquets of St Thomas Aquinas,
    universally regarded as “The Angel of the Schools.” He is said also
    to have written much on the nature of angels.

=Anglesea.= Properly Anglesey, expressing, from the point of view of the
    Celtic inhabitants of Wales, the _ey_, or island of the Angles.

=Anglesea Morris.= After William Morris, who caught this species of fish
    off the Isle of Anglesea.

=Angola.= Wool brought from Angola on the West Coast of Africa.

=Angostura Bitters.= Prepared from the celebrated medicinal bark
    discovered by Capuchin monks in the Venezuelan city Angostura, which
    name signifies a strait.

=Anguilla Island.= West Indian for “Little Snake,” from its shape.

=Anisette.= A cordial prepared from aniseed.

=Annunciator.= An Americanism for bell or gong.

=Antarctic Ocean.= That situate _anti_, opposite to, the Arctic Ocean.

=Antelope State.= Nebraska, from the number of antelopes found there.

=Anthem.= A hymn sung by the entire congregation, as distinguished from
    Antiphone, which term expresses a series of choral responses.

=Antigua.= Expresses the Spanish for an ancient city.

=Antwerp.= In French Anvers, the _Antverpia_ of the Romans.

=Any.= An Americanism for “at all”--_e.g._ “It didn’t trouble me any.”

=Apache State.= Arizona, the scene of many bloodthirsty encounters with
    the wild Apaches.

=Apennines.= The Pennine Alps, from the Celtic _ben_, which is the same
    as the Welsh _pen_, summit or mountain head.

=Apollinaris Water.= Brought from the famous mineral spring in the
    valley of the Ahor of the Rhine province. The ruins of a temple of
    Apollo gave the name to the spot.

=Apothecary.= The old name for a dispenser of medicines. The Greek word
    really implies a storehouse or depository; it is compounded out of
    _apo_, to put away, and _theke_, chest, box. Differing from modern
    chemists and druggists, licentiates of the Apothecaries’ Company may
    visit the sick and prescribe for them, as well as make up
    physicians’ prescriptions.

=Appian Way.= The construction of this famous road leading from Rome to
    Capua was commenced by Appius Claudius.

=Apostle of Temperance.= Father Mathew, the inveterate enemy of tipplers
    in the Emerald Isle of his time.

=Apostles’ Creed.= The whole summary of Christian Faith, according to
    the Apostles.

=Apostolic Fathers.= Those early doctors of the Church who, living in
    the first century after Christ, received their teaching from His
    disciples, if they did not actually enjoy personal communion with
    the Apostles.

=Apricot.= From the Latin _præcoqus_, early ripe.

=April.= The month in which the buds begin to shoot, from _aperio_, to
    open.

=April Fish.= The French equivalent of “April Fool,” since, like a fish,
    the unsuspecting victim of a practical joke is easily caught.

=April Fool.= The custom of April Fooling originated in France, which
    country took the lead in shifting the New Year from what is now Lady
    Day to the 1st of January. This occurred in 1564. From the earliest
    periods of history people bestowed gifts upon their neighbours at
    the New Year, but as the 25th of March so often fell in Holy Week,
    even on Good Friday itself, the Church uniformly postponed the
    celebration of the New Year until the octave--viz. the 1st of April.
    When, therefore, New Year’s Day had been transferred to the 1st of
    January, people paid mock visits to their friends on the 1st of
    April with the object of fooling them into the belief that matters
    remained as they were. The like custom was introduced into England
    on the alteration of our calendar in 1762. April Fools’ Day is
    supposed to be over at twelve o’clock, since the New Year’s
    visitation and bestowal of gifts always took place before noon.

=Apsley House.= The residence of the Duke of Wellington, built by Henry
    Apsley, Lord Chancellor, afterwards Lord Bathurst.

=Aquarians.= A Christian sect of the fourth century who substituted
    water for wine in the Communion.

=Aqua Tofana.= A colourless poison invented by a Sicilian woman named
    Tofana towards the close of the seventeenth century. So extensive
    was her secret traffic with this liquid among young married women
    who were anxious to rid themselves of their husbands that when, at a
    great age, Tofana was dragged from the convent where she had taken
    refuge, and executed, she admitted to having caused the deaths of
    600 persons.

=Arabia.= The country of the Arabs, or “men of the desert.”

=Arbor Day.= A day set apart in America for planting trees.

=Arbroath.= Originally Aberbrothockwick, the village at the mouth of the
    Brothock.

=Arcadian.= An ideal farmer or a rustic scene; after the Arcadians, who
    were essentially a pastoral race.

=Arcadian Poetry.= Pastoral poetry, in allusion to the Arcadians.

=Archangel.= A town in Russia which derived its name from a great
    monastery of St Michael the Archangel.

=Archer-fish.= A fish endowed with the power of shooting water at
    insects, which thus become an easy prey.

=Archway Road.= Leads to the modern successor of the famous Highgate
    Archway opened in 1813.

=Arctic Ocean.= From the Greek _arktos_, bear, having reference to the
    great northern constellation.

=Ardennes.= The great forest on the heights.

=Argand Lamp.= After its inventor, Aimé Argand.

=Argentine Republic.= The modern name of Argentina, through which runs
    the La Plata, or River of Silver. While preserving their original
    designation of the river, the Spaniards Latinised that of the
    country.

=Argosy.= A vessel laden with rich merchandise, from the _Argo_, in
    which Jason and his fellow-adventurers, the Argonauts, sailed to
    Colchis in quest of the Golden Fleece, B.C. 1263.

=Argyll.= From _Garra Ghaidhael_, the country of the West Gaels.

=Argyll Street.= From the old town mansion of the Dukes of Argyll. The
    celebrated Argyll Rooms, now the Trocadero Restaurant, were a far
    cry from the other extreme of Regent Street.

=Argus-eyed.= After the fabled Argus, who had a hundred eyes.

=Arians.= The followers of the first Christian heretic, Arius, a
    presbyter of the Church of Alexandria in the fourth century.

=Arizona.= Indian for “sand-hills.”

=Arkansas.= The same as Kansas, “smoky water,” with the French suffix
    _arc_, a bow.

=Arkansas Toothpick.= The Far-West designation of a “Bowie Knife,” the
    blade of which, as used by the people of this state, shuts up into
    the handle.

=Arlington Street.= From the town mansion of Henry Bennett, Earl of
    Arlington.

=Arminians.= The anti-Calvinists of Holland, led by James Harmensen
    under the Latinised name of Jacobus Arminius.

=Arras.= Mediæval tapestry, for the production of which the town of
    Arras, in the French Netherlands, was famous.

=Arrowroot.= So called because the Indians of tropical America regarded
    the root of the plant as efficacious against arrow wounds.

=Artemus Ward.= The pseudonym of Charles Farrar Browne, the American
    humorous lecturer. This was, however, the actual name of an
    eccentric showman whom he had encountered on his travels.

=Artesian Well.= From Artois, where such wells were first bored.

=Arthur’s Seat.= Said to have derived its name from King Arthur, but how
    his association with the city of Edinburgh arose no man can tell.

=Artichoke.= From the Arabic _ardischauki_, earth thorn.

=Artillery Lane.= Stands on part of the site of the practising ground of
    the London Artillery Company, _temp._ Henry VIII., and later of the
    Tower Gunners, when all the land towards the north hereabouts was
    open fields.

=Arundel.= The dale of the River Arun.

=Arundel Street.= That in the Strand from the town mansion and extensive
    grounds of the Howards, Dukes of Norfolk and Earls of Arundel and
    Surrey. That in the Haymarket after the ground landlord, Lord
    Arundel of Wardour.

=Ascension Island.= Discovered by the Portuguese on the Feast of the
    Ascension, 1501.

=As Cross as Two Sticks.= Two sticks held together in the centre like
    the letter X form a cross.

=Ashby-de-la-Zouch.= The home among the ash-trees of the De La Zouches.
    _By_ expresses the Anglo-Saxon for a dwelling.

=Asia.= From the Sanskrit _Ushas_, “land of the dawn.” By the Western
    nations Asiatics were anciently styled “the people of the sun.”

=Asia Minor.= Lesser Asia, called by the Turks and Greeks “Anatolia.”

=Aspasia.= A flower named after Aspasia of Miletus, the mistress of
    Pericles.

=As Poor as a Church Mouse.= A church is one of the very few buildings
    that contain neither kitchen nor larder. Church mice, therefore,
    have a hungry time of it.

=As Rich as a Jew.= The Jews in England were the first usurers, bankers,
    and bill-brokers. They only had the command of ready money, the
    wealth of the nobility consisting in the possession of broad lands.

=Assumptionists.= A modern religious Order, founded fifty years ago,
    whose full title is the Augustinians of the Assumption.

=Astoria.= From the fur-trading station established in 1811 by John
    Jacob Astor of New York.

=Astrakhan.= Fur brought from Astrakhan, which name signifies the
    country or district ruled by a khan of the Tartar or Mogul Empire.

=Asturia.= From the Basque _asta_, rock, and _ura_, water, denoting a
    region of mountains and estuaries.

=Atlantic Ocean.= Called by the Greeks _Atlantikos pelagos_, from the
    Isle of Atlantis, imagined by Homer and Plato to be beyond the
    Strait of Gibraltar.

=Athanasian Creed.= Opinions affecting the doctrine of the Trinity,
    ascribed to St Athanasius of Alexandria, adopted and formally
    compiled by St Hilary, Bishop of Arles in the fifth century.

=Athens.= From the Temple of Athene, or Minerva, the tutelary goddess of
    the city.

=Athens of America.= The city of Boston, considered the chief seat of
    learning in the New World.

=Athens of the South.= Nashville, Tennessee, on account of the number of
    its scholastic institutions.

=Athelney.= The “Royal Island” or “Isle of the Nobles,” where Alfred the
    Great founded a Benedictine monastery.

=Atlas.= Since the publication of “Mercator’s Projections,” with the
    figure of Atlas bearing the globe on his shoulders as a
    frontispiece, in 1560, all books of maps have received this name.

=At Loggerheads.= See “Loggerhead.”

=Auburn.= From the Anglo-Saxon Auld Bourne, old bourn, or stream.

=Auckland.= The capital of New Zealand, named in honour of Lord
    Auckland, a famous politician of his time, who became
    Governor-General of India, and after his retirement was elected
    President of the Asiatic Society. His ancestor, the first Lord
    Auckland, took his title from Auckland in Durham, which name was
    originally Oakland.

=Audley Street= (North and South). Perpetuate the memory of Hugh Audley,
    a barrister of the Middle Temple, whose landed estates hereabouts
    were computed at his death in 1662 to be worth a million of money.

=Augsburg Confession.= The Lutheran Confession of faith drawn up by
    Melancthon, and presented by Martin Luther to Charles V. during the
    sitting of the German Diet at Augsburg in 1530.

=August.= After Augustus Cæsar, who regarded this as his lucky month.
    Its original name was _Sextilis_, the sixth month of the Roman year.

=Augustan Age.= The best literary age of any country, because Rome in
    the time of Augustus Cæsar produced the finest examples of Latin
    literature.

=Augustin Friars.= The religious Order said to have been founded by St
    Augustine, the first Archbishop of Canterbury. See “Austin Friars.”

=Auld Reekie.= The name given to the old part of Edinburgh, from the
    cloud of reek or smoke which usually caps it.

=Austin Friars.= Part of the site of the priory of the Augustin Friars,
    whose church still remains.

=Australasia.= Southern Asia.

=Australia.= From the Latin _Australis_, southern.

=Austria.= From _Oesterreich_, or Eastern Empire, as distinguished from
    the Western Empire founded by Charlemagne.

=Autocar.= The name first given to a motor car; incorrectly, however,
    since so far from being automatic such a one, like all mechanically
    propelled vehicles, requires a guiding intelligence.

=Autun.= The _Augustodunum_, or Town of Augustus, of the Romans.

=Auvergne.= From the _Auverni_, who overran it in the time of the
    Cæsars.

=Avoca.= Gaelic for “the meeting of the waters.”

=Ave Maria Lane.= Where the monks of old chanted the “Ave Maria” on
    their way to St Paul’s. See “Amen Corner.”

=Avon.= From _Arfon_, the Celtic for river or stream, which enters into
    many place-names.

=Axminster.= The monastery town on the Axe.

=Ayah.= Hindustani for waiting-woman or nurse.

=Aye-Vye.= An animal found in Madagascar, so called from its cry.

=Aylesbury Street.= From the town house and garden of the Earls of
    Aylesbury.

=Azores.= The Portuguese named this group of islands Acores, the plural
    of _acor_, hawk, on account of the great number of hawks there.

=Azov.= A Russianised form of Asak, the name given to it by the Tartars.


                                   B


=Bacchanalia.= Roman festivals in honour of Bacchus, the god of wine.

=Bacchus Verses.= Verses written in praise or dispraise of Bacchus, and
    affixed to the doors of the College at Eton on “Collop Monday.”

=Bachelor Girl.= One who lives in her own rooms, belongs to a woman’s
    club, and considers herself superior to what is called home
    influence--a distinctly modern creation.

=Backgammon.= From the Saxon _Bac_ and _gamen_, “back-game,” because the
    pieces have at times to go back and be moved up afresh.

=Back a Man.= To have full confidence in him. From backing or endorsing
    a bill on another’s behalf.

=Badajoz.= Called by the Moors _Beledaix_, “Land of Health.”

=Bad Egg.= A man who is commercially or morally unsound, and therefore
    fit only to be shunned.

=Badger State.= Wisconsin, from the name given to the early miners, who
    made for themselves winter habitations in the earth, like a badger.

=Badminton.= A drink of spiced claret, and also a game of tennis played
    with shuttlecocks instead of balls, introduced by the Duke of
    Beaufort at Badminton, his country seat.

=Baffin’s Bay.= After William Baffin, the pilot of an expedition sent
    out to explore this region in 1616.

=Bagatelle.= From the Italian _bagetella_, a conjurer’s trick.

=Baggage.= A term often applied to a woman, because the wives of
    soldiers taken on foreign service go with the stores and baggage
    generally. In the United States this word is an equivalent for the
    English “Luggage.”

=Bagman.= The old name for a commercial traveller, who carried his
    samples in a bag.

=Bag o’ Nails.= A popular corruption of the ancient inn sign, “The
    Bachannals,” referring to Pan and the Satyrs.

=Bag o’ Tricks.= In allusion to the large bag in which an itinerant
    conjurer carried his tricks.

=Bakers’ Dozen.= In olden times, when bread was sold in open market
    instead of shops, women took up the trade of selling bread from door
    to door. They received from the bakers thirteen loaves for the price
    of twelve, the odd one constituting their profit.

=Baker Street.= After Sir Edward Baker, a great friend of the Portmans
    of Dorsetshire, the ground landlords.

=Bakshish.= A Persian word for “gratuity.”

=Balaklava.= When settled by the Genoese, they gave it the name of
    _Bella-chiava_, or “Fair Haven.”

=Balearic Islands.= From the Greek _ballein_, to throw, expresses the
    Island of Slingers.

=Ball.= A dancing party received this name primarily from the curious
    ancient Ball Play in Church by the Dean and choir boys of Naples
    during the “Feast of Fools” at Easter. While singing an antiphon the
    boys caught the ball thrown by the Dean as they danced around him.
    At private dancing parties the dancers always threw a ball at one
    another as, to the sound of their own voices, they whirled around in
    sets, the pastime consisting in loosening hands in time to catch it.
    Afterwards the ball was discarded, but the dance time received the
    name of a Ballad, from the Latin _ballare_, to dance.

=Ballad.= See “Ball.”

=Ballet.= Expresses the French diminutive of _bal_, a dance. See “Ball.”

=Ball’s Pond.= From an inn, the “Salutation,” kept by John Ball, whose
    dog and duck sports in a large pond attracted a great concourse of
    visitors in former days.

=Balsover Street.= From Balsover, Derbyshire, the seat of the Fitzroys,
    Dukes of Grafton, the ground landlords.

=Baltic Sea.= A sea of belts or straits. _Bält_ is Norse for strait.

=Baltimore.= After Lord Baltimore, the founder of the neighbouring state
    of Maryland.

=Baltimore Bird.= Though found almost everywhere in the United States,
    it is said to have received its name from the correspondence of its
    colours with those distinguished in the arms of Lord Baltimore, the
    Governor of Maryland.

=Bancroft Road.= After Francis Bancroft, the founder of the Drapers’
    Almshouses, in this road.

=Bandana.= The Hindu term for silk goods generally, but now applied to
    cotton pocket-handkerchiefs with white or yellow spots on a blue
    ground.

=Bandy Words with You.= From the old game of Bandy, in which the ball
    was struck or bandied to opposite sides.

=Bangor.= From _Ban-choir_, “The White Choir” of the Abbey, founded by
    St Cungall in the sixth century.

=Banjo.= Properly Bandore, from the Greek _Pandoura_, a stringed
    instrument named after Pan. The word was introduced into North
    America from Europe.

=Banker Poet.= Samuel Rogers, author of “The Pleasures of Memory,” who
    was a banker all his life.

=Banshee.= From the Gaelic _bean sidhe_, woman fairy.

=Bantam.= A species of fowl said to have been introduced to Europe from
    Bantam in Java.

=Banting.= After William Banting, a London cabinetmaker, who in 1863
    reduced his superfluous fat by a dietic system peculiarly his own.

=Bar.= In old days, when a counter did not obtain, and drinking vessels
    had to be set down on the benches or barrel ends, a bar separated
    the frequenters of a tavern from the drawers or tapsters. Similarly,
    at the Courts of Law the _Bar_ was a rail behind which a barrister
    or counsel had to plead his client’s cause.

=Barbadoes.= From the streamers of moss, resembling a beard, suspended
    from the tree branches.

=Barbarians.= The name universally applied by the Romans to wandering or
    warlike tribes who were unkempt and unshaven.

=Barbarossa.= The sobriquet of Frederick the First of Germany, on
    account of his red beard.

=Barbary.= The land of the Berbers, the Arabic description of the people
    of this region prior to the Saracen Conquest.

=Barber.= From the Latin _barba_, a beard.

=Barber-surgeons.= Hairdressers who, down to the sixteenth century, also
    practised “cupping” or blood-letting, a relic of which is the modern
    Barber’s Pole. The red and white stripes around the pole denoted the
    bandages, while in place of the gilt knob at the end there
    originally hung the basin affixed under the chin of the patient
    operated upon.

=Barbican.= That portion of the Roman wall round the city of London
    where there must have been a watch-tower looking towards the north.
    _Barbacana_ is a Persian word for a watch-tower in connection with a
    fortified place.

=Barcelona.= Anciently Barcino, after Hamilcar Barca, the father of
    Hannibal, who refounded the city.

=Baring Island.= Named by Captain Penny after Sir Francis Baring, first
    Lord of the Admiralty.

=Barley Mow.= An old sign for a tavern in connection with the Mow or
    house where the barley was stored for brewing. _Mowe_ is Saxon for
    “heap.”

=Barmecide’s Feast.= An illusory banquet. From the story of the Barber’s
    Sixth Brother, in “The Arabian Nights.” Barmecide invited a starving
    wretch to a feast, but gave him nothing to eat.

=Barnsbury.= Anciently Berners’ Bury, the manor of which was held by
    Lady Berners, abbess of St Albans.

=Barnstormer.= A strolling actor. In the old days, away from the regular
    circuits, there were no provincial theatres or halls licensed for
    stage plays whatever. The consequence was a company of strolling
    players obtained permission to perform in a barn. Edmund Kean
    admitted, when in the zenith of his fame, that he had gained his
    experience “by barnstorming.”

=Barrister.= See “Bar.”

=Barrow Road.= This, with Barrow Hill Place, marks the site of a barrow
    or sepulchral mound of the Britons and Romans slain in battle.

=Barry Cornwall.= The anagrammatic pseudonym of Bryan Waller Procter,
    the poet.

=Bar Tender.= An Americanism for barman or barkeeper.

=Bartholomew Close.= The site of the ancient cloisters of St
    Bartholomew’s Priory, connected with the neighbouring church, which
    is the oldest in London.

=Bartholomew Fair.= The famous fair which for centuries survived the
    mediæval mart that had given rise to it in the neighbouring street,
    still known as Cloth Fair. It was held on the Feast of St
    Bartholomew.

=Barton Street.= A street in Westminster built by Barton Booth, the
    eminent actor of Drury Lane Theatre.

=Bashaw.= Properly “Pashaw.” See “Pasha.”

=Basinghall Street.= From the mansion and grounds of the Basings, whose
    ancestor, Solomon Basing, was Lord Mayor of London in 1216.

=Bassano.= The better known, indeed to most people the only proper, name
    of the famous Italian artist, Jacopa da Ponte, who signed all his
    pictures “Il Bassano,” having been born at Bassano in the state of
    Venice.

=Bass’s Straits.= Discovered by Matthew Flinders. These straits were
    named by him after a young ship’s surgeon, who, with a crew of only
    six men, in a small vessel, accompanied him on the expedition.

=Bath Chair.= First introduced at Bath, the great health resort of a
    bygone day.

=Bath Street.= From a Bagnio, or Turkish Bath, established here in the
    seventeenth century.

=Battersea.= Anciently Patricesy, or St Peter’s-ey, the manor belonging
    to the abbey of St Peter’s, Westminster. The suffix _ey_ implied not
    only an island, but also a creek.

=Battle-born State.= Nevada, because admitted into the American Union
    during the Civil War.

=Battle Bridge Road.= In this neighbourhood the _Iceni_, under Boadicea,
    sustained their total defeat at the hands of the Romans, A.D. 61.

=Battle of all the Nations.= The battle of Leipsic, 16th to 18th October
    1813, so called because it effected the deliverance of Europe from
    the domination of Napoleon Buonaparte.

=Battle of the Giants.= That of Marignano, in which 1200 Swiss Guards,
    allies of the Milanese, were defeated, 13th September 1515.

=Battle of the Herrings.= From the sortie of the Orleaners to cut off a
    convoy of salted herrings on its way to the English, besieging their
    city, 12th February 1429.

=Battle of the Standard.= From the high crucifix borne as a standard on
    a waggon by the English at Northallerton, 29th August 1138.

=Battle of the Spurs.= That of Guinnegate, 16th August 1513, when the
    French were utterly routed in consequence of a panic; they used
    their spurs instead of their weapons of defence.

=Battle of the Spurs of Gold.= From the enormous number of gold spurs
    picked up on the field after the defeat of the French knights at
    Courtray, 11th July 1302.

=Bavaria.= The country of the _Boii_, anciently styled Boiaria.

=Baynard’s Castle.= See “Bayswater.”

=Bayonet.= Not from the town of Bayonne, but because a Basque regiment
    in the district of Bayonnetta in 1647, surprised by the Spaniards,
    stuck their knives into the muzzles of their muskets, and, charging,
    drove off the enemy with great slaughter.

=Bay State.= Massachusetts, from the original denomination of this
    colony in the New England Commonwealth--viz. Massachusetts Bay.

=Bayon State.= Mississippi, from the French _bayon_, watercourse,
    touching its great river.

=Bayswater.= Originally described as “Baynard’s Watering,” being a manor
    built by Ralph Baynard, one of the favourites of William the
    Conqueror, the owner of Baynard’s Castle, in what is now Thames
    Street, destroyed in the Great Fire of London.

=B. D. V.= A tobacco advertisement which stands for “Best Dark
    Virginia.”

=Beak.= The slang term for a magistrate, on account of the _beag_ or
    gold collar that he wears.

=Beak Street.= This name has a sportive reference to the magistrate at
    the neighbouring police court in Great Marlborough Street.

=Beanfeast.= From the Bean-goose (so called from the similarity of the
    nail of its bill to a bean) which was formerly the invariable dinner
    dish.

=Bear.= Wherever this enters into the name of a tavern sign (with the
    single exception of that of “The Bear and Ragged Staff”) it denotes
    a house that had originally a bear garden attached to it.

=Bear and Ragged Staff.= A common inn sign in Warwickshire, from the
    heraldic device of Warwick the King Maker.

=Bear Garden.= This name at the corner of Sumner Street, Southwark,
    recalls the old Paris Garden, a famous bear-baiting establishment
    founded by Robert de Paris as far back in English history as the
    reign of Richard I. A “Bear Garden” is in our time synonymous with a
    place of resort for roughs or rowdies.

=Bear State.= Arkansas, from the Western description of the character of
    its people. “Does Arkansas abound with bears that it should be
    called the Bear State?” a Western man was once asked. “Yes, it
    does,” was the reply; “for I never knew a man from that state but he
    was a _bar_, and, in fact, the people are all _barish_ to a degree.”

=Bearward.= The custodian of the bear at public and private bear-baiting
    gardens. Most English towns anciently retained a bearward. See
    “Congleton Bears.”

=Beats a Philadelphia Lawyer.= An American expression implying that the
    lawyers of Philadelphia are noted for shrewdness and learning.

=Beauchamp Tower.= After Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, whom
    Richard II. caused to be imprisoned here for inciting the barons to
    remove the King’s favourite, Sir Simon de Burley.

=Beauclerc.= The surname of Henry I., on account of his accomplishments
    in an age when learning was rare.

=Beckenham.= The home in the vicinity of becks or brooks. The Saxon
    terminal _en_ expresses the plural.

=Bedad.= An Irishman’s exclamation, derived from the English “Begad” or
    “By Gad.”

=Bedford.= From the Anglo-Saxon _Bedican-ford_, the protected ford over
    the Ouse.

=Bedfordbury.= The _bury_ or enclosed land of the Duke of Bedford.
    Bedford Street and Bedford Square likewise point to the great ground
    landlord.

=Bedlam.= Short for Bethlehem Hospital, a “Lazar House” in South London
    which in 1815 was converted into an asylum for lunatics. See
    “Bethlehem.”

=Bedouins.= From the Arabic _badawiy_, “dwellers in the desert.”

=Beech Street.= Said to have been the property of Nicholas de la Beech,
    Lieutenant of the Tower, _temp._ Edward III.

=Beefeaters.= Although it has been proved that the word _Buffetier_
    cannot be met with in any old book, the Yeomen of the Guard
    instituted by Henry VII. certainly waited at the royal table, and
    since this monarch was largely imbued with French manners, his
    personal attendants must after all have received their nickname from
    the _Buffet_, or sideboard.

=Beer Bible.= From the words “the beer” in place of “strong drink”
    (Isaiah xxiv. 9).

=Before the Mast.= The for’ard part of a ship, where, in the forecastle,
    the sailors have their quarters. Hence a common seaman is said to
    “Serve before the Mast.”

=Begad.= See “By Gad.”

=Begorra.= An Irish form of the English corrupted oath Begad or “By
    Gad.”

=Beguines.= An order of nuns in France, from the French _beguin_, a
    linen cap. These nuns are distinguished by their peculiar head
    covering.

=Begum.= A lady of high rank in the East, a princess in India, or the
    wife of a Turkish _beg_ (generally corrupted into _bey_) or
    Governor.

=Beldame.= From the French _Belle-dame_, “fine lady.” The meaning has
    now been corrupted from a lady entitled to the utmost respect on
    account of age or position to an ugly old woman.

=Belgium.= From the _Belgæ_, the name given by Cæsar to the warlike
    people who overran this portion of Gaul.

=Belgravia.= The fashionable district of which Belgrave Square is the
    centre, after one of the titles of the Duke of Westminster, the
    ground landlord.

=Bell.= A tavern sign, originally denoting a haunt for the lovers of
    sport, where a silver bell constituted the prize.

=Bell, Book, and Candle.= The instruments used by the Church in carrying
    out a sentence of excommunication. The bell apprised all good
    Christians of what was about to take place, the dread sentence was
    read out of the book, while the blowing out of the candle symbolised
    the spiritual darkness in which the excommunicated person would in
    future abide.

=Belleisle.= French for “beautiful isle.”

=Beloochistan.= Pursuant to the Persian _stan_, the country of the
    Belooches.

=Below Par.= Not up to the mark in point of health. The allusion is to
    Government stock not worth its nominal £100 value.

=Belvedere.= A public-house sign, derived from the Italian word for a
    pavilion built on a house-top commanding a fine prospect.

=Ben.= Theatrical slang for “benefit.”

=Bench.= The primitive seat of judges and magistrates before the modern
    throne-like chair was introduced. Barristers of the Inns of Court
    are styled “Benchers” from the wooden seats formerly provided for
    them.

=Benedict.= A confirmed bachelor, after St Benedict, who unceasingly
    preached the virtues of celibacy. Also a newly-married man who, like
    Benedick in _Much ado about Nothing_, after having long forsworn
    marriage, at length succumbed to the grand passion.

=Benedictine.= A liqueur made at the Benedictine monastery at Fécamp.

=Benedictines.= The monastic Order founded by St Benedict in the sixth
    century.

=Bengal Tigers.= The Leicester Regiment, which as the old 17th Foot
    rendered good service in India at the commencement of the last
    century, and received a royal tiger as a badge.

=Bennett Street.= From the town mansion of Henry Bennett, Earl of
    Arlington.

=Bentinck Street.= After William Bentinck, second Duke of Portland, the
    ground landlord.

=Bergen.= From the Danish _bierg_, mountain, the port nestling at the
    foot of high hills.

=Berkeley Square.= The whole district hereabouts comprised the land of
    Lord Berkeley of Stratton, one of the officers of Charles I.

=Berkeley Street= (Upper and Lower). After Edward Berkeley Portman, the
    ground landlord. There is a Berkeley Street too in Clerkenwell, on
    the site of which stood the residence of Sir Maurice Berkeley, the
    standard-bearer of Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Elizabeth.

=Berkshire.= The _Beoric_, or “forest shire,” of the Saxons.

=Berlin.= From the Slavonic _Berle_, denoting its situation in the midst
    of a sandy plain.

=Bermondsey.= The _ey_, or creek land, belonging to the Saxon lord
    Beomund.

=Bermuda Islands.= After Juan Bermudas, who discovered them in 1522.

=Bernardine Hospice.= This noble institution on the Alpine heights was
    not founded by St Bernard, nor has it ever been served by the monks
    of his Order. It takes its name from Bernard de Menthon, a wealthy
    Savoyard, who in 962 established this house of refuge for the
    pilgrims crossing the Alps on their way to the Holy Land. The monks
    who serve the Hospice are Augustinians.

=Bernardines.= The monastic Order founded by St Bernard in 1115.

=Berne.= From the German _Bären_, which expresses the plural for bear.
    The figure of a bear is conspicuous on the public buildings,
    fountains, etc.

=Berners Street.= After Lady Berners, the original owner of the land
    hereabouts.

=Best Man at a Wedding.= A survival of feudal times, when the particular
    friends of the “Bridegroom” undertook to frustrate the designs of a
    rival sworn to carry off the bride before the nuptials could take
    place. In Sweden weddings formerly took place under cover of night.
    Behind the high altar of the ancient church at Husaby, in Gothland,
    a collection of long lances, with sockets for torches, may yet be
    seen. These were served out to the groomsmen on such occasions, both
    for defence and illumination. These groomsmen were the bravest and
    best who could be found to volunteer their services.

=Bethlehem.= Hebrew for “house of bread.” Hence Bethlehem Hospital, the
    original name for a lazar or poor house.

=Bethnal Green.= Anciently Bednal Green, but corrupted from the family
    name of the Bathons, who resided here, _temp._ Edward I.

=Bevis Marks.= Properly Bury’s Marks, from the posts to define the
    limits of the ground belonging to the town house of the Abbots of
    Bury.

=Bideford Postman.= The sobriquet of Edward Capern, the poet, who was a
    letter-carrier at Bideford in Devon.

=Big Ben.= After Sir Benjamin Hall, Bart., M.P., one of the designers of
    the New Houses of Parliament, and Chief Commissioner of Works.

=Big Bend State.= Tennessee, which name expresses the Indian for “river
    of the great bend.”

=Bilbo.= The old name for a Spanish sword blade made at Bilboa.

=Bilboes.= The irons with which mutinous sailors are manacled together.
    From Bilboa, Spain, their place of origin.

=Bilker.= A corruption of _Balker_, one who balks or outwits another. In
    our day one hears mostly of the “Cab bilker”; formerly the “Tavern
    bilker” was an equally reprehensible character.

=Billingsgate.= After Belin, a Saxon lord, who had a residence beside
    the old Roman water-gate on the north bank of the Thames.

=Billiter Street.= A corruption of Belzettar, the name of the first
    builder on the land hereabouts.

=Billycock.= The slang term for a “bowler” hat always worn by William
    Coke at the Holkham shooting parties.

=Bingham’s Dandies.= One of the nicknames of the 17th Lancers, after
    their Colonel and their smart uniforms.

=Bioscope.= Moving or living pictures thrown on a screen, so called from
    the Greek _bios_, life, and _skopein_, to view.

=Birchin Lane.= Properly Birchover Lane, after the name of the builder.

=Birdcage Walk.= From the Royal Aviary of the Restoration, located along
    the south wall of St James’s Park.

=Bird of Passage.= A hotel phrase applied to a guest who arrives at
    stated seasons.

=Bird’s Eye Tobacco.= So called from the oval shape of the stalks when
    cut up with the leaf.

=Birkbeck Institute.= The premier Mechanics’ Institute, established by
    Dr Birkbeck in 1824.

=Birmingham.= Called Bremenium by the Romans and Birmingeham in Domesday
    Book. This being so, it cannot be corrupted from “Broom-place town,”
    as some authors say.

=Birrell.= To write, speak, or do anything after the manner of Mr
    Augustine Birrell, M.P., President of the Board of Education.

=Birrelligion.= A word coined by Dr Casterelli, Roman Catholic Bishop of
    Salford, who, speaking on Mr Birrell’s New Education Bill, said it
    was not one exactly of irreligion, but of Birrelligion, acceptable
    to no party or denomination.

=Bishopsgate Street.= From the ancient city gate rebuilt by Bishop
    Irkenwald, the son of King Offa, and repaired by Bishop William in
    the time of the Conqueror.

=Biz.= Theatrical slang for “business” or stage by-play.

=Black Brunswickers.= A celebrated regiment of seven hundred volunteers
    raised in Bohemia in 1809 by Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick,
    who took up arms against Napoleon because the latter had obstructed
    his succession to his father’s dukedom. Their uniform was black, in
    token of mourning for the deceased Duke. Finding they could not bear
    against the power of France, they enlisted in the English service.
    Thus it came to pass that the Black Brunswickers fought at the
    Battle of Waterloo, where their gallant leader met his death.
    Afterwards they were heard of no more.

=Black Bull.= An inn sign derived from the heraldic device of the House
    of Clare.

=Black Country.= The name given to the great coalfield in the Midlands.
    It extends from Birmingham to Wolverhampton on one side and from
    Lyle Waste to West Bromwich on the other.

=Black Friars.= The Order of the Dominicans, so called from their
    habits. In the district of Blackfriars stood the great monastery.

=Blackguards.= A derisive nickname given originally to the scullions of
    the Royal Household, touching their grimy appearance, as contrasted
    with the spruceness of the Guards of Honour.

=Blackheath.= A corruption of Bleak Heath.

=Blackleg.= After sporting men of a low type, who invariably wore black
    gaiters or top-boots.

=Blackmail.= Originally a tax or tribute paid to robbers or freebooters
    as a compromise for protection. “Black” implied the Gaelic for
    security, while _mal_ was Anglo-Saxon for tribute.

=Black Maria.= Slang for a prison van. Many years ago a negress of
    powerful build and strength, named Maria Lee, kept a sailor’s
    lodging-house at Boston. Everyone dreaded her, and she so frequently
    assisted the police of that day to pin down a refractory prisoner
    before he could be manacled that “Send for Black Maria!” became
    quite a common exclamation among them. Hence the earliest vehicles
    for the conveyance of offenders against law and order, especially
    since they were painted black, were named after her.

=Black Museum.= The collection of criminal relics preserved at the
    headquarters of the Metropolitan Police at New Scotland Yard.

=Black Prince.= The sobriquet of Edward, Prince of Wales, son of Edward
    III., not because he wore black armour, as is generally supposed,
    but, according to Froissart, “by terror of his arms,” and again,
    Strutt, “for his martial deeds.”

=Black Sea.= From its many black rocks, which render navigation
    dangerous.

=Blackwall.= A corruption of Bleak Wall.

=Black Watch.= Soldiers first appointed to watch the Highlands of
    Scotland. They received the name from their black tartans.

=Blandford Square.= From Blandford, Dorsetshire, near Bryanstone, the
    seat of the great ground landlord, Viscount Portman.

=Blankets.= First made by the Brothers Blanket, of Bristol, in 1337.

=Blarney.= Suave speeches intended only to gain time. When Cormack
    Macarthy was besieged by the English in Blarney Castle in 1662 he
    concluded an armistice, with the object of surrendering after a few
    days; but instead of doing so he sent out soft, evasive speeches,
    until Lord Carew and his soldiers were forced to admit that they had
    been duped. Hence the expression: “None of your Blarney.”

=Blenheim Oranges.= First cultivated at Blenheim, the seat of the Duke
    of Marlborough.

=Blenheim Street.= In compliment to the Duke of Marlborough after the
    battle of Blenheim.

=Blind Man’s Buff.= So called because if any one of those taking part in
    the game allowed the blind man to buff up against him he had to be
    blindfolded in his place.

=Blood.= See “Penny Blood.”

=Bloody.= The addiction of the vulgar to the use of this adjective on
    all occasions has made it low and reprehensible. Anciently, however,
    it was employed in a most reverential sense, relative to the Blood
    of Christ--_e.g._ the “Bloody Sacrifice of the Mass.”

=Bloody Assizes.= Those held by Judge Jeffreys in 1685 for the
    punishment of all who had taken part in the Duke of Monmouth’s
    rebellion. Three hundred persons were executed, and more than a
    thousand transported to the plantations.

=Bloody Butcher.= The sobriquet of the Duke of Cumberland, son of George
    II., owing to his wholesale slaughter of the adherents of Prince
    Charles Stuart, the Young Pretender, after the battle of Culloden.

=Bloody Eleventh.= The 11th Foot, in memory of the terrible slaughter
    inflicted on this regiment at Salamanca.

=Bloody Tower.= Where the infant Princes were murdered at the order of
    their uncle, Richard, Duke of Glo’ster.

=Bloomers.= After Mrs Ann Bloomer of New York, who introduced the
    original nondescript style of “New Woman” in 1849.

=Bloomsbury.= A corruption of “Lomesbury,” the name of a manor house and
    grounds which stood on the site of the present square. “Lomesbury
    village” sprang up around the ancient church of St Giles’s
    in-the-Fields.

=Bluchers.= After Field-Marshal von Blucher, who affected this style of
    military half-boot.

=Blue.= An indecent story is said to be “blue” because harlots in the
    ancient Bridewell, and in more modern houses of correction or
    penitentiaries, were habited in blue gowns.

=Blue Boar.= An inn sign derived from the heraldic device of Richard
    III.

=Blue Grass State.= Kentucky, from the character of the orchard grass in
    this fertile limestone region.

=Blue Hen’s Chickens.= A nickname for the people of Delaware. _The
    Delaware State Journal_ thus accounts for its origin: “At the
    beginning of the Revolutionary War there lived in Sussex county of
    that colony a gentleman of fortune named Caldwell, who was a
    sportsman, and breeder of fine horses and game-cocks. His favourite
    axiom was that the character of the progeny depends more on the
    mother than on the father, and that the finest game-cocks depended
    on the hen rather than on the cock. His observation led him to
    select a _blue_ hen, and he never failed to hatch a good game-cock
    from a blue hen’s egg. Caldwell distinguished himself as an officer
    in the First Delaware Regiment for his daring spirit. The high state
    of its discipline was conceded to its exertions, so that when
    officers were sent on recruiting service it was said that they had
    gone home for more of Caldwell’s game-cocks; but as Caldwell
    insisted that no cock could be truly game unless its mother was a
    _blue_ hen, the expression _Blue Hen’s Chickens_ was substituted for
    game-cocks.”

=Blue Law State.= An old name for Connecticut, whose original settlers
    shared with the Puritans in the mother country a disgust of the
    licentiousness of the Court of the Restoration, and on this account
    were said to advocate “Blue” Laws.

=Blue Noses.= A nickname bestowed upon the Nova Scotians, from the
    species of potato which they produce and claim to be the best in the
    world.

=Blue Peter.= The flag hoisted at the mast head to give notice that a
    vessel is about to sail. Its name is a corruption of the French
    “Bleu Partir,” or blue departure signal.

=Blue Pig.= An inn sign, corrupted from the “Blue Boar.”

=Blue Stocking.= From the famous club of literary ladies formed by Mrs
    Montague in 1840, at which Benjamin Stillingfleet, who habitually
    wore blue stockings, was a regular visitor. Blue stockings,
    therefore, became the recognised badge of membership. There was,
    however, such a club of ladies and gentlemen at Venice as far back
    as 1400, called _Della Calza_, from the colour of stockings worn.

=Blunderbuss.= A corruption of the Dutch _donderbus_, “thunder tube.”

=Board of Green Cloth.= The steward of the Royal Household presides over
    this so called court, which has a green cover on its table.

=Boar’s Head.= The sign of the ancient tavern in Eastcheap immortalised
    by Shakespeare. This, like all others of the same name, was derived
    from the heraldic device of the Gordons, the earliest of whom slew a
    boar that had long been a terror of the forest.

=Bob Apple.= A very old boyish pastime. Standing on tiptoe, with their
    hands behind them, they tried to catch in their mouths an apple as
    it swung to and fro at the end of a piece of string suspended from
    the ceiling. A variant of the same game consisted in lying across a
    form and plunging their heads into a large tub of water, at the
    bottom of which was the apple.

=Bobby.= The nickname of a policeman, after Sir Robert Peel, to whom the
    introduction of the modern police system was due.

=Bobs.= The popular nickname of Lord Roberts during the South African
    War. He is also called “Lord Bobs.”

=Boer.= Expresses the Dutch for a farmer. Synonymous with the English
    “boor,” an uncultivated fellow, a tiller of the soil.

=Bogtrotter.= An Irishman, from the ease with which he makes his way
    across the native bogs, in a manner astonishing to a stranger.

=Bogus.= In reporting a trial at law _The Boston Courier_ in 1857 gave
    the following authoritative origin:--“The word Bogus is a corruption
    of the name of one Borghese, a very corrupt individual, who twenty
    years ago or more did a tremendous business in the way of supplying
    the great west, and portions of the south-west, with counterfeit
    bills and bills on fictitious banks. The western people fell into
    the habit of shortening the name of Borghese to that of _Bogus_, and
    his bills, as well as all others of like character, were universally
    styled by them ‘bogus currency.’” So that the word is really
    American.

=Bohea.= Tea of the poorest quality, grown in the hilly district of
    Wu-i; pronounced by the Chinese _Vooy_.

=Bohemia.= From the _Bohii_, the ancient inhabitants of the country.

=Bohemian.= One who leads a hand-to-mouth existence by literary or other
    precarious pursuits, who shuns the ordinary conventions of society,
    and aspires to that only of his fellows. The term originally meant a
    “Gipsy,” because the earliest nomadic people who overran Western
    Europe did so by way of Bohemia.

=Boiled Shirt.= An Americanism, originally from the western states, for
    a starched white shirt.

=Bolivia.= After General Simon Bolivar, surnamed “The Liberator of
    Peru.”

=Bologna.= A settlement of the _Boii_, after whom the Romans called it
    Bononia.

=Bomba.= The sobriquet of Ferdinand, King of Naples, on account of his
    bombardment of Messina in 1848.

=Bonanza State.= Nevada, on account of its rich mines, styled Bonanza
    mines. _Bonanza_ is Spanish for “prosperity.”

=Bond Street= (Old and New). Built on the land owned by Sir Thomas Bond,
    Comptroller of the Household of Charles I.

=Bone of Contention.= In allusion to two dogs fighting over a bone.

=Bone-shaker.= The original type of bicycle, with wooden wheels, of
    which the rims consisted of small curved pieces glued together.
    Compared with a modern machine it was anything but easy riding.

=Boniface.= The popular name for an innkeeper--not that St Boniface was
    the patron saint of drawers and tapsters, but because one of the
    Popes of this name instituted what was called “St Boniface’s Cup,”
    by granting an indulgence to all who toasted his health, or that of
    his successors, immediately after saying grace at meals.

=Booking Office.= In the old coaching days passengers had to book their
    seats for a stage journey several days in advance at an office in
    the innyard whence the coaches set out. When railways came in the
    name was retained, though no “booking” was ever in evidence. Nearly
    all the old coaching innyards have been converted into railway goods
    and parcels receiving depots.

=Bookmaker.= From the way in which he adjusts his clients’ bets, so
    that, ordinarily, he cannot lose on the issue of a day’s racing.

=Boot-jack.= A wooden contrivance by which the wearer could help himself
    to take off his high-legged boots without the aid of a servant.
    Hence it was called a _jack_, which is the generic term for a
    man-servant or boy.

=Border Eagle State.= Mississippi, on account of the Border Eagle in the
    arms of the state.

=Bore.= This name was first applied by the “Macaronies” to any person
    who disapproved of foppishness or dandyism. Nowadays it implies one
    whose conversation is uninteresting, and whose society becomes
    repugnant.

=Borneo.= A European application of the Sanskrit _boorni_, land.

=Born in the Purple.= Since purple was the Imperial colour of the Cæsars
    and the Emperors of the East, the sons of the reigning monarch were
    said to be born in it. This expression had a literal truth, for the
    bed furniture was draped with purple.

=Born with a Silver Spoon in his Mouth.= In allusion to the silver
    apostle spoon formerly presented to an infant by its godfather at
    baptism. In the case of a child born lucky or rich such a gift of
    worldly goods was anticipated at the moment of entering life.

=Borough.= The _Burgh_ or town which arose on the south side of Old
    London Bridge, long before the City of London became closely packed
    with streets and houses.

=Borough English.= A Saxon custom, whereby the youngest son of a burgher
    inherited everything from his father, instead of the eldest, as
    among the Normans.

=Bosh.= See “All Bosh.”

=Bosphorus.= From the Greek _bos-porus_, cow strait, agreeably to the
    fable that Io, transformed into a white cow, swam across it.

=Boss.= A term derived from the Dutch settlers of New York, in whose
    language _baas_ (pronounced like the _a_ in _all_), expressed an
    overseer or master.

=Boston.= Short for St Botolph’s Town. “The stump” of the church is seen
    from afar across the Boston Deeps.

=Botany Bay.= So called by Captain Cook on account of the variety of, to
    him, new plants found on its shores. This portion of New South Wales
    was the first British Convict Settlement; hence Botany Bay became a
    term synonymous with penal servitude.

=Botolph Lane.= From the church of St Botolph, situated in it.

=Bottle of Hay.= A corruption of “bundle of hay,” from the French
    _botte_, a bundle, of which the word bottle expresses the
    diminutive.

=Bottom Dollar.= An Americanism for one’s last coin.

=Bovril.= An adaptation of _bovis_, ox, and _vril_, strength--the latter
    being a word coined by Lord Lytton in “The Coming Race.”

=Bow.= From the ancient stone bridge over the Lea, which was the first
    ever built in this country on a bow or arch.

=Bow Church.= Properly the church of St Mary-le-Bow, Cheapside, the
    first in this country to be built on bows or arches.

=Bowdlerise.= In the year 1818 Thomas Bowdler brought out an expurgated
    edition of Shakespeare’s Plays; hence a “Bowdlerised Edition” of any
    work is one of which the original text has been unwarrantably
    tampered with.

=Bowie Knife.= After Colonel Jim Bowie, a famous fighter of the western
    states, who first armed himself with this weapon.

=Bow Street.= From its arc shape when first laid out.

=Bow Street Runners.= Primitive detectives sent out from their
    headquarters in Bow Street in highwayman days.

=Bowyer Tower.= Anciently the residence of the Tower bowyer or bowmaker.
    Here, according to tradition, the Duke of Clarence was drowned in a
    butt of “Malmsey.”

=Boxing Day.= See “Christmas-box.”

=Box Office.= At one time only the private boxes at a theatre could be
    booked in advance; hence the term.

=Box the Compass.= To be able to repeat all the thirty-two degrees or
    points of the mariner’s compass; a mental exercise all round the
    compass-box.

=Boycott.= To ostracise a man. This word came into use in 1881, after
    Captain Boycott of Lough Mark Farm, co. Mayo, was cut off from all
    social and commercial intercourse with his neighbours for the crime
    of being an Irish landlord.

=Boy King.= Edward VI., who ascended the throne of England in his tenth,
    and died in his sixteenth, year.

=Boz.= Under this _nom de plume_ Charles Dickens published his earliest
    “Sketches” of London life and character in _The Morning Chronicle_.
    He has told us himself that this was the pet name of a younger
    brother, after Moses Primrose in “The Vicar of Wakefield.” The
    infantile members of the family pronounced the name “Bozes,” and at
    last shortened it into “Boz.”

=Bradford.= From the Anglo-Saxon _Bradenford_, “broad ford.”

=Braggadocio.= After _Braggadochio_, a boasting character in Spenser’s
    “Faery Queene.”

=Brahma Fowl.= Originally from the district of the Brahmapootra River in
    India. _Pootra_ is Sanskrit for Son; hence the river name means “The
    Son of Brahma.”

=Brandy.= From the German _Brantwein_, burnt wine. A spirituous
    distillation from wine.

=Brazenose College.= The brazen nose on the college gate
    notwithstanding, this name was derived from the fact that here stood
    an ancient _brasenhuis_, or “brew-house.” Oxford has always been
    famous for the excellent quality of its beer.

=Bravo.= In Italy one who is always boasting of his courage and prowess;
    generally a hired assassin.

=Brazil.= From _braza_, the name given by the Portuguese to the red
    dye-wood of the country.

=Bread Street.= Where the bakers had their stalls in connection with the
    Old Chepe, or market.

=Break Bread.= To accept hospitality. In the East bread is baked in the
    form of large cakes, which are broken, never cut with a knife. To
    break bread with a stranger ensures the latter personal protection
    as long as he remains under the roof of his host.

=Breakfast.= The morning meal, when the fast since the previous night’s
    supper is broken.

=Break the Bank.= Specifically at the gaming-tables of Monte Carlo. With
    extraordinary luck this may be done on occasion; but the winner’s
    triumph is short-lived since, the capital of the bank being
    unlimited, if he continues to play after fresh stores of gold have
    been produced, he must lose in the end.

=Brecon.= See “Brecknock.”

=Brecknock.= The capital (also called Brecon) of one of the shires of
    Wales, originally _Breckineauc_, after Brychan, a famous Welsh
    prince. Brecknock Road takes its name from Lord Camden, Earl of
    Brecknock, the ground landlord.

=Breeches Bible.= From the word “breeches” for “aprons” (Genesis iii.
    7).

=Brentford.= The ford over the Brent.

=Breviary.= The name given to an abridgment of the daily prayers, for
    the use of priests, during the Seven Canonical Hours, made by Pope
    Gregory VII. in the eleventh century.

=Brevier.= The style of type originally employed in the composition of
    the Catholic “Breviary.”

=Bridegroom.= The word _groom_ comes from the Gothic and Anglo-Saxon
    _guma_, man, allied to the Latin _homo_, man. It still expresses a
    man-servant who grooms or attends to his master’s horse.

=Bride Lane.= From the church of St Bride or Bridget.

=Bride of the Sea.= Venice, in allusion to the ancient ceremony of “The
    Marriage of the Adriatic.”

=Bridewell.= The name anciently given to a female penitentiary, from the
    original establishment near the well of St Bride or Bridget in the
    parish of Blackfriars. The name is preserved in Bridewell Police
    Station.

=Brigadier.= The commanding officer of a brigade.

=Bridge.= Twenty years ago two families at Great Dalby, Leicestershire,
    paid each other a visit on alternate nights, for a game of what they
    called Russian whist. Their way lay across a broken bridge, very
    dangerous after nightfall. “Thank goodness, it’s your bridge
    to-morrow night!” they were wont to exclaim on parting. This gave
    the name to the game itself.

=Bridge of Sighs.= The bridge forming a covered gallery over the Canal
    at Venice between the State prisons on the one hand and the palace
    of the Doges on the other. Prisoners were led to the latter to hear
    the death sentence pronounced, and thence to execution. No State
    prisoner was ever known to recross this bridge; hence its name.

=Bridgewater Square.= From the town house of the Earls of Bridgewater.

=Brief.= A brief summary of all the facts of a client’s case prepared by
    a solicitor for the instruction of counsel.

=Bristol.= Called by the Anglo-Saxons “_Brightstow_,” or pleasant,
    stockaded place.

=Britain.= This country was known to the Phœnicians as _Barat-Anac_,
    “the land of time.” The Romans called it _Britannia_.

=British Columbia.= The only portion of North America which honours the
    memory, as a place name, of Christopher Columbus.

=Brittany.= The land anciently possessed by the kings of Britain.

=Brixton.= Anciently _Brigestan_, the bridge of stone.

=Broadside.= A large sheet printed straight across instead of in
    columns.

=Broker.= From the Anglo-Saxon _brucan_, through the Old English
    _brocour_, to use for profit.

=Brompton.= Anciently Broom Town, or place of the broom plant.

=Brook Street.= From a stream meandering through the fields from Tyburn.

=Brooke Street.= From the town house of Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke. In
    this street the boy poet Chatterton poisoned himself.

=Brother Jonathan.= After Jonathan Turnbull, the adviser of General
    Washington in all cases of military emergency. “We must ask Brother
    Jonathan” was the latter’s invariable reply to a suggestion made to
    him.

=Brougham.= First made to the order of Lord Brougham.

=Brought under the Hammer.= Put up for sale by public auction. The
    allusion is, of course, to the auctioneer’s hammer.

=Bruce Castle.= The residence of Robert Bruce after his defeat by John
    Baliol in the contest for the Scottish crown.

=Bruges.= From its many bridges.

=Brummagem.= The slang term for cheap jewellery made at Birmingham. In
    local parlance this city is “Brummagem,” and its inhabitants are
    “Brums.”

=Brunswick Square.= Laid out and built upon at the accession of the
    House of Brunswick.

=Bruton Street.= From the seat of the Berkeleys at Bruton,
    Somersetshire.

=Bryanstone Square.= From the seat, near Blandford, Dorset, of Viscount
    Portman, the ground landlord.

=Bucephalus.= A horse, after the famous charger of Alexander the Great.

=Buckeye State.= Ohio, from the buckeye-trees with which this state
    abounds. Its people are called “Buckeyes.”

=Buckingham.= The Anglo-Saxon _Boccenham_, or “beech-tree village.”

=Buckingham Palace.= After the residence, on this site, of John
    Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham.

=Buckingham Street.= From the older mansion of John Sheffield, Duke of
    Buckingham. The water-gate is still in evidence.

=Buckle to.= An expression descended from the days of chivalry, when a
    knight buckled on his armour for the tournament.

=Bucklersbury.= Anciently the _bury_ or enclosed ground of a wealthy
    grocer named Buckle or Bukerel.

=Budge Row.= From the vendors of “Budge” or lambskin fur who congregated
    here.

=Bug Bible.= From the word “bugges”--_i.e._ bogies--in place of “the
    terror” (Psalm xci. 5).

=Buggy.= From _bâghi_, the Hindustani for a one-horse vehicle.

=Bull.= A papal edict, so called on account of the _bulla_, or seal.

=Bull and Gate.= An inn sign, corrupted from “Boulogne Gate,” touching
    the siege of Boulogne and its harbour by Henry VIII. in 1544.

=Bulgaria.= A corruption of Volgaria, the country of the _Volsci_.

=Bull-dog.= A dog originally employed in the brutal sport of
    bull-baiting. The name is also given to one of the two attendants of
    the proctor at a university while going his rounds by night.

=Bullion State.= Missouri, after Thomas Hart Benton, who, when
    representing this state in Congress, merited the nickname of “Old
    Bullion,” from his spirited advocacy of a gold and silver currency
    instead of “Greenbacks” or paper.

=Bullyrag.= See “Ragging.”

=Bullyruffian.= A corruption of the _Bellerophon_, the vessel on which
    Napoleon surrendered after the battle of Waterloo.

=Bungalow.= From the Bengalese _bangla_, a wooden house of one storey
    surrounded by a verandah.

=Bunhill Fields.= Not from the Great Plague pit in Finsbury, but from
    the cart-loads of human bones shot here when the charnel-house of St
    Paul’s Churchyard was pulled down in 1549.

=Bunkum.= Originally a Congressman’s speech, “full of sound and fury,
    signifying nothing.” An oratorial flight not intended to carry a
    proposal, but to catch popular applause. The representative for
    Buncombe, in North Carolina, occupied the time of the house at
    Washington so long with a meaningless speech that many members left
    the hall. Asked his reason for such a display of empty words, he
    replied: “I was not speaking to the House, but to Buncombe.”

=Bureau.= French for a writing-desk, from _buro_, a drugget, with which
    it was invariably covered.

=Burgess Roll.= See “Roll Call.”

=Burgundy.= A wine produced in the French province of the same name.

=Burke.= To stop or gag--_e.g._ to burke a question. After an Irishman
    of this name, who silently and secretly took the lives of many
    peaceable citizens by holding a pitch plaster over their mouths, in
    order to sell their bodies to the doctors for dissection. He was
    hanged in 1849. His crimes were described as “Burking.”

=Burleigh Street.= From the residence of Lord Burleigh in Exeter Street,
    hard by.

=Burlington Street= (Old and New). After Richard Boyle, Earl of
    Burlington and Cork, from whom Burlington House, refronted by him,
    also received its name.

=Burmah.= From the natives, who claim to be descendants of Brahma, the
    supreme deity of the Hindoos.

=Burton Crescent.= After the name of its builder.

=Bury St Edmunds.= A corruption of the Borough of St Edmund, where the
    Saxon king and martyr was crowned on Christmas Day, 856. Taken
    prisoner and killed by the Danes, he was laid to rest here. Over the
    site of his tomb Canute built a Benedictine monastery.

=Bury Street.= Properly Berry Street, after its builder.

=Bury the Hatchet.= At a deliberation of war the hatchet is always in
    evidence among the Indians of North America, but when the calumet,
    or pipe of peace, is being passed round, the symbol of warfare is
    carefully hidden.

=Busking.= Theatrical slang for an _al fresco_ performance to earn a few
    coppers. To “go busking on the sands” is the least refined aspect of
    a Pierrot Entertainment. See “Sock and Buskin.”

=Buy a Pig in a Poke.= A man naturally wants to see what he is
    bargaining for. “Poke” is an old word for a sack or large bag, of
    which _pocket_ expresses the diminutive.

=By Gad.= A corruption of the old oath “By God.”

=By George.= Originally this oath had reference to the patron saint of
    England. In more modern times it was corrupted into “By Jove,” so
    that it might have applied to Jupiter; then at the Hanoverian
    Succession the ancient form came in again.

=By Hook or by Crook.= The final word here is a corruption of Croke.
    More than a century ago two eminent K.C.’s named Hook and Croke were
    most generally retained by litigants in action at law. This gave
    rise to the saying: “If I can’t win my case by Hook I will by
    Croke.”

=By Jingo.= An exclamation traceable to the Basque mountaineers brought
    over to England by Edward I. to aid him in the subjection of Wales
    at the time when the Plantagenets held possession of the Basque
    provinces. “Jainko” expressed the supreme deity of these hillmen.

=By Jove.= See “By George.”

=By the Holy Rood.= The most solemn oath of the crusaders. “Rood,” from
    the Anglo-Saxon _rod_, was the Old English name for Cross.

=By the Mass.= A common oath in the days of our Catholic ancestors, when
    quarrels were generally made up by the parties attending Mass
    together.

=By the Peacock.= See “Peacock.”

=By the Skin of my Teeth.= An expression derived from Job xix. 20: “My
    bone cleaveth to my skin and to my flesh, and I am escaped with the
    skin of my teeth.”

=Byward Tower.= A corruption of Bearward Tower, the residence of the
    Tower “Bearward.” The bear-house at our national fortress in the
    time of James I. is mentioned in Nichol’s “Progresses and
    Processions.”


                                   C


=Cab.= Short for “Cabriolet,” or little caperer, from _cabriole_, a
    goat’s leap. See “Capri.”

=Cabal.= A political term formed out of the initials of the intriguing
    ministry of 1670--thus: Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, and
    Lauderdale.

=Cabinet.= The designation of Ministers of State, who first conducted
    their deliberations in a cabinet, from the Italian _gabinetto_, a
    small room. A picture or photograph of this size received its name
    from the apartment for which it was best suited.

=Cabin Girls.= Waitresses at the “Cabin” Restaurants Limited.

=Cablegram.= An Americanism for telegram.

=Cadiz.= Called Gades by the Romans, from the Phœnician _Gadir_,
    enclosed, shut in.

=Cadogan Square.= From the Earl of Cadogan, the lord of the manor of
    Chelsea.

=Cahoot.= An Americanism for partnership or company, derived from the
    French _capute_, hut, cabin. Men who share a cabin or shanty are
    said to be “in cahoot.”

=Caitiff.= An old term of contempt for a despicable person, derived from
    the Latin _captivis_, a captive, slave.

=Caius College.= The name given to Gonville College, Cambridge, after
    its refoundation by Dr Caius by royal charter in 1558.

=Cake Walk.= A musical walking competition round a cake, very popular
    among the negroes of the southern states. The couple adjudged to
    walk most gracefully receive the cake as a prize.

=Calcutta.= From _Kalikutta_, “the village of Kali,” the goddess of
    time.

=Caledonia.= The country of the Caels or Gaels; _Gadhel_ in the native
    tongue signified a “hidden cover.”

=Caledonian Road.= From the Royal Caledonian Asylum for Scottish
    orphans, now removed.

=Calico.= First brought from Calicut in the East Indies.

=California.= Called by Cortez _Caliente Fornalla_, or “hot furnace,” on
    account of its climate.

=Caliph.= From the Arabic _Khalifah_, a successor.

=Called over the Coals.= A corruption of “Hauled over the Coals.”

=Camberwell.= From the ancient holy well in the vicinity of the church
    of St Giles, the patron saint of cripples. _Cam_ is Celtic for
    “crooked.”

=Cambria.= The country of the _Cimbri_ or _Cymri_, who finally settled
    in Wales.

=Cambric.= First made at Cambray in Flanders.

=Cambridge.= From the bridge over the Cam, or “crooked” river. See
    “Cantab.”

=Camden Town.= After the Earl of Camden, the ground landlord.

=Camellia.= Introduced into Europe by G. J. Camelli, the German
    missionary botanist.

=Camera Obscura.= Literally a dark chamber.

=Cameron Highlanders.= The Scottish regiment of infantry raised by Allan
    Cameron in 1793.

=Camisard.= A military term for a night attack, after the Camisards,
    Protestant insurgents of the seventeenth century, who, wearing a
    _camise_, or peasant’s smock, conducted their depredations under
    cover of night.

=Camomile Street.= From the herbs that grew on the waste north of the
    city.

=Campania.= An extensive plain outside Rome, across which the “Appian
    Way” was constructed. The word comes from the Latin _campus_, a
    field.

=Campden Square.= From the residence of Sir Baptist Hicks, created
    Viscount Campden.

=Canada.= From the Indian _kannatha_, a village or collection of huts.

=Canary.= Wine and a species of singing bird brought from the Canary
    Islands, so called, agreeably to the Latin _canis_, on account of
    the large dogs found there.

=Candia.= Anciently Crete, called by the Arabs _Khandæ_, “island of
    trenches.”

=Candy.= An Americanism for sweetmeats. The Arabic _quand_, sugar, gave
    the French word _candi_.

=Canned Meat.= An Americanism for tinned meat.

=Cannibal.= See “Caribbean Sea.”

=Cannon Row.= The ancient residence of the Canons of St Stephen’s
    Chapel, Westminster Abbey.

=Cannon Street.= A corruption of Candlewick Street, where the
    candle-makers congregated.

=Cannucks.= See “K’nucks.”

=Canonbury.= From the manorial residence of the priors of St Bartholomew
    Church, Clerkenwell, of which the ancient tower remains.

=Cant.= After Alexander and Andrew Cant, a couple of bigoted
    Covenanters, who persecuted their religious opponents with
    relentless zeal, and at the same time prayed for those who suffered
    on account of their religious opinions.

=Cantab.= Of Cambridge University. The River Cam was anciently called
    the Granta; hence the Saxon name of the city _Grantabrycge_, or the
    bridge over the Granta, softened later into _Cantbrigge_.

=Canterbury.= The fortified place or chief town of “Kent.”

=Canterbury Music Hall.= This, the first of the London music halls,
    opened in 1848, grew out of the old-time popular “free-and-easy,” or
    “sing-song,” held in an upper room of what was until then a tavern
    displaying the arms of the city of Canterbury, and styled the
    “Canterbury Arms.”

=Cantlowes Road.= See “Kentish Town.”

=Canvas Back.= A species of sea-duck, regarded as a luxury on account of
    the delicacy of its flesh. So called from the colour of the plumage
    on its back.

=Cape Finisterre.= Adapted by the French from the Latin _finis terra_,
    “land’s end.”

=Capel Court.= The Stock Exchange, so called from the residence of Sir
    William Capel, Lord Mayor in 1504.

=Cape of Good Hope.= So called by John II., King of Portugal, after Diaz
    had touched this point of Africa, as a favourable augury for the
    circumnavigation of the globe.

=Cape Horn.= Named Hoorn, after his birthplace, by Schouten, the Dutch
    navigator, who first rounded it.

=Capri.= From the Latin _caper_, a he-goat, expresses the island of wild
    goats.

=Capuchin Friars.= From the pointed cowl or _capuce_ worn by them.

=Carat Gold.= So called because gold and precious stones were formerly
    weighted against carat seeds or seeds of the Abyssinian coral
    flower.

=Carbonari.= Italian for charcoal-burners, in whose huts this secret
    society held its meetings.

=Carburton Street.= From the Northamptonshire village on the ducal
    estate of the ground landlord.

=Cardiff.= From _Caer Taff_, the fort on the Taff.

=Cardigan.= After Ceredog, a famous chieftain.

=Caribbean Sea.= From the Caribbs, which West Indian designation
    signifies “cruel men.” Corrupted through the Spanish _Caribal_, we
    have derived the word “Cannibal,” for one who eats human flesh.

=Carlton House Terrace.= From Carlton House, built by Lord Carlton,
    later the residence of Frederick, Prince of Wales, the father of
    George III.

=Carmagnole.= A wild song and dance which came into prominence during
    the French Revolution. It received its name from Carmagnolas, a town
    in Piedmont, whence the Savoyard boys carried the tune into the
    south of France.

=Carmarthen.= A corruption of _Caer-merlin_, or the fortress built by
    Merlin, in the neighbourhood of which he was born.

=Carmelites.= White Friars of the order of Mount Carmel.

=Carnarvon.= The fortress on the _Arfon_, or water.

=Carolina.= After Carollus, the Latinised name of Charles II., who
    granted a charter of colonisation to eight of his favourites.

=Caroline Islands.= In honour of Charles I. of Spain.

=Carpenter.= Originally one who made only the body or wooden portion of
    a vehicle. So called from the Latin _carpentum_, waggon. An ordinary
    worker in wood was, and still is in the English provinces, a joiner.

=Carpet Knight.= A civilian honoured with a knighthood by the sovereign.
    One who has not won his spurs on the field, like the knights of old.

=Carry Coals to Newcastle.= To do that which is altogether superfluous.
    It would be ridiculous to take coals to a place where they are found
    in abundance.

=Cartaret Street.= After John Cartaret, Earl of Granville, Secretary of
    State, and one of the most popular ministers of the reign of George
    II.

=Carte de Visite.= Photographs received this name because the Duc de
    Parma in 1857 had his likeness printed on the back of his large
    visiting-cards.

=Carthage.= From the Phœnician _Karth-hadtha_, New Town.

=Carthagena.= From _Carthago Novo_, or New Carthage.

=Carthusians.= Monks of La Chartreuse, near Grenoble. This name is also
    given to former scholars of the “Charter House.”

=Carthusian Street.= Although some distance to the west of it, this
    street leads to the “Charter House.”

=Caspian Sea.= From the _Caspii_, who peopled its shores.

=Castile.= In Spanish Castilla, from the castles or forts set up for
    defence against the Moors.

=Castle.= An inn sign denoting a wine-house, from the castle in the arms
    of Spain.

=Catacombs.= Italian _Catacomba_, from the Greek _kata_, downward, and
    _kumbe_, a hollow, a cavity.

=Cat and Fiddle.= A corruption of “Caton le Fidele,” the faithful Caton,
    Governor of Calais, whose name was honoured by many an inn sign.

=Cat and Wheel.= A corruption of the old inn sign the “Catherine Wheel,”
    the instrument of the martyrdom of St Catherine.

=Cat Call.= A corruption of _Cat Wail_. When a theatre or music-hall
    audience is dissatisfied with the performance, and impatient for it
    to be brought to an end, the “Gods” indulging in “Mewing” like a
    chorus of cats on the roof by night.

=Catch a Weasel asleep.= No one ever caught a weasel napping, for the
    simple reason that he hides himself in a hole away from the sight of
    man.

=Catchpenny.= Short for “Catnach Penny,” from the penny dying speeches
    and yard of songs printed by James Catnach in Seven Dials, and
    hawked about the streets. The “Catnach Press” was as great a power
    in that day as the trashy “Bits” literature is in our own.

=Cathedral.= From the Greek _kathedra_, a seat--_i.e._ the chair of a
    bishop. See “City.”

=Caucus.= From the Caulkers of Boston, U.S., who shortly before the
    Revolution came into open conflict with the British soldiery.
    Meetings were held in the calk houses, and a Caulkers’ Club was
    formed. Since that time a political meeting of American citizens has
    been styled a Caucus.

=Cavalier.= From the French _chevalier_, a horseman.

=Cavendish.= Tobacco pressed into plugs for chewing, from the name of
    the first maker.

=Cavendish Square.= After Henrietta Cavendish, second wife of Lord
    Harley, the ground landlord.

=Centennial State.= Colorado, admitted into the American Union one
    hundred years after the Declaration of Independence.

=Ceylon.= Called by the Portuguese Selen, an abbreviation of the
    Sanskrit _Sinhaladwipa_, “Island of Lyons.”

=Chadwell Street.= After the name of the source of the New River in
    Hertfordshire. The well was anciently dedicated to St Chad.

=Chaff.= A corruption of _chafe_, to make hot with anger, as heat may be
    produced by friction.

=Chalk Farm.= Originally “Chalcot Farm,” a noted resort for duellists of
    a past day.

=Chalk it up.= In allusion to the drink score chalked on a slate against
    a customer at a country ale-house.

=Champagne.= A light wine, from the French province of the same name,
    which expresses a plain, from the Latin _campus_, field.

=Champs de Mars.= Expresses the large open space or “Plain of Mars,” in
    Paris, set apart for military reviews.

=Chancery Lane.= A corruption of “Chancellor’s Lane,” from the town
    house of the Bishops of Chichester, afterwards the residence of the
    Lord High Chancellor of England.

=Chandos Street.= From the residence of James Bridges, Duke of Chandos.

=Chap.= Originally short for “Chapman,” one who sold his wares at a
    _chepe_, or market.

=Chap Book.= A small book or tract sold by chapmen. See “Chap.”

=Chapel.= A printers’ meeting held in the composing-room, so called
    because Caxton set up the first English press in a disused chapel of
    Westminster Abbey. The presiding workman is styled “The Father of
    the Chapel.”

=Chapel of Ease.= An auxiliary place of worship, for the convenience of
    those who resided at a great distance from the parish church.

=Charing Cross.= The idea that this spot received its name from the
    “good Queen” Eleanor, whose bier was set down here for the last time
    on its way to Westminster Abbey has been exploded. It was even then
    called the village of Charing, in honour of _La Chère Reine_, the
    Blessed Virgin, this being the usual halting-place between London
    and the venerable Abbey.

=Charlatan.= From the Italian _ciarlatano_, a quack, a babbler, a
    loquacious itinerant who sold medicines in a public square.

=Charles Martel.= See “Martel.”

=Charles Street.= Built upon in the reign of Charles II.

=Charlies.= The old night watchmen reorganised by Charles I. These were
    the only civic protectors down to the introduction of the modern
    police system by Sir Robert Peel.

=Charlotte Street.= After the queen of George III.

=Charter House.= A corruption of La Chartreuse, one of the English
    houses of the Order of monks of the place of the same name in
    France.

=Chartreuse.= The liqueurs prepared at the monastery of La Chartreuse,
    near Grenoble.

=Chauffeur.= The French term for a motor-car driver; it has no English
    equivalent.

=Cheap Jack.= A modern equivalent for “Chap-man.” Jack is a generic name
    for man-servant or an inferior person.

=Cheapside.= The High Street of the city of London, consequently
    abutting on the _chepe_, or market-place.

=Cheese it.= A corruption of “Choose it better,” or, in other words,
    “Tell me something I can believe.”

=Chef.= French for head or master. Employed alone, the word expresses a
    head man cook.

=Chelmsford.= The ford over the Chelmer.

=Chelsea.= Anciently “Chevelsey,” or “Shingle Island.” See “Chiswick.”

=Chequers.= An inn sign derived from the arms of the Fitzwarrens, one of
    whom had the granting of vintners’ licences.

=Cherry Bob.= An old summer pastime for boys. A bunch of cherries
    suspended from a beam or tree-branch was kept swinging to and fro,
    while the boys, with their hands behind them, tried to catch the
    fruit with their mouths.

=Cherry Gardens Pier.= A name reminiscent of a popular resort of bygone
    days in connection with the “Jamaica” in front of which rum, newly
    arrived from the West Indies, was landed.

=Cherry Pickers.= The 11th Hussars, because, when captured by the French
    during the Peninsular War, some men of the regiment were robbing an
    orchard.

=Chesapeake.= Indian for “great waters.”

=Chester.= The city built on the Roman _castra_, or camp.

=Chestnut.= Edwin Abbey, the painter of the Coronation picture, is said
    to have been responsible for the term “Chestnut” as applied to a
    stale joke. While a member of a club at Philadelphia he always told
    a story about a man who had a chestnut farm, but made nothing out of
    it because he gave his chestnuts away. Abbey invariably began this
    story differently, so that his follow clubmen would not recognise
    it, but they soon interrupted him by exclaiming “Chestnuts!”

=Chestnut Sunday.= The first Sunday in June, when the chestnut-trees in
    Bushey Park at Hampton Court are in bloom.

=Cheyne Walk.= After Lord Cheyne, lord of the manor of Chelsea in the
    seventeenth century.

=Chicago.= Indian for “wild onion.”

=Chichester.= The Roman camp town taken by Cissa, King of the South
    Saxons, thenceforth called _Cissanceaster_.

=Chichester Rents.= The site of the town mansion of the Bishops of
    Chichester.

=Chili.= Peruvian for “land of snow.”

=China.= After Tsin, the founder of a great dynasty. Earthenware of a
    superior quality was first made in China; hence the name.

=Chin Music.= An Americanism for derisive laughter.

=Chip off the Old Block.= A saying in allusion to the “Family Tree.”

=Chippendale.= Furniture of elegant design, named after its famous
    maker.

=Chiswick.= Anciently “Cheoselwick,” or village of shingles, from the
    Anglo-Saxon _ceosal_, sand, gravel.

=Chocolat-Menier.= The perfection of chocolate, introduced by M. Menier
    of Paris, who died in 1881.

=Choke Him off.= The allusion is to grip a dog by the throat in order to
    make him relax his hold.

=Christiania.= Rebuilt by Christian IV. of Denmark.

=Christian Scientists.= A modern offshoot of the Peculiar People, or
    Faith Healers, who believe that sickness and pain can be cured by
    faith and prayer without medicine.

=Christmas-box.= A relic of Catholic days, when a box was placed in all
    the churches to receive Christmas alms for the poor. These were
    distributed on the day following.

=Christmas Island.= Captain Cook landed here on Christmas Day, 1777.

=Christ’s College.= Founded at Cambridge by Lady Margaret, Countess of
    Richmond, mother of Henry VII., for a master and twelve fellows,
    corresponding to Christ and His apostles, to whom it was dedicated.

=Christy Minstrels.= After Charles Christy, who introduced the Negro
    Minstrel Entertainment to England.

=Church Ale.= Specifically the ale brewed by the church-wardens for
    merrymakers on the village green at Whitsuntide and other high
    holidays. Later the assemblage itself came to be styled a “Church
    Ale.”

=Chute.= The French for “a fall,” applied by the Americans to a
    declivity of water. The exciting diversion of boating on such a
    waterfall is styled “Shooting the Chutes.”

=Cicerone.= After Cicero, the prince of speakers. The comparison between
    the celebrated orator and the “Roman Guide” befooled by Mark Twain
    is rather painful.

=Cigar.= From the Spanish _Cigarro_, the original name of a particular
    kind of Cuban tobacco.

=Cinderella Dance.= Because it is brought to an end at twelve o’clock,
    in allusion to the heroine in the fairy story.

=Circumlocution Office.= A term first applied to the shuttle-cock
    methods in vogue at our public offices by Charles Dickens in “Little
    Dorrit.”

=Cistercians.= An Order of monks established at Cistercium, or Citeau,
    near Dijon.

=City.= The proper and historic distinction between a city and a town
    lies in the fact that the former is the seat of a bishop, and
    accordingly contains a cathedral. In modern times many burghs or
    towns have been advanced to the dignity of a city on account of
    their commercial importance. These are, however, cities only in
    name.

=City Fathers.= Aldermen of the city of London.

=City Golgotha.= Old Temple Bar, from the heads of rebels spiked on its
    top. _Golgotha_ is Hebrew for “the place of skulls.”

=Claim.= A squatter’s term for a piece of land which he has marked off
    and settled upon pending its legal acquisition from the Government.
    During the gold fever the name also came to be applied to the land
    parcelled out to each digger.

=Clare Market.= The site of Clare House, the residence of the Earl of
    Clare.

=Clarence.= A carriage named after the Duke of Clarence, afterwards
    William IV.

=Clarges Street.= From the mansion of Sir Walter Clarges, afterwards
    taken over by the Venetian ambassador.

=Clarendon.= The black type first used at the Clarendon Press, Oxford,
    which owed its foundation to the profits of Lord Clarendon’s
    “History of the Rebellion,” presented to the University.

=Claude Lorraine.= The assumed name of the celebrated landscape painter
    Claude Galée, who was a native of Lorraine.

=Cleaned Out.= Pockets emptied of cash. The allusion is to a saucepan or
    other domestic cooking utensil which is cleansed after use.

=Clerkenwell.= The holy well beside which the parish clerks performed
    their miracle plays on festival days.

=Clifford Street.= After Elizabeth Clifford, wife of the Earl of
    Burlington.

=Closure.= A modern parliamentary term signifying the right of the
    Speaker to order the closing of a useless debate. The Closure was
    first applied 24th February 1884.

=Cloth Fair.= The great annual mart for the sale of cloth brought over
    by Flemish merchants.

=Club.= From the German _kleben_, to adhere, cleave to, associate.

=Clyde.= The strong river, from the Gaelic _clyth_, strong.

=Coast is Clear.= Originally a smugglers’ phrase relative to
    coastguards.

=Coat of Arms.= During the days of chivalry, when a knight was
    completely encased in armour and the vizor of his helmet was drawn
    over his face, his sole mode of distinction was by the embroidered
    design of his armorial bearings on a sleeveless coat that he wore in
    the lists at tournaments. In warfare the coat was dispensed with,
    but he was known to his comrades by another device on the crest of
    his helmet.

=Cobbler.= An American drink of spirits, beer, sugar, and spice, said to
    have been first concocted by a Western shoemaker.

=Coblentz.= From the Latin name, _Confluentia_, being situated at the
    confluence of the Rivers Rhine and Moselle.

=Cockade.= From the party badge originally displayed on a cocked hat.
    See “Knocked into a Cocked Hat.”

=Cockade State.= Maryland, from the brilliant cockades worn by the brave
    Old Maryland Regiment during the War of Independence.

=Cockney.= From “Cockayne,” a Fools’ Paradise, where there is nothing
    but eating and drinking, described in a satiric poem of the
    thirteenth century. The word was clearly derived from _coquere_, to
    cook, and had reference to London, where the conduits on occasion
    ran with wine, and good living fell to the lot of men generally.

=Cock-penny.= A penny levied by the master on each of the boys for
    allowing the brutal sport of cock-throwing in school on Shrove
    Tuesday formerly. The master himself found the bird.

=Cocktail.= Tradition has it that one of Montezuma’s nobles sent a
    draught of a new beverage concocted by him from the cactus plant to
    the Emperor by his daughter Xochitl. The Aztec monarch smiled,
    tasted it, gulped it down with a relish, and, it is said, afterwards
    married the girl; thenceforward this drink became the native tipple,
    and for centuries it bore the softened name of Octel. The corruption
    of _Octel_ into _Cocktail_ by the soldiers of the American Army
    when, under General Scott, they invaded Mexico, about sixty years
    ago, was easy.

=Coger.= A slang term derived from the members of the celebrated Cogers’
    Club in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street. They styled themselves
    “Cogers” from the Latin _cogito_, to think deeply.

=Cohees.= Natives of Western Pennsylvania, owing to their addiction to
    the phrase “Quoth he,” softened into _Quo’he_.

=Coin Money.= To make money as fast as it is turned out at the Mint. Few
    men are so fortunate.

=Coke Hat.= After William Coke, who popularised it. See “Billycock.”

=Coldbath Fields.= A district of Clerkenwell now long built over, but
    famous for a cold bath; the site is marked by the present Bath
    Street.

=Colchester.= The camp town on the Colne.

=Coldstream Guards.= The regiment raised by General Monk at Coldstream,
    Berwickshire, in 1660.

=Coleman Street.= Said to have been built upon by one Coleman; but long
    before his time the coalmen or charcoal merchants congregated here.

=Colleen.= Irish for girl. “Colleen Bawn” expresses a blonde girl.

=College Hill.= From a collegiate foundation of Sir Richard Whittington,
    thrice Lord Mayor of London.

=College Port.= Inferior port served up to the older students at
    college. It is said to be specially prepared for this market.

=Collop Monday.= The day preceding Shrove Tuesday, when housewives cut
    up all their meat into large steaks or collops for salting during
    Lent.

=Cologne.= The _Colonia Agrippina_ of the Romans, so called after the
    mother of Nero, who was born here.

=Colonel.= A Far-West title of courtesy bestowed upon anyone who owns a
    stud horse.

=Colorado.= The Spaniards gave this name to the state in allusion to its
    coloured ranges.

=Colosseum.= Greek for “great amphitheatre.”

=Combine.= An Americanism for “Combination.” Applied in a financial or
    commercial sense, this term is now well understood in our own
    country.

=Come up to the Scratch.= A prize-fighting expression. A line was
    scratched on the ground with a stick, and the combatants were
    expected to toe it with the left foot.

=Commonwealth.= In theatrical parlance, a sharing out of the proceeds of
    the week’s performances after all expenses have been deducted. This
    generally happens when the manager has decamped with the entire
    takings, and left his company stranded.

=Compton Street= (Old and New). Built upon by Sir Richard Compton and
    Bishop Compton respectively.

=Conduit Street.= From a conduit of spring water set up here before the
    land was built over.

=Confidence Man.= An Americanism for one who in this country is known to
    extract money from strangers by the “confidence trick.”

=Confounded Liar.= Literally one who is covered with confusion on being
    brought face to face with the truth.

=Congleton Bears.= A nickname given to the people of Congleton,
    Cheshire. Local tradition has it that the bear intended for baiting
    at the holiday sports died, and, to procure another, the authorities
    appropriated the money collected for a new Church Bible.

=Congregationalists.= Independent Nonconformists, who are neither
    Baptists nor Wesleyans, and claim the right to “call” their own
    ministers, each congregation managing its own affairs.

=Connecticut.= From the Indian _Quinnitukut_, “country of the long
    river.”

=Conscience Money.= Money sent anonymously to the Treasury in respect of
    Income-Tax after the thought of having defrauded the Revenue has
    pricked the individual conscience.

=Constance.= Founded by Constantine, the father of Constantine the
    Great; one of the oldest cities of Germany.

=Constantinople.= The city of Constantine.

=Constitution Hill.= Where John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, took his
    daily constitutional walk while residing at Buckingham House, built
    by him in 1703. On the site of this mansion George IV. erected the
    present edifice, Buckingham Palace, in 1825.

=Cook your Goose.= An old chronicler thus explains this saying: “The
    Kyng of Swedland coming to a towne of his enemyes with very little
    company, his enemyes, to slyghte his forces, did hang out a goose
    for him to shoote, but perceiving before nyghte that these fewe
    soldiers had invaded and sette their chief houlds on fire, they
    demanded of him what his intent was, to whom he replied, ‘To cook
    your goose.’”

=Coon.= Short for racoon, an American animal much prized on account of
    its fur.

=Cooper.= A publican’s term for half ale and half porter. See “Entire.”

=Copenhagen Street.= From Copenhagen Fields, where stood a noted
    tea-house opened by a Dane.

=Copper.= A policeman, from the thieves’ slang _cop_, to take, catch.

=Copperheads.= A political faction of North America during the Civil
    War, regarded as secret foes, and so called after the copperhead
    serpent, which steals upon its enemy unawares.

=Cordeliers.= Franciscan Friars distinguished from the parent Order by
    the knotted waist-cord.

=Corduroy.= In French _Cord du Roy_, “King’s cord,” because ribbed or
    corded material was originally worn only by the Kings of France.

=Cordwainer.= The old name for a shoemaker, because the leather he
    worked upon was Cordwain, a corruption of Cordovan, brought from the
    city of Cordova.

=Cork.= From the Gaelic _corroch_, a swamp.

=Cork Street.= From the residence of Lord Cork, one of the four brothers
    of the Boyle family.

=Corncrackers.= The Kentuckians, from a native bird of the crane species
    called the Corncracker.

=Corner.= The creation of a monopoly of prices in respect of natural
    produce or manufactured goods. The allusion here is to speculators
    who agreed in a quiet corner, at or near the Exchange, to buy up the
    whole market.

=Cornhill.= The ancient city corn market.

=Cornwall.= Pursuant to the Saxon _Wahl_, the horn of land peopled by
    foreigners.

=Corpus Christi College.= At Cambridge, founded by the united guilds or
    fraternities of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin.

=Corsica.= A Phœnician term for “wooded isle.”

=Cossack.= The Russian form of the Tartar term _kasake_, a horseman.

=Costa Rica.= Spanish for “rich coast.”

=Costermonger.= In Shakespeare’s time a Costardmonger, or trader in a
    famous species of apple so called.

=Cottonopolis.= Manchester, the city identified with English cotton
    manufacture.

=Cotton Plantation State.= Alabama, from its staple industry.

=Cotton to.= An Americanism meaning to cling to a man as cotton would
    cling to his garments.

=Counter-jumper.= The derisive nickname of a draper’s assistant, on
    account of his agility in leaping over the counter as a short cut
    from one department to another.

=Country Dance.= A corruption of the French _contre danse_, from the
    opposite positions of the dancers.

=Coup de Grace.= The merciful finishing stroke of the executioner after
    a criminal had been tortured by having all his bones broken on a
    wheel. One blow on the head then put him out of his misery.

=Court Cards.= Properly Coat Cards, on account of their heraldic
    devices.

=Court of Arches.= The ecclesiastical Court of Appeal for the
    Archbishopric of Canterbury which in ancient times was held in the
    crypt of St Mary-le-Bow, or St Mary of the Arches at Cheapside. See
    “Bow Church.”

=Court Plaster.= The plaster out of which ladies of the Court fashioned
    their decorative (?) face patches.

=Covenanters.= Those who entered into a Solemn League or Covenant to
    resist the religious and political measures of Charles I. in 1638.

=Covent Garden.= A corruption of Convent Garden, the site of which was
    converted into a market, _temp._ Charles II. The convent and garden
    belonged to the Abbey at Westminster.

=Coventry.= A corruption of Conventry--_i.e._ Convent town. Before the
    Reformation it was far famed for the number of its conventual
    establishments. The suffix _try_ is Celtic for “dwelling.”

=Coventry Street.= From the residence of Henry Coventry, Secretary of
    State, _temp._ Charles II.

=Cowcross Street.= Where the cattle crossed the brook in days when this
    now congested neighbourhood was pleasant pasture land watered by the
    “River of Wells.”

=Coxcomb.= A vain, empty-pated individual. So called from the cock’s
    comb worn on the cap by the licensed jesters, because they were
    allowed to crow over their betters.

=Cracker.= Although the origin of this term when applied to a juvenile
    firework would appear to be self-evident, it is really a corruption
    of _Cracque_, the Norman description of “Greek Fire.”

=Crackers.= The people of Georgia, owing, it is said, to the
    unintelligibility of their speech.

=Cranbourn Street.= From the long, narrow stream of this name, when the
    whole district hereabouts was open fields.

=Crank.= One whose notions of things are angular, eccentric, or crooked.
    His ideas do not run in a straight line.

=Cravat.= Introduced into Western Europe by the Cravates or Croatians in
    the seventeenth century.

=Craven Street.= From the residence of Lord Craven prior to his removal
    to Drury House in Drury Lane.

=Cream City.= Milwaukee, from the cream-coloured bricks of which its
    houses are built.

=Credit Draper.= The modern designation of a “Tallyman.”

=Cree Church.= See “St Katherine Cree.”

=Creed Lane.= Where the monks recited the Credo in procession to St
    Paul’s. See “Ave Maria Lane.”

=Cremorne Gardens.= Laid out on the site of the mansion and grounds of
    Thomas Dawson, Lord Cremorne.

=Creole State.= Louisiana. In New Orleans particularly a Creole is a
    native of French extraction.

=Crescent City.= New Orleans, built in the form of a crescent.

=Crimea.= From the _Kimri_ or _Cymri_ who settled in the peninsula.

=Cripplegate.= From the city gate around which gathered cripples begging
    for alms, the neighbouring church being dedicated to St Giles, their
    patron.

=Crokers.= Potatoes, because first raised in Croker’s Field at Youghal,
    Ireland.

=Cromwell Road.= From the mansion and grounds of Richard Cromwell, son
    of the Lord Protector.

=Crop Clubs.= Clubs formed to evade Mr Pitt’s tax on hair powder. _The
    Times_ thus noticed one of the earliest in its issue of 14th April
    1795: “A numerous Club has been formed in Lambeth called the ‘Crop
    Club,’ every member of which is obliged to have his hair docked as
    close as the Duke of Bridgewater’s old bay horses. This assemblage
    is instituted for the purpose of opposing, or rather evading, the
    tax on powdered heads.”

=Cross Keys.= A common inn sign throughout Yorkshire, from the arms of
    the Archbishop of York.

=Crowd.= Theatrical slang for members of a company collectively.

=Crow over him.= A cock always crows over a vanquished opponent in a
    fight.

=Crutched Friars.= Friars of the Holy Trinity, so called from the
    embroidered cross on their habits (Latin, _cruciati_, crossed).
    Their London house was located in the thoroughfare named after them.

=Cuba.= The native name of the island when Columbus discovered it.

=Cully.= A slang term applied to a man, mate, or companion. Its origin
    is the Romany _cuddy_, from the Persian _gudda_, an ass.

=Cumberland.= The land of the Cymri.

=Cupboard.= See “Dresser.”

=Curaçoa.= A liqueur first prepared at the West Indian island of the
    same name.

=Currants.= First brought from Corinth.

=Cursitor Street.= From the Cursitors’ Office that stood here. The
    Cursitors were clerks of Chancery, but anciently _choristers_, just
    as the Lord Chancellor himself was an ecclesiastic.

=Curtain Road.= From the “Curtain Theatre,” where Ben Jonson’s “Every
    Man in his Humour” was put on the stage.

=Curzon Street.= From George Augustus Curzon, created Viscount Howe, the
    ground landlord.

=Cuspidor.= The American term for a spittoon, derived from the Spanish
    _escupidor_, a spitter.

=Cut me to the Quick.= The quick of one’s fingers when cut into is most
    alive or sensitive to pain. See “Quicksilver.”

=Cutpurse.= A thief who, in days before pockets came into vogue, had no
    difficulty in cutting the strings with which a purse was suspended
    from the girdle.

=Cut the Line.= A printer’s expression for knocking off work. Formerly
    compositors finished the line they were composing; nowadays Trades
    Unionism has made them so particular that they leave off in the
    middle of a line on the first stroke of the bell.

=Cypress.= A tree introduced to Western Europe from the island of
    Cyprus.

=Cyprus.= From _kupras_, the Greek name for a herb which grew on the
    island in profusion.


                                   D


=Dachshund.= German for “badger-dog.”

=Daffodil.= An English corruption of the French _d’Asphodel_.

=Dagonet.= The pseudonym of Mr George R. Sims in _The Referee_, after
    the jester at the Court of King Arthur.

=Daguerreotype.= An early process of photography discovered by L. J. M.
    Daguerre.

=Dahlgreen Gun.= After its inventor, an officer in the United States
    Navy.

=Dahlia.= Introduced to Europe from Mexico in 1784 by Andrew Dahl, the
    Swedish botanist.

=Daisy.= From the Anglo-Saxon _dæges eye_, or “day’s eye,” on account of
    its sunlike appearance.

=Dakota.= From the Dacoits, a tribe of Indians found there.

=Dale Road.= From the residence of Canon Dale, poet, and Vicar of St
    Pancras.

=Dalmatian.= A species of dog bred in Dalmatia.

=Dalston.= The town in the dale when the north of London was more or
    less wooded.

=Damage.= See “What’s the Damage?”

=Damascenes.= From Damascus, famous for its plums.

=Damascus.= From the Arabic name of the city, _Dimiskesh-Shâm_.

=Damascus Blade.= From Damascus, a city world famous for the temper of
    its sword blades.

=Damask.= First made at Damascus in Syria.

=Damask Rose.= Introduced to Europe from Damascus.

=Damassin.= A Damask cloth interwoven with flowers of gold or silver.

=Dame School.= The old name for a girls’ school taught by a spinster or
    dame.

=Damsons.= Properly _Damascenes_, from Damascus.

=Dancing Chancellor.= Sir Christopher Hatton so pleased Queen Elizabeth
    by his dancing at a Court masque that she made him a Knight of the
    Garter; subsequently he became Lord Chancellor of England.

=Dandelion.= A corruption of the French _dent de lion_, from its fancied
    resemblance to a lion’s tooth.

=Dandy.= From the French _dandin_, silly fellow, ninny.

=Dantzic.= Expresses the town settled by the Danes.

=Danvers Street.= From Danvers House, in which resided Sir John Danvers,
    to whom the introduction of the Italian style of horticulture in
    England was due.

=Darbies.= A pair of handcuffs, in allusion to Darby and Joan, who were
    inseparable.

=Dardanelles.= After the city on the Asiatic side founded by Dardanus,
    the ancestor of Priam, the last king of Troy.

=Dark and Bloody Ground.= Kentucky, the great battle-ground of the
    Indians and white settlers, as also that of the savage tribes
    amongst themselves.

=Darmstadt.= The _stadt_, or town, on the Darm.

=Dartford.= From the Saxon _Darentford_, the fort on the Darent.

=Dartmoor.= The moor in which the River Dart takes its rise.

=Dartmouth.= On the estuary of the River Dart.

=Dauphin.= The title borne by the eldest son of the King of France until
    1830, from the armorial device of a _delphinus_, or dolphin.

=Davenport.= After the original maker.

=Davies Street.= After Mary Davies, heiress of the manor of Ebury,
    Pimlico.

=Davis Strait.= After the navigator who discovered it.

=Davy Jones’s Locker.= Properly “Duffy Jonah’s Locker.” _Duffy_ is the
    ghost of the West Indian Negroes; Jonah, the prophet cast into the
    sea; and “locker,” the ordinary seaman’s chest.

=D. D. Cellars.= See “Dirty Dick’s.”

=Dead as a Door Nail.= The reflection that, if a man were to be knocked
    on the head as often as is the “nail” on which a door knocker rests,
    he would have very little life left in him, easily accounts for this
    saying.

=Dead Beat.= Prostrate from fatigue, incapable of further exertion. Also
    the name of an American drink of whisky and ginger-soda after a hard
    night’s carousal.

=Deadheads.= In America persons who enjoy the right of travelling on a
    railway system at the public expense; in this country actors and
    pseudo “professionals,” who pass into places of amusement without
    paying. The origin of the term is as follows:--More than sixty years
    ago all the principal avenues of the city of Delaware converged to a
    toll gate at the entrance to the Elmwood Cemetery Road. The cemetery
    having been laid out long prior to the construction of the plank
    road beyond the toll gate, funerals were allowed to pass through the
    latter toll free. One day as Dr Price, a well-known physician,
    stopped to pay his toll he observed to the gatekeeper: “Considering
    the benevolent character of the profession to which I have the
    honour to belong, I think you ought to let me pass toll free.” “No,
    no, doctor,” the man replied; “we can’t afford that. You send too
    many deadheads through here as it is!” The story travelled, and the
    term “Deadheads” became fixed.

=Dead Reckoning.= Calculating a ship’s whereabouts at sea from the
    log-book without aid from the celestial bodies.

=Dead Sea.= Traditionally on the site of the city of Sodom. Its waters
    are highly saline, and no fish are found in them.

=Dean Street.= After Bishop Compton, who, before he became Dean of the
    Savoy Chapel, held the living of St Anne’s, Soho.

=Dean’s Yard.= Affords access to the residence of the Dean of
    Westminster, which, with the cloisters, belonged to the abbots prior
    to the Reformation.

=Death or Glory Men.= The 17th Lancers, from their badge, a Death’s head
    superposed on the words “Or Glory.”

=De Beauvoir Town.= From the manorial residence of the De Beauvoirs.

=Deccan.= From the Sanskrit _Dakshina_, the south, being that portion of
    Hindustan south of the Vindhya Mountains.

=December.= The tenth month of the Roman Calendar when the year was
    reckoned from March.

=Decemvir.= One of the ten legislators of Rome appointed to draw up a
    code of laws.

=Decoration Day.= 30th May, observed in the United States for decorating
    the graves of the soldiers who fell in the struggle between the
    North and South.

=Deemster.= See “Doomster.”

=Dehaley Street.= From the residence of the Dehaleys.

=Delaware.= After the Governor of Virginia, Thomas West, Lord Delaware,
    who died on board his vessel while visiting the bay in 1610.

=Del Salviati.= The assumed name of the famous Italian painter Francesco
    Rossi, in compliment to his patron, Cardinal Salviati, who was born
    in the same year as himself.

=Demijohn.= A corruption of _Damaghan_, in Persia, a town anciently
    famous for its glass-ware.

=Democracy.= From the Greek _demos_, people, and _kratein_, to rule.
    Government by the people.

=Denbigh.= From _Dinbach_, the Celtic for “a little fort.”

=Denmark.= Properly _Danmark_, the mark or boundary of the land of the
    Danes.

=Depot.= The American term for a railway station.

=Deptford.= The deep ford over the Ravensbourne.

=Derby.= Saxon for “deer village.” The Derby stakes at Epsom were
    founded by Edward Smith Stanley, Earl of Derby, in 1780.

=Derrick.= The old name for a gibbet and now for a high crane. So called
    after a seventeenth-century hangman at Tyburn.

=Derry Down.= The opening words of the Druidical chorus as they
    proceeded to the sacred grove to gather mistletoe at the winter
    solstice. _Derry_ is Celtic for “grove.”

=Dessborough Place.= From Dessbrowe House, in which resided the
    brother-in-law of Oliver Cromwell.

=Detroit.= French for “strait.”

=Deuteronomy.= A Greek word signifying the second giving of the Law by
    Moses.

=Devereaux Court.= See “Essex Street.”

=Devil’s Sonata.= One of Tartini’s most celebrated compositions. He
    dreamt that the Evil One appeared to him playing a sonata on the
    violin. At its conclusion his visitor asked: “Tartini, canst thou
    play this?” Awaking with his mind still full of the grotesque music,
    Tartini played it over, and then recorded it permanently on paper.

=Devil to Pay.= When money was lost by unsuccessful litigation it passed
    into the hands of lawyers, who were thought to spend it where they
    spent much of their time--viz. at the Devil Tavern in Fleet Street.
    The money, therefore, went to the Devil.

=Devizes.= From the Latin _Devisæ_, denoting the point where the old
    Roman road passed into the district of the Celts.

=Devon.= After a Celtic tribe, the _Damnonii_.

=Devonshire House.= The town house of the Duke of Devonshire.

=Devonshire Square.= From the mansion of William Cavendish, Earl of
    Devonshire, who died here in 1628.

=Diamond King.= The late Mr Alfred Beit, the South African financier,
    whose wealth rivalled that of the Rothschilds.

=Dickey.= A shirt front, which often has to do duty for a clean shirt.
    So called from the German _decken_, to hide.

=Diddler.= A schemer, an artful dodger. After Jeremy Diddler, the chief
    character in the old farce, “Raising the Wind.”

=Die Hards.= The 57th Foot. When the regiment was surrounded at Albuera,
    their Colonel cried: “Die hard, my lads; die hard!” And fighting,
    they died.

=Digger Indians.= Tribes of the lowest class who live principally upon
    roots. They have never been known to hunt.

=Diggings.= A Bohemian term for “lodgings.” Not from the Californian
    gold diggings, as generally supposed, but from the Galena lead
    miners of Wisconsin, who called both their mines and their
    underground winter habitations “diggings.”

=Dime.= A ten-cent piece, from the French _dixme_, or _dîme_,
    tenth--_i.e._ of a dollar.

=Dimity.= First brought from Damietta, Egypt.

=Dine with Duke Humphrey.= An old saying of those who were fated to go
    dinnerless. When the “Good Duke Humphrey,” son of Henry IV., was
    buried at St Albans, a monument to his memory was to be erected in
    St Paul’s Cathedral. At that time, as for long afterwards, the nave
    of our national fane was a fashionable promenade. When the
    promenaders left for dinner, others who had no dinners to go to
    explained that they would stay behind in order to look for the Good
    Duke’s monument.

=Dining-room Servant.= An Americanism for waiter or male house servant.

=Diorama.= See “Panorama.”

=Dirty Dick’s.= The noted tavern in Bishopgate, said to have been
    associated with Nathaniel Bentley, the miser, who never washed
    himself. As a matter of fact, Dirty Dick was an ironmonger in
    Leadenhall Street. After his death his effects were bought and
    exhibited at the Bishopgate tavern, together with his portrait as a
    sign.

=Dirty Shirts.= The 101st Foot, who were hotly engaged at the battle of
    Delhi in their shirt sleeves.

=Dissenters.= Synonymous with the Nonconformists. Those who dissented
    from the doctrines of the Church of England and those likewise who,
    at a later period, separated from the Presbyterian Church of
    Scotland.

=Distaffs’ Day.= The old name for 7th January, when, Christmas being
    over with Twelfth Night, women returned to their distaffs or
    spindles.

=Divan.= A Turkish word signifying a Council of State, from the fact
    that the Turkish Council Chamber has low couches ranged round its
    walls, plentifully supplied with cushions. The name has been
    imported into Western Europe specifically to imply a low-cushioned
    sofa or couch.

=Dixie’s Land.= The Negroes’ paradise in slavery days. Dixie had a tract
    of land on Manhattan Island. He treated his slaves well, but as they
    increased sold many of them off to masters further afield. They
    always looked back to Dixie’s Land as an ideal locality, associated
    with heaven, and when one of them died his kith and kin said he had
    gone to Dixie’s Land.

=Dizzy.= The nickname of Benjamin Disraeli, afterwards Earl of
    Beaconsfield, the great political opponent of Mr Gladstone.

=Doctor.= There are three kinds of Doctors--of Law, Physic, and
    Divinity. The first and the last are essentially University degrees,
    with which the vulgar orders of the people have little or no
    acquaintance. They know only of one “Doctor,” the medical
    practitioner, and since he wears a frock coat and a silk hat he is
    entitled to all the respect that they can pay him.

=Doctors’ Commons.= Anciently a college for Professors of Canon and
    Civil Law, who dined in common on certain days in each term, similar
    to students at the Inns of Court before they are called to the Bar.

=Dog and Duck.= A tavern sign indicative of the old sport of duck
    hunting by spaniels in a pond.

=Dog-cart.= Originally one in which sportsmen drove their pointers and
    setters to the field.

=Dog his Footsteps.= To follow close to his heels like a dog.

=Dog in the Manger.= From the old story told of the dog who did not
    require the hay for himself, yet refused to allow the ox to come
    near it.

=Dog Rose.= From the old idea that the root of this rose-tree was an
    antidote for the bite of a mad dog.

=Dog Watch.= A corruption of “Dodge Watch,” being a watch of two hours
    only instead of four, by which _dodging_ seamen gradually shift
    their watch on successive days.

=Dolgelley.= Celtic for “dale of hazels.”

=Dollar.= From the German Thaler, originally Joachims-Thaler, the silver
    out of which this coin was struck having been found in the Thal or
    Valley of St Joachim in Bohemia.

=Dollars and Dimes.= An Americanism for money generally. See “Dime.”

=Dolly Shop.= The old name for a rag shop which had a black doll over
    the door for a sign. At one time old clothes were shipped to the
    Negroes in the southern states of America.

=Dolly Varden.= The name of a flowered skirt, answering to the
    description of that worn by Dolly Varden in Dickens’s “Barnaby
    Rudge.” This dress material became very popular after the novel was
    published. It also gave rise to a song, of which the burden was:
    “Dressed in a Dolly Varden.”

=Dolphin.= A gold coin introduced by Charles V. of France, also Dauphin
    of Vienne.

=Dominica.= Expresses the Spanish for Sunday, the day on which Columbus
    discovered this island.

=Dominicans.= Friars of the Order of St Dominic; also called Black
    Friars, from their habits.

=Dominoes.= A game invented by two French monks, who amused themselves
    with square, flat stones marked with spots. The winner declared his
    victory by reciting the first line of the Vesper service: “Dixit
    Dominus Domino Meo.” When, later, the game became the recreation of
    the whole convent, the Vesper line was abbreviated into “Domino,”
    and the stones themselves received the name of “Dominoes.”

=Don.= A corruption of the Celtic _tain_, river.

=Donatists.= A sect of the fourth century, adherents of Donatus, Bishop
    of Numidia.

=Doncaster St Leger.= The stakes at Doncaster races founded by Colonel
    Anthony St Leger in 1776.

=Donegal.= Gaelic for the “fortress of the west”--viz. Donegal Castle,
    held by the O’Donnels of Tyrconnel.

=Donet.= The old name for a Grammar, after Donatus, the grammarian and
    preceptor of St Jerome.

=Donkey.= An ass, from its _dun_ colour.

=Don’t care a Dam.= When this expression first obtained currency a dam
    was the smallest Hindoo coin, not worth an English farthing.

=Don’t care a Jot.= See “Iota.”

=Doomster.= The official in the Scottish High Court who pronounced the
    doom to the prisoner, and also acted as executioner. In Jersey and
    the Isle of Man a judge is styled a “Deemster.”

=Dope Habit.= An Americanism for the morphia habit. “Dope” is the
    Chinese word for opium. This in the United States is now applied to
    all kinds of strong drugs or bromides prepared from opium.

=Dorcas Society.= From the passage in Acts ix. 39: “And all the widows
    stood by him weeping, and showing the coats and garments which
    Dorcas made while she was with them.”

=Dorchester.= The Roman camp in the district of the _Dwr-trigs_ or water
    dwellers. See “Dorset.”

=Dorset.= The Anglo-Saxon _Dwrset_, or water settlement, so called from
    the British tribe the _Dwr-trigs_, “water dwellers,” who peopled it.

=Dorset Square.= After Viscount Portman, the ground landlord, who,
    before he was raised to the peerage, was for many years Member for
    Dorsetshire.

=Dorset Street.= From the mansion and grounds of the Earl of Dorset of
    the Restoration period. Here stood also the Dorset Gardens Theatre.

=Doss.= Slang for a sleep, a shakedown. From the old word _dossel_, a
    bundle of hay or straw, whence was derived _Doss_, a straw bed.

=Doss-house.= A common lodging-house. See “Doss.”

=Douay Bible.= The Old Testament translation of the Latin Vulgate
    printed at the English College at Douay, France, in 1609.

=Doublet.= So called because it was double lined or wadded, originally
    for purposes of defence.

=Douglas.= From its situation at the juncture of the two streams, the
    _Dhoo_, black, and _Glass_, grey.

=Douro.= From the Celtic _Dwr_, water.

=Dover House.= The residence of the Hon. George Agar Ellis, afterwards
    Lord Dover.

=Dover Street.= After Henry Jermyn, Lord Dover, who died at his
    residence here in 1782.

=Dowager.= The widow of a person of high rank, because she enjoyed a
    substantial dower or dowry for her maintenance during life.

=Dowgate.= From the Celtic _Dwr_, water. Hence a water gate on the north
    bank of the Thames.

=Downing Street.= From the mansion of Sir George Downing, M.P., of the
    Restoration period.

=Down with the Dust.= A gold miner’s expression in the Far West, where
    money is scarce and necessary commodities are in general bartered
    for with gold dust.

=Doyley.= From the Brothers Doyley, linen drapers in the Strand, who
    introduced this species of table napery.

=Do your Level Best.= This expression means that, while striving to the
    utmost you must also act strictly straightforward.

=Drachenfels.= German for “dragon rocks.” Here Siegfried, the hero of
    the Niebelungenlied, slew the dragon.

=Draft on Aldgate Pump.= A punning phrase for a worthless bill or
    cheque.

=Draggletail.= A slovenly woman who allows her skirts to draggle or
    trail in the mire of the street.

=Dragoman.= From the Turkish _drukeman_, an interpreter. A dragoman is
    in the East what a “Cicerone” is in Italy and elsewhere in Western
    Europe.

=Dragoons.= From the ancient musket called a dragon, or “spitfire.” The
    muzzle was embellished with a representation of a dragon.

=Draper.= One who dealt in cloth for draping only, as distinct from a
    mercer, milliner, or mantle-maker.

=Drapers’ Gardens.= The property of the Drapers’ Company, whose hall is
    situated here.

=Drat it.= A corruption of “Odd rot it,” from the old oath, “God rot
    them.”

=Drawer.= The old name for an inn or tavern keeper’s assistant, who drew
    the beer from the casks.

=Drawing-room.= Originally “Withdrawing-room” to which the ladies
    withdrew after dinner while the gentlemen sat over their wine.

=Draw it mild.= Originally a tavern phrase, when anyone preferred
    ordinary ale to hot spiced liquor.

=Draw the Long Bow.= In allusion to the exaggerated skill of the English
    archers prior to the introduction of gunpowder.

=Dress Circle.= That portion of a theatre which, before the introduction
    of stalls, was set apart for the superior sections of the audience.

=Dressed up to the Knocker.= To the extreme height of his resources.
    Before the establishment of the modern police system door knockers
    were placed as high as possible to prevent them from being wrenched
    off by sportive wags after nightfall.

=Dresser.= The kitchen sideboard, on which the meat was dressed before
    serving it up in the dining-chamber. The collection of cups, plates,
    and dishes which distinguishes a dresser originally had a place on a
    wide shelf or board over this meat dresser; hence cup-board.

=Drinks like a Fish.= Ready to swallow any quantity of liquor that may
    be offered. A great many fish have their mouths wide open whilst
    swimming.

=Drive a Bargain.= An expression meaning to knock down the original
    price asked, in punning allusion to “driving” a nail.

=Drop o’ the Crater.= See “Mountain Dew.”

=Druid.= In the Celtic _Derwydd_, derived from _dewr_, oak, and _gwydd_,
    knowledge. A priest who worshipped and offered sacrifices under an
    oak.

=Drum.= The name for a fashionable evening party of bygone days, from
    the noise made by the card players.

=Drummers.= An Americanism for commercial travellers, who are engaged in
    beating up trade.

=Drunkard’s Cloak.= A large wooden crinoline that hung from a drunkard’s
    neck to the ground, causing every bone in his body to ache owing to
    the weight resting on his shoulders. The instrument resembled an
    inverted flower pot, having a hole in the top for his head to be
    thrust through. Under this drastic treatment he soon became sober.

=Drunk as a Fiddler.= The fiddler was generally incapable of discoursing
    further music half way through the night’s jollification, because
    the dancers freely plied him with drink.

=Drunk as a Lord.= When George the Third was King, and long afterwards,
    the fine old English gentleman acted up to his character by using
    strong language and imbibing strong potations. To be “drunk as a
    lord” was the surest mark of gentility, and a “three bottle man” a
    pattern of sobriety. After dining it was considered no disgrace to
    roll helplessly under the table.

=Drury Lane.= From Drury House, the residence of Sir William Drury,
    _temp._ William III.

=Dublin.= From _Dubh-linn_, “black pool.”

=Dub Up.= An expression derived from the very general custom of dubbing
    or touching a man on the shoulder when arresting him for debt.

=Ducat.= Duke’s money, anciently struck in the Duchy of Apulia, Sicily.

=Duchess Street.= After Lady Cavendish, who became the wife of the
    second Duke of Portland.

=Ducking Stool.= An instrument for the punishment of scolding wives.
    This public ducking in a pond effectually served to cool their
    temper for the time being.

=Duck’s Foot Lane.= Properly “Duke’s Foot Lane,” the footway leading
    from the town house of the Earls of Suffolk down to the Thames.

=Dude.= An American name for a fop, derived from a very old English
    word, “dudes,” whence we have the slang term “Duds,” for clothes.

=Dudley.= From the castle built by Dodo, a Saxon prince, and _ley_,
    “meadow.”

=Duds.= See “Dude.”

=Dug-out.= A Far West Americanism for a boat or canoe hewn out of a
    large tree log.

=Dukeries.= That portion of Nottinghamshire distinguished for the number
    of ducal residences, of which Welbeck Abbey is perhaps the most
    admired.

=Duke Street.= In Aldgate, after the Dukes of Norfolk. Near Smithfield,
    the ancient property of the Dukes of Brittany. In Grosvenor Square,
    after the Duke of Cumberland. Off Langham Place, after the Duke of
    Portland. Near Manchester Square, after the Duke of Manchester. In
    the Strand, after George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham.

=Dulwich.= The corruption of _Dalewich_, the village in the dale.

=Duma.= Russian for Parliament or popular representation.

=Dumb Ox.= One of the sobriquets of St Thomas Aquinas, from the silence
    with which he pursued his studies. His master, Albertus Magnus,
    however, predicted that “this dumb ox will one day fill the world
    with his bellowing.”

=Dumping.= A word which has come into prominence relative to Mr
    Chamberlain’s Fiscal Policy. In various forms the verb _dump_ may be
    met with in Teutonic and Scandinavian tongues, meaning to “pitch
    down,” “throw down in a lump,” etc. etc. A “Dump Cart” in America is
    one that tilts up in front, and so “dumps” its load behind.

=Dun.= A persistent creditor. After Joe Dun, a noted bailiff, who never
    failed to bring a debtor to book. People used to say: “Why don’t you
    Dun him for the debt?” meaning they would send Joe Dun to make him
    pay or arrest him.

=Dunce.= From John Duns Scotus, who, it is said, gave no proof of his
    remarkable attainments in his early scholastic days.

=Dundee.= A corruption of _Duntay_, the hill fort on the Tay.

=Dunedin.= See “Edinburgh.”

=Dungeness.= A corruption of _Danger Ness_, the Headland of Danger.

=Dunkirk.= Expresses the “Church in the Dunes,” or sand-hills, built by
    St Eloi in the seventh century.

=Durham.= A corruption of _Dunholm_, from its situation on a hill
    surrounded by the river.

=Dusseldorf.= The village on the Dussel.

=Dutchman.= A contemptuous epithet applied to our phlegmatic enemies
    during the wars with Holland.

=Dyers’ Buildings.= The site of an ancient almshouse of the Dyers’
    Company.


                                   E


=Eagle.= An inn sign, the cognisance of Queen Mary.

=Earl Street.= After Charles Marsham, Earl of Romney.

=Earl’s Court.= From the Earl of Warwick, whose estate it was until, by
    the marriage of the Dowager Countess of Warwick with Lord Holland,
    it passed into her husband’s family.

=East Anglia.= A name still popular as defining the eastern counties.
    This was one of the seven divisions or petty kingdoms of England
    under the Angles or Saxons.

=Eastcheap.= The eastern _chepe_, or market, of the city of London.

=Easter.= From the Teutonic _Ostara_, goddess of light or spring;
    rendered by the Anglo-Saxons _Eastre_. This great spring festival
    lasted eight days.

=Easter Island.= The name given to it by Jacob Roggevin when he visited
    the island on Easter Sunday, 1722.

=East Sheen.= A name reminiscent of the original designation of
    “Richmond.”

=Eat Dirt.= An Americanism for a confession of penitence or absolute
    defeat in an argument.

=Eat Humble Pie.= In the days of sumptuous banquets of venison the lords
    of the feast reserved to themselves the flesh of the deer. The
    huntsmen and retainers had to be content with the heart, liver, and
    entrails, collectively called the “umbles,” which were made into
    monster pies.

=Eat my own Words.= To take them back again, to retract a statement.

=Eaton Square.= From Eaton Hall, near Chester, the seat of the Duke of
    Westminster, the ground landlord.

=Eau de Cologne.= A scent prepared at Cologne. The city itself is not
    sweet to the nostrils; it has been said that forty different smells
    may be distinguished there.

=Eavesdropper.= A corruption of _Eavesdripper_, one who, listening under
    the eaves of a house, caught the drips from the roof when it chanced
    to be raining.

=Ebro.= After the _Iberi_, who spread themselves over the country from
    the banks of this river. See “Iberia.”

=Ebury Square.= From the ancient manor of Eabury Farm, inherited by Mary
    Davies, and which, by her marriage, passed into the possession of
    the Grosvenor family.

=Eccleston Square.= From Eccleston, Cheshire, the country seat of the
    Grosvenors.

=Ecuador.= Expresses the Spanish for Equator.

=Edgar Atheling.= Signifies “Edgar of noble descent.”

=Edinburgh.= The fortress or burgh built by Edwin, King of Northumbria.
    The Scots called it _Dunedin_.

=Edinburgh of America.= Albany, in the state of New York, so called on
    account of its magnificent public buildings and its commanding
    situation.

=Edmonton.= In Anglo-Saxon days _Edmund’s Town_.

=Edmund Ironside.= So called from the suit of chain mail that he wore.
    Notwithstanding this protection he was treacherously murdered after
    a reign of nine months only.

=Edward the Confessor.= The title bestowed upon the King of the
    Anglo-Saxons at his canonisation, on account of his remarkable
    asceticism, since, although he made the daughter of Earl Godwin his
    queen, he denied himself what are styled conjugal rights.

=Edward the Martyr.= Murdered at the instance of his stepmother at Corfe
    Castle after having reigned scarcely three years.

=Eel Pie Island.= From the invariable dinner dish served up to river
    excursionists.

=Effra Road.= At Camberwell, from the little river of the same name, now
    converted into a sewer.

=Egalité.= The name assumed by Philippe, Duc d’Orleans, the father of
    Louis Philippe, King of France, when, siding with the Republican
    Party in 1789, he accepted their motto: “Liberty, Fraternity, and
    Equality.” Four years later he met his death by the guillotine.

=Ehrenbreitstein.= Expresses the German for “Honour’s Broad Stone.” The
    castle stands on a precipitous rock, which well merits the
    description of the “Gibraltar of the Rhine.”

=Eisteddfod.= Celtic for a gathering of Welsh bards, from _eistodd_, to
    sit. As of old, the annual “Eisteddfod” is held for the
    encouragement of national music.

=Eldorado.= California. _Eldorado_ expresses the Spanish for “golden
    region.”

=Electic Philosophers.= Those who, agreeably to the Greek _ek-lego_, to
    pick out, selected what was best in the different schools or
    systems, and so built up one of their own.

=Elephant and Castle.= The famous landmark in South London derived its
    sign from the arms of the Cutlers’ Company. A tavern in St Pancras
    parish took its sign from the skeleton of an elephant, beside which
    was a flint-headed spear, dug up in the neighbourhood. The
    connection between these and the battle fought by the followers of
    Queen Boadicea against the Roman invaders was unmistakable.

=Elephant stepped on his Purse.= An Americanism implying that a creditor
    or some unlucky speculation has squeezed all the money out of a man.

=Elgin Marbles.= Brought from Greece by the seventh Earl of Elgin.
    Acquired by the nation for the British Museum in 1816.

=Elia.= The pseudonym of Charles Lamb for his “Essays” contributed to
    _The London Magazine_. This was the name of a gay, light-hearted
    foreigner, who fluttered about the South Sea House at the time when
    Lamb was a clerk there. At the moment of penning his signature to
    the first essay he bethought himself of that person, and substituted
    the name of _Elia_ for his own.

=Eltham.= Anciently _Ealdham_, “the old home.” Here Anthony Bec, the
    “Battling Bishop of Durham,” built himself a palace midway in the
    thirteenth century. After his death it fell to the Crown, and became
    a Royal residence, until the time of James I. The original
    Banqueting-Hall, used in modern days as a barn, may yet be seen.

=Ely Place.= Marks the site of the residence of the Bishops of Ely.

=Ember Days.= This term has no connection with embers or sackcloth and
    ashes as a penitential observance. The Saxons called them _Ymbrine
    dagas_, or “running days,” because they came round at regular
    seasons of the year.

=Emerald Isle.= Ireland, from its fresh verdure, due to its shores being
    washed by the warm waters of the “Gulf Stream.”

=Empire Day.= May 24th, formerly the Queen’s Birthday. In the last days
    of Victoria the British Empire was consolidated through the
    assistance lent by the Colonies to the Mother Country in the South
    African War. When, therefore, King Edward VII. came to the throne,
    the former Queen’s Birthday was invested with a greater significance
    than of old.

=Empire State.= New York, which, owing to position and commercial
    enterprise, has no rival among the other states of the Union.

=Empire State of the South.= Georgia, in consequence of its rapid
    industrial development.

=Ena Road.= In honour of Princess Ena, the consort of the young King of
    Spain.

=Encore.= From the Latin _hauc horam_, till this hour, still, again.

=Encyclopædia.= A book containing general or all-round instruction or
    information, from the Greek _enkylios_, circular or general, and
    _paideia_, instruction. An epitome of the whole circle of learning.

=Endell Street.= After the name of the builder. This is one of the few
    streets in London that has preserved its old characteristics,
    steadfastly refusing to march with the times.

=England.= In the time of Alfred the Great our country was styled
    _Engaland_, or the land of the Engles or Angles, who came over from
    Jutland.

=Englishman’s House is his Castle.= By the law of the land a bailiff
    must effect a peaceable entrance in order to distrain upon a
    debtor’s goods; therefore the latter is, as it were, sufficiently
    secure in his own fortress if he declines to give the enemy
    admittance.

=Ennis.= Expresses in Ireland, like _Innis_, the Celtic for an island.
    Both these words enter largely into Irish place-names.

=Enniskillen.= The kirk town on an island, the Celtic _kil_, originally
    implying a hermit’s cell, and later a chapel.

=Ennismore Place.= After Viscount Ennismore, Earl of Listowel, the
    ground landlord.

=Enough is as good as a Feast.= Because at no time can a person eat more
    than enough.

=Enrol.= See “Roll Call.”

=Entente Cordiale.= Expresses the French for cordial good will.

=Entire.= A word still to be met with on old tavern signs. It meant
    different qualities of ale or beer drawn from one cask.

=Entrées.= French for entries or commencements. Those made dishes are
    served after the soups, as an introduction to the more substantial
    portions of the repast, the joints.

=Epicure.= After Epicurus, a Greek philosopher, who taught that pleasure
    and good living constituted the happiness of mankind. His followers
    were styled Epicureans.

=Epiphany.= From the Greek _Epiphaneia_, an appearance, a showing;
    relative to the adoration of the Magi, who came from the East twelve
    days after the birth of the Saviour.

=Epsom Salts.= From the mineral springs at Epsom.

=Equality State.= Wyoming, where, first among the communities of the
    world, women were accorded the right to vote.

=Erie.= Indian for “Wild Cat,” the fierce tribe exterminated by the
    Iroquois.

=Escurial.= Properly _Escorial_, Spanish for “among the rocks.” King
    Philip II. built this superb convent and palace after the battle of
    St Quentin, in the course of which he had been obliged to bombard a
    monastery of the Order of St Jerome. He dedicated it to St Lawrence.
    He caused the structure to be in the form of a gridiron, the symbol
    of the Saint’s martyrdom.

=Esk.= A river name derived from the Celtic _uisg_, water.

=Esquimaux.= An Alonquin Indian term signifying “eaters of raw flesh.”

=Essex.= The kingdom of the East Saxons under the Heptarchy.

=Essex Street.= From the mansion of Robert Devereaux, Earl of Essex, the
    Parliamentary General in Cromwell’s time.

=Ethelred the Unready.= From his incapacity and unwillingness to accept
    _rede_, or counsel.

=Ethiopia.= From the Greek _aithein_, to burn, and _ops_, the face.
    Hence “the country of the blacks.”

=Etiquette.= A French word for “label.” Formerly a ticket or card of
    instructions was handed to visitors on ceremonial occasions.
    Nowadays such rules as pertain to deportment or decorum are supposed
    to enter into the education of all well-bred persons.

=Etna.= From the Phœnician _attuna_, a furnace.

=Eton.= The Anglo-Saxon _Eyton_, “island town.”

=Ettrick Shepherd.= The literary sobriquet of James Hogg, the poet, of
    Ettrick, Selkirkshire.

=Europe.= From the Greek _euros_, broad, and _ops_, the face; literally
    “the broad face of the earth.”

=Euston Road.= From the seat of the Earl of Euston at Thetford, Norfolk,
    the ground landlord.

=Evacuation Day.= November 25th, observed in the United States as
    commemorating the evacuation of New York city by the British after
    the War of Independence, 1783.

=Evangelist.= From the Greek _euanggelion_, “good news.” One of the four
    writers of the Gospels of the New Testament.

=Evelyn Street.= From the residence of John Evelyn, the diarist. One of
    his descendants, the Rev. W. J. Evelyn, of Wolton, built the church
    of St Luke, Deptford, in 1872.

=Everglade State.= Florida, from its tracts of land, covered with water
    and grass, called Everglades.

=Ex.= Another form of the Celtic _uisg_, water.

=Exchequer.= The table of this Court was formerly covered with checkered
    cloth, so called from the Old French _eschequier_, chess board.

=Executive City.= Washington, which contains the White House, the
    official residence of the President of the Republic, the House of
    Representatives, and the Senate Chamber.

=Exellers.= The 40th Foot, from the Roman numerals XL.

=Exeter.= Called by the Saxons _Exancester_, or the Roman camp town on
    the Exe.

=Exeter College.= Founded at Oxford by Walter Stapleton, Bishop of
    Exeter and Lord Treasurer of England, in 1316.

=Exeter Street.= From the mansion and grounds of the Earl of Exeter, the
    eldest son of the great Lord Burleigh.

=Exhibition Road.= This wide thoroughfare formed the eastern boundary of
    the plot of ground purchased by the Commissioners for the Great
    Exhibition of 1862.

=Exodus.= The Scriptural narrative of the departure of the Israelites
    from the Land of Bondage.

=Eye.= Expresses the Anglo-Saxon for island. The river Waveney surrounds
    the town.

=Eye-opener.= An American drink of mixed spirits as a remedy for
    drowsiness.


                                   F


=Face the Music.= To bear the jeers and taunts of those who laugh at us.

=Factory King.= Richard Oastler of Bradford, the promoter of the “Ten
    Hours’ Bill.”

=Fag.= Slang for a cigarette, derived from the fag end--_i.e._ fatigued
    or spent end--of a cigar. Also a small boy who acts as a drudge in
    the service of another at a public school, so called from the
    Anglo-Saxon _fæge_, weak, timid.

=Fair Cop.= Thieves’ slang for a smart capture by the police. Whereas
    another would say “The game’s up!” a thief admits that he has been
    fairly caught by the expression “It’s a fair cop.” See “Cop.”

=Fair Maid of Kent.= Joan, the beautiful and only daughter of the Earl
    of Kent, who became the wife of Edward the Black Prince.

=Fair Street.= A name left us as a reminder of a once celebrated fair on
    the Southwark bank of the Thames.

=Faith Healers.= A sect which upholds the doctrine of healing the sick
    by prayer and anointing with oil in the name of the Lord, as set
    forth in James v. 13-15.

=Faix.= An Irishman’s exclamation for “Faith” or “In Faith.”

=Fake.= To make-believe or cheat. An actor is said to “fake up” an
    article of costume out of very sorry materials, which at a distance
    looks like the real thing. A photographer can “fake” a spirit photo
    by means of two distinct plates. Food also is largely “faked.” The
    word is derived from “Fakir.”

=Fakir.= From the Arabic _fakhar_, poor.

=Falcon Square.= From an ancient hostelry, “The Castle and Falcon,” hard
    by in Aldersgate Street.

=Falernian.= A celebrated wine, extolled by Horace, Virgil, and other
    Latin authors, prepared from grapes grown in the district of
    Falernicum.

=Fall.= An Americanism for autumn, in allusion to the fall of the
    leaves.

=Fallopian Tubes.= Said to have been discovered by Gabriel Fallopius,
    the eminent Italian anatomist of the sixteenth century. They were,
    however, known to the ancients.

=Falls City.= Louisville, in the state of Kentucky, because it overlooks
    the falls of the Ohio River.

=Falmouth.= A seaport at the mouth of the Fale.

=Family Circle.= This expression had a literal meaning in the time of
    the Normans, when the fire occupied the centre of the floor, and the
    smoke found its vent through a hole in the roof. In Germany and
    Russia the domestic apartments are economically warmed by an
    enclosed stove in the centre. Amongst ourselves the phrase “sit
    _round_ the fire” only conveys a half-truth.

=Fancy Drink.= An Americanism for a concoction of various spirits, as
    distinguished from a Straight Drink of one kind.

=Fandago.= Spanish for a “lively dance.”

=Farmer George.= George III., on account of his dress, manners, and
    bucolic sporting inclinations.

=Farm Street.= From an old farm, on the land of Lord Berkeley of
    Stratton in the time of Charles I.

=Faro.= So called from a representation of Pharaoh on one of the cards
    originally.

=Farringdon Road.= After William Farringdon, citizen and goldsmith, who,
    for the sum of twenty marks, in 1279 purchased the Aldermanry of the
    ward named after him.

=Farthing.= From the Anglo-Saxon _feorthling_, a little fourth. In olden
    times penny pieces were nicked across like a Good Friday bun; so
    they could be broken into halves and fourths as occasion required.

=Farthingale.= A corruption of Verdingale, from the French _vertugarde_,
    a guard for modesty. Queen Elizabeth is said to have introduced this
    hooped petticoat in order to disguise her figure.

=Farthing Poet.= The sobriquet of Richard Horne, who published his chief
    poem, “Orion,” at one farthing, so that it should not want for
    buyers.

=Fastern’s E’en.= The Scottish description of Shrove Tuesday, being the
    eve of the Lenten Fast.

=Father of Believers.= Mohammed, because he established and promulgated
    the faith of the Moslem, or “true believers.”

=Father of the Music Halls.= The late William Morton, manager of the
    Palace Theatre of Varieties, and founder of the earliest London
    Music Hall, “The Canterbury,” in the Westminster Bridge Road, which
    dates from the year 1848.

=Fathers of the Church.= The great doctors or theological writers of the
    period from the first to the seventh centuries of Christianity. See
    “Apostolic Fathers.”

=Faugh-a-Ballagh Boys.= The 87th Foot, from their battle cry.

=Feast of Lanterns.= A Chinese festival which occurs on the fifteenth
    day of the first moon of the year. Walking by the side of a
    beautiful lake one night the daughter of a mandarin fell in, and was
    drowned. When her father heard of the accident he, attended by all
    his household, carrying lanterns, rushed to the spot. On the
    anniversary he caused fires to be lighted beside the lake, and
    invited all the people of the country round about to offer up
    prayers for the safety of her soul. In course of time the solemn
    character of the gathering was forgotten, and the day has ever since
    been observed as a national holiday.

=Feast of Tabernacles.= Commemorative of the forty years’ wandering of
    the Israelites in search of the Promised Land, during which long
    period they dwelt in temporary huts or tabernacles, formed of tree
    branches covered with leaves. Even at the present day the Jews at
    least take their meals in temporary structures covered with leaves
    throughout the nine days of the festival.

=Feather in my Cap.= An expression derived from a custom of the North
    American Indians, who stuck a fresh feather in their head-dress for
    every one of their enemies slain in battle.

=Feathers.= An inn sign originally, when the painted device appeared in
    place of the mere name, signifying the “Plume of Feathers,” or
    “Prince of Wales’s Feathers,” the crest of Edward the Black Prince.

=February.= From the Latin _februare_, to purify, this being the month
    appointed by the Romans for the festival of the _Februalia_ of
    purification and expiation.

=Federal States.= During the American Civil War the Treaty States of the
    North, which resisted the Separatist or Confederate States in the
    South.

=Feel Peckish.= See “Keep your Pecker up.”

=Fellah.= Arabic for agriculturist or peasant. In the plural, “El
    Fellahin,” the term is specifically applied to the labouring
    population of Egypt.

=Fenchurch Street.= From an ancient church in the fens or marshy ground
    through which ran the Lang Bourne from Beach Lane to the Wall brook
    behind the Stocks Market, where the Mansion House now stands.

=Fenians.= Said to express the Gaelic for “hunters,” but the greater
    likelihood is that this secret society took the name of the _Finna
    Eirinii_, ancient organisation of Irish militia, so called after
    Fion MacCumhal, the hero of legendary history.

=Fetter Lane.= A corruption of “Fewters Lane,” from the Norman-French
    _faitour_, an evil-doer, on account of the idle vagabonds who
    infested it in days when this lane led to some pleasure gardens.

=Feuilleton.= Expresses the French for a small leaf. Like the serial
    stories nowadays in many English newspapers, articles of a
    non-political character were introduced in the French _Journal des
    Debatés_ as long ago as the commencement of the nineteenth century,
    these being separated from the news by a line towards the bottom of
    each page.

=Fez.= From Fez in Morocco, whence this red cap of the Turks was
    introduced into the Ottoman Empire.

=F. F. V.= Initials well understood in America, implying the “First
    Families of Virginia.”

=Fiddler’s Money.= A threepenny piece. Originally it was a small coin
    paid by each of the dancers to the fiddler at a merry-making.

=Fifth Monarchy Men.= Religious fanatics of the time of Charles I. who
    proclaimed the second coming of Christ to establish the fifth
    monarchy, or millennium. The four previous great monarchies of the
    world were the Assyrian, Persian, Macedonian, and Roman.

=Fifty Club.= A social club founded in 1899 by G. C. Paterson,
    incidentally for the entertainment of its members on the attainment
    of their fiftieth birthday.

=Fighting Fifth.= The 5th Foot, on account of their prowess during the
    Peninsular War.

=Fighting Fitzgerald.= George Robert Fitzgerald, a noted gamester and
    duellist of the eighteenth century, with whom no one ever picked a
    quarrel without falling by his hand. A sure shot and an expert
    swordsman, he was a man to be feared by all.

=Fight Shy.= Originally a prize-fighting expression, when one of the
    combatants betrayed a lack of courage.

=Filberts.= After St Philibert, on whose feast day, 22nd August, the
    nutting season commenced.

=Filibuster.= A Spanish and French corruption of the German _freibeter_,
    derived from the Dutch _vlie-boot_, or fly-boat, a small clipper
    vessel. This was introduced into England during the wars with the
    Low Countries. The word Freebooter claims the same origin.

=Finality John.= The sobriquet of John Russell, afterwards Earl Russell,
    from his conviction that the passing of the Reform Bill of 1832
    would be a _finality_ to the universal Suffrage Question.

=Finch Lane.= Properly Finke Lane, after Sir Richard Finke, who resided
    in it, and rebuilt the church of St Bennet on the site of the
    present Royal Exchange. A tradesman in Cheapside rejoices in the
    possession of the full name of this vanished church, St
    Bennet-Finke.

=Fingal’s Cave.= That of Fion MacCumhal, abbreviated into Fingal, a
    celebrated legendary hero.

=Finland.= Properly _Fenland_, the land of lakes and marshes. The native
    name of the country is _Suomesimaa_, the watered land of the
    _Suomes_.

=Finsbury.= From the Anglo-Saxon _Fensbury_, the town among the fens or
    marshes.

=Finsbury Pavement.= The first London thoroughfare where the paving of
    the side walk with flagstones was introduced.

=Fire dogs.= These adjuncts to an old-fashioned fireplace received their
    name from the small dog that was anciently imprisoned in a wheel at
    one end of the spit. Three hours of this canine exercise were
    required to prepare the roast beef of Old England for the table. If
    the dog refused to exert himself a live coal was put inside the
    wheel to accelerate his movements.

=Fire Water.= The North American Indian designation of rum, and ardent
    spirits generally.

=Fire Worshippers.= The Parsees, who worship the sun as the symbol of
    the Deity.

=First Gentleman of Europe.= The complimentary sobriquet of George IV.,
    owing to his rank, personal attractions, and the ability, as became
    a gentleman of the period, of telling good stories well.

=Firth of Forth.= _Firth_ expresses the Gaelic for an estuary or arm of
    the sea. Forth is the name of the river.

=Fish Street Hill.= From the fishmongers who first congregated here in
    the reign of Edward I. The Hall of the Fishmongers’ Company stands
    at the foot of London Bridge.

=Fit-up.= In theatrical parlance the entire appurtenances of a stage,
    excepting the floor only, carried from town to town, and fitted up
    in Town Halls, Assembly-rooms, and Corn Exchanges.

=Fitzroy Square.= From one of the family names of the ground landlord.

=Fives.= An old game at ball, usually played by five on each side. The
    “court” consists of a roomy space with a high wall at one end.

=Fixings.= An Americanism for dress ornaments or accessories; house,
    hotel, or theatre embellishments and decorations generally.

=Flamingo.= From the bright red colour of this tropical bird.

=Flanders.= From the native name _Vländergau_, the country of the
    Vländer, who from the earliest period of their history were ruled by
    counts.

=Flannelled Fools.= An opprobrious epithet bestowed upon the English
    people on account of their all-pervading sport of cricket by Rudyard
    Kipling. It gave rise to much acrimony at the time, and tended to
    lessen his popularity as a writer.

=Flash Jewellery.= Spurious, not what it pretends to be. Like a flash of
    fire, its brilliance is only fleeting.

=Flask Walk.= In this pleasant lane stands the old hostelry “The Flash.”

=Fleet Road.= All that is left us to remind one of the clear stream
    which coursed through the meadows down to Holborn (the Old Bourne)
    and Clerkenwell, emptying itself into the Thames in what is now
    Bridge Street, Blackfriars.

=Fleet Street.= The River Fleet, which in old days was navigable from
    the Thames as far as what is now Ludgate Circus. The old English
    word _Fleot_ expressed a tidal stream deep enough for vessels to
    float in.

=Fleetwood Road.= Here stood Fleetwood House, the residence of Charles
    Fleetwood, the Parliamentary General.

=Fleshly School of Poetry.= That of the sensuous order, popularised by
    Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Swinburne, and Morris.

=Flint.= From the flint or quartz which abounds in this country.

=Floralia.= A Roman festival in honour of Flora, commencing 28th April
    and terminating 2nd May. It was said to have been instituted at the
    command of an oracle with a view of obtaining from the goddess the
    protection of blossoms.

=Florence.= Expresses “The City of Flowers.”

=Florida.= Named by Ponce de Leon from the twofold circumstance of his
    landing upon it on _Pascua Florida_, or Easter Sunday, and the
    luxuriance of its vegetation.

=Florin.= A silver coin of the value of two shillings, originally struck
    at Florence. It still bears on its reverse side a representation of
    a lily, symbolical of “The City of Flowers.”

=Flower Sermon.= An annual observance at the Church of St Katherine
    Cree, Leadenhall Street, inaugurated by the rector, the Rev. Dr
    Whittemore, in 1853. The flowers of the earth form the text; the
    pulpit is richly adorned with flowers; and every member of the
    congregation brings a bouquet. The idea of the flower service, if
    not the sermon, has been largely copied in various parts of the
    country.

=Flunkey.= From the French _flanquer_, the henchman or groom who ran at
    the flank or side of his mounted master.

=Fly.= Provincial for a hansom cab. When one looks at such a hackney
    carriage it suggests a sedan-chair on wheels. Such a vehicle,
    introduced at Brighton for invalids, was a great favourite with
    George IV. then Prince of Wales, who often requisitioned it for a
    night frolic. Called by him on account of its lightness a
    “fly-by-night,” its name became abbreviated into a “fly.”

=Fly Posting.= A showman’s phrase for small bills posted hurriedly in
    all possible conspicuous places under cover of night.

=Fly-up-the-Creeks.= The people of Florida, who were wont to disappear
    on the approach of strangers.

=F. M. Allen.= The pseudonym of Mr Edward Downey at the time when he was
    also a publisher. F. M. Allen was his wife’s maiden name.

=Foley Street.= After the town house of Lord Foley.

=Fontagne.= A wire structure for raising the hair of ladies, introduced
    by the Duchesse de Fontagne, one of the mistresses of Louis XIV. of
    France.

=Fontinalia.= Roman festivals in honour of the nymphs of wells and
    fountains. It was from these that the English and French custom of
    “Well Dressing” in the month of May found its origin.

=Foolscap.= A size of paper which from time immemorial has had for its
    watermark a fool’s cap and bells.

=Footpad.= Originally a thief or highway robber who wore padded shoes.

=Fop.= From the German and Dutch _foppen_, to jeer at, make a fool of.
    This word must be very old, since Vanbrugh gave the name of Lord
    Foppington to a conceited coxcomb in this comedy “The Relapse,”
    1697.

=Forecastle.= The quarters apportioned to the seamen in the fore end of
    a vessel. Anciently the whole forward portion bore the name of
    _Aforecastle_ on account of “The Castle” or State Cabin erected in a
    castle-like form in the centre.

=Forefathers’ Day.= December 21st, commemorated in the New England
    States on account of the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers in 1620.

=Forest City.= Cleveland (Ohio) and Portland (Maine), on account of the
    trees which characterise their beautiful avenues.

=Forest Gate.= The district which in modern times has sprung up south of
    the old gate leading into Epping Forest. A representation of the
    gate appears on the curtain of the local public hall, or, as it is
    now styled, “The Grand Theatre.”

=Forest Hill.= A name reminiscent of days when this portion of South
    London as far as Croydon was forest land.

=Fore Street.= The street in front of the London Wall, the Barbican or
    watch-tower, and Cripple Gate.

=Forget-me-not.= A flower emblematical of friendship or a keepsake. The
    story goes that a German knight, walking on the banks of the Danube
    with his lady, undertook, at her request, to gather a tuft of
    _Mysotis palustris_, growing in the water. Encumbered by his armour,
    he was carried away by the stream, and sank, after having thrown the
    flowers to his mistress, exclaiming: “_Vergess mein nicht!_”

=Forlorn Hope.= From the German _verloren_, lost. A company of soldiers
    ordered upon such a perilous enterprise, that there is small hope of
    their return.

=Formosa.= A Portuguese word signifying “beautiful.”

=Fortino.= A clipped phrase in several of the states of North America,
    from “For aught I know.”

=Foster Lane.= From the Church of St Vedast, the name of a Bishop of
    Arras. How Vedast came to be Anglicised into Foster is not
    explained.

=Foul-weather Jack.= Commodore John Byron, the circumnavigator of the
    eighteenth century. Whenever he put out to sea he was sure to
    experience foul weather.

=Four Hundred.= The Select or “Smart” Society of New York city.

=Fourteen Hundred.= The cry raised when a stranger is discovered in the
    Stock Exchange, whereupon he is immediately hustled out. This had
    its origin in the circumstance that for a great many years the
    recognised full membership on ’Change was 1399.

=Fourth Estate.= The Press. Edward Burke referred to the Reporters’
    Gallery as more powerful than the three great estates of the
    realm--viz. the Lords Spiritual, the Lords Temporal, and the
    Commons.

=Fox in the Hole.= An inn or tavern sign contiguous to the hunting
    field.

=Frame House.= The American term for a house built of timber. Chinatown,
    or the Chinese quarter of the city of San Francisco, was entirely
    constructed of “frame houses.”

=Franc.= A silver coin of Franconia or France.

=France.= Anciently _Franconia_, the country of the Franks, so called
    from the _franca_, a kind of javelin with which they armed
    themselves when this people effected the conquest of Gaul.

=Franciscans.= Friars of the Order of St Francis of Assisi. Originally
    the Grey Friars, their habits are now brown. One of the rules laid
    down by their pious founder was that the brethren should always be
    clad like the poorest of the poor. He selected the loose sack of
    grey, undyed wool, bound round the waist by a cord of the Umbrian
    Shepherds. Towards the close of the fifteenth century the better
    classes affected gaudy colours, and the poorer orders, imitating
    them so far as the use of dyed materials was concerned, took to
    wearing garments of sober brown. Hence the change in the colour of
    the Franciscan habit.

=Frankincense.= Incense brought to the East from “Franconia.”

=Freak Dinner.= A latter-day term, arising out of the examples set by
    American millionaires to outdo all previous attempts in the way of
    sumptuous banquets. There have been dinners costing £100 per head.
    To please the eye, champagne has been made to flow wastefully from a
    fountain. The name is, however, more correctly applied to the scenic
    embellishments, as when the banqueting-chamber of the Gaiety
    Restaurant was converted into a South African mining tent, and real
    Kaffirs were the waiters, to remind the diners of the mode by which
    they had acquired their wealth.

=Freebooter.= See “Filibuster.”

=Free Church of Scotland.= The adherents of Dr Chalmers, who separated
    from the Scottish Presbyterian Church to establish an independent
    community, 18th May 1843.

=Free House.= A public-house, of which the landlord, being his own
    master, is at full liberty to change his brewer if the quality of
    the liquor supplied to him does not give complete satisfaction. See
    “Tied House.”

=Free-lance.= An unattached journalist who sends out his literary wares
    on approval. The term has been derived from those roving companies
    of knights who, at the close of the Wars of the Crusades, were ready
    to enlist under any banner for a monetary consideration. Like the
    mercenaries of the Carthaginians and Romans, these were the first
    paid soldiers.

=Free List.= A list kept by theatrical managers of Men about Town,
    barristers, medical men, and others, who can be relied upon to
    “dress the house” at short notice when business is bad, and so give
    it an air of prosperity. These are not “Deadheads” in the ordinary
    sense, because they render the management a service; but being well
    able to pay for seats at all times they are apt to be obnoxious in
    their demands when the entertainment really draws good houses. Hence
    the notice “Free list entirely suspended” at such times.

=Freemasons.= A brotherhood of masons who in the Mediæval Ages built the
    cathedrals which are even now lasting mementoes of their skill. They
    travelled from one city to another, always employed in the same
    devoted work, and, to prove that they were master craftsmen,
    invented various symbols, by which they could be recognised.
    Everywhere these masons enjoyed immunity from taxation and military
    service. Hence they received the name of “free-masons.”

=Freeze on to him.= To cling to a man as hoarfrost clings to wood in
    winter.

=Freight Train.= An Americanism for goods train.

=Freshman.= An undergraduate in his first year at a university.

=Friar.= Agreeably to the Latin _fratre_, brother. This term signifies a
    member of a religious community as distinguished from a monk (Greek,
    _monas_, alone), who was originally a hermit, and, except when at
    meals or at prayers in the monastery, spends his time in a cell.

=Friar Street.= Marks the eastern boundary of the monastery of the
    Dominicans or Black Friars anciently located south of Ludgate Hill.

=Friar Tuck.= So called because, like that of all friars, his habit was
    _tucked_ or drawn up round the cord that encircled his waist.

=Friday.= In the Scandinavian mythology this day of the week was set
    apart for the worship of Frigga, the wife of Odin.

=Friday Street.= The fish market of Old London, so called from the
    weekly fast day, when it must have been particularly thronged.

=Friendly Islands.= So called by Captain Cook on account of the
    peaceable disposition of the natives.

=Friesland.= Anciently _Friesia_, the country of the _Frisii_.

=Frisco.= An American abbreviation of San Francisco.

=Frith Street.= Originally Fryth Street, after the name of the builder
    upon the land in 1680.

=Frobisher Strait.= Discovered by Sir Martin Frobisher, 1576.

=Frognal.= That portion of Hampstead once graced by Frognal Priory,
    built by “Memory-Corner Thompson.”

=From Pillar to Post.= This had reference in olden times to the hooting
    crowds who followed a public offender from the pillory to the
    whipping-post. The “post,” however, was more usually a “cart’s
    tail.”

=Fuchsia.= After Leonard Fuchs, the distinguished German botanist.

=Fudge.= A word derived from the sound produced by the nasal expression
    of contempt, _futsch!_ among the Germans and Dutch.

=Fulham.= The _Fullenhame_ of Anglo-Saxon days, expressing the home or
    habitation of water-fowl.

=Funeral.= Specifically a torchlight procession, from the Latin _funis_,
    a torch. In ancient times burials always took place by night.

=Furnival Street.= A name left to remind us of Furnival’s Inn, on the
    opposite side of Holborn, and where Charles Dickens wrote his
    “Pickwick Papers.” Anciently this was the “Inn” or town mansion of
    the Lords Furnival, a title which became extinct in the reign of
    Richard II.

=Fusiliers.= Because originally armed with a light musket styled a
    _fusil_.

=Fye Foot Lane.= A corruption of _Five Foot Lane_, the width of this
    narrow thoroughfare when it led down to the Thames side.


                                   G


=Gad-about.= The word “Gad” is Gaelic, signifying “to rove.”

=Gaelic.= See “Caledonia.”

=Gaff.= See “Penny Gaff.”

=Gaffer.= Provincial for an old man; a corruption of “grandfather.”

=Gag.= An actor’s interpolation of catch phrases at his own sweet will.
    Originally, however, _gagging_ was a device to disconcert or stop
    the mouth of another actor by the unexpected employment of words not
    in the text of the play.

=Gallivanting.= An old English word for “doing the agreeable.” Its
    derivation is clearly traceable to “gallant” and “gallantry.”

=Galoshes.= From the Spanish _galocha_, a patten or wooden shoe.

=Galvanism.= After Luigi Galvani, the eminent physician of Bologna in
    the eighteenth century, the discoverer of electrical currents
    produced by chemical agency.

=Gamboge.= Brought from Cambogia in Siam.

=Gamp.= After Mrs Gamp in “Martin Chuzzlewit,” who never went abroad
    without her fat, pawky umbrella, and when at home gave it an
    honoured position by the side of the fireplace. Charles Dickens must
    have had the town of _Guingamp_ in his mind when he invented Mrs
    Gamp. See “Gingham.”

=Gander Party.= An Americanism for a social party composed of men only.

=Ganges.= The sacred river of the Hindoos, thought by them to flow
    through Gang, the earth, to heaven. The name they gave to it,
    therefore, was _Ganga_.

=Garden of England.= The Isle of Wight. The mildness of the climate and
    the luxuriance of the vegetation bespeak a perpetual summer.

=Garden Spot.= The fertile centre of Kentucky, whence the Indians, after
    many a sanguinary encounter, were banished by the white settlers.

=Garden State.= New Jersey, from the fertility of its soil.

=Garden Town.= The name bestowed upon both Cheltenham and Leamington in
    virtue of their spas, public gardens, and promenades tastefully laid
    out.

=Gargantuan.= Anything out of all reasonable limits. We speak of a
    “Gargantuan Feast,” a “Gargantuan Thirst,” to express a capacity for
    enormous consumption. The word is derived from Gargantua, the hero
    of Rabelais’s famous satire of this title.

=Garlick Hill.= Where garlic was anciently brought to land at
    Queenhithe.

=Garrick Street.= From the Garrick Club, the premier rendezvous of the
    leading members of the dramatic profession.

=Garrotters.= Street marauders of the latter part of the last century
    who gripped their victim tightly round the neck while accomplices
    rifled his pockets. Their designation was derived from the
    _Garrotte_, with which malefactors are strangled in Spain.

=Gas Bag.= An Americanism for one who is always boasting of his own
    importance.

=Gasconade.= To boast. The people of Gascony had an unenviable
    reputation for boasting.

=Gate.= This old English word does not in all cases express a city gate,
    as in London, but a road, street, or passage--_e.g._ Canongate, the
    way past the House of the Canons of Holyrood Abbey at Edinburgh;
    Lowgate, Whitefriargate, etc., at Hull; Harrowgate, the passage
    through the hills; and Boulogne Gate, or entrance to Boulogne
    Harbour.

=Gatling Gun.= Named after R. J. Gatling, its inventor.

=Gaul.= The _Gallia_ of the Romans, from the Celtic name of the country,
    _Gal_, “western.”

=Gave him a Baker’s Dozen.= As much as he merited, and one blow over as
    a finishing stroke. A drubbing that he little expected.

=Gave him a Roland for an Oliver.= Exactly what he gave me himself; a
    tit for tat. Roland and Oliver were two knights in the train of
    Charlemagne. Both were equally accomplished; what the one did the
    other essayed also with success. In the matter of fighting too they
    were exactly on a par, since, after having been put to the test in
    single combat, for a long time neither of them gained the least
    advantage.

=Gave him the Cold Shoulder.= Received him with scant ceremony. The
    allusion is to the fare generally set before an unexpected visitor
    who has not dined.

=Gave him the Grand Shake.= An Americanism for finally breaking off an
    acquaintance.

=Gavelkind.= A custom among the Anglo-Saxons whereby all the sons of a
    family inherited alike. Lord Coke traces it from the Teutonic _gif
    eal cyn_, and translates it literally “give all kinde.” Inheritance
    by Gavelkind obtained in Kent long after the Norman Conquest;
    indeed, it is said that some Kentish lands are still held by this
    ancient tenure.

=Gavotte.= A dance familiar to the Gavots in the French province of
    Dauphiny.

=Gay Lothario.= A seducer. From the leading character in Nicholas Rowe’s
    “The Fair Penitent,” produced in 1703.

=Gazette.= From the Italian _Gazzetta_, the name of a Venetian coin
    valued at about ¾d. of English money, which was charged for the
    individual reading, from hand-to-hand, of a written sheet at Venice
    containing news of the war with Soliman II., _temp._ sixteenth
    century.

=Geneva Gown.= The habit of Low Churchmen, so called from its
    resemblance to the gown worn by the Calvinists of Geneva.

=Genre Painting.= One on a pastoral subject, with figures, that does not
    properly come under the definition of a landscape. The word is
    French for a kind, a sort.

=Gentleman in Black.= A chimney-sweep, who, like a clergyman, was
    formerly saluted out of respect for “the cloth.”

=Gentleman Jack.= John Bannister, a favourite actor of Drury Lane
    Theatre, respected by all for his integrity even more than for his
    histrionic accomplishments.

=Gentleman Smith.= William Smith of Drury Lane, the _beau ideal_ of a
    gentleman on the stage.

=Gentleman Turkey.= The Far Western description of a turkey cock.

=George.= An inn sign in honour of the patron saint of England. After
    the Hanoverian Succession, by which time pictorial signs had for the
    most part disappeared, and the name alone stood for a sign, the
    omission of the “St” made the sign complimentary to the reigning
    monarch. Reading of the execution of Charles I., we are told that
    the ill-fated King handed his “George” to Juxon, the Archbishop of
    Canterbury, who attended him on the scaffold. This was the badge of
    the Order of the Garter, representing St George on horseback
    piercing the fallen dragon with his lance.

=George and Dragon.= See “George.”

=George Ranger.= H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, who was appointed Ranger
    of the Royal Parks.

=Georges Sand.= This literary pseudonym of Mademoiselle Dupin,
    afterwards Madame Dudevant, arose out of her attachment to a young
    student named Jules Sandeau, with whom she collaborated in the
    production of her first novel, “Rose et Blanche.”

=Georgia.= In compliment to George II., the reigning monarch when this
    state was colonised.

=German Silver.= See “Sterling Silver.”

=Germany.= Called by the Romans _Germania_, from a Gaulish or Celtic
    word meaning “neighbours.”

=Gerrard Street.= After the family name of the Earl of Macclesfield, the
    ground landlord, when it was first built upon at the close of the
    seventeenth century.

=Gerrymandering.= An American political term for subdividing a
    constituency in such a way as to give one party an unfair advantage
    over all others. Its adoption was due to Elbridge Gerry, Governor of
    Massachusetts. When a map of this new electoral distribution was
    shown to an artist he remarked that it looked very much like a
    salamander. “A salamander, you say? Why not a Gerrymander!” was the
    reply. And a Gerrymander the name of the scheme remained.

=Get there all the same.= An Americanism meaning to succeed in any
    enterprise, despite all obstacles or opposition.

=Ghost.= One employed by an author or an artist to do his work for him,
    so called because, his name and personality being withheld from the
    public, he is kept in the shade. In other words, he is a mere shadow
    of his master. Originally, however, the term had reference to the
    friend who had inspired or suggested the work.

=Ghost walking.= A theatrical phrase. Actors assembling at the theatre
    for their weekly salaries generally put the question among
    themselves: “Is the ghost walking?” While those about to accept an
    engagement with a manager of whom they know nothing ask: “Does the
    ghost walk?” Its origin is as follows:--Many years ago a manager of
    the Bogus type had in his company a self-willed actor whose strong
    part was the Ghost in “Hamlet.” If his salary was not forthcoming on
    a Saturday morning he exclaimed: “Then the ghost won’t walk
    to-night.” Indispensable actor as he was, the manager invariably
    acceded to his demands. Sometimes it happened that he received only
    a portion of his salary, with a promise of the remainder in the
    course of the performance, in which case he refused to go on until
    the money was actually paid. It is said that the other members of
    the company would wait on a Saturday morning about the time for
    “Treasury” until they received word by a messenger that the ghost
    _would_ walk.

=Giaour.= From the Arabic _kiafir_, “unbeliever.” The Turks bestow this
    name on all European Christians, enemies of the Mohammedan faith.
    Readers of Lord Byron’s poem “The Giaour” may require to be informed
    of its meaning.

=Gibberish.= After Geber, an Arabian alchemist of the eleventh century,
    who employed an unintelligible jargon to mystify the ecclesiastics,
    lest by plain speaking he might be put to death as a sorcerer.

=Gibraltar.= From the Arabic designation, _Jebel-al-Tarik_, the Mountain
    of Tarik, in honour of Ben Zeyad Tarik, a Moorish General, to whose
    prowess the conquest of Spain in the eighth century was due.

=Gibraltar of America.= The city of Quebec, from its commanding and
    impregnable position on the heights.

=Gibson Girl.= A new type of womanhood popularised in America by the
    drawings of Charles Dana Gibson, and introduced to London by Miss
    Camille Clifford.

=Gibus.= An opera or crush hat, so called after its inventor.

=Gift of the Gab.= “Gab” is a very old word; it was used by the
    Anglo-Saxons for speech. The Scots employed it to describe the
    mouth; hence to “gabble.” The French had it too in the forms of
    “gaber,” to boast or talk wildly.

=Gig.= A term claiming the same origin as “Jig”--_i.e._ the French
    _gigue_, a lively dance--because this vehicle moves lightly.

=Gilbertines.= An English religious Order of the twelfth century,
    founded by St Gilbert of Sempringham, Lincolnshire.

=Gilly flower.= A corruption of _July flower_, from the month when it
    blossoms.

=Giltspur Street.= Said to have received its name from the gilt spurs of
    the knights riding to the tournaments in Smithfield. The greater
    probability is that the makers of gilt spurs congregated in this
    street.

=Gimnal Ring.= A love token of bygone days, so called from the Latin
    _gemellus_, joined. This ring was composed of two separate bands
    fitted into each other with little teeth. When lovers were betrothed
    it was divided, only to be put together again at the nuptial
    ceremony.

=Gin.= Short for Geneva. Not after Geneva in Switzerland, because this
    is the national spirituous drink of the Dutch, called at first by
    them _giniva_, from the French _genievre_, juniper. Juniper berries
    were originally employed to flavour the spirit distilled from
    unmalted rye. The native name for Dutch gin is now Schiedam, after
    the town where it is made. Dutch gin brought to England is called
    Hollands.

=Ginger.= Red-haired people are said to be _ginger_ because Guinevre,
    the Queen at the Court of King Arthur, had red hair.

=Gingham.= A corruption of Guingamp in Brittany, where the cotton stuff
    brought from Java, there called _gingang_, was dyed and made into
    umbrella covers before silk and alpaca came into use for this
    purpose. Hence the slang term for an umbrella. See “Gamp.”

=Gin Sling.= An American drink composed of equal parts of gin and water.
    See “Sling.”

=Gipsies.= A corruption of _Egyptians_, because, when first heard of in
    Europe, they spread themselves over Bohemia, and were thought to
    have arrived there by way of Egypt.

=Giraldus Cambrensis.= The Latinised pen name of Gerald de Barri,
    Archbishop of St David’s, and historian of Cambria or Wales.

=Girasole.= The Italian name of the sunflower, from the Latin _gyara_,
    to turn, and _sol_, the sun.

=Girondists.= Deputies from the Department of the Gironde who formed the
    Moderate Republican Party in the French Revolution.

=Girton Girl.= A student of Girton College, Cambridge.

=Give him Beans.= An expression derived from a French proverb: “If he
    gives me peas I will give him beans”--_i.e._ I will be quits with
    him.

=Give him plenty of Rope.= Let him do just what he thinks is best, and
    everything will come out right in the end. Following in your train,
    and, metaphorically, attached to your rope, the longer the rope the
    wider will be the sweep he can command; he can always be pulled in
    when it becomes necessary to check his movements.

=Given Name.= An Americanism for a Christian or forename.

=Gives himself Airs.= One who assumes a manner out of keeping with his
    social position. “Air” was formerly synonymous with deportment.

=Give up the Ghost.= Literally to yield up the Spirit.

=Gladiator.= From the Latin _gladius_, a sword. A slave trained to
    defend himself with a short sword in the mortal combats of the Roman
    arena for the amusement of the Emperors and the populace.

=Glad Rags.= An Americanism for holiday clothes or festive garments.

=Gladstone Bag.= So called in compliment to Mr W. E. Gladstone when, as
    leader of the Liberal Government, his name was “familiar in men’s
    mouths as household words.”

=Glamorgan.= From _Gwlad-Margam_, “the territory of Margam,” a Welsh
    chieftain of the tenth century. His name is correctly preserved in
    Margam Abbey.

=Glenlivet.= Whisky distilled in the Vale of Glenlivet in Banffshire.

=Globe.= An inn sign, the name of which was derived from the arms of the
    King of Portugal.

=Globe Trotter.= A tourist, a traveller in foreign lands.

=Glorious Fourth of July.= Another name for “Independence Day.”

=Gloucester.= The _Gloicastra_ of the Romans, in honour of Gloi, son of
    the Emperor Claudius, who was born here.

=Gloucester Road.= From Oxford Lodge, the one-time residence of the
    Duchess of Gloucester.

=Go ahead.= From the nautical phrase “The wind’s ahead”--_i.e._ blowing
    from the stern towards the vessel’s head.

=Goat and Compasses.= A corruption of the Puritan motto “God encompass
    us.”

=Goatee.= An Americanism for the typical Yankee chin tuft, in allusion
    to the beard of a goat.

=Gobelin Tapestry.= Made under royal patronage in the house originally
    occupied by Jean Gobelin, a wool dyer in Paris, _temp._ seventeenth
    century.

=God help you.= Anciently an invocation on behalf of a person subjected
    to the Ordeal of Fire.

=Godstone.= A corruption of “Good Stone,” relative to the excellence of
    the stone quarried here.

=Goggles.= Shaded spectacles, so called in allusion to gig lamps.

=Go in for Banting.= See “Banting.”

=Gold Coast.= The coast of Guinea, West Africa, where gold was found.

=Golden Cross.= The device of the Crusaders, extensively adopted as an
    inn sign.

=Golden Gate.= The entrance to San Francisco Harbour. This name had been
    bestowed upon it by the Spaniards centuries before the outbreak of
    the gold fever in 1847, from their own knowledge that this was the
    gate to the Land of Gold.

=Golden Lane.= A corruption of “Golding Lane,” after the builder.

=Golden Square.= Properly “Gelding Square,” from an old inn of this
    name.

=Go Marooning.= A southern state American expression for a picnicking
    party on the shore or up country which is to last for several days.
    See “Maroons.”

=Gone over to the Majority.= A Parliamentary phrase equally, if more
    generally, applied to one who has passed from the scene of his
    life’s labours to the spirit world. Ancient and modern authors
    contain passages in the latter connection. The Rev. Robert Blair in
    “The Grave” says: “’Tis long since Death had the majority.”

=Gone to Pot.= Vanished possessions. The reference is to the
    metalliferous melting pot.

=Gone to Rack and Ruin.= A corruption of “wreck and ruin.”

=Gone to Texas.= An American expression for one who has decamped leaving
    debts behind him. It was (and is) no unusual thing for a man to
    display this notice, perhaps only the initials “G.T.T.” on his door
    for the information of callers after he has absconded.

=Gone to the Devil.= From the twofold circumstance that money lost
    through lawyers would surely be spent by them at their regular
    resort, the celebrated “Devil Tavern,” hard by Temple Bar, and the
    not unusual answer tendered by a subordinate to a caller at a place
    of business in Fleet Street that his master had “gone to the
    ‘Devil.’”

=Gone to the Dogs.= Money that has been squandered uselessly, as the
    remains of a feast in Eastern countries are thrown to the dogs
    instead of being given to the poor. A vicious man is said to have
    gone to the dogs because in the East social outcasts are often
    worried by ravenous dogs that prowl about the streets by night.

=Gone under.= One who has sunk in the social scale; never recovered from
    financial embarrassments; who found it impossible to “keep his head
    above water.” The allusion is, of course, to drowning.

=Gone up the Country.= An expression implying that a person is
    insolvent; originally introduced into England from the Colonies.
    When a man could not make ends meet in the coast cities he went
    prospecting up the country.

=Gong Punch.= The American term for the bell ticket punch used by
    conductors on tramcars.

=Gonville College.= The original name of Caius College, Cambridge,
    founded by Edmund Gonville in 1348.

=Good enough Morgan.= An American phrase for an imposition, or any
    person or thing likely to pass muster for the reality. This
    originated during the Anti-Masonic riots in the state of New York,
    when it was alleged that the Freemasons had drowned a man called
    Morgan for having betrayed their secrets. A body was actually found
    in the river near Fort Niagara, and identified by Morgan’s wife
    chiefly on account of a missing tooth. It was, however, proved that
    the whole story had been trumped up for political ends. A prominent
    politician who had a hand in the affair indeed confessed that, when
    reminded that the body would never pass for Morgan’s, he declared:
    “It’s a good enough Morgan.” Hence the phrase.

=Goodge Street.= After the name of the builder.

=Goodman’s Fields.= After the owner of the lands upon a portion of whose
    farm the Prioresses or Nuns of St Clare built their priory. This
    name recurs in the “Life of David Garrick,” who established his fame
    at the old Goodman’s Fields Theatre before he migrated to Drury
    Lane.

=Good Old Town of Hull.= A name originally bestowed upon the “Third
    Port” by tramps and beggars, who, in common with the deserving poor,
    fared exceeding well out of the bounty of the Dominican and
    Carmelite Friars. The streets Blackfriargate and Whitefriargate fix
    the locality of these conventual establishments.

=Good Time.= An Americanism for a very pleasurable or festive time. See
    “High Time.”

=Good Wine needs no Bush.= An ivy bush was in former times displayed at
    the end of a stake wherever wine was sold, the ivy being sacred to
    Bacchus. Travellers who had once tasted good wine took careful stock
    of the place before leaving it; consequently they needed no bush to
    direct them when next they visited the neighbourhood.

=Goodwin Sands.= At the time of the Norman Conquest this comprised the
    estate of Earl Godwin, from whom it was filched and bestowed upon
    the Abbey of St Augustine at Canterbury. Neglect of the repair of
    the sea-wall caused the waves to rush in and overwhelm the land.

=Go off the Handle.= To lose one’s head or go insane. The allusion is to
    the head of an axe flying off the handle.

=Go one better.= Originally a sporting expression, meaning that by
    jumping farther a contestant would make a scratch on the ground
    beyond the one just scored.

=Goose.= The tailor’s smoothing iron, from the resemblance of its handle
    to the neck of a goose.

=Gooseberry.= A corruption of _Gorseberry_, rough or coarse, on account
    of the hairs or diminutive prickles which distinguish this berry.

=Gordon Hotels.= Established by the late Frederick Gordon, a solicitor
    of Bloomsbury. These middle-class hotels have supplied a long-felt
    want in London and elsewhere.

=Gordon Square.= In compliment to Lady Georgina Gordon, wife of the
    sixth Duke of Bedford, the ground landlord.

=Gospel.= From the Anglo-Saxon _God-spell_, “good news.”

=Gospel Oak.= From the oak-tree marking the juncture of St Pancras and
    Hampstead parishes, beneath which the Gospel was annually read.

=Goswell Road.= From an ancient spring, styled “God’s Well,” discovered
    in this neighbourhood.

=Gotham.= The city of New York. Washington Irving first gave it this
    name in his “Salmagundi.” Its people in his time were anything but
    fools, yet he may not have appreciated the singular wisdom
    attributed to them. By referring to the city as Gotham he made a
    playful allusion to Gotham in Nottinghamshire, England, which for
    centuries had merited a reputation for being a town whose
    inhabitants did and said the most foolish things.

=Go the whole Hog.= An expression derived from Cowper’s poem entitled
    “Of the Love of the World reproved,” in which he discusses the
    eating of pork by the Turks:

                  “But for one piece they thought it hard
                  From the whole hog to be debarred.”

=Got my Back up.= In allusion to cats, which set up their backs on being
    confronted by their own species or by a ferocious dog.

=Got my Dander up.= The word _dander_ here is a corruption of dandruff,
    which, though it means only the scurf on the head, has come to be
    curiously applied to the hair itself; as when the fur of enraged
    animals is raised.

=Got the Bullet.= Suddenly discharged from one’s occupation; “fired
    out,” as it were.

=Got the Push.= Ousted from one’s place of employment. Metaphorically to
    have been pushed off the premises.

=Got the Sack.= An expression derived from the sack in which mechanics
    and artisans generally carried their own tools. When engaged to work
    the tools were assigned to a proper place in the workshop, while the
    master took possession of the sack. On discharging his men he
    returned them the sack.

=Go to.= An Old English expression which leaves something to the
    imagination. Originally it must have implied a place where there is
    much caloric. In its popular acceptation it meant simply “Get along
    with you!”

=Go to Bath.= An expression signifying that a person is talking
    nonsense. When the west of England was the fashionable health resort
    silly and slightly demented folk were recommended to “Go to Bath,
    and get your head shaved.”

=Go to Bungay.= The curt answer received by persons who asked where they
    could get the once fashionable leather breeches. Bungay, in Suffolk,
    was the only place where they were made. This expression travelled
    over to New England with the first emigrants, and is still common in
    that portion of the United States.

=Go to Jericho.= Jericho was the name given by Henry VIII. to the Manor
    of Blackmore, near Chelmsford, whither he often retired quite
    suddenly from affairs of State. At such times his courtiers
    suspected some fresh freak of gallantry, and said he had “gone to
    Jericho.” Moreover, when in a testy mood, his Queen would tell him
    to “go to Jericho!”

=Go to Putney.= A very old expression, tantamount to consigning a person
    beyond the pale of London society or civilisation.

=Got out of Bed the wrong Way.= From the old superstition that planting
    the left foot on the ground first on rising in the morning was a
    harbinger of ill luck for the day.

=Government Stock.= The origin of the word Stock is interesting. Down to
    the year 1782, when the practice was abolished, public money
    invested in Government securities was acknowledged on the two
    opposite ends of a piece of wood called a stock, from the
    Anglo-Saxon _stocc_, a trunk. The stock was then cut in two, one
    portion being handed to the investor and the other consigned to the
    Tally Office.

=Gower Street.= After the name of the builder on this portion of the
    Bedford estate.

=Gowk.= The Scottish equivalent for an “April Fool,” signifying a
    foolish person.

=Gracechurch Street.= From the herb market anciently held around the
    Church of St Benet, called the Grass Church. This edifice has in
    modern times been pulled down, and the money realised for the site
    devoted to the erection of a new St Benet’s in the Mile End Road.

=Gramercy.= From _grand merci_, “great thanks,” a phrase introduced when
    French was the language of the Court.

=Granby Street.= In honour of John Manners, Marquis of Granby, whose
    name is also perpetuated by many a tavern sign.

=Grand Hotel.= Not in the sense of magnificence, but true to the French
    meaning of the word “great”; hence Grand Theatre, the Grand Tour,
    and the Grand Canal at Venice.

=Grand Old Man.= The name applied by Mr Labouchere to Mr W. E. Gladstone
    on the occasion of Mr Bradlaugh’s expulsion from the House after his
    election for Northampton because he refused to take the oath in the
    prescribed manner. Referring to a conversation in the tea-room Mr
    Labouchere said: “I told some friends that before I left Mr
    Gladstone came to me, and that grand old man, with tears in his
    eyes, took me by the hands, and said: ‘Mr Labouchere, bring me Mr
    Bradlaugh back again.’”

=Grand Tour.= More than a hundred years ago each of the sons of
    gentlemen in their turn made the Grand or Extended Tour through
    France, Germany, and Italy, just as nowadays daughters are presented
    at Court as a preliminary to moving in fashionable society.

=Grange Road.= Marks the situation of an old mansion called “The
    Grange.” The word Grange expresses the French for a barn or granary.

=Granite State.= New Hampshire, from its staple product.

=Grapes.= An inn or public sign, denoting that the house contained a
    vinery.

=Grass Widow.= A married woman separated from her husband, but not
    divorced. In the eyes of the world she passes for a widow by grace
    of courtesy. The correct description is, therefore, a “Grace Widow.”
    The corruption came about quite easily.

=Grays.= Anciently the estate of the noble family who gave their name to
    Gray’s Inn, their town mansion. Lady Jane Grey came of this stock.

=Gray’s Inn.= The Inn or mansion of the Earls Gray, made over to the law
    students, _temp._ Edward III. See “Inn.”

=Gray’s Inn Road.= From Gray’s Inn, the eastern wall of which it skirts.

=Great Bear Lake.= On account of its situation under the northern
    constellation of the Great Bear.

=Great Belt.= The great strait leading to the Baltic Sea. Both these
    names are derived from the Norse _bält_, strait.

=Great College Street.= At the southern extremity of this thoroughfare
    in Camden Town stands the Royal Veterinary College.

=Great Coram Street.= From the Foundling Hospital built and endowed by
    Captain Thomas Coram in 1739.

=Great Dover Street.= The London portion of the old Roman highway to
    Dover.

=Great George Street.= Stands on the site of the stable-yard of a famous
    old coaching inn, “The George and Dragon.”

=Great Marlborough Street.= In honour of the Duke of Marlborough, the
    people’s idol after the victory of Blenheim.

=Great Ormond Street.= After the British General, James Butler, second
    Duke of Ormond.

=Great Peter Street.= Contiguous to Westminster Abbey, dedicated to St
    Peter.

=Great Portland Street.= The business thoroughfare on the Duke of
    Portland’s estate.

=Great Queen Street.= First laid out across the fields in the time of
    Queen Elizabeth, and named after her.

=Great Russell Street.= In honour of the ill-fated Lord William Russell,
    whose wife, Rachel, was the daughter of the Duke of Bedford, the
    great ground landlord.

=Great St Helen’s.= Occupies the site of the ancient priory of St
    Helen’s, of which the church remains.

=Great St Thomas Apostle.= Marks the site of a vanished church of this
    name.

=Great Stanhope Street.= From the mansion of Philip Stanhope, Earl of
    Chesterfield.

=Great Suffolk Street.= After Suffolk House, in which resided George
    Brandon, Duke of Suffolk.

=Great Sutton Street.= Perpetuates the memory of Thomas Sutton, the
    founder of the Charter House.

=Great Titchfield Street.= After the Duke of Grafton and Marquis of
    Titchfield, father of the Earl of Euston, the ground landlord.

=Great Winchester Street.= From Winchester House, the residence of the
    first Earl of Winchester.

=Great Windmill Street.= A couple of centuries ago, when this district
    was open fields, a large windmill stood hereabouts.

=Greece.= Called _Græcia_ by the Romans, after the _Graikoi_, a tribe of
    settlers in Epiros.

=Greek Street.= At one time a colony of Greek merchants who contributed
    to the erection of a Greek church here.

=Greenaway Gardens.= After the late Miss Kate Greenaway, the lady
    artist, who resided in its vicinity.

=Greenbacks.= The paper currency of the United States, printed in green
    and with a device of the same colour on the back. Mr Chase,
    Secretary of the Treasury in 1862, claimed the honour of having
    added this word to the American vocabulary.

=Green Dragon.= An inn sign anciently depicting the combat of St George
    with the dragon.

=Greengage.= The greenish plum introduced to England by Lord Gage from
    the monastery of La Chartreuse in France.

=Greengrocer.= See “Grocer.”

=Greenhorn.= A raw, inexperienced youth. The allusion here is to the
    undeveloped horns of a young ox.

=Green Horse.= The nickname of the 5th Dragoon Guards, from their green
    facings.

=Greenland.= From the moss which grows abundantly in this otherwise
    sterile region. Iceland or Greenland moss is said to be very
    efficacious in the treatment of consumption.

=Green Man.= An inn sign denoting that the house was kept by a retired
    gamekeeper of the lord of the manor. Mediæval gamekeepers always
    dressed in green. See “Inn.”

=Green Man and Still.= A tavern sign pointing to the existence on the
    premises of a still where cordials were distilled from green herbs.
    In this case the house was not kept by a gamekeeper, but by a
    herbalist. It may, however, have belonged to an innkeeper or a
    “Green Man” further afield on the same estate.

=Green Mountain State.= Vermont, as its name implies.

=Green Park.= On account of its delightful grassy surface.

=Green-room.= From the green-coloured walls of the room set apart by
    David Garrick behind the scenes of Drury Lane Theatre for members of
    the company in the intervals of playing their parts. This colour was
    chosen as a relief to the eye after the glare of the stage lights.

=Green Sea.= From the aspect of its waters looking towards the shores of
    Arabia.

=Greenwich.= Expresses the Saxon for “green village.”

=Grenadiers.= Anciently a company of soldiers who marched in front of
    every regiment of foot, it being their function to throw
    hand-grenades into the ranks of the enemy.

=Gresham Street.= After Sir Thomas Gresham, founder of the Royal
    Exchange. His residence in Old Broad Street, on the site of the
    present Gresham House, was converted by him into a college, which in
    1843 was removed into Gresham Street. The word Gresham comes from
    the German _Grassheim_, “grass home”; hence the grasshopper on the
    summit of the Royal Exchange.

=Greville Street.= Marks the site of the mansion of Fulke Greville, Lord
    Brooke, one of the ministers of James I.

=Grey Friars.= See “Franciscans.”

=Greyhound.= An inn sign derived from the badge of Henry VII. The dog of
    this name originally came from Greece, and was accordingly styled a
    _graihund_, after the _Graikoi_, the people of that country.

=Gripsack.= An Americanism for a travellers’ hand-bag, corresponding to
    an English carpet bag.

=Grisette.= A generic name for a Parisian shop or work girl, from the
    _gris_, or grey cloth, which was at one time generally worn by the
    inferior classes in France.

=Grocer.= A term derived from the same root as _Gross_, “the great
    hundred,” and applied to a provision dealer who in former times was
    the only trader rejoicing in the monopoly of dealing in large
    quantities.

=Grocery.= An Americanism for a grocer’s store or shop. Also used in the
    plural sense for commodities dealt in by a grocer; corresponding to
    our “groceries.”

=Grog.= The name originally given by the sailors under Admiral Edward
    Vernon to the rum diluted with water he served out to them on board
    ship. They called him “Old Grog” because he always appeared on deck
    in a long grogram cloak when the weather was “dirty.”

=Groggery.= An Americanism for a “grog shop” where spirituous liquors
    only are purveyed; answering to our “Gin Palace.”

=Grosvenor Square.= The centre of the London estate of the Grosvenor
    family. Sir Richard Grosvenor was Grand Cup-bearer to George II. The
    word Grosvenor is Norman-French--_i.e._ _Le Gros Veneur_, “the chief
    hunter.”

=Groundlings.= The common spectators at the plays referred to by Hamlet
    in his “Advice to the Players.” The earliest London playhouses were
    the inn-yards, whose galleries corresponded to our box tiers, while
    the yard itself was given up to the audience generally.

=Growler.= A four-wheeled cab, so called from the surly manners of the
    driver. Since the advent of the “Hansom” his vehicle is rarely in
    request, save when the “fare” has much luggage to convey to a
    railway station or when a patient is being driven to the hospital.

=Guadalquiver.= From the Arabic _Wad-al-Kebir_, “great river.”

=Guildford Street.= After Francis North, Lord Keeper, who resided in it.

=Guildhall.= The Hall of the City Guilds. The old word Guild expressed
    the fee paid for membership in an association of artisans; from the
    Anglo-Saxon _gild_, money, _gildan_, to pay.

=Guinea.= A West African term for “abounding in gold.” The English coin
    of this name was first struck in 1663 out of gold brought from the
    coast of Guinea.

=Guinea Fowl.= Originally brought from Guinea, West Africa.

=Guinea Pig.= A South American rodent, somewhat resembling a pig. Its
    name is a corruption of _Guiana pig_.

=Gulf of Carpentaria.= Discovered by Captain Carpenter, a Dutch
    navigator, in 1606.

=Gulf States.= Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas--all
    bordering on the Gulf of Mexico.

=Gulf Stream.= The warm equatorial waters of the Amazon River, which,
    after coursing round the coasts of South America and the Gulf of
    Mexico, make their way across the Atlantic, direct for the British
    Isles and Norway. This ocean stream, never less than forty miles in
    breadth, is distinguished by a deep indigo colour.

=Gunnersbury.= The name of a Saxon village, after the Lady Gunylda, a
    niece of King Canute, who took up her residence here while England
    was under the sway of the Danes.

=Gutta-percha.= A Malay term, _gutta_, gum, and _percha_, the tree which
    provides it.

=Gutter Lane.= A corruption of “Gutheron Lane,” from a Danish burgher
    who resided in it.

=Guy’s Hospital.= The generous benefaction of Thomas Guy, a wealthy
    Lombard Street bookseller, in 1722. His large fortune was chiefly
    due to the buying up, at a large discount, of seamen’s prize-money
    tickets, and investing the proceeds in South-Sea Stock.

=Gyp.= The college servitor at Cambridge, so called because he subsists
    on the perquisites of those whom he waits upon. _Gyp_ expresses the
    Greek for a vulture.


                                   H


=Haberdasher.= Anciently one who sold Hapertas cloth, a mixture of silk
    and wool. In modern times a haberdasher is a vendor of smallwares,
    such as handkerchiefs, neckties, tapes, etc. The origin of the word
    Hapertas has been traced to the Anglo-Saxon _Habihr das_: “Will you
    buy this?” a trader’s exclamation similar to that of the London
    ’prentice of a later period: “What do you lack?” However this may
    be, the German _tauschen_ stands for sale, exchange, barter.

=Hack Author.= See “Hackney Coach.”

=Hackney.= The whole of this district originally belonged to a Danish
    Chief named Hacon. The suffix _ey_ expresses an island--_i.e._ land
    intersected by rivulets (in this case of the Lea)--or low, marshy
    ground. The suggestion that coaches were first let out for hire in
    this neighbourhood is not correct. See “Hackney Coach.”

=Hackney Coach.= One let out for hire. In France a _coche-a-haquenée_
    expresses a coach drawn by a hired horse. Originally the word
    _haquenée_ meant any kind of horse but a thoroughbred. The Dutch
    _hakkenei_ means hack horse, an ambling nag. From the French
    _haquenée_ we have derived the term hack author, or literary hack,
    one whose services are hired for poor pay by a bookseller.

=Haggerston.= A Saxon village called “_Hergotstein_,” “Our God’s Stone.”
    The stone is believed to have had relation to a miraculous well,
    beside which an altar was set up.

=Hague.= Properly, according to the Dutch name of the place,
    _Gravenhaag_, the ancient seat of the _Gravs_ or Counts of Holland.

=Hail.= An exclamation of greeting derived from the Anglo-Saxon _hæl_,
    “health.” The Scandinavian _heill_ expressed the same sentiment. See
    “Wassail.”

=Halberd.= From two Teutonic words, _hild_, battle, and _bard_, axe.

=Halcyon Days.= Days of peace and tranquillity. This was the name
    anciently given to the seven days before and after the shortest day,
    because, according to fable, there were always calms at sea during
    this period while the halcyon or kingfisher birds were breeding.

=Half-and-half.= Originally a mixture in equal proportions of strong ale
    and small beer. In modern days it consists of half ale and half
    porter. See “Entire” and “Porter.”

=Half Moon Street.= After an ancient tavern, “The Half Moon,” which
    stood in this neighbourhood. This sign was derived from the crescent
    or ensign of the Turks.

=Halfpenny.= The original penny pieces were deeply indented crosswise,
    so that halfpennies and farthings (or fourthlings) could easily be
    broken off, as occasion demanded.

=Half Seas Over.= A nautical phrase applied to a drunken man staggering
    along, who is in danger of falling to the ground at any moment. When
    a ship has all her sails spread a sudden change in the direction of
    the wind often threatens to lay her on her side.

=Halifax.= A corruption of the Saxon “Haligfock,” from _halig_, holy,
    and _fock_, people. For what reason the inhabitants of this place
    were considered more saintly than people elsewhere local tradition
    does not say. Halifax in Nova Scotia was named, on the foundation of
    the city in 1749, by the Hon. Edward Cornwallis, after the Earl of
    Halifax.

=Halifax Gibbet Law.= An ancient enactment for the protection of the
    local woollen manufacture. Owing to the systematic theft by the
    employées in the trade of material supplied to them, it was found
    that the fabric lacked body and weight. To put a stop to this
    pilfering a law was passed, making the theft of anything whatsoever,
    to the value to thirteen pence halfpenny, subject to the death
    penalty. On conviction before a magistrate the thief was publicly
    executed on the next market day. The mode of execution was not by
    hanging, but by beheading, the instrument used being a kind of
    guillotine. Taylor, the Water Poet, speaks of this

              “Jyn that wondrous quick and well,
              Sends thieves all headless into heaven or hell.”

=Hallelujah.= From the Hebrew _halelu_, “praise ye,” and _Iah_,
    “Jehovah.”

=Hallelujah Victory.= That gained by the newly baptised Bretons under
    Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre, in 429. As they marched to the attack
    they cried “Hallelujah!”

=Hall Mark.= The test mark of Goldsmiths’ Hall stamped upon gold and
    silver plate as a guarantee of its purity.

=Hamiltonian System.= A novel method of teaching languages, invented by
    James Hamilton, a merchant, whose death took place at Dublin, 1831.
    The peculiarity of this system was that it dispensed with the
    initiatory grammatical stages.

=Hamilton Place.= After Colonel James Hamilton, Ranger of Hyde Park,
    _temp._ Charles II.

=Hammer and Scourge of England.= The sobriquet of Sir William Wallace,
    the Scottish warrior patriot.

=Hammer and Tongs.= A corruption of “Hammer and Tongues.” A wordy
    warfare is well described as a hammering of tongues; hence the
    saying: “They went at it hammer and tongs” (tongues).

=Hammer-cloth.= It has been suggested that this is the covering for the
    box-seat of a coach that contained the hammer, bolts, nails, etc.,
    useful to remedy a breakdown on a journey. The true meaning of the
    term is, however, that it is properly “Hammock-cloth,” the driver’s
    seat being formed of stout straps or webbing stretched upon
    crutches, after the fashion of a sailor’s hammock.

=Hammered.= A stockbroker is said to be “hammered” when he is driven out
    of the Stock Exchange on account of his failure to meet his
    liabilities.

=Hammersmith.= Originally _Hammerschmiede_, literally Saxon for
    blacksmith’s shop. In the early periods of its history this village
    had a great number of smithies.

=Hampshire= (or =Hants=). The shire of the Hamptune, Hantone, or Anton,
    which river gives its name to the county town and “Southampton
    Water.”

=Hampstead.= From “Homestead,” signifying the enclosed property--_i.e._
    farm buildings--of a rural mansion.

=Hampton.= From the Saxon _heim_, home, to which _ton_ or town was
    added. “Hampton Wick” expresses the village home on a creek.

=Hampton Court.= In the thirteenth century the manor of Hampton belonged
    to the Knights of St John of Jerusalem. Cardinal Wolsey built
    himself a sumptuous palace here, and lived in luxurious style.
    Eventually he presented it to Henry VIII., since whose time Hampton
    Court has remained Crown property. The last monarch who resided here
    was George II.

=Hand in your Checks.= An Americanism for dying, giving up the ghost;
    meaning properly to make your will and settle your earthly affairs.
    All over the United States it is the custom at German restaurants to
    give a certain amount of credit to known regular patrons, who now
    and again are asked to hand in their checks or vouchers for
    settlement.

=Handkerchief.= Anciently a kerchief, which term was a corruption of
    “Coverchef,” from the French _couvrir_, to cover, and _chef_, the
    head, reserved for hand use in wiping the face, and carried in the
    left sleeve of the garment. At a later period, until the reign of
    Elizabeth, when pockets came into vogue, the handkerchief found a
    place in the pouch worn on the left side of the girdle.

=Handsel Monday.= The first Monday in the New Year, when _handsels_ or
    gifts were bestowed upon servants. The word “Handsel” is
    Anglo-Saxon, meaning the delivery of something into another’s hands;
    also the first instalment of a series of payments as an earnest of
    good faith.

=Handyman.= The modern designation of a bluejacket or man-of-war’s-man.
    Since 1882, when, after the bombardment of Alexandria, he was sent
    ashore to cooperate with our troops in Egypt, he has proved himself
    not only an expert fighting man with the cutlass and musket, but an
    agile auxiliary to the artillery--in short, a handy man in all
    respects.

=Hangbird.= The Baltimore oriole, which suspends its nest from a tree
    branch.

=Hanged, Drawn, and Quartered.= The former capital sentence for treason.
    The criminal was drawn to the place of execution upon a hurdle,
    hanged, and his body was hewn into four quarters, each being spiked
    in a public place as an example to the multitude. This quartering
    was substituted, in the fifty-fourth year of the reign of George
    III., for the disembowelling of the hanged criminal while he was yet
    alive.

=Hang of the Thing.= An Americanism for the mechanism or the
    understanding of a thing--_e.g._ “I can’t get the hang of the thing
    nohow.”

=Hanover Square.= In honour of the Hanoverian Succession, because laid
    out and built upon in the reign of George I.

=Hansards.= Parliamentary debates and papers, so called because they
    were printed by Luke Hansard and his successors from the year 1752
    until comparatively recent days.

=Hanse Towns.= Those towns of Northern Germany embraced by the Hansa or
    Hanseatic League, as long ago as the thirteenth century, for the
    protection of commerce against pirates at sea and marauders on land.
    The word _Hansa_ is Gothic for a league, society, federation.

=Hans Place.= After Sir Hans Sloane, the original ground landlord. See
    “Sloane Square.”

=Hansom Cab.= The “Safety Cab” patented in 1883 by Joseph Aloysius
    Hansom. This was not so much an improvement upon the Four-Wheeler as
    a horse-drawn adaptation of the invalids’ chair introduced at
    Brighton at the commencement of the century. See “Fly.”

=Hants.= See “Hampshire.”

=Hanway Street.= Here resided Jonas Hanway, the founder of Magdalen
    Hospital, who, newly arrived in England from Persia, and in delicate
    health, excited much ridicule because he was the first male
    pedestrian to carry an umbrella through the London streets as a
    protection against the rain. Hackney coachmen were especially wrath
    at this innovation, foreseeing that their business would be ruined
    if it caught on with the public.

=Happify.= An Americanism for to make happy--_e.g._ “One ought to try to
    happify mankind.”

=Hapsburg.= The name of the Imperial family of Austria, derived from
    _Habichtsburg_, or “Hawk’s Castle,” built by Werner, Bishop of
    Strasburg, on the right bank of the Aar, in the Swiss canton of the
    Aargau--_i.e._ country of the Aar River.

=Hard pushed.= See “Hard up.”

=Hard-shell Baptists.= The American term for the hard and strait-laced
    sect of Baptists; corresponding to that which in England is
    designated the “Particular Baptists.”

=Hard up.= The allusion is to being pushed hard by circumstances into a
    tight corner.

=Harem.= Expresses the Arabic for “Sacred Spot.”

=Harewood Square.= From the town house of the Earls of Harewood.

=Harlequin.= From the Italian _arlechino_, a satirist, a jester.

=Harlequinade.= The comic scenes of a pantomime. In the original form of
    this entertainment the Harlequinade was by far the longer portion,
    and the principal character was Harlequin, the lover of Columbine.
    To his ingenuity in evading the clown and pantaloon, and confusing
    them by wondrous changeful tricks brought about by his magic wand,
    the success of the good old English pantomime was due. Speaking
    clowns did not come into existence before the days of Grimaldi.

=Harley Street.= After Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, the
    ground landlord.

=Harmonium.= From the sustained harmonies produced on this wind
    instrument by means of the keys and finger-board.

=Harold Harefoot.= Harold I., the Saxon King of England, surnamed
    “Harefoot” because he was fleet of foot as a hare.

=Harpsichord.= An old form of pianoforte, so called because it was a
    harp encased longitudinally, and its chords were produced by the
    player on a key or finger board.

=Harpur Street.= After Sir William Harpur, Lord Mayor in 1562, the owner
    of a considerable estate in this neighbourhood.

=Harrier.= A dog specially suited for hunting the hare owing to his keen
    scent; also one who engages in a foot race according to the rule
    that each individual contestant makes for the goal by a different
    route.

=Harringay.= Expresses a neighbourhood or district abounding in hares.

=Harrington Square.= The property of one of the Earls of Harrington,
    whose daughter married the seventh Duke of Bedford.

=Hart Street.= Both these thoroughfares, in Bloomsbury and off Drury
    Lane, received their names from an adjacent inn sign, “The White
    Hart.”

=Harum-scarum.= One who is such a fright that he scares all beholders,
    causing them to fly from him with the swiftness of a hare.

=Harvard University.= The foundation and endowment of the Rev. John
    Harvard at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1638.

=Harvest Festival.= This distinctly religious observance by way of
    thanksgiving for the fruits of the earth really originated in or
    grew out of the Harvest Supper which landlords were accustomed to
    give their tenants after the harvest had been gathered in, because
    what was the ancient “Lammas Day” fell into abeyance at the
    Reformation.

=Harz Mountains.= Both these mountain ranges are for the most part
    forest clad. _Harz_ is Old Saxon for wood, forest.

=Hasn’t a Leg to stand on.= A figurative expression applied to one whose
    argument has no support or firm basis.

=Has the true Ring.= A phrase generally applied to poetry, in allusion
    to the common test of genuine or debased coin by “ringing” it on a
    board or table.

=Hatton Garden.= Laid out across the extensive grounds attached to
    Hatton House, in which resided Sir Christopher Hatton, the
    Chancellor of Queen Elizabeth.

=Hauled over the Coals.= An expression dating back to the Ordeal by
    Fire, where persons accused of a crime were made to walk barefooted
    over red-hot iron shares or glowing embers. If they did so unharmed
    that was considered a proof of their innocence.

=Hautboy.= From the French _hautbois_, literally “high wood,” being a
    high-toned reed instrument.

=Havelock.= The white cloth forming part of the military cap as a
    protection against the scorching rays of the sun, introduced by
    General Havelock during the Indian Mutiny.

=Haversack.= Provincial English for Oatsack, derived from the German
    _habersack_. The word _hafre_, oats, is Scandinavian.

=Haverstock Hill.= From a stockaded dwelling among the oats. See
    “Haversack.”

=Havre.= Originally “Le Havre de Notre Dame de Grace,” the Harbour of
    Our Lady of Mercy, afterwards shortened into “Havre de Grace.”

=Hawker.= From the German _hoken_, to carry on the back. A pedlar who
    carried his wares in a sack over his shoulder.

=Hawkeye State.= Iowa, owing to the sanguinary conflicts with the savage
    tribe led by the chief “Hawkeye.” Its people are called “Hawkeyes.”

=Hawthorn.= Expresses the Anglo-Saxon for “hedge thorn.”

=Haydon Square.= After the ground landlord, John Heydon, Alderman of the
    city of London towards the close of the sixteenth century.

=Hay Hill.= Marks the situation, together with Hill Street and Farm
    Street, of an old farm on the lands of John, Lord Berkeley of
    Stratton, _temp._ Charles I.

=Haymarket.= Where hay was sold in open market prior to January 1831.

=Hayti.= West Indian for “mountainous country.”

=Hazing.= An Americanism for a mad sport or frolic. Specifically it
    expresses the tricks played upon, and the ignominious treatment
    meted out to, an unpopular comrade in the army and the Military
    Schools; what in our own country is called “Ragging.” Like most
    other Americanisms, the word cannot be explained on etymological
    grounds.

=Hear, Hear.= A modern form of the ancient parliamentary exclamation
    “Hear him!” to enjoin silence while a Member was addressing the
    House.

=Hearse.= From the French _herse_ and German _hirsch_. Both these terms
    expressed a harrow or triangular candlestick set at the head of a
    coffin at a funeral service in church. At a later period they
    implied a sepulchral mound temporarily distinguished by a triangular
    stake setting forth a number or other identification mark. The
    modern application of the term to a vehicle specially designed for
    the conveyance of a body to the grave was an easy transition.

=Heart-breakers.= Artificial ringlets formerly worn by ladies to enhance
    their beauty. It is said that the most inveterate woman-hater was
    not proof against the attraction of these Heart-breakers.

=Heathen.= Literally a dweller on a heath in the open country. The
    Romans applied the term to those who, having no communion with the
    dwellers in cities, were cut off from all knowledge of their
    complicated system of mythology. When Rome became converted to
    Christianity the untutored inhabitants of the country at large were
    the last to receive the Gospel. A heathen nation therefore, in a
    religious sense, is one far removed from civilisation, which offers
    a fruitful field for missionary work.

=Heaven-sent Minister.= William Pitt, first Earl of Chatham, one of the
    most eminent statesmen that England has ever possessed. His intense
    love of his own country prompted him to measures which made the
    success of British arms pre-eminent. Had his colleagues during the
    later portion of his career been actuated by the same patriotism as
    himself, and heeded his warnings, our American colonies might never
    have separated from the Mother Country.

=Heavy Hill.= Holborn Hill, because the hearts of those riding in the
    fatal cart to the place of execution at Tyburn were heavily laden.

=“He” Bible.= The first edition of the Authorised Version, containing a
    typographical error in Ruth iii. 15: “And _he_ went into the city.”
    The subsequent edition, published in the same year, in which the
    passage was rectified, became known as “The ‘She’ Bible.”

=Hebrews.= Said to be descendants of Eber, the great-grandson of Shem,
    one of the ancestors of Abraham. The greater probability, however,
    is that the term has been derived from the native _ebher_, the
    region on the other side--_i.e._ of the Euphrates.

=Hebrides.= Expresses the “Western Isles” of the Norwegians.

=Hector.= To swagger, bully, treat with insolence, after Hector, the
    celebrated Trojan warrior. From the known character of this hero of
    antiquity it is not easy to conceive that he could ever have been a
    braggart. The inference is rather that this word in its accepted
    sense was derived from the brutal manner in which Achilles treated
    the body of Hector after he had slain him in single combat.

=Hedge Priest.= Specifically in Ireland an itinerant cleric unattached
    to any mission; one admitted to Holy Orders without having studied
    theology.

=Hedge School.= An open-air school in the poor rural districts of
    Ireland beside a hedge.

=Heel of Achilles.= When Thetis, the mother of Achilles, dipped her son
    in the River Styx to make him invulnerable the water laved every
    portion of his body save that by which she held him. It was
    accordingly in the heel that he received his mortal wound.

=Heir Apparent.= The rightful heir to the crown, whose succession is
    beyond a doubt provided he survives the reigning monarch.

=Heir-Presumptive.= The presumed heir to the crown provided no child in
    the direct line of succession is born to supersede his claim.

=Heligoland.= Danish for “Holy Land,” which name was bestowed upon it
    after the conversion of its people by St Willibrod in the seventh
    century. A great many conventual establishments sprang up on the
    soil, but the encroachments of the sea had swept them away by the
    seventeenth century. Prior to their conversion the _Anglii_ were
    wont to repair to this isle from the opposite mainland for the
    worship of the goddess Hertha, also known as Foseta, of whose temple
    it is said some ruins yet remain.

=Heliotrope.= From the Greek _helios_, sun, and _tropos_, to turn. The
    flowers of this plant are said always to turn towards the sun.

=Hello Girls.= A nickname popularly bestowed upon the telephone girls in
    the Post Office Department at St Martin’s-le-Grand.

=Hellespont.= The older name of the “Dardanelles,” where Helle in
    fleeing from her stepmother was drowned. This occurred at the point
    where Xerxes with his army had crossed the strait on a temporary
    bridge.

=Hell Kettles.= Three very deep pits full of water at Oxenhall, Durham.
    The people of the neighbourhood declare them to be bottomless. They
    are really disused coal pits, the water in which cannot be drained
    off.

=Helmuth the Taciturn.= The sobriquet of Count Von Moltke, Field Marshal
    of the German Empire, on account of his habitual reserve.

=Helot.= The name given by the Spartans to a slave from the Greek town
    of _Helos_, whose inhabitants they reduced to slavery.

=Henbane.= A plant which is poisonous to poultry.

=Henchman.= A corruption of “Haunchman,” the groom or servant who out of
    doors was in constant attendance upon his master at the flank or
    haunches of his horse. See “Flunkey.”

=Heneage Lane.= After the residence of Sir Thomas Heneage, Chancellor of
    the Duchy of Lancaster in the sixteenth century.

=Henrietta Street.= In Covent Garden, after Henrietta Maria, Queen of
    Charles I. On the north side of Oxford Street, after Henrietta
    Cavendish, who, by her marriage, carried not only a goodly portion
    of the Cavendish estate, but also that of her father, Lord Holles,
    into the Harley family.

=Henry Irving.= See “Irving.”

=Heptarchy.= The Saxon division of England comprising Kent, Sussex,
    Wessex, Essex, East Anglia, Mercia, and Northumbria, each having
    originally its own ruler.

=Herculaneum.= The foundation of this buried city was by the Romans
    traditionally ascribed to Hercules.

=Hereford.= Expresses the Saxon for “army ford” over the River Wye.
    During the Heptarchy this was the military headquarters of Mercia.

=Heroic Verse.= That usually selected for epic poetry, since the
    exploits of Achilles at the siege of Troy were set forth by Homer in
    hexameters.

=Hertford.= Originally “Hartford,” being the ford of the River Lea
    crossed by harts.

=He’s a Brick.= This expression, if not quite as old as the hills,
    carries us back to the time of Plutarch, who in his “Lives” gives
    the following account of its origin:--“On a certain occasion, an
    ambassador from Epirus paid a visit to Argesilaus, King of Sparta,
    on a mission of diplomatic importance. By that monarch he was shown
    over the capital. But the ambassador failed to see any massive walls
    reared to defend the city, and openly expressed his astonishment to
    the King. ‘Sire!’ he said, ‘I have visited most of your principal
    towns, and find no walls reared for defence. Why is this?’ ‘Indeed,
    Sir Ambassador,’ Argesilaus replied, ‘thou canst not have looked
    carefully. Come with me to-morrow, and I will show thee the walls of
    Sparta.’ On the following morning the King conducted his guest out
    upon the plains, where his army was drawn up in full battle array,
    and, proudly pointing to the serried host, he exclaimed: ‘There, Sir
    Ambassador, thou beholdest the walls of Sparta--ten thousand men,
    and every man a brick!’”

=He’s joined the Majority.= See “Gone over to the Majority.”

=Hessel Street.= The recent change from Morgan Street to Hessel Street
    in Stepney is accounted for by the discovery that here a celebrated
    character, in the person of Phœbe Hessel, was born. For many
    years she served as a private soldier in the Fifth Regiment of Foot,
    and fought at the Battle of Fontenoy, in which engagement she was
    wounded. A long inscription on her tombstone in Brighton churchyard
    would have us believe that she was at the time of her death, 21st
    December 1821, no less than one hundred and eight years of age.

=Hessian.= An Americanism for a hireling, a fighter for pay, a mercenary
    politician. The Hessian soldiers have always been ready to enlist in
    a foreign service for pay.

=Hessian Fly.= An insect which has caused the utmost destruction among
    young wheat in North America, so called because it was said to have
    been introduced by the Hessian troops in their horse straw during
    the Revolution.

=Hetman.= The Russian title of the general or headman of the Cossacks,
    derived from the Tartar _Ataman_. This too supplies the origin of
    the German _Hauptmann_, captain, chief, or headman of a village.

=Hibernia.= See “Ireland.”

=Hickory.= See “Old Hickory.”

=Hicksite Friends.= An American offshoot of the Society of Friends or
    Quakers under Elias Hicks in 1827.

=Highbury.= From the _bury_ or enclosed land belonging to the Knights of
    St John of Jerusalem in Clerkenwell. In 1271 they built a priory
    here, of which the barn remained standing until modern days.
    Compared with the low-lying district round about, this was elevated
    ground.

=Highbury Barn.= Originally a cake and ale house contiguous to the
    ancient barn of the Clerkenwell Priory. This place of public resort
    developed into a theatre in 1865; subsequently it degenerated into a
    dancing saloon, and was finally abolished in 1875.

=Highfalutin.= A corruption of “high-flighting.” This word originated in
    the western states of North America.

=Highgate.= The village that sprang up around the ancient toll gate on
    the road from London to Barnet. The tolls levied here were for the
    benefit of the Bishop of London. Even in our time this elevated
    situation commands a good view of London. The absurd ceremony of
    “swearing on the horns” was formerly imposed on all travellers
    passing through the gate.

=High Seas.= The great ocean highways out of sight of land and common to
    mariners of all nations.

=High Tea.= A substantial meat tea towards the close of the day in place
    of the fashionable set dinner. This is the invariable custom in
    Germany. In English it is usual to designate such a meal as a “Knife
    and Fork Tea.” See “High Time.”

=High Time.= A phrase employed in the same sense as High Street, High
    Seas, Highway, etc.--_i.e._ great. The German word for wedding is
    _Hochzeit_, literally a “high time.” In America the expression for a
    festive occasion or a pleasurable trip is “a good time.”

=Hilary Term.= In law the sittings of the Courts from 11th to 13th
    January, so called from the festival of St Hilary, Bishop of
    Poitiers, on the latter date.

=Hill Street.= See “Hay Hill.”

=Himalaya Mountains.= From the Sanskrit _hima_, snow, and _alaya_,
    abode.

=Hinde Street.= After James Hinde, a speculative builder, who more than
    a century ago laid out many of the streets now covering what was the
    estate of Marylebone Park.

=Hindustan.= Agreeably to the Persian _stan_, the country traversed by
    the Hindu or Indus; both terms are derived from the Sanskrit
    _Sindhu_, “great river.”

=Hippodrome.= Expresses the Greek for a race-course, from _hippos_, a
    horse, and _dromos_, a course.

=Hippocras.= A cordial of spiced wine, so called by the apothecaries
    because it was supposed to have been made from the prescription of
    Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine.

=His Nibs.= A corruption of “His Nobs”; used ironically for “His
    Highness” in reference to a parvenu or a conceited upstart.

=Hispania.= See “Spain.”

=Hoboken.= Indian for the “smoke pipe,” or pipe of peace. This was the
    place where the chiefs first met the white settlers, and while
    passing round the calumet entered into a friendly treaty.

=Hobson’s Choice.= In the seventeenth century Tobias Hobson kept a
    livery stable at Cambridge. When the students at the University
    wished to hire a horse for the day he led out the occupant of the
    first stall. If they demurred, he said abruptly: “It’s this one or
    none.” So Hobson’s choice settled the question.

=Hock.= The general name for Rhenish wines, but properly that made at
    Hockheim on the Maine.

=Hockey.= Expresses the diminutive of _hook_, the club used in this game
    being only slightly hooked at the end.

=Hocking.= See “Hock Tuesday.”

=Hockley.= Anglo-Saxon for a miry field. Clerkenwell was at one time
    called “Hockley-in-the-Hole,” after a bear garden dating from the
    Restoration period.

=Hock Tuesday.= Anciently a high festival throughout England, in
    commemoration for the final expulsion of the Danes, who had ravaged
    the eastern portions of our country for more than two centuries.
    This occurred on Easter Tuesday 1074. Most of the Danes were
    slaughtered off-hand by first hamstringing, or cutting their hams or
    houghs, which prevented them from making for their boats; hence the
    term _Hock_ for the festival. The English landlords levied what was
    called “Hock Money” on this day from their tenants, in return for
    which they treated them to a good supper. In modern times people
    stopped pedestrians in the streets with ropes, and declined to
    release them until they had parted with hock money.

=Hocus-pocus.= The gibberish of a conjurer when performing his tricks;
    said to have been derived from one Ochus Bochus, a celebrated wizard
    of Northern Europe, three centuries ago. The early conjurers were
    thought to use these words as an invocation to this magician.
    Nowadays our sleight-of-hand professors dispense with words, and
    fire off a pistol, doubtless to prove that they can do the trick in
    a crack.

=Hodge.= The generic name for a farm labourer; a corruption of _Hedger_.

=Hoist with his own Petard.= Caught in his own trap, blown up with his
    own engine of destruction. The petard was an ancient infernal engine
    filled with gunpowder; he who fired it stood in great danger of
    sacrificing his own life.

=Holborn.= Anciently spelt “Holeburne,” the bourn or stream in a hollow.
    This was the River Fleet, which had an outlet into the Thames.
    Further north, in Clerkenwell, it was called “the River of Wells.”

=Holborn Bars.= The western limits of the city of London.

=Hold hard.= This exclamation, when the advice really means to stop or
    “leave go,” sounds ridiculous. It originally meant, as it still does
    in the Emerald Isle, to keep a firm hold with both hands on the back
    rail of an Irish jaunting car lest the rider might be thrown out of
    it.

=Hole in the Wall.= A tavern sign, derived from the fact that this house
    was originally approached either through an opening made in the
    ancient city wall or else through another house that stood in front
    of it.

=Holiday.= The modern form of “Holy Day,” expressive of a great feast in
    the Church calendar.

=Holland.= From the Danish _ollant_, “marshy ground.” The linen cloth of
    the same name was first made in Holland.

=Holland Road.= From Holland House, the residence of Henry Rich, Earl of
    Holland, _temp._ Charles I. By his marriage with the Dowager
    Countess of Warwick, widow of Lord Holland, in 1710, Joseph Addison
    became nominally master of this noble mansion, and here he died.

=Hollands.= See “Gin.”

=Holles Street.= In the West End, after John Holles, the last Duke of
    Newcastle, whose only daughter by her marriage carried the entire
    estate hereabouts into the possession of the Harleys. In Drury Lane,
    the name given by Gilbert, Earl of Clare, whose house stood in what
    became Clare Market, in honour of his uncle, Denzil, Lord Holles,
    _temp._ Charles I.

=Holloway.= At one time a miry highway in a hollow between Highbury and
    Highgate.

=Holloway College.= Founded in 1883 for the higher education of women at
    Egham, Surrey, by Thomas Holloway, the pioneer of modern advertising
    on a lavish scale.

=Hollyhock.= A species of mallow, called by the Anglo-Saxon _hoc_, and
    first brought to Europe from the Holy Land. Hence _holy-hoc_.

=Holly Village.= A modern settlement at Highgate founded by the Baroness
    Burdett Coutts-Bartlett but a short distance removed from her rural
    retreat known as Holly Lodge.

=Holy Boys.= The regimental nickname of the 9th Foot, because they
    sacked monasteries and sold Bibles in the street during the
    Peninsular War.

=Holy Cross Day.= Otherwise the “Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross,”
    14th September, commemorates, the restoration of the Cross of Christ
    to Jerusalem, A.D. 628.

=Holy Land.= Palestine, the scene of the birth, life labours, and death
    of the Redeemer.

=Holy Maid of Kent.= The name given to Elizabeth Barton, a poor Kentish
    servant girl, who, subject to trances, foretold events, and
    afterwards entered a convent at Canterbury. Her fame as a religious
    enthusiast increased, until, for pronouncing sentence against the
    divorce of Queen Catherine of Aragon, she, in company with five
    monks, was hanged at Tyburn.

=Holyrood Palace.= This residence of the ancient kings of Scotland grew
    out of the Abbey of the Holy Rood built by David I. as the permanent
    abode of the Black Rood, brought to Scotland by St Margaret in 1070.
    This precious relic was a piece of the true cross set in gold and
    ebony. It fell into the hands of the English at the battle of
    Neville’s Cross in 1344, after which all trace of it was lost. James
    II. was born at Holyrood; here too he was buried. The foundations of
    the new palace were laid by James IV. in 1500.

=Holywell.= From the miraculous well of St Winifred in Flintshire, the
    scene of her martyrdom.

=Holywell Lane.= Here, in Shoreditch, stood an ancient Priory of Nuns of
    St John the Baptist, in the grounds of which a “sweet, holy well”
    was discovered.

=Holywell Street.= This now vanished thoroughfare, east of the Strand,
    received its name from a Holy Well close to the Church of St Clement
    Danes. That in Westminster marks the site of the town house of the
    Grosvenors, whose rural estates lay around “Holywell” in Flintshire.

=Homely.= An Americanism for “plain,” “ugly;” applied to persons only.

=Home Office.= The official department of the Secretary for
    Home--_i.e._, internal, Affairs.

=Homerton.= A corruption of “Heimathton,” which expressed the town that
    grew out of the Saxon village styled _Heimath_, “home” or “native
    country.”

=Honduras.= Spanish for “deep water.”

=Honey Lane.= In this lane stood an ancient market-house or hall for the
    sale of honey. Owing to the dearness of sugar prior to the discovery
    of America and the colonisation of the West Indies, honey was in
    general request.

=Honeymoon.= From the custom of the Scandinavians, who drank Hydromel,
    or diluted honey, for thirty days after a marriage feast.

=Honiton Lace.= A superior kind of “Pillow Lace” made at Honiton in
    Devonshire. This industry was introduced into England by the
    Lollards, _temp._ Elizabeth.

=Honor Oak.= From the famous boundary oak beneath which Queen Elizabeth
    once dined. Prior to that event it bore the name of Gospel Oak,
    under whose shade, in common with all other parish boundary oaks,
    the Gospel was read there once a year.

=Hoodlum.= A street rough, originally a product of San Francisco,
    but now common in New York and most cities of the American
    Union. The origin of the term was thus accounted for by _The
    Congregationalist_, 26th September 1877: “A newspaper man in San
    Francisco, in attempting to coin a word to designate a gang of
    young street Arabs under the beck of one named ‘Muldoon,’ hit
    upon the idea of dubbing them _Noodlums_--that is, simply
    reversing the leader’s name. In writing the word the strokes of
    the _N_ did not correspond in height, and the compositor, taking
    the _N_ for an _H_, printed it _Hoodlum_. ‘Hoodlum’ it is, and
    probably ever will be.”

=Hoodman Blind.= The ancient form of the game of “Blind Man’s Buff.”
    Instead of being bandaged the Blind Man had the hood, which everyone
    wore, drawn over his eyes.

=Hook it.= A variant of “Sling your Hook.”

=Hook of Holland.= From the Dutch _hoek_, a cape, a corner. The same
    perverted designation obtained in all the early Dutch settlements of
    New York State, notably “Sandy Hook.”

=Hooligan.= A London rough. This term is of quite modern date, and
    clearly an adaptation of that which has become common all over the
    United States. See “Hoodlum.”

=Hooter.= A United States corruption of _iota_. The people of New York
    State in particular are addicted to the saying: “I don’t care a
    hooter whether I do or not.” “This note isn’t worth a hooter,” etc.

=Hoosier State.= Indiana, from the nickname given to its people.
    “Hoosier” is really a corruption of _Husher_, touching the power of
    a bully to silence a stranger. The Hoosiers are noted for their
    brusque manners. The state is also called “Hoosierdom.”

=Hopkinsians.= An American Calvinistic sect named after their founder,
    Samuel Hopkins of Connecticut.

=Hornbill.= A bird distinguished for a horny excrescence on its bill.

=Horn Book.= A primitive text-book for children. It was really no book
    at all, but a piece of paper containing the alphabet, the nine
    digits, and at times the Lord’s Prayer, mounted on a small flat
    board, over which was stretched a transparent sheet of horn; below
    was a handle to hold it by.

=Hornpipe.= A lively sailor’s dance, which had its origin in the west of
    England to the accompaniment of a Welsh musical instrument of the
    same name composed of a wooden pipe with a horn at each end.

=Hornsey.= A corruption of “Harringsey,” a watered meadow of hares.

=Horse Chestnut.= Some say this term is a corruption of “Coarse
    Chestnut,” in contradistinction to the edible chestnut; others that
    these chestnuts were formerly ground up and given to horses for
    food.

=Horseferry Road.= Where horses were conveyed across the Thames on a
    ferry boat in bygone times.

=Horse Latitudes.= A portion of the Atlantic distinguished for its
    tedious calms, where old navigators were wont to throw overboard the
    horses they had to transport to the West Indies in order to lighten
    the ship.

=Horsleydown.= A corruption of “Horsadown”; formerly a down or hilly
    ground used for grazing horses.

=Horse Marines.= There can be no Horse Marines; but the 17th Lancers
    were at one time made to bear this opprobrious nickname from the
    circumstance that two men of this regiment had originally served as
    Marines on board the _Hermione_ in the West Indies.

=Horse Shoe.= A large public-house at the Oxford Street end of Tottenham
    Court Road, this sign being derived from the trade mark of Messrs
    Meux’s brewery adjoining.

=Hose.= From the Icelandic _hosa_, stocking.

=Hosier Lane.= From the hosiers who congregated in it.

=Hospice.= From the Latin _hospes_, a stranger, guest. This term is now
    confined to an Alpine retreat for the reception of travellers.
    Elsewhere the French word Hospital obtains for any establishment set
    apart for the temporary accommodation of the poor. Formerly,
    however, it implied a lazar-house or a refuge for fallen women; in
    its modern sense a hospital is exclusively an institution for the
    sick poor.

=Hospice of St Bernard.= See “Bernardine Hospice.”

=Hospital.= See “Hospice.”

=Hostelry.= From the old French _hostellerie_, an inn, through the Latin
    _hospes_, a stranger, a guest. The modern French form is “Hotel,”
    which implies not only an establishment for the entertainment of
    travellers, but also a superior house or palace.

=Hotel.= See “Hostelry.”

=Hotel des Invalides.= A magnificent establishment in Paris, originally
    designed as an asylum for invalided and disabled soldiers by Henry
    IV. in 1596. Prior to that time no provision existed for warriors
    who had spent their best energies in their country’s service save
    the charity of the monastic institutions.

=Hotspur.= The surname of Harry Percy, on account of his mad courage
    when mounted on his charger. A man of fiery, ungovernable temper is
    said to be “a regular Hotspur.”

=Houndsditch.= The dry ditch outside the city wall which was made the
    receptacle for all kinds of refuse, and dead dogs in particular.

=Houp la.= This exclamation on the part of a circus ringmaster as the
    signal for an equestrienne to leap over horizontal barriers or
    through paper hoops has been derived from the Californian stage
    drivers’ ejaculation to their horses.

=Housemaids’ Knee.= Housemaids are specially liable to this affection of
    the sac under the knee-pan through kneeling on hard or damp floors.

=House of Keys.= The Representative Council of the Isle of Man, so
    called from the Manx _Kiare-as-feed_, four and twenty, this being
    the number appointed by statute to form the “Court of Tynwald.”
    Tynwald is an artificial mound in the centre of the island whence a
    new law has from time immemorial been promulgated.

=Housewarming.= The name given to a party or reception of guests on
    taking possession of a newly built mansion. This was of old a winter
    function, when the lighting of large fires in all the rooms for the
    occasion proved serviceable in drying the plastered walls and
    ceilings.

=Howard Street.= From the town house and grounds of the Howards, Dukes
    of Norfolk and Earls of Arundel and Surrey, that stood on the large
    plot of ground now covered by the four streets bearing these names.

=Howitzer.= A German cannon, properly called a _haubitze_, from the
    Bohemian term _haufnice_, a sling.

=Hoxton.= Little more than a hundred years ago this district bore the
    name of _Hogsdon_ on account of the great number of pigs bred here.
    Hog Lane still exists off the High Street.

=Hub.= The proud pet name of the city of Boston, the social centre of
    the United States, in the same sense as the hub is a centre for a
    wheel. The origin of the term is ascribed to Dr Oliver Wendell
    Holmes who, in one of his books spoke of the State House at Boston
    as “the hub of the solar system.”

=Hudibrastic Verse.= That which is in imitation of the measure and
    doggerel style of Samuel Butler’s “Hudibras.”

=Hudson River.= After Captain Henry Hudson, who discovered it in 1609. A
    year later, when searching for a north-west passage, he navigated
    the bay and the strait named in his honour.

=Huggin Lane.= After Hugan, a wealthy citizen who resided here, _temp._
    Edward I.

=Huguenots.= The name borne by the adherents of the Reformation in
    France, after Hugh, a Genevese Calvinist, their leader, and the
    German _eidgenossen_, confederates.

=Hull.= From the river upon which it stands. Its ancient name was
    Kingston-upon-Hull, a town founded by Edward I. in 1299.

=Hull Cheese.= A strong ale for which the “Good Old Town of Hull” was at
    one time famous. To “eat Hull cheese” was to get incontinently
    drunk.

=Hull, Hell, and Halifax.= In olden times, before Kingston-upon-Hull
    could be approached direct from the Humber, the River Hull was
    navigable, as now, only at high water, and even then it required
    very skilful pilotage on account of the many sandbanks at its mouth;
    it was therefore dreaded by seafaring men. Taylor, the Water Poet,
    wrote: “From Hull, Hell, and Halifax, good Lord, deliver us!” The
    reference to Halifax arose out of the knowledge that in his day a
    man could be executed there for stealing property to the value of
    thirteen pence halfpenny. See “Halifax Gibbet Law.”

=Humanitarians.= Those who believe in the complete humanity of Christ,
    namely--that He was capable of committing sin like any other mortal.

=Humble Bee.= A corruption of “Humming Bee.”

=Humbug.= The old mode of expressing approbation of a speech or at the
    play was by humming, but since the sincerity of this form of
    applause could not always be relied upon, intermingled as it may
    have been with suppressed murmurs of disapproval, the word _Hum_
    came to be applied to mock admiration or flattery, intended only to
    deceive. Hence the saying: “That’s all hum.” The added word _Bug_ is
    very old, signifying a frightful object, a thing to be shunned. To
    humbug is to deceive; to prefer candour to humbug is to be proof
    against flattery.

=Humming Bird.= So called from the sound caused by the rapid motion of
    its wings in flight.

=Hummums.= A hotel in Covent Garden built on the site of a Persian or
    Turkish sweating bath so called in the seventeenth century. The name
    is Arabic.

=Hundred.= A Saxon subdivision of the English shires said to have been
    introduced by Alfred the Great. Each hundred comprised a colony of
    “ten times ten” families--that is to say, ten divisions of ten
    freeholders and their dependents in each. In all then there were one
    hundred champions to defend the common cause. In legal and
    ecclesiastical documents relative to lands such property is still
    said to be situate in a particular “hundred” as well as parish.

=Hungary.= The country of the Huns, who swarmed over from Asia and
    expelled the Goths from this portion of Europe in the fourth
    century. When first heard of in China, about a hundred years
    previous, the natives designated them _Hiong-nu_, signifying
    “Giants.” These Huns were really the Mongolian race still known as
    the _Kalmucks_. The suffix _gary_ is a Western modification of the
    Teutonic _gau_, district or country.

=Hungary Water.= A perfume, properly called “The Queen of Hungary’s
    Water” from the circumstance that the recipe had been given by a
    hermit to one of the queens of Hungary.

=Hung on Wires.= An American expression for one suffering from “nerves,”
    a nervous or fidgety person.

=Huns.= See “Hungary.”

=Huntingdon.= Expresses the shire most favoured for hunting, this being
    anciently a vast deer forest.

=Hurly-burly.= An expression derived from the tumult of ancient warfare,
    with especial reference to the hurling of spears and battle-axes.
    The witches in _Macbeth_ say:

                      “When the hurly-burly’s done,
                      When the battle’s lost and won.”

=Huron.= This lake was so called by the French settlers on account of
    the profusion of hair of the Indian tribe, the Wyandots, whom they
    encountered on its shores. _Hure_ is French for “head of hair.”

=Hurrah.= This exclamation is from the Scandinavian _Hurra_, said to
    have been originally _Thor-aie_, an invocation to the god Thor for
    aid in battle, just as the battle cry of the Normans was _Ha-Rou_,
    in honour of Rollo.

=Hurricane.= From the West Indian _urican_, “a violent wind.” The word
    was introduced to Europe by seamen, and so became incorporated in
    various languages.

=Hurry up.= An exclamation derived, both in England and America, from
    the custom of eating-house keepers anxious to expedite the service
    from the kitchens below stairs.

=Husbands’ Boat.= The steamboat by which city men and others go down to
    Margate for the week-end holiday in order to join their families who
    are staying there for the season.

=Hussar.= Expresses the Hungarian for a “twenty-paid soldier”--_husz_
    meaning twenty, and _ar_ the price of. When Matthias Corvinus
    ascended the throne of the Magyars he decreed that, in order to
    provide a regular cavalry, each twenty families must enrol and equip
    one mounted soldier free of all cost to the State. An interesting
    point in connection with the uniform of the Hussar regiments
    everywhere was that they always allowed the right sleeve of the
    upper jacket to hang loose on their backs. This was only in keeping
    with the general custom of the Magyar peasantry, who had the right
    arm free on all occasions.

=Hussites.= The Protestants of Bohemia, after John Huss, the Reformer.

=Hussy.= A corruption of “housewife.” The epithet now implies a
    slatternly sort of woman.

=Hustings.= The ancient name for the Court of Aldermen in the city of
    London. In modern days it came to imply the platform from which
    candidates for election delivered their addresses to the populace.
    The word _Husting_ expressed the Anglo-Saxon for a council-house:
    from the Scandinavian _hus_, house, and _thing_, an assembly.

=Hustler.= An Americanism for a smart, energetic tradesman, more
    especially a caterer or restaurateur, who hustles about and never
    keeps his customers waiting. The word “Hustle” comes from the Dutch
    _hutselen_, to shake together or to and fro.

=Hyacinth.= According to the Greek fable this flower sprang from the
    blood of the beautiful youth Hyacinthus, who, having aroused the
    jealousy of Zephyr, received his death-blow at her hands by casting
    Apollo’s quoit at his head.

=Hyde Park.= Anciently described as the Hyde Manor belonging to the
    Abbots of St Peter’s, Westminster.

=Hyde Park Corner.= Of old the western extremity of London, defined by a
    toll gate.

=Hydro.= Short for a hydropathic establishment.

=Hythe.= From the Anglo-Saxon _hithe_, a haven.


                                   I


=Iambic Verse.= Poetical satires written in _Iambics_, or two-syllable
    foot measure, were originally so called after Iambe, an attendant
    upon one of the queens of Sparta, who kept a commonplace book of
    lively, free, and satirical pieces.

=Iberia.= The ancient name of Spain, from the _Iberi_, its original
    inhabitants. These were maritime adventurers from Phœnicia who
    penetrated the country by way of the River Ebro. When in course of
    time the Celts descended upon them from the Pyrenees, they spread
    themselves to the south and west. On reaching the sea at the
    farthest limit of their wanderings they imagined themselves at the
    end of the world, and so gave the name of _Iber_, a Phœnician
    word of that import, to the country. Its principal eastern river,
    the Ebro, retains the original name.

=Iceland.= So called because its north and west coasts are generally
    blocked with ice that has drifted down from Greenland.

=Iceland Moss.= A lichen indigenous to Iceland and Greenland which is
    said to be very efficacious in the treatment of consumption.

=Ice Plant.= Found in South Africa, and so called on account of its
    glittering, watery vesicles which give it the appearance of being
    covered with ice.

=Ich Dien.= German for “I serve.” The motto assumed by Edward the Black
    Prince after he found it under the plume of John, King of Bohemia,
    slain by him at the battle of Cressy.

=Iconoclast.= An image breaker, from the Greek _eikon_, image, and
    _klazo_, I break.

=Idolater.= From the Greek _eidolon_, a figure, and _latres_,
    worshipper. The root of this word, _eidein_, to see, furnishes the
    key to its true meaning. An idolater is one who worships that which
    he sees, not on account of its intrinsic worth, but because it is a
    visible representation, or it may be merely a symbol, of the deity
    that he is taught to venerate.

=Idol Lane.= Said to be a corruption of Idle Lane, because this was
    perhaps the only thoroughfare in the neighbourhood not given up to
    business--_i.e._ either as a market or a hive of industrious
    artisans.

=Il Bassano.= See “Bassano.”

=Il Furioso.= The sobriquet of Jacopo Robusti, better known as
    “Tintoretto,” owing to the rapidity with which he turned out his
    wonderful paintings.

=Iliad.= The title of Homer’s epic treating of the destruction of Troy;
    originally called _Illium_, after _Ilos_, the founder of the city.

=I’ll be through directly.= An Americanism for “I’ll be ready very
    soon,” or “I’ll have it finished directly.”

=Illinois.= The Indian _illini_, men, with the French suffix _oix_, a
    tribe.

=I’ll take my Davy on it.= The word “Davy” is a corruption of
    “affidavit.”

=Il Perugino.= The better-known name of the celebrated Italian artist
    Pietro Vanucci, who, born at Citta della Pieve in Umbria,
    established himself and remained all his life in the neighbouring
    city of Perugia.

=Il Tintoretto.= See “Tintoretto.”

=Imperial.= The name given to the once fashionable chin tuft, after
    Napoleon III., who was the first to wear his beard in this
    diminutive fashion.

=In a Crack.= Done instantly, in no more time than it takes for a gun to
    go off.

=In a Jiffy.= The word “jiffy” is a corruption of the now obsolete
    _gliff_--_i.e._ a mere glance.

=Inch of Candle.= In some parts of the country land is still disposed of
    at auction by inch of candle. This was the ancient form of
    auctioneering. Candles of inch length were provided, and when the
    candle went out the bidding was closed.

=Inchcolm.= Expresses the _inch_ or isle of St Columba, who dwelt here
    while labouring to convert the Picts to Christianity.

=In Clover.= In a contented frame of mind because provided with
    everything necessary for the time being. Cattle always make for the
    clover when turned out to graze.

=Incog.= Short for _Incognito_, an Italian word signifying “not known.”
    Royal personages desirous of avoiding ceremony often travel
    _incog._, or under an assumed title.

=Independence Day.= The fourth of July, in commemoration of the American
    Declaration of Independence, 1776.

=Independents.= The same as “Congregationalists.”

=India.= From the Indus or Hindus, a Persian corruption of the Sanskrit
    _Sindhu_, “great river.” By the Greeks this river was known as the
    _Hindus_, which with the Persian suffix _stan_ gave the name
    “Hindustan” to the whole country. In the time of Columbus, and long
    afterwards, the Asiatic continent east of the Ganges was generally
    styled India. This accounts for such names as “Indian Ink,” etc.,
    products really of the Far East.

=Indiana.= From the great number of Indians that overran this state in
    the early days of its history.

=Indianapolis.= The capital of the state of Indiana. _Polis_ is Greek
    for city.

=Indian Corn.= Maize, brought from the West Indies.

=Indian File.= A march in single file, as is the custom of the North
    American Indians.

=Indian Gift.= A reclaimed present. When a North American Indian gives
    anything he expects a gift equivalent in value, or else his own back
    again.

=Indian Ink.= Originally brought from China, but now made from
    lamp-black and animal glue in England. See “India.”

=Indian Liquor.= See “Indian Whisky.”

=Indian Reservation.= A considerable tract of land on the plains
    reserved for the Indian tribes.

=Indians of North America.= When Columbus discovered the “New World” he
    was under the impression that he had happened on that vast tract of
    country east of the Ganges vaguely known as India. This shows that,
    sailing westward as he did, he must have regarded the earth as a
    globe.

=Indian Summer.= The equivalent of what is called St Martin’s Summer in
    England. The North American Indians always avail themselves of the
    pleasant weather during the early part of November for harvesting
    their corn; they say there is an unfailing nine days’ second summer
    just before the winter sets in.

=Indian Whisky.= The name given to specially adulterated whisky for sale
    to the Indians of North America.

=India Paper.= A special kind of paper, made of vegetable fibre in China
    and Japan, on which the first impressions, called India proof, of
    engravings are taken. See “India.”

=India Proof.= See “India Paper.”

=India-rubber.= Caoutchouc, first imported from China, but now found
    elsewhere. See “India.”

=India-rubber Railway Sandwich.= The typical refreshment-room sandwich,
    the bread slices of which are as a rule so stale that they defy
    hasty mastication.

=Indigo.= A blue dye prepared from the _Indicus_, or Indian plant.

=Industrial Schools.= Also known as Ragged Schools, of which the
    scholars are waifs and strays brought together for the acquirement
    of some useful industry.

=Infra.= Latin for below, beneath. A word very generally met with in
    library catalogues: “See _Infra_.” It is the antithesis of _Supra_,
    above.

=Infra Dig.= Short for _Infra Dignitatem_, which expresses the Latin for
    “beneath one’s dignity.”

=Infant.= In law, any person under the age of twenty-one.

=Infanta.= The title of princesses of the royal blood in Spain and
    Portugal, except the heiress-apparent.

=Infante.= The corresponding title of the sons of the kings of Spain and
    Portugal.

=Infant Roscius.= William Henry Betty, the celebrated boy actor, named
    after the greatest historian of antiquity. His public career was
    brief--viz. five years only, 1803-1808--but during that period he
    became the rage; so much so, that while at Covent Garden, where he
    received a salary of fifty guineas a night, the military had to be
    called out to maintain order.

=Infantry.= Foot soldiers, so called, not because, like children, they
    have to be trained to walk, but for the reason that one of the
    _Infantes_ of Spain collected a body of armed men, unmounted, to
    rescue his father, the King, from captivity at the hands of the
    Moors. Afterwards foot soldiers in Spain and Italy received the name
    of _Enfanteria_.

=Infirmary.= The older and more correct description of an institution
    for the sick and infirm. See “Hospice.”

=Inn.= The Anglo-Saxon word _Inne_ expressed a mansion. The Inns of
    Court were originally the town houses of noble families, whose name
    they still bear--_e.g._ Gray’s Inn. Our first inns set apart for the
    entertainment of travellers were in all cases the mansions of the
    nobility left in charge of the trusted servant, the gamekeeper,
    during the prolonged absence, either in the wars at home or in the
    Crusades abroad, of their owners. The family arms served as a sign.
    After the return of his master the servant, now an innkeeper, set up
    an inn of his own contiguous to the original, and adopted the same
    sign. Here we have an explanation of such grotesque inn signs--now
    that their names have taken the place of the painted device--as the
    Blue Boar, the Red Lion, etc. At times the innkeeper preferred the
    sign of the “Green Man.”

=Innocents’ Day.= December 28th, commemorating the massacre of the Holy
    Innocents by Herod. Anciently children were soundly whipped in their
    beds before rising on this day. Being undeserving of such
    punishment, they were taught to suffer pain for Christ’s sake.

=Inns of Court.= See “Inn.”

=In Quad.= This is not altogether thieves’ slang, though the gipsy word
    for prison is _quaid_. Boys at our public schools say they are “in
    quad” when they are confined to their own quadrangle. The phrase
    became popular in connection with a prison when debtors were
    confined in the Fleet, the Marshalsea, and Whitecross Street,
    because they were free to receive visitors in the exercise court or
    quadrangle.

=Insect.= From the root _seco_, to cut, because this tiny species of the
    animal world is, as it were, cut deeply into three distinct parts:
    the head, thorax, and abdomen.

=Interlaken.= The Swiss village situated “between the lakes” Brienz and
    Thun.

=In the Jug.= Slang for “in prison.” The term is derived from the
    Scottish _joug_, a kind of iron yoke or pillory for the head
    designed for the punishment of rogues and vagabonds. When at a later
    period a round house of stone was set up in the market-place for
    such offenders, this earliest prison was popularly called “The Stone
    Jug.”

=In the Nick of Time.= This expression originated in the nicks or
    notches made in a piece of wood called a Tally, both as an
    acknowledgment of money paid and by way of registering a person’s
    arrival at a place of assembly. If, in the latter case, he arrived
    late, his tally would not be nicked, as evidence of having put in an
    appearance.

=In the Odour of Sanctity.= The ancient idea was that the bodies of
    saints after death emitted a peculiar fragrant odour. This
    originated in the profuse employment of incense at the
    administration of the last solemn rites of the Viaticum.

=In the Soup.= An Americanism for “out of the running.” This had
    reference originally to the hunting field when a rider was pitched
    into a ditch of foul water after leaping a hedge.

=In the Stone Jug.= See “In the Jug.”

=In the Straw.= An expression denoting that a woman has been brought to
    bed with a child. Straw was the usual stuffing of a bed formerly
    among the poorer orders of the people.

=In the Suds.= An Americanism for being unprepared to receive visitors.
    The allusion is to a washerwoman with her hands in the soapsuds.

=In the Swim.= To be admitted to a certain professional or financial
    clique. River fish generally keep together, and an angler’s object
    is to get what he calls “in the swim.” By so doing he may hook fish
    after fish without difficulty.

=In the wrong Box.= The origin of this expression is simply this: When
    Vauxhall, Cremorne, Ranelagh, Highbury Barn, and similar alfresco
    resorts were in existence, they had rows of cosy hutches or boxes
    all around for the benefit of those who wished to do their courting
    in private, while they could at the same time listen to the music
    and see the illuminations. It was no easy matter for anyone to find
    his own box again among the many if he left it; consequently on
    returning to his partner after sallying forth, he rendered his
    presence obnoxious to strangers by suddenly finding himself in the
    wrong box.

=Intrepid Fox.= A historic tavern in Soho named after Charles James Fox,
    the great Whig Minister. At the time of the famous election of 1784
    the redoubtable Sammy House, the landlord, served all customers
    free, and also entertained several notable Whigs.

=Invention of the Cross.= The name of this Church festival, 3rd May,
    commemorative of the finding of the True Cross by those sent in
    quest of it by St Helena, sounds peculiar, but the word “invent” is
    really from the Latin _invenire_, to find, discover, come upon.

=Inverary.= The county town of Argyleshire, “at the mouth of” the River
    Aray.

=Inverness.= Situate at the mouth of the River Ness.

=Invincibles.= See “Irish Invincibles.”

=Ionia.= The ancient name of Asia Minor, settled by the _Ionians_, so
    called after Ion, the son of Apollo according to Greek fable.

=Ionic.= The style of architecture so called was peculiar to Ionia in
    Greece. The earliest of the Greek philosophers so called too were
    all natives of Ionia.

=Iota.= From the name of the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet.
    “Jot” is a softened form of this word.

=Iowa.= Indian for “the sleepy-ones”; applied by the Sioux to the Pahoja
    or Graysnow tribe.

=Ireland.= From _Ierne_, Gaelic for “western isle.” The Greeks, who
    heard of it through the Milesians, called this remote land of the
    west _Iernis_, and the Romans _Hibernia_.

=Ireland Yard.= This property in Blackfriars was made over by its owner,
    William Ireland, to Shakespeare, as appears in the deed of
    conveyance now preserved in the Guildhall Library.

=Irish Invincibles.= A secret society whose members made it their boast
    that they defied extermination. Carey, the informer, openly declared
    that their mission was “the making of history by killing tyrants.”
    The Phœnix Park murders were the work of the “Invincibles.”

=Irishman’s Crossing.= An Americanism for the mode of many people
    anxious to cut off corners by crossing and recrossing the street, by
    which process one’s way is actually made longer.

=Irish Stew.= So called because among the Irish peasantry the beef is
    generally absent, the stew consisting wholly of onions and potatoes.

=Iron Chancellor.= The sobriquet of Prince Bismarck, Chancellor of the
    German Empire, on account of his iron will.

=Iron City.= Pittsburg, world renowned for its ironworks.

=Iron Devil.= An inn sign corrupted from “The Hirondelle,” or swallow.

=Iron Duke.= The Duke of Wellington, distinguished for his unbending
    will.

=Ironmonger Lane.= Where the artificers in iron congregated during the
    reign of Edward I. Later they removed into Thames Street.

=Ironside.= The surname of the Anglo-Saxon king, Edmund II., on account
    of the iron armour that he wore as a preservative against
    assassination.

=Ironsides.= The name given to the Cromwellian soldiers on account of
    their heavy armour and iron resolution.

=Irrawaddy.= Hindoo for “the father of waters.”

=Irving.= The patronymic of the late Sir Henry Irving was Brodribb. When
    he went on the stage he took the name of Irving, out of his
    admiration of the writings of the American author, Washington
    Irving. Half-a-century ago no one ever thought of entering the
    dramatic profession under his own name. Now that the stage has
    become fashionable actors need no longer be actuated to select a
    _nom de theatre_ out of regard to family pride.

=Irvingites.= The followers of the Rev. Edward Irving, who maintained
    the sinfulness of Christ’s nature in common with that of ordinary
    mankind. Deposed from his living by the Presbytery of the Church of
    Scotland in 1830, he founded the “Apostolic Catholic Church.”

=Isabel.= The name given to a yellowish brown colour from the
    circumstance that at the memorable siege of Ostend in 1601 Isabella,
    the wife of the Duke of Austria, vowed she would not change her
    linen until the town was taken. Unhappily for her, it held out
    nearly three years. Rash vows are always followed by leisurely
    repentance.

=Isis.= From the Celtic _uisg_, water. The word enters into many English
    river names, notably the “Thames.” The University of Oxford is
    called _Isis_ from the river upon which it stands.

=Islam.= From the Arabic _islama_, to bend. This term expressed an
    entire submission or resignation to the will of God. By the
    Mohammedans “Islam” is described as the true faith.

=Isle of Bourbon.= A French settlement named in compliment to the House
    of Bourbon.

=Isle of Desolation.= When discovered by Captain Cook this island was
    utterly devoid of animal life.

=Isle of Dogs.= A corruption of “Isle of Ducks,” owing to the great
    numbers of water-fowl settled on the marshes. In our time it might
    well be described as the “Isle of Docks.”

=Isle of Man.= Properly “Mona Isle,” from the Celtic _mæn_, a stone;
    hence “Isle of Rocks.”

=Isle of St Helena.= Discovered on the Feast of St Helena, 1502.

=Isleworth.= Expresses a manorial dwelling beside the river. Sion House,
    in which Lady Jane Grey resided for a time, was built upon the ruins
    of an ancient nunnery. It is now the property of the Duke of
    Northumberland, who removed thither the famous lion on the top of
    the demolished Northumberland House at Charing Cross. The popular
    belief that when this lion heard the clock of St Martin’s Church
    strike it would wag its tail and turn round was on a par with that
    of the washing of the Tower lions on the first of April.

=Islington.= The family settlement of the Islings.

=Is the Ghost walking?= See “Ghost walking.”

=Italics.= Thin sloping types, altogether different from the older
    Roman, first used in an edition of Virgil by Aldo Manuzio, the
    celebrated printer of Venice, in 1207.

=Italy.= The modern form of the Roman description of the country,
    _Latium_, or “broad plain.” This resulted in the designation of all
    the tribes of the conquered districts as _Latini_, or the _Latins_.

=Ivan the Terrible.= Ivan IV., son of the founder of the Russian Empire,
    who rose to power from the position of Grand Duke of Moscow. This
    second Ivan, at the age of fourteen, during the regency of his
    mother, had the triumvirate put to death; whereupon he assumed the
    title of Czar. His reputation for cruelty soon began to assert
    itself. In the space of six weeks he caused to be put to death no
    less than 25,000 (some authorities say 60,000) persons at Novogorod,
    from the idea that they were plotting to deliver up that city to the
    King of Poland. To crown all, in a fit of passion he killed his own
    son.

=Ivory Black.= A pigment originally obtained from calcined ivory, but
    now from bone.

=Ivy Lane.= From the ivy-covered houses of the prebendaries attached to
    St Paul’s Cathedral.


                                   J


=Jackanapes.= Properly “Jack-of-apes,” an impudent fellow who apes the
    manners of his social superiors.

=Jackass.= The male ass.

=Jack-boots.= When first worn by cavalry these high leather boots were
    covered with metal plates as a protection for the leg. The term Jack
    is derived from the Norman-French _jacque_, a leathern jerkin worn
    over a coat of mail. At a later period the _jacque_ itself was made
    sword-proof by metal plates on its under side.

=Jacket.= Expressed originally the diminutive of the _jacque_--viz. a
    short or sleeveless coat of leather. See “Jack-boots.”

=Jack Ketch.= The name formerly given to the common hangman, after
    Richard Jacquett, who owned the manor of Tyburn, where malefactors
    were executed previous to 1783.

=Jack-knife.= The name formerly given to a large folding pocket-knife,
    and now used by sailors, in contradistinction to a “Penknife.” See
    “Jack Tar.”

=Jackson.= The name of a river and several towns of the United States,
    after General Andrew Jackson, the seventh President.

=Jack Straw’s Castle.= A noted hostelry at Hampstead, said to have been
    built on the spot where Jack Straw, one of the leaders in Wat
    Tyler’s insurrection, made his habitation on the hillside.

=Jack Tar.= A sailor, because he wears tarpaulins in “dirty weather.”
    Jack is a generic name for a man or servant.

=Jacobins.= The French designation of the Black Friars or Dominicans,
    from the situation of their earliest convent in the Rue St Jacques,
    Paris, 1219.

=Jacobites.= The Catholic adherents of James II. and his lineal
    descendants after the accession to the English throne of William
    III. _Jacobus_ was the Latinised form of the King’s name.

=Jacobus.= The Scottish sovereign, valued at 25s., which became current
    in England also at the union of the two crowns in the person of King
    James I.

=Jacquard Loom.= After its inventor, Marie J. Jacquard of Lyons, who
    died in 1834.

=Jacquerie.= The name given to an insurrection of French peasants in
    1358. _Jacques_ is the generic name for a member of the artisan
    class in France, owing to the _jacque_, or sleeveless white cotton
    jacket, worn by them. The leader of this insurrection called himself
    Jacques Bonhomme, being of the artisan class himself.

=Jag.= An Americanism for drunkenness. The word is employed in a variety
    of ways: “He’s got a jag on”--“He’s on a drinking bout”; “He’s on
    his jags”--“He knows how it is to have the jags”; “He has the jags
    just now,” etc. etc.

=Jail Bird.= So called because the earliest kind of prison in this
    country was an alfresco iron cage.

=Jailed.= An Americanism for being put in jail, sent to prison.

=Jalap.= From _Jalapa_ in Mexico, whence the root of this plant was
    first brought to Europe for medicinal purposes in 1610.

=Jamaica.= From the West Indian _Caymaca_, signifying “a country
    abounding in springs.”

=Jamaica Road.= See “Cherry Gardens Pier.”

=James Bay.= After James I., in whose reign this arm of Hudson’s Bay was
    completely explored.

=James River.= After James I., in the fourth year of whose reign it was
    navigated, and the English settlement called Jamestown, thirty-two
    miles inland, formed.

=James Street.= In Covent Garden, in compliment to the Duke of York,
    afterwards James II. That on the south side of the Strand received
    the Christian name of one of the Brothers Adam, builders of the
    Adelphi.

=Jamestown.= See “James River.”

=Jamie Duff.= The Scottish designation for a mourner or weeper at a
    funeral. So called after an Edinburgh eccentric of this name;
    nothing pleased him better than to attend a funeral, perhaps because
    he enjoyed the ride in the coach.

=Jane Hading.= This famous French actress was christened Jeanne, but,
    appearing on the stage while she was quite a child, her parents
    habitually called her Jane, because, as she has herself explained,
    being shorter, it would admit of the family name appearing in larger
    letters on the playbill.

=Janissaries.= A militia of Turkish footguards originally composed of
    the sons of Christian subjects, this being the tribute levied upon
    the parents for allowing them to live in peace and safety. The
    native term is _Jeniaskari_, new soldier.

=Janitor.= The American description of a caretaker or doorkeeper. This
    term has long been obsolete in England; it was derived from the
    Latin _janua_, door.

=Jansenists.= A religious sect headed by Cornelius Jansen, Bishop of
    Ypres, France, early in the seventeenth century.

=January.= Called by the Romans _Januarius_, after Janus, the sun god,
    who presided over the beginnings of things. In the temple of Janus
    the figure of this god had two faces: one supposed to look on the
    past, the other on the future.

=Japan.= A Western corruption, through the Portuguese _Gepuen_, of the
    native name _Niphon_, or “land of the rising sun.” The brilliant
    black varnish called “Japan” was first made by the people of the Far
    East.

=Jarvey.= A cabman or car driver, so called after the name of a hackney
    coach driver who was hanged.

=Jaunting Car.= The characteristic light vehicle in Ireland in which the
    people enjoy a jaunt or excursion. English folk newly arrived in the
    Emerald Isle do not always appreciate it. See “Hold hard.”

=Java.= A Malay word meaning “the land of nutmegs.”

=Jayhawker State.= Kansas, from the nickname borne by the soldiers of
    Colonel Jennison of New York, who, being a jovial fellow, was called
    a “Gay Yorker,” afterwards corrupted into “Jayhawker.” The people of
    this state in process of time came to be styled “Jayhawkers.”

=Jedburgh.= A royal burgh situate at the confluence of the Rivers Tefy
    and Jed. The ancient form of justice meted out here of hanging a man
    first and trying him afterwards is frequently alluded to as
    “Jedwood” or “Jeddart” justice.

=Jefferson.= The name of a river, a city, and a mount in the United
    States, after Thomas Jefferson, the third President.

=Jeffreys Street.= After one of the family names of the Earl of
    Brecknock, Marquis of Camden, the ground landlord.

=Jehu.= A cabman, in allusion to Jehu, the son of Nimshi, who, we are
    told in 2 Kings ix. 20, drove furiously.

=Jeremiad.= A tale of woe, a doleful story. So called after the Prophet
    Jeremiah, who wrote the “Book of Lamentations.”

=Jerked Meat.= Dried meat, more particularly beef dried in the open air.
    The term is derived from the Chilian _charqui_, applied to dried
    beef throughout Spanish America.

=Jerkin.= Expresses the diminutive of the Dutch _jurk_, coat, frock;
    hence a short coat or jacket.

=Jermyn Street.= From the town house of Henry Jermyn, Earl of St Albans.

=Jerry Builder.= A speculative builder who runs up whole streets of
    houses as cheaply as possible in order to sell them. The word
    “Jerry,” derived from the French _jour_, day, is a corruption of
    _joury_, meaning temporary, unsubstantial.

=Jersey.= From Czar’s-ey, or “Cæsar’s Isle,” so called by the Romans in
    honour of Julius Cæsar. The close-fitting rowing shirt and female
    bodice received the name of a Jersey because it was first worn by
    the inhabitants of this isle.

=Jersey Lily.= The punning pet name of Mrs Langtry, when, as a society
    star, she first adopted the stage as a profession. Her Christian
    name is Lillie, and she was born in Jersey.

=Jerusalem.= Expresses the Hebrew for “habitation of peace.”

=Jerusalem Artichoke.= A corruption of “Girasole Artichoke,” from the
    resemblance of the leaf and stem of this flower to the “Girasole,”
    or sunflower.

=Jerusalem Chamber.= This apartment of Westminster Abbey, in which Henry
    IV. died, received its name from the pictures of the Holy Land, in
    connection with the Crusades, that adorned its walls.

=Jesuits.= The members of a powerful missionary order styled “The
    Society of Jesus” which was founded in 1534 by Ignatius Loyola, on a
    military basis, having himself been a soldier.

=Jesuits’ Bark.= Another name for the Peruvian or Cinchona Bark, because
    discovered by the Jesuit missionaries in Peru.

=Jewin Street.= The ancient burying ground of the Jews while they were
    permitted to reside within the city walls--viz. in the Old Jewry.
    The suffix _in_ is a corrupt form of the Anglo-Saxon _en_,
    expressing the plural, as in Clerken or clerks’ well.

=Jewry Street.= All that remains of the old name given collectively to
    the Jewish quarter of London after this oppressed race had been
    driven eastward of the city proper. This street was the Jews’ later
    burial ground. The suffix _ry_ denotes a place or district.

=Jews’ Harp.= A corruption of “Jaws’ Harp,” because it is held between
    the teeth.

=Jezebel.= A daring, vicious woman, so called after the wife of Ahab,
    King of Israel.

=Jig.= From the French _gigue_, a lively dance, and the Italian _giga_,
    a romp.

=Jilt.= From the Scottish _gillet_, a giddy young woman. This word
    expressed the diminutive of Jill or Julia, a name used in a
    contemptuous sense after Julia, the daughter of Augustus Cæsar, who
    disgraced herself by her dissolute conduct.

=Jimmy.= A crowbar used by house burglars. The word is not so much
    thieves’ slang as a corruption of _Jenny_, expressing the diminutive
    of gin or engine, the general term formerly for a machine or
    mechanical appliance.

=Jimpson Weed.= Properly “Jamestown Weed,” from the place in Virginia
    where it was introduced.

=Jingo.= See “By Jingo.”

=Jingoes.= The British war party during the Russo-Turkish struggle of
    1877-8, when there was grave likelihood of this country interfering.
    The term became popular through the refrain in G. H. Macdermott’s
    famous song:

     “We don’t want to fight, but, by Jingo, if we do,
     We’ve got the ships, we’ve got the men, we’ve got the money too.”

    For a time the Jingo Party was in the ascendant.

=Joachims-Thaler.= See “Thaler.”

=Jockey.= The diminutive of Jock, which is the Scottish form of Jack or
    John, expressive of a servant. The first jockeys engaged in horse
    racing were boys, on account of their light weight; hence the term.

=Joe Miller.= A stale joke, corresponding to the modern “Chestnut.” Joe
    Miller was a witty comedian whose sayings were compiled by John
    Mottley in the reign of James II. Until about a hundred years ago
    this was the only book of jests extant, and everyone who wished to
    “set the table in a roar” freely drew upon it.

=Joey.= The popular nickname of Mr Joseph Chamberlain, of Fiscal Policy
    fame.

=Johannis.= From Johannisberg, near Wiesbaden. This name is literally
    “John’s Rock,” on which stands the famous castle.

=John Audley.= An old showman’s phrase, which still obtains in what is
    called a portable theatre. As soon as a sufficient crowd for another
    “house” has collected outside, the money-taker, or the showman
    himself, calls out at the door “John Audley!” (originally it was the
    question “Is John Audley here?”) as a hint to the performers to
    finish quickly and dismiss the audience. This, it is said, was the
    invention of Shorter, the comedian, while he was playing in booths
    at country fairs.

=John Bull.= The Representative Englishman, bluff, long-suffering, and
    open-hearted. This national nickname was derived from a satire of
    the same title published by Dr John Arbuthnot in 1721.

=John Carpenter Street.= After the founder of the City of London School,
    which occupies one side of this modern thoroughfare, having been
    removed hither from Bow Lane in 1882. John Carpenter was town clerk
    of the city of London in the reigns of Henry V. and VI.

=John Chinaman.= Ever since the outbreak of the gold fever in California
    a Chinaman in that part of the United States has been addressed as
    “John,” the Transatlantic generic name for a man-servant,
    corresponding to the old English Jack.

=John Doe and Richard Roe.= Fictitious names, which prior to 1852, when
    they were abolished, appeared in every legal process of ejectment in
    place of the names of the real parties.

=John Dory.= The name of this fish is a corruption of the French
    _Jaune-dorée_, yellow, golden, relative to the colour.

=Johnnies.= Overdressed, empty-pated scions of good families who spent
    their surplus cash upon burlesque actresses, and hung about for them
    at the stage door when the “sacred lamp of burlesque” burned
    brightly at the Gaiety Theatre. Since “Jack” was the generic name
    for a man or servant, so one distinguished for the possession of
    more money than brains was, and is still, dubbed a “Johnnie.”

=John of Gaunt.= Properly of Ghent, his birthplace, in Flanders.

=John o’ Groat’s House.= Formerly the most northern habitation on the
    mainland of Scotland, said to have been that of Johnny Groat, for
    the accommodation of travellers who wished to cross the ferry to the
    Orkney Isles. Its site may now be recognised by a green knoll.

=Johnson’s Court.= Although the great lexocographer, Dr Johnson, spent
    ten years of his life in this Fleet Street court, it was not named
    after him, but after another Johnson, whose property it was, and who
    also resided in it.

=John Street.= In the Adelphi, after the Christian name of one of the
    brothers Adam. In Piccadilly, after one of the family names of the
    Berkeleys, the ground landlords.

=Joiner.= The provincial term for one who in London is called a
    “Carpenter.” Literally a joiner of wooden building materials.

=Joint Ring.= Another name for a “Gimnal Ring.”

=Joint-Stock Company.= So called because the stock is vested jointly in
    many persons.

=Jonathan’s.= The original name of the Stock Exchange, after a
    coffee-house keeper whose house was the rendezvous of the earliest
    dealers in stock.

=Jollies.= The sailors’ nickname for the Marines, because they are about
    as useful to a ship as the “Jolly Boat” which floats behind it.

=Jolly Boat.= A corruption of “Jawl boat,” from the Danish _jolle_, a
    small boat.

=Jordan.= Expresses the Hebrew for “the flowing.”

=Journeyman.= An artisan who hires himself out to labour, conformly to
    the French _jour_, day, a day labourer.

=Juan Fernandez.= After the navigator, who discovered it in 1567. On
    this isle Alexander Selkirk was the sole inhabitant from September
    1704 until February 1707. Daniel Defoe made this adventurer the hero
    of his celebrated story “Robinson Crusoe.”

=Jubilee Plunger.= The sobriquet of Ernest Benzon, who lost £250,000 on
    the turf in two years after embarking upon his betting career in
    1887, the Jubilee year of Queen Victoria’s reign.

=Judd Street.= The property of Sir Andrew Judd, Lord Mayor of London in
    1551. By his will he bequeathed it to the endowment of a school at
    Tonbridge, his native place.

=Judges’ Walk.= So called because a number of judges and barristers of
    the King’s Bench made themselves temporary habitations in tents on
    this breezy height of Hampstead during the Great Plague.

=Jug.= Thieves’ slang for prison. See “In the Jug.”

=Juggins.= A fool, a reckless fellow, so called after a noted character
    of this name, who about twenty years ago squandered his whole
    fortune by reckless betting on the turf.

=Juggler.= From the French _jougleur_, a jester or miscellaneous
    entertainer who was the invariable companion of a troubadour during
    the Middle Ages.

=Julep.= An American spirituous beverage, also a preparation to make
    medicines less nauseous. The word is derived from the Arabic
    _julab_, rose-water.

=July.= In honour of Julius Cæsar, who was born in this month.

=Jump a Claim.= A Far West expression meaning to deprive another of his
    lawful claim; literally to jump into his diggings and take
    possession.

=Jump on it with both Feet.= The Transatlantic mode of saying “I’ll
    denounce it to the utmost of my power.”

=Jump the Game.= An Americanism for running away from one’s creditors.

=June.= The sixth month of the year; that of growth, agreeably to the
    Latin _juvenis_, young. The Romans dedicated it to the “Juniores,”
    or young soldiers of the State.

=Jungfrau.= Two reasons are assigned for the name (German, “The Maiden”)
    given to this, one of the highest peaks of the Bernese Alps.
    Firstly, because of the unsullied purity and dazzling whiteness of
    the snow with which it is eternally clad; secondly, owing to the
    fact that, its summit being inaccessible, no man has ever conquered
    or ravished this mountain maiden.

=Junk.= A seaman’s term for rope ends and also the salt beef served out
    on board ship. The word is derived from the Latin _Juncus_, a
    bulrush, out of which ropes were anciently made. In the second sense
    of the term the toughness of the meat is sarcastically implied.

=Jury.= From the Latin _jurare_, to swear.

=Jury Mast.= Properly “Joury Mast,” from the French _jour_, day, because
    it is only a temporary mast put up to replace one carried away by
    stress of weather.

=Justice is Blind.= An expression derived from the allegorical
    representation of Justice, who, holding the scales, is blindfolded.
    See “Scales of Justice.” This really had its origin in the custom of
    the ancient Egyptians, who conducted their trials in a darkened
    chamber, in order that the prisoner, the pleader, and the witnesses
    being alike unseen, the judges could not be moved to undue sympathy,
    and their judgment might be the more impartial.

=Justice Walk.= In this portion of Chelsea resided a London magistrate
    whose name has not been handed down to posterity.

=Juteopolis.= The name given to Dundee on account of its staple
    industry.

=Jutland.= The land of the Jutes.

=Juveniles.= In theatrical parlance the lovers’ parts. The principal
    stage lover’s part, such as _Romeo_, is called the “juvenile lead.”
    Other young men’s parts, that do not call for love making on the
    stage, are styled “walking gentlemen.”


                                   K


=Kaaba.= The stone building inside the great Mosque at Mecca; said to
    have been erected over the spot where Adam first worshipped after
    his expulsion from the Garden of Eden. The name is Arabic for
    “square house.”

=Kaffraria.= The country of the Kaffirs or “unbelievers,” from the
    Mohammedan standpoint. This term was applied not only to the natives
    south of Abyssinia and the desert regions of Africa, but also to the
    people of a country in Central Asia east of the Hindu Cush known
    accordingly as Kafiristan. _Kaifer_ is Arabic for “infidel,” and the
    suffix _stan_ expresses the Persian for “country.”

=Kailyard.= Scottish for cabbage garden.

=Kaisar.= The German form of the title of the Roman Emperors, “Cæsar.”

=Kalmucks.= A Western corruption of the native _Khalmick_, or
    “Apostates,” the name given to this large family of the Mongolian
    race because they rejected the doctrines of Buddha. It was these
    Kalmucks who, under the name of “Huns,” descended upon Europe in the
    fourth century.

=Kamptulicon.= From the Greek _Kampto_, to bend.

=Kansas.= The Indian name for the river, signifying “smoky water”;
    afterwards applied also to the state.

=Keble College.= A memorial college at Oxford of the Rev. John Keble,
    author of “The Christian Year,” whose death took place in 1866.

=Keelhaul.= To haul under the keel of a vessel from stem to stern by
    means of ropes on either side. This was the most dreaded, because
    the most dangerous, punishment meted out to seamen or apprentices by
    tyrannical captains in former times. Readers of Captain Marryat’s
    “Snarleyyow, or the Dog Fiend” will recollect what that meant to the
    hapless victim.

=Keeping Crispin.= An old phrase for the shoemakers’ annual holiday on
    the Feast of St Crispin, their patron saint, 25th October. In some
    parts of the country we hear of it in connection with what passes
    elsewhere under the name of “Cobblers’ Monday.”

=Keep it Dark.= The reference was originally to treasure kept in a place
    of concealment.

=Keep on Pegging at it.= See “Peg Away.”

=Keep the Ball Rolling.= An expression derived from the game of Bandy,
    in which the two sets of players, armed with hooked sticks,
    continually sent the ball rolling to opposite goals.

=Keep the Pot Boiling.= The antithesis of a hand-to-mouth existence;
    meaning the command not only of something for the stock pot but also
    needful fuel.

=Keep the Wolf from the Door.= By paying one’s way others will prosper
    likewise, and ravenous creditors clamouring at the door for their
    just demands will be non-existent. The wolf is represented by a
    greedy landlord hungering for his rent, or, failing that, the
    household goods.

=Keep your Nose to the Grindstone.= To continue hard at work without
    cessation. If a tool is not held close to the grindstone the stone
    will go round all the same, but the tool does not get sharpened. So
    a man may loiter over his work, but the actual accomplishment is
    nil.

=Keep your Pecker up.= Have courage, and hold your head erect. _Pecker_
    is slang for the mouth, in allusion to fowls which peck their
    food--in other words, they strike at it with the _beak_.

=Keep your Weather Eye open.= Be on a sharp look-out in the right
    direction. A sailor looks towards the wind in order to forecast the
    weather.

=Kendal.= Expresses the dale of the River Ken.

=Kendal Green.= Green cloth made at Kendal in Westmoreland, for which
    this town was long famous. The cloths produced here still bear the
    name of “Kendals.”

=Kennington.= The town which grew up in the king’s meadow. Henry VIII.
    had a rural retreat erected here.

=Kensington.= Described in Anglo-Saxon records as _Kynsington_, or
    king’s meadow town.

=Kensington Gore.= After Gore House, the residence of the Countess of
    Blessington, that occupied part of the site of the Royal Albert
    Hall.

=Kent.= Called by the Romans Cæsar Cantium after the _Cantii_, who
    peopled this _Kenn_, headland or corner, of Albion’s Isle.

=Kentish Fire.= The name given to rapturous volleys of cheers, such as
    that which distinguished the Kentish men when they applauded the “No
    Popery” orators in 1828-9.

=Kentish Man.= A native of the county of Kent, west of the Medway.

=Kentish Town.= A corruption of “Kantelowes Town,” built upon the manor
    of the same name. The modern spelling of this family name is
    “Cantlowes,” which is that given to a street on the south side of
    Camden Road.

=Kent Street.= Leads out of London to the great Kentish highway to
    Dover. At one time the landlords in this street took away the front
    doors of tenants who were more than a fortnight in arrears of paying
    their rent. This, styled a “Kent Street Ejectment,” was found
    effectual in getting rid of unprofitable tenants.

=Kentucky.= Indian for “long river.”

=Keppel Street.= From the “Admiral Keppel” at the corner of this street
    and Fulham Road.

=Kerchief.= See “Handkerchief.”

=Kersey.= From Kersey, in Suffolk, once famed for its woollen
    manufacture.

=Kettledrum.= A rounded drum, so called from its shape; also the name
    given to a tea party, both on account of the noise made by the
    guests, and because the hostess metaphorically beats them up at the
    time of sending out her invitations. See “Drum.”

=Kettle of Fish.= See “Pretty Kettle of Fish.”

=Kew.= Styled in ancient documents Kay-hoo, meaning a quay on a _hoo_ or
    _oe_, which expressed the Danish for an island; also a spit of land
    at the mouth of a river or creek.

=Keystone State.= Pennsylvania, geographically considered as seventh
    among the thirteen original states of the Union.

=Khaki.= Expresses the Hindoo for “colour of cow dung.” This term came
    into prominence during the South African War, when all British
    uniforms were made of materials of this hue, so as to make our
    troops less conspicuous to the enemy.

=Khan.= Expresses the Persian, from a Tartar word, for a lord or prince.

=Khedive.= From the Persian _khidiw_, a king. In the Turkish _khadiv_
    the title expresses a ruler one grade removed from a Sultan.

=Kicker.= An Americanism for one who at a public meeting objects to a
    proposal.

=Kick the Bucket.= An expression derived from the primitive mode of a
    man hanging himself by standing on a bucket, and then kicking it
    aside. The “drop” in this case could not have been a long one.

=Kidnap.= Not only is this word accepted English in the absence of a
    more refined equivalent, but it is also made to do service in the
    case of an adult taken away against his will. Kid, of course,
    expresses a young goat, and is slang for a child. The second portion
    of the term is likewise slang, from _nab_, to steal.

=Kidney Bean.= The coarse bean shaped like a kidney.

=Kiel.= From the Danish _keol_, a ship.

=Kilbride.= The church of St Bride or Bridget.

=Kilburn.= Expresses the _kil_, or cell, of “one Godwynne, a holy
    hermit,” beside the _bourn_, or brook.

=Kildare.= From the Celtic _kildara_, the cell or hermitage among the
    oaks. A monastery was founded here by St Bridget towards the close
    of the fifth century.

=Kilkenny.= The _kil_, or church, of St Kenny or Canice in connection
    with the ancient abbey dedicated to St John.

=Killarney.= A corruption of “Killeaney,” from the church of the
    Dominican monastery on the banks of the River Leane.

=Kindergarten.= Expresses the German for a children’s garden or
    playground. The system of juvenile education so called aims at
    self-tuition by means of toys and games.

=Kinetoscope.= The name originally given to our modern “living
    pictures,” from the Greek _kinetikos_, “putting in motion.” See
    “Mutoscope.”

=King Charles Spaniel.= The small species of “Spaniel” which was such a
    favourite with Charles I.

=King Edward’s Grammar School.= A superior academical institution
    founded and endowed for the tuition of Latin and Greek grammar by
    Edward VI.

=King Edward Street.= After Edward VI., the “Boy King,” founder of
    Christ’s Hospital, or Blue Coat Grammar School, hard by.

=Kingfisher.= The king of fisher birds that dive into water for their
    prey, so called on account of its gay plumage.

=King James’s Bible.= The Authorised Version ordered to be prepared and
    given to the people by James I.

=King-maker.= Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, so called because he was
    instrumental in placing both Edward IV. on the Yorkist and Henry VI.
    on the Lancastrian side on the throne after espousing their
    individual cause.

=King of Bath.= The sobriquet of Richard Nash, also known as Beau Nash,
    who for more than half-a-century was Master of Ceremonies at the
    fashionable Assembly Rooms of Bath.

=King’s Arms.= An inn sign, originally representing the counterfeit
    presentment or royal arms of an individual sovereign, but now a mere
    name, which must have done duty alike in honouring a long line of
    monarchs.

=King’s Bench.= Anciently the superior Court of Law presided over by the
    King in person, when he sat on an oaken bench. Wherever he went in
    state this Court followed him. Judges and magistrates are still said
    to occupy the Bench.

=King’s College.= At Cambridge, founded in 1441 by Henry VI. In London,
    the foundation by a royal charter of George IV. in 1828.

=King’s County.= In honour of Philip of Spain, the husband of Queen
    Mary. The original name was Ossaly.

=King’s Cross.= So called from a statue of George IV. set up here at the
    accession of that monarch, and taken down in 1842 to make way for
    the Great Northern Railway terminus. It is highly probable that an
    ancient cross stood on the same spot, since, quite apart from the
    fact that Queen Boadicea was defeated by the Romans at Battle Bridge
    hereabouts, it was in this neighbourhood too that King Alfred waged
    a sanguinary conflict with the Danes.

=King’s Evil.= The name given to scrofula, from the old superstitious
    idea that it could be cured by the touch of a king or queen.

=Kingsgate Street.= So called from the gate through which James I.
    passed across the meadows to Theobalds in Hertfordshire, his
    favourite hunting seat.

=King’s Head.= See “King’s Arms.”

=Kingsland.= This district marked the southern limits of the ancient
    royal domain of Enfield Chase.

=King’s Lynn.= Anciently called “Lynn Episcopi,” being the property of
    the Bishop of Norwich. At the dissolution of the monasteries Henry
    VIII. sequestered this estate, and gave the town the name of Lynn
    Regis, or King’s Lynn. The word _Lynn_ is Celtic for “pool.”

=King’s Own Men.= The 78th Foot, so called from their Gaelic motto:
    “Cuidichr Rhi” (Help the King).

=King’s Road.= In compliment to Charles II., who caused this highway
    between Chelsea and Fulham Palace to be made passable.

=Kingston.= The capital of Jamaica, after William III., in whose reign
    (1693) it was founded.

=Kingston-on-Thames.= From the ancient stone on which seven of the
    Anglo-Saxon kings were crowned. This interesting relic is now
    enclosed with iron railings near the Town Hall.

=Kingstown.= Originally “Dunleary,” the name was changed in honour of
    the visit of George IV. in September 1821.

=King Street.= That in Covent Garden, after Charles I., in whose reign
    it was laid out. In St James’s, after James I. In Cheapside, in
    honour of Henry IV., who passed down it to open the new Guildhall.
    At Westminster, because this was the direct road between the Court
    and the Abbey.

=Kingsway.= The name given by the London County Council to the new
    thoroughfare from Holborn to the Strand opened by King Edward VII.
    in 1905.

=King William Street.= In the city, after William IV., who performed the
    inaugural ceremony of declaring the London Bridge open for traffic,
    1st August 1831. The street of the same name west of the Strand was
    newly laid out in his reign as a direct thoroughfare to Leicester
    Square.

=Kirkcudbright.= Expresses the Celtic for “the Church of St Cuthbert.”

=Kirkdale.= The church in the dale or vale of Pickering.

=Kirke’s Lambs.= The nickname bestowed upon the 2nd Foot, under the
    command of Captain Kirke, during the “Bloody Assizes,” and having
    for their badge the Paschal Lamb.

=Kirschwasser.= German for “Cherry Water,” this beverage being distilled
    from the juice of the black cherry.

=Kiss-me-Quick.= The name of a small bonnet popular in England midway
    during the last century. Though of the “coal scuttle” pattern it did
    not extend beyond the face, and was chiefly worn by ladies going to
    parties or the play.

=Kiss the Place and make it better.= The expression, commonly employed
    by mothers and nurses to pacify children when they have hurt
    themselves, is a survival of the days of the sorcerers, who
    pretended to cure a disease by sucking the affected part.

=Kiss the Scavenger’s Daughter.= See “Scavenger’s Daughter.”

=Kit.= A soldier’s outfit, which he carries on his person when on the
    march. The name is derived from the Dutch _kitte_, a wooden beer-can
    strapped on the soldier’s belt.

=Kit-Cat.= The name given by artists to a three-quarter length portrait,
    and also to a canvas measuring 28 by 36 inches, in allusion to the
    portraits of uniform size, and all painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller,
    to suit the dimensions of the apartments occupied by the famous
    Kit-Cat Club. This club was long held at the house of a pastrycook
    called Christopher Cat in Shire Lane, Fleet Street (now Serle’s
    Place), after whom, familiarly styled “Kit-Cat,” it took its name.
    His own mutton pies were the staple refreshment, from which
    circumstance such pies were until quite modern times also called
    “Kit-Cats.”

=Kleptomania.= The name given to an impulsive desire to steal or
    appropriate that which is ready to hand; so called from the Greek
    _kleptes_, thief, and _mania_, madness.

=Knacker.= From the Icelandic _knakkr_, a saddle; hence a dealer in and
    slaughterer of old horses.

=Knapsack.= From the Dutch and German _knappen_, to bite or chew, and
    _zak_, a sack. Like the original German and Dutch forms of this
    receptacle for a soldier’s necessaries on the march, the Swiss still
    carry a bag made of goatskin.

=Knave.= From the German _knabe_, a boy. The tricks peculiar to a boy no
    doubt caused this term to be applied to a deceitful or otherwise
    reprehensible fellow. The knave in a pack of cards represents, of
    course, the knight or servant to the king and queen.

=Knife-board.= The advertisement-board on either side of an omnibus
    roof, so called on account of its fancied resemblance to the
    domestic knife-sharpener. On the old-fashioned omnibuses the roof
    passengers sat back to back, with their feet touching the
    “knife-board,” and it was facetiously said they thereon sharpened
    their wits.

=Knife and Fork Tea.= See “High Tea.”

=Knight.= From the Saxon _knicht_, a servant, which is the origin also
    of the modern German _knecht_, a man-servant.

=Knight Bachelor.= One who in the days of chivalry forswore marriage
    until he had performed some feat of valour, and so merited renown.

=Knight Banneret.= A knight hastily created on the field of battle in
    recognition of signal bravery. This was done by tearing off a
    streamer from a banner and handing it to him as a token of
    investiture.

=Knight Errant.= One who went forth in quest of adventures, more
    particularly to win the admiration of fair ladies, by rescuing them,
    in common with the weak and oppressed, from the feudal lords whose
    rapacity in those barbarous ages knew no bounds. The word _errant_,
    like its modern equivalent _errand_, was derived from the Latin
    _errare_, to wander. It was in ridicule of this system of
    knight-errantry that Cervantes wrote his immortal romance “Don
    Quixote.”

=Knight of the Yard Stick.= An Americanism for a draper’s assistant or a
    retail dry-goods salesman; what in England people often style a
    “Counter Jumper.”

=Knightrider Street.= The place of assembling of the knights of old on
    their way in procession to the Smithfield tournaments.

=Knightsbridge.= Tradition has it that two knights who went to receive a
    blessing from the Bishop of London at Fulham Palace suddenly
    quarrelled, and fought a deadly combat on the bridge which anciently
    spanned the Westbourne where now stands Albert Gate. A public-house
    close by, demolished within the last three years, bore the sign of
    “The Fulham Bridge.”

=Knights Hospitallers.= The Second Order of Knights of the Crusades, who
    founded and protected the hospital at Jerusalem for the
    accommodation of pilgrims to the Holy Places. When at a later period
    they erected a larger hospital in connection with the church
    dedicated to St John the Baptist, they assumed the title of “Knights
    of St John of Jerusalem.”

=Knights of Malta.= The Knights Hospitallers who, having taken Rhode
    Island, were at length expelled therefrom by the Turks, and took up
    their establishment permanently at Malta.

=Knights of St John of Jerusalem.= See “Knights Hospitallers.”

=Knights of the Road.= Highwaymen, who were always good horsemen.

=Knights Templars.= The military Order of Knights of the Crusades,
    styled “Soldiers of the Temple.” Their aim was to wrest the Holy
    Sepulchre from the hands of the Saracens, and maintain it through
    futurity.

=Knights Teutonic.= An independent Order of Knights of the Crusades
    composed of nobles from the cities of Bremen and Lubeck for the
    protection of German pilgrims to the Holy Land.

=Knickerbockers.= The people of the city of New York. When Washington
    Irving wrote his “History of New York” he assumed the name of
    Diedrich Knickerbocker, in allusion to the wide breeches worn by the
    early settlers of the colony, then called by them New Amsterdam;
    hence the application of the term “Knickerbockers” to knee-breeches
    generally. New York is known as “The Knickerbocker City.”

=Knocked into a Cocked Hat.= Prostrated or completely flattened out like
    a cocked hat, which, as its name implies, could be cocked or carried
    under the arm.

=Know-nothings.= A secret society in the United States pledged to the
    checking of foreign immigration and political influence by
    foreigners which came into existence about the year 1848, and
    finally split upon the slavery question in 1860. When asked what its
    party or political aims were, all the members merely replied: “I
    don’t know; I know nothing.”

=Knows the Ropes.= Said of one who thoroughly understands his calling. A
    naval phrase, since a sailor must know all the ropes belonging to
    his ship.

=K’nucks.= In Canada the name given to French Canadians; elsewhere to
    Canadians generally. It has been stated on the authority of an
    intelligent French Canadian, by way of accounting for the origin of
    this term, that “the word ‘Cannuck’ is a corruption of ‘Connaught,’
    the name we usually apply to the Irish, who are mostly emigrants
    from that province of Ireland.”

=Kohinoor.= A famous diamond which came into the possession of Queen
    Victoria on the annexation of the Punjaub in 1849. Its name
    expresses the Hindoo for “Mountain of Light.”

=Kolis.= The nickname of the 51st King’s Own Light Infantry, from the
    initials of their regimental name.

=Koordistan.= Pursuant to the Persian _stan_, the country of the Koords,
    “fierce, strong.”

=Kopeck.= A Russian copper coin of the value of three-eights of an
    English penny. So called from _kopye_, the native term for a lance,
    because this coin originally had upon it the representation of a
    lancer on horseback.

=Kops Ale.= A non-alcoholic ale brewed from the best Kentish hops, and
    not to be distinguished by appearances from the intoxicant. The name
    was chosen as a near approach to Hops Ale.

=Koran.= Properly _Al Koran_, Arabic for “the book,” “the reading,” or
    “the thing to be read.”

=Koumiss.= A Mongolian term for an intoxicating beverage made by the
    Kalmucks from camels’ or mares’ milk by fermentation and
    distillation. “Koumiss” is the popular Russian beverage.

=Kraal.= The Kaffir term for a collection of huts shaped like a beehive
    and arranged in circular form, a native South African village.

=Kremlin.= The citadel of Moscow, so called from the Russian _krem_, a
    fortress.

=Krems White.= A pigment extensively produced at Krems in Austria.

=Kreuzer.= A copper coin of Germany conspicuous for a _kreuz_, or cross,
    on its reverse side. Its value was the sixtieth part of a gulden or
    florin.

=Krupp Gun.= After its inventor, and made at the famous Krupp Steel
    works at Essen in Germany.

=Kümmel.= The German name for a beverage, expressive of “Carraway,” from
    the seeds of which it is made.

=Kummerbund.= A Hindoo term for waistband. It became current in England
    two or three years ago during the excessively hot weather, when
    waistcoats were discarded, and the trouser tops concealed by a
    brilliant blue or scarlet sash.

=Kurdistan.= See “Koordistan.”

=Kursaal.= A place of entertainment at Southend-on-Sea. The name is
    German, literally “Cure-hall,” expressive of the public
    assembly-room at a “Kurhaus,” or hydropathic establishment,
    corresponding to the pump-room at a west of England health resort.

=Kyrle Society.= A modern society having for its aims the improvement of
    the homes of the poorer orders. It originated with the Misses M. and
    O. Hill in 1875, and was formally inaugurated by Prince Leopold a
    couple of years later. The title of the society was derived from
    John Kyrle of Ross, Herefordshire, whose artistic tastes and
    benevolent disposition contributed to the happiness and well-being
    of the people on his estate and all the country round about.


                                   L


=Labadists.= A sect of Protestant mystics founded in the seventeenth
    century by Jean Labadic of Bourg, Germany.

=La Belle Sauvage Yard.= The yard of the famous coaching inn of the same
    name. The history of this sign was curious. Kept by Isabelle Savage,
    it bore the name of “The Bel Savage”; but its sign was a bell
    suspended within an iron hoop at the top of the usual “Ale Stake.”
    Hence its proper name was “The Bell in the Hoop.” When in the year
    1616 John Rolfe brought his Virginian bride Pocohontas to London,
    the story of his remarkable adventures had anticipated his arrival,
    and people spoke of this Indian heroine as “La Belle Sauvage.” It
    was odd that these strangers within our gates should put up at the
    “Bell Savage,” and the association resulted in the change of title
    on their account.

=Labrador.= Called by the Portuguese navigators _Tierra Labrador_,
    “cultivatable land.”

=Lackland.= The surname of King John, who, owing to his thriftlessness,
    was left entirely without provision at the death of his father,
    Henry II.

=Laconics.= Terse and pithy replies, so called from the Lacons, which
    was the name applied to the Spartans, from the country whence they
    came. When Philip of Macedon sent this message to the Spartan
    magistrates: “If I enter Laconia I will level Lacedæmon to the
    ground,” the reply was briefly: “If.”

=Lacrosse.= This name was given to the game by Charlevoix, who, seeing
    it played by some Alonquin Indians with a stick between Quebec and
    Three Rivers, called it _le jeu de la Crosse_.

=Ladbroke Grove.= This, with the square of the same name, was built upon
    by the Ladbroke family, who acquired the lease of the land for the
    purpose.

=Lad Lane.= A name frequently met with in connection with the old
    coaching inn, “The Swan with Two Necks.” It was a corruption of “Our
    Lady Lane,” so called from a statue of the Virgin.

=Ladrones.= Expresses the Spanish for “thieves,” the name given to those
    islands by Magellan because the natives made off with the stores he
    had landed.

=Ladybird.= A pretty species of beetle resembling a bug, and anciently
    called “Our Lady’s Bug.” _Bug_ is the accepted American term for a
    beetle.

=Lady Day.= The Feast of Our Lady, otherwise of the Annunciation to the
    Virgin (25th March). Prior to 1752 this was also the first day of
    the New Year; now it figures as Quarter Day, when rents and taxes
    have to be paid.

=Lady Freemason.= The Hon. Elizabeth St Leger, niece of Sir Anthony St
    Leger, who founded the stakes named after him at Doncaster Races,
    and daughter of Lord Doneraile of Dublin. Chancing to overhear the
    proceedings at a Lodge held at her father’s mansion she was
    discovered, and, as the only way out of an unprecedented dilemma,
    initiated to the craft. No other female has ever been made a
    “Freemason.”

=Lager Beer.= The German “lager bier” is simply stock beer, the liquor
    being kept in a _lager_, or cellar, until it is sufficiently ripened
    for consumption. All over the United States the demand for “Lager”
    is enormous.

=Laid on the Shelf.= A phrase implying that one’s period of usefulness
    has been passed. The allusion is to books read and clothes laid
    aside as of no further use.

=Laid up in Lavender.= Something put away very carefully, as a good
    housewife preserves linen strewn with lavender in a press against
    moths. At times we hear the expression allusive to an article put in
    pawn.

=Lake Erie.= See “Erie.”

=Lake Huron.= See “Huron.”

=Lake Ontario.= See “Ontario.”

=Lake School of Poets.= A term applied by _The Edinburgh Review_ to the
    imitators of Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Southey, who communed with
    Nature in the Lake District of Cumberland and Westmoreland.

=Lake Superior.= The uppermost and principal of the five great lakes of
    North America.

=Lake Winnipeg.= See “Winnipeg.”

=La Marseillaise.= See “Marseillaise.”

=Lambeth.= A corruption of “Lamhithe,” the Anglo-Saxon for mud haven, or
    a muddy landing-place.

=Lambeth Palace.= The historic residence of the Archbishops of
    Canterbury.

=Lamb’s Conduit Street.= After William Lambe, a wealthy clothworker, who
    at his own cost built “a faire conduit and standard” in the fields
    here off Holborn in 1577.

=Lamb’s Wool.= A rural beverage of roasted apple juice and spiced ale.
    It received its name from the Saxon _La Mæs Ubhal_, or “Feast of the
    Apple Gathering.” From _lammas ool_ its further corruption was easy.

=Lame Duck.= The name given to a member of the Stock Exchange who cannot
    meet his liabilities on settling day. Instead of walking erect, like
    a man of strict integrity, he ducks his head, and waddles off, well
    knowing that he has been black-boarded and struck off the list of
    members.

=Lammas Day.= The ancient name for the first of August, when every
    parishioner brought to church a loaf made of new wheat. The name
    expresses the Anglo-Saxon for “loaf mass,” and the bread was a gift
    of first-fruits to the clergy. Its modern equivalent is the “Harvest
    Festival.”

=Lamp-black.= So called because this pigment was at first obtained by
    burning resinous matter over the flame of a lamp.

=Lancaster.= The Roman _Lunecastra_, or fortified camp on the Lune.

=Lancaster Gun.= After the name of its inventor.

=Lancastrians.= During the Wars of the Roses the partisans of the House
    of Lancaster in the contest for the crown of England as opposed to
    the House of York.

=Lancers.= This dance received its name from a company of Lancers who
    went through the evolutions of a quadrille on horseback about the
    year 1836.

=Landau.= After Landau in Germany, where it was first made.

=Landes.= Expresses the French for heaths. The people of this marshy
    and, in parts sandy, district walk on long stilts.

=Landgrave.= The Anglicised form of the German _landgraf_, count, a
    ground landlord.

=Land o’ Cakes.= Scotland, which has always been celebrated for its
    oatmeal cakes.

=Land of Green Ginger.= A square at Hull where, as popularly thought,
    green ginger was anciently landed from the river and sold in open
    market. The name is, however, a corruption of “Greenhinger,” being
    the land owned by Moses Greenhinger, a boat builder, who lived in
    Whitefriargate in the seventeenth century. This is proved by a
    letter of Sir Willoughby Hickman, a candidate for the borough in
    1685. Therein he states that a coach took him from the waterside to
    the George Inn, “at the corner of the land of Moses Greenhinger.”

=Land of Promise.= The name of a short street in Hoxton, so called,
    sarcastically no doubt, because it leads to the workhouse.

=Land of Steady Habits.= Connecticut, so called on account of the
    excellent moral character of the people.

=Land of Sundown Seas.= Alaska. “Sundown” is an Americanism for sunset,
    just as “Sun-up” is for sunrise.

=Land o’ the Leal.= The Scottish heaven, or “Dixie’s Land”; according to
    the Baroness Nairne’s ballad the word _Leal_ means faithful.

=Land of the Midnight Sun.= Norway.

=Landscaper.= Local slang in the eastern counties for a tramp, vagrant,
    or “Loafer.”

=Land Shark.= The name given by sailors to a boarding-house keeper in a
    seaport town who preys upon them by systematic overcharges.

=Landwehr.= The German equivalent for our volunteers, or soldiers for
    land defence. The term _wehr_ means bulwark, defence.

=Lane.= Actors refer to the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, as “The Lane,”
    the playhouse of London _par excellence_ since the palmy days of the
    Drama.

=Langbourn Ward.= From the long bourn or stream, of which now no trace
    remains.

=Langholm Place.= After the mansion and grounds of Sir James Langham,
    which occupied what is now the street of the same name.

=Laodicea.= This ancient city was so called after Laodice, the queen of
    Antiochus Theos, who founded it.

=Lap Dog.= One literally nursed in the lap of luxury. Mothers of
    families are strangers to such pets.

=Lapsus Linguæ.= Latin for “a slip of the tongue.”

=Largess.= From the Latin _largitso_, to give freely, through the French
    _largesse_. This word meant originally a fee or present bestowed
    upon a butler or head servant by a departing guest. In its modern
    acceptation it is a distribution of money amongst a number rather as
    a matter of policy or necessity than from choice.

=Lascar.= The generic name for an East Indian seaman, though it really
    expresses the Persian for a soldier, from _lashkari_, a
    camp-follower. Lascars were first employed by the East Indiamen
    homeward bound. Nowadays all Asiatic sailors, of whatever
    nationality, are called Lascars.

=Lasso.= From the Spanish _lazo_, a noose.

=Latakia.= A Turkish tobacco, so called from the place (the ancient
    Laodicea) where it is produced.

=Latch-string is always out.= An Americanism for a hearty welcome at all
    times, without need for a formal invitation. The allusion to the
    latch-string means: “You have only to walk in, like any member of
    the family.”

=Lath.= A subdivision of land while certain portions of Eastern England
    were held by the Danes, so called from the Norse “Lathing,” a law
    assembly.

=Latins.= See “Italy.”

=Latin Vulgate.= The Roman Catholic Bible authorised by the Council of
    Trent in 1546. This translation of the Scriptures was made by St
    Jerome from the Greek into the Latin or vulgar tongue A.D. 405.

=Latitudinarians.= The opposers of the High Church party, and also of
    the Puritans, during the Restoration period. Modern Latitudinarians
    are those who hold very broad views in regard to orthodox doctrine.

=Laugh and grow Fat.= In allusion to Democritus, “The Laughing
    Philosopher,” who waxed fat, and lived to be 109 years old.

=Laughing Philosopher.= Democritus of Abdera, from his habit of
    humorously exposing the absurdities of his countrymen, whose
    stupidity, he declared, was proverbial; the feeble powers of
    mankind, contrasted with the forces of nature, likewise aroused his
    contempt.

=Laugh in your Sleeve.= Anciently the sleeves of all outer garments were
    very wide, and when a person covered his face with his hand there
    was always a suspicion that he was making merry at someone else’s
    discomfiture.

=Laugh on the wrong Side of your Face.= A person may preserve a grave
    countenance while listening to a story, and at the same time wink
    significantly to a bystander on the opposite side of the speaker.
    The expression means that if, for his insolence, he received a
    castigation, both his eyes would be made to wink or blink.

=Laundress.= The exclusive designation of a housekeeper or caretaker of
    bachelor chambers in the Temple. This is because during the Crusades
    a great many women of the town followed in the train of the Knights
    Templars to the Holy Land for the purpose of washing their linen. It
    afterwards transpired that, as a rule, they acted also as mistresses
    to the Knights, and had tents set apart for them even within sight
    of Jerusalem. Historians tell us too that, though a religious Order,
    the Templars did not scruple to introduce these women into their
    London house after their return from the seat of warfare, and this
    irregularity, in fact, led to their suppression by Edward II. in
    1313.

=Laundried.= An Americanism for “washed,” in relation to household or
    personal linen. This, when one comes to look into the word, is
    correct English, meaning _lawn dried_.

=Lavender.= From the Latin verb _lavare_, to wash, because this shrub
    yields an essential oil employed in medicine and perfumery.
    Laundresses also use it for preserving newly washed linen against
    moths.

=Lavender Water.= A scent produced from the essential oil of lavender,
    spirits of wine, and ambergris.

=Lawing.= An Americanism for “going to law.”

=Lawless Parliament.= See “Parliament of Dunces.”

=Lawn.= The finest linen, which has been bleached on a lawn instead of
    the usual drying ground. The greensward called a lawn received its
    name from the Celtic _allawnt_, a smooth, rising ground.

=Lawrence Lane.= From the Church of St Lawrence, at its foot, in Gresham
    Street.

=Law Sakes.= An American corruption of the phrase “For the Lord’s sake!”
    which, current among the Puritans of New England, found its way in
    this new form into neighbouring states.

=Laws, Laws-a-me.= A corruption of “Lord, have mercy on me.”

=Lawyer.= From the old English _Lawwer_, literally “lawman”; the suffix
    is allied to the Latin _vir_, man.

=Lawyer’s Treat.= A phrase implying that each shall pay for his own
    drinks. A lawyer never treats his clients at a refreshment bar; they
    defray the cost between them.

=Lay-by.= The name given to an article, generally clothing, purchased on
    the weekly instalment system, and laid by on a shelf until the whole
    amount has been paid off.

=Lazar-house.= The old name for a poor-house, in allusion to Lazarus,
    who picked up the crumbs under the table at the mansion of Dives. On
    the Continent such an institution is styled a “Lazaretto.”

=Lazarists.= An Order of missionaries founded by St Vincent de Paul, so
    called from their headquarters in Paris, the Priory of St Lazare,
    between 1632 and 1792.

=Lazzaroni.= The beggars of Naples, and originally all the poorest
    people of that city who had no regular habitation save the streets.
    Their name was derived from the common refuge, the Hospital of St
    Lazarus.

=Leadenhall Street.= After the edifice known as the Leadenhall, the
    first in London ever roofed with lead, built in 1419 by Sir Simon
    Eyre, and presented to the city for the purposes of a granary in
    time of scarcity.

=Leading Article= (or =Leader=). There are three reasons for this term
    applied to a large-type newspaper article. It is supposed to be
    written by the chief of the literary staff, the editor; it leads off
    the foreign and all other important news on the inside pages of the
    paper; and it is intended to lead public opinion according to the
    party views maintained by the journal in question.

=League of the Cross.= The title of a modern crusade among the Roman
    Catholics for the total suppression of drunkenness.

=Leamington.= The town in the meadow on the banks of the Leam.

=Leap Year.= That which every fourth year leaps to the total of 366 days
    by adding a day to the month of February.

=Leather Lane.= From “The Old Leather Bottle,” now modernised, at the
    corner of this lane and Charles Street.

=Leave some for Manners.= A dinner-table phrase, which had its origin in
    the ancient custom of making an offering of a portion of the viands
    to the gods.

=Lebanon.= From the Hebrew _laban_, white; expresses “the white
    mountain.”

=Lee.= A variant of the Anglo-Saxon _lea_ and _ley_, “meadow” or
    “pasture land.” This word enters into many river and place-names.

=Leech.= The old name for a medical man in the days when bleeding the
    patient, no matter what his ailment might be, was the common
    practice.

=L. E. L.= The literary pseudonym, formed from the initials of Letitia
    Elizabeth Landon, the poetess.

=Leg and Star.= A corruption of “The Star and Garter.” This, of course,
    arose when a painted device, instead of a mere title, served as an
    inn and tavern sign.

=Legend.= An Americanism for a written or printed notice. The term has
    latterly come into use in England relative to a tradesman’s shop
    announcement.

=Legitimate Drama.= That which is dependent upon its intrinsic literary
    and constructive merits, quite apart from scenic effects.

=Leg Stretcher.= A Far Western expression for a drink. This arose from
    the common travellers’ exclamation while the stage coach was waiting
    for the mails: “I’ll get off a bit, and stretch my legs.”

=Leicester.= The _Leirecastra_ of the Romans, being the fortified camp
    on the Leire, now called the Soar.

=Leicester Square.= Originally Leicester Fields, from the town mansion
    built on its east side by Robert Sidney, Earl of Leicester, in 1636.

=Leipsic.= Expresses the Slavonic for linden or lime tree town, from
    _lipa_, lime-tree.

=Leman Street.= Properly “Lemon Street,” from a wharf at the Thames
    side, where, before the construction of the docks, lemons were
    landed and sold.

=Lemon Sole.= The species of sole found on the south coast of England;
    really a mud sole, from the Latin _lima_, mud.

=Lent.= From the Anglo-Saxon _lencten_, the spring. The word has the
    same origin as “lengthen,” since at this season of the year the
    lengthening of the days becomes perceptible.

=Lent Crocking.= A popular old-time diversion of the schoolboys on
    Shrove Tuesday. The ringleader, having knocked at a house door and
    recited a garbled set of verses, to the effect that he had come
    _a-shroving_, his companions kept up an incessant din with old
    saucepans and kettles until they were paid to go away.

=Leonine Verses.= Those which rhyme both in the middle and at the end of
    each line, so called after Leoninus, a canon of St Victor in Paris
    midway in the twelfth century.

=Let the Cat out of the Bag.= To disclose a trick unwittingly. The
    illusion is to a very old device at country fairs of selling a cat
    for a sucking pig. One pig only was exposed to view; all the others
    were supposed to be ready tied up for carrying away. If, on
    occasion, a purchaser insisted on untying the sack before paying for
    it, the cat leapt out, and the fraud was discovered. As to the other
    victims who had taken away theirs on trust, they were forced to
    admit, because their sack contained no sucking pig, that they had
    been “sucked in.”

=Levant.= An Italian term for the Orient or East--_i.e._ all those parts
    of the Mediterranean eastward of Italy. The word is also used in the
    sense of to depart, and a defaulter was said to have _levanted_, or
    gone to the Levant. This was in allusion to the “Grand Tour” which
    all scions of the nobility were expected to make on reaching their
    majority.

=Levee.= A French word applied to a royal reception, from _lever_,
    arising, because in former times such a function took place in the
    King’s bed-chamber at the hour of rising.

=Levellers.= The primitive Radicals or Socialists of the time of Charles
    I. and long afterwards; their plea was that all men should be on a
    common level in regard to office-seeking. Also the original name of
    the “White Boys” in Ireland, who commenced their agrarian outrages
    by levelling the hedges and fences on enclosed lands.

=Leviticus.= That book of the Old Testament which sets forth the laws
    pertaining to the priests or Levites, the descendants of Levi, the
    third son of Jacob and Leah.

=Lewisham.= From _Leesham_, the home or family settlement in the meadow.
    See “Lee.”

=Leyden.= Originally _Lugdunum_, the Latinised form of the Celtic
    _llwch_, a morass, and _dun_, a hill, fortress.

=Leyton.= The town in the lea or meadow.

=Leytonstone.= A corruption of “Leytonstowe,” the stock or wooded place
    in the vicinity of a meadow.

=Lhassa.= A Tibetan word for “full of gods.”

=Liberal.= The modern designation of the Progressive or “Whig” Party.
    This arose out of Lord Byron’s political magazine, _The Liberal_, in
    1828, though the name was not formally assumed until the agitation
    for the Reform Bill in 1831.

=Liberator.= The surname of Simon Bolivar, who established the
    independence of Peru.

=Liberia.= An independent republic of free Negroes on the west coast of
    Africa. The word is derived from the Latin _liber_, free, and the
    Celtic suffix _ia_, country.

=Library.= From the Latin _librarium_, a bookcase, through _liber_, a
    book.

=Lifting.= This technical term in the printing trade, because type is
    lifted out of the columns prior to distribution, or, as may happen
    in a newspaper, to be held over until the next issue for want of
    space, has come to be applied by journalists to literary theft.
    Facts, anecdotes, or jokes stolen from a contribution submitted to
    an editor on approval are said to have been “lifted.” One newspaper,
    too, often “lifts” matter from another without acknowledgment.

=Light.= A journeyman printer’s term for “credit.” Derived from the old
    saying: “He stands in a good light with his neighbours.” The boast:
    “My light is good,” has about it little to find fault with.

=Liguorians.= Another name for the Redemptorists or Preachers of the
    Redemption, an Order founded by St Francis Liguori in 1732.

=Like a Thousand of Brick.= An Americanism for very heavily, as if a
    waggon-load of bricks had been dumped down on one.

=Lille.= Properly _L’Isle_, the island.

=Lima.= A Spanish corruption of the Peruvian Rima, the name of the river
    on which it is situated.

=Limavady.= From the Irish _Leim-a-madha_, “The Dog’s Leap.”

=Limehouse.= A corruption of _Limehurst_, or wood of lime-trees.

=Lime Street.= Where lime was sold in ancient times.

=Limoges.= Anciently called “Lemovica,” from the _Lemovices_, the people
    who settled in this portion of Gaul.

=Lincoln.= Originally _Llyn-dun_, the Celtic for “Pool hill,” or the
    town built on the eminence overlooking the Swanpool, which was not
    drained until the eighteenth century. When the Romans established
    themselves here they called it _Lindum Colonia_, or the colony
    beside the pool. Of this name, therefore, Lincoln is a softened
    abbreviation.

=Lincoln College.= Founded at Oxford by Richard Fleming, Bishop of
    Lincoln, in 1427.

=Lincoln’s Inn.= Anciently the town mansion of the Earls of Lincoln,
    built by Henry de Lacey, Earl of Lincoln, in the fourteenth century.

=Line of Business.= A theatrical phrase for the special kind of parts in
    which an actor is experienced. One who plays the “Juveniles” would
    not be entrusted with an “Old Man’s” part, and so forth.

=Liner.= A steamship belonging to a regular line or service of fast
    sailers--_e.g._ the Cunard Line.

=Lingo.= Slang for language, derived from the Latin _lingua_, the
    tongue.

=Lingua Franca.= A common language along the Mediterranean shores, being
    a mixture of French and Italian. See “Lingo.”

=Linoleum.= A floorcloth, into the manufacture of which linseed oil
    enters largely.

=Linseed Lancers.= The nickname of the Army Medical Corps.

=Lion.= An ancient inn sign derived from the heraldic device of a
    particular monarch, or it might be, the Lord of the Manor. According
    to the colour of the animal in that device, so the name of the inn,
    after a mere name was substituted for the painted representation,
    came to be designated. Hence “Red Lion,” “Black Lion,” etc.

=Lion and Key.= A corruption of “The Lion on the Quay,” by way of
    distinguishing an inn or tavern from other Lions in the same
    seaport.

=Lion Comique.= The name bestowed upon George Leybourne and other
    music-hall vocalists of his class in days when comic singing was
    very different to what it is now. The modern type of vocal comedians
    is, happily, not “lionised” in the strict sense of the word.

=Lionise.= See “Lion of the Season.”

=Lion of the Season.= A distinguished musical executant or other
    celebrity, generally a foreigner, at whose shrine society
    metaphorically worships while his fame is at its zenith. The
    expression is the outcome of the anxiety of the country folk in
    former days to see the “London Lion” at the Tower. Hence to
    “lionise,” make the most of a “stranger within our gates.”

=Lion Sermon.= This is delivered once a year at the Church of St
    Katherine Cree in commemoration of Sir John Gayer’s miraculous
    escape from death by a lion when he found himself separated from his
    companions in the African desert. He bequeathed the sum of £200 a
    year to the poor on condition of this sermon being annually
    preached.

=Lisbon.= Anciently _Olisipo_ or _Ulyssippo_, after Ulysses, who,
    visiting Portugal with Lucus, is traditionally stated to have laid
    the foundations of the city.

=Lisson Grove.= Formerly Lidstone Green, a corruption of “Ossulton
    Green,” the name of a Hundred cited in Domesday Book. Ossulton
    Street in the Euston Road preserves the name in the original form.

=Litany.= See “Rogation Days.”

=Little Bit of All Right.= A popular expression meaning “Just the thing
    I wanted,” or “It couldn’t have happened better.”

=Little Britain.= From the ancient residence of the Dukes of Brittany.

=Little Corporal.= The name bestowed upon Napoleon I., at the
    commencement of his military career, from his rank and low stature.

=Little John.= The real name of this Sherwood forester was John Little,
    but Robin Hood playfully inverted it because its owner was a tall,
    strapping fellow.

=Little Man.= The affectionate sobriquet of the late Mr Alfred Beit, the
    “Diamond King,” on account of his diminutive stature.

=Little Mary.= A modern euphonism for the stomach, popularised by J. M.
    Barrie’s successful comedy of this title.

=Little too Thick.= The antithesis of a “thin” story; one so crowded
    with extraordinary statements that it is hard to grasp or credit.

=Little Turnstile.= The lesser turnstile on the north side of Lincoln’s
    Inn Fields, set up to prevent sheep from straying into Holborn.

=Live like Fighting Cocks.= From the days of the Greeks down to
    comparatively modern times game-cocks were fed luxuriantly, so as to
    increase their pugnacity; hence the application of the phrase to
    good living.

=Live Man.= An Americanism for an energetic agent or canvasser.

=Liverpool.= From an extinct bird, somewhat resembling the heron, and
    called the _liver_, that made the _pool_ on which this city was
    built its home.

=Liverpool Landseer.= The sobriquet of William Huggins, who acquired an
    equal celebrity for animal painting in his native place, as Sir
    Edwin Landseer in the country at large.

=Liverpool Street.= After Lord Liverpool, one of the most popular
    members of the Ministry at the accession of George IV. There is
    another Liverpool Street named after him at King’s Cross.

=Liverymen.= Freemen of the city of London who on great special
    occasions wear the distinctive livery of the companies to which they
    belong.

=Llandaff.= Properly _Llan Taff_, the church on the Taff.

=Lloyd’s.= After Edward Lloyd, a coffee-house keeper in Abchurch Lane,
    whose premises were first used by merchants and shippers as a sort
    of club.

=LL Whisky.= That distilled by Messrs Kinahan of Dublin. When the Duke
    of Richmond was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland between 1807 and 1813 he
    in the former year sent to various distilleries for samples of good
    whisky, and preferring that tendered by Messrs Kinahan, he ordered a
    large vat of the same quality to be exclusively reserved for him.
    This vat had LL painted on it, denoting “Lord-Lieutenant Whisky.”

=Lo.= An American term for an Indian. This originated in Pope’s “Essay
    on Man,” a couplet of which reads:

               “Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutored mind
               Sees God in clouds or hears Him in the wind.”

=Loaded.= An Americanism for intoxicated or “primed.”

=Loafer.= This word is neither Dutch nor German, as generally stated; it
    is distinctly Spanish-American. The early settlers of Mexico and
    Texas gave the name of _gallofo_ to a vagrant, who, like the
    _lazzaroni_ of Naples, hung about the churches begging for alms.
    From the western states this word travelled to New York, and in the
    process became changed into “Loafer.”

=Loan.= An Americanism for “lend.”

=Lock-out.= When artisans have struck for an advance of wages, and
    afterwards decide to return to work on the former scale, the masters
    retaliate by shutting them out of the works altogether and employing
    fresh hands from elsewhere.

=Lock, Stock, and Barrel.= A sportsman’s phrase for the whole of a
    thing, in allusion to the three parts of a gun. In the modern sense
    it is used to imply the complete discomfiture of an adversary in
    argument or of one utterly outwitted in his schemes.

=Loco-Focos.= The American term for lucifer matches. By a patent dated
    16th April 1834 John Marck, a storekeeper of Park Row, New York,
    brought out a self-lighting or friction cigar, which he called a
    Loco-Foco. The first portion of this name was taken from the newly
    introduced locomotive, which people generally thought to mean
    self-moving; the latter half was a euphonism of his own. When
    friction or self-firing matches came in they received the same
    designation. The Democratic Party of the United States received the
    name of “Loco-Focos” from the circumstance that at a great general
    meeting held in Tammany Hall to confirm the nomination of Gideon Lee
    as the Democratic candidate for Congress, a tumult arose, and the
    lights were turned out; whereupon the adherents of the candidate,
    who had provided themselves with loco-focos and candles, relighted
    the hall in a moment.

=Loft.= An Americanism for storey. In the United States it is usual to
    say a house contains so many “lofts” instead of storeys.

=Logger.= One employed in the North American forests cutting down trees
    and sawing them into logs.

=Loggerhead.= A dull, stupid fellow with no more sense in his head than
    a “logger” or lumberman. These loggers often quarrel for no visible
    cause; hence the expression to be “at loggerheads.”

=Log-rolling.= Primarily a political term descriptive of mutual
    co-operation on the part of individuals for the furtherance of a
    general cause. It means: “You help me and I’ll help you”; “If your
    party further my Bill through Congress I’ll pledge my party to push
    yours along too.” The expression obtains also in a social and
    journalistic sense: “If I propose a testimonial for you I expect you
    to do the same for me”; “I’ll write you up in the Press if you
    engage to return the compliment.” For the origin of the term we must
    look to the lumber regions of the state of Maine, where the loggers
    of different camps assist one another by turns to roll their logs
    down to the river.

=Lollards.= Originally an association of pious people in Germany at the
    commencement of the thirteenth century banded together for the
    purpose of burying the dead. They were so called on account of the
    solemn dirges they sang, from the Low German _lollen_, to sing
    softly. After a time the same title was assumed by the followers of
    one Walter Goilard, a dissolute priest, who was burned for heresy at
    Cologne in 1322. The Wycliffites assumed this name still later, and
    some of these it must have been who were imprisoned in the
    “Lollards’ Tower,” Lambeth Palace.

=Lombard Street.= From the Jews of Lombardy, who here set up banks and
    money-lending establishments, at the instance of Pope Gregory IX.,
    as a means of assisting the people of England to raise money for the
    payment of their taxes early in the thirteenth century.

=Lombardy.= Called by the Romans _Longobardi_ after its people, whom
    they subdued. This name was not derived from their long beards, as
    generally stated, but from the _longis bardis_, or long battle-axes,
    with which they were armed.

=London.= This name claims the same origin as “Lincoln,” the first rude
    habitations beside the Thames being situated on the rising ground
    now known as Tower Hill.

=London Bridge was built on Woolpacks.= This expression had its origin
    in the fact that, when the construction of Old London Bridge was
    stopped for want of funds, Henry II. expedited its completion by
    imposing a tax upon wool.

=Londonderry.= The town built by a company of London adventurers, to
    whom it, with the county of the same name, was granted by a royal
    charter of James I. _Derry_ is Celtic for a grove or oak forest.

=London Lion.= An expression derived from the Royal Menagerie at the
    Tower of London ere the metropolis rejoiced in a Zoological Gardens,
    and when travelling menageries were unheard of. Country visitors up
    in town for a few days never failed at that period to feast their
    eyes upon a real live lion, and on returning to their homes boasted
    of having seen the London Lion.

=London Stone.= Marked the centre of Roman London, from which all the
    great roads through the country radiated.

=London Wall.= From the Roman wall which here defined the northern
    limits of the city. A portion of this old wall may yet be seen in
    Cripplegate Churchyard.

=Lone Star State.= Texas, from the single star in her flag.

=Long Acre.= The Anglo-Saxon _acer_, like the modern German _acker_,
    expresses a field. This was anciently a path across the fields
    between Lincoln’s Inn and “Lomesbury Village,” or the manor now
    known as Bloomsbury in the parish of St Giles’s-in-the-Fields.

=Long Friday.= The old name for Good Friday, both on account of the
    length of the Church service and the long fast imposed on all good
    Catholics.

=Longford.= The long ford on the River Camlin.

=Long Island.= So called from its shape.

=Long Lane.= This was a long, narrow lane extending from Barbican to
    Farringdon Road before the greater portion of its one side was
    cleared for the Smithfield Market.

=Long Lane that has no Turning.= An expression meaning that sooner or
    later a turn of fortune must come, since no lane, however long,
    exists that has no turning.

=Long Peter.= This name was merited by the celebrated Flemish painter,
    Peter Aartsen, by reason of his abnormal stature.

=Long Parliament.= That which was dissolved by Oliver Cromwell after it
    had lasted more than twelve years.

=Longshanks.= The surname of Edward I. on account of his spindle legs.

=Longshoreman.= Properly “Along-shoreman”--namely, a wharfinger, or one
    employed in loading and unloading vessels.

=Look Daggers.= A phrase used when two persons look fixedly at each
    other as if their eyes were dagger points ready to make a fatal
    thrust.

=Loosen your Purse Strings.= See “Purse Strings.”

=Lord Bobs.= The later nickname of Lord Roberts since the close of the
    South African War.

=Lord’s Cricket Ground.= After Thomas Lord, the founder of the earliest
    private Cricket Club in London, in 1780. First in Dorset Square, and
    eventually on its present site--his own landed property--he set up a
    private pitch for genteel folk far from the haunts of the city
    apprentices and other enthusiasts of the game.

=Lord’s Day.= The name given to Sunday by the Quakers.

=Lordship Lane.= From the Lord of the Manor of Dulwich.

=Loretto.= Called by the Romans _Lauretana_ after Laureta, the lady to
    whom the country villa, and a large tract of land on which the town
    was afterwards built, belonged.

=Lorraine.= Anciently Lotharingia, the duchy of Lotharius II., grandson
    of the Emperor Lewis I.

=Los Angeles.= Originally called by the Spaniards “Pueblo de los
    Angeles,” the city of the angels, on account of its delightful
    situation and climate.

=Lo Spagnoletto.= The surname of Guiseppe Ribera, the celebrated Spanish
    painter. It means “Little Spaniard.”

=Lothbury.= A corruption of “Lattenbury,” where the workers in _latten_
    ware, a species of bronze, had their shops in the Middle Ages. In
    the modern sense latten is a kind of sheet brass.

=Loudoun Road.= After the name of the builder on the estate.

=Louis d’Or.= A gold coin first struck in the reign of Louis XIII. of
    France. The name means a “Louis of gold.”

=Louisiana.= The name bestowed upon this State by M. de la Sale in 1682
    in compliment to Louis XIV. of France.

=Louvre.= An adapted French word, from _l’ouvert_, “the opening,” which
    expressed a kind of turret on the roof of a building by way of a
    chimney to let out the smoke. A rude contrivance of this kind
    distinguished the ancient hunting seat of Dagobert, on the site of
    which Francis I. commenced the famous Parisian palace of this name
    in 1528, completed twenty years later by Henry II. A _louvre_ window
    partakes of the same character.

=Lower Berkeley Street.= See “Berkeley Street.”

=Lower Thames Street.= The eastern portion of Thames Street, from London
    Bridge to the Tower.

=Lowndes Square.= After the ground landlord, lineally descended from
    William Loundes, secretary to the Treasury, _temp._ Queen Anne.

=Low Sunday.= Not only was this Sunday at the bottom of the Lenten or
    Easter Calendar, but prior to the alteration of New Year’s Day it
    was frequently also the last Sunday of the year.

=Luciferians.= A sect of Christians in the fourth century, under
    Lucifer, Bishop of Cagliari in Sardinia, who separated from the
    Orthodox Church on the ground that the reconverted “Arians” should
    not again be admitted to the fold.

=Lucifer Matches.= Early friction matches, so called from the Latin
    _lucis_, light, and _ferre_, to bring.

=Lucullus Feast.= A sumptuous banquet, so called after Licinius
    Lucullus, a famous Roman general, who in the days of his retirement
    was no less distinguished for the costly suppers he gave to the
    greatest men of the Empire. The sums expended on those
    entertainments were enormous. As an epicure he was unrivalled; he
    could also be a glutton on occasion. There is a story told that
    after the feast had been prepared no guests arrived. “Lucullus will
    sup to-night with Lucullus” was the explanation of the host.

=Lud-a-massy.= A corruption of the old exclamation “Lord, have mercy!”

=Luddites.= A name borne by the wilful destroyers of machinery in the
    manufacturing districts; said to have been adopted from Ned Lud, an
    imbecile of Leicester, who being, chased by boys, took refuge in a
    house, and there broke a couple of stocking frames. These rioters
    caused great havoc during the second decade of the last century.

=Ludgate Hill.= The testimony of Old Stow notwithstanding, there is
    grave doubt whether King Lud, the reputed builder of the western
    gate of the city, ever existed. In much greater likelihood this gate
    received its name from its situation near the River Fleet, and meant
    simply _Flood Gate_. See “Fleet Street.”

=Lug.= Northern and Scottish for “ear.” In England generally this word
    is regarded as slang except when employed in connection with
    “Lugger” and “Luggage.”

=Luggage.= So called because it is lugged about in transit by the
    handles, as a Lancashire man would pull another by the _lug_ or ear.

=Lugger.= A small craft having _lugs_, or drooping sails, like a dog’s
    ear.

=Lumber.= An Americanism for timber sawn into logs and sent floating
    down the rivers for eventual shipment.

=Lumber-room.= One set apart for odds and ends of no practical utility.
    The name is derived from “Lombard Room,” in which the Lombards, who
    were the first goldsmiths and money-lenders in England, stored the
    articles pledged with them.

=Lunatic.= From the Latin _luna_, the moon. The Romans persistently
    cherished the idea that a person’s mind was affected at the several
    changes of the moon.

=Lupercalia.= A Roman festival in honour of _Lupercus_, the god of
    fertility. This occurred on the 15th of February.

=Lupus Street.= This keeps alive the name of Henry Lupus, first Earl of
    Chester, from whom the Grosvenors, the ground landlords, are
    descended.

=Lurid Waistcoat Banquet.= The latest style of “Freak Dinner” in
    America, each guest disporting himself in a waistcoat of startling
    hue and design.

=Lutherans.= After Martin Luther, the German Reformer.

=Luxembourg.= This celebrated palace of the French capital stands on the
    site of that purchased and enlarged in 1583 by the Duke of d’Epinay,
    Luxembourg. The title of the Dukes of Luxembourg is very ancient,
    having been derived from a beautiful chateau called _Luici burgum_,
    which was acquired by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963.

=Lyceum Theatre.= Opened in 1834 as the English Opera House. This was
    originally a lyceum or academical establishment connected with the
    Society of Arts. The word _Lyceum_ was correctly applied in this
    case from the academy formed by Aristotle in the temple of Apollo
    Lyceus, near the River Illissus.

=Lych-Gate.= A large gateway at the entrance to the churchyard where the
    coffin can be set down while the mourners await the arrival of the
    clergyman to lead the funeral service. The word comes from the
    Gothic _leik_, and German _leiche_, a corpse.

=Lyddite.= So called because experiments with this explosive were first
    made at Lydd in Kent.

=Lying around Loose.= An Americanism for being out of a situation,
    lounging about the town.

=Lyme Regis.= This little Dorsetshire seaport on the River Lym was
    honoured with a royal charter and the title of _Regis_ because it
    furnished Edward III. with three ships to aid in the siege of Calais
    in 1346.

=Lynch Law.= The summary justice meted out to public offenders in the
    western states of North America. This term was derived from James
    Lynch, a farmer of Piedmont on the western frontier of Virginia.
    There being no Court of Law for many miles around he was always
    appealed to in cases requiring a legal decision, and his judgments
    were so sound and impartial that the people gave him the name of
    Judge Lynch. The death sentence was by hanging at the nearest tree.
    To “lynch a man,” however, in the modern sense is to dispense with
    legal formalities altogether.

=Lynn Regis.= See “King’s Lynn.”

=Lyon King at Arms.= The principal at Heralds’ College in Scotland, so
    called from the lion rampant on the armorial bearings of the
    Scottish kings.

=Lyre Bird.= So called from the resemblance of the sixteen feathers of
    its tail when spread erect to a lyre.


                                   M


=Ma’am.= An Americanism for mother. See “Madam.”

=Ma’am School.= The American term for a young ladies’ seminary, or an
    infants’ school kept by a woman.

=Macadamised Road.= This system of road-making by means of broken stones
    pressed down by a heavy roller was introduced by John Loudon
    Macadam, a Scotsman, appointed Surveyor of Public Roads in 1827.

=Macaroni.= From the Italian _macare_, to crush, to bruise, through
    _Macarone_, a mixture, a medley. This confection originally
    consisted of cheese and bread paste squeezed into balls.

=Macaronies.= Fashionable dandies first heard of in London after the
    accession of George III. Their leaders hailed from France and Italy,
    where Macaroni Clubs abounded. These clubs arose out of Dilettante
    Societies, formed for the cultivation of what was styled Macaronic
    Verse, after a poetical rhapsody entitled “Liber Macaronicorum,” a
    jumble of Latin and other languages published by a monk of Mantua in
    1520. Subsequently everything in dress or taste received the name of
    Macaroni.

=Macaroon.= A biscuit the name of which has the same etymology as
    “Macaroni.”

=Macassar Oil.= So called because it was first exported from Macassar,
    the Dutch capital of Celebes Island.

=Macclesfield Street.= After the Earl of Macclesfield, the landlord of
    the estate when it was laid out in 1697.

=Macedonians.= A fourth century sect of Christians founded by
    Macedonius, Patriarch of Constantinople.

=Machinaw.= A heavy blanket worn by Indians, and also nowadays in the
    western states used as a travelling rug and bed pallet. The term is
    derived from Machinac (pronounced _Machinaw_), the chief trading
    station with the Indians formerly. Western settlers also describe an
    overcoat as a Machinaw.

=Machine.= A bicycle is called a machine because it is a more or less
    complicated piece of mechanism made up of many parts. In the United
    States the term machine is applied both to a locomotive and a fire
    engine.

=Mackenzie River.= After Alexander Mackenzie, by whom it was first
    navigated in 1789.

=Mackerel.= From the Danish _mackreel_, “spots.”

=Mackintosh.= After the Scotsman who invented water-proofing material
    for over-garments.

=Macklin Street.= After Charles Macklin, the celebrated actor of Drury
    Lane Theatre. His name was really Maclaughlin shortened into
    Macklin.

=Macmillanites.= An offshoot of the Presbyterians under John Macmillan;
    also styled the “Reformed Presbytery.”

=Madagascar.= A corruption of the native name _Malagasay_, the island of
    the Malagese or Malays.

=Madam.= In New England the term applied to the deceased wife of a
    person of local distinction, such as the parson, doctor, etc. In the
    southern states it expresses the mistress or master’s wife
    universally among the Negroes. Elsewhere it is either _Madam_ or
    _Ma’am_ for a mother.

=Mad Cavalier.= Prince Rupert, so called on account of his rash courage
    and lack of self-control.

=Mad Dog.= A skull cap, from the old idea that keeping the head
    impervious to air was a remedy against the bite of a dog.

=Mad Poet.= Nathaniel Lee, who wrote some of his finest pieces while
    confined during four years at Bethlehem Hospital.

=Mad as a Hatter.= A corruption of “Mad as an atter.” _Atter_ expressed
    the Saxon for a viper or adder. The word “Mad” was anciently used in
    the sense of venomous; hence this expression really meant “venomous
    as a viper.”

=Mad as a March Hare.= Being their rutting season, hares are very wild
    in March.

=Made a bad Break.= An Americanism for having made a silly slip of the
    tongue, a sad mistake, or a great blunder. The expression is, of
    course, derived from a game of billiards.

=Made his Pile.= Although a Californian phrase for having amassed a
    fortune, this originated at the gaming-tables throughout the States
    generally.

=Madeira.= Expresses the Portuguese for “timber.” This island was at the
    time of its discovery covered with forests. Also the name of a rich
    wine imported therefrom.

=Madeleine.= The church at Paris dedicated to Mary Magdalen or Mary of
    Magdala.

=Maddox Street.= After the name of the builder upon the land in 1720.

=Madras.= From the Arabic _Madrasa_, “university.” Originally Madrasa
    Pattan, the name expressed “University town.” _Pattan_ is Sanscrit
    for town.

=Madrid.= In the tenth century this was simply a Moorish fortified
    outpost of Toledo, as expressed by its Arabic name, _Majerit_.

=Maelstrom.= Expresses the Norwegian for an eddy or whirlpool; literally
    “whirling stream.”

=Maffiking.= A word used to denote the madness which may seize upon an
    entire community on an occasion of great public rejoicing, as
    happened when news of the relief of Mafeking, during the South
    African War, reached England. Staid citizens--bankers, stockbrokers,
    and others--assembled in front of the Mansion House, cheering
    wildly, and losing all control over themselves to such a degree that
    they threw their hats high in the air. For the remainder of that day
    and far into the night all London went mad with joy.

=Magazine.= From the Arabic _Makhzan_, a depository for stores. In a
    literary sense this originally expressed a periodical whose contents
    were made up of elegant extracts from the best authors.

=Magdalen Hospital.= The old name of a penitentiary for fallen women, so
    called after Mary Magdalen. The French form of this name is
    Madeleine.

=Magdalen Smith.= The famous Dutch portrait painter, Gaspar Smitz, is
    usually known by this name on account of his many “Magdalens,” in
    which he excelled.

=Magdeburg.= German for “town on the plain.”

=Magenta.= This colour was so called because first produced after the
    battle of Magenta in 1859.

=Magic City of the South.= Birmingham in the state of Alabama. Since its
    foundation by the Elyton Land Company in 1871 it has bidden fair to
    rival Pittsburg as the Birmingham of America.

=Magnolia.= In honour of the eminent French botanist, Pierre Magnol.

=Mahala.= The Californian term for an Indian squaw, derived from the
    Spanish _muger_ (pronounced _muher_), a woman.

=Mahatma.= A Hindoo term for a Buddhist gifted with what appear to be
    supernatural powers, as the result of the very highest intellectual
    development.

=Mahogany.= A vulgar term very frequently heard in the Midland counties
    for a man’s wife. This arose from the fact that the wood of the
    Mahogany-tree (West Indian _Mahogan_, but botanically _Swietenia
    Mahogani_) was for many years at first used exclusively for the
    manufacture of domestic dining-tables; hence a man would say: “I’ll
    discuss it with my wife over the Mahogany.” Eventually the phrase
    was corrupted into “I’ll talk to the Mahogany about it,” and so the
    term came to denote the man’s wife.

=Mahrattas.= The Hindoo term for “outcasts.” Although devout worshippers
    of Buddha, this powerful Hindoo family does not recognise that fine
    distinction of caste which obtains elsewhere.

=Maida Vale.= After the victory of Maida, 4th July 1806.

=Maiden.= An ancient instrument of capital punishment made in the form
    of a woman, the front of which opened like a door, and, the victim
    being imprisoned, sharp steel spikes pierced his body on every side.
    This name was also given to an early species of guillotine in
    Scotland. To be executed by its means was to “Kiss the Maiden,”
    because she clasped him in a death embrace.

=Maidenland.= A Virginian term for the land which comes to a man by
    marriage on his wife’s side, and which passes from him at her
    decease.

=Maiden Assize.= So called when there are no charges for the jury, which
    in the event of conviction merit capital punishment or the death
    sentence. On such an occasion the sheriffs present a pair of white
    gloves to the judges as the emblems of innocence.

=Maiden Lane.= Anciently skirting the garden of the Convent. This
    thoroughfare had at its western corner a statue of “Our Lady” let
    into the wall.

=Maid Marian.= So far from having any connection with Robin Hood and his
    merry men in Sherwood Forest, this term is derived from the “Morris
    Dance,” in which five men and a boy took part. On account of his
    antics and the ill-fitting _morione_, or helmet, that this boy wore,
    he came to be styled as the “Mad Morion,” of which Maid Marian was
    an easy corruption.

=Maid of Orleans.= Joan of Arc, who led her countrymen against the
    English, and effected the capture of the city of Orleans, 29th April
    1429.

=Maid of Saragossa.= Augustina Zaragossa, who distinguished herself in
    the heroic defence of the city of Saragossa during its eight months’
    siege by the French in 1808-9.

=Maidstone.= From the Anglo-Saxon _Medwægeston_, the town on the
    _Medwæge_, or Medway, which river runs through the middle of the
    county of Kent.

=Mail.= The American term for “post”--_i.e._ a letter. This word is, of
    course, derived from the mail bag in which letters are transmitted.

=Mail Stage.= The American form of “Stage-coach.”

=Maine.= The name given to the French settlement in the New World after
    the city so called in the Mother Country. Maine, from the Celtic
    _man_, expresses a district or region.

=Majorca.= Expresses the Latin for Greater, relative to the “Balearic
    Islands.”

=Make Bricks without Straw.= To make something without the needful
    materials. In the East bricks are made out of straw and mud dried in
    the sun. The expression comes from the burdens laid upon the
    Israelites in Egypt as related in Exodus v.: “Go therefore now, and
    work; for there shall no straw be given you, yet shall ye deliver
    the tale of bricks.”

=Make Money out of a Shoe-string.= An Americanism for a capacity to make
    money out of nothing--that is, without working capital.

=Make the Raise.= An Americanism for to “raise the loan.”

=Make the Sneak.= An Americanism for to sneak or run away.

=Make Tracks.= Originally a Far West expression when a squatter deserted
    his claim and set out to explore an unknown region.

=Make Trade hum.= An Americanism for whipping up business by advertising
    or extraordinary energy.

=Malaga.= From the Phœnician _malaca_, salt. The wine of the same
    name is imported from this city of Spain.

=Malmsey.= Wine from Malvasia, an island in the Mediterranean
    historically famous for its vineyards.

=Malta.= From the Phœnician _Melita_, “a place of refuge.”

=Mamelukes.= From the Arabic _mamluc_, a slave. The original standing
    army of Egypt, composed of boy slaves purchased by the Sultan from
    the Tartar Khan in the Caucasus in the thirteenth century.

=Mamma.= Latin for “breast”; hence all animals that are suckled by the
    mother belong to the class of “Mammals.”

=Mammon.= From the Syriac _mamona_, “riches.”

=Manchester.= Expresses the Anglo-Saxon for a common on the site of a
    Roman camp. The Friesic _man_ in this sense enters into many place
    names also on the Continent.

=Manchester Square.= After the Duke of Manchester, the owner of the
    estate.

=Manchuria.= The territory of the Manchus, the founders of the present
    ruling dynasty of China.

=Mandarin.= Although this title is borne by officers of every grade in
    China the word is really Portuguese, _mandar_, to command. It was
    applied by the early settlers of Macao to the Chinese officials of
    that colony, and has remained a European designation for a Chinaman
    of rank ever since.

=Manhattan.= From the Indian _munnohatan_, “the town on the island.”

=Manicure.= The American mode of “Manicurist,” which, from the Latin
    _manus_, hand, literally means one who undertakes the care of the
    finger-nails.

=Manitoba.= After _Manitou_, the “Great Spirit” of the Alonquin Indians.
    This name is pronounced Manito_bar_ not Mani_to_bar.

=Man in the Street.= A metaphorical expression for the average man, with
    no more than a superficial knowledge of matters in general. Not
    belonging to a club, he has small means of adding to his own store
    of knowledge by daily communion with those better informed than
    himself.

=Manlius Torquatus.= The Roman Consul Manlius received his surname
    “Torquatus” through having wrested the golden torque or collar from
    his adversary on the field of war.

=Mannheim.= German for “the home of men.” Until the Elector Palatine
    Frederick IV. built a castle here, and a town grew up around it in
    the seventeenth century, this was a village of refugees from
    religious persecution in the Netherlands.

=Man of Kent.= A native of the county of Kent east of the Medway.

=Man of Ross.= The name given by Pope to John Kyrle of Ross,
    Herefordshire. See “Kyrle Society.”

=Man of Straw.= One who, having nothing to lose, descends to mean
    practices for gain, well knowing that his victims rarely go to the
    expense of entering a prosecution against him, since they cannot
    obtain damages. This term was derived from the hangers-on at the
    Westminster Law Courts, who were ready to swear anything at the
    instruction of counsel for a bribe. They were known by displaying a
    wisp of straw in their shoes. If another witness was required while
    a case was being heard, counsel generally sent out to look for “a
    pair of straw shoes.”

=Man-of-War.= This term is a popular abbreviation of man-of-war
    ship--_i.e._ the floating home of a man-of-war’s-man. Our national
    prestige has from time immemorial been dependent on the supremacy of
    the seas, therefore an English sailor, more than a soldier, was
    regarded by our ancestors as a fighting man. Since the introduction
    of ironclads, however, it has become the custom to speak of a
    floating battery as a war vessel or battleship, and a sailor as a
    bluejacket.

=Mansard Roof.= After its inventor, François Mansard, the French
    architect of the seventeenth century.

=Mansfield Street.= From the town mansion of the Earls of Mansfield,
    which stood here.

=Mansion House.= Expresses the “house of houses,” the official residence
    of the Lord Mayor of London, the representative in the city of the
    King, whose flag proudly waves in the breeze from the roof.

=Mantua.= A lady’s cloak or mantle, originally introduced from the
    Italian city of this name.

=Maoris.= The aborigines of New Zealand. In the native tongue this means
    “indigenous.”

=Maraboo Feathers.= Those plucked from the underside of the wings of the
    stork of the same name. The stork being held sacred by the
    Mohammedans, as it was by the ancient Egyptians, its name has the
    same meaning as that of the “Marabuts.”

=Marabuts.= The priestly order of the Arabs in North Africa; those who
    attend the mosques and call the people to prayers. Their name is
    derived from the Arabic _Marabath_, sacred or devoted to God.

=Maraschino.= A liqueur distilled from delicate and finely flavoured
    cherries, called _Marazques_, cultivated at Zara in Dalmatia.

=March.= In honour of Mars, the Roman god of war.

=Marconigram.= A wireless telegram, so called after Marconi, the
    inventor of the system.

=Margate.= From the Anglo-Saxon _Mære_, the sea; expresses the road or
    entrance to the Thames estuary from the sea. See “Gate.”

=Margaret Street.= After Lady Margaret Cavendish, wife of the second
    Duke of Portland, landlord of the estate.

=Marigold.= This, golden flower, indigenous to Mexico, was dedicated by
    the Spaniards to the Virgin. What are called “Marigold Windows,”
    having these flowers represented on them, appear in Lady Chapels.

=Marine Store Dealer.= The legal description of what is now a rag and
    bone merchant in a small way, because at one time old ships’ iron
    and cables were not allowed to be disposed of in any other manner
    save to such a registered dealer.

=Market Street.= The site of an ancient market on which at a later
    period the annual May Fair was held. This district is now one of the
    most fashionable in the West End of London.

=Mark Lane.= A corruption of “Mart Lane,” in which an ancient annual
    fair or mart of Flemish merchants was held.

=Mark Twain.= The literary pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens,
    reminiscent of his early life as a pilot on a Mississippi steamboat.
    “Mark Twain” in nautical phraseology means “mark two fathoms of
    water.”

=Marlborough House.= This, the residence of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales,
    was built by Sir Christopher Wren for John Churchill, Duke of
    Marlborough, in 1709 at a total cost of a million of money.

=Marlborough Road.= This, like the square of the same name off the
    Fulham Road, was so called after the “Duke of Marlborough” at one
    end of it. At Peckham, after the one-time residence of John
    Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, before he removed to Pall Mall.

=Maroons.= Revolted Negroes in South America and the West Indies. The
    term was derived from the Morony River, between Dutch and French
    Guiana, where great numbers of these fugitives found a place of
    safety.

=Marquee.= Originally the tent of a marchioness.

=Marquis.= From the Italian and French _Marchese_, pursuant to the root
    _mark_, a boundary. Anciently expressive of an officer who had the
    guardianship of the marches or boundaries of a duchy. At a later
    period the owner of a slice of land bestowed upon him out of a
    duchy. Nowadays the title next below that of duke.

=Marquis of Granby.= A tavern sign in honour of John Manners, the
    British general during the Seven Years’ War in Germany, a soldier
    beloved by his men and esteemed by his country.

=Marry.= A perverted form of the oath “By Mary” in days when people were
    wont to swear by the Virgin.

=Marsala.= A light wine exported from Marsala in Sicily. This name was
    bestowed upon the town by the Arabs, _Marsa Alla_, “Port of God,” on
    account of its delightful situation.

=Marseillaise.= This was the composition of Rouget de Lisle, an
    artillery officer stationed with the French garrison at Strasburg.
    First sung at a banquet given by the mayor of that city, it became
    immensely popular; and when in 1792 the Marseilles volunteers were
    summoned to Paris, they sang it as they approached and entered the
    capital. The words and music at once struck the popular ear, so that
    “La Marseillaise” became the national war song.

=Marshal.= From the Teutonic _mare_, horse, and _schalk_, servant. This
    term, through the French _maréchal_, originally signified the groom
    of the horse; now it means in a civil sense the master of the horse
    and head of the ceremonies in devising pageants and processions. The
    Duke of Norfolk, as Earl Marshal of England, takes precedence over
    all other noblemen.

=Marshal Forward.= General Blucher, on account of his eagerness to make
    a dash in the campaign which terminated in the victory of Waterloo.

=Marshalsea.= The old Debtors’ Prison in Southwark, so called because
    the Court of the Knight Marshal, for the settlement of disputes
    between members of the Royal Household, was held within its walls.
    This edifice was demolished in 1842.

=Marsham Street.= From the ground landlord, Charles Marsham, Earl of
    Romney.

=Martel.= The surname of Charles, the son of Pepin d’Heristal, who
    signalised himself in battle against the Saracens when, according to
    the chronicler, “he knocked down the foe and crushed them between
    his axe, as a martel or hammer crushes what it strikes.” This
    exploit occurred during the attempted Saracenic invasion of France
    A.D. 732.

=Martello Tower.= Originally built near the sea as a watch-tower for
    protection of merchandise against pirates. The term arose from the
    custom of the sentry striking a bell with a _martel_, or hammer, as
    often as he discerned a pirate ship out at sea.

=Martin.= The common wall-swallow, corrupted from its Latin name
    _Murten_, from _murus_, a wall.

=Martinet.= From the name of a strict officer under Louis XIV. of
    France; hence the phrase “a regular martinet.”

=Martin’s Lane.= From St Martin’s Church in this lane.

=Martlemas.= A corruption of “Martinmas,” or Feast of St Martin, 4th
    November, the usual time for the hiring of servants in the rural
    districts of England.

=Maryland.= The name given by Lord Baltimore to the colony founded by
    him, in honour of Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I.

=Maryland End.= An Americanism for the hock of the ham, as distinguished
    from the other, the “Virginia End.”

=Marylebone.= A corruption of “St Mary of the Bourn”--_i.e._ the parish
    church of St Mary beside the bourn or stream which descended from
    near the hermitage at “Kilburn” to “Tyburn.”

=Masaniello.= The name of the leader of the Neapolitan insurrectionists
    of the seventeenth century was Tommaso Aniello, of which
    _Masaniello_ is a corruption.

=Masher.= From the Romany or gipsy _Masha_, “to fascinate the eye.”
    Whether the overdressed fop, so designated in our day, really
    possessed this enviable quality is open to question.

=Mason and Dixon’s Line.= An American expression for the old-time
    boundary between the slave and the free states. This line was
    defended between Pennsylvania and Maryland and Virginia by two
    English surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, in 1763-7.

=Massage.= A Frenchised Hindoo word for rubbing. A male and female
    practitioner of this new curative mode of friction treatment are
    respectively styled a masseur and masseuse.

=Mattan Diamond.= This, the largest in the world, weighing 367 carats,
    is the property of the Rajah of Mattan in India.

=Maudlin.= A word expressive of sentimentality or an inclination to shed
    tears, more especially when in a state of intoxication. Old painters
    always represented Mary Magdalen with swollen eyes, the result of
    penitential tears; hence a corruption of “Magdalen.”

=Maund.= The Saxon for an alms-basket employed in the distribution of
    bread to the poor by the Lady of the Manor.

=Maundy Thursday.= So called from _Maundé_, the French form of
    _Mandatum_, the first word in the New Commandment or mandate given
    by our Lord to His disciples after washing their feet at the Last
    Supper. The essence of this mandate was to love one another; hence
    the washing of feet of poor persons and distribution of doles by the
    reigning sovereign on this day. See “Maund.”

=Mauritius.= A Dutch colony named in honour of Maurice, Prince of
    Orange.

=Mausoleum.= After the magnificent sepulchral monument erected by his
    widow, Artemisia, to Mausolus, King of Caria, at Halicarnassus, 353
    B.C.

=May.= The budding or shooting of plants in this month caused the Romans
    to give it the name of _Magius_, afterwards shortened into _Maius_,
    from the Sanskrit mah, to grow. Eventually this month was held
    sacred to _Maia_, the mother of Mercury, to whom sacrifices were
    offered on the first day.

=Maydew Cherries.= A corruption of Medoc cherries, from the district in
    France where they are cultivated.

=Mayfair.= On the site of this fashionable district Edward III.
    established a six days’ fair in the month of May for the benefit of
    the leper hospital of St James the Less, where St James’s Palace now
    stands.

=May Meetings.= The annual meetings of the many religious, missionary,
    and philanthropic bodies of the United Kingdom are held in London,
    generally at Exeter Hall, during the month of May.

=Mazarin Bible.= A very rare edition of the Scriptures, being one of the
    earliest printed by Gutenberg with separate metal types, between
    1450 and 1455. It received this name from the fact that a copy was
    discovered in the library of Cardinal Mazarin.

=Mecklenburg Square.= One of the many names about London which, when new
    streets were built upon, complimented the Hanoverian Succession.

=Medina.= Expresses the Arabic for “City.” Its full name is _Medinat al
    Nabi_, “City of the Prophet.”

=Mediterranean Sea.= The sea “in the middle of the earth” is that
    between the two great continents, Europe and Africa.

=Medway.= See “Maidstone.”

=Meerschaum.= Expresses the German for “sea foam,” the fine white clay
    out of which pipes are made being at one time thought to be the
    petrified scum or foam of the sea.

=Meistersingers.= Literal German for “Master Singers”; master craftsmen
    who in the Middle Ages revived the national minstrelsy, which had
    been allowed to fall into decay.

=Melbourne.= In honour of Lord Melbourne, the Prime Minister in 1837,
    when this Australian colony was founded.

=Melodrama.= Modern drama, distinguished by incidental music as an
    accompaniment to the action.

=Memorial Day.= The United States mode of expressing a great
    commemorative occasion, such as Independence or Decoration Day.

=Memorial Hall.= This building, in Farringdon Road, commemorates the
    issue of the famous “Act of Uniformity,” whereby 2000 ministers of
    the Church of England were deprived of their livings on 24th August
    1662. The site was formerly occupied by the old Fleet Prison.

=Memory-Corner Thompson.= The name borne by John Thompson of the parish
    of St Giles’s-in-the-Fields. Seated in a corner of a coffee-house,
    he was wont for the amusement of regular habitues to display his
    astounding powers of memory in regard to the topography of London.

=Memory Woodfall.= The sobriquet of William Woodfall, brother to the
    reputed author of the celebrated “Letters of Junius.” His mnemonical
    powers differed from that of “Memory-Corner Thompson” in that, after
    listening to a debate, Parliamentary or otherwise, overnight, he
    could repeat it word for word the next morning.

=Mentor.= A “guide, philosopher, and friend,” so called after Mentor,
    the faithful friend and counsellor of Ulysses.

=Mercenaries.= From the Latin _mercer_, wages, reward. These hired
    soldiers of antiquity figured largely in the Punic Wars.

=Mercer.= The old name for a dealer in silks and woollen fabrics, so
    called from the Latin _mercis_, wares, merchandise. Nowadays such a
    one styles himself a “Draper.”

=Merino.= A fabric of wool from the sheep of the same name, which
    expresses the Spanish for an inspector of sheep walks.

=Merioneth.= After Merion, an early British saint.

=Merrimac.= Indian for “swift water.”

=Merry Andrew.= A buffoon or clown, said to have been so called after
    Andrew Borde, a noted physician of the time of Henry VIII., whose
    witticisms were on a par with his medical skill. His sayings were
    widely repeated, and since it happened that Andrew was then the most
    common name for a man-servant, facetious fellows came to be dubbed
    Merry Andrews.

=Merry Monarch.= Charles II., who from the time of coming to the throne
    never knew care, but made his life one round of pleasure.

=Mesopotamia.= The ancient description of the region situate between the
    Tigris and the Euphrates. The name is Greek, from _mesos_, middle,
    and _potamos_, river.

=Messe Rouge.= Expresses the French for “Red Mass.” At the resumption of
    their duties at the Law Courts after the Long Vacation all the
    Catholic judges and barristers attend a Mass of the Holy Ghost to
    invoke the Spirit for the gift of wisdom. Like the masses of the
    Feast of the Holy Ghost, the vestment worn by the officiating priest
    is red, in allusion to the tongues of fire that descended upon the
    Apostles on Whit Sunday.

=Methodists.= This name was first given by a fellow-student of Christ
    Church, Oxford, to the Brothers Wesley and a few friends who were in
    the habit of meeting on certain evenings for religious conversation.
    They also visited the inmates of Oxford Jail at stated times, always
    faithfully kept their engagements, and acted up to their Christian
    principles in a strictly methodical manner. The new sect was
    afterwards styled by John Wesley “The First Methodist Society.”

=Metz.= This city was styled by the Romans _Mettis_, from the _Medio
    matrici_, the people of the country, whom they conquered.

=Mexico.= Expresses the seat or place of _Mexitli_, the Aztec god of
    war.

=Michaelmas Day.= The feast of St Michael, prince of the heavenly host,
    and patron saint of the Catholic Church. This is properly described
    as “St Michael and all Angels” (29th September).

=Michaelmas Goose.= Stubble geese being at their best about this time,
    the rural tenantry always brought their landlords a goose with their
    Michaelmas rent. Since the latter usually received more geese than
    they could consume themselves, they passed them over to friends, and
    thus the goose became a standing Michaelmas dish.

=Michigan.= Indian for “a weir for fish.”

=Middlesex.= Expresses the territory of the Middle Saxons, situate
    between that of the East and West Saxons under the Heptarchy.

=Middling.= North of England, and also American, for medium or passable
    in the sense of feeling well.

=Mignonette.= Expresses the diminutive of _Mignon_, the French for
    “darling.”

=Mildmay Park.= The estate of the Mildmays, whose ancestor, Sir Henry
    Mildmay, came, by marriage, into possession of Mildmay House and its
    park in the time of Charles I.

=Mile End Gate.= From a toll gate which at this point of the highroad
    marked the eastern limits of London town and the parish of
    Whitechapel, distant one mile from the city boundary at Aldgate.

=Miles Lane.= After Miles Coverdale, a famous preacher at the
    Weigh-House Chapel hard by in former days.

=Milford Lane.= From an old mill that stood here in the fields. The lane
    itself led to a ford across the river at low water.

=Milking the Street.= An Americanism for the operations of stockbrokers
    who, by alternately raising and depressing shares, capture all the
    floating money in the market. The allusion is, of course, to Wall
    Street, the financial centre of New York city.

=Milk Street.= The ancient milk and butter market in connection with
    Cheapside.

=Millbank.= From an old mill that stood on the Thames bank, on the site
    of which the Grosvenors built a mansion, subsequently displaced for
    the gloomy prison of the same name.

=Millerites.= An American religious sect, whose founder, William Miller,
    prophesied the millennium or first judgment of the world by Christ
    and His angels to take place on 23rd February 1843. Many of his
    followers went mad through excitement as this date approached.
    Subsequent days assigned for the fulfilment of the prophesy proved
    alike misleading.

=Milliner.= A corruption of _Milaner_, after the city of Milan, which at
    one time set the fashion throughout Europe for elegance and taste
    not only in matters of dress, but of art. A milliner is one who
    deals in hats, feathers, and ribbons. See “Mercer.”

=Mill Street.= From a mill that stood hereabouts when the scene was one
    of peaceful rusticity.

=Milton Street.= After the author of “Paradise Lost,” who resided here
    for a time, and was buried in the parish church of St Giles’s,
    Cripplegate. This was the famous Grub Street of tradition.

=Milwaukee.= Indian for “rich land.”

=Mincing Lane.= A corruption of “Mynchen Lane,” denoting the property of
    the Minchery, the Saxon term for a nunnery of St Helen’s in
    Bishopsgate Street.

=Minden Boys.= The 20th Foot, so called from the conspicuous bravery
    displayed by them at the battle of Minden.

=Mind your P’s and Q’s.= This had reference originally to the pints and
    quarts chalked up against a rustic at the village alehouse. When his
    score threatened to become too disproportionate to his prospective
    wages, the alehouse-keeper generally administered a timely warning
    in these set terms. It was a polite way of saying he would very soon
    decline to serve him with more until the next settling day.

=Miniature.= So called because this early species of hand-painted
    portraiture originated in the head of the Madonna or of a saint that
    formed the initial letter of the beautifully illuminated rubrics
    produced by the monks styled the “Miniatori,” because their paints
    were made out of _minium_, or red lead.

=Minnesingers.= Expresses the Old German for “love singers,” the
    troubadours of the Fatherland in the Middle Ages.

=Minnesota.= Indian for “smoky water.”

=Minorca.= Expresses the lesser of the “Balearic Islands.”

=Minories.= This thoroughfare was laid out across the lands belonging to
    the Minoresses or Nuns of St Clare after their priory had been
    demolished at the Reformation. The Order of the Minoresses
    corresponded to the Friars Minor of the Franciscans founded by St
    Francis de Paula.

=Minster.= The distinction between a minster and a cathedral lies in
    this: the former is the church in connection with a monastery,
    whereas the latter contains the _kathedra_, or chair, of a bishop.

=Minstrel Boy.= A favourite page whose duty it was to attend a knight in
    peace and war. On his return from “feats of arms” he recited the
    doughty deeds of his master to the accompaniment of a lute, harp, or
    lyre in the banqueting-hall. In times of peace his theme was the
    bravery of the knight in the lists at tournaments or his prowess in
    defence of fair maidens.

=Minstrel of the Border.= The name bestowed upon William Wordsworth by
    Sir Walter Scott.

=Mint.= On the spot where Manlius Capitolinus had built himself a
    sumptuous residence the Romans set up a temple to Juno Moneta, or
    “The Monitress,” since Manlius had been apprised of the Gallic
    invasion through the cackling of the sacred geese. Subsequently this
    temple of Moneta was converted into an establishment for the coinage
    of money. Both mint and money therefore come from _Moneta_.

=Mint Street.= From the old mint established at Suffolk House by Henry
    VIII. when that property was sequestered to the Crown.

=Minuet.= So called from the Latin _minutus_, small, on account of the
    short, graceful steps which distinguish this dance.

=Miserere.= The name given to a mediæval choir stall of which the seat
    could be turned up so as to form a ledge for the support of the aged
    monks while kneeling. Its name, _miserere_, “Have mercy,” was
    singularly appropriate.

=Misluck.= An Americanism for misfortune or ill luck.

=Misses’ Tailors.= An Americanism for “Ladies’ Tailors.”

=Mississippi.= Indian for “great and long river.”

=Missouri.= Indian for “muddy water.”

=Mitre.= An inn sign most generally to be met with in a cathedral city,
    having reference, of course, to the mitre worn by a bishop.

=Mitre Court.= So called after an ancient Fleet Street tavern hard by.

=Mitre Square.= From an old inn, “The Mitre.”

=Mob.= From the Latin _mobile vulgus_, “the vulgar crowd.”

=Mobtown.= The name given to the city of Baltimore on account of the
    lawlessness of a certain section of its inhabitants.

=Mocha.= Coffee brought from the district of the same name in Arabia.

=Mocking Bird.= A species of thrush that mocks or imitates the notes
    produced by other birds.

=Moet and Chandon.= A favourite brand of champagne from the vineyards of
    the French firm trading under the name of “Moet et Chandon.”

=Molasses.= The American term for syrup or treacle, derived from the
    French _melasse_, the root of which is the Latin _mellis_, honey.

=Money.= See “Mint.”

=Mohair.= From the Arabic _Mukhayyar_, “goatskin hair,” through the
    French _moire_, the fine silken hair of the Angora goat.

=Mohawks.= Night marauders who in the days of the “Old Charlies”
    terrorised peaceable London citizens, self-styled after the fierce
    Indian tribe of the same name. “Mohawk” means “man-eater” or
    “live-eater,” this term being applied to the Iroquois by the eastern
    Indians of North America.

=Moire Antique.= The French description of watered silk worked in the
    style of the olden times. See “Mohair.”

=Moldavia.= The country traversed by the River Moldau.

=Moleskin.= A superior fabric of fustian or strong cotton distinguished
    for a smoothness like the hair of the mole.

=Molly Maguires.= An Irish Secret Society in the United States, more
    especially Pennsylvania, composed of young men dressed in women’s
    clothes, and with blackened faces, who did not hesitate to murder in
    connection with the agrarian outrages that they committed. The
    execution of ten of the ringleaders in June 1877 at length put an
    end to their reign of terror.

=Monastery.= From the Greek _monos_, alone. This term expresses an
    establishment of monks, secluded from one another in cells except
    when at prayers or at meals; recluses who never go into the outer
    world at all. A Friary, on the contrary, is a convent whose inmates
    live in community and go forth to preach among the people.

=Monday.= A term derived from Scandinavian mythology when, after the
    first day of the week given up to sun-worship, the second was set
    apart for the worship of the moon.

=Money makes Money.= This is a truism which it were vain to deny.
    Without capital a man cannot possibly set up in business for
    himself, even as a costermonger. The command of money makes its
    possessor doubly rich.

=Monger.= This word enters into various designations of the trading
    community, such as Fishmonger, Costermonger, being derived from the
    Anglo-Saxon _mongere_, “one who trades.”

=Monk.= From the Greek _monachos_, “one who lives alone.” See
    “Monastery.”

=Monkey.= From the Italian _monicchio_, the diminutive of _monna_, an
    ape. This word is often used as a verb--_e.g._ “Don’t monkey about
    on there,” meaning “Don’t play about or be up to monkeyish pranks.”

=Monkey Board.= The platform at the back of an omnibus, so called on
    account of the capers usually indulged in by the conductor. On a
    vehicle of the old-fashioned kind this platform was so small that he
    had to jump off it in order to allow a passenger to enter or alight.

=Monk Lewis.= The sobriquet of Matthew Gregory Lewis after he had
    published his celebrated novel, “The Monk,” in 1795.

=Monmouth.= The mouth of the Mon, the ancient description of which was
    _Mynwy_, “the border river.”

=Montague Place.= This, like the street close by, received its name from
    Montague House, the town mansion of the Dukes of Montague, in which
    the treasures of the British Museum were at first deposited pending
    the erection of the present edifice.

=Montague Square.= Like the street of the same name, this was designated
    in compliment to Mrs Montague of the “Blue Stocking Club,” who after
    the death of her husband resided in Portman Square.

=Mont Blanc.= French for “white mountain,” because it is eternally
    snow-clad.

=Montenegro.= Literally “black mountain.”

=Montepulciano.= A famous Italian wine produced at the ancient city of
    the same name.

=Montgomery.= After Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury, who
    obtained forcible possession of the castle erected on the height by
    the Lord of the Marshes in the time of William the Conqueror.

=Montreal.= So called from the admiring exclamation of Jacques Coutier,
    when in 1534 he viewed the surrounding country from its summit. The
    name is French for “Royal Mount.”

=Montserrat.= Expresses the Latin for a mountain serrated or jagged like
    a saw.

=Monumental City.= Baltimore, so called on account of its one hundred
    and four churches, the obelisk, etc., which it contains.

=Moonshiners.= The name given in the western states of America to
    illicit whisky distillers.

=Moonshine Whisky.= American whisky distilled under cover of night by
    “Moonshiners.”

=Moorfields.= See “Moorgate Street.”

=Moorgate Street.= From the postern gate in the Roman Wall leading to
    the moor beyond the fen lands or marshes of Finsbury known as
    Moorfields.

=Moors.= From the Latin _mauri_, and Spanish _moros_, “black.” Elsewhere
    denominated “Saracens,” these Arab conquerors of the peninsula were
    called by the Spaniards “Moriscoes.”

=Mop Fair.= The name given to a fair held a few days after the
    periodical Statute Fair for the hiring of farm servants. The dregs
    of the Statute Fair are then mopped or swept up.

=Moravia.= From the _Morava_, which name expresses a marsh or boundary
    river.

=Moravians.= The followers of John Huss, driven out of Bohemia and
    Moravia by religious persecutions early in the eighteenth century.

=Morgan Horse.= A favourite breed of American sporting horse descended
    from the animal owned by Justin Morgan, a schoolmaster of Randolph,
    Vermont, nearly a hundred years ago.

=Morgue.= So far from denoting a mortuary, this term really means the
    inner wicket of a prison, where the identification marks of new
    arrivals are taken before they have their cells and tasks assigned
    to them. It is therefore not incorrectly applied to the place of
    public examination and identification of the unknown dead.

=Morisonians.= A religious sect which separated from the Scottish
    Presbyterians in 1841, under the leadership of James Morison.

=Mormons.= A sect whose founder, Joseph Smith, claimed to have received
    a new revelation in “The Book of Mormon,” written on gold plates by
    the angel Mormon, the last of the Hebrew line of prophets, in 1827.

=Mornington Crescent.= After the Earl of Mornington, Governor-General of
    India, the brother of the Duke of Wellington.

=Morocco.= The territory of the Moriscoes or “Moors.”

=Morris Dance.= An ancient military dance of the Moriscoes or Moors of
    Spain introduced to England by John of Gaunt after his return from
    that country, _temp._ Edward III. Hence the companions of the “Jack
    in the Green” at the May Day festival always blackened their faces,
    and disported themselves in extravagant costumes, imitative of the
    flowing robes of the original dancers. See “Maid Marian.”

=Mortimer Street.= After Edward Harley, Earl of Wigmore and Mortimer,
    landlord of the estate in 1717.

=Mosaics.= So called because such inlaid work of stones was originally
    employed in the pavements of the temples of the Muses. The word is
    French _mosaique_, derived from the same Greek root as _Museum_.

=Moscow.= From the River _Moskwa_, on which the city was built.

=Moselle.= Wines produced at the vineyards on the banks of the French
    river of the same name.

=Moslem.= From the Arabic _Muslim_, “true believer,” through _Salama_,
    “to submit.” This term expresses the plural of “Mussulman” among the
    Persians. By the Turks “true believers” are styled “Moslemin.” There
    is no such word as “Mussul_men_” or “Mussul_mans_.”

=Mosquito.= From the Spanish _mosca_, a fly.

=Mosquito Coast.= A territory in Central America which, on account of
    its climate and the swampy nature of the land, is infested by
    mosquitoes.

=Mothering Sunday.= The Sunday in Mid-Lent when the members of a family
    in domestic service visit their parents and enjoy “Mothering Cakes”
    for tea. These cakes had their origin in offerings made to the
    “Mother Church” on the afternoon on this day.

=Mother Black Cap.= A public-house sign in Camden Town set up in
    opposition to the “Mother Red Cap” over the way. There never was a
    noted character of this name.

=Mother of Believers.= The name bestowed by Mohammedans upon Ayesha, the
    favourite wife of “The Prophet,” styled “The Father of Believers.”
    Mohammed himself declared that Ayesha was the only member of his
    family who cherished the slightest faith in his mission. His
    preference for his second wife, therefore, can be readily
    understood.

=Mother of Presidents.= Virginia, on account of the many Presidents
    which this state has given to the American Republic.

=Mother of South-Western Statesmen.= Tennessee, from the seventeen
    eminent Congressmen which this state has given to the Union.

=Mother of States.= Virginia, the pioneer British colony in the New
    World.

=Mother Red Cap.= An omnibus stage in Camden Town, the sign of which
    perpetuates the memory of a notorious London poisoner during the
    Commonwealth.

=Mother Shipton.= A noted hostelry at Haverstock Hill, built when the
    prophecies of this Welsh sorceress were the common talk of the day.
    Some of her less baneful predictions were actually verified; notably
    those as to ships ploughing the ocean without sails and vehicles
    careering along the road without horses. Is it possible that she had
    the motor car in her mind?

=Moulin Rouge.= Expresses the French for “Red Mill.”

=Mound City.= St Louis, on account of the numerous artificial mounds
    occupying its site at the time when the city was built.

=Mountain.= The extremists of the Democratic party in France during the
    Reign of Terror, so called because they occupied the elevated
    benches in the House of Convention.

=Mountain Dew.= An Irishman’s term for whisky, because it was often
    secretly distilled among the mountains in order to escape excise
    duty; hence the expression: “A drop o’ the cratur.”

=Mount Street.= On a natural mound the Parliamentary forces here erected
    a fort or bastion when the Royalists were expected to make an attack
    upon London from the west.

=Mrs Grundy.= A term expressive of the prudishness of the English
    character. It arose out of the line: “What will Mrs Grundy say?” in
    Thomas Morton’s drama, “Speed the Plough,” produced in 1798.

=Mudlarks.= The nickname of the Royal Engineers, whose function it is to
    throw up entrenchments.

=Muff.= This term was at first applied to an effeminate dandy who at one
    time, like the ladies, carried a muff to keep his hands warm in
    winter. This incapacitated him from defending himself with his sword
    against an unexpected attack at the hands of a street bully, and
    hence, as now, a _muff_ was easily taken advantage of, or likely to
    become a prey to the sharp-witted.

=Muff Dogs.= Small dogs carried by ladies in their muffs during the
    seventeenth century. A “muff dog” figures in an engraving by Hollar.

=Mug.= Slang for a man’s face. This arose out of the rude portraiture of
    Lord Shaftesbury or some other political celebrity which from the
    time of the Restoration to the middle of the eighteenth century
    adorned the yellow chinaware beer mugs at an alehouse, or Mug-House
    as it was called. These Mug-Houses were the first political clubs;
    out of them sprang the popular “Free and Easies” of modern times,
    and more recently the Music Halls.

=Muggletonians.= A religious sect headed by Ludovic Muggleton, a tailor,
    who proclaimed himself a prophet, in 1651.

=Mugwump.= An Indian word for “wise chief.” The Mugwumps of North
    America are the Democrats, whose political aims are above cliques or
    parties; therefore they refuse to be influenced by a “Caucus.”

=Mulatto.= From the Spanish _mulato_, a mixed breed, through _mulo_, a
    mule, the offspring of a white and a Negro.

=Mumm.= A strong German beer named after Christian Mumme, who first
    brewed it.

=Mummer.= Slang for an actor. This old English term, derived from the
    German _mumme_, a mask, was applied to the performers in a Christmas
    masque or buffoonery.

=Mummock.= An Americanism for handle, disarrange, or play with--_e.g._
    “Don’t mummock things about.” The word is really obsolete provincial
    English for “maul.”

=Munich.= From the German _monchen_, monks. On the spot where the city
    stands some monks built a warehouse for the salt which they obtained
    in the neighbourhood. In the twelfth century Henry the Lion made
    this _Villa Minichen_, as it was then called, into a mint, and a
    town grew up around it.

=Munster Road.= From Munster House, the residence of Melesina
    Schulenberg, created Duchess of Munster by George II.

=Munster Square.= In honour of the eldest son of William IV., created
    Earl of Munster.

=Murphies.= Potatoes, the chief articles of consumption among the Irish
    peasantry. This term is current also in America.

=Muscadel.= French and Italian wines, so called from the Italian
    _muscado_, musk, nutmeg. Variants of this name are Muscatel and
    Muscadine.

=Muscatels.= Raisins exported from Muscat in the Gulf of Oman, Arabia.

=Muscovy Duck.= A corruption of “Musk duck,” a species larger than the
    common duck.

=Mush.= An Americanism for an umbrella.

=Musical Comedy Artiste.= The new pet name for a chorus girl.

=Musical Small-Coal Man.= The lifelong sobriquet of Thomas Britton of
    Aylesbury Street, Clerkenwell, where was his coal shed. He
    inaugurated Thursday evening concerts, that attracted fashionable
    enthusiasts from the West End. This worthy, though he earned his
    livelihood by crying small coals in the street, was a scholar, a
    musician, and a companion of gentlemen.

=Muslin.= Called by the French _Mousseline_, from Mosul in Asiatic
    Turkey, whence during the Middle Ages this fabric was sent to supply
    all the markets of Europe.

=Muss.= An Americanism for “mess,” used in the sense of a confusion or
    disorder. It is used also to imply a squabble or a reprimand--_e.g._
    “I got into a dreadful muss this morning.”

=Mussulman.= See “Moslem.”

=Muswell Hill.= Properly “Mustwell Hill,” from the Latin _mustus_,
    fresh. On this hill there was discovered an ancient well of clear,
    fresh water, that belonged to the prior of St John’s Clerkenwell and
    Highbury, who had a dairy farm hereabouts.

=Mutes.= See “Undertaker.”

=Mutoscope.= A modern peep show, in which the figures move; living
    pictures, so called from the Latin _mutatis_, to change, and the
    Greek _skopein_, to view.

=Myddleton Square.= After Sir Hugh Myddleton, who at his own cost
    embarked upon the ruinous enterprise of constructing the New River
    from Chadwell in Hertfordshire, nearly forty miles distant, to
    London. One of the reservoirs occupies the enclosed portion of this
    square.

=My Eye.= An exclamation signifying “You dazzle me,” “You make me blink
    with astonishment.” Its American equivalent is briefly “My!”

=My Lady Nicotine.= The pretty name now generally applied to tobacco
    since the republication in book form of J. M. Barrie’s essays on
    smoking which originally appeared in the _St James’s Gazette_. See
    “Nicotine.”

=Mythology.= From the Greek _muthos_, a fable, and _logos_, a discourse.
    This was essentially a religion built upon fable.

=My Uncle.= The popular designation of a pawnbroker. See “Uncle.”


                                   N


=Nailed.= Slang for “caught,” in allusion to being pinned down by the
    captors. Also a thing seized and made off with; a punning reference
    to “driving” a nail.

=Naked Possessor.= The Far West description of the possessor of a piece
    of land for a long period without a legal title to it. He is the
    naked possessor because his title is not clothed in a set form of
    words recognised by the Courts of Law.

=Nankeen.= Cotton stuff originally made at _Nankin_, in China.

=Nankin.= Expresses the Chinese for “Southern Capital.”

=Nanny Goats.= The nickname of the 23rd Foot on account of their
    regimental pet goat.

=Nantes.= A native brandy exported from Nantes in Brittany. The name is
    the Celtic for “valley.”

=Nap.= A game of cards, originally named after Napoleon I.

=Naples.= Called by the Greeks _Neapolis_, “New City.” The ancient name
    is better expressed when speaking of the inhabitants as
    “Neapolitans.”

=Napoleon.= A gold coin of France issued during the Consulate of
    Napoleon Bonaparte. This superseded the “Louis d’Or.”

=Narcissus.= This flower is fabled to have sprung up on the spot where
    the beautiful Grecian youth so called died of love-sickness.

=Naso.= The nickname given to Ovid on account of the length of his nose;
    hence “Ovidius Naso.”

=Nassau Street.= After the royal House of Nassau, to which William III.,
    as Prince of Orange, belonged.

=Natal.= So called because the Portuguese navigator Vasco di Gama landed
    upon its shores on Christmas Day, or the Feast of the Nativity,
    1498.

=Nation.= An Americanism for “damnation.”

=National Democrats.= Those in the United States whose principles are
    national as opposed to sect or party.

=Navvy.= Originally the name of a labourer employed in the construction
    of canals for inland navigation. An alehouse set up beside one of
    the earliest canals bore the sign of the “Navigation Inn,” and those
    who frequented it were called _Navigators_. This term soon became
    shortened into _Navvies_.

=Nazarenes.= Semi-converted Jews who, while nominally Christians,
    believed “Jesus of Nazareth” to be the long-promised Messiah, and
    still conformed to the rites and ceremonies prescribed by the Jewish
    law.

=Nebraska.= Indian for “water valley.” This fertile region is traversed
    by several shallow rivers.

=Neckerchief.= A kerchief for the neck. See “Handkerchief.”

=Neckwear.= An American term for neckties, scarves, or mufflers.

=Needle in a Bottle of Hay.= See “Bottle of Hay.”

=Needle’s Eye.= The postern gate in the wall of an Eastern city, so
    called because with some difficulty a camel is able to thread its
    way through it.

=Negus.= Hot spiced wine, originally concocted by Colonel Negus in the
    reign of Queen Anne.

=Nemesis.= From the goddess of vengeance, who bore this name.

=Nepaul Paper.= India paper made in the district of Nepaul, Northern
    India. The original India paper came from the Far East.

=Nest Egg.= The nucleus of a banking account, so called because if a
    china egg be placed in a hen’s nest it is an inducement for her to
    lay eggs of her own there. When a person has a trifle put by he is
    anxious to increase it.

=Nestorians.= A sect of heretics of the fifth century under Nestorius,
    Patriarch of Constantinople.

=Netherlands.= Literally the Low Countries, now comprised in the kingdom
    of Holland.

=Netop.= Indian for “my friend.” In saluting a friendly Indian a white
    in North America always makes use of this word.

=Nevada.= Spanish for “snowy,” in allusion to the snow-clad mountain
    ridges of this state.

=New Amsterdam.= The name given by the Dutch settlers to their colony at
    the mouth of the Hudson River, now “New York.”

=New Bond Street.= See “Bond Street.”

=New Bridge Street.= Leads to Westminster Bridge, opened in 1862. This
    name was chosen in contradistinction to Bridge Street, Blackfriars.

=New Brunswick.= On assuming its independence of Nova Scotia in 1784
    this British colony was named after the House of Brunswick.

=New Burlington Street.= See “Burlington Street.”

=Newcastle-under-Lyme.= The name of the river on which the town stands
    is the Lyne, not the Lyme. To take the place of an ancient castle at
    Chesterton-under-Lyne a new castle was built in this neighbourhood,
    but of such a stronghold no vestige now remains.

=Newcastle-upon-Tyne.= Originally Moncaster or Monkchester, so called
    from a colony of monks on the site of a Roman camp. Robert, Duke of
    Normandy, the son of William the Conqueror, built a castle here for
    the defence of the town against the incursions of the Scots. This
    castle was afterwards rebuilt by William II.; whereupon the town
    assumed the title of Newcastle.

=New Cavendish Street.= See “Cavendish Square.”

=New Compton Street.= See “Compton Street.”

=New Christians.= Portuguese Jews of the fifteenth century who, having
    embraced Christianity under compulsion, secretly conformed to the
    Mosaic rites and ceremonies.

=New Cross.= The district which grew up around an old coaching-house,
    “The Golden Cross,” afterwards rebuilt, and renamed “The New Cross.”

=New England.= The collective name given to the six eastern states of
    the American Union--Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts,
    Rhode Island, and Connecticut--because the people are descended from
    the Puritans of England and Scotland, and therefore may be regarded
    as the only true “Yankees.”

=Newfoundland.= The name bestowed by Sebastian Cabot upon all the new
    land that he discovered, but now confined to this British
    possession.

=Newfoundland Dog.= A native breed of dog from Newfoundland.

=Newgate Street.= From the newest of the city gates, first alluded to in
    history in 1207. The gateway having for centuries been used for the
    confinement of debtors, it gave its name to the prison erected on
    its south side. The gloomy edifice which has been demolished within
    the last few years dated from 1782, after the burning of its
    predecessor by the Gordon rioters in 1780.

=New Hampshire.= This state having been granted to Captain John Mason,
    he in 1629 named it after his native county in England.

=New Holland.= The name given to what is now Australia by its Dutch
    settlers in 1606 after their Mother Country.

=Newington.= Expresses the new settlement in the meadow.

=Newington Butts.= The site of the archery butts in South London
    corresponding to those of Moorfields in the north.

=Newington Causeway.= This was the first road or causeway across the
    swampy fields of South London beyond the “Borough.”

=New Jersey.= In honour of Sir George Cartaret, the gallant defender of
    Jersey Island against the Parliamentary forces in 1664.

=Newman Street.= After the builder on the site.

=New Orleans.= The name given to the French settlement in the New World
    after the city in the Mother Country.

=New Pye Street.= See “New Way.”

=New Scotland Yard.= The new headquarters of the Metropolitan Police,
    occupying a site which has not the slightest connection with its
    name, and devoid of all historic interest further than that its
    foundations were laid for a Metropolitan Opera House, the building
    of which went no further. With the transference of the Police
    Department from “Scotland Yard” the old name was retained.

=New Southgate.= The modern residential district in the vicinity of the
    entrance to the enclosed hunting ground extending northward to
    Enfield, anciently known as Enfield Chase.

=New Spain.= The name given by Cortes to “Mexico.”

=News-stand.= An Americanism for a railway bookstall.

=New Way.= A modern extension of Old and New Pye Streets, named after
    Sir Robert Pye, who had his residence on its site.

=New Woman.= A term which came into vogue during the early days of the
    modern bicycling craze. The New Woman disported herself abroad in
    knickerbockers, and generally made herself ridiculous in the eyes of
    all sensible men. Latterly she has returned to the obscurity whence
    she sprang.

=New York.= Originally New Amsterdam. When taken from the Dutch in 1664
    it received the name it now bears in compliment to the Duke of York,
    afterwards James II.

=New Zealand.= Named by the Dutch after their native Zeeland, or
    “Sea-land,” of the Low Countries.

=Niagara.= From the Indian _On-aw-garah_, “the thunder of waters.”

=Nicaragua.= So called by Gil Gonzales de Avila in 1521, after a Haytian
    chief called Nicaro, who gave him a friendly reception on the shores
    of the lake, which also bears this name.

=Nicholas Lane.= After the wealthy banker, Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, who
    also gave his name to Throgmorton Street.

=Nickel.= An American five-cent piece, so called because it is coined
    out of nickel silver.

=Nick of the Woods.= The first word in this American designation is a
    corruption of “neck,” denoting a settlement or habitation in the
    wooded regions of the south-western states.

=Nicotiana.= The tobacco-producing regions of the United States. See
    “Nicotine.”

=Nicotine.= After Jean Nicot, who introduced tobacco, which he had
    purchased at Lisbon, into France in 1560.

=Nigger.= A corruption of Negro, which term is derived from the Latin
    _niger_, “black.”

=Nightcap.= Since everyone in the days of our grandfathers wore a
    nightcap, and fancied he could not go to sleep without one, so the
    modern substitute is a glass of spirits just before retiring, with a
    view to making him feel drowsy; hence such a drink is called a
    “nightcap.”

=Nightingale.= Literally a bird that sings in the night.

=Nihilist.= Originally a member of a Russian society whose members
    recognised no law save their own happiness. They sought to
    annihilate all ideas of God and government, as also of the rights of
    property. These ultra-Socialists sprang into existence in 1848.

=Nimrod.= Charles James Apperley, the sporting contributor to _The
    Quarterly Review_, and author of “The Chase, The Turf, and The
    Road,” adopted this pseudonym after Nimrod, the son of Cush, who is
    mentioned in Genesis x. 9 as the “mighty hunter before the Lord.”

=Nincompoop.= A dull-witted person, so called from the Latin phrase _non
    compos mentis_, “of unsound mind.”

=Nine Days’ Wonder.= Puppies and kittens remaining blind for nine days
    after birth, they are during this period a subject of much wonder to
    the young members of the household. A sensational event or a piece
    of public scandal arouses uncommon interest for a few days, and then
    it gradually subsides.

=Nine Elms.= From nine fine elm-trees on this portion of the south bank
    of the Thames.

=Nine Tailors make a Man.= The second word in this expression is a
    corruption of _Tellers_. A “Teller” was in olden times a stroke of
    the “passing bell” of the parish church. Three tellers gave warning
    of the death of a child, six of a woman, and nine of a man. As the
    parishioners counted the strokes they would say: “Nine tellers make
    a man.”

=Ninny.= Short for “Nincompoop.” In America this term is generally
    thought to be derived from “Pickaninny.”

=Niphon.= The native name of “Japan.”

=Nipped in the Bud.= While a flower is in the bud it may be destroyed by
    a mere nip of the fingers. Afterwards its leaves would have to be
    plucked separately. To curb mischief or a bad habit at the very
    commencement is therefore the easier plan.

=Nipper.= Originally in thieves’ slang a boy trained to pick purses and
    pockets, and nip off unobserved; hence the expression “A Young
    Nipper.”

=Nitrate King.= The sobriquet of the late Colonel J. T. North, who
    amassed a fortune by the nitrate industry in South America.

=Nob.= Short for “noble” or “nobleman.” From University slang the term
    has come to imply among the vulgar anyone of aristocratic
    pretensions.

=Noctes Ambrosianæ.= A characteristic feature of _Blackwood’s Magazine_
    in its early days. This, “The Ambrosial Nights,” was contributed as
    a regular series by Professor Wilson, being for the most part the
    actual conversations of the author, John Gibson Lockhart, and Mr
    Blackwood at a small Edinburgh tavern kept by one Ambrose. Although
    Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd, also figured in those dialogues, he was
    not present at the meetings.

=Nocturne.= A quiet, dreamy species of musical composition, suggestive,
    as its name denotes, of peaceful night.

=Noddy.= A kind of jaunting car peculiar to Dublin, so called because
    its jolting motion makes its riders nod their heads.

=No Flies on me.= An Americanism expressive of individual energy. The
    meaning is: “I am so active that no flies can ever settle on me.”

=No Hat Brigade.= Modern faddists who walk abroad bare-headed and
    shelter themselves against the elements under an umbrella.

=Nonconformists.= Those ministers of the Church of England who refused
    to subscribe or conform to the “Act of Conformity,” and thereby lost
    their livings. The term is now generally applied to all Dissenting
    congregations.

=No Quarter.= When the battle cry of “No Quarter,” consequent on an
    order, goes forth, no lives are spared by the victors. To give
    quarter means to spare the vanquished. This had its origin in
    ancient European warfare, when, by way of earning prize-money, a
    soldier refrained from dealing the death blow to a fallen foe on
    condition of receiving a quarter of the latter’s pay.

=Norfolk.= The northern of the two districts or counties on the east
    coast settled by the Angles, the north folk and south folk
    respectively.

=Norfolk Howards.= An excess of refinement has caused this term to be
    substituted for bugs. This originated in the action of Joshua Bugg
    of the Swan Tavern, Norwich, who by deed poll, as advertised in _The
    Times_ 26th June 1862, changed his name to Norfolk Howard. In
    America all beetles are commonly styled bugs.

=Norfolk Street.= From the town house and grounds of the Howards, Dukes
    of Norfolk and Earls of Arundel and Surrey.

=Norland Square.= Built on the site of Norland House, the residence of
    one of the Drummonds, bankers of Charing Cross, _temp._ William IV.

=Normandy.= The country peopled by the Northmen or Danes.

=Northampton.= Anciently described as “Northavontown,” having been built
    on the north of the River Avon, now called the Nen.

=North Audley Street.= See “Audley Street.”

=North Britain.= Scotland. In conjunction with England and Wales it
    becomes Great Britain.

=North Pole.= A tavern sign in Wardour Street up at the time when
    Captain Parry’s Arctic Expedition was the common topic of interest.

=North Star State.= Minnesota, so called on account of its northern
    situation in the Union and the motto on its arms: “L’Etoile du
    Nord.”

=Northumberland.= The north-east portion of that vast tract of land
    described as “Northumbria,” because situated north of the River
    Humber under the Heptarchy.

=Northumberland Alley.= This name in Fenchurch Street is reminiscent of
    the original town house of the Dukes of Northumberland before they
    took up their residence at Charing Cross in 1607.

=Northumberland Avenue.= From Northumberland House, the town mansion of
    the Dukes of Northumberland, demolished in 1874 to make way for this
    fine broad thoroughfare.

=Norton Folgate.= A corruption of “Northern Falgate”; expressive of the
    fine barred gate leading from Bishopsgate without the city limits
    into the open fields.

=Norway.= Called in the native tongue _Nordrike_, “the north kingdom.”
    This country was long thought to be wholly surrounded by water, on
    which account it received the name of _Nordee_, “north island.” This
    the Saxons modified in _Norea_, and later Norway.

=Norwich.= So called from the castle erected by the East Anglian kings
    as a “North wic,” or northern fortified village, relative to
    Caistor, to resist the invasion of the Danes.

=Norwood.= This was formerly the northern portion of the vast wooded
    district situated between London and Croydon.

=None of my Funeral.= An American mode of saying “Nothing to do with
    me,” or “It’s no affair of mine.” Being an Americanism, the
    expression is devoid of etymology.

=Nosey.= The nickname borne by Cervetto, the violoncellist of Drury Lane
    Theatre, and John Wilson, the painter, both of whom had
    exceptionally long noses. The Duke of Wellington was also popularly
    referred to under this name by his soldiers on account of his Roman
    nose.

=Nothing succeeds like Success.= When a man is successful the world bows
    before him. Each fresh enterprise is crowned with success, because
    there is an abiding public faith in the man who has made money or
    hit the popular taste. His intrinsic merits may be no greater than
    those of the poor devil who has systematically failed; yet what he
    lacks himself he readily finds in his subordinates, whom he can
    afford to pay, while the credit is all his own.

=Notions.= An Americanism for small wares or trifles in regard to dress.

=Not much.= An Americanism for “of no consequence.”

=Not quite the Cheese.= A saying which originated with those who
    insisted on being served with prime Stilton or double Glo’ster.

=Nottingham.= Called by the Anglo-Saxons _Snottengaham_, “a place of
    caves.” The name is partly Celtic, and little doubt exists that the
    Britons made their habitations in the caverns with which this county
    abounds.

=Nottingham Place.= After the county estates of the Duke of Portland,
    the great ground landlord. A goodly portion of Sherwood Forest is
    included in this ducal possession.

=Notting Hill.= Properly “Knolton Barn Hill,” the ancient description of
    a manor of the De Veres, which in the time of Henry VIII. was held
    by Robert Fenroper, an alderman of the city of London.

=Not worth a Dam.= See “Don’t care a Dam.”

=Not worth a Rap.= A rap was an Irish copper coin issued early in the
    eighteenth century to supply a long-felt need for very small money.
    Nominally worth a halfpenny, its metal was so thin and base that it
    never passed for more than a farthing. Its infinitesimal value
    consequently gave rise to this expression.

=Not worth a Song.= A song is worth nothing at all after its popularity
    has waned. The good old songs live on account of their intrinsic
    merits, but they were not pushed into public favour by adventitious
    methods at the time of publication. Those of our day are ground out
    of street pianos and sung everywhere for a brief season, then heard
    no more.

=Nova Scotia.= This name, expressive of “New Scotland,” was bestowed
    upon the island by Sir William Alexander, a Scotsman, to whom James
    I. granted a charter of colonisation in 1621.

=Nova Zembla.= From the Slavonic _Nowaja Zemlja_, “new land.”

=November.= From _novem_, nine, the ninth month of the Roman calendar
    when the year commenced with March.

=Noyau.= Expresses the French for the stone or nut of a fruit; hence the
    name given to a cordial flavoured with the kernel of the bitter
    almond or peach stone.

=Nun.= From the Italian _nonna_, a grandmother. Those who retired into
    convents originally were aged women. It was only in modern times
    that seminaries for girls were established in convents; this opened
    the way to maidens becoming deeply imbued with religious ideas and
    secluding themselves from the world by taking the veil.

=Nunhead.= From a tea garden and holiday resort known to Londoners as
    “The Nun’s Head” ever since the days of James I.

=Nutcrackers.= The 3rd Foot, so called because they boasted of having
    broken the heads of the Polish Lancers at the battle of Albuera.

=Nutcrack Night.= Another name for All Hallows’ Eve, when nuts are laid
    on the fire bars to crack, as a relic of an ancient kind of
    divination.

=Nutmeg State.= Connecticut, whose people were believed to manufacture
    wooden nutmegs for exportation.


                                   O


=Oak Apple Day.= Another name for Royal Oak Day (29th May), when people
    formerly wore oak leaves or oak apples in their hats to commemorate
    the manner in which the partisans of Charles II. welcomed his return
    to England on his birthday, 1651. This was, of course, in allusion
    to his concealment in an oak-tree near Boscobel House, Shropshire,
    after the battle of Worcester, on 3rd September previous.

=Oakley Square.= After Oakley House, near Bedford, one of the country
    seats of the Duke of Bedford, the ground landlord.

=Oaks Stakes.= So called from a Lodge or Club-House built among the oaks
    by the Hunters’ Club, and afterwards converted into an inn, known as
    “Lambert’s Oaks,” after the name of its landlord.

=Obiter Scripta.= Latin for a thing written in passing, a note by the
    way.

=Observants.= The name borne by those monastic orders whose members
    adhere to the strict rule laid down by their pious founders in
    contradistinction to others styled “Conventuals,” who, like the
    secular clergy, take upon themselves the performance of parochial
    duties.

=Obstropulous.= A corruption of the word “obstreperous,” inclined to
    quarrelling.

=Ocean Greyhound.= A fast Atlantic steamer belonging to one of the great
    lines.

=Octavo.= A sheet of printing paper which, when folded and cut, makes
    eight leaves or sixteen pages.

=October.= The eighth month of the Roman calendar when the year began
    with March.

=Octroi.= The name given to a toll or tax levied upon market produce
    passing through the gates of a town. It comes from the Latin
    _auctoritas_, authority.

=Odder.= Colloquial for one who obtains a livelihood by doing odd jobs.

=Oddfellows.= This friendly society originated with five Manchester
    shoemakers who in 1812 were accustomed to meet after the day’s work.
    It having occurred to one of them how his family would fare if,
    through sickness, he should be unable to follow his occupation, and
    thinking it would be wise to make some provision against such a
    contingency, he proposed that each of them should subscribe a few
    pence weekly towards a common sick fund. The idea was at once taken
    up. They called themselves Oddfellows because they numbered five.
    Others soon joined the little society, and from these humble
    beginnings it grew into a powerful organisation.

=Odd rot it.= A perversion of the Crusaders’ curse: “God rot them!”
    meaning the Saracens, the enemies of Christianity.

=Odds Bodkins.= A perversion of “God’s Body,” in allusion to the
    Eucharist. This oath was not considered profane during the Ages of
    Faith.

=Odds Fish.= A favourite exclamation of Charles II. It was a corruption
    of “God’s Flesh,” or the Body of Christ.

=Odds Splutter.= A corruption of the Dutch oath _Got’s plut_, “God’s
    Blood,” introduced into England during the reign of William III.

=Odd Zounds.= A corruption of “God’s Wounds.” See “Zounds.”

=Off Colour.= To look pale and sickly.

=Off the Hooks.= An expression meaning “beyond hope of requisition for
    further service,” “completely done for,” whether on the score of
    chronic ill health, lunacy, or old age. This originally had
    reference to the Maypole stored away in Shaft Alley, Leadenhall
    Street, and perhaps other Maypoles elsewhere of post-Reformation
    days. As long as it rested “on the hooks” there was a likelihood of
    its being once more called into service. See “St Andrew Undershaft.”

=Ohio.= Indian for “beautiful.”

=O.K.= This arose out of an Irishman’s endorsement for goods passed by
    him, as he would have spelt out the words “Orl Korrect.”

=Old Bags.= The nickname of Lord Eldon, because he always carried about
    with him, in separate brief bags, the cases on which he had to pass
    judgment.

=Old Bailey.= From the Latin _ballium_, a rampart, through the French
    _baille_. The term “Bailey” expressed the open space or court
    between a castle and the embattlements. Seeing that Lud Gate stood
    in line with this street at its southern extremity, there must have
    been a keep or fortification behind the Roman Wall where the
    Sessions House came to be built. The name was therefore retained
    after the wall was demolished.

=Old Bold Fifth.= The 5th Fusiliers, which regiment has distinguished
    itself for valorous deeds in many campaigns.

=Old Bond Street.= See “Bond Street.”

=Old Broad Street.= With the exception of Cheapside, this was the widest
    thoroughfare in Old London, all the others being similar to what Old
    Change is at the present day. During Elizabeth’s reign Old Broad
    Street constituted the residence of the wealthiest citizens.

=Old Buffer.= The colloquial term for a short, thick-set elderly man,
    whose big paunch suggests a railway buffer.

=Old Bullion.= See “Bullion State.”

=Old Burlington Street.= See “Burlington Street.”

=Old Carthusians.= Old scholars of the “Charter House.”

=Old Catholics.= The followers in Germany of the late Dr Döllinger, who
    separated from the Roman Catholic Communion after the promulgation
    of the dogma of Papal Infallibility in 1870.

=Old Cavendish Street.= See “Cavendish Square.”

=Old Change.= So called from “The King’s Exchange,” where the bullion
    was anciently stored prior to being sent to the shearers or clippers
    at the neighbouring Mint. See “Sermon Lane.”

=Old Charlies.= See “Charlies.”

=Old Christmas Day.= Twelfth Day, because, according to the old style
    calendar, Christmas Day fell on what is now 6th January.

=Old Compton Street.= See “Compton Street.”

=Old Dominion.= Virginia, on account of its documentary description,
    “the Colony and Dominion of Virginia.”

=Old England.= This term was first applied to the Mother Country after
    the colonisation of New England in North America.

=Old Fogey.= A term derived from the Danish _fjog_, a stupid old man,
    one in his dotage.

=Old Fox.= The sobriquet of Marshal Soult on account of his strategic
    cunning.

=Old Grog.= The nickname of Admiral Edward Vernon, who always wore a
    grogram cloak in foul weather.

=Old Harry.= A corruption of “Old Hairy,” as applied to the Devil.

=Oldham.= Expresses the old home or settlement.

=Old Hat.= A country tavern sign which must have been the original when
    the same premises was devoted to some other business, in days
    characterised by the display of signs by tradesmen generally.

=Old Hickory.= “Hickory” is an Americanism used adjectively for anyone
    who is tough, obstinate, or hard, after the tree of the same name.
    General Andrew Jackson merited the nickname of “Old Hickory” from
    his own soldiers on account of his tough, unyielding disposition.
    Its origin is thus explained by Parton, the author of the
    President’s “Life”: “The name of ‘Old Hickory’ was not an
    instantaneous inspiration, but a growth. First of all, the remark
    was made by some soldier, who was struck with his commander’s
    pedestrian powers, that the General was tough. Next it was observed
    that he was as tough as hickory. Then he was called ‘Hickory.’
    Lastly, the affectionate ‘Old’ was prefixed, and the General
    thenceforth rejoiced in the completed nickname, usually the
    first-won honour of a great commander.”

=Old Jewry.= The original Jewish quarter of the city of London. See
    “Jewin Street.”

=Old Kent Road.= The South London portion of the Roman highway to Dover.

=Old Lady of Threadneedle Street.= The popular name of the Bank of
    England. There is a tradition that towards the end of the eighteenth
    century a demented old lady wandered up and down Threadneedle Street
    day by day for a long period until she suddenly disappeared. It was
    generally assumed that this old lady of Threadneedle Street must
    have been waiting for someone who had passed into the Bank, and,
    according to her idea, never came out again. When, therefore, in
    1797 the Bank threatened a temporary stoppage of payment, and
    one-pound notes were issued, John Gilray, the artist, published a
    caricature entitled “The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street in Danger.”
    Since that time the Bank has been colloquially referred to by this
    title.

=Old Line State.= Maryland, whose famous regiment, the Old Maryland
    Line, saved the prestige of the army when Lord Cornwallis’s
    Grenadiers broke the American lines at Loughland.

=Old North State.= North Carolina, from its relative position to South
    Carolina.

=Old Paulines.= Old scholars of St Paul’s School.

=Old Pye Street.= See “New Way.”

=Old Quebec Street.= Laid out and built upon soon after the capture of
    Quebec by General Wolfe in 1759.

=Old Rep.= Short for “Old Reprobate.”

=Old Rowley.= A sobriquet of Charles II., from the name of his favourite
    race-horse.

=Old Rye.= A United States term for old whisky distilled from rye.

=Old Salt.= An old sailor who has sniffed the brine of the ocean from
    his youth.

=Old Scotland Yard.= See “Scotland Yard.”

=Old Soldiers.= An Americanism for cigar-ends, because they are the
    remnants of the originals that have done good service.

=Old Sport.= An Americanism for a broken-down gambler.

=Old Tom.= The name first given to gin by Thomas Norris, who, after
    having long been employed in the distillery of Messrs Hodges, opened
    a gin palace in Covent Garden, and perpetuated the affectionate name
    of “Old Tom Chamberlain,” his former master.

=Old Toughs.= The nickname of the 103rd Foot, merited during the Indian
    Mutiny.

=Old Woman.= In stage parlance an actress who plays old women’s parts. A
    fine distinction is, however, drawn between “old women” and what are
    called “Aristocratic Old Women.”

=On the Tapis.= _Tapis_ is French for a carpet; expressive also of the
    cloth or kind of tapestry which covered the table in the Council
    Chamber when French was the language spoken at the English Court.

=On the Tenterhooks.= To have one’s curiosity fully aroused; on the
    tiptop of expectation. The phrase has been derived from the mode of
    tentering or stretching cloth upon hooks after it is woven.

=On the Tiptoe of Expectation.= A phrase derived from the crowds
    awaiting a public procession. As soon as the music is heard everyone
    stands on tiptoe, and looks in the direction whence the sounds
    proceed.

=Oof.= A slang term for “money”; derived from the legendary “Oof Bird,”
    which from the Latin, _ovum_, an egg, traces its origin to the goose
    with the golden eggs.

=Olive Branches.= A man’s children are so designated from the Biblical
    simile in Psalm cxxviii. 3: “Thy wife shall be as a fruitful vine by
    the sides of thine house: thy children like olive plants round about
    thy table.”

=Olla Podrida.= A Spanish term for a mixture of meat and vegetables
    collected in a common pot for cooking as required. In a literary
    sense it signifies a miscellany of short productions. The French
    equivalent for the term is _pot-pourri_, which is also employed
    figuratively.

=Omnibus.= The dative Latin plural of _omnes_, all. In a public vehicle
    of this kind there is room for many, without class distinction.

=One-horse.= A term used adjectively for anything mean or insignificant.
    This figure of speech is derived from agriculture.

=Oneida.= Indian for “people of the beacon stone.”

=Ontario.= From the Indian _Onontae_, which expresses “the village on
    the mountain,” whence the tribe of the Onondagas derive their name.

=On this Side of Jordan.= An Americanism for “in this life” or “in this
    world.”

=Opal.= From the Sanskrit _opula_, through the Latin _opalus_, a
    precious stone.

=Oporto.= Portuguese for “the harbour.”

=Orange Lilies.= The 35th Foot, so called on account of the facings on
    their uniform.

=Orangemen.= The Protestants in the northern provinces of Ireland, so
    called on account of their adherence to William III., Prince of
    Orange, in opposition to the “Jacobites” or the adherents of the
    Stuart king, James II.

=Orange Peel.= One of the nicknames of Sir Robert Peel, owing to his
    strong anti-Catholic spirit. See “Orangemen.”

=Orange River.= This, the largest river in South Africa, received its
    name from the colour of its waters when in flood.

=Orange River Free State.= This name was given by the “Boers” to what is
    now British territory in South Africa because its early settlers
    were also emigrants from the principality of Orange in Holland. Its
    new title is the Orange River Colony.

=Orange Street.= In compliment to William III., Prince of Orange.

=Orator Henley.= The sobriquet of John Henley, an English divine who in
    1726 attracted large and fashionable congregations in a so-called
    “Oratory” or chapel in Newport Market.

=Oratorio.= A term derived from the fact that the first sacred musical
    dramas or cantatas were performed in the Church of the Oratorians,
    which religious Order was founded by St Philip Nero at Rome in 1540.

=Orchard Street.= Off Portman Square, after Orchard Portman, one of the
    country seats of the Portmans in Somersetshire. At Westminster, from
    the ancient orchard belonging to the Abbey.

=Orchestra.= A Greek term applied to the place in the theatre allotted
    to the chorus of the dancers. Among the moderns it expresses the
    place assigned to the instrumentalists.

=Orchid.= From the Greek _orchis_, a testicle, which the root of this
    plant resembles.

=Oregon.= From the Spanish _Oregano_, “wild majorum,” which grows
    abundantly in this state.

=Orellana.= The original name of the “Amazon” River, after its
    navigator.

=Oriel College.= This college at Oxford was built in 1326 by Adam de
    Brome, the Almoner of Edward II., and called by him St Mary’s
    College. A few years later Edward III. added to its revenues a rich
    messuage hard by known as “Le Oriel,” from which circumstance the
    foundation received the name which it now bears.

=Orinoco.= Indian for “coiling snake.”

=Orion Horne.= One of the sobriquets of Richard Horne, author of
    “Orion,” which acquired an exceptional notoriety on account of its
    being published at the low price of one farthing.

=Orkney Isles.= Under the name of _Orcades_ these are mentioned by the
    ancient geographers. _Orkney_ is Gaelic for “Isle of Whales.”

=Orleans.= A corruption of _Aureliani_, after the Roman Emperor
    Aurelian.

=Orloff Diamond.= This gem, weighing 194 carats, and purchased by
    Catherine II. of Russia in 1775, preserves the family name of that
    Empress.

=Orme Square.= After the name of a printseller of Bond Street who bought
    the land and built upon it.

=Orrery.= After the Earl of Orrery, who first caused one to be made.

=Osnaburg Street.= Named in compliment to Frederick, Duke of York and
    Albany, the last sovereign-bishop of Osnaburg in Hanover.

=Ossulton Street.= See “Lisson Grove.”

=Ostend.= Literally the east end of Flanders in Belgium.

=Ostler.= From the French _hostelier_, an innkeeper.

=Oswestry.= A corruption of Oswaldstry, the “place of Oswald,” where
    Oswald, King of Northumbria, was slain in 642. Evidence of this is
    afforded by the original name of Oswald’s Well, which yields a
    spring of pure water.

=Ottawa.= Expresses the Indian for “traders.”

=Ottoman Empire.= That of the Turks, founded by Othman I. at the
    commencement of the fourteenth century.

=Ouida.= The pseudonym of Louise de la Ramée. This was suggested to her
    at the very commencement of her literary career by the infantile
    perversion of Louise into “Ouida.”

=Ouse.= From the Celtic _uisg_, water.

=Out of Collar.= Out of harness and the working habit. A horse has the
    collar slipped over its neck when put to work.

=Out of Sorts.= A technical phrase in the printing trade. “Sorts” are
    the different sizes and kinds of type used by a compositor. At times
    he runs short of “sorts,” so that the composition of the particular
    work in hand has to be suspended until the required sorts are
    obtained, either by distributing old matter put up in paper or
    sending to the typefounder’s for a new supply. Hence a person
    indisposed for work confesses to being “out of sorts.”

=Ovidius Naso.= See “Naso.”

=Oxford.= Cited in Domesday Book as _Oxeneford_. Literally a ford for
    the passage of oxen across the River Isis.

=Oxford Blues.= The Royal Horse Guards, from their dark blue uniforms
    and the circumstance that this regiment of horse was first raised by
    Aubrey, Earl of Oxford, soon after the Restoration.

=Oxford Movement.= The great Catholic revival in England, which, midway
    in the last century, resulted in the passing over of many of the
    most eminent Oxford scholars to the Church of Rome.

=Oxford Street.= After Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford and Mortimer,
    landlord of the estate north of this principal thoroughfare.

=Oyez, Oyez.= The old French ceremonial exclamation (“Hear ye, hear
    ye!”) to enjoin silence. This obtained in our own country when
    French was the language of the Court. In modern times it has been
    corrupted by Court criers and town bellmen into “O yes, O yes.”

=Oyster Part.= In theatrical parlance a part which contains only one
    line or speech; like an oyster, the actor opens his mouth but once.


                                   P


=Pacha.= See “Pasha.”

=Pacific Ocean.= So called by Magellan, who, after a tempestuous passage
    through the straits which bear his name, enjoyed a cruise of three
    months and twenty-one days across this ocean in continuous fine
    weather, and with the advantage of favourable winds.

=Pack Horse.= An inn sign denoting that the establishment provided
    accommodation for “Packmen,” and also that pack horses were let out
    on hire.

=Packmen.= The old name for commercial travellers, whose goods or
    samples were carried in packs or sacks fastened to the saddle of a
    pack horse.

=Paddington.= The ancient description of this parish was “Padynton,” the
    settlement of the Pædings. Another branch of the same family gave
    its name to “Padendene”--_i.e._ the wooded valley of the Pædings in
    Surrey.

=Paddington Street.= Originally a narrow lane leading northward on to
    the common known as Paddington Fields.

=Paddle your own Canoe.= Originally a Western phrase for self-reliance.
    A canoe is an Indian boat affording room for one person. If he
    cannot paddle it himself no one else is in a position to help him.
    The expression became extremely popular in England through a song of
    this title thirty years ago.

=Paddy.= The common name for an Irishman, being short for “Pat,” after
    St Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.

=Pagan.= This term had at first not the slightest connection with
    religion. Derived from the Latin _pagus_, the country, a _paganus_
    denoted a peasant or villager. Removed from the refinement of the
    cities such a one had, of course, very little acquaintance with the
    complicated system of Roman mythology. On this account only could it
    be said that those who remained unconverted to Christianity were
    Pagans.

=Page Green.= See “Seven Sisters’ Road.”

=Painted Hall.= The picture gallery of Greenwich Hospital received this
    name on account of its superbly painted ceiling.

=Painter.= The rope by which the “Jolly Boat” or any other is attached
    to a vessel, so called from the Latin _panther_, through the French
    _pantier_, a drag net.

=Paint the Town.= An Americanism for a night’s drunken frolic; the
    allusion is to a drunkard’s red nose.

=Palace Car.= An Americanism for a “Pullman” or Saloon car.

=Palaver.= From the Portuguese _palavra_, “a talk.”

=Pale Faces.= The name popularly bestowed upon the whites by the North
    American Indians.

=Palestine.= From the Hebrew _Palæstina_, “the land of strangers.” This
    was the ancient _Philistia_, the country of the Philistines, a term
    derived like that of Palestine from the root _phalash_, to emigrate
    or wander.

=Pall Mall.= From a species of croquet, called _Paille Maille_,
    introduced by Charles II. after his involuntary exile in France, and
    played by him and his courtiers here when the thoroughfare was open
    to St James’s Park.

=Palmer.= The name bestowed upon a “Pilgrim” returning from the Holy
    Land who carried a palm branch, usually affixed to his head-gear, as
    a proof that he had actually accomplished his self-imposed task. On
    arriving at the place whence he had set out he repaired to the
    church or chapel, and offered the palm to the parish priest, who
    laid it on the altar on his behalf.

=Palmetto City.= Augusta, the capital of the Palmetto State.

=Palmetto State.= South Carolina, from the palmetto-tree in her arms.
    During the Civil War the soldiers of this state bore the name of
    “Palmetto Boys.”

=Palm it off.= A phrase derived from the usual procedure of a conjurer,
    who is an adept at concealing in the palm of his hand that which he
    pretends to have “passed” elsewhere.

=Palm Oil.= A bribe placed in the hand of a servant makes him the more
    willing to throw open the apartment of the great man to whom one
    wishes to gain access.

=Palm Sunday.= From the palms distributed to the congregation by the
    Catholic Church in commemoration of Christ’s entry into the city of
    Jerusalem, when the populace strewed palm branches and leaves in His
    path.

=Palmy Days of the Drama.= The days of our greatest exponents of the
    Drama, so called because, had such celebrated histriones as Garrick,
    Mrs Siddons, the Keans, and the Kembles lived in the time of the
    Romans, they would have been awarded a palm branch in recognition of
    their genius.

=Palsgrave Place.= In honour of Frederick, King of Bohemia, Palsgrave of
    the Rhine, married to the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I.

=Pam.= The popular name of Lord Palmerston.

=Pamphlet.= After Pamphilia, a Greek lady who kept a commonplace book
    for the collection of anecdotes and literary memoranda.

=Panama.= Expresses the Carribean for “mud fish,” with which the shores
    of this isthmus abound.

=Panama Hat.= A corruption of “Palmata Hat,” from the primitive head
    covering in equatorial South America made out of the large leaf of
    the _Cardulavia palmata_ tree.

=Pancake Tuesday.= From the pancakes eaten on this day. The custom arose
    in Catholic days with a view to using up the eggs and lard that were
    interdicted during Lent; also because pancakes were an excellent
    stay to the appetite while the faithful had to wait long hours in
    church to be _shrived_ by the priest in the confessional.

=Pancras Road.= From Old St Pancras parish church. New St Pancras church
    is situated in the Euston Road.

=Panel Den.= An Americanism for a brothel, in which the rooms are
    panelled off into small compartments.

=Pan-Handle State.= West Virginia, on account of its shape, rising up
    like a wedge between Pennsylvania and Ohio.

=Panorama.= Expresses the Greek for “a view of the whole,” as would be
    obtained from a monument or a natural eminence. This is the correct
    description of a picture exhibited in a circular building, where the
    spectators are placed in the centre; not at all of an old form of
    picture entertainment at one end of a hall, which approximates to a
    _Diorama_, because conformably to _di_, through, it is viewed
    through the darkness.

=Pantaloon.= One of the characters of the Italian comedy or “Pantomime,”
    so called because he was typical of the Venetians, wearing, like
    them, originally a close-fitting garment made all in one piece,
    known as a _pantaleone_. The Venetians were nicknamed _Pantaleone_
    (“all lion”) from their common patron, St Mark, whose symbol was a
    lion; hence the application of the term pantaloons to tight-fitting
    knickerbockers or trousers.

=Pantaloonery.= An Americanism for trouser material. See “Pantaloon.”

=Pantechnicon.= A Greek word compounded out of _pan_, all, and _techne_,
    art. The large vehicle of this name was first used exclusively for
    the conveyance of pictures and art treasures to exhibitions.

=Pantheism.= From the Greek _pan_, all, and _theos_, God; the religion
    which recognises the Spirit of God moving throughout all the
    processes, works, and glories of His creation. The single doctrine
    expressed by Pantheism is that “God is everything, and everything is
    God.”

=Pantheon.= The Roman temple erected in honour of the gods collectively,
    so called from the Greek _pan_, all, and _theos_, god.

=Pantomime.= In the modern sense a pantomime is an entertainment in
    which current events or fashionable foibles are introduced by way of
    burlesque. Formerly it denoted a performance of Italian comedy in
    which the action took place in dumb show, so called from the Greek
    _pantomimos_, an imitator of all or everything. The Roman _mimes_ or
    _mimi_ were not theatrical performers, but mutes at funerals, whose
    function it was to imitate the characteristic actions of the
    deceased--_e.g._ the virtue of generosity.

=Panton Street.= After a noted gamester, Colonel Thomas Panton, whose
    daughter became connected by marriage with the family of the ground
    landlord, Lord Arundel of Wardour.

=Pants.= Short for “pantaloons,” an Americanism for trousers. See
    “Pantaloon.”

=Panyer Alley.= This was an alley behind an ancient church facing
    Cheapside, where the bakers stood with their bread paniers. The word
    “panier” is French for a bread basket.

=Pan’s Pipes.= The primitive reed instrument named after Pan, the god of
    shepherds.

=Pansy.= From the French “penseé,” which in the Language of Flowers
    means “thoughts.”

=Papa.= See “Pope.”

=Papal Bull.= So called on account of the _bulla_, a seal embellished
    with the symbol of St Peter.

=Paper.= From the Greek _papyros_, the Egyptian plant out of the reeds
    of which the earliest writing material was made.

=Paper King.= John Law, the projector of the Mississippi Scheme, whose
    prospectus promised fortunes that were never realised by the
    luckless speculators.

=Papua.= Expresses the Portuguese for “frizzled.” This name was bestowed
    upon the natives of New Guinea on account of their enormous heads of
    frizzled hair.

=Parachute.= From the Greek _para_, “beyond,” and the French _chute_, “a
    fall.”

=Paraquay.= Expresses the Brazilian for the country of the _Para_, or
    “great river.”

=Parasol.= This term is now obsolete, having been superseded by
    “Sunshade.” Derived through the Italian _parasole_, from the Greek
    _para_, beyond, and _sol_, the sun, its meaning was synonymous with
    that of its modern substitute.

=Parchment.= From the Greek _pergamenos_, through the French
    _parchemin_, so called after Pergamos, the city of Asia Minor where,
    consequent upon Ptolemy’s prohibition of the exportation of the
    Egyptian papyrus, dried goatskins were first utilised for a writing
    material.

=Paris.= Called by the Romans _Lutetia Parisiorum_, a name signifying
    the collection of mud huts inhabited by the _Parisii_, a Gallic
    tribe conquered by them.

=Paris Garden.= A notorious bear-baiting establishment in South London
    for several centuries, so called after Robert de Paris in the reign
    of Richard I. The entrance thereto is fixed by what bears the name
    of Bear Garden at the corner of Sumner Street, Borough.

=Park Lane.= Originally a narrow lane skirting the east side of Hyde
    Park; it is now one of the most fashionable streets in the West End
    of London.

=Park Street.= Leads westward from Camden Town to Regent’s Park.

=Parker Street.= In honour of Archbishop Parker, who founded two
    fellowships and five scholarships at Corpus Christi College,
    Cambridge, in addition to presenting it with a valuable library of
    ancient manuscripts. This street was at one time called Bennet
    Street, after the original name of the college, from the adjacent
    church of St Benedict.

=Parliament.= From the French _parlerment_, founded on the Latin verb
    _parler_, to speak. See “Parlour.”

=Parliamentarians.= The forces under the Parliament of the Commonwealth
    under Cromwell during the Civil War with Charles I. and the
    Royalists.

=Parliamentary Whip.= One whose duty it is to hunt up Members of the
    House of Commons when questions of grave import are being put to the
    vote.

=Parliament of Dunces.= That convened at Coventry by Henry IV. in 1404
    because it did not number among its members a single lawyer. Sir
    Edward Coke styled this the “Unlearned” and also the “Lawless
    Parliament.”

=Parlour.= Originally the apartment reserved for visitors where
    conversation could be indulged undisturbed. See “Parliament.”

=Parnellites.= The Home Rule party in Ireland during the lifetime of
    their political leader, Charles Stewart Parnell.

=Parry Islands.= Discovered by Rear-Admiral Sir William Parry in the
    course of his search for the North-West Passage.

=Parsees.= The modern designation of the Zoroastrians or Fire
    Worshippers in Persia and India. The Parsees were the original
    inhabitants of Persia, a wild Ayrian family called the _Parsa_,
    meaning “The Tigers.” By the Greeks the territory they overran was
    styled _Perseus_, on account of their chief stronghold,
    _Persipolis_, “the city of the Parsa,” the ruins of which may yet be
    seen. The modern Parsees are therefore descendants of those who
    refused to embrace Mohammedanism.

=Parsons Green.= Prior to the year 1740 the parsonage of Fulham Parish
    Church stood facing this green. On its roof was a cross which bore
    the name of “Parson’s Cross,” afterwards corrupted into “Percy
    Cross.”

=Partridge Day.= The first of September, when partridge shooting
    commences.

=Pasha.= A Western corruption of the Turkish “Pashaw,” from the Persian
    _bâshâ_, a governor or ruler of a province under the _Shah_ or King.

=Passenger Pigeon.= So called on account of its migratory habits. This
    species is found chiefly in America.

=Passing Bell.= That rung at the parish church to announce publicly that
    the soul of a parishioner has just passed away.

=Passion Flower.= The traditional reverence for this favourite flower is
    due to a fancied resemblance of its tints and various parts to the
    instruments of Christ’s Passion; also because it remains open for
    three days, corresponding to the period between the Last Supper and
    the Resurrection.

=Passionists.= A missionary Order founded by St Francis de Paulo,
    otherwise “St Paul of the Cross,” for the preaching of “Christ’s
    Passion and Him Crucified.”

=Passion Play.= An alfresco sacred drama based upon the incidents of
    Christ’s Passion and Death; that performed every tenth year at
    Oberammergau is world famous.

=Passion Sunday.= Although this should properly be the first day of what
    is called Passion Week, Palm Sunday is in a sense a feast day, in
    allusion to the triumphant entry of Christ into Jerusalem. The
    Sunday previous is therefore set apart for a general commemoration
    of the Passion--all crosses, statues, and paintings in the churches
    being draped in purple, with a view to concentrating the attention
    of the worshippers on the sufferings of the Redeemer.

=Passion Week.= The week in which Good Friday occurs, in commemoration
    of Christ’s Passion.

=Passive Resister.= One who in our own day passively resists the
    imposition of the Education Rate by allowing his goods to be seized
    or going to prison instead of resorting to active measures of
    violence.

=Passover.= The great Jewish festival commemorative of the Destroying
    Angel having passed over or spared the houses of the Israelites
    whose doorposts were sprinkled with the blood of the lamb slain
    overnight by Divine command. The Hebrew term for this festival is
    _Pesach_, whence “Pasch” has been derived.

=Pastoral Letter.= One addressed by a bishop to his flock. As his title
    implies, he is an overseer, and his crook is symbolical of a
    shepherd.

=Pat.= See “Paddy.”

=Patagonia.= This name, from the Spanish _patagon_, a large, clumsy
    foot, was given by Magellan to the country because, seeing the
    impressions of the great shoes worn by the natives, he imagined them
    to be giants.

=Paternoster Row.= Two reasons are assigned for this designation. The
    Row was the locale of the makers of “Pater Nosters,” or rosary
    beads, so called from the name of the first large bead, and the
    sellers of religious texts and prayer-books. Also because on great
    festival days the monks went in solemn procession to St Paul’s, the
    recital of the Pater Noster being commenced at the eastern corner of
    the lane, outside the churchyard, and concluded at the western
    extremity, where the Ave Maria was then taken up. See “Amen Corner.”

=Pathfinder.= The surname of General John Charles Fremont, the leader of
    four exploring expeditions across the Rocky Mountains.

=Patricians.= See “Plebeians.”

=Paul’s Chain.= This lane, on the south side of the Paul’s Churchyard,
    formerly had a chain drawn across it during divine service; hence
    its name.

=Paul Veronese.= The better-known name of the celebrated Italian painter
    Paulo Cagliari, who was born at Verona.

=Pawn.= In relation to the game of chess. The ordinary piece or “man”
    bears this name from the French _peon_, a walker or foot soldier,
    the superior pieces being kings, queens, knights, castles, and
    bishops. An article left in the charge of a pawnbroker is called a
    pawn, from the French _pan_, a pledge.

=Pawnbroker.= See “Pawn” and “Broker.”

=Peabody Buildings.= After George Peabody, the American philanthropist,
    who left a huge fortune in trust for the building of “model
    dwellings” for the poorer classes. His statue, at the back of the
    Royal Exchange, was unveiled 23rd July 1869.

=Peach.= A schoolboy term for to inform against another. In allusion to
    the fruit of this name, it means to turn soft-hearted, and betray.
    In American the word is used to denote a pretty woman or anything
    soft and beautiful.

=Peacock.= An inn sign dating from the Crusades, when, the flesh of the
    peacock being deemed incorruptible, this bird was adopted by many a
    knight as a crest, typical of the Resurrection. “By the peacock” was
    a common oath in those days.

=Pearl Bible.= So called from the name of the printing type employed in
    its composition.

=Peckham.= A corruption of _Beckham_, a home or settlement among the
    becks or brooks.

=Peckham Rye.= In its application to common, the word “Rye” comes from
    the Anglo-Saxon _ree_, a watercourse.

=Peculiar People.= Originally those who believed that disease was the
    direct consequence of sin, and that by prayer alone could it be
    removed. See “Faith Healers.”

=Pedlar.= An itinerant trader, so called in conformity with the Latin
    _pedes_, the feet.

=Pedro the Cruel.= The surname of the King of Castile and Leon, who,
    midway in the fourteenth century, murdered his two brothers and
    poisoned his queen. How he meted out punishment to those outside his
    own family may be guessed.

=Peeler.= The old name for a policeman, after Sir Robert Peel, to whom
    the introduction of the modern system of Watch and Ward was due.

=Peep O’Day Boys.= Irish insurrectionists who broke into the houses of
    the people at peep of day in search of arms. They were not averse to
    carrying off other plunder at the same time.

=Peewit.= This bird is so called from its characteristic notes.

=Peg Away.= Originally a camping phrase. When a tent is being put up it
    is necessary to secure its ropes to the ground on all sides before
    the work can be left, lest the whole structure, caught by the wind,
    should be blown down.

=Pekin.= Chinese for “northern capital.”

=Pelican State.= Louisiana, from the pelican in her arms.

=Pembroke.= Called by the Welsh “Penbroshire,” signifying the _pen_ or
    head of the _bro_ or country; literally the Land’s End.

=Pembroke College.= Founded at Cambridge in 1348 by the widow of Aylmar
    de Valence, Earl of Pembroke.

=Peninsula State.= Florida.

=Penitentiary.= The modern name for a “Magdalen Hospital,” designed as a
    home or refuge for fallen women who are penitent. This term was
    adopted also by the Quakers of Philadelphia in 1786 for a prison.

=Penknife.= A small pocket-knife intended primarily for cutting quill
    pens. Though quills are no longer in fashion, save among lawyers and
    bankers, and the penknife is serviceable only for trimming one’s
    finger nails, its original name survives.

=Pennsylvania.= From the Latin _sylva_, a wood; expresses the colony in
    the wood founded by William Penn.

=Penny.= From the Danish _pennig_ and German _pfennig_, a copper coin of
    full value. This was originally nicked across to admit of being
    broken into halves and quarters.

=Penny Blood.= The modern substitute for the “Penny Dreadful.” The term
    “Blood” is short for a blood-curdling relation.

=Penny Gaff.= The term applied to a low-class theatre, in allusion to
    the first Drury Lane Theatre, built on the site of a famous cockpit.
    _Gaff_ was but another name for a cockpit, expressing as it did in
    various languages the iron hook, fork, or spur with which the cocks
    were goaded when they showed a reluctance to fight.

=Penny Wedding.= One to which all the villagers are invited, each
    contributing his or her quota to the expenses of the feast amounting
    to less than a shilling, while children uniformly bring a penny.

=Pennyweight.= Anciently, before standard weights came into use, the
    weight of a Norman silver penny.

=Penrith.= A corruption of “Perith,” from Perith Hill, at the foot of
    which the town is situated. The name is Celtic for “red hill,” in
    allusion to the red stone quarried on the spot.

=Pensioner Parliament.= That of Charles II., which, though it lasted
    sixteen years and a half, was more remarkable for the bestowal of
    pensions upon the adherents of the King than for the framing of new
    laws.

=Pentateuch.= A Greek word compounded out of _penta_, five, and
    _teuchos_, an implement, tool. This name was given to the first five
    books collectively of the Old Testament, its second portion being
    applicable in the sense of an instrument of direct communication
    between God and His people.

=Pentecost.= From the Greek _pentekoste_, the fiftieth day; relative to
    the gift of the Law to the Israelites fifty days after their
    deliverance out of the Land of Bondage. This great festival,
    corresponding to the Whitsuntide of the Christians, is celebrated by
    the Jews on the fiftieth day after the “Passover.”

=Penton Street.= See “Pentonville.”

=Pentonville.= Prior to 1773 the whole of this neighbourhood north of
    the New Road was open fields. It was then acquired for building
    purposes by Henry Penton, M.P., one of the Lords of the Admiralty,
    and received its name from “Penton Villa,” his residence, on the
    site of what is now Penton Street.

=Penzance.= Expresses the Celtic for “Saint’s Headland,” in allusion to
    St Michael’s Mount.

=People’s Friend.= The surname of Dr William Gordon of Hull, merited by
    his kindly disposition and unfailing generosity. When he died in
    1849 the whole town followed his body to the grave, and the name by
    which he had always been known was subsequently chiselled on his
    tombstone.

=Percy Cross.= See “Parsons Green.”

=Pere La Chaise.= This, the principal cemetery of Paris, originally
    constituted the land attached to a beautiful mansion built by a
    grocer named Regnault. After his death the property passed into the
    hands of a lady, who made it over to the Jesuits of the Rue St
    Antoine. Thenceforth the Maison Regnault became the recognised seat
    of the Jesuits. In 1705 Pere La Chaise, the confessor of Louis XIV.,
    was made Superior to the Order, and by the King’s desire the house
    received his name. The eventual suppression of the Order caused the
    property to be sold and the land converted into a cemetery.

=Perfectionists.= An American sect of religionists who, relying on the
    gift of the Spirit, dispense with civil laws so far as their own
    community is concerned.

=Peripatetics.= The school of philosophy founded by Aristotle, who
    taught his disciples in the colonnade or covered walk (styled the
    _peripatos_, from _peripatem_, to walk) in the garden of Lyceus at
    Athens.

=Pernambuco.= Expresses the Spanish for “the mouth of hell,” so called
    on account of the violent surf, which is such an impediment to the
    safe navigation of the mouth of its chief river, the San Francisco.

=Persia.= The country of the _Parsa_. See “Parsees.”

=Peru.= From its principal waterway, the Rio Paro, on the banks of which
    the ancient city of Paruru is situated. All these names are
    modifications of the native _Para_, water or river.

=Perugino.= See “Il Perugino.”

=Peter.= A word employed in America for running up the prices at an
    auction. It is derived from the Dutch _pethur_, to run, to hurry.
    The common name for a confederate of the auctioneer at a mock
    auction is a “Peter Funk,” that of the fictitious person to whom the
    goods are knocked down.

=Peter Boat.= One built alike at both ends, so that it can be run out
    quickly. See “Peter.”

=Peterborough.= From the great Benedictine monastery built and dedicated
    to St Peter by Oswy, King of Northumbria, in the seventh century.

=Peterhouse College.= Founded at Cambridge in connection with a hospital
    dedicated to St Peter by Hugh de Balsham in 1280.

=Peterloo Massacre.= The name given to the dispersal of Lancashire
    operatives assembled to discuss Parliamentary reform in St Peter’s
    Field, Manchester, by an armed force, 10th July 1819. In this melee
    many were wounded and several killed. The term was a fanciful one,
    suggested by the battle of Waterloo of five years previous to this
    event.

=Peter’s Pence.= An annual contribution throughout the Roman Catholic
    world for the upkeep of the vast establishment of the Vatican and
    the Papal Court. Since the loss of the Papal States in Italy this
    constitutes the sole revenue of the Pope. Anciently it was a tax of
    a silver penny in respect of every member of a household.

=Petrel.= See “Stormy Petrel.”

=Petticoat.= A smaller or shorter coat, which was the ancient
    description of a woman’s outer garment; derived from the Norman
    _cotte_.

=Petticoat Lane.= Another name for “Rag Fair,” the old clothes mart of
    the Jews in the East End. Its modern name is Middlesex Street.

=Petty.= Provincial for an out-house, because its accommodation is
    restricted to one person; also called a “Privy,” short for private.

=Petty Sessions.= A criminal court for the disposal of petty or lesser
    felonies, as distinguished from the usual “Quarter Sessions,” where
    all graver charges, short of those meriting capital punishment, are
    dealt with.

=Phaeton.= A name derived from the Phaeton of ancient mythology, who,
    having received permission to drive the sun car of Helios, his
    father, for a day, had the ill fortune to cause it to be overturned,
    and thereby almost set the world on fire.

=Pharmacist.= An Americanism for a chemist; derived, of course, from
    “Pharmaceutist,” one who keeps a _pharmacy_ or drug store.

=Pharisees.= Those of the Jews who affected a greater degree of holiness
    than their neighbours, and were consequently regarded as a separate
    people. The word is from the Hebrew _pharash_, “separated.”

=Philadelphia.= Expresses the Greek for “city of brotherly love.” This
    name was happily chosen by William Penn for the capital of his
    Quaker colony in the New World.

=Philippe Egalité.= See “Egalité.”

=Philippi.= A ruined city of Macedonia, named after Philip II. of
    Macedon, who conquered it. It was to the _Philippians_, the people
    of this city, that St Paul addressed one of his Epistles.

=Philippic.= A powerful invective or denunciation. So called from a
    famous oration of Demosthenes against Philip of Macedon with a view
    of arousing the Athenians to repel his ambitious designs.

=Philippine Islands.= Discovered by Magellan in 1521, he named them in
    honour of Philip II. of Spain.

=Philistines.= The inhabitants of ancient Philistia, or “Palestine.”
    Because these were continually at war with the Jews, the term has
    been applied by university students to the citizens generally, and
    to the preservers of law and order more particularly. “A battle with
    the Philistines” is but another name for “a town row.” By the people
    of Norfolk too, policemen and bailiffs, likewise earwigs and such
    tiny tormentors, are called Philistines.

=Philistinism.= The name given to that cynicism which sneers at
    religion. This arose out of the scorn with which the Philistines of
    Palestine regarded the rites and ceremonies of the Israelites.

=Phiz.= Slang for the face; derived from “Physiogomy.”

=Phœnicia.= Called by the Greeks _Phoinike_, from _phoinos_, purple,
    which colour was discovered by the Tyrians and manufactured by them
    for the supply of all the then known Eastern nations.

=Photograph.= From the two Greek words _photos_, light, and _graphein_,
    to write. Accordingly a picture obtained by the action of light and
    transferred to paper chemically prepared.

=Phyrric Dance.= The famous war dance of the ancient Greeks, so called
    after Phyrrichos, a flautist of great skill and renown.

=Pianoforte.= A modern development of the old harpsichord and
    clavichord, so called because it was the first musical instrument
    which, by means of pedals, admitted the alternations of _piano_,
    soft, and _forte_, loud.

=Piccadilly.= After “Piccadilla Hall,” a once famous mart for the sale
    of “piccadilly lace,” having _pica_, or spearlike points. Of this
    _pica_, the word _piccadilly_ expressed the diminutive. So
    fashionable was this lace during the time of Elizabeth that when in
    the succeeding reign of James I. the high ruff came into vogue, it
    bore the name of a _piccadilly_, though shorn of its lace edging.
    “Piccadilla Hall” must have stood somewhere about the modern circus
    of the same name, since there were no houses further afield.

=Pickaninny.= From the Spanish _pegueno nino_, a little child.

=Pick-me-up.= A stimulating beverage or a medicinal tonic as a remedy
    for languor or lowness of spirits.

=Pick up.= An Americanism for a cold dinner composed of the fragments of
    the previous day’s joint. Sometimes such a one is called a “Pick-up
    Dinner.”

=Picts.= The Lowlanders of Scotland, called by the Romans _picti_, or
    painted men, because, they stained their skins with woad.

=Pie Corner.= It has been considered curious that the Great Fire of
    London should have broken out in “Pudding Lane” and ended at Pie
    Corner. Scarcely less curious was it that this Pie Corner was an
    eating-house. Its sign was “The Pie,” a corruption of “Magpie.”

=Piedmont.= Expresses the French for “mountain foot.”

=Pierrot.= French for “Little Peter.”

=Pig and Whistle.= A tavern sign corrupted from “Piggen Wassail.” Piggen
    expressed the Anglo-Saxon for a milking pail, of which _pig_ was the
    diminutive. When a large party frequented the alehouse the liquor
    was set before them in a _piggen_, each helping himself from it with
    his _pig_, or mug. “Wassail” was, of course, the Anglo-Saxon _Was
    hæl_ (“Be in health”). See “Hail.”

=Pigeon English.= That employed by the Chinese in their commercial
    relations with Europeans. The word _pigeon_ is a native corruption
    of “business,” which it seems impossible for a Chinaman to pronounce
    correctly. Their business English is therefore a jargon of many
    languages heard by him in the “Open Ports.”

=Pig in a Poke.= See “Buy a Pig in a Poke” and “Let the Cat out of the
    Bag.”

=Piggott Diamond.= One of the smaller diamonds of celebrity, weighing
    82¼ carats. This was brought to England from India by Lord Piggott
    in 1818, when it passed into the hands of Messrs Rundell & Bridge.

=Pigtails.= The European nickname for the Chinese on account of their
    shaven heads and braided pigtails.

=Pikes.= The name given in California to the poor southern whites, most
    of whom came from Pike County, Missouri. See “Pukes.”

=Pilgrim.= From the Italian _pellegrino_, “a visitor to foreign lands.”
    Since the days of Peter the Hermit and the Crusades this term has
    been confined to one who travels on foot to worship at a holy
    shrine, whether he be a Christian, Mohammedan, or Buddhist. See
    “Palmer.”

=Pillow Lace.= So called because produced by twisted threads around rows
    of pins arranged on a cushion or pillow.

=Pilot Jack.= The name given to the “Union Jack” when flown from the
    mast-head in the merchant service as a signal for a pilot.

=Pimlico.= This was originally a district of tea gardens for holiday
    folk, with a _specialité_ for nut-brown ales. It received its name
    from Ben Pimlico, the owner of a noted resort in Hoxton on the site
    of what is now the Britannia Theatre. The nut-brown ale was first
    popularised by this worthy, who could not have regarded the
    application of his name to ales purveyed elsewhere with much favour.
    From “Pimlico Ales,” the neighbourhood itself soon came to be known
    as Pimlico.

=Pimlico Walk.= It is hard to believe that this was once a regular
    holiday promenade for the citizens of London. On Sundays and on
    week-day evenings it was thronged, skirting as it did the famous tea
    gardens of Ben Pimlico, in whose retired arbours courting couples
    softly murmured “sweet nothings.” This resort was to Londoners of a
    bygone day what Rosherville is in our own time. From a tea garden it
    developed into what was styled a “saloon,” and eventually into a
    regular theatre.

=Pinafore.= Literally an apron pinned on the bosom and at the hips of
    the wearer. The modern example of a pinafore with armholes is pinned
    or buttoned behind.

=Pinchbeck.= A mixture of copper, zinc, and tin, out of which metal
    watch cases and cheap jewellery were formerly made. So called after
    its inventor, Christopher Pinchbeck of Fleet Street.

=Pindaric Verse.= A style of verse, irregular in regard to metre,
    imitative of the Odes of Pindar, the Roman poet.

=Pine-tree State.= Maine, from the pine-tree distinguished in her arms,
    symbolical of her glorious forests.

=Pin Money.= The allowance made by a husband to his wife in order to
    purchase pins for the current year. Such articles were at one time
    neither abundant nor cheap.

=Pin your Faith on it.= An expression derived from the days of
    feudalism, when all the dependents of a baron or feudal lord
    displayed his badge pinned on the sleeve. Sometimes while on a
    predatory expedition of their own these vassals exchanged the badge
    for another to prevent recognition. This gave rise to the saying:
    “You may wear the badge, but I cannot pin my faith on your sleeve. I
    require some further evidence whence you came.”

=Pipeclay.= The fine white clay out of which clay pipes are made.

=Pistol.= From _Pistoja_ in Italy, where this kind of small firearm was
    first introduced in 1545.

=Pit.= The floor of a theatre bears this name because the original Drury
    Lane Theatre was built by Killigrew on the site of the famous
    cockpit in Drury Lane.

=Pitcairn Island.= Discovered by Captain Cartaret in 1767, and named by
    him after one of his officers.

=Pitchfork.= A fork for pitching hay; also one for determining the
    correct pitch of a musical note.

=Pitt Diamond.= After Thomas Pitt, grandfather of the first Lord
    Chatham, who, while Governor of Fort St George in India, purchased
    it for £24,000. On coming to England he sold this gem, weighing 136¾
    carats in its cut state, to the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France,
    for £130,000, on which account it bears the name also of the “Regent
    Diamond.” It decorated the sword hilt of Napoleon I., and after the
    battle of Waterloo passed into the hands of the Prussians.

=Pittsburg.= This city was built on the site of the French Fort
    Duquesne. When, after a sanguinary engagement, it was taken from the
    allied French and Indians in 1758 by General Forbes, he gave it the
    name of Fort Pitt, after the English statesman, William Pitt, Earl
    of Chatham.

=Pius X.= The Vatican Journal _Voce Della Verita_ recently gave an
    authorised explanation as to why the present Pope chose to be styled
    “Pius the Tenth.” It said: “The Holy Father preferred a name that
    would emphasise the undying struggle of the Holy See against the
    Revolution. From the very beginning _Pius_ has been the name of
    predilection assumed by our most illustrious Pontiffs. His present
    Holiness, whose Pontificate opens under a hostile Government, and at
    a time when both Pope and State are the victims of imperious
    revolution, was determined to adopt the title of ‘Pius the Tenth.’”

=Plain.= The name given to the Girondist party on the floor of the
    French House of Assembly during the Revolution, as opposed to the
    “Mountain” party.

=Plantagenet.= The family name of the House of Anjou, which succeeded to
    the throne of England at the extinction of the Norman dynasty. It
    was assumed by Fulke Martel, the first of this line, as a perpetual
    reminder of the incident of having allowed himself to be scourged by
    two attendants with branches of the _genista_, or broom plant, while
    on a pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre, as an atonement for his
    murder of the Earl of Brittany.

=Platonic Affection.= The kind of mutual esteem between persons of
    opposite sexes free from carnal desires or love in an earthly sense,
    as advocated by Plato and his school of philosophers.

=Platonists.= The disciples of Plato. See “Academy.”

=Play Fast and Loose.= An expression derived from a very old cheating
    game called “Pricking the Belt,” which in the modified form of
    “Prick the Garter,” may yet be met with at fairs and race meetings.
    The victim was invited to stick a skewer through a folded belt so as
    to pin it to the table; whereupon the other, taking the two ends,
    proved that the belt had not been made fast at all; hence to “play
    fast and loose with a man.”

=Playhouse Yard.= Marks the site of the “Fortune Theatre,” the second
    regular playhouse opened in the city of London.

=Please the Pigs.= A corruption of “Please the Pixies,” or woodland
    fairies, still common in many rural districts.

=Plebeians.= The ordinary citizens among the Romans, so called from
    _plebs_, the people, as distinguished from the “Patricians,” or
    fathers of the State.

=Plough Monday.= The first Monday after the Epiphany, when, the
    Christmas festivities having come to an end, farm labourers were
    supposed to return to the plough. Instead of which they dragged a
    plough round the parish, begging for “plough money” from door to
    door, and spent the evening at the alehouse.

=Plume and Feathers.= An inn sign, corrupted from “The Plume of
    Feathers,” in allusion to the plume of ostrich feathers adopted as
    his crest by Edward the Black Prince. See “Ich Dien.”

=Plunger.= A gambler who plunges into bets without considering the risks
    he incurs. Recklessness is his characteristic. To retrieve his
    losses he plays for high stakes, which make or break him in a very
    short time.

=Plymouth.= The seaport town at the mouth of the Plym.

=Plymouth Brethren.= A sect which sprang into existence at Plymouth in
    1830. It has extended far and wide, both on the Continent of Europe
    and in America. Its chief tenet is the utter rejection of priestly
    or ministerial organisation.

=Pocket Borough.= An old Parliamentary term for a borough in which the
    votes at an election could generally be commanded by one influential
    person.

=Poet Laureate.= The officially appointed poet of any nation, so called
    from the Roman custom of crowning a favourite poet with laurel,
    symbolical of Apollo, the god of poetry.

=Pogrom.= Expresses the Slavonic for “devastation” or “desolation.” The
    word is allied to _grom_, thunder, thunder clash, and _gromit_, to
    thunder, batter down, as with a thunderbolt; utterly overthrow,
    destroy without mercy.

=Pointer.= This dog is so called on account of its remarkable instinct
    for pointing out or indicating to sportsmen the presence of game.

=Point Lace.= So called because it is worked with the point of a needle.

=Poke Bonnet.= One which poked out beyond the face on all sides. See
    “Kiss-me-Quick.”

=Poland.= From the Slavonic _poln_, “a country of plains.” Its original
    settlers were a tribe called the _Polnali_, “men of the plains.”
    When this country was an independent kingdom it bore the name of
    “Polska,” and its people “Polacks.” Shakespeare mentions “the
    sledded Polacks on the ice” in _Hamlet_ Act i. sc. i.

=Poland Street.= From the Polish refugees who congregated in it soon
    after this street was built.

=Police.= The appropriate designation of civil guardians of the peace,
    from the Greek _polis_, city.

=Polka.= Originally a Bohemian dance, so called from the native word
    _pulka_, a half, on account of the half step peculiar to it.

=Polynesia.= Greek for “many islands.”

=Polytechnic.= An institute or academy of the Arts, so called from the
    Greek _polys_, many, and _techne_, art.

=Pompeii.= So called by the Romans in honour of Pompeius Magnus, or
    Pompey the Great.

=Pomeranian.= A valuable breed of dog from Pomerania in Prussia.

=Pomeroy.= From _pomme roi_; expresses the French for “King’s Apple.”

=Pommery.= After Madame Pommery, mother of the Duchess de Polignac, and
    owner of the estate near Rheims where this fine brand of champagne
    is produced.

=Pompadour.= Both the puce colour and the dress material of this name
    were first popularised by Madame le Pompadour, the mistress of Louis
    XV.

=Pompadours.= The nickname of the 56th Foot on account of their claret
    or Pompadour facings.

=Pontac.= From the town of the same name in the south of France.

=Pontefract.= Literally “broken bridge.” The popular corruption of this
    name is “Pomfret.”

=Pontiff.= The Pope of Rome bears this name conformably to the Latin
    _pons_, bridge, and _facere_, to make, because the earliest bridge
    over the Tiber was constructed at the sole cost of the High Priest
    of the Romans.

=Pontius Pilate’s Bodyguard.= The first regiment of Foot, the oldest in
    the service.

=Poole.= From the pool or inlet of the sea on which this Dorsetshire
    port is situated.

=Pope.= From the Greek _papas_, and Latin _papa_, father.

=Poplar.= From the poplar-trees formerly abounding in this district.

=Poppin’s Court.= A corruption of “Poppingay Court”; originally, in the
    reign of Elizabeth, “Poppingay Alley,” so called because it marked
    the site of an ancient inn or mansion owned by the Abbots of
    Cirencester, and displaying the sign of “the Poppinjaye” or parrot.

=Pop the Question.= A corruption of “Propose the question of marriage.”

=Porkopolis.= The nickname of Chicago and Cincinnati, both
    world-renowned cities in relation to the pork-packing industry.

=Port.= The native wine of Portugal, shipped from Oporto.

=Porte.= The official designation of the Government of Turkey, because
    anciently justice was administered at the _porta_, or gate, of the
    Sultan’s palace.

=Porter.= Another name for “Entire,” which was first retailed at “The
    Blue Last” in Curtain Road, Finsbury. Finding that it was in great
    request by the porters who frequented that house of call, the
    publican dropped the name of “Entire” and called it “Porter.”

=Portland Place.= After William Bentinck, second Duke of Portland, the
    owner of the estate.

=Portman Square.= After Edward Berkeley Portman, Viscount Portman of
    Bryanstone, Dorsetshire, the great ground landlord.

=Portmanteau.= From the French _porter_, to carry, and _manteau_, a
    cloak; literally a receptacle for a cloak on a journey.

=Porto Rico.= Express the Spanish for “rich port.”

=Portsmouth.= The seaport town built at the mouth of the harbour.

=Portsoken Ward.= One of the wards of the city of London, so called
    because anciently the thirteen knights styled the “English Knighten
    Guild,” claimed the _soken_, or franchise, at the _porta_, or gate,
    to their ward in return for services rendered to King Edgar by their
    ancestors.

=Portugal.= From the ancient name of the capital city, _Portus Cale_,
    “the gate of Gaul.”

=Portugal Street.= In compliment to Catherine of Braganza, queen of
    Charles II.

=Portuguese Hymn.= The “Adesta Fidelis,” so called from the erroneous
    assumption of the Duke of Leeds that it was part of the regular
    service in Catholic Portugal, since he first heard it sung in the
    private chapel of the Portuguese Ambassador in London.

=Portway.= The name given to that portion of a great Roman highway in
    this country wherever it was crossed by an arch or within sight of a
    walled city; from _porta_, gate.

=Poser.= A corruption of “Opposer”; derived from collegiate
    argumentative examinations.

=Poses Plastiques.= French for “statuesque attitudes.”

=Poster.= So called because auction, play, and other public
    announcements were first exhibited on the posts separating the
    roadway from the side walk. Being stuck on these posts, the bills
    were said to be “posted.”

=Post Paper.= So called from the original watermark, a post horn, which
    it bore.

=Pot Boilers.= Specifically pictures painted by a poor artist for ready
    sale to a dealer in order to “Keep the pot boiling.” The term is
    also employed by authors and journalists in the same sense.

=Pothooks.= The nickname of the 77th Foot, owing to the fancied
    resemblance of these two figures to pothooks.

=Pot Luck.= Anything ready at hand for a meal. The allusion is to the
    primitive stock pot, into which meat and vegetables were thrown at
    any time for boiling up as required.

=Potomac.= Indian for “place of the burning pine.”

=Poultry.= Where the scorchers and stuffers of poultry in connection
    with the old Stocks Market on the site of the Mansion House had
    their shops.

=Pouter Pigeon.= So called on account of its pouting or bulging breast.

=Powis Place.= Marks the site of the town house of William Herbert,
    Marquis of Powis, _temp._ Charles I.

=Prairie State.= Illinois, which for the most part consists of prairie
    lands.

=Praise-God Barebone.= A fanatical leader of the time of the
    Commonwealth, and a prominent member of the “Barebone Parliament,”
    who was addicted to praising God and damning his neighbours. This
    kind of hypocrisy was characteristic of the Puritans.

=Pratt Street.= After one of the family names of the Earl of Brecknock,
    Marquis of Camden, landlord of the estate.

=Presbyterians.= From the Greek _presbuteros_, an elder. The National
    Church of Scotland is governed not by prelates, as in England, but
    by elders, equal in office and power.

=Press Yard.= The open courtyard between the Sessions House and Newgate
    Prison. Those who refused to plead when put upon their trial were
    pressed to death with heavy weights.

=Preston.= A corruption of “Priests’ Town,” so called on account of its
    many ancient monastic establishments.

=Pretoria.= In honour of Pretorius, the first President of the Boer
    Republic in South Africa.

=Pretty Kettle of Fish.= Save that the second word should be “Kiddle,”
    expressive of a basket placed in a river for catching fish, this
    expression is very old. During the time of the Plantagenets the
    warder of the Tower claimed the right of trapping fish outside
    Traitors’ Gate in this way for his own benefit; but the citizens of
    London systematically made a raid upon his kiddles, and destroyed
    them. “A pretty kiddle of fish indeed!” he was wont to exclaim to
    the Beefeaters on discovering the damage done to his preserves.

=Primitive Methodists.= The original Methodists, those who resort to
    open-air preaching and singing, after the style of Wesley and
    Whitfield. On account of their “Camp Meetings” they are styled also
    Ranters.

=Primrose.= So far from expressing the first or spring rose, the term is
    a corruption of the Italian _primerola_, the first spring flower.

=Primrose Day.= The 19th of April bears this name because it is the
    anniversary of the death of Lord Beaconsfield, 1881. When the body
    of this great statesman was laid to rest his coffin was adorned by a
    wreath sent by Queen Victoria, and superscribed “His favourite
    flower.” This gave rise to the formation of the Primrose League and
    the annual decoration of the Beaconsfield Statue at Westminster with
    a wreath of primroses on this day.

=Prince of Wales’s Feathers.= See “Plume and Feathers.”

=Prince of Wales Island.= Named in compliment to the Prince Regent,
    afterwards George IV.

=Princes Street.= Laid out on the site of the old Westminster Mews, and
    so named on account of its proximity to King Street.

=Printer’s Devil.= When Caxton introduced printing into England many
    people regarded it as an invention of the devil. This idea was also
    fostered by his boys, whose hands and faces were besmeared with ink.
    They were accordingly called “Imps” and “Devils.” Since his day the
    boys engaged in feeding the printing press have not improved in
    their personal appearance. Young devils they are, and young devils
    they will remain until the end of time.

=Printing House Square.= This, the courtyard of _The Times_ office, was
    formerly covered by the King’s Printing House, where King James’s
    Bible was printed, and which for centuries had the monopoly of
    turning out Bibles for the people.

=Priory.= This term denoted a lesser house or branch establishment of an
    abbey, under the control of a Prior or Prioress, who had the prior
    claim to election as Abbot or Abbess of the mother community.

=Private Boxes.= The idea of these adjuncts to a theatre auditorium was
    derived from Spain, where plays were formerly performed in a public
    square, the ordinary spectators being accommodated on the ground,
    while the grandees looked on from the windows of the houses.

=Privy.= See “Petty.”

=Pro-Cathedral.= The beautiful Catholic Church in High Street,
    Kensington, erected as a provisional cathedral at the time when the
    present Westminster Cathedral was first mooted.

=Profile.= The outline of a side view, so called from the Italian
    _profilo_, and Latin _filum_, a thread.

=Protectionist.= One who advocates the protection of home industries by
    levying imposts on foreign merchandise.

=Protestants.= Those who, with the Lutherans of Germany, protested
    against the decree of the Emperor Charles V. This decree was
    ostensibly to invoke the aid of the German princes against the
    Turks, but really to restore peace and order after the disturbances
    caused by Martin Luther’s opposition to the Church of Rome. From
    this protest the Reformers received the name of “Protestants.”

=Prussia.= A Western corruption of _Porussia_, which expresses the
    Slavonic for “near Russia.”

=Prussian Blue.= After its inventor, Diesbach of Berlin, in 1710.

=Prussic Acid.= Originally the acid of “Prussian Blue,” but nowadays
    obtained from cyanide of iron.

=Pye Street= (Old and New). See “New Way.”

=Pymmes Park.= This new suburban “lung” at Edmonton comprised the
    grounds in connection with the lordly mansion built by William
    Pymme, which was mentioned in 1593 as the residence of the great
    Lord Burleigh, and in 1612 as that of Robert Cecil, Earl of
    Salisbury.

=Pythagoreans.= The school of philosophy founded by Pythagoras.

=Public-house.= A house of public resort for refreshment and
    conviviality. It may be either an inn or a tavern in the modern
    sense.

=Pudding.= From Stow’s description of “Pudding Lane” it would seem that
    the puddings of his day were scarcely edible productions. The word
    is derived from the Celtic _poten_, a bag, and was applied
    originally in the sense of a modern hog’s pudding or black
    pudding--to wit, a sausage.

=Pudding Lane.= Whether or not the Great Fire of London broke out in the
    house of the King’s baker, as generally stated, the lane did not
    receive its name from the royal bakery. Old Stow tells us it was so
    called “because the butchers of Eastcheap have their scalding-house
    for hogs there, and their puddings with other filth of beasts are
    voided down that way to their dung boats on the Thames.”

=Pudding-time.= The old name for “dinner-time,” because, as still is the
    custom in some parts of the country, the pudding was served before
    the meat.

=Pueblo Indian.= One who in the western states has been brought under
    Catholic influences, and lives in a village, where he subsists by
    agriculture. The word _Pueblo_ is Spanish for village.

=Pukes.= A corruption of Pikes, generally applied to the natives of
    Missouri, who originally settled in Pike County of that state.

=Pullman Car.= After its inventor, Pullman of Chicago.

=Pull up Stakes.= An Americanism for to pack up one’s belongings and
    remove elsewhere. The expression has, of course, reference to
    dismantling a tent among a mining community.

=Pumps.= Dancing shoes bear this name in allusion to the fashionable
    assemblies in the pump-room at the Western Spas when Beau Nash,
    styled “King of Bath,” presided over the ceremonies.

=Punch.= From the Hindoo _panch_, five, this beverage being composed of
    five ingredients: spirit, sugar, lemon juice, spice, and water.

=Punch and Judy.= A hybrid form of entertainment evolved out of an old
    mystery play, _Pontius cum Judæis_ (“Pontius Pilate and the Jews”).

=Punic Wars.= Those waged between Rome and Carthage. By the Romans the
    Carthaginians were called the _Puni_, a corruption of _Phœni_, in
    allusion to their descent from the Phœnicians.

=Punitive Expedition.= A petty war with the set purpose of inflicting a
    well-merited punishment upon a rebellious tribe. The word “punitive”
    is derived from the Latin _pœna_, penalty.

=Punjab.= Expresses the Persian for “five rivers.”

=Punkah.= From the Hindoo _pankha_, a fan.

=Puritans.= Those who affected a greater degree of holiness or purity
    than their neighbours. They were to the Anglicans and Roman
    Catholics of the time of Charles I. and the Commonwealth what the
    Pharisees were to the Jews.

=Purple.= This dye, in which the people of Tyre excelled, was discovered
    in the following manner:--One day a favourite dog of Hercules of
    Tyre ate a species of fish known to the ancients by the name of
    _purpura_, and on returning to his master his lips were found to be
    tinged with the colour, which, after a few experiments, Hercules
    successfully imitated.

=Purse Strings.= In the days of our grandfathers, when hasp and clasp
    purses were unknown, the only kind of purse was a small money bag
    secured round its mouth by a tape or string. To “tighten one’s purse
    strings” was therefore to be proof against almsgiving or
    money-lending.

=Putney.= Described in ancient documents as _Puttaney_, or “Putta’s
    Isle.”


                                   Q


=Quack.= The name borne by an itinerant trader, who makes a great noise
    in open market, quacking like a duck in his efforts to dispose of
    wares that are not genuine; hence anyone nowadays who follows a
    profession which he does not rightly understand. A “Quack Doctor”
    was formerly styled a _Quack Salver_, from the salves, lotions, and
    medicines he dispensed to the crowd at the street corners.

=Quadragesima Sunday.= The first Sunday of Lent, expressing in round
    numbers forty days before Easter.

=Quadrant.= The Piccadilly end of Regent Street, so called because it
    describes a quarter of a circle.

=Quadrille.= Expresses the French for “a little square,” in allusion to
    the positions taken up by the dancers.

=Quadroon.= A Mulatto being half-blooded, like a mule, the offspring of
    such a woman by a white man is black-blooded to the degree of
    one-fourth.

=Quaker City.= Philadelphia, the seat of the Quaker colony founded by
    William Penn.

=Quaker Poet.= The sobriquet of Bernard Barton.

=Quakers.= The origin of this designation of the “Society of Friends” is
    thus given by George Fox, the founder of the sect in his _Journal_:
    “Justice Bennet of Derby was the first to call us ‘Quakers,’ because
    I bade him quake and tremble at the word of the Lord.” This occurred
    in 1650.

=Quarantine.= Agreeably to the French _quarantaine_, the period of a
    ship’s detention outside a port in the circumstances of infectious
    disease should be forty days.

=Quarter Sessions.= See “Petty Sessions.”

=Quarto.= In the printing and stationery trades this term expresses a
    sheet of paper which, when folded into quarters, makes four leaves
    or eight pages.

=Quassia.= A tonic obtained from the bark of a tree of South America,
    the virtues of which were discovered by a Negro of this name.

=Quatemala.= When the Indians who accompanied Alvarado into this region
    discovered the ruins of an ancient palace of the kings beside an old
    worm-eaten tree they assumed this to be the centre of the country,
    and gave it the name of _Quahtemali_, “a decayed log of wood.”

=Quebec.= Indian for “take care of the rock.”

=Queen Anne’s Bounty.= A perpetual fund raised by the augmentation of
    the tithes and first-fruits at the instance of Queen Anne for the
    benefit of the poor clergy whose incomes are insufficient for their
    proper maintenance.

=Queen Anne’s Square.= Like the gate and the street further west of the
    same name, this was built during the reign of Queen Anne.

=Queen Charlotte Island.= In honour of Queen Charlotte, the consort of
    George III.

=Queen City of the Lakes.= Buffalo, in the state of New York, situated
    at the junction of the Erie Canal with Lake Erie.

=Queen City of the Mountains.= Knoxville (Tennessee), admirably situated
    on the hills overlooking the Upper Tennessee River.

=Queen City of the Plains.= Regina, in the north-western territory.

=Queen City of the West.= Cincinnati (Ohio), so called in virtue of its
    fine situation, beautiful parks, and noble architectural features.
    Also styled “The Queen City” and “Queen of the West.”

=Queen Elizabeth’s Walk.= In compliment to Queen Elizabeth, who often
    visited the Earl of Leicester when he resided in this portion of
    Stoke Newington.

=Queenhithe.= So called because the tolls collected at this _hithe_, or
    wharf, were appropriated by Eleanor, Queen of Henry II., for her pin
    money.

=Queen of Hearts.= Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, the daughter of James
    I., who by her amiable disposition endeared herself to all hearts.

=Queen of Watering-places.= Scarborough.

=Queen’s College.= At Oxford, founded by Robert de Eglesfield, the
    confessor of Philippa, queen of Edward III., in her honour. At
    Cambridge, founded by Margaret of Anjou, queen of Henry VI.

=Queen’s Hall.= Built on the site of the Langham Hall, and opened in
    1893, this high-class concert hall was named after the late Queen
    Victoria.

=Queen’s Head Street.= From the ancient inn, “The Queen’s Head,” now
    modernised, at its juncture with Essex Road. Queen Elizabeth is said
    to have slept at this hostelry on several occasions.

=Queensland.= This portion of Australia received its name in honour of
    Queen Victoria, when in 1859 it became an independent colony.

=Queen’s Square.= After Queen Anne, in whose reign it was laid out.

=Queen Street.= In Cheapside, from a permanent wooden balcony situated
    between Bow Church and this corner for the accommodation of the
    reigning queen and her ladies when jousts and tournaments were held
    here. In Mayfair, after the queen of Charles II., in whose reign it
    was built.

=Queen’s Tobacco Pipe.= The name given to the furnace at the London
    Docks where contraband tobacco was formerly consumed. This custom
    obtained down to within the last few years of the reign of Queen
    Victoria.

=Queenstown.= Originally styled “The Cove of Cork,” this Irish seaport
    received its present name on the occasion of the visit of Queen
    Victoria in 1850.

=Queen’s Weather.= Throughout the long reign of the late Queen Victoria
    it was remarkable that, whenever she appeared abroad on the occasion
    of a public function, glorious weather favoured her invariably;
    hence the expression “Queen’s Weather” came to be applied to a fine
    day for a summer outing.

=Queen Victoria Street.= A modern thoroughfare, named after the late
    Queen Victoria.

=Queue.= Expresses the French for a tail, like that of a periwig or
    peruke. In the sense of a line of people waiting outside the doors
    of a theatre the term has latterly become popular on both sides of
    the English Channel.

=Quick Lunch.= An American stand-up luncheon served with expedition.

=Quicksilver.= Living or moving silver. _Quick_ is old English for
    “living”; hence “The Quick and the Dead.”

=Quidnunc.= One who is always inquiring after news. “What news?” is the
    literal interpretation of the term. As a personal designation, it
    originated in the name of the chief character in Murphy’s farce,
    “The Upholsterer, or What News?” A kind of political Paul Pry.

=Quid of Tobacco.= A corruption of “Cud,” because it is used for
    chewing. The allusion is to the cud chewed by ruminating animals.

=Quids.= The slang term for cash, properly restricted to gold. A
    sovereign is called a “Quid” in allusion to the Latin phrase, _Quid
    pro quo_, something of equal value, which change for a sovereign
    truly is.

=Quill-driver.= The popular designation of a clerk. Quill pens having
    been supplanted by those of steel, it is scarcely appropriate in our
    time.

=Quinquagesima Sunday.= The name given in the Church calendar to the
    Sunday preceding Ash Wednesday or the commencement of Lent;
    approximately fifty days before Easter.

=Quit Rent.= A rental anciently paid by a tenant to a baron with a view
    of being relieved or quit of feudal service.

=Quod.= The slang term for prison; also “Quad.” See “In Quad.”



                                     R

=Rabbi.= The title of a Jewish expounder of the Law. The word is Greek
    for “My Master,” through the Hebrew _rabi_, from the root _rab_,
    lord, chief.

=Rack.= From the Saxon _wrocan_ and German _recken_, to stretch. The
    word is therefore correctly applied to the instrument of torture of
    former days.

=Rack Rent.= A term expressing the actual full annual value of land as
    paid from the earliest times, not modified by circumstances. See
    “Rack.”

=Radcliffe Library.= Founded at Oxford by the celebrated physician, Dr
    John Radcliffe, in Radcliffe Square, also named after him.

=Radicals.= That advanced section of the Liberal party, whose set
    purpose it is to root out the evils, according to their view, of our
    constitutional system which are systematically maintained by the
    Conservatives. The term first came into notice in 1818, when a
    strenuous effort was made to institute a radical change in the
    Parliamentary representation of the country. This paved the way for
    the Reform Act of 1832.

=Radnor.= The modern form of _Rhiadnwr-Gwy_, signifying “The Cataract of
    the Wye.” This is in reference to the beautiful cascade, with a fall
    of seventy feet, called “The Water-break-its-Neck,” the great
    natural feature in the vicinity of the county town.

=Rag.= Theatrical slang for the curtain, having originally reference to
    the green baize. Also military slang for the national flag, and the
    members’ colloquial term for the Army and Navy Club.

=Rag Fair.= The name given to the old clothes mart in Petticoat Lane,
    now Middlesex Street, Aldgate, on Sunday mornings.

=Ragged Regiment.= Dilapidated waxen effigies of several English
    monarchs and persons of note that were borne through the streets at
    the obsequies of the subjects represented. They are located in
    Islip’s Chapel, Westminster Abbey.

=Ragging.= In military parlance this word expresses the system of
    persecution by which an unpopular man suffers indignities at the
    hands of his comrades. It has the same meaning as the North Country
    “Rag,” to enrage or make angry, and “Bullyrag,” to administer a
    severe scolding. The latter, however, of which the former is an
    abbreviation, has not been derived from the Dutch _bulderen_, to
    scold or bully, as is generally supposed, but from the custom of the
    Spanish bullfighters of waving a red cloak in front of the bull in
    order to excite him to fury. This is the _rag_ referred to. The
    corresponding United States term for “ragging” is “Hazing.”

=Rag Money.= American slang for paper money.

=Rag Time.= An Americanism for a dancing frolic of the
    “go-as-you-please” order, in which musical time and rhythm are, as
    it were, torn into shreds; a ragged, loose, disconnected,
    unconventional time. The term has been well explained by an
    authoritative writer in _The Referee_ as follows:--“Rag time is the
    outcome of ‘Rag Speech,’ a speech that casts tradition, balance,
    beauty, elegance, and refinement to the winds, and that believes
    that more effect can be made by punching certain syllables into the
    brain of the listener. Technically speaking, ‘Rag Time’ shifts the
    strong accent from the first to the second beat of the bar. Against
    this there is a cross-rhythm with a kind of halting contrapuntal
    ornamentation in the accompaniment, which sometimes brings a stress
    on to the fourth beat of the bar. The result of this irregularity
    and false quantity is to destroy the rhythm to an extent that often
    makes it difficult to say whether the music is in duple or triple
    measure. The musical consequence is the breaking down of symmetrical
    form, and the tendency is to reduce the organised structure to its
    component parts.”

=Railroad City.= Indianapolis, a junction of the great trunk lines.

=Railway King.= The sobriquet of George Hudson, Chairman of the Midland
    Railway Company, who amassed a huge fortune by successful
    speculations in the early days of railway enterprise.

=Rains Cats and Dogs.= This expression is traceable to two distinct
    sources--popular superstition and Scandinavian mythology. Witches
    who rode the storm on broomsticks were believed to have the power of
    transforming themselves into cats at will, while the dog or wolf is
    represented as the attendant of Odin, the Storm King of the northern
    nations.

=Rainy Day Smith.= John Thomas Smith, the antiquary, whose chatty
    volume, “A Book for a Rainy Day,” brought him more money and
    reputation than all his other works put together.

=Raise your Screw.= This expression arose out of the custom of masters
    paying their employées’ wages screwed up in a tiny paper of uniform
    size. The more money it contained the less tightly the paper could
    be screwed; hence an advance of wages implied metaphorically giving
    the screw one turn backwards.

=Rake the Pot.= An American gambling phrase meaning to seize the stakes.

=Ram and Teazle.= A tavern sign common to the woollen manufacturing
    districts, this being the device of the Clothworkers’ Company.

=Ranch.= From the Spanish _rancho_, a hut of posts, covered with
    branches or thatch, in which herdsman or farm labourers in the
    western states of North America lodge by night.

=Rand.= Expresses the Dutch, specifically in South Africa, for a mining
    district.

=Ranelagh Gardens.= This fashionable public resort, now built over,
    occupied the site of Ranelagh House and its grounds, owned by an
    Irish peer, whose title it bore.

=Ranters.= Another name for the “Primitive Methodists.”

=Rape.= The name given to a division under the Danes of the county of
    Sussex, from the Norse _repp_, a district.

=Rapier.= This species of sword being eminently adapted for rapid
    thrusting and withdrawing, its name, from the Latin _rapere_, to
    snatch away, is appropriate.

=Rappahannock.= Indian for “quick-rising waters.”

=Rapparee.= The name given to an Irish plunderer, because he was armed
    with a _rapera_, or half pike.

=Rascal.= From the French _racaille_, “the scum of the people.”

=Ratcliff Highway.= Originally a manor belonging to the parish of
    Stepney, this highway for sailors ashore, where they found lodgings
    and entertainment of a low class in days prior to the provision of
    “Seamen’s Homes,” received its name from the multitudes of water
    rats that congregated on the Thames wall by night. On account of the
    evil reputation which this neighbourhood bore in former days, its
    name was changed to “St George’s in the East.”

=Rathbone Place.= After Captain Rathbone, its builder, in 1718.

=Rat Hole.= A printers’ term for a non-society house. Since rats are
    known to desert a sinking ship, so a journeyman who refuses to take
    advantage of a trades union is stigmatised as a “Rat,” because he
    forsakes the general cause of his craft. Hence also the term
    “Rattening,” by which is meant the taking away of or destroying a
    workman’s tools consequent upon his desertion of the union or
    accepting work in a house opposed to its principles.

=Rationalism.= The kind of religion (if it deserved such a name) set up
    during the French Revolution, when Reason took the place of Faith.
    The worship of the “Goddess of Reason,” in the person of an actress
    installed in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, was a fitting illustration
    of the unreasoning tenet that public worship was opposed to the
    natural instincts of mankind.

=Rattening.= See “Rat Hole.”

=Ray Street.= After the victim of an old-time Clerkenwell sensation,
    Miss Ray, who, on becoming the mistress of Lord Sandwich, was shot
    by her jilted lover, Hackman.

=Ready.= Short for ready money, cash always on hand, in readiness for
    emergencies.

=Rechabites.= The name borne by total abstainers in the United States,
    after the followers of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, who lived in
    tents and abstained from the use of wine.

=Reckon without your Host.= When putting up at an inn the cost is often
    greater than the traveller anticipates; therefore it is always wise
    to be well prepared with funds, lest, when the host presents his
    bill, discomfiture may arise.

=Recluse.= From the Latin _reclusus_, shut up; one who voluntarily cuts
    himself off from communion with his fellow-men, a solitary.

=Rector.= A clergyman who enjoys a living in his own right, as
    distinguished from a “Vicar,” who holds the appointment at the
    pleasure of the Lord of the Manor. The former also receives the
    tithes direct, whereas the latter passes them on to a layman, a
    college, or a chapter, by whom he is paid a proportion thereout as a
    stipend.

=Red Cent.= An Americanism for a copper coin.

=Redcross Street.= From the red stone cross anciently set up by the
    Knights Hospitallers to define the limits of the land belonging to
    them in the direction adjacent to that of the Knights Templars,
    indicated by a white cross of stone in what is now “Whitecross
    Street.”

=Red Dragon.= An inn sign, complimenting Henry VII., whose device it
    was.

=Redemptorists.= Also called “Redemptorist Fathers.” See “Liguorians.”

=Red Eye.= The Far West term for fiery new whisky, which is well
    calculated to make the eyes of the toper look red.

=Red-hot Time.= An Americanism for a jolly time, because the proceedings
    were conducted with the utmost warmth.

=Red-Letter Day.= A phrase used to express a pleasurable event in one’s
    past life. This had its origin in the old calendars and almanacks,
    in which high Church festivals were printed in red ink, and all the
    other days in black.

=Red Lion Court.= After an ancient tavern, “The Red Lion.”

=Red Lion Square.= After a famous old coaching-house, “The Red Lion.”

=Red Republicans.= The extreme Republican party of the French
    Revolution, which adopted the red cap, the Roman symbol of Liberty.
    The lower orders of the people, to whom the cap meant everything,
    were likewise only too ready to follow the behest of their leaders,
    and steep their hands in the blood of the aristocrats.

=Red Skins.= The name first given by the white settlers to the Indians
    of North America.

=Red Rose.= An inn sign, in compliment to the Lancastrians during the
    Wars of the Roses.

=Red Sea.= Three reasons are assigned for the name of this sea: the red
    sandstone which forms its bottom, the red rocks which in some parts
    border its shores, and the colouring imparted to its waters by coral
    reefs, animaculæ, and sea-weed.

=Red Tape.= That leisurely officialism which refers a matter from one
    department to another, until at length the highest authority is
    reached to take it in hand. The term has been derived from the red
    tape with which all legal and official documents are tied together.

=Reel.= A whirling dance by a single person, peculiar to the Scots, so
    called in allusion to the winding of cotton on a reel.

=Reformed Presbytery.= See “Macmillanites.”

=Reform School.= An Americanism for an institution for the reformation
    of juvenile offenders.

=Refresher.= The legal term for an extra fee paid to a barrister by a
    client while the latter’s case is pending, in order to refresh the
    former’s memory concerning the interests at stake.

=Regent Diamond.= See “Pitt Diamond.”

=Regent’s Park.= Part of the general scheme of John Nash, the royal
    architect, when he projected the building of Regent Street, was to
    provide a magnificent palace for his patron, the Prince Regent, in
    the park named after him. This was not realised, and the site of the
    intended palace was appropriated to the Zoological Gardens.

=Regent Street.= In honour of the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV.

=Regiomontanus.= The name assumed by Johann Müller, a celebrated German
    mathematician of the fifteenth century, being a Latinised rendering
    of “Konigsberg,” his native place.

=Regius Professor.= The professorial chair in various departments of
    learning at Oxford and Cambridge Universities founded by Henry VIII.

=Regular Brick.= See “He’s a Brick.”

=Regular Clergy.= Those who in the Catholic Church are attached to
    monasteries and friaries, living by rule; in contradistinction to
    the “Secular Clergy,” who are appointed to parochial work by a
    bishop, and move among the people.

=Regular Zantippe.= See “Zantippe.”

=Rehan.= See “Ada Rehan.”

=Rendezvous.= Literally an individual haunt or resort, and in no sense a
    place of public meeting. The word is French for “betake yourself.”

=Republican Marriage.= The name given by the Red Republicans during the
    French Revolution to their atrocious procedure, instigated by Jean
    Baptiste Carrier, of tying a young man and woman together and
    drowning them.

=Resurrection Men.= Body snatchers, who “resurrected,” as the Americans
    say, bodies from the graves in order to sell them to the medical
    faculty for dissection. Since the general institution of public
    hospitals, the last refuge of so many “unknowns,” whose dead bodies
    are never claimed, the demand for subjects snatched from the grave
    has entirely ceased.

=Revolver.= The modern type of pistol, in which the breach which
    contains the cartridges revolves. In the earlier stage of this
    invention it was the barrel that revolved.

=Rheims.= The capital of the _Remi_, a Gallic people referred to by
    Cæsar.

=Rhine.= From the Celtic _rhe_, “rapid.” This name was given by the
    Swiss to rivers generally.

=Rhinoceros.= Greek for “nose-horned.”

=Rhode Island.= A corruption of “rood,” red, the name given to it by the
    Dutch settlers on account of its reddish appearance.

=Rhodes.= From the Greek _rhodon_, a rose; expresses “the isle of
    roses.”

=Rhododendron.= From the two Greek words _rhodon_, rose, and _dendron_,
    tree.

=Rhody.= The American designation of Rhode Island on account of its
    limited area; also called “Little Rhody.”

=Rhone.= Derived from the same root as “Rhine.”

=Ribbonmen.= The name borne by the members of a Catholic political
    association in Ireland early in the last century on account of the
    distinctive badge or ribbon worn in the button-hole. The Ribbonmen
    were violently opposed to the “Orangemen.”

=Ribston Pippins.= The name given to a fine species of Normandy apple
    grown at Ribstone, Yorkshire, from pips originally planted on his
    estate by Sir Henry Goodriche.

=Richmond.= When Edward I. built himself a sumptuous palace on the south
    bank of the Thames he gave it the name of _Sheen_, the Saxon for
    “resplendent.” This being consumed by fire in 1479, Henry VI.,
    rebuilt it, and then called it Richmond, after the beautiful seat in
    Yorkshire whence he took the title of his earldom. _Richmond_
    signifies a rich prospect from the hill occupied by its ancient
    castle.

=Riding.= A Danish division of the county of Yorkshire corresponding to
    the Lincolnshire _Trithing_, of which it is a corruption, signifying
    a third part.

=Riff-raff.= Expresses the Anglo-Saxon, from the Danish _rip-raps_, for
    “sweepings”; hence the scum of society.

=Right off the Reel.= To do a thing without stopping until it is
    finished. The allusion is to unwinding the entire length of cotton
    off a reel or bobbin.

=Right Foot Foremost.= A phrase derived from the old Roman superstition
    that if a visitor crossed the threshold with the left foot foremost
    he would be certain to bring ill luck upon the household.

=Rile.= A provincial corruption of “Rail,” to anger or tease.

=Ring.= A professional term for a charmed circle--_e.g._ “The Dramatic
    Ring.”

=Ring him up.= A telephone phrase, really borrowed from the theatrical
    profession, in which the prompter’s “Ring up” and “Ring
    down”--_i.e._ the curtain--have obtained favour since the “Palmy
    Days of the Drama.”

=Rink.= An American variant of “Ring.” In the sense of a skating rink
    the term has become popular in England.

=Rio de Janeiro.= This city takes its name from the river discovered by
    Alfonso de Sousa on the Feast of St Januarius, on which it stands.

=Rio de la Plata.= Spanish for “river of silver.”

=Rio Grande.= Spanish for “great river.”

=Rip.= A corruption of “Rep.” See “Old Rep.”

=Ritualists.= The extreme High Church party, who for many years past
    have revived the ancient ritual to such a degree that they may be
    said to be Roman Catholics in everything save in name.

=Riviera.= Literally “coast,” “sea-shore.”

=Robbing Peter to Pay Paul.= An expression derived from the following
    circumstance:--By Royal Letters Patent, dated 17th December 1540,
    the abbey church of St Peter, Westminster, was constituted a
    cathedral, with a resident bishop. Ten years afterwards this order
    was revoked, the diocese of Westminster being united to that of St
    Paul’s Cathedral, and its revenues were granted towards the repairs
    of the city fane; hence what was taken away from St Peter’s went to
    benefit St Paul’s.

=Robert.= The generic name for a policeman, after Sir Robert Peel, who
    introduced the modern constabulary system.

=Robert Street.= In the Adelphi, after the Christian name of one of the
    three brothers Adam, its builders. In Camden Town, after one of the
    family names of the Marquis of Camden, the ground landlord.

=Robert the Devil.= The surname of the first Duke of Normandy, the
    father of William the Conqueror, merited by his outrageous cruelty
    and daring in war.

=Robin Hood.= The proper name of this renowned leader of the Sherwood
    Foresters was Robert Fitzooth. The first he euphonised into _Robin_
    and the second into _Hood_, leaving out the _Fitz_, which is Norman
    for “son,” altogether, since having been declared an outlaw, he was
    not unwilling to renounce his claims to Norman descent. Whether or
    not he was really Earl of Huntingdon, as some historians assert,
    cannot be proved.

=Robinson.= The French popular name for an umbrella, in allusion to
    Robinson Crusoe.

=Rob Roy.= The popular name of the Scottish outlaw Robert Macgregor,
    meaning simply “Robert the Red” on account of his beard.

=Rochester.= From _Hrofoceaster_, after Hrop, a Saxon chieftain, who
    built a castle on the site of a _castra_, or Roman encampment.

=Rochester Row.= A name which recalls the fact that, prior to the time
    of George III., the Deanery of Westminster was included in the
    Bishopric of Rochester.

=Rock Day.= Another ancient name for “Distaffs’ Day,” 7th January, the
    word _rock_ being the Anglo-Saxon for a distaff.

=Rogation Days.= So called from the Latin _rogare_, to beseech, and also
    from the Greek _litaneia_, supplication. These being the three days
    preceding the Feast of the Ascension, the Litany of the Saints is
    chanted by way of preparation and supplication for the joyful event.

=Rogation Sunday.= That which ushers in the “Rogation Days.”

=Roger de Coverley.= The correct description of this surname is Roger de
    Cowley, or Roger of Cowley, near Oxford. The dance of this name was
    invented by an ancestor of the country squire, Sir Roger de
    Coverley, mentioned by Addison in _The Spectator_.

=Rogues’ Gallery.= The name given to the collection of criminals’
    photographs in the State Prison of New York.

=Roland for an Oliver.= See “Gave him a Roland for an Oliver.”

=Roll Call.= The list of names called out in the army. The term “Roll”
    is a survival of those far-off days when not only a list, but
    writing of all kinds, was set forth on one long roll of paper. We
    still speak of a “Burgess Roll,” while to belong to any society is
    said to be “enrolled” among its members; hence also the phrase “Roll
    of Honour.”

=Rolls Chapel.= This ancient edifice, now incorporated in the New Record
    Office, was built by Henry III. for a number of Jewish rabbis who,
    had been converted to Christianity. Into it Edward III. caused all
    the accumulated rolls or records to be stored, and there they
    remained in the custody of the Master of the Rolls, until in more
    modern days they were overhauled and catalogued.

=Roman Catholic Church.= The ancient original fold of “The Holy Catholic
    Church,” which acknowledges the authority of the Pope of Rome. The
    recognised head of the English Catholic Church is the King,
    represented by the Archbishop of Canterbury, just as that of “The
    Greek Catholic Church” in Russia is the Czar, represented by the
    Metropolitan of St Petersburg.

=Rome.= After Romulus, its mythical founder.

=Romeo Coates.= Robert Coates was a fashionable amateur actor during the
    early part of the last century; surnamed Romeo Coates on account of
    his very many appearances in the character of the ill-fated hero in
    _Romeo and Juliet_.

=Romford.= The ford over the Bourne, anciently called the Rom, this
    being the Roman highway between London and Colchester.

=Romney Street.= After Charles Marsham, Earl of Romney, the owner of the
    estate.

=Rood Lane.= From an ancient holy rood or cross, on which was a figure
    of the dying Saviour, that stood in this thoroughfare as a boundary
    mark of the landed property of the nuns of St Helen’s. See “Mincing
    Lane.”

=Rosary.= A string of beads, and also the prayers said in connection
    therewith, so called because the Virgin appeared in a vision to St
    Dominic, who instituted this Catholic devotion, holding out to him a
    garland of red and white roses. The ancient rosaries, or
    “pater-nosters” as they were called, bore an impression of a rose on
    each bead.

=Rose.= An inn and tavern sign which, as a painted device, red or white,
    displayed a partisanship for the Lancastrians or the Yorkists. After
    the union of the two royal houses nothing was easier to quench the
    former partiality for either the red or white rose than to exhibit
    in place of the coloured design the name of “The Rose,” as a general
    compliment to the Crown.

=Rose and Crown.= This inn and tavern sign symbolised the cessation of
    the Wars of the Roses by the marriage of Henry VII. to Elizabeth,
    the daughter of Edward IV.

=Rosebery Avenue.= After Lord Rosebery, the erstwhile leader of the
    Liberal party in our time.

=Rosoman Street.= Perpetuates the memory of Mr Rosoman, who converted
    Sadler’s Musick House into a regular theatre in 1765.

=Rosslyn Hill Park.= From Rosslyn House, the residence of Alexander
    Wedderburn, Earl of Rosslyn, and Lord Chancellor of England.

=Rotherhithe.= Properly _Roth-hithe_, the Anglo-Saxon for “red haven.”
    See “Rutland.”

=Rotten Row.= This name is a survival of the days when French was the
    language of the Court. Properly _route du roi_, it is literally
    “route of the King,” and meant the King’s drive across the park.

=Rouge et Noir.= French for “red and black,” the alternate colour of the
    diamonds that distinguish the spaces on the gaming-table.

=Roughriders.= The name borne by expert horsemen in Natal, who dispense
    with saddles.

=Roulette.= Expresses the French for “a little wheel.”

=Roumania.= As its name implies, this was anciently a Roman province.

=Roumelia.= A Turkish corruption of Roumania, “the country of the
    Romans.”

=Roundheads.= The Parliamentary soldiers under Cromwell, so called from
    the custom of the Puritans of cropping the hair close to the head,
    as opposed to that of the Cavaliers, who wore it long.

=Rouser.= An Americanism for what we in this country style a
    “Pick-me-up.”

=Rout.= A fashionable assembly, so called from the German _rotte_ and
    Celtic “rhauter,” a crowd. The name is now never heard, but what are
    called “Rout Seats,” generally requisitioned for such gatherings,
    are still let out on hire.

=Rowton Houses.= The name given to large blocks of tenements exclusively
    designed for the accommodation of unmarried clerks and others
    employed in the city. The foundation of the late Lord Rowton.

=Roxburgh.= From the Celtic _ross_, a headland, the castle on the
    promontory.

=Roxburghe.= A superior style of bookbinding, so called from that
    uniformly adopted by the Roxburghe Club, a society established for
    printing rare books, and named after John, Duke of Roxburghe, a
    famous collector of works of art and literature.

=Royalists.= The adherents of Charles I. in the Civil War.

=Royal Maunds.= The name given to doles of money corresponding to the
    years of life attained by the reigning monarch to the poor on
    “Maundy Thursday.” This custom has been in vogue ever since the time
    of Edward III.

=Royal Oak.= An inn sign which had its origin during the Restoration
    period, in compliment to Charles II. See “Oak Apple Day.”

=Royal Oak Day.= Another name for “Oak Apple Day.”

=Rufus.= The surname of William II. on account of his florid complexion;
    _rufus_ is the Latin for “ruddy.”

=Rugby.= A corruption of the Saxon _Rothby_, “red village,” in allusion
    to its soil.

=Rum.= A West Indian word for spirit distilled from cane juice.

=Run.= An Americanism used as a verb for “finance,” whether in relation
    to a person or a business enterprise. “Who’s running him?” means who
    is it that keeps him going, or on his feet?

=Run Amuck.= To run foul of a person or thing. The phrase is derived
    from the Malays, who, while under the influence of opium, rush
    through the streets with drawn daggers, crying: _Amog! amog!_
    (“Kill! kill!”), and threaten the lives of everyone they encounter.

=Running Footman.= A tavern sign in Mayfair, reminiscent of the days
    when running footmen, carrying a short staff of office, preceded the
    carriages of the wealthy. The object of this custom was to give
    timely notice of the impending arrival of their masters. The tavern
    in question, situated in Hayes’ Mews, was formerly the regular
    resort of running footmen and sedan chairmen.

=Rupert’s Land.= After Prince Rupert, one of the founders of the
    Hudson’s Bay Company.

=Rupert Street.= After Prince Rupert, who introduced his invention of
    “Prince Rupert’s Drops,” or glass bubblers, into England.

=Russell Square.= After Lord William Russell, the patriot, whose wife,
    Rachel, was the daughter of Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton,
    Marquis of Tavistock, Duke of Bedford, the ancestor of the present
    great ground landlord. The several streets of the same name are
    included in the estate.

=Russell Street.= In Bermondsey, after Richard Russell, a noted
    benefactor to the parochial charities during his life, and after his
    death in 1784. For other streets so denominated on the Bedford
    estate see “Russell Square.”

=Russia.= The country of the _Russ_, the tribe that first overran it.

=Rutland.= A corruption of the Anglo-Saxon _Rothland_, “red land,” so
    called on account of the colour of its soil.

=Rutland Gate.= After the town mansion of the Dukes of Rutland.

=Rye Lane.= Leads to “Peckham Rye.”

=Ryot.= A Hindoo peasant or cultivator of the soil, so called from the
    Arabic _raaya_, to pasture.



                                     S

=Sabbatarians.= The followers of Brabourne, a Baptist minister, who held
    that the real Sabbath was the seventh day of the week, as enunciated
    in the Book of Genesis. This sect arose in 1628. Also known as
    “Seventh Day Baptists.”

=Sabeans.= The first idolaters, worshippers of the sun, moon, and stars
    as the visible representations of the Deity; so called after Sabi,
    the son of Seth.

=Sack.= A dry wine of great repute in Elizabethan times, so called from
    the French _sec_, dry.

=Sackville Street.= Built upon in 1679--that is, twenty years after “Air
    Street”--this thoroughfare was named in honour of Charles Sackville,
    Earl of Dorset, one of the favourites of Charles II.

=Sacramentarians.= The designation of the Calvinists, or those who
    denied the Real Presence in the Eucharist.

=Sacrilege.= Literally the act of despoiling that which is sacred.

=Sadler’s Wells Theatre.= Originally a “Musick House” in connection with
    a Spa opened by Mr Sadler, who, after digging for gravel in his
    garden in 1683, discovered an ancient “holy well” that had been
    stopped up since the Reformation.

=Saffron Hill.= From the saffron which grew abundantly in the grounds
    attached to Ely House, the town mansion of the bishops of Ely.

=Sahara.= Expresses the Arabic for “desert.”

=Sailor King.= William IV., who, having been bred to the sea in his
    youth, worked up his way from a midshipman to the position of Lord
    High Admiral. In his case promotion was no doubt easy.

=St Albans.= The scene of the martyrdom of St Alban, A.D. 297, in honour
    of whom Offa, King of Mercia, founded a Benedictine abbey.

=St Andrew Undershaft.= The Church of St Andrew in Leadenhall Street, so
    called from the tall shaft or Maypole which, bedecked with garlands
    on high festivals, stood within a few yards of its door. Since this
    shaft towered high above the steeple the church was said to be
    “under the shaft.” After the Reformation the shaft was taken down
    and kept in an adjacent alley, now called “Shaft Alley.” Thirty-two
    years later the popular voice declared it to be a relic of
    superstition, whereupon it was “raised off the hooks,” sawn into
    pieces, and burnt.

=St Andrews.= After St Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland, whose bones
    are enshrined in the Cathedral.

=St Andrew’s Hill.= From the church of St Andrew, at its south-western
    extremity.

=St Bees.= From an ancient nunnery founded in the seventh century by an
    Irish saint named Bega. Partly destroyed by the time of Henry I., it
    was then reconstituted as a priory by Randulp, Earl of Cumberland.
    This village is known chiefly on account of its college, the
    foundation of Dr Law, Bishop of Chester in 1806.

=St Bride Street.= From the neighbouring parish church of St Bride or
    Bridget.

=St Clement Danes.= Dedicated to St Clement, this parish church received
    the bones of Harold I. and many of his countrymen during the Danish
    occupation of England.

=St David’s Day.= The birthday (1st March) of St David, the patron saint
    of Wales, who when archbishop advised his countrymen to wear a leek
    in their caps, to distinguish them from their foes. In consequence
    of the precaution they won a decisive victory over the Saxons on
    this day, and the leek became the national emblem.

=St Ethelburga’s.= This, one of the most ancient churches in the city,
    was dedicated to St Ethelburga, the daughter of King Ethelbert, and
    a paragon of all the Christian virtues.

=St Ethelreda’s.= This beautiful city church in Ely Place, after having
    gone through many vicissitudes since the Reformation, is now once
    more a Roman Catholic place of worship. St Ethelreda was the
    daughter of Ethelred, King of the East Angles; her name is often
    corrupted into St Audrey. See “Tawdry.”

=St George and Dragon.= An inn sign after the patron saint of England.

=St George’s Hall.= This place of entertainment, now occupied by Messrs
    Maskelyne & Devant, was opened in 1867 as St George’s Opera House,
    so called on account of its location in the parish of St George,
    Hanover Square.

=St George’s in the East.= The modern designation of “Ratcliff Highway,”
    from the parish church dedicated to St George, patron saint of
    England.

=St George’s Square.= After the neighbouring church, dedicated to St
    George.

=St Grouse’s Day.= The jocular term for the twelfth of August, when
    grouse shooting begins.

=St Helena.= This island was discovered on the Feast of St Helena, 1502.

=St Helen’s Place.= From the adjacent church of St Helen’s, dedicated to
    St Helena, the mother of Constantine. Thirty years later in 1180,
    William Fitzwilliam, a wealthy goldsmith, founded a priory of nuns
    in connection therewith.

=St James’s Palace.= Stands on the site of an ancient hospital for
    lepers dedicated to St James the Less, Bishop of Jerusalem. The
    original palace was built by Holbein for Henry VIII.

=St James’s Square.= Like the street of the same name, after St James’s
    Palace.

=St John’s Gate.= The last vestige of the ancient priory of St John of
    Jerusalem, the English seat of the Knights Hospitallers. The gateway
    now forms the headquarters of the St John’s Ambulance Association.
    Here William Cave, the printer, projected and published _The
    Gentleman’s Magazine_.

=St John’s Wood.= From the ancient “Abbey of the Holy Virgins of St John
    the Baptist,” which nestled among the now vanished woods in this
    neighbourhood.

=St Katherine Coleman.= Dedicated to St Katherine, this city church
    received its second name on account of its location in the garden of
    one Coleman, the builder of the street called after him.

=St Katherine Cree.= Originally a chapel dedicated to St Katherine in
    the parish of Holy Trinity (in the Minories). This on the abolition
    of the neighbouring benefices of Christ Church, St Mary Magdalen,
    and St Michael was made into a separate parish of Christ Church,
    and, while retaining the old name, came to be known as “St Katherine
    Christi,” of which “Cree” is a corruption.

=St Katherine’s Docks.= From an ancient hospital of St Katherine,
    displaced when these docks were constructed in 1828.

=St Kitt’s Island.= Discovered by Columbus, it was named by him after St
    Christopher, his patron saint.

=St Lawrence.= The gulf of this name was first entered, and the
    navigation of the great river embarked upon, on the Feast of St
    Lawrence, 1500.

=St Lawrence Jewry.= The church dedicated to St Lawrence in the Jewry.
    See “Old Jewry.”

=St Leger Stakes.= See “Doncaster St Leger.”

=St Lubbock.= The popular nickname of Lord Avebury, formerly Sir John
    Lubbock, to whom our countrymen are indebted for the introduction of
    legalised Bank Holidays.

=St Margaret Pattens.= This church received its name from the gilt
    spots, or _patines_, with which its roof was anciently decorated. A
    _paten_ is the circular gold dish which covers the chalice at the
    altar.

=St Martin’s Lane.= From the parish church of St Martin in the Fields.

=St Martin’s-le-Grand.= The official designation of the buildings
    collectively comprised in the headquarters of the General Post
    Office. This is because the original edifice occupies the site of an
    ancient college church dedicated to St Martin-le-Grand, the
    foundation of Within, King of Kent in 750, and invested with the
    privilege of sanctuary under a charter of William the Conqueror.

=St Mary-Axe.= From a vanished church of St Mary that stood opposite to
    a shop which had an axe for its sign. Originally “St
    Mary-by-the-Axe.”

=St Mary-le-Bow.= See “Bow Church.”

=St Mary Woolnoth.= Dedicated to the Virgin; this church was so called
    because it stood _nough_, or nigh, to the ancient wool beam or
    staple.

=St Michael’s Mount.= Anciently the seat of a religious house, to the
    monks of which, as tradition states, St Michael once appeared on the
    crag, where in later years a castle was built, the exact spot being
    indicated by a stone lantern, since known as “St Michael’s Chair.”

=St Olave’s.= A corruption of “St Olafs,” this church having been
    dedicated to Olaf, King of Norway, who Christianised his country,
    and at the invitation of Ethelred came over to England to render aid
    in the work of expelling the Danes.

=St Pancras.= This parish takes its name from the ancient church in Old
    St Pancras Road dedicated to the boy saint who was martyred by
    Diocletian. A representation of this youth being attacked by wild
    dogs may be seen on the stone bridge over the Regent’s Canal, which
    serves as a boundary mark to the parish.

=St Partridge’s Day.= A popular nickname for “Partridge Day.”

=St Paul of the Cross.= See “Passionists.”

=St Petersburg.= Founded by Peter the Great, and dedicated to St Peter,
    whose church is situated within the citadel.

=St Sepulchre’s.= The foundation of this church was the outcome of the
    Crusades, in honour of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem.
    Appropriately enough, the bell of the modern edifice gave warning to
    the unhappy inmates of the condemned cell in Newgate Prison over the
    way of their approaching last hour.

=St Sophia.= This beautiful mosque at Constantinople, although
    originally a Christian cathedral, so far from having been dedicated
    to any St Sophia, was called _Hagia Sopia_, “Holy Wisdom”--_i.e._
    the eternal wisdom of _God_ manifested in the Second Person of the
    Trinity.

=St Stephen’s.= The House of Commons bears this name because, in the
    absence of a separate building, its members held their sittings in
    the Chapel of St Stephen’s, Westminster Abbey, until that edifice
    was burned down, 16th October 1834.

=St Swithin’s Day.= The day of the attempted reinterment (15th July) of
    the body of St Swithin, preceptor of King Ethelwulf and Bishop of
    Rochester, whose death took place 2nd July 862. Not regarding
    himself worthy to be “laid” within the sacred edifice, he requested
    that he might be buried just outside the door in the churchyard, so
    that the faithful would walk over his grave. Although they acceded
    to this last wish, the monks decided afterwards to lay him inside
    the church; but their design was frustrated for forty successive
    days by a pouring rain, until at last they desisted from the
    attempt. This circumstance gave rise to the saying that “If it rains
    on St Swithin’s day it will rain for forty days.”

=St Valentine’s Day.= The connection between St Valentine and the
    poetical epistles that were formerly interchanged between young
    lovers on the 14th of February is somewhat remote. On this day the
    good Christian Bishop was beheaded at Rome in the year 278. Long
    before this, however, Roman youths and maidens had followed the
    custom of selecting a lover for the year by shaking up the names of
    their favourites, written on separate tablets, in a box. This arose
    out of the old notion that birds begin to pair on the 14th of
    February. The martyrdom of Bishop Valentine on this day therefore
    actuated the Christians to style their selected lover their
    Valentine, and the presents they exchanged in modern times bore the
    same name.

=Salic Law.= The ancient Frankish law by which females were excluded
    from the throne. This was originally confined to what were called
    “Salic Lands,” either, as some say, from the _salle_, or hall of the
    owner, or, according to others, from the Salian Franks, those
    bordering on the Sale or Yssel River; the enactment eventually
    applied to the heritage of the Frankish kingdom.

=Salisbury Square.= This, like the street and court of the same name,
    marks the site of the town mansion and grounds of the bishops of
    Salisbury.

=Salop.= See “Shropshire.”

=Salt Lake City.= The hot-bed of the Mormons, founded on the borders of
    the Great Salt Lake, so called on account of the saline character of
    its waters.

=Salutation.= An inn sign in honour of the Salutation of the Virgin.

=Salviati.= See “Del Salviati.”

=Salzburg.= The fortified town on the Salza River.

=Samaria.= After Shemer, the owner of the hill which, as we are told in
    1 Kings xvi. 24, Omri bought for two talents of silver, “and built
    on the hill, and called the name of the city which he built, after
    the name of Shemer, owner of the hill, Samaria.”

=Sambo.= The generic name of a North American Negro; derived from the
    native _Zambo_, the offspring of a black and a Mulatto.

=Sanci Diamond.= One of the great gems of the world, weighing 106
    carats, originally the property of a French nobleman of this name,
    and purchased in 1835 by the Czar of Russia for half-a-million
    roubles.

=Sandbaggers.= A modern street terror in American cities while the
    police are looking the other way, so called because they stun their
    victims with elongated bags of hard, wet sand, and then rob them at
    leisure.

=Sandhillers.= A name given in America to the descendants of the white
    labourers, who, ousted from their employment when slavery came in,
    sought the sand-hills amid the pine forests of Georgia and South
    Carolina.

=Sandow Girl.= A physical culture girl trained at the Academy of Eugene
    Sandow, or at home by means of appliances advertised in connection
    therewith. Also known as the “Symmetrion Girl” from the name on the
    familiar posters. The Sandow or Symmetrion Girls proved a great
    attraction in the Athletic Scene of _The Dairymaids_ at the Apollo
    Theatre.

=Sandwich.= The sand village.

=Sandwiches.= After John Montague, Earl of Sandwich, whose chief claim
    to celebrity lay in the fact that he was an inveterate gamester. It
    is on record that he often remained engrossed in play for thirty
    hours at a stretch without partaking of a meal. From time to time,
    however, he would ask the waiter to bring him a slice of meat
    between two pieces of bread, as a stay to the appetite. The waiter
    called this improvised meal a “Sandwich,” and by that name it has
    ever since been known.

=Sandwich Islands.= Named by Captain Cook in honour of Lord Sandwich,
    First Lord of the Admiralty, at the time when they were discovered
    by him.

=Sandy.= The nickname of a Scotsman, being short for Alexander, the most
    common Christian name to be met with in North Britain.

=San Francisco.= Dedicated to St Francis, this Spanish-American city
    really received its name from a coast settlement of missionaries
    styled “San Francisco de Costa Dolores” as far back as September
    1776.

=Sankey’s Horse.= The regimental nickname of the 39th Foot. This was
    merited in India, when they were called upon to do temporary service
    on horseback under Colonel Sankey.

=Sansculottes.= The lowest orders of the people during the French
    Revolution. This, literally “without breeches,” was the scornful
    title at first bestowed by the aristocrats upon the Democratic party
    on account of their neglectful attire. A little while later the Red
    Republicans accepted it with pride as the password for patriotism.

=San Salvador.= This being the first land sighted in the New World by
    Columbus, he honoured it with the name of the “Holy Saviour,” as a
    perpetual expression of thanksgiving.

=Sans Souci.= This, the French for “free and easy,” or “without care,”
    was the name borne by a famous place of amusement originally built
    by Dibdin as a bijou theatre in Leicester Square.

=Santa Fe.= Spanish for “Holy Faith.”

=Santa Cruz.= Spanish for “Holy Cross.”

=Santiago.= From the cathedral (in the city of Spain so named)
    containing the bones of St Jago, or James the Less, the national
    patron saint.

=Saraband.= After Zarabanda, a celebrated dancer of Seville, who
    invented it.

=Saracens.= From the Arabic _sharkeyn_, “eastern people”; originally the
    designation of the Bedouins of Eastern Arabia. By the Crusaders it
    was applied to the Mohammedans generally. See “Moors.”

=Saracen’s Head.= An inn sign of the time of the Crusades. Lest it might
    be thought that this was complimentary to the enemies of
    Christianity, mention may be made of the fact that the head of the
    Saracen was represented as severed.

=Saragossa.= A corruption of the Roman name _Cæsarea Augusta_.

=Saratoga.= Indian for “miraculous waters from the rock,” touching the
    famous mineral springs.

=Saratoga Trunk.= The popular type of travelling trunk in the United
    States, so called because it was first used by visitors to Saratoga
    Springs.

=Sarcophagus.= A Greek compound of _sarkos_, flesh, and _phargo_, to
    eat. The term was originally applied to a receptacle for the dead,
    because the early examples were made out of a kind of limestone
    which was thought to possess the property of consuming a corpse in a
    very short time.

=Sardines.= From Sardinia, in the waters of which island the true
    species of this fish abound.

=Sardinia.= Called _Sandaliotis_ by the Greeks on account of its
    resemblance to a human footprint; this name was changed by the
    Romans to _Sardo_. At a later period the island was called
    _Sardonion_, from a poisonous herb, transplanted from Sardis in Asia
    Minor, which brought about a twitching of the muscles of the face
    resembling laughter; hence the phrase to “Smile sardonically.”

=Sardinia Street.= From the Sardinian Chapel built in 1648 in connection
    with the residence of the Sardinian Ambassador at the time when the
    island of Sardinia was nominally a kingdom, but really in the
    possession of Spain.

=Sardonic Smile.= See “Sardinia.”

=Sarsenet.= A fine silk originally of Saracenic manufacture.

=Saturday.= This, the seventh day of the week, was dedicated by the
    Romans to Saturn. As, however, all the other week-days were named by
    the people of Northern Europe in accordance with Scandinavian
    mythology, one must incline to the opinion that this was named after
    Sæter, a water deity. Its Anglo-Saxon designation was _Sæterdæg_.

=Saturnalia.= The great winter festival of the Romans in honour of
    Saturn, the god of agriculture.

=Saunders Blue.= An easy corruption of the French _Cendres bleus_, “blue
    ashes,” calcined bluestone being the substance from which this
    pigment is obtained.

=Sauterne.= A French wine produced at the place of the name, in the
    department of Gironde.

=Saved my Bacon.= This expression originated during the Civil War, when
    housewives took extraordinary measures to save the bacon stored up
    for winter consumption from the greedy appetites of soldiers on the
    march.

=Savile Row.= After Dorothy Savile, who, marrying into the Burlington
    family, received this portion of the estate as her separate
    property.

=Savoy.= A cabbage originally introduced from the French department of
    this name.

=Savoy Street.= From the Savoy Chapel, the original of which, prior to
    its destruction by fire, 7th July 1864, was the only remaining
    portion of the ancient Savoy Palace built by Peter of Savoy, uncle
    to the queen of Henry III., in 1249.

=Sawney.= A variant of “Sandy.”

=Saxons.= From the _seax_, the short crooked knife with which this tribe
    were armed. _Sahs_ is the Old German for knife. Since the days of
    Daniel O’Connell Irish patriots have been fond of referring to the
    English people as Saxons, the natural enemies of the Celts.

=S’Blood.= A trooper’s corruption of “His Blood,” or the precious blood
    of the Redeemer. This species of profanity survives in the vulgar
    swear-word “Bloody.”

=Scales of Justice.= The ancient Egyptians believed that the good deeds
    of a soul after death would be weighed against his evil deeds. The
    Koran likewise teaches that the merits and demerits of departed
    souls are balanced in the scales of the Archangel Gabriel; hence the
    phrase now popular all the civilised world over.

=Scalper.= An Americanism for one who speculates in railroad tickets,
    and consequently obtains them at a reduction of their top prices.

=Scaramouch.= A character in the old Italian comedy, the prototype of
    the modern clown, so called from _scaramuccia_, a skirmish.

=Scarborough.= The fortified scar or precipitous cliff, so called on
    account of the castle built about 1136.

=Scarborough Warning.= A warning given too late to be taken advantage
    of. In 1557 Thomas Stafford seized Scarborough Castle before the
    townsfolk had the least intelligence of his approach. After taking
    possession he advised them to fly from the town and leave their
    belongings.

=Scarlet.= From the Persian _sakarlat_, “bright red.”

=Scavenger’s Daughter.= A corruption of Skevington’s Daughter, this
    instrument of torture being the invention of William Skevington,
    Lieutenant of the Tower, _temp._ Henry VIII. He called it his
    daughter because it emanated from his own brain. Those who were
    fated to suffer by it sadly consented, as the saying was, to “Kiss
    the Scavenger’s Daughter.”

=Schaffhausen.= Literal German for “sheep-houses” or pens.

=Schiedam.= Another name for Hollands, or Dutch gin, from the place
    where this native spirit is distilled.

=Schooner.= This kind of vessel received its name from the exclamation
    of a spectator at the time when its earliest example was launched:
    “Look, she schoons!”

=Schottische.= Expresses the German for a Scottish dance, a variation of
    the polka, in three-quarter time. The Scots, however, repudiate its
    invention. It is not improbable that a Scotsman, sojourning in the
    Fatherland, blundered into this step through his inability to dance
    the polka correctly.

=Scilly Isles.= After the name of one of the smallest, in proximity to a
    very dangerous rock similar to that of Scylla in Sicily which,
    according to Homer, was the abode of a monster so denominated.

=Scissors-tail.= A South American bird which in the course of its
    flights opens and shuts its tail for the purpose of entrapping the
    flies that constitute its prey.

=Scorching.= A bicycling term which, curiously enough, only came into
    vogue after the possibility of realising it had been removed. In the
    days of the old “Bone-shaker,” before rubber tyres were heard of,
    there would have been great likelihood of setting the wooden machine
    on fire by furious riding on the part of an expert.

=Scotch Reel.= See “Reel.”

=Scot-free.= A phrase derived from the old legal exaction “Scot and
    Lot,” the former being derived from the Anglo-Saxon _sceat_, pay,
    and the latter meaning a tribute allotted to every man according to
    his means. It was rare indeed that anyone got off “Scot-free” in
    ancient times.

=Scotia.= From the Celtic _scot_, wanderer, with the suffix _ia_,
    country; the ancient designation of the Highlands, now, with the
    Lowlands, called “Scotland.”

=Scotists.= Those who accepted the doctrine of John Duns Scotus relative
    to the Immaculate Conception, in opposition to the “Thomists.”

=Scotland.= See “Scotia.”

=Scotland Yard.= On the site of the original Scotland Yard stood an
    ancient palace appropriated to the Scottish kings, who were required
    to pay homage once a year to the English sovereign at Westminster
    Abbey. The last Scottish monarch so accommodated was Margaret, the
    sister of Henry VII.

=Scots.= See “Scotia.”

=Scottish Covenanters.= See “Covenanters.”

=Scottish Hogarth.= The surname of David Allan of Alloa, whose portraits
    and historical paintings occupy a high position in the esteem of his
    countrymen.

=Scottish Presbyterians.= The successors of the Scottish Covenanters,
    and founders of the Established Church of Scotland. See
    “Presbyterians.”

=Scowerers.= Eighteenth-century rakes who scoured the streets of London
    by night, overturning the “Old Charlies” in their boxes, and
    molesting peaceable citizens.

=Scratched Horse.= One that has its name struck out of the final list of
    runners in a race. Those who have backed their money on it swear a
    little, but no one else cares a jot for their discomfiture.

=Screw.= Colloquial for “wages.” See “Raise your Screw.”

=Screwed.= Drunk. This is simply a play on the word “Tight.”

=Screw of Tobacco.= So called because it is screwed up in a paper.

=Scriptures.= Expresses the plural of the Latin _scriptura_, a writing,
    from the verb _scribere_, to write. The Bible is a collection of
    books or writings.

=Scroll of Fame.= The word “Scroll” is a corruption of “Roll,” relative
    to paper, although from “scroll” we have derived the term
    “Schedule.” See “Roll Call.”

=Scullery.= The annexe to a kitchen, where the dishes and pots are
    washed up, so called from the Norman-French _esculle_, a porringer
    or dish. The man-servant or boy whose work lay in the scullery was
    in former days called a “Scullion.”

=S’Death.= A softened form of the profane oath “His Blood,” in reference
    to the Saviour.

=Sea of Marmora.= From the Latin _marmor_, marble, which for centuries
    has been quarried on a small island at its western extremity.

=Sebastopol.= From the Greek _Sebastopolis_, “august city.”

    Secretary Bird. A South African bird distinguished by a tuft of
    feathers on each side of its head which form a fanciful resemblance
    to quill pens stuck behind the ear.

=Sectarians.= The general name for Dissenters attached to any one of the
    numerous sects or denominations outside the Established Church.

=Secular Clergy.= See “Regular Clergy.”

=Secularist.= From the Latin _seculum_, an age, a generation; one who
    advocates the happiness or well-being of the community during the
    present life, leaving the future completely out of count.

    Sedan-chairs. First made at Sedan, France.

=See how it pans out.= Originally a miners’ phrase in the Far West. To
    separate the gold grains from the earth in which they are found a
    pan of water is brought into service; when the pan is shaken the
    gold collects at the bottom.

=Seekers.= The original designation of the Quakers, because they sought
    the truth with the solicitude of Nicodemus, the Jewish ruler (John
    iii. 1-21).

=Seething Lane.= A corruption of Sidon Lane, after the name of the first
    builder on the land.

=Selkirk’s Island.= Also called the isle of “Juan Fernandez.”

=Seltzer Water.= A corrupted spelling of “Seltsers,” the name of a
    village near Limburg in Prussia famous for its mineral springs.

=Senate.= The Upper House of the United States Congress. The term
    properly implies an elder, from the Latin _senis_, an old man.

=Senegambia.= The territory situated between the Senegal and Gambia
    Rivers.

=Sent to Coventry.= As its name implies, Coventry was in olden times a
    great centre of religious life, touching the number of its
    conventual establishments. Soldiers sent to the garrison there soon
    discovered that no woman would speak to them. Hence to be sent to
    Coventry was a great hardship, since it meant being cut off from
    “life” in every form, and female intercourse particularly.

=Separatists.= Another name for the Home Rulers during the lifetime of
    Mr Parnell. It implied virtual separation from English rule.

=Sepia.= Greek for “cuttle-fish,” from the inky secretion under the
    glands of which this pigment is obtained.

=September.= The seventh month of the Roman year, counting from March.

=Serjeants’ Inn.= Anciently the inn or mansion of the “Freres Serjens,”
    a brotherhood of Servitors to the Knights Templars hard by. It was
    these who performed the ordinary household duties in the Temple.

=Serle Street.= After Henry Serle of Lincoln’s Inn, the owner of
    considerable property in this neighbourhood when the parish of St
    Clement Danes was very different to what it is now.

=Sermon Lane.= Anciently “Sheremoniers’ Lane,” so called from the money
    shearers or clippers’ office adjacent to the first London Mint.

=Serpentine.= An artificial winding lake formed out of the pools and the
    Tyburn in Hyde Park in 1733. See “Bayswater.”

=Servia.= The country of the _Suevi_, a people driven by the Romans into
    that portion of Germany now called “Suabia,” until after further
    migrations northward they settled in Sweden.

=Servites.= This religious Order grew out of the pious example of seven
    Florentine merchants who in 1283 assembled each evening for
    devotional exercises in a lady chapel and styled themselves “The
    Religious Servants of the Holy Virgin.” The London house of the
    Community is in the Fulham Road.

=Set her Cap at him.= With the coquetry peculiar to her sex, a female
    always put on her most becoming cap to attract the male visitor whom
    she favoured. Now that caps are no longer worn she resorts to other
    devices, but the old expression survives.

=Set the Thames on fire.= A “temse” was the old name for a sieve,
    agreeably to the French _tamis_ and the Italian _tamiso_, which
    terms express the same implement. A sifter would require to work
    very hard indeed to ignite his sieve. Accordingly a bystander often
    said to him touching his apparent laziness: “You’ll never set the
    temse on fire!” Its punning

=Seven Dials.= A once notorious thieves’ neighbourhood, which received
    its name from a stone column presenting seven dials or faces, from
    which the same number of streets radiated. This, originally set up
    to mark the limits of St Giles’s and St Martin’s parishes, was
    removed in 1763, owing to the erroneous idea that a large sum of
    money lay buried beneath it.

=Seven Sisters’ Road.= This long road, extending from Holloway to
    Tottenham, received its name from seven trees planted in Page Green
    in the latter parish by the Sisters Page. Local tradition has it
    that one of these was a cripple, and the tree planted by her grew up
    deformed.

=Seventh Day Baptists.= See “Sabbatarians.”

=Saxagesima Sunday.= Approximately the sixtieth day before Easter.

=Seymour Place.= After one of the family names of the Portmans, owners
    of the estate.

=Seymour Street.= Far removed from Seymour Place, this has no connection
    with the Portman family, having received its name from the first
    builder on the land.

=Shadwell.= A corruption of “St Chad’s Well,” a reputed holy well
    discovered hereabouts in ancient days.

=Shaft Alley.= See “St Andrew Undershaft.”

=Shaftesbury Avenue.= After Anthony Ashley Cooper, seventh Earl of
    Shaftsbury, who performed the opening ceremony of this new
    thoroughfare shortly before his death in 1885.

=Shah Diamond.= A gem weighing 86 carats, long the property of Chosroes
    I., Shah of Persia, who, dying in 579, presented it to a Khan of the
    Tartars, from whom it descended to Ivan III., the grandfather of
    Ivan the Terrible, the first Czar of Russia.

=Shakers.= An American sect, first heard of in 1774, at Albany in the
    state of New York, so called from the convulsive movements of the
    hands and arms as part of their peculiar form of worship. Its
    founder was Ann Lee, self-styled “Mother Ann,” of Manchester, who,
    receiving little encouragement for her religious tenets in her
    native land, emigrated with a few disciples to the New World.

=Shalloon.= Originally manufactured at Chalons in France.

=Shanty.= This term for a hut or cabin first obtained currency in
    Canada, having been derived from the French settlers, who gave the
    name _chantier_ to a hut erected in a dockyard under construction.

=Shattered Prices.= An Americanism for “reduced prices.”

=“She” Bible.= See “‘He’ Bible.”

=Sheen.= See “Richmond.”

=Sheet Anchor.= A corruption of “Shote Anchor,” an extra heavy one, that
    can be expeditiously shot out for the greater security of a vessel
    under stress of weather. To act as a sheet anchor to a man is to be
    his mainstay or chief dependence.

=Sheffield.= From the River Sheaf, on the confluence of which and the
    Don the town stands.

=Shekel Day.= The day (27th May) set apart every year throughout the
    Jewish world for the collection of a shekel--a shilling, franc mark,
    half rouble, or “quarter,” according to the currency of the
    individual country--in support of the Zionist Movement for the
    re-colonisation of Palestine. The word “shekel” is from the Hebrew
    _shekal_, to weigh.

=Shepherdess Walk.= A name reminiscent of the days when the entire
    district between Finsbury and “Merrie Islington” was open fields.

=Shepherd’s Bush.= Pleasantly pastoral as the name is, this district is
    now wholly built over. A “Shepherd’s bush” was a hillock covered
    with soft vegetation on which he reclined while tending his flocks.

=Shepherd’s Market.= The site of a former weekly market, the land of
    which, like that of Market Street and Shepherd Street, was owned by
    a person of this name.

=Shepperton.= A corruption of “Shepherd’s Town”; whether derived from
    the name of the landowner, or because the district was originally
    given up to sheep-folds, is not known.

=Sherbet.= The national beverage in Arabia, so called from _shariba_, to
    drink, because it is taken at a single draught; hence the same name
    applied to effervescing liquors in this country.

=Sherry.= An English corruption of “Sherris,” a dry wine exported from
    Xeres in Spain.

=Sherry Cobbler.= An American drink which, in addition to the ordinary
    ingredients of a “Cobbler,” contains a dash of sherry.

=Shetland Isles.= Anciently described as _Hyaltland_, the Norse for
    “Viking Land,” the name was softened into Zetland, and finally as we
    now have it.

=She Wolf of France.= A name that will ever cling to the memory of
    Isabella, the queen of Edward II., whom she caused to be murdered
    most foully through the instrumentality of her paramour, the Earl of
    Mortimer. This monster of iniquity lies buried in Christ Church,
    Newgate Street.

=Shift.= An old name for a chemise, denoting a shift or change of linen;
    also an industrial term for a change of men at certain hours, so
    that work can be carried on uninterruptedly by day and night.

=Shillelagh.= A oaken sapling fashioned into a cudgel for self-defence,
    so called from a wood in Ireland celebrated for its oaks.

=Shilling.= This silver coin was of considerable value to our ancestors,
    who always sounded it as a test of its genuineness. Hence, as the
    “ringing coin,” the Anglo-Saxons gave it the name of _scilling_,
    which, like the modern German _schilling_, is derived from the verb
    _schallen_, to sound.

=Shinplaster.= An Americanism for a bank-note. During the Civil War
    paper money was so much depreciated in value that its possessors
    could not easily negotiate it at any price. Finding this to be his
    own case, an old soldier philosophically used his bank-notes as
    plasters for a wounded shin.

=Ship.= A tavern sign commemorative of the circumnavigation of the globe
    by Sir Francis Drake; also a technical term in the printing trade
    for the compositors working together in a particular room or
    department, being an abbreviation of “Companionship.”

=Shire.= A portion of land scired or sheared off under the Saxon
    Heptarchy for the creation of an earldom.

=Shoe Lane.= This name has no connection with shoemakers, or cordwainers
    as they were anciently called. As an offshoot of Fleet Street, the
    great thoroughfare of taverns, this was anciently “Show Lane,” lined
    with booths and shows like a country fair.

=Shooter.= An Americanism for a revolver.

=Shooters’ Hill.= A corruption of “Suitors’ Hall,” so called from the
    suitors or place hunters who came this way when Henry VIII. had his
    Court at Greenwich.

=Shooting Iron.= A Far West term for a rifle.

=Shop.= Theatrical slang for an engagement.

=Shop-lifting.= This phrase for abstracting goods from a shop counter
    had its origin in the printer’s technical term “Lifting.”

=Shoreditch.= All other suggested derivations notwithstanding, this
    district really received its name from the manor of Sir John
    Soerditch, a wealthy citizen, and a favourite of Edward the Black
    Prince, by whose side he fought at Crecy and Poitiers.

=Show.= Theatrical slang for a performance.

=Shrewsbury.= See “Shropshire.”

=Shropshire.= This name expresses in a roundabout way the shire of
    Shrewsbury, the Anglo-Saxon _Scrobbesburgh_ that grew up around an
    ancient castle among the scrubs or shrubs, softened by the Normans
    into _Sloppesbury_, which lent its name to what is now “Salop,” and
    finally corrupted into Shrewsbury.

=Shrove Tuesday.= A corruption of “Shrive Tuesday” when all good
    Catholics confessed their sins in preparation for receiving the
    blest ashes on the following morning.

=Siberia.= The country ruled from the ancient town of Sibir, the capital
    of the Tartars, and which contained the palace of the renowned
    Kutsheen Khan, the ruins of which are still visible.

=Sicily.= From the _Siculi_, a tribe who became masters of the island,
    expelling the _Sicanii_, its ancient inhabitants.

=Sick.= A word uniformly used throughout the United States in the place
    of “ill,” as in our own country. This is not an Americanism, but
    good honest English, having been introduced to the New World by the
    Pilgrim Fathers who sailed in the _Mayflower_. Both in the Bible and
    in Shakespeare sick, not ill, is employed. This is one of the few
    instances in which the Americans have preserved a word true to its
    original meaning.

=Sidmouth Street.= After Lord Sidmouth, a popular Minister at the
    accession of George IV., when this street was first built upon.

=Side Walk.= An Americanism for the English “pavement” and the Scottish
    “causeway.”

=Siedlitz Powders.= From Siedlitz in Bohemia, whence, like the
    celebrated mineral waters of the same name, they are obtained.

=Sienna.= A pigment obtained from the native _Terra di Sienna_ in Italy.

=Sign on.= An industrial phrase for signing one’s name in a book on
    arriving to commence the day’s work. The like procedure at the day’s
    close is styled “Sign off.”

=Silhouette.= After Etienne de Silhouette, Comptroller of Finance under
    Louis XV., who was the first to have his features outlined from a
    side view on black paper.

=Sillery.= A champagne produced from the extensive vineyards of the
    Marquis de Sillery.

=Silver Captain.= The sobriquet of Admiral Sir Henry Digby from the
    large haul he on 15th October 1799 made by the capture of a Spanish
    treasure ship laden with dollars, his own share of the prize money
    amounting to £40,730, 18s. This he attributed to a fortunate dream,
    in which he repeatedly heard a voice exclaim: “Digby! Digby! steer
    to the northward!”

=Silver-tongued Sylvester.= John Sylvester, the translator of Du Barta’s
    “Divine Week and Works,” so styled on account of his harmonious
    verse.

=Simple Life.= A term which has come into vogue, both in England and
    America, since the publication of the Rev. Charles Wagner’s
    remarkable book “The Simple Life,” in advocacy of plain living,
    three or four years ago.

=Single-speech Hamilton.= The sobriquet of William Gerard Hamilton,
    Chancellor of the Exchequer in Ireland. He delivered on 13th
    November 1775 a speech which electrified the House, but after that
    memorable first effort he never spoke again.

=Sing Small.= A corruption of “Sink Small,” meaning to be lowered in the
    estimation of those to whom one has made a vain boast.

=Sinking Fund.= One that provides for the annual reduction of a National
    Debt.

=Sinner-saved Huntingdon.= William Huntingdon, the theologian and
    preacher, who, having led a wild life in his youth, made amends for
    these delinquencies in the full vigour of manhood.

=Sirree.= A vulgar American corruption of “Sir,” corresponding to the
    old English “Sirrah.” Originating at New York, it is now quite a
    common thing for people in the States generally to answer: “Yes,
    sirree,” and “No, sirree.”

=Sise Lane.= A corruption of St Osyth’s Lane, after an ancient church in
    it, now removed.

=Sixteen String Jack.= Jack Rann, the highwayman, hanged in 1791, so
    called from the sixteen tags he wore on the knees of his breeches.

=Six-shooter.= An Americanism for a six-chambered revolver.

=Skagerrack.= Expresses the crooked strait between the _Skagen_, the
    plural of the Gothic _skaga_, a promontory, between Jutland and
    Norway.

=Skald.= An ancient northern bard or minstrel. The word is Scandinavian
    for “poet.”

=Skied.= An artists’ term for a picture hung on the highest row, just
    under the ceiling, at any exhibition, where no one can look at it
    closely.

=Skinner Street.= Stands on land belonging to the Skinners’ Company.

=Skylarking.= Originally an American seaman’s term for rough sport among
    the ship’s rigging and tops.

=Sky Parlor.= An Americanism for an attic.

=Sky Pilot.= An American naval expression for a ship’s chaplain. The
    allusion is obvious.

=Sky-scraper.= The name given in the United States to a building of
    lofty proportions, often running to as many as thirty storeys.
    Viewing these from Brooklyn Bridge it would really seem as if the
    New Yorkers were anxious to scour the heavens out of their top
    windows.

=Sky Sign.= A structure on the roof of a house of business for the
    purposes of a bold advertisement. This Transatlantic innovation has
    within the last few years been interdicted by order of the London
    County Council.

=Slacker.= An Eton term for one who never takes part in games; he cannot
    be coerced, and declines to exert himself in any way.

=Slate Club.= Originally a parochial thrift society whose members met in
    the schoolroom, their contributions being _pro tem_ entered on
    slates, conveniently at hand.

=Slick into it.= To do a thing right away, never pausing until it is
    finished. As a variant of “Polish it off” this expression is rightly
    employed, slick being derived from the German _schlicht_, polished,
    clean.

=Sling.= An American mixed drink, so called on account of the different
    ingredients slung into it.

=Sling your Hook.= Originally an abbreviated angler’s phrase: “Sling
    your hook a little farther along, and then we shall both have more
    room.”

=Slipper.= A shoe into which the foot is easily slipped, more
    particularly among the Orientals, who dispense with the back leather
    clasping the heel.

=Sloane Square.= After Sir Hans Sloane, the original owner of the
    estate, whose daughter became by marriage the first Countess of
    Cadogan.

=Slope.= To run away with expedition, as it were down the slope of a
    hill.

=Smile.= An Americanism for a “drink.” Unlike the common run of
    Americanisms, there is warranty for the term. When drinking their
    native beverage, “pulque,” the Mexicans look at one another, and
    smile. This custom has obtained with them ever since Montezuma
    gulped down this tipple offered to him by the hand of his daughter.
    See “Cocktail.”

=Smithfield.= A corruption of “Smoothfield,” a fine tract of meadow land
    on which mediæval tournaments were held, likewise horse races.

=Smith of Antwerp.= Quentin Matsys, the celebrated painter, who began
    life as a blacksmith.

=Smalls.= In theatrical parlance “the small towns.”

=Smart Set.= Originally an Americanism for the exclusive fashionable set
    of Boston society. The term has latterly travelled over to these
    shores, and the Smart Set of West End London does not appear to be
    beloved by Father Bernard Vaughan.

=Snapshot.= An Americanism for a photograph taken instantaneously with a
    portable camera. “Snap” is, however, a good old English word. We
    speak of a person being “snapped off” by disease--_i.e._ carried off
    suddenly.

=Sneesh-box.= Scottish for a snuff-box.

=Snob.= This term arose out of the expressions on the part of the vulgar
    whenever a conceited person who aped gentility was encountered:
    “He’s a nob,” “He’s not a nob,” or “He wants to make people believe
    he’s a nob,” until they resulted in the simple exclamation “Snob.”
    Such a word having once been established as the antithesis of “Nob,”
    a shoemaker merited the description of a Snob because his work was
    confined to the pedal extremities instead of the person’s head.

=Snow Hill.= A corruption of “Snore Hill,” so called because travellers
    by the stage-coach from Guildford were generally snoring by the time
    they reach their destination at the hill foot, “The Saracen’s Head.”

=Soaker.= Both in England and America this term denotes a habitual
    drunkard, soaked in liquor.

=Soane Museum.= This magnificent but little known collection of works of
    Art was acquired by Sir John Soane, the antiquary, at his residence
    in Lincoln’s Inn Fields, where, subject to certain seasonal
    restrictions, it may be visited by anyone.

=Sociable.= An open carriage with two seats, thus admitting of its
    riders being face to face.

=Socialists.= A term of wide meaning, but according to its modern
    acceptation synonymous with “Levellers,” the adopted name of the
    malcontents of the time of Charles I., who sought to reduce society
    to a common level.

=Society Islands.= Named by Captain Cook in compliment to the Royal
    Society.

=Society of Jesus.= See “Jesuits.”

=Socinians.= The followers of Lælius Socinus, an Italian theologian of
    the sixteenth century. They held the same views as the modern
    “Unitarians.”

=Sock and Buskin.= The drama, alluding to the low and high shoe or
    sandal worn respectively by comic and tragic actors in the theatre
    of the ancients. The _soccus_ was a simple shoe, whereas the
    _brossquin_, a term remotely derived from the Greek _bursa_, a hide,
    extended to the knee, and was, moreover, two or three inches thick
    in the sole to increase the height of the performer.

=Sod.= A north country term for a mean, ignorant fellow, no better than
    a lout or clodhopper, in allusion to the sod of agriculture.

=Soft Soap.= Flattery, because, unlike the ordinary kind, soft soap is
    easily rubbed in.

=Soho.= A name pleasantly recalling the days when, prior to the
    sixteenth century, the whole of London westward of Drury Lane was
    open country. _So ho_ was the cry of the huntsmen when a hare broke
    cover, expressing the Norman-French for “See! Hie! (after him).”

=Soirée.= A sociable evening party, so called from the French _soir_,
    evening.

=Soldier of Fortune.= A soldier without fortune who seeks to make one by
    enlisting in any service which holds out the prospect of good pay.

=Solid Straight.= Another name for a “Straight Drink.”

=Somerset.= Described in Anglo-Saxon days as _Suthmorset_, the “South
    Moor Settlement.”

=Somerset House.= Covers the site of the palatial residence of Edward
    Seymour, Duke of Somerset, the Lord Protector of Edward VI. On the
    sequestration of his estates in 1552 this passed to the Crown, and
    became a virtual royal residence. Here the body of James I. lay in
    state; here too the queens of Charles I. and Charles II. took up
    their abode. The present edifice dates from 1766.

=Somers Town.= From Lord Somers, the owner of the estate.

=Sorbonne.= After its founder Robert de Sorbon, a canon of Cambrai in
    1252.

=Souchong.= A species of black tea called by the Chinese _se-ou-chong_,
    “small, good quality.”

=Soudan.= Properly “Suden,” from the Arabic _Belad-ez-Suden_, “district
    of the blacks.”

=Southampton.= The south town on the Ant or Hantone. See “Hampshire.”

=Southampton Buildings.= Marks the site of Southampton House, in which
    lived and died the last Earl of Southhampton, Lord Treasurer of
    Charles II.

=Southampton Street.= After one of the family titles of the Duke of
    Bedford, the great ground landlord.

=South Audley Street.= See “Audley Street.”

=Southgate.= See “New Southgate.”

=Southwark.= A name which points to the Danish rule in England. The
    earliest London bridge of wood having been built in 1014, or two
    years before Canute seized upon the throne, this monarch took up his
    residence on the south bank of the Thames, and holding his Court
    there, styled it _Sydrike_, the Norse for “South Kingdom.” His
    successors also affected the Surrey side; as we know, Hardicanute
    died of a surfeit at Lambeth. By the Anglo-Saxons under Edward the
    Confessor the Danish _Sydrike_ was rendered _Suthwerk_, or South
    Fortification, whence we have derived the name in its present form.

=Southwick Crescent.= After Southwick Park, the country seat of the
    Thistlewaytes, at one time joint lessees of the manor of Paddington.

=Sovereign.= So called because when first struck, in the reign of Henry
    VIII., this gold coin had upon it a representation of that sovereign
    in his royal robes.

=Sovereign Pontiff.= The superior title of the Pope. See “Pontiff.”

=Spa.= From the town of the same name (which expresses the Flemish for
    “fountain”) in Belgium, the fashionable Continental resort during
    the seventeenth century.

=Spa Fields.= From an ancient public resort known as the “London Spa,”
    in connection with a medicinal well discovered during the thirteenth
    century. An account of the “Spa Fields Chapel,” originally a
    theatre, purchased by the Countess of Huntingdon, the name has
    survived to our own time.

=Spagnoletto.= See “Lo Spagnoletto.”

=Spain.= Called by the Carthaginians “Hispania,” from the Punic _span_,
    rabbit, on account of the wild rabbits which abounded in the
    peninsula. See “Iberia.”

=Spaniards.= This famous “house of call” for pedestrians across Highgate
    Heath was originally the private residence of the Spanish Ambassador
    to the Court of James I.

=Spaniel.= From _Hispaniola_, the old name of Hayti Island, in the West
    Indies, whence this breed of Spanish dog was introduced to Europe.

=Spanish Main.= The ancient designation of the waters around the West
    Indian Islands in the Caribbean Sea that rightly belonged to Spain.

=Spanish Place.= From the residence of the Spanish Ambassador during the
    eighteenth century. The private chapel attached to this mansion
    formed the nucleus of the present Catholic church.

=Sparking.= An Americanism for “courting.” There may be warranty for
    this in relation to “the spark of affection.”

=Spa Road.= From a long-forgotten spa or mineral well in this portion of
    Bermondsey.

=Spa Water.= Natural mineral waters drawn from a “Spa” or well.

=Speaker.= The official designation of the President of the House of
    Commons, to whom technically, the Members address themselves, though
    as a matter of fact, they address the country at large through the
    medium of the Press. Since he never speaks himself, except to rule a
    point of order, his title is a misnomer.

=Spencer.= A short overjacket introduced by the Earl of Spencer. This
    nobleman made a wager that he would set a new fashion by appearing
    abroad in any style of garment, however hideous it might be. He won
    his bet, for “Spencers” became popular.

=Specs.= Short for “spectacles.”

=Spelling Bee.= The name given to a competitive examination, in spelling
    in American schools, and later introduced in the cities as a
    fashionable pastime. From the States it reached England about a
    quarter of a century ago. The term “Bee” is essentially
    Transatlantic, being employed in the sense of a “hive” for any
    assemblage of workers--_e.g._ “a Sewing Bee.”

=Spindle City.= Lowell in Massachusetts, so called on account of its
    numerous cotton factories.

=Spinet.= An early form of pianoforte, so called because it was played
    upon exclusively by unmarried females, as a relaxation from the
    labours of the spindle.

=Spinster.= A maiden lady, so called from the distaff or spindle, the
    regular occupation of an unmarried female.

=Spiritualist.= One who cherishes a belief in the power of communicating
    with departed spirits through the instrumentality of a Medium.

=Spitalfields.= The derivation of this name is generally given as from
    an ancient priory of “St Mary of the Spittle.” This is wrong. There
    may have been such a priory, but if so, like the present parish
    church, its designation arose out of the “spital,” or hospital in
    the sense of an almshouse, founded in the fields for the poor by
    Walter Brune and his wife during the reign of Richard Cœur de
    Lion.

=Spithead.= This famous roadstead, so eminently adapted for naval
    reviews, received its name from being situated at the head of the
    “spit” or sandbank which extends along the coast for three miles.

=Spitzbergen.= Danish for “sharp-pointed mountains,” relative to the
    mountain peaks in these islands.

=Spook.= Expresses the Dutch for “ghost.” Introduced to the United
    States by the early settlers of New York, this term has obtained
    currency on both sides of the Atlantic in connection with
    Spiritualism.

=Spooning.= This word is a play on “billing and cooing.” Courting
    couples in the act of whispering “soft nothings” have their mouths
    in such close contact that it resembles the manner of a mother bird
    feeding her young brood.

=Sporting Women.= An Americanism for “gay women.”

=Spouting.= Colloquial for public speaking, because the orator indulges
    in a constant flow of rhetoric, like water issuing from a pump
    spout.

=Sprat Day.= 9th November, the opening of the London sprat-selling
    season.

=Spread Eagle.= An inn sign adopted from the arms of Germany, indicative
    of the fact that the wines of that country were to be had on the
    premises.

=Spreads himself.= Said of one in America who makes an ostentatious
    display of self-conceit. The allusion is to a peacock spreading its
    tail feathers to their utmost capacity.

=Spring Gardens.= So called because at this north-eastern entrance to St
    James’s Park unwitting pedestrians were suddenly drenched by a spray
    of water through stepping on a hidden spring. This was considered
    fine sport for the gallants who looked on during the Restoration
    period.

=Spring Heel Jack.= The sobriquet of the eccentric Marquis of Waterford,
    who about a century ago cultivated the habit of frightening people
    after nightfall by springing upon them out of obscure corners and
    alleys. It was said that terror of the streets had steel springs
    fitted to his heels for the purpose.

=Square Meal.= An Americanism for a full meal, which can only be enjoyed
    at the table, in contradistinction to a snack at a luncheon bar.

=Squatter.= Literally one who squats down on land to which he has no
    legal title.

=Squaw.= Algonquin for an Indian woman.

=Stafford.= The county town of the shire derived this name from the
    ancient mode of fording the River Sow, upon which it stands, by
    means of staves or stilts.

=Stage-coach.= So called from the stages or degrees of the whole
    journey, at each of which the coach pulled up to change horses and
    refresh the travellers.

=Staines.= From the Saxon _stane_, stone, the boundary mark set up
    beside the Thames, bearing date 1280, and the inscription: “God
    preserve the City of London.” This defined the western limits of
    jurisdiction claimed by the Thames Conservancy or Water Board.

=Stand Sam.= An Americanism for to “stand treat,” which originated among
    the soldiers during the Civil War. When billeted upon the people
    they demanded liquor by wholesale, saying that “Uncle Sam” would pay
    for it, and it was everyone’s duty to stand Sam. See “Uncle Sam.”

=Stanhope.= An open carriage named in compliment to the Earl of
    Stanhope, author and politician.

=Stanhope Gate.= This entrance to Hyde Park, in Park Lane, received its
    name from Philip Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, residing at
    Chesterfield House close by.

=Staples Inn.= Properly “Staplers’ Inn,” the ancient Hall of the
    Woolstaplers, styled Merchants of the Staple.

=Star and Garter.= An inn or tavern sign commemorative of the
    institution of the Order of the Garter by Edward III.

=Star Chamber.= This historic court received its name not from the stars
    decorating the ceiling, as generally stated, but because it was the
    ancient depository of the _Starra_, or Jewish records, at the order
    of Richard I.

=Start your Boots.= An Americanism for “Be off!” “Walk away.”

=Starvation Dundas.= The sobriquet of Henry Dundas, created Lord
    Melville, owing to his constant repetition of the word “Starvation”
    in the course of a debate on American affairs in 1775.

=State of Spain.= New Jersey. After the battle of Waterloo Joseph
    Bonaparte, the brother of Napoleon I., fled to New Jersey, and,
    settling on an estate at Borderstown, gathered so many Frenchmen and
    Spaniards around him that the Philadelphians regarded the people of
    this state generally as Spaniards and foreigners. At this time
    Joseph Bonaparte was nominally King of Naples and of Spain.

=Stationer.= This term was not derived from “Stationery,” since the
    latter grew out of the former. Ancient so-called booksellers were of
    two kinds: the itinerants, and the stallholders in open market. Both
    dealt in such books as were known at the time--hornbooks and the
    like--but principally in writing materials, and as the stationery
    booksellers had a more varied assortment than the pedlars, pen, ink,
    and paper eventually received the name of “stationery,” and their
    vendors that of “stationers.”

=Steelyard.= The name given to a weighing machine on which a single
    weight is moved along a graduated beam. This has no reference to a
    “yard” measure, but to the ancient Steelyard near London Bridge,
    where the German merchants of old landed, weighed, and sold their
    fine steel.

=Steeplechase.= This term originated in a race by a party of
    unsuccessful fox hunters, who agreed to run a race to the village
    church, the steeple of which was visible a couple of miles away, the
    one who touched its stones with his whip first being declared the
    winner.

=Stepney.= A corruption of “Stebenhithe,” after the owner of a hithe or
    wharf on this portion of the Thames bank in Anglo-Saxon days.

=Sterling Money.= That originally coined in this country by the
    “Esterlings,” the name given to the people of the Hanse Towns in the
    eastern portion of Germany, at the invitation of King John. The
    purity of the Esterling coinage was above reproach, whereas that of
    England anterior to the mission of the Hansa merchants to reform it
    had long become debased.

=Sterling Silver.= Genuine silver in its natural purity as opposed to
    “German Silver,” an alloy of copper, nickel, and zinc first made in
    Germany. See “Sterling Money.”

=Stick a Pin there.= An Americanism for “make a note of it as a
    reminder.” Dressmakers always stick a pin to mark the place where
    material is to be stitched or taken in.

=Stiletto.= Expresses the diminutive of the Italian _stilo_, a dagger.

=Stingo.= See “Yorkshire Stingo.”

=Stock.= This flower received its name from the circumstance that it was
    largely sold in the Stocks Market (so called on account of a pair of
    stocks that stood there), on part of the site of which the Mansion
    House was erected in 1737.

=Stock Exchange.= For the application of the term “Stock” to money, see
    “Government Stock.”

=Stockwell.= From an ancient well discovered in a _stoke_ or wood.

=Stoke Newington.= Expresses the new town in the meadow adjacent to a
    _stoke_, or wood, in reference to “Enfield Chase.” See “New
    Southgate.”

=Stonecutter Street.= From the lapidaries who congregated here in
    ancient days.

=Stone Jug.= See “In the Jug.”

=Stones End.= See “Stony Street.”

=Stonewall Jackson.= This sobriquet of General Jackson originated with
    General Lee during the American Civil War. Rallying his troops after
    the battle of Bull Run, he exclaimed, pointing in the direction with
    his sword: “There is Jackson, standing like a stone wall!”

=Stony Street.= So called from the nature of this portion of the great
    Roman highway to Dover, in continuation of “Watling Street,” north
    of the Thames.

=Store.= An Americanism for a shop or warehouse.

=Storey’s Gate.= Marks the site of the residence of Edward Storey,
    keeper of the royal aviary of Charles II. in that portion of St
    James’s Park known as Birdcage Walk.

=Stormy Petrel.= A sea-bird, the appearance of which is regarded as a
    portent of storms. Its Italian name, _Petrillo_, expresses the
    diminutive of Peter, in allusion to St Peter, who walked on the sea,
    because, instead of flying in the air, this bird habitually skims on
    the surface of the water.

=Storthing.= From the Norse _stor_, great, and _thing_, court, the
    Norwegian and Swedish House of Assembly.

=Stout.= This black alcoholic beverage is so called because it contains
    more body and nourishment than ale or beer.

=Stradivarius.= A violin made by the celebrated Antonio Stradivari of
    Cremona; generally abbreviated into “Strad.”

=Straight Drink.= An Americanism for a drink of pure, undiluted spirit.

=Strand.= The name given to the north bank of the Thames (from the Norse
    _strönd_, shore, border) in days when, with the exception of a few
    princely houses dotted here and there, the whole of this portion of
    London was open country.

=Straphanger.= A term which has come into vogue since the introduction
    of electrified railways, the trains being so crowded in the morning
    and evening that straps are provided for standing passengers to
    cling to _en route_.

=Strasburg.= This name was first heard of in the fifth century,
    expressing the German for a fortified town on the _strass_ or
    _strata_, the great Roman highway into Gaul.

=Stratford.= From the Latin _strata_, road, way; that portion of the old
    Roman highway where the River Lea had to be forded. In Chaucer’s
    time this little town, situated a long distance out of London, was
    described as “Stratford-a-te-Bow,” in allusion to “Bow Bridge.”

=Stratford Place.= After Edward Stratford, the second Lord Aldborough,
    who leased the ground for building purposes from the Corporation of
    the City of London in 1775.

=Stratton Street.= After Lord Berkeley of Stratton, the owner of the
    district now comprised in Mayfair, _temp._ Charles I.

=Strenuous Life.= The antithesis of the “Simple Life.”

=Stuarts.= This dynasty received its name from the fact that Walter, the
    Lord High Steward of Scotland, married the daughter of King Robert
    the Bruce. Since this Walter was the sixth of his line honoured with
    such a position, he was said to belong to the Stewards, which,
    eventually corrupted into “Stuarts,” resulted in a family name.

=Stumped.= To have no money left. See “Stump up.”

=Stump Orator.= One who harangues a crowd from the stump of a tree.

=Stump Speech.= A term popularised in this country through the minstrel
    entertainment, being an extempore speech delivered to the Negroes of
    the southern states from the stump of a tree.

=Stump the Country.= Colloquial for an electioneering campaign, derived
    from the practice of political agents in the United States
    addressing the people at large from a convenient tree stump.

=Stump up.= Originally an Americanism for “put down your money.” After
    delivering a speech for a benevolent object the “Stump Orator”
    stepped down, and the people around laid their contributions on the
    tree stump.

=Suabia.= See “Servia.”

=Sub.= Short for “subsidise,” or to draw something in advance of one’s
    salary.

=Sub Rosa.= “Under the Rose”--_i.e._ strictly between ourselves. It was
    the custom of the Teutons when they assembled at a feast, to suspend
    a rose from the ceiling as a reminder that whatever might be said
    concerning their absent friends should not be repeated.

=Subtle Doctor.= Duns Scotus, the schoolman and prince of
    metaphysicians, whose subtlety of reasoning has never been equalled
    in ancient or modern times.

=Sucked in.= An expression derived from “Buying a pig in a poke.” See
    “Let the Cat out of the Bag.”

=Sucker State.= Illinois, so called from the Galena lead miners, who
    disappeared during the winter and returned to Galena in the spring,
    when the sucker-fish in the Fevre River abounded. The people of this
    state are accordingly styled “Suckers.”

=Suffolk.= A corruption of “South Folk,” the inhabitants of the southern
    division of East Anglia.

=Suffolk Lane.= From the ancient town house of the Dukes of Suffolk.

=Suffolk Street.= From Suffolk House, the residence of the Earls of
    Suffolk in former days.

=Suffragette.= If this latter-day term possesses any etymological
    significance whatever, it expresses the diminutive of one who claims
    the suffrage or the right, from the Latin _suffragio_, to vote. A
    suffragette is, in brief, a woman who ought to know better. Eager to
    take upon herself the responsibilities of citizenship on a common
    footing with the male orders of creation, she cannot but shirk those
    which rightly belong to her own state.

=Sulky.= A two-wheeled carriage for a single person, so called from the
    popular idea at the time of its introduction that anyone who wished
    to ride alone could not be otherwise than morose and sulky in his
    disposition.

=Sumatra.= From the Arabic _Simatra_, “happy land.”

=Sumner Street.= After Dr Sumner, Bishop of Winchester, one of the last
    occupants of Winchester House in this neighbourhood.

=Sun.= An inn sign after the heraldic device of Richard II.

=Sunday.= The first day of the week, dedicated in the Scandinavian
    mythology to sun-worship.

=Sun-down.= An Americanism for “sunset.”

=Sunflower.= So called from the form and colour of its flower. See
    “Heliotrope.”

=Sunnites.= The orthodox Mohammedans, who accept the _Sunna_, or
    collective traditions, equally with the Koran.

=Sunset Land.= Arizona, on account of its glorious sunsets.

=Supers.= In theatrical parlance short for “supernumeraries,” those who
    form the stage crowds, but have no individual lines to speak.

=Supper.= A term which has survived the changes of time. We still invite
    a friend to “sup” with us, but the repast is more or less a
    substantial one. Anciently the last meal of the day consisted only
    of soup.

=Surrey.= From the Anglo-Saxon _Suth-rey_, south of the river--_i.e._
    the Thames.

=Surrey Street.= After the town mansion and grounds of the Howards,
    Dukes of Norfolk and Earls of Arundel and Surrey.

=Suspenders.= An Americanism for trouser braces.

=Sussex.= The territory of the _Suth-seaxe_, or South Saxons, under the
    Heptarchy.

=Sutton Place.= After Thomas Sutton, founder of the Charter House, whom
    the good folk of Hackney were proud to number among their residents
    on this spot.

=Swallow Street.= It is difficult to imagine that this once merited the
    name of “Slough Street,” on account of its miry condition; but such
    is the fact.

=Swan Alley.= From the ancient town house of the Beauchamps, whose crest
    was a swan.

=Swan-Upping.= The name given from time immemorial by the Vintners’
    Company to their annual up-Thames visitation of the swans belonging
    to them for the purpose of marking their bills with two nicks, by
    way of distinguishing them from the royal swans, that have five
    nicks.

=Swan with two Necks.= An ancient London inn sign, corrupted from “The
    Swan with two Nicks,” in compliment to the Vintners’ Company. See
    “Swan-Upping.”

=Sweating.= A word used in the original Biblical sense, and applied to
    the unhealthy conditions which obtain among the denizens of the East
    End of London, specifically the Jewish tailors, numbers of whom work
    together in the fœtid atmosphere of a single small room.

=Swedenborgians.= The followers of Emmanuel Swedenborg, the Swedish
    mystic. Prior to 1719, when his family became ennobled, his real
    name was Svedborg.

=Swedish Nightingale.= Jenny Lind Goldschmidt, the rage of musical
    London, who died in 1887.

=Sweepstake.= Money staked on a race by different persons, the fortunate
    winner among whom takes the whole amount, literally at one sweep.

=Sweetbriar.= Expresses a “fragrant thorn.”

=Sweetheart.= A corruption of “Sweetard,” the suffix _ard_ expressing
    the intensitive in many class names, such as “Dotard,” “Bastard,”
    etc.

=Swell.= Slang for one of the upper classes, no doubt suggested by the
    phrase: “The bloated aristocracy.” Also applied to an overdressed
    person puffed out with the idea of his own importance.

=Switches.= An Americanism for ladies’ hair curlers, fringes, and other
    hirsute appendages.

=Switzerland.= The English form of the Austrian Schwyz and German
    Schweitz, originally the name of the three forest cantons whose
    people threw off the Austrian yoke and asserted the independence of
    the whole country.

=Switzerland of America.= West Virginia, so called on account of its
    mountains.

=Sworn Brothers.= An ancient legal phrase signifying that two friends
    had entered into a solemn compact to lend mutual aid and protection
    and share each other’s fortunes. This custom was of Scandinavian
    origin.

=Sydenham.= Expresses the home or family settlement in the south.

=Symmetrion Girl.= See “Sandow Girl.”



                                     T

=Tabard.= The famous inn sign in Southwark immortalised by Chaucer’s
    “Canterbury Pilgrims,” from the ancient tunic with wide flap sleeves
    still worn by the heralds.

=Tableaux Vivants.= French for “living pictures,” specifically the
    realisation of a celebrated painting or a scene from history by a
    group of persons.

=Table d’Hôte.= Most people are under the impression that this term
    means a dinner as served at a hotel. This is erroneous. Its literal
    signification is “the table of the host.” Until quite modern days a
    traveller who desired to be served with a meal at an inn had to take
    it with the landlord at his own table.

=Taboo.= Strictly speaking, there is no such word as “tabooed,” yet we
    generally find it employed in the place of “taboo.” The latter is
    the European rendering of the Polynesian _tapu_, signifying a thing
    reserved or consecrated to the use of one person. For a South Sea
    Islander to exclaim _tapu_ when he sees anything that he fancies, is
    tantamount to saying “I claim this thing; anyone else who touches it
    shall die.” Amongst ourselves a subject which is _taboo_ must not be
    discussed.

=Taffy.= The generic name for a Welshman, corrupted from Davy, which is
    short for David, the most common Christian name of the country, in
    honour of St David.

=Tagus.= The Phœnician for “river of fish.”

=Tailor.= From the French _tailleur_, based upon the verb _tailler_, to
    cut.

=Take a Back Seat.= An Americanism for “You have outdone me; I’ll retire
    from the front row.”

=Take a Rise out of Him.= To take an undue advantage, to benefit by a
    mean action. This originated in fly-fishing; when a fish sees the
    fly held out of the water it rises to seize the coveted prey, and is
    caught itself.

=Takes the Cake.= An expression derived from the Cake Walking
    competitions of the Negroes in the southern states of the American
    Union. A cake is placed on the ground, and the competitors, male and
    female, walk around it in couples. Those who disport themselves most
    gracefully take the cake as their prize.

=Take your Hook.= See “Sling your Hook.”

=Talbot.= An inn sign in compliment to the Earls of Shrewsbury.

=Talbotype.= A process of photography, by means of the Camera Obscura,
    invented by Fox Talbot in 1839.

=Talking Shop.= The nickname for the House of Commons. See “Parliament.”

=Tally Ho!= From the Norman hunting cry _Taillis au_ (“To the coppice”),
    raised when the stag made for its native place of safety.

=Tallyman.= One who supplies goods on the weekly instalment system, so
    called originally from the acknowledgments for payments that he gave
    to his customers having to “tally” or agree with the entries in his
    book. Why such a one should be ashamed of his old-time designation,
    and now style himself a “Credit Draper,” can only be explained on
    the ground that the tallyman is in bad odour with the husbands of
    the guileless women whom he systematically overcharges. See
    “Government Stock.”

=Tammany Ring.= The name given to certain officials of the Democratic
    party in New York who in 1871 were punished for having during a long
    series of years plundered the people wholesale. Tammany Hall was the
    place where they held their meetings. This was originally the
    headquarters of a benevolent society, but it degenerated into a
    political club. By way of accounting for the designation, it may be
    added that Tammany or Tammenund was the name of a famous Indian
    chief of the Delaware tribe, greatly beloved by his people.

=Taming the Alps.= A phrase which has lately come into vogue through the
    popular solicitude to prevent intrepid amateurs from climbing the
    Alps without the assistance of local guides.

=Tantalise.= A word based upon the fable of Tantalus, a son of Jupiter,
    who, because he betrayed his father’s secrets, was made to stand up
    to his chin in water, with branches of luscious fruit over his head,
    but when he wished to drink or to eat the water and the fruit
    receded from him.

=Tapestry.= From the French _tapisserie_, based on the Latin _tapes_, a
    carpet.

=Tapster.= The old name for a tavern-keeper or his assistant, applied in
    days when taps were first fitted to barrels for drawing off liquor.

=Tarantella.= A dance invented for the purpose of inducing perspiration
    as a supposed remedy for the poisonous bite of the Tarantula spider,
    which received its name from the city of Taranto in Italy, where its
    baneful effects were first noted.

=Tarlatan.= From Tarare in France, the chief seat of the manufacture.

=Tar Heels.= The nickname of the people of South Carolina, relative to
    the tar industry in its lowland forests.

=Tarragona.= Called by the Romans _Tarraco_, after the name given to the
    city by the Phœnicians, _Tarchon_, “citadel.”

=Tarred with the same Brush.= This expression originated in the custom
    of marking the sheep of different folds formerly with a brush dipped
    in tar, but nowadays more generally in red ochre.

=Tart.= A punning abbreviation of “Sweetheart.”

=Tasmania.= After Abel Jansen Tasman, the Dutch navigator, who
    discovered it in 1642.

=Tattersall’s.= After Richard Tattersall, who established his famous
    horse repository near Hyde Park Corner in 1786; on 10th April 1865
    it was removed to its present locale at Knightsbridge.

=Taunton.= The town on the River Tone.

=Tavern.= From the Latin _taberna_, a hut of boards.

=Tavistock.= The stockaded place on the Tavy.

=Tavistock Street.= After the ancestor of the present great ground
    landlord, Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, Marquis of
    Tavistock, and Duke of Bedford, the father of the celebrated Rachel
    who became the wife of Lord William Russell, beheaded in 1683. The
    square and place similarly designated are included in the ducal
    estate.

=Tawdry.= A word derived from the cheap, showy lace anciently sold at
    the annual fair of St Audrey in the Isle of Ely. This was called St
    Audrey’s lace, afterwards corrupted into Tawdrey. The name of St
    Audrey itself was a corruption of St Ethelreda.

=Tay.= From the Celtic _tain_, river.

=Tearless Victory.= Plutarch in his “Lives” gave this name to the great
    victory won by Archimandus, King of Sparta, over the Arcadians and
    Argives, B.C. 367, without the loss of a single Spartan soldier.

=Teetotaler.= This designation of a total abstainer arose out of the
    stammering address at Preston in September 1833 of one Richard
    Turner, who concluded by saying: “Nothing but t-t-t-t-total
    abstinence will do--that or nowt!”

=Teetotum.= A coined term for a Working Man’s Total Abstinence Club,
    suggested by the word “Teetotaler.”

=Teignmouth.= Situated at the mouth, or in the estuary of, the Teign,
    which name is a variant of the Celtic _tain_, river.

=Tell that to the Marines.= In the old days, before the bluejackets
    proved themselves as good fighting men on land as at sea, the
    Marines were an indispensable adjunct to the Navy, but as time hung
    heavily upon their hands they were always ready to listen to a
    story. Finding that they were easily gullible, the sailors loved to
    entertain them with the most extraordinary yarns, and, while on
    shore, if they heard a wonderful story themselves they made up their
    minds to “tell that to the Marines.”

=Temple.= The seat of the “Knights Templars” in this country down to the
    time of the dissolution of their Order by Edward II. in 1313.

=Temple Bar.= The ancient gateway, at the western extremity of Fleet
    Street, defining the “liberty” of the city of London on that side,
    and originally set up as the ordinary entrance to the London house
    of the Knights Templars. Taken down in 1878, the “Bar” now adorns
    the park of Sir Henry Meux at Theobalds, Cheshunt, Herts.

=Tenement House.= An Americanism for a dwelling-house let off to
    different families.

=Tennessee.= Indian for “river of the great bend.”

=Tent Wine.= A corruption of _vinto tinto_, the Spanish for a white wine
    coloured.

=Terpsichorean Art.= After Terpsichore, one of the Nine Muses, who
    presided over dancing.

=Terra-cotta.= Italian for “baked earth”--_i.e._ clay.

=Texas.= Indian for “the place of protection,” where a colony of French
    refugees were kindly received in 1817.

=Thaler.= Originally called a Joachims-Thaler, because this German coin
    was struck out of silver found in the thal, or dale, of St Joachim
    in France about 1518. From this “Thaler” the term “Dollar” has been
    derived.

=Thames.= To assert that this name has been derived from the Latin (?)
    _Thamesis_, “the broad Isis,” or that it expresses the conjunction
    of the Thame and the Isis, is ridiculous. The word is wholly Celtic,
    from _tam_, smooth, and _esis_, one of the many variants of the
    original _uisg_, water. It is quite true that that portion of our
    noble river which flows past Oxford is called the Isis, but the name
    is scholastic only, and cannot be found in any ancient charter or
    historical document. _Thames_ simply means smooth water, or, if we
    care to admit it, “the smooth Isis.”

=Thames Street.= Runs parallel to the river on the north bank.

=Thanet Place.= This _cul de sac_ at the eastern end of the Strand
    received its name from the Earl of Thanet, the owner of the land
    prior to 1780.

=Thavie’s Inn.= A range of modern buildings on the site of an ancient
    appendage to Lincoln’s Inn, so called by the Benchers in honour of
    John Thavie, an armourer, who when he died in 1348 left a
    considerable amount of property to the parish church of St Andrew.

=Theobalds Road.= So called because James I. was wont to pass along it
    on the way to his favourite hunting-seat at Theobalds in
    Hertfordshire. See “Kingsgate Street.”

=Thespian Art.= After Thespis, the Father of the Greek Drama.

=Thirteen Cantons.= A tavern sign off Golden Square, complimentary to
    the Cantons of Switzerland, at a time when Soho was as much a Swiss
    colony as it is now French.

=Thomas Street.= In honour of Thomas Guy, the founder of the Hospital,
    also named after him.

=Thomists.= Those who accepted the teaching of St Thomas Aquinas, in
    opposition to that of John Duns Scotus relative to the Immaculate
    Conception.

=Threadneedle Street.= A corruption of, first, “Thridneedle,” and later
    “Three-Needle” Street, so called from the arms of the Needlemakers’
    Company.

=Three Chairmen.= A tavern sign in Mayfair, this house being the regular
    resort of gentlemen’s servants in the days when sedan-chairs were
    fashionable.

=Three Exes.= The nickname of the 30th Regiment of Foot (XXX).

=Three Kings.= An inn sign derived from the Magi or Three Wise Men who
    came to adore the new-born Saviour at Bethlehem.

=Three Men Wine.= The name borne by a very bad wine which requires two
    men to hold the victim, while a third pours it down his throat.

=Three Nuns.= A tavern sign in Aldgate, reminiscent of the neighbouring
    priory of the Nuns of St Clare in ancient times.

=Three Suns.= An inn sign derived from the device of Edward IV. as King
    of England.

=Throgmorton Street.= After the wealthy London banker, Sir Nicholas
    Throgmorton.

=Throw up the Sponge.= Originally a boxing expression. When a
    prize-fighter had been badly bruised in the first round he often
    declined the sponge offered to him by his second, or, in a sudden
    fit, threw it up in the air, declaring he had had enough of it;
    hence to “throw up the sponge” is to acknowledge oneself beaten.

=Thundering Legion.= The name ever afterwards borne by that Roman legion
    which, A.D. 179, overthrew the power of the Alemanni by defeating
    them during a thunderstorm, which was thought to have been sent to
    them in answer to the prayers of the Christians.

=Thurlow Place.= After Lord Chancellor Thurlow, whose residence was in
    Great Ormond Street, close by.

=Thursday.= The day of Thor, the God of Thunder, in the Scandinavian
    mythology.

=Tied House.= A public-house owned or financed by a firm of brewers,
    with the result that the nominal landlord is not allowed to
    replenish his stock from any other brewer.

=Tierra del Fuego.= Spanish for “land of fire,” so called from a volcano
    on the largest island which throws up flame and smoke visible a very
    great distance out at sea.

=Tight.= Intoxicated, because a person in this state generally clutches
    tight hold of a street lamppost or a convenient railing when unable
    to walk home after a debauch.

=Tighten your Purse Strings.= See “Purse Strings.”

=Tilbury.= The ancient form of the name of the village two miles west of
    Tilbury Fort was _Tillaburgh_, after one Tilla, a Saxon, of whom,
    however, nothing is now known. A small two-wheeled gig without a
    cover is called a Tilbury, after a London sportsman who introduced
    it nearly a century ago.

=Tinker.= A corruption of “tinner,” or tin-worker. This has given rise
    to the verb “to tinker,” which meant originally to hammer lightly at
    a thing after the style a tinman, without being able to repair it in
    a thoroughly workman-like manner.

=Tintoretto.= The better known name of the famous Italian painter,
    Jacopo Robusti, because his father was a _tintore_, or dyer.

=Tobacco.= From _tobaco_, the inhaling tube of the North American
    Indians. By the Spaniards alone has the original spelling of the
    name, now given universally to the fragrant weed itself, been
    preserved.

=Tobago Island.= So called by Columbus on account of its resemblance to
    the inhaling tube of the Indians, the _tobaco_.

=Toddy.= From the Hindoo _taudi_, a stimulating beverage made from the
    juice of various palm-trees.

=Toff.= A vulgar corruption of the University term “Tuft,” a young
    nobleman who pays high fees and is distinguished by a golden tuft or
    tassel on his cap.

=Toggery.= A term derived from the same source as “Togs.”

=Togs.= Slang for clothes, but originally derived from _toga_, the
    characteristic male garment of the Romans.

=Tokay.= An excellent white wine produced in the district of the same
    name in Upper Hungary.

=Tokenhouse Yard.= Marks the site of the ancient Token-House, which came
    into existence through the insufficiency of small copper coinage. A
    number of Nuremberg “tokens” having been introduced into this
    country, tradesmen imported large quantities of them for purposes of
    small (halfpenny and farthing) change, but instead of being kept in
    circulation such tokens were afterwards exchanged by the inhabitants
    of the city for their face value at the Token-House. About the same
    time various municipalities throughout the country manufactured
    their own tokens. The London Token-House was swept away by the Great
    Fire and never rebuilt.

=Toledo.= From the Hebrew _H’toledoth_, “generations,” “families,”
    relative to the Jewish founders of the city.

=Tom Folio.= The sobriquet of Thomas Rawlinson, the bibliomaniac.

=Tommy Atkins.= This general designation of an English soldier arose out
    of the hypothetical name, “Thomas Atkins,” which at one time figured
    in the Paymaster-General’s monthly statement of accounts sent to the
    War Office. So much money claimed by “Thomas Atkins” meant, of
    course, the regular pay for the rank and file.

=Tom Tidler’s Ground.= A corruption of “Tom the Idler’s Ground.”

=Tontine.= The name given to a system of reducing the State Loans in
    France in 1653 after Lorenzo Tonti, a Neapolitan protegé of Cardinal
    Mazarin, its projector. According to this system, when one
    subscriber dies, the money accredited to him passes to the others,
    until the last survivor inherits the whole amount.

=Tooley Street.= Originally “St Olaff Street” after the parish church
    dedicated to St Olaff or Olave. This thoroughfare was in the time of
    the Commonwealth known as “St Tulie Street,” of which its modern
    name is an easy corruption.

=Toothpicks.= A nickname borne by the people of Arkansas on account of
    the Bowie Knives carried by the early settlers.

=Topaz.= From _topazios_, after _Topazos_, the Greek name of an island
    in the Red Sea where this gem was anciently

=Tories.= Originally, during the Restoration period, the nickname
    bestowed by the Protestants on their religious and political
    opponents. This was in derisive allusion to a band of outlaws that
    infested the bog districts of Ireland, the word _toree_ being Gaelic
    for a robber.

=Toronto.= Indian for “oak-trees beside the lake.”

=Torquatus.= See “Manlius Torquatus.”

=Torres Strait.= After the Spanish navigator, L. N. de Torres, who
    discovered it in 1606.

=Torrington Square.= After the family name of the first wife of John,
    the sixth Duke of Bedford, the ancestor of the great ground
    landlord.

=Tothill Street.= A name which recalls the ancient manor of Tothill,
    properly Toothill--_i.e._ beacon hill. Wherever _toot_ or _tot_
    appears in a place-name, it points to the one-time existence of a
    beacon.

=Totnes.= A corruption of “Toot Ness,” the beacon on the headland.

=Tottenham.= From “Totham,” a corruption of _Toot ham_, the house or
    hamlet by the beacon.

=Tottenham Court Road.= So called ever since the days of Elizabeth
    because it then led to “Tottenham Court.” This was an ancient manor,
    originally belonging to St Paul’s, and held in the reign of Henry
    III. by William de Tottenhall.

=Touched him on the Raw.= Reminded him of something which hurt his
    feelings. This expression arose out of an ostler’s solicitude to
    avoid a sore place on a horse while grooming him.

=Toulon.= The _Telonium_ of the Romans, so called after Telo Martius,
    the tribune who colonised it.

=Tractarians.= Those Oxford men who assisted Dr Pusey with the
    composition of the famous “Tracts for the Times,” as well as those
    who accepted the opinions expressed therein.

=Trafalgar Square.= From the Nelson Column, set up in 1843, two years
    before the square itself was laid out as it now exists.

=Traitors’ Gate.= The riverside entrance to the Tower of London reserved
    for State prisoners convicted of high treason.

=Tramway.= An abbreviation of “Outram way,” after Benjamin Outram of
    Derbyshire, who was the first to place his sleepers end to end the
    whole length of the rails, instead of crosswise, as on our railways.
    Long before this, however, the word “Tram” had been applied to a
    coal waggon or truck in the colliery districts, while the rails on
    which a vehicle ran bore the name of a “Tramroad.”

=Transformation Scene.= So called because in the good old days of
    Pantomine the Fairy Queen was at this juncture of the entertainment
    supposed to transform the chief characters of the “opening” into
    Clown, Pantaloon, Harlequin, Columbine, and Policeman.

=Transvaal.= Expresses the territory beyond the Vaal River.

=Transylvania.= From the Latin _trans_, beyond, and _sylva_, wood; this
    name was given by the Hungarians to the country beyond their wooded
    frontier.

=Trappists.= A strict Order of Cistercian Monks, so called from their
    original home at La Trappe in Normandy, established during the
    twelfth century.

=Treacle Bible.= A rare version of the Scriptures, so called on account
    of the rendering of the passage (Jeremiah viii. 22): “Is there no
    balm in Gilead?” as “There is no more traicle at Gilead.”

=Trent.= Celtic for “winding river.”

=Tried in the Balance and Found Wanting.= An expression founded on the
    belief of the ancient Egyptians that the souls of men were weighed
    after death.

=Trilbies.= Colloquial for feet, because Trilby in the novel and the
    play named after the heroine appears in bare feet.

=Trilby.= A soft felt hat of the kind popularised by the heroine of the
    famous Haymarket Theatre play, _Trilby_, founded upon the late
    George du Maurier’s equally famous novel of the same title.

=Trinidad Island.= The name given to it by Columbus as an emblem of the
    Trinity, relative to its three mountain peaks which, when seen from
    afar, he at first imagined rose from three different islands.

=Trinitarians.= Those who accept the doctrine of the Holy Trinity as
    opposed to the Unitarians; also the original designation of the
    “Crutched Friars,” or Friars of the Holy Trinity.

=Trinity House.= This had its origin in an ancient guild incorporated in
    1529 under the title of “The Master-Wardens and Assistants of the
    Guild, or Fraternity, or Brotherhood, of the Most Glorious and
    Undivisible Trinity, and St Clement, in the parish of Deptford,
    Stroud, in the County of Kent.” The present building dates from
    1795.

=Trinity Sunday.= That which follows Whitsunday, pursuant to the good
    old Catholic custom of allowing religious exercises, specifically
    the partaking of the Holy Communion, to be performed within the
    octave, or eight days, of a great feast.

=Tristan d’Acunha.= After the Portuguese navigator who discovered this
    island in 1651.

=Trithing.= See “Riding.”

=Trump Street.= After the makers of trumpets, who, in the days of public
    pageants and processions, here had their workshops.

=Trust.= Another word for a “Combine” or “Corner,” with this difference
    that its members are pledged to stand by one another, and faithfully
    maintain the high prices their action has brought about.

=Tudors.= This royal house received its name from Owen Tudor, a Welsh
    soldier, who while stationed at Windsor, contracted a secret
    marriage with Catherine, the widowed queen of Henry V.

=Tuesday.= In the Scandinavian mythology the day set apart for the
    worship of _Tiw_, the God of War.

=Tuft.= See “Toff.”

=Tulle.= From the French town of the same name, where this fabric was
    first made.

=Tumble to it.= This phrase is a vulgar perversion of “stumble upon
    it”--_i.e._ the meaning or comprehension of a thing.

=Tunis.= Anciently _Tunentum_, after the _Tunes_, who peopled the
    country.

=Turin.= Called by the Romans _Augusta Taurisonum_, the capital of the
    _Taurini_.

=Turkestan.= Conformably to the Persian _stan_, the country of the
    Turks.

=Turkey.= From “Turkia,” the Celtic suffix expressing the country of the
    Turks. The bird of this name was long thought to be a native of
    Turkey; it was, however, introduced to Europe from North America
    early in the sixteenth century.

=Turnagain Lane.= So called because it ends at a high brick wall, and
    the pedestrian has no alternative but to retrace his steps.

=Turnmill Street.= A name which recalls the days when an old mill, whose
    sails turned with the wind, stood in the pleasant meadow.

=Turpentine State.= North Carolina, from the turpentine found in its
    great pine forests.

=Turquoise.= From Turkey, the country where this precious stone was
    first found.

=Tuscany.= The territory of the Etruscans.

=Tweed.= It is perfectly true that this cloth is fabricated in the
    vicinity of the River Tweed, but the name is really a corruption of
    “Twill,” which word, in an invoice sent to James Locke in London,
    being blotted, looked like “tweed,” and the customer thought the
    cloth might as well be called by that name as by its original.

=Twelfth Night.= That which brought the Christmas holidays and
    festivities to a close in former days. In the morning the people
    went to church to celebrate the Feast of the Epiphany, afterwards
    they gave themselves up right merrily to indoor amusements.

=Twickenham.= When Pope resided in this pretty up-river village its name
    was “Twitnam” for short, but it meant the same as of yore, a hamlet
    located between two rivulets of the Thames. The word is Anglo-Saxon,
    cognate with the modern German _zwischen_, between, and _heim_, a
    home.

=Twill.= From the German _zwillich_, “trellis work,” so called from the
    diagonal ribs distinguished on the surface of this cloth.

=Two Fours.= The 44th Regiment of Foot.

=Two Sevens.= The 77th Regiment of Foot.

=Two Twos.= The 22nd Regiment of Foot.

=Tyburn.= A corruption of _Twa-burne_, “two streams,” the one from
    Bayswater, the other from Kilburn, which met on the spot where the
    public executions formerly took place and the Marble Arch now
    stands.

=Tyne.= Another variant of the Celtic _tain_, river.



                                     U

=Uisquebaugh.= From _uisge_, water, and _beatha_, life, the national
    drink of the Irish people. Out of this we have derived the English
    term “Whisky.”

=Ukase.= From the Russian _ukasat_, to speak.

=Ukraine.= Expresses the Slavonic for a “frontier country.”

=Ultramarine.= Another name for “Saunders Blue,” introduced to England
    from beyond the sea.

=Umber.= From Umbria in Italy, where this pigment was first obtained.

=Umbrella.= From the Latin _umbra_, a shade. The original function of
    such an article was to act as a shelter against the scorching rays
    of the sun, similar to those monster white or coloured umbrellas one
    sees in a Continental market-place. It was Jonas Hanway who first
    diverted it from its proper use. See “Hanway Street.”

=Uncle.= How this name came to be applied to a pawnbroker was as
    follows:--Before the “spout” was introduced all those pledges which
    consisted of clothing were attached to a very large book, or _uncus_
    as it was called, conformably to the Latin description of the
    article, since the Lombards were the earliest pawnbrokers of
    history. When this _uncus_ could accommodate nothing more, the rope
    from which it depended was unslung from the ceiling, and laid across
    the shoulders of an assistant, who then carried the whole collection
    to the store-rooms overhead. Hence an article which had been pledged
    was said to have “Gone to the Uncus,” or, as the modern phrase has
    it, “Gone to my Uncle’s.”

=Uncle Sam.= The national nickname of the United States. This arose out
    of the initials “U.S.,” which the Government caused to be painted or
    branded on all its stores just as the Government property in this
    country is marked with a broad arrow. Since it happened that the
    official whose duty it was to see this marking properly carried out
    was known among his numerous acquaintance as “Uncle Sam,” the
    general impression obtained that the letters really applied to him,
    as evidence that the goods had passed through his hands. In this way
    “Uncle Sam” bequeathed his name to a great nation.

=Uncle Sam’s Ice-box.= Alaska, so called on account of its northern
    situation. Prior to the year 1867 this territory belonged to Russia.

=Undertaker.= Specifically one who in former days undertook to be
    responsible for the custody of a corpse until the moment that it was
    lowered into the grave. This was the _raison d’être_ of the two
    “mutes” stationed by him at the door of the house by day and by
    night as guards.

=Underwriter.= One who accepts the responsibility of insuring a vessel
    or its merchandise by signing his name at the foot of the policy.

=Unionists.= Those who are opposed to Home Rule for Ireland; now
    identified with the Conservative Party.

=Union Jack.= The first part of this name has, of course, reference to
    the Union of England and Scotland in the person of James I., but the
    application of the word “Jack” to our national flag is not so easily
    disposed of. Nevertheless, reference to our note on “Jack-boots”
    will afford the reader a key to the question. Twenty-six of such
    “Jacques,” emblazoned with the arms of St George, were ordered by
    Edward III. for one of his warships. Designed primarily for the
    defence of his soldiers when in fighting array, they were placed in
    a row along the low bulwarks while the vessel was sailing, just as
    the Romans and the hardy Norsemen disposed of their shields at sea.
    After this statement it should not be difficult to see how the Cross
    of St George displayed on a _jacque_ lent its name at first to the
    staff from which the English flag was flown, and later to the flag
    itself.

=Unitarians.= Those who are opposed to the doctrine of the Trinity,
    denying, as they do, the Godhead or divinity of Jesus Christ and the
    Holy Ghost. This tenet was promulgated by Lælius Socinus, an Italian
    theologian, in 1546.

=United Brethren.= Another name for the religious sect styled the
    “Moravians.”

=University.= From the Latin _universitatis_, the whole. This word
    expresses the various distinct colleges and halls at Oxford,
    Cambridge, and elsewhere, incorporated by a royal charter as one
    great educational centre.

=Unlearned Parliament.= See “Parliament of Dunces.”

=Unready.= See “Ethelred the Unready.”

=Up a Tree.= Completely cornered, yet defiant; the allusion is to the
    refuge of a tree-branch against the attack of a bull stationed
    beneath it.

=Upper Berkeley Street.= See “Berkeley Street.”

=Upper Crust.= A modern term for the aristocracy, because it was
    formerly considered a mark of high honour to allow the most
    distinguished guest to cut off the top of the loaf at table.

=Upper Seymour Street.= After the Seymours, from whom the Portmans,
    owners of the estate, are descended.

=Upper Ten.= Short for “The Upper Ten Thousand,” which, at the time when
    N. P. Willis first made use of the term, was the approximate number
    of fashionables or really well-to-do in the city of New York.

=Uppertendom.= An Americanism for the aristocracy.

=Upper Thames Street.= The western portion of Thames Street between
    London and Blackfriars Bridges.

=Up the Spout.= This expression requires no elucidating. Nevertheless,
    there was a time when a pawnbroking establishment had not the
    convenience of a “spout,” and because this was so, the
    matter-of-fact tradesman earned for himself the endearing title of
    “My Uncle.” See “Uncle.”

=Up to Snuff.= Said of one who has a keen scent for reckoning up his
    neighbours.

=Uruguay.= Expresses the Brazilian for “the golden water.”

=Ural.= A Tartar word for “belt.”

=Usher.= From the old French _huisher_, door, signifies a doorkeeper.

=Usk.= A variant of the Celtic _uisg_, water.

=Ursulines.= An Order of nuns named after St Ursula, who suffered
    martyrdom at Cologne in the tenth century.

=Utah.= After an Indian tribe, the Yuta or Utes, encountered in the
    region so named.

=Utilitarianism.= A word implying “the happiness of the greatest
    number.” In this sense it was first popularised by John Stuart Mill,
    after Jeremy Bentham had promulgated a similar ethical religion
    under the style of “Utility.”

=Utopia.= From the Greek _ou_, not, and _topos_, place, this compound
    term signifies “nowhere,” “no such place.” Ideas and Systems are
    said to be “Utopian” when they cannot be accepted by the average
    reasoning mind.



                                     V

=Valance.= From Valencia in Spain, where bed drapery was at one time
    made for the supply of the world’s markets.

=Valencias.= Raisins grown in the Spanish province of Valencia, which
    name, relative to the capital city, means “powerful, strong.”

=Valenciennes.= Lace made at the French town of the same name.

=Valentines.= See “St Valentine’s Day.”

=Valparaiso.= Expresses the Spanish for “Vale of Paradise.”

=Vamoose.= An Americanism for “decamp,” “run along,” “be off.” This had
    its origin in the Spanish _vamos_, “let us go.”

=Vanbrugh Castle.= This castellated mansion at Blackheath was built by
    Sir John Vanbrugh in 1717.

=Vancouver Island.= Discovered by Captain Vancouver while searching for
    an inlet on the west coast of North America in 1792.

=Van Diemen’s Land.= The name first given by Tasman, its discoverer, in
    1642, to what is now “Tasmania,” in compliment to the daughter of
    the Dutch Governor of Batavia.

=Vandyke.= A pointed lace collar, always distinguished in the portraits
    painted by Sir Anthony Vandyck. Also a peculiar shade of brown
    colour used by him for his backgrounds.

=Vassar College.= Founded in the state of New York by Matthew Vassar in
    1861 for the higher education of women. This might be said to
    constitute the Girton College of the New World.

=Vaudeville.= The name given to a short, bright dramatic piece
    interspersed with songs set to familiar airs, after Vaudevire, a
    village in Normandy, where Olivier Basselin, the first to compose
    such pieces, was born. The Vaudeville Theatre in the Strand was
    built for entertainments of this class.

=Vauxhall.= After Jane Vaux, the occupant of the manor house in 1615.
    This name, however, would seem to have been corrupted in modern
    times, since the manor was originally held soon after the Norman
    Conquest by Fulka de Breante. The manor house might consequently
    have been in those far-off days described as “Fulkes Hall.”

=Venerable Bede.= The Saxon historian merited the surname of “Venerable”
    because he was an aged man and also an ecclesiastic.

=Venezuela.= Finding that the Indian villages in this country were
    uniformly built upon piles in the water, the Spaniards gave it their
    native term for “Little Venice.”

=Venice.= After the _Veneti_, the early inhabitants of the district.

=Vernier.= After Pierre Vernier, the inventor of the instrument.

=Vere Street.= After the De Veres, owners of the estate before it passed
    to the Harleys.

=Verger.= From the French _verge_, a rod, the name borne by the
    custodian of a cathedral or minster, because in common with official
    attendants, he formerly carried a rod or staff of office.

=Vermicelli.= Italian for “little worms.”

=Vermont.= A corruption of “Verd Mont,” in allusion to its green
    mountains.

=Vermuth.= The white wine tinctured with bitter herbs appropriately
    bears this name derived from the Anglo-Saxon _wermod_, wormwood.

=Verulam Buildings.= This portion of Gray’s Inn was named in honour of
    Lord Bacon, created Baron Verulam and Viscount St Albans.

=Veto.= This word is Latin for “I forbid.”

=Vicar.= From the Latin _vicarius_, in place of another. See “Rector.”

=Vichy Water.= So called because drawn from the celebrated springs at
    Vichy in France.

=Victoria.= The carriage of this name was introduced in 1838, the
    coronation year of the late Queen Victoria. Much about the same time
    the Australian colony so designated in her honour was first
    colonised.

=Victoria Regia.= So called because it was brought to England from
    Guiana soon after the accession of Queen Victoria.

=Victoria Street.= After Queen Victoria, in the early years of whose
    reign it was cut through and built upon.

=Vienna.= From a small stream, the Wien, from which the city received
    its German name.

=Vignette.= Expressing the French for a “little vine,” this name was
    given to an early style of photograph, and also to a book engraving
    that faced the title-page, on account of the vine leaves and
    tendrils that surrounded it.

=Vigo Street.= In honour of the capture of Vigo by Lord Cobham in 1719,
    shortly before this street was built upon.

=Viking.= From the Icelandic _vik_, a creek, the usual lurking-place of
    the northern pirates.

=Villain.= Although signifying originally a mean, low fellow, but by no
    means one of reprehensive morals as now, this term was applied to a
    labourer on a farm or a country seat. To argue this point with the
    humble day-labourer who trims the shrubs at a suburban villa in our
    own time, would serve no useful purpose.

=Villiers Street.= One of the group of streets the names of which
    perpetuate the memory of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, whose
    town mansion hereabouts was approached from the river by the old
    water gate, still in existence.

=Vinegar.= From the French _vinaigre_, “sour wine.”

=Vinegar Bible.= So called from the substitution of the word “vinegar”
    for “vineyard” in the headline to Luke xx., printed at the Clarendon
    Press in 1717.

=Vinegar Yard.= Wherever this corrupted term is met with in London it
    points to a “vineyard” originally belonging to a religious order.
    That in Clerkenwell was attached to the Priory of the Knights of St
    John of Jerusalem, that adjoining Drury Lane Theatre to St Paul’s
    Convent in what is now Covent Garden.

=Vine Street.= Recalls the existence of a vineyard at Westminster and
    off Piccadilly, anciently held by the abbots of the venerable pile
    of St Peter’s at Westminster.

=Vintry.= This ward of the city of London was anciently the “place of”
    the vintners, or wine merchants who came from Bordeaux.

=Virginals.= An early example of keyed musical instrument resembling the
    pianoforte. Also this was played upon with some degree of skill by
    Queen Elizabeth, the so-called “Virgin Queen,” and is said to have
    given her name to the instrument. It was, however, well known long
    before her time, having been used by nuns in convents to accompany
    hymns to the Virgin.

=Virginia.= Named by Sir Walter Raleigh in honour of Elizabeth, the
    “Virgin Queen.”

=Virginia Bible.= A translation of the Scriptures into the native tongue
    of the Indians of the state of Virginia, first printed in 1661.
    Copies are said to be worth at least £200.

=Virgin Mary’s Body Guard.= The 7th Dragoon Guards, because this
    regiment once served under Maria Theresa of Austria.

=Voltaire.= The anagrammatic literary pseudonym of François Marie
    Arouet, formed as follows:--“Arouet l. j.” (le jeune).

=Volume.= From the Latin _volvo_, I roll. The earliest documents or
    writings consisted of long rolls of the Egyptian papyrus, and when
    these were rolled up each one corresponded to what the moderns
    called a volume. See “Roll Call.”


                                   W

=Wadham College.= Founded at Oxford by Nicholas Wadham in 1613.

=Walbrook.= From a pleasant stream of clear water which, after skirting
    the wall of St Stephen’s Church, behind where the Mansion House now
    stands, ran southward, to empty itself into the Thames at Dowgate.

=Waldenses.= The followers of Peter Waldo, a merchant of Lyons, who
    towards the end of the twelfth century had the four Gospels
    translated for the benefit of the people, and was unsparing in his
    denunciation of the clergy. With the Albigenses of Languedoc these
    people, who entered with their leader into the valleys of Dauphine
    and Piedmont, may be regarded as the earliest of the Reformers.

=Wales.= This Celtic territory, which was never even penetrated by the
    Anglo-Saxons, received the name of “Wallia,” signifying the country
    of the _Wahlen_ or _Wahls_, foreigners.

=Walham Green.= The original spelling of this name “Wahlheim,” expressed
    from the Anglo-Saxon point of view a home or settlement of the
    _Wahls_ or foreigners.

=Walk a Virginia Fence.= An American phrase applied to a drunken man. In
    Virginia the rail fences are constructed in a zig-zag manner, whence
    they are also called “worm fences.”

=Walking Gentlemen.= In theatrical parlance, one who plays the part of a
    gentleman or noble on the stage; he may not have much to say, but
    his bearing must be above reproach. The plays of Shakespeare abound
    in parts of this kind.

=Walk the Chalk.= An Americanism for to act straight or keep in the
    right path.

=Wallop.= In the year 1514 the French fleet ravaged the coast of Sussex,
    and burned Brighthelmstone, now Brighton, whereupon Sir John Wallop,
    one of the best naval commanders of his time, was sent by Henry
    VIII. to make reprisals. In this he succeeded only too well; he
    burned twenty-one French coasting villages, demolished several
    harbours, and thrashed the enemy to his heart’s content. His men,
    however, proud of the achievement, declared that they had Walloped
    the French; and thus it was that a new synonym for “thrash” came to
    be incorporated into the English language.

=Waltham.= From the Anglo-Saxon _Waldheim_, the home or settlement in
    the wood.

=Waltz.= From the German “Waltzer,” the name of the dance, and
    _waltzen_, to roll, relative to the revolutions made by the pairs of
    dancers.

=Walworth.= Originally a settlement of the _Wahls_, or foreigners,
    descendants of the Danes (see “Southwark”). This district became in
    Anglo-Saxon days a _worth_, or manor, from which Sir William
    Walworth, the Lord Mayor who slew Wat Tyler, derived his family
    name.

=Wandsworth.= Anciently described as “Wandlesworth,” the manor watered
    by the River Wandle.

=Wapentake.= Expresses the Saxon for “a touching of arms.” This
    territorial division, which obtained in Yorkshire in the time of the
    Anglo-Saxons, and corresponded to the “Hundred” elsewhere, received
    its name from the periodical meeting of the champions of each
    hundred to touch spears and swear to defend the common cause.

=Wardour Street.= After Wardour Castle, the seat of the ground landlord,
    Lord Arundel of Wardour.

=Wardrobe Terrace.= Marks the site of the ancient “Wardrobe,” when our
    sovereigns resided in what was styled “Tower Royal” hard by.

=Warwick.= From the Anglo-Saxon _Wærwic_, “war town,” so called on
    account of its permanent garrison of soldiers.

=Warwick Lane.= From the town mansion of the Beauchamps, Earls of
    Warwick.

=Warwick Road.= After the Earls of Warwick, owners of the Earl’s Court
    estate before it passed to the Holland family.

=Washington.= Laid out under the superintendence of George Washington,
    the first President of the United States. This seat of the
    Government was honoured with his name.

=Water Lane.= Prior to the construction of Victoria Street this winding
    lane led down to the Thames.

=Waterloo Bridge.= So called because it was declared open 18th June
    1817, the anniversary of the battle of Waterloo.

=Waterloo Park.= After Sir Sidney Waterloo, who presented it to the
    public.

=Waterloo Place.= So called as a military set-off to Trafalgar Square
    when the Duke of York’s column was erected by public subscription in
    1833. The statues of famous British generals around this open space
    are quite in keeping with the design.

=Water Poet.= The literary sobriquet of John Taylor, who was a Thames
    waterman.

=Watling Street.= A corruption of _Vitellina Strata_, “the road of
    Vitellius,” so called because this great Roman highway from Dover to
    Cardigan in Wales was projected by the Emperor Vitellius, and those
    portions of it in London and elsewhere were constructed during his
    reign.

=Watteau.= See “Á la Watteau.”

=Way Down.= An Americanism for “down the way to” _e.g._--“Way down the
    lone churchyard.”

=Wayzgoose.= A printers’ summer outing, so called from the wayz or
    stubble goose which, when the outing took place later in the season,
    was the invariable dinner dish. The term _wayz_ is from the Dutch
    _wassen_ and German _waschen_, to grow; hence a goose that has
    fattened among the stubble after the harvest has been gathered.

=Wedding Breakfast.= The nuptial banquet had in Catholic days a real
    significance, when, having fasted from midnight, the entire party
    attended Mass, and partook of the Communion. At the close of the
    marriage ceremony the priest regaled them with wine, cakes, and
    sweetmeats in the church porch by way of breakfast.

=Wednesday.= In the Scandinavian mythology this was “Wodin’s Day,” or
    that set apart for the worship of Odin or Wodin, the god of magic
    and the inventor of the Arts.

=Wedgwood Ware.= The style of pottery invented or introduced by Josiah
    Wedgwood in 1775.

=Weeping Cross.= A cross set up on the way to a churchyard where the
    coffin was rested for a brief space while prayers were offered up
    for the soul of the deceased. The wailing of the women generally
    interrupted the proceedings.

=Weeping Philosopher.= Heraclitus of Ephesus, who voluntarily embittered
    the declining years of his existence by weeping over the folly of
    mankind.

=Wedlock Street.= After Welbeck Abbey, the seat of the Duke of Portland,
    the great ground landlord.

=Wellingborough.= Anciently “Wellingbury,” on account of the medicinal
    wells or springs which abound in its vicinity.

=Wellington.= This province and capital city of New Zealand received the
    name of the Duke of Wellington.

=Wellington Boots.= After the Duke of Wellington.

=Wellington Street.= In honour of the Duke of Wellington, because it
    leads to Waterloo Bridge.

=Wells Street.= A corruption of “Well Street,” after Well in Yorkshire,
    the seat of the Strangeways family, from whom Lady Berners, owner of
    the estate, was descended.

=Welsher.= The name borne by an absconding bookmaker on a race-course
    was originally a “Welshman,” in allusion to the old ditty: “Taffy
    was a Welshman, Taffy was a thief.”

=Welsh Rabbit.= A popular corruption of “Welsh Rarebit.”

=Wesleyan Methodists.= The name borne by that portion of the Methodist
    sect which worship in chapels and so-called churches, which was far
    from the intention of their founder. See “Primitive Methodists.”

=Wesleyans.= The followers of John Wesley, or “Methodists” in general.

=Wessex.= The great kingdom of the _West Seaxe_, or West Saxons, under
    the Heptarchy.

=Westbourne Park.= The district formerly traversed by the west bourne or
    stream between “Kilburn” and “Bayswater.”

=West Indies.= Those islands in the Caribbean Sea, which Columbus
    imagined to form part of the great unknown India, as approached from
    the west.

=Westminster.= This name has been from time immemorial given to the
    district of which the ancient fane tautologically styled
    “Westminster Abbey” is the centre. One does not speak of “York
    Minster Abbey” or “Lincoln Minster Abbey.” A minster is a great
    church in connection with a monastery. Since the Reformation the
    abbeys have been swept away, the Minsters remain. The earliest
    mention of “the West Minster” occurs in a Saxon charter of 785, in
    contradistinction to “the East Minster” that stood in those days
    somewhere on Tower Hill. All trace of this has been lost, yet it is
    possible that St Katherine’s Hospital, now displaced by the docks of
    the same name, grew out of it.

=Westmorland.= The land peopled by the Westmorings, or those of the
    Western moors.

=Weymouth Street.= After Lord Weymouth, the son-in-law of the ground
    landlord, the Duke of Portland.

=What’s the Damage?= This expression arose out of the damages awarded to
    a successful litigant in the Law Courts.

=Whig Bible.= So called owing to the substitution of the word
    “placemakers” for “peacemakers.”

=Whigs.= An abbreviation of “Whigamores,” first applied to the Scottish
    Covenanters in consequence of a rising among the peasantry among the
    Lowland moors called the “Whigamore Raid,” and finally to that
    political party which strove to exclude the Duke of York, James II.,
    from the throne because he was a Catholic. The term “Whigamore”
    arose out of the twin-syllabic cry “Whig-am!” of the teamsters and
    ploughmen of those districts of Scotland to drive their horses.

=Whisky.= An English form of the Irish “Uisquebaugh.”

=Whitby.= So called by the Danes when they took possession of this abbey
    town on the cliffs, literally “white town.”

=Whitebait.= On account of its silvery whiteness and because it was at
    one time used exclusively for baiting crab and lobster pots.

=Whiteboys.= A band of Irish insurgents who wore white smocks over their
    ordinary garments.

=Whitechapel.= As in the case of Westminster, this name now expresses a
    district, and “Whitechapel Church” sounds ridiculous. Its ancient
    designation was the “White Chapel of St Mary.”

=Whitecross Street.= See “Redcross Street.”

=Whitefriars Street.= In olden days this was the western boundary of the
    Carmelite or White Friars’ Monastery, built in 1245.

=Whitehall.= The central portion of the wide thoroughfare between
    Charing Cross and Westminster. This received its name from the
    Banqueting-hall of white stone, originally part of a palace designed
    by Cardinal Wolsey for the London house of the Archbishop of York,
    and now the United Service Museum.

=White Hart.= An inn sign from the device of Richard II.

=White Hart Street.= After an ancient inn, “The White Hart,” removed
    during the reign of George I.

=White House.= The official residence of the President of the United
    States at Washington, so called because it is built of freestone
    painted white.

=White Quakers.= An offshoot of the Quaker sect, about 1840, who adopted
    white clothing.

=White Queen.= Mary Queen of Scots, who appeared in white mourning for
    her murdered husband, Lord Darnley.

=White Lion.= An inn sign from the badge of Edward IV. as Earl of March.

=White Sea.= So called because during six months out of each year it is
    frozen over and covered with snow.

=White Swan.= An inn sign complimentary to Edward III. and Henry IV.,
    whose badge it was.

=Whit Sunday.= A corruption of “White Sunday,” so called from the
    earliest days of Christianity in England because the catechumens or
    newly baptised attended Mass, and received the Sacrament dressed in
    white, on the Feast of Pentecost.

=Whittington Avenue.= After Sir Richard Whittington, thrice Lord Mayor
    of London, who resided in this neighbourhood.

=Whittington Stone.= The name of a tavern on Highgate Hill, opposite to
    which is, according to tradition, the identical stone on which Dick
    Whittington, the future Lord Mayor of London, rested while listening
    to the bells of Bow Church chiming across the pleasant fields.

=Wicked Bible.= Wilfully or otherwise the word “not” is omitted from
    this edition of the Scriptures, so that the passage in Exodus xx.
    14. reads: “Thou shalt commit adultery.”

=Wide-awake.= The slang term for a soft felt hat, because, having no
    nap, it must always be wide awake.

=Widow Bird.= A corruption of “Whydaw Bird,” from the country in West
    Africa where it is found.

=Wigmore Street.= In common with several neighbouring streets, this
    perpetuates one of the titles of Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford and
    Mortimer, who in 1717 was created Baron Harley of Wigmore in
    Herefordshire, the ground landlord.

=Wilburites.= The orthodox or strict members of the Society of Friends
    in America under John Wilbur, as opposed to the “Hicksite Friends.”

=William the Lion.= The surname of this King of the Scots was due to his
    selection of a lion rampant for his crest.

=Willis’s Rooms.= See “Almack’s.”

=Will Scarlet.= A euphonism invented by Robin Hood for William
    Scathelocke, the real name of one of his merry men.

=Wilton.= See “Wiltshire.”

=Wiltshire.= A corruption of “Wiltonshire,” or the Shire of Wilton,
    which name in its original form, “Willy Town,” expressed the town on
    the River Willy.

=Wimbledon.= Originally _Wibbadon_, expressing the Celtic for a
    low-lying meadow or common belonging to one Wibba.

=Wimpole Street.= After the country seat of the Harleys on the
    Herefordshire and Cambridgeshire border.

=Winchester Yard.= From Winchester House, the ancient town mansion of
    the Bishops of Winchester.

=Windermere.= Expresses the Anglo-Saxon for “clear water lake.”

=Winchester.= Inhabited by the _Belgæ_, this stronghold, called by them
    _Cær-Gwent_, “fortified enclosure on the plain,” was after the Roman
    invasion made a great centre of military activity under the
    Latinised name of _Venta Belgarum_, which the West Saxons changed
    into _Wintancæstre_, “the camp town of the Winte,” whence its modern
    name has been derived.

=Windmill Street.= A name suggestive of peaceful rusticity. The
    thoroughfare in Finsbury so denominated marks the site of three
    windmills that were erected on a mound formed by the deposition of a
    thousand cart-loads of human bones from the Charnel-house of St
    Paul’s Cathedral by order of the Lord Protector Somerset in 1549.

=Windsor.= Anciently described as “Windlesora,” the winding shore.

=Wine Office Court.= From an ancient office where wine licences were
    issued.

=Winnipeg.= Indian for “lake of the turbid water.”

=Wirepuller.= In allusion to the manipulators of the figures at a
    marionette show.

=Wisconsin.= Indian for “wild-rushing channel.”

=Within an Ace.= Since the ace in a pack of cards is the unit of pips,
    he who accomplishes anything by the merest shave does so within a
    single mark.

=Wizard of the North.= Sir Walter Scott, so called on account of the
    enchantment which, through his novels, he exercised over the
    inhabitants of North Britain.

=Woburn Square.= After Woburn Abbey, the ancestral seat of the Duke of
    Bedford.

=Woke up the Wrong Passenger.= An Americanism for having made a mistake
    in the individual. This originated in the Mississippi steamboats,
    the stewards on board of which often call up the wrong passenger at
    the stopping-places by night.

=Wolverhampton.= Anciently “Wulfrune’s Hampton,” so called from the
    church and college of St Peter founded by Wulfrune, the sister of
    King Edgar, in 996.

=Wolverine State.= Michigan, on account of the prairie wolves which
    formerly infested this region. Its people are called “Wolverines.”

=Wood Green.= In old days this was a glade in Hornsey Wood.

=Wood Street.= In this locality congregated the turners of wooden cups,
    dishes, and measures of olden times.

=Woolly Heads.= An Americanism for the Negroes of the southern states.

=Woolsack.= The seat reserved for the Lord Chancellor in the House of
    Lords, being a large sack stuffed with wool, and covered with
    scarlet cloth, its object being to keep him in constant reminder of
    the great importance of the woollen manufacture in England.

=Woolwich.= Anciently described as _Hylwich_, “hill town.”

=Worcester.= Known to the Anglo-Saxons as _Hwicwara ceaster_, “the
    stronghold of the Huiccii.” The latter portion of the name, however,
    proves that this must have been a Roman encampment; the _Huiccii_
    were a Celtic tribe.

=Worcester College.= Originally known as Gloucester Hall, this Oxford
    foundation was in 1714 enlarged and endowed as a college by Sir
    Thomas Cooksey of Astley, Worcestershire, who, not desiring his name
    to be handed down to posterity, called it after his native county.

=Work a Dead Horse.= A journeyman’s phrase implying that he has to set
    to work on the Monday morning upon that for which he has already
    been paid on the previous Saturday.

=World’s End.= A famous house of entertainment during the reign of
    Charles II., so called on account of its immense distance in those
    days out of London. Like many other places of outdoor resort, it
    exists now only as a public-house.

=Wormwood Street.= From the bitter herbs which sprang up along the Roman
    Wall in ancient times.

=Worsted.= After a town in Norfolk of the same name where this fabric
    was of old the staple industry.

=Writes like an Angel.= Dr Johnson said of Oliver Goldsmith: “He writes
    like an angel and talks like a fool.” The allusion was to Angelo
    Vergeco, a Greek of the sixteenth century, noted for his beautiful
    handwriting.

=Wych Street.= This now vanished thoroughfare was anciently _Aldwych_,
    “Old Town,” so called because it led from St Clement Danes Church to
    the isolated settlement in the parish of St Giles’s-in-the-Fields,
    which in our time is known as Broad Street, Bloomsbury.

=Wye.= From the Welsh _gwy_, water.

=Wyndham College.= The joint foundation at Oxford of Nicholas and
    Dorothy Wyndham of Edge and Merefield, Somersetshire, in 1611.


                                   X


=X Ale.= The original significance of the X mark on beer barrels was
    that the liquor had paid a ten shilling-duty. Additional X’s are
    simply brewers’ trade marks, denoting various degrees of strength
    over that of the first X.

=XL’ers.= See “Exellers.”

=XXX’s.= See “Three Exes.”


                                   Y


=Yale University.= After Elihu Yale, formerly Governor of the East
    Indian Company’s settlement at Madras, whose princely benefactions
    to the Collegiate School of the State of Connecticut, founded by ten
    Congregational ministers at Killingworth in 1701, warranted the
    removal of that seat of learning to New Haven fifteen years later.

=Yang-tse-Kiang.= Chinese for “great river.”

=Yankee.= A term popularly applied at first to one born in the New
    England states of North America owing to the fact that _Yankees_,
    _Yangkies_ and similar perpetrations were the nearest approaches to
    the word “English,” which the Indians of Massachusetts were capable
    of. Afterwards it came to be applied to the people of the continent
    generally.

=Yankee Jonathan.= The nickname of Jonathan Hastings, a farmer of
    Hastings, Mass., on account of his addiction to the word “Yankee,”
    used adjectively for anything American. Thus he would say “a Yankee
    good cider,” “a Yankee good horse,” etc.

=Yankee State.= Ohio, so called by the Kentuckians on account of its
    many free institutions.

=Yarmouth.= The port situated at the mouth of the Yare. See “Yarrow.”

=Yarn.= A spun-out story bears this name in allusion to the thread out
    of which cloth is woven.

=Yarrow.= From the Celtic _garw_, rough, rapid.

=Yeddo.= Japanese for “river entrance.”

=Yellow Book.= A French Government report, so called from its yellow
    cover.

=Yellow Boy.= Slang for a sovereign.

=Yellow Jack.= A yellow flag which is flown from a vessel in quarantine
    and from naval hospitals as a warning of yellow fever or other
    contagious disease on board. See “Union Jack.”

=Yellow Press.= By this term is meant that section of the Press which is
    given up to creating a scare or sensation. It has been derived from
    what in the United States bears the name of “Yellow-covered
    Literature,” consisting of trashy sensation novels, published
    chiefly for railway reading.

=Yellow Sea.= From the tinge imparted to its waters by the immense
    quantities of alluvial soil poured into them by the Yang-tse-Kiang
    River.

=Yendys.= The literary sobriquet of Sydney Dobell, being simply his
    Christian name reversed.

=Yeoman’s Service.= Originally that rendered to the State in time of war
    by volunteers of the Guilds or City Companies. The term “Yeoman” is
    derived from the German _gemein_, common, and applied in the sense
    of enlistment for the common good.

=Yokohama.= Japanese for “Cross Shore.”

=York.= The _Eboracum_ of the Romans, a Latinised rendering of the
    British _Eurewic_ (pronounced _Yorric_), “a row of houses on the
    Eure,” which river is now called the Ouse.

=York and Albany.= An omnibus stage in Camden Town named after
    Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, the second son of George III.

=York Gate.= The water gate, still standing, built for York House, of
    which no other vestige remains.

=York Road.= This long road, parallel to the Great Northern Railway at
    King’s Cross, owes its designation to the circumstance that the line
    in question was originally styled the “London and York Railway.”

=Yorkshire Stingo.= A public-house sign indicating that the celebrated
    ale of this name, due to the sting or sharpness of its taste, is
    sold on the premises.

=York Street.= In Covent Garden, after James, Duke of York, the second
    son of Charles I., and brother of Charles II., subsequently James
    II. In Westminster, from the erstwhile residence of Frederick, Duke
    of York and Albany, son of George III.

=Young Buffs.= The 31st Foot, whose uniforms were very similar to those
    of the Buffs, or 3rd Foot--viz. scarlet coats faced and lined with
    buff, and the remainder wholly of buff-coloured material. Soon after
    their formation in 1702 they distinguished themselves greatly in
    action, whereupon the General rode up, exclaiming: “Well done, old
    Buffs!” “But we are not the Buffs,” some of the men replied. “Then,
    well done, young Buffs,” was the retort, and the name stuck to them
    ever after.

=Young Nipper.= See “Nipper.”

=Yucatan.= From _Yuca tan_, “What do you say?” which was the only answer
    the Spaniards were able to obtain from the aborigines when they
    asked them the name of the country.

=Yuletide.= Christmastide, from the Norse _juul_, Christmas.


                                   Z


=Zadkiel.= The literary sobriquet of Lieutenant Richard James Morrison,
    author of “The Prophetic Almanack,” after the angel of the planet
    Jupiter in the Jewish mythology.

=Zantippe.= After the wife of Socrates, whose name has become proverbial
    for a bad-tempered spouse.

=Zanzibar.= A European inversion of the Arabic _Ber-ez-Zuig_, the coast
    of the Zangis, or Negroes.

=Zeeland.= Expresses the Dutch for “Sea-land,” land reclaimed from the
    sea.

=Zenith City of the Unsalted Seas.= Duluth, so called from its
    picturesque situation at the western extremity of the Great Lakes.

=Zoroastrianism.= The religious system of the “Parsees” or
    Fire-worshippers, introduced into Persia by Zoroaster _circa_ B.C.
    500.

=Zounds.= A corruption of “His Wounds,” or the Five Sacred Wounds on the
    Body of the Redeemer. This oath was first employed by John Perrot, a
    natural son of Henry VIII. Queen Elizabeth was much addicted to the
    exclamation “His Wounds,” but the ladies of her Court softened it
    into “Zounds” and “Zouterkins.”

=Zurich.= From the Latin _Thuricum_, in honour of Thuricus, the son of
    Theodoric, who rebuilt the city after it had been destroyed by
    Attila.

=Zuyder Zee.= Properly _Zuider Zee_, the Dutch for “Southern Sea,”
    relative to the North Sea or German Ocean.

                THE RIVERSIDE PRESS LIMITED, EDINBURGH.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           Transcriber’s Note

Hyphens in words that occur on line-breaks are retained or removed based
upon the preponderance of other instances in the text.

There are numerous cross-references in this text. There are several
reference to an entry for “Wassail”, which is not present as a separate
entry. The entry for “Pig and Whistle”, provides a description of the
word. Similarly, the reference to “Cop” in the entry for “Fair Cop”
likely refers to “Copper”.

Where odd spellings are encountered without any other occurences,
allowances are made for the author’s possibly idiosyncratic manner, and
these are merely noted, but retained.

Errors deemed most likely to be the printer’s have been corrected, and
are noted here. The references are to the page and line in the original.
The following issues should be noted, along with the resolutions.

  21.27    Verses w[r]itten in praise or dispraise        Inserted.

  37.27    an officer in the First Del[e/a]ware Regiment  Replaced.

  40.30    From the way in which [b/h]e adjusts           Replaced.

  43.33    generally a hired assas[s]in                   Inserted.

  94.30    After William Farrin[g]don                     Inserted.

  101.5    [w/t]hen Prince of Wales                       Replaced.

  117.13   in the river near[ near] Fort Niagara          Removed.

  123.34   [I/A]n inn sign anciently depicting            Replaced.

  134.28   Harvard U[u/n]iversity                         Inverted.

  138.9    It was according[ing]ly in the heel            Removed.

  157.22   Maize, brought f[r]om the West Indies          Inserted.

  163.30   at the memorable s[ei/ie]ge of Ostend          Transposed.

  169.11   appl[i]ed to dried beef                        Inserted.

  172.37   the great [lexocographer]                      _Sic_:
                                                          lexicographer

  179.12   K[ah/ha]n.                                     Transposed.

  199.3    from the Lat[a/i]n _liber_                     Replaced.

  201.7    A distingu[i]shed musical executant            Inserted.

  208.37   in the manufacturing dist[r]icts               Inserted.

  216.4    in the her[io/oi]c defence of the city         Transposed.

  223.30   After the magnific[i]ent sepulchral monument   Removed.

  224.1    Maydew Che[e/r]ries.                           Replaced.

  254.23   wore a grogram clo[c/o]ak                      Replaced.

  277.3    From the Spanish _[pegueno] nino_              _sic_:
                                                          pequeno

  285.22   and other public announc[e]ments               Inserted.

  309.32   his invention of [“]Prince Rupert’s Drops,”    Added.

  320.36   to the queen of[ of] Henry III.                Removed.

  327.9    A corruption of [“]St Chad’s Well,”            Inserted.

  329.33   being an abbrev[i]ation of “Companionship.”    Inserted.

  337.31   Called by the Ca[r]thaginians “Hispania,”      Inserted.

  340.27   Al[g]onquin for an Indian woman.               Inserted.

  354.27   A tavern sign off[,] Golden Square             Removed.

  358.15   the nickname be[s]towed by the Protestants     Inserted.

  366.5    Ur[a/u]guay.                                   Replaced.

  374.12   by weep[l/i]ng over the folly of mankind       Replaced.

  377.36   The [othordox/orthodox] or strict members      Replaced.

  381.26   and similar pe[r]petrations                    Inserted.

  383.37   [Y]uletide.                                    Restored.





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