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Title: A Manual of the Art of Bookbinding - Containing full instructions in the different branches of - forwarding, gilding, and finishing.
Author: Nicholson, James B.
Language: English
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[Illustration: 1

_Montague Style_

_Harleian Style_

_Aldine Style_

_Harleian Border_]



  A

  MANUAL

  OF THE

  ART OF BOOKBINDING:

  CONTAINING

  FULL INSTRUCTIONS IN THE DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF
  FORWARDING, GILDING, AND FINISHING.

  ALSO,

  +The Art of Marbling Book-Edges and Paper.+

  THE WHOLE DESIGNED FOR

  THE PRACTICAL WORKMAN, THE AMATEUR, AND THE
  BOOK-COLLECTOR.

  BY

  JAMES B. NICHOLSON.


  PHILADELPHIA:
  HENRY CAREY BAIRD & CO.,
  INDUSTRIAL PUBLISHERS, BOOKSELLERS AND IMPORTERS,
  810 WALNUT STREET.

  1878.



  Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1856, by

  JAS. B. NICHOLSON,

  in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States
          for the
  Eastern District of Pennsylvania.


  STEREOTYPED BY L. JOHNSON & CO.
  PHILADELPHIA.



PREFACE.


The progress of the Art of Bookbinding has made nearly all the works
written upon the subject obsolete; their descriptions no longer apply
to the methods practised by the best workmen. Throughout this work,
the opinions and remarks of other writers have been adopted without
alteration, unless they came in contact with practical knowledge.
Every thing that would not bear that test has been rejected, and in
lieu thereof those modes of operation described that the young binder
will have to learn and practise if he desires to emulate the skill of
the best artists.

The plan of the work is taken from "Arnett's Bibliopegia;" and every
thing given in that work that has any approach to utility will be
found in these pages. It was at first intended merely to revise that
production; but during the progress of revision so much was rejected
that it was deemed better to pass under notice at the same time the
labours of others. "Cundall's Ornamental Art" has furnished the early
incidents in the "Sketch of the Progress of the Art of Bookbinding;"
and, as the best authority upon the subject, "Woolnough's Art
of Marbling" has been adapted to this country. Mr. Leighton's
"Suggestions in Design" has been laid under contribution in order to
enrich the subject of Ornamental Art. The "London Friendly Finishers'
Circulars" have been a valuable acquisition to the writer, and it is
trusted will make this work equally so to the young finisher. "Cowie's
Bookbinders' Manual," "Arnett's School of Design," "Gibb's Hand-book
of Ornament," and "Scott's Essay on Ornamental Art," in addition
to those acknowledged in the body of the work, have supplied some
valuable hints.

It is hoped that this volume will prove useful to those forming
libraries, by imparting correct information upon subjects that to
the book-collector are important, and that its tendencies will be to
increase and strengthen a love for the art.

  J. B. N.

    PHILADELPHIA, 1856.



CONTENTS.


  INTRODUCTION.

                                                   PAGE

  SKETCH of the Progress of Bookbinding               9


  PART I.

  Sheet-Work                                         34


  PART II.

  Forwarding                                         59

      The Edges                                      74

      Marbling                                       82

      Gilding the Edges                             130

      Covering                                      141

  Half-Binding                                      149

  Blank Binding                                     151

  Boarding                                          169

  Cloth-Work                                        170


  PART III.

  Ornamental Art                                    178

  Finishing:

      Taste and Design                              186

      Styles                                        198

      Gilding                                       215

  Illuminated Binding                               227

  Blind Tooling                                     230

  Antique                                           231

  Colouring                                         236

  Marbling                                          246

  Uniform Colours                                   256

  Gold Marbles, Landscapes, &c.                     260

  Inlaid Ornaments                                  270

  Harmony of Colours                                272

  Pasting Down, &c.                                 273

  Stamp or Press-Work                               279

  Restoring the Bindings of Old Books               289

  Supplying Imperfections in Old Books              290

  Hints to Book-Collectors                          292

  Technical Terms                                   297



INTRODUCTION.

SKETCH OF THE PROGRESS OF BOOKBINDING.


The earliest records of Bookbinding that exist prove that the art has
been practised for nearly two thousand years. In past ages, books were
written on long scrolls of parchment or papyrus, and were rolled up
and fastened with a thong which was made of coloured leather and often
highly ornamented. These scrolls were usually attached to one, or,
occasionally, two rollers of wood or ivory, or sometimes of gold, much
as our large maps are now mounted, and the bosses at the end of the
rollers were frequently highly decorated. This decoration may be
called the first step toward Ornamental Art applied to the exterior of
books.

A learned Athenian, named Phillatius, to whom his countrymen erected
a statue, at length found out a means of binding books with glue. The
sheets of vellum or papyrus were gathered two or four together, sewn
much in the same way as at the present day; and then, in order to
preserve these sheets, there came, as a matter of course, a covering
for the book.

The probability is that the first book-covers were of wood--plain
oaken boards, perhaps; then, as books in those days were all in
manuscript, and very valuable, carved oak bindings were given to those
which were the most decorated within.

To cover the plain wooden board with vellum or leather would, in the
course of years, be too apparent an improvement to be neglected; and
specimens of books so bound, of the great antiquity of which there are
undoubted proofs, exist at the present day.

There is reason to believe that the Romans carried the Art of Binding
to considerable perfection. Some of the public offices had books
called Dyptichs,[A] in which their acts were written. The binding of
one of these in carved wood is thus described:--"Seated in the centre
of each board is a consul, holding in one hand a baton, and in the
other, upraised, a purse, as if in the act of throwing it to some
victor in the games. Above these are miniature portraits, various
other ornaments, and an inscription; below, on one board, are two
men leading out horses for the race, and beneath them a group, with a
ludicrous representation of two other men, exhibiting their endurance
of pain by allowing crabs to fasten on their noses." A small print of
an ivory dyptich of the fifth century, in Mr. Arnett's "Books of the
Ancients," may be consulted as a specimen of the kind of ornament then
adopted. An old writer says, that about the time of the Christian
era the books of the Romans were covered with red, yellow, green, and
purple leather, and decorated with gold and silver.

    [Footnote A: "The antiquity of illuminated missals has been
    traced, conjecturally, even to the time of the apostles
    themselves. At the beginning of the Christian era, missive
    letters were usually written on tablets of wood, hollowed so
    as to present something of the appearance of a boy's slate in
    a frame. Two of these were placed face to face to preserve the
    writing, which was on wax, and a pair of boards thus prepared
    was called a Dyptich. The Epistles of St. Paul and the other
    apostles to the primitive churches were, in fact, missive
    letters despatched to their distant congregations; and there
    is every probability that imaginary or real portraits of the
    writers accompanied the letters, and headed the contents of
    the Christian dyptichs, in order to insure to them the same
    degree of reverence which was paid to the missives of the
    government when headed by the imperial effigies.

    "The compact form of the dyptich suited the purposes of
    a movable altar-piece admirably. And the names dyptic or
    triptic, which implied at first but a double or triple page,
    came with time to designate those folding altarpieces so
    frequently found in the earliest Christian churches."--_Lady
    Calcott's Essay._]

If we pass on to a few centuries later, we find that the monks were
almost the only literati. They wrote chiefly on subjects of religion,
and bestowed the greatest pains upon the internal and external
decorations of their books. In the thirteenth century some of the
gospels, missals, and other service-books for the Greek and Roman
churches, were ornamented with silver and gold, apparently wrought by
the hammer; sometimes they were enamelled and enriched with precious
stones, and pearls of great value. Carved oak figures of the Virgin,
or the Infant Saviour, or of the Crucifixion, were also the frequent
adornments of the outside covers. One of these ancient relics is thus
described by the librarian of Henry VIII.

"All I have to do is to observe, that this book (which the more I have
look'd upon the more I have always admired) hath two thick boards,
each about an inch in thickness, for its covers, and that they were
joined with the book by large leather thongs, which boards are now by
length of time become very loose. Tho' I have seen a vast number of
old books and oftentimes examined their covers, yet I do not remember
I ever saw boards upon any of them of so great thickness as these.
This was the manner of Binding, it seems, of those times, especially
if the books were books of extraordinary value, as this is. 'Twas
usual to cut Letters in the Covers, and such letters were the better
preserv'd by having them placed in some hollow part, which might
easily be made if the boards were pretty thick. I suppose, therefore,
that even the copies of _Gregory's_ Pastoral that were given to
Cathedral Churches by King _Alfred_ had such thick covers also, that
these by the _Æstals_ might be fix'd the better. What makes me think
so is, that the outside of one of the covers of this book is made
hollow, and there is a rude sort of figure upon a brass plate that
is fastened within the hollow part, which figure I take to have been
designed for the Virgin _Mary_, to whom the Abbey was dedicated. Over
it there was once fastened another much larger plate, as is plain
from the Nails that fixed it and from some other small indications now
extant,--and this 'tis likely was of silver, and perhaps there was
an _anathema_ against the Person that should presume to alienate it,
engraved upon it--together with the Name of the Person (who it may be
was _Roger Poure_) that was the Donor of the Book. This will make
it to have been nothing else but an Æstal, such a one (tho' not so
valuable) as was fastened upon _Gregory's_ Pastoral. But this I leave
to every man's judgment."[B]

    [Footnote B: Leland's Itin. vol. ii. p. 86, Oxford, 1769.]

At a later period we find on the binding of books gold and silver
ornaments of very beautiful design, enclosing precious stones of
great variety; carved ivory tablets let into framework of carved oak;
rich-coloured velvets, edged with morocco, with bosses, clasps, and
corners of solid gold; white vellum stamped in gold and blind tooling;
and morocco and calf covers inlaid with various colours and adorned
in every conceivable way. This was at the end of the fourteenth and
in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, when the love of Art was
universal, in the land where Michael Angelo, and Raffaelle, and Da
Vinci produced their great works, and where, under the auspices of
the Medici, the Art of Bookbinding as well as all other arts was
encouraged.

Mr. Dibdin, in his "Bibliographical Decameron," to which we are much
indebted, has given an account of the library of Corvinus, King of
Hungary, who died at Buda about the year 1490. This library consisted
of about thirty thousand volumes, mostly manuscripts of the Greek
and Latin poets and historians, and was contained in large vaulted
galleries, in which, among other works of art, were two fountains,
one of marble and the other of silver. The binding of the books
were mostly of brocade, protected with bosses and clasps of gold
and silver; and these, alas! were the subsequent cause of the almost
entire destruction of the library; for, when the city of Buda was
taken by assault, in 1526, the Turkish soldiers tore the precious
volumes from their covers for the sake of the ornaments that were upon
them.

The general use of calf and morocco binding seems to have followed
the invention of printing. There are many printed books, still in good
preservation, that were bound in calf with oaken boards at the end
of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth centuries. These are
mostly stamped with gold or blind tools. The earliest of these tools
generally represent figures, such as Christ, St. Paul, the Virgin,
coats of arms, legends, and monograms, according to the contents of
the book. Afterward attempts were made to produce pictures, but these
were necessarily bad.

In England, the earliest binding with ornament was about the time of
Henry VII., when we find the royal arms supported by two angels; the
heraldic badge of the double rose and pomegranate, the fleur-de-lys,
the portcullis, the emblems of the evangelists, and small ornaments of
grotesque animals. There are in the British Museum and in the Record
Office many English bindings which undoubtedly were executed in the
time of Henry VII.

In the reign of Henry VIII., about 1538, Grafton, the printer,
undertook to print the great Bible. Not finding sufficient men or
types in England, he went to Paris and there commenced it. He had not,
however, proceeded far, before he was stopped in the progress of this
heretical book; and he then took over to England the presses, type,
printers, and bookbinders, and finished the work in 1539. The edition
consisted of 2500 copies, one of which was set up in every church in
England, secured to a desk by a chain. Within three years there were
seven distinct editions of this work; which, supposing each edition
to consist of the same number of copies as the first, would amount to
17,500 folio volumes. The binding, therefore, of so great a number of
this book would alone give some importance to the Art of Bookbinding
at that period. We know that Henry VIII. had many splendid volumes
bound in velvet with gold bosses and ornaments. In his reign the
stamping of tools in gold appears to have been first introduced in
England; and some beautiful rolls, probably from Holbein's designs,
were used as well on the sides as on the gilded edges of books still
in existence.

In the reign of Elizabeth some exquisite bindings were done in
embroidery. The queen herself used to work covers with gold and silver
thread, spangles, and coloured silk, for Bibles and other devotional
books which she presented to her maids of honour and her friends.
From these brilliant external decorations, many of them entirely
inappropriate for a book, we turn to a purer taste, the exercise
of which will be found to reside within the peculiar limits of the
Bookbinder's Art.

We return to Continental binding, and pass to the time of the
ever-famous Jean Grolier. This nobleman was the first to introduce
lettering upon the back; and he seems to have taken especial delight
in having the sides of his books ornamented with very beautiful and
elaborate patterns, said to have been drawn by his own hand. Many of
them exist at the present day, either original Groliers or copies.
Books from his library are eagerly sought for. All Grolier's books
were bound in smooth morocco or calf, the pattern being formed of
intersected line-work, finished by hand with a fine one-line fillet
and gouges to correspond, with the occasional introduction of a
conventional flower. Sometimes also the patterns were inlaid with
morocco of different colours; and it is our opinion that no style
of book-ornamentation has been since introduced that is worthy of
entirely superseding the Grolier, a specimen of which will be given
when treating on style. Very many of the Chevalier's volumes have
the Latin inscription "Johanni Grolierii et amicorum" at the bottom,
signifying that Grolier wished his books to be used by his friends as
well as by himself. Connoisseurs rejoice when they meet with a work
from the library of Maioli, a disciple of Grolier, or those of
Diana of Poictiers, the mistress of Henry II., and whose books, in
consequence of her influence and taste, are elegantly bound. It is
supposed that the bindings for Diana of Poictiers were designed by
Petit Bernard. They were bound in morocco of all colours, and usually
ornamented with the emblems of the crescent and bow and quiver.

Among the earliest French binders must be mentioned Padeloup, Derome,
and De Seuil. Pope celebrates De Seuil in one of his poems. Derome's
plain morocco bindings are excellent; they are sewn on raised bands,
are firm and compact, and the solid gilding upon the edges is worthy
of commendation; his dentelle borders are fine, but unfortunately
he was not careful of the trenchant steel. Padeloup's tooling or
ornaments consist chiefly of small dots, and the forms he invented are
elegant. When met with in good state, they look like gold lace upon
the sides and backs of the books.

The bindings of books which belonged to De Thou are highly prized.
He possessed a magnificent library, mostly bound in smooth deep-toned
red, yellow, and green morocco. De Thou died in 1617. The Chevalier
D'Eon used to bind books in a sort of Etruscan calf, the ornaments on
which were copied from the Etruscan vases. The use of the black and
red dyes have very frequently corroded the leather.

We must now resume our account of binding in England.

During the early part of the last century the general bindings were,
with the exception of what was called Cambridge binding, (from being
executed at that place,) of a depreciated character, many of them very
clumsy, and devoid of taste in their ornament. Toward the middle
some degree of attention had begun to be paid to the improvement of
bindings, the general kinds being, up to the end of the eighteenth
century, nearly all executed to one pattern,--viz.: the sides marbled,
the backs coloured brown, with morocco lettering-pieces, and gilt.

The artists of the earlier part of the period of which we have been
treating must have been numerous; but few are known. Two German
binders, of the name of Baumgarten and Benedict, were of considerable
note and in extensive employment in London during the early part
of this century. The bindings of Oxford were also very good at this
period. Who the distinguished parties at Oxford were has not
been recorded; but a person of the name of Dawson, then living at
Cambridge, has the reputation of being a clever artist, and may be
pronounced as the binder of many of the substantial volumes still
possessing the distinctive binding we have before referred to.
Baumgarten and Benedict would, doubtless, be employed in every style
of binding of their day, but the chief characteristics of their
efforts are good substantial volumes in russia, with marbled edges.

To these succeeded Mr. John Mackinlay and two other Binders, named
Kalth[oe]ber and Staggemier; but to Mackinlay may, perhaps, be
attributed the first impulse given to the improvements which have
been introduced into bindings. He was one of the largest and most
creditable binders in London of the period of which we are treating.
Several specimens of his, in public and private libraries, remain to
justify the character given of him; and of the numerous artists that
his office produced, many have since given evidence, by their work,
that the lessons they received were of a high character. The specimens
alluded to exhibit a degree of care, ingenuity, and skill, highly
creditable to them as binders. Though well executed, they did not pay
the time and attention devoted, in later times, to the finishing or
gilding of their work, and it was not till Roger Payne exhibited the
handiwork of the craft, that any decided impulse was given to the
progress of the art, which has gone on, under able successors, from
one improvement to another till there exists much doubt whether or no
we have not now, so far as mechanical execution depends, arrived at
perfection. About the year 1770 Roger Payne went to London, and, as
his history is an epoch in the history of the art, we will devote some
space to it.

The personal history of Roger Payne is one among the many of the
ability of a man being rendered nearly useless by the dissoluteness
of his habits. He stands an example to the young, of mere talent,
unattended with perseverance and industry, never leading to
distinction,--of great ability, clouded by intemperance and consequent
indiscretion, causing the world only to regret how much may have been
lost that might have been developed had the individual's course been
different and his excellences directed so as to have produced the best
results.

Roger Payne was a native of Windsor Forest, and first became initiated
in the rudiments of the art he afterward became so distinguished
a professor of, under the auspices of Mr. Pote, bookseller to Eton
College. From this place he went to London, where he was first
employed by Mr. Thomas Osborne, the bookseller, of Holborn, London.
Disagreeing on some matters, he subsequently obtained employment from
Mr. Thomas Payne, of the King's Mews, St. Martin's, who ever after
proved a friend to him. Mr. Payne established him in business near
Leicester Square, about the year 1769-70, and the encouragement he
received from his patron, and many wealthy possessors of libraries,
was such that the happiest results and a long career of prosperity
might have been anticipated. His talents as an artist, particularly in
the finishing department, were of the first order, and such as, up to
his time, had not been developed by any other of his countrymen.

He adopted a style peculiarly his own, uniting a classical taste in
the formation of his designs, and much judgment in the selection of
such ornament as was applicable to the nature of the work it was to
embellish. Many of these he made himself of iron, and some are yet
preserved as curiosities and specimens of the skill of the man. To
this occupation he may have been at times driven from lack of money to
procure them from the tool-cutters; but it cannot be set down as being
generally so, for, in the formation of the designs in which he so much
excelled, it is but reasonable to suppose, arguing upon the practice
of some others in later times, he found it readier and more expedient
to manufacture certain lines, curves, &c. on the occasion. Be this as
it may, he succeeded in executing binding in so superior a manner as
to have no rival and to command the admiration of the most fastidious
book-lover of his time. He had full employment from the noble and
wealthy, and the estimation his bindings are still held in is a
sufficient proof of the satisfaction he gave his employers. His best
work is in Earl Spencer's library.

His reputation as an artist of the greatest merit was obscured, and
eventually nearly lost, by his intemperate habits. He loved drink
better than meat. Of this propensity an anecdote is related of a
memorandum of money spent, and kept by himself, which runs thus:--

  For bacon   1 halfpenny.
  For liquor  1 shilling.

No wonder then, with habits like these, that the efforts of his
patron, in fixing him, were rendered of no avail. Instead of rising
to that station his great talent would have led to, he fell by his
dissolute conduct to the lowest depths of misery and wretchedness. In
his wretched working-room was executed the most splendid specimens of
binding; and here on the same shelf were mixed together old shoes and
precious leaves--bread and cheese, with the most valuable and costly
of MSS. or early-printed books.

That he was characteristic or eccentric may be judged by what has been
related of him. He appears to have also been a poet on the subject of
his unfortunate propensity, as the following extract from a copy of
verses sent with a bill to Mr. Evans, for binding "Barry on the Wines
of the Ancients," proves.

  "Homer the bard, who sung in highest strains
  The festive gift, a goblet for his pains;
  Falernian gave Horace, Virgil fire,
  And Barley Wine my British Muse inspire.
  Barley Wine first from Egypt's learned shore;
  And this the gift to me of Calvert's _store_."

The following bill is, like himself, a curiosity:--

    "Vanerii Praedium Rusticum. Parisiis. MDCCLXXIV.
    Bound in the very best manner in the finest Green Morocco.
    The back lined with Red Morrocco.

    "Fine Drawing paper and very neat Morrocco     }
    Joints inside. Their was a few leaves stained  }    0 : 0 : 6
    at the foredge, which is washed and cleaned... }

    "The subject of the Book being Rusticum, I
    have ventured to putt The Vine Wreath on it.
    I hope I have not bound it in too rich a manner
    for the Book. It takes up a great deal of time
    to do these Vine Wreaths. I guess within Time
    I am certain of measuring and working the
    different and various small tools required to fill
    up the Vine Wreath that it takes very near 3
    days' work in finishing the two sides only of the
    Book--but I wished to do my best for the Work--and
    at the same time I cannot expect to charge a
    full and proper price for the Work, and hope that
    the price will not only be found reasonable but
    cheap                                               0 : 18 : 0"

Roger commenced business in partnership with his brother Thomas Payne,
and subsequently was in like manner connected with one Richard Weir,
but did not long agree with either, so that separation speedily took
place. He afterward worked under the roof of Mr. Mackinlay, but his
later efforts showed that he had lost much of that ability he had been
so largely endowed with. Pressed down with poverty and disease, he
breathed his last in Duke's Court, St. Martin's Lane, on the 20th of
November, 1797. His remains were interred in the burying-ground of St.
Martin's-in-the-Fields, at the expense of Mr. Thomas Payne, who, as
before stated, had been his early friend, and who, for the last eight
years of his life, had rendered him a regular pecuniary assistance
both for the support of his body and the performance of his work.

Of the excellencies and defects of his bindings, Dr. Dibdin, in his
"Bibliographer's Decameron," has thus recorded his opinion:--

"The great merit of Roger Payne lay in his taste--in his choice of
ornaments, and especially in the working of them. It is impossible to
excel him in these two particulars. His favourite colour was that of
_olive_, which he called _Venetian_. In his lining, joints, and inside
ornaments, our hero generally, and sometimes melancholily, failed. He
was fond of what he called purple paper, the colour of which was as
violent as its texture was coarse. It was liable also to change and
become spotty, and as a harmonizing colour with olive it was odiously
discordant. The joints of his books were generally _disjointed_,
uneven, carelessly tooled, and having a very unfinished appearance.
His backs are boasted of for their firmness. His work excellently
forwarded--every sheet fairly and _bona fide_ stitched into the back,
which was afterward usually coated in russia; but his minor volumes
did not open well in consequence. He was too fond of thin boards,
which, in folios, produces an uncomfortable effect, from fear of their
being inadequate to sustain the weight of the envelop."

Though Roger Payne's career had not been successful, so far as he was
personally concerned, it had the effect of benefiting the whole race
of English bookbinders. A new stimulus had been given to the trade,
and a new and chastened style introduced among the more talented
artists of the metropolis. The unmeaning ornaments we have before
alluded to were discarded, and a series of classical, geometrical,
and highly-finished designs adopted. The contemporaries of
Roger--Kalth[oe]ber, Staggemier, Walther, Hering, Falkner,
&c.--exerted themselves with a generous rivalry to execute the most
approved bindings.

Mr. Mackenzie deserves to be mentioned with respect among modern
binders. Charles Lewis, so highly eulogized by Mr. Dibdin, attained
great celebrity, and his bindings are much prized. His style
of ornament was very neat, the panels of the backs generally
double-mitred, and the sides finished in a corresponding manner. Mr.
Clarke deserves especial commendation; for tree-marbled calf he
stands unrivalled, although Mr. Riviere has executed some beautiful
specimens. Mr. Bedford also enjoys considerable reputation; but it is
to Mr. Hayday that the leading position among the London artists is
now generally assigned. His quaint old-fashioned morocco bindings are
inimitable. Lady Willoughby's Diary has been extensively copied, but
not equalled. His Bibles and Prayer Books are well forwarded; the
edges are solidly gilt with gold of a very deep colour, while the
finishing is rich and massive without being gaudy. A book in
the library of J. W. King Eyton, Esq., bound by Hayday, is thus
described:--

"The work is a large paper copy of the late Mr. Blakeway's 'Sheriffs
of Shropshire,' in imperial folio, with the armorial bearings
beautifully coloured. The binding is of blood-coloured morocco,
extending an inch and a half all round the inside of the cover, on
which is placed a bold but open border tooled in gold, forming a fine
relief to the rest of the inside, which is in purple, elegantly worked
all over in hexagons running into each other in the Venetian style.
In each compartment is placed the lion rampant and fleur-de-lis
alternately. The fly-leaves are of vellum, ornamented with two narrow
gold lines, and the edges are tooled. The back consists of hexagons,
inlaid with purple, containing the lion and fleur-de-lis aforesaid,
but somewhat smaller than those in the interior. The design on
the outside is a triumphal arch, occupying the entire side, highly
enriched, with its cornices, mouldings, &c. executed in suitable small
ornamental work; from its columns, (which are wreathed with laurel,)
and other parts of the structure, are suspended the shields of the
Sheriffs, seventy in number, the quarterings of which, with their
frets, bends, &c., are curiously inlaid in different colours of
morocco, and, with the ornamental parts of the bearings, have been
blazoned with heraldic accuracy on both sides of the volume. When we
state that more than 57,000 impressions of tools have been required to
produce this wonderful exemplar of ingenuity and skill, some idea may
be formed of the time and labour necessary for its execution."

This volume was finished by Thomas Hussey, who is now employed in
Philadelphia, and who has in his possession the patterns executed upon
the sides and back.

The French degenerated in binding from the time of Louis XIV. until
they became far inferior to the English. This continued to the
beginning of the present century; the books bound for the Emperor
Napoleon, upon which no expense appears to have been spared, are
clumsy, disjointed, and the tools coarse and unevenly worked. They
were generally bound in red morocco, with morocco joints, lined with
purple silk, upon which the imperial bee was stamped repeatedly.
Thouvenin enjoys the honour of rescuing the art from its
long-continued degradation in France, and of founding a school whose
disciples are now acknowledged to rank with the great masters of the
art. His tools and patterns were designed and cut by artists in his
employ; his establishment was on a large scale; but at his death he
left nothing behind him but his reputation as an artist, to stimulate
others to attain excellence in workmanship and a cultivated taste in
ornament and design. Among the most celebrated binders of the present
day in France are, Trautz et Bauzonnet, Niédré, Duru, Capé and Lortic.
The books of these artists are distinguished for solidity, squareness,
freedom of the joints, firmness of the heads and back, and extreme
nicety of finish. The fore-edges are gilt with the round in them,
giving them a solid rich appearance, as yet unequalled. The material
employed is of the choicest kind,--soft, rich Levant morocco being the
favourite covering for choice books. This leather, in the hands of
an ordinary workman, would make a clumsy covering upon account of
its great thickness; for it cannot be shaved down by a skin-dresser
without destroying the natural grain of the leather, and, with it, its
velvet-like richness and beauty; and yet, under the manipulations of
these French artists, it becomes one of the most plastic of materials;
rare volumes of the smallest dimensions, containing but one or two
sheets, are not only covered on the exterior, but the interior of
the boards, and even the joints are of Levant morocco. There are many
specimens of binding executed in France for gentlemen of taste and
lovers of the art in this country; and, in speaking of the productions
of French artists, it is to these that we refer. As a binder, Lortic
appears to be the least known; but he will probably become more
so. Capé is rapidly growing into favour. Duru is celebrated for the
excellence of his forwarding. In this respect he cannot be surpassed.
The full morocco specimens that we have seen have generally been bound
_à la Janseniste_, and were truly exemplars. In exterior gilding he is
not so happy as some of his brethren. Niédré possesses fine taste;
his styles of finishing are varied and graceful in design, and the
execution admirable. The reputation of Trautz et Bauzonnet has been
established principally by the senior partner, Bauzonnet, Trautz being
his son-in-law, and whose name has recently been placed at the head
of the firm, perhaps to anticipate others in claiming to be the
inheritors of the skill, and pupils of his father-in-law's school.
Bauzonnet's bindings combine excellence in every department. They
are specimens of the art in its highest state, being solid, firm, and
square in every portion of the forwarding department. The covering,
joints, and inside linings are matchless. The finishing may safely be
pronounced perfection, so far as any thing produced by human agency
can be. In style of finishing he generally confines himself to
modifications of the Grolier, or to a broad border, composed of fine
tools; and in the tooling the execution is faultless. Those who are
accustomed to English bindings are apt to find fault with the firmness
of his backs, as they do not throw out like English loose backs; but
this subject of loose backs is but little understood; for, when it is
known that what is generally esteemed an excellence is often but an
indication of weakness,--that, in order to make the book throw out and
lie open flat, the substance by which the sheets are secured together
is a single strip of paper,--and that, where the band upon which the
book is sewn can be plainly seen upon the opening of the volume, there
is a strain upon it, the result of which must be its breakage, if
in constant use, (a catastrophe that will never happen to one of
Bauzonnet's books,)--the firm back will be preferred. In tracing
the progress of the Art, and upon comparing the merits of artists of
ancient and modern times, it is to the moderns that we assign the
palm of superiority, especially for perfection of detail in the
ornamentation.



MANUAL

OF THE

ART OF BOOKBINDING.



PART I.

SHEET WORK.


As the gathering of the sheets of a book, after they have been printed
and dried off, is nearly always performed at the printer's, it will
not be necessary to enter into any details on that subject, but to
consider, as the commencement of binding, the operation of


FOLDING,

which is of great importance, the beauty of a book depending on its
being properly and correctly folded, so that, when it is cut, the
margin of the different pages may be uniform throughout, and
present no transpositions, to the inconvenience of the reader and
deterioration of the work.

The various sizes of books are denominated according to the number of
leaves in which the sheet is folded; as folio, quarto, octavo, 12mo,
16mo, 18mo, 24mo, 32mo, &c. Each form presents a certain number of
pages, so disposed that, when the sheet is properly folded, they
will follow the numeric order. In commencing the folding of any work,
particular attention should be paid, in opening out the quires
or sets, to observe that the _signatures_ follow each other
alphabetically, and, if consisting of two or more volumes, that the
whole of the sheets belong to the right one.

Although each form is folded in a different manner, it will not be
requisite to detail the whole, as a description of the octavo and
twelvemo will amply furnish an idea of the proper way of folding the
larger and smaller sizes.

_Octavo._--The sheets being placed on the table with the signature,
which will be seen at the bottom of the first page, turned towards
the table at the corner nearest to the left hand of the workman,
will present pages 2, 15, 14, 3, below, and above, with their heads
reversed, pages 7, 10, 11, 6, (reading from left to right.) The sheet
is then taken with the left hand, by the angle to the right, and
creased with the _folder_ in the right hand, in the direction of the
_points_ made in the printing, taking care, by shading to the light,
that the figures of the pages fall exactly one on the other, which
will be 3 upon 2, and 6 upon 7, and thereby presenting uppermost
pages 4 and 13, and above 5 and 12. The top part of the sheet is
then brought down, with the left hand, upon the lower, pages 5 and 12
falling upon 4 and 13, directed properly, and again folded. The sheet
then presents pages 8 and 9, which are then folded evenly, 9 upon 8,
forming the third fold and finishing the sheet.

_Twelvemo._--The signature to this size, when placed before the
workman, should be at the top, on his left hand, and towards the
table, the sheet presenting pages 2, 7, 11; 23, 18, 14; 22, 19, 15;
3, 6, 10. On the right, pages 11, 14, 15, 10, are separated from
the others by a larger space, in the middle of which are the points,
indicating the proper place where the pages should be cut off. The
_folder_ detaches this part, and, placing page 11 upon 10, makes a
fold, and 13 upon 12, which will be uppermost, finishes the folding of
what is called the _inset_, and which bears the signature of the sheet
it has been separated from, with the addition of a figure or asterisk,
as A5 or A*. The remaining eight pages are folded in the same way as
the octavo, and when done the inset is placed in the middle of it,
taking care that the head-lines arrange properly.

Books are sometimes printed in what is called half sheets, but
they are folded the same, after cutting them up; the octavo in the
direction of the points, the twelvemo in _oblong_ direction of the
paper, and laying them apart from each other. There are also oblong
octavos, which are folded in the middle in a line with the points, the
second fold in the same direction between the heads of the pages, and
the third on the length of the paper.

In the first fold of the octavo sheet is shown the manner of folding
the folio, and in the second the quarto; the twelvemo also presents
us with the eighteens, after the sheet is cut into three divisions.
Little or no difficulty will be experienced in folding any other
size that may occur, attention to the disposition of the pages and
signatures being only required.

It will often be found necessary to refold a book which, previous to
being bound, may have been done up in boards, sewed, or otherwise.
This should in all cases be carefully attended to, after the book has
been taken to pieces, the back divested of the glue and thread, and
the corners or other parts which may have been doubled turned up. This
is usually done by examining if the margin at the head and fore-edge
is equal throughout, bringing those to their proper place that are too
short, and cutting those that are longer than the general margin. By
these means a uniformity will be presented after the edges of the book
are cut, which could never be attained if not attended to while the
book is in this state.

The sheets of the book, being all folded, are then laid out along the
edge of the gathering table, in the regular order of the signatures;
the gatherer then commences at the last sheet or signature, takes one
sheet from the parcel, one from the next, and so on until the first
sheet or title is placed upon the top of the rest. The sheets are then
held loosely in the hand, and allowed to fall lightly upon their backs
and heads upon a smooth board, until they arrange themselves in an
even, uniform manner. They are then


COLLATED,

to see that the whole of the sheets belong to the same work and
volume, as also that none are wanting. This is done by taking the book
in the right hand by the upper corner of the fore-edge, and with the
left opening the sheets on the back and letting them fall successively
one after the other. The signatures will be thus seen in alphabetical
or arithmetical order, as A, B, C, &c., or 1, 2, 3, 4, &c., to the
last, which should always be examined to ascertain that it is the
completion of the book. By these means any sheet incorrectly folded is
also detected. Books in folio and quarto are generally collated with
a needle or pricker, by raising the sheets singly from the table; but
this practice should be resorted to as little as possible, as the
work is liable to be damaged. If any sheet is wanting, or belongs to
another volume, or is a duplicate, the further progress of the work
must be suspended till the imperfection is procured or exchanged.
Those that have been wrong folded must be corrected, and any _cancels_
occurring in the work cut out and replaced by the reprints, which will
generally be found in the last sheet of the book. It is usual also
with some binders to place any plates belonging to the volume, at this
period; but as the liability of damage to them is great in the process
of _beating_, or rolling, it will be much better to perform that
operation after the book is brought from the stone, for which
directions will be given. The book, being found correct, will be ready
for the beating-stone, which, although it has been almost entirely
superseded by the introduction of machinery, will always be invaluable
to a binder of limited means; and the amateur will find it to be
an essential process to secure the first great requisite of good
binding,--solidity


BEATING, PRESSING, ETC.

The first operation is commenced by shaking the volume upon the stone
by the back and head, so as to make the whole even and facilitate the
division of it into as many equal parts, which are called _sections_
or _beatings_, as may be judged necessary according to the thickness
and other circumstances. A section is then taken and well beaten over,
drawing it with the hand towards the body so as to bring the various
parts successively under the hammer, and carefully avoiding striking
more blows in one part than the other, except giving the edges a
slight extra tap round. The section is then turned, and the like
proceeding gone through; as also on each side after it has been
separated and the bottom part placed on the top, the middle of the
section being thereby brought under the action of the hammer. This
being done, the sheets are replaced in their proper order, and two or
three taps of the hammer given to make them lie even. In beating those
books with which, from their value, greater care is required, it is
usual to place a guard or waste leaf of paper on each side of the
section, to avoid any stains or marks which the stone or hammer might
be liable to make.

It requires more skill than actual strength in beating, the weight of
the hammer being nearly sufficient for many works. Attention must be
paid to the hammer descending parallel to the surface of the stone, to
avoid marking or cutting the sheets with the edge.

[Illustration]

Before beating a book, care should be taken to observe if it has been
recently printed, for if so it would _set off_ by being beaten too
much. This will be easily ascertained by referring to the date at the
foot of the title, or by smelling the ink it has been printed with,
which, being composed partly of oil, will not have got perfectly dry.
This will particularly be the case with machine-printed works. As,
however, it is frequently necessary to bind a volume immediately after
being printed, it will be requisite to take every precaution against
its setting off, which would destroy the beauty of the work. It is the
practice of some to put the book into an oven after the bread has been
taken out, or into a stove heated sufficiently to dry the ink and make
it search into the paper; but, as these means are not without danger
of getting the paper blackened or soiled, it is a better plan to
interleave the sheets with white paper, which will receive all the
ink set off. Should the sheets have been hotpressed, which is readily
distinguished, this precaution will not be necessary.

When employed at the beating-stone, the workman should keep his legs
close together, to avoid _hernia_, to which he is much exposed if,
with the intention of being more at ease, he contracts the habit of
placing them apart.

A rolling-machine has been invented as a substitute for the beating
which books require previous to being bound. The book is divided
into parts, according to the thickness of the book; each part is then
placed between tins, or pieces of sole-leather; the rollers are then
put in motion, and the part passed through. This is repeated until the
requisite degree of solidity is obtained. The great objections to the
rolling-machine are the liabilities to cause a set-off, or transfer
of the printing-ink, upon the opposite page, by the friction which is
produced by passing between the rollers, and the bow-like appearance
which they give the book, and which is to the forwarder a serious
cause of annoyance, and sometimes all his skill and care are
insufficient to remedy the evil caused by the rollers.

A powerful embossing press, technically called a smasher, has lately
been employed with great advantage. A book is placed between tins, the
platen is adjusted to a proper height, and the large fly-wheels set in
motion. The platen descends in a perpendicular manner; then, upon its
ascending, by means of a small handle the distance between the platens
is decreased; the wheels still continuing in motion, the book, upon
the descent of the platen, is compressed more forcibly than at first.
The operation is repeated until the book has experienced the whole
power of the press. It has been calculated that by this process a
single volume will, if necessary, undergo a pressure equal to a weight
of from fifty to eighty tons.

This process has an advantage over every other hitherto employed
in which machinery has been engaged; and it is, in some respects,
preferable to beating, as the book is of the same thickness in every
part, while in beating there is a great liability to beat the edges
thinner than the centre; and the air appears to be as completely
forced out as if the beating-hammer had been used; and there seems to
be no disposition in the book to swell up again after undergoing this
crushing process.

In some binderies a hydraulic press is relied upon for compressing the
sheets, without their undergoing the beating or rolling process. For
publishers' work it has been found to answer the purpose for which
it is employed, as the press can be filled up by placing the books in
layers of from one to four or eight, according to their size, between
iron plates; and the immense power of the press is thus evenly
distributed through a large quantity of sheets at the same time.

[Illustration: HYDRAULIC PRESS, FROM THE MANUFACTORY OF ISAAC ADAMS &
CO., BOSTON.]

The power of compression is derived from the pump to the left of the
press, which is supplied with water from a cistern sunk under it.
The water thus sent, by means of the tube seen passing from it to the
centre of the foot of the press, causes the cylinder to which the bed
is fixed to rise and compress the books or paper tightly between the
bed and head of the press. When it is forced as high as can be by
means of the pump-handle seen, a larger bar is attached and worked
by two men. The extraordinary power of this press is so great as
to cause, particularly in common work, a saving of more than
three-fourths of the time required in bringing books to a proper
solidity by the common press. When it is wished to withdraw the books,
the small cock at the end of the tube at the foot of the press is
turned, the water flows into the cistern below, and the bed with the
books glides gently down in front of the workman. Two presses are
frequently worked by the same pump, one being on each side.

The hydraulic press is manufactured by nearly all the press-makers,
differing only in the general design, the application of power being
the same.

After beating, should there be any plates to the work, they, as before
stated, must now be placed among the text. Great care must be taken to
make the justification of the plates uniform with the text, by cutting
off any superfluity at the head or back, and by placing them exactly
facing the pages to which they refer, pasting the edge next to the
back. Any that may be short at the head must be brought down,
to preserve a uniformity. It is advisable to place a leaf of
_tissue-paper_ before each plate, particularly when newly printed,
as the ink of copper-plates is longer in drying than that of
letter-press. When a work contains a great number of plates, which
are directed to be placed at the end, they are sewn on the bands by
overcasting, which operation will shortly be treated of in full.

The book, being now ready for pressing, is taken in sections,
according to the work and the judgment of the workman, and placed
between pressing-boards the size of the volume, one on the other, and
conveyed to the _standing-press_, which is pulled down as tight as
possible by the _press-pin_, or fly-wheel, according to the nature of
the standing-press; although it must be premised that when a book has
been through the smasher, no further pressing will be required until
it reaches the hands of the forwarder.

After the book has been sufficiently pressed, it will be necessary
again to _collate_ it, to correct any disarrangement that may have
taken place during the beating and pressing. It is then ready for
being sawn out.


SAWING THE BACKS.

This operation is performed in order to save the expense of sewing
upon raised bands, and also to prevent the bands on which a book is
sewn appearing on the back. After beating the book up well on the
back and head, it is placed between two _cutting-boards_, the back
projecting a little over the thick edge, and tightly screwing in the
_laying_ or _cutting-press_, the whole being elevated sufficiently
to prevent the saw damaging the cheeks of the press. Then with a
_tenant-saw_ the proper number of grooves are made, in depth and width
according to the diameter of the band intended to be used, which will
depend on the size of the book. A slight cut must also be given
above the first and under the last band, for lodging the _chain_ or
_kettle-stitch_. It is very necessary that the saw should be held
parallel with the press, without which precaution, the grooves being
deeper on one side than the other, the work will present, when opened,
a defect to the eye.

The _end-papers_, which should consist of four leaves of blank paper,
folded according to the size of the book, are now prepared, and one
placed at the beginning and end of each volume.


SEWING.

According to the number of _bands_ wanted, must be attached to the
loops on the cross-bar of the _sewing-press_ as many pieces of cord,
of proper length and thickness, and fastened with the aid of the
_keys_ in the groove of the press as nearly equal in tightness as
possible. When this is done, the back of the first sheet in the
book is placed against the cords, which must be moved upwards or the
contrary to the marks of the saw, when the small screws at each end
under the cross-bar must be moved upwards till the strings are equally
tight. All this being disposed, the book is commenced sewing by
placing the end-paper, which has no marks of the saw, on the sheet
before laid down, and sewing it throughout, leaving a small end of
thread to form the knot, after sewing the first sheet, which is then
taken from under and sewn the whole length.

[Illustration]

There are various ways of sewing, according to the size and thickness
of the sheets of a book. A volume consisting of thick sheets, or
a sheet containing a plate or map, should be sewn singly the whole
length, in order to make the work more secure and solid. Great care
should also be taken not to draw the thread too tight at the head or
foot of the book. The thread, in order to keep the book of the same
thickness at the ends and centre, should be drawn parallel with the
bench, and not downwards, as is too frequently the case. Upon the
proper swelling of the back mainly depends the regularity of the round
and firmness of the back in the after-stages of the binding.

When a book is sewed _two sheets on_, three bands are generally used.
Taking the sheet and fixing it on the bands, the needle is inserted in
the mark made for the kettle-stitch and brought out by the first band;
another sheet is then placed, and the needle introduced on the other
side of the band, thus bringing the thread round it, sewn in like
manner to the middle band, and continued to the third, when, taking
again the first sheet, it is sewn from the third band to the other
kettle-stitch, where it is fastened, and another course of two sheets
commenced, and so continued to the last sheet but one, which is
sewn the whole length, as directed for the first sheet, as also the
end-paper. Three bands are preferable to two, the book being more firm
from being fastened in the middle, which is the only difference in
sewing on two and three bands.

Half-sheets, to obviate the swelling of the back too much, are usually
sewn on four bands, which admit of three on a course: the first sheet
is sewn as in three bands, from the kettle-stitch to the first band,
the next to the second, and the third takes the middle space; then the
second sheet again from the third to the fourth band, and the first
from thence to the other kettle-stitch. The third sheet having only
one stitch, it is necessary that, in sawing, the distance from the
second to the third band should be left considerably longer than
between the others. Quartos are generally sewn on five bands to make
the work firmer, but if in half-sheets, as in the folio size, six or
more are used, sewing as many sheets on as bands, giving each sheet
but one tack or sewing, and piercing the needle through the whole of
the course at each end or kettle-stitch before fastening the thread.
This, which gives sufficient firmness, is necessary to prevent the
swelling of the back which a less number of sheets in a course would
make and spoil the appearance of the binding.

When the book is composed of single leaves, plates, or maps, or, as
in the case of music, where, from the decayed state of the back, it is
necessary to cut off a portion with the plough in the manner pointed
out for cutting edges, the whole must be attached to the bands by
what is called whipping or overcasting. This is by taking a section,
according to the thickness of the paper, and forcing the needle
through the whole at the kettle-stitch, and on each side of all the
bands, at a distance sufficient to secure the stitches from tearing,
bringing the thread round each band, as before directed, and fastening
it at the end before proceeding with another course. To keep the whole
of the sheets properly even, the back is sometimes glued immediately
after cutting, and when dry divided into sections. Atlases and books
of prints, when folded in the middle, will require a guard, or slip of
paper, to be pasted to them, so as to allow them to open flat, which
they could not do if attached to the back, and which would destroy
the engraving. These guards must be of strong paper about an inch in
breadth and folded to the right size. They are sewn by overcasting, as
above directed.

A better method for books of plates, or single leaves, is, after
cutting the back evenly with the plough, to lay it between boards and
glue the back evenly over with thin glue. After it has become dry and
hard, separate it into thin sections; then let it be sawn out in the
usual manner; it should then be taken and whipped, or overcast in
separate sections with fine thread, care being taken in whipping the
sections that it be evenly and neatly done. After the sections are
all whipped, they should be sewn or affixed to the bands in the same
manner as folded sheets.

The old mode of sewing on raised bands combines many advantages. This
style is still adopted with many works, particularly with those having
a small margin; in fact, it is, both for elasticity and durability,
far superior to any mode that is practised; it is, however, a very
slow process, and necessarily an expensive one; and many binders who
pretend to bind in this manner, to obviate this, have their books
sewed in the ordinary way, and then, by sticking false bands upon the
back, give them the appearance of having been sewn on raised bands. If
it is intended to sew a book purely flexible, it should be knocked up
even and square, placed between two pieces of pasteboard, and placed
in a laying-press; then draw a line across the back, near the head,
where it will be cut by the forwarder in cutting the edges. Next
take a pair of compasses and divide the back lengthwise into six even
portions, except the bottom or tail, which should be longer than the
rest, in order to preserve a proper symmetry of appearance; then
draw lines square across the back with a black lead-pencil from the
compass-points of the five inner divisions, for the places upon which
the bands are to be sewed; then make a slight scratch with a saw about
one-quarter of an inch inside of where the book will be cut, for the
kettle-stitch at the head and likewise at the tail. Upon taking the
book out of the laying-press, take the pasteboards and saw them at the
points marked by the lead-pencil of a depth sufficient to allow the
cords upon which the book is to be sewn to enter. The boards will
then serve as a guide to set the bands of the sewing-press at the
commencement of the operation, and afterwards, during the progress of
the work, will be found useful to regulate any deviations that may
be inadvertently taking place. After the sewing-press is properly
regulated and the end-paper sewn as previously described, the sheets
should then be taken, one at a time, in their regular order, and sewn
all along, from one end of the sheet to the other, or, more properly,
from one kettle-stitch to the other, taking especial pains to observe
that in sewing each sheet, after the first kettle-stitch has been
caught, the needle must be passed to the farthest side of the nearest
band, then passed to the other side of the band, and so on for each
successive band. By this means the thread will have passed completely
round each band, upon which the sheet will revolve as upon a hinge,
without the slightest strain upon either the band or the thread. The
inner margin is thus preserved its full size, and the freedom of the
volume much increased.

If you desire to revel in the full enjoyment of a flexible back, have
it sewn with silk upon silken bands or cords, and you will have a
combination of elasticity and strength that cannot be surpassed.

For large volumes of engravings, the best mode of binding, so as to
secure strength and also to allow the plates to lie flat when the
volume is open, is to mount the plates with linen upon guards. To do
this properly, select paper of the same thickness as the plates, cut
it in strips an inch or an inch and a half wide, paste the back edge
of the plate about a quarter of an inch in depth, from top to bottom;
then lay a strip of thin linen or paper-muslin along the pasted edge
of the plate, and rub it so that it will adhere. The strips of linen
must be sufficiently wide to project beyond the plate as far as the
width of the paper guards. One of the latter is then to be evenly
pasted over and laid upon the projecting strip of linen, carefully
smoothed, and laid between pasteboards to dry after they are thus
mounted. The plates are then whipped along the back edge of the guard,
and sewed in the usual manner.

It was proposed by _M. Lesne_, bookbinder of _Paris_, in a Memoir
presented by him to the "_Société d' Encouragement_," January 18,
1818, that in order to give to books the three essential qualities
of binding, elasticity, solidity, and elegance, they should be sewn
similar to the Dutch method, which is on slips of parchment, instead
of packthread; but to remedy the inconvenience arising from one slip
being insufficient to make the back of a proper solidity, as well as
being liable to break, and, if doubled or trebled, presenting a bad
effect on the back when covered, he suggested the adoption of silk
for the bands, which in a much less diameter is far stronger than
packthread double the thickness. It is also preferable for sheets that
require sewing the whole length to use silk, this being much stronger
than thread, and insuring a greater solidity to the work. It will be
observed that the cuts of the saw, apparent in other bindings, are
not seen in opening the volume. When the volume is entirely sewn, the
screws are loosened, the cords detached from the keys, and about two
inches of the cord left on each side of the book to attach the boards
that are to form the sides.


INDIA-RUBBER BACKS.

In those instances where the leaves of a book are held together by
caoutchouc cement instead of by sewing, the sheets are cut up into
separate leaves, and every leaf made true and square at the edges. The
back edge is then brought to a rounded form, by allowing the sheets to
arrange themselves in a grooved recess or mould; and in that state
the leaves are all moistened at the back edges with a cement of liquid
caoutchouc or India-rubber. The quantity so applied is very small. In
a few hours, it is sufficiently dry to take another coat of a somewhat
stronger caoutchouc solution. In forty-eight hours, four applications
of the caoutchouc may be made and dried. The back and the adjoining
part of the sides are next covered with the usual band or fillet of
cloth glued on with caoutchouc; after which the book is ready to have
the boards attached, and to be covered with leather or parchment, as
may be desired.



PART II.

FORWARDING.


This branch of the art may be divided into several parts. We will give
precedence to that branch or class of forwarding that requires the
utmost precision and opens to the ambitious forwarder a field of
exertion worthy of his best efforts. Let the workman who strives to
excel in his art remember that his work goes through the hands
of critics and judges; that it possibly may be compared with the
productions of the most celebrated artists. Let him, then, look well
to his laurels if engaged upon first-class job or


CUSTOMER WORK.

The book being taken from the sewing-press, the end-papers and the
first sheet are then turned back. A strip of paper is placed about
one-eighth of an inch from the back, so as to prevent the paste from
spreading unevenly, and paste is then applied with the finger along
the edge of the sheet. The sheet is turned over, and the same process
repeated to the first and second leaves of the end-papers, if the book
is to be lined with buff or brown paper. After the papers have been
cut to the proper size and evenly folded, they are pasted along the
folded edge in the same manner as the end-papers were. The first leaf
of the end-paper is then turned over, and the lining-paper laid full
up to the back-edge of the book. If this be done carelessly, or not
entirely straight and square from end to end, the future appearance
of the book will be considerably marred. As much of the beauty of the
joint depends upon the manner in which the lining has been performed,
if it is intended to line with marbled paper, after turning over the
end-leaf, place the lining as near as possible to the back-edge, so
as to expose to the action of the brush almost the entire leaf of the
end-paper that lies on the book. Paste this lightly over; then place
the lining upon it, and rub it even and smooth with the hand. In
either case it should be left to dry before the end-paper is folded
down to its place, as it is liable to force the lining-paper from
the back. A better method is to paste the marble-paper upon the white
end-paper before it is inserted in the book. The papers may then be
lightly pressed, to make them perfectly smooth, and hung upon lines
to dry. By this process there is no fear of the book being wrinkled by
the dampness from the lining-paper. Attention should be paid that such
papers only as will blend well with the colour of the leather intended
for the cover are used.

If a joint of calf or morocco is required, all that is necessary for
the forwarder to do is to tip the back-edge of the lining that goes
next to the book very slightly, merely to secure it until it reaches
the finisher, and place one or two guards of stout paper along the
joint, to be afterwards torn out by the finisher.

These matters being adjusted, the end-paper turned back to its place,
and the twine on which the book has been sewn pulled tight, care
having been taken to avoid pressing the twine against the end-papers,
on account of their liability to tear near the bands, the bands which
are intended to be laced in the boards must be opened, or the strands
separated with a bodkin and scraped with a dull knife so as to bring
them to a point and make them more convenient to pass through the
boards which are to form the side covers.

The book is now taken between the hands and well beaten up at the
back and head on a smooth board, or on the laying-press, to bring
the sheets level and square, as the beauty of the book, in all the
subsequent operations, depends much on the care and attention paid in
this place. The volume is then laid carefully upon a board, with the
back to the edge of the board, a strip of pasteboard is laid on the
upper side, the book placed in the laying-press, and the back evenly
glued. The glue should be well rubbed in between the sheets, taking
care that the sheets are even on the back and the volume equal in
thickness throughout the whole length. It is then laid on a board to
dry, but must not be placed before the fire, as, by so doing, the glue
becomes hard and liable to crack in the process of


ROUNDING.

In commencing this operation, the book is placed upon the laying-press
with the fore-edge towards the workman; the left hand should then be
placed flat and open upon it, the thumb towards the fore-edge. With
the four fingers the volume is slightly bent and the upper portion
of the back drawn towards the workman. The right hand is then engaged
with a backing-hammer in lightly tapping the sheets with an upward
motion from the centre of the back. The volume is then turned upon the
other side, and the operation is repeated until it is evident that
the book has acquired a sufficient round. The left hand is held to the
back while the round is pressed into the fore-edge with the fingers of
the right. The volume is then held up and the back carefully examined
to ascertain if the round is perfectly regular, and, if not, it
must be again submitted to light blows of the hammer until the back
describes a portion of a perfect circle. Care should be taken that
the round be not too flat for the thickness of the volume, or, on
the other hand, that it does not become what is called a pig-back,--a
horrible monstrosity in binding, having a sharp ridge in the centre of
the back. If the round be not regular and even from the centre to the
edges, as well as from head to tail, and entirely free from twist, no
after-skill or care can overcome the evil, but it will ever remain
to prove the want of care or the incapacity of the workman. The next
process, and equally important, is that of


BACKING,

which is done to form the groove for the reception of the boards. One
of the backing-boards is placed upon the volume at an equal distance
from the back, the distance depending upon the thickness of the board;
then, turning the volume, the other is placed in a similar manner; the
boards are then firmly grasped by the left hand across the back, and,
with the assistance of the right hand, the whole carefully put into
the laying-press, the edge of the boards nearest the back of the
volume even with the cheeks of the press, and screwed up with the
press-pin as tight as possible. The backing-hammer is then taken in
the right hand and employed in turning the sheets from the centre over
the backing-boards, to form the necessary groove. For this purpose the
first blows should commence near the centre of the volume, and should
be as light as possible, the blows glancing towards the edge, so as
to merely commence the turning of the sheets, without causing any
indentations or wrinkles on the inside of the volume. This should be
proceeded with lengthwise of the volume, each series of blows growing
gradually nearer to the edge or backing-board, and, as they
approach, becoming more firm, until the sheets are turned over the
backing-board, so as to form a regular and solid groove. The process
is repeated up the other side, the volume examined to see if the
back is regular and equal in its circle throughout, and any slight
irregularities corrected by light taps of the beating-hammer; but
nothing can justify a workman in striking a heavy blow near the centre
of the back, as it must inevitably crush and wrinkle the paper on the
inside. It serves but to prove his ignorance of the principle upon
which the entire operation is based. There is nothing connected with
the forwarding of a book that requires more attention, patience,
and skill, than the rounding and backing, and there is nothing that
contributes more to the general appearance of the volume. If
well done, it gives a character and a tone to all the subsequent
operations; if done badly, no care or skill that may be afterwards
employed can hide it. It remains an enduring mark of a careless or
inefficient workman. The volume is now ready for the boards, which
have been previously prepared. This is done by cutting the sheets of
milled-boards according to the size of the book, with the table or
patent-shears. One side of the board is then lined with paper, the
shrinkage of which will cause the board to curl towards it. If the
volume be large, or a thick board be required, it will be necessary
to paste two or more thicknesses of board together. Place them in the
standing-press, under pressure, until dry; then take them out and line
them on the side of the board that has been pasted, or, if one board
be thinner than the other, upon the thin board, in the same manner as
the single board. Boards made in this manner should always be
prepared some length of time before they are used. The boards being in
readiness, the volume is taken and one point of the compasses placed
at the centre of the back, and the other point extended towards the
fore-edge until it reaches the edge of the smallest bolt. This will
give the proper size to cut the boards, as the groove or joint will
give the projection or square of the board. If the volume be rare and
valuable, let the workman be merciful in the use of his steel, as the
cropping of ignorant workmen has impaired the value of many a choice
tome. If it be intended that the leaves are to remain uncut, previous
to the rounding of the volume, take a large butcher's-knife and
carefully trim the extreme ends of the projecting leaves. After the
size has been obtained, the next operation is


SQUARING THE BOARDS.

This is done by cutting the back-edge of the boards with a plough in
the laying-press; the boards are then marked with the compasses
from the edge which has been squared towards the front; the front
cutting-board is placed at the compass-holes, and again put in press,
with the front cutting-board or runner level with the cheek of the
press, the back-board being a little higher, so as to allow the
plough-knife to cut against it. The rough part is cut off with the
plough as hereafter described, with this difference:--that, in cutting
pasteboards, the workman cuts towards him. The boards are then taken
out of press, and the square applied to the head, and marked with the
point of a bodkin; this is cut off in the same manner. The volume
is then opened and examined for the purpose of finding a leaf of an
average length, which is measured by placing the thumb of the left
hand against the edge of the head and applying against it one of the
points of the compasses, carrying the other so much over the end of
the leaf as will allow for the square of the boards at the tail; and
if the volume be large for a portion of the square at the head, the
superfluous portion is then cut off with the plough. In taking the
size, let the workman recognise as a rule that every book should be
cut as large as possible, lest he be suspected of having an eye more
to the shaving-tub than to his reputation as a binder. Among the early
binders, De Rome is noted for his merciless cropping. But few volumes
have preserved the integrity of their margins after having been
submitted to the cruel operation of his steel. A volume cut to the
print is said to bleed; therefore be careful to avoid the slightest
approach towards the commission of such an act of Vandalism. The
boards having been squared for the back, front, head, and tail,
they are placed, with the lined side of the board next to the book,
preparatory to the


LACING IN.

Each board is then marked with a bodkin opposite to the slips intended
to be laced in; a hole in a vertical position is then made through the
board, and being turned, another in the same way near to the first.
The bands, having been pasted and passed in above, are returned
through the other hole, and, being pulled tight, the boards will
necessarily be perpendicular to the back, and confined in the groove.
After cutting off the end of the strings near to the lace-holes, they
must be beaten well and evenly into the board by placing the under
part on an iron (called the _knocking-down iron_) fixed at the end of
the laying-press, and beating above with the backing-hammer.

If it be desirable that the bands should not be seen inside, the hole
may be made so vertical that, by placing the bodkin in the same on the
other side, another verging a contrary way to the first may be made,
and the band, being passed in this one continued hole, will not be
seen underneath. The liability, however, of its tearing out is an
objection, and from this cause the common way, with care in beating
down, is preferable.

After the slips have been well beaten down, the roundness of the back
must be examined, and any twist that is perceptible corrected with the
backing-hammer. A piece of smooth tin, larger than the volume, must
then be inserted between each board and the book, with one edge of
the tin full up to the joint. The volume is next placed between
pressing-boards even with the joint, and put into the standing-press,
which must be screwed tight and evenly down. Stewart's double-screw
iron standing-press is well adapted for the purpose, and is in very
general use. After the press has been screwed down, the back of the
volume is then damped with thin paste, and, according to the firmness
of the sewing and book, grated and scraped, and finally rubbed smooth
with paper-shavings, and left to dry in the press for as long a time
as possible. If a large volume, it is usual to apply a little glue to
the back. When taken out of the press, the boards must be disengaged
from the end-papers, where they adhere, so that they may move freely
up and down in the cutting.


CUTTING THE EDGES.

[Illustration]

The manner of preparing the volume for cutting is very important, as
swerving from right angles in cutting the head and tail will present a
disagreeable appearance. Every precaution must be taken to insure the
volume being cut perfectly square. The front-board is drawn down from
the head just sufficient for the knife to operate upon in the cutting.
A piece of trindle is inserted between the volume and the back-board
for the point of the knife to cut against. The volume is then placed,
with the back towards the workman, on a cutting-board in the left
hand; the _runner_ or smooth-edged board is then fixed on the other
side, with the right hand, even and square with the edge of the
mill-board, and the whole, held tight with the left hand, put into
the cutting-press, to the level of the right-hand cheek of the same,
taking care that the volume hangs perpendicular to the cheeks of the
press. Being screwed tight with the pin, the workman then takes the
plough with the right hand, by the head of the screw, and, placing
it on the groove of the press, proceeds to cut the book, holding the
other end of the screw firmly with the left hand, and causing the
knife to advance gradually through the book by turning the screw
gently as he cuts, which should be all one way,--viz.: as the arms are
removed from the body. The plough must be held firm in the groove or
guides of the press, to prevent the knife jumping or cutting the edges
uneven; and, should the knife be found to run up or down, the defect
must be remedied by removing some of the paper or boards placed under
the knife where it is fastened to the plough. If there should be none
required to bring the knife even with the plough, then a piece must
be placed on whichever side of the _bolt_ the defect may require. The
head being cut, the same operation is repeated for the tail.

Much precaution is necessary in cutting the fore-edge. Mark the book
with a bodkin on the projecting part of the end-papers, and on each
side, at the head and foot, close to the square side of the boards,
drawing a line from one to the other; then, laying the boards open,
insert a trindle at each end of the volume, under the back, so as
to throw the round out; then wind a piece of fine cord several times
round from the head to the tail, to prevent the leaves returning after
the back is made flat, to form the gutter on the fore-edge. This done,
beat the back flat on the press, and place one of the cutting-boards
at the end of the book, even with the line before made; turn it, and
place the runner as much below the line on the title-side as has been
allowed for the square on the fore-edge. Taking the whole in the left
hand, the volume must be examined to remedy any defects, should it not
be regular and equal on both sides, and then put into the press, the
runner as before even with the right cheek, taking care to keep the
other board projected above the left, equal to the square allowed in
front, so that, when cut through, the fore-edge may be equally square
with the boards on each side. After the fore-edge is cut, the string
is taken off, the back resumes its circular form, and the edge
in consequence presents a grooved appearance, which puzzles the
uninitiated to ascertain how it is produced. The method above
described is called "cutting in boards," and is superior to any other.

It is of the utmost importance to the young workman that he should
pursue and acquire a methodical system in all his operations. Select
the best method, as a matter of course, and then adhere to it. Do not,
every time you perform one particular process, do it in a different
manner. For instance: in backing or in turning up your books, it is
better to always have the head towards you; in cutting head and tail,
to have the back nearest you. In laying your work down, always do it
in one way. Let that way be the one whereby you can most conveniently
take it up again. Much time may be wasted, from inattention to these
particulars, in the unnecessary handling and confused manner of
working. It will be found that the best and most expeditious workmen
are those who do their work in a systematical manner. In taking leave
of this department, our parting admonition to the young workman is,
STRIVE TO EXCEL. Do not be content if your work will merely pass, and
say to yourself, "Oh, that is good enough!" If it is possible for
you to do it better, it is not good enough. Employ your reasoning
faculties as well as your physical powers, so that you do not sink
into a mere machine. When performing a process, ask yourself the
question, "Why is this done? What is the object of it? Can the process
be improved?" You will find the hand to be an apt instrument of
the mind and will, and that you will speedily be recognised as an
intelligent workman. Have, at least, this much ambition.

The next process which the volume must undergo is the gilding or
colouring of


THE EDGES.

Colouring the edges with one colour, equally sprinkling over,
marbling, and gilding, come under this head; and the style of ornament
of this description must depend on the price allowed for the work,
and will vary according to the taste of the workman and wish of the
employer.


OF COLOURING AND SPRINKLING.

The colours most used are brown and red, in preparing which it is
necessary to grind them in water, very fine, on a slab, with a muller.
Each colour is then placed in a separate vase, and mixed up with a
little paste and water to the proper consistency for use. To procure
a better edge, two drops of oil and about an equal quantity of vinegar
and water may be mixed with the paste.

In colouring the edges equally over, the boards at the head of the
volume must be beat even with the edges, and the book rested on the
edge of the press or table; then, holding the book firm with the
left hand, the colours must be applied with a small sponge or brush,
passing it evenly upon the edge, proceeding towards the back one way
and the gutter the other, to avoid a mass of colour being lodged in
the angle of the fore-edge. This done, the other parts are similarly
coloured, the fore-edge being laid open from the boards and a runner
held firm above to prevent the colour searching into the book. It will
be perceived that a dozen volumes may be done at the same time with
scarcely more than the additional trouble of placing one above the
other. For further security, and to prevent the colour searching into
the books, it is advisable to put them into the laying-press and screw
them moderately tight. In fact, for all good work, this must be done.

In sprinkling, it is usual to tie together a number of volumes with
a board on each side of the outside books, or place them in the
laying-press first, with the heads upwards; then, with a large brush,
similar to a painter's, dipped in whatever colour may be wished, and
well beat on the press-pin over the pot till the sprinkle becomes
fine, the edges are covered. The pin and brush are held sufficiently
above the book, and the edge sprinkled by beating lightly at first,
and stronger as the brush becomes less charged with colour, being
careful that the spots are as fine as possible, the sprinkle being
thereby made more beautiful.

The cleanest method, and at the same time the surest to produce a fine
sprinkle, is to use a wire sieve and a stiff brush, something like a
shoe-brush, for convenience. The sieve should be oval in form, with
a very thick wire running round the edge until they meet, then
projecting about a foot from the sieve so as to form a handle, the
whole somewhat resembling in shape the bat used by ball-players.
Fine brass wire is the best for the sieve. The wire should be about
one-fourth of an inch apart. After every thing is in readiness, dip
the stiff brush in the colour and lay the sieve over the pan, and rub
the brush over it to get rid of the superfluous colour, which will
drop into the pan; then knock off all the loose colour adhering to the
sieve; then hold the sieve over the books, and rub the brush over the
wires, lightly at first, and afterwards harder as the brush loses
the colour. The colour will descend like a fine mist, and the effect
produced upon the edge cannot be equalled by the old method. Several
colours are sometimes used with very pleasing effect; some of these
combinations will be described, and many others will readily occur to
the workman as his taste may suggest.


COLOURS.

Of vegetable colours, and ochres, directions for mixing which have
been given above, it will only be necessary to particularize the most
approved and generally-used substances. The liquid ones will require a
more lengthened description.

BLUE.--Indigo and Prussian blue, with whiting for lighter shades.

YELLOW.--Dutch pink, King's yellow, and yellow orpine.

BROWN.--Umber, burnt over the fire.

RED.--Vermilion; or Oxford ochre, burnt in a pan.

PINK.--Rose-pink; to make it brighter, add lake.

GREEN.--The first and second mixed to any shade.

The liquid or spirit colours will be found best for use, as the edges
will not rub, which all other colours are liable to do. Some of the
receipts are well known; but, it being necessary to give a faithful
record of the art, the whole of the colours used and modes of
preparation will be presented.


BLUE.

Two ounces of the best indigo, finely powdered, mixed with a
teaspoonful of spirit of salts and two ounces of best oil of vitriol.
Put the whole into a bottle, and let it remain in boiling water
for six or eight hours, and mix with water as wanted to the shade
required.


YELLOW.

French berries, saffron, or faustic chips. Boil with a small portion
of alum; strain and bottle for use.


GREEN.

The two colours above will make an excellent green used in proportions
as the shade required. Another green may be made by boiling four
ounces of verdigris and two ounces of cream of tartar till a good
colour is produced.


ORANGE.

Two ounces of Brazil dust, one ounce of French berries, bruised, and a
little alum. Boil in water and strain.


RED.

Brazil dust, half a pound; alum, two ounces, well powdered; boiled
in a pint of vinegar and a pint of water till brought down to a pint.
Strain and bottle. The red edges now in vogue are made with vermilion,
mixed with vellum-size. The better class are scraped before they are
coloured, and afterwards they are burnished.


PURPLE.

Logwood chips, in the proportion of half a pound to two ounces of
alum, and a small piece of copperas, boiled in three pints of soft
water till reduced a third, will make a good purple.

Brazil dust, submitted to the action of strong potash water, will make
a good purple for immediate use, but will not keep.


BROWN.

A quarter of a pound of logwood, and the same quantity of French
berries, boiled together. If a darker shade is required, add a little
copperas. Plain brown edges are made with burnt umber, in the same
manner as that described for red edges.

With these colours, edges of books may be sprinkled to almost an
infinite number of patterns. A few will be given; for, though fancy
sprinkles are seldom used where the binder can get the edges of extra
books marbled, they will be of use to those who would find marbling a
work of too great preparation and expense for a small number of books
in places where there is no marbler.


RICE MARBLE.

This pattern has been so called from the use of rice; but linseed, or
bread crumbs, will answer the same purpose. The rice is laid on the
edge of the book according to fancy, and the edge sprinkled with any
colour, the rice thus forming blank spaces. The edge may be coloured
previously all over, or sprinkled with a lighter shade.


WHITE SPOT.

Take white wax and melt it in a pot; then with a brush throw some upon
the edge of the book; when it is set, colour the edge with a sponge.
Take the book and give it two or three smart knocks on the end of the
press, when the wax will fly off and a beautiful white spot remain.
This pattern may be much varied by using two or three colours or
sprinkling the edge before the wax is thrown on, and, after it is,
again with other colours.

Whiting mixed with water to a thick consistency will nearly answer the
same purpose, and is less expensive than wax.


FANCY MARBLE.

Take a small portion of rose-pink, green, or any other vegetable
colour, and well bray it on the slab with the muller, till reduced to
a fine powder. Prepare a dish, or other vessel, large enough to admit
the fore-edge of the book, and filled with clear water; then with the
_palette-knife_ mix a portion of the colours with spirits of wine, and
convey with the knife some of the same to the middle of the vessel,
and allow it to flow gradually on the surface of the water. The spirit
of wine will cause it to spread in a diversity of pleasing forms,
when the edge of the book must be dipped in the same manner as for
marbling, and a very neat pattern will be produced at a trifling cost,
as no more colour need be mixed than wanted at each time.


GOLD SPRINKLE.

After the edges of the book are stained with any of the colours
above described, a good effect may be given by sprinkling with a gold
liquid, made in the following manner:--Take a book of gold and half an
ounce of honey, and rub them together in a mortar until they are very
fine; then add half a pint of clear water and mix them well together.
After the water clears, pour it off and put in more, till the honey
is all extracted and nothing left but the gold; mix one grain of
corrosive sublimate with a teaspoonful of spirits of wine, and when
dissolved put the same, with a little thick gum-water, to the gold,
and bottle it, always shaking it well before using. When dry, burnish
the edge, and cover it with paper till the work is finished.


MARBLING.

Marbling is an art which consists in the production of certain
patterns and effects by means of colours so prepared as to float upon
a preparation of mucilaginous liquid, possessing certain antagonistic
properties to the colours prepared for the purpose, and which colours,
when so prepared, floated and formed into patterns upon the surface of
the liquid, are taken off by laying thereon a piece or sheet of paper
or dipping therein the smoothly-cut edges of a book.

It is a process which it is not very easy to describe; and yet, to any
one beholding it for the first time, nothing appears more simple or
easy of execution. Yet the difficulties are many; and the longer any
one practises it, the more he will become convinced that there are
many more discoveries to be made before the art can be brought to any
thing like perfection or effects produced with that certainty which
the workman could desire. In short, it may be said to be still in its
infancy.

When the art was first discovered, and by whom, or in what city or
country it was first practised, it is hardly possible to determine.
It is supposed that we cannot go farther back for its origin than the
beginning of the seventeenth century, and that Holland has the honour
of being the birthplace of the art,--the old Dutch and some drawn and
antique patterns, with stormont and other spots, being considered the
most original.

Many years ago this old Dutch paper, in the size of foolscap, was
imported into England, wrapped round small parcels of Dutch toys, and
thus passed free of duty. When taken off, it was carefully smoothed
and sold to bookbinders, commanding a high price, being only used on
the better kinds of work. Indeed, so choice was it that you may still
see in some old books the inside-linings made of pieces carefully
joined together. Something of the art has unfortunately been lost
since that time, for both the colours and the execution of some
of these old specimens far surpass the best efforts of the most
celebrated modern marblers.

It is proposed, however, to show, as clearly and briefly as possible,
how it is done and practised at the present day by the best English
workmen, and to describe the various processes in such a manner
as will enable any individual possessed of a common share of
understanding and discernment, to do it himself; and, where there
are two ways of doing it, that will be described which experience has
pronounced to be easiest and best.

In describing one pattern, that will be considered sufficient to
include all of the same class, or that are done in the same manner,
although different colours may be used. For instance, a brown may be
described, and green, being the same in every respect as regards the
mixing and working the colours, may be substituted for the brown; and
so in regard to other colours.


COLOURS.

The colours required for marbling are the same as those ordinarily
used for painting both in oil and distemper. They should be procured
in a dry state, just as they are produced or manufactured, and ground
by the marbler himself. A list is subjoined:--


REDS.

  Drop Lake.
  Peach-wood Lake.
  Vermilion.
  Rose-Pink.
  Oxford Ochre, Burnt.


BLUES.

  Indigo.
  Chinese Blue.
  Ultramarine.
  Prussian Blue.


YELLOWS.

  Lemon Chrome.
  Dutch Pink.
  Oxford Ochre, Raw.


BLACKS.

  Vegetable Lamp-Black.
  Drop Ivory-Black.


BROWN.

  Turkey Umber Burnt.


ORANGE.

  Orange Lead.
  Orange Chrome.


WHITE.

  China Clay.
  Pipe-Clay.
  Flake White.
  Paris White.


DROP LAKE.

This is the most beautiful, but the most expensive, of all the reds,
and is used only for book-edges and the most superior kinds of work.
There are different shades of this colour, viz.:--scarlet, crimson,
and purple. The scarlet is the most expensive, and looks the best on
edges, possessing a brilliancy which no other colour will produce; but
there is a great quantity of a very inferior kind of drop lake about,
which is of no use whatever to a marbler, for, when it comes to be
worked, it is found to possess no body.

In order to ascertain whether the article about to be purchased will
answer, take a piece of the colour, and, breaking it, apply the broken
part to the tongue. If it adhere to the tongue, it is very doubtful
whether it will do; but if it hold up the moisture without any
inclination to adhere, it may be tried with better expectations. This
colour is sold in the form of small cones or drops, from which it
derives its name, and is a preparation of cochineal; therefore the
value of it depends much upon the price of that article.


VERMILION.

This colour is but little used, on account of its great specific
gravity, and seldom without being combined with some other colour.
It is a preparation of mercury, and, though nominally at a much lower
price than lake, yet so little of it goes to a pound, it comes nearly
as dear as that article.


ROSE-PINK.

This is a very useful though common colour. It is composed of chalk or
whiting coloured with Brazil wood; consequently it is what is termed
a fugitive colour, the pink very quickly fading on exposure to the
atmosphere or to heat. When combined with indigo or a little Chinese
blue it makes a good purple.


BURNT OCHRE.

This colour is obtained in its native state from pits dug in the earth
in the neighbourhood of Oxford; hence, it is called Oxford ochre, and
sometimes stone ochre. It is in fact a kind of clay, and when made
red-hot turns to a kind of red colour. It is one of the most useful
colours, and, as the price is low, is extensively used. With the
addition of a little black it makes a good brown; with a little
blue or indigo it makes a good olive; or it is a good colour used by
itself, and is not liable to change.


WOOD LAKE.

This is a preparation of peach-wood, and has only been introduced
of late years to the notice of marblers. It is manufactured at
Birmingham. This colour is an exception to the rule, as it is sold
in the pulp or damp state, and may be mixed and even used without
grinding, being made almost exclusively for marbling. It is the best
red that can be used for general purposes, and for appearance comes
next to the drop lake.


CHINESE BLUE.

This is a very beautiful but not a very durable colour. It is,
however, an almost indispensable one to the marbler, as it will
produce nearly every shade of blue by the addition of certain
proportions of white. This colour requires to be particularly well
ground, as indeed do all the blues. It is also sold at some places in
the pulp or damp state. There are some very good damp blues made.


INDIGO.

This colour is a most valuable article, and cannot be dispensed with
under any consideration. It is too well known to require describing.
Though not a bright colour, it is one of the most durable, and
for mixing and producing greens and purples of a permanent kind is
invaluable. Neither can a good black be made without it. Care should,
however, be taken to procure it of the best quality.


ULTRAMARINE.

This is a very beautiful colour, but must be used very sparingly, as
it will not glaze or take any kind of polish, and is always inclined
to rub off. The kinds now in general use are the French and German,
the genuine article being far too high in price for this kind of work.


PRUSSIAN BLUE.

This colour has been of late almost entirely superseded by the Chinese
blue, which is a much brighter colour, Prussian blue being darker and
heavier looking, and is a very bad colour for glazing.


DUTCH PINK.

This is a common but very useful colour. It is a preparation of
whiting and quercitron bark, and is used in making greens, no other
colour answering the purpose so well. It is also very useful in mixing
with chrome to produce the various shades of yellow required.


CHROME.

This is of various shades, varying from a light lemon colour to a deep
orange approaching to a red. It is a useful colour; but, unless you
get it genuine, it is very difficult to get it to work properly.


RAW OCHRE,

Or Oxford ochre in its native state. This may be used in certain
proportions for making olive tints combined with Dutch pink and blue
or black. It is also of use in small quantities to mix with yellow
when it is inclined to run off, this colour being of a very adhesive
nature.


DROP IVORY-BLACK.

This colour cannot be well used alone. It may, therefore, be called
only an auxiliary to others.


VEGETABLE-BLACK.

This is a superior kind of lamp-black, but prepared from vegetable
instead of animal matter. It is surprisingly light, and cannot be used
alone, and will not produce a black for marbling except in combination
with double its weight of good Indigo.


TURKEY UMBER, BURNT.

This colour produces a very good brown, but it is not required if you
have the burnt Oxford ochre, as, with the aid of that colour and a
little indigo and black, any shade of brown may be produced.


ORANGE LEAD.

This is a very heavy colour, and is but little used, except for the
edges of account books.


WHITE.

For this an article called China clay is used; also, for some
purposes, the common pipe-clay.


GUM.

Of all the varieties of gum, there is but one that is of any use to
the marbler, and that is called gum-tragacanth or gum-dragon. Too much
care cannot be exercised in the choice of this article, as much of the
excellence of the work depends upon it. It should be large, white, and
flaky. Occasionally there will be found some very good in small white
flakes; but let that in dark brown lumps be rejected at once, no
matter at what price it may be offered. If used at all, it would only
do for the most common kind of work; but there is, in reality, no
saving in an inferior article, as one pound of a really good sort will
go as far as two of a bad, and produce a far more satisfactory
result. Good gum ought to dissolve in cold water; it requires at least
forty-eight hours soaking, being well stirred about at intervals;
but some gums take longer to dissolve. Good gum will produce a smooth
surface, but bad gum will often yield a rough one, which is inimical
to the purpose. Again, some will give a smooth surface, and yet
possess no strength; the colours will flow well upon it and form
properly, and, when the paper is taken off, will look, at first, very
beautiful, but upon looking at it five or ten minutes after it
has been hung up, the colours will be found running off, causing
indescribable annoyance and mortification.


DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING THE GUM.

Procure a large earthen pan, glazed on the inside, capable of
containing from eight to twelve gallons of water. Put therein one
pound of gum-tragacanth, and on it pour about two gallons of soft
water. Stir it every few hours with a clean birch broom kept expressly
for the purpose, breaking the lumps and adding more water as it
thickens or absorbs that previously put in. In about forty-eight hours
you may venture to use it; but seventy-two hours would be better. Some
gum is all the better for a longer period, as, although a considerable
portion of the gum may be dissolved, yet the best properties of it are
not extracted till the whole is dissolved. It must be strained through
a fine hair sieve before using, and if any lumps remain, put them back
into the pan until they are all dissolved.


OF LINSEED.

It is possible to marble some patterns on mucilage of linseed, but it
is a very objectionable vehicle to work upon, and can never be made to
produce a satisfactory result. It is made either by boiling one quart
of linseed in six or eight gallons of water, or by pouring the
boiling water upon the linseed and stirring it until it extracts the
mucilaginous properties of the seed; but it very soon decomposes or
turns to water.


CARRAGEEN, OR IRISH MOSS.

This is an article used by some, and can be dispensed with altogether:
it is not a necessary article. When used, it should be picked (the
white being the best) and well washed; then set it to simmer in a
gentle heat for an hour or two, strain it through a fine hair sieve,
and it will be ready for use; but it will require a portion of the
solution of gum-tragacanth to be able to do much with it.


FLEA-SEED.

This is an article but little known except to those who have occasion
to use it. It is a small, brown, hard seed, in size, shape, and colour
closely resembling the annoying little insect whose name it bears, and
from which it may possibly derive its appellation. It produces a very
strong and powerful mucilage--far stronger than that which can be
obtained from linseed; and what enhances its value is that it will
not so soon lose its strength or turn to water, but will keep several
days. It is a great assistant, mixed with gum, in the making of French
and Spanish marbles, but is a total enemy to nonpareil and drawn
patterns.

To prepare it, put a quarter of a pound of the seed into a pan,
pour upon it a gallon of boiling water, keep it well stirred for ten
minutes, and let it stand for half an hour; then stir it again for ten
minutes more, and in another half-hour add another gallon of boiling
water, stirring it as before, at intervals, for one hour; after which
let it remain, and the seed will settle at the bottom of the pan. When
cold, pour off the top for use, and the seed will bear more boiling
water, though not so much as at first. Sometimes the seed will yield
a third extract; but this must be determined by your judgment, as the
seed, when exhausted, will lose its viscid property, and must then be
thrown away. The seed should never be stirred up after it has cooled,
for it will settle without being again heated or having more boiling
water added to it.


OX-GALL.

The surest way of obtaining this article genuine is by procuring it in
the bladder as it is taken from the animal, if you are acquainted with
any butcher upon whom you can depend. The gall from some animals is
very thick, but will, after keeping some time, get thin, without at
all losing its properties; in fact, gall is all the better for being
kept, and is none the worse for a strong smell.


WATER.

Soft or rain water, when it can be procured, is the best adapted for
all the preparations in marbling.


OF THE PREPARATIONS OR VEHICLES REQUIRED FOR MARBLING UPON.

For Spanish, French, Italian, West End, and British patterns, there
will be required a mixture of gum-tragacanth and the mucilage of
flea-seed, in the proportions of one quart of the latter to two
gallons of the former. Beat them well up together till they are
thoroughly mixed or incorporated with each other, strain it through a
fine hair sieve into the trough, and it will be fit for use.

For Dutch, nonpareil, curls, antiques, and, in short, all patterns
which require to be formed with any kind of instrument on the
preparation in the trough, use nothing but the pure solution of the
gum-tragacanth; in fact, you may marble all the patterns on this
alone, so that if there be any difficulty in procuring the other
articles, and you can procure good gum, you may do any or all of the
patterns upon it, although some of them are improved by the addition
of the mucilage of the flea-seed.

As some gum is stronger than other, it is hardly prudent or possible
to give any exact weight of gum to any certain quantity of water.
Practice and your own judgment must determine this. Besides, if the
gum be not sufficiently soaked or beaten up, it will not yield so much
or so good size as it would were it in its right state. The following
will give some idea to guide in the matter:--If, on skimming the
surface and sprinkling on the colours, they lose their shape and
appear to turn round on the solution, especially in the corners of the
trough, it is a sign that it is too thin; if, on the other hand, on
skimming there is a great resistance when the skimmer is drawn along,
and, upon sprinkling on the colours, they crack, and are a long while
spreading out, it is a sign it is too thick; but a little practice
will soon enable the learner to form a correct judgment in this
matter.


OF GRINDING THE COLOURS.

On this head you must be very particular indeed; for, if the colours
are not finely or properly ground, it cannot be expected that the work
will look well. When a large quantity is required, a colour-mill is
the most advantageous method; but if on a small scale, or for edges,
the ordinary stone and muller will be best adapted for the purpose.
Indeed, all colours required for edges ought to be most particularly
well ground upon a slab, with a muller, the mill not grinding so
finely as by this method.

The colours must all be ground with a preparation of beeswax, in the
average proportion of one ounce of the prepared beeswax to one pound
of colour. Blues and greens require rather more. This will prevent
the colour rubbing off on the hand, and will make it burnish or glaze
easily.


DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING THE WAX FOR GRINDING.

To attempt to grind beeswax in its native state would be a fruitless
task, as it would stick to the stones and not unite with the other
ingredients. To obviate this, prepare it in the following manner: Take
of the very best beeswax two pounds, put it in an earthen pipkin, and
with it a quarter of a pound of the very best curd-soap cut into small
or thin pieces; place it in a moderate heat, and when both soap and
wax are quite dissolved, (but be sure they are not boiling,) put the
pipkin containing the hot liquid upon a table, take in one hand a pot
of cold water, and, gently stirring the melted wax with the other,
pour in the water, a little at a time, keeping it constantly stirred,
and it will gradually thicken, until at last it can hardly be stirred
at all. Care must be taken not to have it too hot when the water
is poured in, as there is danger of it flying out of the pipkin
and scalding the workman. If properly mixed, when cool, it can be
pulverized between the finger and thumb; and in this state it will mix
or grind with the colour easily, but ought to be rubbed or worked in
with the dry colour before wetting it for grinding.


TROUGHS.

The troughs should be made of wood, perfectly flat and smooth at the
bottom, and of sufficient thickness to keep them from warping. They
should be about two and a half inches deep inside, and about two
inches larger than the sheet of paper you intend marbling, or your
edges will be imperfect. There should be about three inches parted off
on the right-hand side by a sloping partition, which should be about
an eighth of an inch below the sides, that the waste may be skimmed
over it without running it over the top. The whole should be perfectly
level and true; and, if the joints are stopped with white lead, be
sure it is quite dry and hard, or it will entirely spoil the solution,
and will fill the pattern with white.


FRENCH OR SHELL MARBLE.

To commence with the easiest and most common kinds of marbled
papers:--the colours being properly ground, and the trough placed on
a level table or fixed bench of convenient height, with some feet of
spare room on each side, place the pots containing the colours on the
right-hand side, and the paper or books to be marbled on the left.
Let there be a small brush in each of the pots of vein-colours, and
a larger one in the last or body-colour. Have a small iron rod or bar
about twelve or fourteen inches long, placed so that you may be able
to take it up when required with the left hand. Fill the trough to
about one-half or three-quarters of an inch from the top with the
solution of gum-tragacanth and flea-seed, as previously described, and
proceed to mix the colours.

[Illustration]

For convenience of reference, the various patterns described and
processes employed will be numbered.


    No. 1.--LARGE BROWN FRENCH OR SHELL, WITH THREE VEINS, VIZ.:
    RED, YELLOW, AND BLACK.

Mix together ox-gall and water in the proportion of one-eighth of the
former to seven-eighths of the latter. Mix the vein-colours with this
mixture, putting in a little at a time, and gently stirring it about
with the brush (but be careful not to make it froth by too rapid
stirring) until you arrive at the proper consistence, which must
be ascertained by sprinkling a little colour on the solution in the
trough. If the colour sinks, and does not spread out, add a little
neat-gall; but, should it spread too far and open too much, mix a
little more colour with water only, and put it to that which spreads
too much.

The brown will require more gall, less water, and a few drops of the
very best olive-oil, which will cause it to form itself into rings
or shells as it falls on the solution in the trough. This colour
will require to be thicker than the vein-colours, and, when thrown or
sprinkled, should drive or force the other colours into the form of
veins. By increasing the quantity of gall in the last colour, it will
bring the veins to almost any degree of fineness; but there is a point
beyond which it is not advisable to go. If the brown does not shell
enough, but forms in holes, add a few more drops of oil, and well mix
it; but if there be too much oil it will spoil the effect of the shell
altogether, which cannot be counteracted in any other way than by
mixing some more colour without any oil, and adding it thereto.

Having, then, all in readiness, first skim the surface of the solution
lightly all over, and immediately (for when you begin it is necessary
to move quickly till all the colours are on) sprinkle on the colours,
beginning with the red, next yellow, thirdly, black; then with the
principal or body-colour go well and equally all over, taking care to
throw as much colour on one part of the surface as another; then take
up a sheet of paper by the two opposite corners, and let the corner
between the finger and thumb of the right hand touch the surface
first, while with the left you let the paper gradually descend, till
it lies flat upon the liquid. If it is let down too quickly, or the
paper gets rumpled, so as to allow the air to get under it, white
blotches will appear when it is taken out of the trough; and if the
paper be allowed to lie long enough upon the size to draw out the
blisters, still the marks will show.

In order to take the paper out, lay a lath or thin stick across the
centre of the paper as it lies in the trough; let it be long enough
for the ends to rest upon the edges of the trough; then take hold of
the paper by the two parallel corners, lay it back over the stick,
lift it out of the trough by the stick, in the same manner as it might
hang across a line, and place it on a rack to dry.


No. 2.--SMALL BROWN FRENCH.

This pattern is produced with precisely the same colours as No. 1, by
using the iron rod previously described. It is held in the left hand,
and the brush knocked against it, which causes the colour to fall
in small spots, and reproduces the No. 1 pattern, as it were, in
miniature.


No. 3.--BROWN FRENCH, WITH LIGHT SPOT.

This pattern has but two vein-colours--the red and the black. These
are mixed with the mixture of gall and water, as described for the
veins of No. 1. It has also two other colours. The brown is mixed in a
similar manner to the brown for No. 1, but not quite so much gall and
oil, to allow for the other colour flowing out upon it; and the last,
or light spot, is composed of raw or unburnt Oxford ochre, and is
mixed with gall, water, a few drops of olive-oil, and a portion of
spirits of turpentine.


No. 4.--SMALL YELLOW SHELL.

This is done in the same manner as No. 2 as regards the mixing and
working, the only difference being in the body-colour.


No. 5.--BROWN AND PURPLE SHELL.

This pattern has three veins and two French colours, or colours that
have been mixed as French,--that is, with oil in them,--the last of
which, in this instance, is the purple. Being mixed with a little more
both of the gall and oil than the other, in order to make it flow out,
over, and drive up the other colours, a marbler will be able, if he
follows these instructions, to imitate any French pattern, whether
there be more or less colours in them.


No. 6.--BLUE STORMONT

Is an old pattern, but well worthy of being revived. Though apparently
very simple and easy of execution, it is nevertheless very difficult
to keep in order, in consequence of the speedy evaporation and
the chemical changes which are continually taking place among the
ingredients with which it is mixed. It requires great quickness and
acute observation on the part of the workman.

There is but one vein-colour, (red,) and the ground or body-colour is
blue. The same preparation of gum and flea-seed is used for this as
for the French marble. Mix the red for vein, as usual, with gall and
water. The other colour must consist of good indigo alone, without
which the proper effect cannot be produced. The indigo being ground,
as before directed in the instructions for grinding the colours,
proceed to mix the indigo with gall, water, and spirits of
turpentine,--of which last ingredient it will require a considerable
proportion, in order to make it break full of little holes. The acme
of this pattern is to make it look like fine network. Sometimes it
will happen that at first mixing it will not work, but after standing
a day or two it will work well, while at other times it will work
immediately. If the holes come too large from an excess of turpentine,
(for they will sometimes come too large from not having enough,) add
a little more gall and some fresh indigo, putting in a few drops of
alum-water; but be very careful of this; for, if there be too much, it
will make the colour thick and clotted: in which case have recourse to
a little of the solution of potash; but it is best, if possible, to do
without either of them.


No. 7.--LIGHT ITALIAN.

A very pretty though simple pattern, but requires great cleanliness
of working to turn it out well. The colours being ground as before
directed, proceed to mix them with gall and water only, as though
they were for veins. The last colour is white; this requires a greater
proportion of gall than the other colours, and a larger brush, as in
the French patterns.

[Illustration]

After skimming the size, proceed by beating or knocking on the
colours,--viz.: red, green, and black, as in small French, taking
especial care to have the rings of the brushes free from any
accumulation of colour, or they will cause large spots or blotches,
which will spoil the appearance of the work. One difference between
this and the small French is that there is no oil used in any of the
colours.

[Illustration]

Another method is to use a mixture of weak gall and water instead
of the white colour, and which must be firmly knocked or beaten on,
proportioned by the judgment of the marbler. This method is preferable
to the former for edges, and will answer quite as well for paper.


NO. 8.--SMALL GREEN ITALIAN.

A very neat pattern, may be made of one colour only, which must be
mixed with gall and water sufficiently strong to cover the whole
surface of the solution on the trough; after which, beat on the white,
or gall and water, as before. The same size, or preparation of gum
and flea-seed, will do for this as for the previous marbles; it must,
however, be kept clean, to make the work look nice and bright.


No. 9.--WEST END, (BROWN, WITH LIGHT SPOT.)

This pattern consists of two prominent colours besides the veins;
one of these is dark and dotted all over with small white spots;
the other, which is the last or top colour, is light, and is made by
taking a portion of the darker colour and mixing a quantity of white
with it, sufficient to bring it to the desired tint. Mix the colours
for veins in the ordinary way, viz.: with the usual proportions of
gall and water; then mix the brown with a larger proportion of gall,
and sprinkle it on as full as to drive the other colours into veins;
then take the white, or gall and water, as in Italian, and beat
it finely and equally all over, but not so much as for the Italian
pattern. Lastly, take the light or top colour, which will require
to be stronger in gall than any of the others, and must be sprinkled
lightly and evenly over the whole; lay on the paper as quickly as
possible.

This pattern is known by the name of West End, and is in every respect
similar to the Spanish in the working, only it is not shaded.


No. 10.--WEST END, (GREEN, WITH LIGHT SPOT.)

An excellent pattern may be made similar to No. 9 in all the details
of mixing, working, and putting on the colours, the only difference
being in the colours, which may be made of two shades of green or
olive, and the veins red, yellow, and blue.

[Illustration]


No. 11.--CURL.

The pattern called French Curl, after the description of the French
marble (see No. 1) will not require much explanation, the only
difference in the working being, that there must not be any of the
preparation of the flea-seed with the gum; but it must be done on the
solution of the gum alone, without any admixture. It will also require
a frame with as many pegs as you may require curls on the paper; these
pegs must be about three inches long, and about the thickness of a
stout goose-quill, tapering toward a point. Throw on the colours the
same as for No. 1 large French; take the frame of pegs, and, holding
it with both hands, put the pegs down to the bottom of the trough,
give it a slight rotary motion, then lift it out quickly, so that
no drops fall from the pegs into the trough, and lay on the paper
as usual, taking care to lay it down straight and even, or the whole
pattern will be askew.


No. 12.--BROWN CURL.

A pattern of curl may be made of one colour only, mixed with the same
ingredients as the ordinary French; it is the easiest of the two to
make.


NO. 13.--RED CURL.

A curl pattern may be made of the same colours used for nonpareil,
only the colours and gum are both used rather thicker than for the
French curl, and the colours must have no oil in them.


SPANISH.

This marble is distinguished from all others by having a series of
light and dark shades traversing the whole extent of the sheet of
paper in a diagonal direction. And, as it is the design of this work
to simplify as much as possible, the marbler will bear in mind that
all the plain Spanish patterns may be worked and managed without the
aid of any other agents than ox-gall and water, of course presuming
that the colours are ground and prepared as before directed.


No. 14.--OLIVE, OR LIGHT GREEN, SPANISH.

One of the most simple and easy patterns is called Olive Spanish, with
red and blue veins. The veins are mixed with gall and water, as in
the previous kinds of marbling, till they are brought to the proper
consistence; and, as it is not possible to state any given measure
for proportioning the gall and water exactly, some gall being stronger
than other, that must be determined by observing the effect produced
in the colours as they are tried on the solution. But each successive
colour requires more gall than the one which preceded it, and the
principal or body-colour requires to be both thicker in itself and
stronger in gall than any of the others. This rule is almost without
an exception.

[Illustration]

Having, therefore, mixed and prepared the colours,--having the
preparation of gum and flea-seed in the trough,--proceed to throw on,
first the red, then the blue, and lastly, with a large brush full of
colour, the olive; beginning at the left-hand corner of the trough,
farthest from you, and working down and up closely all over, taking
care not to go twice over the same place, or you will produce rings
by the falling of one spot upon another, which is considered
objectionable. It cannot, however, be entirely avoided. Now take
up the paper by the two opposite corners, and, holding it as nearly
upright as possible, yet with a degree of ease and looseness only to
be attained by practice, let the corner in the right hand gently touch
the colour on the trough, while, at the same time, you shake or move
it to and fro by a regular motion, at the same time, with the left
hand, letting the sheet regularly and gradually descend till it lies
flat upon the surface of the solution. Practice will be required
before the stripes or shades will be produced with certainty and
regularity. We will next take a pattern with three veins.


No. 15.--BLUE OR SLATE SPANISH.

This is performed in a similar manner to the one just described.
First, throw on red, next yellow, thirdly Blue, and lastly the slate,
or body-colour, which is composed of indigo, Chinese blue, and a
portion of white. We now advance a step further and take up a pattern
with four veins.


No. 16.--BROWN SPANISH.

This is a well-known pattern. Perhaps as much or more of it has been
made than of any other, and it always will be a standing pattern.
Proceed in the same manner as before, throwing on first, the red; then
yellow; thirdly, blue; fourthly, black; and lastly, the brown, which
should be composed of good burnt ochre, darkened with a little black.


No. 17.--DOUBLE BROWN SPANISH.

This pattern has four colours for veins and two body-colours, the last
or top colour being a dilution of the other with white. The veins
are thrown on in the following order:--first, red; then black; next
yellow, (some work the yellow before the black;) fourthly, green;
then the brown, which must not be quite so powerful or put on quite
so heavy as for brown Spanish, and on this sprinkle the light or top
colour, which requires to be stronger in gall than the others.


No. 18.--FANCY SPANISH.

The pattern so designated has something of the appearance of a Spanish
being worked over an Italian. It requires seven colours and brushes
to execute this pattern, although it may be made of less. Commence,
as usual, with red first; then black; thirdly, yellow; fourthly, blue;
fifthly, green. These being all thrown or sprinkled on, next throw on
the white, by using the iron rod, as for West End or Italian, and beat
or knock it on very firmly all over these colours, but not so much
as you would do for Italian; and lastly, the principal or
body-colour,--say dark olive-green. Shade it by shaking or waving the
paper in the same way as for other Spanish.


No. 19.--FANCY SPANISH.

Another compound or fancy Spanish pattern is made by introducing a
small French pattern instead of veins. In doing this, be careful not
to have so much gall or oil in the colours as though you were going
to make French only, and the top or body-colour will require more
gall than any of the plain patterns in order to make it work over the
French colour.

Beautiful effects may be produced by folding the paper in squares
or bending the sheets in various parts before shading, some of which
cause the shades to assume an undulating appearance, as though it had
been watered like silk.


No. 20.--DRAG OR EXTRA SPANISH.

To do which you must have a trough twice the length of the sheet of
paper; as, in order to produce the elongated form of spots, you will
have to drag or push it from one end of the trough to the other in the
course of laying down the sheet of paper. The colours and preparation
are the same for this as for the other Spanish, only the colours are
used considerably thinner, as they would get so thick upon the paper,
from one sheet being drawn over and taking up a surface of colour
usually allowed for two, that it would peel and crumble off and not
burnish.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]


No. 21.--NONPAREIL OR COMB.

We now come to this well-known and very popular pattern, which has had
a most extraordinary run, and which some people hardly seem tired of,
although it has become so common of late as to be used on almost every
kind of work.

For this description of marbling use the solution of gum alone in the
trough. Mix the colours with gall and water, taking particular care
to avoid all oil and grease of every description; but the colours will
require to be thicker, and more colour thrown on, than for Spanish,
with the exception of the last, which will not require to be so
heavily thrown on as the last Spanish colour. Let all the colours
be thrown on in about equal proportions. In commencing, proceed as
usual:--first, skim the surface of the solution, and immediately
follow with the red so as to well cover the whole surface of the
solution; then black; next, orange or yellow; fourthly, blue; and,
lastly, the top colour, of whatever shade it may be required. Now take
the peg-rake, which must be as long as the trough from right to left,
and which consists of a piece of wood having pegs inserted about an
inch and a half apart and about three inches long, tapering towards
the point, and having the appearance of the head of a rake. Pass
this once up and down through the colour from front to back, taking
especial care that when you draw it back the teeth come exactly
between where they went up. Having raked the colour into the proper
form, take the comb, which must reach the whole width of the trough
from front to back, and draw it steadily through the colour, and the
pattern is ready for the laying on of the paper, which must be done
with a steady hand, or there will be shades in it.


No. 22.--RAKED NONPAREIL.

A very good pattern is made by following the directions for No. 21
until the colours are properly raked, then beat a little white evenly
over it, and it is ready for the paper.


No. 23.--NONPAREIL, (REVERSED.)

Another pattern is made by precisely the same process as No. 21, till
the colours have been raked with the peg; then take the comb, which
should be a much larger one, and draw it through the colour from left
to right, then immediately reverse it and draw it back again from
right to left, and the desired effect will be produced.


No. 24.--ANTIQUE.

The antique marble is executed thus: after the three first colours
have been thrown on, namely, red, black, and yellow, rake it once up
and down with the peg-rake, after which proceed to throw on the green,
follow with the pink spot, and lastly, beat or knock on small white
spots. Some antique patterns are made with a blue or other coloured
spot, in lieu of the pink here described, but the process is the same.


No. 25.--ANTIQUE, (ZEBRA.)

This is done with colours prepared the same as for ordinary nonpareil;
throw on four colours, viz.: red, black, yellow, and blue; then rake
the same as for nonpareil, after which throw on a light colour for a
spot; lay on the paper the same as for Spanish. Sometimes it is made
without shading, and passes for another pattern.


No. 26.--WAVE.

In this pattern the colours are drawn into an undulating form, the
points of each row meeting each other. The colours are prepared the
same as for nonpareil. The red, yellow, blue, and green are thrown on,
over which is beaten or knocked a small white, but not too abundantly;
there is now required a kind of double rake or frame, with teeth of
stout wire about three or four inches apart, and let the teeth of the
hinder one be so adjusted as to be exactly in the centre of the spaces
left open by the first one; the second or hindmost row of teeth should
be an inch and a half behind the former, the two forming but one
instrument. Draw this through the colour similar to a comb, from left
to right, but with an undulating or see-saw motion, just sufficient to
make the top of the hindermost wave catch or touch the bottom of the
foremost one, by which means it will produce a uniform appearance all
over the sheet, something in the appearance of irregular squares.

There are some other patterns of a similar kind made without a small
white spot, and the same design is sometimes worked upon a French
marble, but these require no additional explanation. We now come to


No. 27.--BRITISH.

The pattern so called is by no means easy to execute, as it requires a
considerable amount of judgment to maintain any thing like uniformity.
Some British patterns are made with and some without veins. They
require a trough double the length of the paper, as it is dragged or
pushed from one end of the trough to the other in the same manner as
the drag Spanish, (No. 20;) and the size or preparation must be the
same as for that kind of work. A good pattern may be made of one
colour,--viz.: black. The colour for this description of marbling will
be all the better for being mixed and well stirred about a few days
before using, so as to become mellow for working. Two jars or pots,
and a large common plate, will be required. Mix the colour in one of
the jars, as if for ordinary Spanish, but not with quite so much
gall; then pour a little of it into the other jar, and add to it a
considerable portion of gall and water, so as to make it very thin
and strong; now pour a small quantity of the strong colour (about a
teaspoonful) on the plate, and, taking the brush out of the thicker
colour and pressing it hard on the plate, take up with it a portion of
the strong colour, and proceed to sprinkle it on quickly all over the
trough. The dark and light spots will fall together, intermingling
with each other and producing that variegated effect which is
characteristic of the pattern. Lay on the paper the same as for drag
Spanish. Brown, green, and other colours, are done in the same manner;
but the colours require to be mellow and the paper soft-sized, or they
are apt to run off.


No. 28.--DUTCH.

The pattern now under consideration is one of the oldest and at
the same time most difficult patterns, and is performed by a very
different process to any of the preceding. Upon examining this
pattern, it will be perceived that the colours are not scattered here
and there in an indiscriminate manner, but follow each other, in a
kind of regular succession, in a diagonal direction across the sheet,
red being the preponderating colour. In order to make this well, the
colours must be particularly well ground, and of the first quality.
They ought to be mixed a few days before using. It will be useless to
expect a satisfactory result with either inferior or badly-prepared
materials.

In order to accomplish this pattern, there will be required a number
of little tins or pots, an inch and a half wide and about the same, or
two inches, in depth. It will also require two frames the size of the
paper, with wooden pegs in them, slightly tapering, about a quarter of
an inch in thickness, and fixed about three inches apart, at regular
distances, over the whole extent of the space required. The colours
will be all the better for this class of work by the addition of a
little spirits of wine. With this exception, the colours will not
require any different treatment from the nonpareil.

Mix each of the colours in a large jug, having a spout, so that you
may be able to pour them out into the small tins before mentioned. The
colours required will be red, yellow, green, blue, and white. The two
frames of pegs must be made exactly alike. One ought to be an exact
duplicate of the other.

Having mixed the colours, and tried them by dropping a little of each
on the solution in the trough, proceed to fill as many of the little
pots with colour as there are pegs on the frame, and arrange them
about three inches apart, so that the pegs in the frames may drop into
the centre of each pot, and, when lifted out, (which will require to
be done with great caution,) will convey one large drop of colour
on each peg, with which the surface of the size is to be gently and
evenly touched, taking care not to put them in too deep, but at the
same time being quite sure they all do touch the size. The tins or
pots of colour must be arranged as in the following diagram, about
three inches apart:--

  G  Y  G  Y  G  Y  G

  Y  B  Y  B  Y  B  Y

  G  Y  G  Y  G  Y  G

  Y  B  Y  B  Y  B  Y

  G  Y  G  Y  G  Y  G

G standing for green, Y for yellow, and B for blue. Then fill the same
number of tins or pots with white, which must be composed of pipe-clay
ground and prepared as the other colours, and arrange them in
precisely the same manner, using the second or duplicate frame of pegs
to these.

Having arranged all these, commence operations by first skimming the
size, (which must consist of gum-tragacanth alone,) and then well
cover the whole surface with red, which must be thrown on plentifully
with a brush. Then carefully lift the first frame standing in the pots
of the three colours, giving it a slight rotary motion, so as to stir
the colours, which soon settle, being careful not to upset them. Let
one drop from each peg touch the surface of the red upon the size,
then quickly take the one with the white and drop that just in the
centre of the spots already placed on the trough; next take a rounded
piece of tapering wood, (a brush handle is as good a thing as any,)
and pass it up and down through the colours as they are now disposed
in the trough, from front to back, at regular distances, till the
whole extent of the trough has been gone over; then pass the comb
through it from left to right, and lay on the paper.

As soon as you have hung it up, pour over it, from a jug with a spout,
about a pint of clear water, to wash off the loose colour and gum and
make it look clean and bright, after which, when dry, it will require
sizing before it can be burnished.

When curls are required, it will be necessary to have a third frame,
with as many pegs as you may require curls upon the sheet of paper.


No. 29.--ANTIQUE DUTCH.

Is done in a different manner to any of the processes hitherto
described. The colours used for this kind of work must be of
first-rate quality, and must be ground with spirits of wine or
extra strong gin, and mixed up with the same and a little gall, just
sufficient to make them float and spread to the extent required.
Instead of brushes, have a tapering piece of wood, about the thickness
of a little finger, in each pot of colour, (small pots will do,
capable of holding about a tea-cup full.) The colours required are
red, orange, blue, and green. The red must be the best scarlet lake;
the orange, orange lead; the blue, ultramarine and indigo; and the
green, indigo and Dutch pink. These must be ground and mixed, as
before directed, to the consistence of cream. The lake should be
ground one day and the other colours a few days before using, and kept
moist. The gum will require to be used thicker for this work than for
any other. Having every thing in readiness, take a pot of colour in
the left hand, and with the right proceed to lay on the colour with a
piece of wood or with a quill, in sloping stripes, like those made by
a school-boy in learning to write. Commence with the red and make two
strokes almost together, leaving a small open space, and then making
two more, and so on, until the required extent has been gone over.
Next take the orange, and make one stripe between the two stripes of
red; then proceed to fill up the wider space with a stripe of
green and a stripe of blue. Perhaps the following may more clearly
illustrate the order in which the colours should be arranged on the
trough:--

  G B R O R G B R O R G B R O R G B

As in the former instance, the initial letters signify the colours.
Draw the comb through and the pattern is complete.


EDGES.

The patterns for edges are produced in the same manner as those for
paper; and having already devoted so much space to this beautiful
art, hitherto confined to a few, it would be useless to repeat the
processes. Yet there are some things in regard to edges which every
good marbler should understand. When plates are interspersed in any
book along with the letter-press, it will require particular care in
marbling, or the colour and size will run in and spoil the appearance
of the plates. To obviate this, keep the book tightly compressed, and
where the plates are at the beginning of the book only, lay it down,
when marbled, the beginning side-upwards. For edges you may do with a
smaller trough, also a smaller quantity of colour than for paper. The
solution to work upon had better be gum-tragacanth alone. Colours for
edges will look all the brighter by the addition of alcohol, spirits
of wine, or whiskey; but they will evaporate more quickly. Having
every thing in readiness, take the book, or, if more than one, as many
as you can conveniently manage to hold tightly, with the backs in
the right hand and the fore-edge in the left, and let them touch the
colour, the back first, allowing them gradually to descend till the
whole end is covered; but be very careful that none of the size or
colour comes over the fore-edge, which it will do if dipped too deep,
and leave a nasty unsightly mark, and greatly disfigure the book. In
doing the fore-edge, the beginner had better place the volume between
a pair of cutting-boards, and, having thrown out the round, turn
back the boards, and proceed as with the end; when done, wipe off the
superfluous size from the boards with a sponge, put the boards back in
their place, and let the volume dry.


GLAZING OR BURNISHING.

The sheets of paper are burnished by a machine constructed for the
purpose. A smoothly-faced flint is fixed in a block of wood, in which
is inserted one end of a pole about five feet in length, the other
end being attached to and working in a cavity in a spring-board fixed
overhead, allowing it to work backwards and forwards upon a plank
hollowed out for the purpose. The paper is moved over the plank, and
the friction of the flint in passing to and fro over the surface of
the paper produces a high polish. Sometimes the paper is calendered by
means of friction cylinders--a superior method.


COMBS.

These are made in various ways, some to be worked on the top of the
trough and called top-combs, others to be worked by putting the points
down to the bottom of the trough and called bottom-combs. The best
thing for making them is of brass pin-wire. The comb for small
nonpareil ought to have from twelve to fourteen teeth to the inch, for
the second size eight, and for large, four.


SIZING THE PAPER.

It is sometimes necessary to size the paper after marbling. The way
of making the size is as follows:--Take of the best white soap two
pounds, put it in a large copper with about twenty gallons of water;
when it is quite dissolved, add thereto about four pounds of the best
glue, keeping the whole constantly stirred, to prevent the soap and
glue from burning; when both are quite dissolved, strain it into a
tub, and when cool, it is ready for use. Should it be found too thick,
add more hot water. The best way of sizing is to fill a trough with
the liquor and to lay the marbled surface of the paper down upon it,
then hang it on the sticks to dry.


PATENT MARBLED CLOTH.

This is an article recently introduced, and in some quarters meets
with considerable favour. There are as yet no manufactories of it in
this country. It, however, possesses no advantages over good marbled
paper, and for outsides will not compare with the _papier D'Anonay_
for durability.


ADDENDA.

In taking leave of the subject of marbling, there is but little more
to add. For, when the learner is master of all this book teaches, he
will have attained such proficiency in the art as to require nothing
further in the way of instruction. Should some new pattern come up,
let him apply the principles that govern in mixing and distributing
the colours, and, with the aid of his own experience, his chance of
accomplishing it will be as good as any one else's. As a step to the
attainment of mastery in the art, let the workman divest himself of
the various nostrums he has been put in possession of by interested
parties, and give himself up with assiduity to the directions here
laid down. What is here given is the result of twenty-five years'
actual experience of C. W. Woolnough, of London, whose marbles rank
among the most beautiful productions of the present day. Therefore
let the workman adhere to the instructions, and ultimate success will
crown his efforts. Should there be any difficulty in obtaining any
of the articles described, they may be procured from Mr. Charles
Williams, No. 213 Arch St., Philadelphia. The specimens of marbled
paper accompanying these pages, illustrate the prominent classes or
patterns of marbling. They were executed by him, and show his mastery
of the art.


BURNISHING.

The edges are burnished by placing the volume open, with the fore-edge
between boards, similar to backing-boards, in the laying-press, and
screwing it tightly therein; then with the burnisher rubbing the edge
firmly and smartly over till it presents a uniformly bright surface,
and free from any dents or inequalities. When the fore-edge is
finished, the volume must be taken out of the press, and the head and
tail burnished in a similar manner, the ends of the boards resting in
the groove by the joints, the covered boards of the volume being open.
Common calf, sheep, and half-binding, may be burnished with the boards
closed, six or eight together, but it will be necessary to delay
pasting the sides on the latter till after the operation, to avoid the
liability of tearing.


GILT EDGES.

This description of edge is the best preservative against external
injury and damp. Previous to laying on the gold, the workman must have
in readiness the articles necessary to form the groundwork and cause
the gold to adhere to the edge. The first is a mixture of red bole
or chalk and black lead, well-ground and reduced by water to a fluid
consistence, after having added to it a few drops of muriatic acid
or vitriol. The size used by some is made from the white of an egg in
five times the quantity of water well beaten together; but that most
generally used is made from parchment or vellum shavings boiled in
water to extract the gluten. It is then passed through a piece of fine
muslin and set aside to cool. When cold it is very easy to judge of
its strength. Some use ice in summer-time to chill it, as a test of
its strength. If too strong or thick, add water, then warm it to melt
the size and allow the water to become incorporated with it. To become
a good gilder requires considerable judgment, as every variety of
paper requires a different treatment. No rule can be laid down that
will answer in every case; but if the workman will but pay attention
to the directions here given, exercise patience, and above all reflect
upon the effects of his operations, ultimate success will be certain.
English books are made from linen rags, and the paper is sized. They
gild more easily and the edge looks better than American books. They
do not require as strong a size for gilding as books printed on paper
made from cotton. Books printed in this country are generally
made from cotton rags. Quantities of alum and lime are employed in
bleaching the pulp, to the sore annoyance of many a gilder, who has
found that a damp day would invariably put both his skill and patience
to the test. The best qualities of American paper are sized; the
generality, however, is not. To determine whether the paper is sized
or not, apply the tip of the tongue to it; if it adhere to the tongue,
it is not sized, and will consequently require a stronger size for
gilding than if it were sized paper. The liability of parchment
size to decompose or turn to water in hot weather can be entirely
counteracted by adding a very small portion of oxalic acid. Having
every thing in readiness, put the book in the laying-press, between
the gilding-boards, placed even with the fore-edge of the book and
with the cheeks of the press; screw up as tightly as possible with the
press-pin.

Then commences the most difficult operation, and one upon which the
beauty of the edge almost entirely depends--namely, that of scraping.
This is done with a steel scraper. A piece of saw-blade answers the
purpose very well. After being ground square on the edge and rubbed
perfectly smooth upon the oil-stone, it is kept in order by a smooth
steel. The edge must be scraped perfectly smooth, so as not to show
the marks of the knife in cutting, or of the scraper. After this is
done, it must be coloured lightly over with the bole or chalk, rubbed
immediately dry with fine clean paper shavings. This process will have
to be repeated three times; it is then well burnished with the agate,
and, with a broad, flat camel's-hair pencil, or piece of soft sponge,
a coat of size laid evenly on the surface.

The gold is next cut on the gold-cushion to the size required. A slip
of paper larger than the edge is drawn over the head of the workman,
and by a light pressure upon the cushion the gold will attach itself
to the paper; it is then turned, with the gold upwards, (care being
taken to have sufficient upon the paper to cover the entire edge,)
and laid upon the cheek of the press; then pass a flat camel's-hair
pencil, dipped in clean water, evenly over the edge, and immediately
lay on the gold by taking up the paper, turning the gold towards the
edge, and presenting it with sufficient celerity not to allow the gold
to be drawn from the paper in portions by the size. To do this well
will require some practice and a steady hand. Should there be any
breaks in the gold, other portions must be applied, and, if dry,
moisten with water applied by a fine pencil, and lay on the gold.

After the edge is entirely dry, which generally happens in from one to
two hours, it must be burnished. For this purpose a flat bloodstone
burnisher is the best, to be afterwards followed by a flat agate. Let
there be no marks of the burnisher, but spare no pains in burnishing
to have the edge perfectly uniform and clear. The head and tail of
the volume must be gilt with the same precaution, the back towards the
workman. The foregoing direction have been derived from the practical
experience of Mr. James Pawson, one of the best gilders in this
country.

Should the work be of such a nature that it is desirable to give
it the character of the period in which the book was written, or an
additional degree of beauty and elegance, this part of book-ornament
may be pursued farther in the manner we shall now describe.


ANTIQUE STYLE.

After the edge is finished as above directed, and before taking out
of the press, ornaments, such as flowers, or designs in compartments,
must be stamped upon it in the following manner. A coat of size is
passed quickly over with great precaution and lightness, and only once
in a place, to avoid detaching any of the gold. When dry, rub the
edge as lightly as possible with palm-oil, and cover with gold of a
different colour to the first; then with the tools used in gilding
leather, warmed in the fire, proceed to form the various designs by
firmly impressing them on the edge. The gold that has not been touched
by the tools is then rubbed off with a clean cotton, and there remains
only the designs the tools have imprinted, which produce a fine
effect. This mode is, however, now seldom used, though almost all
the books in the original binding of the sixteenth century are so
executed.


GILDING UPON MARBLED EDGES.

This edge, which Dr. Dibdin, in his "Bibliographer's Decameron," calls
"the very luxury, the _ne plus ultra_ of the Bibliopegistic Art," is
one requiring great care and expertness in the execution. The edges
must be scraped before marbling. After the edges have been tastefully
marbled, and not overcharged with colour, the book must be put in the
press, and well burnished as before directed. The size must then be
laid lightly on, to prevent unsettling the colour of the marble, by
which the edge would be destroyed, and the gold immediately applied
and finished off as in other edges. When dry the marble is perceived
through the gold, and presents an appearance of great beauty.


GILDING ON LANDSCAPES, ETC.

When the edge is well scraped and burnished, the leaves on the
fore-edge must be evenly bent in an oblique manner, and in this
position confined by boards tied tightly on each side, until a subject
is painted thereon in water-colours, according to the fancy of the
operator. When perfectly dry, untie the boards and let the leaves take
their proper position. Then place the volume in the press, lay on the
size and gold, and, when dry, burnish. The design will not be apparent
when the volume is closed, from the gold covering it; but when
the leaves are drawn out it will be perceived easily, the gilding
disappearing, and a very unique effect will be produced. The time and
labour required makes this operation expensive, and it is consequently
very seldom performed. It is, however, considered necessary to
describe the proceeding, as the taste or wishes of some may render it
necessary that the workman should know how to operate.

After the volume is gilt, the edges must be enveloped in clean paper,
by glueing the extremities one upon the other, to preserve the edges
from injury in the subsequent operations. This is taken off when the
volume is completed.


BLACK EDGES.

Books of devotion are generally bound in black leather, and, instead
of being gilt on the edge, blacked to correspond with the covers. It
will therefore be necessary in this place to describe the process.

Put the book in the press as for gilding, and sponge it with black
ink; then take ivory-black, lamp-black, or antimony, mixed well with
a little paste, and rub it on the edge with the finger or ball of the
hand till it is perfectly black and a good polish produced, when it
must be cleared with a brush, burnished, and cased with paper.

Coloured edges, to look well, require to be scraped in the same manner
as for gilt. To lay the colour on evenly, and produce a high burnish,
requires more labour than gilding. They are therefore quite as
expensive. After the colouring or gilding of the edges, the next
process is to attach the


REGISTER,

To do which the back, near the head, is lightly touched with glue, and
one end of a piece of ribbon proportioned to the volume is affixed.
The leaves are opened, and the other portion of the ribbon placed
between the leaves; the portion intended to hang out at the bottom
being turned back until the book is completed, to prevent its being
soiled.


HEADBANDS.

The headband is an ornament in thread or silk, of different colours,
placed at the head and tail of a book on the edge of the back,
and serves to support that part of the cover projecting above in
consequence of the squares of the boards, giving to the volume a more
finished appearance. Thus it will be seen that the headband must equal
the square allowed for the boards. For common work, the headband is
made of muslin pasted upon twine; but for extra work, and volumes
requiring greater durability, it is made of thin board and parchment
pasted together and cut into strips of the breadth required. These
flat headbands produce a much better effect than the round ones.

There are two kinds of headbands,--viz.: single and double. For
ordinary work, cloth pasted round the band, or common thread, is used;
for extra, silk and sometimes gold and silver thread. If the volume is
small, it is placed, with the boards closed and drawn down even with
the edge, between the knees; or, if larger, placed at the end of the
laying-press, with the fore-edge projecting towards the body of the
workwoman. (The headbands are usually worked by females.)


SINGLE HEADBAND.

Take two lengths of thread or silk, of different colours, threading
one in a long needle, and tying the ends of the two together.
Supposing red and white to have been taken, the white attached to the
needle, it is placed in the volume five or six leaves from the left
side, and forced out on the back immediately under the chain-stitch
of the sewing, and the thread drawn until it is stopped by the knot,
which will be hid in the sheet; the needle is then passed a second
time in or near the same place, and, after placing the prepared band
under the curl thus made, the thread is drawn tight, so as to hold it
firm. Before placing the band, it must be bent with the fingers to the
curve of the back of the book. The red thread is now taken with the
right hand, and, bringing it from the left to the right, crossed above
the white thread, passed under the band, and brought round to the
front again and fastened by passing over it, in the same way, the
white thread, taking care that the bead formed by these crossings
touches the edge of the volume. In repeating thus alternately the
operation, crossing the two threads and passing each time under the
band, which is thereby covered, it must be occasionally fastened to
the book by inserting the needle, as before directed, once in as
many places as the thickness of the book may require, and giving it a
double tack on the right side on completing the band, fastening it on
the back with a knot. These fastenings give firmness to the headband
and the exact curve of the back. The two projecting sides of the band
must be cut off near the silk, giving the band a slight inclination
upwards, to prevent the work slipping off before covering.


DOUBLE HEADBAND.

This headband is made of silk of various colours, and differs from the
single, both in being composed of two bands, a large and small one,
and in the manner of passing the silk. It is commenced in the same way
as the single; but, when the bands are fastened, the smaller above the
larger, the red silk is taken with the right hand and passed above the
white, under the bottom or larger band, brought out under the upper or
small one, carried over it, brought out again over the large band, and
the bead formed, as above directed, near to the edge of the book. The
white silk is then passed in the same way, and so on alternately till
the whole is completed.


GOLD AND SILVER HEADBAND

Both single and double made as above, the only difference being in
the use of gold or silver thread. Great care must be here observed in
tightening the thread at the bead.


RIBBON HEADBAND.

This style varies but little from the other, the same-coloured thread
being only passed several times round, instead of alternately with the
other, and making the bead at each turn, taking care that the under
thread is not observed, and then passing the other colour, in a
similar manner, as many or more times than the former. This will
produce a band--from which it is named--having the appearance of
narrow ribbons of various colours. Three or more colours may be used
in a pattern.


COVERING.

The skins prepared for binding are dressed in a peculiar manner. They
are soft and of equal thickness throughout. The cutting out of
covers is an important operation, as by attention much economy may be
effected. For this purpose patterns in pasteboard of all the sizes
of books should be made, and such as are required placed on the skin,
turning them every way, so as to obtain the greatest number of pieces
possible, allowing about an inch round for paring and turning in.
Should the books be of the same size, a volume taken by the fore-edge
and the boards laying open on the leather will enable the workman to
judge to a nicety the most advantageous way to cut. The narrow pieces,
&c. left on the sides will do for the backs and corners of half-bound
work. The leather must be cut out dry, except russia, which must be
well soaked with warm water, care being taken to avoid creasing. It
will also require to be well rubbed out on a marble slab with the
folder. If the russia is grained properly in the skin, it will not
require wetting or rubbing.

Each cover must be pared round the edges with a long knife, called the
paring-knife; and great care and skill are requisite in order to do it
well. The French binders use a knife for this purpose somewhat similar
to a chisel, and it must be confessed that their bindings surpass in
this respect those of any other country. It is impossible to determine
the precise point at which the paring commences. The declension is so
gradual that it cannot be perceived. As an illustration of this fact,
there is a specimen of Bauzonnet's in the possession of a connoisseur
of this city, covered with very thick Levant morocco, with a joint of
the same material, and the interior of the board lined with morocco,
thus making three different pieces. And the paring is so exquisitely
done that, were it not for the colours, it would be impossible to tell
where they joined. The whole interior of the board is as level as a
piece of polished marble.

Whatever may be the substance or material with which a book is
covered, the manipulations are the same. It is well pasted over with
the brush and placed on the volume in the same way, care being
taken to preserve from stains those that are costly and delicate,
particularly morocco and calf. The cover should be placed on a board,
and the side of the skin which is to be applied to the volume pasted
well and evenly upon the surface, leaving no more than what is
necessary to make it adhere. The cover being then laid on a table, or
clean milled board, the volume is taken in the hands, the squares at
head and tail equally adjusted, and placed upon the nearest side of
it, in such a position that the back of the volume, which is from the
workman, will be in the middle. The far part is then brought over
to the other side, and care taken not to disarrange the squares.
The cover, which now projects an inch all round the volume, is drawn
tightly on the back with the open hands, by turning the projecting
portion of the cover outward and resting the book on the fore-edge, at
the same time working the leather in such a manner that it will adhere
closely to the sides of the raised bands as well as to the back. A
square band, with the leather fitting closely and evenly to the back
on each side of the band, is a great point to attain, and any thing
short of it is a blur upon the binding. After the back has been
sufficiently manipulated, lay the cover perfectly smooth upon each
side, then open the boards and lay one upon the paring-stone, and pass
the paring-knife between the board and the cover diagonally across
the corner of the latter, in such a manner that, when the leather is
turned over, one edge will merely fold over the other; turn the book
and operate in a similar manner on the other corners.

The cover at the head and tail of the book must next be turned in, by
taking it by the fore-edge and placing it upright on the table with
the boards extended, and with the hands, one on each side, slightly
forcing back the boards close to the headband, and folding the cover
over and into the back with the thumbs, drawing it in so that no
wrinkle or fold is seen. Having turned in the cover the whole length
of the boards, the volume must be turned and operated on at the bottom
in a similar manner. The volume is then laid flat upon one side, and
the cover turned over the fore-edge of the other, the corners being
set by the aid of the thumb-nail and folder as neatly as possible; the
same operation is repeated upon the other side. Any derangement of the
square of the boards that may have taken place in covering must also
be rectified.

The setting of the headband is the next operation, which is very
important to the beauty of the binding, by properly forming a sort of
cap over the worked headband of the leather projecting across the back
a little above a right line from the square of one board to the other.
With a small smooth folder, one end a little pointed, the double fold
of the leather must be rubbed together to make it adhere, and, if the
boards have been cut at the corners, the hand applied thereon, and
finally forcing the headband close to the leather, staying it even
on the back with the finger, and forming a neat cap of the projecting
part on the top of it. The folder is then applied on the edges of the
boards, to give them a square appearance and make the leather adhere.
One board is then thrown back, the folder placed lengthwise along the
joint or groove, holding it firmly by the right hand; the board is
then gently forced by the left hand until it projects slightly within
or over the joint. Upon this depends the freedom and squareness of the
joint,--one of the most charming features of a well-bound book. After
this operation has been performed upon both boards, the headbands
will again require attention; and, in order to set them firmly, pass
a piece of sewing-thread around the book between the back and the
boards, and, after it is tied, manipulate the head as before, so as to
make it perfectly square and even with the boards and back. The volume
is rubbed alongside of the bands, and then set aside until nearly dry,
when the thread is taken off and the boards again set in the joint.

If the book has been sewn on bands, or if the artificial bands are
large, it is sometimes necessary, to make the leather adhere to the
back, that the volume should be _tied up_, which is done by placing
a board, longer than the book, on each side, projecting slightly over
the fore-edge, and tying them tightly with a cord from end to end.
Then, with a smaller cord, the leather is confined to the sides of the
bands, by crossing the string. For example: suppose the book had three
bands, one towards the head, one towards the tail, and the other
in the middle; the book would be taken in the left hand, the head
upwards, the cord by the help of a noose passed round close to the
inside of the band nearest to the tail and drawn tight, then
carried round again and brought close to the other side. The string,
tightened, is thus crossed on the other side of the volume, and the
band held between it. The cord is in like manner carried on to the
second and third bands, fastened, and the whole set square with the
folder. It will be best understood by the following engraving.

[Illustration]

For morocco, and books in other substances, having but small bands,
tying up is not resorted to, being generally rubbed close in with
the folder, or a box stick for the purpose. Antique work having high,
narrow bands, must have the leather well worked in between the
bands by the hands, and then the bands must be compressed by the
band-nippers. For morocco, however, where the beauty of the grain is
liable to be destroyed, great care must be taken, as the slightest
mark or scratch is indelible.

A few observations must not be omitted relative to morocco, velvet,
silk, and coloured calf, which, from their nature, require the
greatest neatness to avoid stains and alterations in the colours.
Covers of the former description must not be drawn on too tight or
rubbed with the folder, as the grain or pattern of the material would
thereby be destroyed; and extra care must be taken with the coloured
calf to prevent damage. They must be drawn on with the hands on each
side at the same time. The table should be covered with a marble
slab, and the hands kept perfectly clean. Silk should be prepared
previously, by pasting a piece of paper thereon, and be left to dry,
so that, when pasted for covering, the dampness will not affect its
appearance. Velvet will require great care, from its peculiar texture
making it necessary that it be rubbed one way only in covering. From
this cause, having ascertained the direction of the _nap_, the back of
the book is glued and laid upon it and drawn smoothly; then the sides
are in like manner glued over, and afterwards the edges turned in.
This proceeding causes the whole to lie perfectly smooth, which velvet
would not do if drawn in a contrary way to the grain or nap, or if the
glue was applied to the velvet.



HALF-BINDING.


Half-binding--so called from the backs and corners only being covered
with leather--has come so much into vogue that it may now be said to
be the favourite style of binding. This is not to be wondered at;
for, while it combines economy and durability, it can also be made to
exhibit a great deal of neatness. To do this, however, requires
more care and skill in paring the back and corners than is generally
required for full binding. The transition from the thick morocco to
the paper used on the sides can be made almost imperceptible to the
touch by a skilful use of the paring-knife or chisel. The general
directions for covering will be sufficient for the class of work under
consideration. After the back is lettered or finished, the corners
may then be put on; and, after carefully marking and cutting the paper
selected for the purpose, the sides should be glued carefully over and
affixed to the boards, having sufficient projection to turn inside of
the board far enough to be covered by the end-papers. The width of the
back should be governed by the size of the volume. A narrow back gives
a very meagre appearance to a book. The size of the corners should be
determined by the width of the back. The end-papers are pasted down
and the work finished in the same way as will be pointed out for
binding in general. The colour of the paper used for sides should
harmonize with the colour of the leather. The English generally prefer
the inside-paper, the edges, and the outside-paper, to match; and
it must be confessed that, when the paper is of good quality and the
edges correspond, the effect is extremely good. The French generally
use a light tint of marble-paper for the inside, and a darker shade
for the outside. For durability as an outside-paper, there is nothing
equal to the _papier d' Anonay_, vellum being one of its components.
Of this article there are many worthless imitations, which yet in
external appearance are well calculated to deceive. The real article
will wear as well as the morocco used for the back and corners. The
best class of half-binding for amateurs is the Font Hill style, half
morocco, of the best quality; uncut leaves, so as to preserve the
integrity of the margin; top-edge gilt, as a protection from
dust; lined with the best English paper; worked-silk headbands;
outside-paper to harmonize with the back; no gilding on the back
except the lettering. This style requires extra pains in the
forwarding and covering, as the slightest defect in these particulars
cannot be remedied by the finisher. In other bindings, the brilliancy
of the gilding often serves to conceal or to allure the eye from
those portions of the binding that a workman would pronounce to be
"botched."

Uncut books are trimmed to a general line with a large knife, similar
to a butcher's-knife, previous to being glued up. They are the special
favourites of book-collectors. An uncut copy of a scarce work will
always command a higher price than one that has been cropped.



STATIONERY OR VELLUM BINDING.


This branch of the Art of Bookbinding, in large towns, is a distinct
business, and presents some difference in the mode of proceeding in
several of the manipulations required. These, as in previous parts
of the work, will be minutely entered into for the instruction of the
young workman, while those which are executed in the same manner as
directed for printed books will be merely referred to in the order
they will be required to be executed.

Stationery binding includes every description of paper-book, from the
_Memorandum_, which is simply covered with marble-paper, to the most
firm and elaborately bound book used in the counting-house of the
merchant and banker. Of the more simple and common bindings, it will
not be necessary to enter into minute details, the proceedings being
the same as for others, only omitting the more expensive operations,
the price allowed making it necessary to bind them in a more simple
manner. The first proceeding, should the work require it, will be the


RULING.

This is done by a machine. Formerly it was done by hand. After the
pens are properly adjusted, the paper to be ruled is placed upon the
table in front of the ruling-machine, and the rollers set in motion.
The sheet is caught and passed under the pens. It is then carried by
the cloth and cords and laid away to give place to another. The most
elaborate patterns can be executed upon the ruling-machine.

Although machine-ruling has almost entirely superseded the old process
of ruling by hand, yet to some a brief description of the process may
not be unacceptable.

The paper, which is generally procured from the wholesale stationers
ruled with blue lines, must be opened out by breaking the back of the
fold, and refolded evenly in small sections. The pattern for the red
lines being placed in front, the whole must be knocked evenly up
at the back and head, put between boards, the top of the paper
projecting, and screwed in the laying-press. Then, with the saw, let
the marks of the red ink on the pattern be sawn across the whole,
which will denote the places for the lines on the right-hand side
pages throughout the book. In like manner, placing the pattern on the
other side, and sawing the bottom of the paper, will the marks of the
left-hand pages be denoted. Care must be taken to leave a larger
space on the fore-edge, to allow for cutting. Should a head-line be
required, it must be similarly marked on the fore-edge of the paper.
This done, reopen the whole of the sections, and, with a round ruler
and tin pen, proceed to rule the whole of the head-lines on one side
of the paper. This, as well as every division of $ cts., or other
distinct column, must be ruled double, as close as possible, taking
care that both are distinct, and that they do not run into each other.
The head-line being completed on one side, turn the whole of the
paper, and operate in like manner on the other. Then, turning the
paper, so as to have the head-lines to the left, proceed to rule the
columns marked for the _date_, _amount_, &c., taking especial care
that the pen always commences by the line at the head, and that it
never entrenches on the space above, which would disfigure the work.
As for the head-line, so here the whole of one side of the paper must
be completed before the other is commenced, attention being paid
to each line being perpendicular, clear, and as even in colour as
possible.

The cut on the following page represents a machine for printing the
figures upon the head of the pages, formerly done by the accountant
with a pen; but now no blank bindery is considered complete without
a paging-machine. These machines are manufactured by H. Griffin,
New York. The sheets are paged by this machine before they are sewed
together. There are other machines in use that page the leaves after
the volume is bound, the principal objection to which appears to be
the liability to soil or otherwise injure the binding; notwithstanding
this there are some binders who give them the preference. Those who
have used the machines of Mr. Griffin speak of them in the highest
terms.

[Illustration]


INKS.

To give to the work the best effect, it will be necessary to be
provided with good inks, and, it being connected with the subject,
some receipts for their preparation are subjoined.


RED INK.

Mix together a quarter of a pound of Brazil dust, a quarter of an
ounce of cochineal, a small piece of lump-sugar, and two quarts of
vinegar: let these steep ten hours, and afterwards boil them on a slow
fire till of a good red colour. When settled, strain the ink through a
piece of fine cotton, and bottle it for use.


ANOTHER.

Boil in a quart of soft water a quarter of a pound of Brazil dust;
when boiled, put in one ounce of ground alum, one ounce of white stone
crystal, and boil for three minutes, and strain.


BLUE INK.

A good blue ink may be obtained by diffusing Prussian blue or indigo
through strong gum-water. The common water-colour cakes, diffused also
in gum-water, will produce a tolerably good blue for common purposes;
but Dyer's blue, diluted with water is preferable to either.


BLACK.

Half a pound of nutgalls, a quarter of a pound of sulphate of zinc,
(white vitriol,) two ounces of gum-arabic, and a handful of salt. Boil
the nutgalls half an hour in three quarts of soft water, then put the
whole together, and let stand for use.


ANOTHER.

For making a larger quantity, put in ten gallons of rain-water, five
pounds and a quarter of nutgalls, well bruised, one pound and a half
of logwood chips, the like quantity of copperas, and a quarter of a
pound of alum. Let them stand a few days, and then add two ounces of
gum-arabic and an ounce and a half of verdigris. Stir them all well
together two or three times a day for a fortnight or three weeks, and
the ink will then be fit for use.


FOLDING.

The whole being ruled, it will be proper to fold the book to the size
required into sections for sewing. The number of leaves in each must
depend on the thickness of the paper and size of the book, taking care
that there are not so many as, when cut, to cause the leaves to start,
or so few that the backs will be swollen too much by the thread.
Then place the whole evenly in the standing-press for some time, and
prepare the end-papers, which must be of blank paper, and outsides,
unless the work is of a superior description. Should leather or
cloth joints be placed, it will be necessary to sew them on with the
end-papers, as before directed.


SEWING.

The sewing of stationery differs much from that of printed books. To
allow of the greatest possible strength, elasticity, and freedom, they
are sewn on slips of vellum without being marked with the saw, and the
whole length of each sheet, with waxed thread. For small books, two
slips will be sufficient; for foolscap folio, three will be required;
and, where larger, the number must be increased, according to the
length of the back, leaving a space of about two inches between
each. The plan laid down by _M. Lesne_, (page 27,) might, perhaps, be
adopted here with fine and light work to great advantage. The slips
should be cut about an inch wide, and of sufficient length to extend
about an inch over each side of the back. This portion being bent down
at one end of the slips, they must be placed under the end-paper on
the table at such places as may be deemed proper, and the section sewn
the whole length; and so followed by every portion till the whole
are attached in the same manner, taking care that the slips retain
a perpendicular position and that the back be not too much swollen.
Should a morocco joint have been inserted, it must be sewn on
with strong silk of the same colour. When finished, the coloured
end-papers, if any, must be pasted in, and the first and last ruled
leaves similarly attached to the end-papers. If joints, the same
precautions must be adopted as before directed. The book may then be
beat even on the back and head, placed again in the laying-press, and
glued up, working the brush well on the back, so as to force the glue
between the sections.


CUTTING.

When the ends and back are dry, this will be the next operation. Here
the fore-edge must be cut first. It is done before altering the
form of the book, paying great attention to the knife running evenly
across, so that the column nearest the front is not cut too close, and
is parallel to the edge. When taken out, the back must be rounded with
the hammer, in a greater degree than for other bindings, and placed
again evenly in the standing-press. After remaining a short time the
head and tail must in like manner be cut, but offer no difference in
operation. The book will now be ready for colouring the edges, the
processes of which have been already described. In England, the large
Dutch marble is generally used for stationers' work.


BOARDING.

The next operation will be the preparation of the boards for the
side-covers, which should be formed of two or three thin milled boards
pasted together. These must be cut to the proper size with the plough,
so as to leave a perfectly even edge, and will require to have a
larger square allowed for than is usual in printed books. When cut
they must be pasted together, leaving, if the book is heavy and the
slips on which it is sewn thick, a space at the back to place them
in. The book must now be head-banded, and then it will be proper
to strengthen the back of the book by glueing across, on the spaces
between the slips, strong pieces of canvas, and at the head and tail a
piece of calf, leaving projections on each side to be attached to the
board. For additional firmness, it was formerly usual, where the work
was of a superior description, to sew the length of the book with
catgut in about ten or fourteen places, according to the thickness.
This is done by placing three strips of strong leather in spaces
between the vellum ones, and sewing as at first, by which means the
gut, crossing over the leather and under the vellum slips on the back,
appears inside on the spaces where no thread has before passed. For
ornament, another thread is twisted round the gut on the back, so
as to present the appearance of a double cord. These matters being
adjusted, the slips of calf at the head and tail must be let in by
cutting the end of the waste leaf and placing them under. The other
slips, of every description, after trimming, must then be put into the
space left between the boards, which should be previously well pasted
or glued, the boards placed nearly half an inch from the back, and
perfectly square on the sides, and the whole screwed tightly in the
standing-press for some time.


THE SPRING-BACK.

There are numerous ways of forming this description of back, and as
generally adopted in different offices. As in other particulars, two
or three of the best will here be given: 1. Having ascertained
the width and length of the back, and provided a piece of strong
pasteboard, or thin milled board, of little more than twice the width,
fold one side rather more than half, and then the other, so that the
middle space left will be the exact size required, which should be
about a quarter of an inch wider than the back of the book; then cut
evenly another piece, a little less than the width, then another still
less, and so on for six or seven, lessening the width each time till
the last is merely a narrow slip. Let the edges of the first, or cover
for the whole, be pared, and laid open on the table; then glue the
middle space, and place thereon the largest slip, which also glue, and
add the next in size, proceeding in like manner till the smallest is
fixed, taking especial care that each occupies the exact centre of the
one on which it is placed. Finally, glue the whole space and the two
side-slips of the first, which must be brought over and firmly rubbed
down. Shape it to the curve of the back of the book, either on the
back or a wooden roller of the same size, and leave it to dry, when
the head and tail must be cut to the proper length with the shears.
For greater security the whole is often covered with linen cloth.

2. Cut a piece of firm milled board to the size required, and pare
down the edges; then hold the board to the fire till it is found soft
enough to model almost into any shape, and form to the back as above
directed. The board is sometimes wetted, but does not answer so well.

3. A beaten iron plate of the exact size, and covered with parchment
or leather.

Numerous patents have been obtained for this description of back, but
none have been found to answer the purpose, on account of the metal
cutting through the parchment or leather.

The spring-back is only used for the superior kind of account-books;
for common work, a piece of thin pasteboard is merely laid on the back
before covering, the stress on the back being small.

To prevent the manufactured back slipping during the operation of
covering, it is laid on, and a piece of cloth glued over and attached
to the sides, similarly to the back of a half-bound book. This tends
also to materially strengthen the back.


COVERING.

The materials generally used for stationery-binding are russia, rough
calf, green and white vellum, and rough sheep, according to the value
of the work. Previous to pasting on vellum, the book should be covered
with a piece of strong paper, as if for boards. The process is the
same as for other bindings; but when completed, it will be necessary
to put the book in the standing-press, having pieces of cane or wood
for the purpose placed between the boards and the back, so as to
form a bold groove, and force the leather close on the edge of the
spring-back. Previous to and after pressing, the headbands must be
squarely set, taking care to rub out any wrinkles that may have been
formed in turning in the cover. Should the book be very large, it may
be advisable to give it a nip in the press immediately after folding
in the fore-edges of the boards, and then finish the covering by
turning in the head and tail.

As circumstances--such as the fancy of some previous workman, or
coloured vellum not to be obtained so early as required--may make
it necessary to execute the proper colours, the proceedings are here
given.


GREEN.

Put one ounce of verdigris and one ounce of white wine vinegar into a
bottle, and place them near the fire for five days, shaking it three
or four times each day. Wash the vellum over with weak pearlash, and
then colour it to the shade desired.


RED.

To one pint of white wine vinegar, put a quarter of a pound of Brazil
dust and a piece of alum. Cork the mixture up; let it stand in a warm
place for two or three days.


PURPLE.

Proceed as for the _red_, substituting logwood chips for the Brazil
dust.


YELLOW.

Half an ounce of turmeric to half a pint of spirits of wine, prepared
as above.


BLACK.

Wash the vellum over three times with the red, and while wet colour
with strong marbling-ink.

Marbles and other designs may be formed on white vellum; but, as the
proceedings have been so fully entered into before, it will not be
necessary here to repeat them. Where russia bands are not added, the
end-papers must now be pasted down, and the lettering, &c. proceeded
with. If bands are attached, the pasting down of the end-papers and
joints must be deferred till they are executed.


RUSSIA BANDS.

To give to large books the greatest possible degree of strength, it
is usual to affix Russia bands to them. They are called _single_ when
they extend about half-way down the sides, and _double_ when those at
the head and tail reach to the corners of the boards, and are turned
over the edges in the same manner as the cover. For _single_;--having
ascertained the breadth by dividing the back with the compasses into
_seven_ spaces, cut three pieces of russia perfectly square and the
exact size of the spaces they are to occupy, and paste them on the
_second_, _fourth_, and _sixth_ divisions of the back, thereby leaving
in sight the first, third, fifth, and seventh spaces with the cover
only; draw them squarely on the sides, and place the volume in the
press, with the rods fixed to force the russia into the joints, as
before directed, and then leave to dry. When _double_ bands are to be
placed on a book, divide the back into five spaces, or seven if four
bands. The middle band or bands will be short, like those above, and
placed on in the same manner; but those at the head and tail, which
extend their whole length, to the fore-edge of the boards, will
require paring on the edge intended to be turned in at the headbands
and over the boards of the book, cutting the corners and squaring the
edges as in covering. When done, press the whole with rods as before,
to cause the russia to adhere well and evenly to the vellum or calf,
and leave it to dry.


CLASPS, CORNERS, AND BRASS BANDS.

Clasps are sometimes affixed to the better kind of stationery books,
as keeping them closed when not in use tends much towards their
preservation. And for still greater security, they are often further
protected with brass corners or bands. To hide the projection the
clasps would make on the fore-edge, that part of the board must be cut
away to admit the clasp, so that when fixed it will be even with the
edge of the board. For the corners and bands this is not done; but,
to insure a finished appearance in the whole, the workman's attention
must be directed to their fitting exactly in every particular of
length, breadth, and thickness. The clasps may be purchased of the
makers, but it may be found necessary to place the making of the
bands and corners in the hands of the brass-worker, to whom particular
directions and sizes must be given. They must fit tightly to the
boards, run exactly parallel with the edges, and have the holes for
the rivets drilled through previous to placing on. Where corners are
put on, no bands will be required. Bands which extend from the back
to the fore-edge and form a corner equal to the breadth of the band,
being squarely soldered in front, are placed at the head and tail of
the book, and fastened with rivets in the following manner, as are
also the clasps and corners:--Pierce the boards with a fine bodkin in
such places as are previously drilled in the brass, and force through
brass rivets of a length sufficient to project about the eighth of an
inch, and with heads made to fit exactly to the cavities formed in
the bands; then fasten them firmly, by placing the heads of each on an
iron and beating down with a hammer the part projecting inside, till
it is smooth and even with the surface. Bosses, which are seen fixed
on the middle of the boards of old books, particularly of early-bound
Bibles, &c., in churches, are fastened in the same manner.


FINISHING.

The placing of lettering-pieces, gilding, and blind-tooling, is
exactly the same as for printed books. Rough calf must be dressed with
pumice-stone, cleaned with a brush, and ornamented blind, with the
tools very hot, to form a dark impression. Vellum will require the
tools cooler than calf. The book now being ready for the use of the
accountant necessarily closes the details of this description of
binding.



BOARDING.


In large places, this is another distinct branch of the art, and
consists of simply covering the book with coloured paper or other
common substance. In small towns, it must necessarily be executed
jointly with the other branches; but so ample and minute has been the
detail of the various manipulations in a previous part of this work,
that, in attempting a description of BOARDING, little can be said
without repetition. This style, too, being the commonest mode of
doing up books in this country, also places the subject, under any
circumstances, in a position requiring but little remark. Previous,
therefore, to speaking of the few processes that are peculiar to
boarding, it will only be necessary to observe that the folding,
pressing, sewing, backing, boarding, covering, and pasting down, are
the same as for regularly-bound books. It remains, then, to add that
the books will not require beating, and, for common boards, are
never cut round the edges. The leaves are only dressed with the
trimming-knife previous to rounding the back, so as to present as
neat an appearance as possible, by removing every portion of the paper
projecting over the general line. For greater strength to the back,
a piece of paper must be pasted in the centre of the coloured paper
previously to applying it on the volume. When covered and pasted down,
the printed label must be fixed evenly on the back, and the book will
be finished.



CLOTH-WORK.

In the year 1825 a great revolution in boarding was begun by the
introduction of cloth covers in place of the drab-coloured paper
previously in use. The late Archibald Leighton, of London, was the
inventor; and Mr. Pickering was the first publisher who adopted it.
The first cloth covers had printed labels; but very soon Mr. Leighton
made the discovery that cloth could be stamped with gold very
beautifully. Lord Byron's works (the edition in 17 volumes) were the
first books to which gold-lettering on cloth was applied. Cloth-work
is now done with full gilt sides and back and gilt edges; but, from
the temporary character of this style, the question may arise whether
it is not a useless expenditure of time and money to produce it. But,
so long as the public remain unacquainted with its want of capability
for use, and desire a mass of gold upon the sides,--so long, in fact,
as there is a large class who desire books for mere show and not
for use,--it will be the interest of publishers to gratify them by
furnishing cloth-gilt work.

Expedition being so important in cloth-work, a machine has been
introduced to facilitate the operation of sawing the backs, and it is
now in general use for the purpose. The appended cut gives an accurate
idea of the machine as manufactured by W. O. Hickok, Harrisburg, Pa.

[Illustration]

For this and all other species of case-work (morocco is sometimes done
in this manner) the lining-papers are inserted and pasted over so as
to adhere to the end-paper, and the slips, having been cut short, are
scraped or rubbed smooth. The volumes are then knocked up and touched
on the back in one or two places with the glue-brush. They are then
cut upon the fore-edge, by being placed between two boards, one of
which is precisely the width that it is intended to cut the volumes;
the boards and books are placed upon the laying-press, and the backs
knocked evenly up; the whole is then placed in the laying-press, and
cut with the plough. The back-board being wider than the front, the
knife cuts against it. If the volumes are small, a number may be cut
at the same time. This mode of cutting is called "steamboating." After
the whole lot that the workman "has on" have been cut on the fronts,
they are then placed between cutting-boards again, of the proper size,
and knocked up on the head; they are then laid upon the press, with
the runner or front-board up; the board is then moved about a quarter
of an inch below the heads of the volumes as they are arranged in
layers or piles. The workman will then grasp the boards firmly, so as
not to allow the books to slip, and place them in the cutting-press,
and, after screwing it up tightly with the press-pin, proceed to
cut the heads in the same manner as the fronts. After this is done,
unscrew the press partially, so as to allow the volumes to be turned
without slipping in the tub; then, with one hand beneath the press,
depress one end of the boards, while the other is elevated, until the
whole is turned completely over, with the tails upward. The runner is
adjusted even with the cheek of the press, the press is screwed up,
and the volumes cut at the tail. If the edges are to be gilt, they are
now prepared for that operation. Afterwards they are glued upon the
backs and rounded, care being taken not to start the sheets or mark
the gilding upon the fore-edge with the thumb. They are then backed in
the same manner as bound books, except that they have larger joints.
Care is requisite at the ends, or the blows of the hammer will crush
the paper and thus give the gilding an unsightly appearance at the
joints.

A machine has been invented for the purpose of backing books, and it
appears to be growing in favour for cloth-work, and, in fact, for all
work where expedition is a primary essential. It is the invention of
Mr. Sanborn, of Portland, Maine. The annexed cut gives an idea of the
general appearance of the machine.

[Illustration]

The next process is lining the backs, which is done by pasting strips
of paper or muslin upon the back, having it of sufficient width to
cover the joints on each side. The volumes are then prepared for the
cases, which have been previously got ready. The boards are cut to
a uniform square size by the table-shears. The cloth covers, after
having been cut out, have the corners cut off to a pattern made for
the purpose, just sufficient to allow them to lap when the cloth is
turned over the edge of the boards. The cover is then glued equally
over, and the T square laid upon it,--the square having been made
of the proper width to allow for the back, joints, and groove of the
volume. A board is then laid on each side of the centre of the square;
the latter is then lifted off, and a strip of paper, of the length
of the boards and nearly the width of the back of the book, placed
between the boards. The cloth projecting beyond the boards is then
turned over their edges. The cover is then turned over, and the cloth
rubbed smooth on the sides by means of a woollen or cotton pad. It is
then placed between pasteboards to dry. After the cases are all made
and have become perfectly dry, they are ready for stamping. Cloth for
ordinary stamping requires no preparation, but if the stamp be large
or very heavy it will be safer to use a coat of size. For this purpose
Russian isinglass is preferable; fresh glaire will answer the same
purpose. After the cases are stamped, the volumes being ready, they
are arranged with their heads the same way, and the end-paper of the
volume is pasted equally over. The book is then laid, pasted side
downwards, upon a case, adjusting the squares properly at the same
time; the other end-paper is then pasted, and the other board or side
of the case drawn over the back and placed upon the volume. After a
number are pasted, they are placed in pressing-boards having a brass
band affixed to the edges of the boards. The band, being rather wider
than the thickness of the board, causes a slight projection. The
volumes are adjusted in the pressing-boards in such a manner as to
cause the back and joint of the volumes to be on the outer, while the
pasteboard is on the inner, side of the brass rim. In this position
the volumes are placed in the standing-press and screwed tightly down;
they are then tapped lightly at the heads with a small backing-hammer,
and allowed to remain until dry. They are then taken out, and the
end-papers opened up or separated with a folding-stick. They are then
ready for the bookseller's shelves.

[Illustration

TABLE-SHEARS.]



PART III.



ORNAMENTAL ART.


In treating upon this subject, we are led back to the land of the
Pharaohs; for the earliest Art records that have come down to us (and,
perhaps, the most perfect) are from the banks of the Nile, remarkable
for their severely massive character, calm and frigid. The few
ornamental details are chosen rather for their symbolical than
æsthetic beauty, consisting of local forms slightly conventionalized
and heightened with colour. Their ornaments were types and symbols
intended to address themselves to the eye, heart, and soul of the
beholder, the most frequent in recurrence being the winged globe,--a
sacred emblem the Egyptians used in their ornamental designs,--the
human figure, their sacred animals, and the lotus, reed, asp, and
papyrus. Upon the capitals of Egyptian columns are represented
nearly all the flowers peculiar to the country, the petals, capsules,
pistils, seeds, and most minute parts, being often exhibited. Capitals
are often seen resembling a vase, and at other times a bell reversed.
There is little in this style applicable to the decoration of books,
unless it be upon works relating to Egypt. Then its symbols afford the
binder an opportunity to employ its symbolic ornamentation.


ASSYRIAN AND ANCIENT PERSIAN.

Of this style it is only lately that we have become slightly
acquainted; and, though partly coeval with the Egyptian, the Assyrians
have borrowed little from them, the details being remarkable for
their classic character, at times approaching the Ionic, but greatly
dependent upon animal forms for its ornamentation, and upon painting
and sculpture for its expression. The forms, often graceful, are
less arbitrary than the Egyptian, (where symbolism is paramount,)
containing those elements afterwards elaborated into beauty by the
Greeks. There is an appropriate fitness in Assyrian ornament that
constitutes one of its prominent characteristics. In addition to
animals, the pomegranate, fir-cones, lotus-flower and reeds, rosettes,
and a fan-shaped ornament supposed to be the origin of the Greek
honeysuckle, distinguish the Assyrian style.


GREEK.

Under the ancient Greeks, Art attained a refined and exalted
character, material beauty being developed to the utmost; elegance
of proportion, chaste simplicity, and conventionalism, triumphant;
symbolism disregarded. The principal elements of Greek ornament were
the honeysuckle, the lotus-leaves, the wave-line and scroll, the
zig-zag, and the universal fret. The beauty of Grecian ornament
consists in its equality of foliage, starting-points, stalks, and
groundwork. Its running figures are well adapted to and are employed
for rolls, in side-finishing, and the proportions of this style of Art
should be carefully studied by the finisher.


ETRUSCAN.

Simplicity and elegance of form, combined with strong contrast
in colour, constitute the distinguishing marks of this style. The
Etruscan vases still form models for the artist. The novel appearance
of these vessels, all uniformly painted with a tracery of black on a
natural groundwork of brownish red, is extremely pleasing, proving the
high artistic capability of their makers. In the British Museum there
is one room entirely devoted to a collection of these remains of
ancient Art. This style is approached in its effects by inlaying
with black upon a brownish red. A copy of Caxton's "Recuyell of the
Historyes of Troye," bound in this style by Whittaker, has been highly
extolled. It is in the possession of the Marquis of Bath. The general
effects of this style are represented by a style now much in vogue,
called antique, a reddish-brown morocco being stamped upon so as
to produce a dark or black figure thereon; but the character of the
ornaments are generally dissimilar.


ROMAN.

Roman art is a redundant elaboration of the Greek, in which purity
gives way to richness, grotesque combinations become common, and false
principles creep in. Mosaic pavements are rendered pictorial by the
introduction of light and shade, the flat and round not kept distinct.
In the remains of Pompeii we find the degradation of classic Art by
the violation of true principles. There is nothing in this style to
commend it to the artist, especially in decorating books.


BYZANTINE, LOMBARD, NORMAN.

These varieties of kindred ornament, commencing with the rise of
Christianity, were founded on classic details, having a distinct
expression of their own. There is much symbolism in the Byzantine,
but all are appropriate to their several wants,--the parts rich,
judiciously disposed, and purely conventional. In these styles, so
intimately connected, we find the interlaced strap-work that suggested
Gothic tracery to the great mediæval artists.


MOORISH.

The decorative art of the Arabs is more conventional than any other,
it being in most cases extremely difficult to trace the origin of
their forms. All animal representations are strictly excluded by the
religion of Mohammed. The union of geometrical with floral forms seems
to have supplied the expression, many ornaments resembling the ovary
of plants, transversely cut and connected with crystalline shapes. The
abstract and superficial treatment is perfect, the forms are extremely
graceful, and the colouring gorgeous. The interlaced strap-work is
highly elaborated. This style is sometimes called the Arabesque, and
forms the chief decoration of the Alhambra, an ancient fortress and
residence of the Moorish monarchs of Granada. For grace and liveliness
this style is unrivalled, and it affords many useful and beautiful
hints to the finisher in his hand-tooling, and is well calculated to
produce fine effects in stamps designed for the embossing-press.


GOTHIC.

The Gothic is founded upon geometrical forms. The strap-work of former
styles is elaborated into tracery, the main lines being circular or
curved, starting from vertical lines, ending in points, enclosing
spaces divided and subdivided in the same manner, further decorated
with conventional ornaments derived from local nature. For bookbinding
it is sometimes employed, but without much judgment. The judicious
finisher will reject it on account of its inapplicability to
superficial decoration.


THE RENAISSANCE.

The Renaissance or Revival arose in Italy in the fifteenth century, by
the appropriation of classic details in connection with prior styles,
the traditionary giving way to selection and freedom; Art gaining but
few entirely new forms, rather subjecting all that had gone before to
a new treatment, which in the hands of the great artists of the period
produced agreeable results, showing the importance of general design,
rendering even incongruous materials pleasing from that cause alone.
The Cinque-cento has been considered the goal of the Renaissance
and its characteristics,--strap, tracery, arabesque, and pierced
scroll-work, a mixture of the conventional with natural forms, and
every detail of ancient Art,--producing, under different masters,
varied results. Thus, in Raphael's Loggie of the Vatican are to be
found, as at Pompeii, elements piled one above the other, without any
regard to construction. The same with the works of Julio Romano at
Mantua,--painted imitation of bas-reliefs suspended above fountains,
temples, &c., the parts often finely drawn and treated, but, taken as
a whole, little removed from the absurd, quite unlike the works of the
Greeks and Etruscans they sought to rival.


ELIZABETHAN.

The Elizabethan was an English version of the Renaissance, being a
special elaboration of the strap and bolt-work, and has been highly
useful to the stamp-cutter. Many of its forms can be advantageously
employed by the finisher.


LOUIS QUATORZE.

This distinct expression of Art is of Italian origin, being the last
of the Renaissance, and end of ornamental styles. It consists of
scrolls and shells, an alternation of curves and hollows, the concave
and convex in contrast, the broken surfaces affording a brilliant play
of light and shade. The effect when gilt being extremely magnificent,
colour was abandoned, construction hidden, and symmetry often
disregarded, especially in its decline. As to superficial treatment,
flat surfaces were studiously avoided, and the few that remained were
treated pictorially, in a mellifluous, pastoral style, known as that
of Watteau. Under Louis XV. the forms degenerated: symmetrical
balance and flow of line were disregarded, giving way to the degraded
ornamentation called the Rococo--the prevailing style of the last and
earlier part of the present century--depriving Europe for more than
one hundred years of true superficial decoration, without which no Art
can be considered complete. An attempt at this style may be seen
upon the sides of some of the gaudily-gilt albums and books of like
character. No finisher need cultivate a love for it, for it is the
aversion of all refined artists.



FINISHING.


TASTE AND DESIGN.

It is of the utmost importance to a young workman that he have correct
ideas in regard to taste, and be able to distinguish it from caprice
or mere fancy. It is in the power of all to acquire a correct taste,
for it is governed by laws that can be easily learned, and they are
unchangeable. Taste may be said to be a perception and an appreciation
of the principles of beauty and harmony as revealed by Nature through
Art. Nothing contrary to nature, no violation of any law of proportion
or of fitness, can be in good taste. The amateur and book-collector,
in commencing the foundation of a library, will do well to pause
before they adopt a species of binding that will in after years create
a feeling of annoyance, and perhaps lead to pecuniary sacrifice.

A recent writer upon the New York Exhibition of the Industry of all
Nations discourses thus:--"We call bookbinding an art; and when we
consider all that is necessary to the perfect covering of a fine book,
it must be admitted to be an art; less important, it is true, but
similar in kind to architecture.

"The first requisition upon the skill of the binder is to put the book
into a cover which will effectually protect it, and at the same time
permit it to be used with ease. If he do not accomplish this, his
most elaborate exhibition of ornamental skill is worth nothing; for he
fails in the very end for which his services are required. It was in
this regard, too, that most of our binders failed in past years.
Who that remembers the hideous, harsh, speckled sheep covers which
deformed our booksellers' shelves not long ago, can forget the added
torment which they inflicted upon their unhappy purchaser, by curling
up palpably before his very eyes, as he passed his first evening over
them, and by casting out loose leaves or whole signatures before he
had finished his first perusal? In those days, too, there was morocco
binding, with a California of gold upon the sides; and such morocco!
it felt to the fingers like a flattened nutmeg-grater, seeming to
protect the book by making it painful for any one to touch it. This
was as useless as the humbler though not more vulgar sheep. It would
hardly last through the holiday season on the centre-table which it
was made to adorn.

"The binder's next task is to give his work the substantial appearance
without which the eye of the connoisseur will remain unsatisfied.
The volume must not only be well protected, but seem so. It should
be solid, compact, square-edged, and enclosed in firm boards of a
stoutness proportionate to its size, and these should be covered with
leather at once pliable and strong. Unless it present this appearance,
it will be unsatisfactory in spite of the richest colours and the most
elaborate ornament. Thus far the mere mechanical skill of the binder
goes. In the choice of his style of binding, and in the decoration of
his book, if he perform his task with taste and skill, he rises to the
rank of an artist.

"The fitness of the binding to the character of the volume which it
protects, though little regarded by many binders, and still less by
those for whom they work, is of the first importance. Suppose Moore's
Lalla Rookh bound in rough sheep, with dark russia back and
corners, like a merchant's ledger, or Johnson's folio Dictionary in
straw-coloured morocco elaborately gilded, and lined with pale blue
watered-silk, is there an eye, no matter how uneducated, which would
not be shocked at the incongruity? Each book might be perfectly
protected, open freely, and exhibit evidence of great mechanical and
artistic skill on the part of the binder; but his atrocious taste
would insure him a just and universal condemnation. And yet there are
violations of fitness to be seen daily, on the majority of public and
private shelves, little less outrageous than those we have supposed.
Books of poetry, and illustrated works on art bound in sober speckled
or tree-marbled calf, with little gold upon the backs and sides,
and none upon the edges! Histories, statistical works, and books of
reference, in rich morocco, splendidly gilded!--the idea that the
styles ought to change places seeming never to enter the heads of the
possessors of these absurdly-covered volumes. But a little reflection
by any person of taste, and power to discern the eternal fitness
of things, will make it apparent that there should be congruity and
adaptation in the binding of books. Sober, practical volumes should be
correspondingly covered; calf and russia leather, with marbled paper
and edges, become them; while works of imagination, such as poetry
and books of engravings, demand rich morocco, fanciful ornaments, and
gilding. To bind histories, philosophical works, dictionaries, books
of reference and the like, in plain calf or dark russia,--travels,
novels, essays, and the lighter kind of prose writing, in tinted calf
or pale russia with gilding,--poetry in full morocco richly gilded,
and works on art in half morocco, with the top edge only cut and
gilded,--seems a judicious partition of the principal styles of
binding. The margins of an illustrated work on Art should never be cut
away, except where it is absolutely necessary for the preservation of
the book from dust, and the convenience of turning the leaves--that
is, at the top. It is well here to enter a protest against the
indiscriminate use of the antique style of binding, with dark-brown
calf, bevelled boards, and red edges. This is very well in its place;
but it should be confined to prose works of authors who wrote not
later than one hundred and fifty years ago. What propriety is there in
putting Scott, or Irving, or Dickens, or Longfellow, in such a dress?"

Hartley Coleridge's opinion on the subject of taste in Bookbinding is
thus given:--"The binding of a book should always suit its complexion.
Pages venerably yellow should not be cased in military morocco, but in
sober brown russia. Glossy hot-pressed paper looks best in vellum. We
have sometimes seen a collection of whitey-brown black-letter ballads,
&c. so gorgeously tricked out that they remind us of the pious
liberality of the Catholics, who dress in silk and gold the images
of saints, part of whose saintship consisted in wearing rags and
hair-cloth. The costume of a volume should also be in keeping with its
subject, and with the character of its author. How absurd to see the
works of William Penn in flaming scarlet, and George Fox's Journal in
bishops' purple! Theology should be solemnly gorgeous. History should
be ornamented after the antique and Gothic fashion; works of science,
as plain as is consistent with dignity; poetry, _simplex munditis_."

And it may not be irrelevant here to introduce the opinion of Dr.
Dibdin, whose connection with some of the first libraries in England,
and whose intimate knowledge of all the great book-collectors of the
same, must tend to stamp him as a good authority on the subject:--

"The general appearance of one's library is by no means a matter of
mere foppery or indifference; it is a sort of cardinal point, to
which the tasteful collector does well to attend. You have a right to
consider books, as to their _outsides_, with the eye of a _painter_;
because this does not militate against the proper use of the contents.

"Be sparing of red morocco or vellum. They have each so distinct,
or what painters call spotty, an appearance, that they should be
introduced but circumspectly. Morocco, I frankly own, is my favourite
surtout; and the varieties of them--_blue_, (dark and light,)
_orange_, _green_, and _olive-colour_--are especially deserving of
your attention.

"The colour of the binding may often be in harmony with its contents.
Books of poetry may be red, or light green, or blue, and have as much
ornament as may be desired. And Fine Art books, above all others,
ought to rejoice in beautiful coloured moroccos and gorgeous
ornaments. In the British Museum, books of divinity are bound in blue,
history in red, poetry in yellow, and biography in olive.

"Let _russia_ claim your volumes of architecture or other antiquities,
of topography, of lexicography, and of other works of reference. Let
your romances and chronicles aspire to _morocco_ or _velvet_;
though, upon second thoughts, _russia_ is well suited to history
and chronicles. And for your fifteeners, or volumes printed in the
fifteenth century, whether Greek, Latin, Italian, or English, let me
entreat you invariably to use _morocco_: for theology, _dark blue_,
_black_, or _damson-colour_; for history, _red_ or _dark green_;
while, in large paper quartos, do not fail to remember the _peau
de veau_ (calf) of the French, with gilt upon marbled edges. My
abhorrence of _hogskin_ urges me to call upon you to swear eternal
enmity to that engenderer of mildew and mischief. Indeed, at any rate,
it is a clumsy coat of mail. For your Italian and French, especially
in long suites, bespeak what is called _French calf binding_, spotted,
variegated, or marbled on the sides, well covered with ornament on the
back, and, when the work is worthy of it, with gilt on the edges. Let
your English octavos of history or belles-lettres breathe a quiet tone
of chastely-gilded white calf with marbled edges; while the works
of our better-most poets should be occasionally clothed in a morocco
exterior."

The further opinion of the doctor on the style of ornament, &c. in
gilding, will be given in its proper place, and which, with that
cited above, may be safely acted upon by the binder, blended with such
additions as his own taste may dictate.

It is in this state that the defects of forwarding will become
more apparent, and which no tact or ingenuity of the finisher can
effectually remedy; for, unless the bands are square, the joints free,
and the whole book geometrically just, the defect, whatever it may
be, will appear throughout, and tend to destroy the beauty of every
subsequent operation, from the constraint required to make the general
appearance of the work effective.

Before proceeding to a description of the various manipulations
required in gilding a book, it will be necessary to direct the
attention of the young workman again to what has been advanced
relative to care and attention in previous parts of this work, and
follow up the remarks there made with others on the taste necessary
to be displayed in this most important part of the art of bookbinding.
When it is considered that the most celebrated artists have arrived
at the eminence awarded to them not only through the elasticity,
solidity, and squareness of their bindings, but also from the
judicious choice of their ornaments for gilding, and the precision and
beauty with which they have been executed, it cannot be too strongly
impressed on the workman that this should ever occupy his first
attention. Nothing is so disagreeable to the eye as injudicious
or badly-executed ornaments; while with chaste and classical
embellishments, tastefully applied, an appearance of richness is
produced on the volumes that cannot fail to give satisfaction to the
most fastidious critic. The sides of the volumes present the field
most favourable for the display of ornamental taste, admitting, from
their extent, the execution of the most complicated designs. This
elaborate style of ornament has been carried to such perfection and
splendour as, in many instances, to have occupied several days in
the execution of one side alone; but it is only by the most vigorous
application, greatest care, and correct taste, that proficiency
therein can be attained. With these, success will soon crown the
endeavours of the workman; and he will have the satisfaction of
finding himself able to imitate any pattern, however difficult, as
well as to execute many new designs and compartments, of which, till
he applied himself, he had not previously an idea.

As regards the style of ornament, it must be left to taste; but, as
before promised, it will now be proper to introduce the remarks of Dr.
Dibdin on the general effect of gilding and blind tooling, leaving the
detail to be suggested to the mind of the gilder.

"First, let your books be well and evenly lettered, and let a
tolerable portion of ornament be seen upon the backs of them. I love
what is called an _overcharged back_, At first the appearance may be
flaunting and garish; but time, which mellows down book ornaments as
well as human countenances, will quickly obviate this inconvenience;
and about a twelvemonth, or six months added to the said twelvemonth,
will work miracles upon the appearance of your book. Do not be meagre
of your ornaments on the back, and never suffer _blind tooling_ wholly
to pervade a folio or quarto; for, by so doing, you convert what
should look like a _book_ into a piece of mahogany furniture.

"In large libraries there should not be too much blind tooling or too
great a want of gilt. No doubt the ornament should be as appropriate
as possible to the book. One could not endure gingerbread-gilt
_Bibles_ and _Prayer-Books_, or _Chronicles_ or _Dictionaries_, or
other books of reference. Let these have a subdued decoration on their
backs; bands only full-gilt, or a running edge-tool in the centres of
them, with small ornaments between the bands.

"I would recommend the lettering of a volume to be as _full_ as
possible; yet sententiousness must sometimes be adopted. The lines
should be straight, and the letters of one and the same form or
character within the line; yet the name of the author may be executed
a size larger than that of the date or place of its execution, and the
lettering may be between the top and bottom bands, or it may occupy
the spaces between three bands, or even more. Re-letter old books
perpendicularly, as was the custom. In all fresh bindings, however,
prefer horizontal to perpendicular lettering."[A]

    [Footnote A: We sometimes fear that Dr. Dibden's commendation
    of an overcharged back has produced a bad effect. It should be
    borne in mind that, when the doctor wrote, calf was the
    prevailing material employed in binding, and that of a light
    colour.]

It remains to urge that particular attention be paid to the lettering
of books being their right titles, as the contrary will present to
the judicious an effect the most disagreeable, and may be the cause of
producing dissatisfaction with the whole of the binding in the mind of
the owner; and also to avoid the contrast which the different shade or
colour of new lettering-pieces will give to some bindings.

As it is requisite that the workman should form an idea of the style
and design to be executed on the volume before he prepares it for
gilding, we will proceed to point out the peculiarities of some of the
most prominent styles and of the tools required to produce them. We
hope to convey a faithful idea of the latter with the aid of the tools
and ornaments executed expressly for this work by Gaskill, Copper &
Fry, bookbinders' tool-cutters, Philadelphia, who have secured for
themselves, by their taste and skill, an enviable reputation as
artists. Plate I. contains an illustration of the species of ornament
termed


THE ALDINE STYLE,

Which derives its name from a noted printer named Aldus Manutius, a
Roman by birth, who was born in the year 1446 or 1447. His Christian
name, Aldus, was a contraction of Theobaldus; and to this surname he
sometimes added the appellation of Pius, or Bassianus, or Romanus. The
first of these appellatives was assumed by Aldus from his having been
the tutor of Albertus Pius, a prince of the noble house of Carpi; and
the second was derived from the birthplace of the printer--namely,
Bassian, a small town in the Duchy of Lermonetta.

Aldus is supposed to have taken up his residence at Venice, as the
favourite city wherein to mature his plans, about the year 1488; and
about 1494-95 he there put forth the first production of his press.
He introduced Roman types of a neater cut than had previously been
in use, and invented that beautiful letter which is now known as
_Italic_, though, in the first instance, it was termed _Venetian_,
from Manutius being a resident of Venice when he brought it to
perfection; but, not long after, it was dedicated to the State of
Italy, to prevent any dispute that might arise from other nations
claiming a priority, as was the case concerning the first inventor of
printing.

Prior to the time of Aldus, the only points used in punctuation
were the comma, colon, and full-point or period; but he invented
the semicolon, gave a better shape to the comma, and connected the
punctuation by assigning to the various points more proper places.
About the period of his marriage, (in 1500,) he invented a mode
of imposing a work in such a manner that two languages might be
interleaved and bound together, or separately, at the option of the
purchaser; and, about the same date, he printed the first leaf, in
folio, of a proposed edition of the BIBLE in the Hebrew, Greek, and
Latin languages; so that he has the honour of having first suggested
the plan of a Polyglott Bible. However, the plan failed of being then
carried into effect. Printing different languages in opposite columns
was not accomplished till 1530.

The mind of Aldus was entirely engaged in the care of his
printing-house; for, as soon as he had ordered his other necessary
affairs, he shut himself up in his study, where he employed himself
in revising his Greek and Latin MSS., reading the letters which he
received from the learned out of all parts of the world, and writing
answers to them. To prevent interruption by impertinent visits,
he caused the following inscription to be placed over his
door:--"_Whoever you are, Aldus earnestly entreats you to despatch
your business as soon as possible, and then depart: unless you come
hither, like another Hercules, to lend him some friendly assistance;
for here will be work sufficient to employ you and as many as enter
this place._"

The mark or device which Aldus--who died in 1515--made use of to
distinguish works issued from his press was an anchor, round which a
dolphin seemed to twist. It must be familiar to every amateur,--Mr.
Pickering, the London publisher, having adopted the Aldine anchor as
his device. To attempt any description of the Aldine class of tools
would be superfluous after so fair a specimen in the illustration.
It will be perceived they are entirely free from shading, and,
consequently, much more effective for that description of work for
which they are generally used,--viz., blind tooling. Both tools and
patterns are much lighter and more ornamental than the old Monastic
school, of which the Aldine in some degree partook.

Upon the same plate there is exhibited the arrangement of a back-panel
and tools in the


MONTAGUE STYLE,

Which derives its name from Montague, (of the firm of Montague and
Johnson,) a bookbinder of considerable eminence, who flourished
about the year 1780. The chief features of this style are corners and
centre, filled up with stops, &c. similar to illustration. The tools
are of an open, leafy description, flowing from a stem free from any
thing of the scroll or curl. The panel given has been copied from
a book supposed to have been done by Montague himself. The bar, or
barleycorn, on the head and tail and on the bands, likewise on the
insides and edges. Books in volumes, pieced red and green on adjoining
panels, frequently a lozenge of red on the second piece, and filled
up with corners and stops similar to the other panels; sometimes both
pieces green; sides generally plain, or a flowery flowing roll, for
which a two-line is now usually substituted; sewed on raised bands;
colour, brown calf, sometimes highly sprinkled.

There is also upon Plate I. an illustration of


THE HARLEIAN STYLE,

A style not behind Montague in beauty of ornament, and superior
in elegance and variety of arrangement. Before entering into a
description of the style, we will give what information we have gained
respecting its founder, trusting that it will not be unacceptable. We
find that "Robert Harley, Esq., of Frampton-Bryan, in the county of
Hereford, (the gentleman from whom the style derives its name,) was in
1700 chosen Speaker of the House of Commons, and in May, 1711, he
was created Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, and five days afterwards
was promoted to the important station of Lord High-Treasurer of Great
Britain."

In the Preface to the Harleian MSS., now in the British Museum,
speaking of Mr. Harley, it states that "his innate love of books was
such as to determine him in early life to undertake the formation of
a new library, regardless of the disadvantages with which he must
contend, as great exertions had previously been made in collecting
MSS. for the Bodleian, Cottonian, and other valuable though smaller
collections, so that the prospect of forming a new library with any
considerable number of MSS. was indeed very unpromising. But, urged
on by a love of learning, and a strong desire to search into the
transactions of former ages, determined Mr. Harley to purchase
whatever curious MSS. he could meet with, more especially such as
might in any wise tend to explain and illustrate the history, laws,
customs, and antiquities, of his native country. The principal
point which the founder of the Harleian Library had in view was the
establishment of a MS. English Historical Library, and the rescuing
from oblivion and destruction of such valuable records of our national
antiquities as had escaped the diligence of former collectors.

"At the decease of his son, (Edward Lord Harley, in 1741,) who had
been a powerful auxiliary in enriching the collection, the MS. library
consisted of nearly 8000 volumes. At the death of Mr. Harley, his
library was bequeathed to the University of Oxford. To such men we owe
a debt of gratitude for the improvement of the art and for introducing
a style of finishing that still remains the admiration of the
connoisseur.

"The books in the Harleian Collection are principally bound in red
morocco, well sewed on raised bands, tight backs, (as were all the
books of that period,) Dutch marble end-papers, and gilt edges."

Harleian tools are more wiry and much closer than the Montague,
interspersed with fine-line curls, fine pinhead curve-lines, rosettes,
acorns, solid stops, single rings, and cross-buns.

The border upon the same plate illustrates the Harleian pane-side. In
the Harleian style there are three distinctly different arrangements
for sides and backs, (independent of the flights of fancy in which
finishers indulge.) There are on the sides,--first, the two or
three-line fillet, stopped; second, the Harleian tooled or spikey
border,--a style of finishing peculiarly neat and rich, and well
adapted for nearly every description of books.

On original Harleys the tooling went right on from corner to corner,
as if worked by a very broad roll; but modern finishers prefer a
made-up corner,--that is, a tool or tools projecting at right angles
with the corner, up to which the border-tools are worked, thus
rendering the whole more harmonious and perfect. The spikey border
is worked up to a two or three-line fillet, with the cat-tooth roll
worked on the outer line towards the edge of the board. (We may
here mention that the cat-tooth, although purely French, may be also
considered Harleian, as it is on all the originals we have seen,
and accords well with the style.) Third, the pane or panelled side,
similar to the illustration. Sometimes a double pane was formed by
throwing in a two-line fillet and working a roll on the inside.

On the backs there is the upright centre, the diamond centre and
corner, as in the illustration, and the semi-circle with open centre.

The diamond centre was not much used on books of light reading, such
as novels, but rather on works of a graver nature, such as divinity,
philosophy, and history. It seems to have been the favourite style of
the earl's binders; and we must acknowledge that a book never looks so
like a book as when finished with a good diamond centre and corner.
In forming the diamond centre, the spikes ought to project beyond the
stops, as it is then more graceful and pleasing to the eye than when
the stop and spikes are flush one with the other.


THE FONTHILL STYLE.

The following account of Fonthill Abbey will, no doubt, be acceptable,
in connection with our description of the "style" which has derived
its name therefrom.

"Fonthill Abbey, in Wiltshire, justly ranks as one of the grandest
structures in the United Kingdom, combining all the elegance of modern
architecture with the sublime grandeur of the conventual style. It was
built about the end of the last century, at an expense of £400,000, by
Mr. William Beckford, son of the public-spirited Lord Mayor of London
of that name, whose statue now stands in Guildhall, with a copy of the
memorable speech and remonstrance which he addressed to George III. in
1770. Succeeding to almost unbounded wealth, (nearly £100,000 a year,)
endowed with an extraordinary mind, literary talents of the highest
order, and an exquisite taste for the arts, the young owner of
Fonthill Abbey determined to erect an edifice uncommon in design,
and to adorn it with splendour; and, with an energy and enthusiasm
of which duller minds can form but a poor conception, he soon had his
determination carried into effect.

"The gorgeous edifice reared for Mr. B. contained many magnificent
suites of apartments. We need only notice two, denominated St.
Michael's, and King Edward the Third's Gallery. They are of the most
stately and interesting description that can be conceived or imagined:
the former filled with the choicest books and many articles of
_vertu_; the latter also employed as a library, but enriched with a
much greater number of choice and curious productions, and terminating
in an oratory, unique for its elegant proportions and characteristic
consistency. It is at once rich and luxurious as the temple of which
it forms an appendage,--sombre and soothing as the religious feelings
with which its designation associates it.

   'Meditation here may think down hours and moments;
    Here the heart may give a useful lesson to the head,
    And learning wiser grow without its books.'

It is but the drawing of a curtain, and not only all the glitter of
the adjoining splendour, but all the pomps and vanities of the world
seem to the meditative mind to be shut out forever. Perhaps its
pensive cast is more deeply experienced from the immediate contrast:
dazzled with objects of show, fatigued with the examination of rare
and costly commodities, and bewildered with the multitude of precious
devices which everywhere surround him, the soul of the visitant
retires with tenfold delight to the narrow walls of the oratory."

Our brief description of the Fonthill style cannot fail to strike the
reader as being remarkably appropriate to the sombre character of
that part of the abbey which contained the library,--the one being in
strict keeping with the other.

Half-bound olive-brown morocco; sewed on raised bands; gilt tops;
marble-paper sides and insides; with no finishing whatever, except the
lettering and date at bottom.


À LA JANSENISTE.

This chaste and beautiful style is said to be derived from a religious
order, and is highly esteemed by amateurs. Books bound à la janseniste
are full-bound Turkey or Levant morocco, with a broad turn in on the
inside of the board, gilt edges with a fine one-line fillet each side
of the bands and head and tail, and neatly mitred on the side, all in
blind, there being no gilding on the outside but the lettering; on
the inside a broad-tooled border of very fine tooling in gold, a
fine two-line in gold on the edges of the boards, and the cap of the
headbands tipped with the same.


THE CAMBRIDGE STYLE

Is practised, we may say exclusively, on theological works. At what
period it gained its name is uncertain; doubtless, it was the style in
which some of the university libraries were chiefly bound; and, in all
probability, the idea of the Harley paned side was first copied from
it. Books bound in this style are sewed on raised bands, brown calf,
pane-sprinkled sides, Dutch marble end-papers, and red edges. Back
pieced with red russia, and a two-line fillet head and tail, and on
each side of the bands, _blind_. Sides, two-line fillet close to the
edge and on each side of the pane, with a narrow flower-roll worked on
each side of the pane, close to the lines. The fillets in the pane to
be connected together at the corners with the two-line fillet, and a
tool worked from the corner of the pane towards the edge of the book,
_all blind_. Bar-roll on the edges, in gold.

[Illustration:

  2.

_Modern Monastic._]


MODERNIZED MONASTIC.

This style is now in great vogue, under the appellation of the
antique. The materials employed are divinity calf and brown or
Carmelite morocco, with very thick boards, edges either red, brown,
or matted gilt; very high raised bands. The style of ornament is
illustrated by Plate II., intended for a side-stamp to be done by
the press. It can also be done by hand, with rolls, fillets, and
hand-stamps, omitting the broad and narrow fillet, and substituting
either a one or two-line, working the circles with gouges. The tools
are all worked blind. This style of binding, when appropriate to the
book, produces a very pleasing effect.


ARABESQUE.

"The term is more commonly applied to the species of ornament used
in adorning the walls, pavements, and roofs of Moorish and Arabian
buildings, consisting of an intricate heterogeneous admixture of
fruits, flowers, scrolls, and other objects, to the exclusion of
animals, the representation of which is forbidden by the Mohammedan
religion. This kind of ornament is now frequently used in the
adorning of books, plate, &c. Foliage very similar to that used by the
Arabians, intermixed with griffins, &c., were frequently employed on
the walls and friezes of temples, and on many of the ancient Greek
vases; on the walls of the baths of Titus, at Pompeii, and many other
places."--_Craig's Universal Dictionary._

As regards book-finishing, we have looked into more than one
authority, and are really unable to define what the "arabesque" style
is or ought to be. The well-understood term "roan embossed" is, in our
opinion, the nearest approach to it at the present day.

Plate III. is an adaptation of an old German design for embossing. The
figure is raised, the plate being worked with a counter, in a powerful
press.

[Illustration:

  3.

_Old German Style for Embossed Work._]

This style can only be executed upon publishers' work where there is
a quantity of the same book to be done in this style. By it a good
effect is produced upon an inferior material and at a trifling cost.
The covers are embossed before they are applied to the volumes, and
in order to preserve the sharpness of the design they must be covered
with glue and not pressed afterwards.


ANTIQUE OAK AND OTHER BINDINGS.

Great varieties of style in the covers of bindings have been
introduced within the last few years; but these must be left to the
imitative powers of the skilful workman, as no written description
would give the requisite information and guidance. Should he be
desirous of executing these, he will do well to study some good
specimen. Among others may be mentioned the Antique Oak Bindings,
adopted by Mr. Murray, for his "Illuminated Prayer-Book," and Messrs.
Longman and Co., for "Gray's Elegy." Also the Iron Binding,--viz.:
covers in imitation of cast-iron,--in which Messrs. Longman and Co.
have had bound the "Parables of our Lord." Bibles and Prayers are
now frequently bound to imitate the antique, having heavy boards with
clasps and corners, and finished in the monastic style.


GROLIER STYLE.

This beautiful style of ornament is so well illustrated by Plate IV.
that it scarcely needs any remark. We will merely observe that this
style is well calculated for hand-work, being entirely superficial in
character. The pattern presented can be worked with a one-line fillet
and gouges, with a few leaves of a conventional character. The design
should be first traced upon paper of the proper size, the paper
lightly tipped at the corners with paste upon the side, then worked
with the fillet and gouges through the paper upon the leather. The
paper is then removed, and the blind impression appears upon the side.
All vestiges of the paper are carefully washed off, and the pattern
pencilled in,--that is, each portion of the figure is carefully traced
with a fine camel's-hair pencil saturated with glaire. When dry it is
lightly passed over with a piece of cotton in which sweet oil has been
dropped, and the gold leaf laid on. The pattern is then reworked upon
the gold.

[Illustration:

  4.

_Grolier about 1530._]

The design upon Plate V. is a modern elaboration of the Grolier, and
is intended for a side-plate, to be executed by the stamping-press.
It is well calculated for blind or blank stamping, the solid line
producing by its intersections a fine effect. By omitting the inner
and working the out lines, this elaboration of lines and circles can
be worked by hand.

[Illustration:

  5.

_Modernized Grolier._]

The Louis Quatorze is illustrated, by a pattern for a back, upon Plate
VI. This can be worked either by hand-stamps or by the press. The
centre pattern is a very pretty illustration of the prevailing style
of backs for case-work. This must be stamped before the cover is
applied to the book.

The third pattern for flat backs is adapted for hand-tools, and
when executed upon light-coloured English calf produces a beautiful
appearance. From its light, graceful character, it is well suited to
modern poetry and light literature in general. This style gives scope
to an almost endless variety of patterns, regulated only by the taste
of the finisher.

[Illustration:

  _6._

  _Louis XIV._      _Modern._      _French._
]

Plate VII. is a design drawn by Holbein for a side-ornament in metal.
This beautiful pattern can be adapted either to hand or press work.
Its graceful and harmonious proportions should be well studied by the
young workman.

[Illustration:

  _7._

_Drawn after a design by Holbein A.D. 1550._]

Upon Plate VIII. will be found specimens of rolls and hand-stamps used
in finishing. The numbers affixed refer to the order of arrangement
in the Book of Patterns published by Gaskill, Copper & Fry, containing
over two thousand specimens with their prices attached. They have also
an immense number of patterns, executed since the publication of their
book for binders in various parts of the country.

[Illustration:

  _8._

_Selection from Gaskill, Copper & Fry's Book of Patterns (18 Minor
S^t.)_]

Having given the prominent distinct styles,--of which there are,
however, many combinations, both of style, ornament, and tooling,
originating more nondescripts than we have space to treat upon,--we
proceed to the gilding, trusting that what has been pointed out to
the attention of the young workman will induce him to neglect no
opportunities of becoming acquainted with the works of artists of
celebrity, not for the purpose of servile imitation, but to examine
their adaptations of ornamental art as a study, to enable him to trace
superficial decoration back to its originators. Having acquired this
knowledge, he may by his treatment of ornament take rank as an artist.

The examples given will be sufficient for the intellectual workman
to conceive many patterns which his taste will suggest, forming an
infinite variety of beautiful designs. In all combinations, a rigorous
observance of the symmetrical proportions of the tools must be his
first care, so that the union of any number of designs present a form
agreeable and chaste. It would be superfluous to add more; but from
the importance of the subject, on closing the directions for the
ornamental department of binding, it may be repeated that there is no
greater evidence of the ignorance or carelessness of the workman than
an ornament of any kind unevenly or unequally worked. Let the young
binder especially bear this in mind: it is a defect which nothing can
effectually remedy; instead of an embellishment it is a detriment to
the binding, and his reputation as a clever workman is consequently
placed in jeopardy.

Preparatory to gilding, the back must be compassed off and carefully
marked with a folding-stick and a straight-edge or piece of vellum,
wherever it is intended to run a straight line. This serves as a guide
when the gold is laid on. For work of the best class, the fillets must
be first put in blind, and the tooling done in the same manner. For
sides where the design is elaborate, or a degree of perfection in
the tooling is desirable, the entire pattern must be first worked in
blind, and, after being washed with a dilution of oxalic acid or
a thin paste-wash, it must be carefully pencilled in with the
glaire-pencil; but this comes more appropriately under the head of


PREPARATIONS FOR GILDING.

To operate successfully, it will be necessary that the workman provide
himself with good size, glaire, and oil. The first is prepared
by boiling fine vellum slips till a good size is produced, of a
consistency that will lie equally on the volume without blotches or
ropes, and must be used warm. The glaire is formed of the whites of
eggs, beaten well with a _frother_ till it is perfectly clear, and the
froth taken off. This liquid will improve by keeping, and should never
be used new if it can possibly be avoided. For morocco bindings, the
glaire is sometimes diluted with water. The oil adopted by various
binders is different. Some use palm-oil for calf, sweet oil for
morocco or russia; others prefer hog's lard, or fine mould-candle, for
light-coloured calf; but sweet oil is well adapted for almost every
kind of leather. Vellum-size is the best preparation for coloured
calf. On books thus prepared, the glaire must be applied two or three
times, taking care that each coat is quite dry before the next is
added, and that it lies perfectly even on the whole surface, free
from globules or any substance whatever. Great care is required
in preparing coloured calf; for, if there be too much body in
the preparation, it will crack on the surface and present a bad
appearance. Morocco and roan will not require more than one coat,
and, where practicable, only on such parts of the morocco as are to
be gilt. The state of the weather must ever determine the number of
volumes to be proceeded with at one time, as in the winter double the
number may be glaired to what the dryness of a summer's day will admit
of, so as to work with safety and produce effect. A good paste-wash
before glairing is always advisable, as it prevents the glaire from
sinking into the leather.

In preparing glaire from the egg for immediate use, a few drops of
oxalic acid added thereunto will be found to be of essential service.

The volumes being thus prepared, the operation of


GILDING THE BACK

Is commenced by oiling slightly, with a small piece of cotton,
the whole length of the back. If the book is merely intended to be
_filleted_ for the economy of the gold, small strips are cut on the
gold-cushion, attached to the heated fillet by rolling it slightly
over, and affixed to the volume by passing it firmly on the lines
previously marked. But if the back is to be fully ornamented, it will
be necessary to cover it entirely with gold-leaf.

The hand-stamps should be disposed on the table before him, so as to
be selected with the greatest facility, and in readiness for every
purpose for which they may be required.

To lay on the gold, the workman takes a book of the metal, opens the
outside leaf, and passes the knife underneath the gold; with this
he raises it, carries it steadily on to the cushion, and spreads it
perfectly even, by a light breath on the middle of the leaf, taking
care also that not the least current of air has access to the room
he may be operating in. Afterwards the gold must be cut with the
gold-knife to the breadth and length of the places to be covered, by
laying the edge upon it and moving the knife slightly backwards and
forwards. Then rub upon the back the oil, and apply the gold upon the
places to be ornamented with a cotton or tip, rubbed on the forehead
or hair to give it a slight humidity and cause the gold to adhere. But
if the whole of the back is to be gilt, it will be more economical to
entirely cover it by cutting the gold in slips the breadth of the
book and applying the back on it; afterwards press it close with the
cotton, with which any breaks in the gold must also be covered,
by placing small slips where required. The humidity of the hair or
forehead will be sufficient to make the gold adhere to the cotton or
other instrument with which it may be conveyed to the book. The fillet
or roll must then be heated to a degree proper for the substance on
which it is to be worked. Calf will require them hotter than morocco
and roan, and these warmer than russia and vellum. To ascertain their
proper heat, they are applied on a damp sponge, or rubbed with the
finger wetted, and by the degree of boiling that the water makes,
their fitness is known; but a little exercise and habit will render
this easy of judging. To further insure this, the roll or pallet is
passed over the cap of the headband; if too hot, the gold will be
dull; if too cool, the impression will be bad, from the gold not
adhering in every part.

After the gold is laid on, the volume is laid upon the side, with the
back elevated, and the workman proceeds to mitre the fillets that run
lengthwise of the back, commencing at the line that has been traced
across the back, by pressing lightly with the point of the mitred roll
and running it carefully till near the line that marks the end of
the panel; then lift the fillet and turn it with the finger until the
other or reverse mitre, or nick in the fillet, is reached; then place
the fillet in the lines already gilt, adjusting it with the left hand
until the extreme point of the mitre will just reach the line traced
across. After both edges of the back have been done along the joint in
this way, the volume is then placed evenly in the finishing-press, and
the panels completed by mitreing the fillets that run across the back.
The entire operation requires the utmost care, in order to have the
lines parallel and the mitres perfectly even and true. No ornament
that may be afterwards worked upon the back, beautiful as it may be,
can atone for negligence or want of skill in the mitreing and running
of the fillets. As a matter of economy, sometimes the back is run up;
that is, instead of stopping where the lines or bands intersect, the
roll is run up the back from one end to the other, without stopping;
and, after wiping the gold off along the joint outside the fillet, it
is run across the back on each side of the bands, and head and tail in
the same manner. After the back is mitred, the finisher will proceed
with the ornamental tools, and work them carefully off. In placing
them, great attention should be paid to their occupying precisely
the same place in each panel; and, in order to present an agreeable
effect, the tools should correspond in detail, and there should be
a geometrical fitness governing the selection and arrangement of the
tools.

The judicious choice of ornaments for the back is of the utmost
importance. For instance, such as represent animals, insects,
or flowers, which are only proper for works of natural history,
entomology, and botany, should never appear on the backs of works
on general literature, as it would be an evidence of bad taste or
carelessness.

Every tool should be beautiful in itself, because no accumulation of
misshapen tools can make one beautiful ornament. There is no objection
to scrolls, leaves, flowers, stops, or any of the usual kind of
ornaments; only let them all be in themselves beautiful. It is
appropriate to introduce a harp on a book of songs, a stag's head on
a book on hunting, a recognised ecclesiastical pattern upon a book of
divinity or a prayer-book; a Greek or Roman design upon a classical
work, or a Gothic design upon a book on Gothic architecture.

Should it be desired to present on the back simply an ornamental
lettering-piece at the head, diverging to a point towards the middle
of the book, and the rest of the volume left plain, it will be
necessary to impress the tools previous to glairing, and then apply
the glaire with a camel's-hair pencil in the indentations the tools
have formed. When dry, cover with gold and reimpress the tool in
the marks previously made, and letter the title. This proceeding is
adopted in every pattern where part of the back is intended to be left
dull by being free from glaire.

The title must next engage attention, and the letters placed thereon,
either singly or together, with brass type properly fixed in the
hand-chase. If with single letters, the tail of the volume must be
lowered about an inch, and the workman draw a thread of silk across
the gold to direct the heads of the letters. Taking each singly, he
places them on the back with the right hand, steadying the letter with
the forefinger of the left. If the title is set in the chase, place
the volume evenly in the press, and apply the title, guided by the
thumb, firmly across. The title in either case must be justified, to
produce the best effect, taking care to avoid, if possible, having two
lines of the same length; and, where the title can be measured, as
in the type it may, the exact centre should be ascertained before
applying it heated on the gold. The back may now be considered
finished. The gold which has not been impressed by the gilding tools
must be well rubbed off with the _gold-rag_ and minutely cleared off
with a piece of fine flannel or India-rubber, so as to display the
delicate lines of the ornaments as perfectly and clearly as possible.
Attention should be paid to this particular; for, let a book be
finished in the most tasteful manner possible, unless well cleared off
the effect is entirely lost. If in calf, it must now be polished, and
the squares and edges of the boards proceeded with.


GILDING THE SQUARES, ETC.

For gilding the edges of the boards, the gold may be taken as for the
bands,--on the roll,--and the volume held firmly with the left hand;
but, if large, put into the press between boards, so as not to injure
the back. Where the ornament of the inside-square is simple, the like
proceeding of applying the gold will be proper, resting the board open
on an elevation equal to the thickness of the book. But if the square
has been left large, with a leather joint, so as to admit of being
more elaborately filled up, the gold must be laid on the whole space
with the tip and pressed close with the cotton. The gilding is then
proceeded with in the same manner as detailed in the directions for
the side-ornaments.


GILDING THE SIDES.

The sides, from affording more ample space, are the part of the volume
whereon the workman can and is expected to show his taste and skill
in gilding. The proceedings are the same as before pointed out where
a simple roll is the only ornament round; but where the pattern is
extensive and the details minute, it is necessary to have the whole
worked blind upon the volume before glairing, and then apply the gold.
If one side is done at a time, the book is taken by the leaves with
the left hand, the board intended to be covered resting on the thumb,
and the gold laid on as for the squares, either over the whole side
or on such parts as the pattern indicates. If the volume be small, the
gold may be laid on both sides and the leaves of the volume placed in
the finishing-press, allowing the boards to rest on its surface. This
affords greater facility for placing uniformly and systematically the
fillets, rolls, and tools necessary to complete the design on each
side. Where the pattern has not been marked, and one side only
proceeded with, the roll is run in a straight line, which should be
made, previous to covering with gold, on the board by the joint of the
back, the volume turned for the head and tail, and laid open upon the
board for the fore-edge, to give it the firmness necessary.

Directions for executing the most elaborate designs have been
previously given, whereby it will be perceived that it requires
but taste, and a just observation of similarity of design and the
geometrical proportions of the ornaments, to execute them to any
extent. One variation from this rule will destroy the effect of the
whole pattern: it will therefore be to the benefit of such as are not
conversant fully with the art, to assist themselves with designs drawn
on cartridge-paper, which may be marked through on the leather and
the pattern executed in gold or blind as required. In all, the gilding
will be the same, either to glaire over the whole cover after the
design is stamped, or, if the plain part is to be left dull, by
glairing the impressions only with a camel's-hair pencil.


GILDING ON SILK AND VELVET.

The proceedings necessary to be adopted for gilding on silk and velvet
are, from the delicate nature of these substances, different from
those laid down for gilding on leather. The glaire used on the latter
would tend to stain, and therefore it is necessary to employ other
means for fixing the gold. This is by drying the whites of eggs
and reducing them to a powder, which is put into a small bottle and
tightly tied over with a piece of fine muslin, by which means it is
equally distributed on the space intended to be gilt. Gum-sandarac is
now, however, more generally used for this purpose, although some
use gum-copal. The powder being applied, the gold is cut in slips and
taken on a roll of a circumference equal to the length of the space
intended for it to be applied on. The design is then firmly impressed,
and the superfluous gold brushed off with a soft brush or clean piece
of cotton, and the other side alike executed. In lettering, or fixing
single tools on the back, the same proceedings must be adopted, by
taking the gold thereon and applying it to the back or side of the
volume. Where the design is large, or elaborate work is required, it
will be better executed in the following manner:--The design must be
drawn on paper, and worked through on silk, after which the impression
must be carefully glaired with a camel's-hair pencil; when dry, rub
the parts intended for the gold with the finger passed through the
hair or with a clean rag slightly oiled, and, after laying on the gold
as directed for other styles, reimpress the tools, and _whip_ off the
superfluous gold with a clean flannel.

As there is no moisture in silk, the workman must not lay on at one
time so much as he does on calf and other substances.



ILLUMINATED BINDING.


This style, an invention of the French, was for some time kept by them
with the greatest secrecy. It is a binding of the utmost magnificence,
uniting the varied beauties of the arabesque and gilt ornament,
blended with the illuminated decorations seen on early MSS. before the
invention of printing. When executed in the best manner, nothing can
exceed the beauty of the whole _coup-d'[oe]il_, rivalling, as it does,
in splendour, the most elaborately-finished design of the painter. The
time required to be devoted, on its first introduction, to a single
specimen, appeared likely to confine this sort of ornament to the
finest treasures of literature, and even to them in a limited degree.
The improvements, however, in machinery and the rapid advance of the
arts have, in a few years, brought this style into very general use
for albums and other works where embellished covers are adopted; and
even on the cheap roan bindings used for Bibles, Prayers, &c. it may
be seen; though in effecting this cheapness it must be premised that a
less durable method is adopted.

To execute the more elaborate designs, practice and a taste for the
arts will here alone serve the workman; without these requisites it
would be futile to make the attempt. But, as the proceedings require
to be executed with the utmost care, we shall enter fully into such as
are new, and, from their importance, at the risk of being considered
prolix, again touch on those that may have been before treated of.

The description of one side will serve the purpose of making the
proceedings fully understood. Whether the material be of morocco or
white vellum, it must be washed, if required, perfectly clean, and
left to dry. The first operation will be--if it be for stamp-work--to
place the side on the bed of the stamping-press and boldly impress the
design thereon. The most elegant, and capable of the greatest display
of colour, are subjects of botany and natural history. The next
step will be to glaire with a camel's-hair pencil such parts of the
impression as it is intended shall be afterwards covered with gold.
This done, the delicate operation of colouring may be proceeded with.
In London and Paris this is executed by professed artists in no way
conversant with book-binding. The colours to be used must be such as
do not at all, or very slightly, fade on exposure to the air or sun,
such as carmine, ultramarine, indigo, burnt sienna, gamboge, and
sap-green. These must be prepared, with fine gum, in the same manner
as for painting, and be lightly and delicately laid on such parts of
the design as it is intended the colour should occupy, taking care
that the ground-colour or leather is entirely hid. Let every thing be
true to nature, each bird, plant, and flower its proper colour, and
a general harmony prevail throughout. When finished, let the whole
perfectly dry, and then, in the manner directed, lay gold on such
parts as it is intended, in the reimpression of the plate, should be
further embellished. Heat the plate, place the side again under it,
and give it a firm and sharp impression. Rub off the superfluous gold,
and the whole of the delicate lines of the ornament will be found
beautifully gilt, the colours firmly fixed by the heat of the
plate, and the rough edges of the colour completely effaced by the
reimpression of the original design.

In executing the less expensive and more simple designs, the plate
is impressed in gold on the side, and the parts left ungilt on the
leather; afterwards coloured according to the taste of the workman.

For the best class of work, after the design is impressed, either by
hand or the press, pieces are cut out of variously-coloured morocco,
pared thin, and neatly pasted on the side, the design, when worked,
entirely concealing the edges of the morocco. This is termed inlaid
work.



BLIND TOOLING.


This is an ornamental operation, applied either before or after the
book has been gilt and polished, and, if judiciously intermingled with
the gold, will not fail to present a good effect. It is a style that
has been much used of late years, and is executed in the same way and
with the same tools as for gilding, but without any gold applied on
the places thus ornamented. The rolls, pallets, and smaller tools,
are applied by the hand, and the large plates with the press, with the
same precautions as indicated in the previous section. If the pattern
consists of straight lines, and the workman possesses a good eye, the
best manner of executing it is by making use of a pallet, placing it
firmly on the book, and sliding it to the opposite point. It remains,
therefore, to consider such matters as more immediately apply to this
style of decoration.

The tools for blind tooling should not be so warm as for gilding, and
particularly for morocco. If it is wished to be left dull,--that is,
free from glaire,--the particles attaching themselves over the edge of
the gold ornaments must be removed with the end of the finger, wrapped
over with a piece of fine cloth, and wetted. This will soon wash it
clean, and when dry the blind ornaments may be proceeded with.

Graining may be properly considered as a blind ornament. This is
where, by the means of wooden or metal plates, the sides of a book are
marked with lines crossed over each other, so as to form innumerable
small squares in imitation of russia, or in imitation of the grain
of morocco, scales of fish, and other substances. The operation is
performed by placing the volume between the two plates even by the
groove of the back, in the standing-press, and pressing it tightly
down, and so even that the plate will be impressed equally over the
whole surface. Nothing will look worse than a bold impression in
one place and a slight one in another; and therefore it becomes of
importance to see that it is evenly pressed, as a second application
of some kind of plates will never be found affixed to the same places.


MODERNIZED MONASTIC OR ANTIQUE.

This style, whether done by the hand or the press, is one that
requires care and patience on the part of the workman, so as to bring
up the tools black, without burning or otherwise injuring the leather.
We have spent much time in experiments, so as to arrive at the most
certain and perfect mode of producing the desired result. The style
emanated from Mr. Hayday's bindery; and a volume executed in this
style for a connoisseur in this city, with tooling of a brilliant
black, fell into our hands some years since, and we at once set about
attempting to produce the same effects. Our efforts were confined to
hand-tooling for some time; and, although inferior in effect, they
were generally well received; but we were far from being satisfied. We
tried every substance that could be thought of, made the leather and
tools hot and dry, or wet and cold, as reason seemed to point to one
or the other as the proper method. We will now communicate the results
of our labours:--In the first place, the material is of the greatest
importance; and the finest effects cannot be produced except upon
English calf or morocco. American calf is entirely out of the question
for the purpose, as the morocco is too hard on the surface, and there
is not sufficient colour in the body for the tools to draw and affix
it by heat to the surface; but some kinds are better adapted for the
purpose than others. To test this, apply the tip of the tongue to the
leather, and if the dampness lies on the surface, without sinking
in, reject it; but if the dampness strikes instantly into the
leather,--the quicker the better,--the workman may proceed with some
hopes of success. After the volume is covered and ready for finishing,
wash it evenly over with clean water; and, as soon as the water ceases
to lie upon the surface, apply the tool moderately heated; this will
bring up the dark colour. Afterwards go over it again with the tool,
so as to make the impressions clear and bright. There are, however,
some colours, as well as particular manufactures, that will not come
up black; and we were long satisfied that some colouring-matter was
employed. We wrote to a friend in London, who sent us the material
and the method of its use. The material was common printers' ink. His
communication we now make public. "In the first place, the leather
should be quite damp, and the tools used should be as hot as possible
without the printers' ink. Then again impressed with the printers' ink
upon the tools. We put the larger tools in again without ink. When the
ink is used upon the tools, the leather should be rather damp, and
the tools not very hot. When the pattern is worked in the manner
described, it should be left until dry, and then brushed with a brush,
not very stiff, which will give a brilliant gloss to the tooling."
When using printers' ink, be careful not to get too much on the tools.

Let the young workman but follow the directions given, and, with a
little patience and reflection, he will be able to do work of the
character under consideration, fully equal to the efforts of the best
workman, provided that the tools be worked true and even.


POLISHING.

The details of this operation, which is performed immediately after
the gold ornaments have been worked, have been reserved in order
that the whole of the ornamental department might be kept together.
Morocco, roan, silk, and velvet, and the blind ornaments on any
substance, must never be submitted to the action of the polisher. A
smart rubbing with a piece of rough calf will be sufficient for the
two former, and the velvet or silk will merely require cleaning with
any smooth substance or with India-rubber.

There are two polishers,--one for the back and bands, and another for
the sides. The oil applied on the cover previous to laying on the gold
will be sufficient to make the polisher glide easily over the surface.
The polisher must be heated, and well cleaned on a board, and passed
quickly and evenly on the back, sides, or joints, as the case may
be, taking especial care that it is not too hot, as the glaire would
thereby be turned white and the work damaged in appearance, nor so
cold as to give a bad polish.

The book, as gilt, must be first polished on the back, by taking it
with the left hand, resting it on the table, and polished with the
right hand by gliding backwards and forwards the smooth part of the
polisher on the whole extent of the back. This not only polishes the
surface, but smooths down the indentations formed upon the leather
by the gilding-tools, bringing up the gilding to the surface. The
polisher must be passed on such places only as it is wished to make
brilliant, and great care taken not to touch the places intended to be
left dull.

The sides are similarly polished, by laying the volume on the table,
covered with baize, and passing the large iron quickly over, first
from the fore-edge towards the groove, and then, by turning the volume
in a contrary way, from the tail to the head.

If the joint requires polishing, the book is laid before the workman,
the tail towards him, and the iron applied on the side next the
groove, polishing the whole length of the board; then, turning round
the volume, and bringing the fore-edge towards him, he polishes the
side on the fore-edge, and, turning again, completes the whole by
polishing the parts at the head and tail.

In addition to polishing, it is desirable to give to the sides the
greatest possible smoothness by pressing them between polished tins or
horns. These are placed on each side of the book even by the groove,
put between pressing-boards, and screwed tightly in the press, and
left for some time.



COLOURING.


Calf-skins of uniform tints, and also sprinkled, can now be obtained
of English manufacturers; yet in many localities they are difficult
to obtain. We therefore make known the chemical substances and
ingredients required to execute them in the best manner. Marbling is a
process that must be executed by the binder upon the cover, and, with
many other revival styles, is again coming into vogue. The recipes
given for the superior marbles and designs will, it is presumed,
present this branch of the art on a higher footing, in a general
point of view, than is usually accorded to it; and it is confidently
asserted that not one of them will prove a failure, if attention
to the directions be only given. Nothing has been omitted in the
description of the substances best for use, the mode of preparing
them, and the proceedings to be adopted, that can tend to give to the
covers all the elegance and splendour of which they are susceptible.
By the aid of these, assisted by some taste, the workman may vary the
designs almost to infinity; but it must be admitted that, unless he
is devoted to his art, no mere directions or casual advantages will
enable him to succeed in the more complicated or delicate operations,
while, with an ardour for it, all difficulties will be easily
overcome.


CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS.

Under this head is included _aqua regia_, or killed spirits, _nitric
acid_, _marbling-water_, and _glaire_ prepared for marbling.


AQUA REGIA,

So called from its power to dissolve gold, is a mixture of nitic acid
(aquafortis) and muriatic acid, (spirits of salts,) deprived of its
burning qualities by block-tin, which it dissolves. It is called
by the chemist _acid nitro-muriatic_: the muriatic also contains a
portion of alkali, which gives to red a vinous tint, and for which
colour it is principally used.

The two substances should be of the purest quality, of a concentration
of thirty-three degrees for the nitric acid and of twenty degrees for
the muriatic. They must be mixed with the greatest precaution. Having
provided a clear glass bottle, the neck rather long, capable of
holding twice the quantity to be prepared, place it upon a bed of
sand, the opening at top, and pour in _one part_ of pure nitric acid
and _three_ of muriatic. Let the first vapours dispel, and then cover
the orifice with a small phial, which must not confine the vapour too
closely, as the bottle would be liable to burst, but which retains
as much as possible without risk. Of block-tin, an eighth part of
the weight of the acid must then be dropped into the bottle, in small
pieces, a little at a time, covering the orifice with the phial. The
acid will immediately attack the tin and dissolve it, when a second
portion must be put in with the same precaution, and so on till the
whole is dissolved. _Malacca_ tin is the best for use, and if pure
there will be no sediment; but, as it cannot always be obtained, a
black sediment will be left. The vapour having ceased, the acid must
be poured into bottles and secured with glass stoppers, to preserve
it. When used, a part is taken and mixed with _one quarter_ of its
weight of distilled water.

It is usual with some workmen to perform this operation in a common
drinking-glass; but, as the vapour is thereby all dispersed, the
composition loses a considerable portion of its best quality, for it
will be observed, if performed in a bottle as above directed, that the
vapour assumes a red tint, which does not escape if the neck of the
bottle be of sufficient length.


ANOTHER.

Some binders adopt the following method; but, as it is not capable of
producing an equal beauty and clearness of colour with the one above
given, it will not be advisable to use. The former, too, will be
equally effective to an indefinite period, while this will not
preserve more than two or three months.

Put in a brown freestone pot two ounces of powdered _sal-ammoniac_,
six ounces of fine _Malacca tin_, in strips or drops, twelve ounces of
distilled water, and, last, a pound of _nitric acid_, of thirty-three
degrees. Leave the whole till the tin is dissolved, and then pour off
and bottle as above directed.


VITRIOL-WATER.

Vitriol, as sold in the pure state, will not be proper to use in
marbling or sprinkling, as it would corrode and destroy the leather.
It must be weakened at least in proportion of one ounce of vitriol to
three of water.


MARBLING-WATER.

It is usual with many to use the water pure; but a few drops of
_potash liquid_ mixed with it will be found to produce better effect,
the marble being rendered more distinct.


GLAIRE.

Put spirits of wine in a proportion of two drops to the whites of
twelve eggs, and beat the whole well together till perfectly clear.



PREPARATIONS OF THE COLOURS.

The preparations used by different binders vary much, as will be seen
by the recipes given for the same colours, which we judge necessary
to put on record, that nothing connected with the subject should be
omitted, premising that each colour may be depended upon for producing
the most satisfactory results. It may be proper also to observe that
the whole of the woods and other ingredients used should be previously
powdered or reduced to small pieces, the colours being thereby much
better extracted.


BLACK.

1. Dissolve half a pound of green copperas in two quarts of water. The
oxide contained in the sulphate of iron will combine with the tanning
of the leather, and produce a good black.

2. Boil in a cast-iron pot a quart of vinegar, with a quantity of
rusty nails, or steel-filings, till reduced one-third, taking off the
scum as it rises to the top. This liquid improves by age. To keep up
the quantity, boil with more vinegar.

3. A cheaper liquid may be produced by boiling two pints of beer and
two pints of water with two pounds of old iron and a pint of vinegar,
scumming as before, and bottling for use.


BROWN.

1. Half a pound of good Dantzic or American potash dissolved in one
quart of rain-water, and preserved in a bottle well corked.

2. Salts or oil of tartar, in the same proportions as above.

3. A beautiful brown may be procured from the green shells of walnuts.
To prepare this, a quantity of the green shells, when the nuts are
gathered, must be pounded in a mortar to extract the juice, and then
put into a vessel capable of holding a sufficient quantity of water.
The water being put in, the whole should be frequently stirred, and
left to soak, with the vessel covered. Afterwards the liquid must be
passed through a sieve, the juice well expressed, and bottled, with
some common salt, for use. This liquid, after fermentation, will
produce the best effects, for the uniform tints, as it tends to soften
the leather, and will not corrode.


BLUE.

1. It is usual with many binders to use _Scott's Liquid Blue_, but it
is necessary to know the preparation of the colour. Perhaps the best
and most simple one known is one given by _Poerner_, which is as
follows:--In four ounces of sulphuric acid, of 66 degrees, mix
gradually one ounce of finely-powdered indigo, so as to form a sort of
pulp. Place the vessel in another containing boiling water, for some
hours, and then leave it to cool. Afterwards put to it a small portion
of good potash, dry and finely powdered, stirring the whole well,
and letting it rest for twenty-four hours, when bottled, and use as
required. This colour will appear nearly black, but may be made to
any shade by adding water to it. If any portion remain after being
diluted, it must be put into a separate bottle, as if mixed with the
first preparation the whole would be deteriorated.

2. A readier blue may be prepared by mixing one ounce of powdered
indigo with two ounces of oil of vitriol, and letting it stand for
twenty-four hours, and then adding twelve ounces of pure water.


PURPLE.

Boil half a pint of archill or logwood with vinegar and water, of each
half a pint.


LILAC.

Same as for the purple, with the addition of about two table-spoonsful
of potash.


VIOLET.

Half a pound of logwood chips and one ounce of Brazil dust, boiled
over a good fire in four pints of water till reduced one-half, and
left to clear. Then throw in one ounce of powdered alum and two grains
of cream of tartar, and again boil till dissolved. This liquid must be
used warm.


FAWN.

In two pints of water boil one ounce of tan, and a like portion of
nutgall, till reduced to a pint.


YELLOW.

1. To one ounce of good caked saffron, turmeric, or French berries,
add a portion of spirits of wine or _aqua regia_, and leave the
mixture to macerate. This liquid is used cold, and may be varied to
any shade by adding water when required.

2. In two pints of water put eight ounces of French berries, and boil
till reduced one-half. Then pass it through a sieve or fine cotton,
and add a small quantity of powdered alum, and again boil, using it
warm.


ORANGE.

In a pint and a half of potash liquid, boil a quarter of a pound
of fustic chips till reduced one-half; then put in an ounce of good
_annatto_, well beaten, and, after boiling, a small portion of alum,
and use warm.


GREEN.

1. Liquid blue and yellow mixed will best suit for general purposes.

2. Dissolve in a bottle one ounce of verdigris in an ounce of white
wine vinegar, and place the whole before a fire for four or five days,
frequently shaking the bottle.


RED.

There are three sorts of red,--viz.: common, fine, and scarlet.

_Common._--1. In a tinned kettle boil half a pound of Brazil wood,
eight grains of nutgalls, both powdered, and three pints of water,
till the whole is reduced one-third. Then add powdered alum and
sal-ammoniac, of each one ounce, and when dissolved strain through a
sieve. This liquid must always be used warm.

2. Boil a quarter of a pound of Brazil dust, two ounces of powdered
cochineal, and a little alum, in two pints of the best vinegar, till a
bright red is produced. Use warm.

_Fine._--1. In three pints of water boil half a pound of Brazil dust
and half an ounce of powdered nutgalls. Pass the whole through a
fine cotton, and replace the liquid on the fire, adding one ounce
of powdered alum and half an ounce of sal-ammoniac. Give the whole
another boil, and then add a portion of _aqua regia_, according to the
shade desired, and use warm.

2. A quicker and cheaper proceeding is by putting in a cup a portion
of Brazil wood, and adding to it the _aqua regia_, letting it stand
for a quarter of an hour to extract the colour.

_Scarlet._--To one ounce of white nutgalls and one ounce of cochineal,
both finely powdered, add two pints of boiling water. After boiling
some time, add half an ounce of _aqua regia_, and use warm.



MARBLING.


Before proceeding to a description of the marbles, and other designs
on the covers coming under the general head of marbling, it will be
proper to give a few directions relative to some important matters
required in the way of preparation. As the success of many of the
designs depends upon the quickness with which they are executed,
it will be important that the colours, sponges, brushes, &c. are
previously disposed in the best order, so as to be of the readiest
access. Attention should be paid to the probable quantity that may be
required of each colour, as many of them will not be available for use
another time.

The books should all be previously washed with paste and water to
which has been added a little pearlash liquid, and left to dry. After
this they must be glaired equally over, and when dry placed upon the
marbling-rods, the sides of the books extending over and the leaves
hanging between. The rods must be placed on an elevation at the top,
so as to allow the water to run gradually towards the bottom of the
books; and, if the backs are required to be left plain, another rod,
or piece of board, grooved to the shape of the back, placed on them.
To avoid the scum arising from the beating of the brushes over the
colours, it is better to rub the ends of the bristles on the palm of
the hand, on which a little oil has been spread. These preliminaries
being settled, the operation of marbling commences, for which we shall
now give directions.


COMMON MARBLE.

The book being placed on the rods, throw on the water prepared for
marbling in large drops, with a coarse brush, or bunch of quills, till
the drops unite. Then, with a brush charged with the black liquid and
beaten on the press-pin as directed for sprinkling the edges, a number
of fine streaks are produced by throwing the colour equally over the
cover. Afterwards the brown liquid must be similarly thrown over. When
the veins are well struck into the leather, the water must be sponged
off and the book placed to dry.

If the volume has been previously coloured with any of the
preparations before described, and it is wished to produce a marble
thereon, the brown must be thrown on first, and then the black; as
without this precaution the marble would not strike, because of
the acid which forms part of the colours. This observation being
applicable to all the other designs, it will not be necessary again to
repeat it.


ANOTHER.

Throw on the vinegar-black, then the brown, and lastly a sprinkle of
vitriol-water.


PURPLE MARBLE.

Colour the cover two or three times with hot purple liquid, and,
when dry, glaire. Then throw on water, and sprinkle with strong
vitriol-water, which will form red veins.


STONE MARBLE.

After throwing on the water, sprinkle boldly with the black liquid;
then, with a sponge charged with strong brown, drop the colour on the
back in three or four places, so that it may run down each side in a
broad stream, and afterwards operate with vitriol-water on the parts
the brown has not touched.


GREEN AGATE.

Sprinkle black, in nine times its quantity of water, in large drops
over the whole surface of the cover, and when the drops unite apply on
the back at regular distances the green liquid, so that it may flow on
the boards and unite with the black.


BLUE AGATE.

Proceed as above, only substituting blue in place of the green,
weakened with water according to the shade required.


FAIR AGATE.

Commence by sprinkling black in small drops at a good distance from
each other; afterwards sprinkle equally over large drops of weak
potash.


AGATINE.

Proceed as for the green agate, and then sprinkle scarlet all over the
cover; finally, throw on blue in small drops, weakened in four times
the quantity of water.


LEVANT MARBLE.

After the water, throw on the back-brown in broad streaks as directed
for the _stone_, and then in like manner the _aqua regia_. This will
be found to imitate closely the Levant marble.


PORPHYRY VEIN.

Throw on large drops of black diluted in double the quantity of water.
When the colour has struck well into the leather, sprinkle in the
same manner brown mixed equally with water. Then apply a sprinkle
of scarlet, and afterwards large spots of yellow, the liquid nearly
boiling. While these colours are uniting, throw on weak blue, and then
_aqua regia_, which, flowing together down the sides of the book, will
form the vein distinctly.


RED PORPHYRY.

Sprinkle with black in eight times the quantity of water, very equal
and in small spots. Let it dry, rub, and glaire. Then give two or
three sprinkles of fine red, and one of scarlet, and again leave to
dry. Finally, sprinkle scarlet in small spots as equally as possible.


GREEN PORPHYRY.

For this design the cover must be finely sprinkled over three separate
times, leaving the colour to search and dry between each. The green
must be brought to the shade required by mixing with water. To form a
more elegant vein, sprinkle first with weak black, and afterwards with
green, and when dry with fine red.


PORPHYRY.

This marble, imitating the _eye of the partridge_, is executed by
throwing on black in eight times its volume of water, in small drops,
but so close as to just run into each other. When the black begins to
flow, sprinkle over brown mixed equally with water. Let it dry, wash
the whole with a sponge, and before quite dry again give it two or
three coats of fine red. After being dry and well rubbed, sprinkle
equally over the surface large drops of _aqua regia_.


ANOTHER.

Colour the cover with red, yellow, blue, or green, and, when dry,
with black diluted as above; let this also dry, and then sprinkle
over large or small drops of aqua regia. The eye of the partridge is
properly formed with blue sprinkled upon the weakened black, and, when
dry, with the killed spirit or _aqua regia_.


ROCK.

Throw on large drops of black prepared as for the porphyry, and, when
half dry, weakened potash in the same manner. When dry again, sprinkle
on equally small spots of scarlet, and lastly _aqua regia_.


GRANITE.

Mix black in about fifty times its quantity of water, and sprinkle
equally over very fine, repeating it as it dries five or six times.
Then, in like manner, sprinkle over with brown, and, after rubbing
well, glaire lightly. Finally, sprinkle finely over with _aqua regia_.


TREE-MARBLES.

These marbles, which were first executed in Germany, from whence they
passed into England, are formed by bending the boards in the middle,
so that the water and colours flow from the back and fore-edge to the
centre, in the form of branches of trees. Those who have never seen
the tree-marbles of Mr. Clarke, of London, can form but little idea of
the beauty of which this style is susceptible. The name is also given
to such as are made to imitate the grain of the wood.


WALNUT.

Formed by sprinkling black and brown only, as for the common marble.


CEDAR.

After sprinkling as for the walnut, and before perfectly dry, apply
lightly a sponge presenting large holes dipped in orange upon various
places on the cover, so as to form a description of clouds. Afterwards
apply the fine red, with a similar sponge, nearly upon the same
places, and when dry give the whole two or three coats of yellow,
taking care that each penetrates evenly into the leather.


MAHOGANY.

The proceedings are nearly the same as for the walnut, the difference
being merely in sprinkling the black more boldly, and, when perfectly
dry, giving two or three uniform coats of red.


BOX.

In order to imitate the veins contained in box, the boards must be
bent in five or six different places and in divers ways. After placing
the book between the rods, throw on the water in small drops, and
proceed as for the walnut. After being perfectly dry, throw water
again in large drops, and sprinkle on small spots of blue, diluted
equally with water; and, when again dry and rubbed well, apply the
scarlet with a sponge as directed for the cedar. Finally, when dry,
give two or three coats of orange, and the design is complete.


WAINSCOT.

Colour with strong brown, glaire, and place between the rods, with the
boards flat. Throw on weak black in large spots, then brown in like
manner, and, lastly, sprinkle boldly with vitriol-water.


VARIEGATED.

Marble as for the walnut, and then put on each board a circle, oval,
or other figure, and apply weak black on the outer parts. When dry,
give it a good coat of red, and, after throwing on spots of scarlet,
take off the figures, and wash well the parts where the latter colour
has been used. Finally, give the oval two coats of yellow, or other
colour, with a camel's-hair brush.


MARBLING ON PAPER.

The sides of a half-bound book, which will be covered with paper, may
be marbled to correspond with the effect produced on the leather by
the action of the black and brown at the same time. This is performed
by pasting firm white paper on the sides, and colouring with a
mixture of four ounces of nutgalls and a small portion of powdered
sal-ammoniac boiled well together, which will take the black and brown
nearly equal to leather.


SPRINKLES.

This is another ornament on the covers of books, capable of being much
varied. A few of the most general use are given, premising that any
of the colours arranged as for the marbles above, or sprinkled on the
uniform colours, will be productive of a beautiful effect. The books
must be pastewashed over, but not glaired.


NUTMEG.

Sprinkle very finely with black and then with brown. If wished to
produce a finer effect, give a sprinkle of vitriol-water.


RING.

Put about a teaspoonful of vitriol to a cup of the black, and sprinkle
coarsely over. If the ring is not sufficiently strong, add more
vitriol.


TORTOISE-SHELL.

Wash the cover with yellow, and sprinkle very boldly with black.
When dry, spot with a sponge, as before directed, with blue, red, and
black, each colour being left to dry before the next is applied.

In concluding the description of the marbles and sprinkles, it may be
remarked that, with a little taste, the workman might vary the designs
to upwards of one hundred different patterns; also that each colour
should be allowed to properly strike into the leather before another
is used. Panes, or blank spaces, are formed by placing squares, &c.
of pasteboard on the sides, which prevents the colours touching the
leather when sprinkling. After the design is completed, the covers
should be well rubbed with a woollen cloth or the ball of the hand, to
remove the whole of the refuse of the colour, which will be found to
corrode on the surface of the leather.



UNIFORM COLOURS.


Before proceeding to execute any of the colours, the books must be
well and evenly paste-washed, and left till perfectly dry. It will
also be necessary to observe that the black will become darker in all
the subsequent operations of colouring, glairing, and polishing, so
that attention must be paid not to use this liquid too strong.


LIGHT BROWN.

Wash the cover with vitriol-water till perfectly uniform in colour,
and then with brown to the shade desired.


ANOTHER.

Mix a small quantity of annatto with the potash liquid, and use hot.
This will produce a beautiful tint.


DARK BROWN.

Colour with weak black till a slate-shade is produced, and then apply
the brown three or four times, as taste may dictate.

Others might be added, but the proceedings are the same, varying only
the quantity of colour according to the shade. The _nut-brown liquid_
will produce beautiful tints.


CORINTHIAN GRAPE.

The proceedings are the same as for the last colour, adding two or
three coats of _fine red_.


COMMON GRAPE.

Proceed as for the last, omitting the brown after the black.


BLUE.

After giving four or five coats of the chemical blue diluted with
water, wash lightly with weakened aqua regia, which will take off the
green reflection produced by the yellow tint of the leather.


GREEN.

Give three or four coats of the green liquid, extended in water
according to the shade required. Any of the other colours noticed in
the preparations may be thus executed.


OLIVE.

After giving a slate-colour, apply yellow, boiled with a small portion
of blue, on the cover, rubbing it equally in while hot, to insure
uniformity.


PEARL GRAY.

This colour must be executed carefully, so as to be perfectly uniform
and without stains. Colour over with exceedingly weak black liquid,
till a pale gray is produced. The weaker it is, the better will the
workman succeed. Then pass over a light coat of fine red mixed in a
large portion of water, so as to give a light red reflection scarcely
distinguishable.


SLATE.

Use the black liquid a little stronger than for the last, and omit the
red.


BLACK.

For common purposes, the black may be formed in the way adopted for
other colours; but, in many instances, it is necessary to produce a
colour having the appearance of japan, and which will require more
labour and attention.

Wash the book over with brown till a dark shade is formed; then, with
a piece of woollen cloth, apply the black liquid mixed with japan,
which will produce a beautiful black. This colour should have a good
coat of vellum-size before glairing. Or it may be better to finish off
with the varnish given in another part of the work.

Nutgalls, copperas, and gum-arabic, are used by many, and will be
found to produce a good and bright colour.



GOLD MARBLES, LANDSCAPES, ETC.


These designs, if properly executed, are the most beautiful that
can be imagined. The labour and care, however, requisite, must ever
confine them to superior bindings, for which a high price is given,
to indemnify the workman for the time required to produce the proper
effect. The imitation of the gold marbles is not an easy task; but
a knowledge of the art of painting, and a clever management of the
brush, will enable the workman to imitate the figure of the marble so
true to nature as to be scarcely distinguishable.


GOLD MARBLE.

This marble, which will not require the ability to execute as those
following it, is the invention of M. Berthé, senior, bookbinder of
Paris, and may be executed on any kind of uniform substance. Take a
piece of cloth, exceeding the size of the volume, and fold it equally;
lay it, thus folded, evenly upon a board, and then open the other
half, and cover the board; spread, upon the half towards the left,
gold leaf to the size of the cover, allowing such portion as the roll
intended to be worked on it may take, which will be a saving of gold;
then refold the cloth on the gold, and press the hand above, without
moving the cloth, so as to divide the gold into a number of small
pieces. The gold being thus prepared, moisten the side of the volume
with glaire mixed with water in equal proportion, and place it on the
cloth, pressing above firmly with the hand. Care being taken not to
disarrange it, turn over the volume, cloth, and board, and take the
latter off, replacing it with a sheet of paper, and rubbing smartly
above, so as to attach the whole of the gold to the cover. After this
the cloth must be removed, and the gold will be found equally fixed;
to further insure which lay on a sheet of paper, and rub well with the
palm of the hand.

To remove any gold that may appear on the part intended for the roll
in gilding, wet the end of the thumb, form a sort of square with the
fore-finger on the edge of the board to the size of the roll, and rub
the surface of the cover, which will clear it with facility before the
glaire is dry.


LAPIS-LAZULI.

This marble is of clear blue, veined with gold, presenting an
appearance of the utmost splendour. It is executed as follows:--

Place the volume between rods as for marbling, and with a sponge full
of large holes, dipped in chemical blue mixed in six times its volume
of water, make light spots, similar to clouds, at irregular distances;
then put in a quarter part more blue, and make new clouds or spots
a little darker. Repeat this operation six or seven times, each
time adding more blue. All these coats will form stains in proper
gradation, as in the natural marble; and to operate more properly,
it would be better to have a model, either of the marble itself, or
skilfully painted.

The veins of gold, which must not be laid on till the book is gilt,
and just previous to polishing, are formed with gold in shell. The
substance used to make it take and hold firmly on the cover of the
book is prepared with white of egg and spirits of wine in equal
proportion, and two parts of water, beating all well and leaving it to
clear; then wet a small portion of gold-powder with the liquid, mixing
it with the finger, and use it with a small camel's-hair pencil. Pass
it on in different places, so as to imitate the model, according to
the taste of the workman; when done, let it perfectly dry, and polish
with the polisher scarcely warm.

It will be perceived that by the use of other colours, or two or three
together, many beautiful designs may be in like manner executed.


LANDSCAPES.

Many beautiful subjects may be formed on the sides of books by the
workman skilled in painting; and, although coming more properly under
the art of painting, and being objectionable on account of producing
a mingling of the arts, so frequently exhibited upon volumes where
the art of the bookbinder is superseded by that of the painter and
jeweller, the young workman should understand at least the process by
which they are produced. The volume is prepared by being pastewashed,
so as to present a uniform fawn colour, the designs slightly traced,
and afterwards coloured according to the pattern, the colours being
mixed to the proper shade with water. The shades must be tried on
pieces of refuse leather, as, being spirit-colours, when once laid on,
no art can soften them down if too strong; and a peculiar lightness of
touch will be necessary to produce effect. Portraits, &c. may also be
executed in this manner, and many superb designs have at times
been executed by the best binders of England and France. M. Didot,
bookseller of Paris, presented a copy of the "_Henriade_," published
by himself, to Louis XVIII., most elegantly ornamented in this style.
It was executed by _M. Lunier Bellier_, bookbinder of Tours, and
exhibited on one side a miniature portrait of Henry IV., and on the
other a similar one of Louis XVIII., both perfect likenesses. The
greatest difficulty consisted in the portraits, which were first
imprinted on paper, very moist, and immediately applied to the cover,
on which they were impressed with a flat roller. When perfectly dry,
they were coloured with all the art of which the binder was capable,
and the other ornamental paintings executed by hand. This proceeding
requires great care in the execution, and will be applicable to any
design where the binding will justify the expense.


TRANSFERRED LANDSCAPES.

The art of transferring, long practised in the ornamenting of fancy
articles, was judged equally practicable for forming a superior
embellishment for the sides of books. But the varnish necessary to be
employed in the operation rendered the invention of no utility, from
the action of the heated polisher turning it white or causing it to
shell off. After several trials, this difficulty is believed to be
overcome, by the employment of a very simple and common article in
the office of the bookbinder,--viz.: _new glaire_, well beaten up. The
proceeding is as follows:--Cut the print, intended to be transferred,
close to the design on all sides. Let it steep in the glaire till it
is well saturated with it. During this time glaire the book twice,
letting it dry on each application. Take out the print, place it
exactly in the centre of the side-cover, and, laying a piece of paper
above, rub it sharply on the book, so that it may adhere very closely.
Remove the upper paper, and with the finger rub off the paper gently
until the printed design begins to appear, wetting the finger in
_glaire_ should the paper get too dry. The utmost attention will now
be necessary, for the least carelessness in removing the paper that
still remains may entirely destroy the design, and the whole of the
previous labour be lost. The paper must be gently removed, piece by
piece, till the design only appears on the leather while damp. When
dry, a white appearance will be presented, arising from the small
particles of paper adhering to the ink; but these will be sufficiently
hid on glairing the side previous to finishing. The extent and variety
to which, at a small expense, these designs may be carried, with the
finish and beauty given to the sides of books, renders the subject
worthy of the attention of the ornamental workman particularly; but
he must possess perseverance and carefulness in an eminent degree,
to carry it to perfection. After the gilding or other ornament is
executed, the side must be finished off in the usual manner. A slight
coat of the varnish described in a subsequent part of the work will,
in this case, give a superior finish.

The following directions, and that of Mr. Buchanan's, are taken from
the circulars of the Finishers' Friendly Association of London:--

"_Pictures on Calf._--We have heard of a process for transferring
prints from the paper on which they had been printed to the sides
of books bound in calf; and in these days, when _novelty_ is so much
sought after, it might be worth some Friendly's while to test its
efficacy. The side must be washed clean, and, while damp, the print is
laid thereon, when, after remaining some time in the arming-press, it
is said that a copy of the engraving will be found on the calf.

"In sending one of these executed in colours by him twenty years
ago, a Friendly corrects an error we committed, by terming _prints_
PICTURES, and writes, 'In preparing the calf, it is simply washed with
thin paste-water; when dry, a coat or two of weak salts of tartar.
When perfectly dry, you may proceed with any subject; a very weak
brown being generally used for its outline. For all colours, I use two
cups of different strengths, with _quill_-pens and brushes to each.
The green is composed of Scott's liquid blue and French berries. These
are bruised and simmered from half a pint to a quartern, then caused
to boil, and, while in that state, a pinch of burnt alum should be
added to set the colour. The slate is weak copperas; red is obtained
from Brazil dust and vinegar, or Brazil chips boiled, and solution of
tin added. The books had generally double bands--the lettering-pieces
stained chocolate, and the spaces between bands blacked, or the
colours "_moused_," morocco being too bright for the stained calf. An
octagon or square was coloured brown, slate, or sprinkled, and in the
centre a light ground. Was the subject to my fancy, botanical works
with a group of plants on the sides, when polished and pressed in
japanned tins, had the neatest appearance. Landscapes, animals,
insects, shells, &c. are all permanently fixed on the calf by the
above-named colours.' He concludes by hoping 'the instructions are
sufficiently plain to induce some aspiring F. F.'s to practise this
almost forgotten branch of the art of finishing.'

  "W. BUCHANAN."


ORNAMENTAL BLACK LINES.

Black lines in rays, or intersecting each other in the form of
diamonds or other devices, on the sides of books, which present a good
appearance if well executed, are ruled with steel or swan pens, the
nibs being formed to the size required by the boldness of the lines.
The vinegar-black mixed with a portion of gum-arabic, to neutralize a
part of the action of the acid and make it of a stronger consistency,
will be found to answer best. Whatever the pattern, it should be
slightly traced with the folder, and the design be afterwards marked
with the pen, kept steady by the aid of a ruler.


BLACKING THE SQUARES.

Unless coloured uniformly, the whole of the designs before described
will not produce the best effect if the squares remain plain or
variously tinted; it is, therefore, necessary to black the edges and
squares of the board, and the cap over the head-band. This is done
with a piece of any firm soft substance on the edges, and with a
sponge within the volume, sufficiently below the part where the
end-papers will cover. Finally, the covers should be well pastewashed
and left to dry.


BANDS AND TITLE-PIECES.

Where the backs are flat it will be necessary to mark the place
intended for the bands in gilding. For this purpose the binder should
have patterns of the various forms and sizes cut out of thin board, a
little longer and double the breadth of the volumes, so that they may
be held firmly on the sides, while the bands are marked across the
back through the apertures cut in the pattern. It is usual to give
a double band at the bottom of the back, and therefore this must be
allowed for in the pattern, which lengthened portion must be placed
even with the edge of the boards at the tail of the volume, and the
bands marked with the folder. By this plan the whole of the bands
in sets of books will present a parallel line, and the bad effect
produced by the inequalities arising from compassing the distances and
trusting to the sight will be avoided. A great saving of time is also
effected, as the patterns once made will serve for a very considerable
period.

On the fancy colours and sprinkles it is usual to attach
lettering-pieces of morocco. For this purpose the morocco, or roan if
common work, is cut lengthways of the grain, according to the space
between the bands, and the slip placed across the back to measure the
breadth, and then cut off. Then, slightly damping on the flesh-side,
it must be pared as thin and equal as possible, and the edges sloped
evenly down, so as to bring it to the exact size of the square it is
to occupy. Should the back require two pieces,--viz.: another for
the volume or contents,--it may be proper to vary the colour. These
title-pieces are pasted evenly on, a portion of paste rubbed over them
with the finger, and then attached firmly and equally by rubbing down
the edges with the folder, when the paste must be well washed off with
a clean sponge. Where economy is an object, the squares intended for
the title may be darkened with brown or black, which will show the
lettering very well.



INLAID ORNAMENTS.


To give some bindings in vellum, calf, or morocco an additional degree
of splendour, it is sometimes required to execute ornaments on
the covers of a different colour; and, as this is an important
manipulation, it will be necessary for the young workman to understand
it. Let the pattern be worked in blind upon the volume, taking care to
have it well impressed. Pare morocco of the colour desired evenly
and thin. While damp, place it upon that portion of the pattern to be
inlaid, and press upon it with the fingers. The outline of the figure
will appear through the morocco. Then lay it upon the paring-stone;
and, with the same gouges with which the pattern has been executed,
proceed to cut out the morocco. The gouges used for this kind of work
should be made of steel.

The same directions will apply to fancy titles for flat backs.

After the pieces have been properly cut out, the workman will proceed
to paste them evenly and adjust them in their place upon the volume.

When dry and prepared, the book will then be ready for gilding, and
when covered with the gold ornament the joints of the leather will not
be perceptible, if well executed. The gouges must be worked upon the
edge of the morocco.

This kind of ornament is more frequently executed on calf than any
other substance.



COLOURS.


In connection with inlaid ornament, we give a few hints to guide the
workman in choice of colours. Much of the effect produced will result
from the relations which the colours will bear to each other.
A well-executed piece of work may be spoiled by the injudicious
selection of colours. If the finisher be ignorant of the lessons which
nature teaches in the distribution of colours, he cannot expect to
please a connoisseur whose taste has been corrected and refined by a
study of the harmonies of colours.


NUMERICAL PROPORTIONS OF HOMOGENEOUS COLOURS.

_Yellow_, 3. _Red_, 5. _Blue_, 8.

  SECONDARIES.

  3 Yellow }  Orange.   {
  5 Red    }            { These are contrasting colours to the
                        {   primaries with which they produce
  5 Red    }  Purple.   {   harmony in opposition:--the orange
  8 Blue   }            {   with the blue, the purple with the
                        {   yellow, and the green with the red.
  3 Yellow }  Green.    {
  8 Blue   }            {

  TERTIARIES.

  Purple   }  Olive.    {
  Green    }            { The tertiaries stand in the same relation
                        {   to the secondaries that the secondaries
  Green    }  Citron.   {   do to the primaries:--olive to
  Orange   }            {   orange, citron to purple, and russet
                        {   to green.
  Orange   }  Russet.   {
  Purple   }            {

Yellow is melodized by orange on one side and green on the other; blue
by green and purple, and the red by purple and orange.



PASTING THE END-PAPERS, JOINTS, ETC.


The volume being laid upon the table or press, with the head towards
the workman and the upper board open, the guard or false end-paper
must be removed and all other substances cleared out of the joint with
the folder. The paper to be pasted on the board is cut at each end,
so as to show the same margin as on the fore-edge, and pasted evenly
over. It is then carefully laid upon the board. The position being
adjusted, a piece of white paper should be laid thereon, and the whole
rubbed perfectly even with the flat of the hand. Then with the folder
rub perfectly square on the joint. The volume, with the board open,
may then be turned, and the other side done in the same way.

If it is intended to execute a gilt border or blind tooling in the
interior of the cover, it will be important that no part of the
end-paper covers it. To avoid this, a slip must be cut off at the
head, tail, and on the fore-edge, proportionate to the extra breadth
of the border over the square. Or, if morocco joints have been placed
in the volume, the two corners of the portion left to be attached to
the boards must be cut, to prevent their showing above the end-paper,
which is to be pasted over and would disfigure the edge, taking care
to leave as much leather as will cover perfectly such portion as is
intended for the joint and square of the board, so that, when the
paper is pasted on, it will not be perceived that the corners have
been cut off. Pare the edge of the leather where the part is cut off
on a small board or folder placed underneath; afterwards paste the
joint on the edge of the board, attach it neatly with the thumb,
finger, and folder, and, when dry, paste thereon the marbled or
coloured paper cut to the proper size. For the best class of work the
morocco joint is placed in the volume by the finisher after the book
is covered.

If the ends are of silk, it will be necessary to leave the silk
sufficiently large to turn the edges over a piece of paper that has
been cut to the required size, and in order to preserve the gloss and
richness of the silk it should not be pasted on the paper upon which
it is placed, except where it is turned over the edge of the paper.
The paper is then lightly glued over and adjusted upon the board. This
method also prevents the silk from ravelling or presenting a jagged
edge. In all cases, however, where the border is gilt or otherwise
ornamented, below the level of the edges of the volume, the ends must
not be pasted down till after that operation is completed, as the
glaire and oil would be liable to stain, and present a bad effect.

[Illustration: STANDING-PRESS.]

For inferior bindings, where the end-papers are left plain, the last
two leaves being merely pasted together, the ends will only require
pasting, and attaching by placing the volume between boards, and
screwing firmly in the standing-press, immediately after which it must
be taken out and the boards opened, so as to make the joints free.
Almost every class of work except velvet and Turkey morocco requires
to be submitted to the action of the standing-press after the
end-papers have been pasted down, and then allowed to become perfectly
dry by leaving the boards open. Our illustration is taken from a
standing-press manufactured by W. O. Hickok, Harrisburg, Pa.

In all the departments, but especially in finishing, cleanliness is of
the utmost importance. It matters not how graceful may be the design,
how perfectly the tools may be worked; all may be spoiled by a volume
having a dirty appearance. Therefore, have every thing clean about
you,--cups, sponges, and brushes. Let your size, pastewash, and
glaire, be clean; your oil-cotton the same. Do not lay on the gold
until the preparation is dry. After the working of your tools, be
particular in cleaning off the gold, so that no portions or specks
remain that should not, for they will have the appearance of dirt. In
calf-work, especially, be careful of grease, or of any thing that will
soil the leather. In summer-time great care must be taken to protect
your work from the flies, particularly after your backs are worked
off. The little pests will eat the glaire off in places, and give the
book an unsightly appearance.


VARNISH,

AS USED IN BOOKBINDING.

The first, by the celebrated _Tingry_, is made in the following
manner:--

Put into a vessel six ounces of mastic, in drops, three ounces of
sandarac finely powdered, four ounces of coarsely-broken glass,
separated from the dust by a sieve, and thirty-two ounces of spirits
of wine, of about forty degrees. Place the vessel upon straw in
another filled with cold water; put it on the fire and let it boil,
stirring the substances together with a stick, to keep the resins from
uniting. When the whole appears well mixed, put in three ounces of
turpentine, and boil for another half-hour, when the whole must be
taken off and stirred till the varnish and the water in which it is
placed cools. Next day, filter it through a fine cotton, by which
means it will acquire the greatest degree of limpidity, and well cork
up in a bottle.

The other recipe is given by _Mons. F. Mairet_, of _Châtillon sur
Seine_, and may be prepared similar to the above. The ingredients are,
three pints of spirits of wine, of thirty-six to forty degrees, eight
ounces of sandarac, two ounces of mastic in drops, eight ounces of
shell-lac, and two ounces of Venice turpentine.

The varnish is first put on the back of the book with a camel's-hair
brush as lightly as possible. When nearly dry, it is polished with a
ball formed of fine white cotton, filled with wool, on which has been
rubbed a small quantity of olive-oil, to make it glide freely; it
must be rubbed at first lightly, and, as fast as the varnish dries and
becomes warm, more sharply. The sides are in like manner polished one
after the other.

Varnish is applied after the volume has been polished by the iron, in
order to retain the brilliancy and preserve the volume from the bad
effects produced by flies eating off the glaire. The manufactured
article now in general use is applied by a soft sponge being lightly
passed over the volumes after a small portion of varnish has been
applied to the sponge.



STAMPING.


For gilding the sides and even backs of publishers' work, or in fact
any other where a quantity of gilding is desired at little expense,
the stamping-press is brought into requisition, and by means of tools
cut for the purpose, called blocks or stamps, the design is impressed
on the side. These stamps may be made of very small pieces, and,
by having a number of them, the patterns produced may be almost
indefinite. The stamps are affixed to an iron or brass plate, called
a back or foundation-plate, upon which a piece of stout paper has been
glued. Then let the workman mark upon the plate the exact size of the
side to be stamped, marking it evenly with the compasses, so as to
justify the stamps; then strike the centre, and draw lines upon the
paper from the centre, so as to divide it into squares or to any given
part, so as to afford freedom for selection in the starting-point of
the design. For it must be manifest that if a workman starts all his
patterns from the same point, notwithstanding he may have a variety
of tools at his disposal, his patterns will exhibit a great deal
of uniformity. Let the paper be glued equally over the surface, and
proceed to form the pattern by arranging the stamps upon the plate so
as to exhibit the design. A great deal of taste can be displayed in
the formation of patterns for stamping; but, in consequence of the
public generally desiring a mass of gilt gingerbread-work, this branch
has been but little cultivated; the prevalent opinion among stampers
being that it is no matter what is put upon the side so that it is
well covered with gold. Publishers find those books that are the
most tawdrily gilt are soonest disposed of; hence, every thing is
sacrificed to a gaudy exterior. It is to be hoped that the art will be
relieved from this degraded ornamentation. Stampers themselves can
do something to purify and correct the public taste by avoiding the
unmeaning collections confusedly huddled together, so often seen upon
sides. Every remark in regard to style, design, and combination of
tools in the hand-finisher's department applies with equal force to
stamp-work; and, although the stamps used in the latter are not so
plastic as those in hand-work, still great results will be achieved;
for, notwithstanding the superiority of hand-work for artistic
expression and permanence, press-work will always maintain a prominent
position in the art, producing, as it does, striking results at a
trifling expense. After the pattern is formed, take a little paste and
touch the under side of each stamp, and place them in exact position.
After this is done and the paste has become hard, lay the stamp or
pattern thus formed upon the side of the volume, taking care to have
the same margin on the front, back, and ends. Then place the board
or side upon which the stamp is placed upon the platen or bed of
the stamping-press, leaving the volume hanging down in front of the
platen, which is then moved to the centre of the upper platen, so that
the clamps will touch the plate on both edges at the same moment; then
pull the lever so as to put a slight pressure upon the plate in order
to keep both it and the side in their proper place; then adjust the
guides to the fore-edge and head or left-hand side, and screw them
fast; throw back the lever, take out the book; examine and correct any
irregularity in the margin of the pattern by moving the guides. When
perfectly square, place a soft pasteboard under the stamp, pull down
the press, and apply heat. This will set the stamps or harden the
paste and glue in a short time, so that they will not fall off in
stamping--a great annoyance. Work for stamping does not require so
much body or preparation as if it were to be gilt by hand. Morocco can
be worked by merely being washed with urine; but it is safer to use a
coat of size, or glaire and water mixed in proportions of one of the
former to three of the latter. Grained sheep, or, as it is called,
imitation-morocco, requires more body to gild well. After the books
are ready for laying on, the gold-leaf is cut upon the cushion to the
required size, or, if the volume be large and the stamp will cover its
superficial extent, the leaf may be lifted from the gold-book by means
of a block covered with wadding or cotton lap and laid immediately
upon the side. After an oiled rag has been lightly passed over the
surface of the leather to cause the gold to adhere until it is put
under the press, examine the press to see if sufficiently heated for
the purpose. A little experience will soon determine the requisite
amount of heat as a general rule. Leather-work does not require as
hot a tool for stamping as for hand-work, while cloth or muslin-work
requires a short, quick stroke, and the press to be hotter than for
leather. In most binderies the stamping-press is heated by introducing
steam or gas through tubes perforated for the purpose; though a few
still use the heaters, which, after being heated in a furnace, are
placed in the holes of the upper platen. After the press is properly
heated, throw back the lever; take out the pasteboard from under the
stamp; regulate the degree of pressure required for the stamp; then
place the side to be stamped upon the bed-plate, holding it firmly
against the guides with the left hand, while with the right the lever
is quickly drawn to the front. This straightens the toggles and causes
a sharp impression of the stamp upon the leather; immediately
throw back the lever; take out the side, and rub off with a rag the
superfluous gold. Repeat the operation upon the other side, unless the
stamp be of an upright design; it will then be necessary to turn the
stamp in the press before operating upon the other side. Case-work or
covers that are stamped before being put upon the books are done in
the same manner, the backs being also stamped before being glued
on. The preceding cut of a stamping-press for gilding light work,
lettering, &c., is of the most approved construction, while for
large, heavy work, either gilt or stamped blind, (embossed, as it is
erroneously called,) and for cloth-work generally, the wheel-press
is best adapted. It can be worked either by hand or by power. The
fly-wheel can be kept revolving while the workman is engaged in
feeding the press. The lever is used for light work. It will be
perceived that the upper platen of this press, to which the stamp is
attached, is stationary, thereby giving great advantages in arranging
pipes for heating by gas, and also for carrying off the smoke and
unconsumed gas that would otherwise escape into the room. These
presses are manufactured by I. Adams & Co., Boston.

[Illustration: LETTERING AND GILDING PRESS, No. 1.]

[Illustration: EMBOSSING PRESS, No. 2.]

A description of the various processes to produce by stamping the rich
effects of inlaid work will be found under the head of Illuminated
Binding and that of Inlaid Ornaments. For publishers' work it is a
point of economy to have a steel-cutter that will cut out the pattern
at one blow. For this kind of work, coloured German paper is used
instead of leather for inlaying.

Thin boards are cut out with the aid of steel-cutters and the
stamping-press, and affixed to the volumes; and, after they
are covered, they are stamped in gold and blind with patterns
corresponding with the figure of the cutter. This can only be applied
where there are a large number of volumes, although single volumes may
be cut out by hand at an increase of expense.


The modernized Gothic design (Plate IX.) is intended for a side-plate,
to be worked either in gold or blank. The light floriated design
(Plate X.) is calculated to be worked in gold, and is a good
illustration of the prevailing treatment of the style for which it has
been expressly designed. The pattern upon Plate XI. is intended for
press-work, to be blank-stamped. The contrast of light and heavy
work producing a fine effect, it is well adapted for a side-stamp,
especially for cloth-work.

[Illustration:

  _9._

_Modernized Gothic._]


[Illustration:

  _10._

_Modern Floriated Design._]

[Illustration:

  _11._

_Expressly for Cloth after Holbein's Style._]

Plate XII. is a graceful design from a "Hint" of Mr. Leighton's. It is
suited for a side-stamp, to be worked in gold; and with it closes our
illustrations of design.

[Illustration:

  _12._

_From a hint of Leighton._]

To obviate a difficulty that the young finisher will experience in his
first attempts at designing, let him select a good quality of sized
paper, cut it to the required size, then fold it carefully into four
parts, and draw his pattern boldly upon one of the four corners with
a lead-pencil. After that is done, slightly damp the opposite corner,
fold the drawn portion so that it comes in contact with the damp
surface, and rub it upon the back, so as to transfer the outlines of
the drawing. When it appears with sufficient distinctness, trace it
carefully over with the pencil, and repeat the process upon the other
corners until the pattern is complete. This method insures accuracy
and expedition. In working a pattern with gouges or with intersected
lines, the same principle is applied, so as to reproduce the pattern
precisely alike at the four corners, and to save time. In this case
the paper is folded, and one impression of the tool answers for both
sides of the pattern.

Let the young finisher but feel a love for his art, make himself
familiar with the best specimens, and determine to excel; and
eventually his productions will be esteemed, his ability command the
best situations, and he will be recognised as an artist.


CUTTING-MACHINES.

For cutting paper, pamphlets, and books "out of boards," a number
of machines have been invented, and are used in many binderies,
especially in those where large quantities of "cloth-work" are bound.
They have been found to answer for this class of work very well. Some
of them operate with sufficient nicety to cut books for case-work
that are intended for gilt edges, when they are not to be scraped.
For first-class work, cut "in boards," nothing has been discovered to
supersede the old-fashioned mode of cutting with the plough and press.

[Illustration: PATENT PAPER AND BOOK TRIMMER.]

The above cut of one of these machines, from the manufactory of
I. Adams & Co., Boston, will serve to convey a general idea of its
appearance; and the names of the makers are a sufficient guarantee of
the mechanical perfection of its details.


TRANSLATION OF DATES.

Many old books have their dates printed in a manner which puzzles the
finisher, should he be required to date any so printed, which are too
thin to admit of its being done as on the title-page. The following
key is here given, as it may be found useful in such cases:--c. 100;
I[c], or D, 500; cI[c] or M, 1000; I[cc], 5000; ccI[cc],
10,000; I[ccc], 50,000, cccI[ccc], 100,000. Thus, cI[c], I[c],
CLXXXV111--1688. While on this subject, it may not be inappropriate to
notice the dating of some books printed in France during the republic
in that country. Thus, "An. XIII."--1805, that being the thirteenth
year of the republic, which commenced in 1792.



RESTORING THE BINDINGS OF OLD BOOKS.


Old bindings often look badly on account of the leather becoming dry
and cracked, or the surface of the skin having been rubbed off in
places. To obviate this, take a small quantity of paste and rub it
carefully with the finger upon the portions that require it; after it
is dry, wash the volume carefully over with a thin solution of glue
size. When dry, the volume may be varnished, and afterwards rubbed
over with a cloth in which a few drops of sweet oil have been dropped.



SUPPLYING IMPERFECTIONS IN OLD BOOKS.


It often occurs that a valuable and rare work has a leaf torn or
missing. In order to supply it, the first step will be to obtain
the use of a perfect copy as a model. Then procure paper of the same
colour as the leaf to be mended, and cut it carefully to correspond
with the torn portion. After the piece has been neatly adjusted, tip
it and the leaf, very lightly, along the edges with paste made of
rice-flour; then place a piece of tissue-paper on both sides of the
leaf, and smooth it carefully with the folder; then close the volume
and allow it to remain until perfectly dry. Then proceed to remove the
tissue-paper, and it will be found that the portions that adhere where
the joining occurs will be strong enough to secure the piece to the
leaf of the book. The letters may be then copied from the perfect copy
and traced upon the inserted piece. The general appearance will depend
upon the skill displayed in order to produce a successful imitation of
the original.



HINTS

TO BOOK-COLLECTORS.


Never write your name upon the title-page of a book.

Have your books cut as large as possible, so as to preserve the
integrity of the margin.

Do not adopt one style of binding for all your books.

Let the bindings upon your books be characteristic of the contents and
of the value of the work.

Employ Turkey morocco for large works or for books that you have in
constant use. It is the most durable material used in binding, except
Levant morocco, which is very expensive.

English coloured calf makes a beautiful covering, and bears full gilt
tooling better than morocco. The latter, if too richly charged, is apt
to look tawdry.

Let the durability and neatness of your bindings be the primary
requisites. Ornament judiciously and sparingly, rather than carelessly
or gaudily.

Poetry and sermons are not to be treated alike, either in colour or
degree of ornament to be employed.

The value of a library will be enhanced by the amount of knowledge and
taste displayed in the bindings.

Russia leather is no protection against worms, and it speedily cracks
along the joint.

Uncut books will command a higher price than those that are cropped.

To bind a book well, it should have ample time to dry after each
process.

When you receive a volume from the binder, place it upon your shelf in
such a manner that the adjoining volumes will press tightly against
it and keep it closed; or, if you lay it upon your table, place other
volumes upon it, to prevent the boards from warping, and do not, for
some time, use it near the fire.

Upon opening a volume, do not grasp the leaves tightly in your hands.
You might thereby break the back. If the book is too tight in the
back, lay it upon a flat surface, and open it by taking a few sheets
at a time, and lightly pressing upon the open leaves, going thus from
the beginning to the end, until the requisite freedom is obtained.

Use a paper-knife, or folder, to cut up the leaves of your uncut
books, so that the edges will be smooth and even; otherwise the book
will have to be cut down when it is bound.

Do not bind a newly-printed book. It is liable to set off in the
pressing.

Never destroy an original binding upon an old volume if the binding be
in tolerable condition. An old book should not be rebound, unless it
is essential to its preservation; and then it should be, as far as
possible, a restoration.

Carefully preserve old writings and autographs upon fly-leaves, unless
they are trivial. It is an act of courtesy to the former owner of a
book to place his book-plate on the end-board of the volume.

Any blank-leaves that occur in old volumes should not be removed. The
bastard or half title should always be preserved.

Have all oblong plates placed in such a manner that the inscription
under them will read from the tail to the head of the volume.

Never bind a large map with a small volume. It is liable to tear away;
and, in pressing the volume, it makes unseemly marks. Maps and plans
should be affixed to blank leaves, so as to open clear of the volume,
that the reader may have the plan and text to examine together.

It is a false economy to bind up a number of volumes together,
especially if they are of different sizes and upon different subjects.

Keep your books dry, but not too warm. Gas is injurious in a library,
especially to the gilding upon the books.

Do not place books with uncut tops where the dust will fall upon
them. It will penetrate between the leaves and mar the interior of the
volumes.

Avoid placing books with clasps or carved sides upon the shelves. They
will mark and scratch their neighbours.

Never fold down corners, or wet your fingers, when reading or turning
over the pages of a book.

Do not read a book at table. Crumbs are apt to penetrate into the
back-fold of the leaves.

Books are not intended for card-racks or for receptacles of botanical
specimens.

Never leave a book open, face downward, under the pretext of keeping
the place. If it remain long in that condition, it will probably ever
afterwards jump open at that place.

Never pull books out of the shelves by the head-bands, or suffer them
to stand long upon the fore-edge.

Books should not be toasted before a fire or be converted into
cushions to sit upon.

Saturate a rag with camphor, and, when dry, occasionally wipe the dust
from your books with it, and you will not be annoyed with book-worms.

Treat books gently; for "books are kind friends. We benefit by their
advice, and they exact no confessions."



+Technical Terms+

USED IN

BOOKBINDING.


    _All-Along._--When a volume is sewed, and the thread passes
    from kettle-stitch to kettle-stitch, or from end to end in
    each sheet, it is said to be sewed all-along.

    _Asterisk._--A sign used by the printers at the bottom of the
    front page of the duplicate-leaves printed to supply the place
    of those cancelled.


    _Backing-Boards._--Are used for backing or forming the joint.
    They are made of very hard wood or faced with iron, and are
    thicker on the edge intended to form the groove than upon the
    edge that goes towards the fore-edge, so that the whole power
    of the laying-press may be directed towards the back.

    _Backing-Hammer._--The hammer used for backing and rounding:
    it has a broad, flat face, similar to a shoemaker's hammer.

    _Bands._--The twines whereon the sheets of a volume are sewn.
    When the book is sewed flexible the bands appear upon the
    back. When the back is sawn so as to let in the twine, the
    appearance of raised bands is produced by glueing narrow
    strips of leather across the back before the volume is
    covered.

    _Band-Driver._--A tool used in forwarding to correct
    irregularities in the bands of flexible backs.

    _Bead._--The little roll formed by the knot of the headband.

    _Bleed._--When a book is cut into the print it is said to
    bleed.

    _Bevelled Boards._--Very heavy boards for the sides champered
    around the edges.

    _Blind-Tooled._--When the tools are impressed upon the
    leather, without being gilt, they are said to be blind or
    blank.

    _Boards._--Are of various kinds, such as pressing, backing,
    cutting, burnishing, gilding, &c. The pasteboards used for
    side-covers are termed boards. The boards used for cutting
    books "out of boards" are called steamboat-boards. Tinned
    boards are used for finished work; while brass or iron-bound
    boards are used for pressing cloth-work.

    _Bodkin or Stabbing-Awl._--A strong point of iron or steel,
    fixed on a wooden handle, to form the holes in the boards
    required to lace in the bands. Used also for tracing the lines
    for cutting the fore-edge.

    _Bole._--A preparation used in gilding edges.

    _Bolt._--The fold in the head and fore-edge of the sheets.
    Also the small bar with a screw used to secure the knife to
    the plough.

    _Bosses._--Brass plates attached to the sides of volumes for
    their preservation.

    _Broke up._--When plates are turned over and folded at a short
    distance from the back-edge, before they are placed so as to
    enable them to turn easily in the volume, they are said to be
    broke up. The same process is sometimes applied to the entire
    volume.

    _Burnish._--The effect produced by the application of the
    burnisher to the edges.

    _Burnishers._--Are pieces of agate or bloodstone affixed to
    handles.


    _Cancels._--Leaves containing errors which are to be cut out
    and replaced with corrected pages.

    _Caps._--The leather covering of the headband. Applies also to
    the paper envelopes used to protect the edges while the volume
    is being covered and finished.

    _Case-Work._--Work in which the boards are covered and
    stamped. The volume is then glued upon the back and stuck into
    them.

    _Catch-Word._--A word met with in early-printed books at the
    bottom of the page, which word is the first on the following
    page. Now used to denote the first and last word in an
    encyclopædia or other book of reference.

    _Centre-Tools._--Are single, upright, or independent tools
    used for the middle of the panels by the finisher.

    _Clearing Out._--Removing the waste-paper and paring away any
    superfluous leather upon the inside, preparatory to pasting
    down the lining-paper.

    _Collating._--Examining the signatures, after the volume
    is gathered, to ascertain if they be correct and follow in
    numerical order.

    _Corners._--The triangular brass tools used in finishing backs
    and sides. The gilt ornaments used on velvet books. Also, the
    leather pasted on the corners of half-bound books.

    _Creaser._--The tool used in marking each side of the bands,
    generally made of steel.

    _Cropped._--When a book has been cut down too much it is said
    to be cropped.


    _Dentelle._--A fine tooled border resembling lace-work.


    _Edge-Rolled._--When the edges of the boards are rolled. It
    may be either in gold or blind.

    _Embossed._--When a plate is stamped upon the cover so as to
    present a raised figure or design, it is said to be embossed.
    Some inappropriately term this kind of work Arabesque.

    _End-Papers._--The paper placed at each end of the volume, a
    portion of which is removed when the lining-paper is pasted
    down upon the boards. Also called Waste-Papers.


    _Fillet._--The cylindrical ornament used in finishing upon
    which simple lines are engraved.

    _Finishing._--Is that department that receives the volumes
    after they are put in leather, and ornaments them as required.
    One who works at this branch is termed a finisher.

    _Finishers' Press._--Is the same as a laying-press, only much
    smaller.

    _Flexible._--When a book is sewn on raised bands and the
    thread is passed entirely round each band.

    _Folder._--This is a flat piece of bone or ivory used in
    folding the sheets and in many other manipulations. Also
    applied to a female engaged in folding sheets.

    _Fore-Edge._--The front edge of the book.

    _Foundation-Plate._--A plate of iron or brass upon which
    side-stamps are affixed.

    _Forwarding._--Is that branch that takes the books after they
    are sewed and advances them until they are put in leather
    ready for the finisher. One who works at this branch is termed
    a forwarder.

    _Full-Bound._--When the sides of a volume are entirely covered
    with leather, it is said to be full-bound.


    _Gathering._--The process of arranging the sheets according to
    the signatures.

    _Gauge._--Used in forwarding to take the correct size of the
    volume and to mark it upon the boards for squaring.

    _Gilt._--Is applied to both the edges and to the ornaments in
    finishing.

    _Glaire._--The whites of eggs.

    _Grater._--An iron instrument used by the forwarder for
    rubbing the backs after they are paste-washed.

    _Gouge._--A tool used in finishing, the face of which is a
    line forming the segment of a circle.

    _Guards._--Strips of paper inserted in the backs of books
    intended for the insertion of plates, to prevent the book
    being uneven when filled; also the strips upon which plates
    are mounted.

    _Guides._--The groove in which the plough moves upon the face
    of the cutting-press.


    _Half-Bound._--When a volume is covered with leather upon
    the back and corners, and the sides are covered with paper or
    cloth.

    _Hand-Letters._--Letters cut and affixed to handles, and
    adjusted singly upon the volume when lettering it.

    _Head and Tail._--The top and bottom of a book.

    _Headband._--The silk or cotton ornament worked at the ends so
    as to make the back even with the squares.


    _Imperfections._--Sheets rejected on account of being in some
    respect imperfect, and for which others are required to make
    the work complete.

    _In Boards._--When a volume is cut after the pasteboards are
    affixed to form the sides, it is said to be cut in boards. The
    term is also applied to a style of binding in which the boards
    are merely covered with paper.

    _Inset._--The pages cut off in folding and placed in the
    middle of the sheet.

    _Inside Tins._--So called from being placed inside of the
    boards when the volume is put in the standing-press.


    _Joints._--The projections formed in backing to admit the
    boards; applied also to the inside when the volume is covered.

    _Justification._--The observance that the pages of a volume
    agree and are parallel throughout, so as to insure a straight
    and equal margin.


    _Kettle-Stitch._--The stitch which the sewer makes at the head
    and tail of a book; said to be a corruption of chain-stitch.

    _Keys._--The little instruments used to secure the bands to
    the sewing-press.

    _Knocking-Down Iron_.-- So called from having the slips, when
    laced in, pounded down upon it, so that they will not show
    when the book is covered.


    _Laced In._--When the boards are affixed to the volume by
    means of the bands being passed through holes made in the
    boards, they are said to be laced in.

    _Lettering-Block._--A piece of wood, the upper surface being
    rounded, upon which side-labels are lettered.

    _Lettering-Box._--The box in which the type are screwed up
    preparatory to lettering.

    _Lining-Paper._--The coloured or marbled paper at each end of
    the volume.

    _Marbler._--The workman who marbles the edges of books, &c.

    _Mitred._--When the lines in finishing intersect each other at
    right angles and are continued without overrunning each other,
    they are said to be mitred.


    _Out of Boards._--When a volume is cut before the boards are
    affixed, it is said to be done out of boards.

    _Overcasting._--An operation in sewing, when the work consists
    of single leaves or plates.


    _Pallet._--Name given to the tools used in gilding upon the
    bands, sometimes applied to the lettering-box.

    _Panel._--The space between bands; also applied to bevelled
    and sunk sides.

    _Papering Up._--Covering the edges after they are gilt, so
    as to protect them while the volume is being covered and
    finished.

    _Paring._--Reducing the edges of the leather by forming a
    gradual slope.

    _Pastewash._--A thin dilution of paste in water.

    _Pencil._--A small brush of camel's hair.

    _Pieced._--When the space between bands, upon which the
    lettering is placed, has a piece of leather upon it different
    from the back, it is said to be pieced or titled.

    _Plough._--The instrument used in cutting the edges of books
    and pasteboards.

    _Points._--Holes made in the sheets by the printer; they serve
    as guides in folding.

    _Polisher._--A steel implement used in finishing.

    _Press._--There are various kinds of presses,--viz.: laying
    or cutting, standing, stamping, embossing, gilding, and
    finishing.


    _Rake._--An instrument used in forwarding, to harden the backs
    while being pastewashed in the standing-press.

    _Rasped._--The sharp edge taken off the boards.

    _Register._--The ribbon placed in a volume for a marker; also
    a list of signatures, attached to the end of early-printed
    works, for the use of the binder.

    _Rolls._--The cylindrical ornaments used in finishing.

    _Run Up._--When the back has a fillet run from head to tail
    without being mitred at each band, it is said to be run up.

    _Runner._--The front board used in cutting edges, &c.


    _Sewer._--The person who sews the sheets together on the
    sewing-press--generally a female.

    _Set-Off._--Designates the transfer of the ink to the opposite
    page.

    _Setting the Head._--Is covering the headband neatly with the
    leather, so as to form a kind of cap.

    _Shaving-Tub._--The paper cut from the edges of a volume are
    called shavings. The receptacle into which they fall while the
    forwarder is cutting the edges is termed the shaving-tub.

    _Signature._--The letter or figure under the footline of the
    first page of each sheet to indicate the order of arrangement
    in the volume; sometimes applied to the sheet itself.

    _Size._--A preparation used in finishing and gilding,
    generally made from vellum.

    _Slips._--The pieces of twine that project beyond the volume
    after it is sewn.

    _Squares._--The portions of the board that project over the
    edges.

    _Stabbing._--The operation of piercing the boards with a
    bodkin for the slips to pass through; also the piercing of
    pamphlets for the purpose of stitching.

    _Stamps._--The brass tools used in finishing to impress a
    figure upon the leather; they are distinguished by hand-stamps
    and stamps for the press.

    _Start._--When any of the leaves are not properly secured in
    the back, upon opening the volume they will project beyond the
    others, and are said to start.

    _Steamboating._--Cutting books out of boards, a number being
    cut at the same time.

    _Stitching._--The operation of passing the thread through a
    pamphlet for the purpose of securing the sheets together.

    _Stops._--Are small circular tools, adapted to stop a fillet
    when it intersects at right angles, to save the time used in
    mitreing.


    _Title._--The space between bands, upon which the lettering is
    placed.

    _Tools._--Applied particularly to the hand-stamps and tools
    used in finishing.

    _Trindle._--A strip of thin wood or iron.

    _Turning Up._--The process of cutting the fore-edges in such a
    manner as to throw the round out of the back until the edge is
    cut.

    _Tying Up._--The tying of a volume after the cover has been
    drawn on, so as to make the leather adhere to the sides of the
    bands; also for setting the head.


    _Whipping._--The process of overseaming plates.

    _Witness._--When a volume is cut so as to show that it has
    not been cut as small as some of the leaves, their uncut edges
    prove this, and are called witness and sometimes proof.

    _Wrinkle._--The uneven surfaces in a volume, caused by not
    being properly pressed or by dampness, also caused by improper
    backing.



INDEX.


  Affixing the stamps, 279, 280.

  Agatine marble, on leather, 249.

  Aldine, 198.

  Aldus, 198.

  Anonay paper, 150.

  Antique, 231.

    bands, 147.

    marble, 117.

    Dutch, 123.

  Arabesque, 210.

  Assyrian, 179.

  Aqua Regia, 237.


  Backing-machine, 173.

  Backs, flexible, 54, 55.

    India-rubber, 58.

  Backing books, 43.

  Bands, in finishing, 269.

  Bands, raised, 53, 54.

    parchment, 57.

  Baumgarten, 20.

  Beating, 41, 42.

  Beating-hammer, 42.

  Beckford, 206.

  Bedford, 28.

  Benedict, 20.

  Bible, chained in churches, 16.

  Bibliographical Decameron, 14, 26, 135.

  Bindings of Corvinus, 14.

    of Henry VII., 16.

    of Henry VIII., 17.

    of Elizabeth, 17.

    of Grolier, 17.

    of Maioli, 18.

    of Diana of Poictiers, 18.

    of Henry II., 18.

    of De Thou, 19.

    of the Chevalier D'Eon, 19.

    of Oxford, 20.

    of Mackinlay, 21.

    of Roger Payne, 21-23.

    of Mackenzie, 28.

    of Charles Lewis, 28.

    of Clarke, 28.

    of Riviere, 28.

    of Bedford, 28.

    of Hayday, 28.

    of Napoleon, 30.

    of Lortic, 31.

    of Duru, 32.

    of Niédré, 32.

  Bindings of Bauzonnet, 32, 142.

  Black, for marbling, 85, 91.

    edges, 136.

    ink, 156, 157.

    for blank-work, 165.

    for marbling leather, 241.

    for leather, 259.

    lines, 268.

  Blacking the squares, 268.

  Blank binding, 151.

  Bleeding, 68.

  Blind tooling, 230.

  Block-finishing, 279.

  Blue, for edges, 78.

    for marbling, 85, 89, 90, 105.

    ink, 156.

    for marbling leather, 242.

    uniform colour for leather, 258.

  Blue agate marble on leather, 249.

    Stormont marble, 105.

  Boards, mode of making, 65.

    squaring, 66.

  Boarding, blank-work, 160.

    printed work, 169.

  Box marble, on leather, 253.

  British marble, 119.

  Brown, for edges, 79.

    for marbling, 86, 91.

    for marbling leather, 241, 242.

    uniform colour for leather, 257.

  Burnt ochre, 88.

  Burnishing, 126, 129, 133.

  Byzantine, 181.


  Cambridge, 208.

    binding, 19.

  Cancels, 40.

  Caoutchouc, 58.

  Capé, 31, 32.

  Carved oak boards, description of, 12, 211.

    precious stones let into, 14.

  Case-work, stamping, 283.

  Cedar sprinkle, on leather, 253.

  Chemical preparations, 237.

  Chinese blue, 89.

  Chrome, 90.

  Clarke, 28.

  Clasps, 167.

  Cleanliness, 276.

  Cloth-work, 170.

  Collating, 39.

    description of, 39, 40.

  Coleridge, 190.

  Colours, for edges, 74-82.

    for marbling, 84.

    grinding, 98.

    uniform, for leather, 256.

    harmony of, 272.

  Colouring, for leather, 236.

  Comb marble, 115.

  Combs, for marbling, 127.

  Corners, 167.

  Corvinus, library of, 14.

  Covering, 141.

    blank-work, 163.

  Cropping, 67.

  Curl marble, 109.

  Cutting in boards, 72.

  Cutting-machines, 288.


  Dawson, 20.

  Derome, 18, 19, 67.

  De Seuil, 18, 19.

  Design, 186.

  Designing, 286.

  De Thou, bindings of, 19.

  Dibdin, his account of the library of Corvinus, 14.

    of Roger Payne, 26, 191, 195.

  Diptych, description of, 11.

  Drag Spanish marble, 114.

  Drop ivory black, 91.

  Drop lake, 86.

  Duru, 31, 32.

  Dutch marble, 120.

  Dutch pink, 90.


  Edges, colouring and sprinkling, 74.

    colours for, 74-79.

    blue, 78.

    yellow, 78.

    green, 78.

    orange, 78.

    red, 78.

    purple, 79.

    brown, 79.

    black, 136.

    rice marbled, 80.

    white spotted, 80.

    fancy marbled, 81.

    gold sprinkle, 81.

    marbled, 82, 125.

    burnishing, 126, 129.

    gilt, 130.

    antique, 134.

    gold upon marble, 135.

    black, 136.

  Edge-gilding, 130.

    antique, 134.

    on marble, 135.

    on landscapes, 135.

  Eighteenmo, 36.

  Elizabethan, 184.

  End-papers, 59, 60, 273.

  Etruscan, 180.

  Eyton, J. W. King, binding belonging to, 28, 29.


  Fair agate marble, on leather, 249.

  Falkner, 28.

  Fancy titles, 221, 271.

  Fawn, colour for leather, 244.

  Finishing, blank-work, 168.

  Finisher's standing press, 275.

  Flea-seed, 94.

  Flexible, mode of sewing, 53.

    marking off, 54, 55.

  Folding, 35.

    blank-work, 157.

  Folio, 36.

  Font Hill, 150, 205.

  Forwarding, job-work, mode of operation, 59.

    making end-papers, 60.

    putting in joints, 61.

    glueing up, rounding, 62.

    backing, 63, 64.

    cutting, 65, 70.

    making boards, 65.

    squaring, 66.

    lacing in, 68.

    pastewashing back, 69.

    cutting round, 71.

    turning up, 73.

  Foundation-plate, 279.


  Gilding, preparations for, 216.

    the back, 217.

    the squares, 223.

    the sides, 224.

    on silk and velvet, 225.

  Gilt edges, 130.

    upon marbled, 135.

  Glaire, for marbling leather, 240.

  Gold marble on leather, 260.

  Gold sprinkle, 81.

  Gothic, 183.

  Grafton, the printer, 16.

  Grained sheep, 282.

  Graining, 231.

  Grolier, bindings of, 17.

    style, 212.

  Green, for edges, 78.

    for blank-work, 164.

    for leather, 244.

    uniform colour for leather, 258.

    agate marble on leather, 249.

    Italian marble, 106.

    porphyry marble on leather, 250.

  Greek, 180.

  Gum, 92.

    directions for preparing for marbling, 93.

  Guards, sewing on, 53, 56.

    mode of mounting, 56.

  Gum-sandarac, 226.


  Harleian, 202.

  Harmony of colours, 272.

  Half-binding, 149.

  Hayday, 28, 29, 232.

  Headbands, 137.

    single, 138.

    double, 140.

    gold and silver, 140.

    ribbon, 141.

  Heat, degree required for stamping, 282.

  Hints to book-collectors, 291.

  Henry VII., time of, 16.

    VIII., bindings of, 17.

  Hering, 28.

  Holbein, 213.

  Hydraulic press, 45.


  Illuminated binding, 227.

  Imperfections in old books, 290.

  Indigo, 89.

  Inlaid work, 229.

    ornaments, 270.

  Irish moss, 94.

  Italian marble, 106.


  Janseniste, 208.

  Joint, mode of forming, 63.

  Joints, inside, 273.


  Kalth[oe]ber, 20.

  Kettle-stitch, 51, 53, 55.

  Keys for securing bands on sewing-bench, 49.

    detaching, 57.


  Lacing in, 68.

  Landscapes on sides, 263.

    transferred, 264.

  Lapis Lazuli marble on leather, 261.

  Lay on, 218.

  Leland's Itinerary, 14.

  Lettering-press, 283.

  Levant marble on leather, 249.

  Levant morocco, 31, 142.

  Lewis, Charles, 28.

  Light Italian marble, 106.

  Lilac, for leather, 243.

  Lining-papers, mode of making, 60.

  Linseed, 94.

  Lortic, 31, 32.

  Louis Quatorze, 184.


  Mackenzie, 28.

  Mackinlay, John, 20.

    bindings of, 21.

  Mahogany sprinkle on leather, 252.

  Maiolo, 17.

  Malacca tin, 238.

  Marbling on leather, 246-254.

    on paper sides, 254.

  Marbling-water for leather, 240.

  Marbled cloth, 127.

  Marbled edges, 125.

    gilt upon, 135.

  Making cases, 174.

  Missals, antiquity of, 10.

  Mitreing, 219.

  Modernized monastic, 231.

  Montague, 201.

  Moorish, 182.


  Niédré, 31, 32.

  Nonpareil, 115.

    raked, 116.

    reversed, 116.

  Numerical proportions of colours, 272.

  Nutmeg sprinkle on leather, 255.


  Oak boards, 15, 211.

  Octavo, 36.

  Old bindings, 289.

  Olive, for leather, 258.

  Orange, for edges, 78.

    for marbling, 86, 91.

    for leather, 244.

  Orange lead, 91.

  Ornamental art, 178.

  Oxford, bindings of, 20.

  Oxford ochre, 88.

  Ox-gall, 96.


  Padeloup, 18.

  Paging-machine, 154.

  Paper and book trimmer, 288.

  Paring-knife, 149.

  Pasting down, 273.

  Payne, Roger, history of, 21.

    his bindings, 23.

    bill of, 25.

    his favourite colour, 26.

  Pearl-gray for leather, 258.

  Petit, Bernard, bindings designed by, 18.

  Phillatius the Athenian, 9.

  Pictures on calf, 266.

  Pickering, 200.

  Plates, mode of sewing, 53.

  Polishing, 234.

  Porphyry marble on leather, 251.

  Porphyry vein marble on leather, 251.

  Preparations for marbling, 96.

    chemical, 237.

    for stamping, 281.

    for gilding, 216.

    for marbling leather, 240.

  Press-work, 279.

  Primary colours, 272.

  Prints on calf, 266.

  Progress of the art, 10, 33.

  Prussian blue, 90.

  Purple, for edges, 79.

    for blank-work, 165.

    for leather, 243.

    marble on leather, 248.


  Quarto, 36.


  Raw ochre, 90.

  Red, for edges, 78.

    for marbling, 85-88.

    ink, 156.

    for blank-work, 164.

    for leather, 245.

  Red porphyry marble on leather, 250.

  Register, 137.

  Renaissance, 183.

  Restoring old bindings, 289.

  Revival, 183.

  Rock marble on leather, 252.

  Rolling-machine, substitute for beating; mode of operation;
          advantages and disadvantages of, 43, 44.

  Roman, 181.

  Rose-pink, 87.

  Rounding, 62.

  Rice marble, 80.

  Ring sprinkle on leather, 255.

  Riviere, 28.

  Ruling, 152.

  Run up, 220.

  Russian bands, 165.


  Sawing, 48, 49.

  Sawing-machine, 171.

  Scraping, 132.

  Secondary colours, 272.

  Setting the head, 145.

    the stamp, 281.

  Set off, 42, 43.

  Sewing, process of, 49, 50.

    two sheets on, 50.

    all along; quartos; plates or maps, 52.

    whipping, sewing on guards, 53.

    on raised bands; pure flexible, 54, 55, 56.

    blank-work, 159.

  Sewing-bench, 49, 50.

  Shell marble, 100, 103, 104.

  Sheriffs of Shropshire, 28.

  Sheet-work, 35.

  Silk lining, 274.

  Sixteenmo, 36.

  Sizing the paper, 127.

  Slate, uniform colour for leather, 259.

  Smasher, substitute for beating, 44.

    mode of operation; amount of pressure; advantage of, 45.

  Spanish marble, 110.

    olive, 111.

    blue, 112.

    brown, 112.

    fancy, 113.

    drag, 114.

  Spring-back, blank-work, 161.

  Sprinkles, 255, 256.

  Sprinkling, mode of, 75, 76.

    colours for, 74.

    rice-marble, 80.

    white spot, 80.

    gold sprinkle, 81.

  Staggemier, 20.

  Stamping, 279.

  Steamboating, 172.

  Stabbing, 68.

  Steel gouges, 271.

  Stone marble, on leather, 248.

  Sunk boards, 285.

  Supplying imperfections in old books, 290.


  Table-shears, 175.

  Taste, 186.

  Technical terms, 297-310.

  Tertiary colours, 272.

  Thirty-twomo, 36.

  Thouvenin, bindings of, 30.

  Titles, 269.

    fancy, 271.

  Tortoise-shell sprinkle on leather, 256.

  To dissolve gold, 237.

  Transfers, 264, 266.

  Transferring designs, 286.

  Translation of dates, 289.

  Trautz et Bauzonnet, 31, 32, 142.

  Tree-marbled calf, 28, 252.

  Troughs for marbling, 100.

  Turning up, 73.

  Twelvemo, 36, 37.

  Twenty-fourmo, 36.

  Tying up, 146.


  Ultramarine, 89.

  Umber, 91.

  Uncut books, 151.

  Uniform colours on leather, 256-259.


  Variegated marble, on leather, 254.

  Varnish, 277.

  Vegetable black, 91.

  Vermilion, 87.

  Violet for leather, 243.

  Vitriol-water for marbling leather, 240.


  Wainscot sprinkle on leather, 254.

  Walnut sprinkle on leather, 253.

  Walther, 28.

  Water for marbling, 96.

  Wave-marble, 118.

  Wax for marbling, 99.

  West-End marble, 107, 108.

  Whipping, 53.

  White for marbling, 86, 91.

  White-spotted edges, 80.

  Wood-lake, 88.


  Yellow for edges, 78.

    for marbling, 85.

    for blank-work, 165.

    for leather, 244.


THE END.

  STEREOTYPED BY L. JOHNSON AND CO.
  PHILADELPHIA.


       *       *       *       *       *



  CATALOGUE
  OF
  PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS,
  PUBLISHED BY
  HENRY CAREY BAIRD & CO.,
  Industrial Publishers and Booksellers,
  NO. 810 WALNUT STREET,
  PHILADELPHIA.

       *       *       *       *       *

[right-pointing hand] Any of the Books comprised in this Catalogue
will be sent by mail, free of postage, at the publication price.

[right-pointing hand] A Descriptive Catalogue, 96 pages, 8vo., will be
sent, free of postage, to any one who will furnish the publisher with
his address.

       *       *       *       *       *


  ARLOT.--A Complete Guide for Coach Painters.

    Translated from the French of M. ARLOT, Coach Painter; for
    eleven years Foreman of Painting to M. Eherler, Coach Maker,
    Paris. By A. A. FESQUET, Chemist and Engineer. To which is
    added an Appendix, containing Information respecting the
    Materials and the Practice of Coach and Car Painting and
    Varnishing in the United States and Great Britain. 12mo.     $1.25


  ARMENGAUD, AMOROUX, and JOHNSON.--The Practical Draughtsman's
    Book of Industrial Design, and Machinist's and Engineer's
    Drawing Companion:

    Forming a Complete Course of Mechanical Engineering and
    Architectural Drawing. From the French of M. Armengaud the
    elder, Prof. of Design in the Conservatoire of Arts and
    Industry, Paris, and MM. Armengaud the younger, and Amoroux,
    Civil Engineers. Rewritten and arranged with additional matter
    and plates, selections from and examples of the most useful
    and generally employed mechanism of the day. By WILLIAM
    JOHNSON, Assoc. Inst. C. E., Editor of "The Practical
    Mechanic's Journal." Illustrated by 50 folio steel plates, and
    50 wood-cuts. A new edition, 4to.                           $10.00


  ARROWSMITH.--Paper-Hanger's Companion:

    A Treatise in which the Practical Operations of the Trade are
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  ASHTON.--The Theory and Practice of the Art of Designing Fancy
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    Giving full Instructions for Reducing Drafts, as well as the
    Methods of Spooling and Making out Harness for Cross Drafts,
    and Finding any Required Reed, with Calculations and Tables of
    Yarn. By FREDERICK T. ASHTON, Designer, West Pittsfield, Mass.
    With 52 Illustrations. One volume, 4to.                     $10.00


  BAIRD.--Letters on the Crisis, the Currency and the Credit
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    By HENRY CAREY BAIRD. Pamphlet.                                 05


  BAIRD.--Protection of Home Labor and Home Productions
    necessary to the Prosperity of the American Farmer.

    By HENRY CAREY BAIRD. 8vo., paper.                              10


  BAIRD.--Some of the Fallacies of British Free-Trade Revenue
    Reform.

    Two Letters to Arthur Latham Perry, Professor of History and
    Political Economy in Williams College. By HENRY CAREY BAIRD.
    Pamphlet.                                                       05


  BAIRD.--The Rights of American Producers, and the Wrongs of
    British Free-Trade Revenue Reform.

    By HENRY CAREY BAIRD. Pamphlet.                                 05


  BAIRD.--Standard Wages Computing Tables:

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  BAIRD.--The American Cotton Spinner, and Manager's and
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    and Speed of Machinery, Draught and Twist Calculations, etc.;
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    and Yarn. Compiled from the papers of the late ROBERT H.
    BAIRD. 12mo.                                                 $1.50


  BAKER.--Long-Span Railway Bridges:

    Comprising Investigations of the Comparative Theoretical and
    Practical Advantages of the various Adopted or Proposed Type
    Systems of Construction; with numerous Formulæ and Tables. By
    B. BAKER. 12mo.                                              $2.00


  BAUERMAN.--A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron:

    Containing Outlines of the History of Iron Manufacture,
    Methods of Assay, and Analysis of Iron Ores, Processes of
    Manufacture of Iron and Steel, etc., etc. By H. BAUERMAN, F.
    G. S., Associate of the Royal School of Mines. First American
    Edition, Revised and Enlarged. With an Appendix on the Martin
    Process for Making Steel, from the Report of ABRAM S. HEWITT,
    U. S. Commissioner to the Universal Exposition at Paris, 1867.
    Illustrated. 12mo.                                           $2.00


  BEANS.--A Treatise on Railway Curves and the Location of
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    By E. W. BEANS, C. E. Illustrated. 12mo. Tucks.              $1.50


  BELL.--Carpentry Made Easy:

    Or, The Science and Art of Framing on a New and Improved
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    etc. Comprising also a System of Bridge Building, with Bills,
    Estimates of Cost, and valuable Tables. Illustrated by 38
    plates, comprising nearly 200 figures. By WILLIAM E. BELL,
    Architect and Practical Builder. 8vo.                        $5.00


  BELL.--Chemical Phenomena of Iron Smelting:

    An Experimental and Practical Examination of the Circumstances
    which determine the Capacity of the Blast Furnace, the
    Temperature of the Air, and the proper Condition of
    the Materials to be operated upon. By I. LOWTHIAN BELL.
    Illustrated. 8vo.                                            $6.00


  BEMROSE.--Manual of Wood Carving:

    With Practical Illustrations for Learners of the Art, and
    Original and Selected Designs. By WILLIAM BEMROSE, Jr. With
    an Introduction by LLEWELLYN JEWITT, F. S. A., etc. With 128
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  BICKNELL.--Village Builder, and Supplement:

    Elevations and Plans for Cottages, Villas, Suburban
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    Fronts, School Houses, Churches, Court Houses, and a model
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    Specifications, including Prices of Building Materials and
    Labor at Boston, Mass., and St. Louis, Mo. Containing 75
    plates drawn to scale; showing the style and cost of building
    in different sections of the country, being an original
    work comprising the designs of twenty leading architects,
    representing the New England, Middle, Western, and
    Southwestern States. 4to.                                   $12.00


  BLENKARN.--Practical Specifications of Works executed in
    Architecture, Civil and Mechanical Engineering, and in Road
    Making and Sewering:

    To which are added a series of practically useful Agreements
    and Reports. By JOHN BLENKARN. Illustrated by 15 large folding
    plates. 8vo.                                                 $9.00


  BLINN.--A Practical Workshop Companion for Tin, Sheet-Iron,
    and Copperplate Workers:

    Containing Rules for describing various kinds of Patterns
    used by Tin, Sheet-Iron, and Copper-plate Workers; Practical
    Geometry; Mensuration of Surfaces and Solids; Tables of
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    Circumferences of Circles; Japan, Varnishes, Lackers, Cements,
    Compositions, etc., etc. By LEROY J. BLINN, Master Mechanic.
    With over 100 Illustrations. 12mo.                           $2.50


  BOOTH.--Marble Worker's Manual:

    Containing Practical Information respecting Marbles in
    general, their Cutting, Working, and Polishing; Veneering of
    Marble; Mosaics; Composition and Use of Artificial Marble,
    Stuccos, Cements, Receipts, Secrets, etc., etc. Translated
    from the French by M. L. BOOTH. With an Appendix concerning
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  BOOTH AND MORFIT.--The Encyclopedia of Chemistry, Practical
    and Theoretical:

    Embracing its application to the Arts, Metallurgy, Mineralogy,
    Geology, Medicine, and Pharmacy. By JAMES C. BOOTH, Melter
    and Refiner in the United States Mint, Professor of Applied
    Chemistry in the Franklin Institute, etc., assisted by
    CAMPBELL MORFIT, author of "Chemical Manipulations," etc.
    Seventh edition. Royal 8vo., 978 pages, with numerous
    wood-cuts and other illustrations.                           $5.00


  BOX.--A Practical Treatise on Heat:

    As applied to the Useful Arts; for the Use of Engineers,
    Architects, etc. By THOMAS BOX, author of "Practical
    Hydraulics." Illustrated by 14 plates containing 114 figures.
    12mo.                                                        $4.25


  BOX.--Practical Hydraulics:

    A Series of Rules and Tables for the use of Engineers, etc. By
    THOMAS BOX. 12mo.                                            $2.50


  BROWN.--Five Hundred and Seven Mechanical Movements:

    Embracing all those which are most important in Dynamics,
    Hydraulics, Hydrostatics, Pneumatics, Steam Engines, Mill and
    other Gearing, Presses, Horology, and Miscellaneous Machinery;
    and including many movements never before published, and
    several of which have only recently come into use. By HENRY T.
    BROWN, Editor of the "American Artisan." In one volume, 12mo.
                                                                 $1.00


  BUCKMASTER.--The Elements of Mechanical Physics:

    By J. C. BUCKMASTER, late Student in the Government School
    of Mines; Certified Teacher of Science by the Department of
    Science and Art; Examiner in Chemistry and Physics in the
    Royal College of Preceptors; and late Lecturer in Chemistry
    and Physics of the Royal Polytechnic Institute. Illustrated
    with numerous engravings. In one volume, 12mo.               $1.50


  BULLOCK.--The American Cottage Builder:

    A Series of Designs, Plans, and Specifications, from $200
    to $20,000, for Homes for the People; together with Warming,
    Ventilation, Drainage, Painting, and Landscape Gardening.
    By JOHN BULLOCK, Architect, Civil Engineer, Mechanician, and
    Editor of "The Rudiments of Architecture and Building," etc.,
    etc. Illustrated by 75 engravings. In one volume, 8vo.       $3.50


  BULLOCK.--The Rudiments of Architecture and Building:

    For the use of Architects, Builders, Draughtsmen, Machinists,
    Engineers, and Mechanics. Edited by JOHN BULLOCK, author of
    "The American Cottage Builder." Illustrated by 250 engravings.
    In one volume, 8vo.                                          $3.50


  BURGH.--Practical Illustrations of Land and Marine Engines:

    Showing in detail the Modern Improvements of High and Low
    Pressure, Surface Condensation, and Super-heating, together
    with Land and Marine Boilers. By N. P. BURGH, Engineer.
    Illustrated by 20 plates, double elephant folio, with text. $21.00


  BURGH.--Practical Rules for the Proportions of Modern Engines
    and Boilers for Land and Marine Purposes.

    By N. P. BURGH, Engineer. 12mo.                              $1.50


  BURGH.--The Slide-Valve Practically Considered.

    By N. P. BURGH, Engineer. Completely illustrated. 12mo.      $2.00


  BYLES.--Sophisms of Free Trade and Popular Political Economy
    Examined.

    By a BARRISTER (Sir JOHN BARNARD BYLES, Judge of Common
    Pleas). First American from the Ninth English Edition, as
    published by the Manchester Reciprocity Association. In one
    volume, 12mo. Paper, 75 cts. Cloth.                          $1.25


  BYRN.--The Complete Practical Brewer:

    Or Plain, Accurate, and Thorough Instructions in the Art of
    Brewing Beer, Ale, Porter, including the Process of making
    Bavarian Beer, all the Small Beers, such as Root-beer,
    Ginger-pop, Sarsaparilla-beer, Mead, Spruce Beer, etc., etc.
    Adapted to the use of Public Brewers and Private Families. By
    M. LA FAYETTE BYRN, M. D. With illustrations. 12mo.          $1.25


  BYRN.--The Complete Practical Distiller:

    Comprising the most perfect and exact Theoretical and
    Practical Description of the Art of Distillation and
    Rectification; including all of the most recent improvements
    in distilling apparatus; instructions for preparing spirits
    from the numerous vegetables, fruits, etc.; directions for
    the distillation and preparation of all kinds of brandies and
    other spirits, spirituous and other compounds, etc., etc. By
    M. LA FAYETTE BYRN, M. D. Eighth Edition. To which are added,
    Practical Directions for Distilling, from the French of Th.
    Fling, Brewer and Distiller. 12mo.                           $1.50


  BYRNE.--Handbook for the Artisan, Mechanic, and Engineer:

    Comprising the Grinding and Sharpening of Cutting Tools,
    Abrasive Processes, Lapidary Work, Gem and Glass Engraving,
    Varnishing and Lackering, Apparatus, Materials and Processes
    for Grinding and Polishing, etc. By OLIVER BYRNE. Illustrated
    by 185 wood engravings. In one volume, 8vo.                  $5.00


  BYRNE.--Pocket Book for Railroad and Civil Engineers:

    Containing New, Exact, and Concise Methods for Laying out
    Railroad Curves, Switches, Frog Angles, and Crossings; the
    Staking out of work; Levelling; the Calculation of Cuttings;
    Embankments; Earth-work, etc. By OLIVER BYRNE. 18mo., full
    bound, pocket-book form.                                     $1.75


  BYRNE.--The Practical Model Calculator:

    For the Engineer, Mechanic, Manufacturer of Engine Work, Naval
    Architect, Miner, and Millwright. By OLIVER BYRNE. 1 volume,
    8vo., nearly 600 pages.                                      $4.50


  BYRNE.--The Practical Metal-Worker's Assistant:

    Comprising Metallurgic Chemistry; the Arts of Working all
    Metals and Alloys; Forging of Iron and Steel; Hardening and
    Tempering; Melting and Mixing; Casting and Founding; Works in
    Sheet Metal; The Processes Dependent on the Ductility of the
    Metals; Soldering; and the most Improved Processes and Tools
    employed by Metal-Workers. With the Application of the Art of
    Electro-Metallurgy to Manufacturing Processes; collected from
    Original Sources, and from the Works of Holtzapffel, Bergeron,
    Leupold, Plumier, Napier, Scoffern, Clay, Fairbairn, and
    others. By OLIVER BYRNE. A new, revised, and improved edition,
    to which is added An Appendix, containing THE MANUFACTURE
    OF RUSSIAN SHEET-IRON. By JOHN PERCY, M. D., F.R.S. THE
    MANUFACTURE OF MALLEABLE IRON CASTINGS, and IMPROVEMENTS IN
    BESSEMER STEEL. By A. A. FESQUET, Chemist and Engineer. With
    over 600 Engravings, illustrating every Branch of the Subject.
    8vo.                                                         $7.00


  Cabinet Maker's Album of Furniture:

    Comprising a Collection of Designs for Furniture. Illustrated
    by 48 Large and Beautifully Engraved Plates. In one vol.,
    oblong.                                                      $5.00


  CALLINGHAM.--Sign Writing and Glass Embossing:

    A Complete Practical Illustrated Manual of the Art. By JAMES
    CALLINGHAM. In one volume, 12mo.                             $1.50


  CAMPIN.--A Practical Treatise on Mechanical Engineering:

    Comprising Metallurgy, Moulding, Casting, Forging, Tools,
    Workshop Machinery, Mechanical Manipulation, Manufacture of
    Steam-engines, etc., etc. With an Appendix on the Analysis
    of Iron and Iron Ores. By FRANCIS CAMPIN, C. E. To which are
    added, Observations on the Construction of Steam Boilers,
    and Remarks upon Furnaces used for Smoke Prevention; with
    a Chapter on Explosions. By R. ARMSTRONG, C. E., and JOHN
    BOURNE. Rules for Calculating the Change Wheels for Screws
    on a Turning Lathe, and for a Wheel-cutting Machine. By J.
    LA NICCA. Management of Steel, Including Forging, Hardening,
    Tempering, Annealing, Shrinking, and Expansion. And the
    Case-hardening of Iron. By G. EDE. 8vo. Illustrated with 29
    plates and 100 wood engravings.                              $6.00


  CAMPIN.--The Practice of Hand-Turning in Wood, Ivory, Shell, etc.:

    With Instructions for Turning such works in Metal as may be
    required in the Practice of Turning Wood, Ivory, etc. Also,
    an Appendix on Ornamental Turning. By FRANCIS CAMPIN; with
    Numerous Illustrations. 12mo., cloth.                        $3.00


  CAREY.--The Works of Henry C. Carey:

    FINANCIAL CRISES, their Causes and Effects. 8vo. paper          25

    HARMONY OF INTERESTS: Agricultural, Manufacturing, and
    Commercial. 8vo., cloth.                                     $1.50

    MANUAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE. Condensed from Carey's "Principles
    of Social Science." By KATE MCKEAN. 1 vol. 12mo.             $2.25

    MISCELLANEOUS WORKS: comprising "Harmony of Interests,"
    "Money," "Letters to the President," "Financial Crises," "The
    Way to Outdo England Without Fighting Her," "Resources of the
    Union," "The Public Debt," "Contraction or Expansion?" "Review
    of the Decade 1857-'67," "Reconstruction," etc., etc. Two
    vols., 8vo., cloth.                                         $10.00

    PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE. 8vo.                              $2.50

    PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL SCIENCE. 3 vols., 8vo., cloth.         $10.00

    THE SLAVE-TRADE, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN; Why it Exists, and How
    it may be Extinguished (1853). 8vo., cloth.                  $2.00

    LETTERS ON INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT (1867)                       50

    THE UNITY OF LAW: As Exhibited in the Relations of Physical,
    Social, Mental, and Moral Science (1872). In one volume, 8vo.,
    pp. xxiii., 433. Cloth.                                      $3.50


  CHAPMAN.--A Treatise on Ropemaking:

    As Practised in private and public Rope yards, with a
    Description of the Manufacture, Rules, Tables of Weights,
    etc., adapted to the Trades, Shipping, Mining, Railways,
    Builders, etc. By ROBERT CHAPMAN, 24mo.                      $1.50


  COLBURN.--The Locomotive Engine:

    Including a Description of its Structure, Rules for
    Estimating its Capabilities, and Practical Observations on its
    Construction and Management. By ZERAH COLBURN. Illustrated. A
    new edition. 12mo.                                           $1.25


  CRAIK.--The Practical American Millwright and Miller.

    By DAVID CRAIK, Millwright. Illustrated by numerous wood
    engravings, and two folding plates. 8vo.                     $5.00


  DE GRAFF.--The Geometrical Stair Builders' Guide:

    Being a Plain Practical System of Hand-Railing, embracing all
    its necessary Details, and Geometrically Illustrated by 22
    Steel Engravings; together with the use of the most approved
    principles of Practical Geometry. By SIMON DE GRAFF,
    Architect. 4to.                                              $5.00


  DE KONINCK.--DIETZ.--A Practical Manual of Chemical Analysis
    and Assaying:

    As applied to the Manufacture of Iron from its Ores, and to
    Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, and Steel, as found in Commerce. By
    L. L. DE KONINCK, Dr. Sc., and E. DIETZ, Engineer. Edited
    with Notes, by ROBERT MALLET, F.R.S., F.S.G., M.I.C.E., etc.
    American Edition, Edited with Notes and an Appendix on Iron
    Ores, by A. A. FESQUET, Chemist and Engineer. One volume,
    12mo.                                                        $2.50


  DUNCAN.--Practical Surveyor's Guide:

    Containing the necessary information to make any person, of
    common capacity, a finished land surveyor without the aid of a
    teacher. By ANDREW DUNCAN. Illustrated. 12mo., cloth.        $1.25


  DUPLAIS.--A Treatise on the Manufacture and Distillation of
    Alcoholic Liquors:

    Comprising Accurate and Complete Details in Regard to Alcohol
    from Wine, Molasses, Beets, Grain, Rice, Potatoes,
    Sorghum, Asphodel, Fruits, etc.; with the Distillation and
    Rectification of Brandy, Whiskey, Rum, Gin, Swiss Absinthe,
    etc., the Preparation of Aromatic Waters, Volatile Oils
    or Essences, Sugars, Syrups, Aromatic Tinctures, Liqueurs,
    Cordial Wines, Effervescing Wines, etc., the Aging of Brandy
    and the Improvement of Spirits, with Copious Directions and
    Tables for Testing and Reducing Spirituous Liquors, etc., etc.
    Translated and Edited from the French of MM. DUPLAIS, Ainé
    et Jeune. By M. MCKENNIE, M. D. To which are added the United
    States Internal Revenue Regulations for the Assessment and
    Collection of Taxes on Distilled Spirits. Illustrated by
    fourteen folding plates and several wood engravings. 743 pp.,
    8vo.                                                        $10.00

  DUSSAUCE.--A General Treatise on the Manufacture of Every
    Description of Soap:

    Comprising the Chemistry of the Art, with Remarks on Alkalies,
    Saponifiable Fatty Bodies, the apparatus necessary in a Soap
    Factory, Practical Instructions in the manufacture of the
    various kinds of Soap, the assay of Soaps, etc., etc. Edited
    from Notes of Larmé, Fontenelle, Malapayre, Dufour, and
    others, with large and important additions by Prof. H.
    DUSSAUCE, Chemist. Illustrated. In one vol., 8vo.           $10.00


  DUSSAUCE.--A General Treatise on the Manufacture of Vinegar:

    Theoretical and Practical. Comprising the various Methods, by
    the Slow and the Quick Processes, with Alcohol, Wine, Grain,
    Malt, Cider, Molasses, and Beets; as well as the Fabrication
    of Wood Vinegar, etc., etc. By Prof. H. DUSSAUCE. In one
    volume, 8vo.                                                 $5.00


  DUSSAUCE.--A New and Complete Treatise on the Arts of Tanning,
    Currying, and Leather Dressing:

    Comprising all the Discoveries and Improvements made in
    France, Great Britain, and the United States. Edited from
    Notes and Documents of Messrs. Sallerou, Grouvelle, Duval,
    Dessables, Labarraque, Payen, René, De Fontenelle, Malapeyre,
    etc., etc. By Prof. H. DUSSAUCE, Chemist. Illustrated by 212
    wood engravings. 8vo.                                       $25.00


  DUSSAUCE.--A Practical Guide for the Perfumer:

    Being a New Treatise on Perfumery, the most favorable to the
    Beauty without being injurious to the Health, comprising a
    Description of the substances used in Perfumery, the Formulæ
    of more than 1000 Preparations, such as Cosmetics, Perfumed
    Oils, Tooth Powders, Waters, Extracts, Tinctures, Infusions,
    Spirits, Vinaigres, Essential Oils, Pastels, Creams, Soaps,
    and many new Hygienic Products not hitherto described. Edited
    from Notes and Documents of Messrs. Debay, Lanel, etc. With
    additions by Prof. H. DUSSAUCE, Chemist. 12mo.               $3.00


  DUSSAUCE.--Practical Treatise on the Fabrication of Matches,
    Gun Cotton, and Fulminating Powders.

    By Prof. H. DUSSAUCE. 12mo.                                  $3.00


  Dyer and Color-maker's Companion:

    Containing upwards of 200 Receipts for making Colors, on
    the most approved principles, for all the various styles and
    fabrics now in existence; with the Scouring Process, and
    plain Directions for Preparing, Washing-off, and Finishing the
    Goods. In one vol., 12mo.                                    $1.25


  EASTON.--A Practical Treatise on Street or Horsepower
    Railways.

    By ALEXANDER EASTON, C. E. Illustrated by 23 plates. 8vo.,
    cloth.                                                       $2.00


  ELDER.--Questions of the Day:

    Economic and Social. By Dr. WILLIAM ELDER. 8vo.              $3.00


  FAIRBAIRN.--The Principles of Mechanism and Machinery of
    Transmission:

    Comprising the Principles of Mechanism, Wheels, and Pulleys,
    Strength and Proportions of Shafts, Coupling of Shafts, and
    Engaging and Disengaging Gear. By Sir WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN, C.
    E., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. Beautifully illustrated by over 150
    wood-cuts. In one volume, 12mo.                              $2.50


  FORSYTH.--Book of Designs for Headstones, Mural, and other
    Monuments:

    Containing 78 Designs. By JAMES FORSYTH. With an Introduction
    by CHARLES BOUTELL, M. A. 4to., cloth.                       $5.00


  GIBSON.--The American Dyer:

    A Practical Treatise on the Coloring of Wool, Cotton, Yarn and
    Cloth, in three parts. Part First gives a descriptive account
    of the Dye Stuffs; if of vegetable origin, where produced,
    how cultivated, and how prepared for use; if chemical, their
    composition, specific gravities, and general adaptability, how
    adulterated, and how to detect the adulterations, etc. Part
    Second is devoted to the Coloring of Wool, giving recipes for
    one hundred and twenty-nine different colors or shades, and
    is supplied with sixty colored samples of Wool. Part Third
    is devoted to the Coloring of Raw Cotton or Cotton Waste, for
    mixing with Wool Colors in the Manufacture of all kinds of
    Fabrics, gives recipes for thirty-eight different colors or
    shades, and is supplied with twenty-four colored samples of
    Cotton Waste. Also, recipes for Coloring Beavers, Doeskins,
    and Flannels, with remarks upon Anilines, giving recipes
    for fifteen different colors or shades, and nine samples of
    Aniline Colors that will stand both the Fulling and Scouring
    process. Also, recipes for Aniline Colors on Cotton Thread,
    and recipes for Common Colors on Cotton Yarns. Embracing
    in all over two hundred recipes for Colors and Shades, and
    ninety-four samples of Colored Wool and Cotton Waste, etc. By
    RICHARD H. GIBSON, Practical Dyer and Chemist. In one volume,
    8vo.                                                        $12.50


  GILBART.--History and Principles of Banking:

    A Practical Treatise. By JAMES W. GILBART, late Manager of the
    London and Westminster Bank. With additions. In one volume,
    8vo., 600 pages, sheep.                                      $5.00


  Gothic Album for Cabinet Makers:

    Comprising a Collection of Designs for Gothic Furniture.
    Illustrated by 23 large and beautifully engraved plates.
    Oblong.                                                      $3.00


  GRANT.--Beet-root Sugar and Cultivation of the Beet.

    By E. B. GRANT. 12mo.                                        $1.25


  GREGORY.--Mathematics for Practical Men:

    Adapted to the Pursuits of Surveyors, Architects, Mechanics,
    and Civil Engineers. By OLINTHUS GREGORY. 8vo., plates, cloth.
                                                                 $3.00


  GRISWOLD.--Railroad Engineer's Pocket Companion for the Field:

    Comprising Rules for Calculating Deflection Distances and
    Angles, Tangential Distances and Angles, and all Necessary
    Tables for Engineers; also the art of Levelling from
    Preliminary Survey to the Construction of Railroads, intended
    Expressly for the Young Engineer, together with Numerous
    Valuable Rules and Examples. By W. GRISWOLD. 12mo., tucks.   $1.75


  GRUNER.--Studies of Blast Furnace Phenomena.

    By M. L. GRUNER, President of the General Council of Mines of
    France, and lately Professor of Metallurgy at the Ecole
    des Mines. Translated, with the Author's sanction, with an
    Appendix, by L. D. B. Gordon, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. Illustrated.
    8vo.                                                         $2.50


  GUETTIER.--Metallic Alloys:

    Being a Practical Guide to their Chemical and Physical
    Properties, their Preparation, Composition, and Uses.
    Translated from the French of A. GUETTIER, Engineer and
    Director of Foundries, author of "La Fouderie en France,"
    etc., etc. By A. A. FESQUET, Chemist and Engineer. In one
    volume, 12mo.                                                $3.00


  HARRIS.--Gas Superintendent's Pocket Companion.

    By HARRIS & BROTHER, Gas Meter Manufacturers, 1115 and 1117
    Cherry Street, Philadelphia. Full bound in pocket-book form. $2.00


  Hats and Felting:

    A Practical Treatise on their Manufacture. By a Practical
    Hatter. Illustrated by Drawings of Machinery, etc. 8vo.      $1.25


  HOFMANN.--A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Paper in
    all its Branches.

    By CARL HOFMANN. Late Superintendent of paper mills in Germany
    and the United States; recently manager of the Public
    Ledger Paper Mills, near Elkton, Md. Illustrated by 110 wood
    engravings, and five large folding plates. In one volume,
    4to., cloth; 398 pages.                                     $15.00


  HUGHES.--American Miller and Millwright's Assistant.

    By WM. CARTER HUGHES. A new edition. In one vol., 12mo.      $1.50


  HURST.--A Hand-Book for Architectural Surveyors and others
    engaged in Building:

    Containing Formulæ useful in Designing Builder's work, Table
    of Weights, of the materials used in Building, Memoranda
    connected with Builders' work, Mensuration, the Practice
    of Builders' Measurement, Contracts of Labor, Valuation of
    Property, Summary of the Practice in Dilapidation, etc., etc.
    By J. F. HURST, C. E. Second edition, pocket-book form, full
    bound.                                                       $2.50


  JERVIS.--Railway Property:

    A Treatise on the Construction and Management of Railways;
    designed to afford useful knowledge, in the popular style,
    to the holders of this class of property; as well as Railway
    Managers, Officers, and Agents. By JOHN B. JERVIS, late Chief
    Engineer of the Hudson River Railroad, Croton Aqueduct, etc.
    In one vol., 12mo., cloth.                                   $2.00


  JOHNSTON.--Instructions for the Analysis of Soils, Limestones,
    and Manures.

    By J. F. W. JOHNSTON. 12mo.                                     38


  KEENE.--A Hand-Book of Practical Gauging:

    For the Use of Beginners, to which is added, A Chapter on
    Distillation, describing the process in operation at the
    Custom House for ascertaining the strength of wines. By JAMES
    B. KEENE, of H. M. Customs. 8vo.                             $1.25


  KELLEY.--Speeches, Addresses, and Letters on Industrial and
    Financial Questions.

    By Hon. WILLIAM D. KELLEY, M. C. In one volume, 544 pages,
    8vo.                                                         $3.00


  KENTISH.--A Treatise on a Box of Instruments,

    And the Slide Rule; with the Theory of Trigonometry and
    Logarithms, including Practical Geometry, Surveying, Measuring
    of Timber, Cask and Malt Gauging, Heights, and Distances. By
    THOMAS KENTISH. In one volume. 12mo.                         $1.25


  KOBELL.--ERNI.--Mineralogy Simplified:

    A short Method of Determining and Classifying Minerals,
    by means of simple Chemical Experiments in the Wet Way.
    Translated from the last German Edition of F. VON KOBELL, with
    an Introduction to Blow-pipe Analysis and other additions.
    By HENRI ERNI, M. D., late Chief Chemist, Department of
    Agriculture, author of "Coal Oil and Petroleum." In one
    volume, 12mo.                                                $2.50


  LANDRIN.--A Treatise on Steel:

    Comprising its Theory, Metallurgy, Properties, Practical
    Working, and Use. By M. H. C. LANDRIN, Jr., Civil Engineer.
    Translated from the French, with Notes, by A. A. FESQUET,
    Chemist and Engineer. With an Appendix on the Bessemer and the
    Martin Processes for Manufacturing Steel, from the Report of
    Abram S. Hewitt, United States Commissioner to the Universal
    Exposition, Paris, 1867. In one volume, 12mo.                $3.00


    LARKIN.--The Practical Brass and Iron Founder's Guide:

    A Concise Treatise on Brass Founding, Moulding, the Metals and
    their Alloys, etc.: to which are added Recent Improvements in
    the Manufacture of Iron, Steel by the Bessemer Process, etc.,
    etc. By JAMES LARKIN, late Conductor of the Brass Foundry
    Department in Reany, Neafie & Co's. Penn Works, Philadelphia.
    Fifth edition, revised, with Extensive additions. In one
    volume, 12mo.                                                $2.25


  LEAVITT.--Facts about Peat as an Article of Fuel:

    With Remarks upon its Origin and Composition, the Localities
    in which it is found, the Methods of Preparation and
    Manufacture, and the various Uses to which it is applicable;
    together with many other matters of Practical and Scientific
    Interest. To which is added a chapter on the Utilization of
    Coal Dust with Peat for the Production of an Excellent Fuel at
    Moderate Cost, specially adapted for Steam Service. By T. H.
    LEAVITT. Third edition. 12mo.                                $1.75


  LEROUX, C.--A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of
    Worsteds and Carded Yarns:

    Comprising Practical Mechanics, with Rules and Calculations
    applied to Spinning; Sorting, Cleaning, and Scouring Wools;
    the English and French methods of Combing, Drawing, and
    Spinning Worsteds and Manufacturing Carded Yarns. Translated
    from the French of CHARLES LEROUX, Mechanical Engineer, and
    Superintendent of a Spinning Mill, by HORATIO PAINE, M. D.,
    and A. A. FESQUET, Chemist and Engineer. Illustrated by
    12 large Plates. To which is added an Appendix, containing
    extracts from the Reports of the International Jury, and
    of the Artisans selected by the Committee appointed by the
    Council of the Society of Arts, London, on Woollen and Worsted
    Machinery and Fabrics, as exhibited in the Paris Universal
    Exposition, 1867. 8vo., cloth.                               $5.00


  LESLIE (Miss).--Complete Cookery:

    Directions for Cookery in its Various Branches. By MISS
    LESLIE. 60th thousand. Thoroughly revised, with the addition
    of New Receipts. In one volume, 12mo., cloth.                $1.50


  LESLIE (Miss).--Ladies' House Book:

    A Manual of Domestic Economy. 20th revised edition. 12mo.,
    cloth.


  LESLIE (Miss).--Two Hundred Receipts in French Cookery.

    Cloth, 12mo.


  LIEBER.--Assayer's Guide:

    Or, Practical Directions to Assayers, Miners, and Smelters,
    for the Tests and Assays, by Heat and by Wet Processes, for
    the Ores of all the principal Metals, of Gold and Silver
    Coins and Alloys, and of Coal, etc. By OSCAR M. LIEBER. 12mo.,
    cloth.                                                       $1.25


  LOTH.--The Practical Stair Builder:

    A Complete Treatise on the Art of Building Stairs and
    Hand-Rails, Designed for Carpenters, Builders, and
    Stair-Builders. Illustrated with Thirty Original Plates. By
    C. EDWARD LOTH, Professional Stair-Builder. One large 4to.
    volume.                                                     $10.00


  LOVE.--The Art of Dyeing, Cleaning, Scouring, and Finishing,
    on the Most Approved English and French Methods:

    Being Practical Instructions in Dyeing Silks, Woollens, and
    Cottons, Feathers, Chips, Straw, etc. Scouring and Cleaning
    Bed and Window Curtains, Carpets, Rugs, etc. French and
    English Cleaning, any Color or Fabric of Silk, Satin, or
    Damask. By THOMAS LOVE, a Working Dyer and Scourer. Second
    American Edition, to which are added General Instructions for
    the Use of Aniline Colors. In one volume, 8vo., 343 pages.   $5.00


  MAIN and BROWN.--Questions on Subjects Connected with the
    Marine Steam-Engine:

    And Examination Papers; with Hints for their Solution. By
    THOMAS J. MAIN, Professor of Mathematics, Royal Naval College,
    and THOMAS BROWN, Chief Engineer, R. N. 12mo., cloth.        $1.50


  MAIN and BROWN.--The Indicator and Dynamometer:

    With their Practical Applications to the Steam-Engine. By
    THOMAS J. MAIN, M. A. F. R., Assistant Professor Royal Naval
    College, Portsmouth, and THOMAS BROWN, Assoc. Inst. C. E.,
    Chief Engineer, R. N., attached to the Royal Naval College.
    Illustrated. From the Fourth London Edition. 8vo.            $1.50


  MAIN and BROWN.--The Marine Steam-Engine.

    By THOMAS J. MAIN, F. R.; Assistant S. Mathematical Professor
    at the Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, and THOMAS BROWN,
    Assoc. Inst. C. E., Chief Engineer R. N. Attached to the Royal
    Naval College. Authors of "Questions connected with the Marine
    Steam-Engine," and the "Indicator and Dynamometer." With
    numerous Illustrations. In one volume, 8vo.                  $5.00


  MARTIN.--Screw-Cutting Tables, for the Use of Mechanical
    Engineers:

    Showing the Proper Arrangement of Wheels for Cutting the
    Threads of Screws of any required Pitch; with a Table for
    Making the Universal Gas-Pipe Thread and Taps. By W. A.
    MARTIN, Engineer. 8vo.                                          50


  Mechanics' (Amateur) Workshop:

    A treatise containing plain and concise directions for the
    manipulation of Wood and Metals, including Casting, Forging,
    Brazing, Soldering, and Carpentry. By the author of the "Lathe
    and its Uses." Third edition. Illustrated. 8vo.              $3.00


  MOLESWORTH.--Pocket-Book of Useful Formulæ and Memoranda for
    Civil and Mechanical Engineers.

    By GUILFORD L. MOLESWORTH, Member of the Institution of Civil
    Engineers, Chief Resident Engineer of the Ceylon Railway.
    Second American, from the Tenth London Edition. In one volume,
    full bound in pocket-book form.                              $2.00


  NAPIER.--A System of Chemistry Applied to Dyeing.

    By JAMES NAPIER, F. C. S. A New and Thoroughly Revised
    Edition. Completely brought up to the present state of the
    Science, including the Chemistry of Coal Tar Colors, by A. A.
    FESQUET, Chemist and Engineer. With an Appendix on Dyeing and
    Calico Printing, as shown at the Universal Exposition, Paris,
    1867. Illustrated. In one Volume, 8vo., 422 pages.           $5.00


  NAPIER.--Manual of Electro-Metallurgy:

    Including the Application of the Art to Manufacturing
    Processes. By JAMES NAPIER. Fourth American, from-the
    Fourth London edition, revised and enlarged. Illustrated by
    engravings. In one vol., 8vo.                                $2.00


  NASON.--Table of Reactions for Qualitative Chemical Analysis.

    By HENRY B. NASON, Professor of Chemistry in the Rensselaer
    Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York. Illustrated by Colors.   63


  NEWBERY.--Gleanings from Ornamental Art of every style:

    Drawn from Examples in the British, South Kensington, Indian,
    Crystal Palace, and other Museums, the Exhibitions of 1851 and
    1862, and the best English and Foreign works. In a series of
    one hundred exquisitely drawn Plates, containing many hundred
    examples. By ROBERT NEWBERY. 4to.                           $15.00


  NICHOLSON.--A Manual of the Art of Bookbinding:

    Containing full instructions in the different Branches of
    Forwarding, Gilding, and Finishing. Also, the Art of Marbling
    Book-edges and Paper. By JAMES B. NICHOLSON. Illustrated,
    12mo., cloth.                                                $2.25


  NICHOLSON.--The Carpenter's New Guide:

    A Complete Book of Lines for Carpenters and Joiners. By PETER
    NICHOLSON. The whole carefully and thoroughly revised by H. K.
    DAVIS, and containing numerous new and improved and original
    Designs for Roofs, Domes, etc. By SAMUEL SLOAN, Architect.
    Illustrated by 80 plates. 4to.                               $4.50


  NORRIS.--A Hand-book for Locomotive Engineers and Machinists:

    Comprising the Proportions and Calculations for Constructing
    Locomotives; Manner of Setting Valves; Tables of Squares,
    Cubes, Areas, etc., etc. By SEPTIMUS NORRIS, Civil and
    Mechanical Engineer. New edition. Illustrated. 12mo., cloth. $2.00


  NYSTROM.--On Technological Education, and the Construction of
    Ships and Screw Propellers:

    For Naval and Marine Engineers. By JOHN W. NYSTROM, late
    Acting Chief Engineer, U. S. N. Second edition, revised with
    additional matter. Illustrated by seven engravings. 12mo.    $1.50


  O'NEILL.--A Dictionary of Dyeing and Calico Printing:

    Containing a brief account of all the Substances and Processes
    in use in the Art of Dyeing and Printing Textile Fabrics;
    with Practical Receipts and Scientific Information. By CHARLES
    O'NEILL, Analytical Chemist; Fellow of the Chemical Society
    of London; Member of the Literary and Philosophical Society
    of Manchester; Author of "Chemistry of Calico Printing and
    Dyeing." To which is added an Essay on Coal Tar Colors and
    their application to Dyeing and Calico Printing. By A. A.
    FESQUET, Chemist and Engineer. With an Appendix on Dyeing and
    Calico Printing, as shown at the Universal Exposition, Paris,
    1867. In one volume, 8vo., 491 pages.                        $6.00


  ORTON.--Underground Treasures:

    How and Where to Find Them. A Key for the Ready Determination
    of all the Useful Minerals within the United States. By JAMES
    ORTON, A. M. Illustrated, 12mo.                              $1.50


  OSBORN.--American Mines and Mining:

    Theoretically and Practically Considered. By Prof. H.
    S. OSBORN. Illustrated by numerous engravings. 8vo. (_In
    preparation._)


  OSBORN.--The Metallurgy of Iron and Steel:

    Theoretical and Practical in all its Branches; with special
    reference to American Materials and Processes. By H. S.
    OSBORN, LL. D., Professor of Mining and Metallurgy in
    Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania. Illustrated by
    numerous large folding plates and wood-engravings. 8vo.     $15.00


  OVERMAN.--The Manufacture of Steel:

    Containing the Practice and Principles of Working and Making
    Steel. A Handbook for Blacksmiths and Workers in Steel and
    Iron, Wagon Makers, Die Sinkers, Cutlers, and Manufacturers of
    Files and Hardware, of Steel and Iron, and for Men of Science
    and Art. By FREDERICK OVERMAN, Mining Engineer, Author of
    the "Manufacture of Iron," etc. A new, enlarged, and revised
    Edition. By A. A. FESQUET, Chemist and Engineer.             $1.50


  OVERMAN.--The Moulder and Founder's Pocket Guide:

    A Treatise on Moulding and Founding in Green-sand, Dry-sand,
    Loam, and Cement; the Moulding of Machine Frames, Mill-gear,
    Hollow-ware, Ornaments, Trinkets, Bells, and Statues;
    Description of Moulds for Iron, Bronze, Brass, and other
    Metals; Plaster of Paris, Sulphur, Wax, and other articles
    commonly used in Casting; the Construction of Melting
    Furnaces, the Melting and Founding of Metals; the Composition
    of Alloys and their Nature. With an Appendix containing
    Receipts for Alloys, Bronze, Varnishes and Colors for
    Castings; also, Tables on the Strength and other qualities of
    Cast Metals. By FREDERICK OVERMAN, Mining Engineer, Author of
    "The Manufacture of Iron." With 42 Illustrations. 12mo.      $1.50


  Painter, Gilder, and Varnisher's Companion:

    Containing Rules and Regulations in everything relating to
    the Arts of Painting, Gilding, Varnishing, Glass-Staining,
    Graining, Marbling, Sign-Writing, Gilding on Glass, and
    Coach Painting and Varnishing; Tests for the Detection of
    Adulterations in Oils, Colors, etc.; and a Statement of the
    Diseases to which Painters are peculiarly liable, with the
    Simplest and Best Remedies. Sixteenth Edition. Revised, with
    an Appendix. Containing Colors and Coloring-Theoretical and
    Practical. Comprising descriptions of a great variety of
    Additional Pigments, their Qualities and Uses, to which are
    added, Dryers, and Modes and Operations of Painting, etc.
    Together with Chevreul's Principles of Harmony and Contrast of
    Colors, 12mo., cloth.                                        $1.50


    PALLETT.--The Miller's, Millwright's, and Engineer's Guide.

    By HENRY PALLETT. Illustrated. In one volume, 12mo.          $3.00


  PERCY.--The Manufacture of Russian Sheet-Iron.

    By JOHN PERCY, M. D., F.R.S., Lecturer on Metallurgy at the
    Royal School of Mines, and to The Advanced Class of Artillery
    Officers at the Royal Artillery Institution, Woolwich; Author
    of "Metallurgy." With Illustrations. 8vo., paper.          50 cts.


  PERKINS.--Gas and Ventilation.

    Practical Treatise on Gas and Ventilation. With Special
    Relation to Illuminating, Heating, and Cooking by Gas.
    Including Scientific Helps to Engineer-students and others.
    With Illustrated Diagrams. By E. E. PERKINS. 12mo., cloth.   $1.25


  PERKINS and STOWE.--A New Guide to the Sheet-iron and Boiler
    Plate Roller:

    Containing a Series of Tables showing the Weight of Slabs and
    Piles to produce Boiler Plates, and of the Weight of Piles and
    the Sizes of Bars to produce Sheet-iron; the Thickness of the
    Bar Gauge in decimals; the Weight per foot, and the Thickness
    on the Bar or Wire Gauge of the fractional parts of an inch;
    the Weight per sheet, and the Thickness on the Wire Gauge of
    Sheet-iron of various dimensions to weigh 112 lbs. per bundle;
    and the conversion of Short Weight into Long Weight, and Long
    Weight into Short. Estimated and collected by G. H. PERKINS
    and J. G. STOWE.                                             $2.50

  PHILLIPS and DARLINGTON.--Records of Mining and Metallurgy;

    Or Facts and Memoranda for the use of the Mine Agent and
    Smelter. By J. ARTHUR PHILLIPS, Mining Engineer, Graduate
    of the Imperial School of Mines, France, etc., and JOHN
    DARLINGTON. Illustrated by numerous engravings. In one volume,
    12mo.                                                        $2.00


  PROTEAUX.--Practical Guide for the Manufacture of Paper and
    Boards.

    By A. PROTEAUX, Civil Engineer, and Graduate of the School
    of Arts and Manufactures, and Director of Thiers' Paper Mill,
    Puy-de-Dôme. With additions, by L. S. LE NORMAND. Translated
    from the French, with Notes, by HORATIO PAINE, A. B., M. D. To
    which is added a Chapter on the Manufacture of Paper from
    Wood in the United States, by HENRY T. BROWN, of the "American
    Artisan." Illustrated by six plates, containing Drawings of
    Raw Materials, Machinery, Plans of Paper-Mills, etc., etc.
    8vo.                                                        $10.00


  REGNAULT.--Elements of Chemistry.

    By M. V. REGNAULT. Translated from the French by T. FORREST
    BETTON, M. D., and edited, with Notes, by JAMES C. BOOTH,
    Melter and Refiner U. S. Mint, and WM. L. FABER, Metallurgist
    and Mining Engineer. Illustrated by nearly 700 wood
    engravings. Comprising nearly 1500 pages. In two volumes,
    8vo., cloth.                                                 $7.50


  REID.--A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Portland
    Cement:

    By HENRY REID, C. E. To which is added a Translation of M. A.
    Lipowitz's Work, describing a New Method adopted in Germany
    for Manufacturing that Cement, by W. F. REID. Illustrated by
    plates and wood engravings. 8vo.                             $6.00


  RIFFAULT, VERGNAUD, and TOUSSAINT.--A Practical Treatise on
    the Manufacture of Varnishes.

    By MM. RIFFAULT, VERGNAUD, and TOUSSAINT. Revised and Edited
    by M. F. MALEPEYRE and Dr. EMIL WINCKLER. Illustrated. In one
    volume, 8vo. (_In preparation._)


  RIFFAULT, VERGNAUD, and TOUSSAINT.--A Practical Treatise on
    the Manufacture of Colors for Painting:

    Containing the best Formulæ and the Processes the Newest and
    in most General Use. By MM. RIFFAULT, VERGNAUD, and TOUSSAINT.
    Revised and Edited by M. F. MALEPEYRE and Dr. EMIL WINCKLER.
    Translated from the French by A. A. FESQUET, Chemist and
    Engineer. Illustrated by Engravings. In one volume, 650 pages,
    8vo.                                                         $7.50


  ROBINSON.--Explosions of Steam Boilers:

    How they are Caused, and how they may be Prevented. By J. R.
    ROBINSON, Steam Engineer. 12mo.                              $1.25


  ROPER.--A Catechism of High Pressure or Non-Condensing
    Steam-Engines:

    Including the Modelling, Constructing, Running, and Management
    of Steam Engines and Steam Boilers. With Illustrations. By
    STEPHEN ROPER, Engineer. Full bound tucks.                   $2.00


  ROSELEUR.--Galvanoplastic Manipulations:

    A Practical Guide for the Gold and Silver Electro-plater and
    the Galvanoplastic Operator. Translated from the French of
    ALFRED ROSELEUR, Chemist, Professor of the Galvanoplastic Art,
    Manufacturer of Chemicals, Gold and Silver Electro-plater. By
    A. A. FESQUET, Chemist and Engineer. Illustrated by over 127
    Engravings on wood. 8vo., 495 pages.                         $6.00

        [right-pointing hand] _This Treatise is the fullest and
      by far the best on this subject ever published in the
      United States._


  SCHINZ.--Researches on the Action of the Blast Furnace.

    By CHARLES SCHINZ. Translated from the German with the special
    permission of the Author by WILLIAM H. MAW and MORITZ MULLER.
    With an Appendix written by the Author expressly for this
    edition. Illustrated by seven plates, containing 28 figures.
    In one volume, 12mo.                                         $4.25


  SHAW.--Civil Architecture:

    Being a Complete Theoretical and Practical System of Building,
    containing the Fundamental Principles of the Art. By EDWARD
    SHAW, Architect. To which is added a Treatise on Gothic
    Architecture, etc. By THOMAS W. SILLOWAY and GEORGE M.
    HARDING, Architects. The whole illustrated by One Hundred and
    Two quarto plates finely engraved on copper. Eleventh Edition.
    4to., cloth.                                                $10.00


  SHUNK.--A Practical Treatise on Railway Curves and Location,
    for Young Engineers.

    By WILLIAM F. SHUNK, Civil Engineer. 12mo.                   $2.00


  SLOAN.--American Houses:

    A variety of Original Designs for Rural Buildings. Illustrated
    by 26 colored Engravings, with Descriptive References. By
    SAMUEL SLOAN, Architect, author of the "Model Architect,"
    etc., etc. 8vo.                                              $2.50


  SMEATON.--Builder's Pocket Companion:

    Containing the Elements of Building, Surveying, and
    Architecture; with Practical Rules and Instructions connected
    with the subject. By A. C. SMEATON, Civil Engineer, etc. In
    one volume, 12mo.                                            $1.50


  SMITH.--A Manual of Political Economy.

    By E. PESHINE SMITH. A new Edition, to which is added a full
    Index. 12mo., cloth.                                         $1.25


  SMITH.--Parks and Pleasure Grounds:

    Or Practical Notes on Country Residences, Villas, Public
    Parks, and Gardens. By CHARLES H. J. SMITH, Landscape Gardener
    and Garden Architect, etc., etc. 12mo.                       $2.25


  SMITH.--The Dyer's Instructor:

    Comprising Practical Instructions in the Art of Dyeing Silk,
    Cotton, Wool, and Worsted, and Woollen Goods: containing
    nearly 800 Receipts. To which is added a Treatise on the
    Art of Padding; and the Printing of Silk Warps, Skeins, and
    Handkerchiefs, and the various Mordants and Colors for the
    different styles of such work. By DAVID SMITH, Pattern Dyer.
    12mo., cloth.                                                $3.00


  SMITH.--The Practical Dyer's Guide:

    Comprising Practical Instructions in the Dyeing of Shot
    Cobourgs, Silk Striped Orleans, Colored Orleans from Black
    Warps, Ditto from White' Warps, Colored Cobourgs from White
    Warps, Merinos, Yarns, Woollen Cloths, etc. Containing nearly
    300 Receipts, to most of which a Dyed Pattern is annexed.
    Also, A Treatise on the Art of Padding. By DAVID SMITH. In one
    volume, 8vo. Price.                                         $25.00


  STEWART.--The American System.

    Speeches on the Tariff Question, and on Internal Improvements,
    principally delivered in the House of Representatives of
    the United States. By ANDREW STEWART, late M. C. from
    Pennsylvania. With a Portrait, and a Biographical Sketch. In
    one volume, 8vo., 407 pages.                                 $3.00


  STOKES.--Cabinet-maker's and Upholsterer's Companion:

    Comprising the Rudiments and Principles of Cabinet-making
    and Upholstery, with Familiar Instructions, illustrated by
    Examples for attaining a Proficiency in the Art of Drawing,
    as applicable to Cabinet-work; the Processes of Veneering,
    Inlaying, and Buhl-work; the Art of Dyeing and Staining
    Wood, Bone, Tortoise Shell, etc. Directions for Lackering,
    Japanning, and Varnishing; to make French Polish; to prepare
    the Best Glues, Cements, and Compositions, and a number of
    Receipts particularly useful for workmen generally. By J.
    STOKES. In one volume, 12mo. With Illustrations.             $1.25


  Strength and other Properties of Metals:

    Reports of Experiments on the Strength and other Properties
    of Metals for Cannon. With a Description of the Machines
    for testing Metals, and of the Classification of Cannon in
    service. By Officers of the Ordnance Department U. S. Army.
    By authority of the Secretary of War. Illustrated by 25 large
    steel plates. In one volume, 4to.                           $10.00


  SULLIVAN.--Protection to Native Industry.

    By Sir EDWARD SULLIVAN, Baronet, author of "Ten Chapters on
    Social Reforms." In one volume, 8vo.                         $1.50


  Tables Showing the Weight of Round, Square, and Flat Bar Iron,
    Steel, etc.,

    By Measurement. Cloth.                                          63


  TAYLOR.--Statistics of Coal:

    Including Mineral Bituminous Substances employed in Arts
    and Manufactures; with their Geographical, Geological,
    and Commercial Distribution and Amount of Production and
    Consumption on the American Continent. With Incidental
    Statistics of the Iron Manufacture. By R. C. TAYLOR. Second
    edition, revised by S. S. HALDEMAN. Illustrated by five Maps
    and many wood engravings. 8vo., cloth.                      $10.00


  TEMPLETON.--The Practical Examinator on Steam and the
    Steam-Engine:

    With Instructive References relative thereto, arranged for
    the Use of Engineers, Students, and others. By WM. TEMPLETON,
    Engineer. 12mo.                                              $1.25


  THOMAS.--The Modern Practice of Photography.

    By R. W. THOMAS, F. C. S. 8vo., cloth.                          75


  THOMSON.--Freight Charges Calculator.

    By ANDREW THOMSON, Freight Agent. 24mo.                      $1.25


  TURNING: Specimens of Fancy Turning Executed on the Hand or
    Foot Lathe:

    With Geometric, Oval, and Eccentric Chucks, and Elliptical
    Cutting Frame. By an Amateur. Illustrated by 30 exquisite
    Photographs. 4to.                                            $3.00


  Turner's (The) Companion:

    Containing Instructions in Concentric, Elliptic, and
    Eccentric Turning: also various Plates of Chucks, Tools, and
    Instruments; and Directions for using the Eccentric Cutter,
    Drill, Vertical Cutter, and Circular Rest; with Patterns and
    Instructions for working them. A new edition in one volume,
    12mo.                                                        $1.50


  URBIN.--BRULL.--A Practical Guide for Puddling Iron and Steel.

    By ED. URBIN, Engineer of Arts and Manufactures. A Prize Essay
    read before the Association of Engineers, Graduate of the
    School of Mines, of Liege, Belgium, at the Meeting of 1865-6.
    To which is added A COMPARISON OF THE RESISTING PROPERTIES OF
    IRON AND STEEL. By A. BRULL. Translated from the French by A.
    A. FESQUET, Chemist and Engineer. In one volume, 8vo.        $1.00


  VAILE.--Galvanized Iron Cornice-Worker's Manual:

    Containing Instructions in Laying out the Different Mitres,
    and Making Patterns for all kinds of Plain and Circular Work.
    Also, Tables of Weights, Areas and Circumferences of Circles,
    and other Matter calculated to Benefit the Trade. By CHARLES
    A. VAILE, Superintendent "Richmond Cornice Works," Richmond,
    Indiana. Illustrated by 21 Plates. In one volume, 4to.       $5.00


  VILLE.--The School of Chemical Manures:

    Or, Elementary Principles in the Use of Fertilizing Agents.
    From the French of M. GEORGE VILLE, by A. A. FESQUET, Chemist
    and Engineer. With Illustrations. In one volume, 12 mo.      $1.25


  VOGDES.--The Architect's and Builder's Pocket Companion and
    Price Book:

    Consisting of a Short but Comprehensive Epitome of Decimals,
    Duo-decimals, Geometry and Mensuration; with Tables of U.
    S. Measures, Sizes, Weights, Strengths, etc., of Iron, Wood,
    Stone, and various other Materials, Quantities of Materials in
    Given Sizes, and Dimensions of Wood, Brick, and Stone; and a
    full and complete Bill of Prices for Carpenter's Work; also,
    Rules for Computing and Valuing Brick and Brick Work,
    Stone Work, Painting, Plastering, etc. By FRANK W. VOGDES,
    Architect. Illustrated. Full bound in pocket-book form.      $2.00
    Bound in cloth.                                               1.50


  WARN.--The Sheet-Metal Worker's Instructor:

    For Zinc, Sheet-Iron, Copper, and Tin-Plate Workers, etc.
    Containing a selection of Geometrical Problems; also,
    Practical and Simple Rules for describing the various Patterns
    required in the different branches of the above Trades. By
    REUBEN H. WARN, Practical Tin-plate Worker. To which is
    added an Appendix, containing Instructions for Boiler Making,
    Mensuration of Surfaces and Solids, Rules for Calculating the
    Weights of different Figures of Iron and Steel, Tables of the
    Weights of Iron, Steel, etc. Illustrated by 32 Plates and 37
    Wood Engravings. 8vo.                                        $3.00


  WARNER.--New Theorems, Tables, and Diagrams for the
    Computation of Earth-Work:

    Designed for the use of Engineers in Preliminary and Final
    Estimates, of Students in Engineering, and of Contractors
    and other non-professional Computers. In Two Parts, with
    an Appendix. Part I.--A Practical Treatise; Part II.--A
    Theoretical Treatise; and the Appendix. Containing Notes
    to the Rules and Examples of Part I.; Explanations of the
    Construction of Scales, Tables, and Diagrams, and a Treatise
    upon Equivalent Square Bases and Equivalent Level Heights. The
    whole illustrated by numerous original Engravings, comprising
    Explanatory Cuts for Definitions and Problems, Stereometric
    Scales and Diagrams, and a Series of Lithographic Drawings
    from Models, showing all the Combinations of Solid Forms which
    occur in Railroad Excavations and Embankments. By JOHN WARNER,
    A. M., Mining and Mechanical Engineer. 8vo.                  $5.00


  WATSON.--A Manual of the Hand-Lathe:

    Comprising Concise Directions for working Metals of all kinds,
    Ivory, Bone and Precious Woods; Dyeing, Coloring, and French
    Polishing; Inlaying by Veneers, and various methods practised
    to produce Elaborate work with Dispatch, and at Small Expense.
    By EGBERT P. WATSON, late of "The Scientific American," Author
    of "The Modern Practice of American Machinists and Engineers."
    Illustrated by 78 Engravings.                                $1.50


  WATSON.--The Modern Practice of American Machinists and
    Engineers:

    Including the Construction, Application, and Use of Drills,
    Lathe Tools, Cutters for Boring Cylinders, and Hollow Work
    Generally, with the most Economical Speed for the same; the
    Results verified by Actual Practice at the Lathe, the Vice,
    and on the Floor. Together with Workshop Management, Economy
    of Manufacture, the Steam-Engine, Boilers, Gears, Belting,
    etc., etc. By EGBERT P. WATSON, late of the "Scientific
    American." Illustrated by 86 Engravings.
    In one volume, 12mo.                                         $2.50


  WATSON.--The Theory and Practice of the Art of Weaving by Hand
    and Power:

    With Calculations and Tables for the use of those connected
    with the Trade. By JOHN WATSON, Manufacturer and Practical
    Machine Maker. Illustrated by large Drawings of the best Power
    Looms. 8vo.                                                 $10.00


  WEATHERLY.--Treatise on the Art of Boiling Sugar,
    Crystallizing, Lozenge-making, Comfits, Gum Goods.
    12mo.                                                        $2.00


  WEDDING.--The Metallurgy of Iron;

    Theoretically and Practically Considered. By Dr. HERMANN
    WEDDING, Professor of the Metallurgy of Iron at the Royal
    Mining Academy, Berlin. Translated by JULIUS DU MONT,
    Bethlehem, Pa. Illustrated by 207 Engravings on Wood, and
    three Plates. In one volume, 8vo. (_In press._)


  WILL.--Tables for Qualitative Chemical Analysis.

    By Professor HEINRICH WILL, of Giessen, Germany. Seventh
    edition. Translated by CHARLES F. HIMES, Ph. D., Professor of
    Natural Science, Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa.            $1.50


  WILLIAMS.--On Heat and Steam:

    Embracing New Views of Vaporization, Condensation, and
    Explosions. By CHARLES WYE WILLIAMS, A. I. C. E. Illustrated.
    8vo.                                                         $3.50


  WOHLER.--A Hand-Book of Mineral Analysis.

    By F. WOHLER, Professor of Chemistry in the University of
    Göttingen. Edited by HENRY B. NASON, Professor of Chemistry
    in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York.
    Illustrated. In one volume, 12mo.                            $3.00


  WORSSAM.--On Mechanical Saws:

    From the Transactions of the Society of Engineers, 1869. By S.
    W. WORSSAM, Jr. Illustrated by 18 large plates. 8vo.         $5.00


       *       *       *       *       *



  Transcriber's Note


  _ _ represents italic text

  = = represents bold text

  + + represents black-letter, or Old English text


  Sundry missing or damaged punctuation has been repaired.

  Both hyphenated and non-hyphenated variants of many words occur
  in this book. All have been retained.

  This book has some older spellings or grammatical constructions,
  which have been retained. Though published in Philadelphia in
  1878, parts of the book date from 1856, and would thus appear to
  pre-date modern American spelling conventions. (See note on the
  Catalogue advertisements which were placed after the Index.)

  Any illustration which interrupted a paragraph was moved to a
  more convenient location, between paragraphs.

  There is some discrepancy between the TOC and the book's layout.
  Some rationalization has been attempted.

  'Blank work' appears to refer to blank book-keeping books sold by
  stationers for use in business offices.

  Pages 18-19, 67: Derome also appears as De Rome. (Index: Derome)

  Page 23: 'him' and 'self' re-joined over line-break.

    "Many of these he made himself of iron,..."

  Page 57: 'Societé' corrected to 'Société'.

    "... in a Memoir presented by him to the "_Société
    d' Encouragement_,"

  Page 78: 'faustic chips'; 'faustic' would appear to be correct.
  From [http://www.]
  faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/botany/tandye.htm#fusticdyes "Tanning
  ... "Wood Dyes" ... "Fustic":
   This is the main source of natural yellows, olives and browns and
  ranks with logwood in importance. It is used for leather and in
  combination with logwood for silk, wool, nylon and rayon. It
  comes from the heartwood of Chlorophora tinctoria, a forest tree
  of the West Indies, Central and South America. The light-yellow
  wood turns a dark yellow-brown when exposed to air.
  Faustic is exported as short logs, chips, powder or paste. The
  dye is frequently called Old Fustic to distinguish it from Young
  Fustic, once obtained from the twigs of Cotinus coggygria."

  Page 128: 'papier D'Anonay', should perhaps be 'papier
  D'Annonay'. Also Page 150, so perhaps 'papier D'Anonay' was an
  accepted spelling (in the bookbinding trade) at the time of
  publication.

  Page 151: 'STATIONERY OR VELLUM BINDING.' is 'Blank Binding' in
  TOC (p. 7).

  Page 181: "... but the character of the ornaments are generally
  dissimilar." is as printed, though the author does seem to have
  confused his tenses.

  Page 203: 'anti-tiquities' corrected to 'antiquities' - letters
  duplicated at line-break.

    "... and illustrate the history, laws, customs, and
    antiquities,..."

  Pages 214-5: Plate 8.: 'Pattern's' corrected to 'Patterns'.

    "Selection from Gaskill, Copper & Fry's Book of Patterns"

  Page 237 (also pp. 237, 244, 246, 246. 250, 251, 252, 258, and Index):
  'AQUA REGII' corrected to 'AQUA REGIA' ('royal water' or 'king's
  water'), a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid.
    (The transcriber could not find any reference to 'aqua regii',
    and assumes it to be a spelling error by either the author or
    the printer.)

  'nitrous acid' corrected to 'nitric acid', which appears in the
  next paragraph.

    "So called from its power to dissolve gold, is a mixture of
    nitric acid (aquafortis) and muriatic acid, (spirits of
    salts,)...."

  Page 244: 'OHANGE' corrected to 'ORANGE'.

  Page 313 et seq.: Some Index entries which had been transposed
  have been returned to their correct places.

  The dashes (----)in the index have been replaced by double spaces,
  making it a simple nested list.


  INDEX:

  'Antique Dutch': Page number corrected from 29 to 123 (No 29.)

  'Maiolo, 17' corrected to 'Maioli, 18'. (also later occurrence)

  'Carved oak boards, description of, 12, 211'.

    'precious stones let into, 12, 14'.

  P. 211 had been incorrectly assigned to 'precious stones let
  into', and the 'precious stones' are mentioned on pp. 12 and 14,

  'Edges, Burnishing': P. 125 corrected to 126.

  'Forwarding': p. 72 corrected to 73.

  'Hints to Book Collectors': p. 291 corrected to 292.

  'Mahogany sprinkle on leather': P. 252 corrected to 253.

  'Marbled cloth': p. 127 corrected to 128.

  'Turning up': p. 72 corrected to 73.


  CATALOGUE:

  Page 1, et seq.: Catalogue of Practical and Scientific Books
  (etc.): MM is an abbreviation for Messieurs. Abbreviations for
  technical and professional qualifications, etc. are not always
  consistently spaced. They have been retained as printed.

  Prices for books have been retained, as printed. Those less than
  $1.00, with a couple of exceptions (50cts,) are printed,
  e.g. 63, 75, etc., aligned right.

  The spelling in the descriptions of books in the Catalogue
  sometimes depends on whether the author was American or English.

  The word 'Price' appears only in the description of one book. It
  has been retained.

  Page 13: The price was omitted from two of Miss Leslie's books.





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