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Title: Historical Record of the Sixteenth, or, The Bedfordshire Regiment of Foot: From Its Formation in 1688 to 1848
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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[Illustration:

  BY COMMAND OF His late Majesty WILLIAM THE IV^{TH}.
  _and under the Patronage of_
  Her Majesty the Queen.

  HISTORICAL RECORDS,
  _OF THE_
  British Army

  _Comprising the
  History of every Regiment
  IN HER MAJESTY'S SERVICE_.

  _By Richard Cannon Esq^{re}._

  _Adjutant General's Office, Horse Guards._

  London.

  _Printed by Authority._]



  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE SIXTEENTH,

  OR,

  THE BEDFORDSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT;

  CONTAINING

  AN ACCOUNT OF THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT
  IN 1688,

  AND OF ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES
  TO 1848.

  COMPILED BY
  RICHARD CANNON, ESQ.
  ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, HORSE GUARDS.

  ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES.

  LONDON:
  PARKER, FURNIVALL, & PARKER,
  30 CHARING CROSS.

  M DCCC XLVIII.



  LONDON: PRINTED BY W. CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET,
  FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.



SIXTEENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.


CONTENTS

OF THE

HISTORICAL RECORD.


                                                                   PAGE
  YEAR  INTRODUCTION

  1688  Formation of the Regiment                                     1

  ----  Establishment and Uniform                                     2

  ----  Quartered at Stony Stratford                                  -

  1689  Embarked for Holland                                          3

  ----  Engaged at Walcourt                                           -

  ----  Marched to Bruges                                             4

  1690  Marched to Brussels                                           -

  1691  Joined the Army in South Brabant                              -

  1692  Engaged at Steenkirk                                          -

  ----  Colonel Hodges killed                                         5

  1693  Engaged at Landen                                             -

  ----  Quartered at Dendermond                                       -

  1694  Joined the Army in the Field                                  6

  ----  Returned to Dendermond                                        -

  1695  Joined in the Siege and Capture of Namur                      -

  1696  Joined the Army of Brabant                                    -

  1697  Treaty of Peace concluded at Ryswick                          7

  ----  Embarked for Ireland                                          -

  1701  Preparations for recommencing War with France                 -

  ----  Re-embarked for Holland                                       -

  ----  Reviewed on Breda-Heath by King William III.                  -

  1702  Proceeded to Rosendael                                        -

  ----  Encamped at Cranenburg                                        -

  ----  Siege of Kayserswerth                                         -

  ----  Marched to Nimeguen                                           -

  ----  War declared against France                                   8

  ----  Earl of Marlborough assumed the command of the Army           -

  ----  Siege of Venloo                                               -

  ----  -------- Ruremonde                                            -

  ----  -------- Stevenswaert                                         -

  ----  Capture of the Citadel of Liege                               -

  ----  Returned to Holland                                           -

  1703  Marched towards Maestricht                                    -

  ----  Siege and Capture of Huy                                      -

  ----  -------------------- Limburg                                  -

  ----  Returned to Holland                                           -

  1704  Accompanied the Army to Germany                               9

  ----  Battle of Schellenberg                                        -

  ----  Crossed the Danube                                            -

  ----  Battle of Blenheim                                            -

  ----  Marshal Tallard, and many officers and soldiers,
          made prisoners                                              -

  ----  Returned to Holland                                          10

  1705  Attacks on Helixem and Neer-Hespen                           --

  1706  Battle of Ramilies                                           11

  ----  Surrender of principal towns of Brabant                      --

  ----  Marched into quarters at Ghent                               --

  1708  Returned to England to repel invasion by the Pretender       --

  ----  Returned to Flanders                                         --

  ----  Proceeded to Ghent                                           --

  ----  Battle of Oudenarde                                          --

  ----  Siege of Lisle                                               12

  ----  Surrender of the Citadel of Lisle                            --

  1709  Siege and Capture of Tournay                                 13

  1709  Battle of Malplaquet                                         --

  ----  Siege and Surrender of Mons                                  14

  ----  Marched into winter quarters at Ghent                        --

  1710  Engaged in forcing the French Lines at Pont-à-Vendin         --

  ----  Siege and Surrender of Douay                                 --

  ----  ---------------------- Bethune                               --

  ----  ---------------------- Aire and St. Venant                   --

  ----  Returned to Ghent                                            --

  1711  Engaged in forcing the French Lines at Arleux                --

  ----  Siege of Bouchain                                            --

  1712  Joined the Army at Tournay                                   15

  ----  Encamped at Cateau-Cambresis                                 --

  ----  Surrender of Quesnoy                                         --

  ----  Suspension of hostilities                                    --

  ----  Detached to Dunkirk                                          --

  1714  Embarked for Scotland                                        --

  1739  War declared against Spain                                   16

  1740  Encamped near Newbury under Lieutenant-General Wade          17

  ----  Embarked as Marines                                          --

  ----  Re-landed at Portsmouth                                      --

  ----  A detachment embarked for the West Indies on
          an Expedition under General Lord Cathcart                  --

  1741  Expedition arrived at Jamaica                                --

  ----  Employed at Carthagena, in South America                     --

  ----  Detachment nearly annihilated by disease                     --

  1742  War of the Austrian Succession commenced                     --

  1745  Arrival in Scotland of Charles Edward, eldest
          son of the Pretender                                       --

  1746  Regiment embarked for Scotland                               18

  1748  Termination of the War on the Continent                      --

  1749  Embarked for Ireland                                         --

  1751  Royal Warrant issued on 1st July for regulating
          the Clothing, Colours, &c. of Regiments                    --

  1755  War re-commenced with France                                 19

  1763  Peace of Fontainebleau took place                            --

  1767  Embarked for Florida in South America                        20

  1775  War commenced with North America                             --

  1778  War commenced with France, Spain, and Holland                21

  1779  Regiment withdrew to Baton Rouge, and made
          prisoners of war by the Spanish Governor of
          Louisiana                                                  --

  ----  Engaged with French and American forces at
          Savannah and the State of Georgia                          --

  1781  Defended Pensacola against a Spanish force                   22

  1782  Returned to England from South America                       23

  ----  Authorized to assume the County Title of _Buckinghamshire_
          Regiment                                                   --

  ----  Termination of the American War                              --

  1784  Embarked for Ireland                                         --

  1790  Embarked for Nova Scotia                                     24

  1791  Removed to Jamaica                                           --

  1793  Revolution broke out in France                               --

  ----  Republican principles extended to the French
          West India Settlements                                     --

  ----  Detachment embarked from Jamaica for St. Domingo             --

  1795  Engaged in the Maroon War in Jamaica                         --

  1796  Maroons reduced to submission, and removed from Jamaica      25

  ----  Regiment returned to England                                 --

  1797  Embarked for Scotland                                        --

  1799  Returned to England                                          26

  1800  Embarked for Ireland                                         --

  1802  Peace of Amiens concluded                                    --

  1803  War with France re-commenced                                  --

  1804  Embarked for the West Indies                                 --

  ----  Employed on an Expedition against Surinam                    27

  1806  Attacked by a large force of predatory Negroes at Surinam    --

  1809  The County Title exchanged to the _Bedfordshire_
          instead of the Buckinghamshire Regiment                    28

  1811  Returned to England                                          --

  1813  Embarked for Scotland                                        --

  ----  Proceeded to Ireland                                         --

  1814  War took place with the United States of America             29

  ----  Embarked for Canada                                          --

  1815  Returned to England, proceeded to Ostend, and
          marched to Paris                                           --

  ----  Returned to England                                          --

  1816  Embarked for Ireland                                         30

  1819  Embarked for Ceylon                                          --

  1828  Embarked for Bengal                                          31

  1841  Embarked for England                                         32

  1843  Proceeded to Ireland                                         33

  1846  Six Service Companies embarked for Gibraltar                 34

  1847  Six Service Companies embarked for Corfu                     --

  1848  Four Depôt Companies embarked from Cork for Guernsey         --

  ----  The Conclusion                                               --


PLATES.

  Costume of the Regiment                                   to face   1

  Colours of the Regiment                                      "     34


SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF THE

SIXTEENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.


  YEAR                                                             PAGE

  1688  Archibald Douglas                                            35

  ----  Robert Hodges                                                36

  1692  _Hon._ James Stanley, afterwards Earl of Derby               --

  1705  Francis Godfrey                                              37

  1711  Henry Durell                                                 38

  1713  Hans Hamilton                                                --

  1715  Richard _Viscount_ Irwin                                     --

  1717  James Cholmeley                                              39

  1724  Henry Earl of Deloraine, K.B.                                --

  1730  Roger Handasyd                                               40

  1763  _Hon._ Robert Brudenell                                      --

  1765  Sir William Draper, K.B.                                     --

  1766  James Gisborne                                               41

  1778  James Robertson                                              --

  1788  _Hon._ Thomas Bruce                                          42

  1797  Henry Bowyer                                                 --

  1808  Sir Charles Green, Bart.                                     43

  1814  Sir George Prevost, Bart.                                    44

  1816  Hugh Mackay Gordon                                           45

  1823  William Carr, _Viscount_ Beresford, G.C.B. and G.C.H.        --



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE-GUARDS_,
  _1st January, 1836_.

His Majesty has been pleased to command that, with the view of
doing the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals
who have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with
the Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the
British Army shall be published under the superintendence and
direction of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall
contain the following particulars, viz.:--

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations
  in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any
  Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies,
  &c., it may have captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers, and the number of
  Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates Killed or Wounded by the
  Enemy, specifying the place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
  Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers,
  and Privates, as may have specially signalized themselves in
  Action.

  And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honorable

  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour by which all who enter into its service
are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that
any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which
alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have
preceded him in their honorable career, are among the motives that
have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
"London Gazette," from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on
the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their
orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill
and bravery; and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour
of their Sovereign's approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic
account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command that every Regiment shall, in
future, keep a full and ample record of its services at home and
abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, being undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active service
and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during peace, the
British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe, with little
or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which
so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services and of acts of
individual bravery can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under his
Majesty's special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk
of the Adjutant General's Office; and while the perusal of them
cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every
rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and
information to the general reader, particularly to those who may
have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or
are serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment
to everything belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a
narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great, the
valiant, the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with
a brave and civilized people. Great Britain has produced a race
of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood "firm
as the rocks of their native shore:" and when half the world has
been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained
by our countrymen, our brothers, our fellow citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to the
public.

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value
and importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment
will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall
be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION

TO

THE INFANTRY.


The natives of Britain have, at all periods, been celebrated for
innate courage and unshaken firmness, and the national superiority
of the British troops over those of other countries has been
evinced in the midst of the most imminent perils. History contains
so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery, that no doubts can
be raised upon the facts which are recorded. It must therefore be
admitted, that the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is
INTREPIDITY. This quality was evinced by the inhabitants of England
when their country was invaded by Julius Cæsar with a Roman army,
on which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into the sea to
attack the Roman soldiers as they descended from their ships; and,
although their discipline and arms were inferior to those of their
adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing intimidated
the flower of the Roman troops, including Cæsar's favourite tenth
legion. Their arms consisted of spears, short swords, and other
weapons of rude construction. They had chariots, to the axles of
which were fastened sharp pieces of iron resembling scythe-blades,
and infantry in long chariots resembling waggons, who alighted
and fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit or retreat,
sprang into the chariot and drove off with the speed of cavalry.
These inventions were, however, unavailing against Cæsar's
legions: in the course of time a military system, with discipline
and subordination, was introduced, and British courage, being
thus regulated, was exerted to the greatest advantage; a full
development of the national character followed, and it shone forth
in all its native brilliancy.

The military force of the Anglo Saxons consisted principally of
infantry: Thanes, and other men of property, however, fought on
horseback. The infantry were of two classes, heavy and light. The
former carried large shields armed with spikes, long broad swords
and spears; and the latter were armed with swords or spears only.
They had also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes and
javelins.

The feudal troops established by William the Conqueror consisted
(as already stated in the Introduction to the Cavalry) almost
entirely of horse; but when the warlike barons and knights, with
their trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a proportion
of men appeared on foot, and, although these were of inferior
degree, they proved stout-hearted Britons of stanch fidelity. When
stipendiary troops were employed, infantry always constituted a
considerable portion of the military force; and this _arme_ has
since acquired, in every quarter of the globe, a celebrity never
exceeded by the armies of any nation at any period.

The weapons carried by the infantry, during the several reigns
succeeding the Conquest, were bows and arrows, half-pikes, lances,
halberds, various kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour
was worn on the head and body, and in course of time the practice
became general for military men to be so completely cased in steel,
that it was almost impossible to slay them.

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the destructive
purposes of war, in the early part of the fourteenth
century, produced a change in the arms and equipment of the
infantry-soldier. Bows and arrows gave place to various kinds of
fire-arms, but British archers continued formidable adversaries;
and owing to the inconvenient construction and imperfect bore of
the fire-arms when first introduced, a body of men, well trained
in the use of the bow from their youth, was considered a valuable
acquisition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth century.

During a great part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth each company
of infantry usually consisted of men armed five different ways; in
every hundred men forty were "_men-at-arms_," and sixty "_shot_;"
the "men-at-arms" were ten halberdiers, or battle-axe men, and
thirty pikemen; and the "shot" were twenty archers, twenty
musketeers, and twenty harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides
his principal weapon, a sword and dagger.

Companies of infantry varied at this period in numbers from 150
to 300 men; each company had a colour or ensign, and the mode of
formation recommended by an English military writer (Sir John
Smithe) in 1590 was:--the colour in the centre of the company
guarded by the halberdiers; the pikemen in equal proportions, on
each flank of the halberdiers: half the musketeers on each flank
of the pikes; half the archers on each flank of the musketeers,
and the harquebusiers (whose arms were much lighter than the
muskets then in use) in equal proportions on each flank of the
company for skirmishing.[1] It was customary to unite a number
of companies into one body, called a REGIMENT, which frequently
amounted to three thousand men: but each company continued to carry
a colour. Numerous improvements were eventually introduced in the
construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found impossible to
make armour proof against the muskets then in use (which carried
a very heavy ball) without its being too weighty for the soldier,
armour was gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seventeenth
century: bows and arrows also fell into disuse, and the infantry
were reduced to two classes, viz.: _musketeers_, armed with
matchlock muskets, swords, and daggers; and _pikemen_, armed with
pikes from fourteen to eighteen feet long, and swords.

In the early part of the seventeenth century Gustavus Adolphus,
King of Sweden, reduced the strength of regiments to 1000 men. He
caused the gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in flasks,
or in small wooden bandoliers, each containing a charge, to be
made up into cartridges, and carried in pouches; and he formed
each regiment into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division
of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of forming four regiments
into a brigade; and the number of colours was afterwards reduced to
three in each regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that his
infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated Polish horsemen
and Austrian cuirassiers; and his armies became the admiration of
other nations. His mode of formation was copied by the English,
French, and other European states; but so great was the prejudice
in favour of ancient customs, that all his improvements were not
adopted until near a century afterwards.

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea-service, styled
the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 each company of 100 men usually
consisted of 30 pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with light
firelocks. In this year the King added a company of men armed with
hand-grenades to each of the old British regiments, which was
designated the "grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived as to
fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets similar to those
at present in use were adopted about twenty years afterwards.

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by order of King James
II., to guard the artillery, and was designated the Royal Fusiliers
(now 7th Foot). This corps, and the companies of grenadiers, did
not carry pikes.

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's regiment in the second
Foot Guards, and raised two Marine regiments for sea-service.
During the war in this reign, each company of infantry (excepting
the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 pikemen and 46
musketeers; the captains carried pikes; lieutenants, partisans;
ensigns, half-pikes; and serjeants, halberds. After the peace in
1697 the Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again formed on
the breaking out of the war in 1702.[2]

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were laid aside, and every
infantry soldier was armed with a musket, bayonet, and sword; the
grenadiers ceased, about the same period, to carry hand grenades;
and the regiments were directed to lay aside their third colour:
the corps of Royal Artillery was first added to the Army in this
reign.

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion companies of infantry
ceased to carry swords; during the reign of George II. light
companies were added to infantry regiments; and in 1764 a Board of
General Officers recommended that the grenadiers should lay aside
their swords, as that weapon had never been used during the seven
years' war. Since that period the arms of the infantry soldier have
been limited to the musket and bayonet.

The arms and equipment of the British troops have seldom differed
materially, since the Conquest, from those of other European
states; and in some respects the arming has, at certain periods,
been allowed to be inferior to that of the nations with whom they
have had to contend; yet, under this disadvantage, the bravery and
superiority of the British infantry have been evinced on very many
and most trying occasions, and splendid victories have been gained
over very superior numbers.

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like champions who have
dared to confront a host of foes, and have proved themselves
valiant with any arms. At _Crecy_ King Edward III., at the head of
about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 1346, Philip
King of France, whose army is said to have amounted to 100,000
men; here British valour encountered veterans of renown:--the
King of Bohemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and nobles
were slain, and the French army was routed and cut to pieces. Ten
years afterwards, Edward Prince of Wales, who was designated the
Black Prince, defeated, at _Poictiers_, with 14,000 men, a French
army of 60,000 horse, besides infantry, and took John I., King of
France, and his son Philip, prisoners. On the 25th of October,
1415, King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000 men, although
greatly exhausted by marches, privations, and sickness, defeated,
at _Agincourt_, the Constable of France, at the head of the flower
of the French nobility and an army said to amount to 60,000 men,
and gained a complete victory.

During the seventy years' war between the United Provinces of the
Netherlands and the Spanish monarchy, which commenced in 1578 and
terminated in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the
States-General were celebrated for their unconquerable spirit and
firmness;[3] and in the thirty years' war between the Protestant
Princes and the Emperor of Germany, the British troops in the
service of Sweden and other states were celebrated for deeds of
heroism.[4] In the wars of Queen Anne, the fame of the British
army under the great MARLBOROUGH was spread throughout the world;
and if we glance at the achievements performed within the memory
of persons now living, there is abundant proof that the Britons
of the present age are not inferior to their ancestors in the
qualities which constitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds of
the brave men, of whom there are many now surviving, who fought in
Egypt in 1801, under the brave Abercromby, and compelled the French
army, which had been vainly styled _Invincible_, to evacuate that
country; also the services of the gallant Troops during the arduous
campaigns in the Peninsula, under the immortal WELLINGTON; and
the determined stand made by the British Army at Waterloo, where
Napoleon Bonaparte, who had long been the inveterate enemy of Great
Britain, and had sought and planned her destruction by every means
he could devise, was compelled to leave his vanquished legions to
their fate, and to place himself at the disposal of the British
Government. These achievements, with others of recent dates in the
distant climes of India, prove that the same valour and constancy
which glowed in the breasts of the heroes of Crecy, Poictiers,
Agincourt, Blenheim, and Ramilies, continue to animate the Britons
of the nineteenth century.

The British Soldier is distinguished for a robust and muscular
frame,--intrepidity which no danger can appal,--unconquerable
spirit and resolution,--patience in fatigue and privation, and
cheerful obedience to his superiors. These qualities, united with
an excellent system of order and discipline to regulate and give
a skilful direction to the energies and adventurous spirit of
the hero, and a wise selection of officers of superior talent to
command, whose presence inspires confidence,--have been the leading
causes of the splendid victories gained by the British arms.[5]
The fame of the deeds of the past and present generations in the
various battle-fields where the robust sons of Albion have fought
and conquered, surrounds the British arms with a halo of glory;
these achievements will live in the page of history to the end of
time.

The records of the several regiments will be found to contain a
detail of facts of an interesting character, connected with the
hardships, sufferings, and gallant exploits of British soldiers in
the various parts of the world, where the calls of their Country
and the commands of their Sovereign have required them to proceed
in the execution of their duty, whether in active continental
operations, or in maintaining colonial territories in distant and
unfavourable climes.

The superiority of the British infantry has been pre-eminently set
forth in the wars of six centuries, and admitted by the greatest
commanders which Europe has produced. The formations and movements
of this _arme_, as at present practised, while they are adapted
to every species of warfare, and to all probable situations
and circumstances of service, are calculated to show forth the
brilliancy of military tactics calculated upon mathematical and
scientific principles. Although the movements and evolutions have
been copied from the continental armies, yet various improvements
have from time to time been introduced, to insure that simplicity
and celerity by which the superiority of the national military
character is maintained. The rank and influence which Great Britain
has attained among the nations of the world, have in a great
measure been purchased by the valour of the Army, and to persons
who have the welfare of their country at heart, the records of the
several regiments cannot fail to prove interesting.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] A company of 200 men would appear thus:--

                                 __|
                                |  |
                                |__|
                                   |
      20     20     20     30     2|0     30     20      20     20
  Harquebuses.    Muskets.      Halberds.      Muskets.    Harquebuses.
           Archers.       Pikes.         Pikes.        Archers.

The musket carried a ball which weighed 1/10th of a pound; and the
harquebus a ball which weighed 1/25th of a pound.

[2] The 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine corps
in 1702, and were employed as such during the wars in the reign
of Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the Fleet under
Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of Gibraltar, and
in its subsequent defence in 1704; they were afterwards employed at
the siege of Barcelona in 1705.

[3] The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his Discourse on War, printed
in 1590, observes:--"I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation
would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the
field, let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the
Spanish infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe.
For instances of valour displayed by the British Infantry during
the Seventy Years' War, see the Historical Record of the Third
Foot, or Buffs.

[4] Vide the Historical Record of the First, or Royal Regiment of
Foot.

[5] "Under the blessing of Divine Providence, His Majesty ascribes
the successes which have attended the exertions of his troops in
Egypt to that determined bravery which is inherent in Britons; but
His Majesty desires it may be most solemnly and forcibly impressed
on the consideration of every part of the army, that it has been a
strict observance of order, discipline, and military system, which
has given the full energy to the native valour of the troops, and
has enabled them proudly to assert the superiority of the national
military character, in situations uncommonly arduous, and under
circumstances of peculiar difficulty."--_General Orders in 1801._

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope
(afterwards Lord Hopetoun), congratulating the army upon the
successful result of the Battle of Corunna, on the 16th of January,
1809, it is stated:--"On no occasion has the undaunted valour of
British troops ever been more manifest. At the termination of a
severe and harassing march, rendered necessary by the superiority
which the enemy had acquired, and which had materially impaired
the efficiency of the troops, many disadvantages were to be
encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the
troops themselves; and the enemy has been taught, that whatever
advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is
inherent in the British officers and soldiers a bravery that knows
not how to yield,--that no circumstances can appal,--and that will
ensure victory, when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any
human means."


[Illustration: SIXTEENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.

FOR CANNON'S MILITARY RECORDS

_Madeley del et lith 3 Wellington S^t Strand_]



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF

THE SIXTEENTH,

OR THE

BEDFORDSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT.


[Sidenote: 1688]

In the autumn of 1688, when the pernicious counsellors of King
James II. had induced His Majesty to adopt measures which indicated
a design to overthrow the constitution and established religion
of the country, and many patriotic noblemen and gentlemen had
solicited the Prince of Orange to come to England with an army, to
preserve the liberties and religion of the people, the King then
became sensible of the dangerous position into which he had been
brought, and resolved to augment his army: and among the corps
embodied on that occasion was a regiment of pikemen and musketeers,
which has been retained in the service to the present time, and now
bears the title of "The SIXTEENTH, or the BEDFORDSHIRE Regiment of
Foot."

This corps was raised in the southern counties of England, and the
colonelcy was conferred on Lieut.-Colonel Archibald Douglas, from
the royal regiment of foot, by commission dated the 9th of October,
1688. Captain Robert Hodges, from the grenadier company of the
royal regiment, was appointed Lieut.-Colonel, and Murdock M'Kenzie
was nominated Major. The establishment was fixed at nine hundred
and twenty-seven officers and soldiers, including a grenadier
company, which was afterwards ordered to be added to the regiment.
The uniform was round hats, ornamented with _white_ ribands; _red_
coats, lined and faced with _white_; white waistcoats and breeches.

Five days after the warrants for the formation of the regiment were
issued, a number of men had enrolled themselves under the standards
of this corps,--principally from the county of Middlesex; and they
were ordered to march to Reading in Berkshire, where the several
enlisting parties were directed to assemble, and the formation of
the corps was completed.

Early in November, when the armament under the Prince of Orange
had passed Dover, the regiment was ordered to march to London, and
occupy quarters in the borough of Southwark; it was afterwards
directed to join the army: but the pernicious advice of the King's
counsellors proved fatal to his interests; his soldiers refused
to fight against the Prince of Orange; and some irregular orders
were issued which appeared to leave the officers and men at liberty
to quit their colours, when a number of corps were disbanded.
The Prince of Orange issued orders for the several corps to be
re-organised, and appointed quarters for every regiment;--the
SIXTEENTH were directed to occupy quarters at Stony Stratford, in
Buckinghamshire. King James afterwards fled to France.

Colonel Douglas adhered to the interest of King James, and the
Prince of Orange promoted Lieut.-Colonel Hodges to the colonelcy of
the regiment, by commission dated the 31st of December, 1688.

[Sidenote: 1689]

In the early part of 1689 the Prince and Princess of Orange were
elevated to the throne by the titles of King William the Third and
Queen Mary; and soon afterwards the SIXTEENTH regiment received
orders to proceed to Holland, to aid the Dutch in their war with
France. It embarked for the United Provinces in April, and served
the campaign of that year under Prince Waldeck; in August it was in
position in the province of Namur.

Early on the morning of the 25th of August, the musketeers of the
regiment, with the piquets of several other corps, commanded by
Colonel Hodges of the SIXTEENTH, advanced to cover the numerous
foraging parties sent to the villages and fields in front of the
army, and Colonel Hodges posted his men at, and in front of, the
village of Forgé. About nine o'clock the French army under Marshal
d'Humières was seen advancing to attack the confederate forces,
when three guns were fired to call in the foragers, and Colonel
Hodges prepared to resist the leading corps of the enemy to give
time for the several parties to withdraw. The Dutch and Danish
horse in front were speedily driven in; but the musketeers of the
SIXTEENTH and other corps under Colonel Hodges lined the hedges,
and held a force of very superior numbers in check nearly two
hours, when, the foraging parties having all returned to camp,
Colonel Hodges withdrew to a mill, and, posting his men behind
walls and out-buildings, he held the French army in check nearly an
hour, the shots of his marksmen smiting the leading companies of
the enemy with sure aim. At length he received orders to retire,
and withdrew fighting, until he came to the village of _Walcourt_,
where a regiment of Lunenburgers was posted. The French attempted
to carry the village by storm; but were repulsed, and were
eventually forced to retreat, with severe loss. Colonel Hodges'
party had Lieut.-Colonel Graham, Captain Davison, and thirty men,
killed.

In October the regiment marched to Bruges, where it was stationed
during the winter.

[Sidenote: 1690]

The regiment marched for Brussels in June, 1690, in order to join
the Dutch forces; but Prince Waldeck engaged the French at Fleurus,
without waiting for the arrival of the British troops, and his army
was nearly annihilated; which reduced the confederate forces to the
necessity of limiting their services to defensive operations during
the remainder of the campaign.

[Sidenote: 1691]

Leaving its winter quarters in March, 1691, the regiment joined the
army in South Brabant, and was formed in brigade with the Scots
foot guards, a battalion of the royals, and the Scots regiments
of Ramsay, Angus, and Mackay; but the confederate army was not
sufficiently numerous to prevent the French capturing Mons. During
the summer the regiment took part in various manœuvres; but no
general engagement occurred.

[Sidenote: 1692]

In the spring of 1692, when the French besieged Namur, the
SIXTEENTH were called from their winter quarters, and joined the
army under the command of King William III., who advanced to
relieve the besieged fortress, but was delayed by heavy rains, and
the garrison surrendered before the end of June.

After several movements King William resolved to attack the French
army, under Marshal Luxemburg, at its camp at _Steenkirk_, on the
3rd of August. The leading corps penetrated along difficult roads,
and attacked the French army with great gallantry; but the main
body of the confederate troops was too far in the rear to afford
timely support, and the King ordered a retreat. The SIXTEENTH were
brought into action on this occasion, and exposed to the enemy's
fire, when Colonel Hodges was killed at the head of the regiment by
a cannon-ball: his death was much regretted, he being a gallant and
intelligent officer, much esteemed and beloved by the soldiers.

King William conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on the
Honorable James Stanley, afterwards Earl of Derby, from Captain and
Lieut.-Colonel in the first foot guards.

Towards the end of August the regiment was detached, with other
troops, under Lieut.-General Talmash, who moved towards Bruges:
at the same time Furnes and Dixmude were taken possession of and
fortified.

[Sidenote: 1693]

The regiment served the campaign of 1693 in the brigade commanded
by Brigadier-General Erle. It took part in several movements, and
was in position when the confederate army was attacked at _Landen_,
on the 29th of July, by the French, under Marshal Luxemburg. The
enemy had a great superiority of numbers on this occasion, and the
confederate army was forced to retreat. It was stated in the London
Gazette, "the enemy had above eighty thousand effective men; we
were not more than forty-five thousand. * * * Our troops in general
behaved themselves extremely well, but the English did particularly
distinguish themselves." The regiment had Captain Cole and Ensign
Johnston killed, and Ensign Campion taken prisoner; it also lost
upwards of fifty men, killed, wounded, and taken prisoners.

At the end of the campaign the regiment was placed in garrison at
Dendermond.

[Sidenote: 1694]

Quitting its winter quarters in May, 1694, the regiment joined the
army, and served the campaign of this year in the brigade commanded
by Brigadier-General Collier: it afterwards returned to Dendermond.

[Sidenote: 1695]

In 1695 King William undertook the siege of _Namur_, and the
SIXTEENTH had the honor to take part in the capture of this
important fortress. They joined the besieging army, and were on
duty in the trenches on the 7th of July; and they were repeatedly
engaged in storming the outworks and exterior defences. On the 17th
of July Ensign Gardiner of the regiment was killed, and Ensign
Devreux wounded, at the attack on the counterscarp; and on the 2nd
of August, Captain Holiday of the grenadier company was wounded at
the extending of the lodgment on the covered way. On the following
day, when preparations were making for another assault, the
garrison hoisted a white flag and agreed to surrender the town.

The SIXTEENTH were selected to take part in the siege of the castle
of Namur, and were encamped at Maison Blanche; but, having lost
many men, they were relieved on the 11th of August, and joined the
covering army under the Prince of Vaudemont. They were encamped a
short time between Genappe and Waterloo; afterwards near Namur;
and the grenadier company took part in the attack on the castle,
which capitulated on the 2nd of September. The regiment afterwards
returned to Dendermond.

[Sidenote: 1696]

[Sidenote: 1697]

Leaving its winter quarters in the spring of 1696, the regiment
joined the army of Brabant under King William, and served
the campaign of that year in Brigadier-General Fitzpatrick's
brigade. It served the campaign of 1697 in the brigade under
Brigadier-General Ingoldsby; and in the autumn the British monarch
witnessed his efforts to preserve the reformed religion, and the
balance of power in Europe, attended with success. The treaty of
Ryswick gave peace to the nations of Europe; and the SIXTEENTH
regiment embarked for Ireland, where it was stationed until the
summer of 1701, reposing on the reputation which it had acquired on
the continent, where it had served seven campaigns.

[Sidenote: 1701]

In the meantime the French monarch had violated the liberties
of Europe, by procuring the accession of his grandson, the Duke
of Anjou, to the throne of Spain,--by seizing on the Spanish
Netherlands and detaining the Dutch garrisons in the barrier towns:
and the SIXTEENTH were called from their quarters in Ireland to
reinforce the Dutch army. The regiment embarked from Carrickfergus
on the 7th of June, and sailed to the island of Voorn, where it
was removed on board of Dutch vessels, and proceeded up the Maese
to the fortress of Huesden, where it remained two months, then
proceeded to Breda, and was reviewed on Breda heath by King William
on the 21st of September, afterwards returning to Huesden.

[Sidenote: 1702]

In March, 1702, the regiment traversed the country to Rosendael,
where the British corps were assembled under Brigadier-General
Ingoldsby, and received information of the death of King William,
and the accession of Queen Anne, on the 8th of March. The regiment
afterwards marched across the country to the duchy of Cleves, and
encamped at Cranenburg, forming part of the covering army during
the siege of _Kayserswerth_ by the Germans. On the night of the
10th of June the covering army made a forced march to _Nimeguen_ to
avoid the loss of communication with that fortress, in consequence
of the movements of the enemy. On the following morning the
British corps in the rear-guard distinguished themselves in a sharp
skirmish with the leading columns of the French army.

Queen Anne declared war against France; additional troops were
sent to Holland, and the Earl of Marlborough assumed the command
of the allied army. The SIXTEENTH shared in the operations by
which the French army was forced to retire from the frontiers of
Holland; and they formed part of the covering army during the
sieges of _Venloo_, _Ruremonde_, and _Stevenswaert_; took part in
delivering the city of _Liege_ from the power of the enemy; and
their grenadier company distinguished itself in the capture of the
citadel by storm on the 23rd of October. The regiment afterwards
marched back to Holland for winter quarters.

[Sidenote: 1703]

Towards the end of April, 1703, the regiment commenced its march
towards Maestricht, and was in position near that city when the
French army approached in order of battle, but did not venture to
hazard a general engagement. The regiment shared in the operations
by which the French were afterwards forced to make a precipitate
retreat and take post behind their fortified lines. The services
of the regiment were also connected with the siege and capture of
the fortress of _Huy_, on the Maese river, above the city of Liege;
and with the siege of the city of _Limburg_, situate on a pleasant
eminence among woods near the banks of the Wesdet, which place
surrendered on the 28th of September. After these conquests the
SIXTEENTH returned to Holland.

[Sidenote: 1704]

During the winter six hundred men of the regiment joined the
garrison of Maestricht, while the Dutch soldiers were working at
the entrenchments on the heights of Petersberg: in May, 1704, the
remainder of the regiment marched towards the Rhine, and was
joined at Bedburg by the detachment from Maestricht.

The Duke of Marlborough led his army from Holland to the heart of
Germany, and, there encountering the legions of France and Bavaria,
he gained two important victories on the banks of the Danube,
and exalted the reputation of the British arms. The SIXTEENTH
had the honor to share in this splendid enterprise, and to take
a distinguished part in gaining the victory at _Schellenberg_
on the 2nd of July, when the regiment had Major Mordaunt,
Ensign Charleston, one serjeant, and nineteen soldiers killed;
Lieut.-Colonel Hamilton, Captain Coghlan, Ensign Key, one serjeant,
and thirty-four rank and file wounded.

After this victory the regiment crossed the Danube and marched to
the vicinity of the enemy's fortified camp at Augsburg, which was
found too strong to be attacked, and the army retired a few stages,
the Germans commencing the siege of Ingoldstadt. The enemy, being
reinforced from France, took up a position in the valley of the
Danube, near the village of _Blenheim_, which was occupied by a
considerable body of troops; and on the memorable 13th of August
a general engagement took place, in which the English general was
once more victorious; the French and Bavarian army sustaining a
decisive overthrow, with the loss of its artillery and baggage, and
many entire regiments being made prisoners; the French commander,
Marshal Tallard, being among the captives. The SIXTEENTH regiment
was one of the corps which sustained the brunt of the battle on
this occasion, and acquired great honor. The loss of the regiment
was very great: Captain Coghlan, Lieutenant Brown, Ensigns Sabine
and Hesketh, were among the killed; and Lieut.-Colonel Hamilton,
Captains Hesketh, Fleming, Lee, and Horne, Lieutenants Vicariage,
Jackson, Ayloffe, and Reddish, Ensigns Mackrich, Hook, and Gordon,
wounded.

From the banks of the Danube the regiment traversed the country to
Philipsburg, where it crossed the Rhine, and formed part of the
covering army encamped at Croon-Weissemberg, during the siege of
_Landau_ by the Germans. In the autumn the regiment embarked in
boats on the Rhine, and sailed to Holland.

[Sidenote: 1705]

The losses of the preceding campaigns were replaced in the spring
of 1705 by recruits from England, and, when the regiment took the
field to serve the campaign of 1705, its appearance and efficiency
were admired. It was employed in the expedition up the Moselle,
and, passing the Moselle and the Saar rivers on the 3rd of June,
advanced towards Syrk; but the designs of the British commander
were frustrated by the tardy movements of the Germans, and he
marched back to the Netherlands.

In May of this year the Earl of Derby retired from the service, and
was succeeded in the colonelcy by Lieut.-Colonel Francis Godfrey,
from the foot-guards.

A stupendous barrier of fortified lines, forts, and batteries
opposed the progress of the British commander; but by skilful
movements these works were passed at the slenderly-guarded posts of
_Helixem_ and _Neer-Hespen_ on the 18th of July. On this occasion
the SIXTEENTH formed part of Brigadier-General Fergusson's brigade
in the main body of the army, and did not sustain any loss. It
shared in the subsequent operations of the campaign, and passed the
winter in garrison in Holland.

[Sidenote: 1706]

The SIXTEENTH had the honor to take part in the battle of
_Ramilies_, on the 23rd of May, 1706, when the French, Spanish,
and Bavarian forces, commanded by Marshal Villeroy and the Elector
of Bavaria, were forced from their formidable position with severe
loss, and pursued many miles.

Important results followed this triumph over the forces of Louis
XIV.; the states of Brabant and magistrates of Brussels renounced
their allegiance to the Duke of Anjou; the principal towns of
Brabant and several fortified places in Flanders were immediately
delivered up, and others surrendered after short sieges. Thus
provinces disputed for ages, and towns which had resisted powerful
armies for months and years, were conquered in one campaign. After
taking part in these splendid achievements, the SIXTEENTH marched
into quarters at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1707]

The regiment was in the field during the campaign of 1707; but the
French avoided an engagement, and nothing of importance occurred.

[Sidenote: 1708]

In the spring of 1708 the King of France fitted out a fleet,
and prepared a land force for the invasion of Great Britain in
favour of the Pretender, and the SIXTEENTH were ordered to return
to England to repel the invaders: they arrived at Tynemouth on
the 21st of March; but the French fleet having been chased from
the British coast by the English navy, the regiment returned to
Flanders.

After remaining a few weeks at Ghent, the regiment joined the army
in the field, and took part in achieving another victory over
the armies of Louis XIV., in the fields near _Oudenarde_, on the
11th of July. The SIXTEENTH formed part of a division of twenty
battalions commanded by the Duke of Argyle, which traversed the
Scheldt by the pontoon bridge between Oudenarde and the abbey of
Eename, ascended the heights of Bevere, and, inclining to the
right, engaged the enemy in the open grounds beyond the rivulet;
when a fierce conflict of musketry ensued, and the French were
driven from field to field, with great slaughter, until the
darkness of the night rendered it impossible to distinguish friends
from foes, when the troops were directed to cease firing. The wreck
of the French army made a precipitate retreat.

The siege of the important fortress of _Lisle_ was afterwards
undertaken, and the SIXTEENTH were selected to take part in this
gigantic enterprise, which excited universal attention throughout
Europe; the strength of the place,--the garrison consisting of
fifteen thousand men under the celebrated Marshal Boufflers,
and being provided with everything necessary for a protracted
defence,--gave an interesting character to this undertaking.

When the besieging army appeared before Lisle, the French
out-guards retired, and _Serjeant Littler_ of the SIXTEENTH
regiment swam across the river with a hatchet, and cut the
fastenings which held up a drawbridge to enable a party to pass
the stream, for which act of gallantry he was rewarded with a
commission in the third foot, or the Buffs.

The SIXTEENTH regiment took its turn of duty in the trenches and
shared in the attacks during the siege of Lisle, evincing, on all
occasions, the same heroic gallantry for which it had previously
been distinguished. It had one serjeant and eleven rank and file
killed, and four serjeants and fifty rank and file wounded, at
the storming of the counterscarp; and sustained severe loss on
several other occasions. Numerous difficulties had to be overcome
in carrying on this siege; but the skill, valour, and perseverance
of the officers and soldiers of the allied army, overcame every
obstacle, and on the 9th of December the citadel surrendered.

[Sidenote: 1709]

After reposing a few weeks in quarters, and receiving a draft of
recruits from England, the regiment advanced up the country, and
was encamped with the army on the Upper Dyle; it was subsequently
employed in covering the siege of _Tournay_, and after the
surrender of the town, on the 29th of July, 1708, the SIXTEENTH
were selected to take part in the siege of the citadel. This
proved a difficult service, in consequence of the extensive
subterraneous works by which the fortress was surrounded. The
approaches were carried on underground, and the working parties
frequently penetrated the subterraneous labyrinths of the castle,
and, encountering detachments of the enemy, fought underground
with sword, pistol, and bayonet. Several parties were destroyed
by the mines; but the works were persevered in, and the garrison
surrendered in the beginning of September.

After the capture of Tournay the army marched towards Mons; but
finding a numerous French force, under Marshals Villars and
Boufflers, in position at _Malplaquet_, the enemy was attacked in
his fortified post on the morning of the 11th of September, and the
SIXTEENTH had the honor to contribute to the gaining of another
victory over the armies of France. On this occasion, the regiment
was formed in brigade with the Buffs and the regiments of Temple
and Evans (afterwards disbanded), and was engaged in the attack of
the woods in which the enemy's left wing was posted, and in its
advance it encountered entrenchments and breastworks bristling with
bayonets, and emitting a storm of musket-shot and cannon-balls,
which thinned the British ranks. The leading corps were repulsed;
but, fresh troops arriving, a general attack was made with so much
resolution that the French were driven from their entrenchments
into the wood, where a sharp fire of musketry was kept up, and the
SIXTEENTH were engaged among the trees. Finally the French were
overpowered at every part of the field, and forced to retreat.

The regiment had about fifty men killed and wounded; and Captain
Ayloffe, Lieutenants Macrath, Whiting, and Lawder wounded. It was
afterwards employed in covering the siege of _Mons_, and passed the
winter in quarters at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1710]

Having received another draft of recruits, the regiment marched
in April, 1710, to the vicinity of Tournay, where the army was
directed to assemble; its services were connected with the forcing
of the enemy's fortified lines at _Pont-à-Vendin_; it also
formed part of the covering army during the siege of _Douay_,
which fortress surrendered on the 27th of June. The regiment was
afterwards employed in covering the siege of _Bethune_, and this
fortress was captured before the end of August. The French army
avoiding a general engagement, the fortresses of _Aire_ and _St.
Venant_ were besieged at the same time, and after the capture of
these towns, the regiment returned to Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1711]

Brigadier-General Godfrey withdrew from the service, and was
succeeded in the colonelcy of the regiment by Brigadier-General
Henry Durell, from the foot guards, by commission dated the 17th of
February, 1711.

In the campaign of this year the regiment shared in the operations
by which the boasted impregnable lines, prepared by the French to
arrest the progress of the allied armies, were passed at _Arleux_,
on the 5th of August, and it was subsequently engaged in the siege
of the strong fortress of _Bouchain_,--services which called forth
all the powers of the active mind of the Duke of Marlborough, who
proved himself superior to the French generals in all the qualities
which constitute a great commander. Bouchain having been captured,
the regiment was placed in garrison for the winter.

[Sidenote: 1712]

Once more taking the field in April, 1712, the regiment joined
the army near Tournay, from whence it marched to the vicinity of
Bouchain, and was encamped at Cateau-Cambresis during the siege of
_Quesnoy_ by the Germans; it brought six hundred and eighty-one
rank and file into the field. The garrison of _Quesnoy_ surrendered
on the 4th of July; and soon afterwards a suspension of arms was
proclaimed preparatory to a treaty of peace, and the British troops
withdrew to the vicinity of Ghent, from whence the SIXTEENTH were
detached to Dunkirk, which city the French monarch delivered into
the hands of the British, as a pledge of his sincerity in the
negotiations for peace.

[Sidenote: 1713]

On the 1st of December, 1712, Brigadier-General Durell died,
and Queen Anne conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on
Brigadier-General Hans Hamilton, from the thirty-fourth regiment,
by commission dated the 23rd of June, 1713.

[Sidenote: 1714]

The regiment was stationed at Dunkirk until April, 1714, when
it embarked for Scotland, and, landing at Leith, relieved the
twenty-fifth regiment, which was ordered to embark for Ireland. The
SIXTEENTH were stationed at Stirling in September, 1714, with the
Inniskilling dragoons, when the arrival in London of King George I.
from Hanover, was celebrated with public rejoicings.

[Sidenote: 1715]

In the summer of 1715 the colonelcy of the regiment was conferred
on the Lieut.-Colonel, Richard Viscount Irving, in succession to
Brigadier-General Hamilton.

[Sidenote: 1716]

A rebellion in favour of the Pretender broke out in Scotland in
the autumn of this year, and the Earl of Mar headed the insurgent
clans; but the SIXTEENTH did not take the field: the protection
of Fort William was entrusted to their charge; and they were
in garrison at this place in the early part of 1716, when the
rebellion was suppressed by the troops under the Duke of Argyle.

[Sidenote: 1717]

[Sidenote: 1724]

In December, 1717, Viscount Irving was removed to the second horse,
now first dragoon guards, and was succeeded by Lieut.-Colonel John
Cholmeley; and this officer dying in April, 1724, King George I.
conferred the colonelcy on Henry Earl of Deloraine (son of James
Duke of Monmouth), from the Scots troop of horse-grenadier-guards.

[Sidenote: 1725]

[Sidenote: 1727]

The regiment was employed on home service in Great Britain during
the whole of the reign of King George I.; it was one of the corps
selected to proceed to Holland in 1727, to assist the Dutch in
their war with the Imperialists; but no embarkation took place.

[Sidenote: 1730]

On the 9th of July, 1730, the Earl of Deloraine was removed to
the seventh horse, now sixth dragoon-guards, and the colonelcy of
the regiment was conferred by King George II. on Colonel Roger
Handasyd, from the twenty-second regiment.

[Sidenote: 1737]

In 1737 the British merchants complained of the depredations
committed on their vessels by the Spaniards in South America. A
Convention was entered into between the two Crowns, which was,
however, violated by the Spaniards in many instances.

[Sidenote: 1739]

On the 23rd of October, 1739, a declaration of war against Spain
was proclaimed, when the establishment of the regiment was
augmented.

[Sidenote: 1740]

In the summer of 1740 the regiment pitched its tents near Newbury,
where an encampment was formed of two regiments of horse, three
of dragoons, and four of infantry, under Lieut.-General Wade. The
SIXTEENTH left the camp and embarked on board the fleet, where
they served as Marines a short time, and afterwards landed at
Portsmouth. In the autumn they furnished a detachment to accompany
the expedition to the West Indies, under General Lord Cathcart, who
died on the passage.

[Sidenote: 1741]

The expedition arrived at Jamaica in January, 1741, and the
detachment of the SIXTEENTH was employed in the attempt on
_Carthagena_, the capital of an extensive and wealthy province
in the country of Terra Firma, in South America. The violent
periodical rains occurred before the conquest was achieved, and
the armament proved of insufficient strength to capture the place;
the country became deluged with water, the health of the soldiers
was seriously impaired, and the enterprise was abandoned. The
detachment of the SIXTEENTH was nearly annihilated by disease.

[Sidenote: 1742]

In this year the war of the Austrian succession commenced; and in
1742 a British army proceeded to Flanders to support the interests
of the Archduchess, Maria Theresa; but the SIXTEENTH were employed
on home service.

[Sidenote: 1745]

Charles Edward, eldest son of the Pretender, arrived in Scotland
in the summer of 1745, and being joined by a number of the
Highland clans, he made a desperate effort to overthrow the
existing government, and to procure the accession of his father
to the throne. At first some partial successes were gained by the
insurgents; but the British nation evinced firmness and decision
in supporting the rights of their sovereign, and in preserving
the constitutional privileges of the people. The services of the
regiment were, at this period, limited to the south of England,
where a body of troops was held in readiness to repel a menaced
invasion by the French.

[Sidenote: 1746]

In January, 1746, the royal troops, under Lieut.-General Hawley,
were defeated by the Clans, on Falkirk moor, and additional forces
were ordered to proceed to Scotland. In March the SIXTEENTH
regiment embarked from Gravesend, with several other corps, for
Edinburgh, and arrived at Leith as the guns of Edinburgh castle
were firing for the decisive victory gained over the clans at
Culloden. The regiment waited a few days on board the transports,
until the return of an express from the army, when it received
orders to sail northwards, and landed at the royal burgh of Nairn
on the 1st of May. It was subsequently stationed at Elgin, &c.

[Sidenote: 1747]

The regiment remained in Scotland, and in the summer of 1747 it
was encamped in a valley environed by lofty mountains, near Fort
Augustus.

[Sidenote: 1748]

[Sidenote: 1749]

The war on the Continent terminated in 1748; and in the
following year the regiment was reduced in numbers to the peace
establishment, and sent to Ireland, where it was stationed nearly
twenty years.

[Sidenote: 1751]

On the 1st of July, 1751, King George II. issued a warrant for
establishing uniformity in the clothing, standards, and colours
of the several regiments of the regular army; and in this warrant
the uniform of the SIXTEENTH, or Lieut.-General Roger Handasyd's
regiment, was directed to be red, faced with _yellow_.[6] The
first, or the King's colour, to be the great Union: the second,
or regimental colour, to be of yellow silk, with the Union in
the upper canton; in the centre of the colours, the rank of the
regiment, in gold Roman characters, within a wreath of roses and
thistles on the same stalk.

At this period the soldiers of the regiment wore three-cornered
cocked hats, bound with white lace, and ornamented with a white
loop and a black cockade; red waistcoats; red breeches; white
gaiters reaching above the knee, and fastened below the knee with a
black garter; and white cravats; they also wore buff cross-belts.

[Sidenote: 1755]

[Sidenote: 1756]

[Sidenote: 1757]

[Sidenote: 1758]

[Sidenote: 1760]

The undetermined extent of the British territory in North America
gave rise to hostilities with France in 1755, and the establishment
of the army was considerably augmented in that and the two
following years. Several expeditions were also fitted out; but the
SIXTEENTH regiment was detained on home service in Ireland. In 1760
a plan was formed for attacking the French island of Belleisle, and
the SIXTEENTH, mustering seven hundred men, under Lieut.-Colonel
Gabbet, embarked on board of the fleet; but the enterprise was
laid aside in consequence of the death of King George II., and the
regiment returned to Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1762]

On the termination of the war in 1762, the regiment was again
reduced to the peace establishment.

[Sidenote: 1763]

General Roger Handasyd died in January, 1763, and in June King
George III. conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on the
Honorable Robert Brudenell, third son of George Earl of Cardigan,
from captain and lieut.-colonel in the third foot guards.

[Sidenote: 1765]

In 1765 Colonel Brudenell was removed to the Fourth regiment of
foot, and was succeeded in the colonelcy of the SIXTEENTH, by
Colonel William Draper, who had commanded one of the regiments
raised in 1757, and numbered the Seventy-ninth regiment, which was
disbanded in 1763.

[Sidenote: 1766]

Colonel Draper was honoured with the dignity of a Knight of the
Bath, and in 1766 he exchanged to the colonelcy of one of the corps
disbanded in 1763 (the 121st regiment) with Colonel James Gisborne,
who was performing the duty of Quartermaster-General in Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1767]

The regiment embarked from Ireland in 1767, for North America, and
was stationed in the pleasant and fertile territory of Florida,
which had been ceded to Great Britain, by the Spaniards, in 1763,
in exchange for the Havannah.

[Sidenote: 1768]

The head-quarters were established at Pensacola,--a town of West
Florida, situate at the head of a delightful bay, or basin, in the
Gulf of Mexico; and the regiment furnished various detachments to
occupy military stations in East and West Florida.

[Sidenote: 1775]

[Sidenote: 1776]

[Sidenote: 1777]

In these pleasant and healthy quarters the regiment was stationed
when a number of the British colonies in North America revolted,
and declared themselves a free and independent people, under the
title of the United States. This occurred in 1775, and in the
following year the SIXTEENTH were withdrawn from Florida, to join
the army at New York, under Lieut.-General Sir William Howe; but
the necessity of having a small force in the ceded Spanish province
was evident, and the SIXTEENTH having, during their residence of
eight years in East and West Florida, acquired the confidence of
the inhabitants and a knowledge of the country, and of the habits
and language of the people, the regiment received orders to return
to Pensacola, and other stations in East and West Florida, and on
the confines of Georgia.

[Sidenote: 1778]

Lieut.-General Gisborne died on the 20th of February, 1778, and
King George III. conferred the colonelcy on Major-General James
Robertson, from Colonel Commandant of the second battalion of the
Sixtieth, who had previously performed the duties of Lieut.-Colonel
of the SIXTEENTH regiment, many years, with reputation.

[Sidenote: 1778]

[Sidenote: 1779]

Had the British revolted provinces been left unaided by European
states, they would, doubtless, have been reduced to submission;
but in 1778 the French monarch sent a numerous fleet and an army
to their assistance; and in 1779 the court of Spain commenced
hostilities against Great Britain, and this example was followed by
the Dutch.

Don Bernard de Galvez, governor of the Spanish province of
Louisiana, assembled a numerous force, and suddenly invaded
the British territories on the banks of the Mississippi; and
Lieut.-Colonel Dickson, of the SIXTEENTH, who commanded the
troops in that district, being unable to oppose the invading
army, withdrew to _Baton Rouge_, where he caused a redoubt to be
constructed, which was scarcely completed when the Spanish army
advanced in force against this post, which was invested on the
12th of September. On the 21st the enemy opened a battery of heavy
cannon against the works, which were so much damaged in a few
hours, that Colonel Dickson was obliged to surrender. The garrison,
consisting of a detachment of the SIXTEENTH, Sixtieth, and of the
Waldeck regiments, was sent prisoners of war to New Orleans, and
afterwards exchanged.

The French armament, under the Comte d'Estaing, approached the
city and port of _Savannah_ in Chatham county, in the state of
Georgia, early in September, and a detachment of the SIXTEENTH
regiment, commanded by Major Graham, formed part of the force under
Major-General Prevost, which defended that place. The French troops
landed, and were joined by an American force under General Lincoln;
but they encountered a resistance which proved the determined
valour of the garrison. A detachment from the SIXTEENTH was engaged
in a sally on the 24th of September, under Major Graham of the
regiment, and this service was performed with judgment and bravery.
"Major Graham artfully drew the enemy into a snare, by which the
French and Americans fired on each other, and had fifty men killed
before the mistake was discovered."[7] Before daylight on the 9th
of October, the French and Americans made a desperate effort to
capture the place by storm; but were repulsed at every point with
severe loss. They afterwards raised the siege and retired.

[Sidenote: 1781]

In 1781 the Spaniards sent a numerous sea and land force against
Florida, under Don Bernard de Galvez, and the invading army
commenced operations by an attack upon the works defending
_Pensacola_, where a detachment of the SIXTEENTH regiment was
stationed. From the strength of the Spanish force, mustering nine
thousand men, and a numerous fleet, at the same time the British
garrison only amounted to twelve hundred men, the reduction of the
place appeared inevitable; yet a gallant defence was made, and the
soldiers displayed that innate bravery and resolution for which
British troops have always been distinguished. On the morning of
the 8th of May a shell burst near the door of the magazine of the
advanced redoubt, set fire to the powder, and the redoubt and its
garrison were destroyed by the explosion, excepting a few men,
who were forced to retire, after spiking the guns. The Spaniards
carried the redoubt, and threatened to storm the remaining works;
but were intimidated by the determined bearing of the garrison. The
British commander, Major-General John Campbell, afterwards agreed
to surrender, on condition that the garrison should march out
with the honours of war, and be sent to a part belonging to Great
Britain, but not serve against the Spaniards, or their allies,
until exchanged. The SIXTEENTH had Lieutenant Edward Carroll and
seven soldiers killed; Captain Anthony Foster and five soldiers
wounded. Pensacola was a flourishing place while under the British;
but it declined after it was taken by the Spaniards.

[Sidenote: 1782]

The regiment having sustained severe loss from various services
in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, where detachments had
been employed, it was ordered to return to Europe, and arrived in
England in March, 1782.

In August the regiment received directions to assume the title
of the SIXTEENTH, OR THE BUCKINGHAM Regiment, and to cultivate a
connection with the respectable inhabitants of that county, which
might be useful towards recruiting the regiment.

[Sidenote: 1783]

The American War terminated in 1782; and the regiment was placed
upon a peace establishment in 1783.

[Sidenote: 1784]

In 1784 it embarked for Ireland, where it was stationed several
years under the orders of Lieut.-Colonel James Henry Craig, an
officer of great zeal and ability.

[Sidenote: 1788]

Lieut.-General Robertson, died on the 4th of March, 1788, and was
succeeded in the colonelcy by Major-General the Honorable Thomas
Bruce, from the late 100th regiment, which was reduced after the
termination of the American War.

[Sidenote: 1790]

[Sidenote: 1791]

On the 18th of August, 1790, the regiment embarked from Ireland for
Nova Scotia, and in 1791 it was removed to the island of Jamaica,
where it remained five years.

[Sidenote: 1793]

[Sidenote: 1794]

A revolution broke out in France, and the republican principles
which filled that kingdom with anarchy, confusion, and bloodshed,
soon extended to the French West India Settlements, where the
blacks and mulattoes rose in arms against the European planters,
and filled the islands with rapine and devastation. Many of the
respectable inhabitants of the French island of _St. Domingo_
solicited the protection of the British government against the fury
of the blacks, and a detachment of British troops proceeded to
their aid, from Jamaica, in 1793. The SIXTEENTH regiment furnished
a portion of this detachment, but the climate of St. Domingo proved
injurious to the health of the British troops, and the whole of
the party of the SIXTEENTH died of a pestilential fever, excepting
Lieutenant Vernon and one serjeant, who rejoined the regiment at
Jamaica.

[Sidenote: 1795]

The island of Jamaica was taken from the Spaniards, by an English
armament in 1655 (during the commonwealth under Cromwell),
when the slaves belonging to the Spanish planters fled to the
mountains, where they lived in savage independence, and were
called "Maroons." They procured arms, became expert marksmen, and
frequently committed outrages against the British inhabitants. In
1738 a treaty was concluded with them, and they received a grant
of land; but the pernicious doctrines of the French republicans
were circulated among the Maroons, who were joined by a number of
runaway slaves, and commenced hostilities against the English in
1795. The SIXTEENTH served in the _Maroon war_, when the soldiers
encountered many difficulties, and at first sustained some
reverses, from the difficult nature of the mountainous districts
into which they had to penetrate, and from the expert character of
the Maroon warriors in bush-fighting among rocks and dells covered
with trees and underwood. A detachment of the SIXTEENTH was first
called into action; and in October the regiment, commanded by Major
John Skinner, who held the local rank of Colonel, was called into
the field. This officer had served many years in the regiment; he
had distinguished himself in the American war, while serving with
Tarleton's Legion, with which corps he was present at numerous
engagements, and on joining the field force in the Maroon war, his
presence inspired the troops with confidence. Offensive operations
were conducted with prudence and skill, and by a strict combination
in the movements of the troops employed, united with valour and
discipline, the Maroons were driven from their mountain-fastnesses,
and chased from post to post, until they were forced to submit. In
performing this service, the soldiers underwent great fatigue and
privation, and they conquered the Maroons in a part of the island
where no European had ever before thought of penetrating. Captain
Drummond, of the SIXTEENTH, distinguished himself in this war.

[Sidenote: 1796]

The Maroons tendered their submission in March, 1796, and they were
afterwards removed from the island.

[Sidenote: 1797]

Having become considerably reduced in numbers, the regiment
returned to England, towards the close of this year, and was
stationed a short time at Greenwich, from whence it embarked for
Scotland, early in 1797; at the same time it was ordered to recruit
with boys.

Lieut.-General the Honorable Thomas Bruce having died, he was
succeeded in the colonelcy by Major-General Henry Bowyer, from the
Eighty-ninth regiment, by commission dated the 15th of December,
1797.

[Sidenote: 1798]

The regiment was quartered in Fifeshire, under the orders of
Major John Skinner, and afterwards proceeded to Fort George;
Lieut.-Colonel Hugh Wallace assuming the command. The boys were
transferred to the Thirty-fourth and Sixty-fifth regiments, under
orders for India, and the SIXTEENTH were completed by volunteers
from the English militia, principally limited service men.

[Sidenote: 1799]

In 1799 the regiment embarked from Scotland for London, from whence
it proceeded to Margate, to join the expedition to Holland, under
His Royal Highness the Duke of York; but the order to proceed on
this service was countermanded, and the regiment was stationed a
few months at Horsham in Sussex.

[Sidenote: 1800]

[Sidenote: 1801]

Embarking from Portsmouth in 1800, the regiment sailed to Cork, and
was stationed in the south of Ireland; where Lieut.-Colonel St.
John Fancourt joined and assumed the command in 1801.

[Sidenote: 1802]

At the conclusion of the peace of Amiens in 1802, the limited
service men were discharged; and the regiment was completed from
disbanded fencible and militia corps.

[Sidenote: 1803]

War was resumed in 1803; and Lieut.-Colonel Fancourt having been
removed to the Thirty-fourth regiment, the command of the SIXTEENTH
devolved on Brevet Lieut.-Colonel Skinner.

[Sidenote: 1804]

On the 7th of January, 1804, the regiment embarked from Monkstown,
for the West Indies, and arrived at Barbadoes on the 26th of March.
It was immediately ordered to hold itself in readiness to proceed
with the expedition under Major-General Sir Charles Green and
Commodore Samuel Hood, against the Dutch colony of _Surinam_, in
Guiana, in South America. This colony was ceded to the Dutch, by
King Charles II., in exchange for New York, in North America; it
was captured by the British in 1799, and restored at the peace of
Amiens in 1802.

On the 7th of April, 1804, the expedition sailed from Barbadoes,
and a landing was effected on the 26th of that month; the SIXTEENTH
were actively employed in operations, until the surrender of the
colony on the 4th of May.

[Sidenote: 1806]

While the regiment was at Surinam, the post occupied by a
detachment of the light company and a few men of the fourth
West India regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Richard Greene, of
the SIXTEENTH, at _Armena_, was attacked by a large force of
predatory negroes and banditti, and defended with great gallantry,
the greater part of the garrison being killed in the successful
resistance made to the assailants. The inhabitants of the colony
afterwards presented Lieutenant Greene with a valuable sword, in
token of their sense of his conduct.

[Sidenote: 1807]

In 1807 Lieut.-Colonel Skinner was succeeded in the duties of
commanding officer by Major Brabazon Dean Vernon.[8]

[Sidenote: 1808]

On the decease of General Bowyer, in 1808, King George III.
conferred the colonelcy on Major-General Sir Charles Green, Bart.,
from the York light infantry volunteers.

[Sidenote: 1809]

In May, 1809, His Majesty was graciously pleased to approve of the
regiment being styled the SIXTEENTH, or the BEDFORDSHIRE, instead
of the _Buckinghamshire_, Regiment: this exchange of County titles
took place with the Fourteenth Regiment of Foot.

[Sidenote: 1810]

Lieut.-Colonel Henry Tolley assumed the command of the regiment, in
June, 1810.

[Sidenote: 1811]

[Sidenote: 1812]

During its stay at Surinam and Barbadoes, the regiment lost
twenty-seven officers and upwards of five hundred men by disease.
The survivors returned to England by detachments in 1810, 1811,
and 1812, and landed at Falmouth and Portsmouth. One ship, the
"Islam," having on board the remainder of the grenadiers and of one
battalion company, was wrecked on the Tuscan Rock off the coast
of Ireland. By the exertions of some workmen, who were making
preparations to erect a lighthouse on the rock, all were saved
excepting one man, one woman, and some children; all the arms,
appointments, and baggage were lost. On the following day the party
was taken off the rock by a brig, and conveyed to Beaumaris in
Wales.

[Sidenote: 1813]

After occupying quarters at various stations, and receiving many
volunteers from the English and Irish militia, the regiment marched
to Sunderland in July; and in March, 1813, embarked from thence for
Perth: in July of this year it proceeded to Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1814]

Sir Charles Green, Baronet, was removed to the Thirty-seventh
regiment in February, 1814, when His Royal Highness the Prince
Regent, conferred the colonelcy of the SIXTEENTH on Lieut.-General
Sir George Prevost, from the Seventy-sixth regiment.

During this period the war was continued in Europe, and British
troops were acquiring laurels under the Duke of Wellington: at
the same time the measures pursued to counteract the decrees made
by Napoleon, Emperor of the French, for the destruction of the
commerce of Great Britain, brought on a war between the British
Crown and the United States of North America; and in the spring of
this year the SIXTEENTH embarked from Monkstown to join the British
troops in Canada. The regiment was commanded by Colonel Tolley,
and arriving at Quebec on the 29th of May, was stationed a short
period at that fortress; it was afterwards removed to Chambly, from
whence it proceeded to Montreal. The British troops having failed
in the attack of the American post at Plattsburg, the SIXTEENTH
were relieved from duty at Montreal, sent to the upper province,
and stationed at Fort Wellington.

[Sidenote: 1815]

A treaty of peace having been concluded with the Americans, the
regiment was ordered to return to Europe; it sailed from Quebec in
July, and arrived at Portsmouth in August. The return of Buonaparte
to France,--his reassumption of the imperial dignity,--his
overthrow at Waterloo, and surrender to a British man-of-war, had
occurred while the regiment was in Canada, and on the passage to
Europe; on its arrival at Portsmouth, it was ordered to proceed
to the Continent, to join the army commanded by the Duke of
Wellington. The regiment landed at Ostend, and marching to Paris,
encamped at St. Denis.

On the conclusion of the definitive treaties of peace, the regiment
marched to Calais, where it embarked for England, and landing at
Dover, remained there fourteen days.

[Sidenote: 1816]

Lieut.-General Sir George Prevost, Baronet, having died, the
Prince Regent nominated Major-General Hugh Mackay Gordon to the
colonelcy of the regiment, from the York Chasseurs, by commission
dated the 8th of January, 1816.

From Dover the regiment embarked for Ireland; it landed at
Monkstown on the 3rd of February, and was stationed successively at
Fermoy, Limerick, and Cashel.

[Sidenote: 1817]

[Sidenote: 1818]

In 1817 the regiment was removed to Kilkenny; and in 1818 to
Athlone.

[Sidenote: 1819]

[Sidenote: 1820]

On the 25th of August, 1819, the regiment embarked from Cork, under
the command of Colonel Tolley, for colonial service, and touching
at the Cape of Good Hope, the flank companies landed, and remained
at Cape Town a month. The battalion companies continued their
voyage to Ceylon, and landed at Colombo on the 20th of February,
1820, under Major William Vandeleur. The flank companies, under
Colonel Tolley, arrived in March.

[Sidenote: 1821]

[Sidenote: 1822]

The regiment remained seventeen months at Colombo, where it
was joined by one hundred and twenty-eight volunteers from the
Seventy-third; in August, 1821, it marched, under Major Vandeleur,
for Kandy, where Colonel Tolley resumed the command, and on his
proceeding on leave of absence, in October, 1822, the command
devolved on Brevet Lieut.-Colonel Lionel Hook.

[Sidenote: 1823]

Lieut.-General Gordon died in the spring of 1823, and was succeeded
in the colonelcy by Lieut.-General William Carr, Viscount
Beresford, G.C.B., and G.C.H.

[Sidenote: 1824]

In March, 1824, the regiment returned to Colombo, where it lost
several officers and a number of men by a malignant fever.

[Sidenote: 1825]

[Sidenote: 1826]

Colonel Tolley was promoted to the rank of Major-General; Brevet
Lieut.-Colonel Hook was nominated to a Lieut.-Colonelcy in the
Ceylon rifle corps; and Colonel David Ximenes was appointed
Lieut.-Colonel of the SIXTEENTH; this officer arrived at Colombo in
March, 1826, and assumed the command of the regiment, which marched
from Colombo, in July following, for Point de Galle.

[Sidenote: 1827]

On the 2nd of July, 1827, Lieutenants Alexander, Mylius, and Hyde,
Ensigns Cassidi and Hannagan, three serjeants, and one hundred and
eight rank and file, joined from the depôt in England.

[Sidenote: 1828]

[Sidenote: 1829]

The regiment, having been appointed to proceed to Bengal, was
relieved from duty at the island of Ceylon, by the Sixty-first,
in November, 1828, and embarking from thence in four divisions,
arrived at Calcutta in January, 1829, when Colonel Ximenes was
appointed to command the garrison of Fort William, and Major John
W. Adain assumed the command of the regiment; which received one
hundred and fourteen volunteers from the Fifty-ninth, and forty-six
from the Thirtieth and Forty-seventh regiments. In April Major
Adain obtained leave to proceed to England, and the command of the
regiment devolved on Major Adam Gordon Campbell, until the arrival
of Lieut.-Colonel Lionel Smith Hook, in November: this officer was
appointed to the regiment in February of this year.

[Sidenote: 1830]

The SIXTEENTH remained on duty at Calcutta, where, in October and
November, 1830, they received sixty-four volunteers from other
corps.

[Sidenote: 1831]

In January, 1831, Colonel Hook was nominated to the command of the
garrison of Fort William, and Major Campbell resumed the command;
but on the regiment quitting Calcutta, in March following, to
proceed in steam-boats to Chinsurah, Colonel Hook again assumed the
command. At this period twenty volunteers joined from the Royal
regiment.

[Sidenote: 1832]

[Sidenote: 1833]

[Sidenote: 1834]

The SIXTEENTH regiment remained at Chinsurah until December, 1833,
when it commenced its march for Ghazepore: while on the march its
destination was altered for Cawnpore; and on the 7th of February,
1834, it had the misfortune to lose its commanding officer, Colonel
Hook, who died at the camp at Secrole, Benares, when the command
again devolved on Major Campbell: on the 28th of February the
regiment arrived at Cawnpore.

[Sidenote: 1835]

[Sidenote: 1836]

In March, 1835, Captain H. M^cManus, Ensigns Henry A. O'Molony
and Edward Brabazon, two serjeants and forty-three rank and file,
joined from England. Another detachment joined in May; and in
March, 1836, one hundred and six volunteers were received from the
Thirty-eighth regiment,--also eighty-four recruits from England,
under Captain R. Brown, Ensigns Hook and Lawson, and Surgeon
Steele. They were followed by Ensigns G. M. Ross and H. C. M.
Ximenes, in September.

[Sidenote: 1837]

[Sidenote: 1838]

In March, 1837, Lieutenant Gibbs, and thirty-two recruits joined;
and in May, twenty-two volunteers from the Twentieth regiment.
Thirty-nine volunteers also joined from the Forty-fifth, in April,
1838.

[Sidenote: 1839]

[Sidenote: 1840]

On the 24th of December, 1839, the regiment received orders to
proceed by water to Calcutta; but in January, 1840, it received
orders to disembark at Dinapore, and relieve the Forty-ninth
regiment, under orders to proceed with the expedition to China.
The SIXTEENTH remained at Dinapore until October, when they were
relieved by a wing of the Twenty-first fusiliers, and embarked for
the Presidency, where they arrived on the 4th of November.

[Sidenote: 1841]

Orders having been issued for the regiment to return to England, it
transferred a number of volunteers to other corps, and embarked,
in three divisions, in December, 1840, and January, 1841, under
Lieut.-Colonel Campbell, Major H. Clements, and Brevet-Major
Dalzell; and landing at Gravesend in April following, marched from
thence to Canterbury, from whence four companies were afterwards
detached to Dover.

In August the regiment was supplied with new _Percussion Arms_. In
December it marched to London, and proceeded from thence by railway
to Winchester.

[Sidenote: 1842]

Leaving Winchester in April, 1842, the regiment proceeded by
railway to Gosport, and in August it was removed to Portsmouth.

On the 22nd of September NEW COLOURS were presented to the
regiment, on Southsea Common, by the Honorable LADY PAKENHAM;
the Rev. RICHARD BINGHAM conducted the ceremony of consecration;
and the regiment was afterwards addressed by Major-General the
Honorable SIR HERCULES R. PAKENHAM, K.C.B., commanding the
South-west District, who detailed, in a very impressive manner, the
ancient achievements of the corps. A large assemblage of nobility
and gentry were present at the ceremony, and were afterwards
entertained by the officers at a déjeuné and ball.

[Sidenote: 1843]

The regiment proceeded from Portsmouth to Manchester, in May, 1843,
and from thence to Ireland in July. During the remainder of the
year it was stationed at Newbridge and Birr.

[Sidenote: 1844]

From Birr the regiment marched, in February, 1844, to Naas, and in
March removed to Dublin, where it remained until December, when the
regiment proceeded to Cork.

[Sidenote: 1845]

In June, 1845, the SIXTEENTH regiment marched to Buttevant, and in
October to Cork, for the purpose of proceeding on foreign service.

[Sidenote: 1846]

The service companies of the regiment, under the command of
Lieut.-Colonel Henry M^cManus, embarked at Cork for Gibraltar,
on the 17th and 19th January, 1846, in the freight ships Cressy
and Earl Grey, and arrived at Gibraltar on the 11th February. The
depôt companies marched from Buttevant to Birr, in April, 1846, and
proceeded in November to Fermoy.

[Sidenote: 1847]

On the 9th of March, 1847, the regiment, under the command
of Lieut.-Colonel M^cManus, embarked in Her Majesty's ship
Belleisle for Corfu, where it arrived on the 27th March; and on
its embarkation for the Ionian Islands, a favourable report was
received by the Adjutant-General from the Governor of Gibraltar,
General Sir Robert Wilson, who stated, that the corps was "_very
efficient and soldier-like_," and that it was "_distinguished by
very commendable conduct throughout its service in the garrison_."

The depôt companies marched from Fermoy to Youghal in September,
1847.

[Sidenote: 1848]

Lieut.-Colonel M^cManus retired on half-pay on the 10th March,
1848, and Major Robert Luxmoore was promoted to the rank of
Lieut.-Colonel; Captain Charles Grey succeeded to the Majority.

In April, 1848, the depôt companies proceeded to Cork, and embarked
for Guernsey on the 4th May, where they are now stationed.

On the 1st June, 1848, the date to which the Record has been
continued, the service companies were stationed at Corfu, under the
command of Lieut.-Colonel Robert Luxmoore.


1848


[Illustration: SIXTEENTH REGIMENT.

QUEEN'S COLOUR.]

[Illustration: REGIMENTAL COLOUR.

FOR CANNON'S MILITARY RECORDS

_Madeley lith 3 Wellington S^t Strand_]



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF

THE SIXTEENTH,

OR

THE BEDFORDSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT.


ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS,

_Appointed 9th October, 1688_.

ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS was many years an officer in the First, or the
Royal regiment of foot, with which corps he served in France and
Germany, when that veteran Scots regiment was in the service of
Louis XIV.; but it was withdrawn from the army of the French
monarch in 1678, from which period it has been on the British
establishment. He was captain of one of the companies of the Royal
regiment sent to the relief of Tangier, in Africa, when that
fortress was besieged by the Moors in 1680, and he was wounded
in the general engagement on the 27th of September, 1680, when
the Moorish army was overthrown. He was subsequently promoted to
the lieutenant-colonelcy of his regiment; and he commanded the
companies of his corps at the battle of Sedgemoor, on the 6th of
July, 1685, where he distinguished himself. King James II. placed
great confidence in the loyalty of Colonel Douglas, and when His
Majesty's power was menaced by the armament under the Prince of
Orange, the King nominated this distinguished Scots officer to
raise a regiment, now the SIXTEENTH foot, of which he was appointed
colonel. At the Revolution in 1688, he withdrew from the service,
and was not afterwards employed under the British crown. In
consequence of a mark on his countenance, he was sometimes called
_Spot_.


ROBERT HODGES,

_Appointed 31st December, 1688_.

This Officer served with the army of Louis XIV. in Germany, as
ensign and lieutenant in the Royal regiment of foot, and in
1678, when a grenadier company was added to the regiment, it
was placed under his orders, and he was promoted to the rank of
captain. The Scots grenadiers under his orders were selected to
proceed to the relief of Tangier, and in an account of an action
on the 20th of September, 1680, with the Moorish lancers, it is
recorded--"The grenadiers, under Captain Hodges, behaved themselves
very bravely." He also distinguished himself in a skirmish on
the 22nd of September; and in the general attack on the Moorish
lines, on the 27th of that month, he led the assault at the head of
his grenadiers, and evinced great gallantry. He was subsequently
promoted to the majority of the Royal regiment, and in December,
1688, the Prince of Orange conferred on him the colonelcy of the
corps which is now the SIXTEENTH regiment. He served the campaign
of 1689, in the Netherlands, under Prince Waldeck, and evinced
great courage and ability in command of a detachment of infantry
placed in front of the confederate army at Walcourt, when attacked
by the French, under Marshal d'Humières, on the 25th of August. He
served the campaigns of 1691 and 1692, under King William III., and
was killed by a cannon-ball at the battle of Steenkirk, on the 3rd
of August, 1692.


THE HONORABLE JAMES STANLEY,

_Appointed 1st August, 1692_.

THE HONORABLE JAMES STANLEY, third son of Charles eighth Earl
of Derby, was an adherent of the principles of the Revolution
of 1688, and a member of the Convention of Parliament which
conferred the crown on the Prince and Princess of Orange. He
procured a commission in the first foot guards, in which corps
he obtained the rank of captain and lieut.-colonel; he served
several campaigns in Flanders under King William III., and on 1st
August, 1692, His Majesty, in his camp at Lambeque, promoted him,
from lieutenant-colonel of the foot guards, to the command of
the SIXTEENTH regiment of foot, in succession to Colonel Hodges,
who was killed at the battle of Steenkirk. He was also one of the
grooms of the bed-chamber to King William III. On the decease of
his brother, in 1702, he succeeded to the dignity of Earl of Derby.
On the 10th June, 1702, he was constituted Lord-Lieutenant of North
Wales and of the County of Lancaster; and in the following year he
had a patent to be Vice-Admiral of the said County during Queen
Anne's reign. The Earl of Derby resigned his military appointments
in 1705, and on 10th June, 1706, was sworn at Windsor, by her
Majesty's command, one of the Privy Council, and at the same time
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. At her Majesty's coronation,
on 23rd April, 1702, he carried one of the Three Swords of State,
as he did also at the coronation of King George I., on the 20th
October, 1714. At the change of the administration in 1710, he was
removed from his posts, and from that of Lord-Lieutenant of the
County of Lancaster, but was again constituted Lord-Lieutenant
of that County on the 5th August, 1714. On 23rd September, 1715,
he was appointed Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard. He died at
Knowsley, on Sunday, 1st February, 1736.


FRANCIS GODFREY,

_Appointed 25th May, 1705_.

This officer was nephew to the great Duke of Marlborough;[9] he
held a commission in the foot guards, in the time of King William
III., and was promoted to captain and lieut.-colonel, and he served
several campaigns in the Netherlands under his uncle. In 1705 he
was promoted to the colonelcy of the SIXTEENTH regiment, and in
1710 he was advanced to the rank of brigadier-general; in 1711 he
disposed of the colonelcy of the regiment. He died on the 6th of
October, 1712.


HENRY DURELL,

_Appointed 17th February, 1711_.

This officer held a commission in the foot guards, in which corps
he rose to the rank of captain and lieut.-colonel. He served at
several battles and sieges in the Netherlands and in Germany, under
the great Duke of Marlborough, and was promoted to the rank of
brigadier-general in 1710: in 1711 he obtained the colonelcy of the
SIXTEENTH regiment. He commanded a brigade in Flanders, in 1712,
and was appointed Deputy Governor of Dunkirk, when that fortress
was delivered up to the British troops. He died on the 1st of
December, 1712.


HANS HAMILTON,

_Appointed 23rd June, 1713_.

HANS HAMILTON was many years an officer of the SIXTEENTH regiment,
of which corps he was appointed lieut.-colonel, and he served three
campaigns under the great Duke of Marlborough. His meritorious
conduct on all occasions was rewarded, in 1705, with the colonelcy
of the Thirty-fourth regiment, which corps he accompanied to Spain,
and served as quartermaster-general under the Earl of Peterborough
at the capture of Barcelona, &c. He was promoted to the rank of
brigadier-general in 1710, and commanded a brigade in Flanders at
the forcing of the French lines at Arleux, and at the siege of
Bouchain in 1711. In 1713 he was removed to the SIXTEENTH regiment,
but he withdrew from the service in 1715, selling his commission.
He died in 1721.


RICHARD VISCOUNT IRWIN,

_Appointed 11th July, 1715_.

RICHARD INGRAM, Baron Ingram, and VISCOUNT IRWIN, commenced his
military service in the life guards, in which corps he rose to
the rank of lieutenant and lieut.-colonel, and was afterwards
lieut.-colonel of the SIXTEENTH regiment, of which corps he was
appointed colonel in 1715; at the same time he was nominated
Governor of Hull. In 1717 he was removed to the second horse, now
first dragoon guards, and three years afterwards he was nominated
Governor of Barbadoes; but previous to his embarkation he was taken
ill of the small-pox, of which he died on the 10th of April, 1721.


JAMES CHOLMELEY,

_Appointed 13th December, 1717_.

JAMES CHOLMELEY was many years an officer of reputation in the
SIXTEENTH regiment, to the lieut.-colonelcy of which corps he was
promoted by King George I., in consideration of his service in
Flanders under the Duke of Marlborough, and his excellent conduct
on all occasions. In 1717 he was promoted to the colonelcy of the
regiment. He died in 1724.


HENRY, EARL OF DELORAINE, K.B.,

_Appointed 7th April, 1724_.

LORD HENRY SCOTT, third son of James Duke of Monmouth and Anne
Duchess of Buccleuch, obtained a commission in the army in the
reign of William III.; he served with reputation in the reign
of Queen Anne, obtained the command of one of the newly-raised
regiments of foot in 1704; and on the 29th of March, 1706, he was
created Baron Scott of Goldielands, Viscount Hermitage, and EARL
OF DELORAINE. He supported the treaty of union between England and
Scotland and other measures of the court; in 1715 he was chosen
one of the sixteen representatives of the Scottish peerage; and
was re-chosen in 1722, and again in 1727. His regiment having
been disbanded at the peace of Utrecht, he was appointed, on the
1st of June, 1715, colonel of the second, or Scots troop of horse
grenadier guards, which he held two years. In 1724 he obtained the
colonelcy of the SIXTEENTH foot; he was invested with the order
of the Bath on its revival in 1725; and promoted to the rank of
major-general in 1726. He was removed to the seventh horse, now
sixth dragoon guards, or carabineers, in July, 1730. He died on the
25th of December following.


ROGER HANDASYD,

_Appointed 9th July, 1730_.

This Officer obtained a commission in a regiment of foot in 1694,
and served two campaigns under King William III. He also served
with reputation in the wars of Queen Anne, and succeeded his father
in the colonelcy of the Twenty-second regiment in 1712; in 1730 he
was removed to the SIXTEENTH regiment. He was promoted to the rank
of major-general in 1739, and to that of lieut.-general in 1743. He
died in 1763.


THE HONORABLE ROBERT BRUDENELL,

_Appointed 14th June, 1763_.

THE HONORABLE ROBERT BRUDENELL, third son of George Earl of
Cardigan, was many years a member of Parliament for Marlborough,
also groom of the bed-chamber to His Royal Highness the Duke of
York, whose train he bore at the coronation of King George III. He
was appointed captain and lieut.-colonel in the third foot guards,
in 1758; promoted to the colonelcy of the SIXTEENTH in 1763, and
removed to the fourth, or King's Own regiment, in 1765. He died at
Windsor, in October, 1768.


SIR WILLIAM DRAPER, K.B.,

_Appointed 25th June, 1765_.

WILLIAM DRAPER was educated at Eton, and at King's College,
Cambridge, for the Church: but preferring the profession of arms,
he went to the East Indies, and was employed in the service of
the Honorable the East India Company. He subsequently obtained a
commission from the King, and on the 2nd of November, 1757, he
was promoted to lieut.-colonel commandant of the seventy-ninth
regiment, then raised, with which corps he served in India, and
acquired the reputation of a brave and meritorious officer. He
returned to England in 1760, and in 1761 he commanded a brigade
at the capture of Belleisle. He again proceeded to India, and
commanded the land forces of the expedition which captured Manilla
in 1763. His regiment was disbanded soon afterwards; and in
1765 King George III. conferred upon him the colonelcy of the
SIXTEENTH regiment, from which he exchanged, in 1766, to the late
121st regiment. In 1769 he appeared in a literary character, and
answered some of Junius's letters; and in the autumn of the same
year he proceeded to South Carolina. He was promoted to the rank of
major-general in 1772; to that of lieut.-general in 1777; he was
honoured with the dignity of a Knight of the Bath, and nominated
Governor of Yarmouth. He died in 1787.


JAMES GISBORNE,

_Appointed 4th March, 1766_.

After a progressive service in the subordinate commissions, this
officer was appointed lieut.-colonel of the tenth regiment in
1755, and he was afterwards employed many years on the staff of
Ireland, as quartermaster-general in that country. In 1762 he was
promoted to the colonelcy of the 121st regiment; and in 1766 he was
removed to the SIXTEENTH regiment. He was promoted to the rank of
major-general in 1770, and to that of lieut.-general in 1777. He
died in 1778.


JAMES ROBERTSON,

_Appointed 14th May, 1778_.

This Officer entered the army in the reign of King George II.;
he served in America during the seven years' war, and held the
appointment of deputy-Quartermaster-general, with the rank of
lieut.-colonel, under Lieut.-General Sir Jeffrey (afterwards Lord)
Amherst, who completed the conquest of Canada in 1760. In the
same year Lieut.-Colonel Robertson was appointed to the fifteenth
regiment, and in 1768 he was removed to the SIXTEENTH, which corps
he commanded in Florida several years. On the breaking out of the
American war, he was again called into active service in that
country, and in January, 1776, he was appointed colonel commandant
of the second battalion of the sixtieth regiment, and promoted to
the local rank of major-general in America: in 1777 he obtained the
rank of major-general, and in 1778 the colonelcy of the SIXTEENTH
regiment. His services in the American war were rewarded with the
appointment of Governor of New York; and in 1782 he was promoted to
the rank of Lieut.-General. He died on the 4th of March, 1788.


THE HONORABLE THOMAS BRUCE,

_Appointed 6th March, 1788_.

THE HONORABLE THOMAS BRUCE, son of William Earl of Kincardine,
choosing the profession of arms, rose to the commission of major
in the sixtieth regiment in 1768, and in 1770 he was promoted to
the lieut.-colonelcy of the sixty-fifth regiment, which corps he
commanded in North America during the early part of the American
war. In 1781 he was appointed lieut.-colonel commandant of the
100th regiment, with which corps he served in the East Indies,
and obtained the local rank of major-general in that country in
March, 1782: in November following he was promoted to the rank of
major-general. After the termination of the war with Tippoo Saib,
the ruler of the Mysore, the 100th regiment was disbanded, and in
1788 Major-General the Honorable Thomas Bruce was appointed colonel
of the SIXTEENTH regiment: in 1796 he was promoted to the rank of
lieut.-general. He died in 1797.


HENRY BOWYER,

_Appointed 15th December, 1797_.

This officer entered the army in 1771, and after serving five
years in the sixty-eighth regiment, he was promoted captain in
the nineteenth, and in 1778 he was removed to the sixty-sixth:
his distinguished services during the American war were rewarded
with the rank of lieut.-colonel in November 1782. In 1787 he was
appointed major, and in 1787 lieut.-colonel of the sixty-sixth
regiment. He served in the West Indies, was promoted to the rank
of major-general in 1795, and to that of lieut.-general, 1802. In
March, 1797, he was appointed colonel of the eighty-ninth regiment,
and was removed, in December following, to the SIXTEENTH. He held
the appointment of commander of the forces in the Windward and
Leeward Islands. His decease occurred in 1808.


SIR CHARLES GREEN, BART.,

_Appointed 29th August, 1808_.

CHARLES GREEN entered the army as gentleman cadet in the Royal
Artillery in 1760; in 1765 he was appointed ensign in the
thirty-first regiment, which corps he joined at Pensacola in 1766.
In 1768 he was employed on a particular service at New Orleans
and on the Mississippi river; and in 1771 he served as engineer
at the Bahama Islands. He joined his regiment at St. Vincent in
1772, and served against the Caribs; but returned to England in
1773, and was promoted to a lieutenancy; and in 1774 to captain in
the thirty-first regiment. Proceeding to America in 1776, he was
nominated aide-de-camp to Major-General Phillips, and served the
campaign of 1777 in that capacity. He was wounded at Freeman's Farm
in September of that year, and returning to England in 1778, he
was appointed aide-de-camp to Lieut.-General Sir Adolphus Oughton,
commander-in-chief in North Britain. Having joined the thirty-first
in Canada, in May, 1780, he was soon afterwards nominated major
of brigade to the Montreal district. In 1783 he obtained the rank
of major in the army, and the majority of his regiment in 1788.
On the breaking out of the war in 1793, he was promoted to the
lieut.-colonelcy of a battalion formed of independent companies,
and in 1794 he exchanged to the thirtieth regiment. After serving
two years at Corsica, he was nominated civil governor of Grenada,
and was promoted to the rank of colonel in 1797. His eye-sight
having been injured by the climate of Grenada, he returned to
England in 1801: in 1803 he was appointed brigadier-general on
the Staff of Ireland, and was afterwards removed to England; he
was knighted in May of this year, and promoted to the rank of
major-general in September. In 1804 he was nominated colonel of
the York Light Infantry Volunteers; and afterwards proceeding to
the West Indies, he assembled an armament and captured the Dutch
Settlements of Surinam in South America. He remained at Surinam
a year, and returned to England in 1805: in 1807 he was advanced
to the dignity of a BARONET, and in 1808 appointed colonel of the
SIXTEENTH regiment. He commanded the garrison of Malta some time;
was promoted to the rank of lieut.-general in 1809; removed to
the thirty-seventh regiment in 1814; and advanced to the rank of
general in 1819. He died in 1831.


SIR GEORGE PREVOST, BART.,

_Appointed 17th February, 1814_.

GEORGE PREVOST was appointed ensign in the sixtieth regiment in
1779, lieutenant in the forty-seventh in 1782, and captain in
the sixtieth in 1783; in 1784 he was removed to the twenty-fifth
regiment, with which corps he served at Gibraltar, and in 1790
he was promoted to a majority in the sixtieth. Early in 1794 he
took command of the third battalion of the sixtieth at Antigua;
he was promoted to a lieut.-colonelcy in his regiment in March,
and in 1795 he was employed at St. Vincent's in suppressing the
insurrection of the Caribs, and in resisting the French invasion:
he commanded a column at the reduction of La Vigie. In October
he was directed to assume the command of the troops at Dominica;
but he returned to the third battalion of the sixtieth at St.
Vincent's, in January, 1796, and was twice severely wounded in
opposing the progress of the enemy towards the capital. Returning
to England in consequence of his wounds, he was employed a short
time as an inspecting field-officer; having been promoted to the
rank of colonel on the 1st of January, 1796. He was subsequently
nominated brigadier-general in the West Indies; he commanded
the troops at Barbadoes, afterwards at St. Lucia, where he was
appointed lieut.-governor; but returned to England after the
peace of Amiens in 1802. Four months afterwards he was nominated
Governor of Dominica; and in 1803 he served as second in command
at the reduction of St. Lucia and Tobago: for a short time he
commanded the troops in the Windward and Leeward Islands. In 1804
he successfully defended Dominica against a French armament; and
was promoted to the rank of major-general in 1805, when he returned
to England and was appointed lieut.-governor of Portsmouth.
He proceeded to Nova Scotia in 1808, with the local rank of
lieut.-general; and in 1809 he distinguished himself as second in
command at the reduction of Martinique. Returning afterwards to
Nova Scotia, he obtained the appointment of commander in-chief
in Canada. He was advanced to the dignity of a BARONET for his
distinguished services in the West Indies. In 1811 he was promoted
to the rank of lieut.-general; and he was nominated captain-general
and governor-in-chief in North America. War having commenced with
the United States, he defended the Canadas successfully nearly
three years, under circumstances of peculiar difficulty. In
February, 1814, he was appointed colonel of the SIXTEENTH regiment.
After an unsuccessful attack on the American post at Plattsburg, he
was recalled to England; where he died in January, 1816.


HUGH MACKAY GORDON,

_Appointed 8th January, 1816_.

HUGH MACKAY GORDON entered the army during the American war, and
was many years an officer of the SIXTEENTH regiment, with which
corps he served in Florida, South Carolina, and Georgia, also in
Nova Scotia and the West Indies. He was promoted captain in the
SIXTEENTH in 1788, major in the army in 1796; lieut.-colonel in the
army in 1798; and obtained a majority in his regiment in 1799; at
the peace of Amiens he was placed on half-pay. He was promoted to
the rank of major-general in 1811, and was nominated colonel of the
York Chasseurs in 1814; in 1816 he was removed to the SIXTEENTH,
with which regiment he had previously performed much service. In
1821 he was promoted to the rank of lieut.-general. He died in 1823.


WILLIAM CARR, VISCOUNT BERESFORD, G.C.B., G.C.H.,

_Appointed 15th March, 1823_.


LONDON:--Printed by W. CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street,

For Her Majesty's Stationery Office.


FOOTNOTES:

[6] The date when the facings were changed from white to yellow has
not been ascertained.

[7] Beatson's Naval and Military Memoirs.

[8] Lieutenant-General John Skinner entered the army as an Ensign
in the SIXTEENTH regiment of foot on the 4th of September, 1772,
and rose to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel of that regiment on the
11th of April, 1805: he was promoted to the rank of Colonel in the
army on the 25th of April, 1808: after performing the duties of
a regimental officer, in the various situations of service, from
1772, to 1811, he was advanced to the rank of Major-General on the
4th of June, 1811, and was appointed to the staff of the army in
the West Indies, on which he continued to serve until the 24th of
March, 1816: he was promoted to the rank of Lieut.-General on the
19th of July, 1821: he died in 1827, after a continued and faithful
service of forty-four years.

[9] Francis Godfrey was the son of Charles Godfrey, Esq., who
married Miss Arabella Churchill, mistress of King James II., and
mother of James Duke of Berwick. Miss Arabella Churchill was the
sister of John Lord Churchill, afterwards Duke of Marlborough.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
  foot-guards, foot guards; hand-grenades, hand grenades; piquets.

  Pg 23, '[Sidenote: 1783]' inserted.
  Pg 26, 'and assume the' replaced by 'and assumed the'.
  Pg 32, 'at Chinsurha' replaced by 'at Chinsurah'.





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