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Title: All about Battersea
Author: Simmonds, Henry S.
Language: English
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All About Battersea,

BY

HENRY S. SIMMONDS.

[Illustration: S. MARY'S, built according to Act of Parliament, 14.
Geo. III. Opened Nov. 17, 1777. About 1823 an Entrance Portico of the
Doric Order was added.]

London:
ASHFIELD, PRINTER, BRIDGE ROAD WEST, BATTERSEA.

1882.



                           This small volume
                                IS MOST
                RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED (BY PERMISSION)
                                  TO
                  THE REV. JOHN ERSKINE CLARKE, M.A.,
          _Honorary Canon of Winchester, Vicar of Battersea;_
                              AND TO THE
                        INHABITANTS IN GENERAL.



INDEX.


                                                              PAGE.
INTRODUCTION.

Nine Elms Lane.--The King's Champion.                         3

Thorne's Brewery.--What Battersea has been called.            4

London and South Western Railway Company's Goods
Station and Locomotive Works.                                 4-7

Mill-Pond Bridge.--New Road.                                  8

A Royal Sturgeon caught in the wheel of the Mill
at Mill-Pond Bridge.                                          9

Wallace's Vitriol Works.                                      10

Sleaford Street.--Coal.                                       11

Street Lighting.                                              12-13

London Gas-Light Company's Works and Vauxhall
Gardens.                                                      14-23

On a recently-exposed Section at Battersea.                   23-24

Phillips' Fire Annihilating Machine Factory
Destroyed.--Brayne's Pottery.--The Old Lime
Kilns.--Laver's Cement & Whiting Works.                       25

The Southwark and Vauxhall Water Works.                       26

Water Carriers and Water Companies.                           27-29

The Village of Battersea.--Growth of the Parish.              30-31

Boundaries.--A Legal Contest between Battersea
and Clapham Parishes.--Clapham Common.                        32-33

Lavender Hill.--The Seat of William Wilberforce.--Eminent
Supporters of the Anti-Slavery Movement.--Frances
Elizabeth Leveson Gower.--Mr. Thornton.--Philip
Cazenove.--Charles Curling, Lady George Pollock,
and others.                                                   34-36

Battersea Market Gardens and Gardeners.                       36-37

Stages set out for Battersea from the City.--Annual
Fair.--Inhabitants supplied with Water from
Springs.--The Manor of Battersea before the Conquest.         38

Battersea and its association with the St. Johns.             39

Henry St. John Lord Viscount Bolingbroke.                     40-42

A Horizontal Air Mill.                                        43

St. Mary's Church.                                            44-46

The Indenture.                                                47-48

Epitaphs and Sepulchral Monuments.                            49-51

Rectory and Vicarage.                                         52

A Petition or Curious Document.                               53

Dr. Thomas Temple.--Dr. Thomas Church.                        54

Cases of Longevity.--The Plague.--The Three Plague
Years.--Deaths in Battersea.                                  55-56

Vicars of Battersea from Olden Times.                         56-57

Thomas Lord Stanley.--Lawrence Booth.                         57

York House.                                                   58

Battersea Enamel Works.--Porcelain.--Jens Wolfe,
Esq.--Sherwood Lodge.--Price's Patent Candle Factory.         59-62

Candlemas.                                                    63-64

The Saw.--Mark Isambard Brunel's Premises at
Battersea.--Establishment for the preservation of
timber from the dry rot burnt down.                           65

History of the Ferry.--The Old Wooden Bridge.                 66-67

Albert Suspension Bridge.                                     68-69

Chelsea Suspension Bridge.                                    70

The Prince of Wales.--Freeing the Bridges "For Ever."         71-73

The Stupendous Railway Bridge across the Thames.              74

The spot where Cæsar and his legions are stated
by some antiquarians to have crossed the river.               75

A haunted house.--Battersea Fields.--Duel between
the Duke of Wellington and Lord Winchelsea.                   76

The Red House.                                                77

"Gyp" the Raven.--Billy the Nutman.--Sports.                  78

"The Old House at Home."--Sabbath Desecration.                79

Her Majesty's Commissioners empowered by Act of Parliament
to form a Royal Park in Battersea Fields.--Wild
Flowers.--Battersea Park.                                     80-84

London, Brighton and South-Coast Railway Company's two
Circular Engine Sheds and West-End Goods Traffic Department.  85-86

Long-Hedge Farm.--London, Chatham and Dover Railway
Locomotive Works.                                             87-90

A Canvas Cathedral.                                           91

H.P. Horse Nail Company's Factory                             94

St. George's Church, its clergy, its graveyard, epitaphs
and inscriptions (St. Andrew's Temporary Iron Church 96).     95-99

Christ Church, its clergy.                                    100

St. John's Church.                                            101

St. Paul's Church.                                            102

St. Philip's Church.                                          103

St. Mark's Church.                                            104

St. Luke's Chapel-of-Ease.                                    105

St. Saviour's Church.                                         106

St. Peter's Church.                                           107

Temporary Church of the Ascension.--St. Michael's Church.     108

All Saints' Temporary Iron Church.--Rochester Diocesan
Mission, St. James', Nine Elms.                               111

St. Aldwin's Mission Chapel.--The Church of our Lady
of Mount Carmel and St. Joseph.                               112

Church of the Sacred Heart.--The Old Baptist Meeting
House, Revs. Mr. Browne, Joseph Hughes, M.A., (John
Foster), Edmund Clark, Enoch Crook, I. M. Soule,
Charles Kirtland.                                             113-116

Baptist Temporary Chapel, Surrey Lane.                        116

Battersea Park Temporary Baptist Chapel.                      117

Baptist (Providence) Chapel.                                  118

Baptist Chapel, Chatham Road.--Wesleyan Methodist
Mission Room and Sunday School.--United Methodist Free
Church, Church Road, Battersea.--The United Methodist
Free Church, Battersea Park Road.                             119

Primitive Methodist Chapel, New Road.                         119

Primitive Methodist Chapel, Grayshott Road.--Primitive
Methodist Chapel, Plough Lane.                                121

St. George's Mission Hall.--Battersea Congregational
Church, (Independent), Bridge Road.                           122

Stormont Road Congregational Church, Lavender Hill.           123

Wesleyan Methodism in Battersea.                              124-126

Methodist Chronology.                                         127

Wesleyan Chapel, Queen's Road.                                128

Free Christian Church, Queen's Road.                          129

Trinity Mission Hall, Stewart's Lane.--Plymouth Brethren.     130

"The Little Tabernacle."--Thomas Blood.                       131

Battersea Priory.--Alien Priories.                            132

Ursulines.                                                    132-134

Battersea Grammar School, St. John's Hill.                    134

The Southlands Practising Model Schools.--St. Peter's
Schools.--St. Saviour's Infant.                               136

Christ Church National Schools.--St. George's National
Schools.--Voluntary Schools.                                  136

London Board Schools.                                         137

London School Board, Lambeth Division.                        138

The Elementary Education Acts.--Regulations affecting
Parent and Child.                                             139-140

A Coffee Palace.--Latchmere Grove.--Plague Spots.--The
Shaftesbury Park Estate.                                      141-142

The Metropolitan Artizans' and Labourers' Dwellings
Association.                                                  143-144

Latchmere Allotments.--Dove Dale Place.--An Old
Boiler.--Lammas Hall.--The Union Workhouse.                   145

Old Battersea Workhouse.--The "Cage."--The "Stocks."          146

The Falcon Tavern.--A Cantata.                                147

Origin of Bottled Ale in England.--"Ye Plough Inn."--"The
Old House."--Stump of an Old Oak Tree.                        148

"Lawn House," Lombard Road.--The Prizes for the Kean's
Sovereigns and the Funny Boat Race.--The Old Swan
Tavern.--Royal Victoria Patriotic Schools.                    149

St. James' Industrial Schools.--Royal Masonic Institution
for Girls.                                                    150

Clapham Junction.--Battersea Provident Dispensary.            151

Wandsworth Common Provident Dispensary.--Charity
Organization Society.--The Penny Bank.--No. 54
Metropolitan Fire Brigade Station.--Origin of
Fire Brigades.                                                152

The Metropolitan Police.--Police Stations, Battersea.--St.
John's College of the National Society.                       153

The Vicarage House School.--Various Wharves and Factories.    154

Mr. George Chadwin.--T. Gaines.--Tow's Private Mad
House.--The Patent Plumbago Crucible Company's Works.         155

Silicated Carbon Filter Company's Works.                      156

Condy's Manufactory.--Citizen Steamboat Company's Works.      157

Orlando Jones & Co.'s Starch Works.                           157-159

Battersea Laundries.--Spiers and Pond's.--Propert's
Factory.--The London and Provincial Steam Laundry.            159-160

St. Mary's (Battersea) Cemetery.--Numerous Epitaphs
and Inscriptions. Scale of Fees, etc.                         161-175

The Battersea Charities.                                      175

Parish Officers.--Vestrymen.                                  176-178

Battersea Tradesmen's Club.--Temporary Home for
Lost and Starving Dogs.                                       179-180

London, Chatham and Dover Railway--Battersea Park
Station--York Road Station (Brighton Line).--West
London Commercial Bank. London and South Western
Bank.--Temperance and Band of Hope Meetings.--South
London Tramways in Battersea--Fares.                          180-181



[Transcriber's Note.--A list of illustrations has been added in
below. Some obvious errors in spelling and punctuation have also
been silently corrected.]



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

                                          PAGE.

St. Mary's Church.                        44

Price's Patent Candle Company.            59

St George's Church.                       95

St. John's Church.                        101

St. Mark's Church.                        104

St. Luke's Chapel-of-Ease.                105

St. Saviour's Church.                     106

Baptist Temporary Chapel, Surrey Lane.    116

Battersea Park Temporary Baptist Chapel.  117

The New Baptist Chapel.                   119

Battersea Congregational Church.          122

Orlando Jones & Co.'s Starch Works.       157



Introduction.


London, after the lapse of centuries, has been compared to an old
ship that has been repaired and rebuilt till not one of its original
timbers can be found; so marvellous are the changes and transmutations
which have come over the "_town upon the lake_" or, _harbour for
ships_ as London was anciently called, that if a Celt, or a Roman, or
a Saxon, or a Dane, or a Norman, or a Citizen of Queen Elizabeth's
time were to awake from his long slumber of death, he would no more
know where he was, and would be as strangely puzzled as an Englishman
of the present generation would be, who had never stirred further than
the radius of the Metropolis, supposing him to be conveyed by some
supernatural agency one night to China, who, on rising the next morning
finds himself surrounded by the street-scenery of the city of Pekin.
Costumes, manners, language, inhabitants have all changed! Viewed from
a geological stand-point, even the soil on which New London stands
is not the same as that on which Old London stood. The level of the
site of the ancient city was much lower than at present, for there are
found indications of Roman highways, and floors of houses, twenty feet
below the existing pathways. There are probable grounds for supposing
the Surrey side to have been some nineteen hundred years ago a great
expanse of water. London so called for several ages past, is a manifest
corruption from Tacitus's _Londinium_ which was not however its
primitive name this famous place existed before the arrival of Cæsar in
the Island, and was the capital of the _Trinobantes_ or _Trinouantes_,
and the seat of their kings. The name of the nation as appears from
Baxter's British Glossary, was derived from the three following British
words, tri, nou, bant, which signify the 'inhabitants of the new
city.' This name it is supposed might have been given them by their
neighbours on account of their having newly come from the Continent
(Belgium) into Britain and having there founded a city called _tri-now_
or the (new city) the most ancient name of the renowned metropolis of
Britain.[1] Some have asserted that a city existed on the spot 1107
years before the birth of Christ, and 354 years before the foundation
of Rome. The fables of Geoffrey of Monmouth state that London was
founded by Brute (or Brutus) a descendant of the Trojan Æneas the son
of Venus and called New Troy, or _Troy Novant_ until the time of Lud,
who surrounded it with walls, and gave it the name Caer Lud, or Lud's
town etc. _Leigh._ A certain Lord Mayor when pleading before Henry VI.
assumed from this mythological story with a view to establish a claim
to London's priority of existence over the city of Rome. The Celts the
ancestors of the Britons and modern Welsh were the first inhabitants
of Britain. The earliest records of the history of this island are the
manuscripts and the poetry of the Cambrians. Britain was called by the
Romans _Britannia_ from its Celtic name Prydhain. _Camden._ We need
not tarry to discuss whether Londinium originally was in _Cantium_
or Kent the place fixed by Ptolemy and some other ancient writers
of good authority, or whether its original place were Middlesex, or
whether situated both north and south of the _Tamesis_ Thames. The
_Trinobantes_ occupied Middlesex and Essex, they joined in opposing
the invasion of Julius Cæsar 54 B.C.; but were among the first of the
British States who submitted to the Romans their new City at that time
being too inconsiderable a place for Cæsar to mention. Having revolted
from the Roman yoke they joined their beautiful Queen Boadicea and were
defeated by Suetonius Paulinus near London A.D. 61. But before reducing
the Trinobantes who had the Thames for their southern boundary, it is
the opinion of some antiquarians that the Romans probably had a station
to secure their conquests on the Surrey side, and the spot fixed upon
for the station is St. George's in the Fields a large plot of ground
situated between Lambeth and Southwark, where many Roman coins, bricks,
chequered pavements and other fragments of antiquity have been found.
Three Roman ways from Kent, Surrey and Middlesex intersected each
other in this place. It is thought that after the Normans reduced the
Trinobantes the place became neglected and that they afterwards settled
on the other side of the Thames and the name was transferred to the
New City. The author of a work entitled "London in Ancient and Modern
times." p.p. 12 and 13 writes.--Let the reader picture to himself the
aspect of the place now occupied by the great Metropolis, as the Romans
saw it on their first visit. He should imagine the Counties of Kent and
Essex, now divided by the Thames, partially overflowed in the vicinity
of the river by an arm of the sea, so that a broad estuary comes up
as far as Greenwich, and the waters spread on both sides washing the
foot of the Kentish uplands to the south, and finding a boundary to the
north in the gently rising ground of Essex. The mouth of the river,
properly speaking was situated three or four miles from where London
Bridge now stands. Instead of being confined between banks as at
present, the river overflowed extensive marshes, which lay both right
and left beyond London. Sailing up the broad stream, the voyager would
find the waters spreading far on either side of him, as he reached the
spots now known as Chelsea and Battersea--a fact of which the record
is preserved in their very names. A tract of land rises on the north
side of the river. It is bounded to the west by a range of country,
subject to inundations, consisting of beds of rushes and osiers and
boggy grounds and impenetrable thickets, intersected by streams. It is
bounded to the north by a large dense forest, rising on the edge of a
waste fen or lake, covering the whole district now called Finsbury and
stretching away for miles beyond. This tract of land, rising in a broad
knoll, formed the site of London.

An old writer says "it is now certain that the spot, (viz. St. George's
in the Fields) on which the city was described to have stood, was an
extensive marsh or lake, reaching as far as Camberwell hills, until by
drains and embankments, the Romans recovered all the lowlands about the
parts now called St. George's Fields, Lambeth etc. London never stood
on any other spot than the Peninsular, on the northern banks, formed by
the Thames in front; by the river Fleet on the west; and by the stream
afterwards named Walbrook on the East. An immense forest originally
extended to the river side, and, even as late as the reign of Henry
II. covered the northern neighbourhood of the city, and was filled
with various species of beasts of chase. It was defended naturally by
fosses, one formed by the creek which ran along the Fleet ditch, the
other by that of Walbrook. The south side was protected by the river
Thames, and the north by the adjacent forest."

In the reign of Nero the first notice of Londinium or, Londinum occurs
in Tacitus (Ann xiv. 33.) where it is spoken of, not then as honoured
with the name _Colonia_ but for the great conflux of Merchants, its
extensive commerce, and as a depôt for merchandise. At a later date
London appears to have been _Colonia_ under the name Augusta (Amm.
Marcell.; xxvii. 8.) how long it possessed this honourable appellation
we do not know but after the establishment of the Saxons we find no
mention of Augusta. It has received at various times thirteen different
names, but most of them having some similarity to the present one.
However as it is not a history of England's Metropolis but _All about
Battersea_[2] we write, we will at once commence at Nine Elms.

[Footnote 1: The inhabitants of ancient Britain derived their origin
partly from an original colony of Celtæ, partly from a mixed body
of Gauls and Germans. None of them cultivated the ground; they all
lived by raising cattle and hunting. Their dress consisted of skins,
their habitations were huts of wicker-work covered with rushes. Their
Priests the Druids together with the sacred women, exercised a kind of
authority over them.

Britain according to Aristotle, was the name which the Romans gave to
Modern England and Scotland. This appellation is, perhaps derived from
the old word _brit_, partly coloured, it having been customary with the
inhabitants to paint their bodies.

According to the testimony of Pliny and Aristotle, the Island in
remotest times bore the name of Albion.

The Sea by which Britain is surrounded, was generally called, the
_Western_, the _Atlantic_, or _Hesperian_ Ocean. Herodotus informs us
that the Phœnicians, Greeks, and Carthaginians, especially the first
were acquainted with it from the earliest period and obtained tin there
and designated it _Tin Island_. The name Great Britain was applied to
England and Scotland after James I. ascended the English throne in
1603. England and Scotland however had separate Parliaments till 1st of
May 1707, when during the reign of Queen Anne the Island was designated
by the name of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The terms at first
excited the utmost dissatisfaction; but the progress of time has
shown it to be the greatest blessing that either nation could have
experienced.]

[Footnote 2: The Manor is thus described in Doomsday-book among the
lands belonging to the Abbot of Westminster:--"St. Peter of Westminster
holds Patricesy, Earl Harold held it; and it was then assessed at 72
hides: now at 18 hides. The arable land is--Three carucates are in
demesne; and there are forty-five villians, and sixteen bordars with
fourteen carucates, there are eight bond men: and seven mills at £42
9_s._ 8_d._ and a corn rent of the same amount, and eighty-two acres
of meadow and a wood yielding fifty swine for pannage. There is in
Southwark one bordar belonging to the Manor paying twelve pence. From
the roll of Wendelesorde (Wandsworth) is received the sum of £6. A
villian having ten swine pays to the Lord one; but if he has a smaller
number, nothing. One knight holds four hides of this land and the money
he pays is included in the preceding estimate. The entire Manor in the
time of King Edward was valued at £80, afterwards at £30; and now at
£75 9_s._ 8_d._

"King William gave the Manor to St. Peter in exchange for Windsor.
The Earl of Moreton holds one and a half hides of land, which in King
Edward's time and afterwards belonged to this Manor. Gilbert the
Priest holds three hides under the same circumstances. The Bishop of
Lisieux had two hides of which the Church of Westminster was seized in
the time of William and disseised by the Bishop of Bayeaux. The Abbot
of Chertsey holds one hide which the Bailiff of this will, out of
ill-will (to the Abbot of Westminster) detached from this Manor, and
appropriated it to Chertsey."

Hide of land in the ancient laws of England was such a quantity of land
as might be ploughed with one plough within the compass of a year, or
as much as would maintain a family; some call it sixty, some eighty,
and others one hundred acres. Villian, or Villein, in our ancient
customs, denotes a man of Servile or base condition, viz, a bond-man or
servant. (Fr. Vilain. L. Villanus, from Villa, a farm, a feudal tenant
of the lowest class.)]



ALL ABOUT BATTERSEA


NINE ELMS LANE it is said derived its name from nine Elm Trees which
stood in a row facing a small mansion known as "Manor House"--on the
site there has recently been erected, partly out of some of the old
materials, the offices and premises belonging to Haward Bros. Forty
years ago, Londoners wending their way to Battersea fields regarded
themselves in the country away from the smoke of town where they
could rusticate at pleasure as soon as they entered Nine Elms Lane on
their pedestrian excursions. Here were hedgerows, and green lanes,
and market gardens, and orchards, meadows, and fields of waving corn,
where reapers might have been seen in harvest-time reaping and binding
sheaves of golden grain. Dikes and ditches had to be crossed.[1] In the
event of high tide, which was of no uncommon occurrence, the district
would be partially inundated with water, in some places people might
ply in small rowing boats as easily as on the River Thames. On the
site where now stands the wharf of John Bryan and Co., the celebrated
Contractors for Welsh, Steam, Gas, and household Coals in general, were
situated the pleasure grounds and tea gardens belonging to Nine Elms
Tavern--the old tavern is still remaining. By the side of the Coal
Wharf is the Causeway where watermen used to ply for hire in order to
ferry people across the river. Steel has given us a lively description
of a boat trip from Richmond on an early summer morning when he fell
in "with a fleet of gardeners.... Nothing remarkable happened in our
voyage, but I landed with ten sail of Apricot boats at Strand bridge
after having put up at Nine Elms to take in melons." Within the
immediate vicinity is Thorne's Brewery with its clock turret at its
summit which at night is illuminated with gas so that the passers-by
looking at the clock might know the hour. On the spot where Southampton
Streets are, stood in olden time a large mansion surrounded by
extensive grounds, said to have been inhabited by the King's Champion.
The Champion _of the King, (campio regis)_ is an ancient officer,
whose office is, at the coronation of our Kings, when the King is at
dinner to ride armed _cap a pie_, into Westminster Hall, and by the
proclamation of an herald make a challenge "that if any man shall deny
the King's title to the crown, he is there ready to defend it in single
combat, etc., which being done," the King drinks to him, and sends him
a gilt cup with a cover full of wine, which the Champion drinks, and
hath the cup for his fee.

[Footnote 1: About ten years ago a brick sewer was constructed under
the supervision of the Metropolitan Board of Works where the filthy
black ditch which partly formed a boundary line between Battersea,
Clapham, and Lambeth Parishes was filled up. T. Pearson constructed the
sewer, and Mr. Benjamin Butcher was Clerk of the Works.]

On the north side of Nine Elms Lane, nearly opposite the place where
the "Southampton Arms" Tavern is situated was a windmill.

On the site now occupied by Thorne's Brewery there used to be a Tan
Yard and Fellmonger's Establishment. When the ground was opened for
the purpose of drainage some old tanks were discovered in which the
hides were soaked containing remains of lime and hair. In the rear
of the Brewery there was a Hop Garden where that bitter plant much
used for brewing was cultivated. The only regular vehicle that passed
through Nine Elms Lane was the carrier's cart--the few inhabitants of
the place used to "turn out" to see it pass--a marked contrast to the
present hurried and incessant traffic! Facing the Railway Terminus
were two Steamboat Piers for landing and taking up passengers. At
race times the excitement between the rival steamboat companies was
intense--"touters," men hired expressly by each of these companies to
induce passengers to go down their respective piers, became at times so
exasperated with each other that they fell to blows, a sight which the
baser sort of the crowds assembled on such occasions enjoyed to their
hearts' content.

Many things have been said by way of disparagement of Battersea and
not at all reflecting credit on certain localities within the parish.
Battersea has been called "the Sink Hole of Surrey." Europa Place,
Bridge Road, has been designated "Little Hell," and the spot where
Trinity Hall has been erected at the end of Stewart's Lane, received
the epithet of "Hell Corner." Persons in the habit of receiving
stolen property were said to reside in the neighbourhood; moreover,
there was a gang called "Battersea Forty Theives!" "Sharpers" are
said to have abounded in every direction, so that strangers going to
Battersea would be "cut for the simples." But we who know something of
London life know that other Metropolitan parishes have their "dens of
infamy" and localities of "Blue Skin," "Jack Sheppard," and "Jonathan
Wild" notoriety, that beneath the shadow of St. Paul's Cathedral
and Westminster Abbey, our Houses of Parliament and Mansions of the
Nobility and Aristocracy, squalor and crime, vice and grandeur walk
side by side, and oftentimes hand in hand.

Adjoining Thorne's premises and Swonnell's Malt houses, is the London
and South Western Railway Company's Goods Station, which, before
the extension of that Company's line in 1848 to Waterloo Road, was
originally the Metropolitan Terminus. Though this part of the line
crosses the most grimy portion of Lambeth, a distance of two miles and
fifty yards, yet it cost the Railway Company £800,000. The London and
Southampton Railway (as it was first called) was opened on the 11th of
May, 1840, which, in connexion with the opposite wharf and warehouses
on the banks of the river, at that time occupied an extent of between
seven and eight acres. The entrance front of the (then) Metropolitan
Terminus at Nine Elms, erected from designs by William Tite, Esq.,
Architect to the Company, was not unhandsome though at present it has
rather a dingy appearance for want of renovation, and has a central
arcade which originally led to the booking office and waiting rooms
now used for the manager's and clerks' offices for the goods traffic
department. The railroad was commenced under the authority of an Act of
Parliament which received the Royal assent on the 5th of July, 1834 (it
was opened as far as Woking Common on the 21st of May, 1838). By this
Act the Company were empowered to raise £1,000,000 in £50 shares, and
a further sum of £330,000 by loan. Since that time several additional
Acts have been passed authorizing the Company to extend their line and
increase their capital. The Company's capital for the present year
(1879) is £17,000,000. Mr. Wood was the Company's first Locomotive
Superintendent. When the London and Southampton line was first opened
all the workmen in the Company's service had a half holiday and one
shilling each given to them. The Richmond Railway--this though an
offshoot of the South Western, and worked by that Company, was executed
by a private one. It was however sold to the South Western Company in
October, 1846. It had been opened on the 27th of July previous. Number
of miles open 648. The gross receipts for the year ending December
31, 1873, were £2,195,170. The railroad intersects Battersea parish
to the extent of two miles and a half. The Goods Department comprises
the hydraulic shed, down goods shed, carriers' shed, egg shed, the old
warehouse and granary by the riverside; down office, Wandsworth Road
Gate; cartage office, Nine Elms Lane. Officers of the Company.--General
Manager, Archibald Scott, Esq.; Locomotive Superintendent, W. Adams,
Esq.; Resident Engineer, William Jacomb, Esq.; Treasurer, Alfred
Morgan, Esq.; Goods Manager, J. T. Haddow, Esq., Nine Elms; Assistant
Goods Manager, Mr. W. B. Mills, Waterloo; Superintendent, R. H. Ming,
Esq., Nine Elms; Chief Inspector, Mr. Robert Lingley, Nine Elms; Law
Clerk, M. H. Hall, Esq.; Mr. H. B. Terrill, Cashier; Mr. J. E. Hawkins,
Chief Clerk; Superintendents of the Line, E. W. Verrinder, Chief
Superintendent, Waterloo Station; John Tyler, Western Division, Exeter
Station; William Gardiner, Assistant Superintendent, Waterloo Station;
W. H. Stratton, Storekeeper, Nine Elms Works.

Soon after the opening of the London and Southampton Railway a
collision between two passenger trains occurred at the Nine Elms
Terminus resulting in the death of a young woman, a domestic servant,
who, with a fellow servant, had been spending the day at Hampton Court.
The Coroner's Jury returned a verdict of accidental death _a deodand_
of £300 was levied on the "Eclipse" locomotive engine, the moving cause
of death. The Railway Company paid the £300 to Earl Spencer as Lord
of the Manor, who most generously divided it amongst the deceased's
relatives.

    _Omnia qua movent ad mortem sunt deodanda:_
    What moves to death, or kills him dead,
    Is deodand, and forfeited.

On the South Western Railway Stone Wharf are the agents' offices of the
several depôts for the sale of Portland stone, Bath freestone, etc.
Huge blocks of stone direct from the quarries are here deposited and
piled block upon block. A single block in some instances weighing ten
tons elevated and removed by means of a steam traveller moving on a
gantry.

When the workmen were engaged in "digging out" the ground for the
foundation of the goods sheds a human skeleton was discovered, on
which Mr. Carter (coroner) held an inquest. Dr. Statham, who made the
_post mortem_ examination, stated that the skeleton was that of a male
person, that there were three severe cuts upon the head either of which
was sufficient to cause death. As no further evidence was procurable a
verdict was given in accordance.

About forty years ago, when Mr. Gooch was Locomotive Superintendent,
a fire broke out at the London and South Western Railway Works, Nine
Elms Lane, which caused great destruction of property, including a
very handsome clock tower. Various metals were fused and mingled into
shapes fantastic, portions of which were substituted for chimney-piece
ornaments in the homes of the workman and kept as mementos of this
conflagration! A man of the name of Dover who it is said accidentally
set the stores on fire was so frightened that it turned the hair of his
head grey in one night!

At Nine Elms Locomotive, Carriage and Stores Departments are fire
precautions which the Railway Company insist upon being strictly
observed. A fire engine with hose and all necessary appliances is
kept in a building set apart for it adjoining Heman's Street Entrance
gate. A properly qualified fireman is appointed to look after the
whole of the buildings by night, as a precaution against fire. The
fireman's name is Thomas Lewin, and his residence is 51, Thorne
Street, Wandsworth Road. His hours of duty are from 5.30 p.m. to 6.30
a.m. It is the fireman's duty to perambulate the whole of the works
during the night, and to make a daily report of the circumstances in
the book provided for that purpose. He is responsible that the fire
engine, hose, hydrants, etc., are kept in working order and tried once
a week. A statement of the trial is to be made in the fireman's report
book with any suggestions or remarks. Positions of Hydrants at Nine
Elms Works--There are 120 hydrants (always charged) distributed as
follows:--15 in the offices, paint loft and shops beneath; 4 in the
general stores; 4 in wheelwrights' and signal shops; 2 in bonnet shop;
5 in waggon shop; 4 in new waggon shop and saw mill; 5 in smiths' and
carriage fitting shops; 9 in erecting shops; 2 in turning shop; 3 in
tender shop; 4 in new erecting shop; 1 in permanent way shop; 4 in
arches under the Viaduct; 52 in running shed; 4 at outlets of water
tanks, and 2 on the coal stage. Positions of Tell-tale Clocks:--1 in
the office; 1 in general stores; 1 in wheelwrights' shop; 1 in paint
shop; 1 in saw mill. It is the fireman's duty to commence to "peg" each
of these blocks four times every night at the following hours, viz., 8
p.m., 10.30 p.m., 1 a.m. and 3.30 a.m.

Facing the Goods Station are the Company's Wharves with an extensive
river frontage. Here also formerly stood Francis' Cement Works,
adjoining is Nine Elms Steamboat Pier. The South Western Railway
Locomotive Works and Goods Department occupy a vast area. It is
computed that about 2,000 persons are employed in the various
departments. Here were formerly orchard-grounds--many a goodly tree
bearing fruit and pleasant to the eye has been felled. "Woodman spare
that tree!" though spoken by feminine lips would have no force of
appeal in this fast age of iron railways and steam locomotives, when
Railway Companies scruple not by virtue of Acts of Parliament to pull
down by hundreds the dwellings of the poor, it is not to be supposed
for an instant that a few fruit trees however delicious their produce
or delightful their shadow should prove a peculiar obstacle in the way
of this March of Civilization! On payment of sixpence, children at
half-price, persons might enter these orchards with full liberty to eat
as much fruit as they liked on condition that they brought none away.
The old Spring Well near Nine Elms Lane, Wandsworth Road, is within the
recollection of many, who by descending some six or eight steps reached
with their hands the iron ladle out of which they often drank cooling
draughts of nature's sparkling aquatic refreshment. Ah, everything has
a history and its lesson if we did but know. We all exert unconscious
influence either for good or evil,--some secret action performed; some
deed of kindness done; some public boon conferred with the benefactor's
name concealed shall by-and-by be proclaimed upon the house-top. A cup
of cold water given in the name of a disciple of Jesus of Nazareth
shall not lose its reward. Some persons wish to be remembered by
posterity, even wicked parents would not like after death to be
obliterated from the memories of their children. The best of all human
monuments is a good character,--Solomon says, "a good name is rather to
be chosen than riches."

Our forefathers never dreamed of erecting such drinking fountains[1]
as we have in these days with troughs for cattle and smaller ones for
mongrel barking curs to slake their thirst; the pond by the way, the
wooden horse trough outside the road-side Inn, the long-handled iron
pump, in some instances resembling the head and tail of the British
Lion having the body of a greyhound, pleased them and suited their
purpose. The site now environed by the London Gas Works was formerly
a large market ground, here too grew apple, pear, and cherry trees,
gooseberry bushes and currants, roses were cultivated and rendered the
air fragrant with their sweet perfume. In the ditches and trenches or
small channels and streams occasioned by the tidal overflow from the
river, juveniles of both sexes might have been seen catching with hand
and cap sticklebacks and utilizing a medicine phial or gin bottle for
an aquarium. Senior boys and hobbledehoys with jovial facial aspect
who had not studied ichthyology or that part of zoology which treats
of fishes, attempted to catch larger fry by adopting the Izaak Walton
method of angling with rod and line, and thought themselves amply
rewarded if after much patient endurance the motion of their floats
indicated that their baits had taken, their eyes would glisten at the
sight of a few roaches and perches. Youngsters would amuse themselves
by watching the newts and tadpoles, the leaping and swimming of that
amphibious reptile of the _batrachian_ tribe, wondering perhaps,
supposing their biblical knowledge to have extended thus far, whether
those were the kind of creatures that crawled out of the river Nile
and crept into the houses of the Egyptians.

[Footnote 1: His Grace the Duke of Westminster is the President of the
Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association.]

Many a dainty dish of stewed eels have the miller's men had at
Mill-pond Bridge, who not unfrequently caught alive this precious kind
of anguilla as it lay concealed between the stones and mud, without the
aid of eel-pot or basket. Mill-Pond Bridge derives its name from the
old tidal water flour mill, the only vestige of the mill remaining is
the outward carcase, which is in a ruinous condition; beneath its cover
are the lock gates, the entrance of the creek where thousands of tons
of coal are conveyed in barges to the London Gas Works.

NEW ROAD, as it is designated, leading from Battersea fields to the
Wandsworth Road was a lane with a mud bank on both sides. In a line
with the centre of the South Western Railway "Running Shed" was
formerly Mill-Pond which answered the purpose of a large reservoir of
water raised for driving the mill wheel.

Water mills used for grinding corn are said to have been invented by
Belisarius, the General of Justinian while besieged in Rome by the
Goths, 555. The ancients parched their corn and ground it in mortars.
Afterwards mills were invented which were turned by men and beasts
with great labour, yet Pliny mentioned wheels turned by water. _See
Telo-dynamic Transmitter._

The simplest mill for bruising grain was nothing more than two stones
between which it was broken. Such was often seen in the country of
the Niger by Richard and John Lander on their expedition to Africa.
The manna which God gave to the children of Israel in the desert "the
people went about and gathered it, and ground it in mills or beat it in
a mortar," _Numbers xi._ 8.

From mills and mortars thus rudely constructed there must have been
obtained at first only a kind of peeled grain which Dr. Eadie says
may be compared to the German _graupe_, the English _groats_, and the
American _grits_ or _hominy_. Fine flour was laboriously obtained from
household mills like our coffee mills. The oldest mention of flour is
in Gen. xviii. 6; but bread which is made of flour or meal is named
in Gen. iii. 19. In order to reduce the flour to a proper degree of
fineness it was necessary sometimes to have it ground over again and
cleared by a sieve.

Samson when a prisoner to the Philistines was condemned to the
mill-stone to grind with his hand in the prison-house, Judges xvi. 21.
In England prisoners are sent to the treadmill as a punishment.

The Talmudists have a story that the Chaldeans made the young men of
the captivity carry mill-stones with them to Babylon where there seems
to have been a scarcity at that time. They have also a proverbial
expression of a man with a mill-stone about his neck which they use to
express a man under the severest weight of affliction.

Windmills are of great antiquity and stated to be of Roman or Saracen
invention, they are said to have been originally introduced into Europe
by the Knights of St. John, who took the hint from what they had seen
in the crusades (_Baker_). Windmills were first known in Spain, France
and Germany in 1299 (_Anderson_). Wind saw-mills were invented by a
Dutchman in 1633, when one was erected near the Strand in London.

Acorns was the coarse fare of the old inhabitants of Britain, when
wild Britons painted their skin to make themselves appear more fierce,
and native tribes in a still more barbarous condition, half naked or
clad in the skins of beasts, not cultivators of the soil, subsisted
on the flesh of their cattle or on the precarious produce of the
chase. Packs of hungry, growling, cruel wolves[1] prowled in the woods
and forests, and Druidical Priests exercised an entire control over
the unlettered people they governed, and human captives seized on
Britannia's shores were offered as victims in sacrifice, a holocaust to
the divinities and false gods which ancient Britons worshipped!

[Footnote 1: Wolves were very numerous in England, King Edgar
unsuccessfully attempted to effect their total destruction by commuting
the punishment of certain crimes into the acceptance of a certain
number of wolves' tongues from each criminal; their heads were demanded
by him as a tribute particularly 300 annually from Wales, A.D. 961.

In 1289 Edward I. issued his Royal Mandate to Peter Corbet for the
extermination of wolves in the several counties of Gloucester,
Worcester, Hereford, Salop, and Stafford; and in the adjacent county of
Derby.

Camden at page 900 informs us certain persons at Wormhill held their
lands by the duty of hunting and taking the wolves that infested the
country, whence they were styled _Wolf Hunt_.

In Saxon times and during Athelstan's reign wolves abounded so in
Yorkshire that a retreat was built at Flixton in that county "to defend
passengers from the wolves that they should not be devoured by them."
On account of the desperate ravages these animals made during winter
the Saxons distinguished January by the name of the Wolf month. An
_outlaw_ was called a _wolf's head_ as being out of the protection of
law and liable to be killed as that destructive beast.]

The Accipenser, in ichthyology, a genus of fishes belonging to the
Amphibia Nantes of Linnæus. The Accipenser has a single linear
nostril; the cirri are below the snout, and before the mouth. There
are three species of this genus. The ruthenus has four cirri, and
fifteen squamous protuberances; it is a native of Russia. The huso has
four cirri; the body is naked, has no prickles or protuberances. The
ichthyocollo, or _isinglass_ of the shops, famous as an agglutinant,
and used also for the fining of wines, is made from its sound or
scales. The Sturio, or Sturgeon with four cirri and eleven squamous
protuberances on the back. This fish annually ascends our rivers (it
has occasionally been seen in years gone by as high up the river Thames
as Wandsworth) but in no great numbers, and is taken by accident in the
salmon nets. It seems a spiritless fish making no manner of resistance
when entangled, but is drawn out of the water like a lifeless lump.
This cartilaginous fish is highly prized for food, not unlike in taste
to veal. About thirty-six years ago a Royal Sturgeon was caught in
the wheel of the mill at Mill-Pond Bridge then in the occupation of
Mr. Hutton the Miller (who was noted as a breeder of game fowls), now
the property of the London Gas-Light Company. It appears that a local
tradesman named Henry Appleton was going to town and saw a great crowd,
some with guns shooting at a great fish, but the Sturgeon's natural
armour resisted the force of their small shot such as they were then
using. Mr. Appleton upon seeing the state of affairs hastened to
procure a bullet or two as a more effectual means of capturing the
prize and the first shot or bullet fired was fatal to the poor sturgeon
which was then landed and conveyed into the garden of Mr. Hutton's
private house upon the exact spot of which at the present time stands
the house (since erected) on the banks of the Creek in the occupation
of Mr. Methven. It then became after the usual ceremony of asking the
Lord Mayor, the property of Mr. Appleton, and was exhibited by him in
York Street (now Savona Street), on premises now in the occupation of
Mr. Dulley, Butcher. After being exhibited several weeks great crowds
coming from all parts of London to see it, the Sturgeon was sold to a
Fishmonger residing in Bond Street, who publicly exhibited it in his
shop for some years with a description stating particulars, where it
was captured and by whom and its length, being upwards of 9-ft. It is
said to have been equal in weight to a sack of flour viz., 280 lbs.

The Sturgeon is more abundant in the Northern Coasts of Europe. It is
also found in the more Southern parts. It was esteemed by the ancients
as a very great luxury and it was held in high repute for the table
by the Greeks and Romans and at their banquets it was introduced with
particular ceremonies.

In England when caught in the Thames within the jurisdiction of the
Lord Mayor of London it is a _Royal Fish_ reserved for the Sovereign.
The flesh is white, delicate, firm and nutritious. It is used both
fresh, generally stewed. The largest species of Sturgeon is the
Bielaga, or Huso. Huso (_A. Huso_) of the Black and Caspian seas and
their rivers. It attains the length of 20 or 25 feet and has been known
to weigh nearly 3000 lbs.

Near the site where now stands the Park Tavern at the corner of the New
Road, opposite Mr. Featherstonhaugh's Brewery and not far from "The
Plough & Harrow," were the flower gardens and beautiful residence of
John Patient, Esq., afterwards occupied by Mr. Carne the Barge Builder.
The house where Mr. Bennett, Lath-render, resides, and the house
adjoining were used as a Private Asylum for the insane and was called
"Sleaford House."

The picturesque and retired Country Parsonage, the residence of the
Rev. J. G. Weddell, stood a considerable distance from the main
road--"The Prince Alfred" tavern situate in Haine Street occupies the
site. In this locality was a tenter-ground the entrance to which from
the road was through a white gate.

A gateway at the commencement of "Hugman's Lane" which had "no
thoroughfare" led to the works belonging to Peter Pariss and Son, Oil
of Vitriol Manufacturers and Manufacturing Chemists. Mr. Wallace, who
subsequently held these premises had them considerably enlarged to
facilitate his project in working up gas liquor for making Sulphate
of Ammonia, which is extensively used for agricultural purposes. The
sewers in the neighbourhood became impregnated with a deleterious gas
and the stench from the drains was intolerable. After considerable
litigation with the Board of Works Mr. Wallace became a bankrupt.

By order of the Mortgagees on Wednesday and Thursday, March 3rd and
4th, 1880, Mr. Douglas Young sold by auction the plant and machinery
of the above extensive works, including 5 large Cornish steam boilers,
tubular boiler, 3 egg boilers, a bottle boiler, a 4000 gallon wrought
iron tank, 12 smaller ditto, 4 large circular tanks, 5 steam barrel
of various sizes, flange pipes, 3 large iron coils, about 70 tons
old metal, several copper and iron boilers of various sizes, furnace
fittings, weighing bridge by Hodgson and Stead, self-feeding
boiler and engine, about 150,000 sound bricks, a large quantity of
sound timber including balk timber, yellow deals, planks, battens,
die-square, floor and lining boards, and 50 tons of breeze, several
stacks of firewood, pantiles, drain pipes and other plant materials.

SLEAFORD STREET appears to have obtained an amount of respectability
that it had not of yore. Once upon a time one side was nicknamed
"Ginbottle Row," and the opposite side was called "Soapsuds Bay!"
Mill-Pond Bridge was very narrow, about half its present width, with a
low parapet on both sides.

If the following statement could be relied on, it would perhaps allay
the fears created by certain alarmists respecting the physical limits
to deep coal mining and duration of the coal supply. "There are coal
deposits in various parts of Great Britain at all depths down to
10,000 or 12,000 feet. Mining is possible to a depth of 4,000 feet,
but beyond this the high temperature is likely to prove a barrier. The
temperature of a coal mine at a depth of 4,000 feet will probably be
found as high as 120º Fahr.; but there is reason to believe that by
the agency of an efficient system of ventilation the temperature may
be reduced, at least during the cooler months of the year, as to allow
mining operations without unusual danger to health. Adopting a depth
of 4,000 feet as the limit to deep mining there is still a quantity of
coal in store in Great Britain sufficient to afford the annual supply
of twenty-two millions of tons for a thousand years."--_Hull._[1]

[Footnote 1: More than a quarter of a century ago, Professor Buckland
when examined before the House of Commons, limits the supply to 400
years. Mr. Bailey in his Survey of Durham limits the supply to 200
years only. But some proprietors when examined in 1830 extended the
period of total exhaustion of the mines to 1,727 years; they assumed
that there are 837 square miles of coal strata in this field and that
only 105 miles had been worked out.

"There were 2936 collieries in Britain in 1860; from these were raised
83,923,273 tons of coal. The greatly increasing consumption of coal
has originated fears as to the possibility of the exhaustion of our
mineral fuel. It appears that, while in 1820, only 15,000,000 tons
were raised, in 1840, the amount had reached 30,000,000, and in 1860,
it was nearly 84,000,000. At the same rate of increase the known coal,
within a workable distance from the surface, would last at least
100 years. But the consumption, during the last twenty years of the
century, would at the present increasing ratio amount to 1464 million
tons a year, a quantity vastly greater than can be used. We need not,
therefore, now begin to fear lest our coal-fields should be speedily
used up."--_Chambers's Encyclopedia_.]

"Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and
wise," was a motto adopted by our forefathers when the inducements to
promenade London streets by night were not so inviting as now.

"Ranelagh and Vauxhall were places of frivolous amusement resorted
to even by the higher classes. From those and other haunts of folly,
lumbering coaches or sedan chairs conveyed home the ladies through the
dimly lighted or pitch dark streets, and the gentlemen picked their
way over the ruggedly-paved thoroughfares, glad of the proffered aid
of the link boys who crowded round the gates of such places of public
entertainment or resort as were open at night, and who, arrived at
the door to which they had escorted some fashionable foot-passenger,
quenched the blazing torch in the trumpet-looking ornament which one
now and then still sees lingering over the entrance to some house in
an antiquated square or court, a characteristic relic of London in the
olden time."

Street lighting was not known to the Greeks and Romans, it was
therefore necessary for them whenever they went abroad after dark
to carry flambeaux. Street lighting was first introduced at Paris
about the beginning of the 16th century. An Edict was issued ordering
the inhabitants to keep lights burning in their windows after nine
at night. In 1558, lamps were exchanged for lanterns, and in 1671
these lanterns were ordered to be lighted from the 20th of October
to the beginning of April. This however did not prove a satisfactory
arrangement. At length a premium was offered by the Government for a
dissertation on the best mode of lighting the streets. The successful
competitors were a journeyman glazier, M. M. Bailly, Le Roy and
Bourgeois Le Cheteaublanc. To the glazier was awarded a prize of 200
livres, and to the other three jointly 2,000 livres. The result of
their suggestions was a general lighting of the streets by oil lamps
set upon posts.

In London, lanterns were first used in 1688, and those inhabitants
whose houses fronted the streets were ordered to hang out their
lanterns and keep them burning from 6 to 11 o'clock at night; the
number of lanterns thus used within the boundaries of the City of
London was 5,000. Without the City, inclusive of the suburbs, the
probability is that the number was 15,000.

In 1874, another act was passed for regulating the lighting of the City
still further. Since the lighting of the streets, alleys, courts, etc.,
of our Metropolis with gas have come many other sanitary and social
improvements, and it is not unlikely that under a wise Providence we
owe to this invention as much security from the nightly depredations of
burglars as much so as from the vigilance of the police.

The existence and inflammability of coal-gas has been known in
England for two centuries. In the year 1659, Thomas Shirley correctly
attributed the exhalations from the "burning well" at Wigan, in
Lancashire, to the coal-beds which lie under that part of the country;
and soon after, Dr. Clayton, influenced by Shirley, actually made
coal-gas, and detailed the results of his labours in a letter to
the Hon. Robert Boyle, who died in 1691. About a century later,
1753, Sir James Lowther communicated to the Royal Society a notice
of a spontaneous evolution of gas at a colliery belonging to him at
Whitehaven. Bishop Watson made many experiments on coal-gas, which he
details in his Chemical Essays. Mr. R. Taylor, on the Coal-fields of
China, says, "The Chinese artificially produce illuminating gas from
bitumen coal we are certain. But it is a fact that spontaneous jets of
gas derived from boring into coal-beds have for centuries been burning,
and turned to that and other economical purposes. If the Chinese
are not gas manufacturers, they are nevertheless gas consumers and
employers on a large scale, and have evidently been so ages before the
knowledge of its application was acquired by Europeans." In 1792, Mr.
Murdoch, an engineer at Redruth in Cornwall, erected a little gasometer
with apparatus which produced gas sufficient to supply his own house
and offices, and in 1797, he erected a similar apparatus in Ayrshire.
In the following year, he was engaged to put up a gas works at the
Manufactory of Bolton and Watts, at Soho, Birmingham,--this was the
first application of gas in a large way. Except among a few scientific
men, the manufacture of gas excited but little curiosity until the year
1802, when the front of the great Soho Manufactory was brilliantly
illuminated with gas on the occasion of the public rejoicings at the
Peace. In 1801, M. Le Bon, at Paris, succeeded in lighting up his
own house and gardens with gas from wood and coal, and had it in
contemplation to light up the City of Paris.

Only within the present century has gas superseded in London the dim
oil lamps. About forty years ago, oil lamps and lighted candles were
used in our churches and chapels; in some places of worship evening
services were dispensed with altogether. A humorous anecdote is related
of Dr. Johnson: it is said, one evening, from the window of his house
in Bolt Court, he observed the parish lamplighter ascend a ladder to
light one of the small oil lamps. He had scarcely descended the ladder
half-way when the flame expired. Quickly returning he lifted the cover
of the lamp partially and thrusting the end of his torch beneath it,
the flame instantly communicated to the wick by the thick vapour which
issued from it. "Ah!" exclaimed the Doctor, "one of these days the
streets of London will be lighted by smoke."--_Notes and Queries_, No.
127. Certain scientific men were incredulous as to the practicability
of lighting up the whole of London with gas, and Sir Humphrey Davey
asked if it were intended to take the dome of St. Paul's for a
gasometer! In 1820 gas meters were patented by John Malan, in 1830 by
Samuel Clegg, in 1838 by Nathan Defries and others. Mr. Daniel Pollock,
father of the late Chief Baron, was governor of the first "chartered"
gas company in 1812. In 1822 St. James' Park was first lighted with
gas. In 1825, its safety had not then been established on the part
of the Government, a committee of the most eminent scientific men
immediately inspected the Gas Works, and reported that the occasional
superintendence of all the Works was necessary. However, since then
so rapidly has the invention of gas-lighting progressed, that now in
the present year of grace, there is neither City nor town in Great
Britain of any note but what is illuminated with gas and has works for
its manufacture in close proximity to the houses of its inhabitants.
Gas supply of London, receipts for the year 1872, £2,133,600, for
1873, £2,544,000. What is coke? Coke is the residual carbon of pit
coal after the volatile matters have been expelled by heat, it has a
porous texture and a lustre sometimes approaching the metallic. It
is a valuable fuel, producing an intense and steady heat and leaving
but little residue after combustion. The residual coke in retorts
has a quantity of ash, which, besides its earthy base of silicate,
usually contains sulphur and other deleterious matter. The breeze can
be used in furnaces and in burning bricks. There is a considerable
quantity of pure hydrogen produced by the decomposition of water in
cooling coke. Attempts have been made to manufacture gas from other
substances besides coal--oil, resin, peat, and even water having in
their turn commanded capital for a fair trial of their merits of all
these; however, coal has alone stood the test of commercial success,
those companies formed for other schemes having either been dissolved
or become converts to its superior advantages. No doubt it will be
considered Utopian--Mr. Robinson thinks that the electric light might
be so modified as to be used in public dwellings! There are exhaustless
stores of latent electricity, but the difficulty is to know how to
develop and utilise it.

Street gas lit by electricity, by Mr. St. George Lane, Fox's method:
trial partially successful, Pall Mall, etc., 13th April, 1878. British
Museum Reading Room illuminated by electric light, October, 1879.

Common bituminous coal obtained from the mines of Northumberland,
Durham, York, South Wales, and a few other coal districts is the kind
from which most of the gas of this country is manufactured. The Cannel
or Scotch Parrot coals produce a gas of a much richer quality, which,
though expensive, has the advantage of superior illuminating power.
Gas companies use to a very great extent coals from the following
mines:--Pelaw, Leverson's Wallsend, Pelton, New Pelton, Dean's
Primrose, Garesfield, South Peareth, (The London Gas-Light Company use
principally Peareth) Urpeth, Washington, Yorkshire, Silkstone, Haswell,
West Wear, Wearmouth, Brancepeth, South Brancepeth, and Ravenshaw
Pelaw. The resulting products of carbonization of these coals when an
exhauster is employed will be found to give about the following average
per ton:--

Gas, 9,500 cubic feet; Coke, 13 cwt., or one chaldron; Tar, 10 gallons;
Ammoniacal Liquor, 13 gallons. Ammonia, a compound of Nitrogen and
Hydrogen, is converted into Sulphate of Ammonia, Sal Ammonia, Carbonate
of Ammonia, etc., etc. Tar, which is a Hydro-carbon, after producing
Naptha and light oils, becomes useful as Asphalt, or for exterior paint
work. Benzole, the base of our newly-discovered dyes, is extracted
from the Naptha; which, besides, is either used as a solvent for
india-rubber and guttapercha, or yields a brilliant light when burned
in a common lamp. Gas, as it issues from the retorts, is chiefly
composed of light carburetted and bicarburetted hydrogen or olefiant
gas, accompanied by condensable vapours and other gaseous impurities.
The condensable vapours are principally hydro-carbon compounds
which become deposited in the form of oil, and amongst a variety of
deleterious substances may be mentioned as the chief: ammonia, carbonic
acid, carbonic oxide, and sulphuretted hydrogen, but the value of
coal-gas principally depends on the presence of bicarburetted hydrogen,
and the greater proportion of this the higher will be its light-giving
properties.

The connection of the London Gas-Light Company's Works with Vauxhall
takes us out of the parish of Battersea for a moment into the parish
of Lambeth. Vauxhall, the early Spring Garden, was named from its site
in the Manor of La Sale Fawkes, Fawkeshall, from its possessor, an
obscure Norman adventurer, in the reign of King John.[1] The estate
was laid out as a garden about 1661, in squares enclosed with hedges
of gooseberries, within which were roses, beans and asparagus. Sir
Samuel Morland took a lease of the place in 1665, and added fountains
and a sumptuously furnished room for the reception of Charles II.
and his court, and a plan dated 1681, shows the gardens planted with
trees and laid out in walks and a circle of trees or shrubs. They were
frequented by Evelyn and Pepys; and Addison in the _Spectator_, 1712,
takes Sir Roger de Coverley there. In 1728, the gardens were leased to
Jonathan Tyers, who converted the house into a tavern. The beauty of
its rural scenery rendered it so much frequented that the proprietor
in the year 1730, introduced vocal music, the price of admission at
that time was 1s., but from the competition of others who opened public
places of amusement in the neighbourhood, the proprietor introduced a
great variety of amusements and raised the price of admission to 2s.
During the season of 1807, the price was constantly 2s., the gardens
being open only three nights in the week, and each of these nights was
what was termed a gala night. Vauxhall Gardens were extensive, they
contained a variety of walks illuminated with beautiful transparent
paintings. Opposite the west door was a magnificent Gothic orchestra,
illuminated with a profusion of lamps of various colours; and on the
left was an elegant rotunda, in which the band performed in the cold
or rainy weather. At ten o'clock a bell announced the opening of a
cascade, with the representation of a water-mill, a mail coach, etc.
Fireworks of the most brilliant description were also introduced among
the attractions of the place. In numerous recesses, or pavilions,
parties were accommodated with suppers and other refreshments and were
charged according to a bill of fare. The ham sandwiches were of such
an excellent quality and so thinly sliced that they became proverbial.
The respective boxes and apartments were adorned with a vast number
of paintings, many of which were executed in the best style of their
respective theatres. The labours of Hogarth and Hayman were the most
conspicuous. On a pedestal, under the arch of a grand portico of the
Doric order, was a fine marble statue of Handel, in the character of
Orpheus playing on his lyre, done by the celebrated M. Roubiliac. The
number of persons who were employed in the gardens during the season is
said to have amounted to 400, 96 of whom were musicians and singers,
the rest were waiters and servants of various kinds. The celebrated
Lowe and Beard were amongst the first singers who were engaged at
Vauxhall. Upwards of 15,000 lamps were said to illuminate the gardens
at one time,--the effect of the illumination was peculiarly beautiful
in a moonlight night. The band of the Duke of York's regiment of Guards
dressed in full uniform added to the attractions of these enchanting
gardens; by military harmony, as a place of public entertainment, it
became the most famous in Europe. The greatest season was in 1823, when
133,279 persons visited the gardens and the receipts were £29,590. The
greatest number of persons in one night was on the 2nd of August, 1833,
when 20,137 paid for admission. The carriages outside the gardens were
so numerous that they extended in lines as far as Westminster Bridge in
one direction and to Kennington Common in an opposite direction. The
greatest number on the then supposed last night, 5th September, 1839,
was 1089 persons. So fascinating did this place of amusement become
that it acquired the name of the "fairy land of fancy," answering in
conception to those enchanted palaces and gardens described in the
"Arabian Nights Entertainment."[2] It was in these gardens gas was
manufactured by the London Gas-light Company prior to gas being made at
the Company's Works in the neighbourhood of Vauxhall Row.

[Footnote 1: The true derivation is supposed to be from Falk or Faulk
de Brent, a famous Norman soldier of fortune to whom King John gave
in marriage Margaret de Ripariis or Redvers. To the lady belonged
that Manor of Lambeth to which the Mansion called Faulks Hall was
annexed.--_London_, by Charles Knight, Vol. I., p. 403.]

[Footnote 2: Vauxhall Gardens were open from 1732 to 1840, they were
re-opened in 1841 and finally closed in 1859, when the theatre,
orchestra, firework gallery, fountains, statues, etc., were sold,
with a few mechanical models, such as Sir Samuel Morland, Master
of Mechanics to Charles II. had set up here nearly two centuries
previously. The site was then cleared and a church, (St. Peter's)
vaulted throughout, was built upon a portion of the grounds, besides a
school of arts, etc.--_John Timbs_.]

The London Gas-light Company was Incorporated in the year 1833.[1]
The Works at Vauxhall were constructed from designs furnished by Mr.
Hutchison, the Engineer. The first bed of retorts set on the Company's
premises was heated by a man of the name of William Batt, June,
1834. The old man is still living, he is seventy-five years of age,
and has been in the London Gas-light Company's service forty-three
years. At that time the Company used a small gasometer erected in
Vauxhall Gardens. It was with gas from this vessel that Mr. Green,
the celebrated æronaut used to fill or inflate his great balloon. The
first place lighted up with the Company's gas was Old Lambeth Market,
the site now occupied by the Lambeth Baths. In December, 1858, the
London Gas-light Company manufactured gas at their New Works, Nine
Elms. The following month, January, 1859, an Act of Parliament came
into operation to prevent gas companies from erecting other works for
the manufacture of gas within ten miles of London; however, it was
not until the year 1863 that the London Gas-light Company permanently
removed from Vauxhall to Nine Elms.

[Footnote 1: The London Gas-light Company Established, (Incorporated)
1833; first Works built in High Street, Vauxhall, the lease of which
expired in 1865.

December 2, 1872, there was a great strike of the London Gas Stokers,
2,400 out. The inconvenience was met by great exertion, 2-6 Dec.
Several were tried and imprisoned.]

The London Gas Works are environed with a brick wall, varying in height
from ten to twenty feet, bounded on the North by Nine Elms Lane; on
the South by the South-Western Railway; on the East by Everett Street;
and on the West by Moat Street and Haine Street. The works within this
enclosure cover an area of seventeen acres, and at the field Prince of
Wales Road, about three acres more. There are five gates to the Works,
but the principal entrance is in Haward Street, by the porter's lodge.
At the right-hand-corner is a spacious building, on the basement is
the Engineer's office, the Light office, and Messenger's lobby, which
has in it a small telegraphic apparatus for communicating intelligence
between this and the Chief office. The Grand Entrance is from Nine Elms
Lane, opened by two pairs of massive folding doors leading into the
hall, facing which is a flight of stone steps with ornamental cast-iron
balusters mounted by rails on either side of polished mahogany,
communicating with a similar staircase right and left which conducts to
the Board room and Draughtsmen's offices. The Board room is a beautiful
and commodious apartment, 33 feet by 19. It has never yet been
occupied by the Board of Directors, the Board preferring to transact
their business at their Chief Office, 26, Southampton Street, Strand,
W.C. Secretary, A. J. Dove, Esq.; Engineer, Robert Morton, Esq.;
Manager, John Methven, Esq.; Outdoor Superintendent, T. D. Tully, Esq.;
Cashier, W. G. Head, Esq., with a staff of Inspectors, Collectors,
Clerks, &c.

On the 31st of October, 1865,[1] a terrible gas explosion took place,
when ten men were killed and many others injured. At that time the
houses in Haward Street being contiguous to the works, had the window
frames shattered, and similar calamities occurred elsewhere. These
houses were occupied by some of the Company's employés. Lately, partly
on account of the recent tidal inundations, sixteen houses belonging to
the Company have been pulled down and a wall built so as to keep out
the flood, in the event of extraordinary high tides. The open space
between the inner and outer gates is used, as well as other open spaces
about the works, for heaping up the coke mountains high, which certain
youngsters in the neighbourhood would only be too delighted to have the
privilege of scrambling and of bearing some of the precious fuel home
to their fireless grates. Alas! much of the distress prevalent in the
district is caused through the drunkenness and improvident habits of
parents.

[Footnote 1: On October 31, 1865, at the London Gas-light Company's
Works, at Nine Elms, Battersea Park Road, a gas-holder exploded killing
ten persons and injuring twenty-two. This was then one of the largest
holders in London, its capacity being 1,039,000 cubic feet. It was 150
feet diameter, 60 feet high, with a tank depth of 30 feet, and at the
instant of the explosion was nearly full, being about 50 feet to 55
feet high. The meter-house was blown to atoms, and the force of the
explosion struck the side of the gas-holder, bulging it in, and at the
same time driving out a portion of the top. Mr. Timbs, who records this
disaster, (which happened when the late Mr. Watson was engineer) says,
"As the side plates were eight to twelve gauge, the force must have
been very great. With the bursting of the top there was an immediate
rush of gas, which instantly caught fire, and shot up in a vast column
of flame, discernible at a great distance. The concussion ripped open
another gas-holder, the escaping gas caught fire, and meeting the
flames from the first gas-holder, rolled away in one vast expanse of
flame: an awful crash followed, and many of the neighbouring houses
were shattered to pieces."--_History of Wonderful Inventions_, by John
Timbs, p. 179.]

Passing through the inner gate, over which is mounted the factory bell
of 2 cwt.,--its size and tone would not disgrace the belfry of many a
church steeple,--on the right is situated the timekeeper's office, the
carbonizing foreman's lobby, the meter stores, and the stores. On the
left-hand-side of the gate is the coke clerk's office, counting house,
and a range of workshops, sheds, etc. for smiths, painters, fitters,
and carpenters. Adjoining the coke office is the shop where all the
Company's meters are tested before being sent out to the consumers.
In different parts of the yard lines of iron rails are laid down,
with turning tables to allow for shunting, communicating with the
South-Western Railway, so as to admit trucks, which, when loaded with
coke from the factory, are then conveyed to their destination. The
retort houses are oblong buildings with gable wrought-iron roofs, are
strongly built of brick, the walls being of immense thickness; this is
necessary, not only on account of the great heat within, but on account
of the large quantity of coals stowed away in the coal stores, the
stock on hand being 15,000 tons.

There are seven retort houses, five of these occupy a central position
in these works; they have been erected at different periods as the
demand for the manufacture of gas increased. Of these retort houses
No. 7 is the largest; it is 260 feet long by 80 feet wide (inside
measurement), and it is 45 feet to crown of roof. Each retort house
has independent shafts, but the tallest shaft faces the east end
of retort house No. 2. It is a splendid piece of brick-work, the
height of which is 135 feet. When the top stone was laid Mr. B. Gray,
the builder, treated the men who were under him with a dinner. On
this occasion sixteen persons sat on the summit and partook of this
sumptuous repast. Nos. 1, 2 and 3 are ground retort houses, the other
four houses are stage retort houses. With respect to the interior of
these retort houses, there is plenty of room in front of the retorts
for a storage of coal and good space for drawing the retorts. On the
whole there is good ventilation in the roofs for allowing the smoke,
etc. to escape. The floor of the stage retort houses are paved with
grooved cast-iron plates. In these retort houses an open space is
allowed between the furnace and the flooring in order that the coke
when raked out of the retorts might fall into the coke hole below. The
benches of retorts are placed in the middle of the houses. The retorts
are built in settings, they are cylindrical tubes made of Stourbridge
clay open through and through with mouthpieces at both ends. At the
front of each bed of retorts is a furnace for heating up the retorts
with the residual coke after the coals have been carbonized. The
flame and hot draft of the furnaces are made to circulate thoroughly
throughout the setting, traversing as great a space as possible round,
under and above the retorts before egress is allowed to the main flue
communicating with the chimney. The retorts are charged every six
hours. Formerly, for cooling the retort lids, a pulpy mass of lime and
mud of the consistence of mortar was used under the cognomen of "blue
billy." This has been superseded by Morton's Patent Air-tight Lid, and
Holman's Patent Lever. The two mechanical contrivances combined for
this purpose are most efficient, and when financially considered must
be a great saving to the Company. In the new house there are seven
retorts in a bed; these, when heated sufficiently, are simultaneously
charged at each end with two scoopfuls of bituminous coal; the upper
retorts, on account of their retaining more heat, are charged with
three scoops--each scoop contains 1 cwt. 2 qrs. of coal As soon as the
lids are closed with the patent lever and cross-bar the process of gas
distillation commences. In house No. 7 there are 392 mouths--total
number of mouths in all the retort houses 1,793. As clay retorts when
heated at first have a tendency to crack, it is necessary that the
process of heating should be slow, also to get them up to their proper
heat a similar caution is requisite when cooling. Apart from the
manufacture of gas, in order to attend to the furnaces with the view
of keeping up the heat of retorts, a certain amount of Sunday labour
is involved, but it is gratifying to state that at these works labour
on the Lord's day is reduced to its lowest minimum. Among several
annoyances in the manufacture of gas is the choking or stoppage of
ascension pipes; the person whose employment it is to look after, and
if possible prevent this, is called by his fellow-workmen "the pipe
jumper." Pipes connected with the mouthpieces called the ascension
pipes conduct the gas to the hydraulic main, this is a large pipe at
the back of the ascension pipes partly filled with water, when the
works are started into which the ends of the pipes from the retorts
are made to dip, and by this means forms a seal by which the gas is
prevented from finding its way back either by those retorts which the
workmen may be re-charging or to other parts of the bench that for the
time may be out of action. The hydraulic main and its supports are very
strong in order to stand the alternate and unequal heating and cooling
of the benches, and the enormous strain occasioned by the large extent
of pipage. Wrought iron is used in preference to cast-iron because of
its lightness, strength and elasticity.

There are four lobbies for the accommodation of the stokers and
seats at either end of the retort houses. The men in the carbonizing
department are supplied with lockers in which to keep their provisions
and clothes. Each man has a half-pint of the best Scotch oatmeal per
diem allowed him to make "skilly" with. A quantity of oatmeal is put
into a bucket, water is poured on and then stirred, after the meal has
"settled" they dip it out with a mug to drink as often as they feel
themselves thirsty. The engineer has no objection to the men having
lemonade, etc., but all intoxicating drinks on the works are strictly
prohibited. On Sundays, between 9 and 10 a.m., a religious service is
conducted in the lobby at No. 6 retort house by the Missionary.

_Scene in a retort house on week-day._--The stokers, after having been
at work in the retort houses for half an hour, are "off" for nearly
an hour, during which they employ their time in various ways; some
play at cards, some at draughts, some at dominoes, others read the
newspapers,--eight men in a group will club together and subscribe
a penny each, this enables them to purchase six dailies and two
weeklies, thus a group is furnished with newspaper intelligence for
a week. Others of the stokers will seek to bring grist to their mill
by employing the time they are off to their own pecuniary advantage
either in mending their own boots and shoes or the boots and shoes of
their fellow-workmen. At times some of the men may be seen mending
their clothes, or washing a pair of trowsers in a bucket of water and
using the wooden handle of a shovel as a substitute for a "dolly." Now
and then a man will lie on his back at full length on a heap of coals,
locked in the arms of Morpheus, presently he awakes out of his dreams,
rubs his eyes astonished at what has transpired during the past hour.
The foreman's whistle, similar to that used by a railway guard when
a train is ready to start, is the signal for the men to resume their
work, and to their credit be it said, they go at it manly and rush to
their shovels and scoops like British sailors fly to their guns when
commanded to salute a Prince or fire at an enemy! A stranger for the
first time is startled when the lids or "lips" as they are called are
removed from the mouths of the retorts by the bomb! bombing! a kind
of percussion or shock occasioned by the gaseous vapours confined in
the retorts being liberated by coming into direct contact with the
atmosphere, then commences the belching forth of flame, the issuing of
smoke, the raking out of carbonized coal blazing with tar in order to
clear the retorts which are again quickly charged with that peculiar
fossil of vegetable origin found among the carboniferous strata of the
earth. It is interesting to mark the agility with which the stokers
perform their duty. Five men constitute a gang,--there are three men to
a scoop. Scoops are made of iron. A scoop is 10 feet long, 7½ inches
wide, and 5½ inches deep with a T piece for a handle. It is placed on
the ground, filled as soon as possible, then raised by two men who put
underneath it a wrought iron bar called a "horse" so bent or curved
in the middle on which to rest the scoop. These two men, with the aid
of the man who holds the T piece, thrust the coals into the retorts
as quickly as artillerymen ram cannon, and so work at each bed of
retorts stripped to the waist, while the perspiration is oozing from
the pores of their skin like melted tallow! Now and again a hissing
noise with steam accompanied with clouds of vapour caused by buckets
of water thrown on the carbonized coal taken from the retorts. No
sooner is the coke thus cooled than it is (in keeping with all the
movements preceding) wheeled in iron barrows to a place in the yard,
where pyramidically it is piled stage upon stage until purchased by the
coal contractor and coke merchants who require it for their customers.
Respecting the employés at these important works--beneath the rough
exterior of their sooty skin, incidental to their occupation, these
sons of toil who forsooth earn their livelihood by the sweat of their
brow in common with their brother man, have hearts akin to the finest
specimens of humanity, and stand related to our Father in heaven, for
we are all His offspring, brothers for whom the Saviour died. Whatever
a man's status in social life, whatever part he may take, however
humble in the divisions of industrial, honest labour, these men know
that as Robert Burns says; "A man's a man for a' that."

From the hydraulic main the gas passes on to a set of condensers
or coolers at the south side of the works, through which it is
made to circulate until it is reduced to a temperature bearing
some approximation to the surrounding atmosphere, also to separate
condensable vapours before allowing the gas to pass to the purifiers.
The tar well or tank is a receptacle for the overflow of the hydraulic,
etc. A branch pipe from the main is inserted and sealed in a stationary
lute at the bottom. The tar thus deposited as well as the ammoniacal
liquor is valuable. There are five scrubbers, the tops of which are
reached by flights of wooden steps with hand-rails and a stage or
gallery above communicating from one scrubber to another. Each scrubber
is a cylinder 19 feet in diameter and 70 feet high, they are made of
cast-iron plates and contain a series of iron trays or gratings on
which are spread layers of coke, furze, etc. Water is injected from
the top by means of a revolving apparatus connected with vertical and
horizontal shafting and driven by a small engine below, thereby keeping
up a constant humid spray, the object being to separate the ammonia and
acids from the gas.

In front of houses Nos. 4 and 5 (which by the way are the oldest retort
houses inside these works) is situated the boiler and engine house.
There are three boilers 28 feet by 6 in diameter. In the engine house
four of Beal's exhausters occupy prominent positions, they are used
to exhaust or suck the gas from the retorts and afterwards force it
through the vessels for purification; two of these driven by engines
of 20 horse power work 150,000 cubic feet per hour each. Two driven by
engines of 12 horse power work 100,000 per hour each. Attached to the
inlet of each exhauster is one of Wright's exhauster governors, it is
made on the principle of pressure or suction elevating or depressing
a light cylinder working in a water-lute of sufficient depth. When
an exhaust is maintained on the water gauge, counter balance weights
equal to the exhaust on the area of the cylinder are applied, and the
oscillations, as the suction increases or diminishes, regulate to a
nicety the exhaust. The whole of the machinery in this department
is in excellent order and will bear the minutest inspection. Over
the engine house, which is reached outside by a corkscrew or spiral
iron staircase, is a workshop fitted up with machinery; it contains
a horizontal engine of eight horse power, which drives two lathes,
one bolt screwing machine, two drilling machines, and a saw bench.
Against the wall of the engine house is one of Tangye's Special Pumps
for raising water from the dock to supply the whole of the works with
water for cooling purposes. Outside the engine house an apparatus
called a jet exhauster has recently been erected composed of a series
of vertical iron tubes, a steam boiler, a generator, and jet. A vacuum
is created by a blast of steam, thereby compelling the gas to rapidly
leave the retorts and at the same time the ammonia is supposed to be
entirely removed by means of water which percolates through shavings
with which the tubes or pipes are filled.

On the south side of the works, in addition to the coolers, there are
thirteen purifiers and fifteen plots or courts including the foreman's
lobby. Each purifier is of cast-iron, it is oblong in form, the cover
is wrought iron riveted together in sheets, and the seal is made by
means of a water-lute round the edge of the purifier. The purifying
material, which is sometimes lime but principally oxide of iron, is
carefully spread out on trays and these are disposed in tiers or sets
in such a manner as to leave a clear open space between each succeeding
layer to allow the gas to diffuse itself thoroughly throughout the
mass. Lime when once fouled cannot profitably be renewed for gas
purifying purposes, but the oxide of iron can be further utilized
by spreading out the oxide in an open court when the oxygen of the
atmosphere precipitates the sulphur and the oxide is again fit for use.

The gas passes from the purifiers to the station meter house fronting
the stores on the north side of the yard, where the quantity of gas
made is registered; adjoining which is Mr. Methven's the Sub-Manager's
office, and a test room or laboratory where various experiments
connected with the manufacture of gas are conducted. Against the north
boundary is a small gas house with gas-holder, etc., all complete,
occasionally used for experimenting purposes. From the station meters
the gas passes to the gas-holders; each of these enormous circular
vessels possesses great storage capacity. It is made on the principle
that the circle of all geometrical figures is the one that a fixed
circumference or outline is capable of enclosing the greatest amount
of space. A gas-holder is made by riveting together light wrought
iron sheets upon an angle framing and in shape resembles an inverted
cup, the crown being either flat or the segment of a large sphere. It
works in a circular water-tank, round which columns are erected that
sustain guides at proper intervals by which the gasholder when working
is supported, etc. Erected in different parts of the works, including
those (two) in the field Prince of Wales' Road, are five immense
gasholders with double lifts capable of holding in all 7,000,000 cubic
feet of gas. The most imposing view of the Works is from the gate near
the entrance of the Creek at Mill-Pond Bridge; in the creek there
are sometimes as many as forty barges. On entering at this gate the
eye is attracted by two ponderous lifts, which, by an arrangement of
rope bands attached to shafting with revolving iron drums and pulleys
supported by columns and girders and driven by two horizontal engines
of twelve horse-power, are capable of lifting 500 tons of coals every
twelve hours. The coals are raised from the barges in iron waggons
which hold 1 ton 15 cwt. each, there are two waggons to each lift so
that while one waggon is being filled the other on the stage above
is being conveyed on iron rails to whatever part of the retort house
the coals may be required. Each engine has a powerful brake and is
worked with two levers. On the west side of the creek is the manager's
residence, and an enormous gasholder with capacity to hold 2,000,000
cubic feet of gas; further on is a hand crane. In front of No. 7
retort house is one of Winshurst and Hollick's engine cranes, which
is capable of lifting 200 tons of coals in ten hours by means of a
chain and bucket lifted up to the hopper, a distance of nearly sixty
feet, and emptied. The bucket holds 15 cwt. of coal. That portion of
the Company's premises known as Mill-Pond Yard is used for the storage
of pipes, bricks, fire-clay, etc. Here is the carcass of the Old
Tidal Mill with lock gates; here too is the Workman's Institute and
Band room. Mothers' Meetings are held at the Institute on Wednesdays
at 3 p.m., on Sunday afternoons at 3 o'clock for Bible readings by a
Missionary in the district.[1]

[Footnote 1: Since the above description was written in 1877 very
extensive alterations have been made in these works. The Company have
completed a large purifying house at the south side of the Creek,
and have had constructed on the site of the Old Institute a dock for
the purpose of admitting steam colliers of 1000 tons burden; and
have erected a coal tramway from the same into the Works, crossing
Nine Elms Lane with an iron bridge 22 feet from the roadway, which
has been widened at least 20 feet. Moreover the carcass of the Old
Flour Water-Mill has been pulled down the only vestiges remaining are
the lock gates. Opposite Mr. Methven's residence a new institute and
stables have been built. In the Works the old offices, workshops,
stores, meter-house, and test rooms have been demolished, the high
shaft pulled down and the jet exhauster removed. A new meter-house has
been erected opposite the engine house and there has also been added
new machinery. The Creek has been narrowed and the portion of ground
recovered has considerably increased the size of the coke yard. A
parapet has been built on both sides of the Creek to prevent the water
from overflowing in the event of extraordinary high tides. Also a new
stage retort house is being erected parallel with retort house No. 6.
(Messrs. Kirk and Randall, Contractors). In addition, three blocks of
new buildings have been erected on the west side of the road within the
principal gate, is B (1) containing coke office, cashier's office and
strong room; timekeeper's office, weigh office, coke foreman's office,
superintendent's office and test room. On the east side of the road
is B (2) containing gate-keeper's lobby and stores. At the south-east
corner of the Works is B (3) consisting of workshops, lobby, etc. The
whole of the three blocks were completed in about four months. (B.
E. Nightingale, Builder and Contractor). The factory bell has been
mounted against one of the columns belonging to the gasholder near the
timekeeper's office, and a gasholder of colossal dimensions is being
erected in the Company's field, Prince of Wales Road. The alterations,
improvements, etc., at these Works within the last ten years have
involved an outlay of about £200,000. _Yard Foreman_, Mr. A. Wilson;
_Carbonizing Foremen_, Messrs. H. Walker, M. Walker, R. Johnston, W.
Taylor, T. Reynolds, G. Feeney; _Purifying Foremen_, Messrs. D. Brown
and H. Aylett; _Foreman of Enginemen_, Mr. G. Wilson; _Coke Foremen_,
Messrs. G. Smith and C. Meredith; _Coal Gang Foreman_, Mr. W. Clowes;
_Timekeeper_, Mr. R. Whitmore. Mr. R. Harvey was foreman over the men
in the carbonizing department and had been upwards of forty years in
the Company's employment, in consideration of his valuable services the
Company have granted him, as they have also several other of their old
and faithful servants, an annuity.]

Upon the mains at their exit from the works valves are placed, each
valve having a revolving pressure indicator attached, the paper of
which is graduated into inches, and tenths, and marked with spaces
corresponding to the twenty-four hours of the day. In the meter-house
self-regulating governors are used for this purpose. From the
gasholders the gas is driven through cast-iron mains or pipes, and
from them by wrought iron service pipes to the lamps and burners which
help to illuminate our Metropolis. The Company's mains extend about
170 miles, and at any point they supply gas with the same abundance
and precision as at Nine Elms. At one time, the Works of the London
Gas-Light Company at Vauxhall were considered the most powerful and
complete in the world, and even now, in this age of rivalry and
sharp competition, under the judicious management of their Board of
Directors and their skilled Engineer, Robert Morton, Esq., the London
Gas-Light Company maintain an honourable position among other gas-light
companies, and are worthy the name they bear. The number of men
employed at these works in the Winter season is about 500. There is a
Sick Provident Club belonging to the works.[1]

[Footnote 1: All workmen employed by the London Gas-light Company
(unless hired on other terms) are engaged on weekly hirings, and are
required to give, and entitled to receive, a week's notice before
leaving or being discharged from the Company's service, except in case
of misconduct, for which a workman will be discharged without notice.

By order of the Board,

A.J. DOVE, Sec.

13_th March_, 1876.]

 ON A RECENTLY-EXPOSED SECTION AT BATTERSEA.

 _Extracts from a Paper read before the Geologists' Association, March
 1st, 1872, by John A. Coombs, Esq._


 "This section was exposed on a piece of ground recently acquired by
 the London Gas-light Company for a Gas-holder Station. It is situated
 to the north of the Prince of Wales' Road, Battersea, between the
 high-level lines of the London, Brighton, and South-Coast, and
 the London, Chatham, and Dover Railways, near the point of their
 separation after crossing the Thames near the Chelsea Suspension
 Bridge. The excavations were commenced at the latter end of last year,
 for the purpose of constructing two gas-holder tanks, each 185 feet
 inside diameter. The total length of the excavation, therefore, was
 about 400 feet, by about 200 feet in width, and 30 feet in depth, the
 direction of the longest distance being very nearly from N.W. to S.E.

 The average surface of the ground was 12-ft. 9-in. above the Ordnance
 Datum Level, or 8 inches above Trinity High Water Mark. The general
 Section was as follows:--

 Alluvial Soil and Vegetable Mould  2 feet
 Thames Valley Gravel               22 "
 Altered London Clay (brown)        1  "
 London Clay (excavated)            5  "

 An interesting series of mammalian remains were obtained from
 the Valley Gravel, which, considering the limited extent of the
 excavation, and the number of specimens destroyed in the removal of
 the material, shews this section to be fully as prolific in these
 remains as the long-worked pits of Erith or Crayford. The specimens
 have been examined and identified by William Davies, Esq, of the
 British Museum, who kindly undertook to compare them with those in the
 national collection. The following is a list of these remains:--

  _Elphas primigenius_, Blum. Portion of lower jaw and tooth,
      and the shaft of a humerus of a young individual.
  _Rhinoceros tichorhinus_, Cuv. Part of a cranium, a lumbar
      vertebra, a right metatarsus, and a left metacarpus.
  _Equus caballus fossilis_, Linn. A right metacarpus, a right
      radius, and an upper molar.
  _Bos._ sp. Cervical vertebra.
  _Cervus elaphus_, Linn. Portion of left ramus of lower jaw,
      and portion of a right radius.
  _Cervus tarandus_, Linn. The base of a shed antler. (This had
      suffered considerable attrition).

 There were also found a rib and a portion of an ilium of a _Cervus_
 (species indeterminable), besides many other fragments too small or
 too much mutilated for recognition. But the most unusual fossil found
 in such deposits was that of _Pliosaurus_, a portion of the paddle
 bone of which was found associated with the remains above mentioned.
 This fossil, which was probably derived from the Kimmeridge Clay,
 shewed evident signs of attrition, but not so much as to efface the
 marks of muscular attachment; it was, moreover, charged with peroxide
 of iron. Search was made in the anticipation of shells of _Cyrena
 (Corbicula) fluminalis_ being associated with these remains, but
 without success.

 Immediately beneath the Thames Valley Gravel was the London Clay,
 possessing all the typical features of that formation, without any of
 the loamy gradations found in higher parts of the metropolis. The top
 of the clay, however, to a depth varying from 9 to 12 inches, was of
 a brown colour, resembling the brown (altered) London Clay found at
 Hampstead and elsewhere.

 The clay was excavated only to a depth of a few feet, thus preventing
 a great number of fossils being obtained. Those found, however, are
 sufficient for comparison with the zones of fossils found in larger
 sections, and thus may afford evidence of the amount of denudation to
 which the clay had been subjected at this spot before the deposition
 of the gravel. By far the most abundant fossil found in the London
 Clay was the _Pentacrinus sub-basaltiformis_, which was obtained
 in the rounded angular, as well as the perfectly cylindrical form.
 The following Mollusca were also obtained:--_Nautilus regalis,
 Pyrula Smithii, Fusus bifasciatus, Voluta Wetherellii, Pleurotoma
 teretrium, Natica labellata, Dentalium_, sp., _Leda amygdaloides,
 Nucula Bowerbankii, Cryptodon angulatus, C. Goodallis_, and _Syndosyma
 splendens. Teredo_ borings, _Serpula_, and teeth of _Lamma_ complete
 the list of organic remains.

 Septaria were abundant in the clay, many of which contained
 drift-wood, bored by the _Teredo_, one contained a _Nautilus regalis_
 as a nucleus, and several exhibited the usual crystallizations of
 calcite, heavy spar, and iron pyrites. Selenite, however, was very
 scarce in the clay, being found only in small crystals, and these by
 no means numerous."

In Nine Elms Lane resided Mr. Sellar, a respectable tradesman who
kept a tea and cheesemonger's establishment, and who for five years
discharged his parochial duties as an overseer. Greatly deploring
the irreligious condition of the spiritually-benighted poor of the
neighbourhood, he had erected at his own expense, a hall at the
back of his premises in Everet Street, to be used for religious and
secular educational purposes. Subsequently the hall was rented by the
Wesleyan Methodists, and was used by them as a preaching station, Mr.
Farmer acting as steward and superintendent of the Sunday school which
he commenced there. When the Sunday school was opened in 1871, not
more than 20 per cent. of the children who presented themselves for
admission could read, and their knowledge of the sacred contents of the
Holy Scriptures was _nil_. However, though the task was difficult, for
seven years Mr. John Farmer, assisted by his small staff of Christian
teachers:--

    Plodded hard, and labour'd well
    As many in Nine Elms can tell.

The hall is now engaged by the Metropolitan Tabernacle Evangelization
Society. A Sunday school is still held in the place and evangelistic
services conducted there every Lord's day evening.

In this neighbourhood stood Phillips's Fire Annihilating Machine
Factory. The public were frequently invited to come and see the working
of the machines. At the time appointed an improvised cottage was set on
fire; when fairly alight, the machines were brought to bear upon the
flames and with marked success. A man and his wife had charge of the
factory. One Sunday morning the man went out into the fields with his
gun, leaving his wife to prepare dinner. Soon after the composition
in the factory exploded, and immediately the building was enveloped
in flames--the man hastened back to save his wife, but failed in his
attempt to rescue her--the poor woman perished.

BRAYNE'S POTTERY for Stone-ware manufacture has been pulled down, on
the site adjoining is Laver's Portland Cement Works. The Lime Kilns
which had stood nearly two centuries have long since disappeared. The
Whiting Works which mark the site remain among the oldest structures in
this vicinity were established in the year 1666. At the entrance to the
Works stood the rib bones of a Whale which the proprietor fancifully
had placed there. One of the Whiting sheds formerly stood higher up
the river. Mr. Laver is the owner of these works. Where Lloyd and Co's
Manufacturing Joinery Works are situated were the house, timber yard
and premises, owned by Mr. Robbins, father of Mrs. Cooper, Dairy, New
Road. Near the spot where now stands the Royal Rifleman tavern, was
a timber dock. Moored close to the river's bank was a barge house or
cabin called "Noah's Ark." In the dock adjoining Noah's Ark was an old
steamboat said to have been one of the first that "ran" on the Thames.
The river about this part offered great attraction to swimmers and
became a famous place for bathing. Hayle Foundry Wharf, Nine Elms, is
now occupied by H. Young & Co., Engineers and Contractors, Founders,
Smiths, etc. Their Art Works are at Eccleston, Pimlico, and are noted
for casting the statues of Lord Derby, opposite the House of Lords;
John Bunyan, erected at Bedford; Wellington Memorial in St. Paul's
Cathedral, and (part finished) Sir John Burgoyne.

THE SOUTHWARK AND VAUXHALL WATER WORKS.--THE BOROUGH WORKS at St. Mary
Overies, in 1820, became the property of one J. Edwards, who in 1822,
also purchased from the New River Company the Works on the South side
of London Bridge, and combined both concerns under the designation of
the "Southwark Water Works." The whole being thus possessed by one
opulent individual. In 1805, several persons united to give effect to a
scheme for organising the South London Water Works (subsequently called
the Vauxhall) and by an Act of Parliament passed in July, 1805, they
were incorporated as a Company, with authority to raise capital for
attaining their object amounting to £80,000 in 800 shares of £100 each.
In June, 1813, another Act was obtained for empowering the Company
to raise a further sum of £80,000. The operations of this Company
commenced inauspiciously for their interests by reason of their having
originally adopted wooden pipes, and having then been compelled to
substitute iron in their place. The principal works were on the south
side of Kennington Lane, formerly Kennington Common, near to Vauxhall.
These companies experienced various vicissitudes in their progress,
until in 1845, when an amalgamation took place under an Act of
Parliament, to which we owe the creation of the Southwark and Vauxhall
Water Company as it now exists. The area of the district supplied
extends for about 13 miles E. and W., and 3 miles N. and S., the home
district stretching from Rotherhithe to Clapham and the suburban and
rural districts from Wandsworth to Richmond. Thus an area of 39 miles
south of the Thames receives a supply of water distributed to about
80,000 houses, having a population of 550,000. The Company's property
at Battersea consists of one Pumping Station, standing on freehold
land of some 50 acres, and six Cornish Engines, erected by Messrs.
Harvey and Co., with a total of 1,200 horse power; two Reservoirs of
about 10 acres, containing about 46,000,000 gallons of water, and six
filter beds, having an area 10¾ acres, with a filtering capacity for
1,300,750 gallons of water per hour. The Filters are to a certain depth
filled with sand, through which the water percolates, leaving the
impurities on the surface to be removed at pleasure. There are 18 fires
or furnaces in the boiler house, the daily consumption of coal is about
22 tons. The water at this station is pumped partly over a stand pipe
186 feet high,[1] and the remainder through an air vessel to a height
of about 380 feet. The Company have considerable property at Hampton
and Peckham. The Registrar General's return shews the Company possess
about 685 miles of mains and service pipes, 100 miles of which (mains)
are perpetually charged, and could be made available for constant
supply should circumstances render it desirable. _Office_, Sumner
Street, Southwark; _Chief Engineer_, Thos. W. Humble, Esq.; _Resident
Engineer_, Mr. John Sampson. Adjacent to the Water Works are premises
belonging to Harvey and Co., Machine, Hydraulic, and Mining Engineers
of Hayle, Cornwall.

[Footnote 1: A gentleman told the writer that this was vulgarly called
by the sobriquet of "Punch's Tuning Fork!"]

Fitz Stephen (William) a learned Monk of Canterbury, being attached to
the Service of Archbishop Becket was present at the time of his murder.
In the year 1174 he wrote in Latin the life of St. Thomas, Archbishop
and Martyr, in which as Becket was a native of the Metropolis, he
introduces a description of the City of London with a miscellaneous
detail of the manners and usages of the Citizens; this is deservedly
considered a great curiosity, being the earliest professed account of
London extant. He describes the springs and water courses which abound
in the vicinity of Old London as "sweet, salubrious, and clear," so
that all that the inhabitants and water-carriers had to do was to draw
water from the wells and springs, or dip their vessels in the pellucid
stream of the river which was fit for culinary and all ordinary and
domestic purposes. London then though considered a "Great City" was
as a small town when compared with its teeming population of nearly
5,000,000 which people its City and environs now.[1] Since that time
the Majestic Thames and its tributary streams have been so polluted
with sewerage and other deleterious and poisonous matter as to induce
some of the most scientific men of the age to consider not only the
desirability but the necessity of obtaining for London a pure water
supply. It is asserted as a fact that in England and Wales alone
upwards of eight hundred persons die every month from typhoid fever;
a disease which is now believed to be caused almost entirely through
drinking impure water, and Dr. Frankland, the official to whom is
entrusted the analysing of such matters reports "The Thames Water"
notwithstanding the care that is taken to filter it by certain Water
Companies is so much polluted by organic matters as to be quite unfit
for dietetic purposes.

[Footnote 1: The London Metropolitan District covers an area of 690
square miles--contains 6612 miles of streets. 528,794 inhabited houses;
Population (June 1873) 4,025,559.]

The first conduit erected in the City of London (Westcheap now
Cheapside) was commenced in the year 1235 but was not completed till
50 years afterwards (1285). The Citizens, who had to fetch their water
from the Thames often met with opposition from those who resided in
the lanes leading down to the river who monopolized the right of
procuring a water supply by stopping and imposing a duty upon others
who sought to obtain it. This state of things as might be expected
became unbearable and in 1342 an inquisition was made and persons were
sworn to inquire into the stoppages and annoyances complained of in
the several Wards. In the fifteenth century the authorities of the
City had erected New Conduits and had laid down leaden pipes. "In
1439 the Abbot of Westminster granted to Robert Large, the Lord Mayor,
and the Citizens of London, and their successors, one head of water
containing twenty-six perches in length and one in breadth, together
with all the springs in the Manor of Paddington for an annual payment
of two peppercorns." In the sixteenth century owing to the increased
population and the drying up of the springs other means of supply were
obtained in the neighbourhoods of Hampstead Heath, Hackney, and Muswell
Hill. An Act of Parliament applied for by the Corporation was passed
in 1544 for the purpose of obtaining from these springs an increased
supply for the North Western portions of the City. The scheme however
was not carried out until the year 1590 when another important source
of supply had been procured. In 1568 a conduit was constructed at
Dowgate, for the purpose of obtaining water from the Thames. "In 1580
Peter Morice, an ingenious Dutchman brought his scheme for raising the
Thames Water high enough to supply the upper parts of the City, and in
order to show its feasibility he threw a jet of water over the steeple
of St. Magnus Church, a lease of 500 years of the Thames Water, and the
places where his mills stood, and of one of the arches of London Bridge
was granted to Morice, and the Water Works founded by him remained
until the beginning of the present century." About the same time that
Morice propounded his scheme for utilizing the Water of the Thames,
Stow informs us that a man of the name of Russel proposed to bring
water into London from Isleworth. In 1591 an Italian named Frederick
Genebelli said that he could cleanse the filthy ditches about the city
such as the Fleet River, Hounsditch, etc., and bring a plentiful supply
of pure, wholesome water to the City through them, but his offer does
not appear to have been accepted.

"In 1606 nearly £20,000 was expended in scouring the River Fleet,
which was kept open for the purpose of navigation as high as Holborn
Bridge." An Act was passed in 1609 for bringing water by means of
engines from Hackney Marsh, to supply the City of London; the profits
arising from the enterprise were to go to the College of Polemical
Divines, founded by Dr. Sutcliffe, at Chelsea. At the close of Queen
Elizabeth's Reign an Act was passed empowering the Corporation to
cut a river for the purpose of conveying water from Middlesex and
Hertfordshire to the City, but nothing was done in this direction till
after the accession of James I to the throne. In 1605 and 1606 Acts of
Parliament were passed empowering the Corporation to bring water from
the Springs of Chadwell and Amwell to the northern parts of the City.
The Corporation transferred their power in 1609 to Hugh, afterwards
(Sir Hugh) Middleton, Citizen, and Goldsmith, who with characteristic
energy entered into the vast scheme which was effectually carried out
at an immense expense. On Sept. 29th, 1613 the New River was opened,
and London from this source received an abundant supply of water. The
New River Company was incorporated in 1620. The City was supplied with
its water by the conveyance of wooden pipes in the streets, and small
leaden ones to the houses.

Among the Records known as the _Remembrancia_ preserved among the
Archives of the City of London. London, 1878. Some curious particulars
are mentioned respecting the applications made by various noblemen
to be allowed to have pipes, of the size of a goose-quill, attached
to the city pipes, for the purpose of supplying their houses with
water. "In 1592 Lord Cobham applied to the Lord Mayor for a quill of
water from the conduit at Ludgate to his house in Blackfriars, but the
consideration of the request was postponed, and in 1594 Lord Burghley
wrote to the Lord Mayor and Alderman in support of Lord Cobham's
application. Lady Essex and Walsingham asked for a supply of water
for Essex-house in 1601, and obtained the Lord Chamberlain's (Earl of
Suffolk) influence to further their suit; but on June 8th, 1608, the
Lord Mayor wrote to Lord Suffolk that the water in the conduits had
become so low, and the poor were so clamorous on account of the dearth,
that it became necessary to cut off several of the quills. 'Moreover,'
he added, 'complaints had been made of the extraordinary waste of water
in Essex-house, it being taken not only for dressing meat, but for
the laundry, the stable, and other offices, which might be otherwise
served.' As London extended itself westward, and the City came to join
Westminster, the drain must have been great upon the water supply,
which was originally intended for a considerably smaller area. In 1613
Lord Fenton applied for a quill of water for his house at Charing
Cross, but the Lord Mayor refused to grant the request on the ground
that the conduits did not supply sufficient water for the City. Sir
Francis Bacon (afterwards the great Lord Verulam) asked, in 1617, for a
lead pipe to supply York-house, and Alice, Countess of Derby, requested
to be allowed a quill of water in the following year. This celebrated
lady, afterwards married to Lord Chancellor Ellesmere, lived in St.
Martin's-lane, and we learn from the City letter-book (quoted in the
index to the _Remembrancia_) the amount of water supplied to her was
at the rate of three gallons an hour. In subsequent years, we notice
among the applicants for quills of water the celebrated names of Sir
Harry Vane, Denzell Holles, the Dukes of Albemarle and Buckingham, and
the Earl of Northumberland." Cavendish and Watt demonstrated that water
is composed of 8 parts of Oxygen and 1 part of Hydrogen. In freezing,
water contracts till it is reduced to 42° or 40° Fahr. It then begins
to expand till it becomes ice at 32°. Water was first conveyed to
London by leaden pipes, 21 Henry III. 1237.--_Stow_.

So late as Queen Anne's time there were water-carriers at Aldgate Pump.
The Water Works at Chelsea were completed and the Company incorporated
in 1722. London Bridge ancient water works were destroyed by fire, 29th
Oct., 1779.

Commissioners for Metropolitan Water Supply appointed 27th April, 1867;
Report Signed 9th June, 1869; London supplied by Nine Companies. The
New River (the best) East London, Chelsea, Grand Junction, Southwark,
and Vauxhall, Kent, West Middlesex, Lambeth, and South Essex; who
deliver about 108,000,000 gallons daily, 1867; about 116,250,000
gallons daily, 1877.

In 1880, the Nominal Capital of Eight Water Companies was £12,011,320.

THE VILLAGE OF BATTERSEA lies on the south side of the Thames opposite
Chelsea, to which it has some historical relationship on account of its
having been the seat of our Porcelain manufacture and of Saxon origin.
It is situated about four miles South West of St. Paul's Cathedral.
Battersea is a polling place for the Mid-divisions of the County in
the Wandsworth Division of the West Brixton Hundred. Wandsworth Union
and County Court District, Surrey Arch-Deaconry, and late Winchester,
but now Rochester Diocese;[1] it is also within the jurisdiction of
the Central Criminal Court, Metropolitan Board of Works, Metropolitan
Police, and Wandsworth Police Court. The Parish is divided into four
Wards. Penge[2] lies in Croydon district detached from the main body
seven miles distant. The entire parish comprehends an area of 3183
acres.[3] Acres of the main body, 2177 of land 166 of water.--_Wilson's
Gazetteer of England and Wales_. In 1792, there were two places of
worship, viz., the Parish Church and the Old Baptist Meeting House
in York Road; the number of houses within the parish at that period
was 380. The following tabular statement will give but an inadequate
conception of the growth of the parish since then:--

                    Date of Year.   Population.   Number of Houses.

                    1831            5540 (Of whom 3021 were females)
                    1839            4,764         801
Main Body           1841            6,616
Entire Parish       1841            6,887
Main Body           1861            19,600        3,125
Of Entire Parish    1861            24,615        3,793
Ditto               1871            67,218
Ditto               1880                         15,208
              Including 13,202 in Penge Hamlet.
Main Body, not
including Penge     1877            79,000       11,500
    In 1840 the rateable value was about £28,000.
    In 1856 the rateable value was about £79,100.
    In 1876 the rateable value was about £331,846.
    In 1880 the rateable value was about £416,000.

Anno Domini 1658, the Hamlet of Penge, seven miles from the Parish
Church, contained twelve families. The Commissioners who were vested
with power to unite or separate parishes did nothing in this case, they
could not find a convenient place in the Hundred or County to unite it
to. The nearest place of public worship was Beckingham in Kent, about a
mile distant.

[Footnote 1: An alteration has been made in the Diocesan arrangement.
Since 1877, Battersea together with other parishes in East and
Mid-Surrey has been added to the See of Rochester, and therefore is
under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of that Diocese. The See of
Rochester was founded A.D. 604. St. Augustin or Austin (the first
Bishop of Canterbury A.D. 598). Consecrated Justus, the first Bishop of
Rochester. The See of West Saxons (afterwards Winchester, A.D. 705) was
founded A.D. 635. The first (arch) Bishop of London was Theanus, A.D.
176 (?). Battersea is now considered to be of sufficient importance to
be made a Rural Deanery, and Canon Clarke, the Rural Dean. Southwark
Archdeaconry. "Diocese (Fr. from Gr. dioikesis, administration and
dioikeo, to govern) the territory over which a bishop exercises
ecclesiastical jurisdiction. At first, a diocese meant the collection
of churches or congregations under the charge of an archbishop. The
name came afterwards to be applied to the charge of a bishop, which
had previously been called a parish. England and Wales are divided
ecclesiastically into two Provinces, viz., Canterbury and York, the
former being presided over by the Primate of all England, and the
latter by the Primate of England, each of which is sub-divided into
dioceses, and these again into Archdeaconries and Rural Deaneries and
Parishes. A Diocese is synonymous with the See of a Suffragan bishop."
(Chamber's Encyclopedia). In England, the Archbishop of Canterbury has
the right of crowning the King, and the Archbishop of York the right of
crowning the Queen.

Twelve years ago, the County of Surrey was divided for Electoral
purposes into three Divisions named respectively East, West, and
Mid-Surrey. At the time the Division was made in 1868 the Constituency
of Mid-Surrey numbered only 10,500. Now (March 1880) we have on the
Register 20,400 electors distributed in the following manner:--

Battersea Polling District   7,092
Coulsdon " "                 152
Horley " "                   465
Kingston " "                 2,649
Reigate & Red Hill " "       1,271
Richmond " "                 2,727
Sutton " "                   1,975
Wandsworth " "               2,596
Wimbledon " "                1,606]

[Footnote 2: The Village of Penge stands adjacent to the boundary
with Kent, to the London and Brighton Railway, and to the London,
Chatham and Dover Railway near the Crystal Palace, four miles N.N.E.
of Croydon; includes new streets on what was formerly a common with
picturesque oaks; and has a post office of the name of Penge Bridge
and Penge Lane. The Chapelry contains also the Crystal Palace with its
Railway Station; and it ranks politically as a Hamlet of Battersea.
Acres, 840; population in 1851, 1,169; in 1861, 5,015; houses, 668;
population 1868, nearly 10,000. Villas are very numerous, and King
William 4th Naval Asylum, the Watermen's Alms Houses, and the North
Surrey Industrial Schools are here. The Naval Asylum is for decayed
widows of naval officers, and was founded by Queen Adelaide. The
Watermen's Alms Houses were built in 1850, at a cost of £5000, and
comprises 41 residences. The Industrial Schools is for the parishes
northward of the Thames, occupies a plot of seven acres, with farm and
kitchen garden; and at the census of 1801 had 748 inmates. The Chapelry
is threefold, consisting of Penge proper, and one formed in 1868. The
livings are P. Curacies in the diocese of Winchester. Value of Penge,
£750; of Upper Penge, £800. Patrons of both Trustees.--_Wilson's
Gazetteer of England and Wales_.

Penge, for ecclesiastical purposes, is a separate parish, and has its
own Overseers and supports its own poor. The Church of St. John the
Evangelist is a modern gothic stone structure with tower and spire. The
population of St. John's E. Parish in 1871 was 8,345, and the area is
500 acres. The Church of Holy Trinity, South Penge, to which a district
was assigned in 1873, is built of brick with stone dressings consisting
of chancel, nave and side aisles. The foundation stone was laid by the
Right Hon. the Earl of Shaftesbury, R.G., April 17, 1872. The Church
cost £7,500, and is capable of seating 1,000. The Register dates from
1874. The living is a vicarage. There are Chapels for Independents,
Baptists, and Wesleyans, and National Schools.]

[Footnote 3: According to the Post Office Directory of the Six Home
Counties, edited by E. R. Kelly, M.A., F.R.S., 1874, Battersea
comprises 2,203 acres of land and 159 water.]

With respect to the true etymology of the name Battersea,[1] it was
anciently written Battries-ey, and in Doom's-day Book Patries-ey,
probably a mistake for Patrice-ey and signifying St. Peter's Isle,
the termination ey, from the Saxon eze or ize, often occurring in the
name of places adjacent to great rivers; as Putney, Molesey, Chertsey,
etc. Battersea has a history dating from the time of Harold. At the
Norman Conquest it passed into the hands of William the Conqueror, who
exchanged it with the Abbey of St. Peter's, at Westminster, for lands
at Windsor.

[Footnote 1: Some of the old inhabitants of Battersea have a notion
that Battersea took its name originally from a great battle that was
fought in shallow water knee-deep when the river was fordable, hence
Battersea, Battelsea or Battlesea--as the name itself appears to be
somewhat shrouded in obscurity there may be some partial truth in this
oral statement though we are not acquainted with any authentic records
which warrant us to affirm that Battersea derived its name from this
circumstance.]

The earliest record we have of Battersea appears in Doomsday Book,
where it is written Pattricesy. Some authors have supposed that
because Petersham, which belonged to St. Peter's Abbey, Chertsey,
is there spelt Patricesham, that the earliest form of Battersea
originated its connexion with St. Peter's Abbey, the _c_ they say in
both these words was sibilant and therefore did not differ very much
in pronunciation from that it is now, though they admit that it is a
"curious anomaly that while P in _Patricesy_ has been changed into B
the P in _Patricesham_ remains unchanged." What the final syllable
represents is less clear as there are now no traces of Battersea
having been an island although there may have been once. Chelsea, it
is remarked, "was originally _Ceale-hythe_ or Chelc-hythe, and a haven
on the Thames, not an island, just as Lambeth was '_Lambe-hithe_' or
haven, but there is no recorded form of Battersea that would allow
us to say that _ey_ or _ea_ represented _hithe_. There was, however,
until about thirty years ago, a Creek, up which tradition reports that
Queen Elizabeth rowed. A bright little stream rising in Tooting, and
passing by Wandsworth Common, flowed into the Thames at this Creek,
which is now a mere sewer, and its better character is only kept in
remembrance by the name of Creek Street." The Rev. Daniel Lysons, in
a book entitled "The Environs of London," published in 1792, which,
through the kindness of Mr. R. J. S. Kentish, Librarian of the Beaufoy
Library, we have had the privilege of consulting, says, "the name has
undergone several changes. In the Conqueror's Survey, it is called
Patricesy, and has since been written Battrichsey, Battersey and
Battersea, each variation carrying it still further from its original
signification. Of the original signification of the word, I think there
can be little doubt. Patricesy in the Saxon is Peter's water or river;
and as the same record which calls it Patricesy mentions that it was
given to St. Peter, it might then first assume that appellation, but
this I own is conjecture. Petersham, which is precisely the same in
Doomsday--Patriceham, belonged to St. Peter's Abbey, Chertsey, and
retains its original name a little modernised. Aubrey, Vol. I. p. 135,
derives the name from St. Patrick; but Aubrey was mistaken by seeing
it written Patricesy, instead of Petricesy, in Doomsday; but the
Normans were not very accurate spellers. Petersham was written in the
same manner with an a."[1] "The Parish of Battersea is bounded on the
East by Lambeth, on the South by Camberwell, Streatham and Clapham;
on the West by Wandsworth, and on the North by the River Thames. The
greater part of Wandsworth Common, which extends nearly two miles in
length towards Streatham, and a considerable part of Clapham Common
are in the Parish of Battersea." The boundaries of Clapham Parish,
according to the oldest documents of that Parish and Manor, when taken,
have usually commenced at the corner of Wix's Lane, formerly called
Browmell's corner. The limits of Clapham Parish where it adjoins
Battersea in the early part of last century was the subject of a legal
contest, that part of Clapham Common extending to Battersea Rise
being claimed by both parishes. In 1716 the inhabitants of Battersea
inclosed with a ditch and bank the tract of land in question, and
the people of Clapham levelled the bank and filled up the ditch; in
consequence of which Henry Lord Viscount St. John, the Lord of the
Manor of Battersea, brought an action for trespass against those who
were engaged in this work, or their employers, which was tried at the
Lent Assizes at Kingston, in 1718, when the plaintiff was non-suited.
The men of Battersea however were not discouraged but persevered with
greater determination than ever in supporting their claim by including
when they beat the boundaries of their Parish the disputed ground in
their perambulations; and says Mr. Brayley "it would seem to have been
eventually successful, a certain portion of the Common being now held
on lease of Earl Spencer as Lord of the Manor of Battersea."--_Brayley,
Surrey Mantel,_ Vol. III. p. 281.

[Footnote 1: The Manor of Peckham in the Confessor's reign belonged to
this Parish, which has since been thrown into Camberwell; Penge being
still continued as part of the Manor though separated from the rest by
Streatham and Lambeth.--_Manning and Bray's History and Antiquities of
Surrey_, Vol. I., p. 327.]

Last century Clapham Common was little better than a morass; it covers
202 acres. The number and variety of trees both English and exotic with
which it is ornamented give it very much the appearance of a park. The
Metropolitan Board of Works have purchased the manorial rights over the
Common which is now under their supervision. "In the year 1874 (says Mr
Walford) the Enclosure Commissioners for England and Wales under the
Metropolitan Common Act, 1866, and Metropolitan Commons' Amendment Act,
1869, certified a scheme for placing the Common under the control of
the Local Board, the Common was purchased for the sum of £17,000 and it
was proposed that it should be dedicated to the use and recreation of
the public for ever. By the above mentioned scheme the Board were to
drain, plant, and ornament the Common as necessary, no houses were to
be built thereon, but eight lodges necessary for its maintenance."

The writer of a work entitled "Clapham with its Common and Environs,"
says, "The Mount-Pond was originally a gravel pit, excavated
principally to form the turnpike road from Tooting to London. The
Mount was raised, and a Pagoda Summer House planted on the top, by
Henton Brown, Esq., of the firm of Brown and Tritton, Bankers, Lombard
Street, member of the Society of Friends. Mr. Brown lived in the house,
late in the occupation of J. Thornton, Esq., and was at great expense
in forming the Mount and Pond. The Mount was larger than it now is,
and planted with choice shrubs as well as trees. A bridge was thrown
over the east side to connect it with the Common, and a pleasure
boat was kept under it, but which after the failure of Mr. Brown,
went rapidly to decay. He fenced it round with posts and rails, and
in 1748 the Parish gave him leave to put down a close fence, which
a subsequent Vestry refused to ratify. He was also at the expense
of making a conduit from the pond to supply a reservoir in his own
grounds." Lavender Hill seems to have been long noted for its nursery
gardens. Situated on the Hill was Lavender Villa--at the foot of
Lavender Hill was a brook. Now Lavender Hill has the appearance of a
busy town. Splendid shops, handsomely decorated and well stocked line
both sides of the main thoroughfare, and rows of respectable houses
and semi-detached villas forming roads and streets have sprung up in
all directions. The same may be said of a great portion of Battersea
Rise extending to Bolingbroke Grove. Stately trees have been felled
and green slopes that were are now covered with houses, with here
and there a place of worship, and all this transformation has taken
place within the last twelve years. Clapham Common and its immediate
vicinity was in the early years of the present century the seat of the
knot of zealous men who, labouring together for what they believed to
be the interest of pure religion, the reformation of manners and the
suppression of slavery, came to be known as the Clapham sect. One of
the most distinguished of them, William Wilberforce, lived at the house
known as "Broomfield," (Broomwood) on the south-west side of Clapham
Common, and there his no less distinguished son, the late Bishop of
Winchester, was born September 7th, 1805. "Conterminous with his fair
demesne was that of Henry Thornton, the author and prime mover of the
conclave, whose meetings were held, for the most part, in the oval
saloon which William Pitt, dismissing for a moment his budgets and his
subsidies, planned to be added to Henry Thornton's newly-purchased
residence.... It arose at his bidding, and yet remains, perhaps a
solitary monument of the architectural skill of that imperial mind.
Lofty and symmetrical, it was curiously wainscoted with books on every
side except where it opened on a far-extended lawn reposing beneath the
giant arms of aged elms and massive tulip trees."--_Stephen's Essays_,
Vol. II. p. 290. "In this saloon, and on the far-extended lawn,
after their long years of effort, assembled in joy and thanksgiving
and mutual congratulation over the abolition of the slave trade,
Wilberforce, Clarkson, Granville, Sharp, Stephen, Zachary Macaulay and
their younger associates and disciples. But the Villa-cinctured-Common
was also the birthplace or cradle of another and hardly less remarkable
and far-reaching religious movement or institution. Just as it was the
dwelling place, the home or haunt of every one of the most eminent
supporters of the anti-slavery movement, so was it the home or haunt
of the founders of the Bible Society, its earliest ministers or
secretaries, and above all the first and greatest of its presidents,
John Lord Teignmouth."--_Handbook to the Environs of London_, by
James Thorne, F.S.A., Part I. pp. 111, 112. Broomwood was the seat of
the late Sir Charles Forbes, contiguous to which and facing the tall
poplar tree is situated a spacious villa once the residence of the late
Frances Elizabeth Leveson Gower, an estimable Christian maiden-lady
who was a subscriber to several benevolent institutions. She used to
conduct bible readings not only for the female servants of the gentry
of Clapham Common but also for navvies and others of the labouring
classes in her own dining room, where they partook of her generous
hospitality after their daily toil in the shape of a hearty meal.

A Good Example of liberality was given by one Mr. Thornton, of Clapham,
a noble-hearted Christian merchant. One morning, when he had received
news of a failure that involved him in the loss of no less than a
hundred thousand pounds, a minister from the country called at his
counting-house to ask a subscription for an important object. Hearing
that Mr. Thornton had suffered that loss, he apologized for having
called. But Mr. Thornton took him kindly by the hand and said: "My dear
sir, the wealth I have is not mine, but the Lord's. It may be that He
is going to take it out of my hands, and give it to another; and if so,
this is a good reason why I should make a good use of what is left." He
then doubled the subscription he intended to give.

The recently deceased and much lamented Philip Cazenove was for
thirty years a parishioner, residing on Battersea Rise, whose name
was a Synonym for kindness and Christian charity concerning whom we
feel that we cannot pass a better eulogium than that recorded in _St.
Mary's, Battersea, Parish Magazine_ for February, 1880. "He has been a
benefactor such as a parish rarely numbers amongst its church folk. The
magnificent Girls' School in Green Lane was added to Miss Champion's
benefaction, almost at Mr. Cazenove's sole cost. To every church
building scheme, to Battersea College, to new schools, to the proposed
Hospital, to every good work he was a munificent contributor. And what
he did in Battersea, he did in all parts of East and South London,
indeed in all parts of the metropolis and in the country. And he sought
no thanks for his donations, but with a rare self-forgetfulness he
seemed to avoid the acknowledgments of gratitude. His liberality, great
as it was, by no means represented all that he did for good works. In
our parish he took a personal interest in our Schools of all grades.
He always had words of kind encouragement for the teachers. He was
always ready to preside at any meeting, or to act on any committee. And
as his alms deeds went far beyond his own parish so did his personal
service. There was no more familiar face than his in the Board-rooms
of the great Church Societies, for some of the chief of which, as the
Gospel Propagation Society, he acted as Treasurer. He was an active
member of the governing bodies of Guy's Hospital, and other like
institutions, and everywhere he freely gave his sunny sympathy and the
ripe counsels of his long experience. He was indeed a notable instance
of an open-handed, simple-hearted Churchman, some would add 'of the old
school,' and we would say, may God of His mercy put it into the hearts
of others to perpetuate such a 'school' for truly they are a blessing
and a stay to all around them. Our venerated friend was stricken with
illness in the beginning of last year, and it seemed as if he would
then have succumbed to the physical weakness of the action of that
great loving heart. But he rallied somewhat, and during the summer
and autumn he was able to sit in his garden or to drive out in his
carriage. He was able to be at S. Mark's on S. Michael's Day, 1879, and
to receive the Holy Communion there for the last time in the Sanctuary.
With the return of winter, his weakness increased, and after a year of
weariness and languor and the depression incident to his illness, he
entered into the Rest, for which he had yearned, in the early morning
of January 20. Philip Cazenove, born Nov. 23, 1798; died January 20,
1880, aged 81."

    Hear what the voice from heaven proclaims
      For all the pious dead,
    Sweet is the savour of their names,
      And soft their sleeping bed.
    They die in Jesus, and are bless'd;
      How kind their slumbers are!
    From sufferings and from sins released,
      And freed from every snare.
    Far from this world of toil and strife,
      They're present with the Lord:
    The labours of their mortal life
      End in a large reward.--_Isaac Watts_, 1709.

At a semi-detached villa situated in this part of the Common,
resided the late Charles Curling, Esq., whose memory many of the
poor inhabitants of Old Battersea cherish with feelings of grateful
respect. He relieved the temporal wants of the needy; opened day and
night schools in order that the poorest might be educated; under his
excellent wife's superintendence maternal meetings were conducted; at
his own expense he supported an Evangelist and a Bible Woman to work in
the district.

The Villa adjoining that of Mr. Curling's was occupied by the late
Misses Sarah Hibbert and Mary Ann Hibbert, who erected Alms Houses in
Wandsworth Road, Clapham, for eight aged women, in grateful remembrance
of their father, William Hibbert, who was for many years an inhabitant
of Clapham. Not least among the benefactresses of the poor might be
mentioned the names of Lady George Pollock, Lady Lawrence, Mrs. Sillem,
and Mrs. Robert Jones, of this part, (all deceased). The memory of the
just is blessed!

When Lysons wrote, Battersea Rise being a salubrious locality was
ornamented with several villas, also it was much admired for its
pleasant situation and fine prospect. Referring to the Market Gardens,
etc., he says, "About 300 acres of land in the Parish of Battersea are
occupied by the market gardeners, of whom there are about twenty who
rent from five or six to nearly sixty acres each." Fuller, who wrote in
the year 1660, speaking of the gardens in Surrey, states, "Gardening
was first brought into England for profit, about 70 years ago; before
which we fetched most of our cherries from Holland, apples from France,
and hardly a mess of rath ripe peas but from Holland; which were
dainties for ladies, they come so far and cost so dear. Since gardening
hath crept out of Holland to Sandwich, Kent, and thence to Surrey;
where, though they have given £6 an acre and upwards, they have made
their rent, lived comfortably, and set many people at work. Oh the
incredible profit by digging of ground! for though it be confessed,
that the plough beats the spade out of distance for speed, (almost as
much as the press beats the pen), yet, what the spade wants in the
quantity of the ground it manureth, it recompenseth with the plenty of
the good it yieldeth, that which is multiplying an hundred fold more
than that which is sown. 'Tis incredible how many poor people in London
live thereon, so that in some seasons the gardens feed more people than
the field."--_Fuller's Worthies_, Pt. 3, p. 77. "These gardeners,"
continues Lysons, "employ in the summer season a considerable number
of labourers, though perhaps not so many as is generally supposed--on
an average I am informed, not one to an acre. The wages of the men
are from ten to twelve, of the women from five to seven shillings by
the week. Most of the women travel on foot from Shropshire and North
Wales in the spring, and as they live at a very cheap rate, many of
them return to their own country richer than they left it. The soil
of the ground occupied by the gardeners is sandy and requires a great
deal of rain. The vegetables which they raise are in general very fine;
their cabbages and asparagus particularly have acquired celebrity." The
asparagus first grown in or near London was raised by the Battersea
gardeners. Owing to its rich and alluvial soil, Battersea has always
been noted for its fine asparagus--110 heads of extraordinary size
and fit for the kitchen have been known to weigh 32 lbs.[1] There was
no market at Battersea, its vegetable produce was sent to the London
market. In _Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica Antiquities_ (British
Museum) Vol. II. p. 227, is a brief note on Battersea by Mr. Theobald.
This old writer says, "The lands are fruitful beyond most others and
this Parish is famous in the London market for its asparagus, hence
called _Battersea Bundles_. It also in the time of a noted man there,
one Mr. Cuff, was famous for producing the finest melons. The common
field called Battersea Field, is constantly cropped with peas, beans,
wheat, etc.... Lands are here let from 50s. down to 16s. an acre....
There are three windmills on the river's brink, one for corn, one
grinds colours for the potters, and another serves to grind whitelead.
Being in the neighbourhood of London so commodiously within about four
miles of the City and on the banks of the river Thames, where so many
conveniences of carriage are constantly to be met, and the merchant can
in an hour return to his country house. Several citizens and merchants
have both built handsome houses here."

[Footnote 1: "Among other branches of industry introduced by the
Flemings at Sandwich, that of gardening is worthy of notice. The
people of Flanders had long been famous for their horticulture, and
one of the first things which the foreign settlers did on arriving in
the place was to turn to account the excellent qualities of the soil
in the neighbourhood, so well suited for gardening purposes. Though
long before practised by the Monks, gardening had become a lost art
in England. It is said that Katherine, Queen of Henry 8th, unable to
obtain a salad for her dinner in England, had her table supplied from
the low countries. The first Flemish gardens proved highly successful.
The cabbage, carrots, and celery produced by the foreigners met with so
ready a sale, and were so much in demand in London itself, that a body
of gardeners shortly removed from Sandwich and settled at Wandsworth,
Battersea, and Bermondsey, where many of the rich garden grounds first
planted by the Flemings continue to be the most productive in the
neighbourhood of the Metropolis."

"Some of the Flemish refugees settled at Wandsworth and began several
branches of industry, as the manufacture of felts, the making of brass
plates for culinary utensils."

"In addition to the Flemish Churches in the City, at the West-end,
and in Spitalfields, there were several thriving congregations in
the suburban districts of London; one of the oldest of these was at
Wandsworth, where a colony of protestant Wallons settled about the year
1570. Having formed themselves as a congregation, they erected a chapel
for worship, which is that standing nearly opposite the Parish Church,
the building bearing this inscription on its front: Erected, 1573;
Enlarged, 1685; Repaired, 1809, 1831."--_Samuel Smile's Huguenots in
England and Ireland_, p.p. 85, 86, 88, 267, 4th Edition.]

In 1816, Stages set out for Battersea from the following places:--A
coach from Pewter Platter, Gracechurch Street, and Black Dog and Camel,
Leadenhall Street, daily at 11 a.m., 3 and 7 p.m., Sunday morning at
11. Red Lion, Strand, daily 11 a.m., 3 and 7 p.m. A cart, Kings and
Key, Fleet Street; Bell, Bell Yard, and George and Gate, and Pewter
Platter, Gracechurch Street; King's Arms, Bishopgate Within; Ship and
Hope, Charing Cross, and Angel and Sun, White Hart, and Spotted Dog,
Strand, daily at 2 p.m. Boats, Queenhithe, and Globe, Hungerford Stairs
daily. Waterman's rates from London Bridge to Chelsea (Battersea)
Bridge--oars, whole fare 2/6, sculls 1/3, with company each person
oars or sculls 4d. Not more than eight persons in any passage-boat
between Windsor and Greenwich. Over the water directly every person 1d.
and sculler's fare 2d. No waterman could be compelled to go below the
Pageants, and Ratcliff Cross Stairs, or above Vauxhall and Feathers
Stairs after five, from Michaelmas to Lady Day, nor after nine in the
evening from Lady Day to Michaelmas.

The annual fair held here in Battersea Square, at Easter, was
afterwards suppressed. The houses in Old Battersea were irregularly
built; the inhabitants were supplied with water from springs. The
County Magistrates held a meeting at Wandsworth, an adjoining village,
where also a Court of Request for the recovery of debts under £5 was
held, under an Act obtained in the 31st of George II., the power of
which was extended by an Act in the 46th of George III. The Court of
Requests, which is called a court of conscience, was first instituted
in the reign of Henry 7th, 1493, and was remodelled by a statute of
Henry 8th, in 1517.--_Stowe._ Established for the summary recovery
of small debts under forty shillings, but in the City of London the
jurisdiction extends to debts of £5.--_Ashe._ There were Courts of
Request in the principal corporate towns throughout the kingdom, until
1847, when they were superseded (those of the City of London excepted)
by the County Debts Court, whose jurisdiction, extending at first to
£20, was enlarged in 1850 to £50. The Lord of the Manor held a Court
Leet at Wandsworth, at which the Headborough and constables for
Battersea were appointed.

"The Manor of Battersea, which, before the conquest, belonged to Earl
Harold, was given by the Conqueror to Westminster Abbey in exchange
for Windsor. The Manor was valued in the Confessor's time at £80, it
afterwards sunk in value to £30, and at the time of the Survey was
estimated at £75. In the taxation of 1291, the possessions of the Abbey
of Westminster in Battersea were rated at £15. Thomas Astle, Esq.,
(says Lysons) has an original deed of Archbishop Theobald, confirming
a charter of King Stephen by which he exempts the greater part of
the Manor from all taxes and secular payments. Dart mentions several
charters relating to Battersea, viz., William the Conqueror's original
grant; a charter of privilege; a grant to the Abbot of Westminster of
liberty to hunt in this Manor; a charter of confirmation in Henry the
First, and another of King Stephen, besides that of privilege before
mentioned."

"After the dissolution of monasteries, the Manor was reserved in the
hands of the Crown; a lease of it was granted to Henry Roydon, Esq., by
Queen Elizabeth, for twenty-one years, in the eighth year of her reign;
it was afterwards granted for the same term to his daughter, then Joan
Holcroft; and was assigned amongst others for the maintenance of Prince
Henry, A.D. 1610. In the year 1627, it was granted in reversion to
Oliver St. John Viscount Grandison. Sir Oliver St. John was the first
of the family who settled at Battersea, he married _Joan_, daughter
and heir of Henry Roydon, Esq., of this place, widow of Sir William
Holcroft. Lord Grandison died in 1630, and was succeeded in that title
and in the Battersea Estate by William Villiers, his great-nephew,
who died of a wound received at the siege of Bristol, A.D. 1644. Sir
John St. John, Bart., nephew of the first Lord Grandison, inherited
Battersea; from him it passed in a regular descent to Sir Walter St.
John, Bart., his nephew, to Sir Walter's son, Henry Viscount St. John,
and to his grandson, Henry Viscount Bolingbroke, who, by an Act of
Parliament passed before his father's death, was enabled to inherit
his estate, notwithstanding his attainder. The estate and manor
continued in the St. John family till 1763, when it was bought in trust
for John Viscount Spencer, and is now property of the present Earl
Spencer."[1]--_Lysons' Environs._

[Footnote 1: CUSTOMS OF THE MANOR.--In this Manor, lands descended
to the youngest sons; but in default of sons, they do not go
to the youngest daughter, but are divided among the daughters
equally.--_Lysons._]

Battersea has many memorials; its historic interest culminates in its
association with the St. Johns. One is stated to have been "eminent
for his piety and moral virtues." Henry in 1684 pleaded guilty of the
murder of Sir William Estcourt, Bart., in a sudden quarrel arising
at a supper party. His case, if Bishop Burnet be correct, could be
regarded only as manslaughter, but he was induced to plead guilty by a
promise of pardon if he followed that advice or of his being subjected
to the utmost rigour of the law on his refusal. No pardon is enrolled
but it is stated that the King granted him a reprieve for a long term
of years; and in the Rolls Chapel is a restitution of the Estate (Pat
36 Charles II.) for which it would seem and the reprieve conjoined he
had to pay £16,000, one half of which Burnet says the King converted
to his own use and bestowed the remainder on two ladies then in high
favour.--_Burnet's History of his own times; fol;_ 1724. _Vol. I. p._
600.

Bolingbroke or Bullingbroke, a town of great antiquity in Lincolnshire,
gave the title of Viscount to the St. Johns of Battersea. In 1700,
Sir Walter St. John founded and endowed a free school for twenty boys,
and both he and his lady afterwards left further sums for apprenticing
some of the number. It was re-built in 1859. Over the gateway in the
High Street, are carved the Arms of St. John, and underneath them is
inscribed the motto, "Rather Deathe than false of Faythe." As we gazed
upon the above motto we were reminded of other lines which we have seen
and read elsewhere. Sir Walter St. John died 3rd July, 1808, aged 87;
his portrait is in the school. He built a gallery at the west end of
the Old Church.

    "Dare to be right, dare to be true;
    Other men's failures can never save you;
    Stand by your conscience, your honour, your faith;
    Stand like a hero, and battle till death.

    Dare to be right, dare to be true;
    Keep the great judgment day always in view,
    Look at your work, as you'll look at it then,
    Scanned by Jehovah, and Angels and men.

    Dare to be right, dare to be true;
    God who created you, cares for you too,
    Wipe off the tears that His striving ones shed,
    Counts and protects every hair of your head.

    Dare to be right, dare to be true;
    Cannot Omnipotence carry you through?
    City, and Mansion, and throne all in view,
    Cannot you dare to be right and be true?

    Dare to be right, dare to be true;
    Prayerfully, lovingly, firmly pursue
    The pathway by Saints, and by Seraphim trod
    The pathway which leads to the City of God."

Bolingbroke (Henry St. John) Lord Viscount, descended from an ancient
and noble family as we have already seen. His Mother was Mary, daughter
of Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick. He received a liberal education at
Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford, and when he left the University was
considered to possess uncommon qualifications, but with great parts
he had strong passions, which as usually happens, hurried him into
many follies and indiscretions. Contrary to the inclinations of his
family he cultivated Tory connections, and gained such influence in
the House of Commons, that in 1704 he was appointed Secretary of War
and of the Marines. He was closely united in all political measures
with Mr. Harley; when therefore that gentleman was removed from the
seals in 1707, Mr. St. John resigned his office; and in 1710, when Mr.
Harley was made Chancellor of the Exchequer, the post of Secretary of
State was given to Mr. St. John. In 1712, he was created Baron St.
John of Lediard Tregose in Wiltshire, and Viscount Bolingbroke. But
being overlooked in the bestowal of vacant ribands of the Order of the
Garter, it is said he resented the affront and renounced the friendship
of Harley, then Earl of Oxford, and made his court to the Whigs;
nevertheless, on the accession of George 1st, the seals were taken
from him. Having been informed that a resolution was taken to pursue
him to the scaffold for his conduct regarding the treaty of Utrecht,
Signed 11th of April, 1713, he withdrew into France and joined the
Pretender's[1] service and accepted the seals as his Secretary. But
he was as unfortunate in his new connection as those he had renounced,
for the year 1715 was scarcely expired, while being attainted of high
treason at home, he was accused by the Pretender of neglect, incapacity
and treachery, and had the papers and seals of Foreign Secretary's
Office taken away. Such a complication of distressful events threw
him into a state of reflection that produced by way of relief "a
consolatio philosophica," which he wrote the same year under the title
of "Reflection upon Exile." The next year he drew up a vindication
of his conduct with respect to the Tories in the form of a letter to
Sir William Wyndham. In 1718 his first wife died; in 1720 he married
a niece of the famous Madam Maintenon and widow of the Marquis de
Villette,[2] with whom he had a very large fortune. In 1723, after
being in exile seven years, the King was prevailed upon to grant him
a free pardon, and he returned in consequence to England. But his
spirit was not satisfied within while he remained a mere titular Lord,
and excluded from the House of Peers. His recall had been assented to
by Sir Robert Walpole, but he cherished a secret dislike to Walpole
and regarded him as the cause of his not receiving the full extent of
the King's clemency. Walpole invited Bolingbroke to dine with him at
Chelsea, but it appeared to Bolingbroke rather to shew his power and
prosperity than for any other reason. Horace Walpole, the celebrated
son of the Minister, says in his "Reminiscences" "Whether tortured at
witnessing Sir Robert's serene frankness and felicity, or suffocated
with indignation and confusion at being forced to be obliged to one
whom he hated and envied, the first morsel he put into his mouth was
near choking him, and he was reduced to rise from the table and leave
the room for some minutes. I never heard of their meeting more." He
distinguished himself by a multitude of political writings till the
year 1735, when being thoroughly convinced that the door was shut
against him, he returned once more to France. In this foreign retreat
he began his course of letters on the Study and Use of History for Lord
Combury, to whom they are addressed. Lord Bolingbroke was born and
died in the family Mansion at Battersea. The house was very large,
with forty rooms on a floor; but with the exception of a wing,[3] it
has long since been taken down and otherwise appropriated.[4] Dives'
Flour Mills cover a portion of the site where once stood this venerable
mansion. Upon the death of his father, who lived to be extremely old,
Lord Bolingbroke settled at Battersea, where he passed the remaining
nine years of his life in philosophical dignity. Pope and Swift, one
a great poet, the other a great wit of that time, almost adored him.
Arbuthnot, Thompson, Mallet, and other contemporary men of genius were
his frequent visitors. Mr. Timbs says "here took place the memorable
destruction of one of Bolingbroke's most celebrated works, his 'Essay
on a Patriotic King,' of which the noble author had printed only six
copies, which he gave to Lord Chesterfield, Sir William Wyndham,
Lyttelton, Pope, Lord Marchmont, and Lord Combury, at whose instance
Bolingbroke wrote the essay. Pope lent his copy to Mr. Allen, of
Bath, who was so delighted with it that he had five hundred copies
printed, but locked them up in a warehouse, not to see light until Lord
Bolingbroke's permission could be obtained. On the discovery, Lord
Marchmont (then living at Lord Bolingbroke's house at Battersea), sent
Mr. Gravenkop for the whole cargo, and he had the books carried out
on a waggon and burnt on a lawn in the presence of Lord Bolingbroke."
Pope, when visiting his friend Lord Bolingbroke, usually selected as
his study a parlour (the grate and ornaments were of the age of George
1st) wainscoted with cedar, and overlooking the Thames, in which he is
said to have composed some of his celebrated works. It is well known
that he received from him the materials for his famous poem the "Essay
on Man."

[Footnote 1: Pretenders, a name given to the son and grandsons of
James II. of England. The Old Pretender, James Francis Edward Stuart,
Chevalier de St. George, born 10th June, 1688, was acknowledged by
Louis XIV. as James III. of England, in 1701 proclaimed and his
standard set up, at Braemar and Castletown, in Scotland, landed at
Peterhead in Aberdeenshire from France to encourage the rebellion
that the Earl of Mar and his adherents had promoted, 25th December,
1715. This rebellion having been soon suppressed, the Pretender
escaped to Montrose (from whence he proceeded to Gravelines) 4th
February 1716. Died at Rome, 30th December, 1765. The Young Pretender,
Charles Edward, was born in 1720, landed in Scotland and proclaimed
his father King 25th July, 1745; gained the battle of Preston-Pans,
21st September, 1745, and of Falkirk, 27th January, 1746; defeated at
Culloden, and sought safety by flight 16th April, 1746. He continued
wandering among the wilds of Scotland for nearly six months, and as
£30,000 were offered for taking him, he was constantly pursued by the
British troops, often hemmed round by his enemies, but still rescued
by some lucky incident, and at length escaped from the Ulst Morilaix
in September. He died 31st January, 1788. His natural daughter assumed
the title of Duchess of Albany; died in 1789. His brother, the Cardinal
York, calling himself Henry IX. of England, born March, 1725, died at
Rome in August, 1807.]

[Footnote 2: When he was about twenty-six years of age he was married
to the daughter and co-heiress of Sir Henry Winchescomb, of Bucklebury,
in Berkshire, Bart., and the same year, 1700, he entered the House of
Commons, being elected for the Borough of Wotton-Basset in Wiltshire,
by a family interest, his father having served several times for the
same place.]

[Footnote 3: The ceilings of three of the chambers upstairs are
ornamented with stucco-work, and have in their centres oval-shaped oil
paintings on allegorical subjects.]

[Footnote 4: Bolingbroke House was pulled down about the year 1775. The
pictures were sold by auction.]

Lord Bolingbroke was born about the year 1672, or as some think, in
1678; he was baptized October 10, 1678; died December 12, 1751, and
left the care and benefit of his M.S.S. to Mr. Mallet, who published
them together with his former printed works in five vols. 4to.; they
are also printed in 8vo.

Lord Bolingbroke sank under a dreadful malady beneath which he had long
lingered--a cancer in the face--which he bore with exemplary fortitude.
"A fortitude," says Lord Brougham "drawn from the natural resources of
his mind, and unhappily not aided by the consolation of any religion;
for having cast off the belief in revelation, he had substituted in
its stead a dark and gloomy naturalism, which even rejected those
glimmerings of hope as to futurity not untasted by the wiser of the
heathen." He used to ride out in his chariot every day, and had a black
patch on his cheek, with a large wart over one of his eyebrows. He was
thought to be essentially selfish; he spent little in the place and
gave little away, so that he was not regarded much by the people of
Battersea.

A popular writer states that "Bolingbroke's talents were brilliant and
versatile; his style of writing was polished and eloquent; but the
fatal lack of sincerity and honest purpose which characterised him,
and the low and unscrupulous ambition which made him scramble for
power with a selfish indifference to national security hindered him
from looking wisely and deeply into any question. His philosophical
theories are not profound, nor his conclusions solid, while his
criticism of passing history is worthless in the extreme. He was one
of those clever unscrupulous men, unhappily too common, who forget
that God has something to do with the government of this world as well
as themselves, and who in spite of their ability, can never see that
swift destruction treads like Nemesis on the heels of those who dare to
trifle with the interests and destinies of a great people."

His opposition to revealed religion drew from Johnson this severe
remark: "Having loaded a blunderbuss and pointed it against
Christianity he had not the courage to discharge it himself, but left a
half-crown to a hungry Scotchman to pull the trigger after his death."

Oliver Goldsmith in his life of Lord Bolingbroke says: "In whatever
light we view his character, we shall find him an object rather more
proper for our wonder than our imitation; more to be feared than
esteemed, and gaining our admiration without our love. His ambition
ever aimed at the summit of power, and nothing seemed capable of
satisfying his immoderate desires but the liberty of governing all
things without a rival."

On the site of the demolished part of Bolingbroke House,[1] a
horizontal Air Mill was erected in 1790, of a conical form, 140 feet
in height, and having a mean diameter of 50 feet; it was 54 feet at
the base and 45 at the top. It was originally applied to the grinding
of linseed for oil, and subsequently by Messrs. Hodgson, Weller and
Allaway, of malt for the Distilleries, which were at that time in
extensive operation here. Mr. Thomas Fowler erected this mill, the
design was taken from that of another on a smaller scale, constructed
at Margate by Capt. Hooper. It consisted of a circular wheel, with
large boards or vanes fixed parallel to its axis; and upon the vanes
the wind acted as to blow the wheel round, one side of it being
sheltered from the action of the wind by its being enclosed in frame
work, with doors or shutters to open and admit the wind, or to shut and
stop it. If all the shutters on one side were open, whilst all those on
the opposite were closed, the wind acting with diminished force on the
vanes of one side, whilst the opposite vanes were under shelter, turned
the mill round; but whenever the wind changed, the disposition of the
blinds had to be altered, to admit the wind to strike upon the vanes
of the wheels in the direction of a tangent to the circle in which
they moved.--_Dr. Paris's Philosophy in Sport._ "The Mill," says Mr.
Timbs, "resembled a gigantic packing case, which gave rise to an odd
story, that when the Emperor of Russia was in England in 1814, he took
a fancy to Battersea Church and determined to carry it off to Russia,
and had this large packing case made for it; but as the inhabitants
refused to let the Church be carried away, so the case remained on the
spot where it was deposited." The Mill served as a landmark for miles
around, being more conspicuous an object at that time than the lofty
square tower of Watney's Distillery a little further westward is now.
At length the upper part of the Mill was taken down; the lower part
is still used for grinding corn. Capper, referring to this Mill, says,
"it had 96 shutters, which though only 9 inches broad, reached to the
height of 80 feet; these by means of a rope, opened and shut in the
manner of Venetian blinds. In the inside, the main shaft of the Mill
was the centre of a large circle formed by the sails, which consisted
of 96 double planks placed perpendicularly, and the same height as
the shutters; through these shutters the wind passing turned the Mill
with great rapidity, which was increased or diminished by opening or
shutting the apertures. In it were six pairs of stones, in which two
pair more might be added. Adjacent were Bullock Houses capable of
holding 650 bullocks, which were fed with the grains and meal from the
Distilleries."

[Footnote 1: The part left standing formed a dwelling house for Mr.
Hodgson.]

[Illustration: ST. MARY'S CHURCH.]

ST. MARY'S CHURCH forms an interesting object from the water. It was
re-built by Act of Parliament passed 14 Geo. 3. The former church,
which was built of brick, was found to be in such a dilapidated state
that the Vestry deemed it more than desirable to erect a new church
than to enlarge and repair the old one. Their unanimous resolution
in this respect met with the sanction of Earl Spencer; his lordship
in compliance with a petition generously granted the petitioners in
the year 1772 a piece of ground, etc. for the enlargement of the
church yard. During the re-building of the church, divine service
was conducted in the tabernacle at the Workhouse. The cost of its
erection was about £5,000, which sum was raised by a brief by the sale
of certain pews for 99 years, by the sale of some estates or docks
belonging to the Parish, and by granting annuities on lives; the leases
expired Michaelmas, 1876. It was opened for divine service November 17,
1777. The ground given by the Earl Spencer for the enlargement of the
church yard was consecrated by the Lord Bishop of Oxford, on Wednesday,
the 15th of April, 1778. The Church is built of brick and has a tower
with a conical copper spire at the west end, besides a clock and
porch.[1] The belfry contains a set of eight bells, which, in addition
to their ordinary Sunday chimes, ring out their merry peals on special
occasions.

[Footnote 1: An Entrance Portico of the Doric order was added to the
Church about the year 1823.]

    "Ring out the old year's evil,
    The world, the flesh, the devil;
    Let them go! let them go!
    And ring in the Prince of Peace,
    Messiah's gentle reign.
    And let war and bloodshed cease,
    And righteousness obtain.
    Ring out the old year's crimes,
    And ring in the new year's birth,--
    Good words, good deeds, good times;
    Oh, were ever sweeter chimes
    Rung on this fallen earth
    Since creation's virgin anthem rang,
    And morning stars together sang?"
    "Chime on, ye bells! again begin,
    And ring the Sabbath morning in."

Six of the old bells were in the Old Church but re-cast, and two
were added to them. Length of church, 88 feet; breadth, 49 feet 3
inches.--_Rev. Owen Manning, S.T.B._ In digging for the foundation of
the present structure was found an ancient coffin lid of stone, on
the top of which was a cross fleury. The Rev. Erskine Clarke in an
article headed "S. Mary's Church in the Last Century" has furnished his
parishioners with some interesting details gathered from the Parish
books respecting the re-building of the Parish Church. He says: "It
does not appear that our ancestors were more expeditious in carrying
on business of this nature than we of the present day, as the first
resolution to inquire into the state of the old Church[1] was passed by
the Vestry in December, 1769, whereas the re-building was not finished
till November, 1777. The first suggestion was to sell a portion
of Penge Common in order to raise the money required, but it was
afterwards found that the condition of the church was so bad that the
money raised by this means would not be sufficient for the necessary
repairs. On March 1st, 1771, it was ordered by the Vestry that an extra
estimate be made of the needful repairs, allowing for enlargement of
the chancel to the north wall, to elevate the roof and make galleries,
and to raise the bottom of the church so high as five inches from the
present coming in, and that the Vicar and Churchwardens wait upon Lord
Spencer to get his sanction and assistance for this, and to enlarge
the church yard. On December 14, 1771, it was resolved this Vestry is
unanimously of opinion (there not being one dissenting voice) that a
new Church shall be built in this Parish at an expense not exceeding
£4,000: the said sum to be raised by annuities at the most advantageous
rate; and the interest or annuity thereon to be paid by a rate not
exceeding sixpence in the pound. That twelve gentlemen be nominated to
be a Committee for carrying the above-named purposes into execution,
and that the following gentlemen be the said Committee with such others
as choose to attend, all having voices. Viz.:

 The Revd. Mr. Fraigneau, Vicar.
 Mr. Rhodes, Mr. Dixon, Churchwardens.
 Mr. Camden, Mr. Bremmer, Overseers.
 Isaac Akeman, Esqr.
 Chrisr. Baldwin, Esqr.
 Philip Worlidge, Esqr.
 Mark Bell, Esqr.
 Thos. Bond, Esqr.
 Thos. Misluor, Esqr.
 Philip Milloway, Esqr.

And that any five of them be a Committee to transact the business. And
that the said Committee may adjourn themselves from time to time, to
such place as they shall think proper and at their own expense: and
that the Vestry Clerk be ordered to attend the said Committee at all
times of their meeting. In the following year we find that the petition
to Lord Spencer to present an additional piece of ground was granted,
for the following resolution is recorded in the Parish Books on April
21st, 1772. 'That the Rev. Mr. Fraigneau, Mr. Rhodes and Mr. Dixon
do wait upon the Right Hon. Earl Spencer on behalf of the Parish of
Battersea, to return his Lordship their hearty thanks for his noble
and generous grant of the houses and ground north and south of the
present entrance to the church yard.' In March, 1773, a plan prepared
by Mr. Dixon was laid before the Vestry, and it was unanimously
resolved that the said plan be carried into execution with all possible
expedition, and the expenses not to exceed £3,000. On March 1, 1774,
it was reported to the Vestry by the Church Committee that it would
be necessary to apply to Parliament for power to sell some estates
belonging to the Parish, and also forty pews in the new church in
order to procure necessary funds. From this time to the reopening of
the Church there is no further reference to the restoration except an
order for the payment of £18 for 'alterations to the Tabernacle at the
Workhouse which was used for Divine Service during the re-building
of the Church.' The entire cost of the Church was £4950 13s. 9½d.
The following entry is made in April, 1778. Entered by order of the
Reverend Mr. William Fraigneau (Vicar), Mark Bell and John Camden,
Esquires, Churchwardens. The new Church of Battersea Parish was
opened for Divine Service on Sunday, the 17th of November, 1777.
The additional ground for enlarging the church yard granted by Earl
Spencer, was consecrated by the Lord Bishop of Oxford, on Wednesday,
the 15th of April, 1778. Towards the end of the year 1778 we find the
inhabitants of Battersea developing a musical taste. A faculty was
applied for to erect an organ, the petitioners making their request
on the ground that an organ would be 'a decent and agreeable addition
and ornament to the Church.' The faculty was granted, and an organ
was erected at the west end of the gallery where the present one now
stands."--_St. Mary's Battersea Parish Magazine_, Nov. 1876. The organ
has been removed to a place under the gallery, adjacent to the choir,
and the Church has been re-seated.

[Footnote 1: There is a river view of Battersea by Boydell, which shows
the old Church as it stood in 1752.]

The following copy of one of these leases on which the pews in St.
Mary's Church were held, will be read with interest.

 THIS INDENTURE made the Twenty-sixth day of December, in the Year
 of our Lord, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy Eight, and in
 the Nineteenth Year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the
 Third, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland,
 King, Defender of the Faith, &c. Between the Reverend John Gardenor
 of Battersea, in the County of Surrey, Clerk, Allyn Simmons Smith,
 John Camden and Thomas Rhodes, all of the same place Esquires, and
 John Lumisden of the same, Surgeon, (being five of the Trustees
 appointed for carrying into execution an Act of Parliament made and
 passed in the fourteenth year of the Reign of his present Majesty
 King George the Third, Intituled an Act for Re-building the Parish
 Church of Battersea, in the County of Surrey, and for enlarging the
 Church Yard of the said Parish Church) of the one part, and William
 Dent of Battersea in the County of Surrey, Esquire, on the other part,
 Witnesseth that for and in consideration of the sum of Thirty-one
 Pounds Ten Shillings already paid and advanced by the said William
 Dent to the Treasurer appointed for the purposes of the said Act of
 Parliament, and also for and in consideration of the Yearly Rent and
 Covenants hereinafter reserved and contained, they the said John
 Gardenor, Allyn Simmons Smith, John Camden, Thomas Rhodes, and John
 Lumisden, in persuance and in Execution of the powers and Authorities
 vested in them in and by the said Act of Parliament, have Leased, Lett
 and Demised, and by these presents, do Lease, Lett and Demise unto
 the said William Dent, his Executors, Administrators and Assigns, All
 that Pew situate and being in the Gallery on the North side of the
 said Church of Battersea, (No. 62), with the appertenances. To have
 and to hold the said Pew, with the appertenances unto the said William
 Dent, his Executors, Administrators and Assigns, from the Feast day of
 Saint Michael the Archangel, which was in the Year of our Lord, One
 Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy Seven, for and during, and unto
 the full end and Term of Ninety Nine Years thence next ensuing and
 fully to be complete and ended, Yealding and paying therefore Yearly
 and every Year during the said Term, unto such person or persons, who
 for the time being shall be lawfully appointed to collect or receive
 the same Rent or sum of Two Shillings and Sixpence of lawful money
 of Great Britain, on the Feast day of Saint Michael the Archangel,
 in every year. And the said William Dent for himself, his Executors,
 Administrators, and Assigns, doth Covenant and Agree to and with the
 said before named Trustees, their Heirs and Assigns, That he the said
 William Dent his Executors, Administrators and Assigns, shall and will
 well and truly pay or cause to be paid the Rent hereby reserved and
 made payable according to the reservation aforesaid, And also at his
 and their own proper Costs and Charge, well and sufficiently repair
 the said Pew so Leased to him, during all the said Term of Ninety Nine
 Years, Provided always that if the said Yearly Rent hereby reserved,
 or any part thereof shall be behind and unpaid by the space of Three
 Calendar Months next over or after the said Feast day of payment,
 whereon the same ought to be paid as aforesaid (being Lawfully
 demanded) then and in such case the Demise or Lease hereby made shall
 cease, determine, and be utterly void to all intents and purposes
 whatsoever. In witness whereof the said parties to these presents have
 hereunder interchangeably set their hands and seals, the day and Year
 first above Written.

 _Sealed and Delivered without stamps, according to the Act of
 Parliament above in the presence of:_

 Wm. HOLT,
 ROBT. CORAM.

 J. GARDNOR,
 ALLYN SIMMONS SMITH,
 JOHN CAMDEN
 JOHN T. RHODES,
 JOHN LUMISDEN.

The window over the Communion table at the east end of the church
is decorated with portraits of Henry 7th, his grandmother Margaret
Beauchamp and Queen Elizabeth in stained glass which was carefully
preserved from the former church, and executed at the expense of the
St. Johns.[1] The following will explain why the three portraits
were placed at the end of the Church. "The first, that of Margaret
Beauchamp, ancestor (by her first husband, Sir Oliver St. John) of
the St. Johns, and (by her second husband, John Beaufort, Duke of
Somerset) grandmother to Henry VII.; the second, the portrait of that
Monarch; and the third, that of Queen Elizabeth, which is placed here
because her grandfather, Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire, (father of
Queen Ann Boleyn), was great-grandfather of Anne, the daughter of Sir
Thomas Leighton, and wife of Sir John St. John, the first baronet of
the family."--_Oulton._

[Footnote 1: Here also in two circular windows pierced for additional
light are figures of the Holy Lamb and Dove of Modern Execution.

The east window consists of painted glass, over the portraits of Queen
Elizabeth and Henry VII. are the Royal Arms in the central compartment,
and on each side, the arms and quarterings of the St. Johns. The
portraits are likewise surrounded with borders containing the arms of
the families allied to them by marriage. At the top is a white rose
inclosed in a red, under the Crown. _St. John_ bears Arg. or a chief
Gu. 2 Mullets or; and Quarters: 1 Arg. A bend Arg. Cotised between 6
Martlets or, for _Delaberes_. 2 Arg. a fesse between 6 Cinquefoils Gu.
for _Unfreville_. 3 Erm. on a fesse Az 3 Crosses Moline or. 4 Gu. a
fesse between 6 Martlets or for _Beauchamp_. 5 Arg. a fesse Sa between
3 Crescents Gu. for _Patishall_. 6 Paly of 6 Arg. and Az on a bend Gu.
3 Eagles displayed or for _Grandison_. 7 Az 2 bars Gemelles, and in
Chief a lion passant for _Tregoze_. 8 Arg. a fesse Gu between 2 Mullets
of 6 points Sali for _Ewyas_. 9 A Saltire Engrailed Sa. On a Chief of
the Second 2 Mullets of the first, for _Iwarby_ or _Ewarby_. 10 or, 3
lions passant in Pale Sa. for _Carew_. 11 Az 3 Battleaxes Arg. 12 Sa.
2 bars Arg. in Chief, 3 plates for _Hungerford_. 13 per Pale indented
Gu. and Vert over all a Chevron or. 14 Arg. 3 Toads Sa for _Botreux_.
15 Paly wavy or and Gu. All these are quarters on one shield with a
Viscount Coronet; the 11 first are quartered by St. John, Baronet.]

The epitaph written by Lord Bolingbroke on his wife reads as follows:
"In the same vault are interred the remains of Mary Clara des Champs
de Marcelly, Marchioness of Villette and Viscountess Bolingbroke,
born of noble family, bred in the Court of Lewes 14th. She reflected
a lustre on the former by the superior accomplishment of her mind.
She was an ornament to the latter by the amiable dignity and grace of
her behaviour. She lived the honour of her own sex, the delight and
admiration of ours. She died an object of imitation to both with all
the firmness that reason, with all the resignation that religion can
inspire, aged 74 the 18th of March, 1750."

The interior contains some interesting sepulchral monuments, among
which is one of Roubiliac in the reliefs to the memory of Viscount
Bolingbroke and his second wife, niece of Madame de Maintenon, both
lie in the family vault in St. Mary's Church. The epitaphs on himself
and his wife were both written by Bolingbroke. That upon himself is
still extant in his own handwriting in the British Museum, and is
as follows:--"Here lies Henry St. John, in the reign of Queen Anne,
Secretary of War, Secretary of State and Viscount Bolingbroke; in
the days of King George I. and King George II. something more and
better. His attachment to Queen Anne exposed him to a long and severe
persecution; he bore it with firmness of mind, he passed the latter
part of his life at home, the enemy of no national party, the friend
of no faction, distinguished under the cloud of proscription, which
had not been entirely taken off by zeal to maintain the liberty and
to restore the ancient prosperity of Great Britain." Another monument
commemorates the descent and preferments of Oliver St. John, Viscount
Grandison, who was the first of the family that settled at Battersea.
When studying the law at one of the Inn Courts, he killed in a duel the
Captain of the Guard to Queen Elizabeth and Champion of England. "In
1648, Sir John St. John was buried at Battersea with such unusual pomp
that the heralds were fluttered and commenced a prosecution against
the Executor for acting contrary to the usage of arms and the laws of
heraldry. William Riley, one of the heralds deposed 'that the funeral
of the deceased was conducted in a manner so much above his degree that
the escutcheons were more than were used at the funeral of a Duke; and
that he never saw so many persons but at the funeral of one of the
blood royal.' This burial is omitted in the register." In the south
gallery is a monument to Sir Edward Wynter, an officer in the service
of the East India Company in the reign of Charles 2nd, on which is
recorded an account of his having singly and unarmed killed a tiger,
and on foot defeated forty Moors on horseback. He appears to have
been a friendless youth but obtained his promotion by virtue of his
intelligence, courage and good conduct as the epitaph states:--

    "Born to be great in fortune as in mind,
    Too great to be within an Isle confin'd,
    Young, helpless, friendless seas unknown he tried;
    But English courage all those wants supplied.
    A pregnant wit, a painful diligence,
    Care to provide, a bounty to dispence,
    Join'd to a soul sincere, plain, open, just,
    Procur'd him friends, and friends procured him trust;
    These were his fortune's rise, and thus began
    This hardy youth, rais'd to that happy man,
    A rare example and unknown to most
    Where wealth is gain'd and conscience is not lost.
    Not less in martial honour was his name--
    Witness his actions of immortal fame!
    Alone, unarm'd a tiger[1] he oppress'd
    And crush'd to death the monster of a beast;
    Twice twenty mounted Moors he overthrew
    Singly on foot; some wounded, some he slew,
    Dispers'd the rest--what more could Samson do?
    True to his friends, a terror to his foes
    Here now in peace his honour'd bones repose."
                              _Vita Peregrinatio._

[Footnote 1: Being attacked in the woods by a tiger, he placed himself
on the side of a pond, and when the tiger flew at him, he caught him in
his arms, fell back with him into the water, got upon him, and kept him
down till he had drowned him.]

He died March 2nd, 1685-6, aged 64.

Near at hand is a monument--a small statue of a mourning female leaning
upon an urn--erected by the benevolent James Neild, in memory of his
wife Elizabeth, who died 30th of June, 1791, in her 36th year. The
epitaph states:--

    Here low in beauteous form decay'd
    My faithful wife, my love Eliza's laid;
    Graceful with ease, of sentiment refin'd,
    Her pleasing form inclos'd the purest mind!
    Round her blest peace, thy constant vigils keep
    And guard fair _innocence_ her sacred sleep,
    'Till the last trump shall wake the exulting day.
    To bloom and triumph in eternal day.
                               _Conjux Mærens Posuit._

And of her father, John Camden, Esq., whose son, John Camden Neild,
lived in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, and bequeathed to Queen Victoria the
whole of his property, £500,000.

At the east end of the north gallery is a beautiful marble monument
most elaborately sculptured sacred to the memory of Sir John Fleet,
Knt., Alderman of the City of London. He was unanimously elected Lord
Mayor of the City in 1693. He received Royal favours, and all ranks
of the greatest honour and esteem from his fellow citizens, having
been one of their representatives in Parliament thirteen years, and
constantly interested in their highest stations, in which offices
and honours he was universally applauded. He was a merchant and just
magistrate, constant to church, loyal to his Prince, and true to his
country. He was fortunate and honest, bountiful in charity a generous
benefactor and a faithful friend.--_Obit_ 6 _Julii_ 1712. _Ætat:_ 65.

Another tablet is erected to the memory of Margaret Susanna Pounsett,
wife of Henry Pounsett, Esq., of Stockwell, in this County, and eldest
daughter of Richard Rothwell, Esq., of this Parish; Alderman of the
City of London and High Sheriff of the County of Middlesex: she died on
the 22nd day of March, 1820, in the 32nd year of her age, leaving two
sons and three daughters. Her numerous amiable and exemplary qualities,
endeared her to her family in her life--Her Christian piety and
cheerful resignation alone consoled them in her death. Also of Ellen
Anne Pounsett, her second daughter, who died the 7th of December, 1834,
aged 22.

In the west gallery is a marble tablet sacred to the memory of Richard
Rothwell, Esq., Alderman and formerly High Sheriff of the City of
London, and County of Middlesex; who departed this life most deeply
regretted, July 26th, A.D. 1821, in the 60th year of his age. In the
public station which he filled of Magistrate and Sheriff, his strict
integrity, his splendid liberality, and his genuine philanthropy,
justly merited and procured the highest esteem, and warmest approbation
of his fellow citizens. In his private character he was respected
for the vigor of his mind, the solidity of his judgment, and the
uprightness of his principles, and beloved for the urbanity of his
manners, and the benevolence of his heart. In him the perplexed found
an able counsellor, and the distressed an active friend. His feelings
were tenderly alive to the important truths of religion, and while
punctual in the performance of the duties of this life he placed his
sole reliance on the merits of his Redeemer for happiness in the life
to come.

On the right-hand-side of the pathway leading towards the porch of
the Church is a grave stone at the bottom of which is the following
inscription:--"Mrs. Sarah Eleanor McFarlane, who fell by the hand of
an assassin the 29th of April, 1844, aged 46 years." This poor widow
resided in Bridge Road, and obtained a subsistence by keeping a Day
and Sunday School. The name of the murderer who deprived the life of
his victim by cutting her throat on Old Battersea Bridge, was Augustus
Dalmas, a Frenchman. This horrid crime was committed late at night. The
woman who had charge of the toll seeing the helpless condition of Mrs.
McFarlane conveyed her to the "Swan and Magpie" Tavern at the foot of
the Bridge, where she expired exclaiming "Dalmas did it!"

In the north gallery is an upright marble tablet for Sir [George]
Wombwell, Bart., of Sherwood Lodge, who died October 28th, 1846, in his
77th year.

At the east end of the south aisle is a tablet to Thomas Astle, Esq.,
F.S.A., keeper of the records in the Tower, and who wrote on "The
Origin and Progress of Writing." He left a valuable collection of
manuscripts which were deposited at Stow, the seat of his noble patron
the Marquis of Buckingham, to whom he gave by his will the option of
purchasing them at a fixed sum.

In the churchyard lies Arthur Collins, author of "The Peerage and
Baronetage of England." His grandson, David Collins, Lieutenant
Governor of New South Wales, and author of a History of the English
Settlement there. William Curtis a distinguished botanical writer,
author of the "Flora Londinensis," was buried here, January 31, 1731.

    "While living herbs shall spring profusely wild,
    So long thy works shall please dear nature's child,
    Or gardens cherish all that's sweet and gay
    So long thy memory suffer no decay."

The Countess de Morella, who lived in one of the five mansions which
gave its old name of Five House Lane to Bolingbroke Grove, has placed
a coped stone with a cross on it over the old grave of her aunt Miss
Elizabeth Hofer, in the church yard near the mortuary, and has had the
tablets of her family at the west end of the north gallery cleaned.

Mr. Poole, the Curator of the monuments in Westminster Abbey, is now
engaged in cleaning some of the mural monuments in the Church which had
become grimed with the dust of years.

In the centre of the plot in front of the portico is the family vault
of Sir Rupert George, Bart. Mr. Chadwin, one of the oldest parishioners
now living in Battersea, relates how Sir Rupert George came to select
St. Mary's Church yard as his burying place. "He was on a visit to
Lord Cremorne, at Cremorne House, on the opposite side of the Thames,
and he came over to Battersea and was so impressed with the beauty of
the view across the river that he purchased the vault as a resting
place for himself and his family. Several of his sons and daughters
are interred there, and Dr. Inglis, Bishop of Nova Scotia, the first
Colonial Bishop, was also buried in the vault of Sir Rupert George, to
whom he was fondly attached by the strongest ties of friendship and
also closely allied by marriage." The Bishop's tablet is on the wall
under the north gallery.

Charles Williams of London was an actor of some eminence at the Theatre
Royal, Drury Lane. He died in the prime of life. His mortal remains
were interred in the church yard. As a tribute of respect his funeral
was attended by the whole body of Comedians; the pall was supported by
Wilks, Griffin, the two Cibbers, and the two Mills. "There is" says
Daniel Lysons, "no memorial of his grave."

It is thought that as the former Church was built of brick that
probably it was not very ancient. A church is mentioned in Doomsday,
a most ancient record, made in the time of William 1st, surnamed the
_Conqueror_, and containing a survey of all the lands in England.
Lysons, from whom we take the liberty of making some liberal
quotations, when writing about 85 years ago, says, "The Church of
Battersea is dedicated to St. Mary; it is in the Diocese of Winchester,
and in the Deanery of Southwark, the benefice is a Vicarage. Lawrence,
Abbot of Westminster, first procured the appropriation of the great
tithes for that Abbey about the year 1156. The monks of Westminster
were to receive out of it two marks, reserving sufficient to the Vicar
to support the Episcopal burdens and himself. The Rectory was held
by John Bishop of Winchester in the time of Philip and Mary. The
principal profits of the Vicarage accrued from the gardens, which
rendered the living one of the most valuable in the neighbourhood of
London. The gardeners at Battersea paid 7s. 6d. an acre for tithes
to the Vicar. The living of Battersea is dated in the King's Book
at £13 15s. 2½d." The present living is estimated at about £1,000
with residence. "In the Valor of 1291, usually termed Pope Nicholas'
Taxation, the Rectory is valued at 26 marks and a half: the Vicarage
at £4 3s. 4d. In 1658 the Rectory was stated as worth £80 a year, and
the Vicarage at £100, and in the King's Book the Vicarage stands at
£13 15s. 2½d. Battersea was one of those parishes which in memory of
the Abbey dedicated to St. Peter, presented to the Abbot and Convent
in early times, the tithes of salmon taken in this portion of the
river. The Incumbents however of Chelsea, _Battersea_, and Wandsworth
endeavoured to shake this custom off as long ago as 1231, but failed:
the composition entered into upon the occasion may be seen in Dart's
History of Westminster Abbey."--_Ecclesiastical Topography._

"There are two terriers of Battersea in the register of Winchester
fastened together of the dates of 1619 and 1636."--_Ducarel's
Endowments of Vicarages_, (Lambeth Library). "Owen Ridley, who was
instituted to the Vicarage of Battersea, A.D. 1570, appears to have
been involved in a tedious litigation with his parishioners and to have
encountered no small degree of persecution from them. The circumstance
would not have been worth recording but for two curious petitions which
it produced, the originals of which (date of both 1593) were in the
possession of the Rev. John Gardenor, Vicar, by whom, (says Lysons)
they have been obligingly communicated. One of these is from certain
inhabitants to Dr. Swale, one of Her Majesty's High Commissioners for
crimes Ecclesiastical; in which they state many grievances which they
suffered from their Vicar during the space of eighteen years. Amongst
other crimes alleged against him is that of conversing with a Witch.
The object of their petition was, that he might be deprived. It is
signed with thirteen names and about thirty marks. The other petition,
which is to Lord Burleigh, being the more curious of the two is here
given at large. _To the Right Honourable the Lord Burleigh, Lord High
Treasurer of England._ Most humbly sheweth unto your honor, your daiely
orators, the inhabitants of Battersey, besechinge you to extend your
favor in all just causes to our mynister Mr. Ridley: (so it is right
honorable) that some have sought his deprivation, by many trobles many
years together, and in divers courts sometymes in the Archdeacon's,
sometymes by complayninge to the busshop, sometymes before the highe
Commissioners, sometymes before the Archbusshop of Canterbury, his
grace: Yea and once he hath ben edicted at the assizes. But God the
defender of the innocent, hath so protected him that his cawse beinge
tryed and knowene he hath hadd a good issue of all theis trobles;
yet the adversarie will not cease, but seeketh to deprive him of his
life, for seekinge after Witches, and procuringe the death of a man by
Witchcraft. He hath byn our Vicar theis twenty years: he is zealous in
the gospell, honest in life, painefull to teache us and to catechise
our youth; charitable and liberall to the poore and needy accordinge
to his ability, he never sued any of all his parisheoners for tythes,
althoughe he hath hadd cawse gyven by some so to doe. Of our conscience
wee take him rather to hate wytches, than to seeke after them; for he
hath spoken often very bitterly against them out of the bible, neither
doe we thinke or suspect the woman to be a witche which is accused,
but hath always lyved honestly, quietly and painefully here, to get a
poore lyvinge truly. Therefor the man being such a one, whom for his
virtues wee love, his trobles heretofore so greate, so many and so
chandgable to the undoings of himself, his wife and children, and now
so daingerous for the hope of his life, doth move us to become suitors
unto your honour for him, besechinge your honor to take notice, and to
make due triall of him and his cawse, so that the truth being fownd
owte, justice maie take place; Your honor will defend the innocent in
his innocencee, putt an end to his tonge, many wearisome and daingerous
trobles and be a patrone unto him in all his good and honest actions;
so shall we be bound to thancke God for you, and pray for you for ever.
Signed by Robert Cooke Alias Clarencieulx Roy d'Armes, Robert Claye,
preacher, and fourteen others."

"Dr. Thomas Temple, brother of Sir John Temple, the Irish Master of
the Rolls, was instituted to the Vicarage of Battersea in 1634, and
continued there during the civil wars; he was one of the ministers
appointed by Cromwell to assist the Committee for displacing ignorant
and insufficient School Masters and Ministers. He was likewise one
of the Assembly of Divines and a frequent preacher before the long
Parliament. Several of his sermons are in print. Mr. Temple was
succeeded in the Vicarage of Battersea by the learned Bishop Patrick,
who was educated at Queen's College, Cambridge, and was domestic
Chaplain to Sir Walter St. John, by whom he was presented to this
benefice. Several of his tracts were published while he was Vicar of
Battersea and are dedicated to his patron. He resigned the Vicarage in
1675. He was a zealous champion of the protestant religion, both by
his writings and in conversation, particularly at a conference which
he, in conjunction with Dr. Jane, held in the presence of James the
Second with two Roman Catholic Priests, in which he had so much the
superiority over his opponents in argument, that the King retired in
disgust, saying that he never heard a good cause so ill defended or a
bad one so well. At the Revolution he was rewarded with the Bishopric
of Chichester, and was afterwards translated to Ely. He died 1707, and
left behind him a numerous collection of printed works; consisting of
sermons, devotional and controversial tracts and paraphrases on the
Scriptures, which are held in great estimation and which were continued
by William South."

"Dr. Thomas Church, of Brazen Nose College, Oxford, who was instituted
to the Vicarage of Battersea in the year 1740, distinguished himself
much in the field of controversy in which he engaged against Westley
and Whitfield, and Middleton: for his successful attacks on the latter
and his defence of the miraculous power during the early years of
Christianity. The University of Oxford gave him the degree of D.D.
by diploma. He was too zealously attached to his religion to let the
opinions of Lord Bolingbroke pass unnoticed notwithstanding he had been
his patron. His publication on this subject however was anonymous, it
was called 'An Analysis of the Philosophical Works by the late Lord
Bolingbroke,' and came out in 1755. He died in 1756, aged 49."

"The registers of this parish begin in the year 1559, and excepting
the former part of the 18th century appear to be accurate. Dr. Church
soon after he was instituted to the Vicarage began to transcribe a
considerable part of the registers, which for many years preceding
had been kept by a very ignorant parish clerk. He proceeded so far as
to copy the whole of the baptisms, and with great industry rectified a
vast number of mistakes and supplied many deficiencies; the difficulty
of transcribing the burials of which indeed for some years there
were no notices, discouraged him from proceeding any further in this
laudable undertaking."--_Lysons._

Cases of longevity in the Parish Register: Goody Harleton, aged 108
years, buried 1703; William Abbot, 101, 1733; Wiat, 100, 1790; and
William Douse, 100, 1803. The case of Rebecca, wife of Richard Harding,
a waterman, is mentioned. She gave birth to four children, she died
in labour of the fourth child, which was still-born. The mother was
buried February 8, 1730; her three infant children, Mary, Sarah, and
Rebecca were buried the 2nd of March following. Respecting the rate of
mortality in London during the plague years, in the year 1603, 30,578
persons died of the plague. At the accession of Charles I. in 1625,
another dreadful pestilence raged in London, which carried off 35,417
persons. In the year 1665, about the beginning of May, there broke out
in London the most dreadful plague that ever infested this kingdom,
which swept away 68,596 persons, which added to the number of those
who died of other distempers, raised the bill of mortality in this
year to 97,306. And the mortality raged so violently in July, that
all houses were shut up, the streets, deserted, and scarce anything
to be seen therein but grass growing, innumerable fires for purifying
the air, coffins, pest-carts, red crosses upon doors, with the
inscription, 'Lord have mercy upon us,' and continual cries of 'pray
for us;' or the melancholy call of 'bring out your dead.' The cause
of this terrible calamity was ascribed to the importation of infected
goods from Holland where the plague had committed great ravages the
preceding year. During the whole time of its continuance there was a
great calm, for weeks together there was scarcely any wind so that it
was with difficulty that the fires in the streets could be kept burning
for want of a supply of air, and even the birds panted for breath. The
plague as is generally agreed is never bred or propagated in Britain,
but always imported from abroad, especially from the Levant, Lesser
Asia, Egypt, etc. Sydenham, an old writer, has remarked that it rarely
infects this country oftener than once in forty years--thank God we
have happily been free from it for a much longer period. There have
been various conjectures as to the nature of this dreadful distemper.
Some think that insects are the cause of it, in the same way that
they are the cause of blights. Mr. Boyle thought that it originated
from the effluvia or exhalations breathed into the atmosphere from
noxious minerals to which might be added stagnant waters and putrid
bodies of every kind. Gibbon, in his _Roman History_, 4th Edition, Vol.
IV, p. 327-332, gives a very particular account of the plague which
depopulated the earth in the time of Emperor Justinian. He thinks
that the plague was derived from damp, hot and stagnating air, and the
putrifaction of animal substances, especially locusts. The Mahometans
believe that the plague proceeds from certain spirits, or goblins,
armed with bows and arrows sent by God to punish men for their sins;
and that when the wounds are given by spectres of a black colour, they
certainly prove fatal, but not so when the arrows are shot by those
that appear white. The learned Dr. Chandler, who travelled in Asia
Minor, was of the opinion that the disease arose from animalcules which
he supposed to be invisible.

   The three Plague years.
 In 1603 the number of deaths in Battersea was 22
 "  1625 ditto                                 61
 "  1665 ditto                                 113

   Average of Births with Burials:--
 1580-1589     Births 13    Burials 7
 1680-1689         "  58       "    68
 1780-1789         "  60       "    69

In 1876 the number of births in Battersea Parish was 3459, and the
number of deaths 1751, not including the Hamlet of Penge.

The subjoined is copied from "St. Mary's Battersea Parish Magazine" for
November, 1875. "Vicars of Battersea from Olden Times. The following
extract from 'A History and Antiquities of Surrey,' begun by the Rev.
Owen Manning, enlarged and continued to the year 1814 by William Bray,
Esq., printed for White, Cochrane & Co., at Horace's Head, Fleet
Street, will be of interest.

PATRON.                  VICAR.                        INSTITUTION.

Abbot and Convent
of Westminster           Thomas de Sunbury             13 Nov. 1301
"                        William Trencheuent           21 Nov. 1306
"                        Gilbert de Swalelyve          26 Oct. 1320
"                        Richard Condray               11 Dec. 1325
"                        Thomas at Strete de
                         Cadyngton                     20 April 1328
"                        Elias de Hoggenorton          10 Aug. 1330
"                        Richard de Wolword            9 Dec. 1331
"                        William Handley               26 Nov. 1366
"                        John Gelle                    Resigned, 1370
"                        William Bakere                8 Feb. 1370-1
"                        John Colyn                    5 Oct. 1378
The King (the
temporalities
of the abbey
being in his
hands)                   Henry Green                   31 Oct. 1383
Abbot and Convent
of Westminster           Henry Walyngford              Resigned, 1394
"                        John Berewyk                  22 Oct. 1394
"                        Richard Gatyn                 12 May 1402
"                        William Comelond              Died, 1413
"                        John Smyth                    25 Aug. 1413
"                        Henry Oxyn                    Resigned, 1457
"                        John Moreys                   30 Sept. 1457
"                        Thomas Huntyngton             5 Nov. 1485
"                        John Heron                    20 April 1487
"                        Nicholas Townley              Resigned,
                                                       18 Feb. 1523-4
"                        Christopher Wylson            9 Mar. 1523-4
"                        Richard Rosse, L.L.D.         16 May 1530
"                        John Edwyn                    18 Nov. 1560
"                        Thomas Mynthorne              5 Jan. 1561
Queen Elizabeth          William Gray                  10 Mar. 1561-2
"                        Owen Ridley                   21 June 1571
Sir John St. John,
Bart.                    Thomas Temple, B.D.           21 Nov. 1634
Sir Walter St. John      Simon Patrick, D.D.[1]        1658
"                        Gervase Howe, M.A.            22 Mar. 1675-6
"                        Nathaniel Gower               20 Oct. 1701
Lord St. John            George Osborn                 4 Oct. 1727
Henry Viscount St.
John                     Thomas Church, D.D            10 Mar. 1739-40
Frederick Lord
Bolingbroke              Lilly Butler                  18 June 1757
"                        William Fraigneau             18 Mar. 1758
"                        John Gardenor[2]              Oct. 1778
The Crown[3]             Robert Eden, M.A.             1 Feb. 1835
"                        John Simon Jenkinson, M.A.    20 June 1847
Earl Spencer             John Erskine Clarke, M.A.     2 Feb. 1872

The Registers of 1345, 1366, 1415, 1446, 1492, and 1500 are lost."

[Footnote 1: The famous Bishop of Ely.]

[Footnote 2: He was many years a constant exhibitor at the Royal
Academy. In 1788 he published a set of Views on the Rhine. In 1798
was printed a Sermon preached by him before the Armed Association of
Battersea.]

[Footnote 3: The Patronage lapsed to the Crown, Dr. Allen having been
appointed Bishop of Ely, and Dr. Eden, better known as Lord Auckland,
Bishop of Sodor and Man.]

In the reign of Henry VI. Thomas Lord Stanley held possession of
a valuable estate in Battersea, which, in order to prevent its
confiscation at that troublesome period, he had conveyed to trustees
for the benefit of himself and that of Thomas his son and heir. In
December, 1460, the property was transferred by the Trustees to
Lawrence Booth, Bishop of Durham, and his heirs, and in the year
following the grant was confirmed by the two Stanleys. The futility
of this transfer was obvious for before Edward IV. had reigned eleven
years the estate had escheated to the Crown "in consequence of the
action of John Stanley, who assigned the lands and tenements in trust
to the Abbot of Westminster, in contravention of the statute of
Mortmain. The Bishop therefore had to apply to the King and on payment
of £700 he obtained a grant under Letters Patent dated July 10th, 1472,
of the property forfeited by John Stanley."

Lawrence Booth was made Bishop of Durham in 1457, he built a Mansion
Brygge Court at Battersea, and by the King's license enclosed with
walls and towers imparked his land there, with the right of warren and
free chase therein. In 1476 he was translated to the See of York. He
died in 1480 and bequeathed this property to the Dean and Chapter of
York as an occasional residence when the Archbishop visited London.
The name of York Road perpetuates this ancient occupancy. One of the
few prelates who resided here was Archbishop Holgate who was committed
to the Tower by Queen Mary in 1553 for being a married man, and lost
much property by illegal seizure. Strype, in his life of Cranmer,
relates that the officers who were sent to apprehend the Archbishop
rifled his house at Battersea and took away from thence £300 worth of
gold coin; 1,600 ounces of plate; a mitre of fine gold set with very
fine diamonds, sapphires, and balists; other good stones and pearls;
some very valuable rings, and the Archbishop's seal in silver; and his
signet, an antique in gold. It is contended that Wolsey resided at
York House, Battersea, where he was introduced to Anne Boleyne though
the interview is more commonly believed to have taken place at York
House, Whitehall; but Shakespere in his plays makes the King come
by water, and York House, Battersea, was a residence of Wolsey and
provided with a creek from the Thames for approach to the house. Sir
Edward Wynter is said to have resided at York House, whose exploits
surpassed even the heroic achievements of Lord Herbert Cherbury, who,
alone in his shirt chased a host of midnight robbers from his house.
Sir Edward Wynter's exploits have been already mentioned. The Mansion
House was considerably altered by Joseph Benwell, Esq., the occupier
who took down many of the old rooms. One of these called the painted
chamber had a dome ceiling and is said to have been the room in which
Wolsey entertained Henry VIII. with masquerades, and in which he saw
Anne Boleyne. When the floor was removed there was found under it a
chased gold ring on the side of which was inscribed "Thy virtue is thy
honour." This superbly painted room with a dome forms the back ground
of an ancient print representing the first interview of Henry VIII.
with Anne Boleyne.

There was also another large building in 1818 standing parallel with
York House but nearer the river divided into two houses, then in the
possession of F. Alver and H. Tritton, Esqrs., and noted for having a
very fine terrace in front next the Thames.

The art of transfer-printing produced from copper-plate impressions
is said to have been made at Liverpool; but Mr. Binns, F.S.A., in
his very interesting History of Worcester ware traces the claim of
transfer-printing to the Battersea Enamel Works at York House, (the
Archbishop's old palace) where Ravenet and other artists wrought in
engraving plates from which impressions were taken on enamel plaques,
etc., for snuff-boxes and other articles. The Liverpool claim to
the invention dates from 1756. Whereas Horace Walpole writes from
Strawberry Hill, six or seven miles from Battersea, to R. Bently,
September 18th, 1755; "I shall send you a trifling snuff-box only
as a sample of the new manufacture at Battersea which is done with
_Copper plates_." The Battersea Porcelain[1] Works failed and Alderman
Jansen's stock, furniture, etc., were sold by public auction, March 4,
1756. The Battersea and Chelsea wares being rarities are expensive,
particularly the former. A writer in the "Athenæum" thinks it probable
that some of the Battersea workmen found their way to Worcester and
Liverpool.

[Footnote 1: In 1518 the Portuguese obtained their settlement at
Macao, and through them Europe obtained its first specimen of china
ware. "And because the cowrie shells which represented Oriental
money, resembled as they thought, the backs of little pigs, they
called them porcellana; and because the transparent and beautiful
texture of china ware resembled that of the delicate cowrie shell, the
same name was applied to it; whence we get, it is said, our English
designation--porcelain."--_See Marratt's History of Pottery._]

The public may see some beautiful as well as curious specimens of
Battersea enamel exhibited at Kensington Museum, lent by the Hon.
W. F. B. Massey-Mainwaring. Also some bought at Mrs. Haliburton's
sale. Battersea enamel 1750-60. Blue and gold, pink and gold
candle-sticks, snuff-boxes, scent-bottles, needle-cases, handle for
a cane, tray (circular) from Dulparry with floral medallions, tazza,
Bulton's hunting subjects in brown transfer, thimble cases, etui with
implements. Battersea enamel portrait on copper, a gentleman in armour
wearing the garter, etc., etc.

Jens Wolfe, Esq., who was Danish Consul to this country, had a seat at
Battersea called Sherwood Lodge. He built a gallery 76 feet long by
25, and 30 in height in the most correct style of Doric architecture
for the reception of plaster casts purposely taken for this collection
from the most celebrated antique statues. The most remarkable of these
were those from the Fighting Gladiator and the Niobe, the Barberini
Faun, the Dying Gladiator and the Farnese Hercules. The mansion was
pleasantly situated and beautifully shaded with poplar, lime, and
sycamore trees. It was the residence of Mrs. Fitz Herbert. Sir George
Wombwell chose it as his seat and resided in it about fourteen years.
Subsequently Sir Edward Hyde East dwelt here. The stable belonging
to Sherwood Lodge still remains, also the old wooden-cased pump with
leaden spout.

[Illustration:
PRICE'S PATENT CANDLE COMPANY, BELMONT WORKS, BATTERSEA, S.W.
(_above_).
PRICE'S PATENT CANDLE COMPANY, BROMBOROUGH POOL, NEAR LIVERPOOL
(_below_).]

On the site where stood York House, Tudor Lodge, and Sherwood House,
stands a great hive of industry known as Belmont Works or Price's
Patent Candle Factory. Price's Patent Candle Company (as a private
firm) was among the earliest to apply in commercial enterprise the
discoveries of Chevreul, and has continued to hold the first place
among candle manufacturers in Great Britain; and notwithstanding the
manufacture of gas, the importation of American oils and the many
competitors for supplying light-giving material this Company makes its
way by dexterity between them. At the present time the store room of
the Belmont Factory actually contains candles of about 240 different
kinds. Until Chevreul had begun his scientific investigations in
1811, oils and fats had been regarded as simple organic substances.
On the complete publication of his discoveries in 1823, the complex
character of these bodies became extensively known. In 1829 the plan
of separating cocoa-nut oil into its solid and liquid components by
pressure, was in that year patented by Mr. James Soames of London;
this patent was purchased by Mr. William Wilson and his partner, who,
trading upon it under the title of E. Price & Co., perfected it as to
manufacturing details. In 1831 the candle manufacture in England was
set free from the excise supervision to which it had been previously
subjected. From that date then its progress became possible. After a
time, in order to carry out successfully certain enterprises which
required more capital than the Company had at their command, Mr.
Wilson's partner sold his share in the beginning of 1835 to three
capitalists. With these gentlemen as sleeping partners and with the
aid of two of his sons, Mr. Wilson continued under the name of Edward
Price & Co. to carry on the concern until it passed in 1847 into the
hands of Price's Patent Candle Company, with a capital of £500,000; of
this Company Mr. Wm. Wilson became the first Chairman, and his sons,
Mr. James P. Wilson and Mr. George F. Wilson, the two Manufacturing
Directors. It is interesting to notice that in the year 1840, while
Mr. J. P. Wilson was endeavouring to produce a cheap self-snuffing
candle for the coming illumination in honour of the marriage of Her
Majesty Queen Victoria, then about to take place, succeeded in making
such candles of a mixture of equal parts of stearic acid and cocoa-nut
stearine, they gave a brilliant light and required no snuffing.
These candles came rapidly into notice, they were named "Composite"
because of the mixture in them. Africa supplies the palm-oil which
was hitherto used almost entirely for soap-making. The imports of
palm-oil into England, which amounted to about 9,800 tons in 1840,
have for many years past exceeded 40,000 tons annually, and averaged
50,000 tons in 1871, 1872, 1873 and 1874. This increase of importation
is undoubtedly due in very great part to the use of oil in the
manufacture of candles; and it is this trade which presents to the
African chiefs and kings along the West Coast the motive that they can
best understand for the abandonment of the slave-trade, they learn
in fact, that their subjects are of more value to their rulers when
collecting palm-oil than by being sold into slavery. The cocoa-nut
oil brought from Ceylon is largely used in the factory. The palm-oil
from the Coast of Africa being converted by chemical processes into
stearine, is freed from oleic acid by enormous pressure, is liquefied
by steam, and then conveyed into the moulding machinery, by which 800
miles of wicks are continually being converted into candles. Among the
earlier operations of the new Company was the acquirement in 1848 of
the Night-Light Patent held by Mr. G. M. Clarke, and in 1849 of the
Night-Light business of Mr. Samuel Childs, and the erection of a new
factory for the purpose of carrying on this new branch of manufacture
on an extensive scale. In 1875 no less than 32½ millions of new lights
were sold by the Candle Company. Geology informs us that in the age of
the coal formation a great part of the earth's surface was covered by
a dense and tangled vegetation composed mainly of flowerless plants
growing with wonderful luxuriance in the warm damp atmosphere which
must then have prevailed--the masses of vegetable matter--the decay
of gigantic ferns sinking into the boggy soil formed peat which as
ages rolled on became converted by heat and pressure into coal. The
conditions of the earth now are so different to what they were at
that geological period that we are unable to state with certainty how
long the process must have taken to form the ancient beds of lignite
(mineral coal retaining the texture of the wood from which it was
formed) and brown coal, and the still more ancient beds or seams of
true coal. From these paraffine is extracted by chemical processes--it
is the chief material in the _Golden Medal Palmitine Candles_ (the name
given to the candles in consequence of the award to the Company at
the Paris Exhibition, 1867, and other products--the name "Palmitine"
having been given to them because of the presence of a beautifully pure
white stearine obtained from palm-oil). The paraffine thus procured
by a process of distillation yields at the same time a liquid product
affording under the name of coal oil, or petrolium, one of the cheapest
of the Company's light-giving materials. Price's Glycerine has obtained
a world-wide reputation for its purity--much of it is manufactured from
palm-oil. It was in the Company's factory that _pure_ glycerine was
first produced. The total of raw materials brought into work by the
Company in 1877 amounted to nearly 16,000 tons. The produce in the same
year was as follows;---

 Candles of all kinds                                147,000,000
 Night-lights                                         32,000,000
 Oils for Lamps, Machinery and Wool-working   gals.      990,000
 Household and Toilet Soaps                   cwts.       38,000
 Stearine and Candle-material sold in bulk    cwts.       16,000
 Glycerine of various qualities               cwts.        3,500

The year's produce of candles named above would suffice to give
the continuous light of one candle during about 84,000 years. The
Night-lights would in like manner give the continuous light of one
Night-light during about 25,000 years. In 1853 the Company took a step
of much importance. Liverpool being then as now, the place of arrival
of the largest importation of palm-oil, it was felt to be desirable
that the Company should have in or near it a second factory, prepared
to manufacture this material where it could be purchased without cost
of land carriage. The capital of the Company was therefore increased
and an estate of about 60 acres was purchased at Bromborough Pool,
near Liverpool, on which was erected the second factory with cottages.
The factory village numbers 97 houses with a population of 530. It
has its own place of worship, schools, co-operative stores, rifle
corps, and all the organization of a model village. At present this
factory employs about 320 operatives. The London Works (Battersea)
occupy an area of about 13½ acres, those at Bromborough occupy 7 acres.
The buildings are all roofed with corrugated iron so as to reduce
inflammable material to a minimum. The area covered by the roofs is
a large one, as the buildings again, with a view to safety from fire
have generally no upper floor. This area amounts to nine acres for the
two factories. The operatives number about 1,300, nearly 1,000 of whom
are employed at Battersea. Connected with each factory is a mess-room
in which the work-people can either purchase their food from the
Co-operative Society established among themselves, or can have their
own provisions cooked for them. At each factory a brief devotional
service is conducted every morning. Each factory has its reading room
and library; each maintains a corps of rifle volunteers (the two
establishments together providing about 300 efficient riflemen), and
each during the winter has its evening school for boys employed in
the Works. Bromborough enjoys an excellent recreation ground and set
of allotment gardens, but the growth of buildings about London has
precluded the London operatives from having these privileges. During
the winter months, lectures and science and art classes offer amusement
and instruction to those who desire one or the other. In each factory
a medical officer pays a daily visit, and attends to all who may be
ailing; a weekly payment of one penny from each man and a half-penny
from each boy being required in return for this privilege. On the whole
this is one of the best regulated firms in the Metropolis.

 Mr. JAMES PILLANS WILSON, _Consulting Adviser_.
 Mr. JOHN CALDERWOOD, _General Manager_.
 Mr. W. H. WITHALL, _Secretary_.
 Mr. KINGSTON GEORGE WOODHAM, _Superintendent_.
 Mr.  S. J. ROBERTS, _Chief Engineer_.
 Mr. G. CHILDS, _Superintendent Night-Light Department_.
 Mr. J. DAY, _Superintendent Bromborough Pool Works_,
 near Birkenhead.[1]

[Footnote 1: The writer has had the privilege of consulting a pamphlet
entitled "A Brief History of Price's Patent Candle Company (Limited),"
printed by Spottiswoode & Co., New Street Square, London, 1876. For
private circulation only.]

Though hour-glasses were invented at Alexandria B.C. 149, and
water-clocks about the same period, yet it does not appear that
hour-glasses and clepsydras or water-clocks were known in England
during the reign of Alfred the Great. Sun dials might be, but were of
no use from eve to morn and when the days were sunless. In order to
allot certain portions of time to particular objects, eight hours to
sleep, meals and exercise, eight to the affairs of government, and
eight to study and devotion, Alfred contrived the expedient of having
wax candles made of equal weight and twelve inches in length, with
marks upon them at regular distances. The combustion of one candle
lasted four hours, and each intermediate part, an inch in distance,
denoted a period of twenty minutes. Six of these candles lasted
twenty-four hours. The duty of tending these candles was entrusted to
one of Alfred's domestic Chaplains who had to give the Monarch notice
of their working. As currents of air rushed through the unglazed
windows and chinks in the walls of the Royal residence as to render the
combustion irregular and the register inaccurate, the ingenious King
surrounded the candles with horn and wooden frames to make them burn
steadily in all weathers.

It was a custom in olden time to conduct a sale or auction by inch
of candle. A small piece of candle being lighted the bystanders were
allowed to bid for the merchandize that was offered for sale--the
moment the candle went out the commodity was adjudged to the last
bidder.

There was also excommunication by inch of candle, when the sinner was
allowed to come to repentance while a candle continued to burn; but
after it was consumed he remained excommunicated to all intents and
purposes.

CANDLEMAS, a feast of the Romish Church, celebrated on the 2nd of
February, in honour of the purification of the Virgin Mary. It is
borrowed from the practice of the ancient Christians, who on that day
used abundance of lights both in their churches and processions, in
memory as is supposed of our Saviour's being on that day declared by
Simeon "to be a light to lighten the Gentiles." In imitation of this
custom, the Roman Catholics on this day consecrate all the tapers and
candles which they use in their churches during the whole year. At
Rome, the Pope performs that ceremony himself; and distributes wax
candles to the Cardinals and others, who carry them in procession
through the Great Halls of the Vatican or Pope's Palace. This ceremony
was prohibited in England by an Order of Council in the year 1548.

Some writers affirm that Candlemas was first instituted by Pope
Gelasius I. in 492. "The Romans were in the habit of burning candles on
this day to the goddess Februa, the mother of Mars; and Pope Sergius
seeing it would be useless to prohibit a practice of so long standing
turned it to Christian account by enjoining a similar offering of
candles to the Virgin. The candles were supposed to have the effect
of frightening the devil and all evil spirits away from the persons
who carried them, or from the houses in which they were placed." It
is evident that the numerous superstitious notions and observances
connected with candles and other lights in all countries had a remote
origin, and may be considered as relics of the once universally
prevalent worship of the sun and of fire, for mankind had so far
forgotten the One living and true God as to worship the creature
instead of the Creator who is God over all blessed for evermore.

A bright spark at the candle denotes that the party directly opposite
is to receive a letter. Windy weather is prophesied from the waving of
the flames without (apparent) cause, and wet weather if the wick does
not light readily. There is a tradition in most parts of Europe to the
effect that a fine Candlemas portends a severe winter. In Scotland the
prognostication is expressed in the following distich:--

    "If Candlemas is fair and clear
    There'll be twa winters in the year."

It is said that condemned criminals making the _amende honorable_ at
the church doors were constrained to bear in their hands a wax taper
of six pounds weight. That it is only thirty-two years since a woman
convicted of the offence of brawling in church, stood, by sentence of
the Ecclesiastical Court, in a white sheet and with a candle in her
hand, _coram publico_, in a church in Devonshire. By the superstitious
in olden times in England the rescued parts of Candlemas tapers were
supposed to possess supernatural virtues. "Candlemas Bleeze" was until
recently, a bonfire festival still observed in sequestered parts of
Scotland. A "winding sheet," a "thief" in the candle, etc., were
regarded as evil omens, and anxious fears excited if suddenly a hollow
cinder were ejected from the fire to know whether it resembled a cradle
or a coffin!

About a century ago London was so infested with gangs of highwaymen
that it was dangerous to go out after dusk. In 1705 an Act of Common
Council was passed for regulating the nightly watch of the City. A
number of strong able-bodied men had to be provided by each Ward. Every
person occupying any shop, house or warehouse had either to watch in
person or pay an able-bodied man to be appointed thereto. Watchmen were
provided with lanterns and candles and armed with halberts; to watch
from nine in the evening till seven in the morning from Michaelmas to
the first of April, and from ten till five from the first of April till
Michaelmas. Thus they went their nightly rounds calling "Lantern and a
candle! Hang out your Lights!" for during dark nights a certain number
of householders in each street had to hang out lanterns with a whole
candle, and the Watchman thundered at the door of those delinquents who
neglected to do so. The total number of Watchmen appointed by this Act
was 583.

Facing Price's Candle Factory was a field which was rented by the
Company and used as a cricket ground for their employés. Queen's
Terrace and streets adjacent now cover this portion of land.

Among the State Papers is a letter dated August 22, 1580, from
Archbishop Sandys to John Wickliffe, keeper of his house at Battersey,
in which he directs him to deliver up the house to the Lords of the
Council so that it might be turned into a prison for obstinate papists.
During the Commonwealth, York House was sold to Sir Allen Apsley and
Colonel Hutchinson for the sum of £1,806 3s. 6d., but it was reclaimed
by the See after the Restoration.

Brayley in his History of Surrey says, "Besides this Mansion (near
York House) there are several handsome seats fronting the river and
various large manufacturing establishments, Chemical works, and
melting furnaces, etc. are extensive along its banks, greatly to the
annoyance of the market gardeners and florists who complain grievously
of the injury they sustain by the smoke and noxious vapours of the
numerous steam engines now employed in this hitherto rural district.
The establishment here for the preservation of timber from the dry
rot, called _Kyanizing_ from the name of its inventor, was destroyed
by fire on the 20th of March, 1847; and the conflagration extended
to other neighbouring works. The process was carried on by forcing
tar through the pores of the wood, and here was a large pond of that
fluid, the blaze of which set fire to immense piles of timber which had
either undergone the process, or were in a state of preparation for
it."--_Brayley, Surrey Mantel_, _Vol. iii. P._ 447.

A very useful thing is that dentated instrument called the _Saw_. Pliny
says that the saw was invented by Dædalus. According to Apollodolus
Talus invented the saw. Talus it is said having found the jaw-bone of
a snake employed it to cut through a piece of wood and then formed
an instrument of iron like it. Saw-mills were erected in Madeira in
1420. At Bresdan in 1427. Norway had the first saw-mills in 1530. The
Bishop of Ely Ambassador from Mary of England in the escort of Rome
describes a saw-mill there 1555. The attempts to introduce saw-mills
into England were violently opposed, and one invented by a Dutchman in
1663 was forced to be abandoned. Saw-mills were erected near London
about 1770. The excellent saw machinery at Woolwich Dockyard is based
upon the invention of the Elder Brunel, 1806-13. Sir Mark Isambard
Brunel was the son of a Normandy farmer, and born at Hacqueville, near
Rouen, on the 25th of April, 1769. He early shewed an inclination for
mechanics, and at school preferred the study of the exact sciences to
the classics. In 1786, he became a sailor in the French Navy. In the
revolutionary period of 1793, having involved himself by his political
opinions he escaped from Paris to the United States. Brunel's career as
an engineer began 1794 when he was appointed to survey for the Canal
which now connects Lake Champlain with the river Hudson, at Albany. He
afterwards acted as an architect in New York. On his return to Europe
in 1799, he married the daughter of William Kingdom, Esq., Plymouth,
and settled in England. Here he soon established his reputation as a
mechanician by the invention of a machine for making block pulleys
for the rigging of ships. The erection of steam saw-mills in Chatham
Dockyard, a machine for making seamless shoes for the army, machines
for making nails and wooden boxes, for rolling paper and twisting
cotton hanks, and lastly a machine for producing locomotion by means
of Carbonic acid gas, which however though partially successful was
afterwards abandoned. "But the great work by which his name will be
transmitted to posterity is the Thames Tunnel which, though almost a
complete failure as a commercial transaction is nevertheless a wondrous
monument of engineering skill and enterprise. It was commenced in
March, 1825, and opened to the public in 1843, after a multitude of
obstacles and disasters." He held extensive premises at Battersea on
the site now occupied by the Citizen Steam-boat Company, where his
celebrated saw and veneer mills were burned down about the year 1814.
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1814; was appointed
Vice-President in 1832. He was Knighted in 1840. Died Dec. 1849, in his
eighty first year, universally respected.

Sir Richard Phillips, who had an opportunity of inspecting Brunel's
machinery at Battersea, eulogizes his fame and speaks of his merits and
scientific genius thus:--"A few yards from the toll-gate of the Bridge
on the western side of the road stand the workshops of that eminent,
modest, and persevering mechanic Mr. Brunel, a gentleman of the rarest
genius who has effected as much for the mechanic arts as any man of
his time. The wonderful apparatus in the Dockyard at Portsmouth with
which he sets blocks for the navy, with a precision and expedition
that astonish every beholder, secures him a monument of fame and
eclipses all rivalry." At Battersea Works Sir Richard witnessed four
circular saws, two of them 18-ft. in diameter and two of them 9-ft.
in diameter, besides other circular saws much smaller used for the
purpose of separating veneers. He saw planks of mahogany and rosewood
sawn into veneers the 16th of an inch thick. By the power that turned
those tremendous saws he beheld a large sheet of veneer 10-ft. long by
2-ft. broad separated in ten minutes "so even and so uniform that it
appeared more like a perfect work of nature than one of human art." In
another building Sir Richard was shown Mr. Brunel's manufactory for
shoes, where the labour was sub-divided so that each shoe passed by
aid of machinery through twenty-five hands complete from the hide as
supplied by the currier. By this means a hundred pairs of strong and
well-finished shoes were made per day. He remarks, "each man performs
but one step in the process, which implies no knowledge of what is
done by those who go before or follow him. The persons employed are
not shoemakers, but wounded soldiers, who are able to learn their
respective duties in a few hours. The contract at which these shoes are
delivered to Government is 6s. 6d. per pair, being at least 2s. less
than were paid previously for an unequalled and cobbled article." The
shoes thus made for the Army were tried for two years but afterwards
abandoned from economical views.

Sir Richard Phillips in his "Morning Walk from London to Kew" (page
42) says, "at the distance of a hundred yards from Battersea Bridge
an extensive pile of massy brick work for the manufacture of soap has
recently been erected, at a cost it is said of sixty thousand pounds. I
was told it was inaccessible to strangers and therefore was obliged to
content myself with viewing it at a distance." This soap factory stood
by the water side, a little to the east of the Bridge, erected by Mr.
Cleaver. There were some large turpentine works in this parish, which
belonged to Mr. Flocton.

Battersea has three bridges across the Thames communicating with
Chelsea.

The history of the Ferry prior to the erection of the OLD WOODEN BRIDGE
at Battersea can be traced back some two or three centuries. It was
much used as a means of transporting passengers, goods, etc., over
this part of the river. At the commencement of the reign of James I.
the Ferry from Battersea to Chelsea or Chelchehith Ferry was in full
operation. When James I. ascended the throne "by Letters Patent for the
sum of £40, the King gave his dear relations Thomas Earl of Lincoln,
and John Eldred and Robert Henley, Esquires, all the ferry across the
river Thames called Chelchehith Ferry, or Chelsea Ferry." In addition
to which some grants of land were included and the Grantees were
empowered to transfer their rights to "our very illustrious subject
William Blake." In 1618 the Earl of Lincoln, who owned Sir Thomas
More's house in Chelsea which Sir Thomas More had purchased from Sir
Robert Cecil, sold the ferry to William Blake. In 1695 it belonged
to one Bartholomew Nutt. The ferry appears to have been rated in the
parish books in 1710 at £8 per annum. Between the year 1765 and 1771
the ferry produced an average rental of £42 per annum. Sir Walter St.
John by virtue of his manorial rights held possession of the ferry,
at his death in 1708, the ferry with the rest of the property went to
his son Henry, who died in 1742 having left the family estate to his
son Henry the famous Viscount Bolingbroke, at whose death in 1751,
in consequence of his having no issue or progeny of his own, the
estates with the title descended to his nephew Frederick (son of his
half-brother, John Viscount St. John) who obtained an Act of Parliament
in 1762 to sell his estate, which, as we have already observed, was
purchased in 1763 by the Trustees of John, Earl Spencer. Earl Spencer
being anxious to replace the ferry with a bridge, in 1766 obtained an
Act of Parliament which empowered him to build the present bridge.
The bridge is in Battersea and Chelsea Parishes (the marks defining
the boundary line of these Parishes meet in the centre) it was not
to be rated to the land tax, or any public or parochial rate; nor
deemed a County bridge, so as to subject the Counties of Surrey and
Middlesex to repair the same. In the event of any casualty occurring
to the bridge thereby rendering it "dangerous and impracticable" the
Earl had to provide a convenient ferry at the same rate of tolls as
the bridge. Some old writers who have written on the Antiquities and
History of Surrey, state that the bridge was built at the expense of
fifteen proprietors each of whom subscribed £1,500. Mr. Walford says
in 1771, "Lord Spencer associated with himself seventeen gentlemen,
each of whom was to pay £100 as a consideration for the fifteenth share
of the ferry and all the advantages conferred on the Earl by the Act
of 1766. They were also made responsible for a future payment of £900
each towards the construction of a bridge. A contract was entered into
with Messrs. Phillips and Holland to build the bridge for £10,500. The
work was at once commenced, and by the end of 1771 it was opened for
foot passengers and in the following year it was available for carriage
traffic. Money had to be laid out for the formation of approach roads,
so that at the end of 1773 the total amount expended was £15,662. For
many years the proprietors realized only a small return upon their
capital, repairs and improvements absorbing nearly all the receipts. In
the severe winter of 1795 considerable damage was done to the bridge by
reason of the accumulated ice becoming attached to the (timber) piles
and drawing them on the rise of the tide, and in the last three years
of the eighteenth century no dividends were distributed." The bridge
is 726 feet long and 24 feet wide. It originally had 19 openings, the
centre opening had a space of 31 feet, and the others decreased in
width equally on each side to 16 feet at the ends, but in consequence
of the serious hindrances which the structure caused to navigation
on the Thames within the last few years the bridge has undergone
alterations in order to widen the water-way, four of the openings have
been converted into two and strong iron girders have been introduced.
The centre opening is now 75 feet wide with a clear head-way of 15
feet at Trinity High Water Mark. In 1799 only one side of the bridge
was lighted with oil lamps. "In 1821 the dangerous wooden railing was
replaced by a hand rail of iron, and in 1824 the bridge was lighted
with gas the pipes being brought over from Chelsea although Battersea
remained unlighted for several years afterwards." In the year 1878, the
bridge, which had hitherto remained in the hands of the descendants or
friends of the original proprietors came into the possession of the
Albert Bridge Company under their Act of Incorporation. Its revenues
in 1792 were about £1,700. About nine years ago its yearly income was
estimated at £5,000.

Battersea Bridge Tolls by Act of Parliament 6° George III. 1766.

For every description of vehicle drawn by one horse,
ass, mule or other beast                                    4d.

"                                         two               6d.

"                                         three             9d.

"                                         four              1s.

For every horse, ass mule or other beast laden and
not drawing                                                 1d.

For every hackney carriage with plates returning
empty per horse                                             1d.

For every foot-passenger whatever                           ½d.

For every drove of oxen or neat cattle per score           l0d.
and after that rate in any greater or less number.

For every drove of calves, hogs, sheep or lambs per
score                                                       5d.
and after that rate in any greater or less number.

On a Notice Board dated 6th October, 1824, are the following words:
"Notice is hereby given that no trucks, wheelbarrows or other carriages
will be permitted to be drawn upon the foot-paths of this bridge. By
order of the Proprietors."

The Bridge though convenient has an unsightly appearance and unworthy
its position across a river spanned by some of the finest bridges
in the world. At the foot of the Old Bridge is a toll-house with
walls twenty inches in thickness, facing which is a painted board
with charges for tolls headed "Old Battersea Bridge Tolls by Act of
Parliament 6° George III., 1766."

ALBERT SUSPENSION BRIDGE, conceived originally many years ago by the
Prince Consort, it was not until 1864 that an Act for its construction
was obtained. Although the works were commenced soon after the
necessary powers were conferred upon the Company, they were retarded
by the action of the Metropolitan Board of Works. That body proposed
to embank the river from Pimlico to Battersea Bridge, Chelsea; the
execution of that work would involve questions affecting the bridge
level and approaches. Not until 1867 did the Board obtain their Act,
and not until the Autumn of 1870 did their engineer determine the open
question affecting the approaches and levels of the Albert Bridge. In
the mean-time the powers of the Bridge Act expired, but were revived
on application to Parliament on condition that the bridge should be
constructed on Mr. Ordish's rigid suspension principle. This principle
is now generally well known, it having been carried out in practice
on several instances, notably in that of the Francis Joseph Bridge
at Prague, which is 820 feet long and has a centre span of 492 feet,
and two side spans of 164 feet each. The Ordish system consists in
suspending the main girders which carry the road-way by straight
inclined chains, which are maintained in their proper position by being
suspended by vertical rods at intervals of 20 feet from a steel iron
cable. The total length of the Albert Bridge is 710 feet and 41 feet
in width between the parapets, which are formed of the main girders,
which are of wrought iron 8 feet deep and continuous; the upper portion
is perforated in order to lighten and improve the structure. The main
girders are connected transversely by cross girders placed 8 feet
apart, on these the planking is laid for the carriage road-way, which
is formed of blocks of wood placed with the grain vertically on the
planking. The roadway is 27 feet in width. On either side is a foot-way
7 feet wide, paved with diamond-shaped slabs of Ransome stone 12 inches
square and 1½ inches thick, laid on the planking with a layer of tar
and asphalted felt interposed. The slabs in the centre of the footpath
are of a grey color with an ornamental border. The four towers carrying
the main chains of the bridge are placed outside the parapet girders;
they are placed in pairs, each pair being connected at a height of 60
feet from the platform level by an ornamental iron work. The towers are
of cast-iron and consist each of an inner column 4 feet in external
diameter, and surrounded by eight 12-inch octagonal columns placed
12 inches from the central shaft, the whole group being connected
together at intervals by disc pieces of collars of cast-iron. The
straight chains are composed of rolled iron bars, united end to end by
riveted joints and having swelled heads only at the extreme ends. The
curved cable from which the straight chains are suspended to preserve
their equilibrium is of steel wire and is 6 inches in diameter. It is
composed of a series of strands of straight wires, about 900 in number,
bound together by a coiled wire of smaller diameter. The bridge is
divided into a centre with two side openings, the former a span of 400
feet, and the latter 155 feet each. There is a clear headway of 21
feet at the centre of the bridge from the under side of the platform
to Trinity high water mark, the height being reduced to 10 feet at the
abutments. The piers carrying the four towers are formed of cast-iron
cylinders sunk down to the London clay and filled with concrete. The
foundations of the piers consist also of cast-iron cylinders, the
bottom or cutting ring being 21 feet in diameter, 4 feet 6 inches high
and 1 3/8 inches thick. The next ring above this is 5 feet high and
tapers from 21 feet at its junction with the cutting ring to 15 feet
at the top, from which point the pier is constructed with cylinders
15 feet in diameter up to the level at which the towers commence. The
thickness of the metal in the coned and upper rings is 1¼ inch. The
bottom or cutting rings are noticeable as being the largest cylindrical
castings ever made in one piece. One of the chief peculiarities in
the Albert Bridge is the method introduced by Mr. Ordish in forming
the anchorage. The arrangement is perfectly independent of the great
mass of masonry generally employed in anchorages the anchorages being
contained within an iron structure. It consists of a cast-iron cylinder
20 feet 6 inches deep and 3 feet internal diameter enlarged at the
bottom into a chamber 5 feet diameter for anchoring the chains. The
cylinder is water-tight, and is provided with a manhole and steps, so
that the anchorage can be examined at any time, and cleaned and painted
when necessary. This cylinder is set vertically in a surrounding bed
of concrete, the bottom being 26 feet below the road-way bed. From
this proceeds a vertical anchorage chain, connected to the end of
the main girder, to which is also connected the principal back chain
and the wire cable. The horizontal strain is thus taken through the
main girders and the vertical lift by the mass of concrete in which
the cylinder is embedded, and which is about one-tenth the quantity
required in ordinary anchorages. The bridge commands an extensive and
picturesque prospect, having on the one hand Battersea Park and on the
other the Thames Embankment. Messrs. Williamson and Company were the
contractors for the bridge and Mr. F. W. Bryant was their engineer. The
cylinders for the piers were cast by Messrs. Robinson and Cottam, of
Battersea; the cast and wrought iron work for the superstructure was
supplied by Messrs. A. Handyside and Company of Derby and London, and
the steel wire cables by the Cardigan Iron and Steel Works, Sheffield.
There are twenty upright lampposts in keeping with the character of
the bridge each bearing a lamp. One rather taller than the rest stands
in the middle of the road approaching the bridge, at the base of
which toll-bars are swung on iron hinges to obstruct the carriages,
the others are placed at certain distances apart opposite each other
on either side of the pathways. There are also four small lodges at
which to receive carriage and foot tolls. The bridge was opened 31st
December, 1872, at 1 p.m.; re-opened the 23rd of August, 1873, at
12.30 p.m. Estimated cost of bridge with approaches, etc., etc., about
£90,000. Battersea Old Bridge belongs to the Albert Bridge Company.

Off Park Road, Battersea, is an antique cottage, the birthplace and
residence of Mr. Juer, who for several years discharged the duties of
Overseer and other Parochial offices in a manner creditable to himself
and highly satisfactory to the parishioners. From family records he has
been able to trace that his ancestors have occupied this dwelling for
the last three centuries. Mr. Juer died Nov. 30, and was interred Dec.
6, 1878, in the family vault in St. Mary's Church-yard, where there had
been no burial for 25 years. Canon Clarke read the burial service, and
many of the old parishioners were present who respected the memory of
the deceased.

CHELSEA SUSPENSION BRIDGE is an elegant structure on the suspension
principle, (from the site of Ranelagh to Battersea Park): it measures
347 feet between the towers and 705 between the abutments. It was
made at Edinburgh and erected in 1857 after designs by the late Mr.
Thomas Page, the architect of the New Bridge at Westminster, at
a cost of £85,319. It was opened on the 28th of March, 1858. The
roadway is suspended upon chains, which hang from two massive and
ornamental piers in the river, the ends being firmly secured by solid
masonry on the shores. On a portion of the iron-work of the beautiful
arches connecting the towers of this magnificent bridge, beneath
the escutcheon representing the Royal Standard, are emblazoned the
following Latin inscriptions in old German characters:--_Anno Regni
Vicesimo Victoria, Anno Domini_, 1857, _Gloria Deo in Excelsis_. The
large globular lamps at the top of the piers are lighted only when the
Queen sleeps in London.

Tolls paid for passing over this Bridge were:--

For every foot-passenger                                    ½d.

For every description of vehicle drawn by one horse
and other beast of draught                                  2d.

For each and every additional horse or other beast
drawing                                                     1d.

For every horse, mule or ass not drawing                    1d.

For every wheelbarrow or truck not drawn by any
horse or other beast                                        1d.

For every score of oxen or neat cattle and so in
proportion for any greater or less number                   8d.

For every score calves, sheep or lambs, and so in
proportion for any greater or less number                   4d.

Hackney coaches and licensed cabs without passengers, waggons, carts
and drays unladen with two or more horses, to pass over the bridge upon
payment of half the above toll. And all post chaise returning without
passengers and return post horses, to pass over the bridge free. By
virtue of an Act of Parliament 9th and 10th Victoria, cap. 39. By order
of the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Works and Public Buildings, 1858.
Office of Works, 12, Whitehall Place, Westminster.

Londoners may congratulate themselves that they are at last allowed to
cross the bridges which connect the opposite banks of the Thames at the
western end of this great city without paying toll. The Metropolitan
Board of Works have expended £538,847 19s. in freeing these five
bridges--viz.: Lambeth Bridge, £36,059; Vauxhall Bridge, £255,230 16s.
8d.; Albert and Battersea Bridges, (including Parliamentary costs),
£170,305; Albert Bridge Company (taxed costs of arbitration), £2,253
3s. 1d.; Chelsea Bridge, £75,000. On Saturday, the 24th of May, 1879,
Her Majesty Queen Victoria's birthday was appropriately chosen for
the occasion and great preparations had been made for giving _éclat_
to the ceremony. The route taken by the Royal Party (which included
the Prince and Princess of Wales--two of their children, Prince
Albert Victor and Prince George of Wales, attired in naval costume
as naval cadets; the Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh, the Crown Prince
of Denmark) which was gay with Venetian masts, bannerets, streamers
and flags. The Circular Engine Shed in Victoria Bridge Road and that
portion of the railway bridge which spans the Thames belonging to
the London, Brighton and South-Coast Railway Company were lavishly
festooned and decorated with coloured flags most profusely. Shortly
after 3 p.m. came three open carriages each drawn by two horses and the
well-known scarlet livery of the Court Mews on the hammer-cloths. At
the south side of Lambeth Bridge the Prince was received by Sir James
M'Garel Hogg, M.P., Chairman of the Board of Works; the Archbishop of
Canterbury, Lord Middleton, Sir Henry Peek, Sir James Lawrence, M.P.,
Mr. Alderman McArthur, M.P., Mr. Selway, M.P., Mr. Coope, M.P., and
other notabilities. The keys having been surrendered with the customary
formalities, a Royal salute having been fired from the banks of the
river and the bands having played the National Anthem, Mr. J. M. Clabon
handed the Prince of Wales an address, folded and tied with green
tape, after a moment's parley His Royal Highness with a smile and an
approving nod of the head from the Princess, who was by express wish a
joint participator with the Heir Apparent in the ceremony of opening
the bridge, handed back the address asking that it might be read as
he wished to reply, then Sir James M'Garel Hogg untying the tape and
unfolding the address read as follows:--

 "To their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales. May
 it please your Royal Highness--It is with great gratification that
 we, the Chairman and Members of the Metropolitan Board of Works,
 receive your Royal Highnesses on the occasion of your opening free
 to the public the five bridges over the Thames, from Lambeth Bridge
 on the east to Battersea Bridge on the west, which serve to connect
 important districts on the two sides of the river. London, which in
 many respects stands at the head of the great cities of the world, has
 too long, we fear, in the matter of free passage across the river,
 been behind the capitals of other countries. Until to-day there has
 been no free bridge in the metropolis westward of Westminster by which
 the population north and south of the Thames could pass from one
 side of the river to the other. We are glad that this reproach will
 now be removed. The bridges which your Royal Highnesses are about to
 declare free have been acquired by the board under the powers of an
 Act of Parliament passed in the year 1877, which had for its object
 the extinction of the tolls on all the bridges in London. Waterloo
 Bridge and the Charing-cross Railway Footbridge have already been made
 free. The tolls will this day be extinguished on five other bridges,
 and before the end of the year it is hoped that there will be none
 but free bridges over the Thames throughout the metropolitan area.
 The metropolis and its inhabitants have received many proofs of the
 interest which your Royal Highnesses feel in their welfare, and of
 the encouragement which you are always ready to give to those who are
 engaged in promoting that welfare. Your presence upon this occasion
 is a further proof of the interest you feel, and we offer your Royal
 Highnesses our sincere thanks for the honour you have done us.

 Signed, on behalf of the Metropolitan Board of Works,

 J. M. M'GAREL HOGG, Chairman of the Board,

 May 24, 1879.

The Prince of Wales spoke in reply as follows:

 Sir James Hogg and Gentlemen--I thank you in my own name and that
 of the Princess of Wales for your address, and I can assure you
 that it gives us both sincere pleasure to take a part in this day's
 proceedings. The opening of the five bridges westward of Westminster
 is an important event in the annals of the metropolis, and I rejoice
 that you should have chosen the Queen's Birthday to declare them free.
 It is a source of great gratification to us to hear your announcement
 that the other bridges will, before long, be equally open to the
 public. A free communication across the Thames is an incalculable boon
 to all classes of the inhabitants on both sides of the river, and it
 is our earnest hope that you will be enabled to carry your promised
 work into effect within the specified time. Let me state in conclusion
 that the Princess and myself are always ready to assist in advancing
 any object which identifies us with the population of London, and
 which tends to promote the interests of the public. The Prince then,
 amidst loud cheers, exclaimed, 'I declare this bridge open and free
 for ever.'"

Twenty carriages were devoted to the Members of Parliament, Members
of the Metropolitan Board and the Officials the twentieth containing
Sir James M'Garel Hogg and some ladies and following this came the
three Royal carriages. The route being kept clear of traffic and
the spectators massed in lines along side by the police--some 1600
were on duty--the arrangements south side of the bridges being in
charge of Captain Braynes, while on the north side Colonel Pearson
had the directions. His Royal Highness proceeded by way of the Albert
Embankment to Vauxhall Bridge, the approach to which was exceedingly
picturesque the banks of the Thames fluttering with flags, and the
river crowded with boats that followed the _cortège_. The procession
crossed and re-crossed Chelsea Suspension Bridge. In the London,
Brighton and South-Coast Railway West-end Goods Traffic Yard a Royal
salute was given on the arrival of the Prince by the crushing weight
of a locomotive named Rennes, No. 130, passing over twenty-one fog
signals, an arrangement previously made by Mr. J. Richardson, the
effect of which gave general satisfaction. The west side of the
Victoria Railway Bridge which spans the Thames was elegantly decorated
from one end to the other by the London, Brighton and South-Coast
Railway Company. Festoons and tri-coloured flags representing the
colours used for signals on railways were voluntarily displayed in such
profusion by Messrs. J. Richardson and Everest as to render the scene
quite imposing. In front of Chelsea Hospital were drawn up two hundred
warriors of olden times, pensioners in their beaver cocked hats who
knowing more about "Brown Bess than the Martini rifle managed to do a
salute with tolerable precision." The people assembled in Battersea
Park made a rush for Albert Bridge as the procession approached that
graceful structure. The Albert Bridge Company was represented by Mr.
Ewing Matheson, the Chairman; Mr. Youngman, Manager; Mr. A. C. Harper,
Secretary, and Mr. Frederick Stanley, Solicitor. (The Countess of
Cadogan presented the Princess of Wales and the Duchess of Edinburgh
with handsome bouquets on behalf of the ladies of Chelsea. Button holes
of a very choice nature were also presented to the Prince of Wales
and the Duke.) Mr. Kingsbury, Chairman of the Chelsea Vestry, had the
honour of presenting a silver medal commemorative of the occasion to
the Prince of Wales which was graciously accepted. At the north side
of the bridge were drawn up the boys of the Duke of York Asylum; at
the south side the children of the local schools, all singing with as
much gusto as their little lungs would allow "God bless the Prince of
Wales." The Pier Hotel and the houses facing the Albert Bridge were
gaily and handsomely decorated with flags of all nations, and the
balconies at the corner of Cheyne Walk being filled with ladies arrayed
in summer toilets, thus lending an additional charm to the _mise en
scène_. The military display consisted of guards of honour from the
1st Middlesex Engineer Volunteers and the 2nd (South) Middlesex Rifle
Volunteers. The keys of the Albert Bridge were handed over on behalf
of the Company by Messrs. Matheson and Stanley and a device swung
across the bridge denoting that the latter was "free for ever." On the
Chelsea side Mr. Stayton was the designer of the festivities. Passing
along the Surrey side of the river the Prince made for Old Battersea
Bridge the last of the five to be opened. Here the Surrey Volunteers
and the Surrey Artillery mustered in force, and a Salvo of Artillery
from the Citizen Steamboat Company announced that the bridge was free.
At the approach to the Bridge in Bridge Road stands of evergreens were
most tastefully arranged by the employés of Messrs. H. and G. Neal
the well-known Nurserymen of Wandsworth Common. At no point in the
line of route were greater demonstrations of joy expressed and loyalty
manifested than by the Battersea people.

The Royal party returned to Marlborough House---the other carriages
then went to Chelsea Vestry Hall where a banquet was served, and at
night there was a display of fireworks at Battersea Park supplied by
the Crystal Palace Pyrotechnists, T. Brock & Co., the expense being
borne by Earl Cadogan to wind up the eventful day's proceedings.

At the foot of Chelsea Suspension Bridge a board is erected on which
is written the following: _Notice, Metropolitan Board of Works. No
Traction Engine, Steam Roller, or any load exceeding_ 5 _tons on each
pair of wheels, must be taken over this bridge. By order of J. E.
Wakefield, Clerk to the Board, May,_ 1879.

Shortly after the freeing of the bridges the "bars" were removed, and
the old toll house at the foot of Battersea Bridge entirely demolished.

The stupendous Railway Bridge across the Thames at Battersea from
Battersea Park Railway Pier to Grosvenor Road Station is said to be
_the Widest Railway Bridge in the World_. It consists of four arches
each one hundred and seventy-five feet span in the clear, with a rise
of seventeen feet six inches. The immense ribs which support the
superstructure are formed throughout of wrought iron, and are firmly
attached to massive cast-iron standards which are placed over the
piers; the whole of the frame-work is thus made continuous throughout.
On each side of the river is a land arch of seventy feet span, making
the entire length of the bridge eight hundred and forty feet. The
abutments were put in by means of coffer-dams, and the foundations are
carried down thirty feet below Trinity high-water mark. The piers are
built upon the same principle as that which was first applied by the
late Charles Fox to the building of the Bridge at Rochester, Charing
Cross, and Cannon Street, Railway Bridges. The bridge was first erected
by Mr. J. Fowler. In 1865-6 it was enlarged by the late Sir Charles Fox.

Some antiquarians have stated that about fifty yards westward of
Chelsea Suspension Bridge, Cæsar and his legions crossed the river
Thames by a ford when in pursuit of the Britons who were retreating
from the Romans. The ford is described at low water as a shoal of
gravel not more than three feet deep, sufficient for ten men to walk
abreast, except on the Surrey side where it has been deepened by
raising ballast, and the causeway from the South bank may yet be traced
at low water. Others think that the place of crossing was higher up the
river, either at Chertsey or Kingston; the latter was anciently called
Moreford, or the Great Ford. However, landing at Deal, it is natural
the Romans would cross the river at some ford nearest that point.[1]

[Footnote 1: The distance of Chertsey (Surrey) from London is about
nineteen miles. Here, says Camden, Julius Cæsar crossed the Thames
when he first attempted the conquest of Britain; but Mr. Gough, in
his addition to the "Britannia," has advanced some arguments against
this opinion. The passage some believe to have been effected at Coway
Stakes, about a quarter of a mile below Chertsey Bridge, where Julius
Cæsar crossed the Thames when he led the Roman army into the kingdom
of Cassivellaunus, who had encamped his forces on the opposite shore.
The Britons did everything in their power to prevent the Romans from
crossing by driving stakes into the bed of the river and fencing the
banks with wooden palisades. Obstacles of this kind were lightly
estimated by the bold legionaries. The cavalry at once entered the
river; the infantry crossed with their heads only above water, and
panic-struck at the sight of Roman intrepidity, the barbarian warriors
fled from their post without an effort to maintain it. Bede, who lived
in the beginning of the eighth century, tells us, that some of the
stakes were then to be seen, and were as big as a man's thigh. Mr.
Milner says some of these stakes have been found at a recent period,
hard as ebony, each being the body of a young oak tree.]

We would suggest that the next Monolith brought to this country from
the land of the Ptolemys or Cæsars be erected on this spot, similar to
that of Cleopatra's Needle on the Victoria Embankment.

Watermen and others who navigate the river have observed how very
shallow the water is at this spot. Sir Richard Phillips says "the event
was pregnant with such consequences to the fortune of these Islands,
that the spot deserves the record of a monument; which ought to be
preserved from age to age, as long as the veneration due to antiquity
is cherished among us. Who could then have contemplated that the folly
of Roman ambition would be the means of introducing arts among the
semi-barbarous Britons, which in eighteen hundred and forty years or
after the lapse of nearly sixty generations, would qualify Britain
to become mistress of Imperial Rome; while one country would become
as exalted, and the other be so debased, that the event would excite
little attention, and be deemed but of secondary importance? Possibly
after another sixty generations, the posterity of the savage tribes
near Sierra-Leone, or New Holland may arbitrate the fate of London, or
of Britain, as an affair of equal indifference."[1]

[Footnote 1: "A Morning's Walk from London to Kew," by Sir Richard
Phillips, pp. 26-27, published 1817.]

We shall not attempt to speculate as to what is within the range of
human possibilities knowing as all history teaches us how transient is
the glory of sublunary things. We believe that while England is true
to herself and true to God such a state of things concerning Britain
as that depicted by Sir Richard will never be realised. The overthrow
of dynasties, of nations and of empires is the result of moral
degeneracy--the effect of national and individual sins. "Righteousness
exalteth a nation but sin is a reproach to any people. By the Almighty
who doeth according to His will in the armies of heaven and among the
inhabitants of the earth, kings reign and princes decree justice, He
putteth down one and setteth up another." However, while reading the
fore-mentioned quotation we were forcibly reminded of Macaulay's New
Zealander sitting upon a broken arch of London Bridge contemplating
o'er the desolation of England's chief city, or some other traveller
from the Antipodes who shall stand on the broken arches of Westminster
Bridge, and gazing on a horizon of ruin, cry "Here stood the Metropolis
of a Mighty Empire!"

Many years ago a person wrote a note to the Rev. John Brand, Secretary
to the Antiquarian Society, to say that as he was passing through
Battersea Fields he saw some labourers dig up a leaden coffin, in which
was a skeleton and near it there were three more human skeletons. There
is no date but it is addressed to Mr. Brand, at Northumberland House,
which he left about 1795.

About sixty-five years ago there was a house situated in the middle
of Battersea Fields which remained for a long time uninhabited on
account of the strange and weird stories related and circulated about
it. Ignorant and uneducated people said it was "haunted." Nobody would
live in it. At midnight "lights" it was said were to be seen "flitting
about the rooms," and "dismal groans of one in extremes, at the point
to die" were to be heard, and so many believed in "old bogies" and
tales of "hobgoblins" so their minds pictured the most frightful
and hideous spectres imaginable. At length the house like other old
buildings in the neighbourhood was demolished. The Rev. John Kirk, who
wrote a Biography of the Mother of the Wesleys, says: "The legendary
literature of the world teems with wonderful stories of haunted houses
where invisible spirits were believed to utter mysterious sounds, to
perform extraordinary pranks, and sometimes communicate revelations
of the future, or disclose the dread secrets of the hidden world.
These beliefs though strongest and most prevalent where the Gospel
is unknown or least influential, are not peculiar to generations 'of
old time' or to any particular nation under heaven." Certainly the
present generation do not appear to have improved much more than
their forefathers in this respect when there is so much nonsensical
talk about communicating with the invisible world by means of "spirit
rappings," "table turnings," etc. Surely the age when men shall give
heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons has come!

Battersea Fields, within the Manor along the Thames, were long notable
as a marshy tract producing a great variety of indigenous plants; and
were the scene on March 21st, 1829, of the duel between the Duke of
Wellington and Lord Winchelsea.[1] Battersea Fields were reputed as
a place for duelling and prize-fights but are now partly disposed in
a fine Public Park, and partly covered with streets and buildings. A
lane from Nine Elms past Tuggy's Mill and Rock's Tea Gardens, by the
poplar trees led to the Red House which faced the river near the foot
of the South side of Chelsea Suspension Bridge since erected. Here in
front was a tall flag-staff with flag waving in the breeze on which
were letters denoting the sign of the house. Seats and ale-benches,
embowered with clusters of elm trees with wide-spreading branches
overhead, were placed for the accommodation of persons who resorted
thither for refreshment. The space here embanked and enclosed with
an iron palisade formed a kind of jetty, divided in the centre by a
flight of steps from the river as well as having a flight of steps
at both ends where watermen landed their passengers or took up their
fares. There was a ferry here to the "White House" on the opposite
side of the Thames. The "Red House" was built of red bricks with white
pointings, wide but not high in elevation. It had one story above the
basement with slanted slated roof, and contained in all fourteen rooms.
Each of the windows on the ground-floor had wooden shutters hung on
hinges painted green, which, when closed or folded, fastened inside
with bolts. The windows did not project from the general face of the
building except the refreshment bar and the upstairs dining room.
This apartment and the long room adjoining commanded an extensive and
pleasant prospect of the river. A large lamp, supported by means of
an iron branch fastened to the wall, projected over the middle door.
The Royal Humane Society's drags were always kept here in readiness in
case of emergency, and notice was written on a board suspended outside
the west end of the house to that effect. The gardens were laid out in
small arbours decorated with Flemish and other paintings and fancifully
formed flower-beds. In the centre of the garden was a fish-pond; the
walks were prettily disposed; at the end of the principal one was a
painting, the perspective rendered the walk in appearance much longer
than it really was. The shooting ground was about 120 yards square,
and inclosed by palings. Beyond the east end of the house was situated
a range of "boxes" or alcoves--seven in number--which at night were
illuminated with oil-lamps. Each "box" had a table in the centre
with seats all round so that twelve persons could sit inside very
comfortably. Of a morning several of the Guards were in the habit of
arriving here by water from Whitehall stairs to enjoy their "Flounder
breakfast" at ten o'clock. And certain noblemen dignified with their
presence and patronage the annual "Sucking Pig Dinner," which generally
took place in the month of August.

[Footnote 1: The Roman Catholic Emancipation Bill passed the Commons
by a majority of 320 to 142, March 30, and was carried on the third
reading in the Lords by 313 to 104, April 10. The Bill met with
determined opposition from the Marquis of Winchelsea who said some
things which the Duke regarded as a personal insult. This led to the
hostile meeting at Battersea Fields. It was fashionable in those days
for gentlemen to settle their friendly differences with a yard of cold
steel or a bullet from the muzzle of a pistol--happily as the result
of this duel no blood was shed--the Duke with a directed aim sent a
bullet through the hat of Winchelsea, whereupon the Marquis fired his
pistol in the air, advanced towards the Duke and made an apology, the
Duke of Wellington politely bowed to his political antagonist and then
separated. Wellington Road, near Battersea Bridge, marks the locality
and derives its name from this circumstance.]

Mr. Wright, who at one time was proprietor of the "Red House," had a
Raven that he called "Gyp" that used to talk. Sometimes as if hailing
a waterman from the river the bird would cry out "boat ahoy!" "What's
o'clock? what's o'clock?" it would hurriedly repeat as if anxious to
know the hour. At another time "Gyp" would call "Rock! over!" "Over!"
as if to intimate that somebody requested to be ferried over to the
other side. Many a scull has been deceived by the mimic cries of this
black-feathered rascal. One day Rock the ferryman was so irritated,
having been twice deceived that day by the call of "Gyp," that he
took up a quart pewter pot and threw it at his head. "Gyp" narrowly
escaped uninjured. Mr. Wright remonstrated and said he would not have
the bird hurt at any price. The raven was deliciously fond of picking
bones. On one occasion a gentleman accidentally dropped his spectacles;
presently, on looking up, he discovered his lost property in the beak
of the raven perched on a bough with all the gravity of a sexton. "Gyp"
had an incurable antipathy to dogs. If perchance a dog passed by, in an
instant he would pounce upon its back, hold on by his claws and peck
at it most unmercifully, while the dog thus attacked ran away yelping
and howling. When dislodged, "Gyp's" pinions bore him swiftly away from
the reach of the teeth of his canine adversary. "Gyp" was of a jealous
disposition and did not like to see other birds petted. He has been
known to kill a magpie and a raven. It was dangerous to put money down
in the presence of "Gyp" for "Gyp" had the propensity of picking it
up and of flying away with it. On one occasion he seized a sovereign
which a customer put down. As "Gyp" had several hiding places where he
deposited "stolen articles," as spoons, knives, forks, etc., diligent
search was made but the valuable coin was never discovered. The last
account we heard of "Gyp" was that he was taken down to Shropshire and
that the poor bird died. Mr. W. Puttick, to whom we are indebted for
some curious pieces of information, says, "One of the notabilities at
the Red House beside the Raven whose bites I have often experienced was
a half-witted man who went by the name of 'Billy' the nutman. He used
to carry a bag of nuts and a dial, people paid a penny and turned a
hand and had nuts for their money. I have often seen this man stand in
the water and let the pigeon shooters shoot at him for a few pence, his
gesticulations and grotesque movements at the same time exciting from
the spectators shouts and roars of laughter."

Mr. Wright took the house of Mr. Swaine, but after Mr. Wright left, the
house was taken by a man of the name of Ireland.

James Rock, a respectable ferryman and lighterman, whose house was hard
by, was accidentally drowned in the river Thames, August, 1874. His
son, George Rock, is now Pier-master at Battersea Park Railway Pier.

The "Red House" was famed for aquatic sports. Adjoining the premises
were grounds for pigeon and sparrow-shooting, and the performance of
athletic feats. Pigeons were there sold to be shot at, at 15s. per
dozen; starlings at 4s., and sparrows at 2s. The place attained a
notoriety not surpassed by the number of excursionists who in summer
visit Rye House. Subsequently the Red House with its shooting ground
and adjacent premises was purchased by the Government for £10,000.

"The Old House at Home" was a small thatched hut, kept by Farmer
Hall, where beer was sold direct from the cask, to be drunken on
the premises. It answered the six-fold purpose of shop, dormitory,
fowl-house, pig-sty, stable and cow-shed. Within this hovel were
gathered pigs, fowls, cats, dogs, singing-birds, ducks, cows, horses
and donkeys, which, together with the landlord and his customers who
regaled themselves here, constituted a "happy family!" This was a
famous place for "egg flip," which consisted of new-laid eggs taken
from the hens' nests, beat up in hot ale or porter, sweetened with
sugar, and sold to persons who preferred roaming about at mid-night or
in the small hours of the morning.

On the Lammas land, in the summer months, gipsies pitched their
encampments. On Sundays the place presented the aspect of a pleasure
fair, lawlessness, Sabbath desecration, immorality, and vice
were rampant. At length the place became a scandal and a public
disgrace, and even now, notwithstanding the vast improvements in the
neighbourhood, Battersea, as a Parish, to a certain extent is ignored,
and persons would no more have smiled at Battersea Park being called
Lambeth Park than they do now at Clapham Junction being called by that
misnomer, and so with other parts of the parish. A great boon was
conferred upon the inhabitants of the South-west of London when this
infamous locality was converted into a public park. The intolerable
nuisance complained of did not take place previously to the year 1835,
after Lord Spencer's first sale when the land fell into the hands of
small proprietors. Irrespective of social propriety, public decency
and order, horse-racing, donkey-riding, fortune-telling, gambling,
cock-shying, swings, roundabouts, boxing, and all the paraphernalia
of a pleasure fair with its concomitant evils were the constant
scenes witnessed here on Sundays. Mr. Thomas Kirk (now Curate of St.
George's) who was for many years a Missionary in Battersea, in his
report published in the "London City Mission Magazine," September
1, 1870, states, "that which made this part of Battersea Fields so
notorious was the gaming, sporting, and pleasure-grounds at the 'Red
House' and 'Balloon' public-houses, and Sunday fairs, held throughout
the Summer months. These have been the places of resort of hundreds
and thousands, from royalty and nobility down to the poorest pauper
and the meanest beggar. And surely if ever there was a place out of
hell which surpassed Sodom and Gomorrah in ungodliness and abomination
this was it. Here the worst men and the vilest of the human race seemed
to try to outvie each other in wicked deeds. I have gone to this sad
spot on the afternoon and evening of the Lord's day, when there have
been from 60 to 120 horses and donkeys racing, foot-racing, walking
matches, flying boats, flying horses, roundabouts, theatres, comic
actors, shameless dancers, conjurers, fortune-tellers, gamblers of
every description, drinking booths, stalls, hawkers, and vendors of
all kinds of articles. It would take a more graphic pen than mine to
describe the mingled shouts and noises and the unmentionable doings of
this pandemonium on earth. I once asked the pierman 'how many people
were landed on Sunday from that pier?' He told me that according to
the weather, he had landed from 10,000 to 15,000 people! This influx
was besides that by the various land roads by which hundreds of
thousands used to come, till the numbers have sometimes been computed
at 40,000 and 50,000." Mr. Thomas Cubitt, in 1843, suggested to Her
Majesty's Commission for Improving the Metropolis the advisability
of laying Battersea Fields out as pleasure-grounds, and this design
was subsequently pressed upon their attention by the Hon. and Rev.
Robert John Eden. An Act of Parliament passed in 1846 empowered Her
Majesty's Commissioners of Woods to form a Royal Park in Battersea
Fields. Acts to enlarge their powers were passed in 1848, 1851 and
1853, by which a Commission, incorporated as the Battersea Park
Commission was appointed with power to sell, demise or lease lands not
required for the park. Mr. (afterwards Sir) James Pennethorne's plan
was approved, by which 320 acres were to be enclosed at an estimated
cost of £154,250. The fields were entirely overflowed by the river at
high water, until about three hundred years ago when an embankment
was raised, and the land reclaimed.[1] Brayley referring to this
period says, "The land reclaimed went to the Lord of the Manor, but
was subject to some ill-defined rights of inter-commonage exercised
by the inhabitants of Battersea at stated periods of the year. From
various causes these rights have been nearly extinguished and most
of the land is now held by different proprietors, and partly let for
building and other uses." Wild flowers grew abundantly in Battersea
Fields.[2] A learned botanist in the last century compiled a flora
of Battersea, and many of the plants that luxuriated in these fields
were not to be met with elsewhere, except at places much farther from
London. Its surface was raised by a million cubic yards of earth
from various sources, particularly from the London Docks (Victoria)
Extension. The Park comprises 198 acres, was purchased at a cost of
£246,517, and laid out in 1852-58 at a further cost of £66,373. In 1857
planting was commenced. Up to this period the works had been executed
under Mr. Pennethorne, Architect of the Office of Works, when the late
Mr. Farrow was appointed to take charge and complete the unfinished
works. The park has a grass surface of nearly 66 acres. About 40 acres
are set apart for cricket and croquet. There are two match grounds,
which, together, admit of seven matches being played at the same time.
On these grounds between 600 and 700 matches are played annually. The
spaces are assigned by ballot. There is a practice-ground for organized
adult cricket clubs, on which from 70 to 90 cricket clubs practice on
different days; and a general practice ground, appropriated to schools
and junior clubs, and the public generally. The season for cricket is
from 1st May to 30th September. Other large spaces are used for the
drill and exercise of troops stationed at Chelsea Barracks. Various
volunteer corps as also the district police are drilled here. The park
contains one of the richest collections of shrubs and trees in or near
London. Its soil is specially suited to the rose, so that visitors who
take delight in the queen of the English garden resort to the rosery.

[Footnote 1: It was a miserable swamp, said to have been gained for
the parish of Battersea by the act of charitably burying a drowned man
there who had been refused sepulture in the adjoining parish. This act
was held in a subsequent law-suit to prove a right of ownership, and
thus a good deed was amply recompensed.

On the northern side of the river Thames is conspicuously situated
that grand national asylum for decayed and maimed soldiers known as
Chelsea Hospital. This Hospital was begun by Charles II., carried on by
James II., and completed by William III. in 1690. The first projector
of Chelsea Hospital was Stephen Fox, grandfather to the Hon. Charles
Fox. "He could not abear," he said "to see these soldiers, who had
ventured their lives, and spent their strength in the service of their
country, reduced to beg." And with the munificence of a philanthropist,
he subscribed £13,000 towards the establishment of the Hospital. It
was built by Sir Christopher Wren, at a cost of £150,000, on the site
of an old theological college escheated to the Crown. In 1850 there
were 70,000 _out_ and 539 _in pensioners_. The body of the Duke of
Wellington lay here in state 10-17 Nov., 1852. Ranelagh Gardens lay
at the northern foot of Vauxhall Bridge, a portion now forming the
pleasure-grounds of Chelsea Hospital, and were formerly the gardens
of Lord Ranelagh's Mansion. They were opened 1733. The amusement were
masquerades, illuminated and day-light fêtes, dancing, music, and
promenading, which was continued until the end of the century. The
grand rotundo, which somewhat resembled the Pantheon of Rome, had
an external diameter 185 feet, the internal 150. It was taken down
in 1805. In Cheyne Walk was a famous Coffee-House, first opened in
1695, by one Salter a barber, who drew the attention of the public
by the eccentricity of his conduct, and furnished his house with a
large collection of natural and other curiosities. Admiral Munden and
other officers who had been much on the Coast of Spain enriched it
with many curiosities and gave the owner the name of Don Saltero, by
which he is mentioned more than once in the "Tatler," particularly
in No. 34. This coffee-house was frequented by Richard Cromwell and
many of the wits and authors of that day. "The Folly," a gilded barge
where music and dancing and other amusements delighted the beaux and
belles of the day of the Restoration, was moored in the Thames not far
from the Modern Cremorne. Adjoining Chelsea Hospital is the Physic
Garden belonging to the Company of Apothecaries, which was enriched
with a great variety of plants, both indigenous and exotic, and given
in 1721 by Sir Hans Sloane, Bart., on condition of their paying a
quit-rent of £5, and delivering annually to the Royal Society fifty
specimens of different sorts of plants of the growth of this garden
till the number amounted to 2,000. In 1733 the Company erected a marble
statue of the donor, by Rysbrack, in the centre of the garden, the
front of which was conspicuously marked toward the river by two noble
cedars of Lebanon, the first ever planted in England, of which only
one remains. Sir Hans Sloane was born at Killileagh in the north of
Ireland, in 1660, of Scottish extraction. He retired at the age of
eighty to Chelsea, to enjoy a peaceful tranquillity, the remains of
a well-spent life. He died Jan. 11, 1752. He published the "History
of Jamaica" in 2 vols. folio. In the churchyard is the monument of
Sir Hans Sloane, Bart., founder of the British Museum; and on the
south-west corner of the church is affixed a mural monument to the
memory of Dr. Edward Chamberlayne, with a punning Latin epitaph, which
for its quaintness, may detain the reader's attention. In the church
is a still more curious Latin epitaph on his daughter; from which we
learn, that, on the 30th of June, 1690, she fought, in men's clothing,
six hours against the French, on board a fire-ship under the command
of her brother. The Chelsea Embankment extends along the north bank of
the river from Chelsea Hospital to Albert Suspension Bridge; it was
opened 9th May, 1874, by the Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh, Lieut.
Col. Sir James Magnaghten Hogg, M.P., Chairman of the Metropolitan
Board of Works; Sir Joseph Bazalgette, C.B., Engineer. A beautiful
view of Chelsea Embankment with its adjacent buildings may be had from
the broad Boulevard running along the river-side in Battersea Park;
including the lofty spire of St. Luke's Church, Old Chelsea Church,
the Gardens of the Apothecaries' Company, the fine old trees and
picturesque Dutch-like houses of Cheyne Walk, the Gardens and Buildings
of Chelsea Hospital, the New Barracks beyond, and the lofty Pumping
Station and Tower near Grosvenor Road Station.]

[Footnote 2: We are acquainted with an aged gentleman well skilled in
medical botany who in the early part of his professional experience
used to have gathered certain choice herbs for therapeutic purposes
which grew abundantly in this locality.

The following are the names of some of the indigenous plants:--

_Circea intetiana_--Enchanter's Night Shade (in the lane from the
fields to the Prince's Head, Battersea, uncommon in shady lanes).
_Valeriana dioica_--Small Marsh Valerian. _Fedia olitoria_--Corn
Salad (dry banks Battersea Fields and Lavender Sweep). _Panicum
Vertiullatum_--Rough Panic Grass (rare). _P. Viride_--Green Panic
Grass (near the Red House and Nine Elms). _P. Crusgalli_--Loose
Panic Grass (near the footpath). _Bromus diandrus_--Upright Annual
Broom Grass (rare, on an old wall near Battersea Church). _Avena
flavescens_--Yellow Oat-Grass (not common, in the footpath from
Battersea Bridge to Lavender Hill). _Myosotis palustris_--Great
Water Scorpion Grass or, Forget me not, (ditches and marshy grounds;
plentiful in Battersea Fields). An elegant plant, the emblem of
affection among the Germans. _Lithospermum arvense_--Corn Gromwell,
(Battersea Cornfields; not common). _Primula vulgaris_--Primrose. _P.
Veris_--Cowslip (Fields on Lavender Hill). _Hottonia palustris_--Water
Violet, (plentiful in Latchmere). _Scirpus Triqueter_--Triangular Club
Rush, rare, (Banks of the Thames between Vauxhall and Battersea).
_Lysimachia vulgaris_--Great Yellow Loose Strife. _Samolus
valerandi_--(Brook weed, Water Pimpernel). _Chenopodium bonus
Henricus_--English Mercury. _C. olidum_--Fetid Goosefoot, (rare).
_Cicuta Virosa_--Water Hemlock, (deadly poison to men and cattle).
_Conium Maculatum_--Common Hemlock, (a very dangerous plant). _Œnanthe
fistulosa_--Water Dropwort. _Œ. crocata_--Hemlock Water Dropwort,
(deadly poison to men and cattle). _Œ. Phellandrium_--Fine-leaved Water
Dropwort, (a very poisonous plant). _Smymium Olusatrum_--Alexanders,
(waste grounds near old houses). _Ornithogalum umbellatum_--Star
of Bethlehem. _Rumex Sanguineus_--Blood-veined Dock, (rare,
bank of a ditch on Lavender Hill, between the Nursery and the
footpath). _R. pulcher_--Fiddle Dock. _R. palustris_--Yellow
Marsh Dock. _R. Hydrolapathum_--Great Water Dock. _Triglochin
palustre_-- Marsh Arrow Grass. _Alisma plantago_--Water
Plantain, (ponds and marshes). _Polygonum Bistorta_--Bistort,
or Snake Weed. _Butomus umbellatus_--Flowering Rush. _Saxifraga
granulata_--White Saxifrage. _S. Tridactylites_--Rue-leaved
Saxifrage. _Sedum reflexum_--Reflex Yellow Stonecrop. _Lychnis flos
Cuculi_--Meadow Lychnis. _Chelidonium majus_--Celandine. _Papaver
dubium_--Long Smooth-headed Poppy. _Stratiotes aloides_--Water
Aloe. _Thalictrum flavum_--Common Meadow Rue. _Nepeta Cataria_--Cat
Mint. _Lamium incisum_--Cut-leaved dead Nettle. _Scutellaria
galericulata_--Common Scull Cap. _Prunella vulgaris_--Self
Heal. _Pedicularis palustris_--Tall Red Rattle. _Antirrhinum
Cymbalaria_--Joy-leaved Snapdragon. _A. spurium_--Round-leaved
Fluellin or Snapdragon. _A. orontium_--Lesser Snapdragon, (Cornfields,
etc., Battersea Fields). _Cochlearia armoracia_--Horse Raddish.
_Nasturtum amphibium_--Amphibious Yellow Cress. _Sisyonbrium
irio_--Broad Hedge Mustard. _S. sophia_--Fine-leaved Hedge Mustard.
_Erysimum Cheiranthoides_--Worm-seed Treacle Mustard. _Geranium
pratense_--Blue Meadow Crane's Bill. _G. Robertianum_--Herb Robert.
_G. Lucidum_--Shining Crane's Bill. _G. pyrenaicum_--Perennial
Dove's-foot Crane's Bill. _G. rotundifolium_--Soft Round-leaved
Crane's Bill, (by the road side near the Prince's Head, Battersea).
_Malva rotundifolia_--Dwarf Mallow. _Lathyrus aphaca_--Yellow
Vetching. _Ervum hirsutum_--Hairy Tare, (Osier ground near Battersea).
_Trifolium fragiferum_--Strawberry-headed Trefoil. _Hypericum
humifusum_--Trailing St. John's Wort. _H. pulchrum_--Small upright St.
John's Wort. _Tragnopogon pratensis_--Yellow Goat's Beard. _Cichorium
Intybus_--Wild Endive; or, Succory. _Onopordum Acanthium_--Common
Cotton Thistle. _Bidens cernua_--Nodding Bur-Marygold. _Tusslago
Petasites_--Butter Bur. _Orchis morio_ and _maculata_ are said to have
been found in Battersea Meadows. _Listera ovata_--Common Twayblade.
_Typha augustifolia_--Lesser Cat's Tail; or, Reedmace. _Sparganium
ramosum_--Branched Bur-Reed. _Carex dioica_--Common Separate-headed
Carex. _C. remota_--Remote Carex. _C. riparia_--Common Bank Carex.
_Sagittaria sagittifolia_--Arrow Head. _Mercurialis annua_--Annual
Mercury. _Equisetum limosum_--Smooth naked Horsetail.

See a catalogue of the rarer species of indigenous plants which have
been observed growing in the vicinity of Clapham; systematically
arranged according to their class and order, with a reference to
the figures in English Botany, printed in a deeply interesting work
entitled "Clapham and its Environs," by David Batten.]

The Sub-tropical Garden opened in August, 1864, is nearly four acres in
extent. It is situated at the head of the ornamental water surrounded
by sloping banks, parterres and rolling lawns. In this region flourish
palms, tree-ferns, plants with large leaves, gigantic grasses, and the
climbers and creepers of Equatorial forests and jungles. India-rubber
trees, castor-oil plants, Japanese honeysuckle, Chinese privet, the
banana of Abyssinia recalling the expedition to Magdala; the papyrus
plant of Egypt, the veritable bulrush of the Nile, the beautiful
scarlet foliage of the dragon's blood tree from South America, the
large-leaved tobacco plant, the caladium esculentum from the West
Indies, the neottopteris australis etc., besides a variety of other
vegetable forms from the tropics. Eastward of the Sub-tropical Garden
is situated the Peninsula, containing some of the choicest combinations
of floral work, resembling in pattern the most exquisite tapestry.
The Alpine point gives a miniature representation of the valleys and
mountain-peaks of Alpine scenery. Several little hills are so arranged
as to show in miniature the ascending zones of vegetation, beginning
with the low warm plains with palms, and leading up to snow-clad
heights. The snow is represented by gnaphalium tementosum. The lake,
rocks, waterfalls and landscapes are truly picturesque, being so
arranged as to produce the most pleasing effect.

The ornamental water covers 23 acres of ground, with an average depth
of 2½ feet. Ornithological specimens of the web-footed class afford
sport for the aged as well as for the young who feed the aquatic birds
with cake, biscuit and crumbs of bread. Besides a large colony of
Moorhens that have settled down in these friendly waters may be seen
Chinese, Egyptian and Barnacle geese, and Carolina and Muscovy ducks;
also

    "The Swan, with arch'd neck
    Between her white wings mantling proudly, rows
    Her state with oary feet"

The lark, the linnet, the thrush, the black-bird join in chorus to fill
the air with their bird-song. At night passers-by are charmed with the
sweet, rich mellow notes of

    "The merry nightingale,
    That crowds, and hurries, and precipitates,
    With fast thick warble his delicious notes,
    As if he were fearful that an April night
    Would be too short for him to utter forth
        His love chant."
                         _Coleridge._

It may not be uninteresting for the naturalist to know that larva of
the goat moth (_cossus ligniperda_) inhabits poplars and willows in
Battersea Park. This park too is considered famous for the congregation
of vast flocks of starlings just before their migration.

Boating here is a safe and enjoyable amusement. Skiffs are one shilling
per hour, party boats eighteenpence. In Winter, when the water is
frozen over, it is quite an area for skaters.

The lake is an artificial one, and is fed partly from the Thames and
partly by a steam engine fixed for the purpose of supplying the park
with water for the lodges, drinking-fountains, roads, flower-beds, etc.

The Gymnasium is in the South-western portion of the park. On the
adjacent sward Sunday and other schools may hold their annual treats.
In the space thus appropriated preaching is allowed and public meetings
are permitted.

Nearly at the centre of the Peninsula there is a reservoir which is
excavated below the level of the neighbouring springs. The water from
this self-supplied source is as clear as crystal; it is pumped into an
elevated tank above the engine house which holds 20,000 gallons, from
which are laid service pipes for the supply of the park.

The avenue occupies a central position of the park; the trees are the
English elm. This affords an enjoyable and shady promenade.

The horse ride or equestrian road, about forty feet wide, nearly
encircles the park and is almost two miles in length. Here is also an
excellent carriage drive separate from the latter by a row of young
plane trees. There are numerous seats in the park for the accommodation
of the public. Situated in the centre of the park is a band-stand. The
band plays in the Summer and Autumnal months for the entertainment of
those who are fond of instrumental music.

There are two refreshment rooms where light refreshments can be
obtained at moderate prices. The lodges too are appropriated to the
public and offer refreshments and cloak-rooms.

The advantage of a river frontage possessed by Battersea Park is shown
by the fact that upwards of 12,000 persons have landed at the Park Pier
on fine Summer days. On Sundays, when Chelsea Bridge is free, in fine
weather, 40,000 or 50,000 people have been in the park.

The public owe a tribute of grateful respect to the late Mr. John
Gibson, of Surrey Lane, whose acquaintance with horticulture and the
science of botany was something considerable, who for about fifteen
years was Park Superintendent. That gentleman went on a Botanical
Mission to India for and at the expense of the Duke of Devonshire. The
manner in which portions of the park are disposed was from designs
originally his own. The new rock work is by Mr. Pulham, of Broxbourne.
Mr. Alexander Rogers is at present Park Superintendent; Mr. E. W.
Partridge, Inspector. There are twelve Park Constables, viz., Mr. J.
Cook, South-east Lodge; J. Hawkins, South Lodge; Edwin Ashby, West
Lodge; George Weedon, Charles Page, William Jones, James Powell,
J. Pointer, George Dicks, W. Sheppard, Isaac Chamberlain, William
Withers, Mr. Dowly, Foreman of the Gardeners. On an average about forty
gardeners are employed in the park. The park is under the Commissioners
of Works, No. 12, Whitehall.[1]

[Footnote 1: On Battersea Park Embankment, near where the Albert Bridge
now spans the river, lies like some ancient ruin the beautiful Portico
of Burlington House. It was when removed from Piccadilly in 1868 to
have been re-erected in the Park.]

The park was opened March 28th, 1858.

In 1862 the Royal Agricultural Society of England held their Annual
Show in Battersea Park.

Recently some beautiful villas in Queen Anne's style have been built in
Albert road.

Opposite the Western gate a site has been chosen for the erection of a
Chapel-of-Ease to St. Mary's.

At the angle facing the South-western gate two stately mansions have
recently been erected contiguous to each other, called Lancaster Tower
and Strathedon House.

The two Circular Engine sheds, about 90 yards in diameter, belonging
to the London, Brighton and South-Coast Railway Company, adjacent to
the East-end of the Park, Victoria Road, built about seven years since,
show a marked difference to the small wooden shed they erected some
eighteen years ago when they had convenience for only four engines.
The present sheds are very soundly built, and can accommodate 56
engines which work from the end of the line, there being 63 engines
at work when there is no extra traffic, which is not very often the
case. The locomotive staff numbers upwards of 300 hands, the major
part being drivers, firemen, and cleaners, who muster 200. They have
every facility for doing work required in a prompt manner. There is an
engine-hoist which will lift an engine of forty or more tons in a very
short time. The break-down van stands in one of the sheds ready at a
moment's notice for any casualty that might happen. This is fitted up
with hydraulic apparatus and every appliance for getting engines and
other vehicles on the line quickly. The method of coaling engines is
very good. Half-ton trolleys are loaded out of the trucks of coal,
which can be moved with ease by one man on the iron-plated coal stage,
from which it is shot on the tender of the engine; so that one man can
in a few minutes put one or two tons of coal on a tender. Three hundred
tons of coal are kept in stock, and the weekly consumption is about
five hundred tons. The sheds are remarkably clean, being constantly
whitewashed, and the engines, which are kept clean and fresh painted,
to use a figurative expression, are perfect pictures. The passenger
engines are a light brown color and the goods engines are a dark green.
The offices attached to the sheds are at the entrance in one of the
railway arches, and suit in every way the requirements of the place,
and when inside one would hardly think it was only a railway arch.
Other arches have been fitted up as work-shops for the mechanics, and
another arch is entirely appropriated for the stores. Also an arch has
been utilized so as to form a comfortable mess-room for enginemen and
firemen, with cooking apparatus, lockers, and lavatory; adjoining which
is a room similarly fitted up for the engine cleaners. Although these
works are fraught with many dangers, it is rarely that any serious
casualty occurs. District Loco. Superintendent, Albany Richardson,
Esq.; Assistant Superintendent, Mr. John Richardson.

There are two gauges known as the Stephenson or narrow gauge, 4-ft.
8½-in., and the broad gauge 7 feet between the rails introduced by the
younger Brunel on the Great Western Railway.

The locomotives on the Brighton and South-Coast Railway are constructed
for the narrow gauge. The "Kensington," No. 205, belonging to the
London, Brighton and South-Coast Railway Company, is a four-wheel
coupled engine, designed by W. Stroudley, Esq., Locomotive Engineer.
Diameter of cylinders, 17 inches; stroke, 24 inches; diameter of
driving and trailing wheels, 6 feet 6 inches; leading wheel, 4 feet 3
inches; wheel base, 16 feet 3 inches; number of tubes, 260; diameter of
ditto outside, 1½ inch; length of ditto, 10 feet 11¾ inches; area of
fire-grate, 10.25 square feet; pressure of steam, 140 lbs. per square
inch; tube surface, 1,125 square feet; fire-box surface, 112 feet;
total surface, 1,237. The total weight of this class of engine and
tender when loaded is about 50 tons, and will convey a load of 236 tons
at a speed of 40 miles an hour.

This class of engine was constructed for running the express traffic,
which in the season is very heavy on this line. Cost of engine about
£2500.

"A pint of water is converted into two hundred and sixteen gallons
of steam by two ounces of coal, and has sufficient power to lift
thirty-seven tons; the steam thus produced has a pressure equal to that
of common atmospheric air. By allowing it to expand, by virtue of its
elasticity a further mechanical force may be obtained, at least equal
in amount to the former. A pint of water therefore, and two ounces of
coal are thus rendered capable of raising seventy-four tons a foot
high. Two hundred feet of steam can be condensed in one second by four
ounces of water, and their expansive power reduced to one-fifth."

The first person who sought to apply the expansive force of steam as
a motive power to machinery was an Egyptian, Hero of Alexandria, who
lived about 15 years before Christ.

In the year 1543, Basco de Garay, a Spanish captain, astonished the
world by asserting that he would propel a vessel without sails or oars.
The Emperor Charles V. ordered the experiment to be made, and on the
17th of June a vessel called the "Trinity," of 200 tons burden was
moved by wheels turned by steam at the rate of two leagues in three
hours. To Spain belongs the honour of having invented the first steam
vessel.

In the annals of the steam-engine are enumerated the names of Solomon
de Caus, Giovanni Branci (1629). Edward Somerset, (1698). Newcomen,
Cawley, Humphrey Potter (an engine boy), and Smeaton. But it is to
the master spirit and inventive genius of James Watt the mathematical
instrument maker who was born at Greenock in Scotland January 19,
1736, that we are indebted for the high state of efficiency to which
our modern steam-engine has been brought. Matthew Bolton of Birmingham
undertook the enterprise of introducing Watt's condensing engine into
general use as a great working power.

Samuel Smiles says, "Many skilful inventors have from time to time
added new power to the steam-engine; and by numerous modifications
rendered it capable of being applied to nearly all the purposes of
manufacture--driving machinery, impelling ships, grinding corn,
printing books, stamping money, hammering, planing, and turning iron;
in short of performing every description of mechanical labour where
power is required. One of the most useful modifications in the engine
was that devised by Trevithick, and eventually perfected by George
Stephenson and his Son, in the form of the railway locomotive, by which
social changes of immense importance have been brought about of even
greater consequence, considered in their results on human progress and
civilization than the condensing engine of Watt."

The Stockton and Darlington Railway was one of the first examples
of locomotive power on a railway for passengers. Mr. Murdock was the
first Englishman who in the year 1784 constructed a non-condensing
steam locomotive of lilliputian dimensions. It is to be seen at South
Kensington, in the Patent Museum.

Battersea Wharf, belonging to the Brighton, and South-Coast Railway
Company, close to Chelsea Bridge, combines a water frontage affording
facility for discharging cargoes of goods for and from all parts of
the Brighton, South-Eastern, London, Chatham and Dover Railways. The
traffic during the last ten years has very sensibly increased, and the
point itself has become an important place and of great convenience to
the public.--Manager, Mr. William Everest.

The London and Brighton Railway was opened 21st September, 1841. In
1873, Number of miles open 345; gross receipts for the same year
including 31st December, £1,618,461.

Comparative statement of traffic returns for week ending October 6th,
1877, to corresponding week in 1876. Total miles open 379¾.

RECEIPTS, 1877,  RECEIPTS, 1876,  INCREASE,
   £40,425.       £37,210.         £3,215.


That part of Battersea known as Long-Hedge Farm which was kept by a
Mr. Matson and afterwards by Mr. Graham, is now partially inclosed
by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway Locomotive Works. The land
originally purchased by the Railway Company was about 75 acres, and
nearly one-half this space is appropriated to the Locomotive Department
and Goods traffic yard.

The Works were built by Messrs. Peto and Betts, from designs furnished
by Joseph Cubitt, Esq., engineer, and finished in the year 1863, (two
years ago the erecting shop was enlarged). The name, however, is still
retained and the Works are called Long-Hedge Works. These Works are
surrounded with a wall ten feet high. There are six gates, but the
principal entrance to the Works is at the gate by the time-keeper's
office; the other five gates are used for shunting purposes. Within
this enclosure no person is allowed to go except on business, and
this rule is strictly carried out. There are the boiler-shop, the
tender-shop, erecting shop, copper-smiths' shop, fitting-shop,
brass-finishers' shop, pattern-makers' shop, smiths' shop, boiler-house
with three large boilers, which drive the large stationary engine. The
whole of these buildings, which consists of a series of ranges, are
substantially built of brick, with walls of immense thickness. On the
south side is the stores department. At the east-end of the turnery is
the Superintendent's office, clerks' offices, etc. The area between
each shop has an intersection of rails communicating with the line.

The lower turnery is 250 feet long and 44 wide. It has twenty-five
windows on either side; the dimensions of each window is 12 feet by 3,
and a third portion of each window can be opened or closed at pleasure
for ventilation; also three pairs of double doors of the same height as
the windows, and wide enough to admit a truck or carriage. There are
lines of rails laid parallel with the building, both on the outside and
through the centre. Opposite each of the large doors, both inside and
out, are turn tables to connect the shops with any part of the yard.
The floor is laid with blocks of wood about five inches square. Around
large steam-pipes are laid on either side of the shop to add to the
comfort and convenience of the men. The shaft which gives motion to
the machinery passes through the centre of the shop and the machinery
on each side. Towards one extremity of this range of building is the
engine house, in which are two beautifully-finished high and low
pressure horizontal engines of one hundred horse power, which drive all
the machinery and fan-blasts for smiths. There are three boilers, each
thirty feet long, and six feet in diameter, having pressure of forty
pounds upon every square inch. The shaft belonging to the stationary
engine is forty-seven yards high.

In the lower turnery there is a double-headed slot-wheel, three large
wheel lathes, and two small wheel lathes; the small are for carriage
wheels. There are also three fifteen-inch lathes, two crank lathes
for turning crank axles, two twelve-inch lathes, two large boring
machines--one of these is a radial machine for boring tube plates; one
boring machine for cylinders, also one large planing machine for the
same purpose, and one hydraulic press for taking off axles. On the same
basement with the turnery is the Loco. Manager's office.

Leaving the turnery we ascend a broad and substantial staircase of
wood overlaid with sheet-lead, leading to the fitting-shop which is
over the turning shop. On the same story is the brass-finishers' and
pattern loft. The fitting-shop is light, clean, well ventilated, and
comfortable. Here, as in the shop below, the shafting runs through
the centre with a continuous branch of counter shafts on one side,
extending the entire length of the building. The whole machinery is
propelled by the same engine as that below. In this shop there is one
large planing machine, nine shaping machines, six drilling machines,
three slotting machines, one double-headed slot drill for cutting
key-ways in axles, one twelve-inch lathe, four ten-inch lathes, four
eight-inch lathes, two six-inch lathes, one ten-inch break lathe, six
small planing machines of different sizes, four screwing machines, one
nut-cutting machine, two grindstones, one hoist, twenty pairs of vices,
etc., etc. In the brass-fitters' shop are four six-inch lathes in use
for cocks, plugs, injectors, etc. Length of fitting, brass and pattern
shops (inclusive) 406 feet.

The boiler shop is 200 feet in length and 48 feet in width. It has a
stationary engine with machines for punching, drilling and bending the
boiler-plates; also a powerful travelling crane, arranged for conveying
boilers from one end of the shop to the other. The second building on
the left-hand-side and facing the turnery is the erecting shop, 380
feet in length and 100 feet wide. This shop has a travelling table
which runs from one end to the other, and is worked by a small engine.
The use that is made of the table is to convey those engines which need
repairing to the different pits. There are 42 pits in this shop with
room for 42 engines. There are two travelling cranes above which run
on girders; these are worked by the hand and are employed for engines.
There is also a small stationary engine for driving drilling machine
and grindstone, and each side has a row of vice-benches extending from
one end of the shop to the other.

Not an uninteresting department is the smithery. Its length is 306
feet and it is 48 feet wide. On entering one seems to have got
into a region where Vulcan and his Cyclops are at work, not forging
thunderbolts for Jupiter, but giving shape and form to bars of
half-molten iron, which shall afterwards be used in the structure of
steam-engines and for other practical purposes. The scene is grand, and
might supply a study for such painters as West, Stothard, Conway and
Northcote. In the back ground is a depth of gloom, sombrous and murky
which is relieved at intervals by the fierce glare of thirty fires. At
as many anvils strong, athletic, Titan-like figures, with uplifted arm
and heavy stroke scatter "as from smitten steel," sparks like brilliant
stars, in all directions. Here are thirty smiths' forges, and the tools
used by the smiths, as tongs, hammers, swages, etc., are arranged in
racks against the walls. Here also are two steam-hammers, one fifteen
tons, the other five tons. Either can be most scrupulously adjusted
by aid of a small lever. Here also are furnaces, a stationary engine
with fan, grindstone, and powerful shears for cutting bar-iron. Lines
of rails run throughout the shop, so that the coal and iron can be
conveyed to any part where it is required.

A Second Shop for Carriages, Waggons, etc., is being erected at an
estimated cost of nearly £14,000.

The carriage shop is 370 feet long, 150 feet wide, 30 feet high in
the centre, and is capable of containing 80 railway carriages. It is
divided longitudinally into three parts by the two rows of iron pillars
which support the roof. The central division is forty feet wide and
is occupied by the traversing table which is used for shifting the
carriages. The two side divisions are the parts for vehicles under
repairs, and are also occupied by the workmens' benches, etc. The
roof is composed of a light but strong iron framing covered first
with deal boards, and with slates over all except the central part,
which is composed almost entirely of glass. The floor consists of wood
bricks, laid on a solid foundation of concrete, and is intersected
by the iron rails for the carriages and traverser. At the south end
are the offices, with the trimming shops above them. The shop is well
and efficiently ventilated, and is furnished with a system of heating
apparatus consisting of a double row of large steam-pipes passing all
round under the windows. Water is laid on in ample quantities, and one
of the regulations carried out with unvarying rule, is to fix hose
pipes in two separate parts of the shops every night with stand pipes
ready for instant use in case of fire. There are 130 windows in the
shop exclusive of the roof. Most of the carriages are made of teak
instead of mahogany, as being more durable as well as economical and
not so likely to split when exposed to the heat of the sun.

The saw-mills are used for cutting the timber, with rack and vertical
saws. It is then prepared by eleven other different machines, such as
general joiner, rabbeting, grooving, tenoning, mortising, boring and
moulding machines, of every description. The timber is first cut out
with the hand-saw, and then shaped by a large shaping machine 5 feet
4 by 2 feet 10, with two perpendicular spindles performing upwards of
1200 revolutions a minute. The saw-mills are well arranged, the driving
wheel and shafting being all underneath. Next to the saw-mills is an
engine-house in which is a horizontal engine of forty horse power with
two large boilers, sixty pounds pressure, made by Walter May and Co.,
Chelsea.

At the west end, and near "Long-Hedge House," is a small building
containing the gas-meter; this, like the water-meter in the traffic
yard, has its index taken every morning to show the amount of gas that
has been consumed in the works.

The stores department consists of a large building, with various
offices for the store keeper, clerks, and warehousemen. One half is
upstairs which is fitted up with shelves, tables and pigeon-holes for
the various articles kept in stock. The lower part is arranged for
heavier goods, such as brass, copper, steel, and iron. There is a
large yard for goods of different descriptions, and for the purpose of
receiving goods brought by carriers, etc. The design of this department
is to keep for immediate use almost every article used on a railway, to
supply all the departments with materials for the making and keeping
of the line in good condition, and to forward the goods as required to
their destination on the line, and the quality of the goods is there
determined before received for use.

In the running sheds engines are cleaned and running engines kept
repaired, etc.[1] There are 82 locomotives, 65 of which are daily
running on the line. Since the opening of the Ludgate Station on
the London, Chatham and Dover Railway Metropolitan Extension Line
a very considerable portion of the Goods traffic is carried on at
Blackfriars.--Locomotive Superintendent, W. Kirtley, Esq.; Works
Manager, Mr. G. Leavers; Manager of Carriage Department, Inspector,
etc., Mr. C. Spencer; Superintendent of Stores Department Mr. John Ward.

[Footnote 1: Since the above was written, the semi-circular Engine
Shed has been pulled down and a very large quadrangular Engine
Shed constructed in its place. The former shed was inconveniently
small and not at all adapted to the present emergency. It has been
demonstrated by Mr. Kirtley that the system which has been so popular
(with Locomotive Superintendents) in the early days of railways of
using a turn-table or revolving platform for turning locomotives
into the direction required in sheds where they undergo repairing,
cleaning, etc., was at all times liable to cause not only delay in the
departure of one engine, but in the event of mishap to the turn-table
itself, the whole stock of engines would be locked up; hence the
erection of the splendid new engine shed at the London, Chatham and
Dover Railway Locomotive Works, which is said to be one of the finest
and most commodious of its kind in England. It stands upon about 1¾
acres, and some idea of its magnitude may be realized from some of the
principal materials used in its construction: namely, 40,000 cubic
yards excavation; 6,000 cubic yards concrete; about 3½ million of
bricks, besides 250,000 blue paving bricks of the Staffordshire hard
manufacture which form the flooring; 30,000 feet of glass; 60,000 feet
of slating, 260 tons of iron, and over three acres of boards which form
the roof, and the newly-invented steam and smoke conductors designed by
Messrs. Mills and Kirtley. There are also offices for the foremen of
each department, and separate mess-rooms for the men of various grades
employed, wherein their every comfort has been carefully studied, with
lavatories, cooking apparatus, etc. Besides boiler-house and standing
engine for driving machinery, etc. Also a tank of enormous capacity,
made by Spencerlayh and Archer, of Rochester, to supply the engines
with water from a well of considerable depth in case of failure of the
regular supply from the Water Company's Works. There is also a new
coal stage, built upon an entirely new principle, from which engines
can be loaded with the necessary supply of coals in less than half
the time previously occupied, with a similar diminution of labour.
Another great feature in the approach to these Works is that the roads,
sixteen in number, all lead from one line of rails. Each road, with
pit in the engine shed, will hold five main-line locomotives or seven
tank engines. The whole building will hold between eighty and ninety
locomotives. The Works have been designed by Mr. W. Mills, C.E., and
carried out by Mr. Charles Dickinson, the Contractor, and his Agent,
Mr. D. Stubbings, and under the immediate superintendence of Mr.
R. S. Jones, C. E., the engineer in charge of the works. Although
nine months have only elapsed from the time of the demolition of the
former structure to the erection of the New Engine Shed, etc., it is
gratifying to state that under a merciful Providence no casualty such
as might have been expected considering the number of locomotives
running in and out daily has occurred. Mr. W. Wilkinson is foreman of
this Branch of the Locomotive Department.

 FOREMEN, (_Locomotive Department_).
 Erecting   Shop   J. Fletcher.
 Fitting    "      W. Siddon.
 Turning    "      T. Eaton.
 Smith      "      R. Allen.
 Boiler     "      W. Benton.

 FOREMEN, (_Carriage Department_).
 Painters'       Shop  W. Banks.
 Coach-builders' "     G. Faulkner.
 Fitters'        "     W. Churchill.
 Trimmers'       "     J. Gallop.
 Saw-mill        "     C. Picton.
 Waggon          "     F. Laraman.]


The number of operatives employed inclusive of drivers and firemen is
about 600. The men are intelligent and orderly; they, with myriads
of their fellow-countrymen, are assisting in carrying out the great
practical issues of civilization. Of such a class of noble-minded,
generous-hearted, skilled mechanics and artisans, England may well be
proud.

    "What says each true workman, where'er he may toil
    As bravely he joins in life's busy turmoil,
    With each sinew brac'd stoutly by duty and love,
    And the gaze of his soul fixed on heaven above.
    Oh I'm king of a line of long renown,
    And the sweat of my brow is my diamond crown;
    I toil unrepining from morn till night,
    For I bear in my bosom a heart brave and light,
    And my labour no matter how hard it may be,
    Brings ever a joy and a blessing to me."

The London Chatham and Dover Railway was opened 29th of September,
1860. Number of miles open 141. Gross Receipts including 31st December,
1873, £904,509.

The first railway train (London, Chatham and Dover) entered the City of
London over the new Railway Bridge, Blackfriars, 6th October, 1864.

Adjacent to the Railway Viaduct and facing the south-eastern gate of
Battersea Park is Sargent's Carpet Ground. Here during the Summer and
Autumnal months a Gospel tent is pitched wherein Special Religious
Services for the people are conducted by Messrs. Simmonds, Swindells,
Waller, Rigley, Harris, Smith, Hewett, Crosby, Turpin, Twaites, Kirby,
Reeve, Thompson, Eveleigh, Lane, and other well-known Christian workers.

_Extracted from the Kensington News._--Amidst the various styles of
ecclesiastical architecture which our modern amalgamation of various
civilizations has produced, none strikes one as so peculiar as that
which is called the preaching tent. Associated as this moveable
structure is with the wandering life of the Eastern Arab, its
consecration to purposes of modern Christian evangelization is a proof
of the intense catholicity and energy of our modern religious life.
While thousands of our home heathen never enter the sacred precincts of
our churches or chapels, it is a blessing to find that they enter by
hundreds inside the temporary canvas walls of our consecrated gospel
tents. Very often the surroundings of the locality where these places
are erected, the kind of services held in them, and the earnestness,
homeliness, humanity, and appropriateness of the illustrations of
the preachers who discourse at them, have beyond question, great
attractions for the class of our Metropolitan inhabitants just
mentioned. It calls for no surprise to find gigantic temporary
structures of this kind erected amidst the uncultivated and populous
"East" for the purposes of religious worship, but we hardly expect to
find their tapering canvas roofs amidst the luxury of the "West."

But in these days of change, and strange things, we are not easily
surprised, and consequently we passed by gospel tents at Kilburn and
Kentish Town without expressing much wonder. Having a desire to see how
the un-church and un-chapel going population of this mighty metropolis
spent their Sunday out doors, we strolled to the classic ground of
Chelsea and found ourselves on the north side of the bridge. This
spot has been for several years the scene of rather unclassical and
disorderly debates, and open air preaching. This arena of intellectual
life was rather dull on this occasion; there was only the ordinary open
air service and a few groups of the usual unintelligent and sceptical
wranglers. Seeing nothing worthy in what we witnessed to detain us at
this place, we strolled over the bridge, towards the canvas cathedral,
which has lately been erected there. Having reached the middle of the
bridge, the floating banners in the distance clearly indicate the
locality where this place of public worship rears its canvas walls, and
as we approach nearer we find the well known words "God is Love" neatly
inscribed on one of them. At this portion of the road our attention is
arrested by a few of the church-going population outside the entrance
to Battersea Park, gathered round some open air preachers. At last we
reach the south-eastern gate of Battersea Park, opposite which is the
front of the canvas cathedral a substantial tent, capable of holding
about 300 people. (The tent will seat 200). We were very much surprised
to find at one of the entrances a well-executed and coloured diagram
of the famous Babylonish temple of the Seven Spheres. We saw from the
crowded nature of the audience that the service on this occasion was
a very special one, for not only was the tent full but large groups
of people surrounded the entrances. A small bill informed us that Mr.
G. M. Turpin, a gentleman in connexion with the Christian Evidence
Society, was to preach this evening on Modern Discoveries and the
Bible, illustrated with diagrams. As we entered the interior of the
cathedral, we noticed hung behind the preacher a number of nicely
drawn and strikingly coloured diagrams representing views of Nineveh,
Babylon, Nimroud, slabs discovered in their ruined palaces, a page of
the annals of an Assyrian monarch, representations of a besieged city,
and a copy of the Moabite stone.

The service was very simple in its character. It consisted of a few
devout extempore prayers, reading a portion of Scripture, and the
singing (accompanied with an harmonium) of some of Sankey's hymns. As
may be imagined, our curiosity was excited as to how the preacher could
make a sermon containing anything spiritual profitable to his hearers
out of the pictures behind him. The portion of Scripture selected for
his text only stimulated our curiosity for it was the beautiful words
of our Lord contained in John c. 17 v. 17, "Sanctify them through thy
truth; Thy word is truth." One felt inclined to say "Sanctification and
pictures; a great deal of sanctification the preacher will get out of
them for his audience." No sooner, however, has the preacher got into
his introduction than the connection between his diagrams and his text
is clearly apparent, for he was evidently going to talk about the truth
of God's word as contained in the Bible. The text was divided into two
parts; first the assertion that God's word was truth; secondly, the
instrument of His people's sanctification. In treating of the first
division of his discourse the preacher gave forth some very clear ideas
on some of the most difficult topics, for revelation, the instrument
through which it ought to come and the form by which it was to be
transmitted to humanity in after ages, were all noticed, and men as the
media, and the book as the written record, and not oral tradition, were
shown to manifest the wisdom and condescension of God. "The Christian
Church," said the preacher, claims that in the Bible they have a
revelation of God's will, and the sublime idea of God in the possession
of the Jews plainly proved that it came from God's own revelation. But
objectors exist, and modern doubt cast suspicion on the sacred records.
What then is the voice of modern discoveries? Is it for or against
the credibility of the sacred record? In favour of reposing trust in
its statements, for modern science and discovery and exploration have
proved the truth of all the historical and geographical details of
the Bible, removed many of its historical difficulties, and by its
identification of sites of cities which were the subject of prediction,
proved its fulfilment and thus borne testimony to the supernatural in
the Bible. These propositions were supported by a vast array of facts
drawn from the traditions of mankind, the newly-discovered palaces and
libraries of Assyria, and the scholar's translation of its clay and
stone records.

When the preacher treated the second portion of his theme, the
intensely practical nature of his mind was clearly shewn in the way
in which while asserting God's truth to be the instrument of the
sanctification, he appealed to all present in a most solemn manner
to put the important question--"Were they sanctified?" "If you are
not you will never tread the golden streets of the New Jerusalem, but
while your friends are passing in you will be shut out." Mr. Turpin
evidently had the whole of his audience in his mind, for at the end of
his discourse he pressed home on the juvenile portion of his audience
the beauty of early piety by a contrast between the dying chimney-sweep
and Lord Byron in which the character of the sweep shone to the
disadvantage of the celebrated poet. Another hymn and prayer closed
the interesting canvas cathedral service. Those present, both old and
young, evidently enjoyed the service, for they listened with breathless
attention for the 100 minutes which the preacher had occupied in
delivering his glowing discourse. A brief prayer meeting closed this
instructive Sunday evening, which if we may judge from the expressions
of some of the audience, will not soon be forgotten. As we retired we
felt that many such canvas cathedrals, with able preachers and hearty
singing, would lay hold of large numbers of those who are at present
outside ordinary religious influences.

The tent was purchased expressly for this object by Basil Wood Smith,
Esq., a warm and devoted friend of the working classes and who is a
member at present of the Parent Committee of the London City Mission.
The tent was originally erected on the triangular piece of ground
outside the south-eastern gate of Battersea Park before the roads were
completed, with the sanction of Lord John Manners when his Lordship was
in office as Chief Commissioner.

Among other respectable firms in the building trade within the Parish
may be mentioned the firm of Messrs. Lathey Brothers, Builders, 1, St.
George's Road, New Road. Messrs. Lathey Brothers were the builders of
St. George's Vicarage House, Christ Church Schools and Residences,
Infant School in Orkney Street, St. Saviour's Church, the enlargement
of St. George's Church, and the enlargement of St. George's National
Schools. Also a Mortuary built in 1876 in the Churchyard of St. Mary's
from designs by Mr. W. White, Architect, and the re-interment of all
coffins, 1875, in the vaults or crypt under the church 424 in all. Some
of these coffins were brought here from St. Bartholomew's Church, Royal
Exchange, in the city of London, in 1840. A Record was made of the
Inscriptions on all the coffins which were re-interred. This document,
which is in the possession of Messrs. Lathey Bros., would form an
interesting Obituary if published.

The H.P. Horse Nail Company's (Limited) Factory, New Road, has at
present machinery capable of turning out one million nails per day.
With the exception of a few mechanics most of the employés are young
women. Of late years horse nails have become an important branch of
industry and a leading article in trade, the consumption, indeed, being
very large; and when it is considered that each horse has in its four
hoofs 28 or 30 nails, and that these nails are wearing out all day
and all night, and require renewing about every month, and that in
Great Britain and Ireland there are at the present time not less than
3,000,000 horses, representing a demand exceeding a thousand million
nails per annum the trade is entitled to rank with others in importance
and influence. Mr. J. A. Huggett, the inventor of the Patent Machinery
employed at this factory for the manufacture of horse nails, has hit
the right nail on the head, the quality of the nails having met with
the general approval of veterinary surgeons, farriers, and ironmongers.
The quality of the iron of which the nails are manufactured has its
perfection attributed to three causes:--First, it is the best Swedish
charcoal iron; secondly, it is heated in the Siemens furnace; and
lastly, which certainly is not the least important, it passes through
a rolling-mill worked by steam power, each roller weighs about ten
cwt.--Manager, Charles Moser, Esq.

Hugh Wallace's Vitriol Works were situated in the New Road; Schofield
and Co.'s Steam Saw-Mills and Stone Works, Stewart's Lane. The saw
frames are worked by fly wheels and connecting shafts so constructed
that the frame is always level be it ever so high a block sawing; this
is done by lengthening or shortening the shaft. By some persons the
frames are considered the easiest working ones in London. The moulding
machines are by Hunter, Queen's Road, Battersea, specially adapted for
string courses and steps. About eighty men and boys are employed at
these works.

[Illustration: ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH.]

ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH, Battersea--The following particulars respecting
this Church may not be uninteresting. The living is a vicarage of the
yearly value of £240 with residence in the gift of Trustees.

The Chapel-of-Ease, as St. George's was called, in Battersea Fields,
was built partly by a rate and partly by grant from the Parliamentary
Commissioners at a cost of £2,819; it is a neat building in the style
of English architecture, by Edward Blore, Esq., Architect. Its erection
began September 18, 1827. It was consecrated August 5th, 1828, by Dr.
Sumner, Lord Bishop of Winchester, and the first church his Lordship
consecrated in his diocese. The Rev. J. G. Weddell was the first
clergyman appointed. He held the living twenty-five years: died June,
1852. Within this hallowed sanctuary the venerable, esteemed and truly
honoured servant of Christ the Rev. John Garwood, late Secretary of
the London City Mission, laboured as curate in charge for nine years
previous to Mr. Weddell's death. The Rev. H. B. Poer was appointed in
1852. It was made a District Church in 1853. The churchyard was closed
as a burial ground in 1858. The Rev. E. S. Goodhart was appointed in
1859: he remained ten months. The Rev. Burman Cassin was appointed
in 1860: he resigned and was instituted at St. Paul's, Bolton, 1872:
he preached his last (valedictory) sermon December 31, 1872, at a
watch-night service.

The Rev. John Callis was appointed January, 1873. During his time the
Church underwent alterations. These were begun August 24, 1874, when
the side galleries were removed and the church enlarged by the addition
of two aisles at the cost of £1,700. The church will accommodate 800.
The church was re-opened by the Right Reverend Harold Browne, Lord
Bishop of Winchester, November 21st, 1874, at 4 o'clock p.m. The Rev.
John Callis left for South Heigham, Norwich, July, 1875.

The Rev. Thomas Lander, M.A., now holds the living, he was appointed
August, 1875. The Rev. T. Kirk ordained and appointed Curate to St.
George's, September 24th, 1876. Previously to his ordination he had
laboured for twenty-six years in connection with the London City
Mission, and was much beloved and respected in the district among the
people to whom he has been and still is so much blessed.

The population of the Ecclesiastical parish in 1871 was 16,172.[1] The
register dates from the year 1858. The area is 443 acres.--John Gwynn,
Samuel Lathey, Churchwardens.

[Footnote 1: St. Andrew's Temporary Iron Church, Patmore Street, was
opened on St. Andrew's Day, Saturday, Nov. 30, 1878, by the Bishop of
Guildford, late Dr. Utterton. The persons who took part in the service
were Canon Clarke, Revs. Lander, Hamilton and Kirk. Rev. G. Hamilton is
the Mission Clergyman. Some few years ago a gentleman offered to put
up a Church in South London. St. George's Parish, Battersea, was named
as being in need of one. A short time after the promise was made the
gentleman died. His widow anxious to carry out her deceased husband's
intentions, set apart the amount for the purchase and removal of the
Iron Church, which then stood in Chelsea.

According to the census of 1881, the inhabited houses and population of
Battersea were as follows:--

               Number of          Number of
               Inhabited Houses.  Inhabitants.
St Mary's      3758               24595
Christ Church  2011               14404
St Peter's     1183               8919
St John's      1068               7069
St Saviour's   1747               14172
St Philip's    2444               17428
St George's    2380               20612

Total          14591              107199]


    "I love her gates, I love the road;
    The church adorned with grace
    Stands like a palace built for God
    To show his milder face."--_Watts._

At the east end of the interior and south of the pulpit a white marble
tablet mounted on a dark marble slab has recently been erected. Within
a wreath of virgin marble most artistically executed is the following
epitaph engraved. "In memory of Elizabeth Maria Graham, of Clapham
Common, died December 14, 1874, aged 79, through whose devoted and
indefatigable labours this Church, the Vicarage, and Mission-room were
built and the St. George's Schools were founded. 'The love of Christ
constraineth us.'--2nd Cor. v. 14. 'The harvest truly is great but the
labourers are few, pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that He
would send forth labourers into His harvest.'"--Luke x. 2.

"They that feared the Lord spake often one to another; and the Lord
hearkened and heard it, and a book of remembrance was written before
him for them that feared the Lord, and that thought upon his name. And
they shall be mine saith the Lord of Hosts, in that day when I make up
my jewels; and I will spare them, as a man spareth his own son that
serveth him."--Malachi iii. 16-17.

In St. George's Churchyard the ground has been levelled and the
hillocks have disappeared to make it resemble more a garden or field
with flat grassy surface studded here and there with shrubberies than
a receptacle of the dead, there are however some "sacred memorial," a
few grave stones etc., which indicate to the passer-by that this was
formerly used as a place of interment. We will just pause to read some
of the inscriptions. At the east-end of the churchyard is the vault of
the Rev. John Grenside Weddell, twenty-five years pastor of this flock,
who died the 23d of July, 1852, aged 75 years.

    "I have sinned but Christ hath died."

Also in the same vault are the remains of Caroline the beloved wife of
the Rev. J. G. Weddell, who died the 22nd of December 1839, aged 64
years.

"Whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation. Jesus
Christ the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever."--_Hebrews xiii._ 7.

A few yards from this spot a head-stone is erected "Sacred to the
memory of Mrs. Ann Puttick of Nine Elms, who departed this life Oct.
5th, 1855, aged 64 years. Also of Henry her beloved husband, interred
at the Cemetery, Battersea. 'Even so Father for so it seemed good in
thy sight.'"

Here is a vault sacred to the memory of Leonora the wife of John
Charles McMullens, Esq., of Lavender Hill, in this parish, who died
24th June, 1813, aged 35 years. The epitaph states,

    "Faithful and meek she bore the will
      Of Him who to a troubled sea,
    In powerful words said 'peace be still,'
      My grace sufficient is for thee."

Also that of her husband, J. C. McMullens, Esq., who died 30th
September, 1855.

On the west-side of the gravel walk leading to the entrance of the
church a stone slab covers the grave of all that was of Louisa, wife
of Mr. J. A. Michell of this parish, who died in child-bed on the 24th
November, 1834; aged 23 years.

    Far, far remote from objects dear,
      A virtuous wife here rests;
    Who ever studied while on earth,
      To comfort and caress.
    Her husband, and her parents dear,
      Now mourn departed worth,
    Affections was her constant theme,
      While she had breath on earth.
    In child-birth first her troubles rose,
      Her babe on earth abides;
    Extreme her grief, extreme her pain,
      Delivered, and she died.
    Her husband now consoles himself
      With hopes not found in vain,
    That as her happy soul's at rest,
      His loss will be her gain.

Also of Sarah Gywnn, wife of James Gywnn, who died May 28, 1850, aged
67. And also of James Gywnn, who died January 28, 1851, aged 77.

Hard by is another grave-stone sacred to the memory of Mrs. Elizabeth
Stewart, widow of the late Lieut. James Stewart, R.N., who departed
this life on the 10th of ---- aged 60 years. The letters on this slab
are so eaten away by the tooth of time that we could not decipher the
date.

A head-stone marks the grave of Margaret Young, who died August 13th,
1855, aged 58 years. Added to this inscription are the words:

    "For now shall I sleep in the dust;
    And thou shalt seek me in the morning,
    But I shall not be."--The book of Job vii. 21.

The epitaph on another slab is as follows: "Blessed are the dead
who die in the Lord"--so died on the 24th of May, 1829, aged 56
years--Mary, the beloved wife of B. Jonathan Broad, late Chief
Secretary at the Rolls. Also beneath this stone are deposited Barber
Jonathan Broad, Esq., many years an inhabitant of this parish, who died
the 10th of July, 1831, aged 61 years.

On another grave-stone is an inscription sacred to the memory of Alice
Buckney, daughter of Thomas and Charlotte Buckney, of this parish, who
died 9th August, 1830, aged 16 days.

Against the west wall in the rear of the houses in Ceylon Street is
a head-stone erected sacred to the memory of Elizabeth Dicker, the
beloved wife of Job Dicker, who departed this life May 6th, 1858, in
the 55th year of her age. At the bottom of this epitaph are inscribed
the lines so familiar to us and which all have seen in many a
churchyard:

    Afflictions sore long time I bore;
      Doctors were in vain!
    Death and disease--and God did please
      To ease me of my pain.

    Weep not for me, my children dear,
    Nor shed for me a single tear:
    In heaven I hope we all shall meet,
    Then all our joys will be complete.

Here is a stone in memory of Richard, third son of Henry Roston and
Amelia Bowker, who died Sept. 18th, 1849, aged 6 years. His dying words
were: "Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them not."
Also Elizabeth, who died Sept. 23rd, 1849, aged 1 year 3 months. Also
Alfred, who died Oct. 18, 1849, aged 4 years. Also Mr. Henry Roston
Bowker, father of the above children, who died July 23rd, 1852, aged 40
years. Also at the foot of this grave lie the remains of Mr. William
Robbins, grandfather to the above children, who departed this life July
1st, 1858, aged 71 years. "Boast not thyself of to-morrow, for thou
knowest not what a day may bring forth."

Near the wall at the south-side of the burial ground stands a solitary
head-stone sacred to the memory of Sarah Fisher, relict of Jonathan
Roundell Fisher, late of Cumberland and Otley, Yorkshire, who departed
this life 17th September, 1854, aged 67. The memory of the just is
blessed.

Near the entrance to the church at the south-side stands a plain
head-stone with no adornment, sacred to the memory of Elizabeth Clunie,
during 40 years the beloved friend of Mrs. Graham's family, of Clapham
Common. Born at Hull, August 29th, 1793. Died at Clapham Common June
22nd, 1853. Carefully trained by pious parents and by faith engrafted
in youth into Christ the living vine. She brought forth throughout her
whole life the precious fruits which spring from that all important
union, and abiding in Him her end was peace.

Scripture Readers, Mr. F. Vellenoweth, 62, St. George's Road; Mr. C.
Brooks, 9, St. George's Road; City Missionary, Mr. H. Langston; London
Mission Bible Woman, Miss Hulbert, 1, Ceylon Street.

CHRIST CHURCH is a composition of the early Lancet style, consisting
of chancel, nave, aisles and north and south transepts, with tower and
spire built of Kentish rag and Bath stone, raised by subscriptions at
a cost of £5,556, with sittings for 900. Interiorly it has two small
galleries. It was designed by Mr. Charles Lee, and repaired, decorated
and re-heated under the superintendence of Mr. E. C. Robins. The first
stone of this elegant church was laid by the Bishop of Sodor and Man,
on May the 27th, 1847. The living is a vicarage in the gift of the
Vicar of St. Mary's. The income is derived from the pew rents. The
area is 408 acres and the population of the Ecclesiastical parish
in 1871 was 18,720. The Rev. Samuel Bardsley was the first Vicar of
Christ Church but not the first minister. For some years it was a
Chapel-of-Ease and was supplied by the Vicar of the Mother Church.
The Rev. Samuel Bardsley was there from 1861 to 1867. The schools,
the Vicarage, and the school in Orkney Street were built during his
time. He resigned the living to become Rector of Spitalfields, and was
succeeded by the Rev. Edward Cumming Ince, M.A., of Jesus College,
Cambridge. In May, 1877, Mr. Ince resigned having suffered from
enfeebled health, amid the painful regrets of his beloved flock, who
for ten years had listened to his thorough evangelical discourses and
had profited so much under his faithful ministry.

The Rev. Stopford Ram, M.A., Secretary of the Church of England
Temperance Society, Instituted (Hospital Sunday) June 17th, 1877, left
on account of ill health, July, 1880, and died at Bournemouth, May
22nd, 1881, and buried on Ascension day.

"There remaineth, therefore, a rest for the people of God."

    He has gone to his rest, like the bright summer sun
    As it sinks in the west when its day's work is done,
    But only to leave us a little while here,
    To shine in another and far distant sphere.

    He has gone to his rest--the journey is o'er,
    And safely he lands on that bright, blissful shore,
    Where banished for ever is sorrow and pain,
    'Mid the harps that are tuned to a holier strain.

    He has gone to his rest--no longer to roam,
    The Master has called His dear labourer home;
    Triumphant he enters the mansions of bliss,
    And welcomes the change from a world such as this.

    He has gone to his rest--the race has been run,
    And vict'ry accomplished through Jesus the Son.
    Unwearied by conflict, he knew no defeat;
    His trophies are laid at our Great Captain's feet.

    He has gone to his rest--we shall miss the dear voice
    Which so often on earth made our spirits rejoice.
    Yet mourn we? Ah, no! If in Jesus we reign
    To-morrow we all shall be meeting again.

    He has gone to his rest--that sweet Zion to share
    With some of his flock awaiting him there;
    Like him let us labour, the right to uphold;
    Brave, patient, enduring, true-hearted, and bold.
                                             _Alfred Sargant._

The Rev. H. Guildford Sprigg, M.A., the present Vicar, commenced his
duties, September, 1880.

 "Holy, holy, holy: Lord God of Sabaoth.
 Heaven and earth are full: Of the majesty of thy glory.
 The glorious company of the apostles: Praise thee.
 The goodly fellowship of the prophets: Praise thee.
 The noble army of martyrs: Praise thee.
 The holy church throughout all the world: Doth acknowledge thee."
                                             --_Te Deum laudamus._

"Serve the Lord with gladness: Come before his presence with
singing."--_Psalm c._ 2.

Mr. Lowres, of Plough Lane, an energetic City Missionary, has laboured
in Christ Church district for nearly twelve years, and his local
Superintendents were the Rev. S. Bardsley and the Rev. E. C. Ince.

Mr. Warren, in an adjoining district, is another devoted Missionary.

[Illustration: ST. JOHN'S CHURCH.]

ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, Usk Road, was completed from the designs of Mr. E.
C. Robins, selected in competition. It is a remarkably inexpensive
church. It provides accommodation for about 750 persons at a cost of
£4 10s. per head. The church received a grant from the Incorporative
Society for Building Churches upon one-third of the sittings being made
free. It is designed in the early English style, with nave, north and
south aisles and apsidal chancel, a small western gallery and two bell
turrets. Messrs. Sharpington and Cole were the builders, who executed
the work for the sum of £3,300. (St. John's Parsonage was built by the
same architect). The foundation stone of St. John's was laid August
6, 1862. The consecration and opening took place May 5th, 1863. The
living is a Vicarage in the gift of the Vicar of St. Mary's. The area
is 157 acres, and the population of the Ecclesiastical parish in 1871
was 7,839. The district assigned to the church was formed out of the
parishes of St. Mary's Battersea, and St. Anne, Wandsworth, by an
Order of Council bearing date July 27, 1863--(the register dates from
this period). The new parish was legally constituted and named the
Consolidated Chapelry of St. John, Battersea. The first Vicar of the
new parish was the Rev. Edwin Thompson, D.D., who from beginning his
work with services in a room in Price's Candle Factory, afterwards,
lived to be instrumental in building the two Churches of St. John and
St. Paul, together with the Schools in Usk Road, erected 1866, and
Parsonage House, Wandsworth Common; a noble monument of his untiring
energy and zeal. He died suddenly February 2nd, 1876, aged 51 years.
The present Vicar of St. John's is the Rev. William John Mills Ellison,
M.A., Wadham College, Oxford.

The windows in the chancel representing John the Baptist, St. Peter,
St. Andrew, St. John; the last supper and the ascension to the glory of
God, and in memory of Daniel Watney, departed March 16, 1874, aged 74,
are erected by his son John Watney.

On the south side of the church the Memorial Windows representing David
and Samuel to the glory of God, and in memory of W. H. Hatcher, at rest
August 2nd, 1879, aged 58. Erected by Friends and Sunday Scholars.
"Their works do follow them."--_Rev. xiv._ 13.

On the north side the Memorial Windows representing St. Paul and St.
Barnabas, in loving memory of a dear mother, Martha Colden, who died
August 25, 1880. Erected by her only child M. A. B. S. Estimated cost
of each window £15 15s. Guard and fixing to each £2 2s.

"Know ye that the Lord he is God: it is he that hath made us, and not
we ourselves; we are his people, and the sheep of his pasture."--_Psalm
c._ 3.

ST. PAUL'S situated on St. John's Hill, is a Chapel-of-Ease to St.
Mary's Battersea, designed by Mr. Coe for the late Rev. Dr. Thompson.
It is a stone structure consisting of chancel, apsidal, nave, aisles
and tower with spire. It was built at a cost of about £6,300.

"Those that be planted in the house of the Lord shall flourish in the
courts of our God."--_Psalm xvii._ 13.

ST. PHILIP'S CHURCH, Queen's Road, is a Gothic stone building
consisting of chancel, nave, aisles and transept with tower, built
from the designs of Mr. James Knowles, Junr., at a cost of £13,000.
A considerable portion of this sum was given by P. W. Flower, Esq.,
the remainder was raised by public subscriptions. The church will
accommodate nearly 1,000 persons. The living is a Vicarage, yearly
value £200, in the gift of the Bishop of Winchester, and held by the
Rev. John Hall.

A Mission in connection with the Bishop of Winchester's Fund was
commenced in the month of June, 1869, in a house lent by the proprietor
for the purpose, in Queen's Road, Battersea Fields. Services and
Parochial Institutions were then established, which have become the
foundation of those now in active operation.

On July 13th, 1870, the New Church of St. Philip was finished, and
consecrated by Dr. Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of the diocese, and who
also held his Trinity Ordination at the Church of St. Philip the year
before he died.[1] On May 16th, 1871, a District formed out of the
Parishes of St. Mary, St. George, and Christ Church, Battersea was
attached to the Church, and published in the "London Gazette." On the
6th July, 1871, an Endowment of £200 per annum, which had been promised
by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, was legally secured to the Cure
of St. Philip, and published in the "London Gazette" on the 26th of
the same month. The payments were to date from the day on which the
District was assigned (viz., May 16th, 1871), and the first payment was
to be made on November 1st, 1871. The seats are free and the expenses
of the church have to be defrayed by the weekly offertory.

[Footnote 1: Bishop S. Wilberforce, born September 7th, 1805, died 19th
of July, 1873, through a fall from a horse.]

A New Organ has been built by Messrs. Hill and Son and placed in the
north chancel aisle; the cost with the platform is £516 1s. 11d. If,
when the Church of St. Philip was erected, the original design of
having a lofty spire with flying buttresses had been carried out, St.
Philip's Church would have been the most magnificent Ecclesiastical
structure in Battersea.--Churchwardens, W. G. Baker, A. W. Wilkinson.

"They continued stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship,
and in breaking of bread and in prayer."--_Acts ii._ 42.

"Blessed is the man that heareth me, watching daily at my gates,
waiting at the posts of my doors."--_Proverbs viii._ 34.

    We'll crowd Thy gates with thankful songs,
      High as the heavens our voices raise;
    And earth with her ten thousand tongues
      Shall fill Thy courts with sounding praise.
    Wide as the world is Thy command,
      Vast as eternity Thy love;
    Firm as a rock Thy truth must stand,
      When rolling years shall cease to move.--_Watts._

The construction of Queen's Road, etc., on Park-town, Battersea Estate,
cost Mr. Flower about £3,000.--C. Merrett, Clerk of the Works for the
Estate.

A New Railway Station has been erected in the Queen's Road, on the
South-Western Line.

[Illustration]

ST. MARK'S, Battersea Rise, is a Gothic building, and consists of
chancel, nave, aisles, transept with porch, and western vestibule and
handsome crypt. The corner-stone was laid by the Right Rev. Dr. Harold
Browne, Bishop of Winchester, November 11th, 1873, and it was dedicated
by his Lordship September 30th, 1874. The Architect is Mr. William
White, F.S.A., and the total cost has been £6,500. It is seated for
600, with backs and kneelers throughout. Mr. T. Gregory, of Battersea,
builder. The living is a Vicarage, in the gift of the Vicar of St.
Mary's.

"The rich and the poor meet together; the Lord is the Maker of them
all."---_Proverbs xxii._ 2.

The dedication festival of this church, in which the late Philip
Cazenove took so warm an interest, was agreeably marked by the placing
of a stained window of two lights, representing St. Philip and St.
James, in the north transept. The name of Mr. Cazenove is inscribed
on the tablet of a glass mosaic, set in alabaster, and sunk in the
brick-work of the wall beneath the window. The tablet is a material
much used for church purposes by the executants, Messrs. Powell,
Whitefriars, and called "opus sectile." The design is simple and
chaste, as befitted one whose unostentatiousness was one of his leading
characteristics. The window was placed in the transept by his two
daughters.--_South London Press_, May 15th, 1880.

[Illustration]

ST. LUKE'S CHAPEL-OF-EASE, Nightingale Lane, is a pretty Iron Church,
originally erected on Battersea Rise in 1868, was moved in September,
1873, to the adjacent plot, and used by the congregation while St.
Mark's was being built. On November 14, 1874, having been once more
removed to its present site it was dedicated anew in the name of St.
Luke by the Bishop of Guildford.

"O come let us worship and bow down, let us kneel before the Lord our
Maker."--_Psalm xcv._ 6.

ST. MATTHEW'S, Rush-hill Road, Lavender Hill, is a Chapel of Ease to
St. Mary's, it is built in the Early English Style of Architecture,
has vaulted roof and sacristy, seats 550, and cost about £3,000. Mr. W.
White, F.S.A., Architect; Mr. W. H. Williams, Builder. The Dedication
Service was conducted by the Right Reverend J. S. Utterton, D.D.,
Bishop Suffragan of Guildford, on Saturday, 28th of April, 1877, at 3
p.m. The Rev. W. B. Buckwell is the Officiating Minister.

"Blessed are they that dwell in thy house; they shall be still praising
thee."--_Psalm lxxxiv._ 4.

[Illustration]

ST. SAVIOUR'S CHURCH, Lower Wandsworth Road, now called Battersea Park
Road, erected by Messrs. Lathey Brothers at a cost of £4,000 from
the designs of Mr. E. C. Robins. It accommodates 700 persons and is
designed in the early French Gothic style faced with Kentish rag and
Bath stone dressings. It consists of a nave with clerestory, north
and south aisles and rectangular chancel with small western gallery
over the entrance lobby. There is a bell turret at the east end. The
chancel has been decorated in color by Messrs. Heaton and Butler. The
glazing is of cathedral glass. The living is a vicarage in the gift
of the trustees. The population of the district is about 11,500. The
foundation stone was laid by H. S. Thornton, Esq., January 4th, 1870.
The consecration of the church on the 19th October, 1871, by the late
Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., Lord Bishop of Winchester. The offertory
amounted to the sum of £40, which was added to the Church Building
Fund. The Petition to consecrate was read by the Rev. C. E. Ince, Vicar
of Christ Church, Battersea, and the deed of conveyance was presented
to the Bishop by W. Evill, Esq., one of the most generous and zealous
friends of the undertaking. The litany was read by the Rev. J.
MacCarthy. At the evening service an appropriate sermon was preached by
the Rev. E. C. Ince, and at the opening services on Sunday, the 22nd,
the morning sermon was preached by the Rev. J. MacCarthy, and that in
the evening by the Rev. E. Daniel. The Rev. J. MacCarthy was the first
Vicar.

The institution of the present Vicar, the Rev. Samuel Gilbert Scott,
M.A., Magdalen College, Oxford, took place on Sunday, April the 29th,
1877. The Bishop of Guildford instituted the Vicar after the Nicene
Creed. At the close of the sermon the Bishop celebrated Holy Communion;
there were 55 communicants. The offertory on the day amounted to nearly
eight pounds. Curate, the Rev. W. J. Harkness, B.A., Emmanuel College,
Cambridge. Churchwardens, John Elmslie, John Merry. Lay Readers, with
Episcopal sanction, Mr. Hussey, 32, Chatham Street; Mr. Hann, 2,
Millgrove Street. Mission Women, Mrs. Wootton, 23, Warsill Street; Mrs.
Collins, 5, Chatham Street.

"Enter into his gates with thanksgiving, and into his courts with
praise: be thankful unto him, and bless his name for the Lord is
good; his mercy is everlasting; and his truth endureth to all
generations."--_Psalms c._ 4-5.

Mr. Crosby, a Missionary in this district, held Evangelistic Services
at a Mission Hall in Arthur Street, Battersea Park Road.

ST. PETER'S CHURCH, Plough Lane, is a beautiful Gothic structure built
of red brick, with chancel, nave, aisles, and lofty tower with spire
pointing like a finger to the sky as if to remind man that when the
Saturday night of this world shall arrive and earth's trials are o'er
"there remaineth a rest for the people of God."--_Hebrews iv._ 9.

In the tower are four illuminated dials, by Messrs. Gillett & Bland
of Croydon. The Church has sittings for about 820. The top-stone of
the spire of St. Peter's Church was laid about 5 p.m., on the 24th of
April, 1876, by Mr. Toone, in the presence of Mr. White the Architect,
Mr. Carter the Builder, Mr. Williams the Clerk of the Works, and a few
others, with the formula "In the faith of Jesus Christ and to the glory
of His Holy Name we lay the top-stone of this spire of St. Peter's
Church, in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Ghost, Amen." A crowd of well-wishers below watched the ceremony with
interest. The corner-stone of this church was laid by the Bishop of
Winchester, on St. Peter's Day of 1875, and on the same festival, June
29th, 1876, it was Consecrated by the same prelate. At the Consecration
Service the Bishop of Guildford read the Gospel, the Rev. S. Cooper
Scott the Epistle, and the Bishop of the Diocese preached the Sermon
from the words of the Gospel "Thou art Peter and on this rock I will
build my Church." There were 120 communicants. The Bishop of Guildford
preached in the evening to an overflowing congregation.

The interior of St. Peter's Church is spacious. The rich carving of
the capitals has been executed by Mr. Harry Hems, of Exeter, as also
the pulpit and font. The pulpit is of stone with alabaster figures
introduced in the panels representing St. Peter, St. Paul, St.
John, Isaiah, King Solomon, Moses and Noah. The bowl of the font is
also of alabaster supported by angels carved in the same material.
The pavement is beautifully tessellated and has several scriptural
illustrations. The seats are fixed--these and all the internal
wood-work are varnished. The cost of erection was about £10,500. The
belfry at present contains one bell only, a tenor of six, it cost £120,
and cast with the words on it, "_When I do call, come serve God all!_"
It was rung on St. Peter's day, 1876. The Register dates from 1876. The
living is a Vicarage, in the gift of the Vicar of St. Mary, and held by
the Rev. John Toone, B.A., of St. John's College, Cambridge.

"I was glad when they said unto me let us go into the house of
the Lord. Peace be within thy walls, and prosperity within thy
palaces."--_Psalm cxxix._ 1-7.

St. Peter's Temporary Church and School-room was completed in 1874, at
a cost of £1,200. St. Peter's Vicarage was formerly the residence of
Mr. Burney.

TEMPORARY CHURCH OF THE ASCENSION, Lavender Hill.--A permanent church
adjacent is now in course of erection, and being raised by voluntary
contributions. The Rev. J. B. Wilkinson is the Officiating Minister.
The foundation stone of this church was laid by the Earl of Glasgow,
1st of June, 1876. This structure is being built of Bath stone and red
bricks, and is groined throughout with stone ribs and brick panels.
The foundation stone is situated under the "altar." James Brooks,
Architect, 35, Wellington Street, Strand; Mr. Chessam, Builder,
Shoreditch.

"A day in thy courts is better than a thousand; I had rather be a
door-keeper in the house of my God, than to dwell in the tents of
wickedness."--_Psalm lxxxiv._ 10.

ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH, Chatham Road, Bolingbroke Grove, Wandsworth
Common--the Memorial to the Rev. H. B. Verdon and Mr. Philip Cazenove,
the eminent and successful merchant. The Temporary Iron Mission Church
which for the last nine years had been used as a Chapel-of-Ease to
the Mother Church of St. Mary, Battersea, and the site on which the
present edifice is erected were the gifts of the latter gentleman.
Henry Boutflower Verdon was born December 8, 1846. Himself the son
of an excellent clergyman was educated at the Clergy Orphan School,
Canterbury, from which he went to Jesus College, Cambridge, as Rustat
Scholar and took his degree in 1868. After a period of study at
Cuddensdon Theological College he began clerical work as a curate under
the Rev. Aubrey Price, M.A., Vicar of St. James', Clapham, where the
poor speak in affectionate terms of his memory. In the Spring of 1872
he became curate of Battersea, a few weeks after the appointment of the
present Vicar. From the first Mr. Verdon took special interest in the
district known as Chatham Road, Bolingbroke Grove, and the residents
there were very much attached to him. The Sunday evening services
and Sunday Schools held in St. Michael's Chapel were objects of his
unremitting care. He acted as the Secretary of the Committee during
the time St. Mark's Church was being built. He was an active member
of the Charitable Organization Committee--he promoted the work of the
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and established
a mission Branch in Battersea. His marriage in January, 1879, to
Miss Wheeler, was the cause of much congratulation; but before the
expiration of many months this conjugal relationship was to be severed.
Had he lived the Incumbency of St. Mark's Church would have been
transferred to him. He died of a rapid consumption October 10, 1879.

The two Memorial Stones were laid in the Chancel of the Church (which
is now completed) by the Archbishop of Canterbury. "The Archbishop
after tapping them with the mallet saying at each 'In the faith of
Jesus Christ we place this stone for a memorial of thy faithful servant
whose name is written thereon and in the name of the Father and of the
Son and of the Holy Ghost,' and the choir chanting Amen. The stone on
the south side of the chancel bore the inscription carved in antique
on a gilt ground, 'Henry Boutflower Verdon, M.A., Æt. 33 obt. X. Oct.
A.D. 1879,' and that on the north side, the words, 'In mema. grata
Philip Cazenove, Æt. 81 obt. XX. Jan. A.D. 1880.' After laying the
stones the Archbishop delivered a short address in the course of which
he said that the two servants of God whose names were on the memorial
stones worked hand in hand together for good though separated from each
other by fifty years of life; one dying almost in his prime and the
other living on to a long old age but each dedicated to the service
of God, one ministering in the sanctuary and daily officiating in the
house of God, the other taking part during a long life in the trade
and exchange of this great city, busy with the arrangements by which
human industry is promoted. Both different yet wonderfully alike, and
both judicious servants bearing the stamp of their heavenly Master and
serving Him bravely, faithfully and laboriously. Let them be thankful
that this space of fifty made no difference in the two men. As we got
old we began to think that wisdom and goodness were with the old only,
but he thanked God that in His Church there never had failed and never
would fail a succession of faithful servants century after century to
carry on the work which the Lord loves and which will make the world
at last ready for His second coming. The name on the one stone might
be little known beyond his own neighbourhood or the name of the other
beyond the city of London, but they were known to their heavenly Master
whom they served faithfully, and in His book are the names of both
written. The memory of the young man whose name was on the one stone
would linger long among those whom he loved and the poor and the sick
to whom he had endeared himself and for whom he faithfully laboured,
but for the speaker his thoughts and friendship were with the old man
whose name was on the other stone. Five and twenty years ago when the
speaker entered on the laborious work of the See of London, the first
to welcome and assist him was Mr. Cazenove. He belonged to the noble
band who helped Bishop Bloomfield from the very first. Those five
and twenty years had been as laboriously spent in doing good as the
years that had gone before. When those men first entered on the work
how different was this suburb of London to what it is now. Great wars
had absorbed the attention of men, and a large population had grown
up before people knew it, and before men had thought of the duty of
meeting the spiritual wants of the new suburbs. If it had not been for
the noble band who gathered round Bishop Bloomfield what a different
account would have had to be rendered now. Let us trust and believe
that when all of us have passed away it will be found that God has
raised up a succession of faithful servants; men of every business and
profession who will still regard the profession of Jesus Christ as the
most noble of all, for no profession was more noble than the service of
the Heavenly King. Let us trust that with dangers around us the spirit
of vigorous Christianity may continue to be triumphant as it had been
in so many instances already. Let us trust to the good work begun and
carried forward during the last fifty years will flourish with God's
blessing for many years to come."

"The new church is a plain Gothic structure built of red and stock
bricks, and is 90 feet long by 70 feet wide. It consists of a nave,
chancel, and two aisles, surmounted with a timber roof of three spans
covered with red tiles. There are two entrances, one in Chatham Road
and the other in Darley Road; the former surmounted by a figure of
St. Michael in conflict with the serpent. There is also a small tower
containing a bell weighing 2 cwt. There is a commodious crypt beneath
the chancel. The latter contains three rows of stalls for the clergy
and choir, and is lighted by six small windows of stained glass, in
each of which there is an angel exquisitely executed from the Studio
of Messrs. Lavers, Barraud and Westlake. It is also intended to place
a reredos of white marble here. The altar is approached from the nave
by nine steps. The nave communicates with the aisles by large Gothic
arches supported on octagonal pillars of 'granolith'--a material
composed of granite chips and Portland cement. The floor is of blocks
of wood and the building is 'pewed' with open benches to accommodate
about 750 worshippers. The pulpit (a memorial gift by Mr. Verdon's
widow) is of carved oak with a base of Caen stone, and is reached by
a short flight of stone steps. Behind the pulpit in the south aisle
is the organ, which has been brought from St. Luke's church, Derby,
and was built by Mr. Abbott of Leeds. At the west end of the church
is a font (which is in memory of a loved grandchild of Mr. Cazenove)
of veined marble supported by nine columns of polished granite and
Caen stone. It is surmounted by a polished oak cover and is a gift 'to
the glory of God and the memory of Philip Henry Hessey.' The church
is warmed with hot air. It has been erected by Mr. J. D. Hobson, from
the designs of Mr. White, F.S.A. The total cost is £4500, which (with
the exception of £800 unpaid at the commencement of the dedication
services) had all been contributed by the relatives and friends of the
late H. B. Verdon and Philip Cazenove. The church is provided with
prayer books, hymn books, and kneelers throughout."

The Dedication of St. Michael's Church was on September, 10, 1881, by
the Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Rochester--the service commenced at
11.30 a.m.

    Lord of hosts, to thee we raise
    Here a house of prayer and praise!
    Thou thy people's hearts prepare
    Here to meet for praise and prayer.

    O King of glory come,
    And with thy favour crown
    This temple as thy dome,
    This people as thy own!
    Beneath this roof, O deign to show,
    How God can dwell with men below.

    Here may thine ears attend
    Our interceding cries,
    And grateful praise ascend,
    All fragrant to the skies!
    Here may thy word melodious sound,
    And spread celestial joys around!

    Here may thy future sons
    And daughters sound thy praise,
    And shine like polish'd stones,
    Through long succeeding days!
    Here Lord, display thy sov'reign power,
    While temples stand, and men adore!

ALL SAINTS' TEMPORARY IRON CHURCH, is situated in Victoria Bridge Road,
near the south-eastern gate of Battersea Park. It will accommodate 200
persons. All seats free and unappropriated. It was opened for Divine
Service Saturday, Sept. 6th, 1879, at 3.30 p.m. The Rev. Canon Clarke,
Vicar of Battersea, and Rural Dean, preached the first sermon. His text
was:--"Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this
seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his."--II. Timothy ii. 19. An
income of £200 a year from the Rochester Diocesan Fund has been granted
to the clergyman of the district, the Rev. A. E. Bourne, formerly
Curate of St. Peter's, Battersea. The new provisional district of "All
Saints," Battersea, has been formed out of three parishes, viz., St.
Mary's, St. Saviour's and St. George's, to meet the requirements of the
rapidly increasing population of the neighbourhood. Roughly speaking
the boundaries of the new district are the London, Chatham and Dover
Railway from the river to the London and South Western Railway, along
the London and South Western Railway to Park Grove; down Park Grove,
across the open land to the Park round the north corner. The only
exceptions are the streets between Queen's Road and Russell Street
which remain part of St. Philip's parish.

"God is greatly to be feared in the assembly of His saints and to be
had in reverence by all them that are about Him."

    Let us then with gladsome mind
    Praise the Lord for He is kind;
    For His mercies shall endure
    Ever faithful, ever sure.

ROCHESTER DIOCESAN MISSION, St. James', Nine Elms. Clergyman in charge,
Rev. William George Trousdale, B.A.--The Mission Buildings situated
in Woodgate Street and Ponton Road, Nine Elms Lane, have lately been
enlarged by the Misses Baily of Esher, at a cost of over £1200. The
church contains sittings for 250. There are in connection with the
Mission, Sunday Schools, two Mothers' Meetings, Girls' Bible Class,
Girls' Sewing Class, Recreation Room for Girls, Provident Club, Penny
Bank. It is also proposed to establish shortly a Working Man's Club
and a Crêche, for which there is ample accommodation in the Mission
Buildings. Services--Sunday at 11 and 7, Wednesday Evening at 8,
Children's Service the 3rd Sunday in the month at 3.

ST. ALDWIN'S MISSION CHAPEL, (Rochester Diocesan Society) Poyntz Road,
Latchmere Road, was opened on Sunday, 12th September, 1880, at 7 p.m.
It will comfortably seat 300 persons. St. Aldwin's district is formed
partly out of St. Saviour's and partly out of Christ Church parish--the
latter ceded the Colestown Estate, the former handed over Latchmere
Street and Road, and the cluster of streets which is surrounded by
the triangle of railways. Mission Curate--Rev. T. B. Brooks, M.A., 2,
Nevil Villas, Albert Road. Mission-woman--Mrs. Monk, Mission House, 25,
Poyntz Road.

"Both young men and maidens, old men and children; let them praise the
name of the Lord."--Psalm cxlviii. 12-13.

"Blessed is the people who know the joyful sound: they shall walk O
Lord, in the light of thy countenance."--Psalm lxxxix. 15.

    "Thy power to save!" thrice happy they
    Who taught of Thee delight to pray,
        Rejoicing in Thy love:
    Now clothed in righteousness divine,
    The heirs of glory,--soon to shine
        In realms of joy above.

    A pastor's warning voice!--"Take heed,
    Whilst by the sunny banks you feed
        Of England's good old Church!
    Live close to Jesus;--not on forms,
    Lest, unprepared for coming storms,
        You founder in the lurch!

    Heed well the Word--the joyful sound,
    The Gospel of our God--still found
        To point straight up to heaven:
    Beware of sounds of 'yea and nay,'
    For God's own 'yea' is man's sure stay,
        Not Pharisaic leaven."

    The presence of the Lord is found
    Where love, and joy, and peace abound,
        Fruits of the Spirit's Word;
    Where Christian hearts unite in prayer
    In Jesus' Name--the Lord is there,
        Jehovah, Jesus, God.

There are two Roman Catholic places of worship in Battersea, viz.:--

THE CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF MOUNT CARMEL AND ST. JOSEPH, situated in
Battersea Park Road, was built by a lady of the name of Mrs. Boschetta
Shea (of Spanish extraction, and whose husband was an Irish Protestant)
in 1868, and put under the management of the late Very Rev. Canon
Drinkwater, who retained the control of the church and adjacent
buildings, including the Convent of Notre Dame and Girls' School, the
St. Joseph's Boys' School, and the New Church lately erected. The Duke
of Norfolk gave £500 towards the building fund for the new church.

Within the grounds adjoining the Convent are kitchen and flower gardens
with a gravel walk and a very compact grotto.

In the month of May, the month dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary,
there are processions in the grounds every Sunday afternoon in which
boys and girls take part, singing hymns in honour of "our Lady." The
Boys' School is of an oblong shape, and is governed by the Xaverian
Brothers, including several pupil teachers. Subjects taught: reading,
writing, arithmetic, grammar, English, Roman and Grecian history,
geography, mathematics and the Roman Catholic religion.

CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART, Trott Street, is an Iron building with
turret and cross, opened 10th of October, 1875. It was built by the
Countess of Stockpool at a cost of £700. The freehold site of land
including one acre cost £1,000. Priest, Rev. McKenna. New Schools have
lately been erected.

THE OLD BAPTIST MEETING HOUSE, York Road, Battersea, was erected in
1736, but a church was not formed for sixty-one years afterwards.
About the year 1755 the Rev. Mr. Browne became Officiating Minister,
and for forty years preached to a small congregation, but as his age
and infirmities increased the number of attendants on his ministration
diminished till he had not more than four or five persons to hear him;
enfeebled and disheartened he resigned, and in 1796 a young man, then
a Student at Bristol Academy, afterwards well known as the Rev. Joseph
Hughes, M.A., supplied the pulpit with so much acceptance that in 1797
a church was constituted, and he, in the 29th year of his age, was
elected to be the pastor. The constitution and order of the church thus
formed may not be uninteresting, it reads as follows:--

"We, the undersigned, desirous of the privilege connected with
religious fellowship and a stated ministry, having already sought the
Lord, and we trust, chosen Him as our Sovereign and Friend, do hereby
give ourselves afresh to each other, according to the Divine Will,
that being united in a Christian Church, we may render mutual aid, as
fellow-travellers from earth to heaven; and, though we firmly embrace
the sentiments peculiar to the Baptists, yet, espousing with equal
determination the cause of evangelical liberty, we welcome to our
communion all who give evidence of a change from sin to holiness; who
appear to love our Lord Jesus Christ, who are willing to be accounted
learners in His school, and who wish to be enrolled in connection with
us. And we hope it will be our united endeavour, and the endeavour of
such as may hereafter be added to us, by all means to keep the unity of
the Spirit in the bond of peace; to mingle faithfulness, spirituality
and affection in our intercourse; strictly to regard the Divine
Ordinances--so far as we know them; and to walk before the Church, our
families, and our God, worthy of our heavenly calling."

Under the Rev. Joseph Hughes's ministry the work of God took deep root
here and greatly flourished. By his energy, learning and eloquence,
and his connexion with different local societies for the promotion of
religious worship, he was brought acquainted with Mr. Wilberforce,
Mr. Vansittart, and Mr. Perceval, by whose aid he established the
"Surrey Mission Society." At a meeting of the Religious Tract Society
he afterwards promulgated the idea of an institution for supplying
not only the inhabitants of the British Isles, but _the whole world_,
with copies of the Holy Scriptures; and hence arose the Bible Society,
of which Mr. Hughes was joint Secretary until his death. Mr. Hughes
expired on Thursday evening, October 3, 1833, in the 65th year of his
age. His mortal remains were interred in Bunhill Fields.

"John Foster derived much spiritual benefit from his friendship with
Mr. Hughes of Battersea Chapel with whom after he left Chichester he
resided for a time, and it increases not a little the debt of gratitude
due from the Christian community to that excellent man, that though his
own authorship was limited to a few pulpit productions, and his sphere
of duty was one of action rather than of meditation, he performed the
noble office of stimulating the exertions and cherishing the piety of
one of the most original and influential religious writers of his age."

Mr. Foster says "the company who made sometime since an establishment
at Sierra Leone in Africa, have brought to England twenty black boys
to receive European improvements, in order to be sent when they are
come to be men to attempt enlightening the heathen nations of Africa.
They have been placed in a house at Battersea for the present till some
kind of regular and permanent establishment shall be formed, and I
have been requested, and have agreed to take the care of them for the
present."--_Foster's Life and Correspondence_, Vol. I. p. 58-60, edited
by J. C. Ryland, A.M.

The Rev. Edmund Clark held the Pastorate from Spring of 1834 to
Mid-Summer, 1834--three months. He was succeeded by the Rev. Enoch
Crook, who was two years and a half Pastor of the Church, viz., from
Mid-summer, 1834, to 1837. A tablet to his memory is placed on the
wall in the vestry of the chapel. Subsequently from January, 1838,
it was the scene of the labours of the Sainted Israel May Soule, who
for thirty-six years was Pastor of the Church of Christ assembling
here; he faithfully discharged his ministerial duties; his doctrine
was truly evangelical; his services unremitting and his deportment
exemplary--beloved by his flock and highly esteemed by Christians of
other denominations for his large liberal-heartedness, sound judgment
and unsectarian spirit. It was he who first conceived the idea of
enlarging the Old Chapel and had a model in his study to represent the
style of alteration which his own mind suggested with a view to meet in
some humble measure the growing and increased spiritual wants of the
neighbourhood. However, instead of enlarging the Old Chapel a second
time, he used strenuous efforts and succeeded in having the Old Chapel
demolished and a commodious place of worship erected on its site. The
Chapel was enlarged and repaired in 1842 and the freehold purchased
and put in trust at a total cost of £1,000. In 1868 the requisite
land for further enlargement of the Chapel was purchased. The present
handsome Chapel involved an outlay of £5,000, erected in the Romanesque
style from the designs of Mr. E. C. Robins. The accommodation on
ground-floor and galleries is for 900 worshippers. The open timbered
roof is one span, and the building is faced with white bricks with
Bath stone dressings. It was constructed by the late Mr. John Kirk.
The same architect has recently enlarged East Hill Chapel, Wandsworth.
The memorial stone of the New Chapel was laid by Field Marshal Sir G.
Pollock, G.C.B., G.C.S.I., on the 8th of June, 1870, being the 33rd
year of the Rev. I. M. Soule's ministry; the building was completed by
the end of the year, so that Mr. Soule had the pleasure of conducting
the opening services January 1st, 1871. Previously to his coming to
Battersea Mr. Soule for seven years had been Pastor of the Baptist
Church, Lewes, Sussex. He was born Dec. 25, 1806, died unexpectedly
Nov. 8, 1873, having preached with his usual energy on the previous
Sunday, when in the morning he took for his text Rev. xxii. 14, and
afterwards administered the Lord's Supper. The funeral service was
conducted Nov. 15th, by the Rev. D. Jones, B.A., of Brixton, assisted
by the Rev. Edward Steane, D.D., the Rev. Robert Ashton and other
ministers. At the grave, in the presence of about 7,000 persons, the
Rev. Samuel Green delivered an address. On the following day, Sunday,
November 16, Funeral Sermons were preached in Battersea Chapel to
overflowing congregations, in the morning by the Rev. D. Jones, in the
evening by the Rev. Dr. Angus.

His mortal remains lie interred at St. Mary's Cemetery with those
of Amelia his wife, where in token of fond affection to his memory
a beautiful obelisk of grey polished granite has been erected.
The epitaph states "that he consecrated himself in early life to
the service of God; that he received during a long and faithful
ministry signal tokens of Divine favour in the number who through his
instrumentality were brought to a knowledge of the Saviour. His earnest
constant labours to the last for the education and welfare of the young
are of untold benefit, while rich and poor alike have lost in him a
kind and sympathizing friend, whose loving and Christian spirit will
long be remembered in Battersea." A monumental tablet to his memory is
about to be erected in the Chapel.

    "Servant of Christ well done,
      Rest from thy loved employ,
    The battle fought, the victory won,
      Enter thy Master's joy."

In a small room under the south gallery is erected a beautiful marble
tablet _in memoriam_ of the Rev. Joseph Hughes, M. A. Also under the
north gallery are erected tablets in affectionate remembrance of Henry
Tritton, Esq., for many years a resident in the Parish of Battersea,
and whose mortal remains lie buried under the Chapel. He died 20th of
April, 1836, aged 48 years. Also Amelia, his wife, third daughter of
Joseph Benwell, Esq., died March 28, 1855, aged 64 years.

April, 1874, Mr. Soule was succeeded by the Rev. Charles Kirtland, who
still continues to fill the pastoral office.

    Let strangers walk around
      The city where we dwell;
    Compass and view the holy ground,
      And mark the building well.

    The orders of Thy house,
      The worship of Thy court,
    The cheerful songs, the solemn vows,
      And make a fair report.

"God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit
and in truth."--_John iv._ 24.

Deacons--G. Lawrence, Cubbington Cottage, Battersea Rise; H. M. Soule,
St. John's Hill, Battersea Rise; W. H. Coe, York Road, Battersea;
G. Mansell, 1, Cologne Road, St. John's Hill; Philip Cadby, 24,
St. Peter's Square, Hammersmith; Thomas Sadler, 88 Spencer Road.
Chapel-keeper--D. Rayner, 31, Verona Street, York Road.

[Illustration]

BAPTIST TEMPORARY CHAPEL, Surrey Lane. This building having stood
beyond the time allowed by Government was condemned by the Board of
Works. The Church which formerly worshipped there have removed to
the Lammas Hall until a permanent building can be raised. A fund is
established which progresses slowly. A. Peto, Esq., The Boltons, South
Kensington, is the Treasurer to the Building Fund. Rev. C. E. Stone is
the Pastor. Deacons, J. Weller and F. T. Ashfield. It is worthy of note
that this was the second Baptist Church formed in Battersea.

"I have set my affections to the house of my God."--_I. Chron. xxix._ 3.

    "Christ is the Foundation of the house we raise;
    Be its walls salvation, and its gateways praise!
    May its threshold lowly to the Lord be dear;
    May the hearts be holy that worship here!"

[Illustration]

BATTERSEA PARK TEMPORARY BAPTIST CHAPEL was erected in 1869, at a cost,
including the purchase of freehold land, of £2,000. In 1872 a front
gallery was added which cost £175. In 1876 a piece of ground was bought
at the back of the Chapel for £105, and new class-rooms and vestries
erected at an additional cost of £420. The grand object of the London
Baptist Association next to the promotion of spiritual work, is the
extension of their bounds by the erection of at least one new Chapel
in each year. The Rev. C. H. Spurgeon, the third President (1869), had
the pleasure of seeing a chapel erected in this region where the poor
would be gathered. He was able to purchase and give to the enterprise
this fine freehold site in Battersea, and leaving the front portion
thereof for a future chapel, he expended the grant of the Association
in erecting a school-chapel, seating 630 persons, which was put in
trust without incumbrance. The neighbourhood being too poor to bear
the burden of debt, and no wealthy friends being forthcoming this was
thought to be the wiser course. The Rev. W. J. Mayers commenced his
pastorate in the beginning of the year 1870. Upon his resignation
he was succeeded by the Rev. Alfred Bax, who for two years or more
preached with much acceptance. On the 2nd of April, 1877, the Rev. T.
Lardner became the officiating minister. Deacons of the Church--J. S.
Oldham, William Weller, W. Chaplin.

In 1866, Mr. E. Carter shoemaker by trade, residing at 16, Henley
Street, commenced holding a Sunday School in his own hired house.

One Sunday Afternoon, two young students from the Metropolitan
Tabernacle, called at his residence to see if they could hold
religious services there, but it does not appear that they at that
time succeeded. Afterwards the School was removed to 32, Russell
Street, then to 53, Arthur Street, where Mr. Rees, a young man from
the Metropolitan Tabernacle conducted Morning and Evening Services
regularly every Lord's day. Subsequently he was succeeded by Mr.
William Wiggins of the Rev. C. H. Spurgeon's College who on account of
the place "being too strait" made arrangements to open Norton Villas,
Battersea Park Road, for Sunday School and regular Sunday Religious
Services, and at stated times on Week Evenings. Norton Villa, was
opened as a place of Worship, October 20th, 1867. In 1868, a Baptist
Church was formed by the late Rev. I. M. Soule of Battersea Chapel and
Mr. Wiggins was recognised as the Pastor, the Church consisted of forty
members and a Congregation of about a hundred persons besides a Sunday
School of one hundred and twenty Children; this place however, became
too small to accommodate the persons desirous of attending. It was
proposed therefore, to erect an Iron Chapel on a site near York Road
Station. But those friends who made the proposition, on hearing that
the Baptist Association had an intention to build a permanent Chapel
in Battersea Park Road, abandoned the idea of purchasing and erecting
an Iron Chapel so in 1870, when the present Chapel was completed, the
Baptists who had met at Norton Villa for worship, (Mr. Wiggins, having
resigned his pastorate there) united with the Church at Battersea Park
Chapel, under the Pastoral care of the Rev. Walter J. Mayers.

"Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the
manner of some is; but so much the more, as ye see the day
approaching."--_Hebrews x._ 25.

    "Great the joy when Christians meet,
    Christian fellowship, how sweet!
    When, their theme of praise the same
    They exalt Jehovah's name."--_Burder._

"Truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus
Christ."--_I. John i._ 3.

BAPTIST (PROVIDENCE) CHAPEL, Meyrick Road, is a brick building--seats
350. It is intended to have galleries when it will then accommodate
500. The memorial stone was laid by Mr. H. Clark, October 5th, 1875,
on which are engraved the words "The fear of the Lord is the beginning
of wisdom."--_Psalm cxi._ 10. Cost of Chapel including the purchase of
freehold land on which the Chapel is erected £2,400. G. G. Stanham,
Esq., Architect; Messrs. Turtle and Appleton, Builders, Battersea.
Officiating Minister, Mr. Philips. Deacons, H. Clark, S. Stiles, Joseph
Palmer.

"Philip said (to the Eunuch), If thou believest with all thine heart
thou mayest (be baptised); and he answered and said, I believe that
Jesus Christ is the Son of God."--_Acts viii._ 37.

"For we are all partakers of that one bread."--_I. Cor. x._ 17.

    "Come in, ye chosen of the Lord,
      And share the bounties of His house;
    His dying feast, His Sacred word,
      Our joys our hopes, and solemn vows.

    Come share the blessings of that board,
      Which Jesus for His Saints has spread;
    Receive the grace His ways afford,
      Commune with us and Christ our Head."--_G. Smith._

[Illustration]

THE NEW BAPTIST CHAPEL, Chatham Road Bolingbroke Grove.--A suitable
plot of ground was obtained at a cost of £150; cost of Chapel, about
£850. Services were conducted by Charles and Thomas Spurgeon. The
building will seat 258 persons.

The cause was commenced about fourteen years ago in a very humble way
by Mr. G. Rides, a working man, who, previously to the erection of the
above place of worship, held meetings in his own hired house, Swaby
Street. William Higgs, Jun., Architect; Higgs and Hill, Builders.

WESLEYAN METHODIST MISSION ROOM AND SUNDAY SCHOOLS, Everett Street,
Nine Elms, opened 1871. Mr. John Farmer, Steward and Superintendent.
Now closed.

UNITED METHODIST FREE CHURCH, Church Road, Battersea.--The Memorial
Stone was laid by James Wild, Esq., May 25th, 1858. Another stone was
laid by Mrs. Bowron, Sept. 22, 1864, when the Chapel was enlarged. S.
J. Stedman, Architect.

THE UNITED METHODIST FREE CHURCH, Battersea Park Road.--The School-room
at the back of the Chapel in Landseer Street was built in 1865, at a
cost of £500, and it was used as a preaching Station. In 1871-2 the
present Chapel was built, at a cost of £2,200. Seats about 600. Has
a Lecture-room and Schools underneath the Chapel. The freehold was
purchased in 1876 and cost £400. Rev. James Whitton is now Resident
Minister in connexion with the 7th London Circuit.

"The brotherly covenant."_--Amos i._ 9.

    "One in heart, and one in hand,
      One for all, and all for one;
    Love shines through this Christian band,
      Kindled from the heavenly sun."--_Edmeston._

In the District known as New Wandsworth, near the Bolingbroke Grove,
Wandsworth Common, is a large and increasing population which presents
an opening for Christian enterprise.

The Free Methodists of the 7th London Circuit have undertaken this
work. Preaching has been commenced in a room No. 89, Bennerly Road, and
a society of twelve members have been formed.

A suitable freehold site has been secured in the Mallinson Road at a
cost of £400, and it is proposed to erect a Chapel and Schools thereon.

The whole scheme will involve an outlay of £4,000, but at present it is
only intended to build the School, which is estimated will, with the
ground, cost nearly £1,200.

PRIMITIVE METHODIST CHAPEL, New Road, was built in 1874. The Chapel
including the purchase of freehold, cost about £1,030. Seats 200. Mr.
Murphy, Architect; Mr. Stocking, Builder.

Now a new and much more commodious Chapel is erected. Respecting its
origin the following account may not be uninteresting.

About twelve years ago the friends of Hammersmith Station decided to
Mission this neighbourhood. First of all they opened two small parlours
at 32, Russell Street, Battersea Park Road, as a Preaching Station and
afterwards secured premises in Stewart's Lane, which they converted
into a small Chapel, and here, for several years, were numbers of
conversions; but, like all small and out-of-the-way places, it became a
feeder to other churches. It was at last decided to secure a suitable
site and build. First a lease of a piece of land in the New-Road,
and eventually the freehold was secured, and a small school-room was
erected on part of the site, which has since been used for school
and preaching services. The building being altogether inconvenient,
it was decided, after prayerful and mature deliberation, to build a
Chapel which should be more in harmony with the requirements of the
neighbourhood. Mr. A. J. Rouse, the Architect, was consulted, plans
were prepared, and tenders invited. The contract was let to Mr. J.
Holloway, builder, Wandsworth, for £2000, which, with the debt of £690
on the school-room and Architect's fees, will bring it up to £2800.
The building is plain, neat, and substantial, with stone facings. It
will accommodate about 600 persons; there are two aisles, a gallery on
the sides and at one end, with a back gallery for the organ. Adjoining
the chapel is a large class-room capable of holding sixty children.
Externally, the building is one of the most imposing and attractive in
the neighbourhood, and one of the cheapest in London.

On Whit-Monday, 1878, the memorial-stones were laid. The opening
address was delivered by Mr. G. Harris. It was practical, earnest,
and eloquent. Stones were laid by R. Burns, R. Adams, and R. Morton,
Esqs., and Messrs. J. J. Flux, W. Bayford, W. Gibbs, Rev. T. Penrose
for G. Palmer, Esq., M. P., Mr. S. Fortune, Circuit Steward, for the
Sunday-schools, Mesdames W. and H. Baker, and Miss Whiting.

At the end of the Chapel is a Tablet in memory of Alfred James Rouse,
Architect, who met with his death in the collision between the Princess
Alice and the Bywell Castle on the Thames, September 3rd, 1878. Life is
short but Art is long.

"Therefore be ye also ready for in such an hour as ye think not the Son
of Man cometh. _Matt._ 24. 44."

The first Primitive Methodist preachers were, William Cowes and Hugh
Borne, in 1807. When the first Primitive Methodist Church was formed it
consisted of ten members; now it numbers over 180,000 and employs more
than a 1,000 ministers.

"Where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the
midst of them."--_Matthew xviii._ 20.

PRIMITIVE METHODIST CHAPEL, Grayshott Road, was erected in 1875. The
stone was laid by J. T. Hawkins, Esq., M. A., for the Right Hon. Earl
Shaftesbury, K. G., November 21, 1874. Rev. J. Toulson, Superintendent,
7th London Circuit. Another Stone was laid by a Shareholder of the
Artizans, Labourers and General Dwelling Company Limited. Rev. W. E.
Crombie, Minister. Mr. A. J. Rouse, Acting Architect; J. Lose, Builder.
The Chapel seats 400, and cost about £2,600. The entrance to the Chapel
is up a flight of steps; the Schools are underneath the Chapel.

"Jehovah, Shammah." _Ezek. xlviii._ 35. "Allelujah!" _Rev. xix._ 1.

In the Wandsworth Road, near Grayshott Road, is an old milestone which
marks the space between that and the Royal Exchange five miles, and
Whitehall four and a half miles.

PRIMITIVE METHODIST CHAPEL, Plough Lane,--In the year 1855, a few
Primitive Methodists, residing in the neighbourhood of York Road,
with the view of having their hearts knitted more closely together in
holy love by Christian fellowship and prayer, met from house to house
for this purpose to worship God--In this way they continued to meet
till the year 1858, when the Firm of Orlando Jones & Co. gave them
the use of their Reading Room. Here as elsewhere they preached the
Gospel of Jesus Christ and their numbers steadily increased. In 1870, a
piece of land was secured in Knox Road, and the firm above mentioned,
helped them to erect an Iron Chapel with a School-room underneath.
This building having stood beyond the time allowed by Government was
condemned by the Board of Works. It was opened in June 1871, and was
finally closed in September 1880. About this time the Estate of the
Late Rev. I. M. Soule was sold, and an effort was made to secure a plot
of land thereon, situated in Plough Lane. The freehold site selected,
was purchased, and a substantial brick Chapel with School-room
underneath erected at a cost of £2,300. The Chapel will accommodate
400 worshippers. It was opened October 24th, 1880, on which occasion
Sermons were preached by the Rev. J. Baxter. I will command My blessing
upon you--Lev. 25. 21.

    Command Thy blessing from above,
      O God on all assembled here:
    Behold us with a Father's love
      While we look up with filial fear.

    Command thy blessing Jesus, Lord,
      May we thy true disciples be;
    Speak to each heart the Mighty Word,
      Say to the weakest, follow me.

    Command thy blessing in this hour,
      Spirit of Truth and fill the place
    With wondering and with healing power,
      With quickening and confirming grace.

    With Thee and these forever found,
      May all the Souls who here unite,
    With harps and songs Thy throne surround,
      Rest in Thy love, and reign in light.

ST. GEORGE'S MISSION HALL, Stewart's Lane, formerly belonged to the
Primitive Methodists, and was used by them as a chapel.

    "Glory, honour, praise and power
    Be unto the Lamb for ever;
    Jesus Christ is our Redeemer,
    Hallelujah! Amen."

"Walk about Zion, and go round about her: tell the towers thereof. Mark
ye well her bulwarks, consider her palaces; that ye may tell it to the
generations following. For this God is our God for ever and ever: he
will be our guide even unto death."-_Psalms xlviii._ 12-14.

[Illustration]

BATTERSEA CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH (Independent), Junction of Bridge Road
and Surrey Lane South, fifteen minutes' walk from Clapham Junction and
York Road Stations, ten minutes' from Battersea Station; is an edifice
constructed of Kentish rag with Bath stone dressings, and has a tower
with spire at the north end of the building. The interior is spacious
and lofty; the pews are made of pitch-pine, varnished, and will
accommodate, including the seats in the south gallery, 600 persons.
Cost of erection £4,500. H. Fuller, Architect; F. W. Sawyer, Builder.
With respect to its history, this is the first Congregational Church
in Battersea. It owes its origin to the Surrey Congregational Union,
under whose directions services were held in the Lammas-Hall previous
to the erection of the previous Church building. The Foundation Stone
was laid by the Rev. J. G. Rogers, B. A., of Clapham, September 17th
1866. It was opened Tuesday, October 12th, 1867, and the Dedication
Service was conducted by the Rev. Samuel Martin, of Westminster. The
present is the third pastoral settlement, the first minister being the
Rev. J. Scott James, of Cheshunt College, who commenced his ministry in
Battersea. In 1870 the Rev. J. S. James resigned to take the Pastorate
of the Church at Stratford-on-Avon, and was succeeded April, 1871, by
the Rev. Joseph Shaw, of Boston, Lincolnshire. In 1878 the Rev. Joseph
Shaw resigned and was succeeded by the Rev. Thomas Jarratt, the present
Pastor.

The Sunday School and Lecture Hall, with class-room adjoining, was
opened in April, 1874. The entire cost of the building, furnishing,
heating, lighting, and fencing the ground was £510, the whole of which
was discharged July, 1875. Of this amount a generous friend gave £300
through the Rev. Joseph Shaw; and thirty-two pounds were contributed by
the Sunday School Children. The room will seat 300 persons.

The "Church Manual" for 1870 states "This is Congregational, we
regarding the New Testament as the only infallible guide in matters
of Church order, and learning from it that each Church is authorized
to elect its officers, receive and dismiss its members, and act
authoritatively and conclusively upon all questions affecting its
purity and administration. We recognize the Lord Jesus Christ as
our King and Sole Ruler in spiritual things, and His Word as our
Statute-Book and only Standard. The membership. We believe this should
be composed only of regenerated persons who are received into the
Church on profession of their faith in Christ, or by letters from
sister Church. Members of other churches, acting on this principle, are
also received on their producing proper certificates. Candidates for
membership should make their application direct to the Pastor. Deacons,
Mr. John Allen, Mr. Thomas C. Tabor; Treasurer, Mr. Samuel James
Roberts; Secretary, Mr. Edwin John Eason."

The seats are free, not sold or rented, but are allotted for family
convenience and to preserve order. The revenues of the Church are
chiefly derived from the weekly free-will offerings of the church and
congregation.

"How amiable are thy tabernacles, O Lord of Hosts."-_Psalm lxxxiv._ 1.

    "The Hill of Zion yields
      A thousand sacred sweets,
    Before we reach the heavenly fields
      Or walk the golden streets."


STORMONT ROAD CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH Lavender Hill.

The Schools are in connexion with the above place, where the worship
is at present conducted. They are built from designs by J. H. Vernon
Esq., and are capable of accommodating 450 scholars. There are eight
class-rooms, and there is every convenience for carrying on Sunday
School work.

The site, which is freehold, as is also the adjoining one for the
future Church was the gift of the London Congregational Union. The cost
of the school buildings was £2820. The foundation stone was laid on
July 27th, 1878, by J. Kemp Welch Esq., and the buildings were opened
on February 18th 1879, when Sermons were preached by the Revs. R. W.
Dale of Birmingham, and Dr. Raleigh. A Church is now being formed under
the Pastorate of the Rev. R. Bulmer, late of Whitby, who commenced his
ministry on Sunday the 2nd of October, last. It is proposed to commence
the building of the Church as soon as possible. The building according
to plans will seat 850. The whole of the Christian work in connection
with the above place is in a very active state, and include Band of
Hope, and Improvement Societies.

WESLEYAN METHODISM IN BATTERSEA.--It is not easy to determine the time
of the first appearance of Methodism in Battersea. From Mr Wesley's
Journal it appears that in his later years he was accustomed to pay
an annual visit to this neighbourhood, including Chelsea, Wandsworth
and Balham. In the absence of any definite record of the matter we may
assume that some persons in Battersea came under his influence. A half
century elapsed before the Methodist Society found a local habitation
in Battersea, even then, not destined to be a permanent one. A small
Chapel, chiefly at the cost of the late Rev. J. Partes Haswell, was
erected on the site of the present one in the Bridge Road West in 1846;
the foundation stone being laid by the late Mr. Scott of Chelsea, and
the works being executed by Mr John Sugden, Builder, of Bermondsey New
Road.

The building was let to the late Mr. J. Boughton and others, for the
use of the Wesleyan Society by Mr. Haswell, and it continued in their
occupation until 1855. The agitations which disturbed the Wesleyan
Connexion in 1851 and following years were felt with great severity
in Battersea. The congregation and Society were so weakened by the
separation that took place, that the Lessees, after allowing the Chapel
to be occupied for a time by the seceding party, finally surrendered
their lease into Mr. Haswell's possession again.

In the meantime, however the Wesleyan Society, began to recover from
the great depression into which it had fallen; and in 1858, on their
behalf, Messrs. Bell and Molineux, with the late Mr. Holloway of
Battersea, took the former Chapel on a short lease from the persons
into whose hands it had passed; and ultimately it was purchased by a
duly appointed body of Trustees in 1862.

In 1864, aided by a munificent donation of £425 from Mr. J. Steadman of
South Lambeth, and by other liberal contributions, the Trustees were
enabled greatly to enlarge the building, nearly doubling its former
area; and finally in 1871, it was brought to a state of completion, by
the erection of a Gallery and an Organ, with other minor improvements.
It now furnishes accommodation for 700 people.

The usual congregation amounts to about 500, of whom more than 300 are
members of the "Society."

The Rev G. Bowden, and the Rev. E. Hawken, are the present circuit
ministers, the latter being resident in Battersea, and taking special
charge of the Wesleyan Church there.

The usual times of service on Sundays are, 11 o'clock in the morning,
and 6.30 in the evening. There are also Weekly Prayer Meetings on
Sunday mornings at 7 a.m.; and on Monday evenings at 7 p.m.; and a
Week-night service on Tuesday evenings at the same hour.

In 1870, in view of the growing Educational necessities of the
Wesleyan Body, the General Wesleyan Education Committee decided on
the establishment of another Training College, in addition to that
which they had in Westminster. Circumstances led to the placing of
this on the Southlands estate, near the Battersea High Street Railway
Station. It furnishes accommodation for 110 female Students, who are
under training for the Office of Teachers; and who in due time are
employed in all parts of the kingdom in Schools under Inspection. They
constitute, it need hardly be said a very interesting portion of the
congregation. The Rev. G. W. Olver, B.A., is the Principal, and Mr.
James Bailey the Headmaster of the College.

A Sunday School with 280 Scholars in average attendance meets twice
on each Sunday, and is conducted with more than the usual efficiency.
There are also the customary benevolent and religious agencies
maintained by the Wesleyan Church here; and Day Schools for Girls and
Infants are connected with Southlands Training College.[1]--W.S.

[Footnote 1: In olden time this place was called the "Retreat," a
spacious mansion, stuccoed, situated in the midst of an extensive
pleasure ground and shrubbery it belonged to Valentine Morris,
Esq.--but when Sir George Pollock became the occupier he changed the
name to that of Southlands, jocosely punning at the same time upon its
former name by saying that he _never made a retreat_. Afterwards Sir
George Pollock removed to Clapham Common. Near it stood Manor House the
seat of Richard Morris Esq. Son of Valentine Morris Esq. a large brick
edifice in the style of George the First's reign.]

    O happy souls that pray
      Where God delights to hear!
    O happy men that pay
      Their constant service there!
    They praise thee still; and happy they
      Who love the way to Sion's hill.
    They go from strength to strength,
      Through this dark vale of tears,
    Till each o'ercomes at length,
      Till each in heaven appears:
    O glorious seat! Thou God, our King,
      Shall thither bring our willing feet.

We know for certain Battersea on one occasion was honoured with the
preaching of the Rev. John Wesley as recorded in one of his Journals,
dated November 4, 1766, wherein this indefatigable servant of Christ
states, "I preached at Brentford, _Battersea_, Deptford and Welling,
and examined the several societies." His Journals state that he
preached repeatedly at Wandsworth, as the following extracts will show.
Wednesday, November 16, 1748. "In the afternoon I preached to a little
company at Wandsworth who had just begun to seek God; but they had a rough
setting-out, the rabble gathering from every side, whenever they met together
throwing dirt and stones, and abusing both men and women in the grossest
manner. They complained of this to a neighbouring Magistrate, and he promised
to do them justice; but Mr. C. walked over to his house, and spoke so much in
favour of the rioters, that they were all discharged. It is strange, that a
mild, humane man could be persuaded by speaking quite contrary to the truth,
(means as bad as the end) to encourage a merciless rabble in outraging the
innocent! A few days after, Mr. C., walking over the same field, dropped down
and spoke no more! Surely the mercy of God would not suffer a well-meaning man
to be any longer a fool to persecutors."

Tuesday, January 17, 1758, "I preached at Wandsworth, a gentleman come
from America, has again opened a door in this desolate place. In the
morning I preached in Mr Gilbert's house. Two Negro servants of his,
and a Mulatto, appear to be much awakened. Shall not his (God's) saving
health be made known to all nations?"

Thursday, 8th February, 1770, the Rev. John Wesley writes, "I went to
Wandsworth. What a proof we have here that 'God's thoughts are not our
thoughts!' Every one thought that no good could be done here; we had
tried for above twenty years, very few would even give us the hearing,
and the few that did seemed little the better for it. But all of a
sudden crowds flocked to hear; many are cut to the heart; many filled
with peace and joy in believing; many long for the whole image of God.
In the evening, though it was a sharp frost, the room was as hot as a
stove, and they drank in the word with all greediness, and also at five
in the morning, while I applied 'Jesus put forth his hand and touched
him, saying I will: be thou clean!'"

Previously to the erection of the present commodious Wesleyan Chapel
in Bridge Road West, the friends of the Wesleyan Communion met for
worship in a large upper room over a carpenter's shop in King Street.
Subsequently they removed to premises now belonging to Mr. G. King,
Ironmonger, in the vicinity of Surrey Lane.

John Cullum, an artist by profession, who resided in Battersea, was
connected with the Wesleyan-Methodists. He was a zealous Open-air
Preacher and Temperance Advocate. It is said that he was the first
person who introduced _Teetotalism_ in Battersea and held meetings for
that object. He died in 1852, aged 51 years.

This good man kept a record of important events which had transpired
in Battersea. From a manuscript of his, entitled "The Antiquities
of Battersea," the following extract is taken--it will be read with
interest.

"There is also a Wesleyan Chapel and Society here, which originated
at a small house in Bridge Road, near the Bridge, after which it was
removed to Mr Steadman's yard, in which a large room was fitted up for
Divine Worship, and a School formed under the fostering care of Mr.
Lark and Mr. Bridge, assisted by other zealous female teachers. In
conformity with the principles of Mr. Wesley the Society has, under
God's blessing, increased from one Class to three Classes, besides a
Sunday School which is in a flourishing condition. Mr. T. Boughton, the
present Superintendent, is assisted by twelve male and female teachers
who still persevere in the good work of instructing the young. The
present Chapel was built in King Street and was considered necessary
both from the fact that there was not room for the persons who
assembled for worship and other circumstances relative to the Society
at that time. The Chapel was opened by three sermons being preached on
Sunday, October 11, 1840, by the Rev. W. Atherton, Rev. J. P. Haswell,
and the Rev. J. Scott. And on Monday evening, October 12, a meeting
of the Friends connected with the Chapel was held, at which the Rev.
J. P. Haswell presided, one of the chief friends to the cause at this
place. The object of the meeting was to excite a spirit of enquiry with
respect to the ministry of the Word and Christian instruction of youth
in order to benefit the morals of the neighbourhood and salvation of
souls.

"There is connected with this Chapel a Stranger's Friend Society,
whose object is to search out the most forlorn and distressing cases
of poverty and sickness. Its plan is carried out by Visitors who read
to the sick a portion of the Holy Scriptures and engage in prayer with
them, and by conversation and tracts endeavour to instruct so as to
lead the heart to the Saviour, and relieve their temporal wants by
affording them food, &c. rather than money. Many instances of good
have been the result, and the conversion of some to the truth. Its
founders were Messrs. Cooper and Stanley, Wandsworth; its present
officers, Messrs. Stedman and Evans, Secretary and Treasurer, Cullum,
Bridge, Winter, &c., Battersea. There is a small Branch of the Wesleyan
Missionary Society carried on here--a Tract Society, &c. May the Lord
prosper the work that many may be enlightened by the Gospel of Jesus
Christ and made partakers of his great Salvation."

 METHODISTIC CHRONOLOGY.

 1703, June 17. The Rev. John Wesley born.

 1725, Sept. 19. Mr. Wesley ordained by Bishop Potter.

 1735, Oct. 14. Mr. Wesley sailed as a Missionary for America.

 1739. The Wesleyan-Methodist society established.

 1744, June 25. The first Methodist Conference held in London.

 1751, April 24. Mr. Wesley preached his first sermon in Scotland, at
 Musselburgh.

 1769. Messrs. Boardman and Pilmoor sailed for America.

 1784. The "Deed of Declaration" enrolled in the Court of Chancery.

 1785, Aug. 14. The Rev. John Fletcher died.

 1786. The Methodist Missions in the West Indies established.

 1788, Mar. 29. The Rev. Charles Wesley died.

 1791, Mar. 2. The Rev. John Wesley died.

 1814, May 3. Dr. Coke died on his passage to Ceylon.

 1821, Feb. 16. The Rev. Joseph Benson died.

 1832, Aug. 26. Dr. Adam Clark died.

 1833, Jan. 8. The Rev. Richard Watson died, in the 53rd year of his
 age.

 1834. The Wesleyan Theological Institution established.

 1838. Members in the Methodist society, 1,062,427.

 1839. Centenary of Wesleyan Methodism.

The first Œcumenical Methodist Conference held in London September,
1881.

WESLEYAN CHAPEL, QUEEN'S ROAD.--The following is a brief account of the
rise and progress of Wesleyan Methodism in this neighbourhood. In the
year 1871, in the order of God's providence, a good man and his wife
removed from the Great Queen's Street Circuit to Frederick Street, now
known as Newby Street, Wandsworth Road. On October 17, 1871, they very
kindly opened their houses for a class meeting, to be held in connexion
with the Society of which they were members. Here on Sunday, December
3rd of the same year, the first preaching Service was conducted. As the
room became inconveniently crowded at the Sunday Services it was felt
that a more suitable place was needed, so after a short time a
Billiard Room capable of holding 150 persons, situated at No. 588,
Wandsworth Road, was secured, and on April 21, 1872, was opened for
Public Worship. On June 2nd, about 30 children were garnered in and
a Sunday School commenced. Notwithstanding the unsuitableness of the
place and other difficulties which had to be surmounted, the work of
the Lord was carried on in this place until February, 1879; in the
meanwhile however, strenuous efforts were made in order to obtain an
eligible piece of ground on which to erect a more commodious building.
In 1878, the freehold site situated in Queen's Road, was purchased for
£1,140, and a temporary Iron Chapel erected, with seats for 500, at a
cost of about £600, this temporary Sanctuary was opened February 14th,
1879. This Structure while making ample provision at first was soon
found to be inadequate to meet the requirements of a neighbourhood
where the population was large and rapidly increasing, hence the
Trustees and Friends endeavoured to raise £4,000, by means of grants
and loans from the late Sir Francis Lycett's Fund, the Metropolitan
Chapel Fund, etc., towards the entire outlay of about £7,000, (the
estimated cost of the permanent building etc.) leaving about £3,000, to
be raised by funds in the Lambeth Circuit. On August 28th, 1881, the
New School-Room which holds about 320 persons, was opened for Public
Worship and Sunday School purposes. The Iron Chapel having been sold to
make way for the New Chapel now in course of erection which is expected
to be opened for Divine Service about May 1882.

On Friday July 15th, 1881, the Memorial Stone was laid at 3 o'clock, by
Lady Lycett, when the Rev. G. W. Olver, B. A., gave an address.

By express desire of the Local Committee the Italian Style has been
adopted, and the building will be erected in Bath Stone and Picked
Stocks--Sitting accommodation for 1,000 will be provided, on the
ground floor 650, and in the galleries 350. Adjoining the Chapel large
School-Rooms have been erected with Vestry, Class-Rooms, and the
usual offices. The Architect is Mr. James Weir, of the Strand. James
Holloway, Builder, Marmion Road, Lavender Hill. "_That thine eyes may
be open upon this house day and night._" 2. _Chron. vi._ 20.

    Christ is our corner stone,
      On him alone we build;
    With his true saints alone
      The Courts of heaven are filled;
    On his great Love Our hopes we place
      Of present grace and joy above.

    O! then with hymns of praise
      These hallowed courts shall ring;
    Our voices we will raise
      The Three in one to sing;
    And thus proclaim in joyful song,
      Both Loud and Long, that glorious Name.

    Here gracious God do Thou
      For evermore draw nigh;
    Accept each faithful vow,
      And mark each suppliant sigh,
    In copious shower on all who pray
      Each holy day Thy blessing pour.

    Here may we gain from heaven
      Thy grace which we implore:
    And may that grace once given,
      Be with us evermore:
    Until that day, when all the blest
      To endless rest are called away.

FREE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, Queen's Crescent, Queen's Road. Some 6 years
or more ago, Mr. Crosby began the above work in Arthur Street Mission
Hall, a small Hall situated in the lowest part of Battersea, and
the work under his superintendence has been so manifestly owned and
blessed of God, that it was some time since deemed imperative on his
part as the Lord's steward, to seek further to extend this effort in
His cause. As far as the means of himself and friends allowed, and in
the exercise of much consecrated faith and self-denial, a plot of land
was secured, and an iron building erected adjacent to the most needy
part of the neighbourhood, where the extended work is now carried on.
The building, however, is of a temporary character, the Board of Works
granting a license only of two years on iron buildings, and according
to an agreement entered into in faith of the Lord's continued favour,
a brick building must be erected in the course of 4 years. The present
building, owing to the speedy growth of the work is even now too small.
An effort is being made to purchase the freehold, and erect a building
capable of holding about 700 persons, at an estimated cost of £2,750.
W. Crosby, Pastor, E. V. Kelly, Treasurer.

In addition to other lay helpers (including Scripture Readers and
Bible Women) there are six agents at work in Battersea connected with
the London City Mission. This is an excellent Institution, having
for its object the Evangelization of the poor of London. Mr. David
Nasmith founded the London City Mission May 16, 1835. The general
business of the London City Mission is conducted at the Mission House,
Bridewell Street, Blackfriars, by a Committee consisting of an equal
number of members of the Established Church and of Dissenters; and the
Examiners of Missionaries consist of an equal number of Clergymen and
Dissenting Ministers, all of whom, with the Treasurers, Secretaries
and Auditors and Members of the Committee, ex-officio. These gentlemen
give practical illustration of the purest ideal of Christian unity by
showing, notwithstanding the peculiar church organization to which each
may be attached, how harmoniously they can work together on one common
platform under the guidance of their Divine Head for the extension
of the Redeemer's Kingdom by bringing back wanderers from God to the
fold of the one Great Shepherd, Jesus Christ. The number of City
Missionaries engaged in the Metropolis is about 450.

The Corner Stone of Trinity Mission Hall, Stewart's Lane, promulgated
and subscribed to by the members and adherents of Trinity Presbyterian
Church, Clapham Road, was laid Wednesday, June 20, 1877, by the
Rev. David Macewan, D.D. in the presence of a very large concourse
of people. It is estimated that the Hall will accommodate about 400
persons; and in addition to the Hall there is a School-room which
will probably accommodate 150 to 200 scholars The building cost about
£2,500. The land, which is freehold, has been purchased for £400. The
Hall is built of brick with box stone dressings. W. H. Robbins, Esq.,
Architect; B. E. Nightingale, Builder. Mr. Cameron is the Minister.

The handsome edifice belonging to the Presbyterian Church of England,
Clapham Road, cost about £12,000, built through the unremitting energy
and pious zeal of the late Dr. John MacFarlane and was for many years
the scene of his earnest, faithful and successful pastoral labours.

PLYMOUTH BRETHREN.--A body of Christians calling themselves "The
Brethren" came into existence about 1830-1835 in Plymouth, Dublin,
and other places in the British Islands, extended throughout the
British Dominions, and in some other parts of the continent of Europe,
particularly among the Protestants of France, Switzerland, and Italy,
and also in the United States of America. Many of the first religious
communities found in Plymouth and elsewhere, were retired Anglo-Indian
officers, men of unquestionable zeal and piety and those communities
began to appear almost simultaneously in a number of places. Mr.
Darby, regarded as an influential member, afterwards separated from
them with many adherents. Mr. Darby was previously a Barrister,
moving in the highest circles of Society, and under deeply religious
impressions became a Clergyman of the Church of England, lived for
some time in a mud-hovel in the County of Wicklow devoting himself
to his work. The Plymouth Brethren object to National Churches as
too Latitudinarian, and to other Dissenters as too Sectarian; their
doctrines however agree with those of most Evangelical Protestant
Churches, but they recognize no ordination of minister; their tenets
may be stated thus:--Original Sin, Predestination, the efficiency of
Christ's Sacrifice, the merits of his obedience, the power of his
intercession, the gracious operations of the Holy Ghost in Regeneration
and Sanctification; they also generally maintain millenary views,
usually practise the Baptism of believers without regard to previous
infant baptism, they acknowledge the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper and
administer it to one another in their meetings usually every Sunday,
or first day of the week. In 1851, they had 132 places of Worship
in England and Wales. This year 1879, the (exclusive) Brethren have
erected a small place of Worship in High Street, near Battersea Railway
Station.

A Railway Arch in Latchmere Road, has been utilized for a Gospel Hall
where the (Open) Brethren meet for worship.

Situated in the rear of Lawn House Laundry, Orkney Street, is a small
place of worship called the "_Little Tabernacle_" erected at the sole
expense of Mr. John Strutt, where meetings for Bible Readings, Breaking
of Bread, Exhortation, and Prayer are held every Lord's day.

THOMAS BLOOD, generally known by the appellation of _Colonel Blood_,
was a discarded officer of Oliver Cromwell's Household; he was
notorious for his daring crimes and his good fortune. He was first
distinguished by an attempt to surprise the Castle of Dublin, which
was defeated by the vigilance of the Duke of Ormond, and some of his
accomplices were executed. Escaping to England he with his confederates
meditated revenge, and actually seized the Duke of Ormond one night
in his coach in St. James' Street, intending to hang him, and had got
him to Tyburn, where, after struggling with his would-be assassins in
the mire, the Duke was rescued by his servants, 6 Dec, 1670. Blood
afterwards in the disguise of a clergyman, attempted to steal the crown
and regalia from the Jewel Office in the Tower, 9th May, 1671. He was
very near succeeding, for he had bound and wounded Edwards the keeper,
and was making off with his booty, but was overtaken and seized with
his associates. Blood, who was accused as being the ringleader in
this conspiracy, when questioned he frankly owned that he had taken
part in the enterprise, but refused to discover his accomplices, "the
fear of death (he said) should never induce him to deny a guilt or
betray a friend." All these extraordinary circumstances made him the
subject of general conversation. Charles II. moved by the influence
of popular excitement, or from idle curiosity, granted him a personal
interview. Blood confessed to the king that "he had been engaged with
others in a design to kill him with a Carbine (said to be in the
vicinity of Battersea Priory) where His Majesty often used to bathe
(beneath the garden belonging to the Priory was a Subterranean passage
leading to the river-bank); that the cause of this resolution was the
severity exercised over the consciences of the godly, in destroying
their religious assemblies; that when he had taken his stand among the
reeds on the other side of the river full of these bloody resolutions
he found his heart checked with an awe of Majesty; that he not only
relented himself, but diverted his associates from their purpose; that
he had long ago brought himself to an entire indifference about life,
which he now gave for lost; yet he could not forebear warning the king
of the danger which might attend his execution; that his associates had
bound themselves by the strictest oaths to revenge the death of any of
their confederacy and that no precaution nor power could rescue any one
from the effects of their desperate resolution." Yet notwithstanding
these and other offences, the King not only pardoned but granted him
an Estate of £500 per annum, thus this man who had been regarded as a
monster became a kind of favourite. He lived to enjoy his pension about
ten years, till being charged with fixing an imputation of a scandalous
nature on the Duke of Buckingham, he was thrown into prison, where he
died August 24, 1671.

Battersea Priory is a castellated building reported to have been a
Convent for Ursuline Nuns.

PRIOR was the Ecclesiastical title formerly given to the head of a
small Monastery, to which the designation of Priory was applied. The
Prior ranked next in position to the Abbot. Similarly the term Prioress
was applied to the head of a female convent. The title of Grand Prior
was given to the Commandants of the Grand Military Priories of the
Orders of John of Jerusalem, of Malta and of the Templars.

Alien Priories were cells of the religious houses in England which
belonged to foreign Monasteries. The whole number is not exactly
ascertained; the Monasticon has given a list of 100. Weever, p. 338,
says 110. The houses belonging to the several religious orders which
obtained in England and Wales, were, Cathedrals, Colleges, Abbeys,
Priories, Preceptories, Commandries, Hospitals, Friaries, Hermitages,
Chantries, and free Chapels. These were under the direction and
management of various officers; the dissolution of houses of this kind
began as early as 1312, when the Templars were suppressed; and in 1323
their lands, churches, advowsons, and liberties, here in England were
given by Ed. II., st. 3, to the prior and brethren of the hospital of
St. John at Jerusalem.

In the years 1390, 1437, 1441, 1459, 1497, 1505, 1508, and 1515,
several other houses were dissolved, and their revenues settled on
different Colleges in Oxford and Cambridge. From the year 1312 in the
reign of Edward the 2nd to the close of the reign of Henry VIII, 1547,
the number of houses and places suppressed from first to last as far
as any calculations appear to have been made were 23, 4; besides the
friars' houses and those suppressed by Wolsey, and many small houses
of which we have no particular account. Henry VIII founded six new
bishoprics of which Westminster was one, which was changed by Queen
Elizabeth into a Deanery with twelve prebends and a school.

Persons desirous of obtaining information respecting Monasteries should
consult Dugdale's _Monasticon Anglicanum_, (Lond. 1655, 1661, 1673).
Also a new and greatly Enlarged Edition by Bandinel, Caley and Ellis,
published in 1817, 1830, and reissued in 1846.

URSULINES, or Nuns of St. Ursula: a sisterhood founded about the
year 1537, by Angela Merici at Brescia, the community numbering at
that time, as many as six hundred. St. Angela was born in 1511, at
Desenzano, on the Lago de Garda, and died at Brescia, 21st March, 1540.
The institution was formally approved of and confirmed by Paul III.,
in 1544, and it was on this occasion that the name of Ursulines was
given to the order after the famous St. Ursula; a Virgin Martyr of the
Roman Catholic Calendar especially honoured in Germany, and especially
at Cologne, which is the reputed place of her Martyrdom. The Legend
substantially, in its present form, can be traced as far back as the
end of the 11th or beginning of the 12th Century, as it is to be
found in the revised Edition of the Chronicle of Sigebert of Gemblours
(Pertzs Rerum Germanicarum Scriptores VIII. 310) which was made between
1106 and 1111. "According to their writer, Ursula was the daughter
of the British King, Deonatis; and on account of her distinguished
beauty, was sought in marriage by the son of a heathen Prince who was
originally named Holofernes, but afterwards when a Christian was named
Ætherius. Her father was forced to yield to the demand; but Ursula made
it a condition that her suitor should become a Christian, and that she
should be allowed the space of three years, during which she proposed,
in company with her maidens to each of whom should be assigned a
thousand companions and a three-oared galley to convey them, to make a
voyage of pious pilgrimage. The conditions were accepted; the maidens
to the number of 11,000 were collected from all parts of the world,
and at length the expedition set sail from the British Coast. Arriving
at the mouth of the Rhine they sailed up the river to Cologne, and
thence upwards to Basel, where leaving their galleys, they proceeded
by land to visit the tombs of the Apostles at Rome. This Pilgrimage
accomplished, they descended the river to Cologne, which however,
had meanwhile fallen into the hands of an army of Hunnish invaders
under the headship of a Chief, who although not named is plainly the
Attila of history. Landing at Cologne in ignorant security, the pious
Virgins fell into the hands of these barbarous heathens by whom they
were all put to the sword with the exception of Ursula, who for her
beauty sake was reserved as a prize for the chief. She too, however, as
well as another maiden, who had at first concealed herself in terror,
demanded to join her companions in Martyrdom and then the full number
of 11,000 victims was made up. Heaven, however, interposed a host of
Angel Warriors who smote the cruel Huns; Cologne was again set free;
and in gratitude to their Martyred intercessors the citizens erected
a church on the site still occupied by the Church now known under the
name of St. Ursula." Soon after the Reformation this legend became the
Subject of a most animated controversy "on one hand the Centuriators
of Magdeburg exposed its weak points with unsparing severity, on the
other a Jesuit father, Crombach devoted an entire folio volume to the
vindication of the narrative." Secular writers deny that the Legend
has any foundation in historical facts; they trace no reverencing of
Virgins in the Martyrologies and missals till the latter half of the
9th Century. Many suggestions have been offered by way of explanation
of its startling improbability viz., the alleged number of the Martyred
victims 11,000. One of these is that the belief arose from the name
of a Virgin who was really the companion of Ursula's Martyrdom called
according to the legend and according to a Missal which belonged to
the Sorbonne, Undecimilla for a number. The Roman Martyrology mentions
the Saint and her Companion, without stating their number. St. Ursula
was the Patroness of the Sorbonne. The record of the Martyrdom in
the Calender thus begins. "_Ursula et Undecim Milla_ V. V." Ursula
and Undecimilla Virgins was easily mistaken for "Ursula et _Undecim
Millia_ V. V. Ursula and _Eleven thousand Virgins_." Respecting further
remarks concerning this Legend, suffice it to say, "that while the
most learned of the Catholic hagiographers, putting aside the idea
of a directly and unintentionally invented narrative, have traced the
origin of the legend to a real historical massacre of a very large
number of Christian Maidens, which took place during the invasion of
Attila, and soon after the celebrated battle of Chalons in 451, all the
modern writers of that Church are agreed in regarding the details of
the narrative, the number, the pilgrimages to Rome, the interposition
of the heavenly host, etc, as legendary embellishments of the Medieval
Chroniclers."

Young as Angela was she had been elected the first Superior of her
Order and had ruled it well for the two or three years she lived.

At first the Ursulines practised charity and devoted themselves to the
education of Children without being bound to the rules of Monastic
Life. In 1571-2 Pope Gregory XIII. made the Society a religious order,
subject to the rule of St. Augustine, at the solicitation of Charles
Borromeo the additional privileges thus conferred were afterwards
confirmed by Sextus V. and Paul V. "They add to three religious vows
a fourth to occupy themselves gratuitously in the education of their
own sex. The order is under the Superintendence of the Bishops. In the
18th Century, it had 350 Convents. Many governments which abolished
Convents in general, protected the Ursulines on account of their useful
labours, particularly in the practice of Christian Charity towards the
sick. The _Dictionnaire de Theologie_ published in 1817, says that
300 Convents of these sisters existed at that time in France, their
dress is black with a leather belt, and a rope for the purpose of
self-scourging. Their congregations however did not universally accept
the Monastic rule; and in France and Italy, there were Societies, the
members of which only took the vow of Charity, and gave instruction
like their sisters. Their dress was that commonly worn about 200 years
ago by widows." In some countries however, their dress appears to have
been white, and to have varied in other respects as well as colour. The
Ursuline Sisters have several Educational Establishments in Ireland, in
England and the United States.

BATTERSEA GRAMMAR SCHOOL, St. John's Hill. Founded under the
Trust of Sir Walter St. John A.D. 1700. Scheme revised A.D. 1873.
GOVERNORS:--William Evill, Jun., Esq., Robert Hudson, Esq., Rev. Evan
Daniel, M.A., W. G. Baker, Esq., John Costeker, Esq., _Treasurer_,
Rev. Canon Clarke, M.A., James H. T. Connor, Esq., Richard Hadfield,
Esq., Thomas D. Tully, Esq., Charles Few, Esq., James Stiff, Esq.
HEAD MASTER:--Rev. E. A. Richardson, M.A., late Scholar of Queen's
College, Oxford. ASSISTANT MASTERS:--W. H. Bindley, B.A., late Scholar
of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, M. Michael, Bachelier-es-Lettres,
University of Paris, C. P. Martinnant, University of London, Mr. Badel,
Writing Master, Serjeant Major Doberty, Drill Master.

_Scheme of Instruction._ RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION, (according to the
principles of the Church of England) forms a regular part of the
teaching of each class. Those boys are excepted from the teaching
of the Church Catechism and Prayer Book, whose parents, (being
Dissenters), express a desire to that effect, in writing to the Head
Master. THE COURSE OF STUDY comprises the English, Latin, Greek,
French and German Languages; Writing, Arithmetic, Book-keeping and
Mathematics. History and Geography; Natural Science and Drawing.
French is taught throughout the School; German in the three highest
classes only. DRAWING, (Freehand, Model and Landscape), is taught in
all classes. TECHNICAL DRAWING, (including Practical Geometry, and
Perspective), and Painting are taught only in the two upper classes.
SCIENCE, (comprising Physics, Chemistry and Botany), is taught only in
the upper classes. Vocal Music is taught.

_School Term and Holidays._ The period of instruction is divided into
three terms, as nearly equal as possible. The holidays are four weeks
at Christmas, three weeks at Easter, and six weeks at Mid-summer,
commencing about the 1st of August.

 1st Term commences  September 7th;  ends December 7th.
 2nd.     do.        January 8th;    do.  March 29th.
 3rd.     do.        April 23rd;     do.  July 31st.

_Tuition Fees._ The annual payment for boys above 12 years of age,
£12; for boys under 12, £10. The fees are to be paid terminally and in
advance.

_Regulations for Admission._ Application for admission must be made
either in person or by writing to the Head Master. No boy will be
admitted, who shall be found on examination unable to read English,
to write correctly and legibly from dictation and to work sums in the
first four rules of arithmetic. The boys must attend at the school for
examination on the first day of each term, at two o'clock p.m. The
Governors require a term's notice to be given on the removal of a boy,
or the payment of the terminal fee.

THE SOUTHLANDS PRACTISING MODEL SCHOOLS.--Girls' School, seven years
and upwards, 6d. per week. Infants' Boys and Girls to seven years, 3d.
per week.

ST. PETER'S SCHOOLS. Fee, 9d. per week.

ST. JOHN'S, Usk Road. Boys 1st, 2nd, and 3rd classes, 4d. per week, the
rest 3d. Girls 1st class 3d., the rest 2d. Infants 2d. per week.

ST. SAVIOUR'S INFANT. Infants 2d. Girls 3d. over 10 years of age 4d.
per week.

CHRIST CHURCH NATIONAL SCHOOLS, Grove Road, Falcon Lane, were erected
from designs of Mr. C. E. Robins, selected in competition, and were
built by Messrs. Lathey Brothers at a cost of £3,000. Accommodation is
given for 200 boys, 200 girls and about the same number of infants.
There are two residences, one for the Master and the other for the
Mistress. The buildings form a picturesque group facing the roads on
three sides with intermediate play-grounds for each sex. Mr. Robins
was also the Architect for the British Schools at Wandsworth and other
Educational Buildings in the Parish, as the Walter St. John's Upper
Schools and the extension of the Training College, the Chapel of which
was decorated by him some seven years since. The office of E. C.
Robins, F.R.I.B.A., etc., is No. 14, John Street, Adelphi.

ST. GEORGE'S NATIONAL SCHOOLS, built in 1857 from designs furnished
by Joseph Peacock, Architect, Bloomsbury Square. Cost about £4,500
including a Parliamentary Grant of £1,500. The Schools were enlarged
in 1870. The Infant Schools were established in 1826. The following
text of Scripture is engraved on a stone outside the buildings.

"From a child thou hast known the Holy Scriptures, which are able
to make thee wise unto Salvation through faith which is in Christ
Jesus."--_II. Timothy iii._ 15.

Boys and Girls 4d. per week for one in a family, 6d. for two brothers
or sisters, and 7d. for three in a family, Infants 2d.

Erected outside St. Mary's Schools, Green Lane, is a tablet bearing
the following inscription:--"National Schools for Girls and Infants.
These buildings were erected by Miss Champion on land granted by Earl
Spencer, and opened April 10th, 1850, for the education of the children
of the poor on Scriptural principles." This tablet is placed by order
of the Parishioners in Vestry assembled in Grateful Remembrance of her
Munificent Charities to the Parish of Battersea.--Rev. J. S. Jenkinson,
M.A., _Vicar_. W. H. Wilson, John Hunt, _Churchwardens_, 1855.

Within the Parish of Battersea there were in the year 1879, Fourteen
Voluntary Schools, viz.:--
                                                           SIR WALTER ST. JOHN'S                            Accommodation.
Up-stairs Middle-class for Boys.
Terms, 15s. to 25s. per quarter.
Ditto Ground-floor Public Elementary School for Boys.
Payments, 6d. and 9d. per week. Head Master, Mr.
Taylor; Assistants, Mr. Jones, B.A., Mr. E. Mills,
Mr. Oliver, and Mr. Blackman.                              489

ST. MARY'S, Green Lane. Girls; Mistress, Miss Keene.
Infants' Governess; Miss Paul. Boys: Master, Mr. T.
Ryder. Fees, Boys and Girls 4d. a week, of which
at the year's end 2d. a week will be returned to all who
have attended more than 250 times. Infants 3d. a week,
of which 1d. a week will be returned to regular
attendants at the year's end.                              606

CHRIST CHURCH, Grove Road. Master, Mr. Weston.
Mistress, Miss Paton. Infants, Miss Kemp.                  590

ST. JOHN'S, Usk Road. Head Master, Mr. Henry Smith.
Mistress, Miss Hook. Infants' Governess, Mrs. Hughes.      658

ST. PETER'S, Plough Lane. Head Master W. F. Normon.
Assistant, W. Beasley.                                     180

ST. MARK'S, Battersea Rise. Infant Schools, Miss E.
Townsend. 4d. per week.                                    99

ST. GEORGE'S, New Road. Head Master, Mr. John Douthwaite.
Mistress, Miss Salter. Infants' Governess, Miss
Holding.                                                   609

ST. GEORGE'S Girls and Infants' Schools, Ponton Road, Nine
Elms. Mistress, Miss B. Smith. Infants' Governess,
Miss A. E. Basnett.                                        184

ST. SAVIOUR'S, Orkney Street. Mistress, Miss Merrett.      201

WESLEYAN MODEL, High Street.                               557

ST. MICHAEL'S, Bolingbroke Grove, (mixed). Mistress, Mrs.
M. Watson. 3d. per week.                                   152

GROVE BOYS' BRITISH, York Road, Established 1799, Enlarged
1840. Master, Mr. James Hammond.                           196

GIRLS' BRITISH, Plough Lane. Mistress, Miss Mansell.
Assistant, Miss Willett.                                   297

ST. JOSEPH AND ST. MARY, Battersea Park Road.              466

                                               Total       5284

In 1879 there were Nine Board Schools in Battersea:--[1]

Name of     Builder.       When Opened.   Boys' Master. Girls'       Infants'
School.                                                 Mistress.    Mistress.

Bolingbroke Mr. Spinks,    Dec. 1, 1873   Mr. Pink.     Miss         Mrs.
Road.       Clapham                                     Deacon.      Pink.
            Junction.

Battersea   Mr. Sheppard,  April 14, 1874 Mr. Stokes.   Mrs. Cox.    Mrs.
Park.       Bermondsey.                                              Parker.

Winstanley                 Jan. 6, 1874   Mr. Vince.    Miss Gale.   Miss
Road.                                                                Blackburn.

Sleaford    William Higgs, Aug. 10, 1874  Mr. Wheaton.  Miss Pook.   Miss
Street.     South Lambeth.                                           Browett.

Gideon      Wall, Bros.,   May 16, 1876   Mr. Lee.      Miss Dunn.   Mrs.
Road.       Kentish Town.                                            Pyle.

Mantua                     Sept. 1876     Mr. Mansell.  Miss         Miss
Street.                                                 Spalding.    Spalding.

Holden                     Feb. 1877      Mr. Morris.   Miss         Miss
Street.                                                 Macleod.     Marshall.

Tennyson    Mr. Tyerman.   Feb. 1877      Mr. Philips.  Miss Davis.  Mrs.
Road.                                                                Lower.

Belleville  Mr. Thompson,  Aug. 13, 1877  Mr. Barter.   Mrs.         Mrs.
Road.       Camberwell                                  Christopher. Watson.
            Green

N.B.--There are Sunday Schools connected with the different places of
Worship some of which are held in Board Schools.

LAMBETH DIVISION LONDON SCHOOL BOARD.--Accommodation Area and Cost of
New Permanent Schools.

Name of School.  Children       Area      Cost of        Cost of
                 Accommodation. sq. feet. Site.          Building.

Sleaford Street  1,055          23,000    £2543 1s. 4d.  £8399 19s. 3d.

Tennyson Road    837            28,000    £2376 18s. 6d. £7590 9s. 1d.

Gideon Road      776            19,700    £3404 18s. 3d. £9921 7s. 5d.

Holden Street    1,101          26,887    £3074 14s. 1d. £10305 1s. 7d.

Battersea Park   1,334          32,670    £2378 5s. 5d.  £7442 12s. 9d.

Bolingbroke Road 792            54,426    £768 5s. 5d.   £5980 15s. 10d.

Mantua Street    1,105          32,670    £2334 5s. 4d.  £11337 1s. 1d.

Winstanley Road  1,127          17,792    £3152 5s. 5d.  £7948 4s. 7d.

Belleville Road  828                      £1661 6s. 2d.  £10165 19s. 11d.

                 8,955

[Footnote 1: Since the First Edition of this Work was published,
Tennyson Road School has been enlarged in order to accommodate 400
Scholars. Landseer Street Board School is held in the large room under
the Chapel and accommodates 200 boys. J. R. Ayris, Head Master. Ponton
Road Board School, Nine Elms, opened for girls 9th June, 1879, and for
boys August 18th, the same year, has accommodation for 350, Master,
Mr. Chase. Mistress, Miss Nutcher. On the South side of Battersea Park
Road, between Lockington Road and Havelock Terrace a large Board School
has been built to hold about 1,400 children. Christ Church Schools,
Falcon Grove, have passed for the present into the hands of the School
Board for London. It is in contemplation to erect four more Board
Schools in Battersea.]

The first building erected for the London School Board, situated in one
of the most densely crowded localities of the East-end, was opened in
July, 1873, and since that time no fewer than 152 large Schools have
been completed with a total accommodation for about 182,000 children,
and an average accommodation for 872 children each. In addition to
these, between 30 and 40 schools are now in course of erection, and
about 50 other schools have been determined upon, thus the Board is
most active in providing for the educational requirements of the
Metropolis. Mr. E. R. Robson, F.R.I.B.A., is the Architect of this
Board.

The Board School in Winstanley Road accommodates about 1130 children,
the site is the shape of a rhomboid, and the School has been skilfully
planned to make the most of it.

Gideon Road Board Schools, the boys and girls' departments are built
upon arches to form covered play-grounds underneath. As the site
contains sufficient area, the infants' department has been erected as a
separate building.

The Board Schools are elaborately fitted up. Books, slates, pencils,
etc., for the scholars are provided. The terms for tuition at the Board
Schools in Battersea are:--Bolingbroke Road, boys, girls, and infants
2d. each. Battersea Park, Mantua Street, Winstanley Road, Tennyson
Road, and Sleaford Street, boys and girls 3d. each, infants 2d. Gideon
Road and Holden Street on the Shaftesbury Park Estate, boys and girls
4d. each, infants 3d. each.

School Board Visitors in Battersea:--Mr. Armstrong, Mr. Dalton, Mr.
Myland, Mr. Fane, Mr. Chamings and Miss Sydney.

London Ratepayers' School Board Association Established 8th October,
1870.

London or Metropolitan School Board elected 29th Nov., 1870.

Regulations for School Boards issued 21st December, 1870. First
election of Metropolitan School Board (Lord Lawrence, Chairman).
Arrangements for erecting or adapting buildings for New School Board,
December, 1871.

London School Board Education Scheme proposed 23rd June, 1871.

The London School Board occupied their new buildings on Victoria
Embankment, 30th September, 1874.

Second Metropolitan School Board elected; religious party strongest.
Sir Charles Reed, M.P., Chairman, November, 1878.

Sir Charles Reed, Chairman of the School Board for London, died March
25, 1881. Was interred at Abney Park Cemetery, Wednesday, March 30,
1881.

Fourth Metropolitan School Board elected, 1879.

E. N. Buxton, Esq., Chairman of the London School Board.

 LONDON SCHOOL BOARD, LAMBETH DIVISION.[1]
 MISS HEN. MULLER,
 T. E. HELLER, ESQ.,
 CHAS. R. WHITE, ESQ.,
 REV. G. M. MURPHY,
 JAMES STIFF, ESQ.,
 STANLEY KEMP-WELSH, ESQ.

[Footnote 1: The Division of Lambeth is thus defined: The Division of
Lambeth shall include the Parliamentary Borough of Lambeth, all the
parts of the Parishes of Lambeth and Camberwell outside the Boundary of
the said Borough and the Wandsworth District, as described in Schedule
B. and Part I. of the Metropolitan Local Management Act, 1855, (that
is to say) the Parishes of Clapham, Tooting Graveney, Streatham, St.
Mary, Battersea, (excluding Penge), Wandsworth, and Putney, (including)
Roehampton. There are 63 Board Schools in the whole of the Lambeth
Division for the present year (1879), and 45,000 children on the
rolls.]

The Elementary Education Act of 1870 aims at the compulsory supply of
school accommodation in those districts in which there is a deficiency.
The general survey under the Education Act of the School provision of
every Parish in England did not commence till the 1st of May, 1871.

By virtue of the Elementary Education Act, 1876, and of the Bye-Laws
of the School Board for London, the following will be, on and after
the 1st January next, the state of the law as regards children, their
parents and employers within the Metropolis.

I.--REGULATIONS AFFECTING PARENT AND CHILD. The term "parent" includes
guardian, and every person who is liable to maintain, or has the
actual custody of the child. The parent of every child between the
ages of 5 and 14 must cause such child to receive efficient elementary
instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic.[1] A.--By the Bye-Laws
of the School Board, which continue in force, the parent of every
child between the ages of 5 and 13 must cause such child to attend an
efficient School during the whole time for which the School is open.
The following cases are excepted:--(_a_) where a child is receiving
efficient instruction in some other manner. (_b_) where a child is
not less than 10 years of age has received a certificate that he
has passed the 5th Standard of the Code of 1871: in which case he
is wholly exempt from attendance at School. (_c_) where a child of
not less than 10 years of age has obtained a certificate that he is
beneficially and necessarily at work: in which case he is exempt from
the obligation to attend School more than 10 hours a week. (_d_) where
the child cannot attend School through sickness or other unavoidable
cause. If a parent commits a breach of the Bye-Laws he may be summoned
before a magistrate, and fined 5s.; and the child may be ordered to
attend School. B.--By the Act of 1876, if either--(1) the parent of a
child above the age of five years who is prohibited from being taken
into full-time employment, habitually and without reasonable excuse,
neglects to provide efficient elementary instruction for his child;
or, (2) a child is found habitually wandering, or not under proper
control, or in the company of rogues, vagabonds, disorderly persons,
or reputed criminals; the parent may be summoned before a magistrate,
and the child may be ordered to attend School. If the attendance order
be not complied with, the parent, if in fault, may be fined 5s.; and
in cases of continued non-compliance, the fine may be repeated at
intervals not less than a fortnight. The child may also, under certain
circumstances, be sent to a certified day industrial School, there to
be detained during certain hours each day for a stated period; or to an
ordinary certified industrial School, there to be wholly detained for a
stated period, which, however, must not extend beyond the time when the
child will reach the age of 16 years. In either case, the parent may be
made to contribute to the maintenance, of the child. II.--REGULATIONS
AFFECTING EMPLOYER AND CHILD. The term "employer" includes a "parent"
who employs his child by way of trade or for the purposes of gain.
A.--No person may employ, in the year 1877, any child who is under the
age of nine years; or in subsequent years, any child who is under the
age of 10 years. B.--No person may employ a child within certain limits
of age, unless the child shall have obtained either a certificate of
proficiency that he has reached the fourth Standard of the Code of
1876; or a certificate that he has previously made 250 attendances at
least, in not more than two Schools, during each year for a certain
number of years, whether consecutive or not, as follows:--

                                    Unless they shall have
                                    obtained a Certificate.

      Age of Children,          Either of             Or; of
      who may not be            Proficiency,          previous due
      employed.                 according to the      Attendance
                                undermentioned        for the
                                Standard.             undermentioned
                                                      number of years.

In
1877  Children between 9 and    Fourth                Two
      12, with the exception    Standard of
      of those who were 11      1876
      before the 1st January,
      1877

1878  Children between 10 and   Ditto.                Two
      13, with the exception
      of those who were 11
      before the 1st January,
      1877

1879  Children between 10 and   Ditto.                Three
      14, with the exception
      of those who were 11
      before the 1st January,
      1877

1880   Children between 10 and  Ditto.                Four
       14

1881*  Children between 10 and  Ditto.                Five
       14

* and subsequent years

The penalty incurred by an employer who acts in contravention of the
above provisions is a sum not exceeding 40s. But no penalty will be
incurred by the employer (_a_) if the child was lawfully employed
on the 15th August, 1876. (_b_) If the child obtains efficient
instruction by attendance at School for full time or in some other
equally efficient manner. (_c_) If the employment be during a specified
time allowed by the School Board for purposes of husbandry, &c. and
if the child be over eight years of age and be so employed. (_d_)
If the child be employed and be attending School in accordance with
the provisions of the Factory Acts, or of the Bye-Laws of the School
Board. (_e_) If the employer be _bona fide_ deceived as to the age
of the child or as to his having obtained a certificate; or if some
agent, without the knowledge of the employer, shall have employed the
child--in which latter case the agent will be liable to the penalty.
Although the employer be exempt from penalty, when the child is
lawfully employed under the above regulations, the parent will still
be liable for any breach of the Bye-Laws, where the latter are more
stringent. III.--REGULATIONS AS TO THE PAYMENT OR REMISSION OF FEES.
If a parent is unable, from poverty, to pay the School fee of his
child, he may apply either to the Guardians of the Poor for the Parish
where he lives, or to the School Board. The Guardians, if satisfied
of the poverty of the parent, must pay the school fee, not exceeding
3d. a week, of the child, in any Public Elementary School which the
parent may select. If the parent select a Board School, the School
Board, on his application, may, if they think fit, remit the school
fee. The payment or remission of the school fee will not subject the
parent to any disability. IV.--FREE INSTRUCTION. Subject to conditions
to be made by an order of the Education Department, a child under 11
years of age who obtains a certificate that he has attended a Public
Elementary School 350 times a year, for two, three, four or five years
according to circumstances, and, also, that he has attained a Standard
(to be fixed by the Department) in Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic,
will be entitled to have his school fees paid for him by the Education
Department at a public Elementary School for three years more.

BY ORDER OF THE BOARD.

15_th November_, 1876.

[Footnote 1: All Elementary Schools in the receipt of Government Grants
are annually examined by H.M. Inspector of Schools, and a report of
their condition forwarded to the Education Department. Board Schools
are further visited and reported on by an Inspector specially employed
by the Board itself for that purpose.]

In 1879 there were 63 Board Schools in the whole of the Lambeth
Division and 45,000 children on the rolls.

In Battersea there are 68 taverns for the sale of spirits, etc., and
84 beer-houses, making a total of 152 public-houses. There are also 29
coffee-shops.

A COFFEE PALACE IN OLD BATTERSEA.--On Saturday afternoon, Dec. 13,
1879, a coffee palace, belonging to the Coffee Taverns Company,
Limited, was opened at Lombard Market, York-road, Battersea. This is
the 22nd tavern of the kind opened by the Company, and carried on,
in regard to the business, on the same principle as others. A well
furnished room is provided for public meetings and other gatherings.

LATCHMERE GROVE, which is almost encircled with Railway embankments,
was noted for its piggeries. The lane once known as "Pig Hill," leading
from Battersea Fields to Lavender Hill, is now a wide open road and
forms the west boundary of the Shaftesbury Park Estate.

Somewhere near the foot of "Pig Hill" were two places called in olden
time "_Plague Spots_" where many bodies of persons who had died of the
Plague were buried.

THE SHAFTESBURY PARK ESTATE[1] formerly the site of Poupart's Market
Ground, covers an area of 42 acres, contains about 1100 houses and
8000 inhabitants. The houses are built on the most improved sanitary
principles, they are prettily and artistically constructed, having
small gardens back and front; on either side of the streets are rows of
lime and plane trees which in the course of a few years will give the
"Work peoples' Town," a beautiful and pleasant aspect. The Houses are
built in four classes, containing 5, 6, 7, and 8 rooms respectively,
(the latter including a bath room), and the weekly rental (at first
was) 6/6, 7/6, and 8/-, and the best class £26 and £30 per year, which
sums, except the best class, includes rates and taxes, but if the
tenant is buying the house under the repayment table, the rates, taxes,
and ground rent have to be paid by him in addition to the purchase
money.[2] The purchasing prices of the houses are £170, £210, £260,
£310, and £360; and they are leased for a term of 99 years subject
to annual ground rent of £3 10s., £4 4s., and £4 10s. according to
the class of house. Each dwelling is thoroughly ventilated by means
of improved ventilating valves, which are fixed to every room and
connected with air shafts in all the external walls and the same are
applied beneath the floors, the houses have concrete foundations and
are considered dry and healthy. [3]It is intended to convert the
premises used as the Estate Agency Office into a Club house, equal in
accommodation to any at the West End, with Library, reading, smoking,
and billiard rooms; a small hall to hold about 350 is being built which
among other things is intended to be let to benefit clubs and such like
societies. It is suggested that the present temporary hall be converted
into Swimming and Washing Baths. Brassey Square a space about one and
a quarter acres, the Estate Company are going to make into a garden
like that on the Thames Embankment, in which seats are to be placed
and it is intended to have a band to play there in summer months.
Beside Co-operative Stores, there is a Social Review connected with the
Estate, and a Newspaper has been started called "The South Western
Advertiser."[4] The London Board School on the estate is situated
in Holden Street. Between houses Nos. 21-23 in the Grayshott Road a
stone may be seen bearing the following inscription "Healthy homes the
first condition of Social progress." This stone was laid by the Right
Honourable the Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G., for the Artizans, Labourers
and General Dwellings Company, Limited, on the 3rd of August, 1872. R.
Austin, Architect.

[Footnote 1: The Artizans Labourers and General Dwellings Company
(Limited). Capital £1,000,000 in 100,000 shares of £10 each (paid up
capital, £583,000). Chief Office: 34, Great George Street, Westminster,
S.W. Office hours:--10 till 5 Saturdays 10 till 1. Estate Offices 221
Eversleigh Road, Shaftesbury Park, S.W. 35, A Street, Queen's Park. W.

DIRECTORS.--The Hon. Evelyn Ashley, M.P., Chairman, H. R. Droop,
Esq., R. E. Farrant, Esq., John Kempster, Esq., Rev. H. V. Le Bas,
F. D. Mocatta, Esq., Samuel Morley, Esq. M.P., Ernest Noel, Esq.
M.P., John Peace, Esq., W. H. Stone, Esq. Bankers.--The London and
Westminster Bank, Lothbury, E.C. Solicitors.--Messrs. Ashurst, Morris,
Crisp and Co., 6, Old Jewry, E.C., Manager J. V. Sigvald Muller, Esq.
Secretary.--Samuel E. Platt.

The Company was established for the erection of improved dwellings
near to the great centres of industry to carry out the objects of
the Company in London, large estates have been secured near Clapham
Junction and the Harrow Road, that near Clapham Junction called
Shaftesbury Park.]

[Footnote 2: The present weekly rental, which includes rates and
taxes, except in the case of the first-class Houses is as follows:--An
ordinary fourth class House 7/6 third class 8/6 second class 10/- first
class 10/- and 11/-. The shops, lower houses, those with larger gardens
than ordinary, and some other exceptional houses are subject to special
arrangements both as to Rental and purchase.]

[Footnote 3: The scheme thus proposed has been abandoned. The temporary
Hall has been taken down and seven houses with shops erected on the
site, also a Temperance Hall. The Shaftesbury Club and Institute,
Eversleigh House, Lavender Hill, was opened on Saturday, Feb. 2nd,
1878, at 3 o'clock p.m. Previously a movement had been in progress to
establish a Club and Institute for the benefit of those large classes
of working men who live upon the Shaftesbury Park Estate, and in the
crowded neighbourhoods in the immediate vicinity. Nothing of the
kind was in existence, and, as a consequence, there was no efficient
corrective to the growing evils of intemperance and wasted time
among these classes of the people. The movement met with a great and
increasing support from the working men themselves, and the Provisional
Committee appointed has been busily engaged in the work of organising
the Club. The objects of the Club and Institute are thus stated in the
Draft Rules:--

"To afford to its members the means of social intercourse, mutual
helpfulness, mental and moral improvement, industrial welfare, and
rational recreation. The Club shall not identify itself with any
political, social, or theological party. As funds permit, there
shall be provided:--Library and Reading Rooms, supplied with Books,
Periodicals, and Newspapers; Educational Classes; Conversation,
Refreshment, and Smoking Rooms, in which various games may be played;
Billiard and Bagatelle Rooms; Popular Lectures and Entertainments;
Rooms for the Meetings of Benefit and Friendly Societies." Subscription
1s. a month 2s. 6d. a quarter, 10s. a year. Arthur George Thorne, Hon.
Secretary. Mr. W. Swindlehurst was the Secretary to the Estate Company.
The purchase of the Freehold Land (it is said) cost the Estate Company
£28,000. Recently the house rents on the Estate have been raised.

The entrance to Shaftesbury Hall is in Ashbury Road.]

[Footnote 4: The following Newspapers, which are published weekly,
contain (Battersea) Local Intelligence and District Board News. "The
South London Press," 2d. "Battersea and Wandsworth District Times,"
1d. "Mid-Surrey Gazette," 1d. "The Clapham Observer," 1d. "The South
Western Star," 1d.]

No Beer-shop, Inn or Tavern is erected on the Estate but it must not
be inferred from this, that all the inhabitants are Total Abstainers.
However the ostensible and important objects of the Estate Company
are to help the Working Classes to become owners of the House they
occupy; to raise their position in the social scale; and to spread a
moral influence over their class, tending to foster habits of Industry,
Sobriety and Frugality. Obedience to moral and physical laws, the right
and proper use of material appliances for sanitary purposes, have a
tendency to prolong human life and to make life more enjoyable, and the
Supreme Governor of the Universe hath so ordained that it should be
so. According to the metropolitan average, the deaths should have been
194, but they only numbered 100. In 1877 the births on the Shaftesbury
Park Estate were 284. Connected with the Estate is a Volunteer Rifle
Corps known as the "26th Surrey." Mr. Samuel E. Platt, Secretary to
the Estate Company; Mr. J. V. Muller, Manager. Office, 221, Eversleigh
Road. The Missionary who visits in this district is Mr. Vost, who holds
meetings in the Temperance Hall, Elsley Road.

Eastward of the Shaftesbury Park Estate is situated Beaufoy's Chemical
Works. Entrance, Lavender Hill. Mr. Matthew Cannon, Manager.

This site was formerly a brickfield. When Mr. Henry Beaufoy purchased
the land comprising some 17 acres he named it "Pays Bas," signifying
in French a _low country_. Recently 7 acres have been let on Lease of
99 years for building purposes, it is proposed to erect thereon 230
houses. In this locality and that of Latchmere it is said the bricks
were made for the construction of Chelsea Hospital.

THE METROPOLITAN ARTIZANS AND LABOURERS DWELLINGS ASSOCIATION have just
erected three blocks of houses in the Battersea Park Road, designed by
Charles Barry, Esq., President of the British Institute of Architects.
Accommodation in A Block for 98 families with 3 and 4 rooms each.
There are two B Blocks, 45 families in a block, having accommodation
for 90 families with one or two rooms each for labourers. The whole
of the front window-frames facing the main road are glazed with Plate
Glass. Between the pathway and the Blocks is erected an iron palisade
and some evergreens have been planted within the enclosure. There are
underground Laundries at the north end of the Blocks with all necessary
appliances. The B Blocks have three tiers of balconies supported by
iron columns communicating with the dwellings on the upper storeys.
The roofs are tiled by the Broomhall Tile Company. The Builders, are
Messrs. Downs & Co., Southwark. Major-General Scott, Secretary, office,
9, Victoria Road, Westminster Abbey. It is intended to erect more
Blocks on the land adjoining. Chairman, John Walter, Esq.

The buildings are intended as models of the dwellings for Artizans and
Labourers, to replace the habitations condemned in various parts of the
Metropolis under the Act of 1875. They are built in flats as nearly
fire-proof as may be. Each tenement in the Artizans dwellings and each
block of four rooms for those of the labourers are entirely separated
from others by an open space, each tenement has a constant supply of
fresh water, the use of a wash-house and a coal bunker, a dust shoot,
and generally great care has been taken to insure to the tenants all
the advantages of the best known sanitary appliances. Within the outer
door which opens on to a general staircase, are all the conveniences
except the wash-houses which are detached from the building. These
tenements contain in most cases, three rooms, viz.: kitchen, bed-room,
and sitting-room. The labourers blocks are so divided that they can
be let singly, or in twos, threes, or fours. The dwellings were
formally opened on Saturday Afternoon, June 23rd, 1877, by the Earl
of Beaconsfield. The ceremony was graced by a select company, among
whom were in addition to the Prime Minister, the Earl and Countess of
Rosslyn, the Countess of Scarborough, the Earl and Countess Stanhope,
the Lord Chancellor and Lady Cairns, Lady E. Drummond, the Marquis of
Bristol, the Earl of Ilchester, the Earl of Verulam, the Bishop of
Winchester, the Right Hon. R. A. Cross, M.P., Mrs. and Miss Walter, Mr.
W. H. Smith, M.P., Mr. Roebuck, M.P., Mr. Montague Corrie, Mr. Algernon
Turner, Major-General H. Y. D. Scott, Manager of the Association, and
numerous Members of Parliament. Her Majesty who takes a deep interest
in this movement for the improvement of the dwellings of her people,
commanded Earl Beaconsfield to express Her wish that Her name may be
associated with this institution and that in future these buildings
will be called the Victoria Dwellings for Artizans.

On the North side of Battersea Park Road is the site for Messrs. Spiers
and Pond's New Steam Laundry, contiguous to which (Propert's) Blacking
Manufactory is now built. Mr George Ashby Lean, Architect; Mr. Waters,
Builder, The Common, Ealing.

Up the centre of the meadow a new road is to be made 50 feet wide.
About forty years ago this ground yielded as fine a crop of wheat as
any in England. At that time certain Notice Boards were erected with
the words "_Any person found plucking an ear of Corn will be fined one
shilling._" An old parishioner, who is still living, told the writer
that he had been fined three shillings because he had picked up three
ears of corn which another man had thrown away.

BATTERSEA (LATCHMERE, formerly called Lechmore) ALLOTMENTS cover an
area of 16¼ acres, and are let to the industrial poor of the parish
to encourage habits of industry, the land was applied to the present
purpose in the year 1835. Originally there were 74 allotments now there
are 156. The Allotments let at 3/- a plot, each allotment being divided
into 10 plots. Application must be made to the Churchwardens, William
Evill and Joseph William Hiscox, Esqrs.

Pleasantly situated between the Albert and Bridge Roads, Battersea Park
Road, is Dove Dale Place, founded by the late Mrs. Lightfoot of Balham,
(Widow of the late Dr. Lightfoot) for persons in reduced circumstances
professing godliness, whether in connection with the Church of England
or members of other Christian Churches having small yearly private
incomes of their own. There are twelve accommodations of two small
rooms each, there are two four-room cottages one at each end with
gardens. In the middle of the centre block is a Chapel and over the
window is the representation of a Dove bearing an Olive Branch. There
are some pecuniary advantages connected with the foundation. It is in
the hands of Trustees.

On a plot of ground by the main road opposite Dove Dale Place stands
an _old boiler_ that belonged to one Andrew Mann--it has stood (we are
told) where it is for the last twenty five years. Before its removal to
Battersea, it stood on a piece of land in Vauxhall Bridge Road.

LAMMAS HALL situated in Bridge Road West, is Licensed Pursuant to Act
of Parliament of the 25th of King George 2nd, was erected in 1858.
The Hall will seat about 400 persons and may be hired for lectures,
concerts, and other public purposes. The front part of the building
is used as a Vestry Hall and for the transaction of other parochial
business. A more commodious Hall is urgently needed in a central part
of the parish, so also are required Baths, Lavatory, and a Public
Library. Lammas Hall owes its origin from a fund which was paid by
the Battersea Park Commissioners for the extinguishment of the Lammas
Rights to the Churchwardens, by resolution of the Vestry after several
schemes had been brought forward they proposed to build a Hall and Vice
Chancellor Stuart appointed the Trustees hence its name "Lammas Hall."
Mr Thomas Harrap, _Vestry Clerk_.

THE UNION WORKHOUSE, erected in 1836 is situated within the boundary
of Battersea parish at the junction of East Hill and St. John's Hill,
it is an extensive brick building with accommodation for 833 inmates.
The Infirmary adjoining was added in 1870 at a cost of £40,000. The
Casual Ward in addition is constructed for 117 casual paupers. The
Union comprises Battersea, Clapham, Putney, Streatham, Tooting,
and Wandsworth with a population in 1871 of 125,000 and an area of
11,488 acres. John Sanders, _Solicitor and Clerk_; Edward H. Taylor,
_Assistant Clerk_; Rev. William Armstrong, _Chaplain_; T. H. Cresswell,
_Medical Officer_; John Hodge, _Master_; Mrs Martha Hodge, _Matron_;
Mr. Pettman, _Missionary_.[1]

[Footnote 1: The poor of England till the time of Henry VIII. subsisted
as the poor of Ireland until 1838 entirely upon private benevolence.
Judge Blackstone observes that till the Statute 26, Henry VIII. cap.
26, he finds no compulsory method for providing for the poor, but
upon the total dissolution of the Monasteries, abundance of Statutes
were made in the reign of King Henry VIII., Edward VI. and Elizabeth
which at last established the Poor's Rate, a legal assessment for the
support of the poor. Before the Reformation immense sums of money
were appropriated for charitable purposes, and notwithstanding many
abuses the religious order of those days never so far lost sight of
this original institution as ever to neglect the poor. The famous
Statute of the 43rd of Elizabeth, 1601, by which Overseers were
appointed for Parishes is the basis of all the poor laws in England.
By Statute 23, Edward III., 1342, it was enacted that none should give
alms to a beggar able to work. An Act was passed 1531, empowering
Justices to grant licenses to poor and impotent persons to beg within
certain limits of territory. By the Common Law, the poor were to be
sustained by "parsons, rectors of the church and parishioners so that
none should die for default of sustenance," and by 15 Richard II.
impropriators were obliged to distribute a yearly sum to the poor. An
act of 1601 directed that every parish shall provide for its own poor
by an assessment to be levied by the Justices in General Sessions and
embodied regulations as to how assessment should be made and applied.
In 1782 Workhouse Unions were introduced by an Act called Gilbert's
Act. The Act of 1834 among other changes established the system of
Poor Law Unions. In Scotland the poor were really maintained by the
private Alms of individuals and by certain funds under the management
of the _Kirk Session_, which when regularly constituted consisted of
the Minister, Elders, Session Clerk and Kirk Treasurer. The Presbytery
was by law appointed Auditor of the Poor's Accounts of the several
parishes. In the event of any difficult case arising in the discharge
of this duty the Presbytery could lay it before the Synod for advice.
"Scotland and Ireland have been legislated for separately, their poor
laws are similar to the English in principle and practice; both are
administered by a Central Board, which supervises the local bodies
charged with relief, and in both the rate is levied on the annual value
of real property. The present system in Scotland was instituted by the
8th and 9th Vic. c. 83 (1845). Scotland is divided into 883 parishes,
some of them combined for Workhouse accommodation. The relief is
administered by a parochial board, appointed by ratepayers, the Burgh
Magistrate and the Kirk Session. They appoint Inspectors of the poor
who act as relieving officers. The Scotch law differs from the English
and Irish in allowing no relief to able bodied adults."]

Old Battersea Workhouse, which has long since been pulled down,
was situated in the neighbourhood of Battersea Square. In the same
neighbourhood is the "Priory," now the residence of Mr. Oakman. Not
far from the Raven Tavern was the "Cage," in Surrey Lane, for the
confinement of petty criminals. Near the Prince's Head Tavern was the
Pound in which cattle were enclosed for trespass until replevied or
redeemed. Also a wooden machine called the "Stocks" to put the legs of
offenders in, for securing disorderly persons, and by way of punishment
in divers cases, ordained by statute, &c., was erected without the
gates of Battersea Churchyard, near the waterside.

In the last quarter of the eighteenth century, writes Robert Chambers
in his "Book of Days," there flourished at the corner of the lane
leading from the Wandsworth Road to Battersea Bridge a tavern yclept
"The Falcon," kept by one Robert Death--a man whose figure is said to
have ill comported with his name, seeing that it displayed the highest
appearance of jollity and good condition. A merry-hearted artist,
named John Nixon, passing the house one day, found an Undertaker's
company regaling themselves at 'Death's door,' having just discharged
their duty to a rich Nabob in a neighbouring churchyard, they had ...
found an opportunity for refreshing exhausted nature; and well did they
ply the joyful work before them. The artist, tickled at a festivity
among such characters in such a place, sketched them on the spot. This
sketch was soon after published, accompanied by a cantata from another
hand of no great merit, in which the foreman of the company, Mr. Sable,
is represented as singing as follows, to the tune of 'I've kissed and
I've prattled with fifty fair maids':--

    "Dukes, Lords, have I buried, and squires of fame,
      And people of every degree;
    But of all the fine jobs that ere came in my way,
      A funeral like this for me.
               This, this is the job
               That fills the fob;
      Oh! the burying of a Nabob for me!
    Unfeather the hearse, put the pall in the bag,
      Give the horses some oats and some hay;
    Drink our next merry meeting and quackeries increase
      With three times three and hurra!"

A portion of the Falcon Tavern erected about 275 years ago at the end
of Falcon Lane still remains with the old witch elm tree in front,
its hollow trunk, to which a door is attached, answers the purpose
of a bin or cupboard where hay is put with which to feed horses, and
the old wooden-cased pump, fastened with rusty holdfasts to the tree,
may still be seen. On the 15th of January, 1811, a printed engraving
was published representing "Undertakers regaling" by this road-side
inn, a copy of which may now be seen within. At that time R. Death was
the landlord, he had written outside the tavern in large characters,
Robert Death, Dealer in Genuine Rum, Gin, Wine; an Ordinary on Sundays;
Tea, Coffee and Hot Rolls; Syllabubs and Cheese-cakes in the highest
perfection. The subjoined doggerel lines as a skit or burlesque on the
publican's name is published with the engraving:--

    "O stop not here ye sottish wights,
      For purl nor ale nor gin,
    For if you stop whoe'er alights
      By Death is taken in.
    When having eat and drank your fill
      Should ye, O hapless case,
    Neglect to pay your landlord's bill
      Death stares you in the face.
    With grief sincere I pity those
      Who've drawn themselves this scrape in,
    Since from this dreadful gripe, heaven knows,
      Alas! there's no escaping.
    This one advice my friend pursue
      Whilst you have life and breath,
    Ne'er pledge your host for if you do
     You'll surely drink to Death."

The Falcon Tavern is now kept by Mr. J. G. Brown.

Mr. Edward Walford in his work entitled "Old and New London," published
by Cassell, Petter and Galpin, London; in Part 66 at Page 479, writes,
"Battersea has other claims to immortality: in spite of the claims
of Burton and Edinburgh, there can be little doubt, if Fuller is a
trustworthy historian, that one of the ozier beds of the river side
here was the cradle of bottled ale. The story is thus circumstantially
told in 'The Book of Anecdote':--Alexander Nowell, Dean of St Paul's
and Master of Westminster School in the reign of Queen Mary, was a
supporter of 'the new opinions' and also an excellent angler. But,
writes Fuller, while Nowell was catching of fishes Bishop Bonner was
after catching of Nowell, and would certainly have sent him to the
Tower if he could have caught him, as doubtless he would have done
had not a good merchant of London conveyed him away safely upon the
seas. It so happened that Nowell had been fishing upon the banks of
the Thames when he received the first intimation of his danger, which
was so pressing that he dared not even go back to his house to make
any preparation for his flight. Like an honest angler, he had taken
with him on this expedition provisions for the day, in the shape of
some bread and cheese and some beer in a bottle; and on his return
from London and to his own haunts he remembered that he had left these
stores in a safe place upon the bank, and there he resolved to look
for them. The bread and cheese of course were gone; but the bottle was
still there--'yet no bottle, but rather a gun: such was the sound at
the opening thereof.' And this trifling circumstance, quaintly observes
Fuller, 'is believed to have been the origin of bottled ale in England,
for casualty (_i.e._ accident) is mother of more inventions than is
industry.'"

On the road to Wandsworth and facing Plough Lane was "Ye Plough Inn,"
erected A.D. 1701. In front of this Inn grew an oak to which an iron
ring was fastened, and it is supposed that here Dick Turpin the
notorious highwayman occasionally reined up his bonny black mare. When
the Inn was re-built in 1875-6 the trunk was removed to the front of
the "Old House" in Plough Lane, which formerly belonged to Mr. Carter,
who owned extensive market gardens about here. The following lines were
written in commemoration of the famous Old Plough Tree, and the present
landlord has had the lines enframed for his customers to read:--

    "This stump the remains of the Old Oak Tree,
    That flourish'd when knights of the road roamed free,
    When bands of lawless yet chivalrous knights
    Struck fear to the hearts of purse-proud wights!
    This gay old king of the forest's wilds,
    His proud head bow'd to the sun's bright smiles,
    In glorious prime when his branches were strong
    As shoulders of Atlas in time long gone!
    His leaves in the murmuring breeze did fling
    Their sweet green shade o'er the Old Plough Inn!
    When the knights of the road of their deeds did sing,
    'Twas there to his side was first fixed the ring
    To which Dick Turpin the gallant and bold
    When going to the Plough to spend his bright gold
    Did tether his mare, swift Bonny Black Bess.
    When rider and horse stopp'd here to get rest.
    Removed from his place when the Old Plough's head
    By time's fell decree in ruin was laid!
    This stump that remains of the Old Plough tree
    In front of 'The Old House,' in Plough Lane you may see.
    Here placed in memory of the Old Plough Inn
    An aged memento of things that have been!
    Here in his last stage, sapped branchless and grey,
    Here in cool September, the trunk's first day,
    In the year eighteen hundred and seventy-six,
    Was planted by Messrs. J. Goodman and Wilkes."
                                     _William Holloway._

Situated in Plough Lane, and nearly opposite the residence of the late
Rev. I. M. Soule, were Alms Houses for eight poor widows, founded by
Mrs. Henry Tritton. The whole of this estate is now built upon and is
called May Soule Road.

At Lawn House, now occupied by Mr. Miller the Barge Builder in Lombard
Road, of the Firm of Nash and Miller, lived Mr. Hammett, of the firm
of Eisdale and Hammett, Bankers. He was a great patron of the rowing
fraternity and kept an open house two days in the year. He awarded the
prizes for the Kean's Sovereigns and the Funny Boat Club races on the
lawn in front of his house.

The Old Swan Tavern (now kept by Mr. R. Turner) nearly opposite the
Star and Garter, was a kind of half-way house between Lambeth and
Putney for the Eton and Westminster scholars who used to put in
here when training for the great rowing match so strongly contested
between them, but who in the zenith of their fame never obtained such
popularity as the annual boat race has done of late between the Cantabs
and Oxonians.

An old-fashioned print represents the former Parish Church of
Battersea with square tower crowned with lantern and pinnacles, not
far off is the Swan Tavern with stairs leading down to the river
where persons arriving by boat might land. An excellent wood-cut
engraving in "Lysons's Environs" represents not only the New Parish
Church but the sign of the Old Swan with two necks. Charles Dibdin in
a ballad opera entitled "The Waterman; or the first of August," first
performed at the Theatre Royal, Haymarket, August 8th, 1774, Scene
III.--Battersea--represents a room at the Swan, with a large open
window looking on the Thames in which Master Bundle the honest gardener
and hen-pecked husband, and Mrs. Bundle the termagant wife, the Star
of Battersea, figure conspicuously. Reference is also made in Scene I.
to the "Black Raven," now kept by W. Ambrose. It is said that in olden
time this was a Posting Establishment for Royalty.

Situated on Wandsworth Common and overlooking the London Brighton and
South-Coast and South-Western Railways are the Royal Victoria Patriotic
Schools for Boys and Girls, children of deceased soldiers, sailors and
marines. Founded by Her Most Gracious Majesty, 1854-56. The Patriotic
Asylum was endowed by the Commissioners of the Royal Patriotic Fund
which was instituted in 1854 for the purpose of giving "assistance to
the widows and orphans of those who fell during the Crimean and more
recent wars, and to provide schools for their children." Within the
boundary of Battersea Parish is situated the Asylum for Boys but the
Asylum for Girls which is some three hundred yards distant is in the
parish of Wandsworth. 200 boys are in the Asylum. _Superintendent_, W.
Ridpath; _Office_, 5, St Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square; _Secretary_,
W. H. Mugford, Esq.

Near the southern boundary of the parish and not far from Wandsworth
Common Railway Station, are situated St. James' Industrial Schools.
[1]This Institution stands on a portion of 22 acres of land purchased
of the Right Honourable Frederick Earl Spencer, K.G., and conveyed to
the Governors and Directors of the Poor of the Parish of St. James,
Westminster, by Deed bearing dates, the thirtieth day of December, one
thousand eight hundred and fifty. The first stone laid 24th September,
1851. The School opened 22nd June, 1852. F. Parkis, Superintendent.
There are now 141 boys in the schools. On leaving a premium of £10 is
given to each boy to learn a trade. Mrs. Anne Newton, late of upper
Harley Street in the Parish of Mary-le-bone, widow, deceased, by her
Will left, dated the 12th of March, 1806, £1,000. £429 19s. 3d. has
been received through the Court of Chancery. The interest is given to
the best boy selected by his fellow scholars, on condition that the
Superintendent agrees with their decision.

[Footnote 1: Mr. Beal sold on Wednesday, March 13th, 1878, at the Mart,
14½ acres of land for £14,500, being part of 20 acres bought in 1850
for the sum of £600. The land is in Battersea Parish, bordering on
Wandsworth Common, and was part of the site of the Westminster Union
(St. James') Industrial Schools. It was bought by the British Land
Company.]

The Royal Masonic Institution for Girls supported entirely by
_Voluntary Contributions_, was instituted on the 25th March, 1788,
at the suggestion of the late Chevalier Bartholomew Ruspini,
Surgeon-Dentist to his late Majesty, George the Fourth, for the
purpose of educating, clothing, and maintaining a limited number of
girls, whether orphans or otherwise, the children of Brethren whose
reduced means prevented them from affording their female offspring a
suitable education. His late Majesty, the Prince of Wales, with other
members of the Royal Family, the nobility, clergy and gentry, and
many of the most influential members of the craft, gave the project
their warmest support, and by their united efforts established this
Institution, which has preserved numbers of children from the dangers
and misfortunes to which females are peculiarly exposed, trained
them up in the knowledge and love of virtue and habits of industry,
and cultivated the practice of such social, moral and religious
duties as might best conduce to their welfare and eternal happiness.
A school-house was erected in 1793, near the Obelisk, St. George's
Fields, on leasehold ground belonging to the Corporation of the City
of London. At the expiration of the lease in 1851, it was determined
by the Committee to remove to a more healthy locality. Accordingly
about three acres of freehold land were purchased on the high ground
of Battersea Rise. Upon this land the present building, which is an
ornament to the neighbourhood, was erected in 1852. It is constructed
of red brick of Gothic architecture from the designs of Mr. Phillip
Hardwicke, and is noticeable for its great central clock tower. Since
the first erection of the building a wing has been added and the
wings of the buildings have been extended in front in order to afford
extra school-room, dining room and dormitory accommodation. Detached
from the main building an Infirmary has been erected in the grounds,
including _convalescent room, laundry, and every appliance necessary
thereto_. The establishment consists of a Matron; a Governess; three
Assistant Governesses; an Assistant to the Matron, and six Junior
Teachers; a Gardener and his Wife; and eight female Servants. Since its
establishment, one thousand and ninety-one girls have been educated,
clothed, and maintained within its walls. There are now _one hundred
and sixty-two_ girls in the Institution. The school is open for
inspection every day from eleven to four (Sundays excepted) and can
be reached by any train stopping at Clapham Junction which is closely
adjacent.

CLAPHAM JUNCTION is in the direction of St. John's Hill, at the
north-eastern extremity of Wandsworth Common. "The station itself
which was at first one of the most inconvenient, was re-built a few
years ago, and now with its various sidings and goods-sheds cover
several acres of ground." It is one of the most important railway
junctions south of the Thames, offering facilities to persons desirous
of travelling not only to any part of the Metropolis but to all parts
of England. Easy access can be had to the eight different platforms
for "upline" and "downline," etc., on entering the tunnel. Booking
office for Kensington, Metropolitan line, etc., on the ground floor
at the north end of the tunnel and facing No. 2 platform; Booking
office South-Western line No. 5 platform; Booking office Brighton and
South-Coast No. 8 platform; also Telegraph office ditto ditto.

At the Junction there are thirteen waiting rooms, two refreshment bars,
two cab ranks, two carriage roads to the Junction from St. John's Hill.
Nearly 1,000 trains pass through the Junction daily. The staff of
railway employés are respectful and obliging to passengers; there is
none of that bull-dog growl in reply to questions which characterize
some men with surly dispositions who fill public positions.

    "Evil is wrought from want of thought
    As well as want of heart."

London, Brighton and South-Coast Railway: Station Master, Mr. John B.
Carne; South-Western Railway: Station Master, Mr. Thomas Green. West
London Extension Railway: Battersea Station, High Street.

BATTERSEA PROVIDENT DISPENSARY, 175, High Street, founded 1844,
re-organized 1876; President, The Rev. Canon Erskine Clarke, Vicar of
Battersea; Hon. Secretary and Treasurer, Mr. B. W. Bayley; Committee
for 1881, Dr. J. Brown, Mr. J. H. T. Connor, Mr. Heale, Mr. Merry,
Mr. Pilditch, Rev. S. G. Scott, Rev. H. G. Sprigg, Rev. J. Toone,
Mr. Trehearne, Mr. Tyrer, Mr. H. Urwicke; Elected Representatives of
Benefit Members, Mr. King, Mr. Whensley; Medical Officers, Mr. Oakman,
The Priory, Battersea Square; Mr. G. F. Burroughs, Queen's Road, and
Grayshott Road; Dr. R. Frazer, Sisters Terrace, Lavender Hill; Mr.
Biggs, 93, Northcote Road; Mr. Sewell (Kempster & Sewell), 247,
Battersea Park Road; Resident Dispenser, Mr. Whitehead; Collector, Mr.
Chatting.

The Funds of the Institution are derived from two sources. (1) From
the weekly payments of Subscribers who are termed members. (2) From
annual contributions of the more affluent, who on subscribing to the
Institution become honorary members. Medical attendance and medicine
are supplied to persons earning not more than 30/- a week on payment
of one penny per week for those over 14, and one half-penny per week
for those under 14; but no greater sum than fourpence shall be required
from any family residing together as such. To persons earning more than
30/- and not more than 50/- per week, double the terms named above.
Members select their own medical attendant from the medical officers
of the Institution. The medical officers attend at the Dispensary at
appointed hours, but give advice at their own residences, and visit the
sick at their own houses when necessary. The Dispensary is open for the
supply of medicines daily, except Sunday, at 10, 3 and 7; but medicines
are supplied at all hours in urgent cases.

WANDSWORTH COMMON PROVIDENT DISPENSARY, Bolingbroke House.--President,
The Rev. Canon J. Erskine Clarke; Honorary Secretaries and Treasurers,
Rev. J. H. Hodgson, Church House, Bolingbroke Grove; J. S. Wood, Esq.,
Woodville, Upper Tooting; Honorary Dentist, A. J. East, Esq., St.
John's Hill, New Wandsworth; Resident Medical Officer, Dr. John H. Gray.

CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY, 1, Clifton Terrace.--Office hours, 9
till 10 a.m. and 5 to 6 p.m. Joint Secretaries: J. H. Ward, Esq., and
Frank Knight, Esq., Agent, Mr. J. T. Thornton. Sub-office: St. George's
Mission Room, New Road.

THE PENNY BANK, 1, Clifton Terrace, Battersea Park Road, is open on
Mondays and Saturdays, from 7 to 8 p.m.

Conspicuously situated at the corner of Simpson Street, Battersea Park
Road, is No. 54 Metropolitan Fire Brigade Station, erected 1873-4,
is substantially built of red brick, with turret. In case of fire
two engines and one fire-escape are kept on the premises. Staff: one
officer and four men.

"We are indebted to Germany for the invention of the first fire engine."

Respecting the origin of fire brigades: "In 1774 an Act was passed
requiring every Parish to provide itself with one large and one small
engine, &c., and everything necessary in case of fire. The first London
fire brigade was an Institution entirely independent of the parishes,
as indeed also of the Government and of the Corporation of London. It
was created and exclusively supported by the Insurance Companies of the
Metropolis. At first every Insurance Company had its own fire engine
and men to work it, but in 1825 some of them joined, and when the
advantage of union was seen most of the others desired to take part in
the combination already formed, the result of which was that in 1833 a
more extensive organization was made, to which the name of the London
Fire Brigade was given. Such was the state of matters until by Act 28
and 29 Vict. cap. xc., July 5th, 1865, the duty of extinguishing fires
and protecting life and property in case of fire was declared to be
entrusted to the Metropolitan Board of Works within their jurisdiction,
and provision was made for the establishment of the Metropolitan Fire
Brigade. The Act provides for its support from three sources, viz.: 1st,
£10,000 Grant from Treasury; 2nd, ½d. in the £ Rate; 3rd, £35 for every
£1,000,000 insured in the Metropolis from Insurance Companies, which in
the year ending December 31, 1872, realized £16,267. All the Stations
are in direct communication by telegraph with the Central Station,
so that any required number of engines or men may be summoned to any
given spot without delay. In 1872 the cost of maintenance was: Brigade,
£67,520; Stations, £8,793; Total, £76,313. All the Dock Companies have
engines, and some large private firms."--_Popular Cyclopedia_, Blackie
& Son.

By 1833 all the important Companies combined and the London Fire
Brigade was formed, organised and raised to an efficient standard under
the management of the late and much lamented Mr. James Braidwood, who
met with his death in the act of discharging his duties at the great
conflagration which broke out in the afternoon of Saturday, June 22nd
1861, in one of the warehouses on the banks of the river, close to the
Surrey side of London Bridge, which in spite of increasing efforts to
extinguish it, continued to burn until it destroyed property worth
nearly £2,000,000. The destruction of property thus caused by the fiery
element is without a parallel in the Metropolis since the great fire
of 1666. "Three acres of ground were gradually covered with a mass of
fire, glowing and crackling at a white heat like a lake of molten iron.
The saltpetre, the tallow, the tar and other combustibles stored in the
warehouses ran blazing into the Thames until the very river appeared to
be covered with the flames. Ships were burned as well as houses, and
the danger to life was almost as great on the river as in the street.
The glare of the conflagration was not only visible but strikingly
conspicuous 30 miles off."

THE METROPOLITAN POLICE.--The organization of the present effective
Police force is due to Sir Robert Peel's bill of 1829. The force is
divided into the City Police, confined to the City proper, whose office
is in the Old Jury, and the Metropolitan Police, which consists of
about 8,200 men, and whose Chief Station is in Scotland Yard.

Metropolitan Police Station, Battersea, V. Sub-Division, Bridge Road.
_Superintendent_, Mr. Digby; _Inspectors_, Mr. McCrory, Mr. Steggles.
Number of men about 70. W. Division New Police Station, Battersea Park
Road.

The full force of the Metropolitan Police in 1876 was 10,238.[1]

[Footnote 1: The Report of the Commissioners of Police for the year
1879 shows that in December the Metropolitan police numbered 10,711,
which was an increase of 234 over the previous year. The number of
felonies committed during the year was 21,891, for which 11,431 persons
were arrested. The loss by thefts was £101,798, of which £22,460
was recovered. The Director of Criminal Investigations reports that
photography and engraving have been extensively used in the tracing of
criminals, with very satisfactory results.]

Board of Works for the Wandsworth District, Battersea Rise, S.W. Arthur
Alex. Corsellis, _Clerk of the Board_.

ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE of the National Society is situated in Lombard Road
for the training of young men who are intended to become schoolmasters
in schools connected with the Church of England. There are at this
time about 80 students. The Rev. Evan Daniel, M.A., Principal; Rev.
Edwin Hammonds, Vice-Principal; Mr. George White, Secretary and Tutor;
Mr. Arthur Macken, Tutor; M. Alphonso Estoclet, French Master; Mr. E.
C. May, Teacher of Music; Mr. W. Taylor, Normal Master; Mr. E. Mills,
Organist; Dr. Connor, Medical Attendant.

The College owes its origin to Dr. J. P. Kay-Shuttleworth and Mr.
E. C. Tufnell, Assistant Poor-Law Commissioner, who with the view
of establishing a Normal School in this country for imparting to
young men that due amount of knowledge and training them to those
habits of simplicity and earnestness which might render them useful
instructors to the poor, travelled to Holland, Prussia, Switzerland,
Paris and other places that they might witness the operations of such
educational schemes as had been projected by Pestalozzi, De Fellenberg
and others interested in promoting the education of the poor. The
plan suggested by Dr. Kay-Shuttleworth and Mr. Tufnell met with the
hearty and most cordial approval of the Vicar, the Hon. and Rev. R.
Eden, who offered them the use of his village schools to carry out
their benevolent intentions. In 1840 they selected a commodious manor
house near the river Thames, at Battersea. Boys as students were first
obtained from the School of Industry at Norwood, who were to be kept
in training for three years. Subsequently some young men joined the
Institution whose period of training was necessarily limited to one
year. In 1843, the Directors, Dr. Kay-Shuttleworth and Mr. Tufnell,
who had supported the Institution by their own private means, had it
transferred into the hands of the National Society. The Continental
modes of instruction which had been adopted, such as Mulhauser's method
of writing, Wilhelm's method of singing, Dupuis' method of drawing,
etc., were so satisfactory that a grant of £2,200 for the enlargement
and improvement of the premises was made to them by the Committee of
Council on Education which was transferred to the National Society and
without delay disbursed in completing the alterations required. In
the early part of 1846 a new class-room was erected. "The Institution
is supported by the National Society's special fund for providing
schoolmasters for the manufacturing and mining districts. Only young
men are received as students, whose term of training is generally two
years."

THE VICARAGE HOUSE SCHOOL is also situated here. Principal: Miss
Crofts. Fees from half a guinea to a guinea per quarter, according to
age and attainments. The only extra subjects are Music and French.

On the border of the river between Albert Bridge and Watney's
Distillery are several wharfs and factories. Ribbon Factory of Cornell,
Lyell and Webster; the Glove Factory of Fownes & Co.; Garton, Hill &
Co.'s Sugar Refinery now in course of erection; Orlando Jones & Co.'s
Rice Starch Manufactory; Denny's (Creek) Flour Mills;[1] Price's Patent
Candle Company's Factory; B. Freeman & Co.'s Varnish and Color Works;
T. Whiffin's Chemical Manufactory; Nash and Miller, Barge Builders; A.
B. Cox, Barge and Boat Builder; Watney's Malt Houses.

[Footnote 1: A pair of 4-ft. stones will grind four bushels per hour.]

On the site where now stands Fownes & Co.'s Glove Factory, formerly
used as a silk factory, was Bonwell and Waymouth's Distillery. This
firm furnished a Corps of (Battersea) Volunteers, of which the late Mr.
George Chadwin was an ensign. Mr. Jonathan Browne, who used to preach
at the Old Baptist Meeting House, York Road, was the grandfather of Mr.
George Jonathan Chadwin, of Lombard Road, who was Vestry Clerk for 29
years in conjunction with his father.

T. Gaines, a celebrated Horticulturist and Florist, resided in an
ancient mansion that stood in Surrey Lane, thought by some to have been
a private residence of Queen Elizabeth. The house has been pulled down.

J. Tow kept a Private Mad House in High Street, It is now occupied by
Austin & Co., Dyers.

It is supposed by some that there was in olden time a Foundry in
Battersea for casting shot, etc., for the Tower of London.

THE PATENT PLUMBAGO CRUCIBLE COMPANY'S WORKS, which are the largest
crucible works in the world, cover a large space of ground and
have a river frontage. The principal elevation in Church Road is a
conspicuous feature in the neighbourhood. It is Italian in character
freely treated and somewhat Continental in design. The clock tower
rises about 100 feet high, in which is an illuminated clock that may
be seen at a considerable distance. A portion of the basement of this
elegant structure is appropriated to the private office of the manager
and clerks' offices where every quality of plumbago is represented by
specimens from all the most celebrated mines, particularly those of
Ceylon, Germany, Spain, Siberia, Canada, Finland and Borrowdale. The
other departments are the stores, grinding room, mixing room, potters'
room, drying room, the clay department, store room, etc. Crucibles
for melting and refining metals have been used ever since man threw
aside his hatchet and bone-chisel for bronze. For scientific research
the crucible has occupied an important place. It was constantly used
by the first alchemists and has truly been styled the cradle of
experimental chemistry. The word crucible from the Latin crux-crucis
recalls the alchemical practice of marking the vessel with the
protective sign of the cross. Crucibles of different shapes and sizes
are extensively employed by the refiner of gold and silver, the brass
founder, melters of copper, zinc and malleable iron, the manufacture
of cast steel, the assayer and the practical chemist. For ordinary
metallurgical operations clay crucibles are extensively employed. At
the International Exhibition of 1862 the only prize medal for crucibles
was awarded to the Company and another prize medal for blackleads. The
Company's crucibles are now used exclusively by the English, Australian
and Indian Mints; the Royal Arsenals of Woolwich, Brest, and Toulon,
etc., etc., and have been adopted by most of the large engineers,
brass founders and refiners in this country and abroad. Their great
superiority consists in their capability of melting on an average
forty pourings of the most difficult metals, and a still greater number
of those of an ordinary character, some of them having actually reached
the extraordinary number of 96 meltings. These crucibles never crack,
become heated much more rapidly than any other description, and require
only one annealing, may be used any number of times without further
trouble, change of temperature (they may be plunged while cold into a
furnace nearly white hot without cracking) having no effect on them.
The Patent Plumbago Crucible Company are the greatest consumers of the
Ceylon Graphite brought to the United Kingdom. The total quantity of
Graphite exports from Ceylon in 1862 was 40,195 cwt., of which 34,730
cwt. was shipped to Great Britain.

This Company are at present carrying out very extensive improvements on
the river side along the front of their premises in the construction
of a river wall built of Portland Cement Concrete, the foundations of
which are carried down four feet below Trinity Low Water Mark, which
have been done without the aid of a coffer-dam. These works when
completed will reclaim a very valuable frontage of the river. The total
length of wall and camp-shedding together with the adjoining property
of Messrs. May and Baker's Chemical Works will be about 500 feet.

These improvements if extended westward towards the Parish Church will
be the means of doing away with the unsightly mud banks which now
exist, there is no doubt then a clean foreshore will be accomplished
similar to the south side lower down the river where more extensive
embankment works have been constructed. Behind a portion of the wall
which the Plumbago Company are constructing will be some extensive
cellars, which will be covered over with a concrete floor carried on
wrought iron girders and supported by cast iron columns, and on the top
of this floor will be a tram seven feet wide for the use of a heavy
steam crane, and when completed will be able to unload goods out of
barges alongside and deliver the same into the second floor of the
present warehouse.

These works have been constructed from the designs and under the
superintendence of Mr. W. H. Thomas, C.E., of 15 Parliament Street,
Westminster, Engineer to the Patent Plumbago Crucible Company, and now
being carried out by Messrs. B. Cook & Co., of Phœnix Wharf, Church
Road Battersea, Mr. Maples acting as Clerk of the Works.

The same firm are also constructing large river-side works at Nine Elms
for the London Gas-Light Company for a Ship's Berth, from the design
and under the superintendence of Robert Morton, Esq., the Company's
Engineer.

A very striking feature is connected with the latter works, as it is
proposed to bring vessels up the river capable of carrying 1,000 tons
of coals which will be discharged by the use of hydraulic cranes and
delivered by tram direct into the Gas Works.

Adjacent are the Silicated Carbon Filter Company's Works. Whenever man
has arrived at any considerable degree of civilization the subject of
water supply had a share in his solicitude, and it is questionable if
our modern works for supplying water surpass those of ancient Judea,
Greece, Rome, Mexico and other places. The effect of impure water on
the health and life of the community was alas, too painfully evinced
by the outbreak of cholera in 1854-1866, and by the reports of medical
officers as to the cause of typhoid fever.

The Silicated Carbon Filters are so constructed that the solid matter
deposited on the filtering medium can be easily cleansed away. They
entirely remove from water all organic matter and every trace of
lead, and for all domestic purposes they may be said to render water
absolutely pure. Testimonials from eminent authorities describe the
extraordinary power possessed by these filters of entirely freeing
water from every noxious quality.

Contiguous are the premises belonging to Mr. H. Bollman Condy, the
Inventor, Patentee, and Manufacturer of Antiseptic Aromatic Vinegar,
"Condy's Fluid," and "Condy's Ozonised Sea Salt."

Adjoining are the Citizen Steamboat Company's Works and Dock, whose
steamboats leave Battersea to London Bridge and intervening piers every
ten minutes from 8 a.m. till dark. Entrance: Bridge Road. Manager: Mr.
M. Williams.

Situated in Wellington Road is A. Ransome & Co.'s Battersea Foundry.

S. Williams' Barge Works, Albert Road.

[Illustration]

ORLANDO JONES & CO.'S STARCH WORKS.--Oryza is the name by which rice
was known to the Greeks and Romans and which has been adopted by
botanists as the generic name of the plant yielding that valuable
grain. The name _Paddy_ is applied to the rice in the natural state, or
before being separated from the husk. The genua Oryza has two glumes
to a single flower; paleae two, nearly equal, adhering to the seed;
stamens six, and styles two. The common rice _Oryza Sativa_ unlike
many cultivated grams is still found in a wild state in and about the
borders of lakes in the Rajahmundy Circare though the grain in its
wild state is white, palatable and considered wholesome the produce
when compared with the varieties of cultivation is very small. The
rice plant is described as a native of India from which country it has
spread over a great part of the world especially in Asia where it forms
the principal portion of the food of the inhabitants. A failure of the
rice crop is most disastrous as has been experienced too painfully by
the natives of India during the late famine in that region. "A rice
field produces a much greater quantity of food than the most fertile
corn fields. Two crops in the year, from thirty to sixty bushels
each, are said to be the ordinary produce of an acre." Rice is now
extensively cultivated in North and South Carolina, and in Georgia,
also in Italy and the South of Spain and likewise a little in Germany.
There are forty or fifty varieties of rice. Dr. Roxburgh divides them
into two kinds. One called in Telinga, Poonas Sans; the second division
of cultivated rice is called Pedder Worloo by the Telingas.

Rice Starch is principally used for laundry purposes it will be found
distinguished from all others by its singular purity and brightness of
color. It will not stick to the iron in the slightest degree. It may
be used with hot or cold water, and articles starched with it do not
lose their stiffness in damp weather. A few of the principal sources of
the various known starches are sago, arrowroot, yams, the manioc-root
and horse chesnuts in addition to those resorted to by manufacturers,
viz.: wheat, potato, maize and rice, the latter being a great novelty
and illustrating more than any other the progress of chemical science.
Wheat starch is the oldest known. It is alluded to by Pliny in the
'Natural History,' and the discovery of the method of its extraction
is attributed by him to the inhabitants of the Island of Chios. The
starches used three centuries ago, when such enormous ruffles and
frills were in fashion were made from wheat; in fact down to modern
times it was the only known source of starch. Owing to a scarcity of
wheat at the commencement of the present century the use of wheat for
the manufacture of starch was prohibited by a legislative enactment.
The restrictions thus imposed were considered most oppressive, no
one could manufacture starch without a licence and a tenement rent
was exacted. The details of manufacture were subject to Government
regulations and a duty of 3¼d. per pound was levied, amounting to more
than 75 per cent. of the present market value of the article. These
hindrances to the extension of the manufacture were wisely removed
by our Legislature in the year 1833. Starch is one of the principal
constituents of vegetable substance. It is stored up in the seeds,
roots and piths of plants and by its decomposition furnishes the
materials for keeping up respiration and supplying the animal heat. It
has an organised structure and when examined by the microscope presents
the form of rounded grains or granules composed of concentric layers
which differ in size and shape in the starch of different plants the
granules varying in diameter from 1000th to 300th of an inch. However
the composition is the same, consisting of seventy-two parts of
carbon and eighty-one of water. "In its pure state starch is a fine
white powder without taste or smell. It is not soluble in water or
alcohol, or ether, but mixed with boiling water it swells, bursts, and
forms a kind of mucilage, which cools into a semi-transparent paste or
jelly." The process of manufacturing starch from rice was discovered
and patented about the year 1840 by Mr. Orlando Jones, founder of the
house of the same name. His invention consists in the treatment of
rice by a caustic alkaline solution during the steeping, grinding and
macerating of the grains. The alkali used is either caustic potash or
soda, of such a strength as to dissolve the gluten without destroying
the starch; it must consequently vary with the character of the grain
and hence the utmost nicety is required. The Battersea Works of Orlando
Jones & Co. were built in 1848, the firm having previously carried on
their manufacture in Whitechapel, they are situated on the banks of
the Thames near the works of Price's Patent Candle Company, and occupy
ground extending from the river to York Road; thus the firm possesses
facilities of conveyance both by land and water--this latter is
particularly valuable to them to enable them to save all dock, landing
and warehousing charges. A large new store has been recently built on
their wharf to which rice is barged direct from the ship. From the
wharf also the manufactured article itself is conveyed to the docks for
shipment to the Continent and our Colonies, with which a large trade is
carried on. As an illustration of the extent of Orlando Jones & Co.'s
operations it may be added that the box making department is a little
factory in itself, and the machinery employed for the various purposes
of sawing, dusting, cleaning, lighting, pumping, stirring, and grinding
is driven by steam engines. It will be obvious that the manufacture
of rice starch on a large scale requires no little capital and skill,
and takes high rank among those industrial enterprises which are so
peculiarly the characteristic and the glory of our age and country.
Messrs. Orlando Jones & Co's manufacture has been awarded nine prize
medals at International Exhibitions, and the grand distinction of
the gold medal of the Académie Nationale of Paris. These medals have
been awarded 'for introduction of the process,' 'for excellence of
manufacture' and 'for large production.'

It is worthy of note that Messrs. Orlando Jones & Co. are the
manufacturers of Chapman's Patent Prepared Entire Wheat flour
especially distinguished by its richness in earthly phosphates which
are essential to the development of bones and teeth. This farinaceous
food for infants, children and invalids is much recommended by the
medical faculty.

Battersea is becoming quite noted for Laundries. There is Strutt's
(Lawn) Laundry, Orkney Street; Royal Albert Laundry, Battersea Park
Road; Laundry, Sheepcote House; Latchmere Laundry; Alder's South
Western Laundry, Surrey Lane; Lombard Road Laundry; Palmer's Laundry,
Chatham Road, Wandsworth Common; and many others.

But one of the largest and most gigantic of Laundries is the Colossal
Steam Laundry, belonging to Messrs. Spiers & Pond, erected 1879.
The Laundry is situated on the North side of Battersea Park Road,
it is constructed of yellow brick, with stone window-sills, and
Beart's white-moulded brick for string courses, window jambs, arches,
and cornices. The Building and Works are from designs by Mr. Kemp,
Architectural Engineer. Mr. Priddle of Hounslow was the Contractor; and
Mr. Warburton, Clerk of the Works, under whose superintendence the work
was carried out.

The Building and Grounds extend over an area of one acre, the principal
frontage which is 170 ft. in length, faces the East in a road leading
to the South gate of Battersea Park, now called Alexandra Avenue.
The central portion has an elevation of 45 ft. in height consisting
of three floors containing, Manager's Residence, Clerk's Offices,
etc., also a mess-room for the Employés, with bath-room and domestic
lavatories. A spacious archway leads into the court-yard. This entrance
is 10 ft. in width and 15 ft. in height. The wings of each side of the
central portion have an elevation of two floors. Other blocks each
containing one lofty floor are built on the North, South and West
sides, to nearly one half the extent of the site. The remaining open
space which is set apart as a drying ground is furnished with necessary
appliances. Securely fixed in the ground by means of struts are 96
poles, to which is firmly attached a galvanic wire-rope for bleaching
purposes. A separate block at the South West corner is for stables,
adjoining which is the engine and boiler house with a chimney-shaft
70 ft. high, 7 ft. wide at the base and 4 ft. at top. This part of
the Building is fitted up with a horizontal Engine and 2 Boilers by
Manlove, Alliott and Co. of Nottingham of sufficient power to drive
the Machinery requisite for the various processes of the Laundry; the
Patent Machines used are made by Mr. Bradford of London and Manchester.
The boundary wall enclosing the building and grounds is 7 ft. high.
On the South side of the laundry is a sorting-room 63 ft. in length
by 18 feet in width for the reception of articles as they arrive in
the vans. The washing-room is 50 ft. square with large open _louvres_
in the ceiling for the purpose of ventilation and to allow the steam
to escape. The drying-room is 70 ft. by 30 ft. A flue-pipe 70 ft. in
length is placed horizontally immediately along the floor in this
department and about 1,200 ft. of corded piping are utilized for the
heating chamber. In the West block are the folding and the mangling
rooms, their dimensions being respectively 40 ft. by 30 ft., and 52 ft.
by 30 ft. In the North block is the ironing room which is 55 ft. by 25
ft., next to which is the packing room 40 ft. by 25.

Estimated cost of building and machinery about £12,000.

Matron, Mrs. Tobin. Number of employés 60.

Propert's (Blacking Factory) built 1878-9. Hunting Mark a fox's head.
Hunting preparations, established 1835, South Audley St.

B. Beddow and Son, Sole Proprietors.

A site past Propert's factory has been selected by the London and
Provincial Steam Laundry Co. Limited. Ernest Turner, Architect, 246,
Regent St. W. Mr. Austin, Secretary.

The London and Provincial Steam Laundry (Company Limited) is
elaborately fitted up with Machinery of the very best description--the
building is said to be the largest in the world and it occupies an
acre and a half of ground. Its working-staff is composed mostly of
females numbering 150 including 32 who reside upon the premises, and
there are 20 males. The Laundry is capable of turning out from 80,000
to 90,000 pieces weekly. The Architect was Mr. Ernest Turner of Regent
Street. Messrs. Bradford and Co. of Manchester and London, supplied the
machinery which was specially designed for this Laundry. The works are
entered at the west by double gates which lead into a second court-yard
where the vans can discharge and receive their freight in all weathers.
The main body of the building is cut off from the resident portion by
a second pair of gates. The general Laundry is divided longitudinally
into three sections. The wash-house is fitted up with machinery adapted
for speed and economizing labour.

The washing machines which are of various sizes are known as Bradford's
"Vowel A." Then there is a range of boiling troughs, and again the
hydros in which the articles when washed and rinsed are put and
whirled round at the rate of 400 revolutions per minute "till every
drop of extractable moisture is driven off through the side holes."
The Ironing-room is in the central hall and occupies an area of 80
by 70 ft. being 20 ft. high. For curtains, lace, etc., there is a
separate room. The boiler-house is provided with two 15-horse power
horizontal engines, driven by two 20-horse Cornish boilers. There is a
disinfecting chamber, and the severest penalties are demanded, not only
against any person sending infected articles, but against any of the
employés neglecting to give immediate notice of any case of infectious
disease, with which he or she shall be brought into contact. Mr. J. T.
Helby, Manager.

It is interesting to know how enormously property has increased in
value in Battersea, within the last one hundred years. The Battersea
Bridge Estate which contains about 4 acres, was sold by auction at
the Mart by Norton, Trist, Watney and Co., 62, Old Broad Street,
on Thursday, May 20, 1880, realizing £35,000. At Mid-summer 1791,
this property was let on three leases for 90 years, at ground rents
amounting together to £90 per annum.

The Workman's Institute erected two years ago has full complement of
150 members. It has a kitchen, library, newspapers, games, etc. One of
the workmen has been thirty-eight years and a few others thirty years
in the service of the firm.

    The man how wise, who, sick of gaudy scenes,
    Is led by choice to take his fav'rite walk,
    Beneath death's gloomy, silent, cypress shades,
    Unpierc'd by vanity's fantastic ray!
    To read his monuments, to weigh his dust;
    Visit his vaults, and dwell among his tombs!
                                   _Young's Night Thoughts_.

Situated on Battersea Rise at the commencement of Bolingbroke Grove,
Wandsworth Common, is St. Mary's Cemetery used as a place of interment
for the parishioners. It covers an area of 8 acres, and cost £8,000,
including the erection of mortuary, chapels, etc. The ground thus
purchased formed part of an estate that belonged to Mr. Henry Willis.
It was opened Nov. 1860. It is fringed on the north and west sides with
stately elms, and partially on the east boundary with poplar trees.

Grassy hillocks, planted with flowers and evergreens, monumental
inscriptions and tombstones, together with the number of each grave
denote the spot where many a tributary tear of fond affection has been
died by the surviving relatives and friends of loved ones who have
departed this life, but whose mouldering dust lies sleeping here.
The congregation of the silent dead seems to make the place sacred,
and gives it a solemn air. Here lie the mortal remains of the late
Venerable John S. Jenkinson, M.A., for 24 years Vicar of Battersea, he
died 17th October, 1871, aged 74, much beloved and greatly lamented. An
appropriate text of Holy Scripture, I Thess. 4, 14, is engraved round
the beautiful block of granite that covers his grave. On the occasion
of his decease the following lines were composed by a parishioner,
dated October 17th, 1871:--

    Our Vicar has been called away,
    From earthly ties has risen,
    To take the place prepared for him;
    Our Vicar rests in Heaven.
    His journey ended, trials o'er;
    Now all his sufferings cease,
    He's gone to be with Him who said,
    "In Me ye shall have peace."
    He ever faithful to his charge,
    The Saviour's love set forth
    To sinners that they might be saved;
    Was faithful unto death.
    Full twenty years and more he trod,
    God's house His flock to lead;
    In sickness words of comfort gave,
    In want assist their need.
    May we his flock example take,
    Before our sun go down;
    That when our Saviour comes, we too
    May win a heavenly crown.

A mourning or memento card headed "Falling Leaves" bears the following
lines written on the Funeral of the Rev. J. S. Jenkinson:--

    'Twas Autumn--and a mournful train
    Proceeds beneath the trees,
    Our Vicar in the tomb was laid,
    Amid the falling leaves.
    Fit emblem of the hoary head,
    And many such were there;
    Methought they spoke in silent words
    For this event prepare.
    The mighty shepherd of his sheep,
    In seasons such as these,
    Speaks gently, that each one may take
    A lesson from the leaves.
                        A PARISHIONER.

    _October_ 21_st_, 1871.

Here is a superb monument of red polished granite in memory of John
Humphrey Esq., Alderman of London and late M.P. for the borough of
Southwark who died 28th September, 1863. Ætat. 69.

Here is a tombstone with epitaph in memory of Mary Davies, who departed
this life January 24th, 1872, aged 88 years. "For more than sixty-two
years she was connected with Battersea Chapel Sunday School, where
by her consistent Christian character and entire devotedness to her
work, she won the esteem of all. Being dead she yet lives in the
hearts of many teachers, scholars and friends, who erect this stone in
remembrance of a course of quiet usefulness which they deem worthy of
all honour.

    "Not myself, but the truth that in life I have spoken,
    Not myself, but the seed that in life I have sown
    Shall pass on to ages--all about me forgotten
    Save the truth I have spoken, the things I have done."

Here is a marble obelisk.--In memory of the Rev. James Milling, A.B.,
Curate of St. Mary's Battersea, who entered into rest the 11th of
January 1865 aged 27 years. His last words were "Not by works of
righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved
us by the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost which
he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour." _Titus iii_
5 _and_ 6. This monument was erected by the parishioners and children
of the Parochial Schools.

On another tombstone is an inscription to the memory of Mr. John
Nichols, a devoted husband and estimable father, Baptist minister and
Editor of Zion's Trumpet, a magazine devoted to the interest of the
Aged Pilgrims' Friend Society and its Asylum; who fell asleep in Jesus
Feb. 1st, 1867, aged 67 years.

"His presence guide my journey through and crown my journey's end."

In the faith of Christ here also rests the Rev. Philip Pennington M.A.
of Christ's College, Cambridge, sometime civil chaplain of the Island
of Mauritius. And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes, and
there shall be no more death neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall
there be any more pain for the former things are passed away.

Many are the pledges of conjugal endearment which help to tenant these
graves.

    "Ah! those little ice-cold fingers,
    How they point our memories back
    To the hasty words and actions,
    Strewn along our backward track!
    How those little hands remind us,
    As in snowy grace they lie,
    Not to scatter thorns--but roses,
    For our reaping by and by."

We perceive here that ruthless death with his scythe pays no regard to
infantile age, and that others in the vigour of their youthful prime as
well as the matured adult and hoary-headed have been suddenly cut down
by an awful surprise.

Here is a grave planted with flowers, the stone at the head of the
grave states that William Gobell was accidentally killed on the London
and Brighton Railway, March 4th, 1873, aged 65 years. Here is another
stone in affectionate remembrance of William James, late Engine driver
on the L.B. and S.C.R., who was killed while in the execution of his
duty on the 29th of July 1876, aged 38 years. This stone has been
erected by his fellow mates, as a token of respect to his memory.

Another stone is erected in memory of Henry Blunden, who was killed on
the L. and S. W. Ry., on the 17th October, 1871, aged 22 years.

    "All you that come my grave to see,
    Oh think of death and remember me,
    Just in my prime and folly skilled;
    When on the Railway I was killed,
    Take warning, hear, and do not weep,
    But early learn thy grave to seek."

Sacred to the memory of Thomas Hutchinson Higerty, who departed this
life October 13th, 1869, aged 5 years and 2 months.

    How very soon is age upon us,
      Ere we know our way to earth,
    But in heaven there's no sorrow,
      There's nothing but joy and mirth.
    How soon hath time closed around us,
      First a child and then a man,
    How soon he's turned to mouldering dust
      Which from a few years back he sprang.

The head-stone states that the above lines were written by his brother,
aged twelve years.

    I like that ancient Saxon phrase which calls
      The burial ground God's acre! It is just:
    It consecrates each grave within its walls,
      And breathes a benison o'er the sleeping dust.
    God's acre! yes, that blessed name imparts
      Comfort to those who in the grave have sown
    The seed that they had gathered in their hearts,
      Their bread of life--alas! no more their own.
    Into its furrows shall we all be cast,
      In the sure faith that we shall rise again
    At the great harvest, when the archangel's blast
      Shall winnow, like a fan, the chaff and grain.
    Then shall the good stand in immortal bloom,
      In the fair gardens of that sacred birth;
    And each bright blossom mingle its perfume
      With that of flowers which never bloomed on earth.
                                               _Longfellow._[1]

[Footnote 1: The word _Sepulchre_ comes from the Latin _Sepelio_
to bury. It is the place where the dead body of a human being is
consigned, whether it be in the ground or an excavation in the rocks.

Abraham buried Sarah, his wife in the cave of the field of Ephron, at
Machpelah, which he purchased in the presence of the children of Heth,
for 400 Shekels of silver, 1860 B.C. Genesis 23.

The word Cemetery _Koimeterion_ comes from the Greek _Koimao
(Koimaein)_ to sleep. It is the sleeping place, and "Christianity has
turned the Sepulchre into a Cemetery assuring us, as it does, that
those who die in Jesus, _Sleep in Him_, awaiting a future awakening,
in augmented vigour, and with renovated powers. To the Christian,
the grave should be associated with the idea of calm and undisturbed
repose, after a life of honourable toil, with the hope of a glorious
and blessed resurrection." The Greeks had their burial places at a
distance from the towns. Lycurgus allowed his Lacedemonians to bury
their dead within the city and around their temples that the youth
being inured to such spectacles might be the less terrified with the
apprehension of death. Two reasons are alleged why the ancients did not
allow burials within their cities. 1st. they considered that the sight,
touch or neighbourhood of a corpse defiled a man, especially a priest.
2nd. to prevent the air from being corrupted by putrifying bodies, and
the buildings from being endangered by the frequency of (Cremation)
funeral fires. The custom of burning bodies prevailed amongst most
Eastern nations, and was continued by their descendants, after they had
peopled the different parts of Europe. Hence we find it prevailing in
Greece, Italy, Gaul, Britain, Germany, Sweden, Norway and Denmark, till
Christianity abolished it.

The Romans had their places of interment in the suburbs and fields
especially the highways; hence the necessity of inscriptions. We
have a few exceptional instances of persons buried in the city a
favour allowed to only a few of singular merit in the Commonwealth.
Burying within the walls was expressly prohibited by a law of the xii
Tables. Plutarch says those who had triumphed were indulged in it.
Val. Publicola and C. Fabricius, are said to have had tombs in the
Forum, and Cicero adds Tuberius to the number. Places of burial were
consecrated under Pope Calixtus I. in A.D. 210. (_Eusebius._) Among
the primitive Christians, cemeteries were held in great veneration.
It appears from Eusebius and Tertullian that in the early ages they
assembled for divine worship in the cemeteries. Burying in churches
for many ages was severely prohibited by Christian Emperors. The first
step towards it was the erection of churches over the graves of martyrs
in the cemeteries, and translating the relics of others into churches
in the city. Subsequently Kings and Emperors were buried in the Atrium
or church porch. The first Christian burial place it is said, was
instituted in 596; buried in cities, 742; in consecrated places, 750;
in church yards, 758. It is said however in the 6th century the people
began to be admitted into the churchyards; and some Princes, Founders
and Bishops into the churches. The practice adopted at the consecration
of cemeteries, was something after this fashion--the Bishop walked
round it in procession with the crosier or pastoral staff in his hand,
the holy water pot being carried before, out of which the aspersions
were made. Many of the early Christians are buried in the catacombs at
Rome. Vaults erected in churches first at Canterbury, 1075. Woollen
shrouds only permitted to be used in England 1666. Linen scarfs
introduced at funerals in Ireland 1729, and Woollen shrouds used 1733.
Burials taxed 1695. A tax conducted on burials in England--for the
burial of a Duke £50, and that of a common person 4s., under William
III 1695, and George III 1783. Acts relating to Metropolitan burials,
passed 1850-67. In 1850 the Board of Health was made a Burial Board
for the Metropolis, and power was given to the Privy Council to close
the City grave-yards. Parochial Registers instituted in England by
Cromwell, Lord Essex, about 1538.--_Stow._

Earth to earth system of burial advocated by Mr. Seymour Haden. Wicker
Coffins exhibited at Stafford House, 17th June 1875. With the view
of rendering the death of persons of quality more remarkable, it was
customary among the Greeks and Romans to institute funeral games,
which included horse-racing, dramatic representations, processions and
mortal combats of gladiators; these games were abolished by the Emperor
Claudius, A.D. 47.

The custom of delivering a funeral oration in praise of a person at his
funeral is very ancient, it was practised by the Egyptians, Hebrews,
Greeks and Romans. The old heathens honoured those alone with this part
of the funeral solemnity who were men of probity and justice, renowned
for their wisdom and knowledge, or famous for warlike exploits. This
custom was very early obtained by the Christians. Some of their funeral
sermons are now extant as that of Eusebius on Constantine, and those
of Nazianzen on Basil and Cæsarius; and of Ambrose on Valentinian,
Theodosius, and others.

One of the oldest established and most celebrated of the European
cemeteries is that of Pere la Chaise near Paris. In the Scottish
cemeteries no such distinctions exist as in England where the
cemeteries are divided into two portions--one consecrated for the
burials of members of the Established Church over whose remains the
funeral service is read and one unconsecrated for the burials of
dissenters.

The Burials Law Amendment Act 1880, has given to Parishioners in
England the right of burials in Church-yards without the rites of the
Church of England.

Though the Incumbent of a parish has no longer the exclusive right
of officiating at interments in consecrated ground yet none of his
rights are actually abrogated. He is still custos of the grave yard
and must be consulted about the hour and place of interment as well as
the inscriptions on grave stones. While in the case of lay funerals
contemplated under the Act, it is not necessary to have any service at
all, the service if performed must be Christian and orderly.]

Another stone bears the following inscription:--

In loving remembrance of William Hayward; born April 4th, 1850, died
December 8th, 1874.

    "Time, how short--Eternity, how long."
    Reader, this silent grave contains
    A much-loved son's remains;
    Death like a frost has nipt his bloom,
    And sent him early to the tomb;
    In love he lived, in peace he died,
    His life was craved, but God denied.

This stone is erected by his mother as a small token of love for him.

Also of Thomas Hayward, brother to the above; born October 26th, 1855,
died June 8, 1876.

    Had He asked us, well we know
    We should cry, Oh! spare this blow;
    Yea, with streaming tears should pray,
    Lord we love him, let him stay.

A grave stone records the death of Henry Stening, who met with sudden
death on the 25th November, 1875, aged 59 years. "In the midst of life
we are in death."

Here is a white marble head stone with gilded monogram (I.H.S.) and
stone border to grave prettily decorated with flowers, sacred to the
memory of Alfred Thomas Martin, who died September 29th, 1876, aged 31.

Also of Nelly, died July 19, 1875, aged 7; Alfred William, died March
17, 1876, aged 6; Charles Percy, died February 23, 1877, aged 18
months, children of the above. "The Lord giveth and the Lord taketh
away."

Within the precincts of this cemetery is entombed the body of
Henrietta, Lady Pollock, widow of Field Marshal Sir George Pollock,
Baronet, G.C.B., G.C.S.I., died February 14, 1873, aged 65 years.
"Jesus said, I am the Resurrection and the Life." _John xi._ 25-26.

Here is a vault in memory of William Henry Wilson, of Chapel House,
Battersea Park, and 6, Victoria Street, Westminster, born 4th of
September, 1803, died 8th March, 1871; also of Margaret Isabel (Daisy,)
third child of John Wilson; and Margaret Isabel Theobald, died 3rd
March, 1876, aged 3 years and 1 month.

Not far from the gravel walk is a grave-stone at the head of which is a
dove with a scroll on which is engraved "Thy will be done." Sacred to
the memory of Mary Jane Webb, the beloved and only child of Charles and
Mary Webb, who departed this life Nov. 30th, 1869, aged 8 years and 8
months, deeply lamented by her sorrowing parents and regretted by all
who knew her.

    She is not dead, the child of our affection,
      But gone into the School,
    Where she no longer needs our poor protection,
      And Christ Himself doth rule.

Here is a grave-stone; an opening in the stone which is glazed,
represents a female in a recumbent position reading a book. In
affectionate remembrance of George Barrett, who departed this life
January 9th, 1871, aged 2 years and 3 months; also Louisa Barrett, who
departed this life September 24th, 1872, aged 16 years and 6 months.

    Dear to their parents! to their God more dear,
    Brother and Sister sweetly slumber here;
    Blest in their state from fear and danger free;
    To us they died; they live O Lord with Thee.

Also Daniel Barrett, father of the above, who departed this life August
23rd, 1873, aged 46 years.

    Even as he died a smile was on his face,
    And in that smile affection loved to trace,
    A cheerful trust in Jesus' power to save,
    An aged Pilgrim's triumph o'er the grave.

Here is a grave planted with Laurels, having a Rhododendron in the
centre, the stone at the head bears the inscription--In affectionate
remembrance of Philadelphia Emma, the beloved wife of Ephraim Wilson,
of Bridge Road, Battersea, who departed this life, June 24th, 1875,
aged 27 years.

    The losing thee, our comfort is, to know
      That those relying on a Saviour's love,
    Have left this troubled world of sin and woe
      To be at rest with Christ in heaven above.

Here is a grave covered with a white marble slab and cross, bearing
this simple inscription; Phillis, wife of Wyndham Payne, taken to her
rest, 26 July, 1870.

Here is a grave-stone; in affectionate remembrance of Clara Cahill, who
died 20th of December, 1871, aged 2 years and 3 months.

    Dear lovely child, to all our hearts most dear,
    Long shall we bathe thy memory with a tear;
    Farewell, to promising on earth to dwell;
    Sweetest of children, farewell! farewell!

Also Albert, Brother of the above, who died August 7th, 1874, aged 14
months, interred in St. Patrick's cemetery, West Ham.

    Oh! why so soon! just as the bloom appears,
    Strayed the brief flower from this vale of tears;
    Death viewed the treasure to the desert given,
    Claimed the fair flower, and planted it in heaven.

Also Caroline, sister of the above, who died March 1st, 1876, aged 1
year and 7 months.

    Yes, dearest Carrie, thou art gone,
      Thy brief career is run,
    Thy little pilgrimage is past
      All sorrowing here is done,
    Just like an early summer's rose,
      Thou did'st come here to bloom,
    But long ere thou beganst to blow,
      Death snatched thee to the tomb.

A head-stone marks the grave of Mary Childs, who died Nov. 24th, 1865,
aged 68; for 33 years a faithful servant in the family of George
Scrivens, of Clapham Common.

A beautiful granite Grecian cross is erected in memory of the dear
loved wife of Arthur Steains, Jun., born 8th January, 1844, taken to
her eternal rest 22nd June, 1875. "Blessed are the pure in heart, for
they shall see God."

Here is a stone--sacred to the memory of Wm. Chas. Brewer, who died
June 11th, 1875, aged 21 years. Remember the days of thy youth. This
stone was erected by some of his fellow employés, as a token of
affection. Our time will not allow us to comment upon the different
inscriptions, but it is gratifying to observe how many grave-stones
have been erected as a tribute of generous affection by working men
themselves, in memory of their deceased fellow workmen. A noble feature
this in the British Mechanic, a quality possessed and not unfrequently
displayed by English hearts and hands.

At the head of a grave is a marble stone, erected to the memory of Anne
Grover, late of Wendover, Bucks, who died April 30th, 1877, aged 54
years. "The Lord is a stronghold in the day of trouble, and He knoweth
them that trusteth in Him."--_Nah. i._ 7.

A small stone is erected in loving memory of Catherine Weedon, who
departed this life, December 24th, 1876, aged 38; underneath are the
following well known lines.

    We cannot tell who next may fall,
    Beneath Thy chastening rod;
    One must be first--but let us all
    Prepare to meet our God.

At the head of a grave is a stone erected by the friends and
companions, in memory of Alfred Fell, and Arthur Ronald, who were
accidentally drowned while bathing in the River Thames, July 6th, 1873,
both aged 19 years. The subjoined lines read--

    Mark the brief story of a summer's day,
    At noon, in youth and health they launched away,
    Ere eve, death wrecked the bark and quenched their light;
    The parent's home was desolate at night,
    Each passed alone that gulf as eye can see,
    They meet next moment in eternity.
    Friend, kinsman, stranger, dost thou ask me where?
    Seek God's Right Hand and hope to find them there.

A few yards from the spot is a stone in memory of Alfred Halsted who
died May 1st, 1873, aged 2 years and 5 months.

Also of Emma Halstead who died January 3, 1875, aged 12 years.

Also of Emma Halstead sister of the above who died June 28th 1879 aged
18 months.

    "Speak gently to the little child,
      Its love be sure to gain;
    Teach it in accents soft and mild,
      It may not long remain."

Here is a private grave with a stone in affectionate remembrance of
Agnes Eliza Waller, who fell asleep in Jesus, April the 6th, 1871, in
her 15th year; also Elizabeth Waller, mother of the above who died in
the Lord, February 27th, 1873, in the 37th year of her age. Looking
unto Jesus the Beginner and Finisher of our faith.--_Hebrews xii._ 2.

Here also lie buried the mortal remains of James Waller, who died July
7th, 1880, he was an earnest and successful city-missionary.

Here is a monumental stone, in form of an Iona cross, encircled with
a ring emblematical of the Unity and Catholicity of the Christian
Church. The epitaph states, that Laura Susan Cazenove, "fell asleep,"
August 24th, 1861, in her 22nd year. "There shall be one fold and one
Shepherd."

Here is a sepulchre stone, in memory of Frances Elizabeth Scrivens,
widow of George Scrivens, Esq., of Clapham Common, who died March 11th,
1867, aged 81 years.

In this cemetery are interred the mortal remains of Arthur Miller
Rose, who died 12th July, 1864, aged 67; also Susannah, his wife,
who died 30th December, 1870, aged 75. "The memory of the just is
blessed."--_Proverbs x._ 7.

Near this spot we observed an iron label, with the number of somebody's
grave; there was no hillock, the surface was completely flattened; over
the label was placed by fond hands a faded wreath.

Covering a brick vault is erected a superb monument, bearing the
following inscriptions--in affectionate remembrance of Marianne, the
beloved wife of Robert Jones, of Clapham Common, born May 9th, 1808,
died November 17th, 1868; also in memory of Anne, second daughter of
Robert and Marianne Jones, born July 12, 1841, died October 22, 1872.
"He hath prepared for them a city."--_Hebrews xi._ 16.

    "O Paradise! O Paradise!
      Who doth not crave for rest?
    Who would not seek the happy land
      Where they that love are blest?
    Where loyal hearts and true,
      Stand ever in the light;
    All rapture through and through,
      In God's most Holy sight."

Also Falkland Robert, the third son of Robert and Marianne Jones, who
died 29th November, 1875, aged 23 years.

Adjacent to that of his parents, is erected a monument of Scotch
granite, mounted with a white marble urn, partially covered with a
cloth or veil. Sacred to the memory of Joseph May Soule, second son of
the late Rev. I. M. Soule, who departed this life, 15th March, 1875,
aged 33. "I am the Resurrection and the life."--_John xi._ 25. On the
south side of the beautiful obelisk erected over his Parents' grave is
an epitaph to the memory of Hannah Turnbull, for 13 years a devoted
nurse in the family of the Rev. I. M. Soule, who died June 9th, 1866,
aged 44 years. Fallen asleep in Jesus.

By the side of one of the gravel walks a modest head-stone is erected
in memory of Elizabeth Ursula, wife of James Pillans Wilson, Esq.,
born October, 1836, fell asleep in Jesus, 11th May, 1869, in her 33rd
year. She was a regular attendant at the public worship of God, from
her childhood, and sought sincerely to please Him, but did not become a
worshipper of Him, 'in spirit and in truth,' by believing in the Lord
Jesus Christ, and being saved until her twentieth year, from which time
she knew Him indeed as her Father, and walked with Him in this world as
His child. Subjoined is the following address to the reader--

Dear reader, how is it with you? Are you still only an outward
worshipper, or perhaps not even that? O! believe in the Lord Jesus
Christ, as having died on the cross for your sins, and ask Him to make
Himself known to you in your heart as your own Saviour, and then you
also will walk this earth as a happy child of God, loving and serving
Him by the power of His Spirit in you, till He shall take you home to
Himself to the fulness of joy in His presence, and the pleasures at His
right hand for evermore.

And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this, the
judgment; so Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many, and unto
them that look for Him, shall He appear the second time without sin,
unto Salvation.--_Hebrew ix._ 27-28. _Isaiah liii._ 6. _Acts xvi._
30-31.

Here is a grave with stone border and marble head-stone--in memory of
the Rev. Edwin Thompson, D.D., Vicar of St. John's Parish, and honorary
Chaplain of the Royal Masonic Institution for Girls, Battersea Rise,
who died February 2nd, 1876, aged 51 years. "Knowing that he, which
raised up the Lord Jesus shall raise up us also, by Jesus, and shall
present us with you."--_II. Cor. iv._ 14.

Also of Hannah Thompson, mother of the above, who died July 1st, 1876,
aged 80 years. "This is the victory that overcometh the world--even our
faith."--_I. John v._ 4.

We must tread softly among these grassy mounds, for yonder at the
end of the gravel walk is situated our Darling Teddie's grave, (No.
7217). Edward George Curme Simmonds, who was drowned off Battersea Park
embankment, October 16, 1875, aged 10 years. In another part of the
cemetery is interred all that is mortal of our beloved daughter Hannah,
who died June 12, 1873, aged 18. "My faith looks up to Thee, Thou lamb
of calvary, Saviour divine!"

But we have tarried almost too long, and as time is precious we must
leave for the present our meditations among the tombs, only observing
that as we examined the records of mortality, and thought of the
promiscuous multitude rested together without any regard to rank or
seniority within those thousands of graves, we were reminded of the
words of the Rev. James Hervey, when gazing upon a similar scene in
a church yard. "None were ambitious of the uppermost rooms, or chief
seats in this house of mourning; none entertained fond and eager
expectations of being honourably greeted, in their darksome cells. The
man of years and experience reputed as an oracle in his generation, was
contented to lie down at the feet of a babe. In this house appointed
for all living, the servant was equally accommodated and lodged in
the same story with his master. The poor indigent lay as softly, and
slept as soundly as the most opulent possessor. All the distinction
that subsisted was a grassy hillock, hound with osiers, or a sepulchral
stone, ornamented with imagery." In Thy fair book of life divine; My God
inscribe my name.

    My flesh shall slumber in the ground,
    Till the last trumpet's joyful sound;
    Then burst the chains with sweet surprise,
    And in my Saviour's image rise.
    How many graves around us lie!
    How many homes are in the sky!
    Yes for each saint doth Christ prepare, a place with care,
    Thy home is waiting, brother there!

On the south side of the centre gravel walk east of the mortuary
Chapels is a neat marble head-stone. Sacred to the memory of Elizabeth
Farmer, born January 13th, 1810, died February 1st, 1873. Also of
William Farmer, born May 14th, 1802, died May 26th, 1877, he was for
36 years a faithful servant in the employ of Messrs. Thorne, Brewers,
Nine Elms. "The memory of the Just is blessed. They rest from their
labours."--_Rev. xiv._ 14. This stone as a tribute of filial affection
is erected in loving remembrance by their sons.

On the west-side of the cemetery is erected a small red granite cross
in loving remembrance of John Hext Ward, Churchwarden of Battersea,
1874. Died 9th December, 1877, aged 40. A few of his friends thus
record their admiration for his sterling worth, for his manly
godliness, and for his self-denying efforts to help the poor to help
themselves. "Thy Kingdom come."

Here is a grave adorned with pretty flowers and rose trees a glass
shade covers a wreath, in the centre of which is an image representing
the Redeemer. At the head of the grave a memento card is framed and
glazed, In loving remembrance of Kate Ellen Wilson, who departed this
life July 2nd, 1878, in her 21st year.

      The stem broke and the flower faded.
    When my final farewell to the world I have said,
      And gladly lie down to my rest;
    When softly the watchers shall say "she is dead,"
      And fold my pale hands on my breast;
    And when with my glorified vision at last,
      The walls of that city I see;
    Angels will then at the beautiful gate,
      Be waiting and watching for me.

Conspicuously by the side of the carriage road may be seen a stone
obelisk tapering like a spire, with hand and forefinger pointing to
the sky. On front of the obelisk is a dove with marble scroll with
the words "for of such is the kingdom of heaven." In memory of Jessie
Felicia, the beloved wife of Frederick Reed, of Wandsworth, late of
Battersea; who died 22nd October, 1874, aged 31 years. Also Emily Kate,
the beloved daughter of the late C. Q. Baker, of Margate, Kent; who
died 6th January 1877, Aged 2½ years.

A grave stone with dove and scroll with the words "Jesus wept" is
erected in affectionate remembrance of Rozinia Sarah eldest daughter of
Henry and Rozinia Osborn, and grand-daughter of Mrs. M. E. McBain; who
departed this life October 14th 1868, aged 8 years and 7 months. "The
sting of death is sharp--But the love of Christ surpasseth all."

Another stone sacred to the memory of Mrs. Mary E. McBain who died July
8, 1866, aged 68 years.

Also of James Fairbain McBain, husband of the above who fell asleep in
Jesus, May 18th, 1879. For many years he had been a temperance advocate
and successful evangelist.

Here is a stone in affectionate remembrance of Little Marke, the dearly
beloved child of Philipp and Rose Konig, who fell asleep February the
3rd, 1876, aged 22 months.

    Our loss is his great gain,
    We trust in Christ to meet again.

Another stone in memory of Elizabeth the beloved wife of John Tyler
Larking, who after a painful mental and bodily disease fell asleep in
the dear Lord Jesus, August 27th, 1878, in her 76 year. "For I reckon
that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared
with the glory which shall be revealed in us."

On the right hand side of the principal road from the main entrance to
the cemetery is a grave-stone erected in loving undying remembrance of
Kate Ellen Wilson, whom it pleased God to take from this world of care
on the 2nd of July, 1878, aged 21 years.

    "Gone for ever in the blossom of life and love,
    After scarcely a moment's warning.
    Eloquence is lost in attempting to describe her noble qualities
    Loving, faithful, generous and pure,
    Thou wert the bright star that guidest me on,
    Toiling for thee and rank among strangers.
    Thy smile my reward when the battle was won,
    In sickness or sorrow, in sadness or sleeping
    Thy smile ever near to guide me along,
    Whispering hopes of a bright tomorrow
    My sad spirits cheering with dreams of relief,
    But e'er one summer passed away
    That gentle voice was hushed for aye
    I watched my Love's last smile and knew,
    How well the angels loved her too,
    Then silent.--
    Then silent but with blinding tears
    I gathered all my love of years,
    And laid it with my dream of old,
    When all and loved slept white and cold."

On the border stone are the words "the property of Walter Scott." No.
of grave 8747.

We observe another stone in memory of Mahalah the beloved and
affectionate wife of Henry Noble Williams, who died November 12th,
1873, aged 38 years. In her prostrated affliction she "endured as
seeing Him who is invisible" and longed to behold "the King in His
beauty."

    How calm and easy was her parting breath,
      No conscious sorrow shook her bed of death
    No infants fall when wearied sleep oppressed
      So did her soul sink to eternal rest
        "Until the morning breaketh."

"She looked well to the ways of her household, and ate not the bread of
idleness." _Prov. xxxi._ 27.

Also the above named, Henry Noble Williams, who died October 28th,
1879, aged 44 years.

"This mortal shall put on immortality." _I. Cor. xv._ 53.

Here is a grave the head-stone is erected in affectionate remembrance
of John Allison Peel, who died March 23, 1871, aged 40 years.

    Then let our sorrows cease to flow,
      God has recalled His own;
    But let our hearts in every woe,
      Still say Thy will be done.

Also of John William Peel son of the above, who was accidentally killed
by the falling of a boat swing June 18,1872. Aged 11 years.

Here is another stone erected by loving hands. In memory of Sarah
Appleton who died June 5, 1860, aged one month. Also of Minnie Appleton
who died March 10, 1864, aged 13 months. And of Rose Appleton who died
Dec. 17, 1865, aged 4½ years, children of George Appleton of Battersea
Park. Also of Mary Appleton, who died March 16, 1866, aged 79 years;
grandmother of the above children.

Added to this epitaph are the lines with which most persons are
familiar:--

    Forgive blest shade the tributary tear
      That mourns thy exit from a world like this
    Forgive the wish that would have kept thee here
      And stayed thy progress to the realms of bliss.

A plain head-stone marks the resting place of all that was mortal of
that good man William Henry Hatcher, born at Salisbury 21st January,
1821. Died at Sherwood House, Battersea, 2nd August, 1879. This stone
was erected by his colleagues and Fellow Workers.

    THE UNCERTAINTY OF LIFE.
    Beneath our feet and o'er our head
      Is equal warning given;
    Beneath us lie the countless dead,
      Above us is the heaven.

    Death rides on every passing breeze,
      He lurks in every flower;
    Each season has its own disease,
      Its peril every hour.

    Our eyes have seen the rosy light
      Of youth's soft cheek decay,
    And fate descend in sudden night
      On manhood's middle day.

    Our eyes have seen the steps of age
      Halt feebly towards the tomb;
    And yet shall earth our hearts engage,
      And dream of days to come?

    Turn, mortal, Turn! thy danger know,--
      Where'er thy feet can tread
    The earth rings hollow from below,
      And warns thee of her dead.

    Turn, Christian, turn! thy soul apply
      To truths divinely given;
    The bones that underneath thee lie
      Shall live for _hell or heaven!_

The Burial Ground of St. Mary, Battersea, was purchased 1860, and
secured for the use of the Parishioners, by Act of Parliament, xv. and
xvi. Victoria Cap. 85.

_This was the Scale of Fees of the Burial Board of St Mary, Battersea_.

                   First Ground,     Second Ground,    Third Ground,
                         A.                B.               C.
                  ADULT.   INFANT.  ADULT.   INFANT.  ADULT.   INFANT.
                  £.s.d.   £.s.d.   £.s.d.   £.s.d.   £.s.d.   £.s.d.

INTERMENT
FEE for
PARISHIONERS
without
purchase,
viz.:--

Fee for
Interment,
including
Turfing
and Digging
Grave             0 18 6   0 13 0   0 16 6   0 10 6   0 10 6   0 6 0

Tolling Bell
(if required)     0 5 0    0 5 0    0 2 6    0 2 6    0 1 0    0 1 0

Total             1 3 6    0 18 0   0 19 0   0 13 0   0 11 6   0 7 0

INTERMENT
FEE at
Expense of
Union--

Fee for
Interment                                             0 10 6   0 6 0

Tolling
Bell                                                  0 1 0    0 1 0

Total                                                 0 11 6   0 7 0

Purchase of
Grave--Brick      3 3 0    3 3 0    2 2 0    2 2 0    2 2 0    2 2 0

Do.--Earth        2 2 0    2 2 0    1 10 0   1 10 0   1 10 0   1 10 0

Conveyance,
if required, 5s.

Fee for
Interment in
Vault or Brick
Grave             1 1 0    1 1 0    0 10 6   0 10 6   0 10 6   0 10 6

Fee for
Interment out
of regulated
hours (Extra)     0 7 6    0 7 6    0 5 0    0 5 0    0 2 6    0 2 6

Fee for
Interment of
Still Born and
Infants less
than One
month old                  0 2 6             0 2 6             0 2 6

Register Fee
for entry in
Register of
Vaults or Grave
in perpetuity     0 1 0    0 1 0    0 1 0    0 1 0    0 1 0    0 1 0

Certificate       0 2 7    0 2 7    0 2 7    0 2 7    0 2 7    0 2 7

Searching
Register of
Burials, for
one year          0 1 0    0 1 0    0 1 0    0 1 0    0 1 0    0 1 0

Do. do. for
each additional
year              0 0 6    0 0 6    0 0 6    0 0 6    0 0 6    0 0 6

Certificate
of Entry          0 2 7    0 2 7    0 2 7    0 2 7    0 2 7    0 2 7

Fee for
Erecting
Headstone,
Footstone         0 14 0   0 14 0   0 10 0   0 10 0   0 10 0   0 10 0

Fee for
Erecting
Mural Monument    10 10 0

Fee for
Erecting
or placing Tomb
or Flat
Stone, &c.        1 1 0


OTHER FEES.

 Keeping Monuments and Graves in perpetuity, according to
 Agreement.

 Planting with Flowers and keeping in order a private Grave,
 per annum, 10s. 6d.

 Turfing  do.  do.  do.  3s.

 For Removing and replacing Head and Foot-Stone, 10s.

 For Removing Ledger Stone, 14s.

 Digging Grave Extra Depth, per foot--1-ft. 2s. 2-ft. 3s. 3-ft.
 4s. 6d. 4-ft. 6s. 5-ft. 7s. 6d. 6-ft. 10s. 7-ft. 14s. 8-ft. 17s.
 9-ft. £1.

 Fee for Additional Inscription, 5s.

 Fee for Change of Stone or Monument, 15s.

 NON-PARISHIONERS DOUBLE FEES.

       By Order,

            THOMAS HARRAP, _Clerk_.

 Approved by the
 SECRETARY OF STATE,
 For the Home Department,
 _December_ 21_st_, 1876.

THE BATTERSEA CHARITIES. Most of which are by will of the founders
administered by the Vicar and Churchwardens.

1. ANN COOPER, in 1720, gave £300 to purchase an estate, the profits
thereof to be disposed of to poor people not receiving alms or to bind
out poor children with the approbation of Henry Lord Viscount St. John.
This estate is land consisting of about 15 acres, situated in South
Cerney in Gloucestershire, and produces a rental of £18 15s. per annum.

2. THOMAS ASHNESS, in 1827, bequeathed £100 in trust for the use of the
poor of this parish, to be distributed amongst them as the Vicar and
Wardens shall think fit, and the dividend from this is £3 8s.

3. ANTHONY FRANCIS HALDIMAND, by will of 1815, bequeathed £200 for the
same purpose, the dividend of this sum is £3 12s. 8d.

4. REBECCA WOOD, in 1596, bequeathed £200, the interest of which is to
be distributed annually among 24 decayed families of the parish, the
dividend from this is £6 4s. 9d.

5. HENRY SMITH, in 1626, bequeathed several pieces of land, situated
in the parishes of Sevenoaks, Seal and Kensing, in the County of Kent,
the profits thereof to be applied to the relief of the impotent and
aged poor who have resided 5 years in one of the twelve parishes named
in his will, to be distributed in apparel of one colour. The dividend
received as the portion due to this parish is £17 1s.

6. JOHN CONRAD RAPP, in 1830, left £200, the interest to be divided at
Christmas between four poor men and four poor women as the Vicar and
Wardens in their discretion should think most necessitous and deserving
of such relief. The amount from this benefaction is £6 9s. 4d.

7. JOHN PARVIN, in 1818, left £1,000, the interest to be laid out
in coal, candles, broad and flannel and distributed among 40 poor
widows actually residing in Nine Elms and Battersea Fields. Also
a further sum of £1,000 upon trust to pay one-fourth part of the
interest annually to the trustees of schools formed by the late Lord
St. John in this parish. One-fourth part to be expended in purchasing
of bread to be distributed on the Sunday in every fourth week of the
month. Two-fourths for the use of poor aged men and women equally in
the Workhouse, all to be in the habit of attending Divine Service
in Battersea Church. The last distribution of one-fourth to parties
in the Workhouse was up to December 26th, 1836. One-fourth of the
second £1,000, was paid away in 1853 for meeting law charges in the
information of B. Starling and C. Bowes renew Scheme of Sir Walter
St. John's Schools, and the two fourths transferred to the trustees
of Sir Walter St. John's Schools in 1863 by order of the Charity
Commissioners. The sum now available from this source for Christmas
distribution is £33 5s. 8d.

8. JOHN CONSTABLE left £50 bequest in 1856 for the poor of this parish.
The dividend from this now is £1 19s. 4d.

9. JOHN BANKS, in 1716 left by will to five poor men and five poor
women 50s. each per annum, inhabitants of this parish. Candidates'
names for recipients of this charity are forwarded by recommendation to
the Haberdashers' Company of London who distribute this fund.

10. HENRY JUER, in 1874, bequeathed the sum of £500, the dividend
thereof to be distributed on the 6th February in each year to 12 needy
parishioners of the age of 60 years and upwards.

11. JOHN EDMUNDS, who in 1708 left £10 per annum for putting out
boy-apprentices. The property bequeathed consisting of a small tenement
in the City has increased in value, and so few applications of boys or
masters are received at the Lammas Hall that the sum of £730 1s. 10d.
is now on deposit to the credit of this charity.

The Parish Officers issue a form to be filled in by all applicants and
to be endorsed by a householder.

"He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto the Lord; and that which
he hath given will he pay him again."--_Prov. xix._ 17.

"Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my
brethren, ye have done it unto me."--_Matthew xxv._ 40.

The "Imperial Gazetteer," Vol. p. 130, states that Battersea has a free
school with £160 and other charities with £121.

_Churchwardens._--Joseph William Hiscox, Altenburg Terrace, Lavender
Hill; Edward Wood, 6, Shelgate Road, Battersea Rise.

_Overseers._--Andrew Cameron, 65, Salcott Road; William Daws, 49, High
Street; Robert Steel, Sleaford Street; B. T. L. Thomson, 6, Crown
Terrace, Lavender Hill.

_Vestry Clerk._--Thomas Harrap, Crown Terrace, Lavender Hill.

The following is the List of Vestrymen and Auditors Elected under the
provisions of the Metropolis Local Management Act, 1881.

_Vestrymen Ex-officio._--Rev. John Erskine Clarke, Vicar, 6, Altenburg
Gardens; Joseph William Hiscox, 2, Altenburg Terrace, Lavender Hill;
Edward Wood, 6, Shelgate Road, Battersea Rise.

WARD NO. 1. (Vestrymen who retire in 1882).--William Duce, 21, Ponton
Road, Nine Elms; James Dulley, 85, Battersea Park Road; Rev. Thomas
Lander, St. George's Vicarage, 33, Battersea Park Road; Samuel
Lathey, 1, St. George's Road, New Road; Nathaniel Purdy, 1, Ponton
Terrace, Nine Elms; Thomas D. Tulley 22, Queen's Square, Battersea
Park. (Vestrymen who retire in 1883).--John Gwynne, 64, Stewart's
Road; Edwin Lathey, 1, St. George's Road, New Road; Thomas Read, 41,
Battersea Park Road; Frederick Rummins, 49, Lockington Road; George
T. Smith, Wandle Road, Upper Tooting; Robert Steele, Sleaford Street.
(Vestrymen who retire in 1884).--Thomas Anderson, 37, Battersea Park
Road; Charles Clench, 161, Battersea Park Road; John Samuel Oldham, 18,
Battersea Park Road; Patrick James O'Neil, 145, Battersea Park Road;
John Whiting, 38, Patmore Street; Eleazer Williams, 180, New Road.
_Auditor._--John Douthwaite, St. George's Schools, New Road.

WARD NO. 2. (Vestrymen who retire in 1882).--George F. Burroughs,
1, Queen's Crescent, Queen's Road; John Merritt, 1, Prospect
Cottages, Falcon Grove; John Merry, 237, Battersea Park Road; Thomas
Poupart, 399, Battersea Park Road; Rev. S. G. Scott, St. Saviour's
Parsonage, Battersea Park; George N. Street, 491, Battersea Park
Road; Henry Walkley, 351, Battersea Park Road. (Vestrymen who retire
in 1883).--Horace E. Bayfield, 1, Somers Villas, Lavender Hill; Wm.
Jno. Folkard, 12, Rushill Terrace, Lavender Hill; Charles E. Gay, 41,
Orkney Street, Battersea Park Road; Henry John Hansom, Grove End House,
Falcon Lane; Charles Heine, 219, Battersea Park Road; B. T. L. Thomson,
6, Crown Terrace, Lavender Hill; George Ugle, 21, Acanthus Road,
Lavender Hill. (Vestrymen who retire in 1884).--Charles Donaldson, 177,
Battersea Park Road; John Elmslie, 241, Battersea Park Road; William
Sangwin, 533, Battersea Park Road; Samuel Hancock, 339, Battersea
Park Road; Samuel Bowker, 6, Crown Terrace, Lavender Hill; Frederick
Aubin, 393, Battersea Park Road; Charles Spencer, 4, Wycliffe Terrace,
Lavender Hill. _Auditor._--George Fowler, 20, Queen's Square.

WARD NO. 3. (Vestrymen who retire in 1882).--James Chorley, 69, High
Street; William Daws, 49, High Street; George Durrant, 22, Bridge
Road West; William Gerrard, Lombard Road; William Hammond, 72, York
Road; Henry May Soule, Mayfield, St. John's Hill; Horsley Woods,
38, Bridge Road West. (Vestrymen who retire in 1883).--Bernard
Cotter, 228, York Road; George Thos. Dunning, 45, Winstanley Road;
William Gosden, 3, Spencer Road; John Thos. Gurling, High Street;
Joseph Oakman, The Priory, High Street; Rev. John Toone, St. Peter's
Parsonage, Plough Lane; John Trott, 75, High Street. (Vestrymen
who retire in 1884).--George Brocking, 27, High Street; William J.
Bromley, 12, Olney Terrace, Plough Lane; John W. Denny 108, York Road;
Thomas Gregory, Station Road; William Griffin 44, High Street; Joseph
James Kilsby, 189, York Road; William Wingate, Sen., 1, High Street.
_Auditor._--Charles Earl Holmes, 80, Bridge Road.

WARD NO. 4. (Vestrymen who retire in 1882).--James Clarke, 2, Rushill
Terrace, Lavender Hill; John Davis Hatch, Bolingbroke Grove, Wandsworth
Common; Alfred Heaver, Homeland, Benerley Road; Joseph William
Hiscox, 2, Altenburg Terrace, Lavender Hill. (Vestrymen who retire
in 1883).--Andrew W. Cameron, 65, Salcott Road; John Cleave, Eaton
Villa, Vardens Road; Horace Turnor, 63, Northcote Road; Edward Wood, 6,
Shelgate Road. (Vestrymen who retire in 1884).--Francis Cowdry, 25,
Belleville Road; William Haynes, Rotherstone House, Salcott Road; R.
W. Oram, 13, Clapham Common Gardens; William Wilkins, St. John's Road,
Battersea Rise. _Auditor._--John Tomkins, Heather Villa, Nottingham
Road, Wandsworth Common.

_Parish Clerk._--James Spice, Bridge Road West.

_Beadle._--William Edwards.

_Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages._--William Griffin, High
Street.

_District Surveyor of North Battersea._--H. J. Hansom, Grove-end House,
Falcon Lane.

A Parochial Assembly for conducting the affairs of a Parish, so called
because its meetings were formerly held in the Vestry--a room appended
to a Church in which the sacerdotal vestments and sacred utensils are
kept. Vestrymen are a select number of persons in each parish elected
for the management of its temporal concerns.

The Vestry is the organ through which the Parish speaks, and in
numerous matters relating to church rates, highways, baths and
wash-houses and other sanitary matters, it has important functions to
discharge and is a conspicuous feature of Parochial management. The
Vicar is entitled to be chairman. It is the duty of the Churchwardens
and Overseers to keep a book in which to enter the minutes of the
Vestry. The Vestry appoints annually Churchwardens, nominates
Overseers, etc. A Church rate can only be made by a Vestry, and if
the majority choose, to make none. The Vestry Clerk is chosen by the
Vestry; his duty is to give notice of Vestry meetings; to summon the
Churchwardens and Overseers; to keep the minutes, accounts and Vestry
books; recover the arrears of rates; make out the list of persons
qualified to act as Jurymen, and to give notices for to vote for
Members of Parliament.

Churchwardens in England are Ecclesiastical officers appointed by the
first Canon of the Synod of London in 1127. Overseers in every parish
were also appointed by the same body, and they continue now as then
established.--_Johnson's Canons_.

Churchwardens, by the Canons of 1603, are to be chosen annually. The
Common Law requires that there should be two Churchwardens, one of
whom is appointed by the Incumbent and the other is chosen by the
Parishioners in Vestry assembled. Their primary duty is to see that
the fabric of the Church is kept in good repair, superintending the
celebration of public worship, and to form and regulate other Parochial
regulations. The appointment and election take place in Easter Week of
each year.

Overseers are officers who occupy an important position in all the
parishes in England and Wales, they too are appointed annually. Their
primary duty is to rate the inhabitants to the Poor rate, collect
the same, and apply it towards relief of the poor, besides other
miscellaneous duties, such as making out the list of voters for Members
of Parliament. The list of persons in the Parish qualified to serve as
Jurors, the list of persons qualified to serve as Parish Constables.
They are bound to appoint persons to enforce the Vaccination Acts,
etc., etc.

When the birth of a child is registered, the registrar is to give
notice of vaccination; and the child must be vaccinated within three
months. Penalty for not bringing the child to be vaccinated 20s. If any
registrar shall give information to a justice that he has reason to
believe any child has not been successfully vaccinated, and that he has
given notice thereof, which notice has been disregarded, the justice
may order the child to appear before him, and he may make an order
directing such child to be vaccinated within a certain time, and if at
the expiration of such time the child shall not have been vaccinated,
the parent or person upon whom the order has been served is liable to a
penalty not exceeding 20s.

Guardians of the poor, in the English parochial law are important
functionaries elected by a parish or union of parishes; they have the
management of the workhouse and the maintenance, clothing and relief
of the poor, and in the regulations must comply with the orders of
the Poor Law Board, a central authority, whose head is a member of
Parliament, their duties are entirely regulated by these orders, and by
statutes.

_Relieving Officers._--Mr. Murphy, Wye Street, York Road; Mr. Tugwell,
479, Battersea Park Road.

_Medical Officers._--Dr. Kempster, 247, Battersea Park Road; Dr.
Oakman, The Priory, Battersea Square.

_Surveyor and Inspector of Nuisances._--Mr. Pilditch, Stone Yard,
Battersea, to whom complaints should be made.

_Dust Contractor._--Applications to be addressed Board of Works,
Battersea Rise.

_Turn-cock._--R. Gray, 24, Dickens Street; _Assistant ditto._ W. Moore,
24, Parkside Street.

_Collectors of Parochial Rates._--Mr. E. Stocker, 37, St. John's Hill
Grove; Mr. G. Nichols, Pembroke Villa, Falcon Lane; Mr. G. J. Chadwin,
Lombard Road; Mr. O. Shepherd, 15, Middleton Road, Battersea Rise.

_Collectors of Queen's Taxes._--Mr. A. G. Iago, Gatcombe Villa, Harbutt
Road, Plough Lane, New Wandsworth; Mr. Lewis, Bridge Road.

The Battersea Tradesmen's Club commenced October 1875, may be regarded
as a local Institution. Its founder was Mr. Elmslie, the register
contains the names of 200 elected members, having for their object
the general interest, improvement and prosperity of the parish. The
club has sustained a heavy loss by the sudden death of its respected
Treasurer, Mr. Henry Kesterton, he was a guardian of the poor, a member
of the vestry, and also of the board of works. His straightforwardness
and generosity inspired much respect. Deep sympathy with his wife and
family was manifested at his funeral, which was attended by a great
number of the leading members of the club, and other parishioners. His
mortal remains were interred at Norwood Cemetery.

The following gentlemen form the Committee.--

Mr. J. Pochin, 291, Battersea Park Road; J. Evans, 367, Battersea
Park Road; Mr. W. Sangwin, 533, Battersea Park Road; Mr. T. Bowley,
535, Battersea Park Road; Mr. E. Evans, 287, Battersea Park Road; Mr.
J. Douglas, W. L. Com. Bank; Mr. G. N. Street, 353, Battersea Park
Road; Mr. H. Walkley, 351, Battersea Park Road; Mr. F. Sturges, Orkney
Street; Mr. C. E. Gay, 21, Orkney Street; Mr. B. Hickman, 100, Gwynne
Road; H. Winter, 52, Park Grove; W. Marsh, Battersea Park Road.

Secretary.--Mr. Robert Gooch, 21, Queen's Square, Queen's Road.

Any person wishing to have his name enrolled as a member of the Club,
must subscribe 10s. yearly.

The temporary Home for lost and starving Dogs, Battersea Park Road,
(removed from Holloway.) Established October 2nd, 1860. The late
Mrs. Tealby was the foundress and unwearied benefactress of this
Institution. In 1875 more than 3,200 dogs were either restored to
their former owners, or sent to new homes, being an increase of 1094,
over the previous year. The home has been visited by many of the
nobility and gentry, and by great kennel owners, and all have expressed
themselves very much pleased with the cleanliness, and general good
order, which they have observed. It is gratifying to know that of the
many thousands of dogs which have been brought into the home there
has been _no case of hydrophobia_. Every precaution is taken by the
committee not to allow any dog to be sold for the horrid purpose of
vivisection. There are in stock at the home more than 300 dogs. Keeper
at the home--Mr. J. Pavitt; open daily from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m.; (the home
is entirely closed on Sunday.)

"I cannot understand that morality which excludes animals from human
sympathy, or release man from the debt and obligation he owes to
them."--_Sir John Bowring_.

    "He prayeth best, who loveth best;
      All creatures great and small;
    For the great God who loveth us,
      He made and loves them all"--_Coleridge._

    "With eye upraised, his master's look to scan,
    The joy, the solace, and the aid of man;
    The rich man's guardian and the poor man's friend.
    The only creature faithful to the end."

London, Chatham and Dover Railway--Battersea Park Station, Battersea
Park Road, booking office to Victoria, Crystal Palace, main line and
City trains, Blackheath Hill, for Greenwich. Station master, Mr. H.
Lankman.

York Road Station, Battersea Park--London, Brighton and South London
Line. Station master, Mr. Henry Mead.

West London Commercial Bank, Limited, Established 1866. Incorporated,
under the Joint-Stock Companies' Act 1872. Head Office--34, Sloane
Square, London, S.W. Battersea Park Branch, 1, Victoria Road. Manager,
Mr. George Patrick McCourt.

London and South Western Bank, Head office, 7, Fenchurch Street.
Battersea Branch, Battersea Park Road, opposite Christ Church. Manager,
Mr. J. Barr.

Temperance and Band of Hope Meetings are held at St. George's Mission
Room, New Road; Arthur Street, Mission Hall, Battersea Park Road;
Grove School Room, York Road, Conductor Mr. G. Mansell; Temperance
Hall, Tyneham Road, Shaftesbury Park Estate; The Institute, Mill Pond
Bridge, Nine Elms Lane, every Tuesday, commencing at 8 p.m. President,
George Howlett, Esq.; Vice-President, Mr. T. O. Shutter; Treasurer Mr.
D. Greaves; Financial Secretary, Mr. H. Gitsham; Registrars, Mr. F.
Clarke, Mr. W. R. Josslyn; Corresponding Secretary, Mr. R. Curson, 6,
Horace Street, Wandsworth Road, S.W.

SOUTH LONDON TRAMWAYS. In 1879 a Tram-way was constructed in Battersea
Park Road. (Turner, Contractor, Chelsea). Tram cars first commenced
running for the conveyance of passengers between Falcon Lane and the
Rifleman January 6, 1881. The second portion of the South London
Tramways Company's line from Nine Elms to Clapham Junction was opened
for traffic on Saturday March 12th, 1881.

The Queen's Road and Victoria Road Lines being now completed, in
addition to those previously worked in Falcon Lane and Battersea Park
Road and Nine Elms Lane, Cars are running as under:--

EVERY TEN MINUTES THROUGHOUT THE DAY, FROM

THE FALCON TAVERN,          _to_    NINE ELMS LANE.
CLAPHAM JUNCTION,
First Car leaves 7.45 a.m.          First Car leaves 8.15 a.m.
Last Car do. 10.10 p.m.             Last Car do. 10.10 p.m.
Do. Sat'days do. 11.55 p.m.         Do. Sat'days do. 11.55 p.m.

PRINCE'S HEAD, HIGH         _to_    CHELSEA BRIDGE STEAMBOAT
STREET, BATTERSEA,                  PIER, VIÂ VICTORIA ROAD.
First Car leaves 7.55 a.m.          First Car leaves 8.20 a.m.
Last Car do. 9.45 p.m.              Last Car do. 10.20 p.m.
Do. Sat'days do. 11.33 p.m.         Do. Sat'days do. 11.10 p.m.

LAVENDER HILL END           _to_    BRIGHTON RAILWAY STATION,
OF QUEEN'S ROAD,                    BATTERSEA PARK ROAD.
First Car leaves 8.10 a.m.          First Car leaves 8.25 a.m.
Last Car do. 10.0 p.m.              Last Car do. 10.15 p.m.
Do. Sat'days do. 11.10 p.m.         Do. Sat'days do. 10.50 p.m.

In Battersea Park Road the Cars run every 5 minutes between "Prince's
Head" and Victoria Road (South End).

Workmen's Cars will run as heretofore.

On Sundays the Cars commence running about 10 a.m. and finish as on
Weekdays.

FARES.

"The Falcon" to "Clock House"                 1d.
"Prince's Head" to Victoria Road (South End)  1d.
"Clock House" to "Rifleman"                   1d.
Victoria Road (South End) to Nine Elms        1d.
Lavender Hill to Chelsea Bridge               1d.
Beyond the above distances                    2d.

N.B.--The Tickets are only available for a Single Journey upon the Car
where issued.





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